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Sample records for high nervonic acid

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of a KCS gene from Cardamine graeca and its heterologous expression in Brassica oilseeds to engineer high nervonic acid oils for potential medical and industrial use.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David C; Francis, Tammy; Guo, Yiming; Brost, Jennifer M; Katavic, Vesna; Mietkiewska, Elzbieta; Michael Giblin, E; Lozinsky, Sharla; Hoffman, Travis

    2009-12-01

    Nervonic acid 24:1 Delta15 (cis-tetracos-15-enoic acid) is a very long-chain monounsaturated fatty acid and exists in nature as an elongation product of oleic acid. There is an increasing interest in production of high nervonic acid oils for pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and industrial applications. Using a polymerase chain reaction approach, we have isolated a gene from Cardamine graeca L., which encodes a 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), the first component of the elongation complex involved in synthesis of nervonic acid. Expression of the Cardamine KCS in yeast resulted in biosynthesis of nervonic acid, which is not normally present in yeast cells. We transformed Arabidopsis and Brassica carinata with the Cardamine KCS under the control of the seed-specific promoter, napin. The T(3) generations of transgenic Arabidopsis and B. carinata plants expressing the Cardamine KCS showed that seed-specific expression resulted in relatively large comparative increases in nervonic acid proportions in Arabidopsis seed oil, and 15-fold increase in nervonic acid proportions in B. carinata seed oil. The highest nervonic acid level in transgenic B. carinata lines reached 44%, with only 6% of residual erucic acid. In contrast, similar transgenic expression of the Cardamine KCS in high erucic B. napus resulted in 30% nervonic acid but with 20% residual erucic acid. Experiments using the Lunaria KCS gene gave results similar to the latter. In both cases, the erucic acid content is too high for human or animal consumption. Thus, the Cardamine KCS: B. carinata high nervonic/highly reduced erucic transgenic seed oils will be the most suitable for testing in pharmaceutical/nutraceutical applications to improve human and animal health.

  2. Plasma Nervonic Acid Is a Potential Biomarker for Major Depressive Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Yuki; Kasahara, Takaoki; Nakamura, Takemichi; Hattori, Kotaro; Deguchi, Yasuhiko; Tani, Munehide; Kuroda, Kenji; Yoshida, Sumiko; Goto, Yu-Ichi; Inoue, Koki; Kato, Tadafumi

    2018-03-01

    Diagnostic biomarkers of major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia are urgently needed, because none are currently available. We performed a comprehensive metabolome analysis of plasma samples from drug-free patients with major depressive disorder (n=9), bipolar disorder (n=6), schizophrenia (n=17), and matched healthy controls (n=19) (cohort 1) using liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A significant effect of diagnosis was found for 2 metabolites: nervonic acid and cortisone, with nervonic acid being the most significantly altered. The reproducibility of the results and effects of psychotropic medication on nervonic acid were verified in cohort 2, an independent sample set of medicated patients [major depressive disorder (n=45), bipolar disorder (n=71), schizophrenia (n=115)], and controls (n=90) using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The increased levels of nervonic acid in patients with major depressive disorder compared with controls and patients with bipolar disorder in cohort 1 were replicated in the independent sample set (cohort 2). In cohort 2, plasma nervonic acid levels were also increased in the patients with major depressive disorder compared with the patients with schizophrenia. In cohort 2, nervonic acid levels were increased in the depressive state in patients with major depressive disorder compared with the levels in the remission state in patients with major depressive disorder and the depressive state in patients with bipolar disorder. These results suggested that plasma nervonic acid is a good candidate biomarker for the depressive state of major depressive disorder. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  3. Combinatorial Effects of Fatty Acid Elongase Enzymes on Nervonic Acid Production in Camelina sativa

    PubMed Central

    Huai, Dongxin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Chunyu; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Zhou, Yongming

    2015-01-01

    Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) with chain lengths of 20 carbons and longer provide feedstocks for various applications; therefore, improvement of VLCFA contents in seeds has become an important goal for oilseed enhancement. VLCFA biosynthesis is controlled by a multi-enzyme protein complex referred to as fatty acid elongase, which is composed of β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), β-ketoacyl-CoA reductase (KCR), β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase (HCD) and enoyl reductase (ECR). KCS has been identified as the rate-limiting enzyme, but little is known about the involvement of other three enzymes in VLCFA production. Here, the combinatorial effects of fatty acid elongase enzymes on VLCFA production were assessed by evaluating the changes in nervonic acid content. A KCS gene from Lunaria annua (LaKCS) and the other three elongase genes from Arabidopsis thaliana were used for the assessment. Five seed-specific expressing constructs, including LaKCS alone, LaKCS with AtKCR, LaKCS with AtHCD, LaKCS with AtECR, and LaKCS with AtKCR and AtHCD, were transformed into Camelina sativa. The nervonic acid content in seed oil increased from null in wild type camelina to 6-12% in LaKCS-expressing lines. However, compared with that from the LaKCS-expressing lines, nervonic acid content in mature seeds from the co-expressing lines with one or two extra elongase genes did not show further increases. Nervonic acid content from LaKCS, AtKCR and AtHCD co-expressing line was significantly higher than that in LaKCS-expressing line during early seed development stage, while the ultimate nervonic acid content was not significantly altered. The results from this study thus provide useful information for future engineering of oilseed crops for higher VLCFA production. PMID:26121034

  4. Naphthylacetic Acid and Tea Polyphenol Application Promote Biomass and Lipid Production of Nervonic Acid-Producing Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Fan, Yong; Miao, Fuhong; Hu, Guang-Rong; Sun, Juan; Yang, Guofeng; Li, Fu-Li

    2018-01-01

    Mychonastes afer HSO-3-1 is a potential producer of nervonic acid, which could be accumulated to 2-3% of dry cell weight. Improving the productivity of nervonic acid is critical to promote the commercialization of this product. In this study, 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) and tea polyphenol (TP) were selected as bioactive additives to stimulate the growth of M. afer . Supplementing NAA in the early growth stage and TP in the middle and late growth stage led to improved lipid accumulation in M. afer . The cultures supplemented with TP at the late growth stage maintained higher photosynthetic efficiency than the control groups without TP. Furthermore, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulations in M. afer supplemented with 500 mg/L of TP was 63% lower than the control group. A linear relationship ( R 2 = 0.899) between the values of Fv/Fm and ROS accumulation was established. We hypothesize supplement of bioactive additives at different growth stage could promote the cell growth rate and nervonic acid productivity of M. afer by retrieving intracellular ROS level. Further analysis of photosynthetic system II (PSII) protein in M. afer cultured in presence of NAA and TP indicated the levels of D1 and D2 proteins, the core skeleton proteins of PSII, showed 33.3 and 25.6% higher than the control group. CP43 protein, a critical module in PSII repair cycle, decreased significantly. These implied that TP possesses the function of slowing down the damage of PSII by scavenging excess intracellular ROS.

  5. Alpha-Hydroxylation of lignoceric and nervonic acids in the brain. Effects of altered thyroid function on postnatal development of the hydroxylase activity.

    PubMed

    Murad, S; Strycharz, G D; Kishimoto, Y

    1976-09-10

    Rat brain postnuclear preparations catalyzed the alpha-hydroxylation of nervonic acid with an apparent Km of 3 muM. Evidence has been presented which suggests that nervonic acid in the brain is hydroxylated by the same enzyme system which hydroxylates lignoceric acid. The hydroxylase activity in brains of normal (euthyroid) rats increased rapidly from a low in the period immediately following birth to a maximum at the 23rd day and then declined to a low level characteristic of the mature brain. Neonatal hypothyroidism retarded the development of the activity and shifted its peak to the 39th day after birth. Conversely, neonatal hyperthyroidism accelerated the entire developmental pattern and shifted the peak to the 16th day after birth. The hydroxylase activity in mouse brain was also increased by thyroid hormone administration from the 13th through the 18th day after birth. Unlike normal mice, the low activity in jimpy mice was not affected by this treatment. It is concluded that thyroid hormones play an important role in the control of brain fatty acid alpha-hydroxylation. The stimulation of alpha-hydroxy fatty acid synthesis in response to hyperthyroidism during the early postnatal period may be one of the major effects of thyroid hormones in accelerating myelination of the central nervous system.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) from Brassica carinata oil with high content of erucic acid and from very long chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Impallomeni, Giuseppe; Ballistreri, Alberto; Carnemolla, Giovanni Marco; Guglielmino, Salvatore P P; Nicolò, Marco Sebastiano; Cambria, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced medium chain length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) when grown on substrates containing very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA, C>20). Looking for low cost carbon sources, we tested Brassica carinata oil (erucic acid content 35-48%) as an intact triglyceride containing VLCFA. Oleic (C18:1), erucic (C22:1), and nervonic (C24:1) acids were also employed for mcl-PHA production as model substrates. The polymers obtained were analyzed by GC of methanolyzed samples, GPC, 1H and 13C NMR, ESI MS of partially pyrolyzed samples, and DSC. The repeating units of such polymers were saturated and unsaturated, with a higher content of the latter in the case of the PHA obtained from B. carinata oil. Statistical analysis of the ion intensity in the ESI mass spectra showed that the PHAs from pure fatty acids are random copolymers, while the PHA from B. carinata oil is either a pure polymer or a mixture of polymers. Weight-average molecular weight varied from ca. 56,000 g/mol for the PHA from B. carinata oil and oleic acid, to about 120,000 g/mol for those from erucic and nervonic acids. The PHAs from erucic and nervonic acids were partially crystalline, with rubbery characteristics and a melting point (Tm) of 50°C, while the PHAs from oleic acid and from B. carinata oil afforded totally amorphous materials, with glass transition temperatures (Tg) of -52°C and -47°C, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Abnormalities of High Density Lipoproteins in Abetalipoproteinemia*

    PubMed Central

    Jones, John W.; Ways, Peter

    1967-01-01

    Detailed studies of the high density lipoproteins from three patients with abetalipoproteinemia have revealed the following principal abnormalities: 1) High density lipoprotein 3 (HDL3) is reduced in both absolute and relative concentration, although HDL2 is present in normal amounts. 2) The phospholipid distribution of both HDL fractions is abnormal, with low concentrations of lecithin and an increased percentage (though normal absolute quantity) of sphingomyelin. 3) In both HDL fractions, lecithin contains less linoleate and more oleate than normal. The cholesteryl esters are also low in linoleic acid, and the sphingomyelin is high in nervonic acid. Dietary intake influences the linoleic acid concentration within 2 weeks, and perhaps sooner, but the elevated sphingomyelin nervonic acid is little affected by up to 6 months of corn oil supplementation. Qualitatively similar changes in fatty acid composition, but not phospholipid distribution, are also found in other malabsorption states. The available evidence suggests that the abnormally low levels of HDL3 and the deranged phospholipid distribution are more specific for abetalipoproteinemia than the fatty acid abnormalities. However, the absence of these abnormalities in obligate heterozygous subjects makes their relationship to the primary defect of abetalipoproteinemia difficult to assess. Images PMID:6027078

  8. Relationship between Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Composition and Psychopathology in the Vienna Omega-3 Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Jhon, Min; Kim, Jae-Min; Smesny, Stefan; Rice, Simon; Berk, Michael; Klier, Claudia M.; McGorry, Patrick D.; Schäfer, Miriam R.; Amminger, G. Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (FA) levels and the severity of symptoms of individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis. Subjects of the present study consisted of 80 neuroleptic-naïve UHR patients. Partial correlation coefficients were calculated between baseline erythrocyte membrane FA levels, measured by gas chromatography, and scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, and Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) after controlling for age, sex, smoking and cannabis use. Subjects were divided into three groups according to the predominance of positive or negative symptoms based on PANSS subscale scores; membrane FA levels in the three groups were then compared. More severe negative symptoms measured by PANSS were negatively correlated with two saturated FAs (myristic and margaric acids), one ω-9 monounsaturated FA (MUFA; nervonic acid), and one ω-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA; docosapentaenoic acid), and were positively correlated with two ω-9 MUFAs (eicosenoic and erucic acids) and two ω-6 PUFAs (γ-linolenic and docosadienoic acids). More severe positive symptoms measured by PANSS were correlated only with nervonic acid. No associations were observed between FAs and MADRS scores. In subjects with predominant negative symptoms, the sum of the ω-9 MUFAs and the ω-6:ω-3 FA ratio were both significantly higher than in those with predominant positive symptoms, whereas the sum of ω-3 PUFAs was significantly lower. In conclusion, abnormalities in FA metabolism may contribute to the neurobiology of psychopathology in UHR individuals. In particular, membrane FA alterations may play a role in negative symptoms, which are primary psychopathological manifestations of schizophrenia-related disability. PMID:26963912

  9. Unsaturated fatty acids lactose esters: cytotoxicity, permeability enhancement and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Lucarini, Simone; Fagioli, Laura; Campana, Raffaella; Cole, Hannah; Duranti, Andrea; Baffone, Wally; Vllasaliu, Driton; Casettari, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Sugar based surfactants conjugated with fatty acid chains are an emerging broad group of highly biocompatible and biodegradable compounds with established and potential future applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. In this work, we investigated absorption enhancing and antimicrobial properties of disaccharide lactose, monoesterified with unsaturated fatty acids through an enzymatic synthetic approach. After chemical and cytotoxicity characterizations, their permeability enhancing activity was demonstrated using intestinal Caco-2 monolayers through transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability studies. The synthesized compounds, namely lactose palmitoleate (URB1076) and lactose nervonate (URB1077), were shown to exhibit antimicrobial activity versus eight pathogenic species belonging to Gram-positive, Gram-negative microorganisms and fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of pomegranate, cherry and pumpkin seed oils.

    PubMed

    Siano, Francesco; Straccia, Maria C; Paolucci, Marina; Fasulo, Gabriella; Boscaino, Floriana; Volpe, Maria G

    2016-03-30

    Nut and seed oils are often considered waste products but in recent years they have been receiving growing interest due to their high concentration of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive components, which have important pharmacological properties on human health. The aim of this work was to compare the physico-chemical and biochemical properties of pomegranate (Punicagranatum), sweet cherry (Prunusavium) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed oils obtained by solvent extraction. High amount of linoleic acid was found in the cherry and pumpkin seed oils, while pomegranate seed oil showed relevant content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) along to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and nervonic acid. Pumpkin seed oil had high concentration of carotenoids, while pomegranate oil was the best absorber in the UV-A and UV-B ranges. Pomegranate, cherry and pumpkin seed oils can be an excellent source of bioactive molecules and antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids and unsaturated fatty acids. These seed oils can be included both as preservatives and functional ingredients in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields and can contribute to disease prevention and health promotion. Moreover, high absorbance of UV light indicates a potential use of these oils as filters from radiations in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic fields. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Effects of Maternal Ω-3 Supplementation on Fatty Acids and on Visual and Cognitive Development.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Jose A; Iznaola, Carmen; Peña, Manuela; Ruíz, Josefa; Peña-Quintana, Luis; Kajarabille, Naroa; Rodriguez-Santana, Yessica; Sanjurjo, Pablo; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luis; Ochoa, Julio; Lara-Villoslada, Federico

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether a dairy drink enriched with ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) could have an impact on the lipid profile of the mother and the newborn, and also whether this intervention could affect the newborns' visual and cognitive development. A total of 110 pregnant women were randomly assigned to one of the following intervention groups: control group (n = 54), taking 400 mL/day of the control dairy drink, and supplemented group (fish oil [FO]) (n = 56), taking 400 mL/day of the fish oil-enriched dairy drink (including ∼400 mg eicosapentaenoic acid-docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]/day). During the study, the mothers' diets were supervised by a nutritionist to encourage compliance with present recommendations of FA intake. Blood fatty acid profiles were determined in the mother's (at enrollment, at delivery, and at 2.5 and 4 months) and newborn (at delivery and at 2.5 months) placenta and breast milk (colostrum and at 1, 2, and 4 months). Pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs) (at 2.5 and 7.5 months) and Bayley test (at 12 months) were recorded. DHA percentage was higher in plasma, erythrocyte membranes, and breast milk samples from the FO group. The ratio of nervonic acid was also higher in plasma and erythrocyte lipids of the mother and newborn's blood samples from the FO group. No differences were observed in the Bayley test. No differences were observed in VEPs between both groups. We observed a shorter latency, however, in the lower visual angle (7.5') in the boys of the supplemented group. Omega-3 LC-PUFA dietary supplement during pregnancy and lactation influenced the mother and newborn's fatty acid profile and nervonic acid content but did not show effects on visual and cognitive/psychomotor development.

  12. Analysis of fatty acid composition of anaerobic rumen fungi.

    PubMed

    Koppová, I; Novotná, Z; Strosová, L; Fliegerová, K

    2008-01-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of fresh mycelia of anaerobic rumen fungi was determined. The fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) of six strains belonging to four genera (Neocallimastix, Caecomyces, Orpinomyces, Anaeromyces) and one unknown strain were analyzed by gas chromatography. All studied fungi possess the same FAs but differences were found in their relative concentrations. The FA profile of anaerobic fungi comprises carbon chains of length ranging from 12 to 24; the most common fatty acids were stearic (C(18:0)), arachidic (C(20:0)), heneicosanoic (C(21:0)), behenic (C(22:0)), tricosanoic (C(23:0)) and lignoceric (C(24:0)) with relative amount representing >4% of total FA. Significant differences were determined for heptadecanoic, oleic, behenic and tricosanoic acids. Rumen anaerobic fungi can contain very long chain fatty acids; we found unsaturated fatty acids including cis-11-eicosenoic (C(20:1)), cis-11,14-eicosadienoic (C(20:2)), erucic (C(22:1n9)), cis-13,16-docosadienoic (C(22:2)) and nervonic (C(24:1)) acids in very small amounts but their presence seems to be unique for anaerobic fungi.

  13. The effect of fish oil supplementation on brain DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile in mice.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Kelly J; Pickens, C Austin; Wiesinger, Jason A; Fenton, Jenifer I

    2017-12-18

    Supplementation with omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids may improve cognitive performance and protect against cognitive decline. However, changes in brain phospholipid fatty acid composition after supplementation with n-3 fatty acids are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to feed increasing n-3 fatty acids and characterise the changes in brain phospholipid fatty acid composition and correlate the changes with red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma in mice. Increasing dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) did not alter brain DHA. Brain EPA increased and total n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased across treatment groups, and correlated with fatty acid changes in the RBC (r > 0.7). Brain cis-monounsaturated fatty acids oleic and nervonic acid (p < .01) and saturated fatty acids arachidic, behenic, and lignoceric acid (p < .05) also increased. These brain fatty acid changes upon increasing n-3 intake should be further investigated to determine their effects on cognition and neurodegenerative disease.

  14. Prediction of transition from ultra-high risk to first-episode psychosis using a probabilistic model combining history, clinical assessment and fatty-acid biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Clark, S R; Baune, B T; Schubert, K O; Lavoie, S; Smesny, S; Rice, S M; Schäfer, M R; Benninger, F; Feucht, M; Klier, C M; McGorry, P D; Amminger, G P

    2016-09-20

    Current criteria identifying patients with ultra-high risk of psychosis (UHR) have low specificity, and less than one-third of UHR cases experience transition to psychosis within 3 years of initial assessment. We explored whether a Bayesian probabilistic multimodal model, combining baseline historical and clinical risk factors with biomarkers (oxidative stress, cell membrane fatty acids, resting quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG)), could improve this specificity. We analyzed data of a UHR cohort (n=40) with a 1-year transition rate of 28%. Positive and negative likelihood ratios were calculated for predictor variables with statistically significant receiver operating characteristic curves (ROCs), which excluded oxidative stress markers and qEEG parameters as significant predictors of transition. We clustered significant variables into historical (history of drug use), clinical (Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale positive, negative and general scores and Global Assessment of Function) and biomarker (total omega-3, nervonic acid) groups, and calculated the post-test probability of transition for each group and for group combinations using the odds ratio form of Bayes' rule. Combination of the three variable groups vastly improved the specificity of prediction (area under ROC=0.919, sensitivity=72.73%, specificity=96.43%). In this sample, our model identified over 70% of UHR patients who transitioned within 1 year, compared with 28% identified by standard UHR criteria. The model classified 77% of cases as very high or low risk (P>0.9, <0.1) based on history and clinical assessment, suggesting that a staged approach could be most efficient, reserving fatty-acid markers for 23% of cases remaining at intermediate probability following bedside interview.

  15. Lack of promotion of colon carcinogenesis by high-oleic safflower oil.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, M; Ueda, H; Shirabe, K; Higuchi, Y; Yoshida, S

    1997-04-15

    The nonpromoting effect of olive oil on colon carcinogenesis has been attributed to its high oleic acid content, whereas a positive association of monounsaturated fat in beef tallow with colon tumors has been reported. The effect of constituents other than fatty acids could not be neglected in these experiments. In order to minimize the effects of minor constituents in the oils, the authors compared conventional safflower oil with oil from a mutant strain of safflower that is rich in oleic acid. ICR mice were treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 20 mg/kg body weight every week for 12 weeks) and then were fed either a high-fat diet (23.5% by weight), containing safflower oil (HF-LA) or high-oleic safflower oil (HF-OA), or a low-fat diet (5% by weight), containing safflower oil (LF-LA) or high-oleic safflower oil (LF-OA). The test diets were continued until termination of the experiment at 30 weeks after the first administration of DMH. Fatty acid composition of colon phospholipids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Tumor multiplicity in animals fed the HF-OA diet was indistinguishable from that in animals fed LF-LA or LF-OA. In contrast, animals fed the HF-LA diet had a significantly higher incidence of colon tumors (mostly adenocarcinomas) than the other groups. Fatty acid profiles of colon phospholipids reflected those of the diet. Animals fed a HF-LA diet showed a marked decrease of nervonic acid (C24:1, n-9) in the colon sphingomyelin. These data indicate that oleic acid does not enhance DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in mice, even when they are fed a high-fat diet.

  16. Proximate composition and fatty acid analysis of Lablab purpureus (L.) legume seed: implicates to both protein and essential fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Shahdat; Ahmed, Rashed; Bhowmick, Sujan; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hashimoto, Michio

    2016-01-01

    The high mortality rate in Bangladesh is related to poverty, which results in protein malnutrition, essential fatty acid deficiency and lacks in adequate vitamins, minerals and calorie. Exploring new food items with improved dietary nutrition factors may, therefore, help to decrease the mortality rate in the poor countries like Bangladesh. Accordingly, the present study was a proximate composition and fatty acid analysis of L. purpureus seed-a legume seed which is given no careful attention locally, though it might be a good source of valuable nutrition factors for both animals and humans. The purpose of the study was, therefore, to generate awareness that L. purpureus could also act as a good source of food components essential for good health. Proximate analysis revealed that the seed powder contained 8.47 ± 0.52% moisture; 3.50 ± 0.0.07% ash; 1.02 ± 0.06% total fat; 23.95 ± 0.15% total protein; 1.21 ± 0.16% total dietary fiber; 61.86 ± 0.70% total carbohydrate and 352.4 ± 2.66 kcal/100 g energy. Phytic acid content (%) was 1.014 ± 0.048. Major fatty acid composition (%): the essential fatty acid linoleic acid (C18:2, ω-6) was 9.50 ± 0.68, while the linolenic acid (C18:3, ω-3) was 1.95 ± 0.18. Palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) were, respectively, 2.96 ± 0.19, 0.77 ± 0.04 and 1.10 ± 0.06. Lignoceric acid (C24:0) was 0.11 ± 0.007%. Monounsaturated palmitoleic acid (0.006 ± 0.0), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, C22:5, ω-3) and nervonic acid (0.002 ± 0.0) were present in trace amounts. Arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4, ω-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5, ω-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, ω-3) were not detected. The fatty acid profile, thus, suggests that essential omega-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (C18:3, ω-6) and omega-3 linolenic acid (C18:3, ω-3) were the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) present in L. purpureus seed. In addition, the seed contained high amount of proteins

  17. Levels of Red Blood Cell Fatty Acids in Patients With Psychosis, Their Unaffected Siblings, and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Medema, Suzanne; Mocking, Roel J. T.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Vaz, Frédéric M.; Meijer, Carin; de Haan, Lieuwe; van Beveren, Nico J. M.; Kahn, René; de Haan, Lieuwe; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; Meijer, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Two recent meta-analyses showed decreased red blood cell (RBC) polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) in schizophrenia and related disorders. However, both these meta-analyses report considerable heterogeneity, probably related to differences in patient samples between studies. Here, we investigated whether variations in RBC FA are associated with psychosis, and thus may be an intermediate phenotype of the disorder. Methods: For the present study, a total of 215 patients (87% outpatients), 187 siblings, and 98 controls were investigated for multiple FA analyses. Based on previous studies, we investigated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), arachidonic acid (AA), linoleic acid (LA), nervonic acid (NA), and eicasopentaenoic acid (EPA). On an exploratory basis, a large number of additional FA were investigated. Multilevel mixed models were used to compare the FA between the 3 groups. Results: Compared to controls, both patients and siblings showed significantly increased DHA, DPA, AA, and NA. LA was significantly higher in siblings compared to controls. EPA was not significantly different between the 3 groups. Also the exploratory FA were increased in patients and siblings. Conclusions: We found increased RBC FA DHA, DPA, AA, and NA in patients and siblings compared to controls. The direction of change is similar in both patients and siblings, which may suggest a shared environment and/or an intermediate phenotype. Differences between patient samples reflecting stage of disorder, dietary patterns, medication use, and drug abuse are possible modifiers of FA, contributing to the heterogeneity in findings concerning FA in schizophrenia patients. PMID:26385764

  18. Optimization of ultrasonic circulating extraction of samara oil from Acer saccharum using combination of Plackett-Burman design and Box-Behnken design.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengli; Zhang, Qiang; Fei, Shimin; Gu, Huiyan; Yang, Lei

    2017-03-01

    In this study, ultrasonic circulating extraction (UCE) technique was firstly and successfully applied for extraction of samara oil from Acer saccharum. The extraction kinetics were fitted and described, and the extraction mechanism was discussed. Through comparison, n-hexane was selected as the extraction solvent, the influence of solvent type on the responses was detailedly interpreted based on the influence of their properties on the occurrence and intensity of cavitation. Seven parameters potentially influencing the extraction yield of samara oil and content of nervonic acid, including ultrasound irradiation time, ultrasound irradiation power, ultrasound temperature, liquid-solid ratio, soaking time, particle size and stirring rate, were screened through Plackett-Burman design to determine the significant variables. Then, three parameters performed statistically significant, including liquid-solid ratio, ultrasound irradiation time and ultrasound irradiation power, were further optimized using Box-Behnken design to predict optimum extraction conditions. Satisfactory yield of samara oil (11.72±0.38%) and content of nervonic acid (5.28±0.18%) were achieved using the optimal conditions. 1% proportion of ethanol in extraction solvent, 120°C of drying temperature and 6.4% moisture were selected and applied for effective extraction. There were no distinct differences in the physicochemical properties of samara oil obtained by UCE and Soxhlet extraction, and the samara oil obtained by UCE exhibited better antioxidant activities. Therefore, UCE method has enormous potential for efficient extraction of edible oil with high quality from plant materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Levels of Red Blood Cell Fatty Acids in Patients With Psychosis, Their Unaffected Siblings, and Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Medema, Suzanne; Mocking, Roel J T; Koeter, Maarten W J; Vaz, Frédéric M; Meijer, Carin; de Haan, Lieuwe; van Beveren, Nico J M; Kahn, René; de Haan, Lieuwe; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; Meijer, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2016-03-01

    Two recent meta-analyses showed decreased red blood cell (RBC) polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) in schizophrenia and related disorders. However, both these meta-analyses report considerable heterogeneity, probably related to differences in patient samples between studies. Here, we investigated whether variations in RBC FA are associated with psychosis, and thus may be an intermediate phenotype of the disorder. For the present study, a total of 215 patients (87% outpatients), 187 siblings, and 98 controls were investigated for multiple FA analyses. Based on previous studies, we investigated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), arachidonic acid (AA), linoleic acid (LA), nervonic acid (NA), and eicasopentaenoic acid (EPA). On an exploratory basis, a large number of additional FA were investigated. Multilevel mixed models were used to compare the FA between the 3 groups. Compared to controls, both patients and siblings showed significantly increased DHA, DPA, AA, and NA. LA was significantly higher in siblings compared to controls. EPA was not significantly different between the 3 groups. Also the exploratory FA were increased in patients and siblings. We found increased RBC FA DHA, DPA, AA, and NA in patients and siblings compared to controls. The direction of change is similar in both patients and siblings, which may suggest a shared environment and/or an intermediate phenotype. Differences between patient samples reflecting stage of disorder, dietary patterns, medication use, and drug abuse are possible modifiers of FA, contributing to the heterogeneity in findings concerning FA in schizophrenia patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Variation of unsaturated fatty acids in soybean sprout of high oleic acid accessions.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Krishna Hari; Jung, Ki-Hwal; Chae, Jong-Hyun; Shannon, J Grover; Lee, Jeong-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Oleic acid and oleic acid rich foods may have beneficial health effects in humans. Soybeans with high oleic acid (around 80% in seed oil) have been developed. Soybean sprouts are an important vegetable in Korea, Japan and China. The objective of this study was to investigate the variation of unsaturated fatty acids, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids, in sprouts from soybeans with normal and high oleic acid concentration. Twelve soybean accessions with six high oleic acid lines, three parents of high oleic acid lines, and three checks with normal and high oleic acid concentration were used in this study. The unsaturated fatty acid concentration in sprouts from each genotype was similar to the concentration in the ungerminated seed. The oleic acid concentration in the sprouts of high oleic acid lines (up to 80%) was still high (>70%) compared to the ungerminated seed. Thus, high oleic soybean varieties developed for sprout production could add valuable health benefits to sprouts and the individuals who consume this vegetable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fat high in stearic acid favorably affects blood lipids and factor VII coagulant activity in comparison with fats high in palmitic acid or high in myristic and lauric acids.

    PubMed

    Tholstrup, T; Marckmann, P; Jespersen, J; Sandström, B

    1994-02-01

    The effect of fats high in individual, prevalent saturated dietary fatty acids on lipoproteins and hemostatic variables in young healthy subjects was evaluated in a randomized strictly controlled metabolic feeding study. Three experimental diets: shea butter (S; 42% stearic acid), palm oil (P; 43% palmitic palmitic acid), and palm-kernel oil with high-oleic sunflower oil (ML; 10% myristic acid, 30% lauric acid) were served to 15 men for 3 wk each, separated by washout periods. Diet S compared with diet P resulted in significant reduction in plasma cholesterol (22%) LDL cholesterol (26%), apolipoprotein B (18%), HDL cholesterol (12%), apolipoprotein A-I (13%), and a 13% lower factor VII coagulant activity (P = 0.001). Similar differences were observed between diets S and ML. In conclusion, intake of shea butter high in stearic acid favorably affects blood lipids and factor VII coagulant activity in young men, compared with fats high in saturated fatty acids with 12-16 carbons.

  2. Thermodynamics of the clusterization process of cis isomers of unsaturated fatty acids at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Vysotsky, Yu B; Belyaeva, E A; Fainerman, V B; Vollhardt, D; Aksenenko, E V; Miller, R

    2009-04-02

    In the framework of the semiempirical PM3 method, the thermodynamic parameters of cis isomers of unsaturated carboxylic acids at the air/water interface are studied. The model systems used are unsaturated cis fatty acid of the composition Delta = 12-15 and omega = 6-11, where Delta and omega refer to the number of carbon atoms between the functional group and double bond, and that between the double bond and methyl group, respectively. For dimers, trimers, and tetramers of the four acid series, the thermodynamic parameters of clusterization are calculated. It is shown that the position of the double bond does not significantly affect the values of thermodynamic parameters of formation and clusterization of carboxylic acids for equal chain lengths (n = Delta + omega). The calculated results show that for cis unsaturated fatty acid with odd Delta values the spontaneous clusterization threshold corresponds to n = 17-18 carbon atoms in the alkyl chain, while for monounsaturated acids with even Delta values this threshold corresponds to n = 18-19 carbon atoms in the alkyl chain. These differences in the clusterization threshold between the acids with even and odd Delta values are attributed to the formation of additional intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the ketonic oxygen atom of one monomer and the hydrogen atom linked to the alpha-carbon atom of the second monomer for the acids with odd Delta values or between the hydroxyl oxygen atom of one monomer and hydrogen atom linked to the alpha-carbon atom of the second monomer for the acids with even Delta values. The results obtained in the study agree satisfactorily with our experimental data for cis unsaturated nervonic (Delta15, omega9) and erucic acids (Delta13, omega9), and published data for some fatty acids, namely cis-16-heptadecenoic (Delta16, omega1), cis-9-hexadecenoic (Delta7, omega9), cis-11-eicosenoic (Delta11, omega9) and cis-9-octadecenoic acid (Delta9, omega9).

  3. Detection and identification of extra virgin olive oil adulteration by GC-MS combined with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Ferro, Miguel Duarte; Cavaco, Isabel; Liang, Yizeng

    2013-04-17

    In this study, an analytical method for the detection and identification of extra virgin olive oil adulteration with four types of oils (corn, peanut, rapeseed, and sunflower oils) was proposed. The variables under evaluation included 22 fatty acids and 6 other significant parameters (the ratio of linoleic/linolenic acid, oleic/linoleic acid, total saturated fatty acids (SFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), MUFAs/PUFAs). Univariate analyses followed by multivariate analyses were applied to the adulteration investigation. As a result, the univariate analyses demonstrated that higher contents of eicosanoic acid, docosanoic acid, tetracosanoic acid, and SFAs were the peculiarities of peanut adulteration and higher levels of linolenic acid, 11-eicosenoic acid, erucic acid, and nervonic acid the characteristics of rapeseed adulteration. Then, PLS-LDA made the detection of adulteration effective with a 1% detection limit and 90% prediction ability; a Monte Carlo tree identified the type of adulteration with 85% prediction ability.

  4. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    DOEpatents

    Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    1995-01-01

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid). A poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  5. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    DOEpatents

    Bonsignore, P.V.

    1995-11-28

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  6. A High-Fat, High-Oleic Diet, But Not a High-Fat, Saturated Diet, Reduces Hepatic α-Linolenic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Content in Mice.

    PubMed

    Picklo, Matthew J; Murphy, Eric J

    2016-05-01

    Considerable research has focused upon the role of linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2n-6) as a competitive inhibitor of α-linolenic (ALA; 18:3n-3) metabolism; however, little data exist as to the impact of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) on ALA metabolism. We tested the hypothesis that a high SFA diet, compared to a high MUFA (oleic acid 18:1n-9) diet, reduces ALA conversion to long chain n-3 fatty acids. Mice were fed for 12 weeks on three diets: (1) a control, 16 % fat energy diet consisting of similar levels of SFA and MUFA (2) a 50 % fat energy high MUFA energy diet (35 % MUFA and 7 % SFA) or (3) a 50 % fat energy, high SFA energy diet (34 % SFA, 8 % MUFA). ALA and LNA content remained constant. Analysis of hepatic lipids demonstrated a selective reduction (40 %) in ALA but not LNA and a 35 % reduction in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) in the high MUFA mice compared to the other groups. Lower content of ALA was reflected in the neutral lipid fraction, while smaller levels of phospholipid esterified EPA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n-3) were evident. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) content was elevated by the high SFA diet. Expression of Fads1 (Δ5 desaturase) and Fads2 (Δ6 desaturase) was elevated by the high MUFA and reduced by the high SFA diet. These data indicate that a high MUFA diet, but not a high SFA diet, reduces ALA metabolism and point to selective hepatic disposition of ALA versus LNA.

  7. High-oleate yeast oil without polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Tsakraklides, Vasiliki; Kamineni, Annapurna; Consiglio, Andrew L; MacEwen, Kyle; Friedlander, Jonathan; Blitzblau, Hannah G; Hamilton, Maureen A; Crabtree, Donald V; Su, Austin; Afshar, Jonathan; Sullivan, John E; LaTouf, W Greg; South, Colin R; Greenhagen, Emily H; Shaw, A Joe; Brevnova, Elena E

    2018-01-01

    Oleate-enriched triacylglycerides are well-suited for lubricant applications that require high oxidative stability. Fatty acid carbon chain length and degree of desaturation are key determinants of triacylglyceride properties and the ability to manipulate fatty acid composition in living organisms is critical to developing a source of bio-based oil tailored to meet specific application requirements. We sought to engineer the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for production of high-oleate triacylglyceride oil. We studied the effect of deletions and overexpressions in the fatty acid and triacylglyceride synthesis pathways to identify modifications that increase oleate levels. Oleic acid accumulation in triacylglycerides was promoted by exchanging the native ∆9 fatty acid desaturase and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase with heterologous enzymes, as well as deletion of the Δ12 fatty acid desaturase and expression of a fatty acid elongase. By combining these engineering steps, we eliminated polyunsaturated fatty acids and created a Y. lipolytica strain that accumulates triglycerides with > 90% oleate content. High-oleate content and lack of polyunsaturates distinguish this triacylglyceride oil from plant and algal derived oils. Its composition renders the oil suitable for applications that require high oxidative stability and further demonstrates the potential of Y. lipolytica as a producer of tailored lipid profiles.

  8. [The effect of N-stearoylethanolamine on liver phospholipid composition of rats with insulin resistance caused by alimentary obesity].

    PubMed

    Onopchenko, O V; Kosiakova, H V; Horid'ko, T M; Klimashevskyĭ, V M; Hula, N M

    2014-01-01

    We used alimentary obesity-induced insulin resistance (IR) model in rats to investigate the influence of N-stearoylethanolamine on the content of phospholipids and their fatty acid composition. Our results show that prolonged high-fat diet triggers considerable aberrations in the composition of main phospholipids in the liver and can be one of the causes of IR in rats. In particular, the increase of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and significant decrease of other phospholipids: lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine and diphosphaglicerol were observed. The levels of monounsaturated (erucic, nervonic, oleic) and polyunsaturated (eicosatrienoic, docosatrienoic, arachidonic) fatty acids were increased; meanwhile the content of diunsaturated acids was decreased. The NSE administration (50 mg/kg of body weight) caused restoration of the phospholipids content in the liver of rats with diet-induced IR that highly correlated with the decrease in plasma insulin level and the improvement of insulin sensitivity. Moreover, the effect of NSE was accompanied by the normalization of fatty acids composition of phospholipids that could be related to modulating influence of NSE on the activity of the main fatty acid desaturases. It is known that the imbalance in phospholipid composition of the rat liver causes substantial metabolic alterations that are associated with the development of IR. Accordingly, the compensations of the imbalance by NSE can help to restore insulin sensitivity, inhibit the development of obesity, IR and type 2 diabetes.

  9. Very high gravity ethanol and fatty acid production of Zymomonas mobilis without amino acid and vitamin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haoyong; Cao, Shangzhi; Wang, William Tianshuo; Wang, Kaven Tianyv; Jia, Xianhui

    2016-06-01

    Very high gravity (VHG) fermentation is the mainstream technology in ethanol industry, which requires the strains be resistant to multiple stresses such as high glucose concentration, high ethanol concentration, high temperature and harsh acidic conditions. To our knowledge, it was not reported previously that any ethanol-producing microbe showed a high performance in VHG fermentations without amino acid and vitamin. Here we demonstrate the engineering of a xylose utilizing recombinant Zymomonas mobilis for VHG ethanol fermentations. The recombinant strain can produce ethanol up to 136 g/L without amino acid and vitamin with a theoretical yield of 90 %, which is significantly superior to that produced by all the reported ethanol-producing strains. The intracellular fatty acids of the bacterial were about 16 % of the bacterial dry biomass, with the ratio of ethanol:fatty acids was about 273:1 (g/g). The recombinant strain was achieved by a multivariate-modular strategy tackles with the multiple stresses which are closely linked to the ethanol productivity of Z. mobilis. The over-expression of metB/yfdZ operon enabled the growth of the recombinant Z. mobilis in a chemically defined medium without amino acid and vitamin; and the fatty acids overproduction significantly increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production. The coupled production of ethanol with fatty acids of the Z. mobilis without amino acid and vitamin under VHG fermentation conditions may permit a significant reduction of the production cost of ethanol and microbial fatty acids.

  10. High frequency and large deposition of acid fog on high elevation forest.

    PubMed

    Igawa, Manabu; Matsumura, Ko; Okochi, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    We have collected and analyzed fogwater on the mountainside of Mt. Oyama (1252 m) in the Tanzawa Mountains of Japan and observed the fog event frequency from the base of the mountain with a video camera. The fog event frequency increased with elevation and was observed to be present 46% of the year at the summit. The water deposition via throughfall increased with elevation because of the increase in fogwater interception and was about twice that via rain at the summit, where the air pollutant deposition via throughfall was several times that via rainwater. The dry deposition and the deposition via fogwater were dominant factors in the total ion deposition at high elevation sites. In a fog event, nitric acid, the major acid component on the mountain, is formed during the transport of the air mass from the base of the mountain along the mountainside, where gases including nitric acid deposit and are scavenged by fogwater. Therefore, high acidity caused by nitric acid and relatively low ion strength are observed in the fogwater at high elevation sites.

  11. Ellagic acid attenuates high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Sunil K; Ward, Leigh; Brown, Lindsay

    2013-03-01

    Fruits and nuts may prevent or reverse common human health conditions such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension; together, these conditions are referred to as metabolic syndrome, an increasing problem. This study has investigated the responses to ellagic acid, present in many fruits and nuts, in a diet-induced rat model of metabolic syndrome. Eight- to nine-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups for 16-week feeding with cornstarch diet (C), cornstarch diet supplemented with ellagic acid (CE), high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (H) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet supplemented with ellagic acid (HE). CE and HE rats were given 0.8 g/kg ellagic acid in food from week 8 to 16 only. At the end of 16 weeks, cardiovascular, hepatic and metabolic parameters along with protein levels of Nrf2, NF-κB and CPT1 in the heart and the liver were characterised. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats developed cardiovascular remodelling, impaired ventricular function, impaired glucose tolerance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with increased protein levels of NF-κB and decreased protein levels of Nrf2 and CPT1 in the heart and the liver. Ellagic acid attenuated these diet-induced symptoms of metabolic syndrome with normalisation of protein levels of Nrf2, NF-κB and CPT1. Ellagic acid derived from nuts and fruits such as raspberries and pomegranates may provide a useful dietary supplement to decrease the characteristic changes in metabolism and in cardiac and hepatic structure and function induced by a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation.

  12. Topochemical approach to efficiently produce main-chain poly(bile acid)s with high molecular weights.

    PubMed

    Li, Weina; Li, Xuesong; Zhu, Wei; Li, Changxu; Xu, Dan; Ju, Yong; Li, Guangtao

    2011-07-21

    Based on a topochemical approach, a strategy for efficiently producing main-chain poly(bile acid)s in the solid state was developed. This strategy allows for facile and scalable synthesis of main-chain poly(bile acid)s not only with high molecular weights, but also with quantitative conversions and yields.

  13. Prescription omega-3 fatty acid products containing highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).

    PubMed

    Brinton, Eliot A; Mason, R Preston

    2017-01-31

    The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has multiple actions potentially conferring cardiovascular benefit, including lowering serum triglyceride (TG) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels and potentially reducing key steps in atherogenesis. Dietary supplements are a common source of omega-3 fatty acids in the US, but virtually all contain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in addition to EPA, and lipid effects differ between DHA and EPA. Contrary to popular belief, no over-the-counter omega-3 products are available in the US, only prescription products and dietary supplements. Among the US prescription omega-3 products, only one contains EPA exclusively (Vascepa); another closely related prescription omega-3 product also contains highly purified EPA, but is approved only in Japan and is provided in different capsule sizes. These high-purity EPA products do not raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, even in patients with TG levels >500 mg/dL, in contrast to the increase in LDL-C levels with prescription omega-3 products that also contain DHA. The Japanese prescription EPA product was shown to significantly reduce major coronary events in hypercholesterolemic patients when added to statin therapy in the Japan EPA Lipid Intervention Study (JELIS). The effects of Vascepa on cardiovascular outcomes are being investigated in statin-treated patients with high TG levels in the Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With EPA-Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT).

  14. High-Yield Production of Levulinic Acid from Pretreated Cow Dung in Dilute Acid Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Su, Jialei; Shen, Feng; Qiu, Mo; Qi, Xinhua

    2017-02-14

    Agricultural waste cow dung was used as feedstock for the production of a high value-added chemical levulinic acid (LA) in dilute acid aqueous solutions. A high LA yield of 338.9 g/kg was obtained from the pretreated cow dung, which was much higher than that obtained from the crude cow dung (135 g/kg), mainly attributed to the breakage of the lignin fraction in the lignocellulose structure of the cow dung by potassium hydroxide (KOH) pretreatment, and thus enhanced the accessibility of cow dung to the acid sites in the catalytic reaction. Meanwhile, another value-added chemical formic acid could be obtained with a yield of ca. 160 g/kg in the process, implying a total production of ca. 500 g/kg yield for LA and formic acid from the pretreated cow dung with the proposed process. The developed process was shown to be tolerant to high initial substrate loading with a satisfied LA yield. This work provides a promising strategy for the value-increment utilization of liglocellulosic agricultural residues.

  15. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for butyric acid production with high butyric acid selectivity.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yu-Sin; Im, Jung Ae; Choi, So Young; Lee, Jung Im; Lee, Sang Yup

    2014-05-01

    A typical characteristic of the butyric acid-producing Clostridium is coproduction of both butyric and acetic acids. Increasing the butyric acid selectivity important for economical butyric acid production has been rather difficult in clostridia due to their complex metabolic pathways. In this work, Clostridium acetobutylicum was metabolically engineered for highly selective butyric acid production. For this purpose, the second butyrate kinase of C. acetobutylicum encoded by the bukII gene instead of butyrate kinase I encoded by the buk gene was employed. Furthermore, metabolic pathways were engineered to further enhance the NADH-driving force. Batch fermentation of the metabolically engineered C. acetobutylicum strain HCBEKW (pta(-), buk(-), ctfB(-) and adhE1(-)) at pH 6.0 resulted in the production of 32.5g/L of butyric acid with a butyric-to-acetic acid ratio (BA/AA ratio) of 31.3g/g from 83.3g/L of glucose. By further knocking out the hydA gene (encoding hydrogenase) in the HCBEKW strain, the butyric acid titer was not further improved in batch fermentation. However, the BA/AA ratio (28.5g/g) obtained with the HYCBEKW strain (pta(-), buk(-), ctfB(-), adhE1(-) and hydA(-)) was 1.6 times higher than that (18.2g/g) obtained with the HCBEKW strain at pH 5.0, while no improvement was observed at pH 6.0. These results suggested that the buk gene knockout was essential to get a high butyric acid selectivity to acetic acid in C. acetobutylicum. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bile acid changes after high-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment in primary sclerosing cholangitis: relation to disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Sinakos, Emmanouil; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Kowdley, Kris V.; Befeler, Alex; Keach, Jill; Lindor, Keith

    2010-01-01

    High-dose (28-30mg/kg/day) ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment improves serum liver tests in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) but does not improve survival and is associated with increased rates of serious adverse events. The mechanism for the latter undesired effect remains unclear. High-dose UDCA could result in the production of hepatotoxic bile acids, such as lithocholic acid (LCA), due to limited small bowel absorption of UDCA and conversion of UDCA by bacteria in the colon. We determined the serum bile acid composition in 56 patients with PSC previously enrolled in a randomized, double-blind controlled trial of high dose UDCA versus placebo. Samples for analysis were obtained at baseline and at the end of treatment. The mean changes in UDCA (16.86 vs 0.05 μmol/L) and total bile acid (17.21 vs −0.55 μmol/L) levels were significantly higher in the UDCA group (n=29) compared to placebo (n=27) when pretreatment levels were compared (p<0.0001). LCA was also markedly increased (0.22 vs 0.01 μmol/L) in the UDCA group compared to placebo (p=0.001). No significant changes were detected for cholic acid (CA), deoxycholic acid (DCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). Patients (n=9) in the UDCA group who reached clinical endpoints of disease progression (development of cirrhosis, varices, liver transplantation or death) tend to have greater increase in their post-treatment total bile acid levels (34.99 vs 9.21 μmol/L) (p<0.08) compared to those who did not. Conclusion High-dose UDCA treatment in PSC patients results in marked UDCA enrichment and significant expansion of the total serum bile acid pool including lithocholic acid. PMID:20564380

  17. Combinations of mutant FAD2 and FAD3 genes to produce high oleic acid and low linolenic acid soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Pham, Anh-Tung; Shannon, J Grover; Bilyeu, Kristin D

    2012-08-01

    High oleic acid soybeans were produced by combining mutant FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B genes. Despite having a high oleic acid content, the linolenic acid content of these soybeans was in the range of 4-6 %, which may be high enough to cause oxidative instability of the oil. Therefore, a study was conducted to incorporate one or two mutant FAD3 genes into the high oleic acid background to further reduce the linolenic acid content. As a result, soybean lines with high oleic acid and low linolenic acid (HOLL) content were produced using different sources of mutant FAD2-1A genes. While oleic acid content of these HOLL lines was stable across two testing environments, the reduction of linolenic acid content varied depending on the number of mutant FAD3 genes combined with mutant FAD2-1 genes, on the severity of mutation in the FAD2-1A gene, and on the testing environment. Combination of two mutant FAD2-1 genes and one mutant FAD3 gene resulted in less than 2 % linolenic acid content in Portageville, Missouri (MO) while four mutant genes were needed to achieve the same linolenic acid in Columbia, MO. This study generated non-transgenic soybeans with the highest oleic acid content and lowest linolenic acid content reported to date, offering a unique alternative to produce a fatty acid profile similar to olive oil.

  18. Use of Nonspecific, Glutamic Acid-Free, Media and High Glycerol or High Amylase as Inducing Parameters for Screening Bacillus Isolates Having High Yield of Polyglutamic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Baxi, Nandita N.

    2014-01-01

    Out of fifty-five Bacillus isolates obtained from ten different regional locations and sources, seven showed the ability to consistently produce specific extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) on rich as well as synthetic but nonspecific media which did not contain glutamic acid. The isolates were identified as either Bacillus licheniformis or Bacillus subtilis. The EPS from all isolates was resistant to alpha protease, proteinase K, and was thus of high molecular weight. Further it was detected after SDS-PAGE by methylene blue but not by coomassie blue R staining as in case of proteins with high proportion of acidic amino acids. Cell-free EPS, after acid hydrolysis, showed absence of carbohydrates and presence of only glutamic acid. Thus the native the EPS from all seven isolates was confirmed to be gamma polyglutamic acid (PGA) and not exopolysaccharide. The Bacillus isolate T which produced maximum polymer on all media tested had higher amylase: protease activity as compared to other strains. If inoculum was developed in rich medium as compared to synthetic medium, the PGA produced increased by twofold in the subsequent synthetic production medium. Similarly, use of inoculum consisting of young and vegetative cells also increased the PGA production by twofold though amount of inoculum did not affect yield of PGA. Though PGA was produced in even in the absence of glutamic acid supplementation in the production medium by all isolates, the yield of PGA increased by fourfold in the presence glutamic acid and the maximum yield was 30 g/l for isolate K. The supplementation of glutamine instead of glutamic acid into the medium caused an increase in the viscosity of the non-Newtonian solution of PGA. PMID:27379328

  19. Use of Nonspecific, Glutamic Acid-Free, Media and High Glycerol or High Amylase as Inducing Parameters for Screening Bacillus Isolates Having High Yield of Polyglutamic Acid.

    PubMed

    Baxi, Nandita N

    2014-01-01

    Out of fifty-five Bacillus isolates obtained from ten different regional locations and sources, seven showed the ability to consistently produce specific extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) on rich as well as synthetic but nonspecific media which did not contain glutamic acid. The isolates were identified as either Bacillus licheniformis or Bacillus subtilis. The EPS from all isolates was resistant to alpha protease, proteinase K, and was thus of high molecular weight. Further it was detected after SDS-PAGE by methylene blue but not by coomassie blue R staining as in case of proteins with high proportion of acidic amino acids. Cell-free EPS, after acid hydrolysis, showed absence of carbohydrates and presence of only glutamic acid. Thus the native the EPS from all seven isolates was confirmed to be gamma polyglutamic acid (PGA) and not exopolysaccharide. The Bacillus isolate T which produced maximum polymer on all media tested had higher amylase: protease activity as compared to other strains. If inoculum was developed in rich medium as compared to synthetic medium, the PGA produced increased by twofold in the subsequent synthetic production medium. Similarly, use of inoculum consisting of young and vegetative cells also increased the PGA production by twofold though amount of inoculum did not affect yield of PGA. Though PGA was produced in even in the absence of glutamic acid supplementation in the production medium by all isolates, the yield of PGA increased by fourfold in the presence glutamic acid and the maximum yield was 30 g/l for isolate K. The supplementation of glutamine instead of glutamic acid into the medium caused an increase in the viscosity of the non-Newtonian solution of PGA.

  20. Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatropha oil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Solid acid catalyst was prepared from Kraft lignin by chemical activation with phosphoric acid, pyrolysis and sulfuric acid. This catalyst had high acid density as characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX) and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) method analyses. It was further used to catalyze the esterification of oleic acid and one-step conversion of non-pretreated Jatropha oil to biodiesel. The effects of catalyst loading, reaction temperature and oil-to-methanol molar ratio, on the catalytic activity of the esterification were investigated. Results The highest catalytic activity was achieved with a 96.1% esterification rate, and the catalyst can be reused three times with little deactivation under optimized conditions. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil was studied under such conditions. It was found that 96.3% biodiesel yield from non-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (12.7 mg KOH/g) could be achieved. Conclusions The catalyst can be easily separated for reuse. This single-step process could be a potential route for biodiesel production from high-acid value oil by simplifying the procedure and reducing costs. PMID:22145867

  1. High Performance Fatty Acid-Based Vinyl Ester Resin for Liquid Molding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    High Performance Fatty Acid -Based Vinyl Ester Resin for Liquid Molding by Xing Geng, John J. La Scala, James M. Sands, and Giuseppe R...it to the originator. Army Research Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069 ARL-RP-184 July 2007 High Performance Fatty Acid ...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High Performance Fatty Acid -Based Vinyl Ester Resin for Liquid Molding 5c. PROGRAM

  2. Low gastric acid and high plasma gastrin in high-anxiety Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Florentzson, Malin; Svensson, Karin; Astin-Nielsen, Maria; Andersson, Kjell; Håkanson, Rolf; Lindstrom, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats are more susceptible to stress-evoked ulcerations than Sprague-Dawley (SPD) rats. We have already demonstrated that gastrin cells are more active and ghrelin cells less active in WKY rats than in SPD rats. The purpose of this study was to compare endocrine cell activity and gastric acid output in WKY and SPD rats. Gastric acid output was determined in conscious rats with gastric fistula. Plasma gastrin and ghrelin levels were measured after an overnight fast. Acid secretagogues (gastrin, histamine and carbachol) were given by continuous subcutaneous infusion. The volume of gastric juice, and the acidity and acid output were all significantly lower (p <0.05) in fasted WKY rats than in fasted SPD rats. Gastrin evoked a 4-fold (p <0.01) and 3-fold (p <0.05) increase in gastric acid output in SPD rats and WKY rats, respectively. Histamine raised the acid output 1.6-fold in SPD rats (p=0.06) and 3-fold in WKY rats (p <0.05), while carbachol failed to affect the acid output (weak increase, p >0.05). Fasting plasma ghrelin levels were 2-fold higher in SPD rats than in WKY rats (p <0.01) while fasting gastrin levels were 10-fold higher in WKY rats than in SPD rats (p <0.05). Neither the parietal-cell density nor the oxyntic mucosal thickness differed between the two strains. The results of the present study suggest that a high gastrin cell activity in WKY rats is secondary to a low gastric acidity. Whether the high gastrin cell activity is linked to susceptibility to stress ulcer in WKY rats warrants further investigation.

  3. Experiments of the Essential Amino Acids at high temperature and high pressure using DAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, K.; Okamoto, K.

    2017-12-01

    Amino acids are organic compounds that form the fundamental part of life. Proteins are formed by peptide binding and polymerization of amino acids. Amino acids are polymerized in the ridge hydrothermal field, formed proteins, and might be evolved into life. Experimental studies on the polymerization of amino acids in hydrothermal environments have been conducted. However, they were hydrothermal experiments and after the experiments. All run products (amid-acids) were observed at ambient condition. Few in-situ observations of amino acids were done in experiments in hydrothermal condition. In order to perform in-situ observation of the polymerization of amino acids, we have conducted the DAC experiments. Amino acids were filled in the DAC, pressures were applied, then heated to high temperature with Raman analysis. In preliminary experiment using glycine, polymerization forming diglycine, were completed. Investigation amino acids polymerization under hydrothermal condition would shed light for new view of early life science.

  4. Simultaneous analysis of small organic acids and humic acids using high performance size exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaopeng; Liu, Fei; Wang, Guangcai; Weng, Liping

    2012-12-01

    An accurate and fast method for simultaneous determination of small organic acids and much larger humic acids was developed using high performance size exclusion chromatography. Two small organic acids, i.e. salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and one purified humic acid material were used in this study. Under the experimental conditions, the UV peaks of salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid were well separated from the peaks of humic acid in the chromatogram. Concentrations of the two small organic acids could be accurately determined from their peak areas. The concentration of humic acid in the mixture could then be derived from mass balance calculations. The measured results agreed well with the nominal concentrations. The detection limits are 0.05 mg/L and 0.01 mg/L for salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, respectively. Applicability of the method to natural samples was tested using groundwater, glacier, and river water samples (both original and spiked with salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid) with a total organic carbon concentration ranging from 2.1 to 179.5 mg C/L. The results obtained are promising, especially for groundwater samples and river water samples with a total organic carbon concentration below 9 mg C/L. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are positively associated with insulin sensitivity in rats fed high-fat and high-fructose diets.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiung-Pang; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Hung, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Chao-Hung; Hsieh, Po-Shiuan; Shiao, Ming-Shi; Chen, Jan-Kan; Li, Dai-Er; Hung, Li-Man

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare insulin resistance and metabolic changes using a global lipidomic approach. Rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a high-fructose diet (HFrD) for 12 weeks to induce insulin resistance (IR) syndrome. After 12 weeks feeding, physiological and biochemical parameters were examined. Insulin sensitivity and plasma metabolites were evaluated using a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and mass spectrometry, respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to investigate the strength of correlations. Rats on both diets developed IR syndrome, characterized by hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, impaired fasting glucose, and IR. Compared with HFrD-fed rats, non-esterified fatty acids were lower and body weight and plasma insulin levels were markedly higher in HFD-fed rats. Adiposity and plasma leptin levels were increased in both groups. However, the size of adipocytes was greater in HFD- than HFrD-fed rats. Notably, the lipidomic heat map revealed metabolites exhibiting greater differences in HFD- and HFrD-fed rats compared with controls. Plasma adrenic acid levels were higher in HFD- than HFrD-fed rats. Nevertheless, linoleic and arachidonic acid levels decreased in HFrD-fed rats compared with controls. Plasma concentrations of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were significantly reduced after feeding of both diets, particularly the HFrD. There was a strong positive correlation between these two fatty acids and the insulin sensitivity index. The systemic lipidomic analysis indicated that a reduction in DHA and DPA was strongly correlated with IR in rats under long-term overnutrition. These results provide a potential therapeutic target for IR and metabolic syndrome. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. High-Throughput Quantitative Lipidomics Analysis of Nonesterified Fatty Acids in Human Plasma.

    PubMed

    Christinat, Nicolas; Morin-Rivron, Delphine; Masoodi, Mojgan

    2016-07-01

    We present a high-throughput, nontargeted lipidomics approach using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of nonesterified fatty acids. We applied this method to screen a wide range of fatty acids from medium-chain to very long-chain (8 to 24 carbon atoms) in human plasma samples. The method enables us to chromatographically separate branched-chain species from their straight-chain isomers as well as separate biologically important ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. We used 51 fatty acid species to demonstrate the quantitative capability of this method with quantification limits in the nanomolar range; however, this method is not limited only to these fatty acid species. High-throughput sample preparation was developed and carried out on a robotic platform that allows extraction of 96 samples simultaneously within 3 h. This high-throughput platform was used to assess the influence of different types of human plasma collection and preparation on the nonesterified fatty acid profile of healthy donors. Use of the anticoagulants EDTA and heparin has been compared with simple clotting, and only limited changes have been detected in most nonesterified fatty acid concentrations.

  7. Influence of cyclopropane fatty acids on heat, high pressure, acid and oxidative resistance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan Yao; Gänzle, Michael G

    2016-04-02

    Heat and high pressure resistant strains of Escherichia coli are a challenge to food safety. This study investigated effects of cyclopropane fatty acids (CFAs) on stress tolerance in the heat- and pressure-resistant strain E. coli AW1.7 and the sensitive strain E. coli MG1655. The role of CFAs was explored by disruption of cfa coding for CFA synthase with an in-frame, unmarked deletion method. Both wild-type strains consumed all the unsaturated fatty acids (C16:1 and C18:1) that were mostly converted to CFAs and a low proportion to saturated fatty acid (C16:0). Moreover, E. coli AW1.7 contained a higher proportion of membrane C19:0 cyclopropane fatty acid than E. coli MG1655 (P<0.05). The Δcfa mutant strains did not produce CFAs, and the corresponding substrates C16:1 and C18:1 accumulated in membrane lipids. The deletion of cfa did not alter resistance to H2O2 but increased the lethality of heat, high pressure and acid treatments in E. coli AW1.7, and E. coli MG1655. E. coli AW1.7 and its Δcfa mutant were more resistant to pressure and heat but less resistant to acid stress than E. coli MG1655. Heat resistance of wild-type strains and their Δcfa mutant was also assessed in beef patties grilled to an internal temperature of 71 °C. After treatment, cell counts of wild type strains were higher than those of the Δcfa mutant strains. In conclusion, CFA synthesis in E. coli increases heat, high pressure and acid resistance, and increases heat resistance in food. This knowledge on mechanisms of stress resistance will facilitate the design of intervention methods for improved pathogen control in food production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Alleviation of ascorbic acid-induced gastric high acidity by calcium ascorbate in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon-Kyung; Jung, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Sang-Eun; Han, Joo-Hui; Jo, Eunji; Park, Hyun-Soo; Heo, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Deasun; Park, Jeong-Sook; Myung, Chang-Seon

    2018-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is one of the most well-known nutritional supplement and antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables. Calcium ascorbate has been developed to mitigate the gastric irritation caused by the acidity of ascorbic acid. The aim of this study was to compare calcium ascorbate and ascorbic acid, focusing on their antioxidant activity and effects on gastric juice pH, total acid output, and pepsin secretion in an in vivo rat model, as well as pharmacokinetic parameters. Calcium ascorbate and ascorbic acid had similar antioxidant activity. However, the gastric fluid pH was increased by calcium ascorbate, whereas total acid output was increased by ascorbic acid. In the rat pylorus ligation-induced ulcer model, calcium ascorbate increased the gastric fluid pH without changing the total acid output. Administration of calcium ascorbate to rats given a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg as ascorbic acid resulted in higher plasma concentrations than that from ascorbic acid alone. The area under the curve (AUC) values of calcium ascorbate were 1.5-fold higher than those of ascorbic acid, and the C max value of calcium ascorbate (91.0 ng/ml) was higher than that of ascorbic acid (74.8 ng/ml). However, their T max values were similar. Thus, although calcium ascorbate showed equivalent antioxidant activity to ascorbic acid, it could attenuate the gastric high acidity caused by ascorbic acid, making it suitable for consideration of use to improve the side effects of ascorbic acid. Furthermore, calcium ascorbate could be an appropriate antioxidant substrate, with increased oral bioavailability, for patients with gastrointestinal disorders.

  9. Alleviation of ascorbic acid-induced gastric high acidity by calcium ascorbate in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joon-Kyung; Jung, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Sang-Eun; Han, Joo-Hui; Jo, Eunji; Park, Hyun-Soo; Heo, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Deasun

    2018-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is one of the most well-known nutritional supplement and antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables. Calcium ascorbate has been developed to mitigate the gastric irritation caused by the acidity of ascorbic acid. The aim of this study was to compare calcium ascorbate and ascorbic acid, focusing on their antioxidant activity and effects on gastric juice pH, total acid output, and pepsin secretion in an in vivo rat model, as well as pharmacokinetic parameters. Calcium ascorbate and ascorbic acid had similar antioxidant activity. However, the gastric fluid pH was increased by calcium ascorbate, whereas total acid output was increased by ascorbic acid. In the rat pylorus ligation-induced ulcer model, calcium ascorbate increased the gastric fluid pH without changing the total acid output. Administration of calcium ascorbate to rats given a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg as ascorbic acid resulted in higher plasma concentrations than that from ascorbic acid alone. The area under the curve (AUC) values of calcium ascorbate were 1.5-fold higher than those of ascorbic acid, and the Cmax value of calcium ascorbate (91.0 ng/ml) was higher than that of ascorbic acid (74.8 ng/ml). However, their Tmax values were similar. Thus, although calcium ascorbate showed equivalent antioxidant activity to ascorbic acid, it could attenuate the gastric high acidity caused by ascorbic acid, making it suitable for consideration of use to improve the side effects of ascorbic acid. Furthermore, calcium ascorbate could be an appropriate antioxidant substrate, with increased oral bioavailability, for patients with gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:29302210

  10. LIPID CLASS DISTRIBUTION OF HIGHLY UNSATURATED LONG-CHAIN FATTY ACIDS IN MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Very-long-chain highly unsaturated C28 fatty acids (HUFAs), found in a number of dinoflagellates, are released as methyl esters from phospholipids obtained by fractionation of lipid extracts. By contrast, the highly unsaturated C18 fatty acid octadecapentaenoic acid (18:5n-3), co...

  11. Separation of free fatty acids from high free fatty acid crude palm oil using short-path distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Japir, Abd Al-Wali; Salimon, Jumat; Derawi, Darfizzi; Bahadi, Murad; Yusop, Muhammad Rahimi

    2016-11-01

    The separation of free fatty acids (FFAs) was done by using short-path distillation (SPD). The separation parameters was at their boiling points, a feed amount of 2.3 mL/min, an operating pressure of 10 Torr, a condenser temperature of 60°C, and a rotor speed of 300 rpm. The physicochemical characteristics of oil before and after SPD were determined. The results showed that FFA % of 8.7 ± 0.3 and 0.9 ± 0.1 %, iodine value of 53.1 ± 0.4 and 52.7 ± 0.5 g I2/100 g, hydroxyl value of 32.5 ± 0.6 and 13.9 ± 1.1 mg KOH/g, unsaponifiable value of 0.31 ± 0.01 and 0.20 ± 0.15%, moisture content of 0.31 ± 0.01 and 0.24 ± 0.01 % for high free fatty acid crude palm oil before and after distillation, respectively. Gas chromatography (GC) results showed that the major fatty acids in crude palm oil (CPO) were palmitic acid (44.4% - 45%) followed by oleic acid (39.6% - 39.8%). In general, high free fatty acid crude palm oil after molecular distillation (HFFA-CPOAM) showed admirably physicochemical properties.

  12. Genotypic variability and genotype by environment interactions in oil and fatty acids in high, intermediate, and low oleic acid peanut genotypes.

    PubMed

    Singkham, Nattawut; Jogloy, Sanun; Kesmala, Thawan; Swatsitang, Prasan; Jaisil, Prasit; Puppala, Naveen

    2010-05-26

    Variability of genotype and genotype x environment (G x E) interactions for fatty acids are important to develop high-oleic types in peanut varietal improvement programs. The objective of this study was to determine the variation in fatty acid composition among peanut genotypes and G x E interactions of fatty acids in three groups of genotypes with high, intermediate, and low-oleic acid. Twenty-one genotypes were tested in three environments consisting of two rainy seasons and one dry season. The results indicated that G x E interactions were significant for biomass, pod yield, and harvest index and also for oleic, linoleic acids, and O/L ratio. G x E interactions were less important than genotypic main effect. For oleic acid, significant interactions were found in the intermediate and low-oleic groups only. Therefore, selection for high-oleic trait in peanut breeding programs should be effective.

  13. High Concentrations of Tranexamic Acid Inhibit Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors.

    PubMed

    Lecker, Irene; Wang, Dian-Shi; Kaneshwaran, Kirusanthy; Mazer, C David; Orser, Beverley A

    2017-07-01

    The antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid is structurally similar to the amino acid glycine and may cause seizures and myoclonus by acting as a competitive antagonist of glycine receptors. Glycine is an obligatory co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors. Thus, it is plausible that tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors by acting as a competitive antagonist at the glycine binding site. The aim of this study was to determine whether tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors, as well as α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and kainate subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Tranexamic acid modulation of NMDA, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, and kainate receptors was studied using whole cell voltage-clamp recordings of current from cultured mouse hippocampal neurons. Tranexamic acid rapidly and reversibly inhibited NMDA receptors (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 241 ± 45 mM, mean ± SD; 95% CI, 200 to 281; n = 5) and shifted the glycine concentration-response curve for NMDA-evoked current to the right. Tranexamic acid also inhibited α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 231 ± 91 mM; 95% CI, 148 to 314; n = 5 to 6) and kainate receptors (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 90 ± 24 mM; 95% CI, 68 to 112; n = 5). Tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors likely by reducing the binding of the co-agonist glycine and also inhibits α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and kainate receptors. Receptor blockade occurs at high millimolar concentrations of tranexamic acid, similar to the concentrations that occur after topical application to peripheral tissues. Glutamate receptors in tissues including bone, heart, and nerves play various physiologic roles, and tranexamic acid inhibition of these receptors may contribute to adverse drug effects.

  14. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Nekimken, Howard L.; Carey, W. Patrick; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

  15. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

    1997-07-22

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

  16. Butanol production by a Clostridium beijerinckii mutant with high ferulic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Guo, Ting; Wang, Dong; Xu, Jiahui; Ying, Hanjie

    2016-09-01

    A mutant strain of Clostridium beijerinckii, with high tolerance to ferulic acid, was generated using atmospheric pressure glow discharge and high-throughput screening of C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052. The mutant strain M11 produced 7.24 g/L of butanol when grown in P2 medium containing 30 g/L of glucose and 0.5 g/L of ferulic acid, which is comparable to the production from non-ferulic acid cultures (8.11 g/L of butanol). When 0.8 g/L of ferulic acid was introduced into the P2 medium, C. beijerinckii M11 grew well and produced 4.91 g/L of butanol. Both cell growth and butanol production of C. beijerinckii M11 were seriously inhibited when 0.9 g/L of ferulic acid was added into the P2 medium. Furthermore, C. beijerinckii M11 could produce 6.13 g/L of butanol using non-detoxified hemicellulosic hydrolysate from diluted sulfuric acid-treated corn fiber (SAHHC) as the carbon source. These results demonstrate that C. beijerinckii M11 has a high ferulic acid tolerance and is able to use non-detoxified SAHHC for butanol production. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. A diet high in α-linolenic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids attenuates hepatic steatosis and alters hepatic phospholipid fatty acid profile in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Hanke, Danielle; Zahradka, Peter; Mohankumar, Suresh K; Clark, Jaime L; Taylor, Carla G

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of the plant-based n-3 fatty acid, α-linolenic acid (ALA), a dietary precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), for modulating hepatic steatosis. Rats were fed high fat (55% energy) diets containing high oleic canola oil, canola oil, a canola/flax oil blend (C/F, 3:1), safflower oil, soybean oil, or lard. After 12 weeks, C/F and weight-matched (WM) groups had 20% less liver lipid. Body mass, liver weight, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation and molecular markers of fatty acid oxidation, synthesis, desaturation and elongation did not account for this effect. The C/F group had the highest total n-3 and EPA in hepatic phospholipids (PL), as well as one of the highest DHA and lowest arachidonic acid (n-6) concentrations. In conclusion, the C/F diet with the highest content of the plant-based n-3 ALA attenuated hepatic steatosis and altered the hepatic PL fatty acid profile. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. High serum uric acid concentration predicts poor survival in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yue, Cai-Feng; Feng, Pin-Ning; Yao, Zhen-Rong; Yu, Xue-Gao; Lin, Wen-Bin; Qian, Yuan-Min; Guo, Yun-Miao; Li, Lai-Sheng; Liu, Min

    2017-10-01

    Uric acid is a product of purine metabolism. Recently, uric acid has gained much attraction in cancer. In this study, we aim to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of serum uric acid concentration in breast cancer patients. A total of 443 female patients with histopathologically diagnosed breast cancer were included. After a mean follow-up time of 56months, survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method. To further evaluate the prognostic significance of uric acid concentrations, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were applied. Of the clinicopathological parameters, uric acid concentration was associated with age, body mass index, ER status and PR status. Univariate analysis identified that patients with increased uric acid concentration had a significantly inferior overall survival (HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.15-3.94, p=0.016). In multivariate analysis, we found that high uric acid concentration is an independent prognostic factor predicting death, but insufficient to predict local relapse or distant metastasis. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that high uric acid concentration is related to the poor overall survival (p=0.013). High uric acid concentration predicts poor survival in patients with breast cancer, and might serve as a potential marker for appropriate management of breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Method for high specific bioproductivity of .alpha.,.omega.-alkanedicarboxylic acids

    DOEpatents

    Mobley, David Paul; Shank, Gary Keith

    2000-01-01

    This invention provides a low-cost method of producing .alpha.,.omega.-alkanedicarboxylic acids. Particular bioconversion conditions result in highly efficient conversion of fatty acid, fatty acid ester, or alkane substrates to diacids. Candida tropicalis AR40 or similar yeast strains are grown in a medium containing a carbon source and a nitrogen source at a temperature of 31.degree. C. to 38.degree. C., while additional carbon source is continuously added, until maximum cell growth is attained. Within 0-3 hours of this point, substrate is added to the culture to initiate conversion. An .alpha.,.omega.-alkanedicarboxylic acid made according to this method is also provided.

  20. High folic acid diet enhances tumour growth in PyMT-induced breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Mariann Fagernæs; Jensen, Sarah Østrup; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Martensen, Pia M

    2017-01-01

    Background: The B-vitamin folate is among the most studied bioactive food compound, and a dietary intake meeting the daily requirements has been found to reduce the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases as well as preventing neural tube defects during fetal development. Several countries have therefore introduced dietary fortification with folic acid. However, clinical and animal studies suggest that folic acid has a dual role in cancer development. Methods: During the period of initial tumour progression, MMTV-PyMT (MMTV-polyoma virus middle T) transgenic mice were fed with normal diet and high folic acid diet. Results: We found that PyMT-induced breast tumours highly express the cancer-specific folate receptor (FR), a feature they share with several human epithelial cancers in which expression of FRα correlates with tumour grade. Mice receiving a high folic acid diet displayed a significantly increased tumour volume compared with mice receiving normal diet. In the largest tumours, only found in mice on high folic acid diet, STAT3 was activated. In primary cells from PyMT tumours, STAT3 was activated upon treatment with folic acid in culture. Conclusions: Our results offer a novel molecular explanation for folic acid-induced growth of existing tumours. PMID:28152548

  1. Study of UltraHigh Performance Supercritical Fluid Chromatography to measure free fatty acids with out fatty acid ester preparation.

    PubMed

    Ashraf-Khorassani, M; Isaac, G; Rainville, P; Fountain, K; Taylor, L T

    2015-08-01

    Most lipids are best characterized by their fatty acids which may differ in (a) chain length, (b) degree of unsaturation, (c) configuration and position of the double bonds, and (d) the presence of other functionalities. Thus, a fast, simple, and quantitative analytical technique to determine naturally occurring free fatty acids (FFA) in different samples is very important. Just as for saponified acylglycerols, the determination of FFA's has generally been carried out by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). The use of an open tubular capillary column coupled with a flame ionization or mass spectrometric detector provides for both high resolution and quantification of FFA's but only after conversion of all free fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or pentafluorobenzyl esters. Unfortunately, volatilization of labile ester derivatives of mono- and poly-unsaturated FFA's can cause both thermal degradation and isomerization of the fatty acid during HRGC. The employment of a second generation instrument (here referred to as UltraHigh Performance Supercritical Fluid Chromatograph, UHPSFC) with high precision for modified flow and repeated back pressure adjustment in conjunction with sub-2μm various bonded silica particles (coupled with evaporative light scattering, ELSD, and mass spectrometric, MS, detection) for separation and detection of the following mixtures is described: (a) 31 free fatty acids, (b) isomeric FFA's, and (c) lipophilic materials in two real world fish oil samples. Limits of detection for FFA's via UHPSFC/MS and UHPSFC/ELSD versus detection of FAME's via HRGC/MS are quantitatively compared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. High resolution and high sensitivity methods for oligosaccharide mapping and characterization by normal phase high performance liquid chromatography following derivatization with highly fluorescent anthranilic acid.

    PubMed

    Anumula, K R; Dhume, S T

    1998-07-01

    Facile labeling of oligosaccharides (acidic and neutral) in a nonselective manner was achieved with highly fluorescent anthranilic acid (AA, 2-aminobenzoic acid) (more than twice the intensity of 2-aminobenzamide, AB) for specific detection at very high sensitivity. Quantitative labeling in acetate-borate buffered methanol (approximately pH 5.0) at 80 degreesC for 60 min resulted in negligible or no desialylation of the oligosaccharides. A high resolution high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for quantitative oligosaccharide mapping on a polymeric-NH2bonded (Astec) column operating under normal phase and anion exchange (NP-HPAEC) conditions. For isolation of oligosaccharides from the map by simple evaporation, the chromatographic conditions developed use volatile acetic acid-triethylamine buffer (approximately pH 4.0) systems. The mapping and characterization technology was developed using well characterized standard glycoproteins. The fluorescent oligosaccharide maps were similar to the maps obtained by the high pH anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD), except that the fluorescent maps contained more defined peaks. In the map, the oligosaccharides separated into groups based on charge, size, linkage, and overall structure in a manner similar to HPAEC-PAD with contribution of -COOH function from the label, anthranilic acid. However, selectivity of the column for sialic acid linkages was different. A second dimension normal phase HPLC (NP-HPLC) method was developed on an amide column (TSK Gel amide-80) for separation of the AA labeled neutral complex type and isomeric structures of high mannose type oligosaccharides. The oligosaccharides labeled with AA are compatible with biochemical and biophysical techniques, and use of matrix assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry for rapid determination of oligosaccharide mass map of glycoproteins is demonstrated. High resolution of NP-HPAEC and NP-HPLC methods

  3. Fermentative production of high titer citric acid from corn stover feedstock after dry dilute acid pretreatment and biodetoxification.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ping-Ping; Meng, Jiao; Bao, Jie

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the citric acid fermentation by a robust strain Aspergillus niger SIIM M288 using corn stover feedstock after dry dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment and biodetoxification. Citric acid at 100.04g/L with the yield of 94.11% was obtained, which are comparable to the starch or sucrose based citric acid fermentation. No free wastewater was generated in the overall process from the pretreatment to citric acid fermentation. Abundant divalent metal ions as well as high titer of potassium, phosphate, and nitrogen were found in corn stover hydrolysate. Further addition of extra nutrients showed no impact on increasing citric acid formation except minimum nitrogen source was required. Various fermentation parameters were tested and only minimum regulation was required during the fermentation. This study provided a biorefining process for citric acid fermentation from lignocellulose feedstock with the maximum citric acid titer and yield. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High metastaticgastric and breast cancer cells consume oleic acid in an AMPK dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Zhou, Ti; Li, Cen; Dai, Zhiyu; Che, Di; Yao, Yachao; Li, Lei; Ma, Jianxing; Yang, Xia; Gao, Guoquan

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer and breast cancer have a clear tendency toward metastasis and invasion to the microenvironment predominantly composed of adipocytes. Oleic acid is an abundant monounsaturated fatty acid that releases from adipocytes and impinges on different energy metabolism responses. The effect and underlying mechanisms of oleic acid on highly metastatic cancer cells are not completely understood. We reported that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was obviously activated in highly aggressive carcinoma cell lines treated by oleic acid, including gastric carcinoma HGC-27 and breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell lines. AMPK enhanced the rates of fatty acid oxidation and ATP production and thus significantly promoted cancer growth and migration under serum deprivation. Inactivation of AMPK attenuated these activities of oleic acid. Oleic acid inhibited cancer cell growth and survival in low metastatic carcinoma cells, such as gastric carcinoma SGC7901 and breast carcinoma MCF-7 cell lines. Pharmacological activation of AMPK rescued the cell viability by maintained ATP levels by increasing fatty acid β-oxidation. These results indicate that highly metastatic carcinoma cells could consume oleic acid to maintain malignancy in an AMPK-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate the important contribution of fatty acid oxidation to cancer cell function.

  5. Facile synthesis of highly efficient and recyclable magnetic solid acid from biomass waste

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    In this work, sawdust, a biomass waste, is converted into a magnetic porous carbonaceous (MPC) solid acid catalyst by an integrated fast pyrolysis–sulfonation process. The resultant magnetic solid acid has a porous structure with high surface area of 296.4 m2 g−1, which can be attributed to the catalytic effect of Fe. The catalytic activity and recyclability of the solid acid catalyst are evaluated during three typical acid-catalyzed reactions: esterification, dehydration, and hydrolysis. The favorable catalytic performance in all three reactions is attributed to the acid's high strength with 2.57 mmol g−1 of total acid sites. Moreover, the solid acid can be reused five times without a noticeable decrease in catalytic activity, indicating the stability of the porous carbon (PC)–sulfonic acid group structure. The findings in the present work offer effective alternatives for environmentally friendly utilization of abundant biomass waste. PMID:23939253

  6. Highly efficient chemical process to convert mucic acid into adipic acid and DFT studies of the mechanism of the rhenium-catalyzed deoxydehydration.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiukai; Wu, Di; Lu, Ting; Yi, Guangshun; Su, Haibin; Zhang, Yugen

    2014-04-14

    The production of bulk chemicals and fuels from renewable bio-based feedstocks is of significant importance for the sustainability of human society. Adipic acid, as one of the most-demanded drop-in chemicals from a bioresource, is used primarily for the large-volume production of nylon-6,6 polyamide. It is highly desirable to develop sustainable and environmentally friendly processes for the production of adipic acid from renewable feedstocks. However, currently there is no suitable bio-adipic acid synthesis process. Demonstrated herein is the highly efficient synthetic protocol for the conversion of mucic acid into adipic acid through the oxorhenium-complex-catalyzed deoxydehydration (DODH) reaction and subsequent Pt/C-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation. Quantitative yields (99 %) were achieved for the conversion of mucic acid into muconic acid and adipic acid either in separate sequences or in a one-step process. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Dissolution of Simulated and Radioactive Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Sludges with Oxalic Acid & Citric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    STALLINGS, MARY

    This report presents findings from tests investigating the dissolution of simulated and radioactive Savannah River Site sludges with 4 per cent oxalic acid and mixtures of oxalic and citric acid previously recommended by a Russian team from the Khlopin Radium Institute and the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC). Testing also included characterization of the simulated and radioactive waste sludges. Testing results showed the following: Dissolution of simulated HM and PUREX sludges with oxalic and citric acid mixtures at SRTC confirmed general trends reported previously by Russian testing. Unlike the previous Russian testing six sequential contacts of a mixture of oxalicmore » acid citric acids at a 2:1 ratio (v/w) of acid to sludge did not produce complete dissolution of simulated HM and PUREX sludges. We observed that increased sludge dissolution occurred at a higher acid to sludge ratio, 50:1 (v/w), compared to the recommended ratio of 2:1 (v/w). We observed much lower dissolution of aluminum in a simulated HM sludge by sodium hydroxide leaching. We attribute the low aluminum dissolution in caustic to the high fraction of boehmite present in the simulated sludge. Dissolution of HLW sludges with 4 per cent oxalic acid and oxalic/citric acid followed general trends observed with simulated sludges. The limited testing suggests that a mixture of oxalic and citric acids is more efficient for dissolving HM and PUREX sludges and provides a more homogeneous dissolution of HM sludge than oxalic acid alone. Dissolution of HLW sludges in oxalic and oxalic/citric acid mixtures produced residual sludge solids that measured at higher neutron poison to equivalent 235U weight ratios than that in the untreated sludge solids. This finding suggests that residual solids do not present an increased nuclear criticality safety risk. Generally the neutron poison to equivalent 235U weight ratios of the acid solutions containing dissolved sludge components are lower than those in the

  8. Mechanism of Corrosion by Naphthenic Acids and Organosulfur Compounds at High Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Peng

    Due to the law of supply and demand, the last decade has witnessed a skyrocketing in the price of light sweet crude oil. Therefore, refineries are increasingly interested in "opportunity crudes", characterized by their discounted price and relative ease of procurement. However, the attractive economics of opportunity crudes come with the disadvantage of high acid/organosulfur compound content, which could lead to corrosion and even failure of facilities in refineries. However, it is generally accepted that organosulfur compounds may form protective iron sulfide layers on the metal surface and decrease the corrosion rate. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the corrosive property of crudes at high temperatures, the mechanism of corrosion by acids (naphthenic acids) in the presence of organosulfur compounds, and methods to mitigate its corrosive effect. In 2004, an industrial project was initiated at the Institute for Corrosion and Multiphase Technology to investigate the corrosion by naphthenic acids and organosulfur compounds. In this project, for each experiment there were two experimentation phases: pretreatment and challenge. In the first pretreatment phase, a stirred autoclave was filled with a real crude oil fraction or model oil of different acidity and organosulfur compound concentration. Then, the stirred autoclave was heated to high temperatures to examine the corrosivity of the oil to different materials (specimens made from CS and 5% Cr containing steel were used). During the pretreatment, corrosion product layers were formed on the metal surface. In the second challenge phase, the steel specimens pretreated in the first phase were inserted into a rotating cylinder autoclave, called High Velocity Rig (HVR). The HVR was fed with a high-temperature oil solution of naphthenic acids to attack the iron sulfide layers. Based on the difference of specimen weight loss between the two steps, the net corrosion rate could be calculated and the protectiveness

  9. High School Students' Concepts of Acids and Bases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Bertram H. B.

    An investigation of Ontario high school students' understanding of acids and bases with quantitative and qualitative methods revealed misconceptions. A concept map, based on the objectives of the Chemistry Curriculum Guideline, generated multiple-choice items and interview questions. The multiple-choice test was administered to 34 grade 12…

  10. Effect of a high-fat-high-cholesterol diet on gallbladder bile acid composition and gallbladder motility in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kakimoto, Toshiaki; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2017-12-01

    OBJCTIVE To investigate the effects of dietary lipid overload on bile acid metabolism and gallbladder motility in healthy dogs. ANIMALS 7 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES In a crossover study, dogs were fed a high-fat-high-cholesterol diet (HFCD) or a low-fat diet (LFD) for a period of 2 weeks. After a 4-month washout period, dogs were fed the other diet for 2 weeks. Before and at the end of each feeding period, the concentrations of each of the gallbladder bile acids, cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced gallbladder motility, and bile acid metabolism-related hepatic gene expression were examined in all dogs. RESULTS The HFCD significantly increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations. The HFCD also increased the concentration of taurochenodeoxycholic acid and decreased the concentration of taurocholic acid in bile and reduced gallbladder contractility, whereas the LFD significantly decreased the concentration of taurodeoxycholic acid in bile. Gene expression analysis revealed significant elevation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase mRNA expression after feeding the HFCD for 2 weeks, but the expression of other genes was unchanged. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Feeding the HFCD and LFD for 2 weeks induced changes in gallbladder bile acid composition and gallbladder motility in dogs. In particular, feeding the HFCD caused an increase in plasma total cholesterol concentration, an increase of hydrophobic bile acid concentration in bile, and a decrease in gallbladder sensitivity to CCK. These results suggested that similar bile acid compositional changes and gallbladder hypomotility might be evident in dogs with hyperlipidemia.

  11. Structurally divergent lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases with high selectivity for saturated medium chain fatty acids from Cuphea seeds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hae Jin; Silva, Jillian E; Iskandarov, Umidjon; Andersson, Mariette; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2015-12-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT) catalyzes acylation of the sn-2 position on lysophosphatidic acid by an acyl CoA substrate to produce the phosphatidic acid precursor of polar glycerolipids and triacylglycerols (TAGs). In the case of TAGs, this reaction is typically catalyzed by an LPAT2 from microsomal LPAT class A that has high specificity for C18 fatty acids containing Δ9 unsaturation. Because of this specificity, the occurrence of saturated fatty acids in the TAG sn-2 position is infrequent in seed oils. To identify LPATs with variant substrate specificities, deep transcriptomic mining was performed on seeds of two Cuphea species producing TAGs that are highly enriched in saturated C8 and C10 fatty acids. From these analyses, cDNAs for seven previously unreported LPATs were identified, including cDNAs from Cuphea viscosissima (CvLPAT2) and Cuphea avigera var. pulcherrima (CpuLPAT2a) encoding microsomal, seed-specific class A LPAT2s and a cDNA from C. avigera var. pulcherrima (CpuLPATB) encoding a microsomal, seed-specific LPAT from the bacterial-type class B. The activities of these enzymes were characterized in Camelina sativa by seed-specific co-expression with cDNAs for various Cuphea FatB acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases (FatB) that produce a variety of saturated medium-chain fatty acids. CvLPAT2 and CpuLPAT2a expression resulted in accumulation of 10:0 fatty acids in the Camelina sativa TAG sn-2 position, indicating a 10:0 CoA specificity that has not been previously described for plant LPATs. CpuLPATB expression generated TAGs with 14:0 at the sn-2 position, but not 10:0. Identification of these LPATs provides tools for understanding the structural basis of LPAT substrate specificity and for generating altered oil functionalities. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effects of diets containing high or low amounts of stearic acid on plasma lipoprotein fractions and fecal fatty acid excretion of men.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, R M; Allman, M A; Iacono, J M

    1995-05-01

    Ten middle-aged males participated in a crossover study to determine the cholesterolemic effect of high amounts of stearic acid in a natural diet. They consumed a 20-d stabilization diet followed by two 40-d intervention diets containing either 1.5% of energy as stearic (18:0) acid and 7.3% of energy as palmitic (16:0) acid (low stearate: LS) or 2.4% of energy as 16:0 and 7.3% of energy as 18:0 (high stearate: HS). The experimental diets also contained approximately 10% of energy each as saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and 7.2-8% of energy as polyunsaturated fatty acids. The primary source of 18:0 in the HS diet was sheanut oil (commercially referred to as shea butter) and palm oil and butter in the LS diet. Plasma total, low-density-lipoprotein, and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly lower with the HS than with the LS diet. Total fecal fatty acid excretion was higher throughout the HS period. Apparent digestibility of the major dietary fatty acids showed that all of the selected fatty acids, except 18:0, were > or = 95% absorbed. These data demonstrate that feeding diets containing about two times the usual amount of stearic acid consumed in the United States, contributed to an increase in plasma lipoprotein concentrations at 40 d from an earlier decrease at 20 d. The time required to achieve stable cholesterol concentrations appears to vary depending on the kind of saturated fatty acids present in the diet.

  13. High-Throughput Quantitative Lipidomics Analysis of Nonesterified Fatty Acids in Plasma by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Christinat, Nicolas; Morin-Rivron, Delphine; Masoodi, Mojgan

    2017-01-01

    Nonesterified fatty acids are important biological molecules which have multiple functions such as energy storage, gene regulation, or cell signaling. Comprehensive profiling of nonesterified fatty acids in biofluids can facilitate studying and understanding their roles in biological systems. For these reasons, we have developed and validated a high-throughput, nontargeted lipidomics method coupling liquid chromatography to high-resolution mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of nonesterified fatty acids. Sufficient chromatographic separation is achieved to separate positional isomers such as polyunsaturated and branched-chain species and quantify a wide range of nonesterified fatty acids in human plasma samples. However, this method is not limited only to these fatty acid species and offers the possibility to perform untargeted screening of additional nonesterified fatty acid species.

  14. Treatment of Irradiated Mice with High-Dose Ascorbic Acid Reduced Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tomohito; Kinoshita, Manabu; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Ito, Masataka; Nishida, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Masaru; Saitoh, Daizoh; Seki, Shuhji; Mukai, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, it is expected that ascorbic acid should act as a radioprotectant. We investigated the effects of post-radiation treatment with ascorbic acid on mouse survival. Mice received whole body irradiation (WBI) followed by intraperitoneal administration of ascorbic acid. Administration of 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid immediately after exposure significantly increased mouse survival after WBI at 7 to 8 Gy. However, administration of less than 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid was ineffective, and 4 or more g/kg was harmful to the mice. Post-exposure treatment with 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in bone marrow cells and restored hematopoietic function. Treatment with ascorbic acid (3 g/kg) up to 24 h (1, 6, 12, or 24 h) after WBI at 7.5 Gy effectively improved mouse survival; however, treatments beyond 36 h were ineffective. Two treatments with ascorbic acid (1.5 g/kg × 2, immediately and 24 h after radiation, 3 g/kg in total) also improved mouse survival after WBI at 7.5 Gy, accompanied with suppression of radiation-induced free radical metabolites. In conclusion, administration of high-dose ascorbic acid might reduce radiation lethality in mice even after exposure. PMID:25651298

  15. High cell density cultivation of probiotics and lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Schiraldi, Chiara; Adduci, Vincenzo; Valli, Vivien; Maresca, Carmelina; Giuliano, Mariateresa; Lamberti, Monica; Cartenì, Maria; De Rosa, Mario

    2003-04-20

    The commercial interest in functional foods that contain live microorganisms, also named probiotics, is paralleled by the increasing scientific attention to their functionality in the digestive tract. This is especially true of yogurts that contain strains of lactic-acid bacteria of intestinal origin, among these, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus is extensively used in the dairy industry and it has been demonstrated to be a probiotic strain. In this work we describe high cell density cultivations of this microorganism also focusing on the stereospecific production of lactic acid. Key parameters such as medium composition (bactocasitone concentration) and diverse aeration conditions were explored. The results showed that the final concentration of biomass in anaerobic fermentation was lower than the one obtained in microaerophilic conditions, while it gave a very high productivity of lactic acid which was present as a racemic mixture in the permeate. Fermentation experiments carried out with air sparging, even at very low flow-rate, led to the production of the sole L(+) lactic acid giving sevenfold increase in biomass yield in respect to the batch cultivation. Finally, a mathematical model was developed to describe the microfiltration bioprocess applied in this research considering an inhibition kinetic and enucleating a suitable mathematical description for the decrease of the transmembrane flux. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Observations of a high-pressure phase creation in oleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kościesza, R.; Kulisiewicz, L.; Delgado, A.

    2010-03-01

    Oleic acid is one of the unsaturated fatty acids which frequently appears in food products such as edible fats and oils. A molecule of oleic acid possesses a double carbon bond, C=C, which is responsible for a transition to a new phase when pressure is applied. This work presents the results of optical observations of such a transition. The observations were made in two cases, the first being static p-T conditions under 60 MPa at 20°C and the other the dynamic application of the pressure up to 350 MPa. The obtained visualization reveals differences in the creation of the phase and in its further appearance. Some crystal forms may be recognized. These results tend to be of interest for food engineers due to increasing interest in high-pressure food preservation among nutritionists and medical scientists concerned with fatty acids.

  17. [Simultaneous isolation and purification of gallic acid and brevifolincarboxylic acid from Polygonum capitatum by high-speed counter-current chromatography].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinxia; Zhang, Liyan; Wan, Jinzhi; Liang, Bin; Xie, Yu

    2010-08-01

    To isolate and purify gallic acid and brevifolincarboxylic acid simultaneously by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) from a crude extract of Polygonum capitatum. The biphasic solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-0.44% acetic acid (3:1:5) was used at a flow rate of 2.0 mL x min(-1), while the aqueous phase was selected as the mobile phase and the apparatus was rotated at 860 r x min(-1). The effluent was detected at 272 nm. 51.5 mg of gallic acid and 5.9 mg of brevifolincarboxylic acid were separated from 1.07 g of the crude extract with the purities of 99.7% and 97.5%, respectively, while brevifolincarboxylic acid was obtained firstly from the genus Polygonum. The structures of the compounds were identified by ultraviolet spectrometry (UV), infra-red spectrometry (IR), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), time-of-flight mass spectrometry( TOF-MS), 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 13C-NMR. This method is feasible and rapid for isolation and purification of gallice acid and brevifolincarboxylil acid.

  18. CO-OCCURRENCE OF OZONE AND ACIDIC CLOUD WATER IN HIGH-ELEVATION FORESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A chemical climatology for high-elevation forests was estimated from ozone and cloudwater acidity data collected in the eastern United States. esides frequent ozone-only and pH-only single-pollutant episodes, both simultaneous and sequential co-occurrence of ozone and acidic clou...

  19. Comparative Proteome of Acetobacter pasteurianus Ab3 During the High Acidity Rice Vinegar Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Zang, Ning; Shi, Jieyan; Feng, Wei; Liu, Ye; Liang, Xinle

    2015-12-01

    As a traditional Asian food for several centuries, vinegar is known to be produced by acetic acid bacteria. The Acetobacter species is the primary starter for vinegar fermentation and has evolutionarily acquired acetic acid resistance, in which Acetobacter pasteurianus Ab3 is routinely used for industrial production of rice vinegar with a high acidity (9 %, w/v). In contrast to the documented short-term and low acetic acid effects on A. pasteurianus, here we investigated the molecular and cellular signatures of long-term and high acetic acid responses by proteomic profiling with bidimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/MS) analyses. Protein spots of interest were selected based on the threshold ANOVA p value of 0.05 and minimal twofold of differential expression, leading to the identification of 26 proteins that are functionally enriched in oxidoreductase activity, cell membrane, and metabolism. The alterations in protein functioning in respiratory chain and protein denaturation may underlay cellular modifications at the outer membrane. Significantly, we found that at higher acidity fermentation phase, the A. pasteurianus Ab3 cells would adapt to distinct physiological processes from that of an ordinary vinegar fermentation with intermediate acidity, indicating increasing energy requirement and dependency of membrane integrity during the transition of acetic acid production. Together, our study provided new insights into the adaptation mechanisms in A. pasteurianus to high acetic acid environments and yield novel regulators and key pathways during the development of acetic acid resistance.

  20. Sensitive determination of D-lactic acid and L-lactic acid in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Henry, H; Marmy Conus, N; Steenhout, P; Béguin, A; Boulat, O

    2012-04-01

    D-lactic acid in urine originates mainly from bacterial production in the intestinal tract. Increased D-lactate excretion as observed in patients affected by short bowel syndrome or necrotizing enterocolitis reflects D-lactic overproduction. Therefore, there is a need for a reliable and sensitive method able to detect D-lactic acid even at subclinical elevation levels. A new and highly sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of L- and D-lactic acid by a two-step procedure has been developed. This method is based on the concentration of lactic acid enantiomers from urine by supported liquid extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The separation was achieved by the use of an Astec Chirobiotic™ R chiral column under isocratic conditions. The calibration curves were linear over the ranges of 2-400 and 0.5-100 µmol/L respectively for L- and D-lactic acid. The limit of detection of D-lactic acid was 0.125 µmol/L and its limit of quantification was 0.5 µmol/L. The overall accuracy and precision were well within 10% of the nominal values. The developed method is suitable for production of reference values in children and could be applied for accurate routine analysis. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The separation of leukotrienes and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid metabolites of arachidonic acid by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

    PubMed

    Osborne, D J; Peters, B J; Meade, C J

    1983-11-01

    The following high performance liquid chromatography system was found suitable for separating most lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid: Techsphere 5-C18 column, eluting solvent methanol:water:acetic acid (65:35:0.06 v/v), pH 5.3. Comparisons with other packing materials and solvent systems are described. The method could be used to identify lipoxygenase products released from mouse macrophage cells stimulated with gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane. Detection limits between 1 and 10 ng were obtained.

  2. Ligand-enhanced electrokinetic remediation of metal-contaminated marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity.

    PubMed

    Masi, Matteo; Iannelli, Renato; Losito, Gabriella

    2016-06-01

    The suitability of electrokinetic remediation for removing heavy metals from dredged marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity was investigated. Laboratory-scale electrokinetic remediation experiments were carried out by applying two different voltage gradients to the sediment (0.5 and 0.8 V/cm) while circulating water or two different chelating agents at the electrode compartments. Tap water, 0.1 M citric acid and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions were used respectively. The investigated metals were Zn, Pb, V, Ni and Cu. In the unenhanced experiment, the acid front could not propagate due to the high acid buffering capacity of the sediments; the production of OH(-) ions at the cathode resulted in a high-pH environment causing the precipitation of CaCO3 and metal hydroxides. The use of citric acid prevented the formation of precipitates, but solubilisation and mobilisation of metal species were not sufficiently achieved. Metal removal was relevant when EDTA was used as the conditioning agent, and the electric potential was raised up to 0.8 V/cm. EDTA led to the formation of negatively charged complexes with metals which migrated towards the anode compartment by electromigration. This result shows that metal removal from sediments with high acid buffering capacity may be achieved by enhancing the electrokinetic process by EDTA addition when the acidification of the medium is not economically and/or environmentally sustainable.

  3. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of methotrexate, 7-hydroxymethotrexate, 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid and folinic acid in serum and cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Belz, S; Frickel, C; Wolfrom, C; Nau, H; Henze, G

    1994-11-04

    A method for the simultaneous determination of the antifolates methotrexate and 7-hydroxymethotrexate as well as the folates 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid and folinic acid (5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is described. High-performance liquid chromatography with gradient elution and dual detection (ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence) was used to separate and quantitate the analytes. Serum samples containing high levels of the substances of interest and CSF samples were injected directly onto the HPLC column. For determination of low concentrations, serum samples were subjected to a solid-phase extraction method for clean-up and concentration purposes. The determination limits were 10 ng/ml for both antifolates, 100 ng/ml for folinic acid, and 0.1 ng/ml for the physiologically occurring methylated folate which is about 1/100 the serum concentration in healthy children. The suitability of the method for pharmacokinetic monitoring of high-dose methotrexate therapy combined with leucovorin rescue administered to children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia was demonstrated. Minimum values of the serum folate during treatment ranged from 0.2 to 3.1 ng/ml. Even those very low concentrations could be reliably measured.

  4. Enterococcus faecium QU 50: a novel thermophilic lactic acid bacterium for high-yield l-lactic acid production from xylose.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Zendo, Takeshi; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Production of optically pure lactic acid from lignocellulosic material for commercial purposes is hampered by several difficulties, including heterofermentation of pentose sugars and high energy consumption by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Here, we report a novel lactic acid bacterium, strain QU 50, that has the potential to produce optically pure l-lactic acid (≥99.2%) in a homofermentative manner from xylose under thermophilic conditions. Strain QU 50 was isolated from Egyptian fertile soil and identified as Enterococcus faecium QU 50 by analyzing its sugar fermentation pattern and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Enterococcus faecium QU 50 fermented xylose efficiently to produce lactic acid over wide pH (6.0-10.0) and temperature ranges (30-52°C), with a pH of 6.5 and temperature of 50°C being optimal. To our knowledge, this is the first report of homofermentative lactic acid production from xylose by a thermophilic lactic acid bacterium. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Highly efficient organosolv fractionation of cornstalk into cellulose and lignin in organic acids.

    PubMed

    Shui, Tao; Feng, Shanghuan; Yuan, Zhongshun; Kuboki, Takashi; Xu, Chunbao Charles

    2016-10-01

    In this study, effects of fractionation solvents, catalysts, temperatures and residence time on yields, purity and chemical composition of the products were investigated at the solid/solvent ratio of 1:5 (g/g). It was revealed that mixture of acetic acid/formic acid/water at the ratio of 3:6:1 (v/v/v) resulted in crude cellulose and lignin products of relatively high purity. The use of HCl catalyst contributed to a high crude cellulose yield, while H2SO4 showed an adverse effect on cellulose yield. However, both of these acidic catalysts contributed to much lower hemicellulose contents in the resulted crude cellulose products compared with those obtained without a catalyst. Fractionation at 90°C for 180min in mixed solvents of acetic acid/formic acid/water (3:6:1, v/v/v) with or without catalyst produced crude cellulose with very low residual lignin contents (<4%). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Determination of triterpenic acids in fruits by a novel high performance liquid chromatography method with high sensitivity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shijuan; Sun, Yuanpeng; Sun, Zhiwei; Wang, Xiaoyan; You, Jinmao; Suo, Yourui

    2014-03-01

    A novel and interesting pre-column derivatisation method was developed for the analysis of triterpenic acids by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Each triterpenic acid produced two HPLC peaks with similar peak areas after derivatising with chiral 1-(9H-carbazol-9-yl) propan-2-yl-methanesulfonate (CPMS), while the fatty acid derivative of CPMS had only one peak. This phenomenon greatly increased the confidence in analyte confirmation. Compound with only one peak or two peaks differing greatly in their peak areas could be excluded from the target compound list. CPMS was compared with five other derivatising reagents, four of which produced only one peak for one triterpenic acid, to study the possible mechanism. Analytes with different behaviours were also studied to better interpret the mechanism. The proposed method also showed the merits of high sensitivity and less sample consumption. It was successfully applied to the analysis of triterpenic acids in fruit peels and flesh. There is no prior report on the two peak phenomenon of triterpenic acids. The information provided in this study will be helpful for those who are also engaged in derivatisation study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bilayers and wormlike micelles at high pH in fatty acid soap systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenlong; Liu, Huizhong; Song, Aixin; Hao, Jingcheng

    2016-03-01

    Bilayers at high pH in the fatty acid systems of palmitic acid/KOH/H2O, palmitic acid/CsOH/H2O, stearic acid/KOH/H2O and stearic acid/CsOH/H2O can form spontaneously (Xu et al., 2014, 2015). In this work, the bilayers can still be observed at 25°C with an increase of the concentration of fatty acids. We found that wormlike micelles can also be prepared in the fatty acid soap systems at high pH, even though the temperature was increased to be 50°C. The viscoelasticity, apparent viscosity, yield stress of the bilayers were determined by the rheological measurements. Wormlike micelles were identified by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and emphasized by the rheological characterizations, which are in accordance with the Maxwell fluids with good fit of Cole-Cole plots. The phase transition temperature was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the transition process was recorded. The regulating role of counterions of fatty acids were discussed by (CH3)4N(+), (C2H5)4N(+), (C3H7)4N(+), and (C4H9)4N(+) as comparison, concluding that counterions with appropriate hydrated radius were the vital factor in the formation wormlike micelles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biomimetic High Density Lipoprotein Nanoparticles For Nucleic Acid Delivery

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Kaylin M.; Mutharasan, R. Kannan; Tripathy, Sushant; Veliceasa, Dorina; Bobeica, Mariana; Shumaker, Dale K.; Luthi, Andrea J.; Helfand, Brian T.; Ardehali, Hossein; Mirkin, Chad A.; Volpert, Olga; Thaxton, C. Shad

    2014-01-01

    We report a gold nanoparticle-templated high density lipoprotein (HDL AuNP) platform for gene therapy which combines lipid-based nucleic acid transfection strategies with HDL biomimicry. For proof-of-concept, HDL AuNPs are shown to adsorb antisense cholesterylated DNA. The conjugates are internalized by human cells, can be tracked within cells using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and regulate target gene expression. Overall, the ability to directly image the AuNP core within cells, the chemical tailorability of the HDL AuNP platform, and the potential for cell-specific targeting afforded by HDL biomimicry make this platform appealing for nucleic acid delivery. PMID:21319839

  9. Effect of high-oleic-acid soybeans on production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and enteric methane emission in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lopes, J C; Harper, M T; Giallongo, F; Oh, J; Smith, L; Ortega-Perez, A M; Harper, S A; Melgar, A; Kniffen, D M; Fabin, R A; Hristov, A N

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 3 soybean sources differing in fatty acid profile and processing method on productivity, milk composition, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and enteric methane emission in lactating dairy cows. The soybean sources were conventional, high-linoleic-acid variety extruded soybean meal (ESBM; 8.7% ether extract with 15% oleic and 54% linoleic acids); extruded Plenish (DuPont Pioneer, Johnston, IA), high-oleic-acid variety soybean meal (EPSBM; 8.4% ether extract with 73% oleic and 8% linoleic acids); and whole, heated Plenish soybeans (WPSB; 20.2% ether extract). The study involved 15 Holstein cows in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods. The inclusion rate of the soybean sources in the diet was (dry matter basis) 17.1, 17.1, and 7.4% for ESBM, EPSBM, and WPSB, respectively, which resulted in ether extract concentration of the diets of 3.99, 3.94, and 4.18%, respectively. Compared with ESBM, the Plenish diets tended to increase dry matter intake and decreased feed efficiency (but had no effect on energy-corrected milk feed efficiency). The Plenish diets increased milk fat concentration on average by 5.6% and tended to increase milk fat yield, compared with ESBM. The WPSB diet tended to increased milk true protein compared with the extruded soybean meal diets. Treatments had no effect on rumen fermentation and enteric methane or carbon dioxide emissions, except pH was higher for WPSB versus EPSBM. The Plenish diets decreased the prevalence of Ruminococcus and increased that of Eubacterium and Treponema in whole ruminal contents. Total-tract apparent digestibility of organic matter and crude protein were decreased by WPSB compared with ESBM and EPSBM. Compared with the other treatments, urinary N excretion was increased by EPSBM and fecal N excretion was greater for WPSB. Treatments had marked effects on milk fatty acid profile. Generally, the Plenish diets increased mono

  10. High School Forum: "Invitations to Enquiry": The Calcite/Acid Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herron, J. Dudley, Ed.; Driscoll, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a high school chemistry experiment which involves the reaction between calcite and hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. This reaction can be carried out as a projected demonstration and on an individual basis. (HM)

  11. Recurrent high anion gap metabolic acidosis secondary to 5-oxoproline (pyroglutamic acid).

    PubMed

    Tailor, Prayus; Raman, Tuhina; Garganta, Cheryl L; Njalsson, Runa; Carlsson, Katarina; Ristoff, Ellinor; Carey, Hugh B

    2005-07-01

    High anion gap metabolic acidosis in adults is a severe metabolic disorder for which the primary organic acid usually is apparent by clinical history and standard laboratory testing. We report a case of recurrent high anion gap metabolic acidosis in a 48-year-old man who initially presented with anorexia and malaise. Physical examination was unrevealing. Arterial pH was 6.98, P co 2 was 5 mm Hg, and chemistry tests showed a bicarbonate level of 3 mEq/L (3 mmol/L), anion gap of 32 mEq/L (32 mmol/L), and a negative toxicology screen result, except for an acetaminophen (paracetamol) level of 7.5 mug/mL. Metabolic acidosis resolved with administration of intravenous fluids. Subsequently, he experienced 5 more episodes of high anion gap metabolic acidosis during an 8-month span. Methanol, ethylene glycol, acetone, ethanol, d -lactate, and hippuric acid screens were negative. Lactate levels were modestly elevated, and acetaminophen levels were elevated for 5 of 6 admissions. These episodes defied explanation until 3 urinary organic acid screens, obtained on separate admissions, showed striking elevations of 5-oxoproline levels. Inborn errors of metabolism in the gamma-glutamyl cycle causing recurrent 5-oxoprolinuria and high anion gap metabolic acidosis are rare, but well described in children. Recently, there have been several reports of apparent acquired 5-oxoprolinuria and high anion gap metabolic acidosis in adults in association with acetaminophen use. Acetaminophen may, in susceptible individuals, disrupt regulation of the gamma-glutamyl cycle and result in excessive 5-oxoproline production. Suspicion for 5-oxoproline-associated high anion gap metabolic acidosis should be entertained when the cause of high anion gap metabolic acidosis remains poorly defined, the anion gap cannot be explained reasonably by measured organic acids, and there is concomitant acetaminophen use.

  12. High power bipolar lead-acid batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan

    1991-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), with interest in advanced energy storage systems, is involved in the development of a unique lead acid battery design. This battery utilizes the same combination of lead and lead dioxide active materials present in the automobile starting battery. However, it can provide 2 to 10 times the power while minimizing volume and weight. The typical starting battery is described as a monopolar type using one current collector for both the positive and negative plate of adjacent cells. Specific power as high as 2.5 kW/kg was projected for 30 second periods with as many as 2000 recharge cycles.

  13. Physiological responses to acid stress by Saccharomyces cerevisiae when applying high initial cell density

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    High initial cell density is used to increase volumetric productivity and shorten production time in lignocellulosic hydrolysate fermentation. Comparison of physiological parameters in high initial cell density cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of acetic, formic, levulinic and cinnamic acids demonstrated general and acid-specific responses of cells. All the acids studied impaired growth and inhibited glycolytic flux, and caused oxidative stress and accumulation of trehalose. However, trehalose may play a role other than protecting yeast cells from acid-induced oxidative stress. Unlike the other acids, cinnamic acid did not cause depletion of cellular ATP, but abolished the growth of yeast on ethanol. Compared with low initial cell density, increasing initial cell density reduced the lag phase and improved the bioconversion yield of cinnamic acid during acid adaptation. In addition, yeast cells were able to grow at elevated concentrations of acid, probable due to the increase in phenotypic cell-to-cell heterogeneity in large inoculum size. Furthermore, the specific growth rate and the specific rates of glucose consumption and metabolite production were significantly lower than at low initial cell density, which was a result of the accumulation of a large fraction of cells that persisted in a viable but non-proliferating state. PMID:27620460

  14. Metaproteomics and ultrastructure characterization of Komagataeibacter spp. involved in high-acid spirit vinegar production.

    PubMed

    Andrés-Barrao, Cristina; Saad, Maged M; Cabello Ferrete, Elena; Bravo, Daniel; Chappuis, Marie-Luise; Ortega Pérez, Ruben; Junier, Pilar; Perret, Xavier; Barja, François

    2016-05-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are widespread microorganisms in nature, extensively used in food industry to transform alcohols and sugar alcohols into their corresponding organic acids. Specialized strains are used in the production of vinegar through the oxidative transformation of ethanol into acetic acid. The main AAB involved in the production of high-acid vinegars using the submerged fermentation method belong to the genus Komagataeibacter, characterized by their higher ADH stability and activity, and higher acetic acid resistance (15-20%), compared to other AAB. In this work, the bacteria involved in the production of high-acid spirit vinegar through a spontaneous acetic acid fermentation process was studied. The analysis using a culture-independent approach revealed a homogeneous bacterial population involved in the process, identified as Komagataeibacter spp. Differentially expressed proteins during acetic acid fermentation were investigated by using 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry. Most of these proteins were functionally related to stress response, the TCA cycle and different metabolic processes. In addition, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and specific staining of polysaccharide SDS-PAGE gels confirmed that Komagataeibacter spp. lacked the characteristic polysaccharide layer surrounding the outer membrane that has been previously reported to have an important role in acetic acid resistance in the genus Acetobacter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantitation of phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid molecular species using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Triebl, Alexander; Trötzmüller, Martin; Eberl, Anita; Hanel, Pia; Hartler, Jürgen; Köfeler, Harald C

    2014-06-20

    A method for a highly selective and sensitive identification and quantitation of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and phosphatidic acid (PA) molecular species was developed using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) followed by negative-ion electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry. Different extraction methods for the polar LPA and PA species were compared and a modified Bligh & Dyer extraction by addition of 0.1M hydrochloric acid resulted in a ≈1.2-fold increase of recovery for the 7 PA and a more than 15-fold increase for the 6 LPA molecular species of a commercially available natural mix compared to conventional Bligh & Dyer extraction. This modified Bligh & Dyer extraction did not show any artifacts resulting from hydrolysis of natural abundant phospholipids. The developed HILIC method is able to separate all PA and LPA species from major polar membrane lipid classes which might have suppressive effects on the minor abundant lipid classes of interest. The elemental compositions of intact lipid species are provided by the high mass resolution of 100,000 and high mass accuracy below 3ppm of the Orbitrap instrument. Additionally, tandem mass spectra were generated in a parallel data dependent acquisition mode in the linear ion trap to provide structural information at molecular level. Limits of quantitation were identified at 45fmol on column and the dynamic range reaches 20pmol on column, covering the range of natural abundance well. By applying the developed method to mouse brain it can be shown that phosphatidic acid contains less unsaturated fatty acids with PA 34:1 and PA 36:1 as the major species. In contrast, for LPA species a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (LPA 20:4 and LPA 22:6) was quantified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. High acidity unilamellar zeolite MCM-56 and its pillared and delaminated derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gil, Barbara; Makowski, Wacław; Marszalek, Bartosz; Roth, Wieslaw J; Kubu, Martin; Čejka, Jiři; Olejniczak, Zbigniew

    2014-07-21

    The unilamellar form of zeolite MWW, MCM-56, which is obtained by direct hydrothermal synthesis has been studied with regard to acidity and porosity in its original and post-synthesis modified pillared and delaminated forms. The acidity measured by FTIR was found to be only slightly lower than the highly active 3-D MWW forms, MCM-22 and MCM-49. Pivalonitrile adsorption, which is a measure of spatial openness, showed 50% accessibility vs. <30% for MCM-22/49. It highlights the potential of MCM-56 as a layered material with increased access to acid sites because it does not entail laborious post-synthesis modification. Swelling, pillaring and delamination of MCM-56 are facile but result in a reduction in the number of Brønsted acid sites (BAS) while increasing accessibility to pivalonitrile. The delamination procedure involving sonication and acidification of the highly basic mother liquor produces the most visible increase in surface area and access to all BAS. The accompanying doubling of the solid yield and the decrease in absolute number of BAS suggest significant precipitation of dissolved silica generated during swelling and sonication in high pH medium. The viability of separating surfactant covered layers upon sonication with the consequence of exposing hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails to aqueous environment is addressed.

  17. Simultaneous saccharification and aerobic fermentation of high titer cellulosic citric acid by filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Hou, Weiliang; Bao, Jie

    2018-04-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is the most efficient operation in biorefining conversion, but aerobic SSF under high solids loading significantly faces the serious oxygen transfer limitation. This study took the first insight into an aerobic SSF by high oxygen demanding filamentous fungi in highly viscous lignocellulose hydrolysate. The results show that oxygen requirement in the aerobic SSF by Aspergillus niger was well satisfied for production of cellulosic citric acid. The record high citric acid titer of 136.3 g/L and the overall conversion yield of 74.9% of cellulose were obtained by the aerobic SSF. The advantage of SSF to the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) on citric acid fermentation was compared based on the rigorous Aspen Plus modeling. The techno-economic analysis indicates that the minimum citric acid selling price (MCSP) of $0.603 per kilogram by SSF was highly competitive with the commercial citric acid from starch feedstock. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High and low molecular weight hyaluronic acid differentially influence macrophage activation

    PubMed Central

    Rayahin, Jamie E.; Buhrman, Jason S.; Zhang, Yu; Koh, Timothy J.; Gemeinhart, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages exhibit phenotypic diversity permitting wide-ranging roles in maintaining physiologic homeostasis. Hyaluronic acid, a major glycosaminoglycan of the extracellular matrix, has been shown to have differential signaling based on its molecular weight. With this in mind, the main objective of this study was to elucidate the role of hyaluronic acid molecular weight on macrophage activation and reprogramming. Changes in macrophage activation were assessed by activation state selective marker measurement, specifically quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction, and cytokine enzyme-linked immunoassays, after macrophage treatment with differing molecular weights of hyaluronic acid under four conditions: the resting state, concurrent with classical activation, and following inflammation involving either classically or alternatively activated macrophages. Regardless of initial polarization state, low molecular weight hyaluronic acid induced a classically activated-like state, confirmed by up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes, including nos2, tnf, il12b, and cd80, and enhanced secretion of nitric oxide and TNF-α. High molecular weight hyaluronic acid promoted an alternatively activated-like state, confirmed by up regulation of pro-resolving gene transcription, including arg1, il10, and mrc1, and enhanced arginase activity. Overall, our observations suggest that macrophages undergo phenotypic changes dependent on molecular weight of hyaluronan that correspond to either (1) pro-inflammatory response for low molecular weight HA or (2) pro-resolving response for high molecular weight HA. These observations bring significant further understanding of the influence of extracellular matrix polymers, hyaluronic acid in particular, on regulating the inflammatory response of macrophages. This knowledge can be used to guide the design of HA-containing biomaterials to better utilize the natural response to HAs. PMID:26280020

  19. Comparative effects of high oleic acid vs high mixed saturated fatty acid obesogenic diets upon PUFA metabolism in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emerging evidence indicates that the fatty acid composition of obesogenic diets influences physiologic outcomes. There are scant data regarding how the content of non-essential fatty acids like monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) impact the metabolism of polyunsaturat...

  20. Study on corrosion resistance of high - entropy alloy in medium acid liquid and chemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florea, I.; Buluc, G.; Florea, R. M.; Soare, V.; Carcea, I.

    2015-11-01

    High-entropy alloy is a new alloy which is different from traditional alloys. The high entropy alloys were started in Tsing Hua University of Taiwan since 1995 by Yeh et al. Consisting of a variety of elements, each element occupying a similar compared with other alloy elements to form a high entropy. We could define high entropy alloys as having approximately equal concentrations, made up of a group of 5 to 11 major elements. In general, the content of each element is not more than 35% by weight of the alloy. During the investigation it turned out that this alloy has a high hardness and is also corrosion proof and also strength and good thermal stability. In the experimental area, scientists used different tools, including traditional casting, mechanical alloying, sputtering, splat-quenching to obtain the high entropy alloys with different alloying elements and then to investigate the corresponding microstructures and mechanical, chemical, thermal, and electronic performances. The present study is aimed to investigate the corrosion resistance in a different medium acid and try to put in evidence the mechanical properties. Forasmuch of the wide composition range and the enormous number of alloy systems in high entropy alloys, the mechanical properties of high entropy alloys can vary significantly. In terms of hardness, the most critical factors are: hardness/strength of each composing phase in the alloy, distribution of the composing phases. The corrosion resistance of an high entropy alloy was made in acid liquid such as 10%HNO3-3%HF, 10%H2SO4, 5%HCl and then was investigated, respectively with weight loss experiment. Weight loss test was carried out by put the samples into the acid solution for corrosion. The solution was maintained at a constant room temperature. The liquid formulations used for tests were 3% hydrofluoric acid with 10% nitric acid, 10% sulphuric acid, 5% hydrochloric acid. Weight loss of the samples was measured by electronic scale.

  1. An Extremely Halophilic Proteobacterium Combines a Highly Acidic Proteome with a Low Cytoplasmic Potassium Content*

    PubMed Central

    Deole, Ratnakar; Challacombe, Jean; Raiford, Douglas W.; Hoff, Wouter D.

    2013-01-01

    Halophilic archaea accumulate molar concentrations of KCl in their cytoplasm as an osmoprotectant and have evolved highly acidic proteomes that function only at high salinity. We examined osmoprotection in the photosynthetic Proteobacteria Halorhodospira halophila and Halorhodospira halochloris. Genome sequencing and isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis showed that the proteome of H. halophila is acidic. In line with this finding, H. halophila accumulated molar concentrations of KCl when grown in high salt medium as detected by x-ray microanalysis and plasma emission spectrometry. This result extends the taxonomic range of organisms using KCl as a main osmoprotectant to the Proteobacteria. The closely related organism H. halochloris does not exhibit an acidic proteome, matching its inability to accumulate K+. This observation indicates recent evolutionary changes in the osmoprotection strategy of these organisms. Upon growth of H. halophila in low salt medium, its cytoplasmic K+ content matches that of Escherichia coli, revealing an acidic proteome that can function in the absence of high cytoplasmic salt concentrations. These findings necessitate a reassessment of two central aspects of theories for understanding extreme halophiles. First, we conclude that proteome acidity is not driven by stabilizing interactions between K+ ions and acidic side chains but by the need for maintaining sufficient solvation and hydration of the protein surface at high salinity through strongly hydrated carboxylates. Second, we propose that obligate protein halophilicity is a non-adaptive property resulting from genetic drift in which constructive neutral evolution progressively incorporates weakly stabilizing K+-binding sites on an increasingly acidic protein surface. PMID:23144460

  2. Fatty acid transfer in the food web of a coastal Mediterranean lagoon: Evidence for high arachidonic acid retention in fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Bec, Alexandre; Perga, Marie-Elodie; Koutrakis, Emmanuil; Bourdier, Gilles; Desvilettes, Christian

    2011-02-01

    The transfer of fatty acids (FAs) in the food web of a Mediterranean lagoon was studied using FA compositional patterns across several trophic levels. The structure of the food web was inferred from C and N stable isotopes values and an isotope mixing model was used in order to estimate the relative contribution of the different potential food sources to the biomass of consumers. Bidimensional plots of FA composition of food web components against their δ 15N values indicated a general trend of increasing proportions of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) with increasing trophic levels while the proportions of saturated fatty acids (SAFAs) and 18-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decreased. Using the relative contributions of food sources to consumers and their FA compositions, a model was built in order to estimate the PUFA composition of consumer mixed diets which was compared to consumer PUFA profiles. The latter allowed the identification of the PUFAs which were mostly enriched/retained in consumer lipids. There was a surprisingly high retention of arachidonic acid (ARA), a trend which challenges the idea of low ARA needs in marine fish and suggests the important physiological role of this essential FA for fish in estuarine environments.

  3. High γ-aminobutyric acid production from lactic acid bacteria: Emphasis on Lactobacillus brevis as a functional dairy starter.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinglong; Shah, Nagendra P

    2017-11-22

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and GABA-rich foods have shown anti-hypertensive and anti-depressant activities as the major functions in humans and animals. Hence, high GABA-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) could be used as functional starters for manufacturing novel fermented dairy foods. Glutamic acid decarboxylases (GADs) from LAB are highly conserved at the species level based on the phylogenetic tree of GADs from LAB. Moreover, two functionally distinct GADs and one intact gad operon were observed in all the completely sequenced Lactobacillus brevis strains suggesting its common capability to synthesize GABA. Difficulties and strategies for the manufacture of GABA-rich fermented dairy foods have been discussed and proposed, respectively. In addition, a genetic survey on the sequenced LAB strains demonstrated the absence of cell envelope proteinases in the majority of LAB including Lb. brevis, which diminishes their cell viabilities in milk environments due to their non-proteolytic nature. Thus, several strategies have been proposed to overcome the non-proteolytic nature of Lb. brevis in order to produce GABA-rich dairy foods.

  4. Amino acid uptake by temperate tree species characteristic of low- and high-fertility habitats.

    PubMed

    Scott, Emily E; Rothstein, David E

    2011-10-01

    The relationship between inorganic nitrogen (N) cycling and plant productivity is well established. However, recent research has demonstrated the ability of plants to take up low molecular weight organic N compounds (i.e., amino acids) at rates that often rival those of inorganic N forms. In this study, we hypothesize that temperate forest tree species characteristic of low-fertility habitats will prefer amino acids over species characteristic of high-fertility habitats. We measured the uptake of (15)N-labeled amino acids (glycine, glutamine, arginine, serine), ammonium (NH(4)(+)), and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) by four tree species that commonly occur in eastern North America, where their abundances have been correlated with inorganic N availability. Specific uptake rates of amino acids were largely similar for all tree species; however, high-fertility species took up NH(4)(+) at rates more than double those of low-fertility species, rendering amino acid N relatively more important to the N nutrition of low-fertility species. Low-fertility species acquired over four times more total N from arginine compared to NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-); high-fertility species acquired the most N from NH(4)(+). Arginine had the highest uptake rates of any amino acid by all species; there were no significant differences in uptake rates of the remaining amino acids. Our results support the idea that the dominant species in a particular habitat are those best able to utilize the most available N resources.

  5. Zeolites relieves inhibitory stress from high concentrations of long chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Nordell, Erik; Hansson, Anna B; Karlsson, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Protein and fat rich slaughterhouse waste is a very attractive waste stream for the production of biogas because of the high biochemical methane potential of the substrate. The material has however some drawbacks as the sole material for biogas production due to the production of several process disturbing metabolites such as ammonia, sulfides and long chain fatty acids. We can in this work present results that show that zeolites have the potential to relieve inhibitory stress from the presence of long chain fatty acids. Moreover, the results strongly indicate that it is mainly acetic acid consumers that are most negatively affected by long chain fatty acids and that the mechanism of stress relief is an adsorption of long chain fatty acids to the zeolites. In addition to this, it is shown that the effect is immediate and that only a small amount of zeolites is necessary to cancel the inhibitory effect of long chain fatty acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Liver Fatty Acid Composition and Inflammation in Mice Fed with High-Carbohydrate Diet or High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Santi, Lorena Gimenez; Antunes, Marina Masetto; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Carbonera, Fabiana; Masi, Laureane Nunes; Curi, Rui; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa

    2016-10-29

    Both high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) and high-fat diet (HFD) modulate liver fat accumulation and inflammation, however, there is a lack of data on the potential contribution of carbohydrates and lipids separately. For this reason, the changes in liver fatty acid (FA) composition in male Swiss mice fed with HCD or HFD were compared, at the time points 0 (before starting the diets), and after 7, 14, 28 or 56 days. Activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), ∆-6 desaturase (D6D), elongases and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) were estimated. Liver mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) was evaluated as an additional indicator of the de novo lipogenesis. Myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide (NO) production, and mRNA expressions of F4/80, type I collagen, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured as indication of the liver inflammatory state. The HCD group had more intense lipid deposition, particularly of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). This group also showed higher DNL, SCD-1, and D6D activities associated with increased NO concentration, as well as myeloperoxidase activity. Livers from the HFD group showed higher elongase activity, stored more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and had a lower omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ( n -6/ n -3) ratio. In conclusion, liver lipid accumulation, fatty acids (FA) composition and inflammation were modulated by the dietary composition of lipids and carbohydrates. The HCD group had more potent lipogenic and inflammatory effects in comparison with HFD.

  7. High hydrostatic pressure increases amino acid requirements in the piezo-hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus.

    PubMed

    Cario, Anaïs; Lormières, Florence; Xiang, Xiao; Oger, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    We have established a defined growth medium for the piezophilic hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus, which allows growth yields of ca. 10(8) cells/ml under both atmospheric and high hydrostatic pressure. Our results demonstrate a major impact of hydrostatic pressure on amino acid metabolism, with increases from 3 amino acids required at atmospheric pressure to 17 at 40 MPa. We observe in T. barophilus and other Thermococcales a similar discrepancy between the presence/absence of amino acid synthesis pathways and amino acid requirements, which supports the existence of alternate, but yet unknown, amino acid synthesis pathways, and may explain the low number of essential amino acids observed in T. barophilus and other Thermococcales. T. barophilus displays a strong metabolic preference for organic polymers such as polypeptides and chitin, which may constitute a more readily available resource of carbon and energy in situ in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. We hypothesize that the low energy yields of fermentation of organic polymers, together with energetic constraints imposed by high hydrostatic pressure, may render de novo synthesis of amino acids ecologically unfavorable. Induction of this metabolic switch to amino acid recycling can explain the requirement for non-essential amino acids by Thermococcales for efficient growth in defined medium. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Supplementation with high-dose docosahexaenoic acid increases the Omega-3 Index more than high-dose eicosapentaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Allaire, Janie; Harris, William S; Vors, Cécile; Charest, Amélie; Marin, Johanne; Jackson, Kristina Harris; Tchernof, André; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids have distinct effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. The Omega-3 Index (O3I), which is calculated as the proportion of EPA and DHA in red blood cell (RBC) membranes, has been inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart diseases and coronary mortality. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of EPA and DHA supplementation on the O3I in men and women with abdominal obesity and subclinical inflammation. In a double-blind controlled crossover study, 48 men and 106 women with abdominal obesity and subclinical inflammation were randomized to a sequence of three treatment phases: 1-2.7g/d of EPA, 2-2.7g/d of DHA, and 3-3g/d of corn oil (0g of EPA+DHA). All supplements were provided as 3×1g capsules for a total of 3g/d. The 10-week treatment phases were separated by nine-week washouts. RBC membrane fatty acid composition and O3I were assessed at baseline and the end of each phase. Differences in O3I between treatments were assessed using mixed models for repeated measures. The increase in the O3I after supplementation with DHA (+5.6% compared with control, P<0.0001) was significantly greater than after EPA (+3.3% compared with control, P<0.0001; DHA vs. EPA, P<0.0001). Compared to control, DHA supplementation decreased (-0.8%, P<0.0001) while EPA increased (+2.5%, P<0.0001) proportion of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in RBCs (DHA vs. EPA, P<0.0001). The baseline O3I was higher in women than in men (6.3% vs. 5.8%, P=0.011). The difference between DHA and EPA in increasing the O3I tended to be higher in men than in women (+2.6% vs. +2.2% respectively, P for the treatment by sex interaction=0.0537). The increase in the O3I is greater with high dose DHA supplementation than with high dose EPA, which is consistent with the greater potency of DHA to modulate cardiometabolic risk factors. The extent to which such differences between EPA and DHA in increasing the O3I relates

  9. Highly efficient production of D-lactic acid from chicory-derived inulin by Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qianqian; Zang, Ying; Zhou, Jie; Liu, Peng; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-11-01

    Inulin is a readily available feedstock for cost-effective production of biochemicals. To date, several studies have explored the production of bioethanol, high-fructose syrup and fructooligosaccharide, but there are no studies regarding the production of D-lactic acid using inulin as a carbon source. In the present study, chicory-derived inulin was used for D-lactic acid biosynthesis by Lactobacillus bulgaricus CGMCC 1.6970. Compared with separate hydrolysis and fermentation processes, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) has demonstrated the best performance of D-lactic acid production. Because it prevents fructose inhibition and promotes the complete hydrolysis of inulin, the highest D-lactic acid concentration (123.6 ± 0.9 g/L) with a yield of 97.9 % was obtained from 120 g/L inulin by SSF. Moreover, SSF by L. bulgaricus CGMCC 1.6970 offered another distinct advantage with respect to the higher optical purity of D-lactic acid (>99.9 %) and reduced number of residual sugars. The excellent performance of D-lactic acid production from inulin by SSF represents a high-yield method for D-lactic acid production from non-food grains.

  10. Highly simplified lateral flow-based nucleic acid sample preparation and passive fluid flow control

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, Robert E.

    2015-12-08

    Highly simplified lateral flow chromatographic nucleic acid sample preparation methods, devices, and integrated systems are provided for the efficient concentration of trace samples and the removal of nucleic acid amplification inhibitors. Methods for capturing and reducing inhibitors of nucleic acid amplification reactions, such as humic acid, using polyvinylpyrrolidone treated elements of the lateral flow device are also provided. Further provided are passive fluid control methods and systems for use in lateral flow assays.

  11. Highly simplified lateral flow-based nucleic acid sample preparation and passive fluid flow control

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, Robert B.

    Highly simplified lateral flow chromatographic nucleic acid sample preparation methods, devices, and integrated systems are provided for the efficient concentration of trace samples and the removal of nucleic acid amplification inhibitors. Methods for capturing and reducing inhibitors of nucleic acid amplification reactions, such as humic acid, using polyvinylpyrrolidone treated elements of the lateral flow device are also provided. Further provided are passive fluid control methods and systems for use in lateral flow assays.

  12. LIPID CLASS DISTRIBUTION OF HIGHLY UNSATURATED LONG CHAIN FATTY ACIDS IN MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The very long chain highly unsaturated C28 fatty acids, octacosaheptaenoic [28:7(n-6)] and octacosaoctaenoic acid [28:8(n-3)], were found to be associated with phospholipids, obtained by fractionation of total lipid extracts into distinct lipid classes, in 4 and 6, respectively, ...

  13. Postprandial fatty acid uptake and adipocyte remodeling in angiotensin type 2 receptor-deficient mice fed a high-fat/high-fructose diet

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Christophe; Labbé, Sébastien M.; Pinard, Sandra; Shum, Michael; Bilodeau, Lyne; Chouinard, Lucie; Phoenix, Serge; Lecomte, Roger; Carpentier, André C.; Gallo-Payet, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The role of the angiotensin type-2 receptor in adipose physiology remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate whether genetic angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficiency prevents or worsens metabolic and adipose tissue morphometric changes observed following a 6-week high-fat/high-fructose diet with injection of a small dose of streptozotocin. We compared tissue uptake of nonesterified fatty acid and dietary fatty acid in wild-type and angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficient mice by using the radiotracer 14(R,S)-[18F]-fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid in mice fed a standard or high-fat diet. Postprandial fatty acid uptake in the heart, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney and adipose tissue was increased in wild-type mice after a high-fat diet and in angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficient mice on both standard and high-fat diets. Compared to the wild-type mice, angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficient mice had a lower body weight, an increase in fasting blood glucose and a decrease in plasma insulin and leptin levels. Mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited increased adipocyte size that was prevented by angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficiency. Angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficiency abolished the early hypertrophic adipocyte remodeling induced by a high-fat diet. The small size of adipocytes in the angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficient mice reflects their inability to store lipids and explains the increase in fatty acid uptake in non-adipose tissues. In conclusion, a genetic deletion of the angiotensin type-2 receptor is associated with metabolic dysfunction of white adipose depots, and indicates that adipocyte remodeling occurs before the onset of insulin resistance in the high-fat fed mouse model. PMID:27144096

  14. Guiding principle for crystalline Si photovoltaic modules with high tolerance to acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Atsushi; Hara, Yukiko

    2018-04-01

    A guiding principle for highly reliable crystalline Si photovoltaic modules, especially those with high tolerance to acetic acid generated by hydrolysis reaction between water vapor and an ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulant, is proposed. Degradation behavior evaluated by the damp heat test strongly depends on Ag finger electrodes and also EVA encapsulants. The acetic acid concentration in EVA on the glass side directly determines the degradation behavior. The most important factor for high tolerance is the type of Ag finger electrode materials when using an EVA encapsulant. Photovoltaic modules using newly developed crystalline Si cells with improved Ag finger electrode materials keep their maximum power of 80% of the initial value even after the damp heat test at 85 °C and 85% relative humidity for 10000 h. The pattern of dark regions in electroluminescence images is also discussed on the basis of the dynamics of acetic acid in the modules.

  15. NOVEL POLY-GLUTAMIC ACID FUNCTIONALIZED MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANES FOR SORPTION OF HEAVY METALS AT HIGH CAPACITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various sorbent/ion exchange materials have been reported in the literature for metal ion entrapment. We have developed a highly innovative and new approach to obtain high metal pick-up utilizing poly-amino acids (poly-L-glutamic acid, 14,000 MW) covalently attached to membrane p...

  16. A Highly Sensitive Method for Quantitative Determination of Abscisic Acid 1

    PubMed Central

    Michler, Charles H.; Lineberger, R. Daniel; Chism, Grady W.

    1986-01-01

    An abscisic acid derivative was formed by reaction with pentafluorobenzyl bromide which allowed highly sensitive detection by gas-liquid chromatography with electron capture detection. In comparison to the methyl ester derivative, the pentafluorobenzyl derivative of abscisic acid was four times more sensitive to electron capture detection and was stable at room temperature in the presence of ultraviolet light. Derivatization was rapid and the molecular weight of the new compound was confirmed by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. PMID:16665076

  17. Basal omega-3 fatty acid status affects fatty acid and oxylipin responses to high-dose n3-HUFA in healthy volunteers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: Baseline concentrations of highly unsaturated omega-3 fatty acid (n3-HUFA) may influence the ability of dietary n3-HUFA to affect changes in concentrations of esterified fatty acids and their metabolites. This study evaluates the influence of basal n3-HUFA and n3-HUFA metabolite status ...

  18. Evolution of sequence-defined highly functionalized nucleic acid polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhen; Lichtor, Phillip A.; Berliner, Adrian P.; Chen, Jonathan C.; Liu, David R.

    2018-03-01

    The evolution of sequence-defined synthetic polymers made of building blocks beyond those compatible with polymerase enzymes or the ribosome has the potential to generate new classes of receptors, catalysts and materials. Here we describe a ligase-mediated DNA-templated polymerization and in vitro selection system to evolve highly functionalized nucleic acid polymers (HFNAPs) made from 32 building blocks that contain eight chemically diverse side chains on a DNA backbone. Through iterated cycles of polymer translation, selection and reverse translation, we discovered HFNAPs that bind proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and interleukin-6, two protein targets implicated in human diseases. Mutation and reselection of an active PCSK9-binding polymer yielded evolved polymers with high affinity (KD = 3 nM). This evolved polymer potently inhibited the binding between PCSK9 and the low-density lipoprotein receptor. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that specific side chains at defined positions in the polymers are required for binding to their respective targets. Our findings expand the chemical space of evolvable polymers to include densely functionalized nucleic acids with diverse, researcher-defined chemical repertoires.

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid synthesis from alpha-linolenic acid is inhibited by diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R A; Neumann, M A; Lien, E L; Boyd, K A; Tu, W C

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of the plant-derived omega-3 (n-3) α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) to the long-chain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) can be increased by ALA sufficient diets compared to ALA deficient diets. Diets containing ALA above an optimal level result in no further increase in DHA levels in animals and humans. The present study evaluates means of maximizing plasma DHA accumulation by systematically varying both linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and ALA dietary level. Weanling rats were fed one of 54 diets for three weeks. The diets varied in the percentage of energy (en%) of LA (0.07-17.1 en%) and ALA (0.02-12.1 en%) by manipulating both the fat content and the balance of vegetable oils. The peak of plasma phospholipid DHA (>8% total fatty acids) was attained as a result of feeding a narrow dietary range of 1-3 en% ALA and 1-2 en% LA but was suppressed to basal levels (∼2% total fatty acids) at dietary intakes of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) above 3 en%. We conclude it is possible to enhance the DHA status of rats fed diets containing ALA as the only source of n-3 fatty acids but only when the level of dietary PUFA is low (<3 en%). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High temperature dilute acid pretreatment of coastal Bermuda grass for enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Redding, Arthur P; Wang, Ziyu; Keshwani, Deepak R; Cheng, Jay J

    2011-01-01

    Dilute sulfuric acid was used to pretreat coastal Bermuda grass at high temperature prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. After both pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis processes, the highest yield of total sugars (combined xylose and glucose) was 97% of the theoretical value. The prehydrolyzate liquor was analyzed for inhibitory compounds (furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)) in order to assess potential risk for inhibition during the following fermentation. Accounting for the formation of the inhibitory compounds, a pretreatment with 1.2% acid at 140 °C for 30 min with a total sugar yield of 94% of the theoretical value may be more favorable for fermentation. From this study, it can be concluded that dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment can be successfully applied to coastal Bermuda grass to achieve high yields of monomeric glucose and xylose with acceptable levels of inhibitory compound formation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary phenolic acids reverse insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome rats.

    PubMed

    Ibitoye, Oluwayemisi B; Ajiboye, Taofeek O

    2017-12-20

    This study investigated the influence of caffeic, ferulic, gallic and protocatechuic acids on high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Oral administration of the phenolic acids significantly reversed high-fructose diet-mediated increase in body mass index and blood glucose. Furthermore, phenolic acids restored high-fructose diet-mediated alterations in metabolic hormones (insulin, leptin and adiponectin). Similarly, elevated tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and -8 were significantly lowered. Administration of phenolic acids restored High-fructose diet-mediated increase in the levels of lipid parameters and indices of atherosclerosis, cardiac and cardiovascular diseases. High-fructose diet-mediated decrease in activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and increase in oxidative stress biomarkers (reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation products, protein oxidation and fragmented DNA) were significantly restored by the phenolic acids. The result of this study shows protective influence of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid in high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome.

  2. Filling gaps in bacterial amino acid biosynthesis pathways with high-throughput genetics.

    PubMed

    Price, Morgan N; Zane, Grant M; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Melnyk, Ryan A; Wall, Judy D; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Arkin, Adam P

    2018-01-01

    For many bacteria with sequenced genomes, we do not understand how they synthesize some amino acids. This makes it challenging to reconstruct their metabolism, and has led to speculation that bacteria might be cross-feeding amino acids. We studied heterotrophic bacteria from 10 different genera that grow without added amino acids even though an automated tool predicts that the bacteria have gaps in their amino acid synthesis pathways. Across these bacteria, there were 11 gaps in their amino acid biosynthesis pathways that we could not fill using current knowledge. Using genome-wide mutant fitness data, we identified novel enzymes that fill 9 of the 11 gaps and hence explain the biosynthesis of methionine, threonine, serine, or histidine by bacteria from six genera. We also found that the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris synthesizes homocysteine (which is a precursor to methionine) by using DUF39, NIL/ferredoxin, and COG2122 proteins, and that homoserine is not an intermediate in this pathway. Our results suggest that most free-living bacteria can likely make all 20 amino acids and illustrate how high-throughput genetics can uncover previously-unknown amino acid biosynthesis genes.

  3. Filling gaps in bacterial amino acid biosynthesis pathways with high-throughput genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Morgan N.; Zane, Grant M.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.

    For many bacteria with sequenced genomes, we do not understand how they synthesize some amino acids. This makes it challenging to reconstruct their metabolism, and has led to speculation that bacteria might be cross-feeding amino acids. Here, we studied heterotrophic bacteria from 10 different genera that grow without added amino acids even though an automated tool predicts that the bacteria have gaps in their amino acid synthesis pathways. Across these bacteria, there were 11 gaps in their amino acid biosynthesis pathways that we could not fill using current knowledge. Using genome-wide mutant fitness data, we identified novel enzymes that fillmore » 9 of the 11 gaps and hence explain the biosynthesis of methionine, threonine, serine, or histidine by bacteria from six genera. We also found that the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris synthesizes homocysteine (which is a precursor to methionine) by using DUF39, NIL/ferredoxin, and COG2122 proteins, and that homoserine is not an intermediate in this pathway. Our results suggest that most free-living bacteria can likely make all 20 amino acids and illustrate how high-throughput genetics can uncover previously-unknown amino acid biosynthesis genes.« less

  4. Filling gaps in bacterial amino acid biosynthesis pathways with high-throughput genetics

    DOE PAGES

    Price, Morgan N.; Zane, Grant M.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; ...

    2018-01-11

    For many bacteria with sequenced genomes, we do not understand how they synthesize some amino acids. This makes it challenging to reconstruct their metabolism, and has led to speculation that bacteria might be cross-feeding amino acids. Here, we studied heterotrophic bacteria from 10 different genera that grow without added amino acids even though an automated tool predicts that the bacteria have gaps in their amino acid synthesis pathways. Across these bacteria, there were 11 gaps in their amino acid biosynthesis pathways that we could not fill using current knowledge. Using genome-wide mutant fitness data, we identified novel enzymes that fillmore » 9 of the 11 gaps and hence explain the biosynthesis of methionine, threonine, serine, or histidine by bacteria from six genera. We also found that the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris synthesizes homocysteine (which is a precursor to methionine) by using DUF39, NIL/ferredoxin, and COG2122 proteins, and that homoserine is not an intermediate in this pathway. Our results suggest that most free-living bacteria can likely make all 20 amino acids and illustrate how high-throughput genetics can uncover previously-unknown amino acid biosynthesis genes.« less

  5. Filling gaps in bacterial amino acid biosynthesis pathways with high-throughput genetics

    PubMed Central

    Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Melnyk, Ryan A.; Deutschbauer, Adam M.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2018-01-01

    For many bacteria with sequenced genomes, we do not understand how they synthesize some amino acids. This makes it challenging to reconstruct their metabolism, and has led to speculation that bacteria might be cross-feeding amino acids. We studied heterotrophic bacteria from 10 different genera that grow without added amino acids even though an automated tool predicts that the bacteria have gaps in their amino acid synthesis pathways. Across these bacteria, there were 11 gaps in their amino acid biosynthesis pathways that we could not fill using current knowledge. Using genome-wide mutant fitness data, we identified novel enzymes that fill 9 of the 11 gaps and hence explain the biosynthesis of methionine, threonine, serine, or histidine by bacteria from six genera. We also found that the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris synthesizes homocysteine (which is a precursor to methionine) by using DUF39, NIL/ferredoxin, and COG2122 proteins, and that homoserine is not an intermediate in this pathway. Our results suggest that most free-living bacteria can likely make all 20 amino acids and illustrate how high-throughput genetics can uncover previously-unknown amino acid biosynthesis genes. PMID:29324779

  6. Association of serum uric acid with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Raeisi, A; Ostovar, A; Vahdat, K; Rezaei, P; Darabi, H; Moshtaghi, D; Nabipour, I

    2017-02-01

    To explore the independent correlation between serum uric acid and low-grade inflammation (measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, hs-CRP) in postmenopausal women. A total of 378 healthy Iranian postmenopausal women were randomly selected in a population-based study. Circulating hs-CRP levels were measured by highly specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and an enzymatic calorimetric method was used to measure serum levels of uric acid. Pearson correlation coefficient, multiple linear regression and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between uric acid and hs-CRP levels. A statistically significant correlation was seen between serum levels of uric acid and log-transformed circulating hs-CRP (r = 0.25, p < 0.001). After adjustment for age and cardiovascular risk factors (according to NCEP ATP III criteria), circulating hs-CRP levels were significantly associated with serum uric acid levels (β = 0.20, p < 0.001). After adjustment for age and cardiovascular risk factors, hs-CRP levels ≥3 mg/l were significantly associated with higher uric acid levels (odds ratio =1.52, 95% confidence interval 1.18-1.96). Higher serum uric acid levels were positively and independently associated with circulating hs-CRP in healthy postmenopausal women.

  7. The Role of Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Aquatic Food Webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perhar, G.; Arhonditsis, G. B.

    2009-05-01

    Highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) are important molecules transferred across the plant-animal interface in aquatic food webs. Defined here as carbon chains of length 18 (carbons) or more, with a double bond in the third (Omega 3) or sixth (Omega 6) bond from the methyl end, HUFAs are formed in primary producers (phytoplankton). With limited abilities to synthesize de novo, consumers and higher trophic organisms are required to obtain their HUFAs primarily from diet. Bioconversion of HUFAs from one form to another is in theory possible, as is synthesis via elongation and the transformation of a saturated to highly saturated fatty acid, but the enzymes required for these processes are absent in most species. HUFAs are hypothesized to be somatic growth limiting compounds for herbivorous zooplankton and have been shown to be critical for juvenile fish growth and wellbeing. Zooplankton tend to vary their fatty acid concentrations, collection strategies and utilization methods based on taxonomy, and various mechanisms have been suggested to account for these differences i.e., seasonal and nervous system hypotheses. Considering also the facts that copepods overwinter in an active state while daphnids overwinter as resting eggs, and that copepods tend to accumulate Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) through collection and bioconversion, while daphnids focus on Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), one can link high DHA concentrations to active overwintering; but both EPA and DHA have similar melting points, putting DHA's cold weather adaptation abilities into question. Another characteristic setting copepods apart from daphnids is nervous system complexity: copepod axons are coated in thick myelin sheaths, permitting rapid neural processing, such as rapid prey attack and intelligent predator avoidance; DHA may be required for the proper functioning of copepod neurons. Recent modeling results have suggested food webs with high quality primary producers (species high in HUFAs, i

  8. High Dose and Delayed Treatment with Bile Acids Ineffective in RML Prion-Infected Mice.

    PubMed

    Norman, Grant; Campeau, Jody; Sim, Valerie L

    2018-05-21

    Prion diseases are a group of neurodegenerative diseases associated with the misfolding of the cellular prion protein (PrP C ) into the infectious form (PrP Sc ). There are currently no treatments for prion disease. Bile acids have the ability to protect hepatocytes from apoptosis and are neuroprotective in animal models of other protein folding neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington's, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, bile acids are approved for clinical use in patients with cirrhosis, and have recently been shown to be safe and possibly effective in pilot trials of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We previously reported that the bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), given early in disease, prolonged incubation periods in male RML-infected mice. Here we expand on this result to include tauro-ursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) treatment trials and delayed UDCA treatment. We demonstrate that, despite a high dose of TUDCA given early in disease, there was no significant difference in incubation periods between treated and untreated cohorts, regardless of sex. In addition, delayed treatment with a high dose of UDCA resulted in a significant shortening of the average survival time for both male and female mice when compared to their sex-matched controls, with evidence of increased BiP, a marker of apoptosis, in treated female mice. Our findings suggest that treatment with high dose TUDCA provides no therapeutic benefit and that delayed treatment with high dose UDCA is ineffective and could potentially worsen outcomes. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. The effect of feeding high corn oil on fatty-acid-binding-protein isolated from rat liver.

    PubMed

    Catalá, A

    1987-12-01

    Fatty-acid-binding-protein isolated from liver of rats receiving normal or high fat diet was studied by three different methods. The effect of high fat diet on the thermal stability of the protein was determined employing differential scanning calorimetry. Fatty acids have a stabilizing effect on the thermal stability of the protein. In order to determine the relative binding affinity of native and delipidated protein a Sephadex G-50 assay was employed using [1-14C] oleate as ligand. The delipidated protein exhibited greater binding of oleate than did the native material. Increases in the transfer of oleic acid from rat liver microsomes to egg lecithin liposomes in vitro were also observed when protein obtained from both sources were delipidated. The results suggest that high corn oil diet would modify the properties of fatty-acid-binding-protein in the uptake and cytosolic transport of long-chain fatty acids.

  10. Conversion of salvianolic acid B into salvianolic acid A in tissues of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae using high temperature, high pressure and high humidity.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hongrui; Sun, Longru; Lou, Hongxiang; Rahman, M Mukhlesur

    2014-05-15

    Salvianolic acid A (Sal A), an important constituent of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM), is effective for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease due to its potential in the improvement of acute myocardial ischemia. However, its content is very low in RSM. So it is obvious to find a rich source of Sal A or to improve its content by conversion of other related components into Sal A modifying reaction conditions. In this research we focused on the conversion of Sal B into Sal A in aqueous solutions of RSM by using different reaction conditions including pH, temperature, pressure and humidity. During the reactions, the contents of Sal A, Sal B and danshensu in the RSM were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS). The results indicated that the conversion of Sal B into Sal A in RSM tissues under the conditions of a high temperature, high pressure and high humidity was efficient and thereby, was readily utilized to prepare rich Sal A materials in practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Transformation of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid in blueberries during high-temperature processing.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Typek, Rafal

    2014-11-12

    Chlorogenic acid (CQA), an ester of caffeic with quinic acid, is a natural compound found in a wide array of plants. Although coffee beans are most frequently mentioned as plant products remarkably rich in CQAs, their significant amounts can also be found in many berries, for example, blueberries. This paper shows and discusses the thermal stability of the main CQA representative, that is, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), during high-temperature processing of blueberries (as in the production of blueberry foods) in systems containing sucrose in low and high concentration. It has been found that up to 11 components (5-CQA derivatives and its reaction product with water) can be formed from 5-CQA during the processing of blueberries. Their formation speed depends on the sucrose concentration in the processed system, which has been confirmed in the artificial system composed of 5-CQA water solution containing different amounts of the sugar.

  12. High Dietary Protein Intake and Protein-Related Acid Load on Bone Health.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jay J

    2017-12-01

    Consumption of high-protein diets is increasingly popular due to the benefits of protein on preserving lean mass and controlling appetite and satiety. The paper is to review recent clinical research assessing dietary protein on calcium metabolism and bone health. Epidemiological studies show that long-term, high-protein intake is positively associated with bone mineral density and reduced risk of bone fracture incidence. Short-term interventional studies demonstrate that a high-protein diet does not negatively affect calcium homeostasis. Existing evidence supports that the negative effects of the acid load of protein on urinary calcium excretion are offset by the beneficial skeletal effects of high-protein intake. Future research should focus on the role and the degree of contribution of other dietary and physiological factors, such as intake of fruits and vegetables, in reducing the acid load and further enhancing the anabolic effects of protein on the musculoskeletal system.

  13. Highly Selective Deoxydehydration of Tartaric Acid over Supported and Unsupported Rhenium Catalysts with Modified Acidities.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiukai; Zhang, Yugen

    2016-10-06

    The deoxydehydration (DODH) of sugar acids to industrially important carboxylic acids is a very attractive topic. Oxorhenium complexes are the most-often employed DODH catalysts. Because of the acidity of the rhenium catalysts, the DODH products of sugar acids were usually in the form of mixture of free carboxylic acids and esters. Herein, we demonstrate strategies for the selective DODH of sugar acids to free carboxylic acids by tuning the Lewis acidity or the Brønsted acidity of the rhenium-based catalysts. Starting from tartaric acid, up to 97 % yield of free maleic acid was achieved. Based on our strategies, functional polymer immobilized heterogeneous rhenium catalysts were also developed for the selective DODH conversion of sugar acids. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A sensitive high-pressure liquid chromatography/particle beam/mass spectrometry assay for the determination of all-trans-retinoic acid and 13-cis-retinoic acid in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Lehman, P A; Franz, T J

    1996-03-01

    A highly sensitive assay for the measurement of all-trans-retinoic acid (tretinoin) and 13-cis-retinoic acid (isotretinoin) has been developed. Collected plasma samples were protein precipitated with 2-propanol followed by solid phase extraction. The retinoic acids were subsequently derivatized to their pentafluorobenzyl esters followed by separation and isolation by reverse phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The HPLC eluate was directed to a mass spectrometer via a particle beam interface. Selected ion monitoring (299 m/z) for the retinoic acid's carboxylate anion produced by negative chemical ionization using methane reagent gas achieved minimum detection limits of 25 pg injected. Endogenous blood levels in 19 male and 9 female subjects were measured. It was found that females have significantly more all-trans-retinoic acid than males and that both sexes demonstrate significantly more all-trans-retinoic acid then 13-cis-retinoic acid.

  15. [Determination of geniposidic acid and chlorogenic acid in male flowers and related products of Eucommia ulmoides by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Dong, Juane; Ma, Xihan

    2007-03-01

    A simple and rapid high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of geniposidic acid and chlorogenic acid in the male flowers and related products of Eucommia ulmoides. Two components were separated by a Shim-pack VP-ODS column (150 mm x4.6 mm, 5 [microm) with a mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (24 :75: 1, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min, column temperature of 30 93 and detection wavelength of 240 nm. Under the chromatographic conditions mentioned above, the method performance, such as the number of theoretical plate, resolution, trailing etc have all reached required level. The linear ranges were 0. 025 - 0. 400 g/L for geniposidic acid and 0. 075 - 1. 200 g/L for chlorogenic acid, with the correlation coefficients of 0. 999 7 and 0. 999 9, respectively. The average recoveries were 100. 2% and 100. 5%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 1. 47% and 1. 49% respectively. The minimum detection limits were 0. 02 microg/L for geniposidic acid, and 0. 06 microg/L for chlorogenic acid. The method developed has demonstrated the characteristics of simple mobile phase composition, short retention, good resolution, high repeatability and precision. It is suitable for the determination of the two compounds in the male flowers of E. ulmoides and related products.

  16. α-Lipoic acid reduced weight gain and improved the lipid profile in rats fed with high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Seo, Eun Young; Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of α-lipoic acid on body weight and lipid profiles in Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high fat diet (HFD). After 4 weeks of feeding, rats on the HFD were divided into three groups by randomized block design; the first group received the high-fat-diet (n = 10), and the second group received the HFD administered with 0.25% α-lipoic acid (0.25LA), and the third group received the high-fat diet with 0.5% α-lipoic acid (0.5LA). The high fat diet with α-lipoic acid supplemented groups had significantly inhibited body weight gain, compared to that in the HFD group (P < 0.05). Organ weights of rats were also significantly reduced in liver, kidney, spleen, and visible fat tissues in rats supplemented with α-lipoic acid (P < 0.05). Significant differences in plasma lipid profiles, such as total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein, were observed between the HFD and 0.5LA groups. The atherogenic index and the plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio improved significantly with α-lipoic acid supplementation in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Total hepatic cholesterol and total lipid concentration decreased significantly in high fat fed rats supplemented with α-lipoic acid in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05), whereas liver triglyceride content was not affected. In conclusion, α-lipoic acid supplementation had a positive effect on weight gain and plasma and liver lipid profiles in rats.

  17. Development of a highly enantioselective capacitive immunosensor for the detection of alpha-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Song; Ding, Jingjing; Liu, Ying; Kong, Jilie; Hofstetter, Oliver

    2006-11-01

    This work describes a highly enantioselective and sensitive immunosensor for the detection of chiral amino acids based on capacitive measurement. The sensor was prepared by first binding mercaptoacetic acid to the surface of a gold electrode, followed by modification with tyramine utilizing carbodiimide activation. The hapten 4-amino-D-phenylalanine was then covalently immobilized onto the electrode by diazotization. Stereoselective binding of an anti-D-amino acid antibody to the hapten-modified sensor surface resulted in capacitance changes that were detected with high sensitivity by a potentiostatic step method. Using capacitance measurement, detection limits of 5 pg of antibody/mL were attained. The exquisite stereoselectivity of the antibody was also utilized in a competitive setup to quantitatively determine the concentration of the analyte d-phenylalanine in nonracemic samples containing both enantiomers of this amino acid. Trace impurities of d-phenylalanine as low as 0.001% could be detected.

  18. Association of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and uric acid with the metabolic syndrome components.

    PubMed

    Sah, Santosh Kumar; Khatiwada, Saroj; Pandey, Sunil; Kc, Rajendra; Das, Binod Kumar Lal; Baral, Nirmal; Lamsal, Madhab

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been found to be associated with inflammatory molecules. This study was conducted among 125 MetS patients at B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal to find an association of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and serum uric acid with MetS components. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, medical history and blood samples were taken. Estimation of hs-CRP, serum uric acid, blood glucose, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was done. hs-CRP had positive correlation with blood glucose (r = 0.2, p = 0.026) and negative with HDL cholesterol (r = -0.361, p < 0.001). Serum uric acid had positive correlation with waist circumference (r = 0.178, p = 0.047). Patients with elevated hs-CRP and uric acid had higher waist circumference (p = 0.03), diastolic BP (p = 0.002) and lower HDL cholesterol (p = 0.004) than others. Elevated hs-CRP and high uric acid were individually associated with higher odds for low HDL cholesterol (7.992; 1.785-35.774, p = 0.002) and hyperglycemia (2.471; 1.111-5.495, p = 0.029) respectively. Combined rise of hs-CRP and uric acid was associated with severity of MetS (p < 0.001) and higher odds for hyperglycemia (8.036; 2.178-29.647, p = 0.001) as compared to individual rise of hs-CRP or uric acid. The present study demonstrates that hs-CRP and serum uric acid are associated with MetS components, and the combined rise of hs-CRP and uric acid is associated with the increase in severity of MetS.

  19. 3D-Printed Graphene/Polylactic Acid Electrodes Promise High Sensitivity in Electroanalysis.

    PubMed

    Manzanares Palenzuela, C Lorena; Novotný, Filip; Krupička, Petr; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin

    2018-05-01

    Additive manufacturing provides a unique tool for prototyping structures toward electrochemical sensing, due to its ability to produce highly versatile, tailored-shaped devices in a low-cost and fast way with minimized waste. Here we present 3D-printed graphene electrodes for electrochemical sensing. Ring- and disc-shaped electrodes were 3D-printed with a Fused Deposition Modeling printer and characterized using cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy. Different redox probes K 3 Fe(CN) 6 :K 4 Fe(CN) 6 , FeCl 3 , ascorbic acid, Ru(NH 3 ) 6 Cl 3 , and ferrocene monocarboxylic acid) were used to assess the electrochemical performance of these devices. Finally, the electrochemical detection of picric acid and ascorbic acid was carried out as proof-of-concept analytes for sensing applications. Such customizable platforms represent promising alternatives to conventional electrodes for a wide range of sensing applications.

  20. Frying stability of high oleic sunflower oils as affected by composition of tocopherol isomers and linoleic acid content.

    PubMed

    Aladedunye, Felix; Przybylski, Roman

    2013-12-01

    The influence of linoleic acid content and tocopherol isomeric composition on the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil was evaluated during a 14-day restaurant style frying operation. At equal linoleic acid content, no significant difference was observed between high oleic sunflower oil containing only α-tocopherol and the sample containing a mixture of α-, γ-, and δ-isomers as measured by the amount of total polar components, oligomers, anisidine value, and free fatty acids. On the contrary, at similar tocopherol isomeric composition, high oleic sunflower oil containing lower amount of linoleic acid showed superior frying stability compared to the sample with a higher content of linoleic acid, suggesting that the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil is dictated primarily by the level of linoleic acid, with the tocopherol isomeric composition of the oil having no significant influence. In all oil samples, the loss of γ-tocopherol was higher than the corresponding loss of α-tocopherol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High performance positive electrode for a lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Wen-Hong (Inventor); Bullock, Norma K. (Inventor); Petersen, Ralph A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An electrode suitable for use as a lead-acid battery plate is formed of a paste composition which enhances the performance of the plate. The paste composition includes a basic lead sulfate, a persulfate and water. The paste may also include lead oxide and fibers. An electrode according to the invention is characterized by good strength in combination with high power density, porosity and surface area.

  2. Highly thermal-stable and functional cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibrils produced using fully recyclable organic acids

    Treesearch

    Liheng Chen; Junyong Zhu; Carlos Baez; Peter Kitin; Thomas Elder

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the production of highly thermal stable and functional cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and nanofibrils (CNF) by hydrolysis using concentrated organic acids. Due to their low water solubility, these solid organic acids can be easily recovered after hydrolysis reactions through crystallization at a lower or ambient temperature. When dicarboxylic acids were...

  3. Interaction of dietary high-oleic-acid sunflower hulls and different fat sources in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Viveros, A; Ortiz, L T; Rodríguez, M L; Rebolé, A; Alzueta, C; Arija, I; Centeno, C; Brenes, A

    2009-01-01

    The effect of dietary fat sources (high-oleic-acid sunflower seeds, HOASS; palm oil, PO; and high-oleic-acid sunflower oil, HOASO) and high-oleic-acid sunflower hulls (HOAS hulls; 40 g/kg of diet) on performance, digestive organ size, fat digestibility, and fatty acid profile in abdominal fat and blood serum parameters was evaluated in chickens (from 1 to 21 d of age). Bird performance and digestive organ size were not affected by either dietary fat source or sunflower hull supplementation. Fat digestibility in birds fed diets enriched (HOASS and HOASO) in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was increased compared with those fed the PO diet. The addition of sunflower hulls did not modify fat digestibility. The fatty acids pattern of abdominal fat reflected the dietary fat profile. The greatest concentrations of C16:0 and C18:0 were found in birds fed PO diets. The C18:1n-9 content was increased in birds that received HOASS and HOASO diets compared with those fed PO diets. The greatest content of C18:2n-6 was observed in birds fed HOASS diets. The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to MUFA was significantly increased in birds fed PO diets compared with those fed HOASS or HOASO diets. The addition of sunflower hulls to the diets resulted in a decrease of C18:2n-6 and PUFA concentrations and PUFA:MUFA ratio in abdominal fat. Dietary fat sources and sunflower hulls modify blood triglycerides and serum lipoproteins. A decrease in triglyceride concentrations was observed in birds fed HOASS diets compared with those fed PO and HOASO diets. The greatest concentrations of serum high density, very low density (VLDL), and low density lipoproteins were found in birds receiving HOASO, PO, and HOASS diets, respectively. The addition of sunflower hulls to the diets caused an increase of serum triglycerides and VLDL concentrations. The MUFA-enriched diets had lower triglyceride and VLDL concentrations than did diets rich in saturated fatty acids. However, the sunflower hull

  4. A high-fat, high-oleic diet, but not a high-fat, saturated diet, reduces hepatic alpha-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid content in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Considerable research centers upon the role of linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2n6) as a competitive inhibitor of a-linolenic (ALA; 18:3n3) metabolism; however, little data exist as to the impact of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) on ALA metabolism. We tested the hypothesi...

  5. Genomic features of Lactococcus lactis IO-1, a lactic acid bacterium that utilizes xylose and produces high levels of L-lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Shimizu-Kadota, Mariko; Kato, Hiroaki; Shiwa, Yuh; Oshima, Kenshiro; Machii, Miki; Araya-Kojima, Tomoko; Zendo, Takeshi; Hattori, Masahira; Sonomoto, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis IO-1 (JCM7638) produces L-lactic acid predominantly when grown at high xylose concentrations, and its utilization is highly desired in the green plastics industry. Therefore it is worthwhile studying its genomic traits. In this study, we focused on (i) genes of possible horizontal transfer derivation (prophages, the nisin-sucrose transposon, and several restriction-modification systems), and (ii) genes for the synthetic pathways of amino acids and vitamins in the IO-1 genome. In view of the results of this analysis, we consider their meanings in strain IO-1.

  6. [Rapid screening of acidity regulators in dairy by ion chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Yun, Huan; Liu, Xin; Cui, Jie; Yang, Jing; Liu, Ying

    2017-08-08

    A method for screening of acidity regulators in dairy based on ion chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry technology (IC-HRMS) was set up. The dairy samples were extracted by KOH (pH 7-8) and Oasis MAX SPE column, and separated by a Dionex IonPac AS11-HC column (250 mm×4 mm). All the acidity regulators were detected by Orbitrap full scan mode. Taking six organic acids as an example, the calibration curves showed good linearities in the range of 0.05-5.00 mg/L, and the correlation coefficients ( r ) were higher than 0.99. By detecting the spiked samples, the recoveries were in the range of 74.3%-115.5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 0.64% and 4.81%. Malic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, succinic acid and adipic acid could be detected by IC-HRMS in the commercial dairy samples. The results indicate that the method is simple, rapid and suitable for the qualitative screening of acidity regulators in dairy products.

  7. Application and comparison of high-speed countercurrent chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography in preparative enantioseparation of α-substitution mandelic acids

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Shengqiang; Zhang, Hu; Shen, Mangmang; Ito, Yoichiro; Yan, Jizhong

    2014-01-01

    Preparative enantioseparations of α-cyclopentylmandelic acid and α-methylmandelic acid by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were compared using hydroxypropy-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) as the chiral mobile phase additives. In preparative HPLC the enantioseparation was achieved on the ODS C18 reverse phase column with the mobile phase composed of a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.10 mol L−1 phosphate buffer at pH 2.68 containing 20 mmol L−1 HP-β-CD for α-cyclopentylmandelic acid and 20 mmol L−1 SBE-β-CD for α-methylmandelic acid. The maximum sample size for α-cyclopentylmandelic acid and α-methylmandelic acid was only about 10 mg and 5 mg, respectively. In preparative HSCCC the enantioseparations of these two racemates were performed with the two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-methyl tert.-butyl ether-0.1 molL−1 phosphate buffer solution at pH 2.67 containing 0.1 mol L−1 HP-β-CD for α-cyclopentylmandelic acid (8.5:1.5:10, v/v/v) and 0.1 mol L−1 SBE-β-CD for α-methylmandelic acid (3:7:10, v/v/v). Under the optimum separation conditions, total 250 mg of racemic α-cyclopentylmandelic acid could be completely enantioseparated by HSCCC with HP-β-CD as a chiral mobile phase additive in a single run, yielding 105-110 mg of enantiomers with 95-98% purity and 85-90% recovery. But, no complete enantioseparation of α-methylmandelic acid was achieved by preparative HSCCC with either of the chiral selectors due to their limited enantioselectivity. In this paper preparative enantioseparation by HSCCC and HPLC was compared from various aspects. PMID:25983356

  8. Application and comparison of high-speed countercurrent chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography in preparative enantioseparation of α-substitution mandelic acids.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shengqiang; Zhang, Hu; Shen, Mangmang; Ito, Yoichiro; Yan, Jizhong

    2015-04-01

    Preparative enantioseparations of α-cyclopentylmandelic acid and α-methylmandelic acid by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were compared using hydroxypropy-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) as the chiral mobile phase additives. In preparative HPLC the enantioseparation was achieved on the ODS C 18 reverse phase column with the mobile phase composed of a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.10 mol L -1 phosphate buffer at pH 2.68 containing 20 mmol L -1 HP-β-CD for α-cyclopentylmandelic acid and 20 mmol L -1 SBE-β-CD for α-methylmandelic acid. The maximum sample size for α-cyclopentylmandelic acid and α-methylmandelic acid was only about 10 mg and 5 mg, respectively. In preparative HSCCC the enantioseparations of these two racemates were performed with the two-phase solvent system composed of n -hexane-methyl tert. -butyl ether-0.1 molL -1 phosphate buffer solution at pH 2.67 containing 0.1 mol L -1 HP-β-CD for α-cyclopentylmandelic acid (8.5:1.5:10, v/v/v) and 0.1 mol L -1 SBE-β-CD for α-methylmandelic acid (3:7:10, v/v/v). Under the optimum separation conditions, total 250 mg of racemic α-cyclopentylmandelic acid could be completely enantioseparated by HSCCC with HP-β-CD as a chiral mobile phase additive in a single run, yielding 105-110 mg of enantiomers with 95-98% purity and 85-90% recovery. But, no complete enantioseparation of α-methylmandelic acid was achieved by preparative HSCCC with either of the chiral selectors due to their limited enantioselectivity. In this paper preparative enantioseparation by HSCCC and HPLC was compared from various aspects.

  9. High dose folic acid supplementation of rats alters synaptic transmission and seizure susceptibility in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Girotto, Fernando; Scott, Lucas; Avchalumov, Yosef; Harris, Jacqueline; Iannattone, Stephanie; Drummond-Main, Chris; Tobias, Rose; Bello-Espinosa, Luis; Rho, Jong M.; Davidsen, Jörn; Teskey, G. Campbell; Colicos, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Maternal folic acid supplementation is essential to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. We hypothesize that high levels of folic acid throughout gestation may produce neural networks more susceptible to seizure in offspring. We hence administered large doses of folic acid to rats before and during gestation and found their offspring had a 42% decrease in their seizure threshold. In vitro, acute application of folic acid or its metabolite 4Hfolate to neurons induced hyper-excitability and bursting. Cultured neuronal networks which develop in the presence of a low concentration (50 nM) of 4Hfolate had reduced capacity to stabilize their network dynamics after a burst of high-frequency activity, and an increase in the frequency of mEPSCs. Networks reared in the presence of the folic acid metabolite 5M4Hfolate developed a spontaneous, distinctive bursting pattern, and both metabolites produced an increase in synaptic density. PMID:23492951

  10. Rapid simultaneous determination of amines and organic acids in citrus using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Uckoo, Ram M; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Nelson, Shad D; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2011-01-15

    Rapid analytical method for the simultaneous separation and determination of amines and organic acids is a vital interest for quality control of citrus and their products. In the present study, a simultaneous high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the rapid separation of three amines and two organic acids was developed. Chromatographic separation of compounds was achieved using Xbridge C(18) column at ambient temperature, with an isocratic mobile phase of 3mM phosphoric acid at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). A photodiode array (PDA) detector was used to monitor the eluent at 223 nm and 254 nm with a total analysis time of 10 min. Extraction of amines and organic acids from citrus juice was optimized. The method was validated by tests of linearity, recovery, precision and ruggedness. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for amines and ascorbic acid were determined to be 5 ng and 9.8 ng, respectively. All calibration curves showed good linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9999) within the test ranges. The recoveries of the amines and organic acids ranged between 84% and 117%. The identity of each peak was confirmed by mass spectral (MS) analysis. The developed method was successfully applied to analyze the content of amines and organic acids in six different species and two varieties of citrus. Results indicate that mandarin and Marrs sweet orange contain high level of amines, while pummelo and Rio Red grapefruit had high content of ascorbic acid (137-251 μg mL(-1)) and citric acid (5-22 mg mL(-1)). Synephrine was the major amine present in Clementine (114 μg mL(-1)) and Marrs sweet orange (85 μg mL(-1)). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on simultaneous separation and quantification of amines and organic acids in Marrs sweet orange, Meyer lemon, Nova tangerine, Clementine, Ugli tangelo and Wekiwa tangelo. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics of the high malic acid production mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae sake yeast strain No. 28.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shunichi; Tabata, Ken; Oba, Takahiro; Kusumoto, Kenichi; Mitsuiki, Shinji; Kadokura, Toshimori; Nakazato, Atsumi

    2012-09-01

    We characterized a high malic acid production mechanism in sake yeast strain No. 28. No considerable differences in the activity of the enzymes that were involved in malic acid synthesis were observed between strain No. 28 and its parent strain, K1001. However, compared with strain K1001, which actively took up rhodamine 123 during staining, the cells of strain No. 28 were only lightly stained, even when cultured in high glucose concentrations. In addition, malic acid production by the respiratory-deficient strain of K1001 was 2.5-fold higher than that of the wild-type K1001 and wild-type No. 28. The findings of this study demonstrated that the high malic acid production by strain No. 28 is attributed to the suppression of mitochondrial activity. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. High speed nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas [Ithaca, NY; Webb, Watt W [Ithaca, NY; Levene, Michael [Ithaca, NY; Turner, Stephen [Ithaca, NY; Craighead, Harold G [Ithaca, NY; Foquet, Mathieu [Ithaca, NY

    2011-05-17

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid. Each type of labeled nucleotide comprises an acceptor fluorophore attached to a phosphate portion of the nucleotide such that the fluorophore is removed upon incorporation into a growing strand. Fluorescent signal is emitted via fluorescent resonance energy transfer between the donor fluorophore and the acceptor fluorophore as each nucleotide is incorporated into the growing strand. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing strand.

  13. A new lead-acid battery for high pulse power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, J. J.; Attia, A. I.

    1987-01-01

    The development of new electronically conductive materials which can withstand the environment of the positive plates has made possible the construction of a high pulse power sealed bipolar lead-acid battery. The new battery is described and its advantages over other electrochemical systems are outlined. Performance projections show that the peak specific power of the battery can be as high as 90 kW/kg, and that a specific power of 5 kW/kg can be sustained over several thousand pulses.

  14. Silica-Based, Hyper-Crosslinked Acid Stable Stationary Phases for High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Luo, Hao; Carr, Peter W.

    2011-01-01

    A new family of Hyper-Crosslinked (HC) phases has been recently introduced for use under very aggressive acid conditions including those encountered in ultra-fast, high temperature Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography (2DLC). This type of stationary phase showed significantly enhanced acid and thermal stability compared to the most acid stable, commercial RPLC phases. In addition, the use of “orthogonal” chemistry to make surface-confined polymer networks ensures good reproducibility and high efficiency. One of the most interesting features of the HC phases is the ability to derivatize the surface aromatic groups with various functional groups. This led to the development of a family of hyper-crosslinked phases possessing a wide variety of chromatographic selectivities by attaching hydrophobic (e.g. –C8), ionizable (e.g. -COOH, -SO3H), aromatic (e.g. –toluene) or polar (e.g. -OH) species to the aromatic polymer network. HC reversed phases with various degrees of hydrophobicity and mixed-mode HC phases with added strong and weak cation exchange sites have been synthesized, characterized and applied. These silica-based acid-stable HC phases, with their attractive chromatographic properties, should be very useful in the separations of bases or biological analytes in acidic media, especially at elevated temperatures. This work reviews the prior research on HC phases and introduces a novel HC phase made by alternative chemistry. PMID:21906745

  15. Reaction Kinetic Model of Dilute Acid-Catalyzed Hemicellulose Hydrolysis of Corn Stover under High-Solid Conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, Suan; Guan, Wenjian; Kang, Li; ...

    2017-09-13

    High solid conditions are desirable in pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. An advanced dilute-acid pretreatment reactor has been developed at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). It is a continuous auger-driven reactor that can be operated with high-solid charge at high temperature and with short residence time resulting high productivity and high sugar concentration. Here, we investigated the kinetics of the reactions associated with dilute-acid pretreatment of corn stover, covering the reaction conditions of the NREL reactor operation: 155-185 C, 1-2 wt% sulfuric acid concentration, and 1:2 solid to liquid ratio. The experimental data were fitted to a first-order biphasic model whichmore » assumes that xylan is comprised of two different fragments: fast and slow reacting fractions. Due to the high solid loading condition, significant amount of xylose oligomers was observed during the pretreatment. We also included the oligomers as an intermediate entity in the kinetic model. The effect of acid concentration was incorporated into the pre-exponential factor of Arrhenius equation. The kinetic model with bestfit kinetic parameters has shown good agreement with experimental data. The kinetic parameter values of the proposed model were noticeably different from those previously reported. The activation energies of xylan hydrolysis are lower and the acid exponents are higher than the average of literature values. The proposed model can serve as a useful tool for design and operation of pretreatment system pertaining to corn stover.« less

  16. Reaction Kinetic Model of Dilute Acid-Catalyzed Hemicellulose Hydrolysis of Corn Stover under High-Solid Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Suan; Guan, Wenjian; Kang, Li

    High solid conditions are desirable in pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. An advanced dilute-acid pretreatment reactor has been developed at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). It is a continuous auger-driven reactor that can be operated with high-solid charge at high temperature and with short residence time resulting high productivity and high sugar concentration. Here, we investigated the kinetics of the reactions associated with dilute-acid pretreatment of corn stover, covering the reaction conditions of the NREL reactor operation: 155-185 C, 1-2 wt% sulfuric acid concentration, and 1:2 solid to liquid ratio. The experimental data were fitted to a first-order biphasic model whichmore » assumes that xylan is comprised of two different fragments: fast and slow reacting fractions. Due to the high solid loading condition, significant amount of xylose oligomers was observed during the pretreatment. We also included the oligomers as an intermediate entity in the kinetic model. The effect of acid concentration was incorporated into the pre-exponential factor of Arrhenius equation. The kinetic model with bestfit kinetic parameters has shown good agreement with experimental data. The kinetic parameter values of the proposed model were noticeably different from those previously reported. The activation energies of xylan hydrolysis are lower and the acid exponents are higher than the average of literature values. The proposed model can serve as a useful tool for design and operation of pretreatment system pertaining to corn stover.« less

  17. Controllable stearic acid crystal induced high hydrophobicity on cellulose film surface.

    PubMed

    He, Meng; Xu, Min; Zhang, Lina

    2013-02-01

    A novel, highly hydrophobic cellulose composite film (RCS) with biodegradability was fabricated via solvent-vaporized controllable crystallization of stearic acid in the porous structure of cellulose films (RC). The interface structure and properties of the composite films were investigated with wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), FT-IR, solid-state (13)C NMR, water uptake, tensile testing, water contact angle, and biodegradation tests. The results indicated that the RCS films exhibited high hydrophobicity (water contact angle achieved to 145°), better mechanical properties in the humid state and lower water uptake ratio than RC. Interestingly, the stearic acid crystallization was induced by the pore wall of the cellulose matrix to form a micronano binary structure, resulting in a rough surface. The rough surface with a hierarchical structure containing micronanospace on the RCS film surface could trap abundant air, leading to the high hydrophobicity. Moreover, the RCS films were flexible, biodegradable, and low-cost, showing potential applications in biodegradable water-proof packaging.

  18. A Novel High Energy Density Rechargeable Hybrid Sodium-Air Cell with Acidic Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yao; Su, Fengmei; Zhang, Qingkai; Liang, Feng; Adair, Keegan R; Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng; Hayashi, Katsuro; Cao, Shan Cecilia; Yadegari, Hossein; Sun, Xueliang

    2018-06-22

    Low cost, high energy density and highly efficient devices for energy storage have long been desired in our society. Herein, a novel high energy density hybrid sodium-air cell was fabricated successfully based on acidic catholytes. Such a hybrid sodium-air cell possess a high theoretical voltage of 3.94 V, capacity of 1121 mAh g-1, and energy density of 4418 Wh kg-1. Firstly, the buffering effect of an acidic solution was demonstrated, which provides relatively long and stable cell discharge behaviours. Secondly, the catholyte of hybrid sodium-air cells were optimized systematically from the solutions of 0.1 M H3PO4 + 0.1 M Na2SO4 to 0.1 M HAc + 0.1 M NaAc, and it was found that the cells with 0.1 M H3PO4 + 0.1 M Na2SO4 displayed maximum power density of 34.9 mW cm-2. The cell with 0.1 M H3PO4 + 0.1 M Na2SO4 displayed higher discharge capacity of 896 mAh g-1. Moreover, the fabricated acidic hybrid sodium-air cells exhibited stable cycling performance in ambient air, and they delivered a low voltage gap around 0.3 V when the current density is 0.13 mA cm-2, leading to a high energy efficiency up to 90%. Therefore, the present study provides new opportunities to develop highly cost-effective energy storage technologies.

  19. Preparation and characterization of (10)B boric acid with high purity for nuclear industry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijiang; Liu, Tianyu; Xu, Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Boric acid is often added into coolant as neutron capture agent for pressurized water reactor, whose amount is influenced by its abundance and purity. Therefore, the preparation of enriched (10)B boric acid with high purity is beneficial to nuclear industry. (10)B is also used in developing tumor-specific boronated drugs in boron neutron capture therapy. The boronated drug can be administered to patient intravenously, intratumorally, or deposited at tumor site in surgical excision. Thus, enriched (10)B boric acid is of practical significance in the field of medicine. Self-made boron trifluoride-methanol-complex solution was selected as one of the experimental reagents, and the preparation of (10)B acid was realized by one-step reaction for the complexes with water and calcium chloride. The determination of electrical conductivity in reaction process proves that the optimum reaction time was 16-20 h. Furthermore, the effect of reaction time, ratio of calcium chloride to complex as well as the amount of water on the purity and yield of boric acid was investigated. Finally, the optimum reaction time was 20 h, the optimal solid-liquid ratio (molar ratio) was 3:1, and the amount of water was 1 L of deionized water for each mol of the complex. H2O2 was added in the reaction process to remove Fe(2+). After recrystallization, IR spectra of (10)B boric acid was measured and compared with standard to verify the product of boric acid. The feasibility of the preparation method was determined by the detection of XRD of boric acid. To observe the morphology by polarizing microscope, crystal structure was obtained. The purity of the final product is 99.95 %, and the yield is 96.47 %. The ion concentration of boric acid accords with the national standard of high purity, which was determined by ICP.

  20. Lactic acid fermentation from food waste with indigenous microbiota: Effects of pH, temperature and high OLR.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jialing; Wang, Xiaochang; Hu, Yisong; Zhang, Yongmei; Li, Yuyou

    2016-06-01

    The effects of pH, temperature and high organic loading rate (OLR) on lactic acid production from food waste without extra inoculum addition were investigated in this study. Using batch experiments, the results showed that although the hydrolysis rate increased with pH adjustment, the lactic acid concentration and productivity were highest at pH 6. High temperatures were suitable for solubilization but seriously restricted the acidification processes. The highest lactic acid yield (0.46g/g-TS) and productivity (278.1mg/Lh) were obtained at 37°C and pH 6. In addition, the lactic acid concentration gradually increased with the increase in OLR, and the semi-continuous reactor could be stably operated at an OLR of 18g-TS/Ld. However, system instability, low lactic acid yield and a decrease in VS removal were noticed at high OLRs (22g-TS/Ld). The concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the fermentation mixture were relatively low but slightly increased with OLR, and acetate was the predominant VFA component. Using high-throughput pyrosequencing, Lactobacillus from the raw food waste was found to selectively accumulate and become dominant in the semi-continuous reactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Folic acid supplementation during high-fat diet feeding restores AMPK activation via an AMP-LKB1-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sid, Victoria; Wu, Nan; Sarna, Lindsei K.; Siow, Yaw L.; House, James D.

    2015-01-01

    AMPK is an endogenous energy sensor that regulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is regarded as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome with impaired lipid and glucose metabolism and increased oxidative stress. Our recent study showed that folic acid supplementation attenuated hepatic oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in high-fat diet-fed mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of folic acid on hepatic AMPK during high-fat diet feeding and the mechanisms involved. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a control diet (10% kcal fat), a high-fat diet (60% kcal fat), or a high-fat diet supplemented with folic acid (26 mg/kg diet) for 5 wk. Mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited hyperglycemia, hepatic cholesterol accumulation, and reduced hepatic AMPK phosphorylation. Folic acid supplementation restored AMPK phosphorylation (activation) and reduced blood glucose and hepatic cholesterol levels. Activation of AMPK by folic acid was mediated through an elevation of its allosteric activator AMP and activation of its upstream kinase, namely, liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in the liver. Consistent with in vivo findings, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (bioactive form of folate) restored phosphorylation (activation) of both AMPK and LKB1 in palmitic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Activation of AMPK by folic acid might be responsible for AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of HMG-CoA reductase, leading to reduced hepatic cholesterol synthesis during high-fat diet feeding. These results suggest that folic acid supplementation may improve cholesterol and glucose metabolism by restoration of AMPK activation in the liver. PMID:26400185

  2. Fiber type- and fatty acid composition-dependent effects of high-fat diets on rat muscle triacylglyceride and fatty acid transporter protein-1 content.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Mario; Ferrer-Martnez, Andreu; Parnau, Josep; Turini, Marco; Macé, Katherine; Gómez Foix, Anna M

    2004-08-01

    Intramuscular triacylglyceride (TAG) is considered an independent marker of insulin resistance in humans. Here, we examined the effect of high-fat diets, based on distinct fatty acid compositions (saturated, monounsaturated or n-6 polyunsaturated), on TAG levels and fatty acid transporter protein (FATP-1) expression in 2 rat muscles that differ in their fiber type, soleus, and gastrocnemius; the relationship to whole body glucose intolerance was also studied. Compared with carbohydrate-fed rats, the groups subjected to any one of the high-fat diets consistently exhibited enhanced body weight gain and adiposity, elevated plasma free fatty acids and TAG in the fed condition, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance. TAG content was consistently higher in soleus than in gastrocnemius, but was only significantly elevated by the n-6 polyunsaturated-based diet. FATP-1 levels in soleus were double those in gastrocnemius muscle in carbohydrate-fed animals. High-fat diets caused an elevation in FATP-1 protein content in soleus, but a reduction in gastrocnemius. In conclusion, the hyperinsulinemic hyperlipidemic condition upregulates FATP-1 expression in soleus and downregulates that of gastrocnemius. Hypercaloric saturated, monounsaturated, or n-6 polyunsaturated lipid diets cause equivalent whole body insulin resistance in rats, but only an n-6 polyunsaturated acid-based diet triggers intramuscular TAG accumulation. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  3. [Determination of glycyrrhizinic acid in biotransformation system by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Lu, Dingqiang; Liu, Weimin

    2004-05-01

    A method for determining glycyrrhizinic acid in the biotransformation system by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed. The HPLC conditions were as follows: Hypersil C18 column (4.6 mm i.d. x 250 mm, 5 microm) with a mixture of methanol-water-acetic acid (70:30:1, v/v) as the mobile phase; flow rate at 1.0 mL/min; and UV detection at 254 nm. The linear range of glycyrrhizinic acid was 0.2-20 microg. The recoveries were 98%-103% with relative standard deviations between 0.16% and 1.58% (n = 3). The method is simple, rapid and accurate for determining glycyrrhizinic acid.

  4. High-throughput and functional SNP detection assays for oleic and linolenic acids in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean is a primary source of vegetable oil, accounting for 53% of the total vegetable oil consumption in the USA in 2013. Soybean oil with high oleic acid and low linolenic acid content is desired, because it not only improves the oxidative stability of the oil, but also reduces the amount of unde...

  5. Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic s...

  6. The physicochemical and thermal properties of Malaysian high free fatty acid crude palm oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadi, Murad Awadh; Salimon, Jumat; Japir, Abd-Wali M.

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the physicochemical properties and the thermal behavior of Malaysian high free fatty acid crude palm oil (HFFA-CPO). The physicochemical properties showed that the free fatty acid (FFA %), acid value, iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter, hydroxyl value, specific gravity, refractive index at 28°C, moisture content, viscosity at 28°C and colour at 28°C values were 9.4±0.1 %, 21.3±0.1 mg/g, 50.6±0.2 mg/g, 203.1±0.1 mg/g, 0.7±0.1%, 43.4±0.2 mg/g, 0.878 g/ml, 1.4669, 0.6 %, 52 cP and 50R-40Y respectively. Gas chromatography (GC) was used to determine the fatty acid (FA) composition in HFFA-CPO. The fatty acids were found to be comprised mostly with 45.7 % palmitic acid (C16:0), 39.5 % oleic acid (C18:1), 9.4 % linoleic acid (C18:2) and 4.3 % stearic acid (C18:0). The analysis of triacylglycerol components with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has resulted with 3.5 % triunsaturated (OOO, OLL and OLO), 32.7 % monosaturated (POO, PLO, SOO and PLL), 35.7 % disaturated (MLP, PPL, PPO, POS and SOS) and 2.32 % trisaturated fatty acids (PPP and PPS). The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that the crystallization of TAG displayed two major exothermic regions of HFFA-CPO with the di and trisaturated TAG at 23.11°C and the di and triunsaturated TAG at 9.31 °C. The melting curve displayed multiple endothermic peak regions at 25.13 °C and 35.31 °C could be attributed to the di and trisaturated TAGs. While the peaks at 0.95 °C, 6.94 °C and 9.77 °C could be attributed to the mono, di and triunsaturated TAGs.

  7. Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity Is Associated with Fatty Acid Composition of High Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Boshtam, Maryam; Pourfarzam, Morteza; Ani, Mohsen; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Basati, Gholam; Mansourian, Marjan; Dinani, Narges Jafari; Asgary, Seddigheh; Abdi, Soheila

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. Methods. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Results. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA). PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ω6 fatty acids of HDL. Conclusion. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health. PMID:24167374

  8. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity is associated with fatty acid composition of high density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Boshtam, Maryam; Razavi, Amirnader Emami; Pourfarzam, Morteza; Ani, Mohsen; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Basati, Gholam; Mansourian, Marjan; Dinani, Narges Jafari; Asgary, Seddigheh; Abdi, Soheila

    2013-01-01

    Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA). PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ω 6 fatty acids of HDL. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health.

  9. The Significance of Acid Alteration in the Los Humeros High-Temperature Geothermal Field, Puebla, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Izquierdo, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Los Humeros geothermal field is a high-enthalpy hydrothermal system with more than 40 drilled deep wells, mostly producing high steam fractions at > 300oC. However, although it has a large resource potential, low permeability and corrosive acid fluids have hampered development so that it currently has an installed electrical generating capacity of only 40 MWe. The widespread production of low pH fluids from the reservoir is inconsistent with the marked absence in the reservoir rocks of hydrothermal minerals typical of acid alteration. Instead the hydrothermal alteration observed is typical of that due to neutral to alkaline pH waters reacting with the volcanic rocks of the production zones. Thus it appears that since the reservoir has recently suffered a marked drop in fluid pressure and is in process of transitioning from being water-dominated to being vapor-dominated. However sparse examples of acid leaching are observed locally at depths of about 2 km in the form of bleached, intensely silicified zones, in low permeability and very hot (>350oC) parts of reservoir. Although these leached rocks retain their primary volcanic and pyroclastic textures, they are altered almost entirely to microcrystalline quartz, with some relict pseudomorphs of plagioclase phenocrysts and traces of earlier-formed hydrothermal chlorite and pyrite. These acid-altered zones are usually only some tens of meters thick and deeper rocks lack such silicification. The acid fluids responsible for their formation could either be magmatic volatiles, or could be formed during production (e.g. reaction of water and salts forming hydrogen chloride by hydrolysis at high temperatures). The very high boron content of the fluids produced by the Los Humeros wells suggests that their ultimate source is most likely magmatic gases. However, these acid gases did not react widely with the rocks. We suggest that the silicified zones are forming locally where colder descending waters are encountering

  10. Thermally induced processes in mixtures of aluminum with organic acids after plastic deformations under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhorin, V. A.; Kiselev, M. R.; Roldugin, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    DSC is used to measure the thermal effects of processes in mixtures of solid organic dibasic acids with powdered aluminum, subjected to plastic deformation under pressures in the range of 0.5-4.0 GPa using an anvil-type high-pressure setup. Analysis of thermograms obtained for the samples after plastic deformation suggests a correlation between the exothermal peaks observed around the temperatures of degradation of the acids and the thermally induced chemical reactions between products of acid degradation and freshly formed surfaces of aluminum particles. The release of heat in the mixtures begins at 30-40°C. The thermal effects in the mixtures of different acids change according to the order of acid reactivity in solutions. The extreme baric dependences of enthalpies of thermal effects are associated with the rearrangement of the electron subsystem of aluminum upon plastic deformation at high pressures.

  11. Oleic acid and peanut oil high in oleic acid reverse the inhibitory effect of insulin production of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha both in vitro and in vivo systems.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, Evros K; Gonzalez, Andres; Garcia, Carlos; Tadros, James H; Chakraborty, Goutam; Toney, Jeffrey H

    2009-06-26

    Chronic inflammation is a key player in pathogenesis. The inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha is a well known inflammatory protein, and has been a therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Crohn's Disease. Obesity is a well known risk factor for developing non-insulin dependent diabetes melitus. Adipose tissue has been shown to produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which has the ability to reduce insulin secretion and induce insulin resistance. Based on these observations, we sought to investigate the impact of unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid in the presence of TNF-alpha in terms of insulin production, the molecular mechanisms involved and the in vivo effect of a diet high in oleic acid on a mouse model of type II diabetes, KKAy. The rat pancreatic beta cell line INS-1 was used as a cell biological model since it exhibits glucose dependent insulin secretion. Insulin production assessment was carried out using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and cAMP quantification with competitive ELISA. Viability of TNF-alpha and oleic acid treated cells was evaluated using flow cytometry. PPAR-gamma translocation was assessed using a PPRE based ELISA system. In vivo studies were carried out on adult male KKAy mice and glucose levels were measured with a glucometer. Oleic acid and peanut oil high in oleic acid were able to enhance insulin production in INS-1. TNF-alpha inhibited insulin production but pre-treatment with oleic acid reversed this inhibitory effect. The viability status of INS-1 cells treated with TNF-alpha and oleic acid was not affected. Translocation of the peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor transcription factor to the nucleus was elevated in oleic acid treated cells. Finally, type II diabetic mice that were administered a high oleic acid diet derived from peanut oil, had decreased glucose levels compared to animals administered a high fat diet with no oleic acid. Oleic acid was found to

  12. Oleic acid and peanut oil high in oleic acid reverse the inhibitory effect of insulin production of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α both in vitro and in vivo systems

    PubMed Central

    Vassiliou, Evros K; Gonzalez, Andres; Garcia, Carlos; Tadros, James H; Chakraborty, Goutam; Toney, Jeffrey H

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation is a key player in pathogenesis. The inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha is a well known inflammatory protein, and has been a therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Crohn's Disease. Obesity is a well known risk factor for developing non-insulin dependent diabetes melitus. Adipose tissue has been shown to produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which has the ability to reduce insulin secretion and induce insulin resistance. Based on these observations, we sought to investigate the impact of unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid in the presence of TNF-α in terms of insulin production, the molecular mechanisms involved and the in vivo effect of a diet high in oleic acid on a mouse model of type II diabetes, KKAy. Methods The rat pancreatic beta cell line INS-1 was used as a cell biological model since it exhibits glucose dependent insulin secretion. Insulin production assessment was carried out using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and cAMP quantification with competitive ELISA. Viability of TNF-α and oleic acid treated cells was evaluated using flow cytometry. PPAR-γ translocation was assessed using a PPRE based ELISA system. In vivo studies were carried out on adult male KKAy mice and glucose levels were measured with a glucometer. Results Oleic acid and peanut oil high in oleic acid were able to enhance insulin production in INS-1. TNF-α inhibited insulin production but pre-treatment with oleic acid reversed this inhibitory effect. The viability status of INS-1 cells treated with TNF-α and oleic acid was not affected. Translocation of the peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor transcription factor to the nucleus was elevated in oleic acid treated cells. Finally, type II diabetic mice that were administered a high oleic acid diet derived from peanut oil, had decreased glucose levels compared to animals administered a high fat diet with no oleic acid. Conclusion

  13. AMINO ACID COMPOSITION OF HIGHLY PURIFIED VIRAL PARTICLES OF INFLUENZA A AND B

    PubMed Central

    Knight, C. A.

    1947-01-01

    Microbiological assays for amino acids were made on hydrolysates of four to five highly purified preparations each of influenza A virus (PR8 strain) and influenza B virus (Lee strain). The results of the assays indicated that these strains of influenza virus contain approximately the same amounts of alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, and valine. However, significant differences were found in the values for arginine, glutamic acid, lysine, tryptophane, and tyrosine. It is believed that these differences may provide, at least in part, a chemical explanation for some of the differing properties of the PR8 and Lee strains of influenza viruses. PMID:19871660

  14. High-level production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids. [For use in tumor and pancreatic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Washburn, L. C.; Sun, T. T.; Byrd, B. L.

    Carbon-11-labeled amino acids have significant potential as agents for positron tomographic functional imaging. We have developed a rapid, high-temperature, high-pressure modification of the Buecherer--Strecker amino acid synthesis and found it to be quite general for the production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled neutral amino acids. Production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled DL-tryptophan requires certain modifications in the procedure. Twelve different amino acids have been produced to date by this technique. Synthesis and chromatographic purification require approximately 40 min, and C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids have been produced in yields of up to 425 mCi. Two C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids are being investigated clinically for tumor scanning and two othersmore » for pancreatic imaging. Over 120 batches of the various agents have been produced for clinical use over a three-year period.« less

  15. Canonical Pedagogical Content Knowledge by Cores for Teaching Acid-Base Chemistry at High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Clara; Cañada, Florentina; Garritz, Andoni; Mellado, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The topic of acid-base chemistry is one of the oldest in general chemistry courses and it has been almost continuously in academic discussion. The central purpose of documenting the knowledge and beliefs of a group of ten Mexican teachers with experience in teaching acid-base chemistry in high school was to know how they design, prepare and…

  16. Sexually dimorphic brain fatty acid composition in low and high fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Morselli, Eugenia; Clegg, Deborah J

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of brains and plasma from male and female mice fed chow or a western-style high fat diet (WD) for 16 weeks to determine if males and females process fatty acids differently. Based on the differences in fatty acids observed in vivo, we performed in vitro experiments on N43 hypothalamic neuronal cells to begin to elucidate how the fatty acid milieu may impact brain inflammation. Using a comprehensive mass spectrometry fatty acid analysis, which includes a profile for 52 different fatty acid isomers, we assayed the plasma and brain fatty acid composition of age-matched male and female mice maintained on chow or a WD. Additionally, using the same techniques, we determined the fatty acid composition of N43 hypothalamic cells following exposure to palmitic and linoleic acid, alone or in combination. Our data demonstrate there is a sexual dimorphism in brain fatty acid content both following the consumption of the chow diet, as well as the WD, with males having an increased percentage of saturated fatty acids and reductions in ω6-polyunsaturated fatty acids when compared to females. Interestingly, we did not observe a sexual dimorphism in fatty acid content in the plasma of the same mice. Furthermore, exposure of N43 cells to the ω6-PUFA linoleic acid, which is higher in female brains when compared to males, reduces palmitic acid-induced inflammation. Our data suggest male and female brains, and not plasma, differ in their fatty acid profile. This is the first time, to our knowledge, lipidomic analyses has been used to directly test the hypothesis there is a sexual dimorphism in brain and plasma fatty acid composition following consumption of the chow diet, as well as following exposure to the WD.

  17. [The treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in patients on dialysis: folic acid or the high-flow polysulphonic membrane?].

    PubMed

    Lovcić, Vesna; Kes, Petar; Zeljko, Reiner; Kusec, Vesna

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of high-flow and low-flow hemodialysis (HD), with simultaneous treatment with folic acid and vitamin B12, on total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration in plasma of dialyzed patients. The planned clinical observation included 46 patients of both sexes, aged 21-82, treated with bicarbonate dialysis for a mean of 4.7 years. The patients were divided into group A, subsequently dialyzed by use of high-flow polysulphonic membrane (AN 69ST, Nephral 300), and group B that continued to be dialyzed by use of low-flow diacetate membrane (Diacepal 14 and 16). The subjects in both groups received 30 mg of folic acid at the end of each dialysis (3 times a week), and 500 g of vitamin B12 at the end of every other dialysis. The method of stable isotopic dilution mass spectrometry was used to measure tHcy. Folic acid was determined by the test based on ion capture technology. Vitamin B12 was determined by MEIA. An increase in the concentration of tHcy was observed in 39/46 (85%) patients with a mean concentration of 24.76 +/- 11.04 micromol/L. The mean concentration of folic acid and vitamin B12 was within the normal limits. In the group dialyzed by high-flow dialyzer, the values of tHcy and folic acid decreased (18.74 +/- 2.95 micromol/L and 13.90 +/- 6.78 pmol/L) after hemodialysis, which was significant compared to the initial value (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). At four weeks of treatment, tHcy concentration before HD showed a significant decrease both in the group dialyzed by high-flow dialyzer (15.10 +/- 4.26 mmol/L, p<0.01) and in the group dialyzed by low-flow dialyzer (12.54 +/- 3.87 micromol/L, p<0.01) compared to the measure before HD and before the treatment. There was no statistically significant difference (z -0.40, p>0.68) in the percentage of tHcy change between the group treated by high-flow dialyzer and the group treated by low-flow dialyzer in the measurements before HD and before the treatment with folic acid

  18. Malic Acid Carbon Dots: From Super-resolution Live-Cell Imaging to Highly Efficient Separation.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Bo; Cui, Yi; Wang, Shengyang; Frank, Benjamin P; Williams, Denise N; Brown, Richard P; Melby, Eric S; Hamers, Robert J; Rosenzweig, Zeev; Fairbrother, D Howard; Orr, Galya; Haynes, Christy L

    2018-06-15

    As-synthesized malic acid carbon dots are found to possess photoblinking properties that are outstanding and superior compared to those of conventional dyes. Considering their excellent biocompatibility, malic acid carbon dots are suitable for super-resolution fluorescence localization microscopy under a variety of conditions, as we demonstrate in fixed and live trout gill epithelial cells. In addition, during imaging experiments, the so-called "excitation wavelength-dependent" emission was not observed for individual as-made malic acid carbon dots, which motivated us to develop a time-saving and high-throughput separation technique to isolate malic acid carbon dots into fractions of different particle size distributions using C 18 reversed-phase silica gel column chromatography. This post-treatment allowed us to determine how particle size distribution influences the optical properties of malic acid carbon dot fractions, that is, optical band gap energies and photoluminescence behaviors.

  19. Production of a value-added hydroxy fatty acid, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid from high oleic safflower oil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hydroxy fatty acids (HFA), originally found in small amount mainly from plant systems, are good examples of the structurally modified lipids, rendering special properties such as higher viscosity and reactivity compared to normal fatty acids. Based on these properties, HFAs possess high industrial ...

  20. Performance of high lignin content cellulose nanocrystals in poly(lactic acid)

    Treesearch

    Liqing Wei; Umesh P. Agarwal; Laurent Matuana; Ronald C. Sabo; Nicole M. Stark

    2018-01-01

    High lignin-containing cellulose nanocrystals (HLCNCs) were successfully isolated from hydrothermally treated aspen fibers and freeze-dried and compounded with poly (lactic acid) (PLA) by extrusion and injection molding. As a comparison, PLA composites containing commercial lignin-coated CNCs (BLCNCs) were also produced. HLCNCs showed higher crystallinity, larger...

  1. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Karen B; Kennelly, John P; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J; Jacobs, René L

    2016-09-23

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05). Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.

  2. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Karen B.; Kennelly, John P.; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J.; Jacobs, René L.

    2016-01-01

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05). Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet. PMID:27669293

  3. Effect of genetic background on the stability of sunflower fatty acid composition in different high oleic mutations.

    PubMed

    Alberio, Constanza; Aguirrezábal, Luis An; Izquierdo, Natalia G; Reid, Roberto; Zuil, Sebastián; Zambelli, Andrés

    2018-02-01

    The effect of genetic background on the stability of fatty acid composition in sunflower near isogenic lines (NILs) carrying high-oleic Pervenets (P) or high-oleic NM1 mutations was studied. The materials were field-tested in different locations and at different sowing dates to evaluate a wide range of environmental conditions. Relationships were established between the fatty acids and the minimum night temperature (MNT) and the response was characterized. A genetic background effect for the fatty acid composition was found in both groups of NILs. The NM1-NILs showed an oleic level higher than 910 g kg -1 and they were more stable across environments with a zero or low dependence on the genetic background; on the other hand, high oleic materials bearing the P mutation showed lower levels of oleic acid, with a higher variation in fatty acid composition and a highly significant dependence on the genetic background. The NM1 mutation is the best option to develop ultra-high oleic sunflower oil that is stable across environments and genetic backgrounds, making its agronomical production more efficient and predictable. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Changes in the faecal bile acid profile in dogs fed dry food vs high content of beef: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Herstad, Kristin Marie Valand; Rønning, Helene Thorsen; Bakke, Anne Marie; Moe, Lars; Skancke, Ellen

    2018-05-11

    Dogs are fed various diets, which also include components of animal origin. In humans, a high-fat/low-fibre diet is associated with higher faecal levels of bile acids, which can influence intestinal health. It is unknown how an animal-based diet high in fat and low in fibre influences the faecal bile acid levels and intestinal health in dogs. This study investigated the effects of high intake of minced beef on the faecal bile acid profile in healthy, adult, client-owned dogs (n = 8) in a 7-week trial. Dogs were initially adapted to the same commercial dry food. Thereafter, incremental substitution of the dry food by boiled minced beef over 3 weeks resulted in a diet in which 75% of each dog's total energy requirement was provided as minced beef during week 5. Dogs were subsequently reintroduced to the dry food for the last 2 weeks of the study. The total taurine and glycine-conjugated bile acids, the primary bile acids chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid, and the secondary bile acids lithocholic acid, deoxycholic acid (DCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) were analysed, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The faecal quantities of DCA were significantly higher in dogs fed the high minced beef diet. These levels reversed when dogs were reintroduced to the dry food diet. The faecal levels of UDCA and taurine-conjugated bile acids had also increased in response to the beef diet, but this was only significant when compared to the last dry food period. These results suggest that an animal-based diet with high-fat/low-fibre content can influence the faecal bile acids levels. The consequences of this for canine colonic health will require further investigation.

  5. High-efficiency l-lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae using a novel modified one-step fermentation strategy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yong-Qian; Yin, Long-Fei; Zhu, Hua-Yue; Jiang, Ru

    2016-10-01

    In this study, lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae was investigated using the two different fermentation strategies of one-step fermentation (OSF) and conventional fermentation (CF). Compared to CF, OSF reduced the demurrage of the production process and increased the production of lactic acid. However, the qp was significantly lower than during CF. Based on analysis of μ, qs and qp, a novel modified OSF strategy was proposed. This strategy aimed to achieve a high final concentration of lactic acid, and a high qp by R. oryzae. In this strategy, the maximum lactic acid concentration and productivity of the lactic acid production stage reached 158g/l and 5.45g/(lh), which were 177% and 366% higher, respectively, than the best results from CF. Importantly, the qp and yield did not decrease. This strategy is a convenient and economical method for l-lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Why do proton conducting polybenzimidazole phosphoric acid membranes perform well in high-temperature PEM fuel cells?

    PubMed

    Melchior, Jan-Patrick; Majer, Günter; Kreuer, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-12-21

    Transport properties and hydration behavior of phosphoric acid/(benz)imidazole mixtures are investigated by diverse NMR techniques, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and conductivity measurements. The monomeric systems can serve as models for phosphoric acid/poly-benzimidazole membranes which are known for their exceptional performance in high temperature PEM fuel cells. 1 H- and 31 P-NMR data show benzimidazole acting as a strong Brønsted base with respect to neat phosphoric acid. Since benzimidazole's nitrogens are fully protonated with a low rate for proton exchange with phosphate species, proton diffusion and conduction processes must take place within the hydrogen bond network of phosphoric acid only. The proton exchange dynamics between phosphate and benzimidazole species pass through the intermediate exchange regime (with respect to NMR line separations) with exchange times being close to typical diffusion times chosen in PFG-NMR diffusion measurements (ms regime). The resulting effects, as described by the Kärger equation, are included into the evaluation of PFG-NMR data for obtaining precise proton diffusion coefficients. The highly reduced proton diffusion coefficient within the phosphoric acid part of the model systems compared to neat phosphoric acid is suggested to be the immediate consequence of proton subtraction from phosphoric acid. This reduces hydrogen bond network frustration (imbalance of the number of proton donors and acceptors) and therefore also the rate of structural proton diffusion, phosphoric acid's acidity and hygroscopicity. Reduced water uptake, shown by TGA, goes along with reduced electroosmotic water drag which is suggested to be the reason for PBI-phosphoric acid membranes performing better in fuel cells than other phosphoric-acid-containing electrolytes with higher protonic conductivity.

  7. Using organic acids to control subacute ruminal acidosis and fermentation in feedlot cattle fed a high-grain diet.

    PubMed

    Vyas, D; Beauchemin, K A; Koenig, K M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether supplementing organic acids can prevent incidences of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in beef heifers fed a diet consisting of 8% barley silage and 92% barley grain-based concentrate (DM basis). Ten ruminally cannulated Hereford crossbred heifers (484 ± 25 kg BW) were used in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design with 14-d periods including 10 d for dietary adaptation and 4 d for measurements. Dietary treatments included no supplementation (Control), low fumaric acid (61 g/d), high fumaric acid (125 g/d), low malic acid (59 g/d), and high malic acid (134 g/d). Organic acid supplementation had no effect on DMI ( = 0.77). Similarly, no effects were observed on mean ( = 0.74), minimum ( = 0.64), and maximum ( = 0.27) ruminal pH measured continuously for 48 h. Moreover, area under the curve for pH thresholds 6.2 ( = 0.97), 5.8 ( = 0.66), 5.5 ( = 0.55), and 5.2 ( = 0.93) was similar for all treatments. However, malic acid supplementation lowered the amount of time that ruminal pH was <6.2 compared with the Control ( = 0.02) and fumaric acid treatments ( < 0.01). No effects were observed on total VFA concentrations with organic acid supplementation ( = 0.98) compared with the Control, but greater total VFA concentrations were observed with fumaric acid compared with the malic acid treatments ( = 0.02). The population of total culturable bacteria 3 h after feeding was reduced with supplemental malic acid compared with the Control ( = 0.03) and fumaric acid treatments ( = 0.03). However, no effects were observed with organic acid supplementation on lactic acid-utilizing bacteria ( = 0.59). In conclusion, under the conditions of the present study, organic acid supplementation did not have any significant effects on ruminal fermentation parameters compared with the Control and were not effective in preventing SARA in beef cattle fed high-grain diets.

  8. Determination of the Acid Dissociation Constant of a Phenolic Acid by High Performance Liquid Chromatography: An Experiment for the Upper Level Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raboh, Ghada

    2018-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiment for the upper level analytical chemistry laboratory is described. The students consider the effect of mobile-phase composition and pH on the retention times of ionizable compounds in order to determine the acid dissociation constant, K[subscript a], of a phenolic acid. Results are analyzed…

  9. Partial Hydrothermal Oxidation of High Molecular Weight Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids for Upgrading of Biodiesel Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, K.; Jin, F.; Kishita, A.; Tohji, K.; Enomoto, H.

    2007-03-01

    With increasing environmental awareness and crude oil price, biodiesel fuel (BDF) is gaining recognition as a renewable fuel which may be used as an alternative diesel fuel without any modification to the engine. The cold flow and viscosity of BDF, however, is a major drawback that limited its use in cold area. In this study, therefore, we investigated that partial oxidation of high molecular weight unsaturated carboxylic acids in subcritical water, which major compositions in BDF, to upgrade biodiesel fuel. Oleic acid, (HOOC(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7CH3), was selected as a model compound of high molecular weight unsaturated carboxylic acids. All experiments were performed with a batch reactor made of SUS 316 with an internal volume of 5.7 cm3. Oleic acid was oxidized at 300 °C with oxygen supply varying from 1-10 %. Results showed that a large amount of carboxylic acids and aldehydes having 8-9 carbon atoms were formed. These experimental results suggest that the hydrothermal oxidative cleavage may mainly occur at double bonds and the cleavage of double bonds could improve the cold flow and viscosity of BDF.

  10. The α-lipoic acid improves high-fat diet-induced cerebral damage through inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Li; Wang, Hui; Sun, Tao; Xia, Hechun; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Li

    2017-12-01

    This study is to clarify the protective role of α-lipoic acid in high-fat diet-induced cerebral damage mice. The mice were divided into 5 groups: normal control group, high-fat diet (HFD) group, low-dose α-lipoic acid group for prevention, high-dose α-lipoic acid group for prevention, and high-dose α-lipoic acid group for treatment. The groups' weights and blood glucose changes were monitored. We used HE staining to observe morphological changes in the cerebral cortex. The expression levels of the oxidative stress proteins SOD2, catalase, and the inflammatory pathway proteins p-JNK, p-ERK were measured by western blot and immunochemistry. Compared with the control group, the quantity of cortical neurons in the HFD group was decreased, and the samples exhibited retrogression. However, the lipoic acid significantly protected and promoted the cortical neurons survival. Moreover, compared with the HFD group, the expression levels of SOD2 and catalase in the three α-lipoic acid obtained groups were significantly increased. However, the expression levels of the inflammatory pathway proteins p-JNK and p-ERK were significantly decreased. These results indicate that theα-lipoic acid greatly protects the cortical neurons, and inhibited the oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions in the high-fat diet mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Highly Conductive and Reliable Copper-Filled Isotropically Conductive Adhesives Using Organic Acids for Oxidation Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenjun; Deng, Dunying; Cheng, Yuanrong; Xiao, Fei

    2015-07-01

    The easy oxidation of copper is one critical obstacle to high-performance copper-filled isotropically conductive adhesives (ICAs). In this paper, a facile method to prepare highly reliable, highly conductive, and low-cost ICAs is reported. The copper fillers were treated by organic acids for oxidation prevention. Compared with ICA filled with untreated copper flakes, the ICA filled with copper flakes treated by different organic acids exhibited much lower bulk resistivity. The lowest bulk resistivity achieved was 4.5 × 10-5 Ω cm, which is comparable to that of commercially available Ag-filled ICA. After 500 h of 85°C/85% relative humidity (RH) aging, the treated ICAs showed quite stable bulk resistivity and relatively stable contact resistance. Through analyzing the results of x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, we found that, with the assistance of organic acids, the treated copper flakes exhibited resistance to oxidation, thus guaranteeing good performance.

  12. Rheology of dilute acid hydrolyzed corn stover at high solids concentration

    Treesearch

    M.R. Ehrhardt; T.O. Monz; T.W. Root; R.K. Connelly; Tim Scott; D.J. Klingenberg

    2010-01-01

    The rheological properties of acid hydrolyzed corn stover at high solids concentration (20–35 wt.%) were investigated using torque rheometry. These materials are yield stress fluids whose rheological properties can be well represented by the Bingham model. Yield stresses increase with increasing solids concentration and decrease with increasing hydrolysis reaction...

  13. A grape polyphenol extract modulates muscle membrane fatty acid composition and lipid metabolism in high-fat--high-sucrose diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Manar; Michel, Francoise; Fouret, Gilles; Schlernitzauer, Audrey; Ollendorff, Vincent; Wrutniak-Cabello, Chantal; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Carbonneau, Marie-Annette; Coudray, Charles; Feillet-Coudray, Christine

    2011-08-01

    Accumulation of muscle TAG content and modification of muscle phospholipid fatty acid pattern may have an impact on lipid metabolism, increasing the risk of developing diabetes. Some polyphenols have been reported to modulate lipid metabolism, in particular those issued from red grapes. The present study was designed to determine whether a grape polyphenol extract (PPE) modulates skeletal muscle TAG content and phospholipid fatty acid composition in high-fat-high-sucrose (HFHS) diet-fed rats. Muscle plasmalemmal and mitochondrial fatty acid transporters, GLUT4 and lipid metabolism pathways were also explored. The PPE decreased muscle TAG content in HFHS/PPE diet-fed rats compared with HFHS diet-fed rats and induced higher proportions of n-3 PUFA in phospholipids. The PPE significantly up-regulated GLUT4 mRNA expression. Gene and protein expression of muscle fatty acid transporter cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) was increased in HFHS diet-fed rats but returned to control values in HFHS/PPE diet-fed rats. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 protein expression was decreased with the PPE. Mitochondrial β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase was increased in HFHS diet-fed rats and returned to control values with PPE supplementation. Lipogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial activity were not affected by the PPE. In conclusion, the PPE modulated membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition and decreased muscle TAG content in HFHS diet-fed rats. The PPE lowered CD36 gene and protein expression, probably decreasing fatty acid transport and lipid accumulation within skeletal muscle, and increased muscle GLUT4 expression. These effects of the PPE are in favour of a better insulin sensibility.

  14. Preliminary Validation of a High Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and -Linolenic Acid (ALA) Dietary Oil Blend: Tissue Fatty Acid Composition and Liver Proteome Response in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts.

    PubMed

    Nuez-Ortín, Waldo G; Carter, Chris G; Wilson, Richard; Cooke, Ira; Nichols, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon. Novel DHA-enriched oils with high alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content will be available from transgenic oilseeds plants in the near future as an alternative for dietary fish oil replacement in aquafeeds. As a preliminary validation, we formulated an oil blend (TOFX) with high DHA and ALA content using tuna oil (TO) high in DHA and the flaxseed oil (FX) high in ALA, and assessed its ability to achieve fish oil-like n-3 LC-PUFA tissue composition in Atlantic salmon smolts. We applied proteomics as an exploratory approach to understand the effects of nutritional changes on the fish liver. Comparisons were made between fish fed a fish oil-based diet (FO) and a commercial-like oil blend diet (fish oil + poultry oil, FOPO) over 89 days. Growth and feed efficiency ratio were lower on the TOFX diet. Fish muscle concentration of n-3 LC-PUFA was significantly higher for TOFX than for FOPO fish, but not higher than for FO fish, while retention efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA was promoted by TOFX relative to FO. Proteomics analysis revealed an oxidative stress response indicative of the main adaptive physiological mechanism in TOFX fish. While specific dietary fatty acid concentrations and balances and antioxidant supplementation may need further attention, the use of an oil with a high content of DHA and ALA can enhance tissue deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in relation to a commercially used oil blend.

  15. Preliminary Validation of a High Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and -Linolenic Acid (ALA) Dietary Oil Blend: Tissue Fatty Acid Composition and Liver Proteome Response in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts

    PubMed Central

    Nuez-Ortín, Waldo G.; Carter, Chris G.; Wilson, Richard; Cooke, Ira; Nichols, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon. Novel DHA-enriched oils with high alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content will be available from transgenic oilseeds plants in the near future as an alternative for dietary fish oil replacement in aquafeeds. As a preliminary validation, we formulated an oil blend (TOFX) with high DHA and ALA content using tuna oil (TO) high in DHA and the flaxseed oil (FX) high in ALA, and assessed its ability to achieve fish oil-like n-3 LC-PUFA tissue composition in Atlantic salmon smolts. We applied proteomics as an exploratory approach to understand the effects of nutritional changes on the fish liver. Comparisons were made between fish fed a fish oil-based diet (FO) and a commercial-like oil blend diet (fish oil + poultry oil, FOPO) over 89 days. Growth and feed efficiency ratio were lower on the TOFX diet. Fish muscle concentration of n-3 LC-PUFA was significantly higher for TOFX than for FOPO fish, but not higher than for FO fish, while retention efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA was promoted by TOFX relative to FO. Proteomics analysis revealed an oxidative stress response indicative of the main adaptive physiological mechanism in TOFX fish. While specific dietary fatty acid concentrations and balances and antioxidant supplementation may need further attention, the use of an oil with a high content of DHA and ALA can enhance tissue deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in relation to a commercially used oil blend. PMID:27556399

  16. Glycyrrhizic acid prevents high calorie diet-induced metabolic aberrations despite the suppression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hong Sheng; Yaw, Hui Ping; Ton, So Ha; Choy, Siew Mei; Kong, Joana Magdelene Xiao Fang; Abdul Kadir, Khalid

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effects of glycyrrhizic acid supplementation on glucose and lipid metabolism in rodents consuming a high-fat, high-sucrose diet. Twenty-four male, 8-week old Sprague Dawley rats with an initial weight of 160 to 200 g were randomised into three groups (n = 6 for each group): groups A (standard rat chow), B (high-fat, high-sucrose diet), and C (high-fat, high-sucrose diet + 100 mg/kg/d of glycyrrhizic acid via oral administration). The rats were treated accordingly for 4 wk. Glycaemic parameters, lipid profile, stress hormones, and adiponectin levels were measured after the treatment. Relative gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and γ, lipoprotein lipase as well as gluconeogenic enzymatic activities in different tissues were also determined. Consumption of high-fat, high-sucrose diet triggered hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia, which were effectively attenuated by supplementation with glycyrrhizic acid. Glycyrrhizic acid supplementation also effectively reduced circulating adrenaline, alleviated gluconeogenic enzymes overactivity, and promoted the upregulation of lipoprotein lipase expression in the cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscles. A high calorie diet also triggered hypoadiponectinaemia and suppression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression, which did not improve with glycyrrhizic acid treatment. Supplementation with glycyrrhizic acid could alleviate high calorie diet-induced glucose and lipid metabolic dysregulations by reducing circulatory stress hormones, normalizing gluconeogenic enzyme activities, and elevating muscular lipid uptake. The beneficial effects of these bioactivities outweighed the adverse effects caused by diet-induced repression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression, resulting in the maintenance of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Recovery of fission product palladium from acidic high level waste solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Rizvi, G.H.; Mathur, J.N.; Murali, M.S.

    1996-07-01

    The recovery of palladium from a synthetic pressurized heavy water reactor high level waste (PHWR-HLW) solution has been carried out, and the best reagents to use for the actual HLW solutions are discussed. The extraction of palladium from nitric acid solutions has been carried out using Cyanex-471X (triisobutylphosphine sulfide, TIPS) as the extractant. The metal ion could be quantitatively extracted from solutions with nitric acid concentrations between 2.0 and 6.0 M. The species extracted into the organic phase was found to be Pd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}TIPS. Nitric acid in the range of 2.0 to 5.0 M had no effect on TIPSmore » for at least 71 hours. A systematic study of gamma irradiation on loading and stripping of palladium from loaded organic phases using several potential extractants, TIPS, alpha benzoin oxime, dioctylsulfide, and dioctylsulfoxide has been made. A flow sheet for the recovery of palladium from actual HLW solutions using TIPS is proposed.« less

  18. Performance of dairy cows fed high levels of acetic acid or ethanol.

    PubMed

    Daniel, J L P; Amaral, R C; Sá Neto, A; Cabezas-Garcia, E H; Bispo, A W; Zopollatto, M; Cardoso, T L; Spoto, M H F; Santos, F A P; Nussio, L G

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol and acetic acid are common end products from silages. The main objective of this study was to determine whether high concentrations of ethanol or acetic acid in total mixed ration would affect performance in dairy cows. Thirty mid-lactation Holstein cows were grouped in 10 blocks and fed one of the following diets for 7 wk: (1) control (33% Bermuda hay + 67% concentrates), (2) ethanol [control diet + 5% ethanol, dry matter (DM) basis], or (3) acetic acid (control diet + 5% acetic acid, DM basis). Ethanol and acetic acid were diluted in water (1:2) and sprayed onto total mixed rations twice daily before feeding. An equal amount of water was mixed with the control ration. To adapt animals to these treatments, cows were fed only half of the treatment dose during the first week of study. Cows fed ethanol yielded more milk (37.9 kg/d) than those fed the control (35.8 kg/d) or acetic acid (35.3 kg/d) diets, mainly due to the higher DM intake (DMI; 23.7, 22.2, and 21.6 kg/d, respectively). The significant diet × week interaction for DMI, mainly during wk 2 and 3 (when acetic acid reached the full dose), was related to the decrease in DMI observed for the acetic acid treatment. There was a diet × week interaction in excretion of milk energy per DMI during wk 2 and 3, due to cows fed acetic acid sustained milk yield despite lower DMI. Energy efficiency was similar across diets. Blood metabolites (glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, ethanol, and γ-glutamyl transferase activity) and sensory characteristics of milk were not affected by these treatments. Animal performance suggested similar energy value for the diet containing ethanol compared with other diets. Rumen conversion of ethanol to acetate and a concomitant increase in methane production might be a plausible explanation for the deviation of the predicted energy value based on the heat of combustion. Therefore, the loss of volatile compounds during the drying process in the laboratory should be

  19. High dietary acid load is associated with increased prevalence of hypertension: the Furukawa Nutrition and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Akter, Shamima; Eguchi, Masafumi; Kurotani, Kayo; Kochi, Takeshi; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Ito, Rie; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Tsuruoka, Hiroko; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kabe, Isamu; Nanri, Akiko

    2015-02-01

    Acid-base status has been suggested to influence blood pressure, but there is a paucity of epidemiologic evidence linking dietary acid load to hypertension. We examined cross-sectionally the association between dietary acid load and hypertension in a Japanese working population. Data were derived from health surveys from 2028 employees, ages 18 to 70 y, in two workplaces in Japan. A validated brief diet history questionnaire was used to assess diet. Two measures were used to characterize dietary acid load: potential renal acid load and estimated net endogenous acid production, which were derived from nutrient intakes. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association between dietary acid load and hypertension with adjustment of potential confounding variables. High dietary acid load was suggestively associated with increased prevalence of hypertension. The multivariable adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of hypertension for the lowest through highest tertiles of net endogenous acid production were 1.00 (reference), 1.07 (0.80-1.42), and 1.33 (0.998-1.78), respectively (P for trend = 0.053). This positive association was statistically significant among normal-weight (body mass index <23 kg/m(2); P for trend = 0.03) and non-shift workers (P for trend = 0.04). Similar positive associations were observed between potential renal acid load and hypertension. The present findings suggest that high dietary acid load may be associated with increased prevalence of hypertension among those who were normal weight and non-shift workers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Production of polymalic acid and malic acid by Aureobasidium pullulans fermentation and acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiang; Zhou, Yipin; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-08-01

    Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid widely used in the food industry and also a potential C4 platform chemical that can be produced from biomass. However, microbial fermentation for direct malic acid production is limited by low product yield, titer, and productivity due to end-product inhibition. In this work, a novel process for malic acid production from polymalic acid (PMA) fermentation followed by acid hydrolysis was developed. First, a PMA-producing Aureobasidium pullulans strain ZX-10 was screened and isolated. This microbe produced PMA as the major fermentation product at a high-titer equivalent to 87.6 g/L of malic acid and high-productivity of 0.61 g/L h in free-cell fermentation in a stirred-tank bioreactor. Fed-batch fermentations with cells immobilized in a fibrous-bed bioreactor (FBB) achieved the highest product titer of 144.2 g/L and productivity of 0.74 g/L h. The fermentation produced PMA was purified by adsorption with IRA-900 anion-exchange resins, achieving a ∼100% purity and a high recovery rate of 84%. Pure malic acid was then produced from PMA by hydrolysis with 2 M sulfuric acid at 85°C, which followed the first-order reaction kinetics. This process provides an efficient and economical way for PMA and malic acid production, and is promising for industrial application. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Transcript profiling and gene characterization of three fatty acid desaturase genes in high, moderate, and low linolenic acid genotypes of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and their role in linolenic acid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Banik, Mitali; Duguid, Scott; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2011-06-01

    Three genes encoding fatty acid desaturase 3 (fad3a, fad3b, and a novel fad3c) were cloned from four flax genotypes varying in linolenic acid content. Real-time PCR was used to quantify expression levels of the three fad3 genes during seed development. High amounts of both fad3a and fad3b transcripts were observed and reached their peak levels at 20 days after anthesis, except for fad3a from SP2047 where only low level expression was observed throughout seed development. Transcript accumulation of the novel fad3c gene was at similar background levels. The fatty acid composition was analysed for all genotypes and stages of development and compared with the fad3 gene expression patterns. α-Linolenic acid gradually accumulated during seed development, while linoleic acid was transient and decreased in M5791, UGG5-5, and AC McDuff. In contrast, the linolenic acid present in the early stages of development nearly completely disappeared in SP2047, while linoleic acid steadily accumulated. fad3a of the low linolenic acid line SP2047 encoded a truncated protein caused by a premature stop codon resulting from a single point mutation, and the low level of transcript accumulation in this genotype is likely due to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay caused by the premature termination of translation as a result of this early stop codon. Although substantial amounts of transcript accumulation occurred with fad3b of SP2047 genotype, cloning of the gene revealed a mutation in the first histidine box causing an amino acid change. Heterologous expression in yeast of the SP2047 and UGG5-5 fad3b genes showed that the mutation in the histidine box in SP2047 caused the enzyme inactivity. Taken together, these results showed that fad3a and fad3b are responsible for linolenic acid accumulation in flax seeds but did not support a major role for the novel fad3c. These observations were further supported by phenotypic and genotypic assessment of a doubled haploid population. Expression patterns

  2. High and Low Molecular Weight Hyaluronic Acid Differentially Regulate Human Fibrocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Maharjan, Anu S.; Pilling, Darrell; Gomer, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Following tissue injury, monocytes can enter the tissue and differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes, but little is known about what regulates this differentiation. Extracellular matrix contains high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HMWHA; ∼2×106 Da). During injury, HMWHA breaks down to low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (LMWHA; ∼0.8–8×105 Da). Methods and Findings In this report, we show that HMWHA potentiates the differentiation of human monocytes into fibrocytes, while LMWHA inhibits fibrocyte differentiation. Digestion of HMWHA with hyaluronidase produces small hyaluronic acid fragments, and these fragments inhibit fibrocyte differentiation. Monocytes internalize HMWHA and LMWHA equally well, suggesting that the opposing effects on fibrocyte differentiation are not due to differential internalization of HMWHA or LMWHA. Adding HMWHA to PBMC does not appear to affect the levels of the hyaluronic acid receptor CD44, whereas adding LMWHA decreases CD44 levels. The addition of anti-CD44 antibodies potentiates fibrocyte differentiation, suggesting that CD44 mediates at least some of the effect of hyaluronic acid on fibrocyte differentiation. The fibrocyte differentiation-inhibiting factor serum amyloid P (SAP) inhibits HMWHA-induced fibrocyte differentiation and potentiates LMWHA-induced inhibition. Conversely, LMWHA inhibits the ability of HMWHA, interleukin-4 (IL-4), or interleukin-13 (IL-13) to promote fibrocyte differentiation. Conclusions We hypothesize that hyaluronic acid signals at least in part through CD44 to regulate fibrocyte differentiation, with a dominance hierarchy of SAP>LMWHA≥HMWHA>IL-4 or IL-13. PMID:22022512

  3. Litter Decomposition in Low and High Mortality Northern Red Oak Stands on Extremely Acidic Southwestern Pennsylvania Soils

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Demchik; William E. Sharpe

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has shown that decomposition of organic matter is slower in soils with high levels of soil acidity and available aluminum (Al). The objective of this experiment was to determine if differences in decomposition rates of northern red oak leaves occurred between extremely acidic and less acidic sites that also differed in oak mortality. Leaf litter from...

  4. Retinoic acid postconsolidation therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma patients treated with autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Peinemann, Frank; van Dalen, Elvira C; Enk, Heike; Berthold, Frank

    2017-08-25

    Neuroblastoma is a rare malignant disease and mainly affects infants and very young children. The tumours mainly develop in the adrenal medullary tissue, with an abdominal mass as the most common presentation. About 50% of patients have metastatic disease at diagnosis. The high-risk group is characterised by metastasis and other features that increase the risk of an adverse outcome. High-risk patients have a five-year event-free survival of less than 50%. Retinoic acid has been shown to inhibit growth of human neuroblastoma cells and has been considered as a potential candidate for improving the outcome of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. This review is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of additional retinoic acid as part of a postconsolidation therapy after high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) followed by autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), compared to placebo retinoic acid or to no additional retinoic acid in people with high-risk neuroblastoma (as defined by the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) classification system). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library (2016, Issue 11), MEDLINE in PubMed (1946 to 24 November 2016), and Embase in Ovid (1947 to 24 November 2016). Further searches included trial registries (on 22 December 2016), conference proceedings (on 23 March 2017) and reference lists of recent reviews and relevant studies. We did not apply limits by publication year or languages. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating additional retinoic acid after HDCT followed by HSCT for people with high-risk neuroblastoma compared to placebo retinoic acid or to no additional retinoic acid. Primary outcomes were overall survival and treatment-related mortality. Secondary outcomes were progression-free survival, event-free survival, early toxicity, late toxicity, and health-related quality of life. We used standard

  5. Ionic liquids and ionic liquid acids with high temperature stability for fuel cell and other high temperature applications, method of making and cell employing same

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C Austen [Mesa, AZ; Xu, Wu [Broadview Heights, OH; Belieres, Jean-Philippe [Chandler, AZ; Yoshizawa, Masahiro [Tokyo, JP

    2011-01-11

    Disclosed are developments in high temperature fuel cells including ionic liquids with high temperature stability and the storage of inorganic acids as di-anion salts of low volatility. The formation of ionically conducting liquids of this type having conductivities of unprecedented magnitude for non-aqueous systems is described. The stability of the di-anion configuration is shown to play a role in the high performance of the non-corrosive proton-transfer ionic liquids as high temperature fuel cell electrolytes. Performance of simple H.sub.2(g) electrolyte/O.sub.2(g) fuel cells with the new electrolytes is described. Superior performance both at ambient temperature and temperatures up to and above 200.degree. C. are achieved. Both neutral proton transfer salts and the acid salts with HSO.sup.-.sub.4 anions, give good results, the bisulphate case being particularly good at low temperatures and very high temperatures. The performance of all electrolytes is improved by the addition of a small amount of involatile base of pK.sub.a value intermediate between those of the acid and base that make the bulk electrolyte. The preferred case is the imidazole-doped ethylammonium hydrogensulfate which yields behavior superior in all respects to that of the industry standard phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  6. [Determination of aspirin and free salicylic acid in lysinipirine injection by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yu; Zhao, Yuan-zheng; Zhang, Yi-na

    2002-05-01

    The contents of aspirin and free salicylic acid in lysinipirine injection were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A Hypersil BDS C18 column was used with the mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (35:65:3, volume ratio) and the detection wavelength of 280 nm. The average recoveries of aspirin and salicylic acid added were 99.27% (RSD = 0.8%) and 99.61%(RSD = 1.3%), respectively. The calibration curves had good linearity in the range of 0.028 g/L -0.141 mg/L and 0.77 mg/L -3.85 mg/L, and the correlation coefficients were 0.9999 and 0.9998 for aspirin and salicylic acid respectively.

  7. Utilization of High-Fructose Corn Syrup for Biomass Production Containing High Levels of Docosahexaenoic Acid by a Newly Isolated Aurantiochytrium sp. YLH70.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin-Jun; Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Ying-Liang; Sun, Jie; Zheng, Jian-Yong; Wang, Zhao

    2015-11-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is an agro-source product and has been the most commonly used substitute for sugar as sweetener in food industry due to its low price and high solution property. In this study, the F55 HFCS, rich in fructose and glucose, was first tested for biomass and docosahexaenoic acid productions as a mixed carbon source by a newly isolated Aurantiochytrium sp.YLH70. After the compositions of the HFCS media were optimized, the results showed that the HFCS with additions of metal ion and vitamin at low concentrations was suitable for biomass and docosahexaenoic acid productions and the metal ion and sea salt had the most significant effects on biomass production. During the 5-l fed-batch fermentation, total HFCS containing 180 g l(-1) reducing sugar was consumed and yields of biomass, lipid, and DHA could reach 78.5, 51, and 20.1 g l(-1), respectively, at 114 h. Meanwhile, the daily productivity and the reducing sugar conversion yield for docosahexaenoic acid were up to 4.23 g l(-1)day(-1) and 0.11 g g(-1). The fatty acid profile of Aurantiochytrium sp.YLH70 showed that 46.4% of total fatty acid was docosahexaenoic acid, suggesting that Aurantiochytrium sp.YLH70 was a promising DHA producer.

  8. Amino Acid Medical Foods Provide a High Dietary Acid Load and Increase Urinary Excretion of Renal Net Acid, Calcium, and Magnesium Compared with Glycomacropeptide Medical Foods in Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Stroup, Bridget M.; Sawin, Emily A.; Murali, Sangita G.; Binkley, Neil; Hansen, Karen E.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Skeletal fragility is a complication of phenylketonuria (PKU). A diet containing amino acids compared with glycomacropeptide reduces bone size and strength in mice. Objective. We tested the hypothesis that amino acid medical foods (AA-MF) provide a high dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary excretion of renal net acid, calcium, and magnesium, compared to glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF). Design. In a crossover design, 8 participants with PKU (16–35 y) provided food records and 24-hr urine samples after consuming a low-Phe diet in combination with AA-MF and GMP-MF for 1–3 wks. We calculated potential renal acid load (PRAL) of AA-MF and GMP-MF and determined bone mineral density (BMD) measurements using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Results. AA-MF provided 1.5–2.5-fold higher PRAL and resulted in 3-fold greater renal net acid excretion compared to GMP-MF (p = 0.002). Dietary protein, calcium, and magnesium intake were similar. GMP-MF significantly reduced urinary excretion of calcium by 40% (p = 0.012) and magnesium by 30% (p = 0.029). Two participants had low BMD-for-age and trabecular bone scores, indicating microarchitectural degradation. Urinary calcium with AA-MF negatively correlated with L1–L4 BMD. Conclusion. Compared to GMP-MF, AA-MF increase dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary calcium and magnesium excretion, and likely contributing to skeletal fragility in PKU. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01428258. PMID:28546877

  9. A Novel Phytase Derived from an Acidic Peat-Soil Microbiome Showing High Stability under Acidic Plus Pepsin Conditions.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hao; Wu, Xiang; Xie, Liyuan; Huang, Zhongqian; Peng, Weihong; Gan, Bingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Four novel phytases of the histidine acid phosphatase family were identified in two publicly available metagenomic datasets of an acidic peat-soil microbiome in northeastern Bavaria, Germany. These enzymes have low similarity to all the reported phytases. They were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Catalytic efficacy in simulated gastric fluid was measured and compared among the four candidates. The phytase named rPhyPt4 was selected for its high activity. It is the first phytase identified from unculturable Acidobacteria. The phytase showed a longer half-life than all the gastric-stable phytases that have been reported to date, suggesting a strong resistance to low pH and pepsin. A wide pH profile was observed between pH 1.5 and 5.0. At the optimum pH (2.5) the activity was 2,790 μmol/min/mg at the physiological temperature of 37°C and 3,989 μmol/min/mg at the optimum temperature of 60°C. Due to the competent activity level as well as the high gastric stability, the phytase could be a potential candidate for practical use in livestock and poultry feeding. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Comparative genome analysis to identify SNPs associated with high oleic acid and elevated protein content in soybean.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Krishnanand P; Patil, Gunvant; Valliyodan, Babu; Vuong, Tri D; Shannon, J Grover; Nguyen, Henry T; Lee, Jeong-Dong

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the genetic relationship between the oleic acid and protein content. The genotypes having high oleic acid and elevated protein (HOEP) content were crossed with five elite lines having normal oleic acid and average protein (NOAP) content. The selected accessions were grown at six environments in three different locations and phenotyped for protein, oil, and fatty acid components. The mean protein content of parents, HOEP, and NOAP lines was 34.6%, 38%, and 34.9%, respectively. The oleic acid concentration of parents, HOEP, and NOAP lines was 21.7%, 80.5%, and 20.8%, respectively. The HOEP plants carried both FAD2-1A (S117N) and FAD2-1B (P137R) mutant alleles contributing to the high oleic acid phenotype. Comparative genome analysis using whole-genome resequencing data identified six genes having single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) significantly associated with the traits analyzed. A single SNP in the putative gene Glyma.10G275800 was associated with the elevated protein content, and palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids. The genes from the marker intervals of previously identified QTL did not carry SNPs associated with protein content and fatty acid composition in the lines used in this study, indicating that all the genes except Glyma.10G278000 may be the new genes associated with the respective traits.

  11. Jasmonic Acid, Abscisic Acid, and Salicylic Acid Are Involved in the Phytoalexin Responses of Rice to Fusarium fujikuroi, a High Gibberellin Producer Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Amaral Carneiro, Greice; Spadaro, Davide; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2015-09-23

    Fusarium fujikuroi, the causal agent of bakanae disease, is the main seedborne pathogen on rice. To understand the basis of rice resistance, a quantitative method to simultaneously detect phytohormones and phytoalexins was developed by using HPLC-MS/MS. With this method dynamic profiles and possible interactions of defense-related phytohormones and phytoalexins were investigated on two rice cultivars, inoculated or not with F. fujikuroi. In the resistant cultivar Selenio, the presence of pathogen induced high production of phytoalexins, mainly sakuranetin, and symptoms of bakanae were not observed. On the contrary, in the susceptible genotype Dorella, the pathogen induced the production of gibberellin and abscisic acid and inhibited jasmonic acid production, phytoalexins were very low, and bakanae symptoms were observed. The results suggested that a wide range of secondary metabolites are involved in plant defense against pathogens and phytoalexin synthesis could be an important factor for rice resistance against bakanae disease.

  12. Plasma Jet Printing and in Situ Reduction of Highly Acidic Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Dey, Avishek; Krishnamurthy, Satheesh; Bowen, James; Nordlund, Dennis; Meyyappan, M; Gandhiraman, Ram P

    2018-05-23

    Miniaturization of electronic devices and the advancement of Internet of Things pose exciting challenges to develop technologies for patterned deposition of functional nanomaterials. Printed and flexible electronic devices and energy storage devices can be embedded onto clothing or other flexible surfaces. Graphene oxide (GO) has gained much attention in printed electronics due its solution processability, robustness, and high electrical conductivity in the reduced state. Here, we introduce an approach to print GO films from highly acidic suspensions with in situ reduction using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet. Low-temperature plasma of a He and H 2 mixture was used successfully to reduce a highly acidic GO suspension (pH < 2) in situ during deposition. This technique overcomes the multiple intermediate steps required to increase the conductivity of deposited GO. X-ray spectroscopic studies confirmed that the reaction intermediates and the concentration of oxygen functionalities bonded to GO have been reduced significantly by this approach without any additional steps. Moreover, the reduced GO films showed enhanced conductivity. Hence, this technique has a strong potential for printing conducting patterns of GO for a range of large-scale applications.

  13. High prevalence of heartburn and low acid sensitivity in patients with idiopathic achalasia.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Julio; Ortiz, Vicente; Maroto, Nuria; Ponce, Marta; Bustamante, Marco; Garrigues, Vicente

    2011-03-01

    Heartburn is frequently reported by patients with achalasia before treatment. However, the esophageal sensitivity to acid as a possible mediator of this symptom has not been previously evaluated. To evaluate the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and the esophageal sensitivity to acid perfusion in patients with untreated achalasia. Forty patients with achalasia were prospectively evaluated. Forty-three patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease comprised the control group (ten of them with Barrett's esophagus). Symptoms were evaluated by a structured clinical questionnaire. Objective assessment was performed by ambulatory 24-h esophageal pH monitoring and endoscopy. Esophageal sensitivity to acid was evaluated by esophageal perfusion of ClH 0.1 N. Fifteen (37%) of the 40 patients with achalasia presented heartburn, but only four of them had esophagitis and/or abnormal esophageal pH recording. Eight patients had abnormal pH recording. Three patients had esophagitis. The esophagus was sensitive to acid in seven (17%) patients with achalasia, three of them with heartburn and one with abnormal pH recording. In the control group, 40 of 43 (93%) presented heartburn. Acid perfusion was positive in 32 (74%). Sensitivity to acid was lower in patients with achalasia than in those with gastroesophageal reflux disease with or without Barrett's esophagus. The prevalence of heartburn in patients with achalasia is high, although its association with objective indicators of gastroesophageal reflux disease is weak. Patients with achalasia have lower esophageal sensitivity to acid than patients with GERD, suggesting that heartburn is does not arise from this condition.

  14. [Analysis of monosaccharides and uronic acids in polysaccharides by pre-column derivatization with p-aminobenzoic acid and high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Hao, Guitang; Chen, Shangwei; Zhu, Song; Yin, Hongping; Dai, Jun; Cao, Yuhua

    2007-01-01

    An ion-pair reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of carbohydrate and uronic acids was developed. p-Aminobenzoic acid (p-AMBA) was used for pre-column derivatization of the analytes, enabling fluorescence (lambda(ex) = 313 nm, lambda(em) = 358 nm) or ultraviolet (UV at 303 nm) detection. Reaction conditions such as reaction temperature and reaction time were optimized. Atlantis dC18 column with hydrophilic end capping was selected for the separation of derivatives. Effects of mobile phase compositions such as ion pairs and their concentrations and pH on the retention behaviors and separation results of 9 monosaccharides and 2 uronic acids were investigated. Derivatives of fructose, galactose, glucose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, ribose, galacturonic acid, fucose, glucuronic acid and rhamnose were separated within 42 min, applying tetrabutyl ammonium hydrogen bisulfate (TBAHSO4) as the ion pair reagent. The detection limits were between 3.38 x 10(-8) mol/L and 176 x 10(-8) mol/L for fluorescence detection and between 2.55 x 10(-7) mol/L and 13.4 x 10(-7) mol/L for UV detection. Good linearities were obtained with correlation coefficients (r2) above 0.99. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the peak area of the derivatives in 12 - 51 h after derivatization were from 2.5% to 3.9%. This method has been applied for the determination of mono-/disaccharides and uronic acids in spirulina polysaccharide after dissolved in trifluoroacetic acid solution (2 mol/L). The results showed this method is suitable for the analysis of monosaccharide compositions in polysaccharides.

  15. Simultaneous quantification of eight organic acid components in Artemisia capillaris Thunb (Yinchen) extract using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fangjun; Qian, Hao; Zhang, Jiayu; Sun, Jie; Ma, Zhiguo

    2018-04-01

    We aim to determine the chemical constituents of Yinchen extract and Yinchen herbs using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The method was developed to analyze of eight organic acid components of Yinchen extract (including neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid). The separation was conducted using an Agilent TC-C18 column with acetonitrile - 0.2% formic acid solution as the mobile phases under gradient elution. The analytical method was fully validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability as well as recovery, and subsequently the method was performed for the quantitative assessment of Yinchen extracts and Yinchen herbs. In addition, the changes of selected markers were studied when Yinchen herbs decocting in water and isomerization occurred between the chlorogenic acids. The proposed method enables both qualitative and quantitative analyses and could be developed as a new tool for the quality evaluation of Yinchen extract and Yinchen herbs. The changes of selected markers in water decoction process could give us some novel idea when studying the link between substances and drug efficacy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. A multifunctional energy-storage system with high-power lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Schroeder, M.; Stephanblome, T.; Handschin, E.

    A multifunctional energy storage system is presented which is used to improve the utilization of renewable energy supplies. This system includes three different functions: (i) uninterruptible power supply (UPS); (ii) improvement of power quality; (iii) peak-load shaving. The UPS application has a long tradition and is used whenever a reliable power supply is needed. Additionally, nowadays, there is a growing demand for high quality power arising from an increase of system perturbation of electric grids. Peak-load shaving means in this case the use of renewable energy stored in a battery for high peak-load periods. For such a multifunctional application large lead-acid batteries with high power and good charge acceptance, as well as good cycle life are needed. OCSM batteries as with positive tubular plates and negative copper grids have been used successfully for a multitude of utility applications. This paper gives two examples where multifunctional energy storage systems have started operation recently in Germany. One system was installed in combination with a 1 MW solar plant in Herne and another one was installed in combination with a 2 MW wind farm in Bocholt. At each place, a 1.2 MW h (1 h-rate) lead-acid battery has been installed. The batteries consist of OCSM cells with the standard design but modified according to the special demand of a multifunctional application.

  17. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Leisner, T.

    2010-04-01

    The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to be capable of acting as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in both the deposition and immersion mode. We could confirm a high deposition mode ice activity for 0.03 to 0.8 μm sized oxalic acid dihydrate particles that were either formed by nucleation from a gaseous oxalic acid/air mixture or by rapid crystallisation of highly supersaturated aqueous oxalic acid solution droplets. The critical saturation ratio with respect to ice required for deposition nucleation was found to be less than 1.1 and the size-dependent ice-active fraction of the aerosol population was in the range from 0.1 to 22%. In contrast, oxalic acid dihydrate particles that had crystallised from less supersaturated solution droplets and had been allowed to slowly grow in a supersaturated environment from still unfrozen oxalic acid solution droplets over a time period of several hours were found to be much poorer heterogeneous ice nuclei. We speculate that under these conditions a crystal surface structure with less-active sites for the initiation of ice nucleation was generated. Such particles partially proved to be almost ice-inactive in both the deposition and condensation mode. At times, the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid dihydrate significantly changed when the particles had been processed in preceding cloud droplet activation steps. Such behaviour was also observed for the second investigated species, namely sodium oxalate. Our experiments address the atmospheric scenario that coating layers

  18. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Leisner, T.

    2010-08-01

    The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to be capable of acting as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in both the deposition and immersion mode. We could confirm a high deposition mode ice activity for 0.03 to 0.8 μm sized oxalic acid dihydrate particles that were either formed by nucleation from a gaseous oxalic acid/air mixture or by rapid crystallisation of highly supersaturated aqueous oxalic acid solution droplets. The critical saturation ratio with respect to ice required for deposition nucleation was found to be less than 1.1 and the size-dependent ice-active fraction of the aerosol population was in the range from 0.1 to 22%. In contrast, oxalic acid dihydrate particles that had crystallised from less supersaturated solution droplets and had been allowed to slowly grow in a supersaturated environment from still unfrozen oxalic acid solution droplets over a time period of several hours were found to be much poorer heterogeneous ice nuclei. We speculate that under these conditions a crystal surface structure with less-active sites for the initiation of ice nucleation was generated. Such particles partially proved to be almost ice-inactive in both the deposition and condensation mode. At times, the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid dihydrate significantly changed when the particles had been processed in preceding cloud droplet activation steps. Such behaviour was also observed for the second investigated species, namely sodium oxalate. Our experiments address the atmospheric scenario that coating layers

  19. Quantification of sulphur amino acids by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography in aquatic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Thera, Jennifer C; Kidd, Karen A; Dodge-Lynch, M Elaine; Bertolo, Robert F

    2017-12-15

    We examined the performance of an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method to quantify protein-bound sulphur amino acids in zooplankton. Both cysteic acid and methionine sulfone were linear from 5 to 250 pmol (r 2  = 0.99), with a method detection limit of 13 pmol and 9 pmol, respectively. Although there was no matrix effect on linearity, adjacent peaks and co-eluting noise from the invertebrate proteins increased the detection limits when compared to common standards. Overall, performance characteristics were reproducible and accurate, and provide a means for quantifying sulphur amino acids in aquatic invertebrates, an understudied group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High-Performance Pyrochlore-Type Yttrium Ruthenate Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Acidic Media

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Jaemin; Shih, Pei-Chieh; Tsao, Kai-Chieh; ...

    2017-07-27

    Development of acid-stable electrocatalysts with low overpotential for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a major challenge to produce hydrogen directly from water. We report in this paper a pyrochlore yttrium ruthenate (Y 2Ru 2O 7-δ) electrocatalyst that has significantly enhanced performance toward OER in acid media over the best-known catalysts, with an onset overpotential of 190 mV and high stability in 0.1 M perchloric acid solution. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) indicates Y 2Ru 2O 7-δ electrocatalyst had a low valence state that favors the high OER activity. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation shows this pyrochlore has lower band centermore » energy for the overlap between Ru 4d and O 2p orbitals and is therefore more stable Ru–O bond than RuO 2, highlighting the effect of yttrium on the enhancement in stability. Finally, the Y 2Ru 2O 7-δ pyrochlore is also free of expensive iridium metal and thus is a cost-effective candidate for practical applications.« less

  1. High-Performance Pyrochlore-Type Yttrium Ruthenate Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Acidic Media

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaemin; Shih, Pei-Chieh; Tsao, Kai-Chieh

    Development of acid-stable electrocatalysts with low overpotential for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a major challenge for the production of hydrogen directly from water. We report in this paper a pyrochlore yttrium ruthenate (Y2Ru2O7-δ) electrocatalyst that has significantly enhanced performance towards OER in acid media over the best-known catalysts, with an onset overpotential of 190 mV and high stability in 0.1-M perchloric acid solution. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) indicates Y2Ru2O7-δ electrocatalyst had a low valence state that favors the high OER activity. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation shows this pyrochlore has lower band center energy for the overlap betweenmore » Ru 4d and O 2p orbitals and therefore more stable Ru-O bond than RuO2, highlighting the effect of yttrium on the enhancement in stability. The Y2Ru2O7-δ pyrochlore is also free of expensive iridium metal, thus a cost-effective candidate for practical applications.« less

  2. High-Performance Pyrochlore-Type Yttrium Ruthenate Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Acidic Media

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaemin; Shih, Pei-Chieh; Tsao, Kai-Chieh

    Development of acid-stable electrocatalysts with low overpotential for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a major challenge to produce hydrogen directly from water. We report in this paper a pyrochlore yttrium ruthenate (Y 2Ru 2O 7-δ) electrocatalyst that has significantly enhanced performance toward OER in acid media over the best-known catalysts, with an onset overpotential of 190 mV and high stability in 0.1 M perchloric acid solution. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) indicates Y 2Ru 2O 7-δ electrocatalyst had a low valence state that favors the high OER activity. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation shows this pyrochlore has lower band centermore » energy for the overlap between Ru 4d and O 2p orbitals and is therefore more stable Ru–O bond than RuO 2, highlighting the effect of yttrium on the enhancement in stability. Finally, the Y 2Ru 2O 7-δ pyrochlore is also free of expensive iridium metal and thus is a cost-effective candidate for practical applications.« less

  3. Mesoporous titanosilicates with high loading of titanium synthesized in mild acidic buffer solution.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jianting; Liu, Jian; Yang, Jie; Feng, Zhaochi; Fan, Fengtao; Yang, Qihua

    2009-07-15

    Mesoporous titanosilicates with high titanium content were synthesized under mild acidic conditions (pH=4.4, HAc-NaAc buffer solution) by co-condensation of acetylacetone-modified titanium isopropoxide (Ti(OBu(n))(3) (acac)) and mixture of sodium silicate with tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) or tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) or tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)orthosilicate (EGMS), using block copolymer Pluronic P123 as template. The combined results of XRD, N(2) sorption and TEM show that the highly regular structure of the mesoporous titanosilicates can still be obtained when Ti/Si molar ratio in the final product is as high as 0.059. The results of UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra and UV resonance Raman spectra show that the framework titanium species are predominant in the mesoporous titanosilicates when Ti/Si molar ratio in the final product is less than 0.042. The mixture of sodium silicate and EGMS was proved to be the best silicon source for the synthesis of titanosilicates with ordered mesostructure and high titanium content. The efficiency of this synthetic method may be attributed to the mild acidic medium as well as the modified hydrolysis-condensation rate and hydrophility of the precursors.

  4. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for enhanced butyric acid production with high butyrate/acetate ratio.

    PubMed

    Suo, Yukai; Ren, Mengmeng; Yang, Xitong; Liao, Zhengping; Fu, Hongxin; Wang, Jufang

    2018-05-01

    Butyric acid fermentation by Clostridium couples with the synthesis of acetic acid. But the presence of acetic acid reduces butyric acid yield and increases separation and purification costs of butyric acid. Hence, enhancing the butyrate/acetate ratio is important for economical butyric acid production. This study indicated that enhancing the acetyl-CoA to butyrate flux by overexpression of both the butyryl-CoA/acetate CoA transferase (cat1) and crotonase (crt) genes in C. tyrobutyricum could significantly reduce acetic acid concentration. Fed-batch fermentation of ATCC 25755/cat1 + crt resulted in increased butyrate/acetate ratio of 15.76 g/g, which was 2.24-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain. Furthermore, in order to simultaneously increase the butyrate/acetate ratio, butyric acid concentration and productivity, the recombinant strain ATCC 25755/ppcc (co-expression of 6-phosphofructokinase (pfkA) gene, pyruvate kinase (pykA) gene, cat1, and crt) was constructed. Consequently, ATCC 25755/ppcc produced more butyric acid (46.8 vs. 35.0 g/L) with a higher productivity (0.83 vs. 0.49 g/L·h) and butyrate/acetate ratio (13.22 vs. 7.22 g/g) as compared with the wild-type strain in batch fermentation using high glucose concentration (120 g/L). This study demonstrates that enhancing the acetyl-CoA to butyrate flux is an effective way to reduce acetic acid production and increase butyrate/acetate ratio.

  5. Simple and sensitive analysis of long-chain free fatty acids in milk by fluorogenic derivatization and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chi-Yu; Wu, Hsin-Lung; Chen, Su-Hwei; Kou, Hwang-Shang; Wu, Shou-Mei

    2002-01-02

    A highly sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method is described for the simultaneous determination of some important saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in milk, including lauric (dodecanoic), myristic (tetradecanoic), palmitic (hexadecanoic), stearic (octadecanoic), palmitoleic (hexadecenoic), oleic (octadecenoic), and linoleic acids (octadecadienoic acids). The fatty acids were fluorogenically derivatized with 2-(2-naphthoxy)ethyl 2-(piperidino)ethanesulfonate (NOEPES) as their naphthoxyethyl derivatives. The resulting derivatives were separated by isocratic HPLC and monitored with a fluorometric detector (lambdaex = 235 nm, lambdaem = 350 nm). The fatty acids in milk were extracted with toluene, and the extract with the fatty acids was directly derivatized with NOEPES without solvent replacement. Determination of long-chain free fatty acids in milk is feasible by a standard addition method. A small amount of milk product, 10 microL, is sufficient for the analysis.

  6. Diets high in palmitic acid (16:0), lauric and myristic acids (12:0 + 14:0), or oleic acid (18:1) do not alter postprandial or fasting plasma homocysteine and inflammatory markers in healthy Malaysian adults.

    PubMed

    Voon, Phooi Tee; Ng, Tony Kock Wai; Lee, Verna Kar Mun; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2011-12-01

    Dietary fat type is known to modulate the plasma lipid profile, but its effects on plasma homocysteine and inflammatory markers are unclear. We investigated the effects of high-protein Malaysian diets prepared with palm olein, coconut oil (CO), or virgin olive oil on plasma homocysteine and selected markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in healthy adults. A randomized-crossover intervention with 3 dietary sequences of 5 wk each was conducted in 45 healthy subjects. The 3 test fats, namely palmitic acid (16:0)-rich palm olein (PO), lauric and myristic acid (12:0 + 14:0)-rich CO, and oleic acid (18:1)-rich virgin olive oil (OO), were incorporated at two-thirds of 30% fat calories into high-protein Malaysian diets. No significant differences were observed in the effects of the 3 diets on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and the inflammatory markers TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interferon-γ. Diets prepared with PO and OO had comparable nonhypercholesterolemic effects; the postprandial total cholesterol for both diets and all fasting lipid indexes for the OO diet were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than for the CO diet. Unlike the PO and OO diets, the CO diet was shown to decrease postprandial lipoprotein(a). Diets that were rich in saturated fatty acids prepared with either PO or CO, and an OO diet that was high in oleic acid, did not alter postprandial or fasting plasma concentrations of tHcy and selected inflammatory markers. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00941837.

  7. Determination of organic acids by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection during wine brewing.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Akira; Miyaguchi, Yuji; Tomita, Eiji; Takamura, Kiyoko; Kusu, Fumiyo

    2004-03-24

    Voltammetric determination of acids by means of the electrochemical reduction of quinone was applied to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection (ED) for determining organic acids in fruit wines. A two-channel HPLC-ED system was fabricated by use of an ion-exclusion column and an electrochemical detector with a glassy carbon working electrode. Aqueous solution of 0.1 mM HClO(4) and ethanol containing 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone served as a mobile phase and reagent solution, respectively. Determination of acetic, citric, lactic, malic, succinic, and tartaric acids was made by measuring the peak areas of the flow signals due to the reduction current of quinone caused by the eluted acids. The peak area was found to be linearly related to the acid amount ranging from 0.1 to 40 nmol per 20 microL injection. The present method was characterized by reproducibility with the simple and rapid procedure without derivatization of analytes. The method was shown as an effective means for following acid contents in fruit juices during fermentation with wine yeast.

  8. Effect of adding acid solution on setting time and compressive strength of high calcium fly ash based geopolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoni, Herianto, Jason Ghorman; Anastasia, Evelin; Hardjito, Djwantoro

    2017-09-01

    Fly ash with high calcium oxide content when used as the base material in geopolymer concrete could cause flash setting or rapid hardening. However, it might increase the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete. This rapid hardening could cause problems if the geopolymer concrete is used on a large scale casting that requires a long setting time. CaO content can be indicated by pH values of the fly ash, while higher pH is correlated with the rapid setting time of fly ash-based geopolymer. This study investigates the addition of acid solution to reduce the initial pH of the fly ash and to prolong the setting time of the mixture. The acids used in this study are hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfuric acid (H2 SO4), nitric acid (HNO3) and acetic acid (CH3 COOH). It was found that the addition of acid solution in fly ash was able to decrease the initial pH of fly ash, however, the initial setting time of geopolymer was not reduced. It was even faster than that of the control mixture. The acid type causes various influence, depending on the fly ash properties. In addition, the use of acid solution in fly ash reduces the compressive strength of geopolymer mortar. It is concluded that the addition of acid solution cannot prolong the rapid hardening of high calcium fly ash geopolymer, and it causes adverse effect on the compressive strength.

  9. Non-sterilized fermentation of high optically pure D-lactic acid by a genetically modified thermophilic Bacillus coagulans strain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Caili; Zhou, Cheng; Assavasirijinda, Nilnate; Yu, Bo; Wang, Limin; Ma, Yanhe

    2017-11-25

    Optically pure D-lactic acid (≥ 99%) is an important precursor of polylactic acid. However, there are relatively few studies on D-lactic acid fermentation compared with the extensive investigation of L-lactic acid production. Most lactic acid producers are mesophilic organisms. Optically pure D-lactic acid produced at high temperature not only could reduce the costs of sterilization but also could inhibit the growth of other bacteria, such as L-lactic acid producers. Thermophilic Bacillus coagulans is an excellent producer of L-lactic acid with capable of growing at 50 °C. In our previous study, the roles of two L-lactic acid dehydrogenases have been demonstrated in B. coagulans DSM1. In this study, the function of another annotated possible L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL3) was verified to be leucine dehydrogenase with an activity of 0.16 units (μmol/min) per mg protein. Furthermore, the activity of native D-lactate dehydrogenase was too low to support efficient D-lactic acid production, even under the control of strong promoter. Finally, an engineered B. coagulans D-DSM1 strain with the capacity for efficient production of D-lactic acid was constructed by deletion of two L-lactate dehydrogenases genes (ldhL1 and ldhL2) and insertion of the D-lactate dehydrogenase gene (LdldhD) from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081 at the position of ldhL1. This genetically engineered strain produced only D-lactic acid under non-sterilized condition, and finally 145 g/L of D-lactic acid was produced with an optical purity of 99.9% and a high yield of 0.98 g/g. This is the highest optically pure D-lactic acid titer produced by a thermophilic strain.

  10. A high-throughput microtiter plate based method for the determination of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Putt, Karson S; Pugh, Randall B

    2013-01-01

    Peracetic acid is gaining usage in numerous industries who have found a myriad of uses for its antimicrobial activity. However, rapid high throughput quantitation methods for peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide are lacking. Herein, we describe the development of a high-throughput microtiter plate based assay based upon the well known and trusted titration chemical reactions. The adaptation of these titration chemistries to rapid plate based absorbance methods for the sequential determination of hydrogen peroxide specifically and the total amount of peroxides present in solution are described. The results of these methods were compared to those of a standard titration and found to be in good agreement. Additionally, the utility of the developed method is demonstrated through the generation of degradation curves of both peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in a mixed solution.

  11. A High-Throughput Microtiter Plate Based Method for the Determination of Peracetic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Putt, Karson S.; Pugh, Randall B.

    2013-01-01

    Peracetic acid is gaining usage in numerous industries who have found a myriad of uses for its antimicrobial activity. However, rapid high throughput quantitation methods for peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide are lacking. Herein, we describe the development of a high-throughput microtiter plate based assay based upon the well known and trusted titration chemical reactions. The adaptation of these titration chemistries to rapid plate based absorbance methods for the sequential determination of hydrogen peroxide specifically and the total amount of peroxides present in solution are described. The results of these methods were compared to those of a standard titration and found to be in good agreement. Additionally, the utility of the developed method is demonstrated through the generation of degradation curves of both peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in a mixed solution. PMID:24260173

  12. High folic acid consumption leads to pseudo-MTHFR deficiency, altered lipid metabolism, and liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Karen E; Mikael, Leonie G; Leung, Kit-Yi; Lévesque, Nancy; Deng, Liyuan; Wu, Qing; Malysheva, Olga V; Best, Ana; Caudill, Marie A; Greene, Nicholas D E; Rozen, Rima

    2015-03-01

    Increased consumption of folic acid is prevalent, leading to concerns about negative consequences. The effects of folic acid on the liver, the primary organ for folate metabolism, are largely unknown. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) provides methyl donors for S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthesis and methylation reactions. Our goal was to investigate the impact of high folic acid intake on liver disease and methyl metabolism. Folic acid-supplemented diet (FASD, 10-fold higher than recommended) and control diet were fed to male Mthfr(+/+) and Mthfr(+/-) mice for 6 mo to assess gene-nutrient interactions. Liver pathology, folate and choline metabolites, and gene expression in folate and lipid pathways were examined. Liver and spleen weights were higher and hematologic profiles were altered in FASD-fed mice. Liver histology revealed unusually large, degenerating cells in FASD Mthfr(+/-) mice, consistent with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. High folic acid inhibited MTHFR activity in vitro, and MTHFR protein was reduced in FASD-fed mice. 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, SAM, and SAM/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratios were lower in FASD and Mthfr(+/-) livers. Choline metabolites, including phosphatidylcholine, were reduced due to genotype and/or diet in an attempt to restore methylation capacity through choline/betaine-dependent SAM synthesis. Expression changes in genes of one-carbon and lipid metabolism were particularly significant in FASD Mthfr(+/-) mice. The latter changes, which included higher nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, higher Srepb2 messenger RNA (mRNA), lower farnesoid X receptor (Nr1h4) mRNA, and lower Cyp7a1 mRNA, would lead to greater lipogenesis and reduced cholesterol catabolism into bile. We suggest that high folic acid consumption reduces MTHFR protein and activity levels, creating a pseudo-MTHFR deficiency. This deficiency results in hepatocyte degeneration, suggesting a 2-hit mechanism whereby mutant hepatocytes cannot

  13. Impact of high initial concentrations of acetic acid and ethanol on acetification rate in an internal Venturi injector bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Krusong, W; Yaiyen, S; Pornpukdeewatana, S

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the comparative impact of high initial concentrations of acetic acid (AAi ) and of ethanol (ETi ) on acetification rate (ETA). Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) were cultivated in a 100-l internal Venturi injector bioreactor. To quantify the oxygen availability, the 1.0 l min(-1) air inflow rate for the start-up phase (25 l) while 3·0 l min(-1) for the operational phase (75 l) achieved a high oxygen transfer coefficient (kL a). Changes in cell wall by TEM images and the remained ADH and ALDH activities confirmed the high acid tolerance ability of AAB. While ETAs using high AAi at 65 g l(-1) could be processed of 9.57 ± 0.19 g l(-1) day(-1) , which is just higher than 9.12 ± 0.12 g l(-1) day(-1) using high ETi at 55 g l(-1) . The average biotransformation yields were at 96.3 ± 0.1% and 94.4 ± 0.1% for high AAi and ETi , respectively. Results confirm that high oxygenation was generated in the bioreactor. Both high AAi and ETi were important in increasing ETA under stress 100 g l(-1) total concentration. High acid-tolerant AAB contains the high ADH and ALDH activities causing higher ETAs in HIA process. It is a competitive commercialized acetification process. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Tolerance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in in-vitro biofilms to high-level peracetic acid disinfection.

    PubMed

    Akinbobola, A B; Sherry, L; Mckay, W G; Ramage, G; Williams, C

    2017-10-01

    Biofilm has been suggested as a cause of disinfection failures in flexible endoscopes where no lapses in the decontamination procedure can be identified. To test this theory, the activity of peracetic acid, one of the widely used disinfectants in the reprocessing of flexible endoscopes, was evaluated against both planktonic and sessile communities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To investigate the ability of P. aeruginosa biofilm to survive high-level peracetic acid disinfection. The susceptibility of planktonic cells of P. aeruginosa and biofilms aged 24, 48, 96, and 192 h to peracetic acid was evaluated by estimating their viability using resazurin viability and plate count methods. The biomass of the P. aeruginosa biofilms was also quantified using Crystal Violet assay. Planktonic cells of P. aeruginosa were treated with 5-30 ppm concentration of peracetic acid in the presence of 3.0 g/L of bovine serum albumin (BSA) for 5 min. Biofilms of P. aeruginosa were also treated with various peracetic acid concentrations (100-3000 ppm) for 5 min. Planktonic cells of P. aeruginosa were eradicated by 20 ppm of peracetic acid, whereas biofilms showed an age-dependent tolerance to peracetic acid, and 96 h biofilm was only eradicated at peracetic acid concentration of 2500 ppm. Ninety-six-hour P. aeruginosa biofilm survives 5 min treatment with 2000 ppm of peracetic acid, which is the working concentration used in some endoscope washer-disinfectors. This implies that disinfection failure of flexible endoscopes might occur when biofilms build up in the lumens of endoscopes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Fragmentation of amino acids induced by collisions with low-energy highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piekarski, D. G.; Maclot, S.; Domaracka, A.; Adoui, L.; Alcamí, M.; Rousseau, P.; Díaz-Tendero, S.; Huber, B. A.; Martín, F.

    2014-04-01

    Fragmentation of amino acids NH2-(CH2)n-COOH (n=1 glycine; n=2 β-alanine and n=3 γ-aminobutyric acid GABA) following collisions with slow highly charged ions has been studied in the gas phase by a combined experimental and theoretical approach. In the experiments, a multi-coincidence detection method was used to deduce the charge state of the molecules before fragmentation. Quantum chemistry calculations have been carried out in the basis of the density functional theory and ab initio molecular dynamics. The combination of both methodologies is essential to unambiguously unravel the different fragmentation pathways.

  16. Intramolecular Tsuji-Trost-type Allylation of Carboxylic Acids: Asymmetric Synthesis of Highly π-Allyl Donative Lactones.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yusuke; Seki, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Shinji; Kitamura, Masato

    2015-08-05

    Tsuji-Trost-type asymmetric allylation of carboxylic acids has been realized by using a cationic CpRu complex with an axially chiral picolinic acid-type ligand (Cl-Naph-PyCOOH: naph = naphthyl, py = pyridine). The carboxylic acid and allylic alcohol intramolecularly condense by the liberation of water without stoichiometric activation of either nucleophile or electrophile part, thereby attaining high atom- and step-economy, and low E factor. This success can be ascribed to the higher reactivity of allylic alcohols as compared with the allyl ester products in soft Ru/hard Brønstead acid combined catalysis, which can function under slightly acidic conditions unlike the traditional Pd-catalyzed system. Detailed analysis of the stereochemical outcome of the reaction using an enantiomerically enriched D-labeled substrate provides an intriguing view of enantioselection.

  17. Selective and Catalyst-free Oxidation of D-Glucose to D-Glucuronic acid induced by High-Frequency Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaniampong, Prince N.; Karam, Ayman; Trinh, Quang Thang; Xu, Kai; Hirao, Hajime; Jérôme, François; Chatel, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    This systematic experimental investigation reveals that high-frequency ultrasound irradiation (550 kHz) induced oxidation of D-glucose to glucuronic acid in excellent yield without assistance of any (bio)catalyst. Oxidation is induced thanks to the in situ production of radical species in water. Experiments show that the dissolved gases play an important role in governing the nature of generated radical species and thus the selectivity for glucuronic acid. Importantly, this process yields glucuronic acid instead of glucuronate salt typically obtained via conventional (bio)catalyst routes, which is of huge interest in respect of downstream processing. Investigations using disaccharides revealed that radicals generated by high frequency ultrasound were also capable of promoting tandem hydrolysis/oxidation reactions.

  18. Selective and Catalyst-free Oxidation of D-Glucose to D-Glucuronic acid induced by High-Frequency Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Amaniampong, Prince N.; Karam, Ayman; Trinh, Quang Thang; Xu, Kai; Hirao, Hajime; Jérôme, François; Chatel, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    This systematic experimental investigation reveals that high-frequency ultrasound irradiation (550 kHz) induced oxidation of D-glucose to glucuronic acid in excellent yield without assistance of any (bio)catalyst. Oxidation is induced thanks to the in situ production of radical species in water. Experiments show that the dissolved gases play an important role in governing the nature of generated radical species and thus the selectivity for glucuronic acid. Importantly, this process yields glucuronic acid instead of glucuronate salt typically obtained via conventional (bio)catalyst routes, which is of huge interest in respect of downstream processing. Investigations using disaccharides revealed that radicals generated by high frequency ultrasound were also capable of promoting tandem hydrolysis/oxidation reactions. PMID:28084448

  19. Quantification of urinary uric acid in the presence of thymol and thimerosal by high-performance liquid chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Whitson, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed as an alternative to automated enzymatic analysis of uric acid in human urine preserved with thymol and/or thimerosal. Uric acid (tR = 10 min) and creatinine (tR = 5 min) were separated and quantified during isocratic elution (0.025 M acetate buffer, pH 4.5) from a mu Bondapak C18 column. The uric-acid peak was identified chemically by incubating urine samples with uricase. The thymol/thimerosal peak appeared at 31 min during the washing step and did not interfere with the analysis. We validated the high-performance liquid chromatographic method for linearity, precision and accuracy, and the results were found to be excellent.

  20. Effects of Diets High in Unsaturated Fatty Acids on Socially Induced Stress Responses in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Matthias; Millesi, Eva; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Wallner, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), such as omega-3 and omega-6 poly- and omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids are important nutrients and major components of neuronal cell membranes. They play a major role in modulating brain functions and physiology and may therefore diminish behavioral and physiological stress reactions in corroboration with decreased cortisol concentrations. Functionally, cortisol itself can modulate several behaviors and also the fatty acid metabolism in the long term. But only little is known about the behavioral and physiological influences of dietary UFAs in a social group, where individuals are regularly exposed to stressful situations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary UFAs on saliva cortisol concentrations and behavioral responses in socially confronted guinea pigs. Three groups of animals were additionally supplemented with 500 mg chia seeds (high in omega-3), walnuts (high in omega-6), or peanuts (high in omega-9) per kg bodyweight each day and compared to a control group. During social confrontation saliva cortisol concentrations significantly increased in all groups, which was accompanied by a loss in bodyweight. However, cortisol levels remained lower in the chia and walnut groups compared to controls. Additionally, the walnut group displayed significantly increased locomotion, while no differences between groups were detected in socio-positive, sexual, or aggressive behaviors. Total plasma omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids were significantly increased in the corresponding groups, due to the dietary supplementations. However, a significant decrease in plasma omega-3 and an increase in plasma n-6 fatty acids were detected in the chia group when comparing the measurements before and after social confrontation. We conclude that both omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids can diminish behavioral and physiological stress responses to the social environment, enabling individuals to cope

  1. Study on Treatment of acidic and highly concentrated fluoride waste water using calcium oxide-calcium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, T.; Gao, X. R.; Zheng, T.; Wang, P.

    2016-08-01

    There are problems with treating acidic waste water containing high concentration fluorine by chemical precipitation, including the low sludge setting velocity and the high difficulty of reaching the criterion. In Heilongjiang province, a graphite factory producing high-purity graphite generates acidic waste water with a high concentration of fluorine. In this paper, the effect of removals on the concentration of fluoride with the combined treatment of calcium oxide and calcium chloride were discussed with regard to acid waste water. The study improved the sludge characteristics by using polyacrylamide (PAM) and polymeric aluminum chloride (PAC). The effect of different coagulants on sludge was evaluated by the sludge settlement ratio (SV), sludge volume index (SVI) and sludge moisture content. The results showed that the optimal combination for 100 ml waste water was calcium oxide addition amount of 14 g, a calcium chloride addition amount of 2.5 g, a PAM addition amount of 350 mg/L, and the effluent fluoride concentration was below 6 mg/L. PAM significantly improved the sludge settling velocity. The sludge settlement ratio reduced from 87.6% to 60%. The process for wastewater treatment was easily operated and involved low expenditure.

  2. Green and low-cost production of thermally stable and carboxylated cellulose Nanocrystals and nanofibrils using highly recyclable dicarboxylic acids

    Treesearch

    Huiyang Bian; Liheng Chen; Ruibin Wang; Junyong Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Here we demonstrate potentially low cost and green productions of high thermally stable and carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and nanofibrils (CNF) from bleached eucalyptus pulp (BEP) and unbleached mixed hardwood kraft pulp (UMHP) fibers using highly recyclable dicarboxylic solid acids. Typical operating conditions were acid concentrations of 50 - 70 wt% at...

  3. High Dietary Acid Load Predicts ESRD among Adults with CKD

    PubMed Central

    Crews, Deidra C.; Wesson, Donald E.; Tilea, Anca M.; Saran, Rajiv; Ríos-Burrows, Nilka; Williams, Desmond E.; Powe, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    Small clinical trials have shown that a reduction in dietary acid load (DAL) improves kidney injury and slows kidney function decline; however, the relationship between DAL and risk of ESRD in a population-based cohort with CKD remains unexamined. We examined the association between DAL, quantified by net acid excretion (NAEes), and progression to ESRD in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States. Among 1486 adults with CKD age≥20 years enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, DAL was determined by 24-h dietary recall questionnaire. The development of ESRD was ascertained over a median 14.2 years of follow-up through linkage with the Medicare ESRD Registry. We used the Fine–Gray competing risks method to estimate the association of high, medium, and low DAL with ESRD after adjusting for demographics, nutritional factors, clinical factors, and kidney function/damage markers and accounting for intervening mortality events. In total, 311 (20.9%) participants developed ESRD. Higher levels of DAL were associated with increased risk of ESRD; relative hazards (95% confidence interval) were 3.04 (1.58 to 5.86) for the highest tertile and 1.81 (0.89 to 3.68) for the middle tertile compared with the lowest tertile in the fully adjusted model. The risk of ESRD associated with DAL tertiles increased as eGFR decreased (P trend=0.001). Among participants with albuminuria, high DAL was strongly associated with ESRD risk (P trend=0.03). In conclusion, high DAL in persons with CKD is independently associated with increased risk of ESRD in a nationally representative population. PMID:25677388

  4. Carbon Flux Trapping: Highly Efficient Production of Polymer-Grade d-Lactic Acid with a Thermophilic d-Lactate Dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Tao, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2016-08-17

    High production of polymer-grade d-lactic acid is urgently required, particularly for the synthesis of polylactic acid. High-temperature fermentation has multiple advantages, such as lower equipment requirement and energy consumption, which are essential for lowering operating costs. We identified and introduced a unique d-lactate dehydrogenase into a thermotolerant butane-2,3-diol-producing strain. Carbon flux "trapping" was achieved by a "trapping point" created by combination of the introduced enzyme and the host efflux pump, which afforded irreversible transport of d-lactic acid. The overall carbon flux of the engineered strain was significantly enhanced and was redistributed predominantly to d-lactic acid. Under optimized conditions at 50 °C, d-lactic acid reached the highest titer (226.6 g L(-1) ) reported to date. This discovery allows us to extend the carbon flux trapping strategy to engineering complex metabolic networks. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Constructing xylose-assimilating pathways in Pediococcus acidilactici for high titer d-lactic acid fermentation from corn stover feedstock.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhongyang; Gao, Qiuqiang; Bao, Jie

    2017-12-01

    Xylose-assimilating pathway was constructed in a d-lactic acid producing Pediococcus acidilactici strain and evolutionary adapted to yield a co-fermentation strain P. acidilactici ZY15 with 97.3g/L of d-lactic acid and xylose conversion of 92.6% obtained in the high solids content simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of dry dilute acid pretreated and biodetoxified corn stover feedstock. The heterologous genes encoding xylose isomerase (xylA) and xylulokinase (xylB) were screened and integrated into the P. acidilactici chromosome. The metabolic flux to acetic acid in phosphoketolase pathway was re-directed to pentose phosphate pathway by substituting the endogenous phosphoketolase gene (pkt) with the heterologous transketolase (tkt) and transaldolase (tal) genes. The xylose-assimilating ability of the newly constructed P. acidilactici strain was significantly improved by adaptive evolution. This study provided an important strain and process prototype for high titer d-lactic acid production from lignocellulose feedstock with efficient xylose assimilation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Enriched Cheeses Influence the Levels of Circulating n-3 Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Humans.

    PubMed

    Murru, Elisabetta; Carta, Gianfranca; Cordeddu, Lina; Melis, Maria Paola; Desogus, Erika; Ansar, Hastimansooreh; Chilliard, Yves; Ferlay, Anne; Stanton, Catherine; Coakley, Mairéad; Ross, R Paul; Piredda, Giovanni; Addis, Margherita; Mele, Maria Cristina; Cannelli, Giorgio; Banni, Sebastiano; Manca, Claudia

    2018-06-11

    n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) directly and indirectly regulate lipid metabolism, energy balance and the inflammatory response. We investigated changes to the n-3 HUFA score of healthy adults, induced by different types and amounts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched (ENCH) cheeses consumed for different periods of time, compared to dietary fish oil (FO) pills (500 mg, each containing 100 mg of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids—EPA+DHA) or α-linolenic acid (ALA)-rich linseed oil (4 g, containing 2 g of ALA). A significant increase in the n-3 HUFA score was observed, in a dose-dependent manner, after administration of the FO supplement. In terms of the impact on the n-3 HUFA score, the intake of ENCH cheese (90 g/day) for two or four weeks was equivalent to the administration of one or two FO pills, respectively. Conversely, the linseed oil intake did not significantly impact the n-3 HUFA score. Feeding ENCH cheeses from different sources (bovine, ovine and caprine) for two months improved the n-3 HUFA score by increasing plasma DHA, and the effect was proportional to the CLA content in the cheese. We suggest that the improved n-3 HUFA score resulting from ENCH cheese intake may be attributed to increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) activity. This study demonstrates that natural ENCH cheese is an alternative nutritional source of n-3 HUFA in humans.

  7. D-Galacturonic Acid: A Highly Reactive Compound in Nonenzymatic Browning. 2. Formation of Amino-Specific Degradation Products.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Steffen; Bornik, Maria-Anna; Kroh, Lothar W

    2015-07-22

    Thermal treatment of aqueous solutions of D-galacturonic acid and L-alanine at pH 3, 5, and 8 led to rapid and more intensive nonenzymatic browning reactions compared to similar solutions of other uronic acids and to Maillard reactions of reducing sugars. The hemiacetal ring structures of uronic acids had a high impact on browning behavior and reaction pathways. Besides reductic acid (1,2-dihydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-one), 4,5-dihydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-one (DHCP), furan-2-carboxaldehyde, and norfuraneol (4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-(2H)-furanone) could be detected as typical products of nonenzymatic uronic acid browning reactions. 2-(2-Formyl-1H-pyrrole-1-yl)propanoic acid (FPA) and 1-(1-carboxyethyl)-3-hydroxypyridin-1-ium (HPA) were identified as specific reaction products of uronic acids with amine participation like l-alanine. In contrast, the structurally related D-galacturonic acid methyl ester showed less browning activity and degradation under equal reaction conditions. Pectin-specific degradation products such as 5-formyl-2-furanoic acid and 2-furanoic acid were found but could not be verified for d-galacturonic acid monomers alone.

  8. Bactericidal activity of self-assembled palmitic and stearic fatty acid crystals on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Elena P; Nguyen, Song Ha; Guo, Yachong; Baulin, Vladimir A; Webb, Hayden K; Truong, Vi Khanh; Wandiyanto, Jason V; Garvey, Christopher J; Mahon, Peter J; Mainwaring, David E; Crawford, Russell J

    2017-09-01

    The wings of insects such as cicadas and dragonflies have been found to possess nanostructure arrays that are assembled from fatty acids. These arrays can physically interact with the bacterial cell membranes, leading to the death of the cell. Such mechanobactericidal surfaces are of significant interest, as they can kill bacteria without the need for antibacterial chemicals. Here, we report on the bactericidal effect of two of the main lipid components of the insect wing epicuticle, palmitic (C16) and stearic (C18) fatty acids. Films of these fatty acids were re-crystallised on the surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite. It appeared that the presence of two additional CH 2 groups in the alkyl chain resulted in the formation of different surface structures. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy showed that the palmitic acid microcrystallites were more asymmetric than those of the stearic acid, where the palmitic acid microcrystallites were observed to be an angular abutment in the scanning electron micrographs. The principal differences between the two types of long-chain saturated fatty acid crystallites were the larger density of peaks in the upper contact plane of the palmitic acid crystallites, as well as their greater proportion of asymmetrical shapes, in comparison to that of the stearic acid film. These two parameters might contribute to higher bactericidal activity on surfaces derived from palmitic acid. Both the palmitic and stearic acid crystallite surfaces displayed activity against Gram-negative, rod-shaped Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive, spherical Staphylococcus aureus cells. These microcrystallite interfaces might be a useful tool in the fabrication of effective bactericidal nanocoatings. Nanostructured cicada and dragonfly wing surfaces have been discovered to be able physically kill bacterial cells. Here, we report on the successful fabrication of bactericidal three-dimensional structures of two main lipid

  9. Postprandial changes in platelet function and coagulation factors after high-fat meals with different fatty acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Freese, R; Mutanen, M

    1995-09-01

    To compare the postprandial effects of three oils differing in their fatty acid composition on platelet aggregation and coagulation. The oils studied were low-erucic acid rapeseed oil (RO, oleic acid 54% of fatty acids), sunflower oil (SO, linoleic acid 64% of fatty acids) and butter oil (BO, saturated fatty acids 62% of fatty acids). The postprandial effects of three fat-loads were followed for 5 h. Division of Nutrition, University of Helsinki. Twelve healthy female subjects (aged 23-38 years) were recruited among university students and employees. Postprandial lipaemia was induced by high-fat meals containing fat (RO, SO or BO) 1 g/kg of body weight, skim-milk powder, sugar, strawberries, and water. Each subject ingested each meal in three separate mornings after an overnight fast. The order of the meals was randomised. Blood samples were taken before and 1, 2.5, and 5 h after the test meal. All three test meals similarly affected platelet aggregation in platelet-rich plasma. Aggregation induced by collagen (0.6, 1 and 2.5 micrograms/ml) decreased during the 5-h period after the meals (P = 0.000). ADP-induced aggregation did not change during the follow-up period after any meal (P = 0.105-0.483). All fat loads increased factor VII coagulant activity (F VII:C) (P = 0.000), but in plasma fibrinogen concentration (P = 0.155) or antithrombin III activity (P = 0.278) no postprandial changes were found. These results show that high-fat meals have acute effects on platelet function and F VII:C in healthy women and that these effects are not mediated through the fatty acid composition of the meals.

  10. Splenic Immune Response Is Down-Regulated in C57BL/6J Mice Fed Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Enriched High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Soni, Nikul K; Ross, Alastair B; Scheers, Nathalie; Savolainen, Otto I; Nookaew, Intawat; Gabrielsson, Britt G; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2017-01-10

    Dietary n -3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with reduction of inflammation, although the mechanisms are poorly understood, especially how the spleen, as a secondary lymphoid organ, is involved. To investigate the effects of EPA and DHA on spleen gene expression, male C57BL/6J mice were fed high fat diets (HFD) differing in fatty acid composition, either based on corn oil (HFD-CO), or CO enriched with 2 g/100 g EPA and DHA (HFD-ED), for eight weeks. Spleen tissue was analyzed using transcriptomics and for fatty acids profiling. Biological processes (BPs) related to the immune response, including T-cell receptor signaling pathway, T-cell differentiation and co-stimulation, myeloid dendritic cell differentiation, antigen presentation and processing, and the toll like receptor pathway were downregulated by HFD-ED compared with control and HFD-CO. These findings were supported by the down-regulation of NF-κB in HFD-ED compared with HFD-CO fed mice. Lower phospholipid arachidonic acid levels in HFD-ED compared with HFD-CO, and control mice suggest attenuation of pathways via prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The HFD-ED also upregulated BPs related to erythropoiesis and hematopoiesis compared with control and HFD-CO fed mice. Our findings suggest that EPA and DHA down-regulate the splenic immune response induced by HFD-CO, supporting earlier work that the spleen is a target organ for the anti-inflammatory effects of these n -3 fatty acids.

  11. Splenic Immune Response Is Down-Regulated in C57BL/6J Mice Fed Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Enriched High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Nikul K.; Ross, Alastair B.; Scheers, Nathalie; Savolainen, Otto I.; Nookaew, Intawat; Gabrielsson, Britt G.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2017-01-01

    Dietary n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with reduction of inflammation, although the mechanisms are poorly understood, especially how the spleen, as a secondary lymphoid organ, is involved. To investigate the effects of EPA and DHA on spleen gene expression, male C57BL/6J mice were fed high fat diets (HFD) differing in fatty acid composition, either based on corn oil (HFD-CO), or CO enriched with 2 g/100 g EPA and DHA (HFD-ED), for eight weeks. Spleen tissue was analyzed using transcriptomics and for fatty acids profiling. Biological processes (BPs) related to the immune response, including T-cell receptor signaling pathway, T-cell differentiation and co-stimulation, myeloid dendritic cell differentiation, antigen presentation and processing, and the toll like receptor pathway were downregulated by HFD-ED compared with control and HFD-CO. These findings were supported by the down-regulation of NF-κB in HFD-ED compared with HFD-CO fed mice. Lower phospholipid arachidonic acid levels in HFD-ED compared with HFD-CO, and control mice suggest attenuation of pathways via prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The HFD-ED also upregulated BPs related to erythropoiesis and hematopoiesis compared with control and HFD-CO fed mice. Our findings suggest that EPA and DHA down-regulate the splenic immune response induced by HFD-CO, supporting earlier work that the spleen is a target organ for the anti-inflammatory effects of these n-3 fatty acids. PMID:28075380

  12. The mechanism of high contents of oil and oleic acid revealed by transcriptomic and lipidomic analysis during embryogenesis in Carya cathayensis Sarg.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianqin; Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Qixiang; Chen, Ming; Wang, Zhengjia; Zheng, Bingsong; Xia, Guohua; Yang, Xianyou; Huang, Chunying; Huang, Youjun

    2016-02-16

    Hickory (Carya cathayensis Sarg.) accumulates more than 70% oil and 90% unsaturated fatty acids with considerably high oleic acid in its mature embryo. The concurrent global trancriptomic and lipidomic analyses provided a framework for better understanding of glycerolipid biosynthesis and metabolism in the hickory nut. The synthetical regulation of numerous leading lipid-related genes harmonized with the oil accumulation and fatty acid conversion in embryo development. The high level of ACCase correlated positively with fatty acids de novo synthesis, and the synergy of DGAT2 and PDAT promoted the TAG assembly, and oleosins, caleosins and steroleosins were transcribed considerably high for timely energy reserve in oil body. Glycolysis possibly provided sufficient precursors and energy for lipid synthesis. The perfect harmonization of the high level of SAD with low level of FAD2 facilitated the oleic acid accumulation. And the ratio of FATA/FATB or SAD/FATB was proposed for determining the saturated degree of oil. The gene multi-copy event was generated probably for accommodating various survival environments. A thermotolerant defense system including TAG hydrolysis determinants, heat shock proteins, and high ratio of MUFA to PUFA constrained the lipid degradation and provided a guarantee for high lipid content. A batch of potential genes recruited from the co-expression network helps us to understand the lipid synthesis and the response to high temperature better. The high transcriptional levels of key genes in lipid synthesis promoted the oil accumulation, and the harmonious expression of key ones for unsaturated fatty acids led oleic acid to high levels.

  13. Effect of high-fat intake on motor activity, homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in striatum and cortex of rats exposed to stress.

    PubMed

    Kirac, Deniz; Ozden, Inci; Yildirim, Alper; Genç, Ece

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether high fat consumption changes the effects of stress on both motor activity performance, striatal and cortical dopamine and serotonin metabolites in rats. The animals were fed either with high fat or standard diet for 4 weeks. Restraint stress lasting for 15 min at +4 degrees C was applied daily to stress-exposed groups. Motor activity performance was measured weekly by using motor activity monitoring systems. At the end of the study, homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels of the striatum and cerebral cortex were measured by HPLCEC. It was observed that restraint stress increased locomotor activity and high-fat diet prevented this effect. Stress and high-fat intake had an additive decreasing effect on striatal HVA levels. 5-HIAA levels, on the other hand, were lower in both high fat and high fat + stress groups compared to the stress group. These results suggest that high-fat intake differentially affected the stress response on striatal dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons in rat brain regions studied and this may be related to the effects observed in motor activity performance.

  14. Production of Functional High-protein Beverage Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Korean Traditional Fermented Food

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manufacture functional high protein fermented beverage, using whey protein concentrate (WPC) and Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 isolated from kimchi, and to evaluate the physicochemical, functional, and sensory properties of the resulting product. The fermented whey beverage (FWB) was formulated with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC 80), skim milk powder, and sucrose; and fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 as single, or mixed with Lactococcus lactis R704, a commercial starter culture. The pH, titratable acidity, and viable cell counts during fermentation and storage were evaluated. It was found that the mixed culture showed faster acid development than the single culture. The resulting FWB had high protein (9%) and low fat content (0.2%). Increased viscosity, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were observed after fermentation. A viable cell count of 109 CFU/mL in FWB was achieved within 10 h fermentation, and it remained throughout storage at 15℃ for 28 d. Sensory analysis was also conducted, and compared to that of a commercial protein drink. The sensory scores of FWB were similar to those of the commercial protein drink in most attributes, except sourness. The sourness was highly related with the high lactic acid content produced during fermentation. The results showed that WPC and vegetable origin lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi might be used for the development of a high protein fermented beverage, with improved functionality and organoleptic properties. PMID:26761827

  15. Highly viscous guar gum shifts dietary amino acids from metabolic use to fermentation substrate in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Rochus, Kristel; Janssens, Geert P J; Van de Velde, Hannelore; Verbrugghe, Adronie; Wuyts, Birgitte; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Hesta, Myriam

    2013-03-28

    The present study evaluated the potential of affecting amino acid metabolism through intestinal fermentation in domestic cats, using dietary guar gum as a model. Apparent protein digestibility, plasma fermentation metabolites, faecal fermentation end products and fermentation kinetics (exhaled breath hydrogen concentrations) were evaluated. Ten cats were randomly assigned to either guar gum- or cellulose-supplemented diets, that were fed in two periods of 5 weeks in a crossover design. No treatment effect was seen on fermentation kinetics. The apparent protein digestibility (P= 0.07) tended to be lower in guar gum-supplemented cats. As a consequence of impaired small-intestinal protein digestion and amino acid absorption, fermentation of these molecules in the large intestine was stimulated. Amino acid fermentation has been shown to produce high concentrations of acetic and butyric acids. Therefore, no treatment effect on faecal propionic acid or plasma propionylcarnitine was observed in the present study. The ratio of faecal butyric acid:total SCFA tended to be higher in guar gum-supplemented cats (P= 0.05). The majority of large-intestinal butyric acid is absorbed by colonocytes and metabolised to 3-hydroxy-butyrylcoenzyme A, which is then absorbed into the bloodstream. This metabolite was analysed in plasma as 3-hydroxy-butyrylcarnitine, which was higher (P= 0.02) in guar gum-supplemented cats. In all probability, the high viscosity of the guar gum supplement was responsible for the impaired protein digestion and amino acid absorption. Further research is warranted to investigate whether partially hydrolysed guar gum is useful to potentiate the desirable in vivo effects of this fibre supplement.

  16. Mutant alleles of FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B combine to produce soybeans with the high oleic acid seed oil trait

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The alteration of fatty acid profiles in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] to improve soybean oil quality is an important and evolving theme in soybean research to meet nutritional needs and industrial criteria in the modern market. Soybean oil with elevated oleic acid is desirable because this monounsaturated fatty acid improves the nutrition and oxidative stability of the oil. Commodity soybean oil typically contains 20% oleic acid and the target for high oleic acid soybean oil is approximately 80% of the oil; previous conventional plant breeding research to raise the oleic acid level to just 50-60% of the oil was hindered by the genetic complexity and environmental instability of the trait. The objective of this work was to create the high oleic acid trait in soybeans by identifying and combining mutations in two delta-twelve fatty acid desaturase genes, FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B. Results Three polymorphisms found in the FAD2-1B alleles of two soybean lines resulted in missense mutations. For each of the two soybean lines, there was one unique amino acid change within a highly conserved region of the protein. The mutant FAD2-1B alleles were associated with an increase in oleic acid levels, although the FAD2-1B mutant alleles alone were not capable of producing a high oleic acid phenotype. When existing FAD2-1A mutations were combined with the novel mutant FAD2-1B alleles, a high oleic acid phenotype was recovered only for those lines which were homozygous for both of the mutant alleles. Conclusions We were able to produce conventional soybean lines with 80% oleic acid in the oil in two different ways, each requiring the contribution of only two genes. The high oleic acid soybean germplasm developed contained a desirable fatty acid profile, and it was stable in two production environments. The presumed causative sequence polymorphisms in the FAD2-1B alleles were developed into highly efficient molecular markers for tracking the mutant alleles. The resources

  17. Mutant alleles of FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B combine to produce soybeans with the high oleic acid seed oil trait.

    PubMed

    Pham, Anh-Tung; Lee, Jeong-Dong; Shannon, J Grover; Bilyeu, Kristin D

    2010-09-09

    The alteration of fatty acid profiles in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] to improve soybean oil quality is an important and evolving theme in soybean research to meet nutritional needs and industrial criteria in the modern market. Soybean oil with elevated oleic acid is desirable because this monounsaturated fatty acid improves the nutrition and oxidative stability of the oil. Commodity soybean oil typically contains 20% oleic acid and the target for high oleic acid soybean oil is approximately 80% of the oil; previous conventional plant breeding research to raise the oleic acid level to just 50-60% of the oil was hindered by the genetic complexity and environmental instability of the trait. The objective of this work was to create the high oleic acid trait in soybeans by identifying and combining mutations in two delta-twelve fatty acid desaturase genes, FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B. Three polymorphisms found in the FAD2-1B alleles of two soybean lines resulted in missense mutations. For each of the two soybean lines, there was one unique amino acid change within a highly conserved region of the protein. The mutant FAD2-1B alleles were associated with an increase in oleic acid levels, although the FAD2-1B mutant alleles alone were not capable of producing a high oleic acid phenotype. When existing FAD2-1A mutations were combined with the novel mutant FAD2-1B alleles, a high oleic acid phenotype was recovered only for those lines which were homozygous for both of the mutant alleles. We were able to produce conventional soybean lines with 80% oleic acid in the oil in two different ways, each requiring the contribution of only two genes. The high oleic acid soybean germplasm developed contained a desirable fatty acid profile, and it was stable in two production environments. The presumed causative sequence polymorphisms in the FAD2-1B alleles were developed into highly efficient molecular markers for tracking the mutant alleles. The resources described here for the creation

  18. High-pressure polymorphism of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin): Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, Ethan L.; Dreger, Zbigniew A.; Gupta, Yogendra M.

    2015-02-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to elucidate the high-pressure polymorphic behavior of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), an important pharmaceutical compound known as aspirin. Using a diamond anvil cell (DAC), single crystals of the two polymorphic phases of aspirin existing at ambient conditions (ASA-I and ASA-II) were compressed to 10 GPa. We found that ASA-I does not transform to ASA-II, but instead transforms to a new phase (ASA-III) above ∼2 GPa. It is demonstrated that this transformation primarily introduces structural changes in the bonding and arrangement of the acetyl groups and is reversible upon the release of pressure. In contrast, a less dense ASA-II shows no transition in the pressure range studied, though it appears to exhibit a disordered structure above 7 GPa. Our results suggest that ASA-III is the most stable polymorph of aspirin at high pressures.

  19. Acetylsalicylic Acid and Eflornithine in Treating Patients at High Risk for Colorectal Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This phase II trial is studying how well giving acetylsalicylic acid together with eflornithine works in treating patients at high risk for colorectal cancer. Chemoprevention is the use of certain drugs to keep cancer from forming. The use of acetylsalicylic acid and eflornithine may prevent colorectal cancer. |

  20. Improved production of propionic acid driven by hydrolyzed liquid containing high concentration of l-lactic acid from co-fermentation of food waste and sludge.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Ma, Li; Lai, Sizhou; Zhao, Shu; Chen, Yinguang; Liu, Yanan

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of improved production propionic acid-enriched volatile fatty acid (VFA) from high concentration (Cs) of food waste and waste activated sludge (WAS) via lactic acid pathway by using of Propionibacterium acidipropionici. It was observed that production of l-lactate overwhelmed to d-lactate at first stage, which improved from 3.21 to 35.45gCOD/L with increase of substrate Cs. However, kinetic model analysis indicated that P. acidipropionici growth rate μmax was decreased with increase of l-lactate concentration, which explained second stage free cell fermentation of propionic acid was inhibited when fed by first stage liquid from R-40, R-55 and R-70. Then, the fibrous bed bioreactor was employed to eliminate the feed inhibition. The maximal percentage of propionic acid (68.3%) and production (16.31gCOD/L) was obtained by feeding liquid of R-55, which was improved by 3.33 folds compared to the free cell fermentation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Highly selective luminescent sensing of picric acid based on a water-stable europium metal-organic framework

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Tifeng; Zhu, Fengliang; Cui, Yuanjing, E-mail: cuiyj@zju.edu.cn

    A water-stable metal-organic framework (MOF) EuNDC has been synthesized for selective detection of the well-known contaminant and toxicant picric acid (PA) in aqueous solution. Due to the photo-induced electron transfer and self-absorption mechanism, EuNDC displayed rapid, selective and sensitive detection of PA with a detection limit of 37.6 ppb. Recyclability experiments revealed that EuNDC retains its initial luminescent intensity and same quenching efficiency in each cycle, suggesting high photostability and reusability for long-term sensing applications. The excellent detection performance of EuNDC makes it a promising PA sensing material for practical applications. - Graphical abstract: A water-stable europium-based metal-organic framework hasmore » been reported for highly selective sensing of picric acid (PA) with a detection limit of 37.6 ppb in aqueous solution. - Highlights: • A water-stable metal-organic framework (MOF) EuNDC was synthesized. • The highly selective detection of picric acid with a detection limit of 37.6 ppb was realized. • The detection mechanism were also presented and discussed.« less

  2. Quantifying phosphoric acid in high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell components by X-ray tomographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, S H; Marone, F; Stampanoni, M; Büchi, F N; Schmidt, T J

    2014-11-01

    Synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy is investigated for imaging the local distribution and concentration of phosphoric acid in high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Phosphoric acid fills the pores of the macro- and microporous fuel cell components. Its concentration in the fuel cell varies over a wide range (40-100 wt% H3PO4). This renders the quantification and concentration determination challenging. The problem is solved by using propagation-based phase contrast imaging and a referencing method. Fuel cell components with known acid concentrations were used to correlate greyscale values and acid concentrations. Thus calibration curves were established for the gas diffusion layer, catalyst layer and membrane in a non-operating fuel cell. The non-destructive imaging methodology was verified by comparing image-based values for acid content and concentration in the gas diffusion layer with those from chemical analysis.

  3. Polymerization of amino acids under high-pressure conditions: Implication to chemical evolution on the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakegawa, T.; Ohara, S.; Ishiguro, T.; Abiko, H.; Nakazawa, H.

    2008-12-01

    Prebiotic polymerization of amino acids is the most fundamental reaction to promote the chemical evolution for origin of life. Polymerization of amino acids is the dehydration reaction. This questions as to if submarine hydrothermal conditions, thus hydrated enironments, were appropreate for peptide formations. Our previous experiments implied that non-aqueous and high-pressure environments (more than 20 MPa) would be suitable for polymerization of amino acids (Ohara et al., 2006). This leads to the hypothesis that the first peptides may have formed in the Hadean oceanic crustal environments, where dehydration proceeded with availability of appropriate temperatures and pressures. In the present study, experiments simulating the crustal conditions were performed with various pressures (1-175 MPa) and temperatures (100- 200 C degree) using autoclaves. Purified powders (100 mg) of alanine, glycine, valine and aspartic acid were used in the experiments without mixing water in order to examine the solid-solid reactions. The products were analyzed using HPLC and LC-MS. Results indicate that: (1) longer time is required to form peptide compared to those of previous aqueous experiments; (2) pressure has a role to limit the production of melanoidine and cyclic amino acids, which are inhibitors for elongation of peptides; (3) glycine was polymerized up to 11-mer, which was not formed in any previous experiments without catalyses; (4) valine was polymerized up to 3-mer; and (5) aspartic acid was polymerized to 4-mer, accompanied with production of other amino acids. It is noteworthy that high-pressure environments favor all examined polymerization reactions. Such situations would have happened inside of deep oceanic crusts of the early Earth.

  4. Engineering wild-type robust Pediococcus acidilactici strain for high titer L- and D-lactic acid production from corn stover feedstock.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xia; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Jiaoe; Tu, Yi; Gao, Qiuqiang; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2016-01-10

    Pediococcus acidilactici TY112 producing L-lactic acid and P. acidilactici ZP26 producing D-lactic acid, were engineered from the wild-type P. acidilactici DQ2 by ldhD or ldh gene disruption, and the robustness of the wild-type strain to the inhibitors derived from lignocellulose pretreatment was maintained well. In simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), 77.66 g L(-1) of L-lactic acid and 76.76 g L(-1) of D-lactic acid were obtained at 25% (w/w) solids content of dry dilute acid pretreated and biodetoxified corn stover feedstock. L- and D-Lactic acid yield and productivity were highly dependent on the inhibitor removal extent due to the significant down-regulation on the expressions of ldh and ldhD encoding lactate dehydrogenase by inhibitor, especially syringaldehyde and vanillin at the low concentrations. This study provided a prototype of industrial process for high titer L- and D-lactic acid production from lignocellulose feedstock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Simultaneous determination of furfural and its degradation products, furoic acid and maleic acid, in transformer oil by the reversed-phase vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifan; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Weijie; Hua, Jia

    2017-12-01

    To explore why the use of furfural as a transformer oil-paper insulation aging characteristic is problematic in real world application, we developed a method for the simultaneous determination of furfural, furoic acid, and maleic acid in transformer oil by reversed-phase vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography. The conditions for the proposed method were optimized, and the obtained extract can be directly analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) of the method ranged from 1.0 to 4.6 μg/L, the enrichment factors for furfural, furoic acid, maleic acid, and fumaric acid were 4.6, 25.1, 15.6, and 17.5, respectively, and the recovery rates for three analytes (fumaric acid was undetected) range from 82.1 to 106.2%. The contents of furfural, furoic acid, and maleic acid resulted from accelerated aging of transformer insulation oil-paper were measured using the present method for the first time, and the aging samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry for the identification of furoic acid and maleic acid in the aging transformer oil samples. Using the optimal method, the target products of samples at different aging time were tracked and measured. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Ambient aerosols remain highly acidic despite dramatic sulfate reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenes, Athanasios; Weber, Rodney; Guo, Hongyu; Russell, Armistead

    2016-04-01

    The pH of fine particles has many vital environmental impacts. By affecting aerosol concentrations, chemical composition and toxicity, particle pH is linked to regional air quality and climate, and adverse effects on human health. Sulfate is often the main acid component that drives pH of fine particles (i.e., PM2.5) and is neutralized to varying degrees by gas phase ammonia. Sulfate levels have decreased by approximately 70% over the Southeastern United States in the last fifteen years, but measured ammonia levels have been fairly steady implying the aerosol may becoming more neutral. Using a chemically comprehensive data set, combined with a thermodynamic analysis, we show that PM2.5 in the Southeastern U.S. is highly acidic (pH between 0 and 2), and that pH has remained relatively unchanged throughout the past decade and a half of decreasing sulfate. Even with further sulfate reductions, pH buffering by gas-particle partitioning of ammonia is expected to continue until sulfate drops to near background levels, indicating that fine particle pH will remain near current levels into the future. These results are non-intuitive and reshape expectations of how sulfur emission reductions impact air quality in the Southeastern U.S. and possibly other regions across the globe.

  7. Effect of Selection for High Activity-Related Metabolism on Membrane Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition in Bank Voles.

    PubMed

    Stawski, Clare; Valencak, Teresa G; Ruf, Thomas; Sadowska, Edyta T; Dheyongera, Geoffrey; Rudolf, Agata; Maiti, Uttaran; Koteja, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Endothermy, high basal metabolic rates (BMRs), and high locomotor-related metabolism were important steps in the evolution of mammals. It has been proposed that the composition of membrane phospholipid fatty acids plays an important role in energy metabolism and exercise muscle physiology. In particular, the membrane pacemaker theory of metabolism suggests that an increase in cell membrane fatty acid unsaturation would result in an increase in BMR. We aimed to determine whether membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition of heart, liver, and gastrocnemius muscles differed between lines of bank voles selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism-which also evolved an increased BMR-and unselected control lines. Proportions of fatty acids significantly differed among the organs: liver was the least unsaturated, whereas the gastrocnemius muscles were most unsaturated. However, fatty acid proportions of the heart and liver did not differ significantly between selected and control lines. In gastrocnemius muscles, significant differences between selection directions were found: compared to control lines, membranes of selected voles were richer in saturated C18:0 and unsaturated C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3, whereas the pattern was reversed for saturated C16:0 and unsaturated C20:4n-6. Neither unsaturation index nor other combined indexes of fatty acid proportions differed between lines. Thus, our results do not support the membrane pacemaker hypothesis. However, the differences between selected and control lines in gastrocnemius muscles reflect chain lengths rather than number of double bonds and are probably related to differences in locomotor activity per se rather than to differences in the basal or routine metabolic rate.

  8. High-Throughput Analysis of Sucrose Fatty Acid Esters by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Katsuhito; Tsumura, Kazunobu; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was applied to the profiling of sucrose fatty acid esters (SEs). The SFC conditions (column and modifier gradient) were optimized for the effective separation of SEs. In the column test, a silica gel reversed-phase column was selected. Then, the method was used for the detailed characterization of commercial SEs and the successful analysis of SEs containing different fatty acids. The present method allowed for fast and high-resolution separation of monoesters to tetra-esters within a shorter time (15 min) as compared to the conventional high-performance liquid chromatography. The applicability of our method for the analysis of SEs was thus demonstrated. PMID:26819875

  9. Fabrication of high-performance poly(l-lactic acid)/lignin-graft-poly(d-lactic acid) stereocomplex films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Dai, Lin; Hu, Li-Qiu; Zhou, Wen-Qin; Si, Chuan-Ling

    2017-11-01

    The need for green renewable alternatives such as lignin to traditional fillers has driven recent interest in polylactic acid blend materials. Herein, lignin-graft-polylactic acid copolymers (LG-g-PDLA, LG-g-PDLLA, and LG-g-PLLA) have been synthesized via ring-opening polymerization of d-, dl-, and l-lactic acid. Then poly(l-lactic acid)/lignin-graft-polylactic acid (PLLA/LG-g-PDLA, /LG-g-PDLLA, and /LG-g-PLLA) complex films have been prepared. The results showed that, compared with LG-g-PDLA and LG-g-PLLA, a small amount of LG-g-PDLA addition could improve the crystallization rate, reduce the glass transition temperature and cold crystallization temperature of PLLA due to the stereocomplex crystallites. The thermal stability, tensile strength and strain of the stereocomplex films were also enhanced. Moreover, the PLLA/LG-g-PDLA films have good ultraviolet resistance and excellent biocompatibility. This study provides a green approach to design advanced polylactic acid-based blends with renewable natural resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The "high solubility" definition of the current FDA Guidance on Biopharmaceutical Classification System may be too strict for acidic drugs.

    PubMed

    Yazdanian, Mehran; Briggs, Katherine; Jankovsky, Corinne; Hawi, Amale

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess if the definition of high solubility as proposed in the FDA Guidance on Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) is too strict for highly permeable acidic drugs. The solubility and permeability values of 20 (18 acidic and 2 non-acidic) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) were determined. The NSAIDs were grouped into three different sets having acetic acid, propionic acid, or other acidic moieties such as fenamate, oxicam, and salicylate. Two nonacidic NSAIDs (celecoxib and rofecoxib) were also included for comparison purposes. Equilibrium solubility values were determined at pH 1.2, 5.0, 7.4, and in biorelevant media simulating fed intestinal fluid at pH 5.0. For a select number of acids, we also measured solubility values in media simulating gastric and fasted intestinal fluids. Permeability classification was established relative to that of reference drugs in the Caco-2 cell permeability model. Permeability coefficients for all drugs were measured at concentrations corresponding to the lowest and highest marketed dose strengths dissolved in 250 ml volume, and their potential interaction with cellular efflux pumps was investigated. All NSAIDs with different acidic functional groups were classified as highly permeable based on their Caco-2 cell permeability. Only ketorolac appeared to have a potential for interaction with cellular efflux pumps. Solubility classification was based on comparison of equilibrium solubility at pH 1.2, 5.0. and 7.4 relative to marketed dose strengths in 250 ml. The pKa values for the acidic NSAIDs studied were between 3.5 and 5.1. and, as expected, their solubility increased dramatically at pH 7.4 compared to pH 1.2. Only three NSAIDs, ketorolac, ketoprofen. and acetyl salicylic acid, meet the current criteria for high solubility over the entire pH range. However, with the exception of ibuprofen, oxaprozin, and mefenamic acid, the remaining compounds can be classified as Class I drugs

  11. Rapid, transient, and highly localized induction of plastidial ω-3 fatty acid desaturase mRNA at fungal infection sites in Petroselinum crispum

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Christoph; Takamiya-Wik, Monica; Reinold, Susanne; Hahlbrock, Klaus; Somssich, Imre E.

    1997-01-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) plants and suspension-cultured cells have been used extensively for studies of non-host-resistance mechanisms in plant/pathogen interactions. We now show that treatment of cultured parsley cells with a defined peptide elicitor of fungal origin causes rapid and large changes in the levels of various unsaturated fatty acids. While linoleic acid decreased and linolenic acid increased steadily for several hours, comparatively sharp increases in oleic acid followed a biphasic time course. In contrast, the overall level of stearic acid remained unaffected. Using a PCR-based approach, a parsley cDNA was isolated sharing high sequence similarity with ω-3 fatty acid desaturases. Subsequent isolation and characterization of a full-length cDNA enabled its functional identification as a plastid-localized ω-3 fatty acid desaturase by complementation of the Arabidopsis thaliana fad7/8 double mutant which is low in trienoic fatty acids. ω-3 Fatty acid desaturase mRNA accumulated rapidly and transiently in elicitor-treated cultured parsley cells, protoplasts, and leaves, as well as highly localized around fungal infection sites in parsley leaf buds. These results indicate that unsaturated fatty acid metabolism is yet another component of the highly complex, transcriptionally regulated pathogen defense response in plants. PMID:9050908

  12. Actual ratios of triacylglycerol positional isomers and enantiomers comprising saturated fatty acids and highly unsaturated fatty acids in fishes and marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Toshiharu; Matsumoto, Yumiko; Jiang, Yanying; Ishikawa, Keiko; Wakatabe, Tokuhisa; Mizobe, Hoyo; Yoshinaga, Kazuaki; Kojima, Koichi; Kuroda, Ikuma; Saito, Tadao; Beppu, Fumiaki; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2013-01-01

    It has been previously shown that the positional isomers of triacylglycerol (TAG) containing palmitic acid (P) and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) such as DHA (D) and EPA (E) vary between fishes and marine mammals. However, it has not yet been understood why in marine mammals HUFAs are located only at the α position when two palmitic acid chains combine, and not in fishes. In order to gain further understanding of the biosynthetic pathways involved in the formation of these asymmetric TAGs, we investigated whether the HUFA in the TAG of marine mammals exists predominantly at the sn-1 or sn-3 position. We examined the TAG positional isomers and enantiomers in marine organisms in detail. As a result, while PDP and PEP were not detected, sn-PPD and sn-PPE were found in abundance in marine mammals. For fishes, on the other hand, PDP, PEP, sn-PPD, and sn-PPE were all identified. In the case of TAGs that contain two HUFAs and one palmitic acid, marine mammals were rich in DPD and EPE whereas fishes were rich in sn-PDD and sn-PEE.

  13. High-level exogenous glutamic acid-independent production of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) with organic acid addition in a new isolated Bacillus subtilis C10.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huili; Zhu, Jianzhong; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Cai, Jin; Zhang, Anyi; Hong, Yizhi; Huang, Jin; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zhinan

    2012-07-01

    A new exogenous glutamic acid-independent γ-PGA producing strain was isolated and characterized as Bacillus subtilis C10. The factors influencing the endogenous glutamic acid supply and the biosynthesis of γ-PGA in this strain were investigated. The results indicated that citric acid and oxalic acid showed the significant capability to support the overproduction of γ-PGA. This stimulated increase of γ-PGA biosynthesis by citric acid or oxalic acid was further proved in the 10 L fermentor. To understand the possible mechanism contributing to the improved γ-PGA production, the activities of four key intracellular enzymes were measured, and the possible carbon fluxes were proposed. The result indicated that the enhanced level of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity caused by oxalic acid was important for glutamic acid synthesized de novo from glucose. Moreover, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were the positive regulators of glutamic acid biosynthesis, while 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (ODHC) was the negative one. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acid-Enriched High Fat Diet Delays Skeletal Muscle Degradation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Soni, Nikul K; Ross, Alastair B; Scheers, Nathalie; Savolainen, Otto I; Nookaew, Intawat; Gabrielsson, Britt G; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2016-09-03

    Low-grade chronic inflammatory conditions such as ageing, obesity and related metabolic disorders are associated with deterioration of skeletal muscle (SkM). Human studies have shown that marine fatty acids influence SkM function, though the underlying mechanisms of action are unknown. As a model of diet-induced obesity, we fed C57BL/6J mice either a high fat diet (HFD) with purified marine fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (HFD-ED), a HFD with corn oil, or normal mouse chow for 8 weeks; and used transcriptomics to identify the molecular effects of EPA and DHA on SkM. Consumption of ED-enriched HFD modulated SkM metabolism through increased gene expression of mitochondrial β-oxidation and slow-fiber type genes compared with HFD-corn oil fed mice. Furthermore, HFD-ED intake increased nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (Nfatc4) protein, which controls fiber-type composition. This data suggests a role for EPA and DHA in mitigating some of the molecular responses due to a HFD in SkM. Overall, the results suggest that increased consumption of the marine fatty acids EPA and DHA may aid in the prevention of molecular processes that lead to muscle deterioration commonly associated with obesity-induced low-grade inflammation.

  15. Differential effects of low and high dose folic acid on endothelial dysfunction in a murine model of mild hyperhomocysteinaemia.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Zoe L; Moat, Stuart J; Miller, Alastair L; Randall, Michael D; Lewis, Malcolm J; Lang, Derek

    2006-12-03

    The exact mechanism(s) by which hyperhomocysteinaemia promotes vascular disease remains unclear. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the beneficial effect of folic acid on endothelial function is independent of homocysteine-lowering. In the present study the effect of a low (400 microg/70 kg/day) and high (5 mg/70 kg/day) dose folic acid supplement on endothelium-dependent relaxation in the isolated perfused mesenteric bed of heterozygous cystathionine beta-synthase deficient mice was investigated. Elevated total plasma homocysteine and impaired relaxation responses to methacholine were observed in heterozygous mice. In the presence of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester relaxation responses in wild-type tissues were reduced, but in heterozygous tissues were abolished. Clotrimazole and 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid, both inhibitors of non-nitric oxide/non-prostanoid-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, reduced responses to methacholine in wild-type but not heterozygous tissues. The combination of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and either clotrimazole or 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid completely inhibited relaxation responses in wild-type tissues. Both low and high dose folic acid increased plasma folate, reduced total plasma homocysteine and reversed endothelial dysfunction in heterozygous mice. A greater increase in plasma folate in the high dose group was accompanied by a more significant effect on endothelial function. In the presence of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a significant residual relaxation response was evident in tissues from low and high dose folic acid treated heterozygous mice. These data suggest that the impaired mesenteric relaxation in heterozygous mice is largely due to loss of the non-nitric oxide/non-prostanoid component. While low dose folic acid may restore this response in a homocysteine-dependent manner, the higher dose has an additional effect on nitric oxide-mediated relaxation that would appear to be independent of

  16. High Acetic Acid Production Rate Obtained by Microbial Electrosynthesis from Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Jourdin, Ludovic; Grieger, Timothy; Monetti, Juliette; Flexer, Victoria; Freguia, Stefano; Lu, Yang; Chen, Jun; Romano, Mark; Wallace, Gordon G; Keller, Jurg

    2015-11-17

    High product specificity and production rate are regarded as key success parameters for large-scale applicability of a (bio)chemical reaction technology. Here, we report a significant performance enhancement in acetate formation from CO2, reaching comparable productivity levels as in industrial fermentation processes (volumetric production rate and product yield). A biocathode current density of -102 ± 1 A m(-2) and an acetic acid production rate of 685 ± 30 (g m(-2) day(-1)) have been achieved in this study. High recoveries of 94 ± 2% of the CO2 supplied as the sole carbon source and 100 ± 4% of electrons into the final product (acetic acid) were achieved after development of a mature biofilm, reaching an elevated product titer of up to 11 g L(-1). This high product specificity is remarkable for mixed microbial cultures, which would make the product downstream processing easier and the technology more attractive. This performance enhancement was enabled through the combination of a well-acclimatized and enriched microbial culture (very fast start-up after culture transfer), coupled with the use of a newly synthesized electrode material, EPD-3D. The throwing power of the electrophoretic deposition technique, a method suitable for large-scale production, was harnessed to form multiwalled carbon nanotube coatings onto reticulated vitreous carbon to generate a hierarchical porous structure.

  17. Gas release-based prescreening combined with reversed-phase HPLC quantitation for efficient selection of high-γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinglong; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-02-01

    High γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactobacilli are promising for the manufacture of GABA-rich foods and to synthesize GRAS (generally recognized as safe)-grade GABA. However, common chromatography-based screening is time-consuming and inefficient. In the present study, Korean kimchi was used as a model of lactic acid-based fermented foods, and a gas release-based prescreening of potential GABA producers was developed. The ability to produce GABA by potential GABA producers in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium supplemented with or without monosodium glutamate was further determined by HPLC. Based on the results, 9 isolates were regarded as high GABA producers, and were further genetically identified as Lactobacillus brevis based on the sequences of 16S rRNA gene. Gas release-based prescreening combined with reversed-phase HPLC confirmation was an efficient and cost-effective method to identify high-GABA-producing LAB, which could be good candidates for probiotics. The GABA that is naturally produced by these high-GABA-producing LAB could be used as a food additive. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Determination of sugars, organic acids and alcohols in microbial consortium fermentation broth from cellulose using high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Fan, Guifang; Du, Ran; Li, Peipei; Jiang, Li

    2015-08-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method was established for the determination of metabolites (sugars, organic acids and alcohols) in microbial consortium fermentation broth from cellulose. Sulfate was first added in the samples to precipitate calcium ions in microbial consortium culture medium and lower the pH of the solution to avoid the dissociation of organic acids, then the filtrates were effectively separated using high performance liquid chromatography. Cellobiose, glucose, ethanol, butanol, glycerol, acetic acid and butyric acid were quantitatively analyzed. The detection limits were in the range of 0.10-2.00 mg/L. The linear correlation coefficients were greater than 0.999 6 in the range of 0.020 to 1.000 g/L. The recoveries were in the range of 85.41%-115.60% with the relative standard deviations of 0.22% -4.62% (n = 6). This method is accurate for the quantitative analysis of the alcohols, organic acids and saccharides in microbial consortium fermentation broth from cellulose.

  19. SYNTHESIS OF H$sup 3$-LABELED AMINO ACIDS WITH HIGH SPECIFIC ACTIVITY AND THEIR APPLICATION FOR HISTOAUTORADIOGRAPHY

    SciTech Connect

    Hempel, K.

    1962-01-01

    New methods for synthesis of tritium-labeled amino acids with high specific activity (1000 mc/m mole and above) are described. Changes in tritium- labeled amino acids during storage are studied. An absorbed BETA energy of 10/ sup 5/ rad results in radiochemical disintegration of 1.5%. Autoradiographic studies were made with several amino acids. It was demonstrated that protein production is 2 to 3 times higher in butter-vellux, tumors than in liver tissue. Synthesis of melanine was studied in vivo with melanineproducing tumors. (Gmelin Inst.)

  20. High elevation watersheds in the southern Appalachians: indicators of sensitivity to acidic deposition and the potential for restoration through liming

    Treesearch

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; James M. Vose; William A. Jackson; Katherine J. Elliott; Stan Zarnoch

    2016-01-01

    Southern Appalachian high elevation watersheds have deep rocky soils with high organic matter content, different vegetation communities, and receive greater inputs of acidic deposition compared to low elevation sites within the region. Since the implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendment in the 1990s, concentrations of acidic anions in rainfall have...

  1. Impact of high-flux haemodialysis on the probability of target attainment for oral amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Hui, Katrina; Patel, Kashyap; Kong, David C M; Kirkpatrick, Carl M J

    2017-07-01

    Clearance of small molecules such as amoxicillin and clavulanic acid is expected to increase during high-flux haemodialysis, which may result in lower concentrations and thus reduced efficacy. To date, clearance of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC) during high-flux haemodialysis remains largely unexplored. Using published pharmacokinetic parameters, a two-compartment model with first-order input was simulated to investigate the impact of high-flux haemodialysis on the probability of target attainment (PTA) of orally administered AMC combination therapy. The following pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets were used to calculate the PTA. For amoxicillin, the time that the free concentration remains above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≥50% of the dosing period (≥50%ƒT >MIC ) was used. For clavulanic acid, the time that the free concentration was >0.1 mg/L of ≥45% of the dosing period (≥45%ƒT >0.1 mg/L ) was used. Dialysis clearance reported in low-flux haemodialysis for both compounds was doubled to represent the likely clearance during high-flux haemodialysis. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to produce concentration-time profiles over 10 days in 1000 virtual patients. Seven different regimens commonly seen in clinical practice were explored. When AMC was dosed twice daily, the PTA was mostly ≥90% for both compounds regardless of when haemodialysis commenced. When administered once daily, the PTA was 20-30% for clavulanic acid and ≥90% for amoxicillin. The simulations suggest that once-daily orally administered AMC in patients receiving high-flux haemodialysis may result in insufficient concentrations of clavulanic acid to effectively treat infections, especially on days when haemodialysis occurs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of high pressure processing on fatty acid composition and volatile compounds in Korean native black goat meat.

    PubMed

    Kang, Geunho; Cho, Soohyun; Seong, Pilnam; Park, Beomyoung; Kim, Sangwoo; Kim, Donghun; Kim, Youngjun; Kang, Sunmun; Park, Kyoungmi

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of high pressure processing (HPP) on fatty acid composition and volatile compounds in Korean native black goat (KNBG) meat. Fatty acid content in KNBG meat was not significantly (p > 0.05) different among the control goats and those subjected HPP. The 9,12-octadecadienoic acid and octadecanoic acid, well-known causes of off-flavors, were detected from meat of some KNBG. A difference between the control and HPP treatment was observed in the discriminated function analysis using an electronic nose. The results suggest that the volatile compounds in KNBG meat were affected by HPP.

  3. Implication of azelaic acid in a Greenland Ice Core for oceanic and atmospheric changes in high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Yokoyama, K.; Fujii, Y.; Watanabe, O.

    A Greenland ice core (450 years) has been studied for low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids (C2-C10) using a capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometer. Their molecular distribution generally showed a predominance of succinic acid (C4) followed by oxalic (C2), malonic (C3), glutaric (C5), adipic (C6), and azelaic (C9) acids. Azelaic acid, that is a specific photochemical reaction product of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids, gave a characteristic historical trend in the ice core; i.e., the concentrations are relatively low during late 16th to 19th century (Little Ice Age) but become very high in late 19th to 20th century (warmer periods) with a large peak in 1940s AD. Lower concentrations of azelaic acid may have been caused by a depressed emission of unsaturated fatty acids from seawater microlayers due to enhanced sea ice coverage during Little Ice Age. Inversely, increased concentrations of azelaic acid in late 19th to 20th century are likely interpreted by an enhanced sea-to-air emission of the precursor unsaturated fatty acids due to a retreat of sea ice and/or by the enhanced production due to a potentially increased oxidizing capability of the atmosphere.

  4. Fatty acid composition of ewe milk as affected by solar radiation and high ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Sevi, Agostino; Rotunno, Taddeo; Di Roberto, Caterina; Muscio, Antonio

    2002-05-01

    Forty lactating Comisana ewes were either exposed to or protected from solar radiation and fed either in the morning or afternoon during summer in a Mediterranean climate. Individual milk samples were taken on days 7, 21 and 42 of the study period to determine fatty acid composition by gas chromatography. Exposure to solar radiation resulted in higher proportions of short-chain and saturated fatty acids in milk, primarily because of increased contents of caproic, capric, lauric, myristic and stearic acids (by 3-18%), and decreased contents of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids (by 2-9%). As a consequence, the long to short chain and the unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratios were significantly higher by 4 and 13% respectively in the milk of the protected ewes compared with that of the exposed animals. Provision of shade also led to an increase in the 18:0+18:1 to 16:0 ratio, and to a decrease in the 12:0 + 14:0 + 16:0 fatty acid group, which are regarded as reliable indexes of the nutritional property of dietary fat in reducing cholesterol levels in human plasma. Feeding time had little impact on milk fat. Our findings suggest that high ambient temperature may markedly modify the lipid composition of ewe milk and that provision of shade, but not feeding management, can improve the milk fatty acid profile in dairy sheep raised in hot climates.

  5. Production of high optical purity l-lactic acid from waste activated sludge by supplementing carbohydrate: effect of temperature and pretreatment time.

    PubMed

    Jian, Qiwei; Li, Xiang; Chen, Yinguang; Liu, Yanan; Pan, Yin

    2016-10-01

    It has been widely accepted that the most environmentally beneficial way to treat waste activated sludge (WAS), the byproduct of municipal wastewater treatment plant, is to recover the valuable organic acid. However, the bio-conversion of lactic acid, one of the high added-value chemical, is seldom reported from WAS fermentation. In this paper, l-lactic acid was observed dominant in the WAS fermentation liquid with carbohydrate addition at ambient temperature. Furthermore, the effect of temperature on l-lactic acid and d-lactic acid production was fully discussed: two isomers were rapidly produced and consumed up in one day at mesophilic condition; and almost optically pure l-lactic acid was generated at thermophilic condition, yet time-consuming with yield of l-lactic acid enhancing by 52.9% compared to that at ambient temperature. The study mechanism showed that mesophilic condition was optimal for both production and consumption of l-lactic acid and d-lactic acid, while consumption of l-lactic acid and production of d-lactic acid were severely inhibited at thermophilic condition. Therefore, by maintaining thermophilic for 4 h in advance and subsequently fermenting mesophilic for 34 h, the concentration of l-lactic acid with optical activity of 98.3% was improved to 16.6 ± 0.5 g COD/L at a high specific efficiency of 0.6097/d.

  6. 3D Polyaniline Architecture by Concurrent Inorganic and Organic Acid Doping for Superior and Robust High Rate Supercapacitor Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawli, Yogesh; Banerjee, Abhik; Dhakras, Dipti; Deo, Meenal; Bulani, Dinesh; Wadgaonkar, Prakash; Shelke, Manjusha; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-02-01

    A good high rate supercapacitor performance requires a fine control of morphological (surface area and pore size distribution) and electrical properties of the electrode materials. Polyaniline (PANI) is an interesting material in supercapacitor context because it stores energy Faradaically. However in conventional inorganic (e.g. HCl) acid doping, the conductivity is high but the morphological features are undesirable. On the other hand, in weak organic acid (e.g. phytic acid) doping, interesting and desirable 3D connected morphological features are attained but the conductivity is poorer. Here the synergy of the positive quality factors of these two acid doping approaches is realized by concurrent and optimized strong-inorganic (HCl) and weak-organic (phytic) acid doping, resulting in a molecular composite material that renders impressive and robust supercapacitor performance. Thus, a nearly constant high specific capacitance of 350 F g-1 is realized for the optimised case of binary doping over the entire range of 1 A g-1 to 40 A g-1 with stability of 500 cycles at 40 A g-1. Frequency dependant conductivity measurements show that the optimized co-doped case is more metallic than separately doped materials. This transport property emanates from the unique 3D single molecular character of such system.

  7. 3D Polyaniline Architecture by Concurrent Inorganic and Organic Acid Doping for Superior and Robust High Rate Supercapacitor Performance

    PubMed Central

    Gawli, Yogesh; Banerjee, Abhik; Dhakras, Dipti; Deo, Meenal; Bulani, Dinesh; Wadgaonkar, Prakash; Shelke, Manjusha; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-01-01

    A good high rate supercapacitor performance requires a fine control of morphological (surface area and pore size distribution) and electrical properties of the electrode materials. Polyaniline (PANI) is an interesting material in supercapacitor context because it stores energy Faradaically. However in conventional inorganic (e.g. HCl) acid doping, the conductivity is high but the morphological features are undesirable. On the other hand, in weak organic acid (e.g. phytic acid) doping, interesting and desirable 3D connected morphological features are attained but the conductivity is poorer. Here the synergy of the positive quality factors of these two acid doping approaches is realized by concurrent and optimized strong-inorganic (HCl) and weak-organic (phytic) acid doping, resulting in a molecular composite material that renders impressive and robust supercapacitor performance. Thus, a nearly constant high specific capacitance of 350 F g−1 is realized for the optimised case of binary doping over the entire range of 1 A g−1 to 40 A g−1 with stability of 500 cycles at 40 A g−1. Frequency dependant conductivity measurements show that the optimized co-doped case is more metallic than separately doped materials. This transport property emanates from the unique 3D single molecular character of such system. PMID:26867570

  8. 3D Polyaniline Architecture by Concurrent Inorganic and Organic Acid Doping for Superior and Robust High Rate Supercapacitor Performance.

    PubMed

    Gawli, Yogesh; Banerjee, Abhik; Dhakras, Dipti; Deo, Meenal; Bulani, Dinesh; Wadgaonkar, Prakash; Shelke, Manjusha; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-02-12

    A good high rate supercapacitor performance requires a fine control of morphological (surface area and pore size distribution) and electrical properties of the electrode materials. Polyaniline (PANI) is an interesting material in supercapacitor context because it stores energy Faradaically. However in conventional inorganic (e.g. HCl) acid doping, the conductivity is high but the morphological features are undesirable. On the other hand, in weak organic acid (e.g. phytic acid) doping, interesting and desirable 3D connected morphological features are attained but the conductivity is poorer. Here the synergy of the positive quality factors of these two acid doping approaches is realized by concurrent and optimized strong-inorganic (HCl) and weak-organic (phytic) acid doping, resulting in a molecular composite material that renders impressive and robust supercapacitor performance. Thus, a nearly constant high specific capacitance of 350 F g(-1) is realized for the optimised case of binary doping over the entire range of 1 A g(-1) to 40 A g(-1) with stability of 500 cycles at 40 A g(-1). Frequency dependant conductivity measurements show that the optimized co-doped case is more metallic than separately doped materials. This transport property emanates from the unique 3D single molecular character of such system.

  9. Influence of high-fat diet from differential dietary sources on bone mineral density, bone strength, and bone fatty acid composition in rats.

    PubMed

    Lau, Beatrice Y; Fajardo, Val Andrew; McMeekin, Lauren; Sacco, Sandra M; Ward, Wendy E; Roy, Brian D; Peters, Sandra J; Leblanc, Paul J

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that high-fat diets adversely affect bone development. However, these studies included other dietary manipulations, including low calcium, folic acid, and fibre, and (or) high sucrose or cholesterol, and did not directly compare several common sources of dietary fat. Thus, the overall objective of this study was to investigate the effect of high-fat diets that differ in fat quality, representing diets high in saturated fatty acids (SFA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or n-6 PUFA, on femur bone mineral density (BMD), strength, and fatty acid composition. Forty-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for 65 days on high-fat diets (20% by weight), containing coconut oil (SFA; n = 10), flaxseed oil (n-3 PUFA; n = 10), or safflower oil (n-6 PUFA; n = 11). Chow-fed rats (n = 10), at 105 days of age, were included to represent animals on a control diet. Rats fed high-fat diets had higher body weights than the chow-fed rats (p < 0.001). Among all high-fat groups, there were no differences in femur BMD (p > 0.05) or biomechanical strength properties (p > 0.05). Femurs of groups fed either the high n-3 or high n-6 PUFA diets were stronger (as measured by peak load) than those of the chow-fed group, after adjustment for significant differences in body weight (p = 0.001). As expected, the femur fatty acid profile reflected the fatty acid composition of the diet consumed. These results suggest that high-fat diets, containing high levels of PUFA in the form of flaxseed or safflower oil, have a positive effect on bone strength when fed to male rats 6 to 15 weeks of age.

  10. ETHANOL, ACETIC ACID, AND WATER ADSORPTION FROM BINARY AND TERNARY LIQUID MIXTURES ON HIGH-SILICA ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adsorption isotherms were measured for ethanol, acetic acid, and water adsorbed on high-silica ZSM-5 zeolite powder from binary and ternary liquid mixtures at room temperature. Ethanol and water adsorption on two high-silica ZSM-5 zeolites with different aluminum contents and a h...

  11. Structural evidence for solvent-stabilisation by aspartic acid as a mechanism for halophilic protein stability in high salt concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Samuel; Walsh, Danielle L; Rhys, Natasha H; Soper, Alan K; Dougan, Lorna

    2016-07-21

    Halophilic organisms have adapted to survive in high salt environments, where mesophilic organisms would perish. One of the biggest challenges faced by halophilic proteins is the ability to maintain both the structure and function at molar concentrations of salt. A distinct adaptation of halophilic proteins, compared to mesophilic homologues, is the abundance of aspartic acid on the protein surface. Mutagenesis and crystallographic studies of halophilic proteins suggest an important role for solvent interactions with the surface aspartic acid residues. This interaction, between the regions of the acidic protein surface and the solvent, is thought to maintain a hydration layer around the protein at molar salt concentrations thereby allowing halophilic proteins to retain their functional state. Here we present neutron diffraction data of the monomeric zwitterionic form of aspartic acid solutions at physiological pH in 0.25 M and 2.5 M concentration of potassium chloride, to mimic mesophilic and halophilic-like environmental conditions. We have used isotopic substitution in combination with empirical potential structure refinement to extract atomic-scale information from the data. Our study provides structural insights that support the hypothesis that carboxyl groups on acidic residues bind water more tightly under high salt conditions, in support of the residue-ion interaction model of halophilic protein stabilisation. Furthermore our data show that in the presence of high salt the self-association between the zwitterionic form of aspartic acid molecules is reduced, suggesting a possible mechanism through which protein aggregation is prevented.

  12. Biobased methacrylic acid via selective catalytic decarboxylation of itaconic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report a bio-based route to methacrylic acid via selective decarboxylation of itaconic acid utilizing catalytic ruthenium carbonyl propionate in an aqueous solvent system. High selectivity (>90%) was achieved at low catalyst loading (0.1 mol %) with high substrate concentration (5.5 M) at low tem...

  13. Synthesis of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube in malonic acid solution by anodization.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Won Hee; Park, Chan Jin; Kwon, Hyuk Sang

    2008-10-01

    We synthesized TiO2 nanotube array by anodizing in a solution of malonic acid (HOOCCH2COOH) and NH4F, and analyzed the morphology of the nanotube using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The morphology of TiO2 nanotube was largely affected by anodizing time, anodizing voltage, and malonic acid concentration. With increasing the anodizing voltage from 5 V to 20 V, the diameter of TiO2 nanotube was increased from about 20 nm to 110 nm and its length from about 10 nm to 700 nm. In addition, the length of TiO2 nanotube was increased with increasing anodizing time up to 6 h at 20 V. We obtained the longest and the most highly ordered nanotube structure when anodizing Ti in a solution of 0.5 wt% NH4F and 1 M malonic acid at 20 V for 6 h.

  14. Hydrolytic cleavage of pyroglutamyl-peptide bond. V. selective removal of pyroglutamic acid from biologically active pyroglutamylpeptides in high concentrations of aqueous methanesulfonic acid.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Junko; Ohki, Kazuhiro; Okimura, Keiko; Hashimoto, Tadashi; Sakura, Naoki

    2006-06-01

    Application of aqueous methanesulfonic acid (MSA) for selective chemical removal of pyroglutamic acid (pGlu) residue from five biologically active pyroglutamyl-peptides (pGlu-X-peptides, X=amino acid residue at position 2) was examined. Gonadotropin releasing hormone (Gn-RH), dog neuromedin U-8 (d-NMU-8), physalaemin (PH), a bradykinin potentiating peptide (BPP-5a) and neurotensin (NT) as pGlu-X-peptides were incubated in either 70% or 90% aqueous MSA at 25 degrees C. HPLC analysis of the incubation solutions showed that the main decomposition product was H-X-peptide derived from each pGlu-X-peptide by the removal of pGlu. The results revealed that the pGlu-X peptide bond had higher susceptibility than various internal amide bonds in the five peptides examined, including the Trp-Ser bond in Gn-RH, the C-terminal Asn-NH(2) in d-NMU-8, and the Asp-Pro bond in PH, whose acid susceptibility is well known. Thus, mild hydrolysis with high concentrations of aqueous MSA may be applicable to chemically selective removal of pGlu from pGlu-X-peptides for structural examinations.

  15. High fat diet feeding exaggerates perfluorooctanoic acid-induced liver injury in mice via modulating multiple metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaobing; Xie, Guoxiang; Sun, Xiuhua; Li, Qiong; Zhong, Wei; Qiao, Peter; Sun, Xinguo; Jia, Wei; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2013-01-01

    High fat diet (HFD) is closely linked to a variety of health issues including fatty liver. Exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a synthetic perfluorinated carboxylic acid, also causes liver injury. The present study investigated the possible interactions between high fat diet and PFOA in induction of liver injury. Mice were pair-fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or low fat control with or without PFOA administration at 5 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Exposure to PFOA alone caused elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels and increased liver weight along with reduced body weight and adipose tissue mass. HFD alone did not cause liver damage, but exaggerated PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity as indicated by higher plasma ALT and AST levels, and more severe pathological changes including hepatocyte hypertrophy, lipid droplet accumulation and necrosis as well as inflammatory cell infiltration. These additive effects of HFD on PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity correlated with metabolic disturbance in liver and blood as well as up-regulation of hepatic proinflammatory cytokine genes. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that both serum and hepatic metabolite profiles of PFOA, HFD, or HFD-PFOA group were clearly differentiated from that of controls. PFOA affected more hepatic metabolites than HFD, but HFD showed positive interaction with PFOA on fatty acid metabolites including long chain fatty acids and acylcarnitines. Taken together, dietary high fat potentiates PFOA-induced hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and necrotic cell death by disturbing hepatic metabolism and inducing inflammation. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that HFD increases the risk of PFOA in induction of hepatotoxicity.

  16. Signal enhancement for gradient reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis with trifluoroacetic and other strong acid modifiers by postcolumn addition of propionic acid and isopropanol.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, F E; Apffel, A; Fischer, S M; Goldberg, G; Goodley, P C

    1995-12-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and other volatile strong acids, used as modifiers in reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, cause signal suppression for basic compounds when analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Evidence is presented that signal suppression is caused by strong ion pairing between the TFA anion and the protonated sample cation of basic sample molecules. The ion-pairing process "masks" the protonated sample cations from the ESI-MS electric fields by rendering them "neutral. " Weakly basic molecules are not suppressed by this process. The TFA signal suppression effect is independent from the well-known spray problem that electrospray has with highly aqueous solutions that contain TFA. This previously reported spray problem is caused by the high conductivity and surface tension of aqueous TFA solutions. A practical method to enhance the signal for most basic analytes in the presence of signal-suppressing volatile strong acids has been developed. The method employs postcolumn addition of a solution of 75% propionic acid and 25% isopropanol in a ratio 1:2 to the column flow. Signal enhancement is typically 10-50 times for peptides and other small basic molecules. Thus, peptide maps that use ESI-MS for detection can be performed at lower levels, with conventional columns, without the need to use capillary chromatography or reduced mass spectral resolution to achieve satisfactory sensitivity. The method may be used with similar results for heptafluorobutyric acid and hydrochloric acid. A mechanism for TFA signal suppression and signal enhancement by the foregoing method, is proposed.

  17. Simultaneous saccharification of inulin and starch using commercial glucoamylase and the subsequent bioconversion to high titer sorbitol and gluconic acid.

    PubMed

    An, Kehong; Hu, Fengxian; Bao, Jie

    2013-12-01

    A new bioprocess for production of sorbitol and gluconic acid from two low-cost feedstocks, inulin and cassava starch, using a commercially available enzyme was proposed in this study. The commercial glucoamylase GA-L NEW from Genencor was found to demonstrate a high inulinase activity for hydrolysis of inulin into fructose and glucose. The glucoamylase was used to replace the expensive and not commercially available inulinase enzyme for simultaneous saccharification of inulin and starch into high titer glucose and fructose hydrolysate. The glucose and fructose in the hydrolysate were converted into sorbitol and gluconic acid using immobilized whole cells of the recombinant Zymomonas mobilis strain. The high gluconic acid concentration of 193 g/L and sorbitol concentration of 180 g/L with the overall yield of 97.3 % were obtained in the batch operations. The present study provided a practical production method of sorbitol and gluconic acid from low cost feedstocks and enzymes.

  18. Orally administered L-arginine and glycine are highly effective against acid reflux esophagitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Nagahama, Kenji; Nishio, Hikaru; Yamato, Masanori; Takeuchi, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Reflux esophagitis is caused mainly by excessive exposure of the mucosa to gastric contents. In the present study, we examined the effect of several amino acids on acid reflux esophagitis in rats. Material/Methods After 18 h of fasting, acid reflux esophagitis was induced by ligating both the pylorus and the transitional region between the forestomach and the corpus under ether anesthesia, and the animals were killed 4 h later. The severity of esophagitis was reduced by the oral administration of omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, or pepstatin, a specific pepsin inhibitor. Results The development of esophageal lesions was dose-dependently prevented by L-arginine and glycine, given intragastrically (i.g.) after the ligation, with complete inhibition obtained at 250 mg/kg and 750 mg/kg, respectively, and these effects were not influenced by the prior s.c. administration of indomethacin or L-NAME. By contrast, both L-alanine and L-glutamine given i.g. after the ligation aggravated these lesions in a dose-dependent manner. These amino acids had no effect on acid secretion but increased the pH of the gastric contents to 1.8~2.3 due to their buffering action. Conclusions The results confirmed an essential role for acid and pepsin in the pathogenesis of acid reflux esophagitis in the rat model and further suggested that various amino acids affect the severity of esophagitis in different ways, due to yet unidentified mechanisms; L-alanine and L-glutamine exert a deleterious effect on the esophagitis, while L-arginine and glycine are highly protective, independent of endogenous prostaglandins and nitric oxide. PMID:22207112

  19. Adolescents with or at ultra-high risk for bipolar disorder exhibit erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid deficits: a candidate prodromal risk biomarker.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Tso, Patrick; Blom, Thomas J; Welge, Jeffrey A; Strawn, Jeffrey R; Adler, Caleb M; Strakowski, Stephen M; DelBello, Melissa P

    2016-06-01

    Mood disorders are associated with low levels of the long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This study investigated LCn-3 fatty acid biostatus in youth with or at varying risk for developing mania to assess its utility as a prodromal risk biomarker. Erythrocyte fatty acid composition was determined in healthy adolescents (n = 28, HC), asymptomatic adolescents with a biological parent with bipolar I disorder (n = 30; 'high risk', HR), adolescents with a biological parent with bipolar I disorder and major depressive disorder, or depressive disorder not otherwise specified (n = 36; 'ultra-high risk', UHR), and first-episode adolescent bipolar manic patients (n = 35, BP). Group differences were observed for DHA (P ≤ 0.0001) and EPA (P = 0.03). Compared with HC, erythrocyte EPA + DHA ('omega-3 index') was significantly lower in BP (-24%, P ≤ 0.0001) and UHR (-19%, P = 0.0006) groups, and there was a trend in the HR group (-11%, P = 0.06). Compared with HC (61%), a greater percentage of HR (77%, P = 0.02), UHR (80%, P = 0.005) and BP (97%, P = 0.001) subjects exhibited EPA + DHA levels of ≤4.0%. Among all subjects (n = 130), EPA + DHA was inversely correlated with manic (r = -0.29, P = 0.0008) and depressive (r = -0.28, P = 0.003) symptom severity. The AA/EPA + DHA ratio was significantly greater in BP (+22%, P = 0.0002) and UHR (+16%, P = 0.001) groups. Low EPA + DHA levels coincide with the initial onset of mania, and increasing risk for developing bipolar disorder is associated with graded erythrocyte EPA + DHA deficits. Low erythrocyte EPA + DHA biostatus may represent a promising prodromal risk biomarker warranting additional evaluation in future prospective studies. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Formation of amino acids and nucleic acid constituents from simulated primitive planetary atmospheres by irradiation with high-energy protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Yamanashi, H.; Ohashi, A.; Kaneko, T.; Miyakawa, S.; Saito, T.

    It is suggested that primitive Earth atmosphere was only slightly reduced, which w as composed of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and water. It has been shown that bioorganic compounds can be hardly formed by energies as UV light, heat and spark discharges. We therefore examined possible formation pat hways of bioorganic compounds in the primitive E arth. A mixt ure of carbon monoxide, nitrogen and water was irradiated with high-energy prot ons generated by a van de Graaff accelerator, whi c h simulated an action of cosm ic rays. Aqueous solution of the product was hydr olyzed, and then analyzed by chromatography and mass spectrometry. A wide variety of amino acids and uracil, one of the nucle ic acid bases, wer e identified. Ribose, the RNA sugar, has not been identified, but formation of reducing polyols was suggested. A mino acids and uracil were also formed from a mixture of carbo n dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and water, and their yields correlated to the ratio of carbon monoxide and nitrogen in the mixture. Since a certain percentage of carbon monoxide could be expected to be in it [1], cosmic radiation can be regarded as an effective energ so urce for prebiotic formation of life's building blocks in they primitive Earth [2]. In the conventional scenario of chemical evolution, amino acids were formed in t he primitive ocean from such intermediates as HCN an d HCHO formed in t he atmosphere. T his scenario seem s not to be possible due to the following reasons: (1) The irradiation products were quit e complex organic com pound s whose molecular weights were ca. 1000, and they gave amino acids after hydrolysis. (2) Energy yields of amino ac ids in the hydrolysates were comparable to those of HCN and HCHO in the irradiation pro duct s. (3) Irradiation products from a mixture of carbon monoxide and nitrogen without water als o gave amino acids aft er hydrolysis. T hes e observations strongly sugge s t e d that complex precursors of bioor ganic com

  1. Simultaneous determination of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid in human plasma by isocratic high-pressure liquid chromatography with post-column hydrolysis and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Hobl, Eva-Luise; Jilma, Bernd; Ebner, Josef; Schmid, Rainer W

    2013-06-01

    A selective, sensitive and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method with post-column hydrolysis and fluorescence detection was developed for the simultaneous quantification of acetylsalicylic acid and its metabolite salicylic acid in human plasma. Following the addition of 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid as internal standard and simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile, the analytes were separated on a ProntoSIL 120 C18 ace-EPS column (150 × 2 mm, 3 µm) protected by a C8 guard column (5 µm). The mobile phase, 10 mm formic acid in water (pH 2.9) and acetonitrile (70:30, v/v), was used at a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min. After on-line post-column hydrolysis of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) to salicylic acid (SA) by addition of alkaline solution, the analytes were measured at 290 nm (λex ) and 400 nm (λem ). The method was linear in the concentration ranges between 0.05 and 20 ng/μL for both ASA and SA with a lower limit of quantification of 25 pg/μL for SA and 50 pg/μL for ASA. The limit of detection was 15 pg/μL for SA and 32.5 pg/μL for ASA. The analysis of ASA and SA can be carried out within 8 min; therefore this method is suitable for measuring plasma concentrations of salicylates in clinical routine. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. High folic acid consumption leads to pseudo-MTHFR deficiency, altered lipid metabolism, and liver injury in mice12345

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Karen E; Mikael, Leonie G; Leung, Kit-Yi; Lévesque, Nancy; Deng, Liyuan; Wu, Qing; Malysheva, Olga V; Best, Ana; Caudill, Marie A; Greene, Nicholas DE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increased consumption of folic acid is prevalent, leading to concerns about negative consequences. The effects of folic acid on the liver, the primary organ for folate metabolism, are largely unknown. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) provides methyl donors for S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthesis and methylation reactions. Objective: Our goal was to investigate the impact of high folic acid intake on liver disease and methyl metabolism. Design: Folic acid–supplemented diet (FASD, 10-fold higher than recommended) and control diet were fed to male Mthfr+/+ and Mthfr+/− mice for 6 mo to assess gene-nutrient interactions. Liver pathology, folate and choline metabolites, and gene expression in folate and lipid pathways were examined. Results: Liver and spleen weights were higher and hematologic profiles were altered in FASD-fed mice. Liver histology revealed unusually large, degenerating cells in FASD Mthfr+/− mice, consistent with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. High folic acid inhibited MTHFR activity in vitro, and MTHFR protein was reduced in FASD-fed mice. 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, SAM, and SAM/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratios were lower in FASD and Mthfr+/− livers. Choline metabolites, including phosphatidylcholine, were reduced due to genotype and/or diet in an attempt to restore methylation capacity through choline/betaine-dependent SAM synthesis. Expression changes in genes of one-carbon and lipid metabolism were particularly significant in FASD Mthfr+/− mice. The latter changes, which included higher nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, higher Srepb2 messenger RNA (mRNA), lower farnesoid X receptor (Nr1h4) mRNA, and lower Cyp7a1 mRNA, would lead to greater lipogenesis and reduced cholesterol catabolism into bile. Conclusions: We suggest that high folic acid consumption reduces MTHFR protein and activity levels, creating a pseudo-MTHFR deficiency. This deficiency results in hepatocyte degeneration, suggesting a 2

  3. High temperature stimulates acetic acid accumulation and enhances the growth inhibition and ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under fermenting conditions.

    PubMed

    Woo, Ji-Min; Yang, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Sae-Um; Blank, Lars M; Park, Jin-Byung

    2014-07-01

    Cellular responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to high temperatures of up to 42 °C during ethanol fermentation at a high glucose concentration (i.e., 100 g/L) were investigated. Increased temperature correlated with stimulated glucose uptake to produce not only the thermal protectant glycerol but also ethanol and acetic acid. Carbon flux into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle correlated positively with cultivation temperature. These results indicate that the increased demand for energy (in the form of ATP), most likely caused by multiple stressors, including heat, acetic acid, and ethanol, was matched by both the fermentation and respiration pathways. Notably, acetic acid production was substantially stimulated compared to that of other metabolites during growth at increased temperature. The acetic acid produced in addition to ethanol seemed to subsequently result in adverse effects, leading to increased production of reactive oxygen species. This, in turn, appeared to cause the specific growth rate, and glucose uptake rate reduced leading to a decrease of the specific ethanol production rate far before glucose depletion. These results suggest that adverse effects from heat, acetic acid, ethanol, and oxidative stressors are synergistic, resulting in a decrease of the specific growth rate and ethanol production rate and, hence, are major determinants of cell stability and ethanol fermentation performance of S. cerevisiae at high temperatures. The results are discussed in the context of possible applications.

  4. Determination of aristolochic acids by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinan; Chan, Wan

    2014-06-25

    Nephrotoxic and carcinogenic aristolochic acids (AAs) are naturally occurring nitrophenanthrene carboxylic acids in the herbal genus Aristolochia. The misuse of AA-containing herbs in preparing slimming drugs has caused hundred of cases of kidney disease in Belgium women in a slimming regime in the early 1990s. Accumulating evidence also suggested that prolong dietary intake of AA-contaminated food is one of the major causes to the Balkan endemic nephropathy that was first observed in the late 1950s. Therefore, analytical methods of high sensitivity are extremely important for safeguarding human exposure to AA-containing herbal medicines, herbal remedies, and food composites. In this paper, we describe the development of a new high-performance liquid chromatography coupled fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD) method for the sensitive determination of AAs. The method makes use of a novel cysteine-induced denitration reaction that "turns on" the fluorescence of AAs for fluorometric detections. Our results showed that the combination of cysteine-induced denitration and HPLC-FLD analysis allows for sensitive quantification of AA-I and AA-II at detection limits of 27.1 and 25.4 ng/g, respectively. The method was validated and has been successfully applied in quantifying AAs in Chinese herbal medicines.

  5. High Dose, Prolonged Epsilon Aminocaproic Acid Infusion, and Recombinant Factor VII for Massive Postoperative Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage following Splenectomy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alex T; Barnes, Christopher R; Jain, Shweta; Pauldine, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The antifibrinolytic agent ε -aminocaproic acid is used to decrease procedural blood loss in a variety of high risk surgeries. The utility of recombinant factor VII administration in massive hemorrhage has also been reported in a variety of settings, though the impact in a surgical context remains unclear. We describe the case of a patient who underwent massive open splenectomy and developed diffuse retroperitoneal bleeding on postoperative day one. Massive transfusion was initiated, but attempts to control hemorrhage with surgical and interventional radiology approaches were unsuccessful, as was recombinant factor VII administration. Commencement of a high dose aminocaproic acid infusion was followed by a prominent rise in fibrinogen levels and stabilization of the hemorrhage. Indications, dosages, and adverse effects of ε -aminocaproic acid as described in the literature are reviewed.

  6. High Dose, Prolonged Epsilon Aminocaproic Acid Infusion, and Recombinant Factor VII for Massive Postoperative Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage following Splenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Christopher R.; Jain, Shweta; Pauldine, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The antifibrinolytic agent ε-aminocaproic acid is used to decrease procedural blood loss in a variety of high risk surgeries. The utility of recombinant factor VII administration in massive hemorrhage has also been reported in a variety of settings, though the impact in a surgical context remains unclear. We describe the case of a patient who underwent massive open splenectomy and developed diffuse retroperitoneal bleeding on postoperative day one. Massive transfusion was initiated, but attempts to control hemorrhage with surgical and interventional radiology approaches were unsuccessful, as was recombinant factor VII administration. Commencement of a high dose aminocaproic acid infusion was followed by a prominent rise in fibrinogen levels and stabilization of the hemorrhage. Indications, dosages, and adverse effects of ε-aminocaproic acid as described in the literature are reviewed. PMID:27957347

  7. Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein Gene-ablation Exacerbates Weight Gain in High-Fat Fed Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Avery L.; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Landrock, Danilo; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Martin, Gregory G.; Storey, Stephen M.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    Loss of liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) decreases long chain fatty acid uptake and oxidation in primary hepatocytes and in vivo. On this basis, L-FABP gene ablation would potentiate high-fat diet-induced weight gain and weight gain/energy intake. While this was indeed the case when L-FABP null (−/−) mice on the C57BL/6NCr background were pair-fed high fat diet, whether this would also be observed under high-fat diet fed ad libitum was not known. Therefore, this possibility was examined in female L-FABP (−/−) mice on the same background. L-FABP (−/−) mice consumed equal amounts of defined high-fat or isocaloric control diets fed ad libitum. However, on the ad libitum fed high-fat diet the L-FABP (−/−) mice exhibited: 1) Decreased hepatic long chain fatty acid (LCFA) β-oxidation as indicated by lower serum β–hydroxybutyrate level; 2) Decreased hepatic protein levels of key enzymes mitochondrial (rate limiting carnitine palmitoyl acyltransferase A1, CPT1A; HMG-CoA synthase) and peroxisomal (acyl CoA oxidase 1, ACOX1) LCFA β-oxidation; 3) Increased fat tissue mass (FTM) and FTM/energy intake to the greatest extent; and 4) Exacerbated body weight gain, weight gain/energy intake, liver weight, and liver weight/body weight to the greatest extent. Taken together, these findings showed that L-FABP gene-ablation exacerbated diet-induced weight gain and fat tissue mass gain in mice fed high-fat diet ad libitum—consistent with the known biochemistry and cell biology of L-FABP. PMID:23539345

  8. Ultra-High Density Single Nanometer-Scale Anodic Alumina Nanofibers Fabricated by Pyrophosphoric Acid Anodizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Nishinaga, Osamu; Nakajima, Daiki; Kawashima, Jun; Natsui, Shungo; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-12-01

    Anodic oxide fabricated by anodizing has been widely used for nanostructural engineering, but the nanomorphology is limited to only two oxides: anodic barrier and porous oxides. Therefore, the discovery of an additional anodic oxide with a unique nanofeature would expand the applicability of anodizing. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a third-generation anodic oxide, specifically, anodic alumina nanofibers, by anodizing in a new electrolyte, pyrophosphoric acid. Ultra-high density single nanometer-scale anodic alumina nanofibers (1010 nanofibers/cm2) consisting of an amorphous, pure aluminum oxide were successfully fabricated via pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The nanomorphologies of the anodic nanofibers can be controlled by the electrochemical conditions. Anodic tungsten oxide nanofibers can also be fabricated by pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The aluminum surface covered by the anodic alumina nanofibers exhibited ultra-fast superhydrophilic behavior, with a contact angle of less than 1°, within 1 second. Such ultra-narrow nanofibers can be used for various nanoapplications including catalysts, wettability control, and electronic devices.

  9. Ultra-High Density Single Nanometer-Scale Anodic Alumina Nanofibers Fabricated by Pyrophosphoric Acid Anodizing

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Nishinaga, Osamu; Nakajima, Daiki; Kawashima, Jun; Natsui, Shungo; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-01-01

    Anodic oxide fabricated by anodizing has been widely used for nanostructural engineering, but the nanomorphology is limited to only two oxides: anodic barrier and porous oxides. Therefore, the discovery of an additional anodic oxide with a unique nanofeature would expand the applicability of anodizing. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a third-generation anodic oxide, specifically, anodic alumina nanofibers, by anodizing in a new electrolyte, pyrophosphoric acid. Ultra-high density single nanometer-scale anodic alumina nanofibers (1010 nanofibers/cm2) consisting of an amorphous, pure aluminum oxide were successfully fabricated via pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The nanomorphologies of the anodic nanofibers can be controlled by the electrochemical conditions. Anodic tungsten oxide nanofibers can also be fabricated by pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The aluminum surface covered by the anodic alumina nanofibers exhibited ultra-fast superhydrophilic behavior, with a contact angle of less than 1°, within 1 second. Such ultra-narrow nanofibers can be used for various nanoapplications including catalysts, wettability control, and electronic devices. PMID:25491282

  10. Rapid quantification of live/dead lactic acid bacteria in probiotic products using high-sensitivity flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shengbin; Hong, Xinyi; Huang, Tianxun; Zhang, Wenqiang; Zhou, Yingxing; Wu, Lina; Yan, Xiaomei

    2017-06-01

    A laboratory-built high-sensitivity flow cytometer (HSFCM) was employed for the rapid and accurate detection of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their viability in probiotic products. LAB were stained with both the cell membrane-permeable SYTO 9 green-fluorescent nucleic acid stain and the red-fluorescent nucleic acid stain, propidium iodide, which penetrates only bacteria with compromised membranes. The side scatter and dual-color fluorescence signals of single bacteria were detected simultaneously by the HSFCM. Ultra-high temperature processing milk and skim milk spiked with Lactobacillus casei were used as the model systems for the optimization of sample pretreatment and staining. The viable LAB counts measured by the HSFCM were in good agreement with those of the plate count method, and the measured ratios between the live and dead LAB matched well with the theoretical ratios. The established method was successfully applied to the rapid quantification of live/dead LAB in yogurts and fermented milk beverages of different brands. Moreover, the concentration and viability status of LAB in ambient yogurt, a relatively new yet popular milk product in China, are also reported.

  11. Pilot scale dilute acid pretreatment of rice straw and fermentable sugar recovery at high solid loadings.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Manali; Soam, Shveta; Agrawal, Ruchi; Gupta, Ravi P; Tuli, Deepak K; Kumar, Ravindra

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the dilute acid pretreatment of rice straw (RS) and fermentable sugar recovery at high solid loadings at pilot scale. A series of pretreatment experiments were performed on RS resulting in >25wt% solids followed by enzymatic hydrolysis without solid-liquid separation at 20 and 25wt% using 10FPU/g of the pretreated residue. The overall sugar recovery including the sugars released in pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis was calculated along with a mass balance. Accordingly, the optimized conditions, i.e. 0.35wt% acid, 162°C and 10min were identified. The final glucose and xylose concentrations obtained were 83.3 and 31.9g/L respectively resulting in total concentration of 115.2g/L, with a potential to produce >50g/L of ethanol. This is the first report on pilot scale study on acid pretreatment of RS in a screw feeder horizontal reactor followed by enzymatic hydrolysis at high solid loadings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary α-Linolenic Acid, Marine ω-3 Fatty Acids, and Mortality in a Population With High Fish Consumption: Findings From the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) Study.

    PubMed

    Sala-Vila, Aleix; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Hu, Frank B; Sánchez-Tainta, Ana; Bulló, Mònica; Serra-Mir, Mercè; López-Sabater, Carmen; Sorlí, Jose V; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Muñoz, Miguel A; Serra-Majem, Luis; Martínez, J Alfredo; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montserrat; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio; B

    2016-01-26

    Epidemiological evidence suggests a cardioprotective role of α-linolenic acid (ALA), a plant-derived ω-3 fatty acid. It is unclear whether ALA is beneficial in a background of high marine ω-3 fatty acids (long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) intake. In persons at high cardiovascular risk from Spain, a country in which fish consumption is customarily high, we investigated whether meeting the International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids recommendation for dietary ALA (0.7% of total energy) at baseline was related to all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. We also examined the effect of meeting the society's recommendation for long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (≥500 mg/day). We longitudinally evaluated 7202 participants in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models were fitted to estimate hazard ratios. ALA intake correlated to walnut consumption (r=0.94). During a 5.9-y follow-up, 431 deaths occurred (104 cardiovascular disease, 55 coronary heart disease, 32 sudden cardiac death, 25 stroke). The hazard ratios for meeting ALA recommendation (n=1615, 22.4%) were 0.72 (95% CI 0.56-0.92) for all-cause mortality and 0.95 (95% CI 0.58-1.57) for fatal cardiovascular disease. The hazard ratios for meeting the recommendation for long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n=5452, 75.7%) were 0.84 (95% CI 0.67-1.05) for all-cause mortality, 0.61 (95% CI 0.39-0.96) for fatal cardiovascular disease, 0.54 (95% CI 0.29-0.99) for fatal coronary heart disease, and 0.49 (95% CI 0.22-1.01) for sudden cardiac death. The highest reduction in all-cause mortality occurred in participants meeting both recommendations (hazard ratio 0.63 [95% CI 0.45-0.87]). In participants without prior cardiovascular disease and high fish consumption, dietary ALA, supplied mainly by walnuts and olive oil, relates inversely to all-cause mortality, whereas protection from cardiac mortality is limited to

  13. An Efficient Protocol for Preparation of Gallic Acid from Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb by Combination of Macroporous Resin and Preparative High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zou, Denglang; Chen, Tao; Chen, Chen; Li, Hongmei; Liu, Yongling; Li, Yulin

    2016-08-01

    In this article, macroporous resin column chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography were applied for preparation of gallic acid from Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. In the first step, six kinds of resins were investigated by adsorption and desorption tests and AB-8 macroporous resin was selected for the enrichment of gallic acid. As a result, 20 g of gallic acid at a purity of 71% could be separated from 100 g of crude extract in which the content of gallic acid was 16.7% and the recovery of gallic acid reached 85.0%. In the second step, preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was selected to purify gallic acid. As a result, 640 mg of gallic acid at a purity of 99.1% was obtained from 1 g of sample in 35 min. The results demonstrated that macroporous resin coupled with preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was suitable for preparation of gallic acid from T. bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Application and comparison of high performance liquid chromatography and high speed counter-current chromatography in enantioseparation of (±)-2-phenylpropionic acid.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shengqiang; Zheng, Ye; Yan, Jizhong

    2013-03-15

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) were applied and compared in enantioseparation of 2-phenylpropionic acid (2-PPA) when hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) was used as chiral mobile phase additive. For HPLC, the enantioseparation was achieved on ODS C(18) reverse phase column and the mobile phase was 25 mmol L(-1) HP-β-CD aqueous buffer solution (pH 4.0, adjusted with triethylamine): methanol: glacial acetic acid (85:15:0.5 (v/v/v)). For HSCCC, the two-phase solvent system was composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-0.1 mol L(-1) phosphate buffer solution pH2.67 (5:5:10 for isocratic elution and 8:2:10 for recycling elution (v/v/v)) added with 0.1 mol L(-1) HP-β-CD. The key parameters, such as a substitution degree of HP-β-CD, the concentration of HP-β-CD, pH value of the aqueous phase and the temperature were optimized for both separation methods. Using the optimum conditions a complete HSCCC enantioseparation of 40 mg of 2-propylpropionic acid in a recycling elution mode gave 15-18 mg of (+)-2-PPA and (-)-2-PPA enantiomers with 95-98% purity and 85-93% recovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Adapting capillary gel electrophoresis as a sensitive, high-throughput method to accelerate characterization of nucleic acid metabolic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Greenough, Lucia; Schermerhorn, Kelly M; Mazzola, Laurie; Bybee, Joanna; Rivizzigno, Danielle; Cantin, Elizabeth; Slatko, Barton E; Gardner, Andrew F

    2016-01-29

    Detailed biochemical characterization of nucleic acid enzymes is fundamental to understanding nucleic acid metabolism, genome replication and repair. We report the development of a rapid, high-throughput fluorescence capillary gel electrophoresis method as an alternative to traditional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to characterize nucleic acid metabolic enzymes. The principles of assay design described here can be applied to nearly any enzyme system that acts on a fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide substrate. Herein, we describe several assays using this core capillary gel electrophoresis methodology to accelerate study of nucleic acid enzymes. First, assays were designed to examine DNA polymerase activities including nucleotide incorporation kinetics, strand displacement synthesis and 3'-5' exonuclease activity. Next, DNA repair activities of DNA ligase, flap endonuclease and RNase H2 were monitored. In addition, a multicolor assay that uses four different fluorescently labeled substrates in a single reaction was implemented to characterize GAN nuclease specificity. Finally, a dual-color fluorescence assay to monitor coupled enzyme reactions during Okazaki fragment maturation is described. These assays serve as a template to guide further technical development for enzyme characterization or nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitor screening in a high-throughput manner. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Dibutyl Phosphoric Acid Solubility in High-Acid, Uranium-Bearing Solutions at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.

    1998-10-02

    The Savannah River Site has enriched uranium (EU) solution which has been stored for almost 10 years since being purified in the second uranium cycle of the H area solvent extraction process. The concentrations in solution are approximately 6 g/L U and about 0.1 M nitric acid. Residual tributylphosphate in the solutions has slowly hydrolyzed to form dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP) at concentrations averaging 50 mg/L. Uranium is known to form compounds with the dibutylphosphate ion (DBP) which have limited solubility. The potential to form uranium-DBP solids raises a nuclear criticality safety issue. Prior SRTC tests (WSRC-TR-98-00188) showed that U-DBPmore » solids precipitate at concentrations potentially attainable during the storage of enriched uranium solutions. Furthermore, evaporation of the existing EUS solution without additional acidification could result in the precipitation of U-DBP solids if the DBP concentration in the resulting solution exceeds 110 mg/L at ambient temperature. The same potential exists for evaporation of unwashed 1CU solutions. As a follow-up to the earlier studies, SRTC studied the solubility limits for solutions containing acid concentrations above 0.5M HNO3. The data obtained in these tests reveals a shift to higher levels of DBP solubility above 0.5M HNO3 for both 6 g/L and 12 g/L uranium solutions. Analysis of U-DBP solids from the tests identified a mixture of different molecular structures for the solids created. The analysis distinguished UO2(DBP)2 as the dominant compound present at low acid concentrations. As the acid concentration increases, the crystalline UO2(DBP)2 shows molecular substitutions and an increase in amorphous content. Further analysis by methods not available at SRS will be needed to better identify the specific compounds present. This data indicates that acidification prior to evaporation can be used to increase the margin of safety for the storage of the EUS solutions. Subsequent experimentation evaluated

  17. Biodegradability study of high-erucic-acid-rapeseed-oil-based lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, E.; Crawford, R.L.; Shanahan, A.

    1995-12-31

    A variety of high-erucic-acid-rapeseed (HEAR)-oil-based lubricants, lubricant additives, and greases were examined for biodegradability at the University of Idaho Center for Hazardous Waste Remediation Research. Two standard biodegradability tests were employed, a currently accepted US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protocol and the Sturm Test. As is normal for tests that employ variable inocula such as sewage as a source of microorganisms, these procedures yielded variable results from one repetition to another. However, a general trend of rapid and complete biodegradability of the HEAR-oil-based materials was observed.

  18. Development of High-purity Certified Reference Materials for 17 Proteinogenic Amino Acids by Traceable Titration Methods.

    PubMed

    Kato, Megumi; Yamazaki, Taichi; Kato, Hisashi; Eyama, Sakae; Goto, Mari; Yoshioka, Mariko; Takatsu, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the reliability of amino acid analyses, the National Metrology Institute of Japan of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST) has developed high-purity certified reference materials (CRMs) for 17 proteinogenic amino acids. These CRMs are intended for use as primary reference materials to enable the traceable quantification of amino acids. The purity of the present CRMs was determined based on two traceable methods: nonaqueous acidimetric titration and nitrogen determination by the Kjeldahl method. Since neither method could distinguish compounds with similar structures, such as amino acid-related impurities, impurities were thoroughly quantified by combining several HPLC methods, and subtracted from the obtained purity of each method. The property value of each amino acid was calculated as a weighted mean of the corrected purities by the two methods. The uncertainty of the property value was obtained by combining measurement uncertainties of the two methods, a difference between the two methods, the uncertainty from the contribution of impurities, and the uncertainty derived from inhomogeneity. The uncertainty derived from instability was considered to be negligible based on stability monitoring of some CRMs. The certified value of each amino acid, property value with uncertainty, was given for both with or without enantiomeric separation.

  19. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Su, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was established to solve the problem of wastewater treatment in citric acid production. Citric acid wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was further treated and recycled for the next batch citric acid fermentation. This process could eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Propionic acid was found in the ADE and its concentration continually increased in recycling. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated, and results indicated that influence of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was contributed to the undissociated form. Citric acid fermentation was inhibited when the concentration of propionic acid was above 2, 4, and 6 mM in initial pH 4.0, 4.5 and, 5.0, respectively. However, low concentration of propionic acid could promote isomaltase activity which converted more isomaltose to available sugar, thereby increasing citric acid production. High concentration of propionic acid could influence the vitality of cell and prolong the lag phase, causing large amount of glucose still remaining in medium at the end of fermentation and decreasing citric acid production.

  20. High piezoelectric performance of poly(lactic acid) film manufactured by solid-state extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Mitsunobu; Onogi, Takayuki; Onishi, Katsuki; Inagaki, Takuma; Tajitsu, Yoshiro

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the application of uniaxially stretched poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) films to speakers, actuators, and pressure sensors has been attempted, taking advantage of their piezoelectric performance. However, the shear piezoelectric constant d14 of uniaxially stretched PLLA film is conventionally 6-10 pC N-1. To realize a high sensitivity of pressure sensors, compact speakers, and actuators, and a low driving voltage, further improvement of the piezoelectric performance is desired. In this study, we carried out solid-state extrusion (SSE) to stretch and orient poly(d-lactic acid) (PDLA) and verified its effects on piezoelectric performance. By SSE, we were able to improve the mechanical strength and elastic modulus of PDLA samples. Furthermore, the d14 of the samples was significantly increased to approximately 20 pC N-1.

  1. Rapid determination of thiamine, riboflavin, niacinamide, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, folic acid and ascorbic acid in Vitamins with Minerals Tablets by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Jin, Pengfei; Xia, Lufeng; Li, Zheng; Che, Ning; Zou, Ding; Hu, Xin

    2012-11-01

    A simple, isocratic, and stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the rapid determination of thiamine (VB(1)), niacinamide (VB(3)), pyridoxine (VB(6)), ascorbic acid (VC), pantothenic acid (VB(5)), riboflavin (VB(2)) and folic acid (VB(9)) in Vitamins with Minerals Tablets (VMT). An Alltima C(18) column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm) was used for the separation at ambient temperature, with 50mM ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (adjusting with phosphoric acid to pH 3.0) and acetonitrile as the mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.5 ml min(-1). VB(1), VB(3), VB(6), VC and VB(5) were extracted with a solution containing 0.05% phosphoric acid (v/v) and 0.3% sodium thiosulfate (w/v), and were then simultaneously analyzed by using the mobile phase of phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (95:5, v/v), while VB(2) and VB(9) were extracted with a solution containing 0.5% ammonium hydroxide solution (v/v), and were then simultaneously analyzed by using the mobile phase of phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (85:15, v/v). The detection wavelengths were 275 nm for VB(1), VB(3), VB(6), VC, 210 nm for VB(5), and 282 nm for VB(2) and VB(9). The method showed good system suitability, sensitivity, linearity, specificity, precision, stability and accuracy. All the seven water-soluble vitamins were well separated from other ingredients and degradation products. Method comparison indicated good concordance between the developed method and the USP method. The developed method was reliable and convenient for the rapid determination of VB(1), VB(3), VB(6), VC, VB(5), VB(2) and VB(9) in VMT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ameloglyphics: A possible forensic tool for person identification following high temperature and acid exposure

    PubMed Central

    Juneja, Manjushree; Juneja, Saurabh; Rakesh, Nagaraju; Bhoomareddy Kantharaj, Yashoda Devi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Forensic odontology is a branch that is evolving over time and has opened newer avenues that may help in the identification of individuals. Tooth prints are the enamel rod end patterns on tooth surface and they are considered as a hard tissue analog to fingerprints. Teeth have the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, and decomposition, and may be used as a forensic evidence. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate if the tooth prints could be used for an individual's identification and reproducibility and permanency of these tooth prints after exposing the teeth to acid and various degrees of temperature. Materials and Methods: 90 tooth prints from 20 freshly extracted maxillary premolar teeth were obtained. Cellophane tape technique was used to record enamel rod end patterns on tooth surface. Ten teeth (one from each patient) were immersed in 36.46% hydrochloric acid and the tooth prints were obtained at various intervals (5 min, 10 min, and 20 min). The other 10 teeth (one from each patient) were incinerated and impression was made at various intervals (80° C, 400° C, 600° C, and 750° C). Tooth prints obtained from different teeth (total of 90 tooth prints) were analyzed using Verifinger® standard SDK version 5.0 software. Results: All the 20 original tooth prints were distinct from each other and no inter-individual or intra-individual similarity was found. The tooth prints from the same tooth after it was exposed to acid or heat were reproducible and showed high to very high similarity with the original tooth print of that particular tooth stored in the database. Conclusion: Tooth prints may be used as an effective aid in person identification even in adverse conditions such as burn and acid attack injuries. PMID:27051220

  3. High levels of omega-3 fatty acids in milk from omega-3 fatty acid-supplemented mothers are related to less immunoglobulin E-associated disease in infancy.

    PubMed

    Warstedt, Kristina; Furuhjelm, Catrin; Fälth-Magnusson, Karin; Fagerås, Malin; Duchén, Karel

    2016-11-01

    We previously reported a protective effect of maternal omega-3 fatty acid supplements on the development of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-associated disease in infancy. This study assessed omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in maternal milk in relation to omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation and the development of allergic disease in their infants. This study randomised 95 pregnant women at risk of having an allergic infant, to daily supplements of 2.6 g omega-3 LCPUFA or a placebo of 2.7 g soya bean oil from gestational week 25 until 3 months of lactation. Breast milk samples were collected as colostrum, at one and 3 months. Milk fatty acids were related to allergic outcome in the infants at 24 months. Omega-3 milk fatty acids were higher in women who received omega-3 supplements than the placebo group (p < 0.01). Higher proportions of milk eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and a lower arachidonic/eicosapentaenoic acid ratio were associated with an absence of IgE-associated disease in the infants. None of the children developed IgE-associated atopic eczema above a level of 0.83 mol% eicosapentaenoic acid in colostrum. [Correction added on 7 July 2016, after online publication: In the preceding sentence, the correct word should be "above" instead of "below" and this has been amended in this current version.] CONCLUSION: High omega-3 LCPUFA milk levels in mothers who received omega-3 LCPUFA supplements were related to fewer allergies in their children. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Enhancement of acid phosphatase secretion and Pi acquisition in Suaeda fruticosa on calcareous soil by high saline level.

    PubMed

    Labidi, Nehla; Snoussi, Sana; Ammari, Manel; Metoui, Wissal; Ben Yousfi, N; Hamrouni, Lamia; Abdelly, C

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between the adaptive processes of Suaeda fruticosa for Pi acquisition and the physic-chemical and biological characteristics of two soil types under moderate and high saline conditions. Four treatments were established in pots: namely SS100, SS600, CS100 and CS600 where SS stood for sandy soil and CS for calcareous soil, and the indexes 100 and 600 were NaCl concentrations (mM) in irrigation distilled water. Assuming that Pi per g of plant biomass is an indicator of plant efficiency for P acquisition, the results showed that Pi acquisition was easiest on SS100 and was difficult on CS100. The differences in Pi acquisition between plants on SS100 and CS100 could be attributed to the low root surface area (-30%) and to the low alkaline phosphatases (Pases) activities (-50%) in calcareous rhizospheric soil. The high salinity level had no effect on the efficiency of P acquisition on SS but increased this parameter on CS (+50%). In the latter soil type, high acid phosphatase activities were observed in rhizospheric soil at high salinity level. Acid phosphatase seemed to be secreted from the roots. The higher secretion of acid phosphatase in this soil was related to the root lipid peroxidation in response to elevated salinity associated with the augmentation of unsaturated acids which might induce an oxidative damage of the root membrane. Thus we can conclude that in deficient soil such as calcareous, the efficiency of P acquisition in S. fruticosa which was difficult at moderate salinity level can be enhanced by high salinity level.

  5. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on distribution dynamics of free amino acids in water soaked brown rice grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigematsu, T.; Hayashi, M.; Nakajima, K.; Uno, Y.; Sakano, A.; Murakami, M.; Narahara, Y.; Ueno, S.; Fujii, T.

    2010-03-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HP) with approximately below 400 MPa can induce a transformation of food materials to an alternative form, where membrane systems are damaged but certain enzymes are still active. HP treatment of water soaked brown rice grain could modify the mass transfer inside and apparent activities of enzymes, resulting in HP-dependent change of distribution of free amino acids. Thus, the distribution of free amino acids in brown rice grain during preservation after HP treatment was analyzed. Just after HP treatment at 200 MPa for 10 min, the distribution of free amino acids was not apparently different from that of untreated control. In contrast, after 1 to 4 days preservation at 25°C, amino acids, such as Ala, Glu, Gly, Asp and Val, showed higher concentrations than those in control. This result suggested that HP treatment induced proteolysis to produce free amino acids. However, Gln, Thr and Cys, showed no apparent difference, suggesting that conversion of certain amino acids produced by proteolysis occurred. Moreover, the concentration of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in HP-treated sample was higher than that in untreated control. These results suggested that HP treatment induced alteration of distribution of free amino acids of rice grains via proteolysis and certain amino acids metabolism pathways.

  6. Acid-doped polymer nanofiber framework: Three-dimensional proton conductive network for high-performance fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Manabu; Takeda, Yasushi; Wakiya, Takeru; Wakamoto, Yuta; Harigaya, Kaori; Ito, Tatsunori; Tarao, Takashi; Kawakami, Hiroyoshi

    2017-02-01

    High-performance polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) with excellent proton conductivity, gas barrier property, and membrane stability are desired for future fuel cells. Here we report the development of PEMs based on our proposed new concept "Nanofiber Framework (NfF)." The NfF composite membranes composed of phytic acid-doped polybenzimidazole nanofibers (PBINf) and Nafion matrix show higher proton conductivity than the recast-Nafion membrane without nanofibers. A series of analyses reveal the formation of three-dimensional network nanostructures to conduct protons and water effectively through acid-condensed layers at the interface of PBINf and Nafion matrix. In addition, the NfF composite membrane achieves high gas barrier property and distinguished membrane stability. The fuel cell performance by the NfF composite membrane, which enables ultra-thin membranes with their thickness less than 5 μm, is superior to that by the recast-Nafion membrane, especially at low relative humidity. Such NfF-based high-performance PEM will be accomplished not only by the Nafion matrix used in this study but also by other polymer electrolyte matrices for future PEFCs.

  7. Associations of obesity with triglycerides and C-reactive protein are attenuated in adults with high red blood cell eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background:N-3 fatty acids are associated with favorable, and obesity with unfavorable, concentrations of chronic disease risk biomarkers.Objective:We examined whether high eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid intakes, measured as percentages of total red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid...

  8. α-lipoic acid inhibits high glucose-induced apoptosis in HIT-T15 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Wang, Weiping; Liu, Yinan; Guo, Ting; Chen, Ping; Ma, Kangtao; Zhou, Chunyan

    2012-06-01

    High blood glucose plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. α-lipoic acid (LA) has been used to prevent and treat diabetes, and is thought to act by increasing insulin sensitivity in many tissues. However, whether LA also has a cytoprotective effect on pancreatic islet beta cells remains unclear. In this study, we assessed whether LA could inhibit apoptosis in beta cells exposed to high glucose concentrations. HIT-T15 pancreatic beta cells were treated with 30 mmol/L glucose in the presence or absence of 0.5 mmol/L LA for 8 days. LA significantly reduced the numbers of apoptotic HIT-T15 cells and inhibited the cell overgrowth normally induced by high glucose treatment. Additionally, LA inhibited insulin expression and secretion in HIT-T15 cells induced by high glucose. Further study demonstrated that LA upregulated Pdx1 and Bcl2 gene expression, reduced Bax gene expression, and promoted phosphorylation of Akt in HIT-T15 cells treated with high glucose. Intriguingly, knockdown of Pdx1 expression partially offset the anti-apoptotic effect of LA. However, inhibition of Akt by PI3K/AKT antagonist LY294002 only slightly reversed the anti-apoptosis effect of LA and mildly decreased the gene expression level of Pdx1 (P > 0.05). Moreover, LA only slightly attenuated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and augmented mitochondrial membrane potential. Therefore, our data suggest that α-lipoic acid can effectively attenuate high glucose-induced HIT-T15 cell apoptosis probably by increasing Pdx1 expression. These findings provide a new interpretation on the role of LA in the treatment of diabetes. © 2012 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2012 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  9. Spectra-structure correlations of saturated and unsaturated medium-chain fatty acids. Near-infrared and anharmonic DFT study of hexanoic acid and sorbic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabska, Justyna; Beć, Krzysztof B.; Ishigaki, Mika; Wójcik, Marek J.; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2017-10-01

    Quantum chemical reproduction of entire NIR spectra is a new trend, enabled by contemporary advances in the anharmonic approaches. At the same time, recent increase of the importance of NIR spectroscopy of biological samples raises high demand for gaining deeper understanding of NIR spectra of biomolecules, i.e. fatty acids. In this work we investigate saturated and unsaturated medium-chain fatty acids, hexanoic acid and sorbic acid, in the near-infrared region. By employing fully anharmonic density functional theory (DFT) calculations we reproduce the experimental NIR spectra of these systems, including the highly specific spectral features corresponding to the dimerization of fatty acids. Broad range of concentration levels from 5 · 10- 4 M in CCl4 to pure samples are investigated. The major role of cyclic dimers can be evidenced for the vast majority of these samples. A highly specific NIR feature of fatty acids, the elevation of spectral baseline around 6500-4000 cm- 1, is being explained by the contributions of combination bands resulting from the vibrations of hydrogen-bonded OH groups in the cyclic dimers. Based on the high agreement between the calculated and experimental NIR spectra, a detailed NIR band assignments are proposed for hexanoic acid and sorbic acid. Subsequently, the correlations between the structure and NIR spectra are elucidated, emphasizing the regions in which clear and universal traces of specific bands corresponding to saturated and unsaturated alkyl chains can be established, thus demonstrating the wavenumber regions highly valuable for structural identifications.

  10. Butyric acid production from softwood hydrolysate by acetate-consuming Clostridium sp. S1 with high butyric acid yield and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsun; Kim, Ki-Yeon; Lee, Kyung Min; Youn, Sung Hun; Lee, Sun-Mi; Woo, Han Min; Oh, Min-Kyu; Um, Youngsoon

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the butyric acid production from softwood hydrolysate by acetate-consuming Clostridium sp. S1. Results showed that Clostridium sp. S1 produced butyric acid by simultaneously utilizing glucose and mannose in softwood hydrolysate and, more remarkably, it consumed acetic acid in hydrolysate. Clostridium sp. S1 utilized each of glucose, mannose, and xylose as well as mixed sugars simultaneously with partially repressed xylose utilization. When softwood (Japanese larch) hydrolysate containing glucose and mannose as the main sugars was used, Clostridium sp. S1 produced 21.17g/L butyric acid with the yield of 0.47g/g sugar and the selectivity of 1 (g butyric acid/g total acids) owing to the consumption of acetic acid in hydrolysate. The results demonstrate potential of Clostridium sp. S1 to produce butyric acid selectively and effectively from hydrolysate not only by utilizing mixed sugars simultaneously but also by converting acetic acid to butyric acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High-fat feeding reduces endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rats: differential mechanisms for saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?

    PubMed

    Song, Guang-Yao; Gao, Yu; Di, Yu-Wei; Pan, Li-Li; Zhou, Yu; Ye, Ji-Ming

    2006-08-01

    1. Chronic feeding with a high-fat diet can cause metabolic syndrome in rodents similar to humans, but the role of saturated versus unsaturated fats in vascular tension remains unclear. 2. The present study shows that rats on a diet rich in either saturated or unsaturated fat had higher blood pressure compared with chow-fed rats (approximately 130 vs 100 mmHg, respectively), along with hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance. Compared with responses of phenylephrine-preconstricted artery segments from chow-fed rats, vasorelaxation of isolated renal arteries from high-fat fed rats was reduced substantially (> 50%) in response to acetylcholine (0.01-10 micromol/L) and moderately to nitroprusside (>or=1 micromol/L) at low concentrations. Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation of arteries from high-fat fed rats was also more sensitive to inhibition by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors NG-nitro-L-arginine and methylene blue. 3. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells, the production of NO and endothelin-1 was significantly inhibited by unsaturated fatty acids. In comparison, saturated fatty acids stimulated endothelin-1 production without altering NO production. 4. The data indicate that both saturated and unsaturated high-fat feeding may result in an increase in blood pressure owing to reduced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in the arterial system. The impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids may involve different mechanisms.

  12. Highly selective and efficient imprinted polymers based on carboxyl-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for the extraction of gallic acid from pomegranate rind.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjie; Li, Benqiang; Yue, Huijuan; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Yuansuo

    2018-01-01

    With the combined surface imprinting technique and immobilized template strategy, molecularly imprinted magnetic nanoparticles were successfully prepared and coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography to selectively separate and determine gallic acid from the pomegranate rind. On the surface of carboxyl-functionalized magnetic nanospheres, thin imprinting shells were formed using dopamine as monomer and crosslinker. The characteristics, polymerization conditions, and adsorption performances of the resultant nanomaterials were investigated in detail. In addition of good crystallinity, satisfactory magnetism, and uniform morphology of the obtained polymers, they had rapid binding kinetics, high adsorption capacity, and favorable reusability. In the mixed solution of four hydroxybenzoic acids, the prepared nanomaterials have an excellent selectivity to gallic acid with an imprinting factor of as high as 17.5. Therefore, the polymers have great potentials in specific extraction and enrichment of gallic acid from the complex natural resources. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Application of cyanuric chloride-based six new chiral derivatizing reagents having amino acids and amino acid amides as chiral auxiliaries for enantioresolution of proteinogenic amino acids by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Ravi; Dixit, Shuchi

    2012-04-01

    Six dichloro-s-triazine (DCT) reagents having L-Leu, D-Phg, L-Val, L-Met, L-Ala and L-Met-NH(2) as chiral auxiliaries in cyanuric chloride were introduced for enantioseparation of 13 proteinogenic amino acids. Four other DCTs and six monochloro-s-triazine (MCT) reagents having amino acid amides as chiral auxiliaries were also synthesized. These 16 chiral derivatizing reagents (CDRs) were used for synthesis of diastereomers of all the 13 analytes using microwave irradiation, which were resolved by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) using C18 column and gradient eluting mixture of aqueous TFA and acetonitrile with UV detection at 230 nm. It required only 60-90 s for derivatization using microwave irradiation. Better resolution and lower retention times were observed for the diastereomers prepared with CDRs having amino acids as chiral auxiliaries as compared to counterparts prepared with reagents having amino acid amides as chiral auxiliaries. As the best resolution of all the 13 analytes was observed for their diastereomers prepared using the DCT reagent having L-Leu as chiral auxiliary, this CDR was further employed for derivatization of Lys, Tyr, His and Arg followed by RP-HPLC analysis of resulting diastereomers. The results are discussed in light of acid and amide groups of chiral auxiliaries constituting CDRs, electronegativities of the atoms of achiral moieties constituting CDRs and hydrophobicities of side chains of amino acids constituting CDRs and analytes.

  14. Oxidative cleavage of erucic acid for the synthesis of brassylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed J. Nasrullah; Pooja Thapliyal; Erica N. Pfarr

    2010-10-29

    The main focus of this work is to synthesize Brassylic Acid (BA) using oxidative cleavage of Erucic Acid (EA). Crambe (Crambe abyssinica) is an industrial oilseed grown in North Dakota. Crambe has potential as an industrial fatty acid feedstock as a source of Erucic acid (EA). It has approximately 50-60 % of EA, a C{sub 22} monounsaturated fatty acid. Oxidative cleavage of unsaturated fatty acids derived from oilseeds produces long chain (9, 11, and 13 carbon atoms) dibasic and monobasic acids. These acids are known commercial feedstocks for the preparation of nylons, polyesters, waxes, surfactants, and perfumes. Other sources ofmore » EA are Rapeseed seed oil which 50-60 % of EA. Rapeseed is grown outside USA. The oxidative cleavage of EA was done using a high throughput parallel pressure reactor system. Kinetics of the reaction shows that BA yields reach a saturation at 12 hours. H{sub 2}WO{sub 4} was found to be the best catalyst for the oxidative cleavage of EA. High yields of BA were obtained at 80 C with bubbling of O{sub 2} or 10 bar of O{sub 2} for 12 hours.« less

  15. Fumaric Acid Production from Alkali-Pretreated Corncob by Fed-Batch Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Combined with Separated Hydrolysis and Fermentation at High Solids Loading.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Zhou, Jin; Ouyang, Shuiping; Ouyang, Jia; Yong, Qiang

    2017-02-01

    Production of fumaric acid from alkali-pretreated corncob (APC) at high solids loading was investigated using a combination of separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) by Rhizopus oryzae. Four different fermentation modes were tested to maximize fumaric acid concentration at high solids loading. The highest concentration of 41.32 g/L fumaric acid was obtained from 20 % (w/v) APC at 38 °C in the combined SHF and fed-batch SSF process, compared with 19.13 g/L fumaric acid in batch SSF alone. The results indicated that a combination of SHF and fed-batch SSF significantly improved production of fumaric acid from lignocellulose by R. oryzae than that achieved with batch SSF at high solids loading.

  16. Effects of long-term high-saturated and unsaturated fatty acid diets on relaxation and contraction of renal arteries in insulin resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Song, Guang-Yao; Ma, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Zhou, Yu

    2007-06-25

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of high-saturated and high-unsaturated fatty acid diets on relaxation and contraction of the renal arteries in insulin resistance (IR) rats. Wistar rats were fed normal chow diet (control), high-saturated fatty acid diet or high-unsaturated fatty acid diet for 6 months (n=14 in each group). IR was evaluated by glucose infusion rate (GIR) of hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Blood pressure was measured via the tail-cuff method. Body weight (BW), plasma total triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), insulin, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and nitric oxide metabolite (NO2(-)/NO3(-)) were compared among the three groups. The rats were sacrificed and the renal arterial rings were placed in the physiological tissue baths for measurement of vascular response to various agents. After the arterial rings were constricted with 3 mmol/L noradrenaline (NA), endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) and endothelium-independent vasorelaxation to sodium nitroprusside (NTP) were measured. Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation to ACh was also observed in renal arterial rings incubated with L-arginine (L-Arg), N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) and methylene blue (MB), respectively. Arterial contractility was evaluated from concentration-response curves to 10 nmol/L-100 micromol/L NA. Saturated or unsaturated fatty acids led to moderate rises in blood pressure (P<0.05). It was associated with higher levels of plasma lipids and lower whole body insulin sensitivity (P<0.01). There were no significant differences in BW, FBG, TG, insulin and FFA between saturated and unsaturated fatty acid-fed rats. A decrease in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of the renal arteries in saturated and unsaturated fatty acid-fed rats was observed (P<0.01), but there was no marked difference between the two high-fatty acid diet groups. Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation was increased when the arteries were incubated with L

  17. Acetylsalicylic Acid Compared to Placebo in Treating High-Risk Patients With Subsolid Lung Nodules | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase II trial studies acetylsalicylic acid compared to placebo in treating high-risk patients with subsolid lung nodules. A nodule is a growth or lump that may be malignant (cancer) or benign (not cancer). Chemoprevention is the use of drugs to keep cancer from forming or coming back. The use of acetylsalicylic acid may keep cancer from forming in patients

  18. High-Resolution NMR Reveals Secondary Structure and Folding of Amino Acid Transporter from Outer Chloroplast Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Zook, James D.; Molugu, Trivikram R.; Jacobsen, Neil E.; Lin, Guangxin; Soll, Jürgen; Cherry, Brian R.; Brown, Michael F.; Fromme, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Solving high-resolution structures for membrane proteins continues to be a daunting challenge in the structural biology community. In this study we report our high-resolution NMR results for a transmembrane protein, outer envelope protein of molar mass 16 kDa (OEP16), an amino acid transporter from the outer membrane of chloroplasts. Three-dimensional, high-resolution NMR experiments on the 13C, 15N, 2H-triply-labeled protein were used to assign protein backbone resonances and to obtain secondary structure information. The results yield over 95% assignment of N, HN, CO, Cα, and Cβ chemical shifts, which is essential for obtaining a high resolution structure from NMR data. Chemical shift analysis from the assignment data reveals experimental evidence for the first time on the location of the secondary structure elements on a per residue basis. In addition T 1Z and T2 relaxation experiments were performed in order to better understand the protein dynamics. Arginine titration experiments yield an insight into the amino acid residues responsible for protein transporter function. The results provide the necessary basis for high-resolution structural determination of this important plant membrane protein. PMID:24205117

  19. Ursolic acid improves podocyte injury caused by high glucose.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Fan, Qiuling; Wang, Xu; Li, Lin; Lu, Xinxing; Yue, Yuan; Cao, Xu; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Xue; Wang, Lining

    2017-08-01

    Autophagy plays an important role in the maintenance of podocyte homeostasis. Reduced autophagy may result in limited renal cell function during exposure to high glucose conditions. In this study we investigated the effects of ursolic acid (UA) on autophagy and podocyte injury, which were induced by high glucose. Conditionally immortalized murine podocytes were cultured in media supplemented with high glucose and the effects of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and UA on protein expression were determined. miR-21 expression was detected by real-time RT-PCR. Activation of the PTEN-PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, expression of autophagy-related proteins and expression of podocyte marker proteins were determined by western blot. Immunofluorescence was used to monitor the accumulation of LC3 puncta. Autophagosomes were also observed by transmission electron microscopy. During exposure to high glucose conditions, the normal level of autophagy was reduced in podocytes, and this defective autophagy induced podocyte injury. Increased miR-21 expression, decreased PTEN expression and abnormal activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway were observed in cells that were cultured in high glucose conditions. UA and LY294002 reduced podocyte injury through the restoration of defective autophagy. Our data suggest that UA inhibits miR-21 expression and increases PTEN expression, which in turn inhibits Akt and mTOR and restores normal levels of autophagy. Our data suggest that podocyte injury is associated with reduced levels of autophagy during exposure to high glucose conditions, UA attenuated podocyte injury via an increase in autophagy through miR-21 inhibition and PTEN expression, which inhibit the abnormal activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of ferulic acid and γ-oryzanol on high-fat and high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ou; Liu, Jia; Cheng, Qian; Guo, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Yong; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2015-01-01

    The high morbidity of metabolic dysfunction diseases has heightened interest in seeking natural and safe compounds to maintain optimal health. γ-Oryzanol (OZ), the ferulic acid (FA) ester with phytosterols, mainly present in rice bran has been shown to improve markers of metabolic syndrome. This study investigates the effects of FA and OZ on alleviating high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFFD)-induced metabolic syndrome parameters. Male SD rats were fed with a regular rodent diet, HFFD, or HFFD supplemented with 0.05% FA or 0.16% OZ (equimolar concentrations) for 13 weeks. Food intake, organ indices, serum lipid profiles, glucose metabolism, insulin resistance (IR) index and cytokine levels were analyzed. The mechanisms were further investigated in oleic acid-stimulated HepG2 cells by analyzing triglyceride (TG) content and lipogenesis-related gene expressions. In the in vivo study, FA and OZ exhibited similar effects in alleviating HFFD-induced obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and IR. However, only OZ treatment significantly decreased liver index and hepatic TG content, lowered serum levels of C-reactive protein and IL-6, and increased serum concentration of adiponectin. In the in vitro assay, only OZ administration significantly inhibited intracellular TG accumulation and down-regulated expression of stearoyl coenzyme-A desaturase-1, which might facilitate OZ to enhance its hepatoprotective effect. OZ is more effective than FA in inhibiting hepatic fat accumulation and inflammation. Thus, FA and OZ could be used as dietary supplements to alleviate the deleterious effects of HFFD.

  1. Development of a highly sensitive MIP based-QCM nanosensor for selective determination of cholic acid level in body fluids.

    PubMed

    Gültekin, Aytaç; Karanfil, Gamze; Sönmezoğlu, Savaş; Say, Rıdvan

    2014-09-01

    Determination of cholic acid is very important and necessary in body fluids due to its both pharmaceutical and clinical significance. In this study, a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) nanosensor, which is imprinted cholic acid, has been developed for the assignation of cholic acid. The cholic acid selective memories have been generated on QCM electrode surface by using molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based on methacryloylamidohistidine-copper (II) (MAH-Cu(II)) pre-organized monomer. The cholic acid imprinted nanosensor was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and then analytical performance of the cholic acid imprinted QCM nanosensor was studied. The detection limit was found to be 0.0065μM with linear range of 0.01-1,000 μM. Moreover, the high value of Langmuir constant (b) (7.3*10(5)) obtained by Langmuir graph showed that the cholic acid imprinted nanosensor had quite strong binding sites affinity. At the last step of this procedure, cholic acid levels in body fluids were determined by the prepared imprinted QCM nanosensor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification/quantification of free and bound phenolic acids in peel and pulp of apples (Malus domestica) using high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihyun; Chan, Bronte Lee Shan; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2017-01-15

    Free and bound phenolic acids were measured in the pulp and peel of four varieties of apples using high resolution mass spectrometry. Twenty-five phenolic acids were identified and included: 8 hydroxybenzoic acids, 11 hydroxycinnamic acids, 5 hydroxyphenylacetic acids, and 1 hydoxyphenylpropanoic acid. Several phenolics are tentatively identified for the first time in apples and include: methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, hydroxy phenyl acetic acid, three phenylacetic acid isomers, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, and homoveratric acid. With exception of chlorogenic and caffeic acid, most phenolic acids were quantified for the first time in apples. Significant varietal differences (p<0.05) were observed in both peel and pulp. The levels of total phenolic acids were higher in the pulp as compared to apple peel (dry weight) in all varieties. Coumaroylquinic, protocatechuic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic and t-ferulic acids were present in free forms. With exception of chlorogenic acid, all other phenolic acids were present only as bound forms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mass fraction assignment of folic acid in a high purity material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westwood, Steven; Josephs, Ralf; Choteau, Tiphaine; Daireaux, Adeline; Stoppacher, Norbert; Wielgosz, Robert; Davies, Stephen; de Rego, Eliane; Wollinger, Wagner; Garrido, Bruno; Fernandes, Jane; Lima, Jonathan; Oliveira, Rodrigo; de Sena, Rodrigo; Windust, Anthony; Huang, Ting; Dai, Xinhua; Quan, Can; He, Haihong; Zhang, Wei; Wei, Chao; Li, Na; Gao, Dexin; Liu, Zhao; Lo, Man-fung; Wong, Wai-fun; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Koch, Matthias; Dorgerloh, Ute; Rothe, Robert; Philip, Rosemary; Hirari, Nobuyasu; Fazlin Rezali, Mohd; Salazar Arzate, Claudia Marcela; Pedraza Evelina Berenice, Mercado; Serrano Caballero, Victor; Arce Osuna, Mariana; Krylov, A.; Kharitonov, S.; Lopushanskaya, E.; Liu, Qinde; Tang Lin, Teo; Fernandes-Whaley, Maria; Quinn, Laura; Nhlapo, Nontete; Prevoo-Franzsen, Desiree; Archer, Marcelle; Kim, Byungjoo; Baek, Song-Yee; Lee, Sunyoung; Lee, Joonhee; Marbumrung, Sornkrit; Kankaew, Ponhatai; Chaorenpornpukdee, Kanokrat; Chaipet, Thitiphan; Shearman, Kittiya; Ceyhan Goren, Ahmet; Gunduz, Simay; Yilmaz, Hasibe; Un, Ilker; Bilsel, Gokhan; Clarkson, Cailean; Bedner, Mary; Camara, Johanna E.; Lang, Brian E.; Lippa, Katrice A.; Nelson, Michael A.; Toman, Blaza; Yu, Lee L.

    2018-01-01

    The comparison required the assignment of the mass fraction of folic acid present as the main component in the comparison sample. Performance in the comparison is representative of a laboratory's measurement capability for the purity assignment of organic compounds of medium structural complexity [molecular weight range 300–500] and high polarity (pKOW < ‑2). Methods used by the eighteen participating NMIs or DIs were based on a mass balance (summation of impurities) or qNMR approach, or the combination of data obtained using both methods. The qNMR results tended to give slightly lower values for the content of folic acid, albeit with larger associated uncertainties, compared with the results obtained by mass balance procedures. Possible reasons for this divergence are discussed in the report, without reaching a definitive conclusion as to their origin. The comparison demonstrates that for a structurally complex polar organic compound containing a high water content and presenting a number of additional analytical challenges, the assignment of the mass fraction content property value of the main component can reasonably be achieved with an associated relative standard uncertainty in the assigned value of 0.5% Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  4. Humic acids-based hierarchical porous carbons as high-rate performance electrodes for symmetric supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhi-jun; Chen, Ming-ming; Wang, Cheng-yang; Yuan, Yun-cai

    2014-07-01

    Two kinds of hierarchical porous carbons (HPCs) with specific surface areas of 2000 m(2)g(-1) were synthesized using leonardite humic acids (LHA) or biotechnology humic acids (BHA) precursors via a KOH activation process. Humic acids have a high content of oxygen-containing groups which enabled them to dissolve in aqueous KOH and facilitated the homogeneous KOH activation. The LHA-based HPC is made up of abundant micro-, meso-, and macropores and in 6M KOH it has a specific capacitance of 178 F g(-1) at 100 Ag(-1) and its capacitance retention on going from 0.05 to 100 A g(-1) is 64%. In contrast, the BHA-based HPC exhibits a lower capacitance retention of 54% and a specific capacitance of 157 F g(-1) at 100 A g(-1) which is due to the excessive micropores in the BHA-HPC. Moreover, LHA-HPC is produced in a higher yield than BHA-HPC (51 vs. 17 wt%). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid in rumen, plasma, and milk of cows fed fish oil and fats differing in saturation of 18 carbon fatty acids.

    PubMed

    AbuGhazaleh, A A; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of feeding fish oil (FO) along with fat sources that varied in saturation of 18 carbon fatty acids (high stearic, high oleic, high linoleic, or high linolenic acids) on rumen, plasma, and milk fatty acid profiles. Four primiparous Holstein cows at 85 d in milk (+/- 40) were assigned to 4 x 4 Latin squares with 4-wk periods. Treatment diets were 1) 1% FO plus 2% commercial fat high in stearic acid (HS); 2) 1% FO plus 2% fat from high oleic acid sunflower seeds (HO); 3) 1% FO plus 2% fat from high linoleic acid sunflower seeds (HLO); and 4) 1% FO plus 2% fat from flax seeds (high linolenic; HLN). Diets were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and were composed of 50% (dry basis) concentrate mix, 25% corn silage, 12.5% alfalfa silage, and 12.5% alfalfa hay. Milk production, milk protein percentages and yields, and dry matter intake were similar across diets. Milk fat concentrations and yields were least for HO and HLO diets. The proportion of milk cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 0.71, 0.99, 1.71, and 1.12 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively), and vaccenic acid (TVA; 1.85, 2.60, 4.14, and 2.16 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively) were greatest with the HLO diet. The proportions of ruminal cis-9, trans-11 CLA (0.09, 0.16, 0.18, and 0.16 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively) were similar for the HO, HLO, and HLN diets and all were higher than for the HS diet. The proportions of TVA (2.85, 4.36, 8.69, and 4.64 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively) increased with the HO, HLO, and HLN diets compared with the HS diets, and the increase was greatest with the HLO diet. The effects of fat supplements on ruminal TVA concentrations were also reflected in plasma triglycerides, (2.75, 4.64, 8.77, and 5.42 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively); however, there were no differences in the proportion of cis-9, trans-11 CLA (0.06, 0.07, 0.06, and 0.07 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively). This study further supports the

  6. High-volume extraction of nucleic acids by magnetic bead technology for ultrasensitive detection of bacteria in blood components.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Melanie; Kleesiek, Knut; Dreier, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Nucleic acid isolation, the most technically demanding and laborious procedure performed in molecular diagnostics, harbors the potential for improvements in automation. A recent development is the use of magnetic beads covered with nucleic acid-binding matrices. We adapted this technology with a broad-range 23S rRNA real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay for fast and sensitive detection of bacterial contamination of blood products. We investigated different protocols for an automated high-volume extraction method based on magnetic-separation technology for the extraction of bacterial nucleic acids from platelet concentrates (PCs). We added 2 model bacteria, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli, to a single pool of apheresis-derived, single-donor platelets and assayed the PCs by real-time RT-PCR analysis with an improved primer-probe system and locked nucleic acid technology. Co-amplification of human beta(2)-microglobulin mRNA served as an internal control (IC). We used probit analysis to calculate the minimum concentration of bacteria that would be detected with 95% confidence. For automated magnetic bead-based extraction technology with the real-time RT-PCR, the 95% detection limit was 29 x 10(3) colony-forming units (CFU)/L for S. epidermidis and 22 x 10(3) CFU/L for E. coli. No false-positive results occurred, either due to nucleic acid contamination of reagents or externally during testing of 1030 PCs. High-volume nucleic acid extraction improved the detection limit of the assay. The improvement of the primer-probe system and the integration of an IC make the RT-PCR assay appropriate for bacteria screening of platelets.

  7. Esterification and transesterification of greases to fatty acid methyl esters with highly active diphanylammonium salts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have conducted an investigation designed to identify alternate catalysts for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to be used as biodiesel. Diphenylammonium sulfate (DPAS) and diphenylammonium chloride (DPA-HCl) salts were found to be highly active homogeneous catalysts for the simu...

  8. Coffee with a high content of chlorogenic acids and low content of hydroxyhydroquinone improves postprandial endothelial dysfunction in patients with borderline and stage 1 hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kajikawa, Masato; Maruhashi, Tatsuya; Hidaka, Takayuki; Nakano, Yukiko; Kurisu, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Iwamoto, Yumiko; Kishimoto, Shinji; Matsui, Shogo; Aibara, Yoshiki; Yusoff, Farina Mohamad; Kihara, Yasuki; Chayama, Kazuaki; Goto, Chikara; Noma, Kensuke; Nakashima, Ayumu; Watanabe, Takuya; Tone, Hiroshi; Hibi, Masanobu; Osaki, Noriko; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Higashi, Yukihito

    2018-01-12

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate acute effects of coffee with a high content of chlorogenic acids and different hydroxyhydroquinone contents on postprandial endothelial dysfunction. This was a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover-within-subject clinical trial. A total of 37 patients with borderline or stage 1 hypertension were randomized to two study groups. The participants consumed a test meal with a single intake of the test coffee. Subjects in the Study 1 group were randomized to single intake of coffee with a high content of chlorogenic acids and low content of hydroxyhydroquinone or coffee with a high content of chlorogenic acids and a high content of hydroxyhydroquinone with crossover. Subjects in the Study 2 group were randomized to single intake of coffee with a high content of chlorogenic acids and low content of hydroxyhydroquinone or placebo coffee with crossover. Endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation and plasma concentration of 8-isoprostanes were measured at baseline and at 1 and 2 h after coffee intake. Compared with baseline values, single intake of coffee with a high content of chlorogenic acids and low content of hydroxyhydroquinone, but not coffee with a high content of chlorogenic acids and high content of hydroxyhydroquinone or placebo coffee, significantly improved postprandial flow-mediated vasodilation and decreased circulating 8-isoprostane levels. These findings suggest that a single intake of coffee with a high content of chlorogenic acids and low content of hydroxyhydroquinone is effective for improving postprandial endothelial dysfunction. URL for Clinical Trial: https://upload.umin.ac.jp ; Registration Number for Clinical Trial: UMIN000013283.

  9. Adapting capillary gel electrophoresis as a sensitive, high-throughput method to accelerate characterization of nucleic acid metabolic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Greenough, Lucia; Schermerhorn, Kelly M.; Mazzola, Laurie; Bybee, Joanna; Rivizzigno, Danielle; Cantin, Elizabeth; Slatko, Barton E.; Gardner, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    Detailed biochemical characterization of nucleic acid enzymes is fundamental to understanding nucleic acid metabolism, genome replication and repair. We report the development of a rapid, high-throughput fluorescence capillary gel electrophoresis method as an alternative to traditional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to characterize nucleic acid metabolic enzymes. The principles of assay design described here can be applied to nearly any enzyme system that acts on a fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide substrate. Herein, we describe several assays using this core capillary gel electrophoresis methodology to accelerate study of nucleic acid enzymes. First, assays were designed to examine DNA polymerase activities including nucleotide incorporation kinetics, strand displacement synthesis and 3′-5′ exonuclease activity. Next, DNA repair activities of DNA ligase, flap endonuclease and RNase H2 were monitored. In addition, a multicolor assay that uses four different fluorescently labeled substrates in a single reaction was implemented to characterize GAN nuclease specificity. Finally, a dual-color fluorescence assay to monitor coupled enzyme reactions during Okazaki fragment maturation is described. These assays serve as a template to guide further technical development for enzyme characterization or nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitor screening in a high-throughput manner. PMID:26365239

  10. Separation of phenolic acids from sugarcane rind by online solid-phase extraction with high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Geng, Ping; Fang, Yingtong; Xie, Ronglong; Hu, Weilun; Xi, Xingjun; Chu, Qiao; Dong, Genlai; Shaheen, Nusrat; Wei, Yun

    2017-02-01

    Sugarcane rind contains some functional phenolic acids. The separation of these compounds from sugarcane rind is able to realize the integrated utilization of the crop and reduce environment pollution. In this paper, a novel protocol based on interfacing online solid-phase extraction with high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was established, aiming at improving and simplifying the process of phenolic acids separation from sugarcane rind. The conditions of online solid-phase extraction with HSCCC involving solvent system, flow rate of mobile phase as well as saturated extent of absorption of solid-phase extraction were optimized to improve extraction efficiency and reduce separation time. The separation of phenolic acids was performed with a two-phase solvent system composed of butanol/acetic acid/water at a volume ratio of 4:1:5, and the developed online solid-phase extraction with HSCCC method was validated and successfully applied for sugarcane rind, and three phenolic acids including 6.73 mg of gallic acid, 10.85 mg of p-coumaric acid, and 2.78 mg of ferulic acid with purities of 60.2, 95.4, and 84%, respectively, were obtained from 150 mg sugarcane rind crude extracts. In addition, the three different elution methods of phenolic acids purification including HSCCC, elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography and back-extrusion counter-current chromatography were compared. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Zurampic Protects Pancreatic β-Cells from High Uric Acid Induced-Damage by Inhibiting URAT1 and Inactivating the ROS/AMPK/ERK Pathways.

    PubMed

    Xin, Ying; Wang, Kun; Jia, Zhaotong; Xu, Tao; Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Jia; Chen, Rui; Du, Zhongcai; Sun, Jianjing

    2018-05-25

    Zurampic is a US FDA approved drug for treatment of gout. However, the influence of Zurampic on pancreatic β-cells remains unclear. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of Zurampic on high uric acid-induced damage of pancreatic β-cells and the possible underlying mechanisms. INS-1 cells and primary rat islets were stimulated with Zurampic and the mRNA expression of urate transporter 1 (URAT1) was assessed by qRT-PCR. Cells were stimulated with uric acid or uric acid plus Zurampic, and cell viability, apoptosis and ROS release were measured by MTT and flow cytometry assays. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expressions of active Caspase-3 and phosphorylation of AMPK and ERK. Finally, cells were stimulated with uric acid or uric acid plus Zurampic at low/high level of glucose (2.8/16.7 mM glucose), and the insulin release was assessed by ELISA. mRNA expression of URAT1 was decreased by Zurampic in a dose-dependent manner. Uric acid decreased cell viability, promoted cell apoptosis and induced ROS release. Uric acid-induced alterations could be reversed by Zurampic. Activation of Caspase-3 and phosphorylation of AMPK and ERK were enhanced by uric acid, and the enhancements were reversed by Zurampic. Decreased phosphorylation of AMPK and ERK, induced by Zurampic, was further reduced by adding inhibitor of AMPK or ERK. Besides, uric acid inhibited high glucose-induced insulin secretion and the inhibition was rescued by Zurampic. Zurampic has a protective effect on pancreatic β-cells against uric acid induced-damage by inhibiting URAT1 and inactivating the ROS/AMPK/ERK pathway. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Spectra-structure correlations of saturated and unsaturated medium-chain fatty acids. Near-infrared and anharmonic DFT study of hexanoic acid and sorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Grabska, Justyna; Beć, Krzysztof B; Ishigaki, Mika; Wójcik, Marek J; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2017-10-05

    Quantum chemical reproduction of entire NIR spectra is a new trend, enabled by contemporary advances in the anharmonic approaches. At the same time, recent increase of the importance of NIR spectroscopy of biological samples raises high demand for gaining deeper understanding of NIR spectra of biomolecules, i.e. fatty acids. In this work we investigate saturated and unsaturated medium-chain fatty acids, hexanoic acid and sorbic acid, in the near-infrared region. By employing fully anharmonic density functional theory (DFT) calculations we reproduce the experimental NIR spectra of these systems, including the highly specific spectral features corresponding to the dimerization of fatty acids. Broad range of concentration levels from 5·10 -4 M in CCl 4 to pure samples are investigated. The major role of cyclic dimers can be evidenced for the vast majority of these samples. A highly specific NIR feature of fatty acids, the elevation of spectral baseline around 6500-4000cm -1 , is being explained by the contributions of combination bands resulting from the vibrations of hydrogen-bonded OH groups in the cyclic dimers. Based on the high agreement between the calculated and experimental NIR spectra, a detailed NIR band assignments are proposed for hexanoic acid and sorbic acid. Subsequently, the correlations between the structure and NIR spectra are elucidated, emphasizing the regions in which clear and universal traces of specific bands corresponding to saturated and unsaturated alkyl chains can be established, thus demonstrating the wavenumber regions highly valuable for structural identifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomimetic synthesis of highly biocompatible gold nanoparticles with amino acid-dithiocarbamate as a precursor for SERS imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Liu, Jianbo; Yang, Xiaohai; Huang, Jin; He, Dinggeng; Guo, Xi; Wan, Lan; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin

    2016-03-01

    Amino acid-dithiocarbamate (amino acid-DTC) was developed as both the reductant and ligand stabilizer for biomimetic synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which served as an excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) contrast nanoprobe for cell imaging. Glycine (Gly), glutamic acid (Glu), and histidine (His) with different isoelectric points were chosen as representative amino acid candidates to synthesize corresponding amino acid-DTC compounds through mixing with carbon disulfide (CS2), respectively. The pyrogenic decomposition of amino acid-DTC initiated the reduction synthesis of AuNPs, and the strong coordinating dithiocarbamate group of amino acid-DTC served as a stabilizer that grafted onto the surface of the AuNPs, which rendered the as-prepared nanoparticles a negative surface charge and high colloidal stability. MTT cell viability assay demonstrated that the biomimetic AuNPs possessed neglectful toxicity to the human hepatoma cell, which guaranteed them good biocompatibility for biomedical application. Meanwhile, the biomimetic AuNPs showed a strong SERS effect with an enhancement factor of 9.8 × 105 for the sensing of Rhodamine 6G, and two distinct Raman peaks located at 1363 and 1509 cm-1 could be clearly observed in the cell-imaging experiments. Therefore, biomimetic AuNPs can be explored as an excellent SERS contrast nanoprobe for biomedical imaging, and the amino acid-DTC mediated synthesis of the AuNPs has a great potential in bio-engineering and biomedical imaging applications.

  14. Efficient bioconversion of organic wastes to high optical activity of l-lactic acid stimulated by cathode in mixed microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gang; Lai, Sizhou; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Wenjuan; You, Jiguang; Chen, Hong; Qian, Yajie; Gao, Pin; Liu, Zhenhong; Liu, Yanan

    2017-12-12

    Lactic acid is one of the emerging top biomass derived platform chemicals that can be fermented from organic wastes. This study evaluated the potential of Cathodic Electro-Fermentation (CEF) as a novel approach to enhance the yield of high optical activity (OA) of l-lactic acid from organic wastes using mixed microbial consortium. The fermentation process was stimulated through the cathode applied with -100 mV versus standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), which contributed to 4.73 times higher lactic acid productivity (0.6578 g L -1 h -1 ) compared to that in the open circuit control (0.1392 g L -1 h -1 ), and an improved OA of l-lactic acid was also observed (42.3% vs. 3.6% of the open circuit control). The study elucidated that the optimal voltage at -100 mV promoted the conversion of pyruvate to l-lactate by 77.9% compared to the Blank, which triggered the generation of l-lactic acid to occur rapidly even at low concentration of pyruvate. The significant variation of microbial community in family- and genus-level distributions were observed in CEF system. Furthermore, the open-circuit operation test demonstrated that the cathode providing in-situ electron supply was essential to achieve high efficient bioconversion of organic wastes to lactic acid. Our work highlights the feasibility of CEF to steer high value-added fermentation products deriving from organic wastes by the mixed microbial consortium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gallic Acid Decreases Inflammatory Cytokine Secretion Through Histone Acetyltransferase/Histone Deacetylase Regulation in High Glucose-Induced Human Monocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wooje; Lee, Sang Yeol; Son, Young-Jin; Yun, Jung-Mi

    2015-07-01

    Hyperglycemia contributes to diabetes and several diabetes-related complications. Gallic acid is a polyhydroxy phenolic compound found in various natural products. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanism of gallic acid on proinflammatory cytokine secretion in high glucose-induced human monocytes (THP-1 cells). THP-1 cells were cultured under normoglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions, in the absence or presence of gallic acid. Hyperglycemic conditions significantly induced histone acetylation, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, and proinflammatory cytokine release from THP-1 cells, whereas gallic acid suppressed NF-κB activity and cytokine release. It also significantly reduced CREB-binding protein/p300 (CBP/p300, a NF-κB coactivator) gene expression, acetylation levels, and CBP/p300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity. In addition, histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) expression was significantly induced. These results suggest that gallic acid inhibits hyperglycemic-induced cytokine production in monocytes through epigenetic changes involving NF-κB. Therefore, gallic acid may have potential for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and its complications.

  16. Major Role of NAD-Dependent Lactate Dehydrogenases in the Production of l-Lactic Acid with High Optical Purity by the Thermophile Bacillus coagulans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limin; Cai, Yumeng; Zhu, Lingfeng; Guo, Honglian

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is an excellent producer of optically pure l-lactic acid. However, little is known about the mechanism of synthesis of the highly optically pure l-lactic acid produced by this strain. Three enzymes responsible for lactic acid production—NAD-dependent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-nLDH; encoded by ldhL), NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-nLDH; encoded by ldhD), and glycolate oxidase (GOX)—were systematically investigated in order to study the relationship between these enzymes and the optical purity of lactic acid. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081 (a d-lactic acid producer) and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum DSM 20174 (a dl-lactic acid producer) were also examined in this study as comparative strains, in addition to B. coagulans. The specific activities of key enzymes for lactic acid production in the three strains were characterized in vivo and in vitro, and the levels of transcription of the ldhL, ldhD, and GOX genes during fermentation were also analyzed. The catalytic activities of l-nLDH and d-nLDH were different in l-, d-, and dl-lactic acid producers. Only l-nLDH activity was detected in B. coagulans 2-6 under native conditions, and the level of transcription of ldhL in B. coagulans 2-6 was much higher than that of ldhD or the GOX gene at all growth phases. However, for the two Lactobacillus strains used in this study, ldhD transcription levels were higher than those of ldhL. The high catalytic efficiency of l-nLDH toward pyruvate and the high transcription ratios of ldhL to ldhD and ldhL to the GOX gene provide the key explanations for the high optical purity of l-lactic acid produced by B. coagulans 2-6. PMID:25217009

  17. Major Role of NAD-Dependent Lactate Dehydrogenases in the Production of l-Lactic Acid with High Optical Purity by the Thermophile Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limin; Cai, Yumeng; Zhu, Lingfeng; Guo, Honglian; Yu, Bo

    2014-12-01

    Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is an excellent producer of optically pure l-lactic acid. However, little is known about the mechanism of synthesis of the highly optically pure l-lactic acid produced by this strain. Three enzymes responsible for lactic acid production-NAD-dependent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-nLDH; encoded by ldhL), NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-nLDH; encoded by ldhD), and glycolate oxidase (GOX)-were systematically investigated in order to study the relationship between these enzymes and the optical purity of lactic acid. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081 (a d-lactic acid producer) and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum DSM 20174 (a dl-lactic acid producer) were also examined in this study as comparative strains, in addition to B. coagulans. The specific activities of key enzymes for lactic acid production in the three strains were characterized in vivo and in vitro, and the levels of transcription of the ldhL, ldhD, and GOX genes during fermentation were also analyzed. The catalytic activities of l-nLDH and d-nLDH were different in l-, d-, and dl-lactic acid producers. Only l-nLDH activity was detected in B. coagulans 2-6 under native conditions, and the level of transcription of ldhL in B. coagulans 2-6 was much higher than that of ldhD or the GOX gene at all growth phases. However, for the two Lactobacillus strains used in this study, ldhD transcription levels were higher than those of ldhL. The high catalytic efficiency of l-nLDH toward pyruvate and the high transcription ratios of ldhL to ldhD and ldhL to the GOX gene provide the key explanations for the high optical purity of l-lactic acid produced by B. coagulans 2-6. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Changes of lipid and fatty acid absorption induced by high dose of citric acid ester and lecithin emulsifiers.

    PubMed

    Sadouki, Mohamed; Bouchoucha, Michel

    2014-09-01

    To describe the effect of two food emulsifiers, lecithin (E322) and citric acid esters of mono-and diglycerides of fatty acids (E472c), on the intestinal absorption of lipids. The experiment was conducted on 24 male Wistar rats randomly assigned in three groups. For two groups of six rats, 30% of the lipid intake was replaced with lecithin (L) or citric acid ester of mono and diglycerides, (E); the remaining 12 rats were the control group (C). Diet and fecal fat analysis was used to determine the apparent lipid absorption (ALA) and fatty acids. ALA was significantly lower in the group E than in the groups C and L (p < 0.001). ALA of long saturated chain fatty acids decreased while the length of the carbon chains increased, and this decrease was higher in the group E. E472c emulsifier decreased the intestinal absorption of lipids.

  19. 1-FFT amino acids involved in high DP inulin accumulation in Viguiera discolor

    PubMed Central

    De Sadeleer, Emerik; Vergauwen, Rudy; Struyf, Tom; Le Roy, Katrien; Van den Ende, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Fructans are important vacuolar reserve carbohydrates with drought, cold, ROS and general abiotic stress mediating properties. They occur in 15% of all flowering plants and are believed to display health benefits as a prebiotic and dietary fiber. Fructans are synthesized by specific fructosyltransferases and classified based on the linkage type between fructosyl units. Inulins, one of these fructan types with β(2-1) linkages, are elongated by fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferases (1-FFT) using a fructosyl unit from a donor inulin to elongate the acceptor inulin molecule. The sequence identity of the 1-FFT of Viguiera discolor (Vd) and Helianthus tuberosus (Ht) is 91% although these enzymes produce distinct fructans. The Vd 1-FFT produces high degree of polymerization (DP) inulins by preferring the elongation of long chain inulins, in contrast to the Ht 1-FFT which prefers small molecules (DP3 or 4) as acceptor. Since higher DP inulins have interesting properties for industrial, food and medical applications, we report here on the influence of two amino acids on the high DP inulin production capacity of the Vd 1-FFT. Introducing the M19F and H308T mutations in the active site of the Vd 1-FFT greatly reduces its capacity to produce high DP inulin molecules. Both amino acids can be considered important to this capacity, although the double mutation had a much higher impact than the single mutations. PMID:26322058

  20. Polydopamine-coated magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective solid-phase extraction of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid from radix scrophulariae sample.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yuli; Yan, Liang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Jing; Luo, Ningjing

    2016-04-01

    We describe novel cinnamic acid polydopamine-coated magnetic imprinted polymers for the simultaneous selective extraction of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid from radix scrophulariae sample. The novel magnetic imprinted polymers were synthesized by surface imprinting polymerization using magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes as the support material, cinnamic acid as the template and dopamine as the functional monomer. The magnetic imprinted polymers were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results revealed that the magnetic imprinted polymers had outstanding magnetic properties, high adsorption capacity, selectivity and fast kinetic binding toward cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid. Coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography, the extraction conditions of the magnetic imprinted polymers as a magnetic solid-phase extraction sorbent were investigated in detail. The proposed imprinted magnetic solid phase extraction procedure has been used for the purification and enrichment of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid successfully from radix scrophulariae extraction sample with recoveries of 92.4-115.0% for cinnamic acid, 89.4-103.0% for ferulic acid and 86.6-96.0% for caffeic acid. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Eicosapentaenoic acid regulates brown adipose tissue gene expression and metabolism in high fat fed mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic tissue, a key regulator of energy balance and a potential therapeutic target for obesity. We previously reported that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduced high fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice, independent of energy intake. We hy...

  2. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of sixteen red beverages containing carminic acid: identification of degradation products by using principal component analysis/discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Gosetti, Fabio; Chiuminatto, Ugo; Mazzucco, Eleonora; Mastroianni, Rita; Marengo, Emilio

    2015-01-15

    The study investigates the sunlight photodegradation process of carminic acid, a natural red colourant used in beverages. For this purpose, both carminic acid aqueous standard solutions and sixteen different commercial beverages, ten containing carminic acid and six containing E120 dye, were subjected to photoirradiation. The results show different patterns of degradation, not only between the standard solutions and the beverages, but also from beverage to beverage. Due to the different beverage recipes, unpredictable reactions take place between the dye and the other ingredients. To identify the dye degradation products in a very complex scenario, a methodology was used, based on the combined use of principal component analysis with discriminant analysis and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem high resolution mass spectrometry. The methodology is unaffected by beverage composition and allows the degradation products of carminic acid dye to be identified for each beverage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does a high dietary acid content cause bone loss, and can bone loss be prevented with an alkaline diet?

    PubMed

    Hanley, David A; Whiting, Susan J

    2013-01-01

    A popular concept in nutrition and lay literature is that of the role of a diet high in acid or protein in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. A diet rich in fruit and vegetable intake is thought to enhance bone health as the result of its greater potassium and lower "acidic" content than a diet rich in animal protein and sodium. Consequently, there have been a number of studies of diet manipulation to enhance potassium and "alkaline" content of the diet to improve bone density or other parameters of bone health. Although acid loading or an acidic diet featuring a high protein intake may be associated with an increase in calciuria, the evidence supporting a role of these variables in the development of osteoporosis is not consistent. Similarly, intervention studies with a more alkaline diet or use of supplements of potassium citrate or bicarbonate have not consistently shown a bone health benefit. In the elderly, inadequate protein intake is a greater problem for bone health than protein excess. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Specific bile acids inhibit hepatic fatty acid uptake

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Biao; Park, Hyo Min; Kazantzis, Melissa; Lin, Min; Henkin, Amy; Ng, Stephanie; Song, Sujin; Chen, Yuli; Tran, Heather; Lai, Robin; Her, Chris; Maher, Jacquelyn J.; Forman, Barry M.; Stahl, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Bile acids are known to play important roles as detergents in the absorption of hydrophobic nutrients and as signaling molecules in the regulation of metabolism. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that naturally occurring bile acids interfere with protein-mediated hepatic long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. To this end stable cell lines expressing fatty acid transporters as well as primary hepatocytes from mouse and human livers were incubated with primary and secondary bile acids to determine their effects on LCFA uptake rates. We identified ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) as the two most potent inhibitors of the liver-specific fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5). Both UDCA and DCA were able to inhibit LCFA uptake by primary hepatocytes in a FATP5-dependent manner. Subsequently, mice were treated with these secondary bile acids in vivo to assess their ability to inhibit diet-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Administration of DCA in vivo via injection or as part of a high-fat diet significantly inhibited hepatic fatty acid uptake and reduced liver triglycerides by more than 50%. In summary, the data demonstrate a novel role for specific bile acids, and the secondary bile acid DCA in particular, in the regulation of hepatic LCFA uptake. The results illuminate a previously unappreciated means by which specific bile acids, such as UDCA and DCA, can impact hepatic triglyceride metabolism and may lead to novel approaches to combat obesity-associated fatty liver disease. PMID:22531947

  5. High abundances of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in the mountaintop aerosols over the North China Plain during wheat burning season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.; Okuzawa, K.; Aggarwal, S. G.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z. F.

    2013-08-01

    Aerosol (TSP) samples were collected at the summit of Mount Tai (elevation: 1534 m a.s.l., 36.25° N, 117.10° E) located in the North China Plain using a high-volume air sampler and pre-combusted quartz filters. Sampling was conducted on day/night or 3 h basis in the period from 29 May to 28 June 2006 during the field burning of wheat straw residue and the post-burning season. The filter samples were analyzed for low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and α-dicarbonyls using capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC-MS employing water extraction and butyl ester derivatization. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids (C2-C11, 220-6070 ng m-3) were characterized by a predominance of oxalic (C2) acid (105-3920 ng m-3) followed by succinic (C4) or malonic (C3) acid. Unsaturated aliphatic diacids, including maleic (M), isomaleic (iM) and fumaric (F) acids, were also detected together with aromatic diacids (phthalic, isophthalic and terephthalic acids). ω-oxocarboxylic acids (C2-C9, 24-610 ng m-3) were detected as the second most abundant compound class with the predominance of glyoxylic acid (11-360 ng m-3), followed by α-ketoacid (pyruvic acid, 3-140 ng m-3) and α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal, 1-230 ng m-3 and methylglyoxal, 2-120 ng m-3). We found that these levels (>6000 ng m-3 for diacids) are several times higher than those reported in Chinese megacities at ground levels. The concentrations of diacids increased from late May to early June, showing a maximum on 7 June, and then significantly decreased during the period 8-11 June, when the wind direction shifted from southerly to northerly. Similar temporal trends were found for ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls as well as total carbon (TC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). The temporal variations of water-soluble organics were interpreted by the direct emission from the field burning of agricultural wastes (wheat straw) in the North China Plain and the subsequent photochemical oxidation of

  6. Ultrasensitive determination of jasmonic acid in plant tissues using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xu-Jie; Rao, Wan-Bing; Guo, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Hua-Shan

    2012-05-23

    An ultrasensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the volatile signaling hormone, jasmonic acid, has been developed based on precolumn derivatization with 1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-8-aminozide-difluoroboradiaza-s-indacene (BODIPY-aminozide). The derivatization reaction was carried out at 60 °C for 30 min in the presence of phosphoric acid. The formed jasmonic acid derivative was eluted using a mobile phase of methanol/pH 6.50 ammonium formate buffer/tetrahydrofuran (67:30:3, v/v/v) in 10 min on a C(18) column and detected with fluorescence detection at excitation and emission wavelengths of 495 and 505 nm, respectively. The detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio = 4) reached 1.14 × 10(-10) M or 2.29 fmol per injection (20 μL), which is the lowest of the existing methods. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the direct determination of trace jasmonic acid in the crude extracts of soybean leaves from soybean mosaic virus-infected and normal plants with recoveries of 95-104%.

  7. Fatty acid composition in serum correlates with that in the liver and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-He; Li, Chun-Yan; Muhammad, Ishfaq; Zhang, Xiu-Ying

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the correlation between the serum fatty acid composition and hepatic steatosis, inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning scores, and liver fatty acids composition in mice fed a high-fat diet. Livers were collected for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease score analysis. Fatty acid compositions were analysed by gas chromatography. Correlations were determined by Pearson correlation coefficient. Exposed to a high-fat diet, mice developed fatty liver disease with varying severity without fibrosis. The serum fatty acid variation became more severe with prolonged exposure to a high-fat diet. This variation also correlated significantly with the variation in livers, with the types of fatty acids corresponding to liver steatosis, inflammation, and hepatocellular ballooning scores. Results of this study lead to the following hypothesis: the extent of serum fatty acid variation may be a preliminary biomarker of fatty liver disease caused by high-fat intake. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Targeted delivery of 5-fluorouracil to HT-29 cells using high efficient folic acid-conjugated nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yichao; Li, Puwang; Chen, Lijue; Gao, Weimin; Zeng, Fanbo; Kong, Ling Xue

    2015-02-01

    The incorporation of a high percentage of targeting molecules into drug delivery system is one of the important methods for improving efficacy of targeting therapeutic drugs to cancer cells. PLGA-based drug delivery carriers with folic acid (FA) as targeting molecule have a low targeting efficiency due to a low FA conjugation ratio. In this work, we fabricated a FA-conjugated PLGA system using a crosslinker 1, 3-diaminopropane and have achieved a high conjugation ratio of 46.7% (mol/mol). The as-prepared PLGA-based biomaterial was used to encapsulate therapeutic drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) into nanoparticles. In the in vitro experiments, an IC₅₀ of 5.69 µg/mL has been achieved for 5-FU loaded PLGA-1, 3-diaminopropane-folic acid nanoparticles on HT-29 cancer cells and is significantly lower than that of 5-FU and 5-FU loaded PLGA nanoparticles which only have an IC₅₀ of 22.9 and 14.17 µg/mL, respectively. The fluorescent microscopy images showed that nanoparticles with FA are largely taken up by HT-29 cancer cells and the targeting nanoparticles have more affinity to cancer cells than the pure drugs and untreated nanoparticles. Therefore, the 1, 3-diaminopropane can facilitate the conjugation of FA to PLGA to form a novel polymer and 5-FU loaded PLGA-1, 3-diaminopropane-folic acid nanoparticles can be a highly efficient system for specific delivery of drugs to cancer cells.

  9. Facile Growth of High-Yield Gold Nanobipyramids Induced by Chloroplatinic Acid for High Refractive Index Sensing Properties.

    PubMed

    Fang, Caihong; Zhao, Guili; Xiao, Yanling; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Zijun; Geng, Baoyou

    2016-11-14

    Au nanobipyramids (NBPs) have attracted great attention because of their unique localized surface plasmon resonance properties. However, the current growth methods always have low yield or suffer tedious process. Developing new ways to direct synthesis of high-yield Au NBPs using common agents is therefore desirable. Here, we employed chloroplatinic acid as the key shape-directing agent for the first time to grow Au NBPs using a modified seed-mediated method at room temperature. H 2 PtCl 6 was added both during the seed preparation and in growth solution. Metallic Pt, reduced from chloroplatinic acid, will deposit on the surface of the seed nanoparticles and the Au nanocrystals and thus plays a critical role for the formation of Au NBPs. Additionally, the reductant, precursor, and surfactant are all cheap and commonly used. Furthermore, the Au NBPs offer narrow size distribution, two sharp tips, and a shared basis. Au NBPs therefore show much higher refractive index sensitivities than that of the Au nanorods. The refractive index sensitivities and lager figure of merit values of Au NBPs exhibit an increase of 63% and 321% respectively compared to the corresponding values of Au nanorod sample.

  10. Ambient Temperature Synthesis of High Enantiopurity N-Protected Peptidyl Ketones by Peptidyl Thiol Ester–Boronic Acid Cross-Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hao; Li, Hao; Wittenberg, Rüdiger; Egi, Masahiro; Huang, Wenwei; Liebeskind, Lanny S.

    2009-01-01

    α-Amino acid thiol esters derived from N-protected mono-, di-, and tripeptides couple with aryl, π-electron-rich heteroaryl, or alkenyl boronic acids in the presence of stoichiometric Cu(I) thiophene-2-carboxylate (CuTC) and catalytic Pd2(dba)3/triethylphosphite to generate the corresponding N-protected peptidyl ketones in good to excellent yields and in high enantiopurity. Triethylphosphite plays a key role as a supporting ligand by mitigating an undesired palladium-catalyzed decarbonylation-β-elimination of the α-amino thiol esters. The peptidyl ketone synthesis proceeds at room temperature under non-basic conditions and demonstrates a high tolerance to functionality. PMID:17263394

  11. High extracellular concentration of excitatory amino acids glutamate and aspartate in human brain abscess.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, Daniel; Ivanovic, Jugoslav; Hassel, Bjørnar

    2014-04-01

    Brain abscesses often cause symptoms of brain dysfunction, including seizures, suggesting interference with normal neurotransmission. We determined the concentration of extracellular neuroactive amino acids in brain abscesses from 16 human patients. Glutamate was present at 3.6 mmol/L (median value, range 0.5-10.8), aspartate at 1.0 mmol/L (range 0.09-6.8). For comparison, in cerebroventricular fluid glutamate was ∼0.6 μmol/L, and aspartate was not different from zero. The total concentration of amino acids was higher in eight patients with seizures: 66 mmol/L (median value, range 19-109) vs. 21 mmol/L (range 4-52) in eight patients without seizures (p=0.026). The concentration of aspartate and essential amino acids tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, and isoleucine was higher in pus from patients with seizures (p⩽0.040), whereas that of glutamate was not (p=0.095). The median concentration of the non-proteinogenic, inhibitory amino acid taurine was similar in the two groups, 0.7-0.8 mmol/L (range 0.1-6.1). GABA could not be detected in pus. The patient groups did not differ with respect to abscess volume, the cerebral lobe affected, age, or time from symptom onset to surgery. Seven patients with extracerebral, intracranial abscesses had significantly lower pus concentration of glutamate (352 μmol/L, range 83-1368) and aspartate (71 μmol/L, range 22-330) than intracerebral abscesses (p<0.001). We conclude that excitatory amino acids glutamate and aspartate may reach very high concentrations in brain abscesses, probably contributing to symptoms through activation of glutamate receptors in the surrounding brain tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The structure of high-methoxyl sugar acid gels of citrus pectin as determined by AFM

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Images of native high methoxyl sugar acid gels (HMSAG) were obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the Tapping ModeTM. Electronic thinning of the pectin strands to one pixel wide allowed the pectin network to be viewed in the absence of variable strand widths related to preferentially solvate...

  13. High-cell-density fed-batch cultivation of the docosahexaenoic acid producing marine alga Crypthecodinium cohnii.

    PubMed

    De Swaaf, Martin E; Sijtsma, Lolke; Pronk, Jack T

    2003-03-20

    The heterotrophic marine alga Crypthecodinium cohnii is known to produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid with food and pharmaceutical applications, during batch cultivation on complex media containing sea salt, yeast extract, and glucose. In the present study, fed-batch cultivation was studied as an alternative fermentation strategy for DHA production. Glucose and acetic acid were compared as carbon sources. For both substrates, the feed rate was adapted to the maximum specific consumption rate of C. cohnii. In glucose-grown cultures, this was done by maintaining a significant glucose concentration (between 5 and 20 g/L) throughout fermentation. In acetic acid-grown cultures, the medium feed was automatically controlled via the culture pH. A feed consisting of acetic acid (50% w/w) resulted in a higher overall volumetric productivity of DHA (r(DHA)) than a feed consisting of 50% (w/v) glucose (38 and 14 mg/L/h, respectively). The r(DHA) was further increased to 48 mg/L/h using a feed consisting of pure acetic acid. The latter fermentation strategy resulted in final concentrations of 109 g/L dry biomass, 61 g/L lipid, and 19 g/L DHA. These are the highest biomass, lipid, and DHA concentrations reported to date for a heterotrophic alga. Vigorous mixing was required to sustain aerobic conditions during high-cell-density cultivation. This was complicated by culture viscosity, which resulted from the production of viscous extracellular polysaccharides. These may present a problem for large-scale industrial production of DHA. Addition of a commercial polysaccharide-hydrolase preparation could decrease the viscosity of the culture and the required stirring. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 81: 666-672, 2003.

  14. Plasma capric acid concentrations in healthy subjects determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Rojeet; Hui, Shu-Ping; Imai, Hiromitsu; Hashimoto, Satoru; Uemura, Naoto; Takeda, Seiji; Fuda, Hirotoshi; Suzuki, Akira; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Hirano, Ken-Ichi; Chiba, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Capric acid (FA10:0, decanoic acid) is a medium-chain fatty acid abundant in tropical oils such as coconut oil, whereas small amounts are present in milk of goat, cow, and human. Orally ingested FA10:0 is transported to the liver and quickly burnt within it. Only few reports are available for FA10:0 concentrations in human plasma. Fasting (n = 5, male/female = 3/2, age 31 ± 9.3 years old) and non-fasting (n = 106, male/female = 44/62, age 21.9 ± 3.2 years old) blood samples were collected from apparently healthy Japanese volunteers. The total FA10:0 in the plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography after derivatization with 2-nitrophenylhydrazine followed by UV detection. Inter and intra-assay coefficient of variation of FA10:0 assay at three different concentrations ranged in 1.7-3.9 and 1.3-5.4%, respectively, with an analytical recovery of 95.2-104.0%. FA10:0 concentration was below detection limit (0.1 µmol/L) in each fasting human plasma. FA10:0 was not detected in 50 (47.2%) of 106 non-fasting blood samples, while 29 (27.4%) plasma samples contained FA10:0 less than or equal to 0.5 µmol/L (0.4 ± 0.1), and 27 (25.5%) contained it at more than 0.5 µmol/L (0.9 ± 0.3). A half of the non-fasting plasma samples contained detectable FA10:0. This simple, precise, and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography method might be useful for monitoring plasma FA10:0 during medium-chain triglycerides therapy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Effects of Ferulic Acid and γ-Oryzanol on High-Fat and High-Fructose Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ou; Liu, Jia; Cheng, Qian; Guo, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Yong; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2015-01-01

    Background The high morbidity of metabolic dysfunction diseases has heightened interest in seeking natural and safe compounds to maintain optimal health. γ-Oryzanol (OZ), the ferulic acid (FA) ester with phytosterols, mainly present in rice bran has been shown to improve markers of metabolic syndrome. This study investigates the effects of FA and OZ on alleviating high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFFD)-induced metabolic syndrome parameters. Methods Male SD rats were fed with a regular rodent diet, HFFD, or HFFD supplemented with 0.05% FA or 0.16% OZ (equimolar concentrations) for 13 weeks. Food intake, organ indices, serum lipid profiles, glucose metabolism, insulin resistance (IR) index and cytokine levels were analyzed. The mechanisms were further investigated in oleic acid-stimulated HepG2 cells by analyzing triglyceride (TG) content and lipogenesis-related gene expressions. Results In the in vivo study, FA and OZ exhibited similar effects in alleviating HFFD-induced obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and IR. However, only OZ treatment significantly decreased liver index and hepatic TG content, lowered serum levels of C-reactive protein and IL-6, and increased serum concentration of adiponectin. In the in vitro assay, only OZ administration significantly inhibited intracellular TG accumulation and down-regulated expression of stearoyl coenzyme-A desaturase-1, which might facilitate OZ to enhance its hepatoprotective effect. Conclusion OZ is more effective than FA in inhibiting hepatic fat accumulation and inflammation. Thus, FA and OZ could be used as dietary supplements to alleviate the deleterious effects of HFFD. PMID:25646799

  16. Quantification of Fatty Acid Oxidation Products Using On-line High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Levison, Bruce S.; Zhang, Renliang; Wang, Zeneng; Fu, Xiaoming; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidized fatty acids formed via lipid peroxidation are implicated in pathological processes such as inflammation and atherosclerosis. A number of methods may be used to detect specific oxidized fatty acids containing a single or multiple combinations of epoxide, hydroxyl, ketone and hydroperoxide moieties on varying carbon chain lengths from C8 up to C30. Some of these methods are nonspecific and their use in biological systems is fraught with difficulty. Measures of specific-oxidized fatty acid derivatives help in identifying oxidation pathways in pathological processes. We used liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) as efficient, selective and sensitive methods for identifying and analyzing multiple specific fatty acid peroxidation products in human plasma and other biological matrices. We then distilled the essential components of a number of these analyses to provide an efficient protocol by which fatty acid oxidation products and their parent compounds can be determined. In this protocol, addition of synthetic internal standard to the sample, followed by base hydrolysis at elevated temperature, and liquid-liquid phase sample extraction with lighter than water solvents facilitates isolation of the oxidized fatty acid species. These species can be identified and accurately quantified using stable isotope dilution and multiple reaction monitoring. Use of a coupled multiplexed gradient HPLC system on the front end enables high-throughput chromatography and more efficient use of mass spectrometer time. PMID:23499838

  17. Acid anhydrides: a simple route to highly pure organometallic solutions for superconducting films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roma, N.; Morlens, S.; Ricart, S.; Zalamova, K.; Moreto, J. M.; Pomar, A.; Puig, T.; Obradors, X.

    2006-06-01

    The presence of impurities in the precursor metal carboxylate solutions for the preparation of epitaxial thin films by metal organic decomposition (MOD) is substantially avoided by the use of acid anhydrides. In particular, trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) was used for the synthesis of the starting Y, Ba and Cu trifluoroacetates used in YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) preparation by the MOD process. In this way, highly stable organometallic precursors and a short pyrolysis process could be used leading to YBCO films with high critical currents (Jc >=2-4 MA cm-2 at 77 K). Furthermore, the reproducibility of the results has been ascertained.

  18. Assay of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, the components of Augmentin, in biological fluids with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Foulstone, M; Reading, C

    1982-11-01

    Augmentin is a new antibacterial formulation comprised of amoxicillin and the beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid. In the present paper, the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to provide a rapid assay of the components of Augmentin in body fluids is described. Clavulanic acid was assayed by reacting the sample with imidazole, which readily produces a derivative absorbing at 311 nm. This derivative chromatographs on reverse-phase HPLC columns clear of interfering components in both human serum and urine. Concentrations of clavulanic acid as low as 0.1 microgram/ml were readily detectable in human serum with this procedure. There was no interference from amoxicillin, amoxicillin penicilloic acid, or the acid and alkali degradation products of clavulanic acid when this assay system was used. Amoxicillin in body fluids was assayed directly by HPLC without derivatization. The same chromatographic conditions were employed for the assay of amoxicillin and the clavulanic acid derivative, simplifying the methodology. Amoxicillin, however, was determined of the antibiotic per ml. An alkali blanking procedure for amoxicillin and clavulanic acid is also described which allows the detection of any underlying peaks which may cochromatograph. The use of ultrafiltration to remove protein from serum samples before HPLC was successfully applied to the assay of clavulanic acid and amoxicillin. Ultrafiltration is not an essential procedure for these assays, but it prolongs column life and reduces interference in the amoxicillin assay. Results obtained by HPLC were compared with those obtained by using microbiological assays.

  19. Assay of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, the components of Augmentin, in biological fluids with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Foulstone, M; Reading, C

    1982-01-01

    Augmentin is a new antibacterial formulation comprised of amoxicillin and the beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid. In the present paper, the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to provide a rapid assay of the components of Augmentin in body fluids is described. Clavulanic acid was assayed by reacting the sample with imidazole, which readily produces a derivative absorbing at 311 nm. This derivative chromatographs on reverse-phase HPLC columns clear of interfering components in both human serum and urine. Concentrations of clavulanic acid as low as 0.1 microgram/ml were readily detectable in human serum with this procedure. There was no interference from amoxicillin, amoxicillin penicilloic acid, or the acid and alkali degradation products of clavulanic acid when this assay system was used. Amoxicillin in body fluids was assayed directly by HPLC without derivatization. The same chromatographic conditions were employed for the assay of amoxicillin and the clavulanic acid derivative, simplifying the methodology. Amoxicillin, however, was determined of the antibiotic per ml. An alkali blanking procedure for amoxicillin and clavulanic acid is also described which allows the detection of any underlying peaks which may cochromatograph. The use of ultrafiltration to remove protein from serum samples before HPLC was successfully applied to the assay of clavulanic acid and amoxicillin. Ultrafiltration is not an essential procedure for these assays, but it prolongs column life and reduces interference in the amoxicillin assay. Results obtained by HPLC were compared with those obtained by using microbiological assays. PMID:7181486

  20. High abundances of oxalic, azelaic, and glyoxylic acids and methylglyoxal in the open ocean with high biological activity: Implication for secondary OA formation from isoprene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikkina, Srinivas; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Miyazaki, Yuzo; Fu, Pingqing

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric dicarboxylic acids (DCA) are a ubiquitous water-soluble component of secondary organic aerosols (SOA), which can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), affecting the Earth's climate. Despite the high abundances of oxalic acid and related compounds in the marine aerosols, there is no consensus on what controls their distributions over the open ocean. Marine biological productivity could play a role in the production of DCA, but there is no substantial evidence to support this hypothesis. Here we present latitudinal distributions of DCA, oxoacids and α-dicarbonyls in the marine aerosols from the remote Pacific. Their concentrations were found several times higher in more biologically influenced aerosols (MBA) than less biologically influenced aerosols. We propose isoprene and unsaturated fatty acids as sources of DCA as inferred from significantly higher abundances of isoprene-SOA tracers and azelaic acid in MBA. These results have implications toward the reassessment of climate forcing feedbacks of marine-derived SOA.

  1. Reestablishing natural succession on acidic mine spoils at high elevations: long-term ecological restoration

    Treesearch

    Ray W. Brown; Michael C. Amacher; Walter F. Mueggler; Janice Kotuby-Amacher

    2003-01-01

    Methods for restoring native plant communities on acidic mine spoils at high elevations were evaluated in a "demonstration area" in the New World Mining District of southern Montana. Research plots installed in 1976 were assessed for 22 years and compared with adjacent native reference plant communities. A 1.5-acre (0.61-ha) area of mine spoils was shaped and...

  2. THE PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF HIGHLY PURIFIED ASCORBIC ACID OXIDASE

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Wendell H.; Lewis, Stanley; Dawson, Charles R.

    1944-01-01

    1. A method is described for the preparation of a highly purified ascorbic acid oxidase containing 0.24 per cent copper. 2. Using comparable activity measurements, this oxidase is about one and a half times as active on a dry weight basis as the hitherto most highly purified preparation described by Lovett-Janison and Nelson. The latter contained 0.15 per cent copper. 3. The oxidase activity is proportional to the copper content and the proportionality factor is the same as that reported by Lovett-Janison and Nelson. 4. When dialyzed free of salt, the blue concentrated oxidase solutions precipitate a dark green-blue protein which carries the activity. This may be prevented by keeping the concentrated solutions about 0.1 M in Na2HPO4. 5. When highly diluted for activity measurements the oxidase rapidly loses activity (irreversibly) previous to the measurement, unless the dilution is made with a dilute inert protein (gelatin) solution. Therefore activity values obtained using such gelatin-stabilized dilute solutions of the oxidase run considerably higher than values obtained by the Lovett-Janison and Nelson technique. 6. The effect of pH and substrate concentration on the activity of the purified oxidase in the presence and absence of inert protein was studied. PMID:19873382

  3. Determination of alpha-hydroxy acids in cosmetic products by high-performance liquid chromatography with a narrow-bore column.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, I; Corradini, C; Cogliandro, E; Cavazza, A

    1999-08-01

    This paper reports the results of a study carried out to develop a simple, rapid and sensitive method for the separation, identification and quantitative measurement of alpha-hydroxy acids in commercial cosmetics using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This method is successfully applied to the simultaneous identification and quantitative determination of glycolic, lactic, malic, tartaric and citric acids employing a reversed phase narrow-bore column under isocratic condition and UV detection. The method is validated by determining the precision of replicate analyses and accuracy by analyzing samples with and without adding know amount of the alpha-hydroxy acids. The procedure is suitable for routine analyses of commercial cosmetics.

  4. Lewis Acid-Base Adduct Approach for High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Wook; Kim, Hui-Seon; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2016-02-16

    Since the first report on the long-term durable 9.7% solid-state perovskite solar cell employing methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3), mesoporous TiO2, and 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis[N,N-di(4-methoxyphenyl)amino]-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) in 2012, following the seed technologies on perovskite-sensitized liquid junction solar cells in 2009 and 2011, a surge of interest has been focused on perovskite solar cells due to superb photovoltaic performance and extremely facile fabrication processes. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells reached 21% in a very short period of time. Such an unprecedentedly high photovoltaic performance is due to the intrinsic optoelectronic property of organolead iodide perovskite material. Moreover, a high dielectric constant, sub-millimeter scale carrier diffusion length, an underlying ferroelectric property, and ion migration behavior can make organolead halide perovskites suitable for multifunctionality. Thus, besides solar cell applications, perovskite material has recently been applied to a variety fields of materials science such as photodetectors, light emitting diodes, lasing, X-ray imaging, resistive memory, and water splitting. Regardless of application areas, the growth of a well-defined perovskite layer with high crystallinity is essential for effective utilization of its excellent physicochemical properties. Therefore, an effective methodology for preparation of high quality perovskite layers is required. In this Account, an effective methodology for production of high quality perovskite layers is described, which is the Lewis acid-base adduct approach. In the solution process to form the perovskite layer, the key chemicals of CH3NH3I (or HC(NH2)2I) and PbI2 are used by dissolving them in polar aprotic solvents. Since polar aprotic solvents bear oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen, they can act as a Lewis base. In addition, the main group compound PbI2 is known to be a Lewis acid. Thus, PbI2 has a chance

  5. Highly efficient production of hyaluronic acid by Streptococcus zooepidemicus R42 derived from heterologous expression of bacterial haemoglobin and mutant selection.

    PubMed

    Lu, J F; Zhu, Y; Sun, H L; Liang, S; Leng, F F; Li, H Y

    2016-04-01

    During Streptococcus zooepidemicus fermentation, most carbon sources are used to synthesize lactic acid, which can inhibit strain growth and hyaluronic acid production. Here, we expressed bacterial haemoglobin (Vhb) in Strep. zooepidemicus. Due to highly efficient oxygen use, only 15·26 g l(-1) lactic acid was produced, which is 0·73 times the quantity produced by the control strain. Compared with the control strain (1·61 g l(-1) ), hyaluronic acid (HA) production in this strain did not substantially increase, only to 2·16 g l(-1) . Next, we used a series of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine (NTG) treatments and selection programmes. Finally, we generated a hyaluronidase-negative and rifampin-resistant mutant strain that produces high levels of HA. The optimum carbon concentration for maximum hyaluronic acid production is only 30 g l(-1) of sucrose, which is lower than the control strain (60 g l(-1) ). The oxygen transfer rate coefficient KL a increased significantly to 372 ± 53 h(-1) from 18 ± 4 h(-1) of the control. The optimum carbon source for this strain is 21 g l(-1) of sucrose, 9 g l(-1) of maltose and 5 g l(-1) of glutamic acid. Hyaluronic acid accumulated at 6·7 g l(-1) in the culture broth. However, the molecular weight of HA decreased from 1835 KDa (Control) to 429 kDa. The prepared low-molecular weight HA could function as potential antiangiogenic substances, antiviral and antitumour agents to possibly be used as functional food ingredients. Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been used for a wide range of applications in health, cosmetic and clinical fields. During fermentation of Streptococcus to produce HA, 80-85% of the carbon source is used to produce lactic acid and acetic acid, and only approx. 5 and 10% of the carbon source is used to produce HA and biomass respectively. Here, we expressed bacteria haemoglobin (Vhb) in Streptococcus zooepidemicus, which can dramatically inhibit lactic acid production. After NTG

  6. Characterization of carbohydrates using highly fluorescent 2-aminobenzoic acid tag following gel electrophoresis of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Anumula, K R; Du, P

    1999-11-15

    Application of the most sensitive fluorescent label 2-aminobenzoic acid (anthranilic acid, AA) for characterization of carbohydrates from the glycoproteins ( approximately 15 pmol) separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is described. AA label is used for the determination of both monosaccharide composition and oligosaccharide map. For the monosaccharide determination, bands containing the glycoprotein of interest are excised from the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane blots, hydrolyzed in 20% trifluoroacetic acid, derivatized, and analyzed by C-18 reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. For the oligosaccharide mapping, bands were digested with peptide N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) in order to release the N-linked oligosaccharides, derivatized, and analyzed by normal-phase anion-exchange chromatography. For convenience, the PNGase F digestion was performed in 1:100 diluted ammonium hydroxide overnight. The oligosaccharide yield from ammonium hydroxide-PNGase F digestion was better or equal to all the other reported procedures, and the presumed "oligosaccharide-amine" product formed in the reaction mixture did not interfere with labeling of the oligosaccharides under the conditions used for derivatization. Sequencing of oligosaccharides can be performed using the same mapping method following treatment with an array of glycosidases. In addition, the mapping method is useful for determining the relative and simultaneous distribution of sialic acid and fucose. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  7. On the acid-base properties of humic acid in soil.

    PubMed

    Cooke, James D; Hamilton-Taylor, John; Tipping, Edward

    2007-01-15

    Humic acid was isolated from three contrasting organic-rich soils and acid-base titrations performed over a range of ionic strengths. Results obtained were unlike most humic acid data sets; they showed a greater ionic strength dependency at low pH than at high pH. Forward- and back-titrations with the base and acid revealed hysteresis, particularly at low pH. Previous authors attributed this type of hysteresis to humic acid aggregates-created during the isolation procedure-being redissolved during titration as the pH increased and regarded the results as artificial. However, forward- and back-titrations with organic-rich soils also demonstrated a similar hysteretic behavior. These observations indicate (i) that titrations of humic acid in aggregated form (as opposed to the more usual dissolved form) are more representative of the acid-base properties of humic acid in soil and (ii) that the ionic strength dependency of proton binding in humic acid is related to its degree of aggregation. Thus, the current use of models based on data from dissolved humic substances to predictthe acid-base properties of humic acid in soil under environmental conditions may be flawed and could substantially overestimate their acid buffering capacity.

  8. The Rice R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor OsMYB55 Is Involved in the Tolerance to High Temperature and Modulates Amino Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    El-kereamy, Ashraf; Bi, Yong-Mei; Ranathunge, Kosala; Beatty, Perrin H.; Good, Allen G.; Rothstein, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Temperatures higher than the optimum negatively affects plant growth and development. Tolerance to high temperature is a complex process that involves several pathways. Understanding this process, especially in crops such as rice, is essential to prepare for predicted climate changes due to global warming. Here, we show that OsMYB55 is induced by high temperature and overexpression of OsMYB55 resulted in improved plant growth under high temperature and decreased the negative effect of high temperature on grain yield. Transcriptome analysis revealed an increase in expression of several genes involved in amino acids metabolism. We demonstrate that OsMYB55 binds to the promoter regions of target genes and directly activates expression of some of those genes including glutamine synthetase (OsGS1;2) glutamine amidotransferase (GAT1) and glutamate decarboxylase 3 (GAD3). OsMYB55 overexpression resulted in an increase in total amino acid content and of the individual amino acids produced by the activation of the above mentioned genes and known for their roles in stress tolerance, namely L-glutamic acid, GABA and arginine especially under high temperature condition. In conclusion, overexpression of OsMYB55 improves rice plant tolerance to high temperature, and this high tolerance is associated with enhanced amino acid metabolism through transcription activation. PMID:23251677

  9. Animal model of acid-reflux esophagitis: pathogenic roles of acid/pepsin, prostaglandins, and amino acids.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Koji; Nagahama, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Esophagitis was induced in rats within 3 h by ligating both the pylorus and transitional region between the forestomach and glandular portion under ether anesthesia. This esophageal injury was prevented by the administration of acid suppressants and antipepsin drug and aggravated by exogenous pepsin. Damage was also aggravated by pretreatment with indomethacin and the selective COX-1 but not COX-2 inhibitor, whereas PGE2 showed a biphasic effect depending on the dose; a protection at low doses, and an aggravation at high doses, with both being mediated by EP1 receptors. Various amino acids also affected this esophagitis in different ways; L-alanine and L-glutamine had a deleterious effect, while L-arginine and glycine were highly protective, both due to yet unidentified mechanisms. It is assumed that acid/pepsin plays a major pathogenic role in this model of esophagitis; PGs derived from COX-1 are involved in mucosal defense of the esophagus; and some amino acids are protective against esophagitis. These findings also suggest a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of esophagitis, in addition to acid suppressant therapy. The model introduced may be useful to test the protective effects of drugs on esophagitis and investigate the mucosal defense mechanism in the esophagus.

  10. Detoxification of acidic biorefinery waste liquor for production of high value amino acid.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Meera; Anusree, Murali; Mathew, Anil K; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-08-01

    The current study evaluates the detoxification of acid pretreatment liquor (APL) using adsorbent (ADS 400 & ADS 800) or ion-exchange (A-27MP & A-72MP) resins and its potential for amino acid production. The APL is generated as a by-product from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and is rich monomeric sugars as well as sugar degradation products (fermentation inhibitors) such as furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Of the four resins compared, ADS 800 removed approximately 85% and 60% of furfural and HMF, respectively. ADS 800 could be reused for up to six cycles after regeneration without losing its adsorption properties. The study was further extended by assessing the fermentability of detoxified APL for l-lysine production using wild and mutant strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The detoxified APL was superior to APL for l-lysine production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of acid-base catalytic residues of high-Mr thioredoxin reductase from Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Paul J; Arscott, L David; Ballou, David P; Becker, Katja; Williams, Charles H; Müller, Sylke

    2006-11-03

    High-M(r) thioredoxin reductase from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfTrxR) contains three redox active centers (FAD, Cys-88/Cys-93, and Cys-535/Cys-540) that are in redox communication. The catalytic mechanism of PfTrxR, which involves dithiol-disulfide interchanges requiring acid-base catalysis, was studied by steady-state kinetics, spectral analyses of anaerobic static titrations, and rapid kinetics analysis of wild-type enzyme and variants involving the His-509-Glu-514 dyad as the presumed acid-base catalyst. The dyad is conserved in all members of the enzyme family. Substitution of His-509 with glutamine and Glu-514 with alanine led to TrxR with only 0.5 and 7% of wild type activity, respectively, thus demonstrating the crucial roles of these residues for enzymatic activity. The H509Q variant had rate constants in both the reductive and oxidative half-reactions that were dramatically less than those of wild-type enzyme, and no thiolateflavin charge-transfer complex was observed. Glu-514 was shown to be involved in dithiol-disulfide interchange between the Cys-88/Cys-93 and Cys-535/Cys-540 pairs. In addition, Glu-514 appears to greatly enhance the role of His-509 in acid-base catalysis. It can be concluded that the His-509-Glu-514 dyad, in analogy to those in related oxidoreductases, acts as the acid-base catalyst in PfTrxR.

  12. Instant coffee extract with high chlorogenic acids content inhibits hepatic G-6-Pase in vitro, but does not reduce the glycaemia.

    PubMed

    Bassoli, Bruna Kempfer; Cassolla, Priscila; Borba-Murad, Glaucia Regina; Constantin, Jorgete; Salgueiro-Pagadigorria, Clairce Luzia; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; de Souza, Helenir Medri

    2015-06-01

    Coffee is the main source of chlorogenic acid in the human diet, and it contains several chlorogenic acid isomers, of which the 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) is the predominant isomer. Because there are no available data about the action of chlorogenic acids from instant coffee on hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) activity and blood glucose levels, these effects were investigated in rats. The changes on G-6-Pase activity and liver glucose output induced by 5-CQA were also investigated. Instant coffee extract with high chlorogenic acids content (37.8%) inhibited (p < 0.05) the G-6-Pase activity of the hepatocyte microsomal fraction in a dose-dependent way (up to 53), but IV administration of this extract did not change the glycaemia (p > 0.05). Similarly, 5-CQA (1 mM) reduced (p < 0.05) the activity of microsomal G-6-Pase by about 40%, but had no effect (p > 0.05) on glucose output arising from glycogenolysis in liver perfusion. It was concluded that instant coffee extract with high content of chlorogenic acids inhibited hepatic G-6-Pase in vitro, but failed to reduce the glycaemia probably because the coffee chlorogenic acids did not reach enough levels within the hepatocytes to inhibit the G-6-Pase and reduce the liver glucose output. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Effects of heat/citric acid reprocessing on high-flux polysulfone dialyzers.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Rena M; McClung, W Glenn; Richardson, Robert M A; Estridge, Charles; Plaskos, Nicholas; Yip, Christopher M; Brash, John L

    2002-01-01

    The surface features, morphology, and tensile properties of fibers obtained from pristine, reprocessed, and reused Fresenius Polysulfone High-Flux (Hemoflow F80A) hemodialyzers have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy of the dialyzer fibers revealed a dense skin layer on the inner surface of the membrane and a relatively thick porous layer on the outer surface. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy showed an alteration in membrane morphology due to reprocessing and reuse, or to a deposition of blood-borne material on the membrane that is not removed with reprocessing. Fluorescent microscopy images also showed that a fluorescent material not removed by heat/citric acid reprocessing builds up with continued use of the dialyzers. The tensile properties of the dialyzer fibers were not affected by the heat/citric acid reprocessing procedure. The protein layers formed on pristine and reused hemodialyzer membranes during clinical use were also studied using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. A considerable amount of protein was found on the blood side of single and multiple use dialyzers. Proteins adsorbed on the dialysate side of the membrane were predominantly in the molecular weight region below 30 kDa. Little protein was detected on the membranes of reprocessed hemodialyzers.

  14. High abundances of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in the mountain aerosols over the North China Plain during wheat burning season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.; Okuzawa, K.; Aggarwal, S. G.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z. F.

    2013-02-01

    Aerosol (TSP) samples were collected at the summit of Mount Tai (elevation: 1534 m a.s.l., 36.25° N; 117.10° E) located in the North China Plain using a high-volume air sampler and pre-combusted quartz filters. Sampling was conducted on day/night or 3 h basis in the period from 29 May to 28 June 2006 during the field burning of wheat straw residue and the post-burning season. The filter samples were analyzed for low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and α-dicarbonyls using capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC-MS employing water extraction and butyl ester derivatization. Dicarboxylic acids (C2-C11, 220-6070 ng m-3) were characterized by a predominance of oxalic (C2) acid (105-3920 ng m-3) followed by succinic (C4) or malonic (C3) acid. Unsaturated aliphatic diacids, including maleic (M), isomaleic (iM) and fumaric (F) acid, were also detected together with aromatic diacids (phthalic, iso-phthalic and tere-phthalic acids). ω-Oxocarboxylic acids (C2-C9, 24-610 ng m-3) were detected as the second most abundant compound class with the predominance of glyoxylic acid (11-360 ng m-3), followed by α-ketoacid (pyruvic acid, 3-140 ng m-3) and α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal, 1-230 ng m-3 and methylglyoxal, 2-120 ng m-3). We found that these levels (> 6000 ng m-3 for diacids) are several times higher than those reported in Chinese megacities at ground levels. The concentrations of diacids increased from late May to early June showing a maximum on 7 June and then significantly decreased during 8-11 June when the wind direction shifted from northeasterly to northerly. Similar temporal trends were found for ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls as well as total carbon (TC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). The temporal variations of water-soluble organics were interpreted by the direct emission from the field burning products of agricultural wastes (wheat straw) in the North China Plain and the subsequent photochemical oxidation of volatile and semi

  15. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for profiling 2-oxo acids in urine and its application in evaluating vitamin status in rats.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Nakata, Chifumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    B-group vitamins are involved in the catabolism of 2-oxo acids. To identify the functional biomarkers of B-group vitamins, we developed a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for profiling 2-oxo acids in urine and applied this method to urine samples from rats deficient in vitamins B1 and B6 and pantothenic acid. 2-Oxo acids were reacted with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenebenzene to produce fluorescent derivatives, which were then separated using a TSKgel ODS-80Ts column with 30 mmol/L of KH2PO4 (pH 3.0):acetonitrile (7:3) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Vitamin B1 deficiency increased urinary levels of all 2-oxo acids, while vitamin B6 deficiency only increased levels of sum of 2-oxaloacetic acid and pyruvic acid, and pantothenic acid deficiency only increased levels of 2-oxoisovaleric acid. Profiles of 2-oxo acids in urine samples might be a non-invasive way of clarifying the functional biomarker of B-group vitamins.

  16. Adsorption of naphthenic acids on high surface area activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Iranmanesh, Sobhan; Harding, Thomas; Abedi, Jalal; Seyedeyn-Azad, Fakhry; Layzell, David B

    2014-01-01

    In oil sands mining extraction, water is an essential component; however, the processed water becomes contaminated through contact with the bitumen at high temperature, and a portion of it cannot be recycled and ends up in tailing ponds. The removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) from tailing pond water is crucial, as they are corrosive and toxic and provide a substrate for microbial activity that can give rise to methane, which is a potent greenhouse gas. In this study, the conversion of sawdust into an activated carbon (AC) that could be used to remove NAs from tailings water was studied. After producing biochar from sawdust by a slow-pyrolysis process, the biochar was physically activated using carbon dioxide (CO2) over a range of temperatures or prior to producing biochar, and the sawdust was chemically activated using phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The physically activated carbon had a lower surface area per gram than the chemically activated carbon. The physically produced ACs had a lower surface area per gram than chemically produced AC. In the adsorption tests with NAs, up to 35 mg of NAs was removed from the water per gram of AC. The chemically treated ACs showed better uptake, which can be attributed to its higher surface area and increased mesopore size when compared with the physically treated AC. Both the chemically produced and physically produced AC provided better uptake than the commercially AC.

  17. High production of D-tagatose by the addition of boric acid.

    PubMed

    Lim, Byung-Chul; Kim, Hye-Jung; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2007-01-01

    An L-arabinose isomerase mutant enzyme from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans was used to catalyze the isomerization of D-galactose to D-tagatose with boric acid. Maximum production of D-tagatose occurred at pH 8.5-9.0, 60 degrees C, and 0.4 molar ratio of boric acid to D-galactose, and the production increased with increasing enzyme concentration. Under the optimum conditions, the enzyme (10.8 units/mL) converted 300 g/L D-galactose to 230 g/L D-tagatose for 20 h with a yield of 77% (w/w); the production and conversion yield with boric acid were 1.5-fold and 24% higher than without boric acid, respectively. In 24 h, the enzyme produced 370 g/L D-tagatose from 500 g/L D-galactose with boric acid, corresponding to a conversion yield of 74% (w/w) and a production rate of 15.4 g/L.h. The production and yield of D-tagatose obtained in this study are unprecedented.

  18. Structure elucidation and quantification of impurities formed between 6-aminocaproic acid and the excipients citric acid and sorbitol in an oral solution using high-resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Cornett, Claus; Nyberg, Nils; Østergaard, Jesper; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2015-03-25

    Concentrated solutions containing 6-aminocaproic acid and the excipients citric acid and sorbitol have been studied at temperatures of 50°C, 60°C, 70°C and 80°C as well as at 20°C. It has previously been reported that the commonly employed citric acid is a reactive excipient, and it is therefore important to thoroughly investigate a possible reaction between 6-aminocaproic acid and citric acid. The current study revealed the formation of 3-hydroxy-3,4-dicarboxy-butanamide-N-hexanoic acid between 6-aminocaproic acid and citric acid by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Less than 0.03% of 6-aminocaproic acid was converted to 3-hydroxy-3,4-dicarboxy-butanamide-N-hexanoic acid after 30 days of storage at 80°C. Degradation products of 6-aminocaproic acid were also observed after storage at the applied temperatures, e.g., dimer, trimer and cyclized 6-aminocaproic acid, i.e., caprolactam. No reaction products between D-sorbitol and 6-aminocaproic acid could be observed. 3-Hydroxy-3,4-dicarboxy-butanamide-N-hexanoic acid, dimer and caprolactam were also observed after storage at 20°C for 3 months. The findings imply that an oral solution of 6-aminocaproic acid is relatively stable at 20°C at the pH values 4.00 and 5.00 as suggested in the USP for oral formulations. Compliance with the ICH guideline Q3B is expected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of soil acidity, soil strength and macropores on root growth and morphology of perennial grass species differing in acid-soil resistance.

    PubMed

    Haling, Rebecca E; Simpson, Richard J; Culvenor, Richard A; Lambers, Hans; Richardson, Alan E

    2011-03-01

    It is unclear whether roots of acid-soil resistant plants have significant advantages, compared with acid-soil sensitive genotypes, when growing in high-strength, acid soils or in acid soils where macropores may allow the effects of soil acidity and strength to be avoided. The responses of root growth and morphology to soil acidity, soil strength and macropores by seedlings of five perennial grass genotypes differing in acid-soil resistance were determined, and the interaction of soil acidity and strength for growth and morphology of roots was investigated. Soil acidity and strength altered root length and architecture, root hair development, and deformed the root tip, especially in acid-soil sensitive genotypes. Root length was restricted to some extent by soil acidity in all genotypes, but the adverse impact of soil acidity on root growth by acid-soil resistant genotypes was greater at high levels of soil strength. Roots reacted to soil acidity when growing in macropores, but elongation through high-strength soil was improved. Soil strength can confound the effect of acidity on root growth, with the sensitivity of acid-resistant genotypes being greater in high-strength soils. This highlights the need to select for genotypes that resist both acidity and high soil strength. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Eicosapentaenoic acid prevents high fat diet-induced metabolic disorders: Genomic and metabolomic analyses of underlying mechanism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previously our lab demonstrated eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA)'s ability to prevent high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity by decreasing insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and inflammation. In the current study, we used genomic and metabolomic approaches to further investigate the molecular basis for t...

  1. Site and extent of digestion, duodenal flow, and intestinal disappearance of total and esterified fatty acids in sheep fed a high-concentrate diet supplemented with high-linoleate safflower oil.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, R L; Scholljegerdes, E J; Lake, S L; Nayigihugu, V; Hess, B W; Rule, D C

    2006-02-01

    Our objective was to determine duodenal and ileal flows of total and esterified fatty acids and to determine ruminal fermentation characteristics and site and extent of nutrient digestion in sheep fed an 80% concentrate diet supplemented with high-linoleate (77%) safflower oil at 0, 3, 6, and 9% of DM. Oil was infused intraruminally along with an isonitrogenous basal diet (fed at 2% of BW) that contained bromegrass hay, cracked corn, corn gluten meal, urea, and limestone. Four crossbred wethers (BW = 44.3 +/- 15.7 kg) fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment, in which 14 d of dietary adaptation were followed by 4 d of duodenal, ileal, and ruminal sampling. Fatty acid intake increased (linear, P = 0.004 to 0.001) with increased dietary safflower oil. Digestibilities of OM, NDF, and N were not affected (P = 0.09 to 0.65) by increased dietary safflower oil. For total fatty acids (free plus esterified) and esterified fatty acids, duodenal flow of most fatty acids, including 18:2c-9,c-12, increased (P = 0.006 to 0.05) with increased dietary oil. Within each treatment, duodenal flow of total and esterified 18:2c-9,c-12 was similar (P = 0.32), indicating that duodenal flow of this fatty acid occurred because most of it remained esterified. Duodenal flow of esterified 18:1t-11 increased (P = 0.08) with increased dietary safflower oil, indicating that reesterification of ruminal fatty acids occurred. Apparent small intestinal disappearance of most fatty acids was not affected (P = 0.19 to 0.98) by increased dietary safflower oil, but increased (P = 0.05) for 18:2c-9,c-12, which ranged from 87.0 to 97.4%, and for 18:2c-9,t-11 (P = 0.03), which ranged from 37.9% with no added oil to 99.2% with supplemental oil. For esterified fatty acids, apparent small intestinal disappearance was from 80% for 18:3c-9,c-12,c-15 at the greatest level of dietary oil up to 100% for 18:1t-11 and 18:1c-12 with 0% oil. We concluded that

  2. [Molecular docking of chlorogenic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid with human serum albumin].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Ma, Hong-yue; Fan, Xin-sheng; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Tuan-jie

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the mechanism of binding of human serum albumin (HSA) with potential sensitinogen, including chlorogenic acid and two isochlorogenic acids (3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid). By using the docking algorithm of computer-aided molecular design and the Molegro Virtual Docker, the crystal structures of HSA with warfarin and diazepam (Protein Data Bank ID: 2BXD and 2BXF) were selected as molecular docking receptors of HSA sites I and II. According to docking scores, key residues and H-bond, the molecular docking mode was selected and confirmed. The molecular docking of chlorogenic acid and two isochlorogenic acids on sites I and II was compared based on the above design. The results from molecular docking indicated that chlorogenic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid could bind to HSA site I by high affinity scores of -112.3, -155.3 and -153.1, respectively. They could bind to site II on HSA by high affinity scores of -101.7, -138.5 and -133.4, respectively. In site I, two isochlorogenic acids interacted with the key apolar side-chains of Leu238 and Ala291 by higher affinity scores than chlorogenic acid. Furthermore, the H-bonds of isochlorogenic acids with polar residues inside the pocket and at the entrance of the pocket were different from chlorogenic acid. Moreover, the second coffee acyl of isochlorogenic acid occupied the right-hand apolar compartment in the pocket of HSA site I. In site I, the second coffee acyl of isochlorogenic acid formed the H-bonds with polar side-chains, which contributed isochlorogenic acid to binding with site II of HSA. The isochlorogenic acids with two coffee acyls have higher binding abilities with HSA than chlorogenic acid with one coffee acyl, suggesting that isochlorogenic acids binding with HSA may be sensitinogen.

  3. A qualitative study of high school students' pre- and post-instructional conceptions in acid-base chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Keith

    This study investigated high school students' understanding of acid-base chemistry, prior to and after formal chemistry instruction. Sixteen students enrolled in a regular chemistry course were interviewed three times during the school year; before and after studying the topic of acids and bases and then while conducting a titration using a microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL). Oral, pictorial and graphical data were collected in a variety of acid-base practical tasks. The data were analyzed in two parts; first, common themes, ideas and alternative conceptions that students held were identified; second, profiles of each students were made to determine changes in their conceptions due to instruction. The findings showed that students had considerable difficulty with several areas of acid-base chemistry and did not develop an integrated conceptual understanding of the topic. Students were unable to describe acid-base concepts accurately and revealed a number of alternative conceptions, which remained unchanged by instruction. Specific areas of difficulty included the concepts of pH, neutralization, strength and the theoretical descriptions of acids and bases. Further, most students could not relate the concepts to actual solutions and were unable to describe acid-base phenomena at a sub-microscopic level. Student difficulties stemmed from a lack of understanding of some underlying and fundamental chemistry, such as the nature of chemical change and the particulate nature of matter. A number of factors were identified as contributing to these difficulties, and included the overstuffed nature of introductory chemistry itself, the emphasis in instruction on solving numerical problems and the dominant role played by the textbook. Further, the conceptual density of acid-base chemistry, the confusing nature of acid-base terminology and the lack of agreement about what material should be included in the chemistry curriculum were viewed as problematic. The study calls for a

  4. Webinar Presentation: Suspect Screening of Environmental Organic Acids in Human Serum Using High-resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Suspect Screening of Environmental Organic Acids in Human Serum Using High-resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS), was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2016 Webinar Series: Exposome held on May 11, 2016.

  5. Efficient production of L-lactic acid by newly isolated thermophilic Bacillus coagulans WCP10-4 with high glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xingding; Ye, Lidan; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2013-05-01

    A thermophilic Bacillus coagulans WCP10-4 with tolerance to high concentration of glucose was isolated from soil and used to produce optically pure L-lactic acid from glucose and starch. In batch fermentation at pH 6.0, 240 g/L of glucose was completely consumed giving 210 g/L of L-lactic acid with a yield of 95 % and a productivity of 3.5 g/L/h. In simultaneous saccharification and fermentation at 50 °C without sterilizing the medium, 200 g/L of corn starch was completely consumed producing 202.0 g/L of L-lactic acid. To the best of our knowledge, this strain shows the highest osmotic tolerance to glucose among the strains ever reported for lactic acid production. This is the first report of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch for lactic acid production under a non-sterilized condition.

  6. Aspartic acid-promoted highly selective and sensitive colorimetric sensing of cysteine in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Qian, Qin; Deng, Jingjing; Wang, Dalei; Yang, Lifen; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2012-11-06

    Direct selective determination of cysteine in the cerebral system is of great importance because of the crucial roles of cysteine in physiological and pathological processes. In this study, we report a sensitive and selective colorimetric assay for cysteine in the rat brain with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) as the signal readout. Initially, Au-NPs synthesized with citrate as the stabilizer are red in color and exhibit absorption at 520 nm. The addition of an aqueous solution (20 μL) of cysteine or aspartic acid alone to a 200 μL Au-NP dispersion causes no aggregation, while the addition of an aqueous solution of cysteine into a Au-NP dispersion containing aspartic acid (1.8 mM) causes the aggregation of Au-NPs and thus results in the color change of the colloid from wine red to blue. These changes are ascribed to the ion pair interaction between aspartic acid and cysteine on the interface between Au-NPs and solution. The concentration of cysteine can be visualized with the naked eye and determined by UV-vis spectroscopy. The signal output shows a linear relationship for cysteine within the concentration range from 0.166 to 1.67 μM with a detection limit of 100 nM. The assay demonstrated here is highly selective and is free from the interference of other natural amino acids and other thiol-containing species as well as the species commonly existing in the brain such as lactate, ascorbic acid, and glucose. The basal dialysate level of cysteine in the microdialysate from the striatum of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats is determined to be around 9.6 ± 2.1 μM. The method demonstrated here is facile but reliable and durable and is envisaged to be applicable to understanding the chemical essence involved in physiological and pathological events associated with cysteine.

  7. Fast high-throughput method for the determination of acidity constants by capillary electrophoresis: I. Monoprotic weak acids and bases.

    PubMed

    Fuguet, Elisabet; Ràfols, Clara; Bosch, Elisabeth; Rosés, Martí

    2009-04-24

    A new and fast method to determine acidity constants of monoprotic weak acids and bases by capillary zone electrophoresis based on the use of an internal standard (compound of similar nature and acidity constant as the analyte) has been developed. This method requires only two electrophoretic runs for the determination of an acidity constant: a first one at a pH where both analyte and internal standard are totally ionized, and a second one at another pH where both are partially ionized. Furthermore, the method is not pH dependent, so an accurate measure of the pH of the buffer solutions is not needed. The acidity constants of several phenols and amines have been measured using internal standards of known pK(a), obtaining a mean deviation of 0.05 pH units compared to the literature values.

  8. Mass spectrometric methodology for the analysis of highly oxidized diterpenoid acids in Old Master paintings.

    PubMed

    Berg; Boon; Pastorova; Spetter

    2000-04-01

    Diterpenoid resins from larch and pine trees and the corresponding fractions in a >100-year-old wax-resin adhesive and varnish and a 200-year-old resin/oil paint sample were analysed with by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using several off-line and on-line derivatization methods. The main resin compounds were highly oxidized abietic acids. Important products found are hydroxydehydroabietic acids (OH-DHAs), 7-oxoDHA, di-OH-DHAs and 15-OH-7-oxoDHA. The last two compounds have not been reported to occur in artworks before. Larixyl acetate, an important marker from larch resins, was found to be still present in high amounts in the adhesive. A large number of mass spectra of the different oxidation products and larixol and larixyl acetate are presented and their fragmentation behaviour under electron impact conditions is discussed. An index for the degree of oxidation (IDOX) of the abietic acids is presented as an indicator of the degree of oxidation of the matrix in which the resin is present. The IDOX was 0.10, 0.67, 0.81 and 0.76 for the fresh resins, the dark-aged adhesive, the aged varnish and the resin/oil paint, respectively (measured with pyrolysis (Py)-tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH)-GC/MS). Py-TMAH-GC/MS and direct temperature-resolved mass spectrometry are reliable, valuable and fast techniques for the assessment of the presence and degree of oxidation of diterpenoid resins. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. High serum uric acid levels are a protective factor against unfavourable neurological functional outcome in patients with ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Fang; Li, Jiao-Xing; Sun, Xun-Sha; Lai, Rong; Sheng, Wen-Li

    2018-05-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the association between serum uric acid levels at the onset and prognostic outcome in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Methods We retrospectively analysed the outcomes of 1166 patients with ischaemic stroke who were hospitalized in our centre during August 2008 to November 2012. Correlations of serum uric acid levels and prognostic outcomes were analysed. Results Men had higher serum uric acid levels and better neurological functional outcomes compared with women. There was a strong negative correlation between serum uric acid levels and unfavourable neurological functional outcomes. Generalized estimated equation analysis showed that a higher serum uric acid level (>237 µmol/L) was a protective factor for neurological functional outcome in male, but not female, patients. Among five trial of ORG 10172 in acute stroke treatment classification subtypes, only patients with the large-artery atherosclerosis subtype had a significant protective effect of serum uric acid levels on neurological outcome. Conclusions Our study shows that high serum uric acid levels are a significant protective factor in men and in the large-artery atherosclerosis subtype in patients with ischaemic stroke. This is helpful for determining the prognostic value of serum uric acid levels for neurological outcome of acute ischaemic stroke.

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum stress involved in high-fat diet and palmitic acid-induced vascular damages and fenofibrate intervention

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yunxia, E-mail: wwwdluyx@sina.com; The Comprehensive Laboratory, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032; Cheng, Jingjing

    Fenofibrate (FF) is widely used to lower blood lipids in clinical practice, but whether its protective effect on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) in thoracic aorta is related with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress remains unknown. In this study, female Sprauge Dawley rats were divided into standard chow diets (SCD), high-fat diets (HFD) and HFD plus FF treatment group (HFD + FF) randomly. The rats of latter two groups were given HFD feeding for 5 months, then HFD + FF rats were treated with FF (30 mg/kg, once daily) via gavage for another 2 months. The pathological and tensional changes, protein expression of eNOS, and ER stress relatedmore » genes in thoracic aorta were measured. Then impacts of palmitic acid (PA) and FF on EDV of thoracic aorta from normal female SD rats were observed. Ultimately the expression of ER stress related genes were assessed in primary mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAEC) treated by fenofibric acid (FA) and PA. We found that FF treatment improved serum lipid levels and pathological changes in thoracic aorta, accompanied with decreased ER stress and increased phosphorylation of eNOS. FF pretreatment also improved EDV impaired by different concentrations of PA treatment. The dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation by PA were inverted by FA pretreatment. Phosphorylation of eNOS and expression of ER stress related genes were all inverted by FA pretreatment in PA-treated MAEC. Our findings show that fenofibrate recovers damaged EDV by chronic HFD feeding and acute stimulation of PA, this effect is related with decreased ER stress and increased phosphorylation of eNOS. - Highlights: • Fenofibrate treatment improved pathological changes in thoracic aorta by chronic high-fat-diet feeding. • Fenofibrate pretreatment improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation impaired by different concentrations of palmitic acid. • The inhibition of proliferation in endothelial cells by palmitic acid were inverted by

  11. Importance of Unimolecular HO 2 Elimination in the Heterogeneous OH Reaction of Highly Oxygenated Tartaric Acid Aerosol

    DOE PAGES

    Cheng, Chiu Tung; Chan, Man Nin; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2016-07-09

    Oxygenated organic molecules are abundant in atmospheric aerosols and are transformed by oxidation reactions near the aerosol surface by gas-phase oxidants such as hydroxyl (OH) radicals. To gain better insights into how the structure of an organic molecule, particularly in the presence of hydroxyl groups, controls the heterogeneous reaction mechanisms of oxygenated organic compounds, this paper investigates the OH-radical initiated oxidation of aqueous tartaric acid (C 4H 6O 6) droplets using an aerosol flow tube reactor. The molecular composition of the aerosols before and after reaction is characterized by a soft atmospheric pressure ionization source (Direct Analysis in Real Time)more » coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer. The aerosol mass spectra reveal that four major reaction products are formed: a single C 4 functionalization product (C 4H 4O 6) and three C 3 fragmentation products (C 3H 4O 4, C 3H 2O 4, and C 3H 2O 5). The C 4 functionalization product does not appear to originate from peroxy radical self-reactions but instead forms via an α-hydroxylperoxy radical produced by a hydrogen atom abstraction by OH at the tertiary carbon site. The proximity of a hydroxyl group to peroxy group enhances the unimolecular HO 2 elimination from the α-hydroxylperoxy intermediate. This alcohol-to-ketone conversion yields 2-hydroxy-3-oxosuccinic acid (C 4H 4O 6), the major reaction product. While in general, C–C bond scission reactions are expected to dominate the chemistry of organic compounds with high average carbon oxidation states (OS C), our results show that molecular structure can play a larger role in the heterogeneous transformation of tartaric acid (OS C = 1.5). Finally, these results are also compared with two structurally related dicarboxylic acids (succinic acid and 2,3-dimethylsuccinic acid) to elucidate how the identity and location of functional groups (methyl and hydroxyl groups) alter heterogeneous reaction mechanisms.« less

  12. Efficient enzymatic production of hydroxy fatty acids by linoleic acid Δ9 hydratase from Lactobacillus plantarum AKU 1009a.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, M; Kishino, S; Park, S-B; Hirata, A; Kitamura, N; Saika, A; Ogawa, J

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to produce hydroxy fatty acids efficiently. Escherichia coli overexpressing linoleic acid Δ9 hydratase from Lactobacillus plantarum AKU 1009a was employed to produce hydroxy fatty acids with industrial potential. We found that 280 g l(-1) of linoleic acid (1 mol l(-1)) was converted into (S)-10-hydoxy-cis-12-octadecenoic acid (HYA) with a high conversion rate of 98% (mol/mol) and more than 99·9% enantiomeric excess (e.e.) by recombinant E. coli cells in the presence of FAD and NADH. In the same way, many kinds of C18 unsaturated fatty acids with Δ9 carbon double bond (280 g l(-1)) were converted into corresponding 10-hydroxy fatty acids with the conversion rates over 95% (mol/mol). We also produced HYA at a high rate of accumulation (289 g l(-1) ) with a high yield (97 mol%) in a reaction mixture that contained glucose instead of NADH. We developed a process for producing several types of hydroxy fatty acids with high accumulation rates and high yields. Hydroxy fatty acids are important materials for the chemical, food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, and thus they have recently attracted much interest in a variety of research fields. However, the mass production of hydroxy fatty acids has been limited. This method of hydroxy fatty acids production will facilitate the widespread application of hydroxy fatty acids in various industries. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Arachidonic acid metabolites in normal and autoimmune mice do not influence lymphocyte-high endothelial venule interactions.

    PubMed

    Manolios, N; Bakiera, B; Geczy, C L; Schrieber, L

    1991-02-01

    In peripheral lymphoid organs the number of lymphocytes and the proportion of functional lymphocyte subsets are regulated by multiple factors including the control of lymphocyte migration by selective lymphocyte-high endothelial venule (HEV) interactions. In this study, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels from normal and autoimmune mouse lymph node cells were measured. The contribution of eicosanoids to lymphocyte-HEV interactions in normal (CBA/T6) and autoimmune (MRL/n) mice was examined. There was no association between PGE2 production in normal or autoimmune mice and the age of onset of disease activity in the latter strains. Arachidonic acid metabolites, in particular PGE2 and leukotriene B4 (LTB4), did not have any effects on lymphocyte-HEV binding. Likewise, lymphocytes treated in vivo and/or in vitro with arachidonic acid metabolite inhibitors (acetyl salicylic acid, indomethacin, BW755C) did not alter lymphocyte-HEV binding interactions in both normal and autoimmune mice. No clinical significance could be attributed to lymph node PGE2 production and the age of onset of autoimmune disease. In summary, these findings cast doubt on the role of arachidonic acid metabolites in lymphocyte-HEV binding interactions.

  14. Chlorogenic Acid Attenuates High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) and Enhances Host Defense Mechanisms in Murine Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chan-Ho; Yoon, Seong-Jin; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2012-01-01

    Sepsis is a complex, multifactorial, rapidly progressive disease characterized by an overwhelming activation of the immune system and the countervailing antiinflammatory response. In the current study in murine peritoneal macrophages, chlorogenic acid suppressed endotoxin-induced high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) release in a concentration-dependent manner. Administration of chlorogenic acid also attenuated systemic HMGB1 accumulation in vivo and prevented mortality induced by endotoxemia and polymicrobial sepsis. The mechanisms of action of chlorogenic acid included attenuation of the increase in toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 expression and suppression of sepsis-induced signaling pathways, such as c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB, which are critical for cytokine release. The protection conferred by chlorogenic acid was achieved through modulation of cytokine and chemokine release, suppression of immune cell apoptosis and augmentation of bacterial elimination. Chlorogenic acid warrants further evaluation as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of sepsis and other potentially fatal systemic inflammatory disorders. PMID:23168580

  15. Urinary trans-trans muconic acid (exposure biomarker to benzene) and hippuric acid (exposure biomarker to toluene) concentrations in Mexican women living in high-risk scenarios of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Pruneda-Alvarez, Lucía G; Ruíz-Vera, Tania; Ochoa-Martínez, Angeles C; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2017-11-02

    This study aimed to determine t,t-muconic acid (t,t-MA; exposure biomarker for benzene) and hippuric acid (HA; exposure biomarker for toluene) concentrations in the urine of women living in Mexico. In a cross-sectional study, apparently healthy women (n = 104) were voluntarily recruited from localities with a high risk of air pollution; t,t-MA and HA in urine were quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. Mean urinary levels of t,t-MA ranged from 680 to 1,310 μg/g creatinine. Mean values of HA ranged from 0.38 to 0.87 g/g creatinine. In conclusion, compared to data recently reported in literature, we found high urinary levels of t,t-MA and HA in assessed women participating in this study. We therefore deem the implementation of a strategy aimed at the reduction of exposure as a necessary measure for the evaluated communities.

  16. High fat diet-induced inflammation and oxidative stress are attenuated by N-acetylneuraminic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Yida, Zhang; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ismail, Maznah; Ismail, Norsharina; Ideris, Aini; Abdullah, Maizaton Atmadini

    2015-10-24

    Serum sialic acid levels are positively correlated with coronary artery disease and inflammation. Although sialic acid is a non-specific marker, it is considered sensitive likely due to its influence in sialylation of glycoprotein structures all over the body. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation with N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), a type of sialic acid, will have profound effects on high fat diet- (HFD-) induced inflammation and oxidative stress in view of the widespread incorporation of sialic acid into glycoprotein structures in the body. HFD-fed rats with or without simvastatin or Neu5Ac (50 and 400 mg/kg/day) were followed up for 12 weeks. Lipid profiles, and markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha), insulin resistance (serum insulin and adiponectin, oral glucose tolerance test and homeostatic model of insulin resistance) and oxidative stress (total antioxidant status and thiobarbituric acid reactive species) in the serum and liver were determined, while mRNA levels of hepatic antioxidant and inflammation genes were also quantified. Serum levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, urea, creatinine and uric acid were also assessed. HFD feeding caused hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance, and worsened liver and kidney functions. HFD feeding also potentiated inflammation and oxidative stress, partly through modulation of hepatic gene expression, while Neu5Ac especially at higher doses and simvastatin attenuated HFD-induced changes, although Neu5Ac showed better outcomes. Based on the present results, we surmised that Neu5Ac can prevent HFD-induced inflammation and oxidative stress, and may in fact be useful in the prevention of hyperlipidemia-associated inflammation and oxidative stress. However, the translational implications of these findings can only be determined after long-term effects are established. Hence, the use of Neu5Ac on obesity-related diseases

  17. Methanesulfonic acid-assisted synthesis of N/S co-doped hierarchically porous carbon for high performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Silu; Liu, Mingquan; Wu, Linlin; Liu, Mingjie; Xu, Min; Ni, Wei; Yan, Yi-Ming

    2018-05-01

    Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped carbons are considered as electrode materials for high performance supercapacitors, while their further development is still limited by complicated synthesis procedure, unsatisfied structure and low energy density. Developing a simple synthetic strategy to obtain rationally structured carbon materials and high supercapacitor performance is remaining a grand challenge. Herein, we describe the synthesis of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped hierarchical porous carbons as high performance supercapacitors electrode by a methanesulfonic acid-assisted one-step carbonization and activation of the freeze-dried precursors mixture. The as-prepared carbon material not only exhibits ideally hierarchical pores, but also realizes uniform nitrogen and sulfur co-doping. In 6.0 M KOH electrolyte, the material can achieve a high specific capacitance of 272 F g-1 at 1.0 A g-1 and a promising rate performance retaining 172 F g-1 even at 100 A g-1. Moreover, a fabricated symmetric supercapacitor based on as-prepared nitrogen and sulfur co-doped hierarchical porous carbon delivers high energy densities of 12.4 W h kg-1 and 8.0 W h kg-1 in 6.0 M KOH liquid and KOH/PVA solid-state electrolytes, respectively. This work presents a simple and effective methanesulfonic acid-assisted approach for mass production of heteroatomic doping hierarchical porous carbons for future energy storage applications.

  18. Characterization of a Gene Encoding Clathrin Heavy Chain in Maize Up-Regulated by Salicylic Acid, Abscisic Acid and High Boron Supply

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Mu-Heng; Liu, Sheng-Hong; Yang, Miao-Xian; Zhang, Ya-Jun; Liang, Jia-Yong; Wan, Xiao-Rong; Liang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Clathrin, a three-legged triskelion composed of three clathrin heavy chains (CHCs) and three light chains (CLCs), plays a critical role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in eukaryotic cells. In this study, the genes ZmCHC1 and ZmCHC2 encoding clathrin heavy chain in maize were cloned and characterized for the first time in monocots. ZmCHC1 encodes a 1693-amino acid-protein including 29 exons and 28 introns, and ZmCHC2 encodes a 1746-amino acid-protein including 28 exons and 27 introns. The high similarities of gene structure, protein sequences and 3D models among ZmCHC1, and Arabidopsis AtCHC1 and AtCHC2 suggest their similar functions in CME. ZmCHC1 gene is predominantly expressed in maize roots instead of ubiquitous expression of ZmCHC2. Consistent with a typical predicted salicylic acid (SA)-responsive element and four predicted ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) in the promoter sequence of ZmCHC1, the expression of ZmCHC1 instead of ZmCHC2 in maize roots is significantly up-regulated by SA or ABA, suggesting that ZmCHC1 gene may be involved in the SA signaling pathway in maize defense responses. The expressions of ZmCHC1 and ZmCHC2 genes in maize are down-regulated by azide or cold treatment, further revealing the energy requirement of CME and suggesting that CME in plants is sensitive to low temperatures. PMID:23880865

  19. Genome sequence of the thermophilic strain Bacillus coagulans 2-6, an efficient producer of high-optical-purity L-lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Su, Fei; Yu, Bo; Sun, Jibin; Ou, Hong-Yu; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Limin; Qin, Jiayang; Tang, Hongzhi; Tao, Fei; Jarek, Michael; Scharfe, Maren; Ma, Cuiqing; Ma, Yanhe; Xu, Ping

    2011-09-01

    Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is an efficient producer of lactic acid. The genome of B. coagulans 2-6 has the smallest genome among the members of the genus Bacillus known to date. The frameshift mutation at the start of the d-lactate dehydrogenase sequence might be responsible for the production of high-optical-purity l-lactic acid.

  20. Open fermentative production of L-lactic acid with high optical purity by thermophilic Bacillus coagulans using excess sludge as nutrient.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kedong; Maeda, Toshinari; You, Huiyan; Shirai, Yoshihito

    2014-01-01

    The development of a low-cost polymer-grade L-lactic acid production process was achieved in this study. Excess sludge hydrolyzate (ESH) was chosen as nutrient source for the objective of reducing nutrient cost in lactic acid production. 1% of ESH had high performance in lactic acid production relative to 2g/l yeast extract (YE) while the production cost of ESH was much lower than that of YE, indicating ESH was a promising substitute of YE. By employing a thermophilic strain of Bacillus coagulans (NBRC 12583), non-sterilized batch and repeated batch L-lactic acid fermentation was successfully performed, and the optical purity of L-lactic acid accumulated was more than 99%. Moreover, the factors associated with cell growth and lactic acid fermentation was investigated through a two-stage lactic acid production strategy. Oxygen played an important role in cell growth, and the optimal condition for cell growth and fermentation was pH 7.0 and 50°C. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) vs. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): Effects in epididymal white adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Santos, Larissa Pereira; Machado, Daiana Guimarães Lopes; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto

    2017-08-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been demonstrated to be beneficial for many diseases, including those associated with the metabolic syndrome (e.g. insulin resistance and hypertension). Nevertheless, not only their actions are not entirely understood, but also their only effects were not yet elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to compare the effects of EPA and DHA, alone or in combination, on the epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) metabolism in mice fed a high-fructose diet. 3-mo-old C57Bl/6 mice were fed a control diet (C) or a high-fructose diet (HFru). After three weeks on the diets, the HFru group was subdivided into four new groups for another five weeks: HFru, HFru+EPA, HFru+DHA, and HFru-EPA+DHA (n=10/group). Besides evaluating biometric and metabolic parameters of the animals, we measured the adipocyte area and performed molecular analyses (inflammation and lipolysis) in the epididymal WAT. The HFru group showed adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammation, and uncontrolled lipolysis. The treated animals showed a reversion of adipocyte hypertrophy, inhibition of inflammation with activation of anti-inflammatory mediators, and regularization of lipolysis. Overall, the beneficial effects were more marked with DHA than EPA. Although the whole-body metabolic effects were similar between EPA and DHA, DHA appeared to be the central actor in WAT metabolism, modulating pro and anti-inflammatory pathways and alleviating adipocytes abnormalities. Therefore, when considering fructose-induced adverse effects in WAT, the most prominent actions were observed with DHA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of theanine, GABA, and other amino acids in green, oolong, black, and Pu-erh teas with dabsylation and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Syu, Kai-Yang; Lin, Chih-Li; Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2008-09-10

    Dabsyl chloride (dimethylaminoazobenzene sulfonyl chloride), a useful chromophoric labeling reagent for amino acids and amines, was developed in this laboratory in 1975. Although several methods have been developed to determine various types of amino acids, a quick and easy method of determining theanine, GABA, and other amino acids has not been developed in one HPLC system. In this paper are analyzed the free amino acid contents of theanine and GABA in different teas (green tea, black tea, oolong tea, Pu-erh tea, and GABA tea) with a dabsylation and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system coupled with a detector at 425 nm absorbance. Two reverse phase columns, Hypersil GOLD and Zorbax ODS, were used and gave different resolutions of dabsyl amino acids in the gradient elution program. The data suggest that the tea source or the steps of tea-making may contribute to the theanine contents variations. High theanine contents of high-mountain tea were observed in both green tea and oolong tea. Furthermore, the raw (natural fermented) Pu-erh tea contained more theanine than ripe (wet fermented) Pu-erh tea, and the GABA contents in normal teas were generally lower than that in GABA tea.

  3. The chemical structure of highly aromatic humic acids in three volcanic ash soils as determined by dipolar dephasing NMR studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.; Schnitzer, M.; Vassallo, A.M.; Wilson, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Dipolar dephasing 13C NMR studies of three highly aromatic humic acids, one from a modern soil and two from paleosols, have permitted the determination of the degree of aromatic substitution. From these data and the normal solid-state 13C NMR data we have been able to develop a model for the average chemical structure of these humic acids that generally correlates well with permanganate oxidation data. The models depict these humic acids as benzene di- and tricarboxylic acids interconnected by biphenyl linkages. An increasing degree of substitution is observed with increasing geologic age. These structures may be characteristic of the resistant aromatic part of the "core" of humic substances that survives degradation. ?? 1989.

  4. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography purification of methyl esters of C(16)-C(28) polyunsaturated fatty acids in microalgae, including octacosaoctaenoic acid [28:8(n-3)].

    PubMed

    Mansour, Maged P

    2005-12-02

    A preparative reversed-phase (RP; C(18)) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with gradient elution using acetonitrile (MeCN)-chloroform (CHCl(3)) (or dichloromethane (DCM)) and evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD) with automatic multiple injection and fraction collection was used to purify milligram quantities of microalgal polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), separated as methyl esters (ME). PUFA-ME purified included methyl esters of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6(n-3)), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5(n-3)) and the unusual very long-chain (C(28)) highly unsaturated fatty acid (VLC-HUFA), octacosaoctaenoic acid [28:8(n-3)(4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25)] from the marine dinoflagellate Scrippsiella sp. CS-295/c. Other PUFA purified from various microalgae using this RP-HPLC method to greater than 95% purity included 16:3(n-4), 16:4(n-3), 16:4(n-1) and 18:5(n-3). The number of injections required was variable and depended on the abundance of the desired PUFA-ME, and resolution from closely eluting PUFA-ME, which determined the maximum loading. The purity of these fatty acids was determined by electron impact (EI) GC-MS and the chain length and location of double bonds was determined by EI GC-MS of 4,4-dimethyl oxazoline (DMOX) derivatives formed using a low temperature method. Advantages over silver-ion HPLC for purifying PUFA-ME is that separation occurs according to chain length as well as degree of unsaturation enabling separation of PUFA-ME with the same degree of unsaturation but different chain length (i.e. between 18:5(n-3) and 20:5(n-3)). In addition, PUFA-ME are not strongly adsorbed, but elute earlier than their more saturated corresponding FAME of the same chain length. This method is robust, simple, and requires only a short re-equilibration time. It is a useful tool for preparing milligram quantities of pure PUFA-ME for bioactive screening (as free fatty acids), although many multiple injections may be required for minor PUFA

  5. Influence of the Form of Administration of Chlorogenic Acids on Oxidative Stress Induced by High fat Diet in Rats.

    PubMed

    Budryn, G; Zaczyńska, D; Żyżelewicz, D; Grzelczyk, J; Zduńczyk, Z; Juśkiewicz, J

    2017-06-01

    Green coffee is one of health-promoting supplements of the diet, applied in the form of either preparations or enriched food products. Its positive impact is manifested by mitigation of the development of certain tumors, e.g., in the colon and liver, and type 2 diabetes. Many studies proved that chlorogenic acids are the main active substances in green coffee. The bioavailability of these compounds depends among others on their interactions with other components of the diet, mainly proteins. When they are used as food ingredients, their bioavailability is additionally decreased because of the decomposition or interactions with other ingredients during food processing. The undesirable changes may be limited among others by microencapsulation, for example with β-cyclodextrin. In this study, rats were fed the pro-oxidative high fat diet, which was supplemented with chlorogenic acids from green coffee that were used in four forms such as: a purified extract, complexes of chlorogenic acids and β-cyclodextrin, and bread supplemented with either the extract or the β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex. Chlorogenic acids added to bread because of the reduced absorption from the crumb in the small intestine and increased passage to the colon, contributed to the beneficial modification of enzymatic activities of intestinal microbiota. When added directly to the diet, they contributed to the improved antioxidant status in the liver and kidneys, lowered glucose level and increased HDL level. A high ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione in the liver and a high concentration of antioxidants in the blood serum were observed after administration of chlorogenic acids in the form of inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin, indicating that microencapsulation increased their bioaccessibility due to the limited interactions with other components of the diet.

  6. Development and Validation of High-performance Thin Layer Chromatographic Method for Ursolic Acid in Malus domestica Peel

    PubMed Central

    Nikam, P. H.; Kareparamban, J. A.; Jadhav, A. P.; Kadam, V. J.

    2013-01-01

    Ursolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid possess a wide range of pharmacological activities. It shows hypoglycemic, antiandrogenic, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, diuretic and cynogenic activity. It is commonly present in plants especially coating of leaves and fruits, such as apple fruit, vinca leaves, rosemary leaves, and eucalyptus leaves. A simple high-performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed for the quantification of ursolic acid from apple peel (Malus domestica). The samples dissolved in methanol and linear ascending development was carried out in twin trough glass chamber. The mobile phase was selected as toluene:ethyl acetate:glacial acetic acid (70:30:2). The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r2=0.9982 in the concentration range 0.2-7 μg/spot with respect to peak area. According to the ICH guidelines the method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the method is reproducible and selective for the estimation of ursolic acid. PMID:24302805

  7. High-resolution food webs based on nitrogen isotopic composition of amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Steffan, Shawn A; Ogawa, Nanako O; Ishikawa, Naoto F; Sasaki, Yoko; Tsuchiya, Masashi; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2014-01-01

    Food webs are known to have myriad trophic links between resource and consumer species. While herbivores have well-understood trophic tendencies, the difficulties associated with characterizing the trophic positions of higher-order consumers have remained a major problem in food web ecology. To better understand trophic linkages in food webs, analysis of the stable nitrogen isotopic composition of amino acids has been introduced as a potential means of providing accurate trophic position estimates. In the present study, we employ this method to estimate the trophic positions of 200 free-roaming organisms, representing 39 species in coastal marine (a stony shore) and 38 species in terrestrial (a fruit farm) environments. Based on the trophic positions from the isotopic composition of amino acids, we are able to resolve the trophic structure of these complex food webs. Our approach reveals a high degree of trophic omnivory (i.e., noninteger trophic positions) among carnivorous species such as marine fish and terrestrial hornets.This information not only clarifies the trophic tendencies of species within their respective communities, but also suggests that trophic omnivory may be common in these webs. PMID:25360278

  8. Decreasing high postprandial stearic acid in impaired fasting glucose by dietary regulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Chu, X; Na, L; Yuan, F; Li, Y; Sun, C

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the postprandial change in free fatty acid (FFA) profiles in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and to evaluate the effect of low glycemic index (GI) load on postprandial FFA profiles and inflammation. First, 50 IFG and 50 healthy subjects were recruited; and 2 -h postprandial changes in FFA profiles were determined. Second, the 50 IFG subjects then received three different loads: glucose load (GL), high glycemic index (HGI) load and low glycemic index (LGI) load, respectively. FFA profile, glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and inflammatory biomarkers were assayed at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min. Postprandial stearic acid (C18:0) increased compared with baseline in all subjects, whereas the change in postprandial C18:0 was more marked in IFG subjects than in healthy subjects. Compared with subjects who received the GL and HGI load, the area under the curve for insulin, GLP-1, C18:0 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha significantly decreased and adiponectin increased in subjects who received the LGI load. The rise in postprandial C18:0 in IFG subjects was inhibited by LGI load.

  9. [Effects of high cholic acid on fetal brains of pregnant rats].

    PubMed

    Tan, Li; Ding, Yi-ling

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the effects of morphous on fetal brains in pregnant rat of high cholic acid. Randomly deviding 30 SD pregnant rats to three groups A, B and C, every group is 10. From 13th to 20th days of pregnancy, injecting 5.5 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) cholic acid to pregnant rats of group A, 1.4 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) cholic acid to group B and the partes aequales normal saline to group C by intraperitoneal injection one time every day. In the 21st day of pregancy, to cut the belly open and take the fetus out and record the total fetus, live fetus and the weight. Determine the serum concentration of total bile acid (TBA) in pregnant rats and fetal rats. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to detect the serum level of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in fetal rats. Fix and embed the brain after decapitation, then to observe the pathological change of the fetal cerebrum under light microscope and electron microscope. (1) The serum concentration of TBA of pregnant rats and fetal rats in group A is (22.3 +/- 8.1) micromol/L and (28.8 +/- 8.1) micromol/L, in group B is (9.8 +/- 3.6) micromol/L and (9.3 +/- 3.5) micromol/L, in group C is (3.6 +/- 1.8) micromol/L and (4.0 +/- 1.2) micromol/L. There is significant defference in every two groups, P < 0.01. The serum concentration of TBA between pregnant rats and fetal rats were positively correlated with each other, (r = 0.875, P < 0.01). (2) The mortinatality of fetus in group A, B and C are 30.1%, 16.9% and 7.1%, there is significant defference in every two groups, P < 0.05. (3) The serum lever of NSE of fetus in group A was significantly higher than that of group B and C, [(31.9 +/- 13.1) ng/L vs. (13.9 +/- 5.9) ng/L and (9.3 +/- 3.9) ng/L, both are P < 0.05]. But there is no significant difference between group B and C, P > 0.05. The serum level of TBA and NSE in fetus were positively correlated with each other, (r = 0.758, P < 0.01). (4) By the light microscope we found that the neuronal degeneration and necrosis

  10. Highly sensitive detection of cancer cells with an electrochemical cytosensor based on boronic acid functional polythiophene.

    PubMed

    Dervisevic, Muamer; Senel, Mehmet; Sagir, Tugba; Isik, Sevim

    2017-04-15

    The detection of cancer cells through important molecular recognition target such as sialic acid is significant for the clinical diagnosis and treatment. There are many electrochemical cytosensors developed for cancer cells detection but most of them have complicated fabrication processes which results in poor reproducibility and reliability. In this study, a simple, low-cost, and highly sensitive electrochemical cytosensor was designed based on boronic acid-functionalized polythiophene. In cytosensors fabrication simple single-step procedure was used which includes coating pencil graphite electrode (PGE) by means of electro-polymerization of 3-Thienyl boronic acid and Thiophen. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were used as an analytical methods to optimize and measure analytical performances of PGE/P(TBA 0.5 Th 0.5 ) based electrode. Cytosensor showed extremely good analytical performances in detection of cancer cells with linear rage of 1×10 1 to 1×10 6 cellsmL -1 exhibiting low detection limit of 10 cellsmL -1 and incubation time of 10min. Next to excellent analytical performances, it showed high selectivity towards AGS cancer cells when compared to HEK 293 normal cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-hMSCs). This method is promising for future applications in early stage cancer diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High-performance oxygen reduction catalysts in both alkaline and acidic fuel cells based on pre-treating carbon material and iron precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Ping; Barkholtz, Heather M.; Wang, Ying

    We demonstrate a new and simple method for pre-treating the carbon material and iron precursor to prepare oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts, which can produce super-high performance and stability in alkaline solution, with high performance in acid solution. This strategy using cheap materials is simply controllable. Moreover, it has achieved smaller uniform nanoparticles to exhibit high stability, and the synergetic effect of Fe and N offered much higher performance in ORR than commercial Pt/C, with high maximum power density in alkaline and acid fuel cell test. So it can make this kind of catalysts be the most promising alternatives ofmore » Pt-based catalysts with best performance/price.« less

  12. A carbon dot-based "off-on" fluorescent probe for highly selective and sensitive detection of phytic acid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhao; Wang, Libing; Su, Rongxin; Huang, Renliang; Qi, Wei; He, Zhimin

    2015-08-15

    We herein report a facile, one-step pyrolysis synthesis of photoluminescent carbon dots (CDs) using citric acid as the carbon source and lysine as the surface passivation reagent. The as-prepared CDs show narrow size distribution, excellent blue fluorescence and good photo-stability and water dispersivity. The fluorescence of the CDs was found to be effectively quenched by ferric (Fe(III)) ions with high selectivity via a photo-induced electron transfer (PET) process. Upon addition of phytic acid (PA) to the CDs/Fe(III) complex dispersion, the fluorescence of the CDs was significantly recovered, arising from the release of Fe(III) ions from the CDs/Fe(III) complex because PA has a higher affinity for Fe(III) ions compared to CDs. Furthermore, we developed an "off-on" fluorescence assay method for the detection of phytic acid using CDs/Fe(III) as a fluorescent probe. This probe enables the selective detection of PA with a linear range of 0.68-18.69 μM and a limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio is 3) of 0.36 μM. The assay method demonstrates high selectivity, repeatability, stability and recovery ratio in the detection of the standard and real PA samples. We believe that the facile operation, low-cost, high sensitivity and selectivity render this CD-based "off-on" fluorescent probe an ideal sensing platform for the detection of PA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Formation and High-order Carboxylic Acids (RCOOH) in Interstellar Analogous Ices of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Methane(CH4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Cheng; Turner, Andrew M.; Abplanalp, Matthew J.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2018-01-01

    This laboratory study simulated the abiotic formation of carboxylic acids (RCOOH) in interstellar analogous ices of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) at 10 K upon exposure to energetic electrons. The chemical processing of the ices and the subsequent warm-up phase were monitored online and in situ, exploiting Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry and quadrupole mass spectrometry. Characteristic absorptions of functional groups of carboxylic acids (RCOOH) were observed in the infrared spectra of the irradiated ice. Two proposed reaction mechanisms replicated the kinetic profiles of the carboxylic acids along with the decay profile of the precursors during the irradiation via hydrocarbon formation, followed by carboxylation and/or through acetic acid along with mass growth processes of the alkyl chain. Mass spectra recorded during the warm-up phase demonstrated that these acids are distributed from acetic acid (CH3COOH) up to decanoic acid (C9H19COOH). High-dose irradiation studies (91 ± 14 eV) converted low-molecular-weight acids such as acetic acid (CH3COOH) and propionic acid (C2H5COOH) to higher-molecular-weight carboxylic acids, compared to low-dose irradiation studies (18 ± 3 eV). The traces of the {{{H}}}2{{C}}= {{C}}({OH}{)}2+ (m/z = 60) fragment—a link to linear carboxylic acids—implied that higher-order acids (C n H2n+1COOH, n ≥ 5) are likely branched, which correlates with the recent analysis of the structures of the monocarboxylic acids in the Murchison meteorite.

  14. Tsetse Salivary Gland Proteins 1 and 2 Are High Affinity Nucleic Acid Binding Proteins with Residual Nuclease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Caljon, Guy; Ridder, Karin De; Stijlemans, Benoît; Coosemans, Marc; Magez, Stefan; De Baetselier, Patrick; Van Den Abbeele, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the tsetse fly salivary gland EST database revealed the presence of a highly enriched cluster of putative endonuclease genes, including tsal1 and tsal2. Tsal proteins are the major components of tsetse fly (G. morsitans morsitans) saliva where they are present as monomers as well as high molecular weight complexes with other saliva proteins. We demonstrate that the recombinant tsetse salivary gland proteins 1&2 (Tsal1&2) display DNA/RNA non-specific, high affinity nucleic acid binding with KD values in the low nanomolar range and a non-exclusive preference for duplex. These Tsal proteins exert only a residual nuclease activity with a preference for dsDNA in a broad pH range. Knockdown of Tsal expression by in vivo RNA interference in the tsetse fly revealed a partially impaired blood digestion phenotype as evidenced by higher gut nucleic acid, hematin and protein contents. PMID:23110062

  15. Postnatal dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation rescues glucocorticoid-programmed adiposity, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia in male rat offspring raised on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Zulkafli, Intan S; Waddell, Brendan J; Mark, Peter J

    2013-09-01

    Fetal glucocorticoid excess programs several adverse outcomes in adult offspring, many of which can be prevented by postnatal, dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids. Here we tested 2 separate hypotheses: 1) a postnatal high-fat diet exacerbates the glucocorticoid-programmed phenotype; and 2) postnatal, dietary n-3 fatty acids rescue programmed outcomes, even in the presence of a high-fat diet challenge. Pregnant Wistar rat dams were either untreated or administered dexamethasone acetate (Dex; 0.5 μg/mL drinking water) from day 13 of pregnancy. Offspring were cross-fostered to untreated mothers and males were weaned onto a standard (Std), high-fat, low n-3 (HF), or high-fat, high n-3 (HFHn-3) diet. Prenatal Dex reduced birth weight (26%) and delayed puberty onset by 1.2 days, irrespective of postnatal diet. Prenatal Dex programmed increased blood pressure in adult offspring, an effect worsened by the postnatal HF diet. Supplementation with high n-3 fatty acids, however, prevented both the Dex and HF-induced increases in blood pressure. Prenatal Dex also programmed increased adiposity, plasma cholesterol, and plasma triglyceride levels at 6 months of age, particularly in those offspring raised on the HF diet. But again, each of these adverse outcomes was rescued by supplementation of the HF diet with n-3 fatty acids. In conclusion, the capacity of n-3 fatty acids to overcome adverse programming outcomes remains evident, even in the presence of a HF diet challenge.

  16. Preventive effect of a high fluoride toothpaste and arginine-carbonate toothpaste on dentinal tubules exposure followed by acid challenge: a dentine permeability evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Considering the current high use of high fluoride toothpastes, the aim of the study was to quantify alterations in the root dentine permeability submitted to treatment with a high fluoride toothpaste and 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, sodium monofluorophosphate toothpaste as a preventive treatment for dentinal tubules exposure followed by acid challenge. Methods Thirty-third molars were sectioned below the cementoenamel. The root segments were connected to a hydraulic pressure apparatus to measure dentine permeability after the following sequential steps (n = 10 per group): I) Baseline; II) treatment with phosphoric acid for 30 s (maximum permeability); III) Toothbrushing (1 min) according to the experimental groups (G1- control; G2- 5000 ppm fluoride toothpaste; G3- 8% arginine-calcium carbonate toothpaste); IV) acid challenge for 5 min (orange juice). The data were converted into percentage, considering stage II as 100%. Results The results have shown a statistically significant decreasing on dentine permeability after treatment with toothpaste (Friedman test and Dunn’s post hoc test). Comparison among groups demonstrated a high increasing on dentine permeability when acid challenge was performed after toothbrushing with distilled water (control group) (Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s post hoc test). Conclusion The toothpaste treatment may provide sufficient resistance on dentine surface, preventing dentinal tubules exposure after acid challenge. PMID:24958423

  17. Amylolytic bacterial lactic acid fermentation - a review.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gopal; Altaf, Md; Naveena, B J; Venkateshwar, M; Kumar, E Vijay

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid, an enigmatic chemical has wide applications in food, pharmaceutical, leather, textile industries and as chemical feed stock. Novel applications in synthesis of biodegradable plastics have increased the demand for lactic acid. Microbial fermentations are preferred over chemical synthesis of lactic acid due to various factors. Refined sugars, though costly, are the choice substrates for lactic acid production using Lactobacillus sps. Complex natural starchy raw materials used for production of lactic acid involve pretreatment by gelatinization and liquefaction followed by enzymatic saccharification to glucose and subsequent conversion of glucose to lactic acid by Lactobacillus fermentation. Direct conversion of starchy biomass to lactic acid by bacteria possessing both amylolytic and lactic acid producing character will eliminate the two step process to make it economical. Very few amylolytic lactic acid bacteria with high potential to produce lactic acid at high substrate concentrations are reported till date. In this view, a search has been made for various amylolytic LAB involved in production of lactic acid and utilization of cheaply available renewable agricultural starchy biomass. Lactobacillus amylophilus GV6 is an efficient and widely studied amylolytic lactic acid producing bacteria capable of utilizing inexpensive carbon and nitrogen substrates with high lactic acid production efficiency. This is the first review on amylolytic bacterial lactic acid fermentations till date.

  18. Dextranomer/hyaluronic acid endoscopic injection is effective in the treatment of intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux in patients with complete duplex systems.

    PubMed

    Hunziker, Manuela; Mohanan, Nochiparambil; Puri, Prem

    2013-05-01

    Endoscopic subureteral injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid has become an established alternative to long-term antibiotic prophylaxis or surgical treatment for vesicoureteral reflux. We evaluated the effectiveness of endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux in patients with complete duplex collecting systems. A total of 123 children underwent endoscopic correction of intermediate or high grade vesicoureteral reflux using injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid into complete duplex systems between 2001 and 2010. Vesicoureteral reflux was diagnosed by voiding cystourethrogram, and dimercapto-succinic acid scan was performed to evaluate the presence of renal scarring. Followup ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram were performed 3 months after the outpatient procedure and renal ultrasound thereafter every 2 years. Mean followup was 6.7 years. Complete duplex systems were unilateral in 110 patients and bilateral in 13. Reflux severity in the 136 refluxing units was grade II in 1 (0.7%), III in 52 (38.2%), IV in 61 (44.9%) and V in 22 (16.2%). Dimercapto-succinic acid scan revealed renal functional abnormalities in 63 children (51.2%). Vesicoureteral reflux resolved after the first endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in 93 ureters (68.4%), after a second injection in 35 (25.7%) and after a third injection in 8 (5.9%). Febrile urinary tract infection developed in 5 patients (4.1%) during followup. No patient required ureteral reimplantation or experienced significant complications. Our results confirm the safety and efficacy of endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in eradicating intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux in patients with complete duplex systems. We recommend this minimally invasive, 15-minute outpatient procedure as a viable option for treating intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux in patients with complete duplex collecting systems

  19. Identification of phenolic acids and flavonoids in monofloral honey from Bangladesh by high performance liquid chromatography: determination of antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Yung An, Chua; Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Hawlader, Mohammad Nurul Islam; Azlan, Siti Amirah Binti Mohd; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic acids, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties of monofloral honey collected from five different districts in Bangladesh. A new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a UV detector method was developed for the identification of the phenolic acids and flavonoids. A total of five different phenolic acids were identified, with the most abundant being caffeic acid, benzoic acid, gallic acid, followed by chlorogenic acid and trans-cinnamic acid. The flavonoids, kaempferol, and catechin were most abundant, followed by myricetin and naringenin. The mean moisture content, total sugar content, and color characteristics of the honey samples were 18.36 ± 0.95%, 67.40 ± 5.63 g/100 g, and 129.27 ± 34.66 mm Pfund, respectively. The mean total phenolic acids, total flavonoid content, and proline content were 199.20 ± 135.23, 46.73 ± 34.16, and 556.40 ± 376.86 mg/kg, respectively, while the mean FRAP values and DPPH radical scavenging activity were 327.30 ± 231.87 μM Fe (II)/100 g and 36.95 ± 20.53%, respectively. Among the different types of honey, kalijira exhibited the highest phenolics and antioxidant properties. Overall, our study confirms that all the investigated honey samples are good sources of phenolic acids and flavonoids with good antioxidant properties.

  20. Effects of dietary fats (fish, olive and high-oleic-acid sunflower oils) on lipid composition and antioxidant enzymes in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V; Pérez-Espinosa, A; Vázquez, C M; Santa-María, C

    1999-09-01

    The effects of two oleic-acid-rich diets (containing olive oil, OO, and high-oleic-acid sunflower oil, HOSO) on plasma and liver lipid composition detoxification enzyme activities, were compared with those of a fish-oil (FO) diet and a control diet. Compared with the control diet, plasma and hepatic total triacylglycerol concentrations were increased in the animals fed on the HOSO and OO diets and decreased in those fed on the FO diet. The animals fed on FO showed the highest level of cholesterol in the liver and had lower plasma cholesterol concentrations when compared with those fed on the two oleic-acid-rich diets. In comparison with the animals fed on the diets enriched in oleic acid, the FO group showed higher hepatic levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the n-3 series and lower levels of fatty acids of the n-6 series. Livers of FO-fed rats, compared with those of OO- and HOSO-fed rats showed: (1) significantly higher activities of catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1); (2) no differences in the NADPH-cytochrome c reductase (EC 1.6.99.3) activity. The HOSO diet had a similar effect on liver antioxidant enzyme activities as the OO diet. In conclusion, it appears that changes in the liver fatty acid composition due mainly to n-3 lipids may enhance the efficiency of the antioxidant defence system. The two monounsaturated fatty acids oils studied (OO and HOSO), with the same high content of oleic acid but different contents of natural antioxidants, had similar effects on the antioxidant enzyme activities measured.

  1. Degradation of self-compacting concrete (SCC) due to sulfuric acid attack: Experiment investigation on the effect of high volume fly ash content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiawan, S. A.; Sunarmasto; Tyas, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Concrete is susceptible to a variety of chemical attacks. In the sulfuric acid environment, concrete is subjected to a combination of sulfuric and acid attack. This research is aimed to investigate the degradation of self-compacting concrete (SCC) due to sulfuric acid attack based on measurement of compressive strength loss and diameter change. Since the proportion of SCC contains higher cement than that of normal concrete, the vulnerability of this concrete to sulfuric acid attack could be reduced by partial replacement of cement with fly ash at high volume level. The effect of high volume fly ash at 50-70% cement replacement levels on the extent of degradation owing to sulfuric acid will be assessed in this study. It can be shown that an increase in the utilization of fly