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Sample records for high package extraction

  1. Methods for extracting aerodynamic accelerations from Orbiter High Resolution Accelerometer Package flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. M.; Russell, J. W.; Blanchard, R. C.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents a process for extracting the aerodynamic accelerations of the Shuttle Orbiter Vehicle from the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP) flight data during reentry. The methods for obtaining low-level aerodynamic accelerations, principally in the rarefied flow regime, are applied to 10 Orbiter flights. The extraction process is presented using data obtained from Space Transportation System Flight 32 (Mission 61-C) as a typical example. This process involves correcting the HiRAP measurements for the effects of temperature bias and instrument offset from the Orbiter center of gravity, and removing acceleration data during times they are affected by thruster firings. The corrected data are then made continuous and smooth and are further enhanced by refining the temperature bias correction and removing effects of the auxiliary power unit actuation. The resulting data are the current best estimate of the Orbiter aerodynamic accelerations during reentry and will be used for further analyses of the Orbiter aerodynamics and the upper atmosphere characteristics.

  2. [Simultaneous determination of 9 ultraviolet stabilizers in food plastic packaging materials by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juzhou; Li, Jing; Shao, Dongliang; Yao, Bangben; Jiang, Junshu

    2012-02-01

    An effective high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 9 ultraviolet stabilizers in food plastic packaging materials. The food packaging samples were firstly extracted by methanol-ethyl acetate, and then purified by a C18 solid-phase extraction (SPE) column. The target compounds were separated on a ZORBAX SB-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) in gradient elution mode using methanol and water as mobile phases. The detection wavelength was at 310 nm. The linear plots of the nine ultraviolet stabilizers were obtained between 0.2 and 10 mg/L, with the correlation coefficients of above 0. 999 for the nine ultraviolet stabilizers. The limits of detection for this method were in the range from 0.05 to 0.1 mg/L. The recoveries spiked in commercial food plastic packaging materials were in the range of 70.2% - 89.0% with the relative standard deviations of 0.4% - 4.5%. The results indicated that the method is simple, accurate, and suitable for the simultaneous determination of the nine ultraviolet stabilizers in food plastic packaging materials.

  3. Determination of phthalates released from paper packaging materials by solid-phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Yang, Bofeng; Tang, Zhixu; Luo, Xin; Wang, Fengmei; Xu, Hui; Cai, Xue

    2014-01-01

    A solid phase extraction (SPE) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 phthalic acid esters (dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dipropyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, diamyl phthalate, di-n-hexyl phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) released from food paper packaging materials. The use of distilled water, 3% acetic acid (w/v), 10% ethanol (v/v) and 95% ethanol (v/v) instead of the different types of food simulated the migration of 10 phthalic acid esters from food paper packaging materials; the phthalic acid esters in four food simulants were enriched and purified by a C18 SPE column and nitrogen blowing, and quantified by HPLC with a diode array detector. The chromatographic conditions and extraction conditions were optimized and all 10 of the phthalate acid esters had a maximum absorbance at 224 nm. The method showed limitations of detection in the range of 6.0-23.8 ng/mL the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.9999 in all cases, recovery values ranged between 71.27 and 106.97% at spiking levels of 30, 60 and 90 ng/mL and relative standard deviation values ranged from 0.86 to 8.00%. The method was considered to be simple, fast and reliable for a study on the migration of these 10 phthalic acid esters from food paper packaging materials into food.

  4. Determination of Polymer Additives-Antioxidants, Ultraviolet Stabilizers, Plasticizers and Photoinitiators in Plastic Food Package by Accelerated Solvent Extraction Coupled with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Lin, Qin-Bao; Hu, Chang-Ying; Su, Qi-Zhi; Wu, Yu-Mei

    2015-07-01

    An analytical method for the quantitative determination of 4 antioxidants, 9 ultraviolet (UV) stabilizers, 12 phthalate plasticizers and 2 photoinitiators in plastic food package using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA) has been developed. Parameters affecting the efficiency in the process such as extraction and chromatographic conditions were studied in order to determine operating conditions. The analytical method of ASE-HPLC showed good linearity with good correlation coefficients (R ≥ 0.9833). The limits of detection and quantification were between 0.03 and 0.30 µg mL(-1) and between 0.10 and 1.00 µg mL(-1) for 27 analytes. Average spiked recoveries for most analytes in samples were >70.4% at 10, 20 and 40 µg g(-1) spiked levels, except UV-9 and Irganox 1010 (58.6 and 64.0% spiked at 10 µg g(-1), respectively), the relative standard deviations were in the range from 0.4 to 15.4%. The methodology has been proposed for the analysis of 27 polymer additives in plastic food package. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. High Coherence Qubit packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, David P.; Wu, Xian; Olivadese, Salvatore B.; Adiga, V. P.; Hertzberg, Jared B.; Bronn, Nicholas T.; Chow, Jerry M.; NIST Team; IBM Team

    Development of sockets and associated interconnects for multi-qubit chips is presented. Considerations include thermalization, RF hygiene, non-magnetic environment, and self-alignment of the chips to allow for rapid testing, scalable integration, and high coherence operation. The sockets include wirebond free, vertical take-off launches with pogopins. This allows for high interconnectivity to non-trivial topology of qubits. Furthermore, vertical grounding is accomplished to reduce chip modes and suppress box modes. Low energy loss and high phase coherence is observed using this paradigm. We acknowledge support from IARPA, LPS, and the NIST Quantum Based Metrology Initiative.

  6. High Frequency Electronic Packaging Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, M.; Lowry, L.; Lee, K.; Kolawa, E.; Tulintseff, A.; Shalkhauser, K.; Whitaker, J.; Piket-May, M.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial and government communication, radar, and information systems face the challenge of cost and mass reduction via the application of advanced packaging technology. A majority of both government and industry support has been focused on low frequency digital electronics.

  7. High-Performance Power-Semiconductor Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renz, David; Hansen, Irving; Berman, Albert

    1989-01-01

    A 600-V, 50-A transistor and 1,200-V, 50-A diode in rugged, compact, lightweight packages intended for use in inverter-type power supplies having switching frequencies up to 20 kHz. Packages provide low-inductance connections, low loss, electrical isolation, and long-life hermetic seal. Low inductance achieved by making all electrical connections to each package on same plane. Also reduces high-frequency losses by reducing coupling into inherent shorted turns in packaging material around conductor axes. Stranded internal power conductors aid conduction at high frequencies, where skin effect predominates. Design of packages solves historical problem of separation of electrical interface from thermal interface of high-power semiconductor device.

  8. Extractables characterization for five materials of construction representative of packaging systems used for parenteral and ophthalmic drug products.

    PubMed

    Jenke, Dennis; Castner, James; Egert, Thomas; Feinberg, Tom; Hendricker, Alan; Houston, Christopher; Hunt, Desmond G; Lynch, Michael; Shaw, Arthur; Nicholas, Kumudini; Norwood, Daniel L; Paskiet, Diane; Ruberto, Michael; Smith, Edward J; Holcomb, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric and elastomeric materials are commonly encountered in medical devices and packaging systems used to manufacture, store, deliver, and/or administer drug products. Characterizing extractables from such materials is a necessary step in establishing their suitability for use in these applications. In this study, five individual materials representative of polymers and elastomers commonly used in packaging systems and devices were extracted under conditions and with solvents that are relevant to parenteral and ophthalmic drug products (PODPs). Extraction methods included elevated temperature sealed vessel extraction, sonication, refluxing, and Soxhlet extraction. Extraction solvents included a low-pH (pH = 2.5) salt mixture, a high-pH (pH = 9.5) phosphate buffer, a 1/1 isopropanol/water mixture, isopropanol, and hexane. The resulting extracts were chemically characterized via spectroscopic and chromatographic means to establish the metal/trace element and organic extractables profiles. Additionally, the test articles themselves were tested for volatile organic substances. The results of this testing established the extractables profiles of the test articles, which are reported herein. Trends in the extractables, and their estimated concentrations, as a function of the extraction and testing methodologies are considered in the context of the use of the test article in medical applications and with respect to establishing best demonstrated practices for extractables profiling of materials used in PODP-related packaging systems and devices. Plastic and rubber materials are commonly encountered in medical devices and packaging/delivery systems for drug products. Characterizing the extractables from these materials is an important part of determining that they are suitable for use. In this study, five materials representative of plastics and rubbers used in packaging and medical devices were extracted by several means, and the extracts were analytically

  9. High-power LED package requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Frank; Martin, Paul S.; Harbers, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    Power LEDs have evolved from simple indicators into illumination devices. For general lighting applications, where the objective is to light up an area, white LED arrays have been utilized to serve that function. Cost constraints will soon drive the industry to provide a discrete lighting solution. Early on, that will mean increasing the power densities while quantum efficiencies are addressed. For applications such as automotive headlamps & projection, where light needs to be tightly collimated, or controlled, arrays of die or LEDs will not be able to satisfy the requirements & limitations defined by etendue. Ultimately, whether a luminaire requires a small source with high luminance, or light spread over a general area, economics will force the evolution of the illumination LED into a compact discrete high power package. How the customer interfaces with this new package should be an important element considered early on in the design cycle. If an LED footprint of adequate size is not provided, it may prove impossible for the customer, or end user, to get rid of the heat in a manner sufficient to prevent premature LED light output degradation. Therefore it is critical, for maintaining expected LED lifetime & light output, that thermal performance parameters be defined, by design, at the system level, which includes heat sinking methods & interface materials or methdology.

  10. Occurrence of extractable ink residuals in packaging materials used in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Dupáková, Z; Dobiás, J; Votavová, L; Klaudisová, K; Voldrich, M

    2010-01-01

    Residues of printing ink components were determined in 94 samples of packaging materials commercially used in the Czech Republic for food packaging. The samples tested included printed polyethylene and polypropylene films, co-extruded and laminated films, paperboard beverages boxes, foils for thermo sealing of polystyrene cups, and polypropylene cups. Printing ink components were extracted with diethylether, then separated and determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Fifty compounds potentially originating from printing were isolated, identified and quantified. No acute health risk for consumers were identified, even though several findings of high levels of photo-initiators (e.g. in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films for thermo sealing of polystyrene cups) as well as plasticizers (acetyl tributyl citrate, tributyl aconitate, 2-butoxyethyl oleate and 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate in co-extruded films) indicate that their real migration into food and/or food simulants needs to be undertaken for a proper safety evaluation.

  11. Packaging Technologies for High Temperature Electronics and Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500 C silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chip-level packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550 C. A 96% alumina based edge connector for a PCB level subsystem interconnection has also been demonstrated recently. The 96% alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been tested with high temperature SiC devices at 500 C for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC JFET with a packaging system composed of a 96% alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board mounted on a data acquisition circuit board was launched as a part of the MISSE-7 suite to the International Space Station via a Shuttle mission. This packaged SiC transistor was successfully tested in orbit for eighteen months. A spark-plug type sensor package designed for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was developed. This sensor package combines the high temperature interconnection system with a commercial high temperature high pressure stainless steel seal gland (electrical feed-through). Test results of a packaged high temperature capacitive pressure sensor at 500 C are also discussed. In addition to the pressure sensor package, efforts for packaging high temperature SiC diode-based gas chemical sensors are in process.

  12. Packaging Technologies for High Temperature Electronics and Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liangyu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500degC silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chiplevel packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550degC. A 96% alumina based edge connector for a PCB level subsystem interconnection has also been demonstrated recently. The 96% alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been tested with high temperature SiC devices at 500degC for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC JFET with a packaging system composed of a 96% alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board mounted on a data acquisition circuit board was launched as a part of the MISSE-7 suite to the International Space Station via a Shuttle mission. This packaged SiC transistor was successfully tested in orbit for eighteen months. A spark-plug type sensor package designed for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was developed. This sensor package combines the high temperature interconnection system with a commercial high temperature high pressure stainless steel seal gland (electrical feed-through). Test results of a packaged high temperature capacitive pressure sensor at 500degC are also discussed. In addition to the pressure sensor package, efforts for packaging high temperature SiC diode-based gas chemical sensors are in process.

  13. Ethanolic extract of propolis for biodegradable films packaging enhanced with chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, M. I.; Roslan, A.; Saari, N. S.; Hashim, K. H.; Kalamullah, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    The use of industrial organic waste which are chitosan and propolis as materials for the development of biodegradable and active packaging is economical and environmentally appealing. Processing of propolis-chitosan film can minimize waste, and produce low-cost added value biopolymer packaging films for targeted applications. This aims of this research is to develop and characterize a biodegradable films by incorporating chitosan with propolis extract to enhance the functional properties for potential use as active food packaging. The film's moisture content, solubility and antimicrobial activity increase due to increasing volume of propolis extract which are 0 ml, 1.2 ml and 2.4 ml of propolis extract. Propolis-chitosan film with 2.4 ml of propolis extract is more soluble in water compared to propolis-chitosan film with 0 ml of propolis extract and 1.2 ml of propolis extract. The higher the volume of the propolis extract used, the higher the solubility of film in the water. The moisture content also will increase when higher volume of propolis extract used. Characterization of moisture content, solubility and antimicrobial activities revealed the benefits of adding propolis extract into chitosan films and the potential of using the developed film as active food packaging.

  14. Packaging Technology for SiC High Temperature Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.; Nakley, Leah M.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2017-01-01

    High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for long-term exploration of Venus and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500 C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and application of high temperature electronics and sensors in relevant environments. This talk will discuss a ceramic packaging system developed for high temperature electronics, and related testing results of SiC integrated circuits at 500 C facilitated by this high temperature packaging system, including the most recent progress.

  15. Bioactive packaging using antioxidant extracts for the prevention of microbial food-spoilage.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Diana; Gullón, Beatriz; Gullón, Patricia; Gomes, Ana; Tavaria, Freni

    2016-07-13

    Bioactive food packaging is an innovative approach for the prevention of the growth of food-spoilage microorganisms. Four active extracts from agroindustrial subproducts (Eucalyptus wood, almond shells, corn cobs and grape pomace) with demonstrated antioxidant activity have been investigated for bestowing antimicrobial activity to bioactive packaging. To carry out this evaluation, the antioxidant extracts were tested against five food pathogenic bacteria, namely, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. The results obtained showed that all the tested extracts inhibited the growth of all five pathogenic bacteria. From the analysis of the minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), the Eucalyptus wood extract was the most active, being necessary only 2% (v/v) to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus, whereas almond shells extract were less active requiring 4% (w/v) to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the extract from corn cobs was bactericidal against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus at a concentration of 4% (w/v). After checking their antimicrobial activity, the antioxidant extracts have been incorporated into sodium alginate films and the maintenance of their antimicrobial properties was confirmed. This work showed that the antioxidant extracts from agroindustrial byproducts exhibited antimicrobial activity and were suitable for incorporation into edible films that could be used in bioactive packaging systems.

  16. Improving IUE High Dispersion Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, Patricia J.; VanSteenberg, M. E.; Massa, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a different method to extract high dispersion International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra from the New Spectral Image Processing System (NEWSIPS) geometrically and photometrically corrected (SI HI) images of the echellogram. The new algorithm corrects many of the deficiencies that exist in the NEWSIPS high dispersion (SIHI) spectra . Specifically, it does a much better job of accounting for the overlap of the higher echelle orders, it eliminates a significant time dependency in the extracted spectra (which can be traced to the background model used in the NEWSIPS extractions), and it can extract spectra from echellogram images that are more highly distorted than the NEWSIPS extraction routines can handle. Together, these improvements yield a set of IUE high dispersion spectra whose scientific integrity is sign ificantly better than the NEWSIPS products. This work has been supported by NASA ADP grants.

  17. High voltage photo switch package module

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, James S; Sanders, David M; Hawkins, Steven A; Sampayan, Stephen E

    2014-02-18

    A photo-conductive switch package module having a photo-conductive substrate or wafer with opposing electrode-interface surfaces, and at least one light-input surface. First metallic layers are formed on the electrode-interface surfaces, and one or more optical waveguides having input and output ends are bonded to the substrate so that the output end of each waveguide is bonded to a corresponding one of the light-input surfaces of the photo-conductive substrate. This forms a waveguide-substrate interface for coupling light into the photo-conductive wafer. A dielectric material such as epoxy is then used to encapsulate the photo-conductive substrate and optical waveguide so that only the metallic layers and the input end of the optical waveguide are exposed. Second metallic layers are then formed on the first metallic layers so that the waveguide-substrate interface is positioned under the second metallic layers.

  18. Formaldehyde migration in aqueous extracts from paper and cardboard food packaging materials in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Canan Ekinci; Sancı, Rukiye

    2015-01-01

    Migration of formaldehyde to aqueous extracts from paper and cardboard food packaging materials was determined by an ultraviolet visible-spectrophotometric method at 410 nm. Intraday and interday precision of the method, expressed as coefficient of variation, varied between 1.5 to 4.4% and 7 to 8.8%, respectively. The limit of quantification was 0.28 mg kg(-1) for formaldehyde in aqueous extracts. The recovery of the method was over 90% for two different concentration levels in aqueous extracts. The method was applied to the migration of formaldehyde to aqueous extracts from 31 different paper and cardboard materials collected from the packaging sector, intended for food contact, such as tea filters, hot water filters, paper pouches and folding boxes. The results were between limit of detection 0.23 mg/kg and 40 mg kg(-1) and were evaluated according to the relevant directives.

  19. Ultra high speed image processing techniques. [electronic packaging techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, T.; Hoeschele, D. F.; Connery, R.; Ehland, J.; Billings, J.

    1981-01-01

    Packaging techniques for ultra high speed image processing were developed. These techniques involve the development of a signal feedthrough technique through LSI/VLSI sapphire substrates. This allows the stacking of LSI/VLSI circuit substrates in a 3 dimensional package with greatly reduced length of interconnecting lines between the LSI/VLSI circuits. The reduced parasitic capacitances results in higher LSI/VLSI computational speeds at significantly reduced power consumption levels.

  20. Packaging Technology Developed for High-Temperature Silicon Carbide Microsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.

    2001-01-01

    High-temperature electronics and sensors are necessary for harsh-environment space and aeronautical applications, such as sensors and electronics for space missions to the inner solar system, sensors for in situ combustion and emission monitoring, and electronics for combustion control for aeronautical and automotive engines. However, these devices cannot be used until they can be packaged in appropriate forms for specific applications. Suitable packaging technology for operation temperatures up to 500 C and beyond is not commercially available. Thus, the development of a systematic high-temperature packaging technology for SiC-based microsystems is essential for both in situ testing and commercializing high-temperature SiC sensors and electronics. In response to these needs, researchers at Glenn innovatively designed, fabricated, and assembled a new prototype electronic package for high-temperature electronic microsystems using ceramic substrates (aluminum nitride and aluminum oxide) and gold (Au) thick-film metallization. Packaging components include a ceramic packaging frame, thick-film metallization-based interconnection system, and a low electrical resistance SiC die-attachment scheme. Both the materials and fabrication process of the basic packaging components have been tested with an in-house-fabricated SiC semiconductor test chip in an oxidizing environment at temperatures from room temperature to 500 C for more than 1000 hr. These test results set lifetime records for both high-temperature electronic packaging and high-temperature electronic device testing. As required, the thick-film-based interconnection system demonstrated low (2.5 times of the room-temperature resistance of the Au conductor) and stable (decreased 3 percent in 1500 hr of continuous testing) electrical resistance at 500 C in an oxidizing environment. Also as required, the electrical isolation impedance between printed wires that were not electrically joined by a wire bond remained high

  1. Characterization and antimicrobial properties of food packaging methylcellulose films containing stem extract of Ginja cherry.

    PubMed

    Campos, Débora; Piccirillo, Clara; Pullar, Robert C; Castro, Paula Ml; Pintado, Maria M E

    2014-08-01

    Food contamination and spoilage is a problem causing growing concern. To avoid it, the use of food packaging with appropriate characteristics is essential; ideally, the packaging should protect food from external contamination and exhibit antibacterial properties. With this aim, methylcellulose (MC) films containing natural extracts from the stems of Ginja cherry, an agricultural by-product, were developed and characterized. The antibacterial activity of films was screened by the disc diffusion method and quantified using the viable cell count assay. The films inhibited the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains (Listeria innocua, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli). For the films with lower extract content, effectiveness against the microorganisms depended on the inoculum concentration. Scanning electron microscope images of the films showed that those containing the extracts had a smooth and continuous structure. UV-visible spectroscopy showed that these materials do not transmit light in the UV. This study shows that MC films containing agricultural by-products, in this case Ginja cherry stem extract, could be used to prevent food contamination by relevant bacterial strains and degradation by UV light. Using such materials in food packaging, the shelf life of food products could be extended while utilizing an otherwise wasted by-product. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. A Compilation of Metals and Trace Elements Extracted from Materials Relevant to Pharmaceutical Applications such as Packaging Systems and Devices.

    PubMed

    Jenke, Dennis; Rivera, Christine; Mortensen, Tammy; Amin, Parul; Chacko, Molly; Tran, Thang; Chum, James

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 100 individual test articles, representative of materials used in pharmaceutical applications such as packaging and devices, were extracted under exaggerated conditions and the levels of 32 metals and trace elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ge, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, V, Zn, and Zr) were measured in the extracts. The extracting solvents included aqueous mixtures at low and high pH and an organic solvent mixture (40/60 ethanol water). The sealed vessel extractions were performed by placing an appropriate portion of the test articles and an appropriate volume of extracting solution in inert extraction vessels and exposing the extraction units (and associated extraction blanks) to defined conditions of temperature and duration. The levels of extracted target elements were measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The overall reporting threshold for most of the targeted elements was 0.05 μg/mL, which corresponds to 0.5 μg/g for the most commonly utilized extraction stoichiometry (1 g of material per 10 mL of extracting solvent). The targeted elements could be classified into four major groups depending on the frequency with which they were present in the over 250 extractions reported in this study. Thirteen elements (Ag, As, Be, Cd, Co, Ge, Li, Mo, Ni, Sn, Ti, V, and Zr) were not extracted in reportable quantities from any of the test articles under any of the extraction conditions. Eight additional elements (Bi, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sb, Se, and Sr) were rarely extracted from the test articles at reportable levels, and three other elements (Ba, Fe, and P) were infrequently extracted from the test articles at reportable levels. The remaining eight elements (Al, B, Ca, Mg, Na, S, Si, and Zn) were more frequently present in the extracts in reportable quantities. These general trends in accumulation behavior were compared to compiled lists of elements of concern as impurities in

  3. Advanced Packaging Materials and Techniques for High Power TR Module: Standard Flight vs. Advanced Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Miller, Jennifer; Jenabi, Masud; Hunter, Donald; Birur, Gajanana

    2011-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires advances in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and compared to standard technologies.

  4. Development of an active food packaging system with antioxidant properties based on green tea extract.

    PubMed

    Carrizo, Daniel; Gullo, Giuseppe; Bosetti, Osvaldo; Nerín, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    A formula including green tea extract (GTE) was developed as an active food packaging material. This formula was moulded to obtain an independent component/device with antioxidant properties that could be easily coupled to industrial degassing valves for food packaging in special cases. GTE components (i.e., gallic acid, catechins and caffeine) were identified and quantified by HPLC-UV and UPLC-MS and migration/diffusion studies were carried out. Antioxidant properties of the formula alone and formula-valve were measured with static and dynamic methods. The results showed that the antioxidant capacity (scavenging of free radicals) of the new GTE formula was 40% higher than the non-active system (blank). This antioxidant activity increased in parallel with the GTE concentration. The functional properties of the industrial target valve (e.g., flexibility) were studied for different mixtures of GTE, and good results were found with 17% (w/w) of GTE. This new active formula can be an important addition for active packaging applications in the food packaging industry, with oxidative species-scavenging capacity, thus improving the safety and quality for the consumer and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food.

  5. High resolution X-ray CT for advanced electronics packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppermann, M.; Zerna, T.

    2017-02-01

    Advanced electronics packaging is a challenge for non-destructive Testing (NDT). More, smaller and mostly hidden interconnects dominate modern electronics components and systems. To solve the demands of customers to get products with a high functionality by low volume, weight and price (e.g. mobile phones, personal medical monitoring systems) often the designers use System-in-Package solutions (SiP). The non-destructive testing of such devices is a big challenge. So our paper will impart fundamentals and applications for non-destructive evaluation of inner structures of electronics packaging for quality assurance and reliability investigations with a focus on X-ray methods, especially on high resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT).

  6. Development of tea extracts and chitosan composite films for active packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yong; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei

    2013-08-01

    The effects of 0.5%, 1% and 2% green tea extracts (GTE) and black tea extracts (BTE) on the physical, structural and antioxidant properties of chitosan films were investigated. Results showed that the addition of tea extracts significantly decreased water vapour permeability and increased the antioxidant ability of films. The DPPH radical scavenging ability of GTE films was stronger than that of BTE films in all food simulants (0%, 20%, 75% and 95% ethanol). The equilibration time in different food simulants decreased with the increased ethanol concentration. DSC and FTIR spectra analysis indicated that there was strong interaction in film matrix, which could be reflected by the physical and mechanical properties of composite films. This study revealed that an active chitosan film could be obtained by incorporation of tea extracts, which may provide new formulation options for developing an antioxidant active packaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development and characterization of carrageenan/grapefruit seed extract composite films for active packaging.

    PubMed

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-07-01

    Carrageenan-based antimicrobial films were developed by incorporation of grape fruit seed extract (GSE) at different concentration into the polymer using a solvent casing method and their physical, mechanical, and antimicrobial properties were examined. The carrageenan/GSE composite films appeared yellowish tint due to the polyphenolic compounds in the GSE. SEM analysis showed rough surface with sponge like structures on the cross section of the films. FT-IR results indicated at GSE had good compatibility with carrageenan. The amorphous structure of polymer films was not changed by the incorporation of GSE. But, the addition of GSE increased moisture content, water vapor permeability, and surface hydrophilicity of the films. The tensile strength and elastic modulus decreased with increasing content of GSE, however, the elongation at break increased significantly up to 6.6μg/mL of GSE then decreased thereafter. Thermal stability of the films was not influenced by GSE incorporation. The carrageenan/GSE composite films exhibited great antibacterial activity against food borne pathogens. These results suggest that the carrageenan-based composite films have a high potential for being used as an antimicrobial or active food packaging applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Telescoping Solar Array Concept for Achieving High Packaging Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin; Pappa, Richard; Warren, Jay; Rose, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight, high-efficiency solar arrays are required for future deep space missions using high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). Structural performance metrics for state-of-the art 30-50 kW flexible blanket arrays recently demonstrated in ground tests are approximately 40 kW/cu m packaging efficiency, 150 W/kg specific power, 0.1 Hz deployed stiffness, and 0.2 g deployed strength. Much larger arrays with up to a megawatt or more of power and improved packaging and specific power are of interest to mission planners for minimizing launch and life cycle costs of Mars exploration. A new concept referred to as the Compact Telescoping Array (CTA) with 60 kW/cu m packaging efficiency at 1 MW of power is described herein. Performance metrics as a function of array size and corresponding power level are derived analytically and validated by finite element analysis. Feasible CTA packaging and deployment approaches are also described. The CTA was developed, in part, to serve as a NASA reference solar array concept against which other proposed designs of 50-1000 kW arrays for future high-power SEP missions could be compared.

  9. Reliability of high I/O high density CCGA interconnect electronic packages under extreme thermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2012-03-01

    Ceramic column grid array (CCGA) packages have been increasing in use based on their advantages such as high interconnect density, very good thermal and electrical performances, compatibility with standard surfacemount packaging assembly processes, and so on. CCGA packages are used in space applications such as in logic and microprocessor functions, telecommunications, payload electronics, and flight avionics. As these packages tend to have less solder joint strain relief than leaded packages or more strain relief over lead-less chip carrier packages, the reliability of CCGA packages is very important for short-term and long-term deep space missions. We have employed high density CCGA 1152 and 1272 daisy chained electronic packages in this preliminary reliability study. Each package is divided into several daisy-chained sections. The physical dimensions of CCGA1152 package is 35 mm x 35 mm with a 34 x 34 array of columns with a 1 mm pitch. The dimension of the CCGA1272 package is 37.5 mm x 37.5 mm with a 36 x 36 array with a 1 mm pitch. The columns are made up of 80% Pb/20%Sn material. CCGA interconnect electronic package printed wiring polyimide boards have been assembled and inspected using non-destructive x-ray imaging techniques. The assembled CCGA boards were subjected to extreme temperature thermal atmospheric cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space missions. The resistance of daisy-chained interconnect sections were monitored continuously during thermal cycling. This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non-destructive inspection tools were used to assess the reliability of high density CCGA packages for deep space extreme temperature missions.

  10. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity studies on migration extracts from nanocomposites with potential use in food packaging.

    PubMed

    Maisanaba, Sara; Pichardo, Silvia; Jordá-Beneyto, María; Aucejo, Susana; Cameán, Ana M; Jos, Ángeles

    2014-04-01

    Clays are used in the food packaging industry to obtain nanocomposites. The use of these new materials is a concern, because they could reach consumers by oral exposure through possible migration, and potential toxic effects could be derived. In the present study, several in vitro basal cytotoxicity and mutagenicity tests on migration extracts obtained from a nanocomposite material with poly (lactic) acid (PLA) and two modified clays, Clay1 and Clay2, are shown. Migration extracts in distilled water showed values of 0.1 ± 0.2mg/dm(2) in all samples. Also, the content of characteristic metals of the clays structure (Al, Ca, Mg, Fe, Si) was studied and no statistical differences were observed. For the cytotoxicity assays, the human intestinal Caco-2 and human liver HepG2 cells were selected. Cells were exposed to concentrations between 2.5% and 100% extracts determining three different biomarkers of cellular viability. No significant differences were observed in the cytotoxicity assays. Finally, mutagenicity was evaluated by the Ames test and resulted in the absence of mutagenic response at all the concentrations assayed. Taking in account all above mentioned, these new materials show a good profile for their use in food packaging although further research is still needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Materials for High-Density Electronic Packaging and Interconnection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-10

    play a prominent role in the future. Glass and Porcelain The earliest use of electronic ceramics was as insulators for carrying telegraph lines...Administration 61L & CORES , (Ot. stem. SAI WCJm 76. LOISS (C". SUMt *oW WVCf B’%2101 Constitution Avenue. N W Washington, D.C. 20418 Washington. D.C. 20301 G...Density Packaging 84 Tape Automated Bonding 87 Diamond 88 Superconductors 88 Composites 89 Materials for Very-High-Frequency Digital Systems 91

  12. Evaluation of films for packaging applications in high pressure processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Largeteau, A.; Angulo, I.; Coulet, J. P.; Demazeau, G.

    2010-03-01

    Food treatments implying high pressures used pre-packaging systems; consequently it appeared necessary to validate different packaging films able to be used in such processes. Two different packaging films from AMCOR FLEXIBLES have been evaluated: VIROFLEXAL: BOLSA 80 MICRAS, coextrusion PA/PE (20/60μm) RILTHENE: SEMI 20/60 MICRAS, laminate PA/PE (20/60μm) Three different physico-chemical characterizations have been developed for the evaluation of films behaviour after High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP): (i) Mechanical properties (tensile strength and sealing strength), (ii) Oxygen permeability, (iii) Migration, through the contact with four food simulating liquids FSLs (water, acetic acid 3%, ethyl alcohol 10%, iso-octane). Two different pressures values (P = 400MPa and 500MPa) have been tested, with a duration of 15 min, at ambient temperature (+20°C) and only one pressure (P = 200MPa) for the experiments at low temperature (T = -20°C) with the same duration (15min). The selection of such values can be justified taking into account that experimental conditions as a temperature close to +20°C and a pressure between 400 and 500MPa are appropriated to inactivate bacteria and different others micro-organisms. Due to the efficiency of the association of hydrostatic pressure processing and low temperature (HHP/LT) [1, 2], the same films have been tested under high pressure processing (200MPa) but at negative temperature (-20°C).

  13. Reliability of High I/O High Density CCGA Interconnect Electronic Packages under Extreme Thermal Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non-destructive inspection tools were used to assess the reliability of high density CCGA packages for deep space extreme temperature missions. Ceramic column grid array (CCGA) packages have been increasing in use based on their advantages such as high interconnect density, very good thermal and electrical performances, compatibility with standard surface-mount packaging assembly processes, and so on. CCGA packages are used in space applications such as in logic and microprocessor functions, telecommunications, payload electronics, and flight avionics. As these packages tend to have less solder joint strain relief than leaded packages or more strain relief over lead-less chip carrier packages, the reliability of CCGA packages is very important for short-term and long-term deep space missions. We have employed high density CCGA 1152 and 1272 daisy chained electronic packages in this preliminary reliability study. Each package is divided into several daisy-chained sections. The physical dimensions of CCGA1152 package is 35 mm x 35 mm with a 34 x 34 array of columns with a 1 mm pitch. The dimension of the CCGA1272 package is 37.5 mm x 37.5 mm with a 36 x 36 array with a 1 mm pitch. The columns are made up of 80% Pb/20%Sn material. CCGA interconnect electronic package printed wiring polyimide boards have been assembled and inspected using non-destructive x-ray imaging techniques. The assembled CCGA boards were subjected to extreme temperature thermal atmospheric cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space missions. The resistance of daisy-chained interconnect sections were monitored continuously during thermal cycling. This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non

  14. Effect of an active packaging with citrus extract on lipid oxidation and sensory quality of cooked turkey meat.

    PubMed

    Contini, Claudia; Álvarez, Rocío; O'Sullivan, Michael; Dowling, Denis P; Gargan, Sean Óg; Monahan, Frank J

    2014-03-01

    An antioxidant active packaging was prepared by coating a citrus extract, consisting of a mixture of carboxylic acids and flavanones, on polyethylene terephthalate trays. The effect of the packaging in reducing lipid oxidation in cooked turkey meat and on meat pH, colour characteristics and sensorial parameters was investigated. An untrained sensory panel evaluated the odour, taste, tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptability of the meat, using triangle, paired preference and quantitative response scale tests. A comparison between the antioxidant effects of the different components of the extract was also carried out. The packaging led to a significant reduction in lipid oxidation. After 2 days of refrigerated storage the sensory panel detected differences in odour and, after 4 days, rated the meat stored in the active packaging higher for tenderness and overall acceptability. Citric acid appeared to be the most important component of the extract with regard to its antioxidant potency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Defect printability for high-exposure dose advanced packaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikles, Max; Flack, Warren; Nguyen, Ha-Ai; Schurz, Dan

    2003-12-01

    Pellicles are used in semiconductor lithography to minimize printable defects and reduce reticle cleaning frequency. However, there are a growing number of microlithography applications, such as advanced packaging and nanotechnology, where it is not clear that pellicles always offer a significant benefit. These applications have relatively large critical dimensions and require ultra thick photoresists with extremely high exposure doses. Given that the lithography is performed in Class 100 cleanroom conditions, it is possible that the risk of defects from contamination is sufficiently low that pellicles would not be required on certain process layer reticles. The elimination of the pellicle requirement would provide a cost reduction by saving the original pellicle cost and eliminating future pellicle replacement and repair costs. This study examines the imaging potential of defects with reticle patterns and processes typical for gold-bump and solder-bump advanced packaging lithography. The test reticle consists of 30 to 90 μm octagonal contact patterns representative of advanced packaging reticles. Programmed defects are added that represent the range of particle sizes (3 to 30 μm) normally protected by the pellicle and that are typical of advanced packaging lithography cleanrooms. The reticle is exposed using an Ultratech Saturn Spectrum 300e2 1X stepper on wafers coated with a variety of ultra thick (30 to 100 μm) positive and negative-acting photoresists commonly used in advanced packaging. The experimental results show that in many cases smaller particles continue to be yield issues for the feature size and density typical of advanced packaging processes. For the two negative photoresists studied it appears that a pellicle is not required for protection from defects smaller than 10 to 15 μm depending on the photoresist thickness. Thus the decision on pellicle usage for these materials would need to be made based on the device fabrication process and the

  16. High recall document content extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Chang; Baird, Henry S.

    2011-01-01

    We report methodologies for computing high-recall masks for document image content extraction, that is, the location and segmentation of regions containing handwriting, machine-printed text, photographs, blank space, etc. The resulting segmentation is pixel-accurate, which accommodates arbitrary zone shapes (not merely rectangles). We describe experiments showing that iterated classifiers can increase recall of all content types, with little loss of precision. We also introduce two methodological enhancements: (1) a multi-stage voting rule; and (2) a scoring policy that views blank pixels as a "don't care" class with other content classes. These enhancements improve both recall and precision, achieving at least 89% recall and at least 87% precision among three content types: machine-print, handwriting, and photo.

  17. A compilation of safety impact information for extractables associated with materials used in pharmaceutical packaging, delivery, administration, and manufacturing systems.

    PubMed

    Jenke, Dennis; Carlson, Tage

    2014-01-01

    Demonstrating suitability for intended use is necessary to register packaging, delivery/administration, or manufacturing systems for pharmaceutical products. During their use, such systems may interact with the pharmaceutical product, potentially adding extraneous entities to those products. These extraneous entities, termed leachables, have the potential to affect the product's performance and/or safety. To establish the potential safety impact, drug products and their packaging, delivery, or manufacturing systems are tested for leachables or extractables, respectively. This generally involves testing a sample (either the extract or the drug product) by a means that produces a test method response and then correlating the test method response with the identity and concentration of the entity causing the response. Oftentimes, analytical tests produce responses that cannot readily establish the associated entity's identity. Entities associated with un-interpretable responses are termed unknowns. Scientifically justifiable thresholds are used to establish those individual unknowns that represent an acceptable patient safety risk and thus which do not require further identification and, conversely, those unknowns whose potential safety impact require that they be identified. Such thresholds are typically based on the statistical analysis of datasets containing toxicological information for more or less relevant compounds. This article documents toxicological information for over 540 extractables identified in laboratory testing of polymeric materials used in pharmaceutical applications. Relevant toxicological endpoints, such as NOELs (no observed effects), NOAELs (no adverse effects), TDLOs (lowest published toxic dose), and others were collated for these extractables or their structurally similar surrogates and were systematically assessed to produce a risk index, which represents a daily intake value for life-long intravenous administration. This systematic approach

  18. GERMINATOR: a software package for high-throughput scoring and curve fitting of Arabidopsis seed germination.

    PubMed

    Joosen, Ronny V L; Kodde, Jan; Willems, Leo A J; Ligterink, Wilco; van der Plas, Linus H W; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2010-04-01

    Over the past few decades seed physiology research has contributed to many important scientific discoveries and has provided valuable tools for the production of high quality seeds. An important instrument for this type of research is the accurate quantification of germination; however gathering cumulative germination data is a very laborious task that is often prohibitive to the execution of large experiments. In this paper we present the germinator package: a simple, highly cost-efficient and flexible procedure for high-throughput automatic scoring and evaluation of germination that can be implemented without the use of complex robotics. The germinator package contains three modules: (i) design of experimental setup with various options to replicate and randomize samples; (ii) automatic scoring of germination based on the color contrast between the protruding radicle and seed coat on a single image; and (iii) curve fitting of cumulative germination data and the extraction, recap and visualization of the various germination parameters. The curve-fitting module enables analysis of general cumulative germination data and can be used for all plant species. We show that the automatic scoring system works for Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica spp. seeds, but is likely to be applicable to other species, as well. In this paper we show the accuracy, reproducibility and flexibility of the germinator package. We have successfully applied it to evaluate natural variation for salt tolerance in a large population of recombinant inbred lines and were able to identify several quantitative trait loci for salt tolerance. Germinator is a low-cost package that allows the monitoring of several thousands of germination tests, several times a day by a single person.

  19. Functional chitosan-based grapefruit seed extract composite films for applications in food packaging technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Y.M.; Lim, S.H.; Tay, B.Y.

    Highlights: • Chitosan-based grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) films were solution casted. • GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. • All chitosan-based composite films showed remarkable transparency. • Increasing amounts of GFSE incorporated increased the elongation at break of films. • Chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth. - Abstract: Chitosan-based composite films with different amounts of grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v) were fabricated via solution casting technique. Experimental results showed that GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. The presence of GFSE made the films more amorphous andmore » tensile strength decreased, while elongation at break values increased as GFSE content increased. Results from the measurement of light transmission revealed that increasing amounts of GFSE (from 0.5 to 1.5% v/v) did not affect transparency of the films. Furthermore, packaging of bread samples with chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth as compared to control samples. Hence, chitosan-based GFSE composite films have the potential to be a useful material in the area of food technology.« less

  20. Co-concentration effect of silane with natural extract on biodegradable polymeric films for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Anbreen; Jabeen, Sehrish; Gull, Nafisa; Islam, Atif; Sultan, Misbah; Ghaffar, Abdul; Khan, Shahzad Maqsood; Iqbal, Sadia Sagar; Jamil, Tahir

    2018-01-01

    Novel biodegradable films were prepared by blending guar gum, chitosan and poly (vinyl alcohol) having mint (ME) and grapefruit peel (GE) extracts and crosslinked with nontoxic tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). The co-concentration effect of TEOS with natural extracts on the films was studied. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of incorporated components and the developed interactions among the polymer chains. The surface morphology of the films by SEM showed the hydrophilic character due to porous network structure. The films having both ME and GE with maximum amount of crosslinker (100μL), showed maximum swelling (58g/g) and stability while the optical properties showed increased protection against UV light. This film sample showed compact network structure which enhanced the ultimate tensile strength (40.03MPa) and elongation at break (104.8%). ME/GE conferred the antioxidant properties determined by radical scavenging activity and total phenolic contents (TPC) as ME films have greater TPC compared to GE films. The soil burial test exhibited the degradation of films rapidly (6days) confirming their strong microbial activity in soil. The lower water vapour transmission rate and water vapour permeability showed better shelf life; hence, these biodegradable films are environmental friendly and have potential for food and other packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of magnetic micro-solid phase extraction for analysis of phthalate esters in packaged food.

    PubMed

    Makkliang, Fonthip; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Thavarungkul, Panote; Thammakhet, Chongdee

    2015-01-01

    A novel, simple and low cost magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes-poly (vinyl alcohol) cryogel-micro-solid phase extraction (magnetic-MWCNTs-PVA cryogel-μ-SPE) sorbent was synthesized by incorporating magnetic particles and MWCNTs into a PVA cryogel. The magnetic-MWCNTs-PVA cryogel-μ-SPE sorbent developed, with a large surface area and macro-porous structure, provided good sorbent-to-sorbent reproducibility (%RSD<8) and each sorbent could be used up to 30 times (%RSD<6). This sorbent was applied for the extraction of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-(ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in packaged food prior to analysis by gas chromatograph coupled with flame ionisation detector (GC-FID). The concentration of DBP and DEHP in hot-water samples from plastic bags were found in the range 0.04-0.15 μg mL(-1) and 0.03-0.20 μg mL(-1), respectively, but only DEHP was found in clear chicken soup samples in the range 0.02-0.07 μg mL(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High Temperature Pt/Alumina Co-Fired System for 500 C Electronic Packaging Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Gold thick-film metallization and 96 alumina substrate based prototype packaging system developed for 500C SiC electronics and sensors is briefly reviewed, the needs of improvement are discussed. A high temperature co-fired alumina material system based packaging system composed of 32-pin chip-level package and printed circuit board is discussed for packaging 500C SiC electronics and sensors.

  3. High coherence plane breaking packaging for superconducting qubits.

    PubMed

    Bronn, Nicholas T; Adiga, Vivekananda P; Olivadese, Salvatore B; Wu, Xian; Chow, Jerry M; Pappas, David P

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate a pogo pin package for a superconducting quantum processor specifically designed with a nontrivial layout topology (e.g., a center qubit that cannot be accessed from the sides of the chip). Two experiments on two nominally identical superconducting quantum processors in pogo packages, which use commercially available parts and require modest machining tolerances, are performed at low temperature (10 mK) in a dilution refrigerator and both found to behave comparably to processors in standard planar packages with wirebonds where control and readout signals come in from the edges. Single- and two-qubit gate errors are also characterized via randomized benchmarking, exhibiting similar error rates as in standard packages, opening the possibility of integrating pogo pin packaging with extensible qubit architectures.

  4. High coherence plane breaking packaging for superconducting qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronn, Nicholas T.; Adiga, Vivekananda P.; Olivadese, Salvatore B.; Wu, Xian; Chow, Jerry M.; Pappas, David P.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate a pogo pin package for a superconducting quantum processor specifically designed with a nontrivial layout topology (e.g., a center qubit that cannot be accessed from the sides of the chip). Two experiments on two nominally identical superconducting quantum processors in pogo packages, which use commercially available parts and require modest machining tolerances, are performed at low temperature (10 mK) in a dilution refrigerator and both found to behave comparably to processors in standard planar packages with wirebonds where control and readout signals come in from the edges. Single- and two-qubit gate errors are also characterized via randomized benchmarking, exhibiting similar error rates as in standard packages, opening the possibility of integrating pogo pin packaging with extensible qubit architectures.

  5. Antioxidant Extracts from Acorns (Quercus ilex L.) Effectively Protect Ready-to-Eat (RTE) Chicken Patties Irrespective of Packaging Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Valquíria C S; Morcuende, David; Hérnandez-López, Silvia H; Madruga, Marta S; Silva, Fábio A P; Estévez, Mario

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a phenolic-rich acorn extract (200 ppm gallic acid equivalents) and the concentration of oxygen in the packaging system (low-oxygen modified atmosphere; 5% vs. normal-oxygen; 21%) on lipid and protein oxidation and consumers acceptance of the ready-to-eat chicken patties. Samples were subjected to cooking (electric oven, 170 °C/16 min), cold storage (14 d at 4 °C), and reheating (microwave, 600 mW/1 min). Samples treated with acorn extract kept thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances numbers and lipid-derived volatiles at basal levels throughout the whole processing irrespective of the oxygen concentration in the packaging atmosphere. Consistently, treated patties had lower protein carbonyls than control ones. The acorn extract also controlled color and texture deterioration during chilled storage and reheating and improved the color and odor acceptance of the products. Formulating with acorn extract is a feasible strategy to inhibit the oxidation-driven changes and preserve the quality of reheated samples as if there were freshly cooked. Compared to the effect of the antioxidant extract, the concentration of oxygen in the packaging system was negligible in terms of quality preservation. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Instrument Packages for the Cold, Dark, High Radiation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Yeh, P. S.; Beamna, B.; Brigham, D.; Feng, S.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing a small cold temperature instrument package concept that integrates a cold temperature power system and radhard ultra low temperature ultra low power electronics components and power supplies now under development into a cold temperature surface operational version of a planetary surface instrument package. We are already in the process of developing a lower power lower tem-perature version for an instrument of mutual interest to SMD and ESMD to support the search for volatiles (the mass spectrometer VAPoR, Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith) both as a stand alone instrument and as part of an environmental monitoring package.

  7. Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Mint Extract and their Application in Chitosan/Gelatin Composite Packaging Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoir, Shraddha A.; Chawla, S. P.

    The present study reports synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using mint extract (ME) in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as capping material. PVA, ME and silver nitrate at concentration of 1%, 0.01% and 0.02%, respectively were found to be optimum for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by measuring surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak. The intensity of SPR peak remained unaltered thus suggesting stability of colloid without aggregation during storage. The nanoparticles inhibited the growth of food borne bacteria namely Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus. The incorporation of these nanoparticles in chitosan and gelatin blend resulted in homogenous films. Mechanical properties and water vapor transmission rate of chitosan-gelatin films improved due to addition of AgNPs, whereas optical (opacity and UV light transmittance) and oxygen permeability properties remained unchanged. These films had the ability to inhibit growth of 5 log CFU of the above test organisms. These findings suggest that the AgNPs obtained by reduction of silver by ME can be effectively utilized to prepare antibacterial eco-friendly food packaging material.

  8. Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2008-06-30

    The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000more » hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology was

  9. Application of a puffer fish skin gelatin film containing Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract to the packaging of Gouda cheese.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ka-Yeon; Yang, Hyun-Ju; Song, Kyung Bin

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to develop a puffer fish skin gelatin (PSG) film that contains Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract (ME) as a new biodegradable film. With the increase in ME concentration, the tensile strength and elongation at break of the PSG film increased, whereas the oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability decreased. In addition, the PSG film with ME exhibited antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and antioxidant activity. To apply the ME-containing PSG film to food packaging, Gouda cheese was wrapped with the ME-containing PSG film. During storage, the cheese packaging with the ME-containing PSG film effectively inhibited the microbial growth and retarded the lipid oxidation of cheese compared with the control sample. Thus, the ME-containing PSG film can be used as an antimicrobial and antioxidative packaging material to improve the quality of food products.

  10. Synergistic effect of spice extracts and modified atmospheric packaging towards non-thermal preservation of chicken meat under refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Sivarajan, M; Lalithapriya, U; Mariajenita, Peter; Vajiha, B Aafrin; Harini, K; Madhushalini, D; Sukumar, M

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the integrated approach of spice extracts and modified atmospheric packaging (MAP) chicken meat preservation. Specifically, extracts from clove (CL), cinnamon (CI) individually and in combination (3% w/w) along with MAP (30% CO2/70% N2 and 10% O2/30% CO2/60% N2) were used to increase the shelf life of fresh chicken meat stored at 4°C. The parameters evaluated as shelf life indications are microbiological (total viable count, Pseudomonas spp., lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and Enterobacteriaceae), physicochemical (pH, Lipid oxidation, color changes) and Sensory attributes. Microbial population were reduced by 2.5 to 5 log cfu/g, with the greater impact being accomplished by the blend of clove and cinnamon extract with 30% CO2/70% N2 MAP. Thiobarbituric values for all treated and MAP packed samples remained lower than 1 mg malondialdehyde (MDA)/kg all through the 24 day storage period. pH values varied from 5.5 for fresh sample on day 0 to 7.11 (day 25) on combined extract treated and MAP packaged samples. The estimations of the color parameters L*, a*, and b* were well maintained in oxygen deficient MAP. Finally, sensory investigation demonstrated that combined clove and cinnamon extract of 3% conferred acceptable sensory attributes to the samples on day 24 of storage. These results indicate the extended shelf life of chicken meat from 4 days to 24 days for samples when coated with 3% of combined clove and cinnamon extract and packaged under MAP without oxygen. These pooled extracts along with MAP displayed expanded the usability and the organoleptic qualities of chicken meat. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Phosphor chessboard packaging for white LEDs in high efficiency and high color performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Khoi; Chang, Yu-Yu; Lu, Chun-Yan; Yang, Tsung-Hsun; Chung, Te-Yuan; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2016-09-01

    We performed the simulation of white LEDs packaging with different chessboard structures of white light converting phosphor layer covered on GaN die chip. Three different types of chessboard structures are called type 1, type 2 and type 3, respectively. The result of investigation according to the phosphor thickness show the increasing of thickness of phosphor layer are, the decreasing of output blue light power are. Meanwhile, the changes of yellow light are neglect. Type 3 shows highest packaging efficiency of 74.3 % compares with packaging efficiency of type 2 and type 1 (72.5 % and 71.3 %, respectively). Type 3 also shows the most effect of forward light. Attention that the type 3 chessboard structure gets packaging efficiency of 74.3 % at color temperature of daylight as well as high saving of phosphor amount. The color temperatures of three types of chessboard structure are higher than 5000 K, so they are suitable for lighting purpose. The angular correlate color temperature deviation (ACCTD) of type 1, type 2 and type 3 are 6500K, 11500K and 17000K, respectively.

  12. Standard high-reliability integrated circuit logic packaging. [for deep space tracking stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaughter, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    A family of standard, high-reliability hardware used for packaging digital integrated circuits is described. The design transition from early prototypes to production hardware is covered and future plans are discussed. Interconnections techniques are described as well as connectors and related hardware available at both the microcircuit packaging and main-frame level. General applications information is also provided.

  13. AIN-Based Packaging for SiC High-Temperature Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savrun, Ender

    2004-01-01

    Packaging made primarily of aluminum nitride has been developed to enclose silicon carbide-based integrated circuits (ICs), including circuits containing SiC-based power diodes, that are capable of operation under conditions more severe than can be withstood by silicon-based integrated circuits. A major objective of this development was to enable packaged SiC electronic circuits to operate continuously at temperatures up to 500 C. AlN-packaged SiC electronic circuits have commercial potential for incorporation into high-power electronic equipment and into sensors that must withstand high temperatures and/or high pressures in diverse applications that include exploration in outer space, well logging, and monitoring of nuclear power systems. This packaging embodies concepts drawn from flip-chip packaging of silicon-based integrated circuits. One or more SiC-based circuit chips are mounted on an aluminum nitride package substrate or sandwiched between two such substrates. Intimate electrical connections between metal conductors on the chip(s) and the metal conductors on external circuits are made by direct bonding to interconnections on the package substrate(s) and/or by use of holes through the package substrate(s). This approach eliminates the need for wire bonds, which have been the most vulnerable links in conventional electronic circuitry in hostile environments. Moreover, the elimination of wire bonds makes it possible to pack chips more densely than was previously possible.

  14. Development of new antioxidant active packaging films based on ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) and green tea extract.

    PubMed

    Lopez de Dicastillo, Carol; Nerin, Cristina; Alfaro, Pilar; Catala, Ramon; Gavara, Rafael; Hernandez-Munoz, Pilar

    2011-07-27

    Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) films containing green tea extract were successfully produced by extrusion. The films were brown and translucent, and the addition of the extract increased the water and oxygen barrier at low relative humidity but increased the water sensitivity, the glass transition temperature, and the crystallinity of the films and improved their thermal resistance. An analysis by HPLC revealed that the antioxidant components of the extract suffered partial degradation during extrusion, reducing the content of catechin gallates and increasing the concentration of free gallic acid. Exposure of the films to various food simulants showed that the liquid simulants increased their capacity to reduce DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+) radicals. The release of green tea extract components into the simulant monitored by HPLC showed that all compounds present in the green tea extract were partially released, although the extent and kinetics of release were dependent on the type of food. In aqueous food simulants, gallic acid was the main antioxidant component released with partition coefficient values ca. 200. In 95% ethanol (fatty food simulant) the K value for gallic acid decreased to 8 and there was a substantial contribution of catechins (K in the 1000 range) to a greatly increased antioxidant efficiency. Kinetically, gallic acid was released more quickly than catechins, owing to its faster diffusivity in the polymer matrix as a consequence of its smaller molecular size, although the most relevant effect is the plasticization of the matrix by alcohol, increasing the diffusion coefficient >10-fold. Therefore, the materials here developed with the combination of antioxidant substances that constitute the green tea extract could be used in the design of antioxidant active packaging for all type of foods, from aqueous to fatty products, the compounds responsible for the protection being those with the higher compatibility with the packaged product.

  15. Materials for high-density electronic packaging and interconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Electronic packaging and interconnections are the elements that today limit the ultimate performance of advanced electronic systems. Materials in use today and those becoming available are critically examined to ascertain what actions are needed for U.S. industry to compete favorably in the world market for advanced electronics. Materials and processes are discussed in terms of the final properties achievable and systems design compatibility. Weak points in the domestic industrial capability, including technical, industrial philosophy, and political, are identified. Recommendations are presented for actions that could help U.S. industry regain its former leadership position in advanced semiconductor systems production.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of several herb and spice extracts in culture medium and in vacuum-packaged pork.

    PubMed

    Kong, Baohua; Wang, Jinzhi; Xiong, Youling L

    2007-03-01

    Extracts prepared from honeysuckle, Scutellaria, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb), cinnamon, and rosemary with 75% ethanol and from clove oil dissolved in 75% ethanol were applied to inoculated agar media to observe their inhibitory effects on the growth of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Lactobacillus plantarum. All the extracts suppressed the growth of these bacteria; Scutellaria exhibited the strongest effect against E. coli. An orthogonal test revealed that the most effective antimicrobial composite extracts were equal-volume mixtures of 0.125 g/ml Scutellaria + 0.5 g/ml honeysuckle + 0.125 g/ml Forsythia + 0.25 g/ml cinnamon and 0.25 g/ml cinnamon + 0.125 g/ml rosemary + 0.25% clove oil. These mixed extracts also produced strong antimicrobial effects in vacuum-packaged fresh pork, with 1.81- to 2.32-log reductions in microbial counts compared with the control when stored for up to 28 days. The sensory panel detected minimal differences in surface color and off-odors between meat samples treated with herb-spice extracts and the control. These results indicate that combined herb and spice extracts can be used as natural antimicrobials for food preservation.

  17. Electrical Performance of a High Temperature 32-I/O HTCC Alumina Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    A high temperature co-fired ceramic (HTCC) alumina material was previously electrically tested at temperatures up to 550 C, and demonstrated improved dielectric performance at high temperatures compared with the 96% alumina substrate that we used before, suggesting its potential use for high temperature packaging applications. This paper introduces a prototype 32-I/O (input/output) HTCC alumina package with platinum conductor for 500 C low-power silicon carbide (SiC) integrated circuits. The design and electrical performance of this package including parasitic capacitance and parallel conductance of neighboring I/Os from 100 Hz to 1 MHz in a temperature range from room temperature to 550 C are discussed in detail. The parasitic capacitance and parallel conductance of this package in the entire frequency and temperature ranges measured does not exceed 1.5 pF and 0.05 microsiemens, respectively. SiC integrated circuits using this package and compatible printed circuit board have been successfully tested at 500 C for over 3736 hours continuously, and at 700 C for over 140 hours. Some test examples of SiC integrated circuits with this packaging system are presented. This package is the key to prolonged T greater than or equal to 500 C operational testing of the new generation of SiC high temperature integrated circuits and other devices currently under development at NASA Glenn Research Center.

  18. Standard semiconductor packaging for high-reliability low-cost MEMS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harney, Kieran P.

    2005-01-01

    Microelectronic packaging technology has evolved over the years in response to the needs of IC technology. The fundamental purpose of the package is to provide protection for the silicon chip and to provide electrical connection to the circuit board. Major change has been witnessed in packaging and today wafer level packaging technology has further revolutionized the industry. MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technology has created new challenges for packaging that do not exist in standard ICs. However, the fundamental objective of MEMS packaging is the same as traditional ICs, the low cost and reliable presentation of the MEMS chip to the next level interconnect. Inertial MEMS is one of the best examples of the successful commercialization of MEMS technology. The adoption of MEMS accelerometers for automotive airbag applications has created a high volume market that demands the highest reliability at low cost. The suppliers to these markets have responded by exploiting standard semiconductor packaging infrastructures. However, there are special packaging needs for MEMS that cannot be ignored. New applications for inertial MEMS devices are emerging in the consumer space that adds the imperative of small size to the need for reliability and low cost. These trends are not unique to MEMS accelerometers. For any MEMS technology to be successful the packaging must provide the basic reliability and interconnection functions, adding the least possible cost to the product. This paper will discuss the evolution of MEMS packaging in the accelerometer industry and identify the main issues that needed to be addressed to enable the successful commercialization of the technology in the automotive and consumer markets.

  19. Standard semiconductor packaging for high-reliability low-cost MEMS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harney, Kieran P.

    2004-12-01

    Microelectronic packaging technology has evolved over the years in response to the needs of IC technology. The fundamental purpose of the package is to provide protection for the silicon chip and to provide electrical connection to the circuit board. Major change has been witnessed in packaging and today wafer level packaging technology has further revolutionized the industry. MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technology has created new challenges for packaging that do not exist in standard ICs. However, the fundamental objective of MEMS packaging is the same as traditional ICs, the low cost and reliable presentation of the MEMS chip to the next level interconnect. Inertial MEMS is one of the best examples of the successful commercialization of MEMS technology. The adoption of MEMS accelerometers for automotive airbag applications has created a high volume market that demands the highest reliability at low cost. The suppliers to these markets have responded by exploiting standard semiconductor packaging infrastructures. However, there are special packaging needs for MEMS that cannot be ignored. New applications for inertial MEMS devices are emerging in the consumer space that adds the imperative of small size to the need for reliability and low cost. These trends are not unique to MEMS accelerometers. For any MEMS technology to be successful the packaging must provide the basic reliability and interconnection functions, adding the least possible cost to the product. This paper will discuss the evolution of MEMS packaging in the accelerometer industry and identify the main issues that needed to be addressed to enable the successful commercialization of the technology in the automotive and consumer markets.

  20. 500 C Electronic Packaging and Dielectric Materials for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for exploring the inner solar planets and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and application of high temperature electronics and sensors. High temperature passive components are also necessary for high temperature electronic systems. This talk will discuss ceramic packaging systems developed for high temperature electronics, and related testing results of SiC circuits at 500C and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) integrated circuits at temperatures beyond commercial limit facilitated by these high temperature packaging technologies. Dielectric materials for high temperature multilayers capacitors will also be discussed. High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for probing the inner solar planets and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and eventual applications of high temperature electronics and sensors. High temperature passive components are also necessary for high temperature electronic systems. This talk will discuss ceramic packaging systems developed for high electronics and related testing results of SiC circuits at 500C and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) integrated circuits at temperatures beyond commercial limit facilitated by high temperature packaging technologies. Dielectric materials for high temperature multilayers capacitors will also be discussed.

  1. Active and smart biodegradable packaging based on starch and natural extracts.

    PubMed

    Medina-Jaramillo, Carolina; Ochoa-Yepes, Oswaldo; Bernal, Celina; Famá, Lucía

    2017-11-15

    Active and smart biodegradable films from cassava starch and glycerol with 5wt.% of different natural extracts such as green tea and basil were obtained by casting. Their functional capacity as antioxidants and their physicochemical properties achieved from the incorporation of these types of extracts were evaluated. The content of phenolic compounds in the extracts led to films with significant antioxidant activity, being greater in the case of the system containing green tea extract. Color changes in both materials after immersion in different media (acid and basic) due to the presence of chlorophyll and carotenoids in the extracts were observed, but the film with basil extract reacted most notably to the different pH. These films degraded in soil under two weeks and were thermal stable up to 240°C. Finally, the incorporation of extracts of green tea and basil led to thermoplastic starch films with lower water vapor permeability retaining their flexibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Evaluation of the results of high-speed handpiece and minimally invasive extraction in impacted mandibular third molar extraction].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying-yang; DU, Sheng-nan; Lv, Zong-kai

    2015-08-01

    To compare the results of high-speed handpiece and minimally invasive extraction in impacted mandibular third molar extraction. From May 2011 to May 2014, 83 patients undergoing impacted mandibular third molar extraction were enrolled into the study and randomly divided into 2 groups: 42 patients in group A (experimental group) and 41 patients in group B (control group). Group B underwent extraction with traditional method and group A underwent high-speed handpiece and minimally invasive extraction of the impacted mandibular third molar. The occurrences of the root fracture, gingival laceration, tooth mobility, lingual bone plate fracture, jaw fracture and dislocation of temporomandibular joint during operation and lower lip numbness, dry socket, facial swelling and limitation of mouth opening after operation were observed and compared between 2 groups. The operation time, integrity of extraction sockets, VAS pain score and satisfaction from patients were collected and compared. SPSS 19.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. The occurrences of root fracture, gingival laceration, tooth mobility, lingual bone plate fracture, jaw fracture, and dislocation of temporomandibular joint during operation in group A significantly decreased compared with group B (P<0.05). The occurrences of lower lip numbness, dry socket, facial swelling and limitation of mouth opening after operation in group A significantly decreased compared with group B (P<0.05). The operation time, integrity of extraction sockets, VAS pain scores and satisfaction scores in group A improved significantly compared with group B (P<0.05). High-speed handpiece and minimally invasive extraction should be widely used in impacted mandibular third molar extraction, due to the advantages of simple operation, high efficiency, minimal trauma, and few perioperative complications.

  3. Definition of a high-affinity Gag recognition structure mediating packaging of a retroviral RNA genome

    PubMed Central

    Gherghe, Cristina; Lombo, Tania; Leonard, Christopher W.; Datta, Siddhartha A. K.; Bess, Julian W.; Gorelick, Robert J.; Rein, Alan; Weeks, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    All retroviral genomic RNAs contain a cis-acting packaging signal by which dimeric genomes are selectively packaged into nascent virions. However, it is not understood how Gag (the viral structural protein) interacts with these signals to package the genome with high selectivity. We probed the structure of murine leukemia virus RNA inside virus particles using SHAPE, a high-throughput RNA structure analysis technology. These experiments showed that NC (the nucleic acid binding domain derived from Gag) binds within the virus to the sequence UCUG-UR-UCUG. Recombinant Gag and NC proteins bound to this same RNA sequence in dimeric RNA in vitro; in all cases, interactions were strongest with the first U and final G in each UCUG element. The RNA structural context is critical: High-affinity binding requires base-paired regions flanking this motif, and two UCUG-UR-UCUG motifs are specifically exposed in the viral RNA dimer. Mutating the guanosine residues in these two motifs—only four nucleotides per genomic RNA—reduced packaging 100-fold, comparable to the level of nonspecific packaging. These results thus explain the selective packaging of dimeric RNA. This paradigm has implications for RNA recognition in general, illustrating how local context and RNA structure can create information-rich recognition signals from simple single-stranded sequence elements in large RNAs. PMID:20974908

  4. A highly miniaturized vacuum package for a trapped ion atomic clock

    SciTech Connect

    Schwindt, Peter D. D., E-mail: pschwin@sandia.gov; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Partner, Heather

    2016-05-15

    We report on the development of a highly miniaturized vacuum package for use in an atomic clock utilizing trapped ytterbium-171 ions. The vacuum package is approximately 1 cm{sup 3} in size and contains a linear quadrupole RF Paul ion trap, miniature neutral Yb sources, and a non-evaporable getter pump. We describe the fabrication process for making the Yb sources and assembling the vacuum package. To prepare the vacuum package for ion trapping, it was evacuated, baked at a high temperature, and then back filled with a helium buffer gas. Once appropriate vacuum conditions were achieved in the package, it wasmore » sealed with a copper pinch-off and was subsequently pumped only by the non-evaporable getter. We demonstrated ion trapping in this vacuum package and the operation of an atomic clock, stabilizing a local oscillator to the 12.6 GHz hyperfine transition of {sup 171}Y b{sup +}. The fractional frequency stability of the clock was measured to be 2 × 10{sup −11}/τ{sup 1/2}.« less

  5. A highly miniaturized vacuum package for a trapped ion atomic clock

    DOE PAGES

    Schwindt, Peter D. D.; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Partner, Heather; ...

    2016-05-12

    We report on the development of a highly miniaturized vacuum package for use in an atomic clock utilizing trapped ytterbium-171 ions. The vacuum package is approximately 1 cm 3 in size and contains a linear quadrupole RF Paul ion trap, miniature neutral Yb sources, and a non-evaporable getter pump. We describe the fabrication process for making the Yb sources and assembling the vacuum package. To prepare the vacuum package for ion trapping, it was evacuated, baked at a high temperature, and then back filled with a helium buffer gas. Once appropriate vacuum conditions were achieved in the package, the packagemore » was sealed with a copper pinch-off and was then pumped only by the non-evaporable getter. We demonstrated ion trapping in this vacuum package and the operation of an atomic clock, stabilizing a local oscillator to the 12.6 GHz hyperfine transition of 171Yb +. The fractional frequency stability of the clock was measured to be 2 × 10 -11 / τ 1/2.« less

  6. Automated Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) LC/NMR Applied to the Structural Analysis of Extractable Compounds from a Pharmaceutical Packaging Material of Construction.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Daniel L; Mullis, James O; Davis, Mark; Pennino, Scott; Egert, Thomas; Gonnella, Nina C

    2013-01-01

    The structural analysis (i.e., identification) of organic chemical entities leached into drug product formulations has traditionally been accomplished with techniques involving the combination of chromatography with mass spectrometry. These include gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for volatile and semi-volatile compounds, and various forms of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS or HPLC/MS) for semi-volatile and relatively non-volatile compounds. GC/MS and LC/MS techniques are complementary for structural analysis of leachables and potentially leachable organic compounds produced via laboratory extraction of pharmaceutical container closure/delivery system components and corresponding materials of construction. Both hyphenated analytical techniques possess the separating capability, compound specific detection attributes, and sensitivity required to effectively analyze complex mixtures of trace level organic compounds. However, hyphenated techniques based on mass spectrometry are limited by the inability to determine complete bond connectivity, the inability to distinguish between many types of structural isomers, and the inability to unambiguously determine aromatic substitution patterns. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) does not have these limitations; hence it can serve as a complement to mass spectrometry. However, NMR technology is inherently insensitive and its ability to interface with chromatography has been historically challenging. This article describes the application of NMR coupled with liquid chromatography and automated solid phase extraction (SPE-LC/NMR) to the structural analysis of extractable organic compounds from a pharmaceutical packaging material of construction. The SPE-LC/NMR technology combined with micro-cryoprobe technology afforded the sensitivity and sample mass required for full structure elucidation. Optimization of the SPE-LC/NMR analytical method was achieved using a series of model compounds

  7. Magnetic covalent triazine framework for rapid extraction of phthalate esters in plastic packaging materials followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zijun; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Gui, Bo; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Bin

    2017-11-24

    Covalent triazine frameworks (CTFs), featuring with high surface area, good thermal, chemical and mechanical stability, are good adsorbents in sample pretreatment. Herein, magnetic CTFs/Ni composite was prepared by in situ reduction of nickel ions on CTFs matrix with a solvothermal method. The prepared CTFs/Ni composite exhibited good preparation reproducibility, high chemical stability, and high extraction efficiency for targeted phthalate esters (PAEs) due to π-π interaction and hydrophobic effect. The porous structure of CTFs/Ni composite benefited the fast transfer of target PAEs from aqueous solution to the adsorbents, and the integrated magnetism contributed to the rapid separation of adsorbents from sample and elution solution. Based on it, a novel method of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) combined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was developed for the analysis of PAEs including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-2-ethylhexl phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) in plastic packaging materials. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) for six PAEs were found to be in the range of 0.024-0.085mg/kg. The linear range was 0.32-16mg/kg for DMP, DEP, 0.08-80mg/kg for DBP, 0.16-32mg/kg for BBP, DEHP, and 0.32-32mg/kg for DNOP, respectively. The enrichment factors ranged from 59 to 88-fold (theoretical enrichment factor was 133-fold). The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of PAEs in various plastic packaging materials with recoveries in the range of 70.6-119% for the spiked samples. This method is characterized with short operation time, high sensitivity, low consumption of harmful organic solvents and can be extended to the analysis of other trace aromatic compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Oufti: An integrated software package for high-accuracy, high-throughput quantitative microscopy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Paintdakhi, Ahmad; Parry, Bradley; Campos, Manuel; Irnov, Irnov; Elf, Johan; Surovtsev, Ivan; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Summary With the realization that bacteria display phenotypic variability among cells and exhibit complex subcellular organization critical for cellular function and behavior, microscopy has re-emerged as a primary tool in bacterial research during the last decade. However, the bottleneck in today’s single-cell studies is quantitative image analysis of cells and fluorescent signals. Here, we address current limitations through the development of Oufti, a stand-alone, open-source software package for automated measurements of microbial cells and fluorescence signals from microscopy images. Oufti provides computational solutions for tracking touching cells in confluent samples, handles various cell morphologies, offers algorithms for quantitative analysis of both diffraction and non-diffraction-limited fluorescence signals, and is scalable for high-throughput analysis of massive datasets, all with subpixel precision. All functionalities are integrated in a single package. The graphical user interface, which includes interactive modules for segmentation, image analysis, and post-processing analysis, makes the software broadly accessible to users irrespective of their computational skills. PMID:26538279

  9. [Determination of Arsenic in Food Package Aluminum by Ultrasound Assisted Solid Phase Extraction/ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Qin, Wen-xia; Gong, Qi; Li, Min; Deng, Li-xin; Mo, Li-shu; Li, Yan-lin

    2015-04-01

    Determination of arsenic in pure aluminum by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry was interfered by aluminum matrix. The experiment showed that when the mass concentration of Al was greater than or equal to 5 000 times the As in the test solution, the measurement error was greater than 5%. In order to eliminate the interference, strong acid cation exchange fiber (SACEF) was used as solid phase extraction agent to adsorb Al(3+). The extraction conditions included amount of SACEF, extraction time, temperature and pH were investigated. The optimal extraction conditions were that 0.9000 g SACEF was used to extract the aluminum from the sample solution of pH 2.0 at 55 °C for 5 min with the ultrasonic assist, and in this case, the arsenic in the form of arsenic acid was not extracted and left in the solution for the determination. The results showed that after treating 10. 00 mL test solution containing 1.00 µg arsenic and 20.0 mg aluminum, arsenic did not lose. The mass concentration of residual aluminum in the raffinate was about 2,000 times the As, which had not interfered the determination of arsenic. The detection limit (3 s) was 0.027 µg · mL(-1) and quantification limit (10 s) was 0.0091 µg · mL(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to the separation and determination of arsenic in the synthetic samples, the aluminum cans and the barbecue aluminum foil. Recovery was in the range of 98.3%-105% and RSD (n = 3) was in the range of 0.1%-4.3%. The results showed that the content of arsenic in the aluminum cans and the aluminum barbecue foil was below the limited value of national standard (GB/T 3190-2008).

  10. [Simultaneous determination of six fluorescent whitening agents in plastic and paper packaging materials by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juzhou; Ji, Shuilin; Cai, Huimei; Li, Jing; Wang, Yongxin; Wang, Jingqiu

    2017-11-08

    A novel analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of six fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs:FWA 135, FWA 184, FWA 185, FWA 199, FWA 378 and FWA 393) in paper and plastic food packaging materials by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). The sample was extracted with mixed solution of chloroform and acetonitrile (3:7, v/v), then cleaned up by HLB solid phase extraction column. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out by HPLC. The sample was separated on a Phenomenex C18 column using acetonitrile and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate aqueous solution as mobile phases. The results indicated that the linear range of FWA393 was 15-1500 μg/L and the linear ranges of the other five FWAs were 5-500 μg/L with correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The recoveries in spiked samples were between 80.4% and 125.0% with RSDs ( n =6) of 1%-13%. Furthermore, this method was applied to analyze 12 samples in the market to verify the practicality of the method. The method showed the advantages of simplicity, high recovery and good precision, and is suitable for the detection of the six fluorescent whitening agents in food packaging materials.

  11. High-Temperature High-Power Packaging Techniques for HEV Traction Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, F.D.; Elshabini, A.

    A key issue associated with the wider adoption of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV) and plug in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV) is the implementation of the power electronic systems that are required in these products [1]. To date, many consumers find the adoption of these technologies problematic based on a financial analysis of the initial cost versus the savings available from reduced fuel consumption. Therefore, one of the primary industry goals is the reduction in the price of these vehicles relative to the cost of traditional gasoline powered vehicles. Part of this cost reduction must come through optimization of the power electronics requiredmore » by these vehicles. In addition, the efficiency of the systems must be optimized in order to provide the greatest range possible. For some drivers, any reduction in the range associated with a potential HEV or PHEV solution in comparison to a gasoline powered vehicle represents a significant barrier to adoption and the efficiency of the power electronics plays an important role in this range. Likewise, high efficiencies are also important since lost power further complicates the thermal management of these systems. Reliability is also an important concern since most drivers have a high level of comfort with gasoline powered vehicles and are somewhat reluctant to switch to a less proven technology. Reliability problems in the power electronics or associated components could not only cause a high warranty cost to the manufacturer, but may also taint these technologies in the consumer's eyes. A larger vehicle offering in HEVs is another important consideration from a power electronics point of view. A larger vehicle will need more horsepower, or a larger rated drive. In some ways this will be more difficult to implement from a cost and size point of view. Both the packaging of these modules and the thermal management of these systems at competitive price points create significant challenges. One way in which

  12. Eco-sustainable systems based on poly(lactic acid), diatomite and coffee grounds extract for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Cacciotti, Ilaria; Mori, Stefano; Cherubini, Valeria; Nanni, Francesca

    2018-06-01

    In the food packaging sector many efforts have been (and are) devoted to the development of new materials in order to reply to an urgent market demand for green and eco-sustainable products. Particularly a lot of attention is currently devoted both to the use of compostable and biobased polymers as innovative and promising alternative to the currently used petrochemical derived polymers, and to the re-use of waste materials coming from agriculture and food industry. In this work, multifunctional eco-sustainable systems, based on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) as biopolymeric matrix, diatomaceous earth as reinforcing filler and spent coffee grounds extract as oxygen scavenger, were produced for the first time, in order to provide a simultaneous improvement of mechanical and gas barrier properties. The influence of the diatomite and the spent coffee grounds extract on the microstructural, mechanical and oxygen barrier properties of the produced films was deeply investigated by means of X-Ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, ATR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), uniaxial tensile tests, O 2 permeabilimetry measurements. An improvement of both mechanical and oxygen barrier properties was recorded for systems characterised by the co-presence of diatomite and coffee grounds extract, suggesting a possible synergic effect of the two additives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Response of antioxidant activity and sensory quality in fresh-cut pear as affected by high O2,active packaging compared with low O2 packaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effects of active modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, initial O2/CO2: 5/5; 30/5; 80/0) and passive packaging (initial O2/CO2: 20.8/0 (air)) on the antioxidant capacity and sensory quality of fresh-cut ‘Yaoshan’ pear stored at 4C for 12 days were investigated. Samples stored in high O2 (30% and 80%) ...

  14. Packaging Technology Designed, Fabricated, and Assembled for High-Temperature SiC Microsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu

    2003-01-01

    A series of ceramic substrates and thick-film metalization-based prototype microsystem packages designed for silicon carbide (SiC) high-temperature microsystems have been developed for operation in 500 C harsh environments. These prototype packages were designed, fabricated, and assembled at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Both the electrical interconnection system and the die-attach scheme for this packaging system have been tested extensively at high temperatures. Printed circuit boards used to interconnect these chip-level packages and passive components also are being fabricated and tested. NASA space and aeronautical missions need harsh-environment, especially high-temperature, operable microsystems for probing the inner solar planets and for in situ monitoring and control of next-generation aeronautical engines. Various SiC high-temperature-operable microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at temperatures as high as 600 C, but most of these devices were demonstrated only in the laboratory environment partially because systematic packaging technology for supporting these devices at temperatures of 500 C and beyond was not available. Thus, the development of a systematic high-temperature packaging technology is essential for both in situ testing and the commercialization of high-temperature SiC MEMS. Researchers at Glenn developed new prototype packages for high-temperature microsystems using ceramic substrates (aluminum nitride and 96- and 90-wt% aluminum oxides) and gold (Au) thick-film metalization. Packaging components, which include a thick-film metalization-based wirebond interconnection system and a low-electrical-resistance SiC die-attachment scheme, have been tested at temperatures up to 500 C. The interconnection system composed of Au thick-film printed wire and 1-mil Au wire bond was tested in 500 C oxidizing air with and without 50-mA direct current for over 5000 hr. The Au thick

  15. HTTK: R Package for High-Throughput Toxicokinetics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thousands of chemicals have been profiled by high-throughput screening programs such as ToxCast and Tox21; these chemicals are tested in part because most of them have limited or no data on hazard, exposure, or toxicokinetics. Toxicokinetic models aid in predicting tissue concent...

  16. Automated packaging platform for low-cost high-performance optical components manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Robert T.

    2004-05-01

    Delivering high performance integrated optical components at low cost is critical to the continuing recovery and growth of the optical communications industry. In today's market, network equipment vendors need to provide their customers with new solutions that reduce operating expenses and enable new revenue generating IP services. They must depend on the availability of highly integrated optical modules exhibiting high performance, small package size, low power consumption, and most importantly, low cost. The cost of typical optical system hardware is dominated by linecards that are in turn cost-dominated by transmitters and receivers or transceivers and transponders. Cost effective packaging of optical components in these small size modules is becoming the biggest challenge to be addressed. For many traditional component suppliers in our industry, the combination of small size, high performance, and low cost appears to be in conflict and not feasible with conventional product design concepts and labor intensive manual assembly and test. With the advent of photonic integration, there are a variety of materials, optics, substrates, active/passive devices, and mechanical/RF piece parts to manage in manufacturing to achieve high performance at low cost. The use of automation has been demonstrated to surpass manual operation in cost (even with very low labor cost) as well as product uniformity and quality. In this paper, we will discuss the value of using an automated packaging platform.for the assembly and test of high performance active components, such as 2.5Gb/s and 10 Gb/s sources and receivers. Low cost, high performance manufacturing can best be achieved by leveraging a flexible packaging platform to address a multitude of laser and detector devices, integration of electronics and handle various package bodies and fiber configurations. This paper describes the operation and results of working robotic assemblers in the manufacture of a Laser Optical Subassembly

  17. High Performance Hermetic Package For LiNbO3 Electro-Optic Waveguide Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, K. R.; Macdonald, B. M.; Harmon, R. A.; Ford, C. W.; Shaw, R. N.; Reid, I.; Davidson, J. H.; Beaumont, A. R.; Booth, R. C.

    1989-02-01

    A high performance fibre-tailed package for LiNbO3 electro-optic waveguide devices is described. The package is based around a hermetic metal submodule which contains no epoxy or other organic materials. The LiNbO3 chip is mounted using a soldering technique, and laser welding is used for fibre fixing to give stable, low loss optical coupling to single mode fibres. Optical reflections are minimised by the use of antireflective coatings on the fibre ends and waveguide facets. High speed electrical connections are made via coplanar glass-sealed leadthroughs to LiNb03 travelling wave devices, and packaged device operation to frequencies in excess of 4GHz is demonstrated.

  18. Physical properties of Gelidium corneum-gelatin blend films containing grapefruit seed extract or green tea extract and its application in the packaging of pork loins.

    PubMed

    Hong, Y-H; Lim, G-O; Song, K B

    2009-01-01

    Edible Gelidium corneum-gelatin (GCG) blend films containing grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) or green tea extract (GTE) were manufactured, and the quality of pork loins packed with the film during storage was determined. Tensile strength (TS) and water vapor permeability (WVP) of the films containing GFSE or GTE were better than those of the control. The film's antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes increased with increasing antimicrobial concentration, resulting in a decrease in the populations of bacteria by 0.77 to 2.08 and 0.91 to 3.30 log CFU/g, respectively. Pork loin samples were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes. The samples packed with the GCG film containing GFSE (0.08%) or GTE (2.80%) had a decrease in the populations of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes of 0.69 to 1.11 and 1.05 to 1.14 log CFU/g, respectively, compared to the control after 4 d of storage. The results showed that the quality of pork loins during storage could be improved by packaging them with the GCG film containing GFSE or GTE.

  19. Development of high performance scientific components for interoperability of computing packages

    SciTech Connect

    Gulabani, Teena Pratap

    2008-01-01

    Three major high performance quantum chemistry computational packages, NWChem, GAMESS and MPQC have been developed by different research efforts following different design patterns. The goal is to achieve interoperability among these packages by overcoming the challenges caused by the different communication patterns and software design of each of these packages. A chemistry algorithm is hard to develop as well as being a time consuming process; integration of large quantum chemistry packages will allow resource sharing and thus avoid reinvention of the wheel. Creating connections between these incompatible packages is the major motivation of the proposed work. This interoperability is achievedmore » by bringing the benefits of Component Based Software Engineering through a plug-and-play component framework called Common Component Architecture (CCA). In this thesis, I present a strategy and process used for interfacing two widely used and important computational chemistry methodologies: Quantum Mechanics and Molecular Mechanics. To show the feasibility of the proposed approach the Tuning and Analysis Utility (TAU) has been coupled with NWChem code and its CCA components. Results show that the overhead is negligible when compared to the ease and potential of organizing and coping with large-scale software applications.« less

  20. Deterioration of ZnO/SiO2 diode packages in high humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, John; Wagner, Scott

    1987-01-01

    A case study is reported in which the ZnO/SiO2 glass used to package a power rectifier combined with the design to produce a catastropic corrosion failure of the system. Metallic Zn inclusions, present in the glass, played a critical role in creating a conductive path for corrosion currents. Actual equipment failure was the result of an open circuit trace created by corrosion. It is concluded that the presence of Zn inclusions in the glass of this type of package may result in long-term reliability problems for equipment used in high humidity environments.

  1. Packaged microsphere-taper coupling system with a high Q factor.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yongchao; Wang, Keyi; Jin, Xueying

    2015-01-10

    A novel packaged microsphere-taper coupling system which consists of a glass tube and two glass plates is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. We analyze the impact of the microsphere distortion on the resonant spectrum and it is observed that a very high quality factor (Q) up to 1.08×10(8) can be achieved by optimizing the microsphere position and orientation relative to the fiber taper. The maintenance of Q and a stable spectrum are realized by placing the packaged structure in a sealed organic glass box. Furthermore, to verify the practicability of the sealed device, thermal sensing experiments are carried out, which indicates the excellent convenience of the device with a resolution of 1.12×10(-4)°C. The portability and robustness of the packaged structure make it strikingly attractive and illustrate its potential in practical microcavity sensors and lasers.

  2. Packaging Technology for SiC High Temperature Circuits Operable up to 500 Degrees Centigrade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Lian-Yu

    2002-01-01

    New high temperature low power 8-pin packages have been fabricated using commercial fabrication service. These packages are made of aluminum nitride and 96 percent alumina with Au metallization. The new design of these packages provides the chips inside with EM shielding. Wirebond geometry control has been achieved for precise mechanical tests. Au wirebond samples with 45 degree heel-angle have been tested using wireloop test module. The geometry control improves the consistency of measurement of the wireloop breaking point.Also reported on is a parametric study of the thermomechanical reliability of a Au thick-film based SiC die-attach assembly using nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted to optimize the die-attach thermo-mechanical performance for operation at temperatures from room temperature to 500 degrees Centigrade. This parametric study centered on material selection, structure design and process control.

  3. Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces for High-Temperature Packaging; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    DeVoto, Douglas

    2015-06-10

    This is a technical review of the DOE VTO EDT project EDT063, Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces for High-Temperature Packaging. A procedure for analyzing the reliability of sintered-silver through experimental thermal cycling and crack propagation modeling has been outlined and results have been presented.

  4. Effect of high pressure processing on reduction of Listeria monocytogenes in packaged Queso Fresco

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) on the survival of a five-strain rifampicin-resistant cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes in Queso Fresco (QF) was evaluated as a post-packaging intervention. QF was made using pasteurized, homogenized milk, was starter-free and was not pressed...

  5. Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces for High-Temperature Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    DeVoto, Douglas

    2016-06-08

    This is a technical review of the DOE VTO EDT project EDT063, Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces for High-Temperature Packaging. A procedure for analyzing the reliability of sintered-silver through experimental thermal cycling and crack propagation modeling has been outlined and results have been presented.

  6. WDM package enabling high-bandwidth optical intrasystem interconnects for high-performance computer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrage, J.; Soenmez, Y.; Happel, T.; Gubler, U.; Lukowicz, P.; Mrozynski, G.

    2006-02-01

    From long haul, metro access and intersystem links the trend goes to applying optical interconnection technology at increasingly shorter distances. Intrasystem interconnects such as data busses between microprocessors and memory blocks are still based on copper interconnects today. This causes a bottleneck in computer systems since the achievable bandwidth of electrical interconnects is limited through the underlying physical properties. Approaches to solve this problem by embedding optical multimode polymer waveguides into the board (electro-optical circuit board technology, EOCB) have been reported earlier. The principle feasibility of optical interconnection technology in chip-to-chip applications has been validated in a number of projects. For reasons of cost considerations waveguides with large cross sections are used in order to relax alignment requirements and to allow automatic placement and assembly without any active alignment of components necessary. On the other hand the bandwidth of these highly multimodal waveguides is restricted due to mode dispersion. The advance of WDM technology towards intrasystem applications will provide sufficiently high bandwidth which is required for future high-performance computer systems: Assuming that, for example, 8 wavelength-channels with 12Gbps (SDR1) each are given, then optical on-board interconnects with data rates a magnitude higher than the data rates of electrical interconnects for distances typically found at today's computer boards and backplanes can be realized. The data rate will be twice as much, if DDR2 technology is considered towards the optical signals as well. In this paper we discuss an approach for a hybrid integrated optoelectronic WDM package which might enable the application of WDM technology to EOCB.

  7. Effect of Xylopia aethiopica aqueous extract on antioxidant properties of refrigerated Roma tomato variety packaged in low density polyethylene bags.

    PubMed

    Babarinde, Grace Oluwakemi; Adegoke, Gabriel O

    2015-03-01

    Effects of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Richard aqueous extract on the antioxidants of matured tomato fruits at red stage were investigated at 13 ± 2 °C and 80 ± 5 % relative humidity. A sample treated with sodium bicarbonate and untreated samples were included. Samples packaged in low density polyethylene (30 μm thickness) bags were analysed at intervals of 5 days. The treatments revealed statistically significant differences in ascorbic acid content of stored tomato fruits. Fruits treated with 5 % X. aethiopica on day 5 of storage had 21.0 mg/100 g which was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than 18.2 mg/100 g in untreated control samples. At 15th day of storage, ascorbic acid was 10.0 and 14.2 mg/100 g in tomato fruits treated with sodium bicarbonate and 5 % X. aethiopica respectively. The carotenoid and lycopene contents were lower in sodium bicarbonate-treated and the untreated control samples than in X. aethiopica-treated sample. The total phenolic contents were better retained in X. aethiopica-treated tomato than in control. Treatment of tomato fruits with X. aethiopica at 4 & 5 % levels significantly retained the qualities evaluated.

  8. Chip-scale thermal management of high-brightness LED packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton

    2004-10-01

    The efficiency and reliability of the solid-state lighting devices strongly depend on successful thermal management. Light emitting diodes, LEDs, are a strong candidate for the next generation, general illumination applications. LEDs are making great strides in terms of lumen performance and reliability, however the barrier to widespread use in general illumination still remains the cost or $/Lumen. LED packaging designers are pushing the LED performance to its limits. This is resulting in increased drive currents, and thus the need for lower thermal resistance packaging designs. As the power density continues to rise, the integrity of the package electrical and thermal interconnect becomes extremely important. Experimental results with high brightness LED packages show that chip attachment defects can cause significant thermal gradients across the LED chips leading to premature failures. A numerical study was also carried out with parametric models to understand the chip active layer temperature profile variation due to the bump defects. Finite element techniques were utilized to evaluate the effects of localized hot spots at the chip active layer. The importance of "zero defects" in one of the more popular interconnect schemes; the "epi down" soldered flip chip configuration is investigated and demonstrated.

  9. Antioxidant activities of distiller dried grains with solubles as protein films containing tea extracts and their application in the packaging of pork meat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Ji-Hyeon; Won, Misun; Song, Kyung Bin

    2016-04-01

    Distiller dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as protein (DP) films were prepared. Additionally, to prepare anti-oxidant films, green tea extract (GTE), oolong tea extract (OTE), and black tea extract (BTE) were incorporated into the DP films. Consequently, the incorporation of the tea extracts did not alter the physical properties of the films much, whereas the antioxidant activities, such as ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities were observed. To apply the DP films containing tea extracts to food packaging, pork meat was wrapped with the films and stored at 4 °C for 10 d. During storage, the pork meat wrapped with the DP films containing GTE, OTE, and BTE had less lipid oxidation than did the control. Among the tea extracts, the DP film containing GTE had the greatest antioxidant activity. These results indicate that the DP films containing green tea extracts can be utilized as an anti-oxidative packaging material for pork meat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Advanced Packaging Technology Used in Fabricating a High-Temperature Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn M.

    2003-01-01

    The development of new aircraft engines requires the measurement of pressures in hot areas such as the combustor and the final stages of the compressor. The needs of the aircraft engine industry are not fully met by commercially available high-temperature pressure sensors, which are fabricated using silicon. Kulite Semiconductor Products and the NASA Glenn Research Center have been working together to develop silicon carbide (SiC) pressure sensors for use at high temperatures. At temperatures above 850 F, silicon begins to lose its nearly ideal elastic properties, so the output of a silicon pressure sensor will drift. SiC, however, maintains its nearly ideal mechanical properties to extremely high temperatures. Given a suitable sensor material, a key to the development of a practical high-temperature pressure sensor is the package. A SiC pressure sensor capable of operating at 930 F was fabricated using a newly developed package. The durability of this sensor was demonstrated in an on-engine test. The SiC pressure sensor uses a SiC diaphragm, which is fabricated using deep reactive ion etching. SiC strain gauges on the surface of the diaphragm sense the pressure difference across the diaphragm. Conventionally, the SiC chip is mounted to the package with the strain gauges outward, which exposes the sensitive metal contacts on the chip to the hostile measurement environment. In the new Kulite leadless package, the SiC chip is flipped over so that the metal contacts are protected from oxidation by a hermetic seal around the perimeter of the chip. In the leadless package, a conductive glass provides the electrical connection between the pins of the package and the chip, which eliminates the fragile gold wires used previously. The durability of the leadless SiC pressure sensor was demonstrated when two 930 F sensors were tested in the combustor of a Pratt & Whitney PW4000 series engine. Since the gas temperatures in these locations reach 1200 to 1300 F, the sensors were

  11. HEPMath 1.4: A mathematica package for semi-automatic computations in high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebusch, Martin

    2015-10-01

    This article introduces the Mathematica package HEPMath which provides a number of utilities and algorithms for High Energy Physics computations in Mathematica. Its functionality is similar to packages like FormCalc or FeynCalc, but it takes a more complete and extensible approach to implementing common High Energy Physics notations in the Mathematica language, in particular those related to tensors and index contractions. It also provides a more flexible method for the generation of numerical code which is based on new features for C code generation in Mathematica. In particular it can automatically generate Python extension modules which make the compiled functions callable from Python, thus eliminating the need to write any code in a low-level language like C or Fortran. It also contains seamless interfaces to LHAPDF, FeynArts, and LoopTools.

  12. Novel high-density packaging of solid state diode pumped eye-safe laser for LIBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bares, Kim; Torgerson, Justin; McNeil, Laine; Maine, Patrick; Patterson, Steve

    2018-02-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has proven to be a useful research tool for material analysis for decades. However, because of the amount of energy required in a few nanosecond pulse to generate a stable and reliable LIBS signal, the lasers are often large and inefficient, relegating their implementation to research facilities, factory floors, and assembly lines. Small portable LIBS systems are now possible without having to compromise on energy needs by leveraging off of advances in high-density packaging of electronics, opto-mechanics, and highly efficient laser resonator architecture. This paper explores the integration of these techniques to achieve a mJ class eye-safe LIBS laser source, while retaining a small, light-weight package suitable for handheld systems.

  13. Program Package for the Analysis of High Resolution High Signal-To-Noise Stellar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskunov, N.; Ryabchikova, T.; Pakhomov, Yu.; Sitnova, T.; Alekseeva, S.; Mashonkina, L.; Nordlander, T.

    2017-06-01

    The program package SME (Spectroscopy Made Easy), designed to perform an analysis of stellar spectra using spectral fitting techniques, was updated due to adding new functions (isotopic and hyperfine splittins) in VALD and including grids of NLTE calculations for energy levels of few chemical elements. SME allows to derive automatically stellar atmospheric parameters: effective temperature, surface gravity, chemical abundances, radial and rotational velocities, turbulent velocities, taking into account all the effects defining spectral line formation. SME package uses the best grids of stellar atmospheres that allows us to perform spectral analysis with the similar accuracy in wide range of stellar parameters and metallicities - from dwarfs to giants of BAFGK spectral classes.

  14. Design of high precision temperature control system for TO packaged LD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Enji; Luo, Baoke; Zhuang, Bin; He, Zhengquan

    2017-10-01

    Temperature is an important factor affecting the performance of TO package LD. In order to ensure the safe and stable operation of LD, a temperature control circuit for LD based on PID technology is designed. The MAX1978 and an external PID circuit are used to form a control circuit that drives the thermoelectric cooler (TEC) to achieve control of temperature and the external load can be changed. The system circuit has low power consumption, high integration and high precision,and the circuit can achieve precise control of the LD temperature. Experiment results show that the circuit can achieve effective and stable control of the laser temperature.

  15. Configurations of high-frequency ultrasonics complex vibration systems for packaging in microelectronics.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Jiromaru; Harada, Yoshiki; Ihara, Shigeru; Kasahara, Kohei; Shimizu, Masanori; Ueoka, Tetsugi

    2004-04-01

    Ultrasonic high-frequency complex vibrations are effective for various ultrasonic high-power applications. Three types of ultrasonic complex vibration system with a welding tip vibrating elliptical to circular locus for packaging in microelectronics were studied. The complex vibration sources are using (1) a longitudinal-torsional vibration converter with diagonal slits that is driven only by a longitudinal vibration source, (2) a complex transverse vibration rod with several stepped parts that is driven by two longitudinal vibration source crossed at a right angle and (3) a longitudinal vibration circular disk and three longitudinal transducers that are installed at the circumference of the disk.

  16. High-performance and high-reliability SOT-6 packaged diplexer based on advanced IPD fabrication techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Tian; Wang, Cong; Kim, Nam-Young

    2017-08-01

    A diplexer offering the advantages of compact size, high performance, and high reliability is proposed on the basis of advanced integrated passive device (IPD) fabrication techniques. The proposed diplexer is developed by combining a third-order low-pass filter (LPF) and a third-order high-pass filter (HPF), which are designed on the basis of the elliptic function prototype low-pass filter. Primary components, such as inductors and capacitors, are designed and fabricated with high Q-factor and appropriate values, and they are subsequently used to construct a compact diplexer having a chip area of 900 μm × 1100 μm (0.009 λ0 × 0.011 λ0, where λ0 is the guided wavelength). In addition, a small-outline transistor (SOT-6) packaging method is adopted, and reliability tests (including temperature, humidity, vibration, and pressure) are conducted to guarantee long-term stability and commercial success. The packaged measurement results indicate excellent RF performance with insertion losses of 1.39 dB and 0.75 dB at operation bands of 0.9 GHz and 1.8 GHz, respectively. The return loss is lower than 10 dB from 0.5 GHz to 4.0 GHz, while the isolation is higher than 15 dB from 0.5 GHz to 3.0 GHz. Thus, it can be concluded that the proposed SOT-6 packaged diplexer is a promising candidate for GSM/CDMA applications. Synthetic solution of diplexer design, RF performance optimization, fabrication process, packaging, RF response measurement, and reliability test is particularly explained and analyzed in this work.

  17. EFTofPNG: a package for high precision computation with the effective field theory of post-Newtonian gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, Michele; Steinhoff, Jan

    2017-12-01

    We present a novel public package ‘EFTofPNG’ for high precision computation in the effective field theory of post-Newtonian (PN) gravity, including spins. We created this package in view of the timely need to publicly share automated computation tools, which integrate the various types of physics manifested in the expected increasing influx of gravitational wave (GW) data. Hence, we created a free and open source package, which is self-contained, modular, all-inclusive, and accessible to the classical gravity community. The ‘EFTofPNG’ Mathematica package also uses the power of the ‘xTensor’ package, suited for complicated tensor computation, where our coding also strategically approaches the generic generation of Feynman contractions, which is universal to all perturbation theories in physics, by efficiently treating n-point functions as tensors of rank n. The package currently contains four independent units, which serve as subsidiaries to the main one. Its final unit serves as a pipeline chain for the obtainment of the final GW templates, and provides the full computation of derivatives and physical observables of interest. The upcoming ‘EFTofPNG’ package version 1.0 should cover the point mass sector, and all the spin sectors, up to the fourth PN order, and the two-loop level. We expect and strongly encourage public development of the package to improve its efficiency, and to extend it to further PN sectors, and observables useful for the waveform modelling.

  18. High-performance packaging for monolithic microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, K. A.; Li, K.; Shih, Y. C.

    1992-01-01

    Packaging schemes are developed that provide low-loss, hermetic enclosure for enhanced monolithic microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuits. These package schemes are based on a fused quartz substrate material offering improved RF performance through 44 GHz. The small size and weight of the packages make them useful for a number of applications, including phased array antenna systems. As part of the packaging effort, a test fixture was developed to interface the single chip packages to conventional laboratory instrumentation for characterization of the packaged devices.

  19. High-Temperature High-Power Packaging Techniques for HEV Traction Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Elshabini, Aicha; Barlow, Fred D.

    A key issue associated with the wider adoption of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV) and plug in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV) is the implementation of the power electronic systems that are required in these products. One of the primary industry goals is the reduction in the price of these vehicles relative to the cost of traditional gasoline powered vehicles. Today these systems, such as the Prius, utilize one coolant loop for the engine at approximately 100 C coolant temperatures, and a second coolant loop for the inverter at 65 C. One way in which significant cost reduction of these systems could be achievedmore » is through the use of a single coolant loop for both the power electronics as well as the internal combustion engine (ICE). This change in coolant temperature significantly increases the junction temperatures of the devices and creates a number of challenges for both device fabrication and the assembly of these devices into inverters and converters for HEV and PHEV applications. Traditional power modules and the state-of-the-art inverters in the current HEV products, are based on chip and wire assembly and direct bond copper (DBC) on ceramic substrates. While a shift to silicon carbide (SiC) devices from silicon (Si) devices would allow the higher operating temperatures required for a single coolant loop, it also creates a number of challenges for the assembly of these devices into power inverters. While this traditional packaging technology can be extended to higher temperatures, the key issues are the substrate material and conductor stability, die bonding material, wire bonds, and bond metallurgy reliability as well as encapsulation materials that are stable at high operating temperatures. The larger temperature differential during power cycling, which would be created by higher coolant temperatures, places tremendous stress on traditional aluminum wire bonds that are used to interconnect power devices. Selection of the bond metallurgy and wire bond

  20. Robust, Rework-able Thermal Electronic Packaging: Applications in High Power TR Modules for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Hunter, Don; Miller, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires improvements in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and are now being implemented side-by-side with more standard technology typically used in flight hardware.

  1. ShortRead: a bioconductor package for input, quality assessment and exploration of high-throughput sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Martin; Anders, Simon; Lawrence, Michael; Aboyoun, Patrick; Pagès, Hervé; Gentleman, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Summary: ShortRead is a package for input, quality assessment, manipulation and output of high-throughput sequencing data. ShortRead is provided in the R and Bioconductor environments, allowing ready access to additional facilities for advanced statistical analysis, data transformation, visualization and integration with diverse genomic resources. Availability and Implementation: This package is implemented in R and available at the Bioconductor web site; the package contains a ‘vignette’ outlining typical work flows. Contact: mtmorgan@fhcrc.org PMID:19654119

  2. HAMP - the microwave package on the High Altitude and LOng range research aircraft (HALO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mech, M.; Orlandi, E.; Crewell, S.; Ament, F.; Hirsch, L.; Hagen, M.; Peters, G.; Stevens, B.

    2014-12-01

    An advanced package of microwave remote sensing instrumentation has been developed for the operation on the new German High Altitude LOng range research aircraft (HALO). The HALO Microwave Package, HAMP, consists of two nadir-looking instruments: a cloud radar at 36 GHz and a suite of passive microwave radiometers with 26 frequencies in different bands between 22.24 and 183.31 ± 12.5 GHz. We present a description of HAMP's instrumentation together with an illustration of its potential. To demonstrate this potential, synthetic measurements for the implemented passive microwave frequencies and the cloud radar based on cloud-resolving and radiative transfer model calculations were performed. These illustrate the advantage of HAMP's chosen frequency coverage, which allows for improved detection of hydrometeors both via the emission and scattering of radiation. Regression algorithms compare HAMP retrieval with standard satellite instruments from polar orbiters and show its advantages particularly for the lower atmosphere with a root-mean-square error reduced by 5 and 15% for temperature and humidity, respectively. HAMP's main advantage is the high spatial resolution of about 1 km, which is illustrated by first measurements from test flights. Together these qualities make it an exciting tool for gaining a better understanding of cloud processes, testing retrieval algorithms, defining future satellite instrument specifications, and validating platforms after they have been placed in orbit.

  3. HAMP - the microwave package on the High Altitude and LOng range research aircraft HALO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mech, M.; Orlandi, E.; Crewell, S.; Ament, F.; Hirsch, L.; Hagen, M.; Peters, G.; Stevens, B.

    2014-05-01

    An advanced package of microwave remote sensing instrumentation has been developed for the operation on the new German High Altitude LOng range research aircraft (HALO). The HALO Microwave Package, HAMP, consists of two nadir looking instruments: a cloud radar at 36 GHz and a suite of passive microwave radiometers with 26 frequencies in different bands between 22.24 and 183.31 ± 12.5 GHz. We present a description of HAMP's instrumentation together with an illustration of its potential. To demonstrate this potential synthetic measurements for the implemented passive microwave frequencies and the cloud radar based on cloud resolving and radiative transfer model calculations were performed. These illustrate the advantage of HAMP's chosen frequency coverage, which allows for improved detection of hydrometeors both via the emission and scattering of radiation. Regression algorithms compare HAMP retrieval with standard satellite instruments from polar orbiters and show its advantages particularly for the lower atmosphere with a reduced root mean square error by 5 and 15% for temperature and humidity, respectively. HAMP's main advantage is the high spatial resolution of about 1 km which is illustrated by first measurements from test flights. Together these qualities make it an exciting tool for gaining better understanding of cloud processes, testing retrieval algorithms, defining future satellite instrument specifications, and validating platforms after they have been placed in orbit.

  4. The equation of state package FEOS for high energy density matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faik, Steffen; Tauschwitz, Anna; Iosilevskiy, Igor

    2018-06-01

    Adequate equation of state (EOS) data is of high interest in the growing field of high energy density physics and especially essential for hydrodynamic simulation codes. The semi-analytical method used in the newly developed Frankfurt equation of state (FEOS) package provides an easy and fast access to the EOS of - in principle - arbitrary materials. The code is based on the well known QEOS model (More et al., 1988; Young and Corey, 1995) and is a further development of the MPQeos code (Kemp and Meyer-ter Vehn, 1988; Kemp and Meyer-ter Vehn, 1998) from Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik (MPQ) in Garching Germany. The list of features contains the calculation of homogeneous mixtures of chemical elements and the description of the liquid-vapor two-phase region with or without a Maxwell construction. Full flexibility of the package is assured by its structure: A program library provides the EOS with an interface designed for Fortran or C/C++ codes. Two additional software tools allow for the generation of EOS tables in different file output formats and for the calculation and visualization of isolines and Hugoniot shock adiabats. As an example the EOS of fused silica (SiO2) is calculated and compared to experimental data and other EOS codes.

  5. High-pressure processing and antimicrobial biodegradable packaging to control Listeria monocytogenes during storage of cooked ham.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Begonya; Aymerich, Teresa; Monfort, Josep M; Garriga, Margarita

    2008-02-01

    The efficiency of combining high-pressure processing (HPP) and active packaging technologies to control Listeria monocytogenes growth during the shelf life of artificially inoculated cooked ham was assessed. Three lots of cooked ham were prepared: control, packaging with alginate films, and packaging with antimicrobial alginate films containing enterocins. After packaging, half of the samples were pressurized. Sliced cooked ham stored at 6 degrees C experienced a quick growth of L. monocytogenes. Both antimicrobial packaging and pressurization delayed the growth of the pathogen. However, at 6 degrees C the combination of antimicrobial packaging and HPP was necessary to achieve a reduction of inoculated levels without recovery during 60 days of storage. Further storage at 6 degrees C of pressurized antimicrobial packed cooked ham resulted in L. monocytogenes levels below the detection limit (day 90). On the other hand, storage at 1 degrees C controlled the growth of the pathogen until day 39 in non-pressurized ham, while antimicrobial packaging and storage at 1 degrees C exerted a bacteriostatic effect for 60 days. All HPP lots stored at 1 degrees C led to counts <100CFU/g at day 60. Similar results were observed when combining both technologies. After a cold chain break no growth of L. monocytogenes was observed in pressurized ham packed with antimicrobial films, showing the efficiency of combining both technologies.

  6. WESTPA: An interoperable, highly scalable software package for weighted ensemble simulation and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zwier, Matthew C.; Adelman, Joshua L.; Kaus, Joseph W.; Pratt, Adam J.; Wong, Kim F.; Rego, Nicholas B.; Suárez, Ernesto; Lettieri, Steven; Wang, David W.; Grabe, Michael; Zuckerman, Daniel M.; Chong, Lillian T.

    2015-01-01

    The weighted ensemble (WE) path sampling approach orchestrates an ensemble of parallel calculations with intermittent communication to enhance the sampling of rare events, such as molecular associations or conformational changes in proteins or peptides. Trajectories are replicated and pruned in a way that focuses computational effort on under-explored regions of configuration space while maintaining rigorous kinetics. To enable the simulation of rare events at any scale (e.g. atomistic, cellular), we have developed an open-source, interoperable, and highly scalable software package for the execution and analysis of WE simulations: WESTPA (The Weighted Ensemble Simulation Toolkit with Parallelization and Analysis). WESTPA scales to thousands of CPU cores and includes a suite of analysis tools that have been implemented in a massively parallel fashion. The software has been designed to interface conveniently with any dynamics engine and has already been used with a variety of molecular dynamics (e.g. GROMACS, NAMD, OpenMM, AMBER) and cell-modeling packages (e.g. BioNetGen, MCell). WESTPA has been in production use for over a year, and its utility has been demonstrated for a broad set of problems, ranging from atomically detailed host-guest associations to non-spatial chemical kinetics of cellular signaling networks. The following describes the design and features of WESTPA, including the facilities it provides for running WE simulations, storing and analyzing WE simulation data, as well as examples of input and output. PMID:26392815

  7. Determination of perfluorocompounds in popcorn packaging by pressurised liquid extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Moral, María Pilar; Tena, María Teresa

    2012-11-15

    The development and characterisation of a method based on reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to a quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer (Q-TOF-MS) with negative electrospray ionisation (ESI) to determine perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in packaging is presented in this paper. Analytes were quantitatively recovered from packaging with methanol in only one PLE cycle of 6 min at 100 °C. The UPLC allowed the successful separation of the studied PFCs in less than 4 min. The whole method presented good precision, with RSDs below 8%, LODs from 0.6 to 16 ng g(-1); and excellent recovery values, around 100% in all cases, were achieved. The PLE-UPLC-MS method was applied to the analysis of popcorn packaging for microwave cooking. Besides the most commonly studied PFCs: PFOA and PFOS, the presence of other perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in popcorn packaging is evidenced in this work. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. High-performance packaging for monolithic microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, K. A.; Li, K.; Shih, Y. C.

    1992-01-01

    Packaging schemes were developed that provide low-loss, hermetic enclosure for advanced monolithic microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuits (MMICs). The package designs are based on a fused quartz substrate material that offers improved radio frequency (RF) performance through 44 gigahertz (GHz). The small size and weight of the packages make them appropriate for a variety of applications, including phased array antenna systems. Packages were designed in two forms; one for housing a single MMIC chip, the second in the form of a multi-chip phased array module. The single chip array module was developed in three separate sizes, for chips of different geometry and frequency requirements. The phased array module was developed to address packaging directly for antenna applications, and includes transmission line and interconnect structures to support multi-element operation. All packages are fabricated using fused quartz substrate materials. As part of the packaging effort, a test fixture was developed to interface the single chip packages to conventional laboratory instrumentation for characterization of the packaged devices. The package and test fixture designs were both developed in a generic sense, optimizing performance for a wide range of possible applications and devices.

  9. Optimization of a high-pressure pore water extraction device.

    PubMed

    Cyr, Martin; Daidié, Alain

    2007-02-01

    High-pressure squeezing is a technique used for the extraction of the pore water of porous materials such as sediments, soils, rocks, and concrete. The efficiency of extraction depends on the maximum pressures on the materials. This article presents the design of a high-pressure device reaching an axial pressure of 1000 MPa which has been developed to improve the efficiency of extraction. The increase in squeezing pressure implies high stresses inside the chamber, so specialized expertise was required to design a safe, functional device that could withstand pressures significantly higher than common laboratory equipment. The design includes finite element calculations, selection of appropriate materials, and descriptive construction details for the apparatus. It also includes an experimental study of the performance of the apparatus in terms of extraction efficiency.

  10. VIP: Vortex Image Processing Package for High-contrast Direct Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Gonzalez, Carlos Alberto; Wertz, Olivier; Absil, Olivier; Christiaens, Valentin; Defrère, Denis; Mawet, Dimitri; Milli, Julien; Absil, Pierre-Antoine; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc; Cantalloube, Faustine; Hinz, Philip M.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Karlsson, Mikael; Surdej, Jean

    2017-07-01

    We present the Vortex Image Processing (VIP) library, a python package dedicated to astronomical high-contrast imaging. Our package relies on the extensive python stack of scientific libraries and aims to provide a flexible framework for high-contrast data and image processing. In this paper, we describe the capabilities of VIP related to processing image sequences acquired using the angular differential imaging (ADI) observing technique. VIP implements functionalities for building high-contrast data processing pipelines, encompassing pre- and post-processing algorithms, potential source position and flux estimation, and sensitivity curve generation. Among the reference point-spread function subtraction techniques for ADI post-processing, VIP includes several flavors of principal component analysis (PCA) based algorithms, such as annular PCA and incremental PCA algorithms capable of processing big datacubes (of several gigabytes) on a computer with limited memory. Also, we present a novel ADI algorithm based on non-negative matrix factorization, which comes from the same family of low-rank matrix approximations as PCA and provides fairly similar results. We showcase the ADI capabilities of the VIP library using a deep sequence on HR 8799 taken with the LBTI/LMIRCam and its recently commissioned L-band vortex coronagraph. Using VIP, we investigated the presence of additional companions around HR 8799 and did not find any significant additional point source beyond the four known planets. VIP is available at http://github.com/vortex-exoplanet/VIP and is accompanied with Jupyter notebook tutorials illustrating the main functionalities of the library.

  11. [Determination of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in packaging paper by dansylhydrazine derivatization-high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection].

    PubMed

    Gong, Shuguo; Liang, Yong; Tang, Liyun; Huang, Ping; Dai, Yunhui

    2017-07-08

    A high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in packaging paper by dansylhydrazine (DNSH) derivatization. The samples were extracted by derivatization reagent for 30 min, and derived for 24 h. After purifying treatment with a PSA/C18 cartridge, a Diamonsil ® C18 column (150 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μ m) was used as stationary phase for separation, the mixtures of acetic acid aqueous solution (pH 2.55)-acetonitrile were used as mobile phases by gradient elution, and the excitation and emission wavelengths were 330 nm and 484 nm, respectively. The results showed that the recoveries of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde spiked in the samples were 81.64%-106.78%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.02%-5.53% ( n =5). The limits of detection of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were 19.2 μ g/kg and 20.7 μ g/kg, respectively. The limits of quantification of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were 63.9 μ g/kg and 69.1 μ g/kg, respectively. The method is simple, sensitive and reproducible. It provides a basic approach for the determination of trace formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

  12. Shuttle high resolution accelerometer package experiment results - Atmospheric density measurements between 60-160 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Hinson, E. W.; Nicholson, J. Y.

    1988-01-01

    Indirect or inferred values of atmospheric density encountered by the Shuttle Orbiter during reentry have been calculated from acceleration measurements made by the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP) and the Orbiter Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) liner accelerometers. The atmospheric density data developed from this study represent a significant gain with respect to the body of data collected to date by various techniques in the altitude range of 60 to 160 km. The data are unique in that they cover a very wide horizontal range during each flight and provide insight into the actual density variations encountered along the reentry flight path. The data, which were collected over about 3 years, are also characterized by variations in solar activity, geomagnetic index, and local solar time. Comparison of the flight-derived densities with various atmospheric models have been made, and analyses have attempted to characterize the data and to show correlation with selected physical variables.

  13. Potential mechanisms of carbon monoxide and high oxygen packaging in maintaining color stability of different bovine muscles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenglong; Zhang, Yimin; Yang, Xiaoyin; Liang, Rongrong; Mao, Yanwei; Hou, Xu; Lu, Xiao; Luo, Xin

    2014-06-01

    The objectives were to compare the effects of packaging methods on color stability, metmyoglobin-reducing-activity (MRA), total-reducing-activity and NADH concentration of different bovine muscles and to explore potential mechanisms in the enhanced color stability by carbon monoxide modified atmosphere packaging (CO-MAP, 0.4% CO/30% CO2/69.6% N2). Steaks from longissimus lumborum (LL), psoas major (PM) and longissimus thoracis (LT) packaged in CO-MAP, high-oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (HiOx-MAP, 80% O2/20% CO2) or vacuum packaging were stored for 0day, 4days, 9days, and 14days or stored for 9days then displayed in air for 0day, 1day, or 3days. The CO-MAP significantly increased red color stability of all muscles, and especially for PM. The PM and LT were more red than LL in CO-MAP, whereas PM had lowest redness in HiOx-MAP. The content of MetMb in CO-MAP was lower than in HiOx-MAP. Steaks in CO-MAP maintained a higher MRA compared with those in HiOx-MAP during storage. After opening packages, the red color of steaks in CO-MAP deteriorated more slowly compared with that of steaks in HiOx-MAP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of the Solubilization Properties of Polysorbate 80 and Isopropanol/Water Solvent Systems for Organic Compounds Extracted from Three Pharmaceutical Packaging Configurations.

    PubMed

    Zdravkovic, Steven A

    2016-10-10

    It has been reported that the presence of polysorbate 80 in a pharmaceutical product's formulation may increase the number and/or amount of impurities leached from materials used during its manufacture, storage, and/or administration. However, it is uncertain if/how the solubilization properties of this surfactant compare to non-surfactant solvent systems. The goal of this study is to provide insight into this area of uncertainty by comparing the solubilization properties of polysorbate 80 to those of isopropanol/water solutions while in contact with a plasticized polyvinylchloride parenteral delivery bag, a single-use type manufacturing bag, and a polypropylene bottle. These properties were determined via a binding experiment, in which a set of model compounds was introduced into the solutions, and via an extraction experiment, in which compounds were extracted from the packaging material by the solutions. In both experiments, the amount of each compound present at equilibrium was assayed to determine the extent they were solubilized by the solution from the packaging material. Results from these experiments illustrate differences in the magnitude of solubilization obtained from solutions containing polysorbate 80 as compared to those composed of isopropanol/water. However, it was also demonstrated that their solubilization properties can be linked via a mathematical model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evidence-based new service package vs. routine service package for smoking cessation to prevent high risk patients from cardiovascular diseases (CVD): study protocol for randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking cessation is a high-priority intervention to prevent CVD events and deaths in developing countries. While several interventions to stop smoking have been proved successful, the question of how to increase their effectiveness and practicality in developing countries remains. In this study, a newly devised evidence-based smoking cessation service package will be compared with the existing service in a randomized controlled trial within the community setting of Thailand. Method/Design This randomized control trial will recruit 440 current smokers at CVD risk because of being diabetic and/or hypertensive. Informed, consented participants will be randomly allocated into the new service-package arm and the routine service arm. The study will take place in the non-communicable disease clinics of the Maetha District Hospital, Lampang, northern Thailand. The new smoking-cessation service-package comprises (1) regular patient motivation and coaching from the same primary care nurse over a 3-month period; (2) monthly application of piCO + smokerlyzer to sustain motivation of smoker’s quitting attempt and provide positive feedback over a 3-month period; (3) assistance by an assigned family member; (4) nicotine replacement chewing gum to relieve withdrawal symptoms. This new service will be compared with the traditional routine service comprising the 5A approach in a 1-year follow-up. Participants who consent to participate in the study but refuse to attempt quitting smoking will be allocated to the non-randomized arm, where they will be just followed up and monitored. Primary outcome of the study is smoking cessation rate at 1-year follow-up proven by breath analysis measuring carbomonoxide in parts per million in expired air. Secondary outcomes are smoking cessation rate at the 6-month follow-up, blood pressure and heart rate, CVD risk according to the Framingham general cardiovascular risk score, CVD events and deaths at the 12-month follow-up, and

  16. Evidence-based new service package vs. routine service package for smoking cessation to prevent high risk patients from cardiovascular diseases (CVD): study protocol for randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Aung, Myo Nyein; Yuasa, Motoyuki; Lorga, Thaworn; Moolphate, Saiyud; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Tsutomu; Yokokawa, Hirohide; Minematsu, Kazuo; Tanimura, Susumu; Hiratsuka, Yoshimune; Ono, Koichi; Naunboonruang, Prissana; Thinuan, Payom; Kawai, Sachio; Suya, Yaoyanee; Chumvicharana, Somboon; Marui, Eiji

    2013-12-05

    Smoking cessation is a high-priority intervention to prevent CVD events and deaths in developing countries. While several interventions to stop smoking have been proved successful, the question of how to increase their effectiveness and practicality in developing countries remains. In this study, a newly devised evidence-based smoking cessation service package will be compared with the existing service in a randomized controlled trial within the community setting of Thailand. This randomized control trial will recruit 440 current smokers at CVD risk because of being diabetic and/or hypertensive. Informed, consented participants will be randomly allocated into the new service-package arm and the routine service arm. The study will take place in the non-communicable disease clinics of the Maetha District Hospital, Lampang, northern Thailand. The new smoking-cessation service-package comprises (1) regular patient motivation and coaching from the same primary care nurse over a 3-month period; (2) monthly application of piCO + smokerlyzer to sustain motivation of smoker's quitting attempt and provide positive feedback over a 3-month period; (3) assistance by an assigned family member; (4) nicotine replacement chewing gum to relieve withdrawal symptoms. This new service will be compared with the traditional routine service comprising the 5A approach in a 1-year follow-up. Participants who consent to participate in the study but refuse to attempt quitting smoking will be allocated to the non-randomized arm, where they will be just followed up and monitored. Primary outcome of the study is smoking cessation rate at 1-year follow-up proven by breath analysis measuring carbomonoxide in parts per million in expired air. Secondary outcomes are smoking cessation rate at the 6-month follow-up, blood pressure and heart rate, CVD risk according to the Framingham general cardiovascular risk score, CVD events and deaths at the 12-month follow-up, and the cost-effectiveness of the

  17. Support the Design of Improved IUE NEWSIPS High Dispersion Extraction Algorithms: Improved IUE High Dispersion Extraction Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, Pat

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work was to support the design of improved IUE NEWSIPS high dispersion extraction algorithms. The purpose of this work was to evaluate use of the Linearized Image (LIHI) file versus the Re-Sampled Image (SIHI) file, evaluate various extraction, and design algorithms for evaluation of IUE High Dispersion spectra. It was concluded the use of the Re-Sampled Image (SIHI) file was acceptable. Since the Gaussian profile worked well for the core and the Lorentzian profile worked well for the wings, the Voigt profile was chosen for use in the extraction algorithm. It was found that the gamma and sigma parameters varied significantly across the detector, so gamma and sigma masks for the SWP detector were developed. Extraction code was written.

  18. The effect of different gas permeability of packaging on physicochemical and microbiological parameters of pork loin storage under high O2 modified atmosphere packaging conditions.

    PubMed

    Marcinkowska-Lesiak, Monika; Poławska, Ewa; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of different packaging materials on meat quality during cold storage. Therefore pork loins (m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum) obtained from crossbred pigs (Polish Landrance x Duroc, n = 6) were stored at 2 ℃ in modified atmosphere packs (80% O 2 , 20% CO 2 ) in four types of trays, which differ in gas permeability. Physicochemical (headspace gas composition, pH, colour, drip loss, cooking loss, shear force, the basic composition and fatty acid profile) and microbiological ( Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, total aerobic plates count, total psychrotrophic bacteria count, the number of lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas spp., the general amount of yeast and mold) parameters were monitored for up to 12 days. At the end of the storage period no differences in most physicochemical properties of pork loin due to type of packaging were found, however trays with high gas permeability had the greatest impact on total aerobic plates count and Pseudomonas spp. growth.

  19. High extraction efficiency ultraviolet light-emitting diode

    DOEpatents

    Wierer, Jonathan; Montano, Ines; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-11-24

    Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with tailored AlGaN quantum wells can achieve high extraction efficiency. For efficient bottom light extraction, parallel polarized light is preferred, because it propagates predominately perpendicular to the QW plane and into the typical and more efficient light escape cones. This is favored over perpendicular polarized light that propagates along the QW plane which requires multiple, lossy bounces before extraction. The thickness and carrier density of AlGaN QW layers have a strong influence on the valence subband structure, and the resulting optical polarization and light extraction of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes. At Al>0.3, thinner QW layers (<2.5 nm are preferred) result in light preferentially polarized parallel to the QW plane. Also, active regions consisting of six or more QWs, to reduce carrier density, and with thin barriers, to efficiently inject carriers in all the QWs, are preferred.

  20. High-density interconnect substrates and device packaging using conductive composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Pradeep; Gallagher, Catherine; Matijasevic, Goran

    1998-02-01

    High-end printed circuit board manufacturing technology is receiving increasing attention due to higher functionality in smaller form factors. This is evident from the industry efforts to produced reliable microvias and related trace features to pack as much circuit density as possible. Cost, density and performance requirements have prodded entry into a market that was mainly reserved for ceramic and molded packages for the last forty years. To successfully meet the demanding specifications of this market segment, a worldwide effort is underway for the development of new materials, processes and equipment. A novel base technology that is applicable to most of the major packaging and redistribution elements in an electronic module is presented.High density multilayer circuits with landless blind and buried vias can be fabricated by filling the conductor paste into photoimaged dielectrics and thermally processing it at a relatively lower temperature. Via layers are prepared directly on the inherently planarized circuit layer in an identical fashion. Because these composite materials are applied in an additive fabrication method, metal substrates can be employed for high thermal dissipation and excellent CTE control over a wide temperature range. The conductor material is based on interpenetrating polymer and metal networks that are formed in situ from metal particles and a thermosetting flux/binder. The metal network is formed when the alloy particles melt and react with adjacent high melting point metal particle. Interaction also occurs between the alloy particles and pad, lead or previous trace metallizations provided they are solderable by alloys of tin. The new alloy composition created by the interdiffusion process within the bulk material has a higher melting point than the original alloy and thus solidifies immediately upon formation. This metallurgical reaction, known as transient liquid phase sintering, is facilitated by the polymer mixture. INtegration of

  1. A Lightweight, High-performance I/O Management Package for Data-intensive Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Jun Wang

    2007-07-17

    File storage systems are playing an increasingly important role in high-performance computing as the performance gap between CPU and disk increases. It could take a long time to develop an entire system from scratch. Solutions will have to be built as extensions to existing systems. If new portable, customized software components are plugged into these systems, better sustained high I/O performance and higher scalability will be achieved, and the development cycle of next-generation of parallel file systems will be shortened. The overall research objective of this ECPI development plan aims to develop a lightweight, customized, high-performance I/O management package namedmore » LightI/O to extend and leverage current parallel file systems used by DOE. During this period, We have developed a novel component in LightI/O and prototype them into PVFS2, and evaluate the resultant prototype—extended PVFS2 system on data-intensive applications. The preliminary results indicate the extended PVFS2 delivers better performance and reliability to users. A strong collaborative effort between the PI at the University of Nebraska Lincoln and the DOE collaborators—Drs Rob Ross and Rajeev Thakur at Argonne National Laboratory who are leading the PVFS2 group makes the project more promising.« less

  2. Perceptions and impact of plain packaging of tobacco products in low and middle income countries, middle to upper income countries and low-income settings in high-income countries: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Nicole; Arora, Monika; Grills, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To review the current literature around the potential impact, effectiveness and perceptions of plain packaging in low income settings. Method A systematic review of the literature. Data sources 9 databases (PubMed, Global Health, Social Policy and Practice, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), CINAHL, PsycINFO, British Library for Development Studies (BLDS), Global Health Library and Scopus) were searched. The terms used for searching combined terms for smoking and tobacco use with terms for plain packaging. Study selection Studies investigating the impact of plain packaging on the determinants of tobacco use, such as smoking behaviour, appeal, prominence, effectiveness of health warnings, response to plain packs, attitudes towards quitting or likelihood of smoking in low-income settings, were identified. Studies must have been published in English and be original research of any level of rigour. Data extraction Two independent reviewers assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. Data synthesis The results were synthesised qualitatively, with themes grouped under four key headings: appeal and attractiveness; salience of health warnings and perceptions of harm; enjoyment and perceived taste ratings; and perceptions of the impact on tobacco usage behaviour. Results This review has identified four articles that met the inclusion criteria. Studies identified that tobacco products in plain packaging had less appeal than in branded packaging in low-income settings. Conclusions This review indicates that plain packaging appears to be successful in reducing appeal of smoking and packets, and supports the call for plain packaging to be widely implemented in conjunction with other tobacco control policies. However, there are considerable gaps in the amount of research conducted outside high-income countries. PMID:27000787

  3. PICSiP: new system-in-package technology using a high bandwidth photonic interconnection layer for converged microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekin, Tolga; Töpper, Michael; Reichl, Herbert

    2009-05-01

    Technological frontiers between semiconductor technology, packaging, and system design are disappearing. Scaling down geometries [1] alone does not provide improvement of performance, less power, smaller size, and lower cost. It will require "More than Moore" [2] through the tighter integration of system level components at the package level. System-in-Package (SiP) will deliver the efficient use of three dimensions (3D) through innovation in packaging and interconnect technology. A key bottleneck to the implementation of high-performance microelectronic systems, including SiP, is the lack of lowlatency, high-bandwidth, and high density off-chip interconnects. Some of the challenges in achieving high-bandwidth chip-to-chip communication using electrical interconnects include the high losses in the substrate dielectric, reflections and impedance discontinuities, and susceptibility to crosstalk [3]. Obviously, the incentive for the use of photonics to overcome the challenges and leverage low-latency and highbandwidth communication will enable the vision of optical computing within next generation architectures. Supercomputers of today offer sustained performance of more than petaflops, which can be increased by utilizing optical interconnects. Next generation computing architectures are needed with ultra low power consumption; ultra high performance with novel interconnection technologies. In this paper we will discuss a CMOS compatible underlying technology to enable next generation optical computing architectures. By introducing a new optical layer within the 3D SiP, the development of converged microsystems, deployment for next generation optical computing architecture will be leveraged.

  4. Interstellar lines in high resolution IUE spectra. Part 1: Groningen data reduction package and technical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilra, D. P.; Pwa, T. H.; Arnal, E. M.; de Vries, J.

    1982-06-01

    In order to process and analyze high resolution IUE data on a large number of interstellar lines in a large number of images for a large number of stars, computer programs were developed for 115 lines in the short wavelength range and 40 in the long wavelength range. Programs include extraction, processing, plotting, averaging, and profile fitting. Wavelength calibration in high resolution spectra, fixed pattern noise, instrument profile and resolution, and the background problem in the region where orders are crowding are discussed. All the expected lines are detected in at least one spectrum.

  5. Characterisation and antimicrobial activity of active polypropylene films containing oregano essential oil and Allium extract to be used in packaging for meat products.

    PubMed

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, María; Pichardo, Silvia; Bermudez, José María; Baños, Alberto; Ariza, Juan José; Guillamón, Enrique; Aucejo, Susana; Cameán, Ana M

    2018-04-01

    Cooked ham is more prone to spoilage than other meat products, making preservation a key step in its commercialisation. One of the most promising preservation strategies is the use of active packaging. Oregano essential oil (OEO) and Proallium® (an Allium extract) have previously been shown to be useful in polylactic acid (PLA)-active films for ready-to-eat salads. The present work aims to study the suitability of polypropylene (PP) films containing OEO and Proallium® in the preservation of cooked ham. Concerning the technological features of the studied material, no significant changes in the mechanical or optical properties of PP films containing the active substances were recorded in comparison to the PP film without extracts. However, films containing both active substances were more flexible than the control film and less strong, highlighting the plasticisation effect of the natural extracts. Moreover, physical properties changed when active substances were added to the film. Incorporation of 4% Proallium® affected the transparency of the film to a higher extent compared to 8% OEO, undergoing decreases in transparency of 40% and 45%, respectively. Moreover, only the film containing the highest amount of OEO (8%) significantly decreased the thickness. Both active substances showed antibacterial properties; however, Proallium®-active films seemed to be more effective against Brochothrix thermosphacta than PP films containing OEO, with all percentages of Proallium® killing the bacterial population present in the ham after 60 days. In addition, materials containing the lowest Proallium® content exhibited higher acceptability by consumers in the sensory analyses with 63-100% willing to purchase, better even than the control package (56-89%). In fact, 2% of Proallium® obtained the best results in the odour study performed by the panellists.

  6. Determination of alkylphenols and phthalate esters in vegetables and migration studies from their packages by means of stir bar sorptive extraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cacho, J I; Campillo, N; Viñas, P; Hernández-Córdoba, M

    2012-06-08

    This paper describes a method for the determination of three alkylphenols (APs), 4-tert-octylphenol (tOP), 4-n-octylphenol (OP) and 4-nonylphenol (NP), and six phthalate esters (PEs), dimethylphthalate (DMP), diethylphthalate (DEP), di-n-butylphthalate (DBP), n-butylbenzylphthalate (BBP), di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octylphthalate (DOP), in vegetables using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) in combination with thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Ultrasonic radiation was used to extract the analytes from the solid food matrix, and the extract obtained was preconcentrated by SBSE. The different parameters affecting both stages were carefully optimized. The method was applied to analyze commercial vegetables, in the form of plastic packed salads and canned greens, as well as the corresponding filling liquids of the canned food. Quantification of the samples was carried out against aqueous standards using an internal standard (anthracene). The analysis of a 2 g vegetable sample provided detection limits between 12.7 and 105.8 pg g⁻¹ for OP and DEHP, respectively. Migration studies from the plastic packages of the vegetables samples analyzed were carried out. DEP, DBP and DEHP were found to have migrated from the bags to the simulant and the same compounds were quantified in lettuce, corn salad, arugula, parsley and chard, at concentration levels in the 8-51 ng g⁻¹ range. However, OP and NP were found in only two vegetable samples and one filling liquid, but neither was detected in any package. The proposed method provided recoveries of 83-118%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genotoxicity assessment of propyl thiosulfinate oxide, an organosulfur compound from Allium extract, intended to food active packaging.

    PubMed

    Mellado-García, P; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Prieto, A I; Marcos, R; Pichardo, S; Cameán, A M

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils from onion (Allium cepa L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and their main components, such as propyl thiosulfinate oxide (PTSO) are being intended for active packaging with the purpose of maintaining and extending food product quality and shelf life. The present work aims to assess for the first time the potential mutagenicity/genotoxicity of PTSO (0-50 µM) using the following battery of genotoxicity tests: (1) the bacterial reverse-mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test, OECD 471); (2) the micronucleus test (OECD 487) (MN) and (3) the mouse lymphoma thymidine-kinase assay (OECD 476) (MLA) on L5178YTk(+/-), cells; and (4) the comet assay (with and without Endo III and FPG enzymes) on Caco-2 cells. The results revealed that PTSO was not mutagenic in the Ames test, however it was mutagenic in the MLA assay after 24 h of treatment (2.5-20 µM). The parent compound did not induce MN on mammalian cells; however, its metabolites (in the presence S9) produced positive results (from 15 µM). Data from the comet assay indicated that PTSO did not induce DNA breaks or oxidative DNA damage. Further in vivo genotoxicity tests are needed to confirm its safety before it is used as active additive in food packaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A low cost hermetic packaging for high power industry fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jianwu; Liu, Jinhui

    2018-02-01

    For water-cooled fiber lasers, humidity and the resulting water-condensation has always been the biggest threat for laser reliability or power degradation, especially when used in harsh industrial environment. Here we present an innovative fiber laser packaging method featuring cast aluminum frame and an almost screw-free exterior packaging. A CW fiber laser with 1.5KW laser output power in such a compact and light-weight package has been demonstrated with an excellent beam quality and power stability for industry applications.

  9. Ultrasound aided smooth dispensing for high viscoelastic epoxy in microelectronic packaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Li, Han-Xiong; Shan, Xiuyang; Gao, Jian; Chen, Xin; Wang, Fuliang

    2016-01-01

    Epoxy dispensing is one of the most critical processes in microelectronic packaging. However, due its high viscoelasticity, dispensing of epoxy is extremely difficult, and a lower viscoelasticity epoxy is desired to improve the process. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to achieve a lowered viscoelastic epoxy by using ultrasound. The viscoelasticity and molecular structures of the epoxies were compared and analyzed before and after experimentation. Different factors of the ultrasonic process, including power, processing time and ultrasonic energy, were studied in this study. It is found that elasticity is more sensitive to ultrasonic processing while viscosity is little affected. Further, large power and long processing time can minimize the viscoelasticity to ideal values. Due to the reduced loss modulus and storage modulus after ultrasonic processing, smooth dispensing is demonstrated for the processed epoxy. The subsequently color temperature experiments show that ultrasonic processing will not affect LED's lighting. It is clear that the ultrasonic processing will have good potential to aide smooth dispensing for high viscoelastic epoxy in electronic industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High-performance polyimide nanocomposites with core-shell AgNWs@BN for electronic packagings

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yongcun; Liu, Feng, E-mail: liufeng@nwpu.edu.cn

    2016-08-22

    The increasing density of electronic devices underscores the need for efficient thermal management. Silver nanowires (AgNWs), as one-dimensional nanostructures, possess a high aspect ratio and intrinsic thermal conductivity. However, high electrical conductivity of AgNWs limits their application for electronic packaging. We synthesized boron nitride-coated silver nanowires (AgNWs@BN) using a flexible and fast method followed by incorporation into synthetic polyimide (PI) for enhanced thermal conductivity and dielectric properties of nanocomposites. The thinner boron nitride intermediate nanolayer on AgNWs not only alleviated the mismatch between AgNWs and PI but also enhanced their interfacial interaction. Hence, the maximum thermal conductivity of an AgNWs@BN/PImore » composite with a filler loading up to 20% volume was increased to 4.33 W/m K, which is an enhancement by nearly 23.3 times compared with that of the PI matrix. The relative permittivity and dielectric loss were about 9.89 and 0.015 at 1 MHz, respectively. Compared with AgNWs@SiO{sub 2}/PI and Ag@BN/PI composites, boron nitride-coated core-shell structures effectively increased the thermal conductivity and reduced the permittivity of nanocomposites. The relative mechanism was studied and discussed. This study enables the identification of appropriate modifier fillers for polymer matrix nanocomposites.« less

  11. High barrier multilayer packaging by the coextrusion method: The effect of nanocomposites and biodegradable polymers on flexible film properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thellen, Christopher T.

    The objective of this research was to investigate the use of nanocomposite and multilayer co-extrusion technologies for the development of high gas barrier packaging that is more environmentally friendly than many current packaging system. Co-extruded bio-based and biodegradable polymers that could be composted in a municipal landfill were one direction that this research was aimed. Down-gauging of high performance barrier films using nanocomposite technology and co-extrusion was also investigated in order to reduce the amount of solid waste being generated by the packaging. Although the research is focused on military ration packaging, the technologies could easily be introduced into the commercial flexible packaging market. Multilayer packaging consisting of poly(m-xylylene adipamide) nanocomposite layers along with adhesive and tie layers was co-extruded using both laboratory and pilot-scale film extrusion equipment. Co-extrusion of biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) along with polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and tie layers was also accomplished using similar co-extrusion technology. All multilayer films were characterized for gas barrier, mechanical, and thermal properties. The biodegradability of the PVOH and PHA materials in a marine environment was also investigated. The research has shown that co-extrusion of these materials is possible at a research and pilot level. The use of nanocomposite poly(m-xylylene adipamide) was effective in down-gauging the un-filled barrier film to thinner structures. Bio-based PHA/PVOH films required the use of a malefic anhydride grafted PHA tie layer to improve layer to layer adhesion in the structure to avoid delamination. The PHA polymer demonstrated a high rate of biodegradability/mineralization in the marine environment while the rate of biodegradation of the PVOH polymer was slower.

  12. Facile synthesis of high strength hot-water wood extract films with oxygen-barrier performance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ge-Gu; Fu, Gen-Que; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Gong, Xiao-Dong; Niu, Ya-Shuai; Peng, Feng; Yao, Chun-Li; Sun, Run-Cang

    2017-01-01

    Biobased nanocomposite films for food packaging with high mechanical strength and good oxygen-barrier performance were developed using a hot-water wood extract (HWE). In this work, a facile approach to produce HWE/montmorillonite (MMT) based nanocomposite films with excellent physical properties is described. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of the MMT content on the structure and mechanical properties of nanocomposites and the effects of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) on the physical properties of the HWE-MMT films. The experimental results suggested that the intercalation of HWE and CMC in montmorillonite could produce compact, robust films with a nacre-like structure and multifunctional characteristics. This results of this study showed that the mechanical properties of the film designated FCMC0.05 (91.5 MPa) were dramatically enhanced because the proportion of HWE, MMT and CMC was 1:1.5:0.05. In addition, the optimized films exhibited an oxygen permeability below 2.0 cm3 μm/day·m2·kPa, as well as good thermal stability due to the small amount of CMC. These results provide a comprehensive understanding for further development of high-performance nanocomposites which are based on natural polymers (HWE) and assembled layered clays (MMT). These films offer great potential in the field of sustainable packaging. PMID:28112259

  13. Facile synthesis of high strength hot-water wood extract films with oxygen-barrier performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ge-Gu; Fu, Gen-Que; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Gong, Xiao-Dong; Niu, Ya-Shuai; Peng, Feng; Yao, Chun-Li; Sun, Run-Cang

    2017-01-01

    Biobased nanocomposite films for food packaging with high mechanical strength and good oxygen-barrier performance were developed using a hot-water wood extract (HWE). In this work, a facile approach to produce HWE/montmorillonite (MMT) based nanocomposite films with excellent physical properties is described. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of the MMT content on the structure and mechanical properties of nanocomposites and the effects of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) on the physical properties of the HWE-MMT films. The experimental results suggested that the intercalation of HWE and CMC in montmorillonite could produce compact, robust films with a nacre-like structure and multifunctional characteristics. This results of this study showed that the mechanical properties of the film designated FCMC0.05 (91.5 MPa) were dramatically enhanced because the proportion of HWE, MMT and CMC was 1:1.5:0.05. In addition, the optimized films exhibited an oxygen permeability below 2.0 cm3 μm/day·m2·kPa, as well as good thermal stability due to the small amount of CMC. These results provide a comprehensive understanding for further development of high-performance nanocomposites which are based on natural polymers (HWE) and assembled layered clays (MMT). These films offer great potential in the field of sustainable packaging.

  14. Extracting cardiac myofiber orientations from high frequency ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xulei; Cong, Zhibin; Jiang, Rong; Shen, Ming; Wagner, Mary B.; Kirshbom, Paul; Fei, Baowei

    2013-03-01

    Cardiac myofiber plays an important role in stress mechanism during heart beating periods. The orientation of myofibers decides the effects of the stress distribution and the whole heart deformation. It is important to image and quantitatively extract these orientations for understanding the cardiac physiological and pathological mechanism and for diagnosis of chronic diseases. Ultrasound has been wildly used in cardiac diagnosis because of its ability of performing dynamic and noninvasive imaging and because of its low cost. An extraction method is proposed to automatically detect the cardiac myofiber orientations from high frequency ultrasound images. First, heart walls containing myofibers are imaged by B-mode high frequency (<20 MHz) ultrasound imaging. Second, myofiber orientations are extracted from ultrasound images using the proposed method that combines a nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filter, Canny edge detector, Hough transform, and K-means clustering. This method is validated by the results of ultrasound data from phantoms and pig hearts.

  15. Lipid and protein oxidation and sensory properties of vacuum-packaged dry-cured ham subjected to high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Verónica; Ventanas, Jesús; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia

    2010-07-01

    The effect of HHP treatment (600 MPa) on the oxidative stability of lipids and proteins of vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham and the impact on the sensory characteristics of the product was investigated. In order to assess how different commercial presentations are affected by HHP treatment, three different presentations of vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham were considered, namely, (i) intact format (IF) corresponding to non-sliced vacuum-packaged dry-cured ham, (ii) conventional-sliced format (CSF) corresponding to dry-cured ham slices placed stretched out in the package and (iii) alternative-sliced format (ASF) corresponding to dry-cured ham slices piled up horizontally. The oxidation of dry-cured ham lipids and proteins was enhanced by HHP-treatment with the presentation being highly influential on these oxidative reactions. Pre-slicing dry-cured ham results in a more susceptible product to oxidative reactions during pressurisation and subsequent refrigerated storage. Possible mechanisms, by which HHP-induced oxidative reactions would affect particular sensory traits in vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham such as colour, texture and flavour attributes, are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of nano packaging on preservation quality of Nanjing 9108 rice variety at high temperature and humidity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan; Hu, Qiuhui; Mugambi Mariga, Alfred; Cao, Chongjiang; Yang, Wenjian

    2018-01-15

    A nano packaging material containing nano Ag, nano TiO 2 , nano attapulgite and SiO 2 was prepared, and its impact on quality of Nanjing 9108 rice at 37°C and 85% relative humidity was studied. Effects of the packaging on ambient gases and chromatic aberration of rice were determined. Moreover, oxidation level, molds growth and flavor of rice were also analyzed. Results showed that nano packaging material had antimicrobial effects and maintained low O 2 and high CO 2 content in the packages. The packages thereby inhibited the growth of molds and the production of fatty acids, restrained the increase of lipase activity, and reduced the oxidation of fats and proteins. As a result, the production of yellow and white-belly rice were inhibited. Furthermore, the color and flavor of rice were maintained. Therefore, the nano-packing material could be applied for preservation of rice to improve preservation quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Packaging Technology for Dielectric-Coating-Less Heavy Ion Radiation Testing of High-Voltage (HV) Electronic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodworth, Andrew; Chen, Liangyu

    2017-01-01

    Testing high voltage (HV) electronic parts (greater than 300 V) for sudden event effects (SEE) caused by cosmic rays in the space environment, consisting of energetic heavy-ions, and neutron radiation in the upper atmosphere is a crucial step towards using these parts in spacecraft and aircraft. Due to the nature of cosmic radiation and neutrons, electronic parts are tested for SEE without any packaging and/or shielding over the top of the device. In the case of commercial HV parts, the top of the packaging is etched off and then a thin dielectric coating is placed over the part in order to avoid electrical arcing between the device surface and wire bonds and other components. Even though the effects of the thin dielectric layer on SEE testing can be accounted for, the dielectric layer significantly hinders post testing failure analysis. Replicating the test capability of state-of-the-art packaging while eliminating the need for post radiation test processing of the die surface (that obscures failure analysis) is the goal. To that end, a new packaging concept for HV parts has been developed that requires no dielectric coating over the part. Testing of prototype packages used with Schottky diodes (rated at 1200V) has shown no electrical arcing during testing and leakage currents during reverse bias testing are within the manufactures specifications.

  18. Development of low cost, high reliability sealing techniques for hybrid microcircuit packages. Phase 2, supplement 1: Moisture permeation of adhesive-sealed hybrid microcircuit packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The susceptibility of adhesive-sealed ceramic packages to moisture permeation was investigated. The two adhesives, Ablebond 789-1 and Epo-Tek H77, were evaluated as package sealants. These adhesives were previously selected as the most promising candidates for this application from a group of ten adhesives. Ceramic packages sealed with these adhesives were exposed to temperature-humidity conditions of 25 C/98 percent RH, 50 C/60 percent RH, 50 C/98 percent RH, and 85 C/85 percent RH and their moisture contents using were monitored solid state moisture sensors sealed inside them. Five packages were tested at each of these exposures - two ceramic packages sealed with each of the two adhesives and one seam-sealed gold-plated Kovar package. This latter package was included to serve as a control. The results showed that the adhesive-sealed packages were not hermetic to moisture. The rates at which moisture entered the packages increased with the severity of the exposure environments (i.e., higher temperatures and higher moisture vapor pressures) with greater dependence on temperature than on moisture vapor pressure.

  19. Extension of the shelf life of prawns (Penaeus japonicus) by vacuum packaging and high-pressure treatment.

    PubMed

    López-Caballero, M E; Pérez-Mateos, M; Borderías, J A; Montero, P

    2000-10-01

    The present study has investigated the application of high pressures (200 and 400 MPa) in chilled prawn tails, both conventionally stored (air) and vacuum packaged. Vacuum packaging and high-pressure treatment did extend the shelf life of the prawn samples, although it did affect muscle color very slightly, giving it a whiter appearance. The viable shelf life of 1 week for the air-stored samples was extended to 21 days in the vacuum-packed samples, 28 days in the samples treated at 200 MPa, and 35 days in the samples pressurized at 400 MPa. Vacuum packaging checked the onset of blackening, whereas high-pressure treatment aggravated the problem. From a microbiological point of view, batches conventionally stored reached about 6 log CFU/g or even higher at 14 days. Similar figures were reached in total number of bacteria in vacuum-packed samples and in pressurized at 200-MPa samples at 21 days. When samples were pressurized at 400 MPa, total numbers of bacteria were below 5.5 log CFU/g at 35 days of storage. Consequently, a combination of vacuum packaging and high-pressure treatment would appear to be beneficial in prolonging freshness and preventing spotting.

  20. Development of High Temperature SiC Based Hydrogen/Hydrocarbon Sensors with Bond Pads for Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Chen, Liangyu; Biagi-Labiosa, Azlin M.; Ward, Benjamin J.; Lukco, Dorothy; Gonzalez, Jose M., III; Lampard, Peter S.; Artale, Michael A.; Hampton, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes efforts towards the transition of existing high temperature hydrogen and hydrocarbon Schottky diode sensor elements to packaged sensor structures that can be integrated into a testing system. Sensor modifications and the technical challenges involved are discussed. Testing of the sensors at 500 C or above is also presented along with plans for future development.

  1. Growth and survival of uninjured and sublethally heat-injured Escherichia coli O157:H7 on beef extract medium as influenced by package atmosphere and storage temperature.

    PubMed

    Semanchek, J J; Golden, D A; Williams, R C

    1999-03-01

    The effect of atmospheric composition and storage temperature on growth and survival of uninjured and sublethally heat-injured Escherichia coli O157:H7, inoculated onto brain heart infusion agar containing 0.3% beef extract (BEM), was determined. BEM plates were packaged in barrier bags in air, 100% CO2, 100% N2, 20% CO2: 80% N2, and vacuum and were stored at 4, 10, and 37 degrees C for up to 20 days. Package atmosphere and inoculum status (i.e., uninjured or heat-injured) influenced (P < 0.01) growth and survival of E. coli O157:H7 stored at all test temperatures. Growth of heat-injured E. coli O157:H7 was slower (P < 0.01) than uninjured E. coli O157:H7 stored at 37 degrees C. At 37 degrees C, uninjured E. coli O157:H7 reached stationary phase growth earlier than heat-injured populations. Uninjured E. coli O157:H7 grew during 10 days of storage at 10 degrees C, while heat-injured populations declined during 20 days of storage at 10 degrees C. Uninjured E. coli O157:H7 stored at 10 degrees C reached stationary phase growth within approximately 10 days in all packaging atmospheres except CO2. Populations of uninjured and heat-injured E. coli O157:H7 declined throughout storage for 20 days at 4 degrees C. Survival of uninjured populations stored at 4 degrees C, as well as heat-injured populations stored at 4 and 10 degrees C, was enhanced in CO2 atmosphere. Survival of heat-injured E. coli O157:H7 at 4 and 10 degrees C was not different (P > 0.05). Uninjured and heat-injured E. coli O157:H7 are able to survive at low temperatures in the modified atmospheres used in this study.

  2. Evaluation of stability of allergen extracts for sublingual immunotherapy during transport under unfavourable temperature conditions with an innovative thermal insulating packaging.

    PubMed

    Puccinelli, P; Natoli, V; Dell'albani, I; Scurati, S; Incorvaia, C; Barbieri, S; Masieri, S; Frati, F

    2013-10-01

    Many pharmaceutical and biotechnological products are temperature-sensitive and should normally be kept at a controlled temperature, particularly during transport, in order to prevent the loss of their stability and activity. Therefore, stability studies should be performed for temperature-sensitive products, considering product characteristics, typical environmental conditions, and anticipating environmental extremes that may occur during product transport in a specific country. Staloral products for sublingual immunotherapy are temperature sensitive and are labelled for maintenance under refrigerated conditions (2-8°C). Given the peculiar climatic context of Italy and the great temperature fluctuations that may occur during transport, this study was aimed at evaluating the impact of a new engineered thermal insulating packaging for Staloral. In particular, the purpose was to assess whether the new packaging could create a container condition able to preserve the stability and immunological activity of the product during the transport phase throughout Italy. The results showed that the range of temperatures that can affect the product, in the area surrounding the product packaging, may reach a peak of 63°C during transport under the most unfavourable climatic conditions, i.e. in a non-refrigerated van during the summer season, from the site of production in France to the patient's house in Catania, the city with the highest temperatures in Italy. However, the highest temperature reached inside the vaccine did not exceed 45°C over a period of about 2 h. The ELISA inhibition test on samples subjected to the extreme temperature conditions previously defined (45°C) showed an immunological activity higher than 75% of that initially measured and was comparable to those obtained with samples stored at controlled temperature (5°C). This means that, even in the worst case scenario, the structure of the allergen extracts is not influenced and the vaccine potency is

  3. The High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP) flight experiment summary for the first 10 flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Larman, K. T.; Barrett, M.

    1992-01-01

    The High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP) instrument is a triaxial, orthogonal system of gas damped accelerometers with a resolution of 1 x 10(exp -6) g (1 micro-g). The purpose of HiRAP is to measure the low frequency component of the total acceleration along the orbiter vehicle (OV) body axes while the OV descends through the rarefied flow flight regime. Two HiRAP instruments have flown on a total of 10 Space Transport System (STS) missions. The aerodynamic component of the acceleration measurements was separated from the total acceleration. Instrument bias and orbiter mechanical system acceleration effects were incorporated into one bulk bias. The bulk bias was subtracted from the acceleration measurements to produce aerodynamic descent data sets for all 10 flights. The aerodynamic acceleration data sets were input to an aerodynamic coefficient model. The aerodynamic acceleration data and coefficient model were used to estimate the atmospheric density for the altitude range of 140 to 60 km and a downrange distance of 600 km. For 8 of 10 flights results from this model agree with expected results. For the results that do not agree with expected results, a variety of error sources have been explored.

  4. Exploiting graph kernels for high performance biomedical relation extraction.

    PubMed

    Panyam, Nagesh C; Verspoor, Karin; Cohn, Trevor; Ramamohanarao, Kotagiri

    2018-01-30

    Relation extraction from biomedical publications is an important task in the area of semantic mining of text. Kernel methods for supervised relation extraction are often preferred over manual feature engineering methods, when classifying highly ordered structures such as trees and graphs obtained from syntactic parsing of a sentence. Tree kernels such as the Subset Tree Kernel and Partial Tree Kernel have been shown to be effective for classifying constituency parse trees and basic dependency parse graphs of a sentence. Graph kernels such as the All Path Graph kernel (APG) and Approximate Subgraph Matching (ASM) kernel have been shown to be suitable for classifying general graphs with cycles, such as the enhanced dependency parse graph of a sentence. In this work, we present a high performance Chemical-Induced Disease (CID) relation extraction system. We present a comparative study of kernel methods for the CID task and also extend our study to the Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) extraction task, an important biomedical relation extraction task. We discuss novel modifications to the ASM kernel to boost its performance and a method to apply graph kernels for extracting relations expressed in multiple sentences. Our system for CID relation extraction attains an F-score of 60%, without using external knowledge sources or task specific heuristic or rules. In comparison, the state of the art Chemical-Disease Relation Extraction system achieves an F-score of 56% using an ensemble of multiple machine learning methods, which is then boosted to 61% with a rule based system employing task specific post processing rules. For the CID task, graph kernels outperform tree kernels substantially, and the best performance is obtained with APG kernel that attains an F-score of 60%, followed by the ASM kernel at 57%. The performance difference between the ASM and APG kernels for CID sentence level relation extraction is not significant. In our evaluation of ASM for the PPI task, ASM

  5. Genecentric: a package to uncover graph-theoretic structure in high-throughput epistasis data.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Andrew; Leiserson, Mark D M; Kachalov, Maxim; Cowen, Lenore J; Hescott, Benjamin J

    2013-01-18

    New technology has resulted in high-throughput screens for pairwise genetic interactions in yeast and other model organisms. For each pair in a collection of non-essential genes, an epistasis score is obtained, representing how much sicker (or healthier) the double-knockout organism will be compared to what would be expected from the sickness of the component single knockouts. Recent algorithmic work has identified graph-theoretic patterns in this data that can indicate functional modules, and even sets of genes that may occur in compensatory pathways, such as a BPM-type schema first introduced by Kelley and Ideker. However, to date, any algorithms for finding such patterns in the data were implemented internally, with no software being made publically available. Genecentric is a new package that implements a parallelized version of the Leiserson et al. algorithm (J Comput Biol 18:1399-1409, 2011) for generating generalized BPMs from high-throughput genetic interaction data. Given a matrix of weighted epistasis values for a set of double knock-outs, Genecentric returns a list of generalized BPMs that may represent compensatory pathways. Genecentric also has an extension, GenecentricGO, to query FuncAssociate (Bioinformatics 25:3043-3044, 2009) to retrieve GO enrichment statistics on generated BPMs. Python is the only dependency, and our web site provides working examples and documentation. We find that Genecentric can be used to find coherent functional and perhaps compensatory gene sets from high throughput genetic interaction data. Genecentric is made freely available for download under the GPLv2 from http://bcb.cs.tufts.edu/genecentric.

  6. Genecentric: a package to uncover graph-theoretic structure in high-throughput epistasis data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background New technology has resulted in high-throughput screens for pairwise genetic interactions in yeast and other model organisms. For each pair in a collection of non-essential genes, an epistasis score is obtained, representing how much sicker (or healthier) the double-knockout organism will be compared to what would be expected from the sickness of the component single knockouts. Recent algorithmic work has identified graph-theoretic patterns in this data that can indicate functional modules, and even sets of genes that may occur in compensatory pathways, such as a BPM-type schema first introduced by Kelley and Ideker. However, to date, any algorithms for finding such patterns in the data were implemented internally, with no software being made publically available. Results Genecentric is a new package that implements a parallelized version of the Leiserson et al. algorithm (J Comput Biol 18:1399-1409, 2011) for generating generalized BPMs from high-throughput genetic interaction data. Given a matrix of weighted epistasis values for a set of double knock-outs, Genecentric returns a list of generalized BPMs that may represent compensatory pathways. Genecentric also has an extension, GenecentricGO, to query FuncAssociate (Bioinformatics 25:3043-3044, 2009) to retrieve GO enrichment statistics on generated BPMs. Python is the only dependency, and our web site provides working examples and documentation. Conclusion We find that Genecentric can be used to find coherent functional and perhaps compensatory gene sets from high throughput genetic interaction data. Genecentric is made freely available for download under the GPLv2 from http://bcb.cs.tufts.edu/genecentric. PMID:23331614

  7. Extraction and labeling high-resolution images from PDF documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chachra, Suchet K.; Xue, Zhiyun; Antani, Sameer; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2013-12-01

    Accuracy of content-based image retrieval is affected by image resolution among other factors. Higher resolution images enable extraction of image features that more accurately represent the image content. In order to improve the relevance of search results for our biomedical image search engine, Open-I, we have developed techniques to extract and label high-resolution versions of figures from biomedical articles supplied in the PDF format. Open-I uses the open-access subset of biomedical articles from the PubMed Central repository hosted by the National Library of Medicine. Articles are available in XML and in publisher supplied PDF formats. As these PDF documents contain little or no meta-data to identify the embedded images, the task includes labeling images according to their figure number in the article after they have been successfully extracted. For this purpose we use the labeled small size images provided with the XML web version of the article. This paper describes the image extraction process and two alternative approaches to perform image labeling that measure the similarity between two images based upon the image intensity projection on the coordinate axes and similarity based upon the normalized cross-correlation between the intensities of two images. Using image identification based on image intensity projection, we were able to achieve a precision of 92.84% and a recall of 82.18% in labeling of the extracted images.

  8. iFeature: a python package and web server for features extraction and selection from protein and peptide sequences.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Zhao, Pei; Li, Fuyi; Leier, André; Marquez-Lago, Tatiana T; Wang, Yanan; Webb, Geoffrey I; Smith, A Ian; Daly, Roger J; Chou, Kuo-Chen; Song, Jiangning

    2018-03-08

    Structural and physiochemical descriptors extracted from sequence data have been widely used to represent sequences and predict structural, functional, expression and interaction profiles of proteins and peptides as well as DNAs/RNAs. Here, we present iFeature, a versatile Python-based toolkit for generating various numerical feature representation schemes for both protein and peptide sequences. iFeature is capable of calculating and extracting a comprehensive spectrum of 18 major sequence encoding schemes that encompass 53 different types of feature descriptors. It also allows users to extract specific amino acid properties from the AAindex database. Furthermore, iFeature integrates 12 different types of commonly used feature clustering, selection, and dimensionality reduction algorithms, greatly facilitating training, analysis, and benchmarking of machine-learning models. The functionality of iFeature is made freely available via an online web server and a stand-alone toolkit. http://iFeature.erc.monash.edu/; https://github.com/Superzchen/iFeature/. jiangning.song@monash.edu; kcchou@gordonlifescience.org; roger.daly@monash.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. High-voltage leak detection of a parenteral proteinaceous solution product packaged in form-fill-seal plastic laminate bags. Part 2. Method performance as a function of heat seal defects, product-package refrigeration, and package plastic laminate lot.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Mats; Damgaard, Rasmus; Buus, Peter; Mulhall, Brian; Guazzo, Dana Morton

    2013-01-01

    Part 1 of this three-part research series detailed the development and validation of a high-voltage leak detection test (HVLD, also known as an electrical conductivity and capacitance test) for verifying the container-closure integrity of a small-volume laminate plastic bag containing an aqueous solution formulation of the rapid-acting insulin analogue, insulin aspart (NovoRapid®/NovoLog®) by Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark. Leak detection capability was verified using positive controls each with a single laser-drilled hole in the bag film face. In this Part 2, HVLD leak detection capability was further explored in four separate studies. Study 1 investigated the ability of HVLD to detect weaknesses and/or gaps in the bag heat seal. Study 2 checked the HVLD detection of bag holes in packages stored 4 days at ambient conditions followed by 17 days at refrigeration. Study 3 examined HVLD test results for packages tested when cold. Study 4 compared HVLD test results as a function of bag plastic film lots. The final Part 3 of this series will report the impact of HVLD exposure on product visual appearance and chemical stability. In Part 1 of this three-part series, a leak test method based on electrical conductivity and capacitance, also called high-voltage leak detection (HVLD), was used to find leaks in small plastic bags filled with a solution for injection of the rapid-acting insulin analogue, insulin aspart (NovoRapid®/NovoLog®) by Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark. In this Part 2, HVLD leak detection capability was further explored in four separate studies. Study 1 investigated the ability of HVLD to detect bag heat seal leaks. Study 2 checked HVLD's ability to detect bag holes after a total of 21 days at ambient plus refrigerated temperatures. Study 3 looked to see if HVLD results changed for packages tested when still cold. Study 4 compared HVLD results for multiple bag plastic film lots. The final Part 3 of this series will report any evidence of

  10. Feature extraction and classification algorithms for high dimensional data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chulhee; Landgrebe, David

    1993-01-01

    Feature extraction and classification algorithms for high dimensional data are investigated. Developments with regard to sensors for Earth observation are moving in the direction of providing much higher dimensional multispectral imagery than is now possible. In analyzing such high dimensional data, processing time becomes an important factor. With large increases in dimensionality and the number of classes, processing time will increase significantly. To address this problem, a multistage classification scheme is proposed which reduces the processing time substantially by eliminating unlikely classes from further consideration at each stage. Several truncation criteria are developed and the relationship between thresholds and the error caused by the truncation is investigated. Next an approach to feature extraction for classification is proposed based directly on the decision boundaries. It is shown that all the features needed for classification can be extracted from decision boundaries. A characteristic of the proposed method arises by noting that only a portion of the decision boundary is effective in discriminating between classes, and the concept of the effective decision boundary is introduced. The proposed feature extraction algorithm has several desirable properties: it predicts the minimum number of features necessary to achieve the same classification accuracy as in the original space for a given pattern recognition problem; and it finds the necessary feature vectors. The proposed algorithm does not deteriorate under the circumstances of equal means or equal covariances as some previous algorithms do. In addition, the decision boundary feature extraction algorithm can be used both for parametric and non-parametric classifiers. Finally, some problems encountered in analyzing high dimensional data are studied and possible solutions are proposed. First, the increased importance of the second order statistics in analyzing high dimensional data is recognized

  11. Affinity Crystallography: A New Approach to Extracting High-Affinity Enzyme Inhibitors from Natural Extracts.

    PubMed

    Aguda, Adeleke H; Lavallee, Vincent; Cheng, Ping; Bott, Tina M; Meimetis, Labros G; Law, Simon; Nguyen, Nham T; Williams, David E; Kaleta, Jadwiga; Villanueva, Ivan; Davies, Julian; Andersen, Raymond J; Brayer, Gary D; Brömme, Dieter

    2016-08-26

    Natural products are an important source of novel drug scaffolds. The highly variable and unpredictable timelines associated with isolating novel compounds and elucidating their structures have led to the demise of exploring natural product extract libraries in drug discovery programs. Here we introduce affinity crystallography as a new methodology that significantly shortens the time of the hit to active structure cycle in bioactive natural product discovery research. This affinity crystallography approach is illustrated by using semipure fractions of an actinomycetes culture extract to isolate and identify a cathepsin K inhibitor and to compare the outcome with the traditional assay-guided purification/structural analysis approach. The traditional approach resulted in the identification of the known inhibitor antipain (1) and its new but lower potency dehydration product 2, while the affinity crystallography approach led to the identification of a new high-affinity inhibitor named lichostatinal (3). The structure and potency of lichostatinal (3) was verified by total synthesis and kinetic characterization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of isolating and characterizing a potent enzyme inhibitor from a partially purified crude natural product extract using a protein crystallographic approach.

  12. TIERRAS: A package to simulate high energy cosmic ray showers underground, underwater and under-ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tueros, Matías; Sciutto, Sergio

    2010-02-01

    In this paper we present TIERRAS, a Monte Carlo simulation program based on the well-known AIRES air shower simulations system that enables the propagation of particle cascades underground, providing a tool to study particles arriving underground from a primary cosmic ray on the atmosphere or to initiate cascades directly underground and propagate them, exiting into the atmosphere if necessary. We show several cross-checks of its results against CORSIKA, FLUKA, GEANT and ZHS simulations and we make some considerations regarding its possible use and limitations. The first results of full underground shower simulations are presented, as an example of the package capabilities. Program summaryProgram title: TIERRAS for AIRES Catalogue identifier: AEFO_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFO_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 36 489 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 261 669 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 and C Computer: PC, Alpha, IBM, HP, Silicon Graphics and Sun workstations Operating system: Linux, DEC Unix, AIX, SunOS, Unix System V RAM: 22 Mb bytes Classification: 1.1 External routines: TIERRAS requires AIRES 2.8.4 to be installed on the system. AIRES 2.8.4 can be downloaded from http://www.fisica.unlp.edu.ar/auger/aires/eg_AiresDownload.html. Nature of problem: Simulation of high and ultra high energy underground particle showers. Solution method: Modification of the AIRES 2.8.4 code to accommodate underground conditions. Restrictions: In AIRES some processes that are not statistically significant on the atmosphere are not simulated. In particular, it does not include muon photonuclear processes. This imposes a limitation on the application of this package to a depth of

  13. High-throughput DNA extraction of forensic adhesive tapes.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Christina; Jansson, Linda; Ansell, Ricky; Hedman, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Tape-lifting has since its introduction in the early 2000's become a well-established sampling method in forensic DNA analysis. Sampling is quick and straightforward while the following DNA extraction is more challenging due to the "stickiness", rigidity and size of the tape. We have developed, validated and implemented a simple and efficient direct lysis DNA extraction protocol for adhesive tapes that requires limited manual labour. The method uses Chelex beads and is applied with SceneSafe FAST tape. This direct lysis protocol provided higher mean DNA yields than PrepFiler Express BTA on Automate Express, although the differences were not significant when using clothes worn in a controlled fashion as reference material (p=0.13 and p=0.34 for T-shirts and button-down shirts, respectively). Through in-house validation we show that the method is fit-for-purpose for application in casework, as it provides high DNA yields and amplifiability, as well as good reproducibility and DNA extract stability. After implementation in casework, the proportion of extracts with DNA concentrations above 0.01ng/μL increased from 71% to 76%. Apart from providing higher DNA yields compared with the previous method, the introduction of the developed direct lysis protocol also reduced the amount of manual labour by half and doubled the potential throughput for tapes at the laboratory. Generally, simplified manual protocols can serve as a cost-effective alternative to sophisticated automation solutions when the aim is to enable high-throughput DNA extraction of complex crime scene samples. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of high-intensity pulsed light for the microbiological decontamination of chicken, associated packaging, and contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    Haughton, Pippa N; Lyng, James G; Morgan, Desmond J; Cronin, Denis A; Fanning, Seamus; Whyte, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of high-intensity light pulse (HILP) technology (3 Hz, maximum of 505 J/pulse, and a pulse duration of 360 μs) for the decontamination of raw chicken and associated packaging and surface materials was investigated. Its ability to reduce microbial counts on raw chicken through plastic films was also examined. Complete inactivation of Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Enteritidis in liquid was achieved after 30 sec HILP treatment. Reductions of 3.56, 4.69, and 4.60 log₁₀ cfu/cm²) were observed after 5 sec HILP treatment of Campylobacter jejuni, E. coli, and Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated onto packaging materials and contact surfaces, respectively. The greatest reductions on inoculated chicken skin were 1.22, 1.69, and 1.27 log₁₀ cfu/g for C. jejuni, E. coli, and Salmonella Enteritidis, respectively. Corresponding reductions on inoculated skinless breast meat were 0.96, 1.13, and 1.35 log₁₀ cfu/g. The effectiveness of HILP treatment for reducing microbial levels on chicken increased as the film thickness decreased. HILP treatments of 2 sec did not significantly affect the color of raw chicken although treatments of 30 sec impacted color. This study has shown HILP to be an effective method for the decontamination of packaging and surface materials. Additionally, it has demonstrated the potential of HILP to be used as a decontamination method for packaged chicken.

  15. High-throughput migration modelling for estimating exposure to chemicals in food packaging in screening and prioritization tools.

    PubMed

    Ernstoff, Alexi S; Fantke, Peter; Huang, Lei; Jolliet, Olivier

    2017-11-01

    Specialty software and simplified models are often used to estimate migration of potentially toxic chemicals from packaging into food. Current models, however, are not suitable for emerging applications in decision-support tools, e.g. in Life Cycle Assessment and risk-based screening and prioritization, which require rapid computation of accurate estimates for diverse scenarios. To fulfil this need, we develop an accurate and rapid (high-throughput) model that estimates the fraction of organic chemicals migrating from polymeric packaging materials into foods. Several hundred step-wise simulations optimised the model coefficients to cover a range of user-defined scenarios (e.g. temperature). The developed model, operationalised in a spreadsheet for future dissemination, nearly instantaneously estimates chemical migration, and has improved performance over commonly used model simplifications. When using measured diffusion coefficients the model accurately predicted (R 2  = 0.9, standard error (S e ) = 0.5) hundreds of empirical data points for various scenarios. Diffusion coefficient modelling, which determines the speed of chemical transfer from package to food, was a major contributor to uncertainty and dramatically decreased model performance (R 2  = 0.4, S e  = 1). In all, this study provides a rapid migration modelling approach to estimate exposure to chemicals in food packaging for emerging screening and prioritization approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Perceptions and impact of plain packaging of tobacco products in low and middle income countries, middle to upper income countries and low-income settings in high-income countries: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Nicole; Arora, Monika; Grills, Nathan

    2016-03-21

    To review the current literature around the potential impact, effectiveness and perceptions of plain packaging in low income settings. A systematic review of the literature. 9 databases (PubMed, Global Health, Social Policy and Practice, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), CINAHL, PsycINFO, British Library for Development Studies (BLDS), Global Health Library and Scopus) were searched. The terms used for searching combined terms for smoking and tobacco use with terms for plain packaging. Studies investigating the impact of plain packaging on the determinants of tobacco use, such as smoking behaviour, appeal, prominence, effectiveness of health warnings, response to plain packs, attitudes towards quitting or likelihood of smoking in low-income settings, were identified. Studies must have been published in English and be original research of any level of rigour. Two independent reviewers assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. The results were synthesised qualitatively, with themes grouped under four key headings: appeal and attractiveness; salience of health warnings and perceptions of harm; enjoyment and perceived taste ratings; and perceptions of the impact on tobacco usage behaviour. This review has identified four articles that met the inclusion criteria. Studies identified that tobacco products in plain packaging had less appeal than in branded packaging in low-income settings. This review indicates that plain packaging appears to be successful in reducing appeal of smoking and packets, and supports the call for plain packaging to be widely implemented in conjunction with other tobacco control policies. However, there are considerable gaps in the amount of research conducted outside high-income countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Influence of a highly purified senna extract on colonic epithelium.

    PubMed

    van Gorkom, B A; Karrenbeld, A; van Der Sluis, T; Koudstaal, J; de Vries, E G; Kleibeuker, J H

    2000-01-01

    Chronic use of sennoside laxatives often causes pseudomelanosis coli. A recent study suggested that pseudomelanosis coli is associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk. A single high dose of highly purified senna extract increased proliferation rate and reduced crypt length in the sigmoid colon compared to historical controls. To evaluate in a controlled study the effects of highly purified senna extract on cell proliferation and crypt length in the entire colon and on p53 and bcl-2 expression. Addition of a senna extract to colonic lavage was studied in 184 consecutive outpatients. From 32 randomised patients, 15 with sennosides (Sen), 17 without (NSen), biopsies were taken. Proliferative activity was studied in 4 areas of the colon, using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labelling and immunohistochemistry (labelling index, LI). Expression of p53 and bcl-2 in the sigmoid colon was determined immunohistochemically. Crypts were shorter in Sen than in NSen in the transverse and sigmoid colon. LI was higher in Sen than in NSen in the entire colon. No difference in p53 expression was seen. Bcl-2 expression was higher in both groups when crypts were shorter and/or proliferation was increased. Sennosides induce acute massive cell loss probably by apoptosis, causing shorter crypts, and increased cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis to restore cellularity. These effects may reflect the mechanism for the suggested cancer-promoting effect of chronic sennoside use. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Action to Support Practices Implement Research Evidence (ASPIRE): protocol for a cluster-randomised evaluation of adaptable implementation packages targeting 'high impact' clinical practice recommendations in general practice.

    PubMed

    Willis, Thomas A; Hartley, Suzanne; Glidewell, Liz; Farrin, Amanda J; Lawton, Rebecca; McEachan, Rosemary R C; Ingleson, Emma; Heudtlass, Peter; Collinson, Michelle; Clamp, Susan; Hunter, Cheryl; Ward, Vicky; Hulme, Claire; Meads, David; Bregantini, Daniele; Carder, Paul; Foy, Robbie

    2016-02-29

    extracted 1 year after randomisation. Economic modelling will estimate intervention cost-effectiveness. A process evaluation involving eight non-trial practices will examine intervention delivery, mechanisms of action and unintended consequences. ASPIRE will provide 'real-world' evidence about the effects, cost-effectiveness and delivery of adapted intervention packages targeting high impact recommendations. By implementing our adaptable intervention package across four distinct clinical topics, and using 'opt-out' recruitment, our findings will provide evidence of wider generalisability. ISRCTN91989345.

  19. Possible Origin of High-Amplitude Reflection Packages (HARPs) in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Hutchinson, Deborah; Shimeld, John; Chian, Deping; Hart, Patrick; Jackson, Ruth; Saltus, Richard; Mosher, David

    2013-04-01

    The Canada Basin (CB) of the Arctic Ocean is a semi-enclosed ocean basin surrounded by the Alaskan and Canadian margins to the south and east, the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province (AMLIP) to the north and the subsided continental Chukchi Borderland (ChB) to the west. During 2007-2011, US-Canada expeditions collected ~15,000 km multichannel seismic data and sonobuoy reflection and refraction seismic data with average spacing of ~80 km mostly over the CB and AMLIP. High-amplitude reflective packages (HARPs) underlie the mostly flat-lying sediments of CB. Although HARPs are discontinuous in the central CB, they become more continuous toward ChB and AMLIP. HARPs are often the most reflective events in the seismic section, exceeding even the seafloor reflection. Only rarely are reflections seen beneath HARPs. Where best developed, HARPs are ~100-300 ms TWTT, consisting of several high-amplitude wavelets with a pronounced narrow frequency band within the limits of ~10-30 Hz. This character of HARPs is consistent with patterns produced by constructive interference of thin beds (Widess, 1973). Forward modeling of sonobuoy data, synthetic tests, and frequency analysis of the tuning effect suggest that HARPs are composed of a series of alternating high- and low-velocity layers. The high-velocity layers are ~100-200 m thick with P-velocities of ~3.5-4.5 km/s. The low-velocity layers are about half as thick with velocities of ~2-3 km/s. A broad range of possible interpretations of rock composition exists from these velocities, e.g. sandstone and interbedded shale (Prince Patrick Island, Harrison and Brent, 2005); or tholeiitic basalts flows and sediments (Voring volcanic margin, Olanke and Eldholm, 1994); or sills and sediments (Newfoundland margin, Peron-Pinvidic et all, 2010). HARP can be associated with several origins. In the central and southern CB, where oceanic spreading is interpreted, HARPs are discontinuous among high-relief, but otherwise low

  20. PEACE: pulsar evaluation algorithm for candidate extraction - a software package for post-analysis processing of pulsar survey candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. J.; Stovall, K.; Jenet, F. A.; Martinez, J.; Dartez, L. P.; Mata, A.; Lunsford, G.; Cohen, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Rohr, M.; Flanigan, J.; Walker, A.; Banaszak, S.; Allen, B.; Barr, E. D.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Champion, D. J.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J.; Desvignes, G.; Ferdman, R. D.; Freire, P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kaspi, V. M.; Knispel, B.; Kramer, M.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Lyne, A.; McLaughlin, M.; Ransom, S.; Scholz, P.; Siemens, X.; Spitler, L.; Stairs, I.; Tan, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; Zhu, W. W.

    2013-07-01

    Modern radio pulsar surveys produce a large volume of prospective candidates, the majority of which are polluted by human-created radio frequency interference or other forms of noise. Typically, large numbers of candidates need to be visually inspected in order to determine if they are real pulsars. This process can be labour intensive. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm called Pulsar Evaluation Algorithm for Candidate Extraction (PEACE) which improves the efficiency of identifying pulsar signals. The algorithm ranks the candidates based on a score function. Unlike popular machine-learning-based algorithms, no prior training data sets are required. This algorithm has been applied to data from several large-scale radio pulsar surveys. Using the human-based ranking results generated by students in the Arecibo Remote Command Center programme, the statistical performance of PEACE was evaluated. It was found that PEACE ranked 68 per cent of the student-identified pulsars within the top 0.17 per cent of sorted candidates, 95 per cent within the top 0.34 per cent and 100 per cent within the top 3.7 per cent. This clearly demonstrates that PEACE significantly increases the pulsar identification rate by a factor of about 50 to 1000. To date, PEACE has been directly responsible for the discovery of 47 new pulsars, 5 of which are millisecond pulsars that may be useful for pulsar timing based gravitational-wave detection projects.

  1. High temperature high velocity direct power extraction using an open-cycle oxy-combustion system

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Norman

    The implementation of oxy-fuel technology in fossil-fuel power plants may contribute to increased system efficiencies and a reduction of pollutant emissions. One technology that has potential to utilize the temperature of undiluted oxy-combustion flames is open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generators. These systems can be configured as a topping cycle and provide high enthalpy, electrically conductive flows for direct conversion of electricity. This report presents the design and modeling strategies of a MHD combustor operating at temperatures exceeding 3000 K. Throughout the study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were extensively used as a design and optimization tool. A lab-scale 60 kWthmore » model was designed, manufactured and tested as part of this project. A fully-coupled numerical method was developed in ANSYS FLUENT to characterize the heat transfer in the system. This study revealed that nozzle heat transfer may be predicted through a 40% reduction of the semi-empirical Bartz correlation. Experimental results showed good agreement with the numerical evaluation, with the combustor exhibiting a favorable performance when tested during extended time periods. A transient numerical method was employed to analyze fuel injector geometries for the 60-kW combustor. The ANSYS FLUENT study revealed that counter-swirl inlets achieve a uniform pressure and velocity ratio when the ports of the injector length to diameter ratio (L/D) is 4. An angle of 115 degrees was found to increase distribution efficiency. The findings show that this oxy-combustion concept is capable of providing a high-enthalpy environment for seeding, in order to render the flow to be conductive. Based on previous findings, temperatures in the range of 2800-3000 K may enable magnetohydrodynamic power extraction. The heat loss fraction in this oxy-combustion system, based on CFD and analytical calculations, at optimal operating conditions, was estimated to be less than 10

  2. Adaptable, high recall, event extraction system with minimal configuration

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Biomedical event extraction has been a major focus of biomedical natural language processing (BioNLP) research since the first BioNLP shared task was held in 2009. Accordingly, a large number of event extraction systems have been developed. Most such systems, however, have been developed for specific tasks and/or incorporated task specific settings, making their application to new corpora and tasks problematic without modification of the systems themselves. There is thus a need for event extraction systems that can achieve high levels of accuracy when applied to corpora in new domains, without the need for exhaustive tuning or modification, whilst retaining competitive levels of performance. Results We have enhanced our state-of-the-art event extraction system, EventMine, to alleviate the need for task-specific tuning. Task-specific details are specified in a configuration file, while extensive task-specific parameter tuning is avoided through the integration of a weighting method, a covariate shift method, and their combination. The task-specific configuration and weighting method have been employed within the context of two different sub-tasks of BioNLP shared task 2013, i.e. Cancer Genetics (CG) and Pathway Curation (PC), removing the need to modify the system specifically for each task. With minimal task specific configuration and tuning, EventMine achieved the 1st place in the PC task, and 2nd in the CG, achieving the highest recall for both tasks. The system has been further enhanced following the shared task by incorporating the covariate shift method and entity generalisations based on the task definitions, leading to further performance improvements. Conclusions We have shown that it is possible to apply a state-of-the-art event extraction system to new tasks with high levels of performance, without having to modify the system internally. Both covariate shift and weighting methods are useful in facilitating the production of high recall systems

  3. Adaptable, high recall, event extraction system with minimal configuration.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Makoto; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical event extraction has been a major focus of biomedical natural language processing (BioNLP) research since the first BioNLP shared task was held in 2009. Accordingly, a large number of event extraction systems have been developed. Most such systems, however, have been developed for specific tasks and/or incorporated task specific settings, making their application to new corpora and tasks problematic without modification of the systems themselves. There is thus a need for event extraction systems that can achieve high levels of accuracy when applied to corpora in new domains, without the need for exhaustive tuning or modification, whilst retaining competitive levels of performance. We have enhanced our state-of-the-art event extraction system, EventMine, to alleviate the need for task-specific tuning. Task-specific details are specified in a configuration file, while extensive task-specific parameter tuning is avoided through the integration of a weighting method, a covariate shift method, and their combination. The task-specific configuration and weighting method have been employed within the context of two different sub-tasks of BioNLP shared task 2013, i.e. Cancer Genetics (CG) and Pathway Curation (PC), removing the need to modify the system specifically for each task. With minimal task specific configuration and tuning, EventMine achieved the 1st place in the PC task, and 2nd in the CG, achieving the highest recall for both tasks. The system has been further enhanced following the shared task by incorporating the covariate shift method and entity generalisations based on the task definitions, leading to further performance improvements. We have shown that it is possible to apply a state-of-the-art event extraction system to new tasks with high levels of performance, without having to modify the system internally. Both covariate shift and weighting methods are useful in facilitating the production of high recall systems. These methods and their

  4. Extraction Optimization for Obtaining Artemisia capillaris Extract with High Anti-Inflammatory Activity in RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Mi; Jeong, Seung-Weon; Kim, Bum-Keun; Kim, Jong-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Plant extracts have been used as herbal medicines to treat a wide variety of human diseases. We used response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the Artemisia capillaris Thunb. extraction parameters (extraction temperature, extraction time, and ethanol concentration) for obtaining an extract with high anti-inflammatory activity at the cellular level. The optimum ranges for the extraction parameters were predicted by superimposing 4-dimensional response surface plots of the lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced PGE2 and NO production and by cytotoxicity of A. capillaris Thunb. extracts. The ranges of extraction conditions used for determining the optimal conditions were extraction temperatures of 57–65°C, ethanol concentrations of 45–57%, and extraction times of 5.5–6.8 h. On the basis of the results, a model with a central composite design was considered to be accurate and reliable for predicting the anti-inflammation activity of extracts at the cellular level. These approaches can provide a logical starting point for developing novel anti-inflammatory substances from natural products and will be helpful for the full utilization of A. capillaris Thunb. The crude extract obtained can be used in some A. capillaris Thunb.-related health care products. PMID:26075271

  5. Effect of high-pressure processing on reduction of Listeria monocytogenes in packaged Queso Fresco.

    PubMed

    Tomasula, P M; Renye, J A; Van Hekken, D L; Tunick, M H; Kwoczak, R; Toht, M; Leggett, L N; Luchansky, J B; Porto-Fett, A C S; Phillips, J G

    2014-03-01

    The effect of high-hydrostatic-pressure processing (HPP) on the survival of a 5-strain rifampicin-resistant cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes in Queso Fresco (QF) was evaluated as a postpackaging intervention. Queso Fresco was made using pasteurized, homogenized milk, and was starter-free and not pressed. In phase 1, QF slices (12.7 × 7.6 × 1 cm), weighing from 52 to 66 g, were surface inoculated with L. monocytogenes (ca. 5.0 log10 cfu/g) and individually double vacuum packaged. The slices were then warmed to either 20 or 40°C and HPP treated at 200, 400, and 600 MPa for hold times of 5, 10, 15, or 20 min. Treatment at 600 MPa was most effective in reducing L. monocytogenes to below the detection level of 0.91 log10 cfu/g at all hold times and temperatures. High-hydrostatic-pressure processing at 40°C, 400 MPa, and hold time ≥ 15 min was effective but resulted in wheying-off and textural changes. In phase 2, L. monocytogenes was inoculated either on the slices (ca. 5.0 log10 cfu/g; ON) or in the curds (ca. 7.0 log10 cfu/g; IN) before the cheese block was formed and sliced. The slices were treated at 20°C and 600 MPa at hold times of 3, 10, and 20 min, and then stored at 4 and 10°C for 60 d. For both treatments, L. monocytogenes became less resistant to pressure as hold time increased, with greater percentages of injured cells at 3 and 10 min than at 20 min, at which the lethality of the process increased. For the IN treatment, with hold times of 3 and 10 min, growth of L. monocytogenes increased the first week of storage, but was delayed for 1 wk, with a hold time of 20 min. Longer lag times in growth of L. monocytogenes during storage at 4°C were observed for the ON treatment at hold times of 10 and 20 min, indicating that the IN treatment may have provided a more protective environment with less injury to the cells than the ON treatment. Similarly, HPP treatment for 10 min followed by storage at 4°C was the best method for suppressing the growth of

  6. Validation a solid-phase extraction-HPLC method for determining the migration behaviour of five aromatic amines from packaging bags into seafood simulants.

    PubMed

    OuYang, Xiao-Kun; Luo, Yu-Yang; Wang, Yang-Guang; Yang, Li-Ye

    2014-01-01

    The simultaneous determination of five aromatic amines and their potential migration from packaging bags into seafood simulants were investigated. A validated HPLC method was developed for the separation and qualification of five aromatic amines in seafood simulants. By combining solid-phase extraction (SPE), these amines were efficiently separated on a Halo C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm i.d., 2.7 μm, particle size) using a mobile phase of methanol/phosphate buffer solution (5 mmol l(-1), pH 6.9) with gradient elution. The linear range was 0.1-10.0 mg l(-1); the absolute recoveries ranged from 85.3% to 98.4%; and the limits of detection of the five aromatic amines were between 0.015 and 0.08 mg l(-1). In this work the migration profile of aromatic amines from black plastic bags was investigated at temperatures of 4°C with water, 3% acetic acid solution, 10% ethanol solution and 50% ethanol solution as seafood simulants, respectively. The migration of the five aromatic amines under different conditions showed that residual o-methoxyaniline, p-chloroaniline, aniline and 2,6-dimethylaniline leaching from black plastic bags increased with incubation time. No detectable 3,3´-dimethylbenzidine was found to leach from the bags.

  7. The properties of chitosan and gelatin films incorporated with ethanolic red grape seed extract and Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil as biodegradable materials for active food packaging.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Yasser

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to improve different characteristics including antibacterial, antioxidant, physical and mechanical properties of chitosan (Ch) and gelatin (Ge) films by incorporating Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil (ZEO; 0 and 1% v/w) and ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE; 0 and 1% v/w). The main compounds of the ZEO were carvacrol (65.22%) and thymol (19.51%). According to our findings, addition of aforementioned materials could improve total phenolic content, antibacterial and antioxidant activities, thickness and also water vapor barrier property. ZEO and GSE reduces swelling index, tensile strength, puncture force and puncture deformation of Ch and Ge films. Pure Ch and Ge films had slightly yellow and white appearances, respectively, while films incorporated with GSE in combination with ZEO had grey appearances. This study indicated the some benefits of addition of ZEO and GSE into Ch and Ge films and their potentials for application as biodegradable active packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Hydrometallurgical Extraction and Recovery of High-Purity Silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, James E.

    2012-06-01

    With the continuous reduction in the availability of extractive metallurgical curricula in colleges and universities, the concern has in part been from where will the next generation of extractive metallurgists come? One objective of this article is to emphasize the fact that extractive metallurgy is, in fact, one of many areas of chemical engineering technology. Thus, although the extractive metallurgist may have disappeared in name, its activity is alive and well, subsumed in the field of chemical engineering. One goal of this lecture is to demonstrate the applicability of chemical engineering principles to what is typically considered "the field of extractive metallurgy." Two processes will be described that have supplanted typical pyrometallurgical fire refining of precious metals, particularly silver. The origins of fire refining can be traced back to biblical times. There are numerous references to it in the old testament: Ezekiel 22:20, "As men gather silver and bronze and iron and lead and tin into a furnace to blow the fire upon it in order melt it"; Jeremiah 6:29, "The bellows blow fiercely; the lead is consumed by the fire; in vain the refining goes on"; and Malachi 3:2 (The Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha), "For he is like a refiners fire." Many references to it will also be found in "De Re Metallurgica" and as well in Lazarus Ercker's 1574 Manual "Treatise on Ores and Refining." Today, fire refining has been improved greatly by innovative furnace design, new fluxing technologies, and the improved use of oxygen. However, fundamentally, the process chemistry has not changed much in the last millennium. Illustrations of hydrometallurgical processing of silver-bearing inputs will be provided by the treatment of sulfated silver-bearing materials and chlorinated slimes. The first of these technologies will be described briefly as practiced by the Phelps Dodge Refining Corporation for several years. The second, the treatment of silver chloride

  9. Highly-optimized TWSM software package for seismic diffraction modeling adapted for GPU-cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyatkov, Nikolay; Ayzenberg, Alena; Aizenberg, Arkady

    2015-04-01

    Oil producing companies concern to increase resolution capability of seismic data for complex oil-and-gas bearing deposits connected with salt domes, basalt traps, reefs, lenses, etc. Known methods of seismic wave theory define shape of hydrocarbon accumulation with nonsufficient resolution, since they do not account for multiple diffractions explicitly. We elaborate alternative seismic wave theory in terms of operators of propagation in layers and reflection-transmission at curved interfaces. Approximation of this theory is realized in the seismic frequency range as the Tip-Wave Superposition Method (TWSM). TWSM based on the operator theory allows to evaluate of wavefield in bounded domains/layers with geometrical shadow zones (in nature it can be: salt domes, basalt traps, reefs, lenses, etc.) accounting for so-called cascade diffraction. Cascade diffraction includes edge waves from sharp edges, creeping waves near concave parts of interfaces, waves of the whispering galleries near convex parts of interfaces, etc. The basic algorithm of TWSM package is based on multiplication of large-size matrices (make hundreds of terabytes in size). We use advanced information technologies for effective realization of numerical procedures of the TWSM. In particular, we actively use NVIDIA CUDA technology and GPU accelerators allowing to significantly improve the performance of the TWSM software package, that is important in using it for direct and inverse problems. The accuracy, stability and efficiency of the algorithm are justified by numerical examples with curved interfaces. TWSM package and its separate components can be used in different modeling tasks such as planning of acquisition systems, physical interpretation of laboratory modeling, modeling of individual waves of different types and in some inverse tasks such as imaging in case of laterally inhomogeneous overburden, AVO inversion.

  10. Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces for High-Temperature Packaging (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Devoto, D.

    2014-11-01

    The thermal performance and reliability of sintered-silver is being evaluated for power electronics packaging applications. This will be experimentally accomplished by the synthesis of large-area bonded interfaces between metalized substrates that will be subsequently subjected to thermal cycles. A finite element model of crack initiation and propagation in these bonded interfaces will allow for the interpretation of degradation rates by a crack-velocity (V)-stress intensity factor (K) analysis. The experiment is outlined, and the modeling approach is discussed.

  11. Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces for High-Temperature Packaging. Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    DeVoto, Douglas

    2016-04-01

    Current generation automotive power electronics packages utilize silicon devices and lead-free solder alloys. To meet stringent technical targets for 2020 and beyond (for cost, power density, specific power, efficiency and reliability), wide-bandgap devices are being considered since they offer advantages such as operation at higher frequencies, voltages, and temperatures. Traditional power electronics packages must be redesigned to utilize the full potential of wide-bandgap devices, and the die- and substrate-attach layers are key areas where new material development and validation is required. Present solder alloys do not meet the performance requirements for these new package designs while also meeting cost andmore » hazardous substance restrictions. Sintered silver (Ag) promises to meet the needs for die- and substrate-attach interfaces but synthesis optimization and reliability evaluation must be completed. Sintered Ag material was proposed as an alternative solution in power electronics packages almost 20 years back. However, synthesis pressure requirements up 40 MPa caused a higher complexity in the production process and more stringent flatness specifications for the substrates. Recently, several manufacturers have developed sintered Ag materials that require lower (3-5 MPa) or even no bonding pressures. Degradation mechanisms for these sintered Ag materials are not well known and need to be addressed. We are addressing these aspects to some extent in this project. We are developing generalized (i.e., independent of geometry) stress intensity factor versus cycles-to-failure relations for sintered Ag. Because sintered Ag is a relatively new material for automotive power electronics, the industry currently does not have a good understanding of recommended synthesis parameters or expected reliability under prescribed conditions. It is an important deliverable of this project to transfer findings to industry to eliminate barriers to using sintered Ag as a

  12. BlueSNP: R package for highly scalable genome-wide association studies using Hadoop clusters.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hailiang; Tata, Sandeep; Prill, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Computational workloads for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are growing in scale and complexity outpacing the capabilities of single-threaded software designed for personal computers. The BlueSNP R package implements GWAS statistical tests in the R programming language and executes the calculations across computer clusters configured with Apache Hadoop, a de facto standard framework for distributed data processing using the MapReduce formalism. BlueSNP makes computationally intensive analyses, such as estimating empirical p-values via data permutation, and searching for expression quantitative trait loci over thousands of genes, feasible for large genotype-phenotype datasets. http://github.com/ibm-bioinformatics/bluesnp

  13. Effect of high oxygen modified atmosphere packaging on microbial growth and sensorial qualities of fresh-cut produce.

    PubMed

    Jacxsens, L; Devlieghere, F; Van der Steen, C; Debevere, J

    2001-12-30

    The application of High Oxygen Atmospheres (HOA) (i.e. > 70% O2) for packaging ready-to-eat vegetables was evaluated as an alternative technique for low O2 Equilibrium Modified Atmosphere (EMA) packaging (3% O2-5% CO2-balance N2) for respiring products. Comparative experiments between both techniques were performed in-vitro and in-vivo. Typical spoilage causing microorganisms (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Candida lambica), the moulds Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus flavus and the opportunistic psychrotrophic human pathogenic microorganism associated with refrigerated minimally processed vegetables. Aeromonas caviae (HG4), showed a retarded growth during the conducted in-vitro studies at 4 degrees C in 70%, 80% and 95% O2 as examples of HOA compared to the in-vitro experiments in 5% O2 (as example of EMA packaging) and the effect was more pronounced in 95% O2. The effect of the high O2-concentrations on the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes resulted in an extended lag phase (95% O2). The plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora was increasingly stimulated by increasing high O2-concentrations. During a storage experiment of three types of ready-to-eat vegetables (mushroom slices, grated celeriac and shredded chicory endive), which are sensitive to enzymatic browning and microbial spoilage, the effect of EMA and HOA (95% O2-5% N2) on their quality and shelf life was compared. High O2 atmospheres were found to be particularly effective in inhibiting enzymatic browning of the tested vegetables. Also, the microbial quality was better as a reduction in yeast growth was observed. The HOA can be applied as an alternative for low O2 modified atmospheres for some specific types of ready-to-eat vegetables, sensitive to enzymatic browning and spoilage by yeasts.

  14. Mine design: Long term effects of high extraction mining

    SciTech Connect

    Jeran, P.W.

    1996-12-31

    A consideration when designing a high extraction coal mine is the effects that mining will have on the ground above the mine. This becomes particularly important when the surface has been improved or is inhabited. Surface owners are concerned about; when the effects will begin? how large will they be? and how long they will last? Each of these should be addressed by the designer. For more than a decade, the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) has been monitoring subsidence at various sites. Based upon the data gathered, some inferences may be made regarding the above stated questions. Essentially surfacemore » movement begins with undermining. The magnitude of the movements are proportional to the thickness extracted and the width of the mined area, and inversely proportional to the depth of the mine below surface. The duration of the subsidence process in the northern Appalachian Basin is approximately one year. The USBM has developed a computer model which predicts the final subsidence profile across a longwall panel in the northern Appalachian Coal Basin. USBM studies on the dynamic development of subsidence have shown that the magnitude of the deformations developed during the subsidence process never exceed those exhibited in the final subsidence profile. Use of the model will provide engineers with a starting point in the design process.« less

  15. Analysis of isothiazolinone biocides in paper for food packaging by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Q-B; Wang, T-J; Song, H; Li, B

    2010-12-01

    A novel and simple method to detect isothiazolinone-type biocides (2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (MI), 5-chloro-2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (CMI), 1,2-benzisothiazolinone (BIT) and 2-octyl-3-isothiazolinone (OIT)) in paper used for food packaging by ultrasonic extraction coupled with UPLC-MS/MS was developed. Parameters affecting process efficiency such as extraction solvents, UPLC mobile phase, gradient elution procedure and MS/MS conditions were studied to optimise the operating conditions. Using the optimised gradient elution procedure, the retention time was less than 6 min. The limits of detection (LODs) were found to be between 0.001 and 0.010 mg kg⁻¹, which was validated using actual concentrations. After diluting the standard solution with a blank matrix, the linear calibration curve ranges were 0.002-1.000 mg kg⁻¹ for BIT and OIT, 0.005-1.000 mg kg⁻¹ for MI, and 0.020-1.000 mg kg⁻¹ for CMI, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9985 (n = 6). A good level of precision with a mean recovery greater than 81.3% and a relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 6.2% were also obtained. A methodology has been proposed for the analysis of isothiazolinones in paper.

  16. Spoilage and safety characteristics of ground beef packaged in traditional and modified atmosphere packages.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J C; Alvarado, M; Stephens, T P; Kellermeier, J D; Tittor, A W; Miller, M F; Brashears, M M

    2008-02-01

    Two separate studies, one with pathogen-inoculated product and one with noninoculated product, were conducted to determine the safety and spoilage characteristics of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and traditional packaging of ground beef patties. Ground beef patties were allotted to five packaging treatments (i) control (foam tray with film overwrap; traditional), (ii) high-oxygen MAP (80% 02, 20% CO2), (iii) high-oxygen MAP with added rosemary extract, (iv) low-oxygen carbon monoxide MAP (0.4% CO, 30% CO2, 69.6% N2), and (v) low-oxygen carbon monoxide MAP with added rosemary extract. Beef patties were evaluated for changes over time (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 days) during lighted display. Results indicated low-oxygen carbon monoxide gas flush had a stabilizing effect on meat color after the formation of carboxymyoglobin and was effective for preventing the development of surface discoloration. Consumers indicated that beef patties packaged in atmospheres containing carbon monoxide were more likely to smell fresh at 7, 14, and 21 days of display, but the majority would probably not consume these products after 14 days of display because of their odor. MAP suppressed the growth of psychrophilic aerobic bacteria when compared with control packages. Generally, control packages had significantly higher total aerobic bacteria and Lactobacillus counts than did modified atmosphere packages. In the inoculated ground beef (approximately 10(5) CFU/g) in MAP, Escherichia coli O157 populations ranged from 4.51 to 4.73 log CFU/g with no differences among the various packages, but the total E. coli O157:H7 in the ground beef in the control packages was significantly higher at 5.61 log CFU/g after 21 days of storage. On days 14 and 21, the total Salmonella in the ground beef in control packages was at 5.29 and 5.27 log CFU/g, respectively, which was significantly higher than counts in the modified atmosphere packages (3.99 to 4.31 log CFU/g on day 14 and 3.76 to 4.02 log CFU

  17. High voltage photo-switch package module having encapsulation with profiled metallized concavities

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, James S; Sanders, David M; Hawkins, Steven A; Sampayan, Stephen A

    2015-05-05

    A photo-conductive switch package module having a photo-conductive substrate or wafer with opposing electrode-interface surfaces metalized with first metallic layers formed thereon, and encapsulated with a dielectric encapsulation material such as for example epoxy. The first metallic layers are exposed through the encapsulation via encapsulation concavities which have a known contour profile, such as a Rogowski edge profile. Second metallic layers are then formed to line the concavities and come in contact with the first metal layer, to form profiled and metalized encapsulation concavities which mitigate enhancement points at the edges of electrodes matingly seated in the concavities. One or more optical waveguides may also be bonded to the substrate for coupling light into the photo-conductive wafer, with the encapsulation also encapsulating the waveguides.

  18. 3-D readout-electronics packaging for high-bandwidth massively paralleled imager

    DOEpatents

    Kwiatkowski, Kris; Lyke, James

    2007-12-18

    Dense, massively parallel signal processing electronics are co-packaged behind associated sensor pixels. Microchips containing a linear or bilinear arrangement of photo-sensors, together with associated complex electronics, are integrated into a simple 3-D structure (a "mirror cube"). An array of photo-sensitive cells are disposed on a stacked CMOS chip's surface at a 45.degree. angle from light reflecting mirror surfaces formed on a neighboring CMOS chip surface. Image processing electronics are held within the stacked CMOS chip layers. Electrical connections couple each of said stacked CMOS chip layers and a distribution grid, the connections for distributing power and signals to components associated with each stacked CSMO chip layer.

  19. Optimized ultra-high-pressure-assisted extraction of procyanidins from lychee pericarp improves the antioxidant activity of extracts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruifen; Su, Dongxiao; Hou, Fangli; Liu, Lei; Huang, Fei; Dong, Lihong; Deng, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Zhencheng; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-08-01

    To establish optimal ultra-high-pressure (UHP)-assisted extraction conditions for procyanidins from lychee pericarp, a response surface analysis method with four factors and three levels was adopted. The optimum conditions were as follows: 295 MPa pressure, 13 min pressure holding time, 16.0 mL/g liquid-to-solid ratio, and 70% ethanol concentration. Compared with conventional ethanol extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods, the yields of the total procyanidins, flavonoids, and phenolics extracted using the UHP process were significantly increased; consequently, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity and cellular antioxidant activity of UHP-assisted lychee pericarp extracts were substantially enhanced. LC-MS/MS and high-performance liquid chromatography quantification results for individual phenolic compounds revealed that the yield of procyanidin compounds, including epicatechin, procyanidin A2, and procyanidin B2, from lychee pericarp could be significantly improved by the UHP-assisted extraction process. This UHP-assisted extraction process is thus a practical method for the extraction of procyanidins from lychee pericarp.

  20. A comparison between high hydrostatic pressure extraction and heat extraction of ginsenosides from ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer).

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Sun; Lee, Hyun Jung; Yu, Hyung Jo; Ju, Do Weon; Kim, Yoonsook; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, Chul-Jin; Cho, Yong-Jin; Kim, Namsoo; Choi, Sin-Yang; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2011-06-01

    To determine biomaterial components, the components must first be transferred into solution; thus extraction is the first step in biomaterial analysis. High hydrostatic pressure technology was used for ginsenoside extraction from ginseng roots. In the extraction of fresh and red ginseng, high hydrostatic pressure extraction (HHPE) was found to be more effective than heat extraction (HE). In fresh ginseng extraction under HHPE, total ginsenosides (1602.2 µg mL⁻¹) and ginsenoside metabolite (132.6 µg mL⁻¹) levels were slightly higher than those under HE (1259.0 and 78.7 µg mL⁻¹), respectively. In red ginseng, similar results indicated total ginsenoside and ginsenoside metabolite amounts according to the extraction methods. Most volatile compounds by HHPE were higher than by HE treatment. HHPE of red ginseng was conducted under four pressures: 0.1 MPa (1 atm), 30, 50, and 80 MPa. Total sugar, uronic acid, and polyphenol amounts increased until 30 MPa of pressure and then showed decreasing tendencies. Total ginsenoside and ginsenoside metabolite contents linearly increased with increasing pressure, and a maximum was reached at 80 MPa for the metabolites. HHPE used for red ginseng processing contributes to enhanced extraction efficiencies of functional materials such as ginsenosides through cell structure modification. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Extraction of three bioactive diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata: effect of the extraction techniques on extract composition and quantification of three andrographolides using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satyanshu; Dhanani, Tushar; Shah, Sonal

    2014-10-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) wall.ex Nees (Acanthaceae) or Kalmegh is an important medicinal plant finding uses in many Ayurvedic formulations. Diterpenoid compounds andrographolides (APs) are the main bioactive phytochemicals present in leaves and herbage of A. paniculata. The efficiency of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide was compared with the solid-liquid extraction techniques such as solvent extraction, ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and microwave-assisted solvent extraction with methanol, water and methanol-water as solvents. Also a rapid and validated reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the three biologically active compounds, AP, neoandrographolide and andrograpanin, in the extracts of A. paniculata. Under the best SFE conditions tested for diterpenoids, which involved extraction at 60°C and 100 bar, the extractive efficiencies were 132 and 22 µg/g for AP and neoandrographolide, respectively. The modifier percentage significantly affected the extraction efficiency. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  3. Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces for High-Temperature Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Paret, Paul P

    2017-08-02

    Sintered silver has proven to be a promising candidate for use as a die-attach and substrate-attach material in automotive power electronics components. It holds promise of greater reliability than lead-based and lead-free solders, especially at higher temperatures (>200 degrees C). Accurate predictive lifetime models of sintered silver need to be developed and its failure mechanisms thoroughly characterized before it can be deployed as a die-attach or substrate-attach material in wide-bandgap device-based packages. Mechanical characterization tests that result in stress-strain curves and accelerated tests that produce cycles-to-failure result will be conducted. Also, we present a finite element method (FEM) modeling methodologymore » that can offer greater accuracy in predicting the failure of sintered silver under accelerated thermal cycling. A fracture mechanics-based approach is adopted in the FEM model, and J-integral/thermal cycle values are computed.« less

  4. Compact, High Power, Multi-Spectral Mid-Infrared Semiconductor Laser Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bujin; Hwang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Chich-Hsiang

    2001-10-01

    Through a vertically integrated effort involving atomic level material engineering, advanced device processing development, state-of-the-art optomechanical packaging, and thermal management, Applied Optoelectronics, Inc. (AOI), University of Houston (U H), and Physical Science, Inc. (PSI) have made progress in both Sb-based type-II semiconductor material and in P-based type-I laser device development. We have achieved record performance on inP based quantum cascade continuous wave (CW) laser (with more than 5 mW CW power at 210 K). Grating-coupled external-cavity quantum cascade lasers were studied for temperatures from 20 to 230 K. A tuning range of 88 nm has been obtained at 80 K. The technology can be made commercially available and represents a significant milestone with regard to the Dual Use Science and Technology (DUST) intention of fostering dual use commercial technology for defense need. AOI is the first commercial company to ship products of this licensed technology.

  5. High-resolution mapping of chromatin packaging in mouse embryonic stem cells and sperm.

    PubMed

    Carone, Benjamin R; Hung, Jui-Hung; Hainer, Sarah J; Chou, Min-Te; Carone, Dawn M; Weng, Zhiping; Fazzio, Thomas G; Rando, Oliver J

    2014-07-14

    Mammalian embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and sperm exhibit unusual chromatin packaging that plays important roles in cellular function. Here, we extend a recently developed technique, based on deep paired-end sequencing of lightly digested chromatin, to assess footprints of nucleosomes and other DNA-binding proteins genome-wide in murine ESCs and sperm. In ESCs, we recover well-characterized features of chromatin such as promoter nucleosome depletion and further identify widespread footprints of sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins such as CTCF, which we validate in knockdown studies. We document global differences in nuclease accessibility between ESCs and sperm, finding that the majority of histone retention in sperm preferentially occurs in large gene-poor genomic regions, with only a small subset of nucleosomes being retained over promoters of developmental regulators. Finally, we describe evidence that CTCF remains associated with the genome in mature sperm, where it could play a role in organizing the sperm genome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantifying High Frequency Skill and Relative Cost of Two Physics Packages for an Operational Spectral Wave Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, K. L.; Siqueira, S. A.; Rogers, W. E.

    2017-12-01

    Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) is one of the two phase-averaged spectral models used by the U.S. Navy for forecasting waves. The source term package available during SWAN's first validation for operational use in 2002 is referred to here as "SWAN-ST1". Since then, improvements to the source term package were implemented (SWAN-ST6). One outcome of the new package is better skill within the higher frequencies of the spectrum, where SWAN-ST1 gives non-physical response to changes in wind speed and non-physical response to presence of swell in the lower frequencies. However, SWAN-ST6 is typically 25% more expensive computationally than SWAN-ST1, so it is worthwhile to estimate its benefit to operational cases, where computation time is a primary concern. To validate SWAN-ST6 and quantify its improvement over SWAN-ST1, we apply the model to two geographic regions—the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) and Southern California (SoCal) coasts. The NGoM case is typified by smaller fetch and smaller swell contribution. We analyze the NGoM case for a year (2010 July-2011 Aug.); and the SoCal application for summer (2016 July-Aug.) and winter (2017 Jan.-Feb.) seasons. We compare results to available buoy data. The wave parameter mean square slope (MSS) is included in this study, since it is sensitive to accuracy (or lack thereof) at higher frequencies, as it is weighted by frequency to the fourth power. Model-data comparisons for the NGoM case show little benefit to using SWAN-ST6; both models highly correlate with observations, a result attributable to a) the lack of swell and b) the fact that the shorter dominant periods in this basin imply that available buoys typically measure very little of the spectral tail (e.g. 2 to 4 times the peak frequency). Model-data comparisons for the SoCal test case show that SWAN-ST6 performs at least as well but most often better than SWAN-ST1. The improvement is almost negligible for the lower order moments, significant wave height and

  7. High-voltage leak detection of a parenteral proteinaceous solution product packaged in form-fill-seal plastic laminate bags. Part 1. Method development and validation.

    PubMed

    Damgaard, Rasmus; Rasmussen, Mats; Buus, Peter; Mulhall, Brian; Guazzo, Dana Morton

    2013-01-01

    In Part 1 of this three-part research series, a leak test performed using high-voltage leak detection (HVLD) technology, also referred to as an electrical conductivity and capacitance leak test, was developed and validated for container-closure integrity verification of a small-volume laminate plastic bag containing an aqueous solution for injection. The sterile parenteral product is the rapid-acting insulin analogue, insulin aspart (NovoRapid®/NovoLog®, by Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark). The aseptically filled and sealed package is designed to preserve product sterility through expiry. Method development and validation work incorporated positive control packages with a single hole laser-drilled through the laminate film of each bag. A unique HVLD method characterized by specific high-voltage and potentiometer set points was established for testing bags positioned in each of three possible orientations as they are conveyed through the instrument's test zone in each of two possible directions-resulting in a total of six different test method options. Validation study results successfully demonstrated the ability of all six methods to accurately and reliably detect those packages with laser-drilled holes from 2.5-11.2 μm in nominal diameter. Part 2 of this series will further explore HVLD test results as a function of package seal and product storage variables. The final Part 3 will report the impact of HVLD exposure on product physico-chemical stability. In this Part 1 of a three-part research series, a leak test method based on electrical conductivity and capacitance, called high voltage leak detection (HVLD), was used to find leaks in small plastic bags filled with an insulin pharmaceutical solution for human injection by Novo Nordisk A/S (Bagsværd, Denmark). To perform the test, the package is electrically grounded while being conveyed past an electrode linked to a high-voltage, low-amperage transformer. The instrument measures the current that passes

  8. Proteomic analysis to investigate color changes of chilled beef longissimus steaks held under carbon monoxide and high oxygen packaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyin; Wu, Shuang; Hopkins, David L; Liang, Rongrong; Zhu, Lixian; Zhang, Yimin; Luo, Xin

    2018-08-01

    This study investigated the proteome basis for color stability variations in beef steaks packaged under two modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) methods: HiOx-MAP (80% O 2 /20% CO 2 ) and CO-MAP (0.4% CO/30% CO 2 /69.6% N 2 ) during 15 days of storage. The color stability, pH, and sarcoplasmic proteome analysis of steaks were evaluated on days 0, 5, 10 and 15 of storage. Proteomic results revealed that the differential expression of the sarcoplasmic proteome during storage contributed to the variations in meat color stability between the two MAP methods. Compared with HiOx-MAP steaks, some glycolytic and energy metabolic enzymes important in NADH regeneration and antioxidant processes, antioxidant peroxiredoxins (thioredoxin-dependent peroxide reductase, peroxiredoxin-2, peroxiredoxin-6) and protein DJ-1 were more abundant in CO-MAP steaks. The over-expression of these proteins could induce CO-MAP steaks to maintain high levels of metmyoglobin reducing activity and oxygen consumption rate, resulting in CO-MAP steaks exhibiting better color stability than HiOx-MAP steaks during storage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Decon2LS: An open-source software package for automated processing and visualization of high resolution mass spectrometry data

    PubMed Central

    Jaitly, Navdeep; Mayampurath, Anoop; Littlefield, Kyle; Adkins, Joshua N; Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D

    2009-01-01

    Background Data generated from liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based studies of a biological sample can contain large amounts of biologically significant information in the form of proteins, peptides, and metabolites. Interpreting this data involves inferring the masses and abundances of biomolecules injected into the instrument. Because of the inherent complexity of mass spectral patterns produced by these biomolecules, the analysis is significantly enhanced by using visualization capabilities to inspect and confirm results. In this paper we describe Decon2LS, an open-source software package for automated processing and visualization of high-resolution MS data. Drawing extensively on algorithms developed over the last ten years for ICR2LS, Decon2LS packages the algorithms as a rich set of modular, reusable processing classes for performing diverse functions such as reading raw data, routine peak finding, theoretical isotope distribution modelling, and deisotoping. Because the source code is openly available, these functionalities can now be used to build derivative applications in relatively fast manner. In addition, Decon2LS provides an extensive set of visualization tools, such as high performance chart controls. Results With a variety of options that include peak processing, deisotoping, isotope composition, etc, Decon2LS supports processing of multiple raw data formats. Deisotoping can be performed on an individual scan, an individual dataset, or on multiple datasets using batch processing. Other processing options include creating a two dimensional view of mass and liquid chromatography (LC) elution time features, generating spectrum files for tandem MS data, creating total intensity chromatograms, and visualizing theoretical peptide profiles. Application of Decon2LS to deisotope different datasets obtained across different instruments yielded a high number of features that can be used to identify and quantify

  10. Decon2LS: An open-source software package for automated processing and visualization of high resolution mass spectrometry data.

    PubMed

    Jaitly, Navdeep; Mayampurath, Anoop; Littlefield, Kyle; Adkins, Joshua N; Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D

    2009-03-17

    Data generated from liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based studies of a biological sample can contain large amounts of biologically significant information in the form of proteins, peptides, and metabolites. Interpreting this data involves inferring the masses and abundances of biomolecules injected into the instrument. Because of the inherent complexity of mass spectral patterns produced by these biomolecules, the analysis is significantly enhanced by using visualization capabilities to inspect and confirm results. In this paper we describe Decon2LS, an open-source software package for automated processing and visualization of high-resolution MS data. Drawing extensively on algorithms developed over the last ten years for ICR2LS, Decon2LS packages the algorithms as a rich set of modular, reusable processing classes for performing diverse functions such as reading raw data, routine peak finding, theoretical isotope distribution modelling, and deisotoping. Because the source code is openly available, these functionalities can now be used to build derivative applications in relatively fast manner. In addition, Decon2LS provides an extensive set of visualization tools, such as high performance chart controls. With a variety of options that include peak processing, deisotoping, isotope composition, etc, Decon2LS supports processing of multiple raw data formats. Deisotoping can be performed on an individual scan, an individual dataset, or on multiple datasets using batch processing. Other processing options include creating a two dimensional view of mass and liquid chromatography (LC) elution time features, generating spectrum files for tandem MS data, creating total intensity chromatograms, and visualizing theoretical peptide profiles. Application of Decon2LS to deisotope different datasets obtained across different instruments yielded a high number of features that can be used to identify and quantify peptides in the

  11. Application of ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid phase microextraction for highly sensitive simultaneous determination of three endocrine disrupting compounds in food packaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Danfeng; Xu, Xu; Zhang, Lei

    2016-04-15

    Ionic liquid (IL) dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method was successfully developed for extracting three endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) (bisphenol A, bisphenol AF and bisphenol AP) from the food packaging. 1-Octyl-3-methylimidazoliumhexafluorophosphate ([C8MIM][PF6]) was selected as extraction solution. The extraction procedure did not require a dispersive solvent. Three EDCs extraction kinetics were found to be very fast and the equilibrium was attained within 3.0 min following the pseudo-first-order model. The H-bonding and hydrophobic interactions play an important role in the partitioning of EDCs into IL from aqueous solution. The recovered IL could be reused for three runs without significant loss of extraction efficiencies. The spiked recoveries of three targets in food packaging were in the range of 97.8-103.1%. The limits of detection ranged from 0.50 to 1.50 ng mL(-1) (S/N=3). As a result, this method has been successfully applied for the sensitive detection of three EDCs in real samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The GRIDView Visualization Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, B. R.

    2011-07-01

    Large three-dimensional data cubes, catalogs, and spectral line archives are increasingly important elements of the data discovery process in astronomy. Visualization of large data volumes is of vital importance for the success of large spectral line surveys. Examples of data reduction utilizing the GRIDView software package are shown. The package allows users to manipulate data cubes, extract spectral profiles, and measure line properties. The package and included graphical user interfaces (GUIs) are designed with pipeline infrastructure in mind. The software has been used with great success analyzing spectral line and continuum data sets obtained from large radio survey collaborations. The tools are also important for multi-wavelength cross-correlation studies and incorporate Virtual Observatory client applications for overlaying database information in real time as cubes are examined by users.

  13. Science packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  14. The CNVrd2 package: measurement of copy number at complex loci using high-throughput sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoang T; Merriman, Tony R; Black, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughout sequencing technologies have made it possible to accurately assign copy number (CN) at CN variable loci. However, current analytic methods often perform poorly in regions in which complex CN variation is observed. Here we report the development of a read depth-based approach, CNVrd2, for investigation of CN variation using high-throughput sequencing data. This methodology was developed using data from the 1000 Genomes Project from the CCL3L1 locus, and tested using data from the DEFB103A locus. In both cases, samples were selected for which paralog ratio test data were also available for comparison. The CNVrd2 method first uses observed read-count ratios to refine segmentation results in one population. Then a linear regression model is applied to adjust the results across multiple populations, in combination with a Bayesian normal mixture model to cluster segmentation scores into groups for individual CN counts. The performance of CNVrd2 was compared to that of two other read depth-based methods (CNVnator, cn.mops) at the CCL3L1 and DEFB103A loci. The highest concordance with the paralog ratio test method was observed for CNVrd2 (77.8/90.4% for CNVrd2, 36.7/4.8% for cn.mops and 7.2/1% for CNVnator at CCL3L1 and DEF103A). CNVrd2 is available as an R package as part of the Bioconductor project: http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/CNVrd2.html.

  15. High hydrostatic pressure processing: a method having high success potential in pollen protein extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murat Altuner, Ergin; Çeter, Talip; Alpas, Hami

    2012-06-01

    Even a single peptide that is present in the pollen wall and cytoplasm could cause pollen allergy. To produce skin-prick test kits, the first step is the extraction of these molecules. In this study, Cedrus atlantica pollens were subjected to 220 and 330 MPa for 10 and 30 min in order to extract these molecules. After high hydrostatic pressure processing (HHPP), the total amounts of proteins (TAPs) are measured and compared with the results of the conventional extraction method (CEM). As a result, the TAPs extracted by HHPP is 18.0210 μ g/mL at 220 MPa for 10 min, 22.5770 μ g/mL at 220 MPa for 30 min, 23.3810 μ g/mL at 330 MPa for 10 min and 25.9270 μ g/mL at 330 MPa for 30 min, while this is 1.9460 μ g/mL in 24 h by the CEM. In addition to these results, visual pollen deformation and eruption, pollen wall and surface damage have also been observed.

  16. High-resolution extraction of particle size via Fourier Ptychography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengfu; Zhao, Yu; Chen, Guanghua; Luo, Zhenxiong; Ye, Yan

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a method which can extract the particle size information with a resolution beyond λ/NA. This is achieved by applying Fourier Ptychographic (FP) ideas to the present problem. In a typical FP imaging platform, a 2D LED array is used as light sources for angle-varied illuminations, a series of low-resolution images was taken by a full sequential scan of the array of LEDs. Here, we demonstrate the particle size information is extracted by turning on each single LED on a circle. The simulated results show that the proposed method can reduce the total number of images, without loss of reliability in the results.

  17. Solid-Liquid Interdiffusion Bonding of Silicon Carbide to Steel for High Temperature MEMS Sensor Packaging and Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Matthew Wei-Jen

    Complex engineering systems ranging from automobile engines to geothermal wells require specialized sensors to monitor conditions such as pressure, acceleration and temperature in order to improve efficiency and monitor component lifetime in what may be high temperature, corrosive, harsh environments. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have demonstrated their ability to precisely and accurately take measurements under such conditions. The systems being monitored are typically made from metals, such as steel, while the MEMS sensors used for monitoring are commonly fabricated from silicon, silicon carbide and aluminum nitride, and so there is a sizable thermal expansion mismatch between the two. For these engineering applications the direct bonding of MEMS sensors to the components being monitored is often required. This introduces several challenges, namely the development of a bond that is capable of surviving high temperature harsh environments while mitigating the thermally induced strains produced during bonding. This project investigates the development of a robust packaging and bonding process, using the gold-tin metal system and the solid-liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding process, to join silicon carbide substrates directly to type-316 stainless steel. The SLID process enables bonding at lower temperatures while producing a bond capable of surviving higher temperatures. Finite element analysis was performed to model the thermally induced strains generated in the bond and to understand the optimal way to design the bond. The cross-sectional composition of the bonds has been analyzed and the bond strength has been investigated using die shear testing. The effects of high temperature aging on the bond's strength and the metallurgy of the bond were studied. Additionally, loading of the bond was performed at temperatures over 415 °C, more than 100 °C, above the temperature used for bonding, with full survival of the bond, thus demonstrating the benefit of

  18. Space station power semiconductor package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balodis, Vilnis; Berman, Albert; Devance, Darrell; Ludlow, Gerry; Wagner, Lee

    1987-01-01

    A package of high-power switching semiconductors for the space station have been designed and fabricated. The package includes a high-voltage (600 volts) high current (50 amps) NPN Fast Switching Power Transistor and a high-voltage (1200 volts), high-current (50 amps) Fast Recovery Diode. The package features an isolated collector for the transistors and an isolated anode for the diode. Beryllia is used as the isolation material resulting in a thermal resistance for both devices of .2 degrees per watt. Additional features include a hermetical seal for long life -- greater than 10 years in a space environment. Also, the package design resulted in a low electrical energy loss with the reduction of eddy currents, stray inductances, circuit inductance, and capacitance. The required package design and device parameters have been achieved. Test results for the transistor and diode utilizing the space station package is given.

  19. Cascaded Raman lasing in packaged high quality As₂S₃ microspheres.

    PubMed

    Vanier, Francis; Peter, Yves-Alain; Rochette, Martin

    2014-11-17

    We report the observation of cascaded Raman lasing in high-Q As₂S₃microspheres. Cascaded stimulated Raman scattering emission is obtained up to the 5th order for a pump wavelength of 1557 nm and up to the 3rd order for a pump wavelength of 1880 nm. High-Q As₂S₃microspheres are used in a self-frequency locking laser setup without an external laser source. Threshold curves measurements are presented and follow the expected coupled mode theory behavior with a sub-mW threshold pump power.

  20. High-Throughput Dietary Exposure Predictions for Chemical Migrants from Food Packaging Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    United States Environmental Protection Agency researchers have developed a Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation High -Throughput (SHEDS-HT) model for use in prioritization of chemicals under the ExpoCast program. In this research, new methods were implemented in SHEDS-HT...

  1. High-Throughput Toxicokinetics (HTTK) R package (CompTox CoP presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicokinetics (TK) provides a bridge between HTS and HTE by predicting tissue concentrations due to exposure, but traditional TK methods are resource intensive. Relatively high throughput TK (HTTK) methods have been used by the pharmaceutical industry to determine range of effic...

  2. [East Syracuse-Minoa Schools Environmental Education Materials, High School Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Syracuse - Minoa Central Schools, East Syracuse, NY.

    This series of four environmental education units is designed for use at the high school level. The first unit, an advanced science and independent study, includes such topics as student requirements, advisor responsibilities, evaluation forms, research report format, a guide to Syracuse University libraries, and research ideas. The second unit,…

  3. Novel packaging for CW and QCW diode laser modules for operation with high power and duty cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassbender, Wilhelm; Lotz, Jens; Kissel, Heiko; Biesenbach, Jens

    2018-02-01

    Continuous wave (CW) and quasi-continuous wave (QCW) operated diode laser bars and arrays have found a wide range of industrial, medical, scientific, military and space applications with a broad variety in wavelength, pulse energy, pulse duration and beam quality. Recent applications require even higher power, duty cycles and power density. The heat loss will be dissipated by conductive cooling or liquid cooling close to the bars. We present the latest performance and reliability data of two novel high-brightness CW and QCW arrays of customized and mass-production modules, in compact and robust industry design for operation with high power and high duty cycles. All designs are based on single diode packages consisting of 10mm laser bars, soft or hard soldered between expansion matched submounts. The modular components cover a wide span of designs which differ basically in water/conduction (active/passive) cooled, single, linear (horizontal and vertical) arranged designs, as well as housed and unhoused modules. The different assembling technologies of active and passive cooled base plates affect the heat dissipation and therefore the reachable power at different QCW operating conditions, as well as the lifetime. As an example, a package consisting of 8 laser diodes, connected to a 28.8*13.5*7.0mm3 DCB (direct copper bonded) submount, passively or actively cooled is considered. This design is of particular interest for mobile applications seamless module to module building system, with an infinite number of laser bars at 1.7mm pitch. Using 940nm bars we can reach an optical output power per bar of 450W at 25°C base plate temperature with 10Hz, 1.2% duty cycle and 1.2ms pulse duration. As an additional example, micro channel coolers can be vertically stacked up to 50 diodes with a 1,15mm pitch. This design is suitable for all applications, demanding also compactness and light weight and high power density. Using near infrared bars and others, we can reach an optical

  4. High-efficient extraction of principal medicinal components from fresh Phellodendron bark (cortex phellodendri).

    PubMed

    Xu, Keqin; He, Gongxiu; Qin, Jieming; Cheng, Xuexiang; He, Hanjie; Zhang, Dangquan; Peng, Wanxi

    2018-05-01

    There are three key medicinal components (phellodendrine, berberine and palmatine) in the extracts of Phellodendron bark, as one of the fundamental herbs of traditional Chinese medicine. Different extraction methods and solvent combinations were investigated to obtain the optimal technologies for high-efficient extraction of these medicinal components. The results showed that combined solvents have higher extracting effect of phellodendrine, berberine and palmatine than single solvent, and the effect of ultrasonic extraction is distinctly better than those of distillation and soxhlet extraction. The hydrochloric acid/methanol-ultrasonic extraction has the best effect for three medicinal components of fresh Phellodendron bark, providing an extraction yield of 103.12 mg/g berberine, 24.41 mg/g phellodendrine, 1.25 mg/g palmatine.

  5. High-pressure processing as emergent technology for the extraction of bioactive ingredients from plant materials.

    PubMed

    Jun, Xi

    2013-01-01

    High-pressure processing is a food processing technique that has shown great potentials in the food industry. Recently, it was developed to extract bioactive ingredients from plant materials, known as ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE), taking advantages of time saving, higher extraction yields, fewer impurities in the extraction solution, minimal heat and can avoid thermal degradation on the activity and structure of bioactive components, and so on. This review provides an overview of the developments in the UPE of bioactive ingredients from plant material. Apart from a brief presentation of the theories of UPE and extraction equipment systems, the principal parameters that influence the extraction efficiency to be optimized in the UPE (e.g., solvent, pressure, temperature, extraction time, and the number of cycle) were discussed in detail, and finally the more recent applications of UPE for the extraction of active compounds from plant materials were summarized.

  6. Performance characterization of high quantum efficiency metal package photomultiplier tubes for time-of-flight and high-resolution PET applications.

    PubMed

    Ko, Guen Bae; Lee, Jae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Metal package photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with a metal channel dynode structure have several advanced features for devising such time-of-flight (TOF) and high spatial resolution positron emission tomography (PET) detectors, thanks to their high packing density, large effective area ratio, fast time response, and position encoding capability. Here, we report on an investigation of new metal package PMTs with high quantum efficiency (QE) for high-resolution PET and TOF PET detector modules. The latest metal package PMT, the Hamamatsu R11265 series, is served with two kinds of photocathodes that have higher quantum efficiency than normal bialkali (typical QE ≈ 25%), super bialkali (SBA; QE ≈ 35%), and ultra bialkali (UBA; QE ≈ 43%). In this study, the authors evaluated the performance of the new PMTs with SBA and UBA photocathodes as a PET detector by coupling various crystal arrays. They also investigated the performance improvements of high QE, focusing in particular on a block detector coupled with a lutetium-based scintillator. A single 4 × 4 × 10 mm(3) LYSO, a 7 × 7 array of 3 × 3 × 20 mm(3) LGSO, a 9 × 9 array of 1.2 × 1.2 × 10 mm(3) LYSO, and a 6 × 6 array of 1.5 × 1.5 × 7 mm(3) LuYAP were used for evaluation. All coincidence data were acquired with a DRS4 based fast digitizer. This new PMT shows promising crystal positioning accuracy, energy and time discrimination performance for TOF, and high-resolution PET applications. The authors also found that a metal channel PMT with SBA was enough for both TOF and high-resolution application, although UBA gave a minor improvement to time resolution. However, significant performance improvement was observed in relative low light output crystals (LuYAP) coupled with UBA. The results of this study will be of value as a useful reference to select PMTs for high-performance PET detectors.

  7. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  8. Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces for High-temperature Packaging: Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    DeVoto, Douglas J.

    2017-10-19

    As maximum device temperatures approach 200 °Celsius, continuous operation, sintered silver materials promise to maintain bonds at these high temperatures without excessive degradation rates. A detailed characterization of the thermal performance and reliability of sintered silver materials and processes has been initiated for the next year. Future steps in crack modeling include efforts to simulate crack propagation directly using the extended finite element method (X-FEM), a numerical technique that uses the partition of unity method for modeling discontinuities such as cracks in a system.

  9. Beam extraction and high stability operation of high current electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, P; Mishra, L; Kewlani, H; Patil, D S; Mittal, K C

    2014-03-01

    A high current electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source is designed and developed for the low energy high intensity proton accelerator at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The plasma discharge in the ion source is stabilized by minimizing the reflected microwave power using four stub auto tuner and magnetic field. The optimization of extraction geometry is performed using PBGUNS code by varying the aperture, shape, accelerating gap, and the potential on the electrodes. While operating the source, it was found that the two layered microwave window (6 mm quartz plate and 2 mm boron nitride plate) was damaged (a fine hole was drilled) by the back-streaming electrons after continuous operation of the source for 3 h at beam current of 20-40 mA. The microwave window was then shifted from the line of sight of the back-streaming electrons and located after the water-cooled H-plane bend. In this configuration the stable operation of the high current ion source for several hours is achieved. The ion beam is extracted from the source by biasing plasma electrode, puller electrode, and ground electrode to +10 to +50 kV, -2 to -4 kV, and 0 kV, respectively. The total ion beam current of 30-40 mA is recorded on Faraday cup at 40 keV of beam energy at 600-1000 W of microwave power, 800-1000 G axial magnetic field and (1.2-3.9) × 10(-3) mbar of neutral hydrogen gas pressure in the plasma chamber. The dependence of beam current on extraction voltage, microwave power, and gas pressure is investigated in the range of operation of the ion source.

  10. Field Demonstration of a High-Efficiency Packaged Rooftop Air Conditioning Unit at Fort Gordon, Augusta, GA

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Peter R.; Sullivan, Gregory P.; Parker, Graham B.

    2006-03-31

    As part of a larger program targeting the market transformation of packaged rooftop air conditioning, five high-efficiency rooftop air conditioning products were selected in 2002 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Unitary Air Conditioner (UAC) Technology Procurement (http://www.pnl.gov/uac). In February 2003, Fort Gordon in Augusta, Georgia was chosen as the demonstration site. With the goal of validating the field performance and operation of one of the awarded products, a 10-ton high-efficiency packaged rooftop unit (RTU) manufactured by Global Energy Group (GEG) was installed at Fort Gordon in October 2003. Following equipment installation, power metering, air- and refrigerant-sidemore » instrumentation was installed on the GEG RTU and a 4-year old typical-efficiency 20-ton RTU manufactured by AAON . The GEG and AAON units were instrumented identically and operated May through July, 2005, to observe performance under a range of conditions. Based on the data collected as part of this demonstration, the GEG equipment performed at least 8% better in stage-1 (single compressor running) cooling and at least 16% better in stage-2 (both compressors running) than the baseline AAON equipment. Performance comparisons are based on what we call application EER normalized to equivalent specific fan power. The full-load, specific-fan-power-normalized application EERs at ARI design conditions were 10.48 Btu/Wh for the GEG and 9.00 Btu/Wh for the baseline machine. With a cost premium of nearly 50%, and slightly higher maintenance costs, the life-cycle cost analysis shows that the GEG technology pays for itself--a positive net-present value (NPV)--only in climates and buildings with long cooling seasons. Manufacture of this equipment on a larger scale can be expected to reduce costs to the point where it is more broadly cost-effective. The assumed 10-ton baseline and new-technology unit costs are $3824.00 and $5525.00 respectively. If the new technology cost is

  11. The high throughput investigation of polyphenolic couplers in biodegradable packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochhead, Robert Y.; Haynes, Camille T.; Jones, Stephen R.; Smith, Virginia

    2006-01-01

    create a coupler from the hydrogen-bonded coacervate formed between a polyphenolic compound and polyvinylpyrrolidone, and to use this to exfoliate and couple montmorillonite nanoparticles to polycaprolactone. To achieve this, solubility parameter mapping of candidate polymeric couplers, polycaprolactone and target polyphenolic compounds was undertaken. This was used as a screening process in predicting incompatibilities and eliminating unpromising materials that were soluble in the same materials as the polycaprolactone and the polyvinylpyrrolidone. High throughput generation of Hansen-Hoy solubility diagrams coupled with simple techniques like high throughput FT-IR spectroscopy and polarized light microscopy provide a powerful tool for the evaluation of compatibility between formulation components. We were able to quickly evaluate over 110 food-contact-approved phenolic compounds, select the two promising candidates and eliminate all of the rest by evaluating their propensity for compatibility and hydrogen bonding.

  12. A CTE matched hard solder passively cooled laser diode package combined with nXLT facet passivation enables high power, high reliability operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Aaron; Wang, Jun; DeFranza, Mark; Liu, Xingsheng; Vivian, Bill; Johnson, Curt; Crump, Paul; Leisher, Paul; DeVito, Mark; Martinsen, Robert; Bell, Jacob

    2007-04-01

    A conductively cooled laser diode package design with hard AuSn solder and CTE matched sub mount is presented. We discuss how this platform eliminates the failure mechanisms associated with indium solder. We present the problem of catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) and show that nLight's nXLT TM facet passivation technology effectively eliminates facet defect initiated COMD as a failure mechanism for both single emitter and bar format laser diodes. By combining these technologies we have developed a product that has high reliability at high powers, even at increased operation temperatures. We present early results from on-going accelerated life testing of this configuration that suggests an 808nm, 30% fill factor device will have a MTTF of more than 21khrs at 60W CW, 25°C operating conditions and a MTTF of more than 6.4khrs when operated under hard pulsed (1 second on, 1 second off) conditions.

  13. The Effectiveness of a Computer-Assisted Instruction Package in Supplementing Teaching of Selected Concepts in High School Chemistry: Writing Formulas and Balancing Chemical Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainwright, Camille L.

    Four classes of high school chemistry students (N=108) were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups to investigate the effectiveness of a computer assisted instruction (CAI) package during a unit on writing/naming of chemical formulas and balancing equations. Students in the experimental group received drill, review, and reinforcement…

  14. Ultra-high pressure LC for astaxanthin determination in shrimp by-products and active food packaging.

    PubMed

    Sanches-Silva, A; Ribeiro, T; Albuquerque, T G; Paseiro, P; Sendón, R; de Quirós, A Bernaldo; López-Cervantes, J; Sánchez-Machado, D I; Soto Valdez, H; Angulo, I; Aurrekoetxea, G P; Costa, H S

    2013-06-01

    Nowadays, there is increasing interest in natural antioxidants from food by-products. Astaxanthin is a potent antioxidant and one of the major carotenoids in crustaceans and salmonids. An ultra-high pressure liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of astaxanthin in shrimp by-products, and its migration from new packaging materials to food simulants was also studied. The method uses an UPLC® BEH guard-column (2.1 × 5 mm, 1.7 µm particle size) and an UPLC® BEH analytical column (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.7 µm particle size). Chromatographic separation was achieved using a programmed gradient mobile phase consisting of (A) acetonitrile-methanol (containing 0.05 m ammonium acetate)-dichloromethane (75:20:5, v/v/v) and (B) ultrapure water. This method was evaluated with respect to validation parameters such as linearity, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification and recovery. Low-density polyethylene films were prepared with different amounts of the lipid fraction of fermented shrimp waste by extrusion, and migration was evaluated into food simulants (isooctane and ethanol 95%, v/v). Migration was not detected under the tested conditions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Enhancement of Lipid Extraction from Marine Microalga, Scenedesmus Associated with High-Pressure Homogenization Process

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seok-Cheol; Choi, Woon-Yong; Oh, Sung-Ho; Lee, Choon-Geun; Seo, Yong-Chang; Kim, Ji-Seon; Song, Chi-Ho; Kim, Ga-Vin; Lee, Shin-Young; Kang, Do-Hyung; Lee, Hyeon-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Marine microalga, Scenedesmus sp., which is known to be suitable for biodiesel production because of its high lipid content, was subjected to the conventional Folch method of lipid extraction combined with high-pressure homogenization pretreatment process at 1200 psi and 35°C. Algal lipid yield was about 24.9% through this process, whereas only 19.8% lipid can be obtained by following a conventional lipid extraction procedure using the solvent, chloroform : methanol (2 : 1, v/v). Present approach requires 30 min process time and a moderate working temperature of 35°C as compared to the conventional extraction method which usually requires >5 hrs and 65°C temperature. It was found that this combined extraction process followed second-order reaction kinetics, which means most of the cellular lipids were extracted during initial periods of extraction, mostly within 30 min. In contrast, during the conventional extraction process, the cellular lipids were slowly and continuously extracted for >5 hrs by following first-order kinetics. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy revealed altered texture of algal biomass pretreated with high-pressure homogenization. These results clearly demonstrate that the Folch method coupled with high-pressure homogenization pretreatment can easily destruct the rigid cell walls of microalgae and release the intact lipids, with minimized extraction time and temperature, both of which are essential for maintaining good quality of the lipids for biodiesel production. PMID:22969270

  16. Biosynthesis of spherical and highly stable gold nanoparticles using Ferulago Angulata aqueous extract: dual role of extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, A.; Parsafar, S.; Khodaei, M. M.

    2017-03-01

    A biocompatible method for synthesizing of highly disperses gold nanoparticles using Ferulago Angulata leaf extract has been developed. It has been shown that leaf extract acts as reducing and coating agent. Various spectroscopic and electron microscopic techniques were employed for the structural characterization of the prepared nanoparticles. The biosynthesized particles were identified as elemental gold with spherical morphology, narrow size distribution (ranged 9.2-17.5 nm) with high stability. Also, the effect of initial ratio of precursors, temperature and time of reaction on the size and morphology of the nanoparticles was studied in more detail. It was observed that varying these parameters provides an accessible remote control on the size and morphology of nanoparticles. The uniqueness of this procedure lies in its cleanliness using no extra surfactant, reducing agent or any capping agent.

  17. High-Q Wafer Level Package Based on Modified Tri-Layer Anodic Bonding and High Performance Getter and Its Evaluation for Micro Resonant Pressure Sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liying; Du, Xiaohui; Wang, Lingyun; Xu, Zhanhao; Zhang, Chenying; Gu, Dandan

    2017-03-16

    In order to achieve and maintain a high quality factor (high-Q) for the micro resonant pressure sensor, this paper presents a new wafer level package by adopting cross-layer anodic bonding technique of the glass/silicon/silica (GSS) stackable structure and integrated Ti getter. A double-layer structure similar to a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer is formed after the resonant layer and the pressure-sensitive layer are bonded by silicon direct bonding (SDB). In order to form good bonding quality between the pressure-sensitive layer and the glass cap layer, the cross-layer anodic bonding technique is proposed for vacuum package by sputtering Aluminum (Al) on the combination wafer of the pressure-sensitive layer and the resonant layer to achieve electrical interconnection. The model and the bonding effect of this technique are discussed. In addition, in order to enhance the performance of titanium (Ti) getter, the prepared and activation parameters of Ti getter under different sputtering conditions are optimized and discussed. Based on the optimized results, the Ti getter (thickness of 300 nm to 500 nm) is also deposited on the inside of the glass groove by magnetron sputtering to maintain stable quality factor (Q). The Q test of the built testing system shows that the number of resonators with a Q value of more than 10,000 accounts for more than 73% of the total. With an interval of 1.5 years, the Q value of the samples remains almost constant. It proves the proposed cross-layer anodic bonding and getter technique can realize high-Q resonant structure for long-term stable operation.

  18. Advanced Extraction of Spatial Information from High Resolution Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour, T.; Burian, J.; Miřijovský, J.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper authors processed five satellite image of five different Middle-European cities taken by five different sensors. The aim of the paper was to find methods and approaches leading to evaluation and spatial data extraction from areas of interest. For this reason, data were firstly pre-processed using image fusion, mosaicking and segmentation processes. Results going into the next step were two polygon layers; first one representing single objects and the second one representing city blocks. In the second step, polygon layers were classified and exported into Esri shapefile format. Classification was partly hierarchical expert based and partly based on the tool SEaTH used for separability distinction and thresholding. Final results along with visual previews were attached to the original thesis. Results are evaluated visually and statistically in the last part of the paper. In the discussion author described difficulties of working with data of large size, taken by different sensors and different also thematically.

  19. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  20. Seafood Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with a New Orleans seafood packaging company to develop a container to improve the shipping longevity of seafood, primarily frozen and fresh fish, while preserving the taste. A NASA engineer developed metalized heat resistant polybags with thermal foam liners using an enhanced version of the metalized mylar commonly known as 'space blanket material,' which was produced during the Apollo era.

  1. Highly Processed and Ready-to-Eat Packaged Food and Beverage Purchases Differ by Race/Ethnicity among US Households.

    PubMed

    Poti, Jennifer M; Mendez, Michelle A; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-09-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in dietary quality persist among Americans, but it is unclear whether highly processed foods or convenience foods contribute to these inequalities. We examined the independent associations of race/ethnicity with highly processed and ready-to-eat (RTE) food purchases among US households. We determined whether controlling for between-group differences in purchases of these products attenuated associations between race/ethnicity and the nutritional quality of purchases. The 2000-2012 Homescan Panel followed US households (n = 157,142) that scanned their consumer packaged goods (CPG) food and beverage purchases. By using repeated-measures regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, we examined time-varying associations of race/ethnicity with processed and convenience food purchases, expressed as a percentage of calories purchased. We estimated associations between race/ethnicity and saturated fat, sugar, or energy density of total purchases with and without adjustment for processed and convenience food purchases. Compared with white households, black households had significantly lower purchases of highly processed foods (-4.1% kcal) and RTE convenience foods (-4.9% kcal) and had higher purchases of basic processed foods, particularly cooking oils and sugar (+5.4% kcal), foods requiring cooking/preparation (+4.5% kcal), and highly processed beverages (+7.1% kcal). Hispanics also had lower purchases of highly processed and RTE foods than whites. Blacks had CPG purchases with significantly higher median sugar (+2.2% kcal) and energy density (+72 kcal/1000 g), whereas Hispanics had purchases with lower saturated fat (-0.6% kcal) and energy density (-25 kcal/1000 g) than whites. Racial/ethnic differences remained significant after adjustment for processed and convenience food purchases. In our study, compared with white households, both black and Hispanic households had lower purchases of highly processed and RTE foods, yet had

  2. A high-throughput platform for low-volume high-temperature/pressure sealed vessel solvent extractions.

    PubMed

    Damm, Markus; Kappe, C Oliver

    2011-11-30

    A high-throughput platform for performing parallel solvent extractions in sealed HPLC/GC vials inside a microwave reactor is described. The system consist of a strongly microwave-absorbing silicon carbide plate with 20 cylindrical wells of appropriate dimensions to be fitted with standard HPLC/GC autosampler vials serving as extraction vessels. Due to the possibility of heating up to four heating platforms simultaneously (80 vials), efficient parallel analytical-scale solvent extractions can be performed using volumes of 0.5-1.5 mL at a maximum temperature/pressure limit of 200°C/20 bar. Since the extraction and subsequent analysis by either gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with mass detection (GC-MS or LC-MS) is performed directly from the autosampler vial, errors caused by sample transfer can be minimized. The platform was evaluated for the extraction and quantification of caffeine from commercial coffee powders assessing different solvent types, extraction temperatures and times. For example, 141±11 μg caffeine (5 mg coffee powder) were extracted during a single extraction cycle using methanol as extraction solvent, whereas only 90±11 were obtained performing the extraction in methylene chloride, applying the same reaction conditions (90°C, 10 min). In multiple extraction experiments a total of ~150 μg caffeine was extracted from 5 mg commercial coffee powder. In addition to the quantitative caffeine determination, a comparative qualitative analysis of the liquid phase coffee extracts and the headspace volatiles was performed, placing special emphasis on headspace analysis using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) techniques. The miniaturized parallel extraction technique introduced herein allows solvent extractions to be performed at significantly expanded temperature/pressure limits and shortened extraction times, using standard HPLC autosampler vials as reaction vessels. Remarkable differences regarding peak pattern and main peaks were

  3. Packaging of solid state devices

    DOEpatents

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.

    2006-01-03

    A package for one or more solid state devices in a single module that allows for operation at high voltage, high current, or both high voltage and high current. Low thermal resistance between the solid state devices and an exterior of the package and matched coefficient of thermal expansion between the solid state devices and the materials used in packaging enables high power operation. The solid state devices are soldered between two layers of ceramic with metal traces that interconnect the devices and external contacts. This approach provides a simple method for assembling and encapsulating high power solid state devices.

  4. High-performance liquid chromatographic characterization of some medical plant extracts used in cosmetic formulas.

    PubMed

    Schulz, H; Albroscheit, G

    1988-06-17

    Rapid and reliable methods are presented for the characterization of biologically active and/or characteristic constituents in aqueous extracts of Hamamelis virginiana, Matricaria chamomilla, Achillea millefolium, Thymus vulgaris, Althaea officinalis and Cinchonia spp. Prior to high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation a clean-up step was performed using a solid-phase extraction system. The purified extracts were analysed by HPLC coupled with a diode-array detector and a fluorescence detector. In some instances, previously unreported components of the aqueous plant extracts were found.

  5. Effect assessment of "film coating and packaging" on the photo-stability of highly photo-labile antihypertensive products.

    PubMed

    Mukharya, Amit; Patel, Paresh U; Chaudhary, Shivang

    2013-04-01

    Lacidipine (LCDP) is chemically a "1, 4-dihydropyridine derivative" Ca+(2) channel blocker used as an antihypertensive. Type and extent of packaging have a strong influence on the photo-stability of the 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives. In standard, light protection of drug substance/drug product can be obtained either by use of an opaque additive in the formulation that competitively absorbs or reflects light reaching the sample and/or by blocking the access of light to the drug through external protection by packaging. External protection by covering tablets with an opaque film coating involving a light-reflecting inorganic pigment such as titanium dioxide and/or by using an opaque impermeable packaging material was an appropriate suitable option for establishing photo-stability. Thus, the main objective of the present study was to optimize the % level of film coating in LCDP core tablets, and selection of a final packaging material and its respective extent, that is, primary, secondary and/or tertiary packaging, for LCDP tablets. The main objective (% level of film coating) was optimized by directly exposing core tablets, 1% w/w, 2% w/w and 3% w/w film-coated tablets, to a light source as per Option-2 of ICH Q1B and its comparative analysis at the end of light exposure testing. The other objective (extent of drug product packaging) was established successfully by assessing whether or not an acceptable change has occurred at the end of the light exposure testing of the LCDP film-coated tablets in a direct exposure study or a primary immediate pack and/or secondary marketing pack.

  6. Three-Dimensional Vibration Isolator for Suppressing High-Frequency Responses for Sage III Contamination Monitoring Package (CMP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Y.; Cutright, S.; Dyke, R.; Templeton, J.; Gasbarre, J.; Novak, F.

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III - International Space Station (ISS) instrument will be used to study ozone, providing global, long-term measurements of key components of the Earth's atmosphere for the continued health of Earth and its inhabitants. SAGE III is launched into orbit in an inverted configuration on SpaceX;s Falcon 9 launch vehicle. As one of its four supporting elements, a Contamination Monitoring Package (CMP) mounted to the top panel of the Interface Adapter Module (IAM) box experiences high-frequency response due to structural coupling between the two structures during the SpaceX launch. These vibrations, which were initially observed in the IAM Engineering Development Unit (EDU) test and later verified through finite element analysis (FEA) for the SpaceX launch loads, may damage the internal electronic cards and the Thermoelectric Quartz Crystal Microbalance (TQCM) sensors mounted on the CMP. Three-dimensional (3D) vibration isolators were required to be inserted between the CMP and IAM interface in order to attenuate the high frequency vibrations without resulting in any major changes to the existing system. Wire rope isolators were proposed as the isolation system between the CMP and IAM due to the low impact to design. Most 3D isolation systems are designed for compression and roll, therefore little dynamic data was available for using wire rope isolators in an inverted or tension configuration. From the isolator FEA and test results, it is shown that by using the 3D wire rope isolators, the CMP high-frequency responses have been suppressed by several orders of magnitude over a wide excitation frequency range. Consequently, the TQCM sensor responses are well below their qualification environments. It is indicated that these high-frequency responses due to the typical instrument structural coupling can be significantly suppressed by a vibration passive control using the 3D vibration isolator. Thermal and contamination

  7. Reflective Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  8. Changes in the microbiota of lamb packaged in a vacuum and in modified atmospheres during chilled storage analysed by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Taojun; Zhao, Liang; Sun, Yanan; Ren, Fazheng; Chen, Shanbin; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Huiyuan

    2016-11-01

    Changes in the microbiota of lamb were investigated under vacuum packaging (VP) and under 20% CO2/80% N2 (LC), 60% CO2/40% N2 (MC), and 100% CO2 (HC) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) during chilled storage. Viable counts were monitored, and the total microbial communities were assessed by high-throughput sequencing. The starting community had the highest microbial diversity, after which Lactococcus and Carnobacterium spp. outcompeted during the 28-day storage. The relative abundances of Brochothrix spp. in the LC atmosphere were much higher than those of the other groups on days 7 and 28. The bacterial inhibiting effect of the MAP environments on microbial growth was positively correlated with the CO2 concentration. The HC atmosphere inhibited microbial growth and delayed changes in the microbial community composition, extending the lamb's shelf life by approximately 7days compared with the VP atmosphere. Lamb packaged in the VP atmosphere had a more desirable colour but a higher weight loss than lamb packaged in the MAP atmospheres. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Automatic Centerline Extraction of Coverd Roads by Surrounding Objects from High Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamangir, H.; Momeni, M.; Satari, M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an automatic method to extract road centerline networks from high and very high resolution satellite images. The present paper addresses the automated extraction roads covered with multiple natural and artificial objects such as trees, vehicles and either shadows of buildings or trees. In order to have a precise road extraction, this method implements three stages including: classification of images based on maximum likelihood algorithm to categorize images into interested classes, modification process on classified images by connected component and morphological operators to extract pixels of desired objects by removing undesirable pixels of each class, and finally line extraction based on RANSAC algorithm. In order to evaluate performance of the proposed method, the generated results are compared with ground truth road map as a reference. The evaluation performance of the proposed method using representative test images show completeness values ranging between 77% and 93%.

  10. Tobacco packaging design for reducing tobacco use.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Ann; Gravely, Shannon; Hitchman, Sara C; Bauld, Linda; Hammond, David; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2017-04-27

    Tobacco use is the largest single preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Standardised tobacco packaging is an intervention intended to reduce the promotional appeal of packs and can be defined as packaging with a uniform colour (and in some cases shape and size) with no logos or branding, apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information, and the brand name in a prescribed uniform font, colour and size. Australia was the first country to implement standardised tobacco packaging between October and December 2012, France implemented standardised tobacco packaging on 1 January 2017 and several other countries are implementing, or intending to implement, standardised tobacco packaging. To assess the effect of standardised tobacco packaging on tobacco use uptake, cessation and reduction. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and six other databases from 1980 to January 2016. We checked bibliographies and contacted study authors to identify additional peer-reviewed studies. Primary outcomes included changes in tobacco use prevalence incorporating tobacco use uptake, cessation, consumption and relapse prevention. Secondary outcomes covered intermediate outcomes that can be measured and are relevant to tobacco use uptake, cessation or reduction. We considered multiple study designs: randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental and experimental studies, observational cross-sectional and cohort studies. The review focused on all populations and people of any age; to be included, studies had to be published in peer-reviewed journals. We examined studies that assessed the impact of changes in tobacco packaging such as colour, design, size and type of health warnings on the packs in relation to branded packaging. In experiments, the control condition was branded tobacco packaging but could include variations of standardised packaging. Screening and data extraction followed standard Cochrane methods. We used different 'Risk of bias' domains for

  11. Raising awareness of new psychoactive substances: chemical analysis and in vitro toxicity screening of 'legal high' packages containing synthetic cathinones.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Ana Margarida; Valente, Maria João; Carvalho, Márcia; Dias da Silva, Diana; Gaspar, Helena; Carvalho, Félix; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

    2015-05-01

    primary cultured rat hepatocytes, pentedrone and MDPV proved to be the most potent individual agents, with EC50 values of 0.664 and 0.742 mM, respectively, followed by MDMA (EC50 = 0.754 mM). 4-MEC and methylone were the least potent substances, with EC50 values significantly higher (1.29 and 1.18 mM, respectively; p < 0.05 vs. MDMA). 'Bloom' and 'Blow' showed hepatotoxic effects similar to MDMA (EC50 = 0.788 and 0.870 mM, respectively), with cathinones present in these mixtures contributing additively to the overall toxicological effect. Our results show a miscellany of psychoactive compounds present in 'legal high' products with evident hepatotoxic effects. These data contribute to increase the awareness on the real composition of 'legal high' packages and unveil the health risks posed by NPS.

  12. High pressure extraction of phenolic compounds from citrus peels†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casquete, R.; Castro, S. M.; Villalobos, M. C.; Serradilla, M. J.; Queirós, R. P.; Saraiva, J. A.; Córdoba, M. G.; Teixeira, P.

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the effect of high pressure processing on the recovery of high added value compounds from citrus peels. Overall, the total phenolic content in orange peel was significantly (P < .05) higher than that in lemon peel, except when pressure treated at 500 MPa. However, lemon peel demonstrated more antioxidant activity than orange peel. Pressure-treated samples (300 MPa, 10 min; 500 MPa, 3 min) demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity comparatively to the control samples. For more severe treatments (500 MPa, 10 min), the phenolic content and antioxidant activity decreased in both lemon and orange peels. This paper was presented at the 8th International Conference on High Pressure Bioscience & Biotechnology (HPBB 2014), in Nantes (France), 15-18 July 2014.

  13. Study of optimal extraction conditions for achieving high yield and antioxidant activity of tomato seed oil.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dongyan; Atungulu, Griffiths G; Pan, Zhongli; Yue, Tianli; Zhang, Ang; Li, Xuan

    2012-08-01

    Value of tomato seed has not been fully recognized. The objectives of this research were to establish suitable processing conditions for extracting oil from tomato seed by using solvent, determine the impact of processing conditions on yield and antioxidant activity of extracted oil, and elucidate kinetics of the oil extraction process. Four processing parameters, including time, temperature, solvent-to-solid ratio and particle size were studied. A second order model was established to describe the oil extraction process. Based on the results, increasing temperature, solvent-to-solid ratio, and extraction time increased oil yield. In contrast, larger particle size reduced the oil yield. The recommended oil extraction conditions were 8 min of extraction time at temperature of 25 °C, solvent-to-solids ratio of 5/1 (v/w) and particle size of 0.38 mm, which gave oil yield of 20.32% with recovery rate of 78.56%. The DPPH scavenging activity of extracted oil was not significantly affected by the extraction parameters. The inhibitory concentration (IC(50) ) of tomato seed oil was 8.67 mg/mL which was notably low compared to most vegetable oils. A 2nd order model successfully described the kinetics of tomato oil extraction process and parameters of extraction kinetics including initial extraction rate (h), equilibrium concentration of oil (C(s) ), and the extraction rate constant (k) could be precisely predicted with R(2) of at least 0.957. The study revealed that tomato seed which is typically treated as a low value byproduct of tomato processing has great potential in producing oil with high antioxidant capability. The impact of processing conditions including time, temperature, solvent-to-solid ratio and particle size on yield, and antioxidant activity of extracted tomato seed oil are reported. Optimal conditions and models which describe the extraction process are recommended. The information is vital for determining the extraction processing conditions for industrial

  14. An RF-only ion-funnel for extraction from high-pressure gases

    DOE PAGES

    Brunner, T.; Fudenberg, D.; Varentsov, V.; ...

    2015-01-27

    An RF ion-funnel technique has been developed to extract ions from a high-pressure (10 bar) noble-gas environment into a vacuum (10 -6 mbar). Detailed simulations have been performed and a prototype has been developed for the purpose of extracting 136Ba ions from Xe gas with high efficiency. With this prototype, ions have been extracted for the first time from high-pressure xenon gas and argon gas. Systematic studies have been carried out and compared to simulations. This demonstration of extraction of ions, with mass comparable to that of the gas generating the high-pressure, has applications to Ba tagging from a Xe-gasmore » time-projection chamber for double-beta decay, as well as to the general problem of recovering trace amounts of an ionized element in a heavy (m > 40 u) carrier gas.« less

  15. Cytotoxic Deoxypodophyllotoxin Can Be Extracted in High Purity from Anthriscus sylvestris Roots by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Seegers, Christel L C; Tepper, Pieter G; Setroikromo, Rita; Quax, Wim J

    2018-05-01

    Deoxypodophyllotoxin is present in the roots of Anthriscus sylvestris . This compound is cytotoxic on its own, but it can also be converted into podophyllotoxin, which is in high demand as a precursor for the important anticancer drugs etoposide and teniposide. In this study, deoxypodophyllotoxin is extracted from A. sylvestris roots by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. The process is simple and scalable. The supercritical carbon dioxide method extracts 75 - 80% of the total deoxypodophyllotoxin content, which is comparable to a single extraction by traditional Soxhlet. However, less polar components are extracted. The activity of the supercritical carbon dioxide extract containing deoxypodophyllotoxin was assessed by demonstrating that the extract arrests A549 and HeLa cells in the G 2 /M phase of the cell cycle. We conclude that biologically active deoxypodophyllotoxin can be extracted from A. sylvestris by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. The method is solvent free and more sustainable compared to traditional methods. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Precession feature extraction of ballistic missile warhead with high velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Huixia

    2018-04-01

    This paper establishes the precession model of ballistic missile warhead, and derives the formulas of micro-Doppler frequency induced by the target with precession. In order to obtain micro-Doppler feature of ballistic missile warhead with precession, micro-Doppler bandwidth estimation algorithm, which avoids velocity compensation, is presented based on high-resolution time-frequency transform. The results of computer simulations confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method even with low signal-to-noise ratio.

  17. High-velocity basal sediment package atop oceanic crust, offshore Cascadia: Impacts on plate boundary processes and fluid migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, D. E.; Keranen, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    Differences in fluid pressure and mechanical properties at megathrust boundaries in subduction zones have been proposed to create varying seismogenic behavior. In Cascadia, where large ruptures are possible but little seismicity occurs presently, new seismic transects across the deformation front (COAST cruise; Holbrook et al., 2012) image an unusually high-wavespeed sedimentary unit directly overlying oceanic crust. Wavespeed increases before sediments reach the deformation front, and the well-laminated unit, consistently of 1 km thickness, can be traced for 50 km beneath the accretionary prism before imaging quality declines. Wavespeed is modeled via iterative prestack time migration (PSTM) imaging and increases from 3.5 km/sec on the seaward end of the profile to >5.0 km/s near the deformation front. Landward of the deformation front, wavespeed is low along seaward-dipping thrust faults in the Quaternary accretionary prism, indicative of rapid dewatering along faults. The observed wavespeed of 5.5 km/sec just above subducting crust is consistent with porosity <5% (Erickson and Jarrard, 1998), possibly reflecting enhanced consolidation, cementation, and diagenesis as the sediments encounter the deformation front. Beneath the sediment, the compressional wavespeed of uppermost oceanic crust is 3-4 km/sec, likely reduced by alteration and/or fluids, lowest within a propagator wake. The propagator wake intersects the plate boundary at an oblique angle and changes the degree of hydration of the oceanic plate as it subducts within our area. Fluid flow out of oceanic crust is likely impeded by the low-porosity basal sediment package except along the focused thrust faults. Decollements are present at the top of oceanic basement, at the top of the high-wavespeed basal unit, and within sedimentary strata at higher levels; the decollement at the top of oceanic crust is active at the toe of the deformation front. The basal sedimentary unit appears to be mechanically strong

  18. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6more » geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.« less

  19. Molecular Pathways: Extracting Medical Knowledge from High Throughput Genomic Data

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Theodore; Paull, Evan O.; Ellis, Matthew J.; Stuart, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput genomic data that measures RNA expression, DNA copy number, mutation status and protein levels provide us with insights into the molecular pathway structure of cancer. Genomic lesions (amplifications, deletions, mutations) and epigenetic modifications disrupt biochemical cellular pathways. While the number of possible lesions is vast, different genomic alterations may result in concordant expression and pathway activities, producing common tumor subtypes that share similar phenotypic outcomes. How can these data be translated into medical knowledge that provides prognostic and predictive information? First generation mRNA expression signatures such as Genomic Health's Oncotype DX already provide prognostic information, but do not provide therapeutic guidance beyond the current standard of care – which is often inadequate in high-risk patients. Rather than building molecular signatures based on gene expression levels, evidence is growing that signatures based on higher-level quantities such as from genetic pathways may provide important prognostic and diagnostic cues. We provide examples of how activities for molecular entities can be predicted from pathway analysis and how the composite of all such activities, referred to here as the “activitome,” help connect genomic events to clinical factors in order to predict the drivers of poor outcome. PMID:23430023

  20. High Efficiency DNA Extraction by Graphite Oxide/Cellulose/Magnetite Composites Under Na+ Free System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akceoglu, Garbis Atam; Li, Oi Lun; Saito, Nagahiro

    2016-04-01

    DNA extraction is the key step at various research areas like biotechnology, diagnostic development, paternity determination, and forensic science . Solid support extraction is the most common method for DNA purification. In this method, Na+ ions have often been applied as binding buffers in order to obtain high extraction efficiency and high quality of DNA; however, the presence of Na+ ions might be interfering with the downstream DNA applications. In this study, we proposed graphite oxide (GO)/magnetite composite/cellulose as an innovative material for Na+-free DNA extraction. The total wt.% of GO was fixed at 4.15% in the GO/cellulose/magnetite composite . The concentration of magnetite within the composites were controlled at 0-3.98 wt.%. The extraction yield of DNA increased with increasing weight percentage of magnetite. The highest yield was achieved at 3.98 wt.% magnetite, where the extraction efficiency was reported to be 338.5 ng/µl. The absorbance ratios between 260 nm and 280 nm (A260/A280) of the DNA elution volume was demonstrated as 1.81, indicating the extracted DNA consisted of high purity. The mechanism of adsorption of DNA was provided by (1) π-π interaction between the aromatic ring in GO and nucleobases of DNA molecule, and (2) surface charge interaction between the positive charge magnetite and anions such as phosphates within the DNA molecules. The results proved that the GO/cellulose/magnetite composite provides a Na+-free method for selective DNA extraction with high extraction efficiency of pure DNA.

  1. Information Extraction of High Resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on the Calculation of Optimal Segmentation Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongchun; Cai, Lijie; Liu, Haiying; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Multi-scale image segmentation and the selection of optimal segmentation parameters are the key processes in the object-oriented information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing images. The accuracy of remote sensing special subject information depends on this extraction. On the basis of WorldView-2 high-resolution data, the optimal segmentation parameters methodof object-oriented image segmentation and high-resolution image information extraction, the following processes were conducted in this study. Firstly, the best combination of the bands and weights was determined for the information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing image. An improved weighted mean-variance method was proposed andused to calculatethe optimal segmentation scale. Thereafter, the best shape factor parameter and compact factor parameters were computed with the use of the control variables and the combination of the heterogeneity and homogeneity indexes. Different types of image segmentation parameters were obtained according to the surface features. The high-resolution remote sensing images were multi-scale segmented with the optimal segmentation parameters. Ahierarchical network structure was established by setting the information extraction rules to achieve object-oriented information extraction. This study presents an effective and practical method that can explain expert input judgment by reproducible quantitative measurements. Furthermore the results of this procedure may be incorporated into a classification scheme. PMID:27362762

  2. Information Extraction of High Resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on the Calculation of Optimal Segmentation Parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongchun; Cai, Lijie; Liu, Haiying; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Multi-scale image segmentation and the selection of optimal segmentation parameters are the key processes in the object-oriented information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing images. The accuracy of remote sensing special subject information depends on this extraction. On the basis of WorldView-2 high-resolution data, the optimal segmentation parameters methodof object-oriented image segmentation and high-resolution image information extraction, the following processes were conducted in this study. Firstly, the best combination of the bands and weights was determined for the information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing image. An improved weighted mean-variance method was proposed andused to calculatethe optimal segmentation scale. Thereafter, the best shape factor parameter and compact factor parameters were computed with the use of the control variables and the combination of the heterogeneity and homogeneity indexes. Different types of image segmentation parameters were obtained according to the surface features. The high-resolution remote sensing images were multi-scale segmented with the optimal segmentation parameters. Ahierarchical network structure was established by setting the information extraction rules to achieve object-oriented information extraction. This study presents an effective and practical method that can explain expert input judgment by reproducible quantitative measurements. Furthermore the results of this procedure may be incorporated into a classification scheme.

  3. The research of road and vehicle information extraction algorithm based on high resolution remote sensing image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tingting; Gu, Lingjia; Ren, Ruizhi; Cao, Qiong

    2016-09-01

    With the rapid development of remote sensing technology, the spatial resolution and temporal resolution of satellite imagery also have a huge increase. Meanwhile, High-spatial-resolution images are becoming increasingly popular for commercial applications. The remote sensing image technology has broad application prospects in intelligent traffic. Compared with traditional traffic information collection methods, vehicle information extraction using high-resolution remote sensing image has the advantages of high resolution and wide coverage. This has great guiding significance to urban planning, transportation management, travel route choice and so on. Firstly, this paper preprocessed the acquired high-resolution multi-spectral and panchromatic remote sensing images. After that, on the one hand, in order to get the optimal thresholding for image segmentation, histogram equalization and linear enhancement technologies were applied into the preprocessing results. On the other hand, considering distribution characteristics of road, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized difference water index (NDWI) were used to suppress water and vegetation information of preprocessing results. Then, the above two processing result were combined. Finally, the geometric characteristics were used to completed road information extraction. The road vector extracted was used to limit the target vehicle area. Target vehicle extraction was divided into bright vehicles extraction and dark vehicles extraction. Eventually, the extraction results of the two kinds of vehicles were combined to get the final results. The experiment results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm has a high precision for the vehicle information extraction for different high resolution remote sensing images. Among these results, the average fault detection rate was about 5.36%, the average residual rate was about 13.60% and the average accuracy was approximately 91.26%.

  4. Highly Selective and Considerable Subcritical Butane Extraction to Separate Abamectin in Green Tea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yating; Gu, Lingbiao; Wang, Fei; Kong, Lingjun; Pang, Huili; Qin, Guangyong

    2017-06-01

    We specially carried out the subcritical butane extraction to separate abamectin from tea leaves. Four parameters, such as extraction temperature, extraction time, number of extraction cycles, and solid-liquid ratio were studied and optimized through the response surface methodology with design matrix developed by Box-Behnken. Seventeen experiments with three various factors and three variable levels were employed to investigate the effect of these parameters on the extraction of abamectin. Besides, catechins, theanine, caffeine, and aroma components were determined by both high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to evaluate the tea quality before and after the extraction. The results showed that the extraction temperature was the uppermost parameter compared with others. The optimal extraction conditions selected as follows: extraction temperature, 42°C; number of extraction cycles and extraction time, 1 and 30 min, respectively; and solid-liquid ratio, 1:10. Based on the above study, the separation efficiency of abamectin was up to 93.95%. It is notable that there has a quite low loss rate, including the negligible damage of aroma components, the bits reduce of catechins within the range of 0.7%-13.1%, and a handful lessen of caffeine and theanine of 1.81% and 2.6%, respectively. The proposed method suggested subcritical butane possesses solubility for lipid-soluble pesticides, and since most of the pesticides are attached to the surfaces of tea, thus the as-applied method was successfully effective to separate abamectin because of the so practical and promising method.

  5. Automated extraction of natural drainage density patterns for the conterminous United States through high performance computing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanislawski, Larry V.; Falgout, Jeff T.; Buttenfield, Barbara P.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrographic networks form an important data foundation for cartographic base mapping and for hydrologic analysis. Drainage density patterns for these networks can be derived to characterize local landscape, bedrock and climate conditions, and further inform hydrologic and geomorphological analysis by indicating areas where too few headwater channels have been extracted. But natural drainage density patterns are not consistently available in existing hydrographic data for the United States because compilation and capture criteria historically varied, along with climate, during the period of data collection over the various terrain types throughout the country. This paper demonstrates an automated workflow that is being tested in a high-performance computing environment by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to map natural drainage density patterns at the 1:24,000-scale (24K) for the conterminous United States. Hydrographic network drainage patterns may be extracted from elevation data to guide corrections for existing hydrographic network data. The paper describes three stages in this workflow including data pre-processing, natural channel extraction, and generation of drainage density patterns from extracted channels. The workflow is concurrently implemented by executing procedures on multiple subbasin watersheds within the U.S. National Hydrography Dataset (NHD). Pre-processing defines parameters that are needed for the extraction process. Extraction proceeds in standard fashion: filling sinks, developing flow direction and weighted flow accumulation rasters. Drainage channels with assigned Strahler stream order are extracted within a subbasin and simplified. Drainage density patterns are then estimated with 100-meter resolution and subsequently smoothed with a low-pass filter. The extraction process is found to be of better quality in higher slope terrains. Concurrent processing through the high performance computing environment is shown to facilitate and refine

  6. Separation of Molybdenum from Acidic High-Phosphorus Tungsten Solution by Solvent Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongli; Zhao, Zhongwei

    2017-10-01

    A solvent-extraction process for deep separation of molybdenum from an acidic high-phosphate tungsten solution was developed using tributyl phosphate (TBP) as the extractant and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a complexing agent. The common aqueous complexes of tungsten and molybdenum (PMoxW12-xO40 3-, x = 0-12) are depolymerized to {PO4[Mo(O)2(O-O)]4}3- and {PO4[W(O)2(O-O)]4}3- by H2O2. The former can be preferentially extracted by TBP. The extractant concentration, phase contact time, H2O2 dosage, and H2SO4 concentration were optimized. By employing 80% by volume TBP, O:A = 1:1, 1.0 mol/L H2SO4, 1.0 mol/L H3PO4, a contact time of 2 min, and a molar ratio of H2O2/(W + Mo) equal to 1.5, 60.2% molybdenum was extracted in a single stage, while limiting tungsten co-extraction to 3.2%. An extraction isotherm indicated that the raffinate could be reduced to <0.1 g/L Mo in six stages of continuous counter-current extraction.

  7. Efficient Extraction of High Centrality Vertices in Distributed Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Kumbhare, Alok; Frincu, Marc; Raghavendra, Cauligi S.

    2014-09-09

    Betweenness centrality (BC) is an important measure for identifying high value or critical vertices in graphs, in variety of domains such as communication networks, road networks, and social graphs. However, calculating betweenness values is prohibitively expensive and, more often, domain experts are interested only in the vertices with the highest centrality values. In this paper, we first propose a partition-centric algorithm (MS-BC) to calculate BC for a large distributed graph that optimizes resource utilization and improves overall performance. Further, we extend the notion of approximate BC by pruning the graph and removing a subset of edges and vertices that contributemore » the least to the betweenness values of other vertices (MSL-BC), which further improves the runtime performance. We evaluate the proposed algorithms using a mix of real-world and synthetic graphs on an HPC cluster and analyze its strengths and weaknesses. The experimental results show an improvement in performance of upto 12x for large sparse graphs as compared to the state-of-the-art, and at the same time highlights the need for better partitioning methods to enable a balanced workload across partitions for unbalanced graphs such as small-world or power-law graphs.« less

  8. a High Precision dem Extraction Method Based on Insar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinshuang; Liu, Lingling; Shi, Xiaoliang; Huang, Xitao; Geng, Wei

    2018-04-01

    In the 13th Five-Year Plan for Geoinformatics Business, it is proposed that the new InSAR technology should be applied to surveying and mapping production, which will become the innovation driving force of geoinformatics industry. This paper will study closely around the new outline of surveying and mapping and then achieve the TerraSAR/TanDEM data of Bin County in Shaanxi Province in X band. The studying steps are as follows; Firstly, the baseline is estimated from the orbital data; Secondly, the interferometric pairs of SAR image are accurately registered; Thirdly, the interferogram is generated; Fourth, the interferometric correlation information is estimated and the flat-earth phase is removed. In order to solve the phase noise and the discontinuity phase existing in the interferometric image of phase, a GAMMA adaptive filtering method is adopted. Aiming at the "hole" problem of missing data in low coherent area, the interpolation method of low coherent area mask is used to assist the phase unwrapping. Then, the accuracy of the interferometric baseline is estimated from the ground control points. Finally, 1 : 50000 DEM is generated, and the existing DEM data is used to verify the accuracy through statistical analysis. The research results show that the improved InSAR data processing method in this paper can obtain the high-precision DEM of the study area, exactly the same with the topography of reference DEM. The R2 can reach to 0.9648, showing a strong positive correlation.

  9. Thermal management and light extraction in multi-chip and high-voltage LEDs by cup-shaped copper heat spreader technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horng, Ray-Hua; Hu, Hung-Lieh; Tang, Li-Shen; Ou, Sin-Liang

    2013-03-01

    For LEDs with original structure and copper heat spreader, the highest surface temperatures of 3×3 array LEDs modules were 52.6 and 42.67 °C (with 1050 mA injection current), while the highest surface temperatures of 4×4 array LEDs modules were 58.55 and 48.85 °C (with 1400 mA injection current), respectively. As the 5×5 array LEDs modules with original structure and copper heat spreader were fabricated, the highest surface temperatures at 1750 mA injection current were 68.51 and 56.73 °C, respectively. The thermal resistance of optimal LEDs array module with copper heat spreader on heat sink using compound solder is reduced obviously. On the other hand, the output powers of 3×3, 4×4 and 5×5 array LEDs modules with original structure were 3621.7, 6346.3 and 9760.4 mW at injection currents of 1050, 1400 and 1750 mA, respectively. Meanwhile, the output powers of these samples with copper heat spreader can be improved to 4098.5, 7150.3 and 10919.6 mW, respectively. The optical and thermal characteristics of array LEDs module have been improved significantly using the cup-shaped copper structure. Furthermore, various types of epoxy-packaged LEDs with cup-shaped structure were also fabricated. It is found that the light extraction efficiency of LED with semicircle package has 55% improvement as compared to that of LED with flat package. The cup-shaped copper structure was contacted directly with sapphire to enhance heat dissipation. In addition to efficient heat dissipation, the light extraction of the lateral emitting in high-power LEDs can be improved.

  10. Influence of Food with High Moisture Content on Oxygen Barrier Property of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA)/Vermiculite Nanocomposite Coated Multilayer Packaging Film.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Min; Lee, Min Hyeock; Ko, Jung A; Kang, Dong Ho; Bae, Hojae; Park, Hyun Jin

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates the potential complications in applying nanoclay-based waterborne coating to packaging films for food with high moisture content. Multilayer packaging films were prepared by dry laminating commercially available polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/vermiculite nanocomposite coating films and linear low-density polyethylene film, and the changes in oxygen barrier properties were investigated according to different relative humidity using 3 types of food simulants. When the relative humidity was above 60%, the oxygen permeability increased sharply, but this was reversible. Deionized water and 3% acetic acid did not cause any large structural change in the PVA/vermiculite nanocomposite but caused a reversible deterioration of the oxygen barrier properties. In contrast, 50% ethanol, a simulant for the semifatty food, induced irreversible structural changes with deterioration of the oxygen barrier property. These changes are due to the characteristics of PVA rather than vermiculite. We believe this manuscript would be of interest to the wide group of researchers, organizations, and companies in the field of developing nanoclay-based gas barrier packaging for foods with high moisture content. Hence, we wish to diffuse our knowledge to the scientific community. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Difet: Distributed Feature Extraction Tool for High Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eken, S.; Aydın, E.; Sayar, A.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we propose distributed feature extraction tool from high spatial resolution remote sensing images. Tool is based on Apache Hadoop framework and Hadoop Image Processing Interface. Two corner detection (Harris and Shi-Tomasi) algorithms and five feature descriptors (SIFT, SURF, FAST, BRIEF, and ORB) are considered. Robustness of the tool in the task of feature extraction from LandSat-8 imageries are evaluated in terms of horizontal scalability.

  12. Packaging Your Training Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espeland, Pamela

    1977-01-01

    The types of packaging and packaging materials to use for training materials should be determined during the planning of the training programs, according to the packaging market. Five steps to follow in shopping for packaging are presented, along with a list of packaging manufacturers. (MF)

  13. Stable Isolation of Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Associated with High-Pressure Extraction Process

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yong Chang; Choi, Woo Seok; Park, Jong Ho; Park, Jin Oh; Jung, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-01

    A method for stably purifying a functional dye, phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was developed by a hexane extraction process combined with high pressure. This was necessary because this dye is known to be very unstable during normal extraction processes. The purification yield of this method was estimated as 10.2%, whose value is 3%–5% higher than is the case from another conventional separation method using phosphate buffer. The isolated phycocyanin from this process also showed the highest purity of 0.909 based on absorbance of 2.104 at 280 nm and 1.912 at 620 nm. Two subunits of phycocyanin namely α-phycocyanin (18.4 kDa) and β-phycocyanin (21.3 kDa) were found to remain from the original mixtures after being extracted, based on SDS-PAGE analysis, clearly demonstrating that this process can stably extract phycocyanin and is not affected by extraction solvent, temperature, etc. The stability of the extracted phycocyanin was also confirmed by comparing its DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity, showing 83% removal of oxygen free radicals. This activity was about 15% higher than that of commercially available standard phycocyanin, which implies that the combined extraction method can yield relatively intact chromoprotein through absence of degradation. The results were achieved because the low temperature and high pressure extraction effectively disrupted the cell membrane of Spirulina platensis and degraded less the polypeptide subunits of phycocyanin (which is a temperature/pH-sensitive chromoprotein) as well as increasing the extraction yield. PMID:23325046

  14. High-Resolution Remote Sensing Image Building Extraction Based on Markov Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W.; Yan, L.; Chang, Y.; Gong, L.

    2018-04-01

    With the increase of resolution, remote sensing images have the characteristics of increased information load, increased noise, more complex feature geometry and texture information, which makes the extraction of building information more difficult. To solve this problem, this paper designs a high resolution remote sensing image building extraction method based on Markov model. This method introduces Contourlet domain map clustering and Markov model, captures and enhances the contour and texture information of high-resolution remote sensing image features in multiple directions, and further designs the spectral feature index that can characterize "pseudo-buildings" in the building area. Through the multi-scale segmentation and extraction of image features, the fine extraction from the building area to the building is realized. Experiments show that this method can restrain the noise of high-resolution remote sensing images, reduce the interference of non-target ground texture information, and remove the shadow, vegetation and other pseudo-building information, compared with the traditional pixel-level image information extraction, better performance in building extraction precision, accuracy and completeness.

  15. [Effect of grain-bean package, grain-bean package dietary fiber and single whole grain dietary fiber on dyslipidemia rats].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhai, Chengkai; Sun, Guiju; Zhang, Hong; Jiang, Mingxia; Zhang, Haifeng; Guo, Junling; Lan, Xi

    2014-05-01

    To observe and compare the effects of grain-bean package, dietary fiber (DF) extracted from grain-bean package, and DF from grain corn on the blood lipids and fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity in high-fat, high-cholesterol feeding induced dyslipidemia rats, and observe its effects on regulation of sterol regulatory element protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA expression in rat liver. Consolidation 50 SD rats of clean grade feeding adaptation for one week, randomly assigned into normal control group, hyperlipidemia model group, grain-bean package group, grain-bean package DF group and grain corn group. Feed with corresponding diets for 8 weeks, and measure the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceridaemia (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), FAS, SREBP-1c mRNA of all groups. Compared with control group, TC, TG, FBG levels of hyperlipidemia model group were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Compared with model group, TC, TG, FBG levels of grain-bean package group, grain-bean package DF group were significantly decreased, HDL-C levels significantly increased, and activity of FAS, regulation of SREBP-1c were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The Grain-bean package dietary fiber can improve blood lipids levels of dyslipidemia rats, and decrease FAS activity and SREBP-1c mRNA expression.

  16. Sequential high pressure extractions applied to recover piceatannol and scirpusin B from passion fruit bagasse.

    PubMed

    Viganó, Juliane; Aguiar, Ana C; Moraes, Damila R; Jara, José L P; Eberlin, Marcos N; Cazarin, Cinthia B B; Maróstica, Mário R; Martínez, Julian

    2016-07-01

    Passion fruit seeds are currently discarded on the pulp processing but are known for their high piceatannol and scirpusin B contents. Using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), these highly valuable phenolic compounds were efficiently extracted from defatted passion fruit bagasse (DPFB). PLE was performed using mixtures of ethanol and water (50 to 100% ethanol, w/w) as solvent, temperatures from 50 to 70°C and pressure at 10MPa. The extraction methods were compared in terms of the global yield, total phenolic content (TPC), piceatannol content and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts. The DPFB extracts were also compared with those from non-defatted passion fruit bagasse (nDPFB). Identification and quantification of piceatannol were performed using UHPLC-MS/MS. The results showed that high TPC and piceatannol content were achieved for the extracts obtained from DPFB through PLE at 70°C and using 50 and 75% ethanol as the solvent. The best PLE conditions for TPC (70°C, 75% ethanol) resulted in 55.237mgGAE/g dried and defatted bagasse, whereas PLE at 70°C and 50% ethanol achieved 18.590mg of piceatannol/g dried and defatted bagasse, and such yields were significantly higher than those obtained using conventional extraction techniques. The antioxidant capacity assays showed high correlation with the TPC (r>0.886) and piceatannol (r>0.772). The passion fruit bagasse has therefore proved to be a rich source of piceatannol and PLE showed high efficiency to recover phenolic compounds from defatted passion fruit bagasse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A research of road centerline extraction algorithm from high resolution remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yushan; Xu, Tingfa

    2017-09-01

    Satellite remote sensing technology has become one of the most effective methods for land surface monitoring in recent years, due to its advantages such as short period, large scale and rich information. Meanwhile, road extraction is an important field in the applications of high resolution remote sensing images. An intelligent and automatic road extraction algorithm with high precision has great significance for transportation, road network updating and urban planning. The fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering segmentation algorithms have been used in road extraction, but the traditional algorithms did not consider spatial information. An improved fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm combined with spatial information (SFCM) is proposed in this paper, which is proved to be effective for noisy image segmentation. Firstly, the image is segmented using the SFCM. Secondly, the segmentation result is processed by mathematical morphology to remover the joint region. Thirdly, the road centerlines are extracted by morphology thinning and burr trimming. The average integrity of the centerline extraction algorithm is 97.98%, the average accuracy is 95.36% and the average quality is 93.59%. Experimental results show that the proposed method in this paper is effective for road centerline extraction.

  18. High-Capacity Conductive Nanocellulose Paper Sheets for Electrochemically Controlled Extraction of DNA Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Razaq, Aamir; Nyström, Gustav; Strømme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert; Nyholm, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Highly porous polypyrrole (PPy)-nanocellulose paper sheets have been evaluated as inexpensive and disposable electrochemically controlled three-dimensional solid phase extraction materials. The composites, which had a total anion exchange capacity of about 1.1 mol kg−1, were used for extraction and subsequent release of negatively charged fluorophore tagged DNA oligomers via galvanostatic oxidation and reduction of a 30–50 nm conformal PPy layer on the cellulose substrate. The ion exchange capacity, which was, at least, two orders of magnitude higher than those previously reached in electrochemically controlled extraction, originated from the high surface area (i.e. 80 m2 g−1) of the porous composites and the thin PPy layer which ensured excellent access to the ion exchange material. This enabled the extractions to be carried out faster and with better control of the PPy charge than with previously employed approaches. Experiments in equimolar mixtures of (dT)6, (dT)20, and (dT)40 DNA oligomers showed that all oligomers could be extracted, and that the smallest oligomer was preferentially released with an efficiency of up to 40% during the reduction of the PPy layer. These results indicate that the present material is very promising for the development of inexpensive and efficient electrochemically controlled ion-exchange membranes for batch-wise extraction of biomolecules. PMID:22195031

  19. Evaluation of commercial DNA and RNA extraction methods for high-throughput sequencing of FFPE samples.

    PubMed

    Kresse, Stine H; Namløs, Heidi M; Lorenz, Susanne; Berner, Jeanne-Marie; Myklebost, Ola; Bjerkehagen, Bodil; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A

    2018-01-01

    Nucleic acid material of adequate quality is crucial for successful high-throughput sequencing (HTS) analysis. DNA and RNA isolated from archival FFPE material are frequently degraded and not readily amplifiable due to chemical damage introduced during fixation. To identify optimal nucleic acid extraction kits, DNA and RNA quantity, quality and performance in HTS applications were evaluated. DNA and RNA were isolated from five sarcoma archival FFPE blocks, using eight extraction protocols from seven kits from three different commercial vendors. For DNA extraction, the truXTRAC FFPE DNA kit from Covaris gave higher yields and better amplifiable DNA, but all protocols gave comparable HTS library yields using Agilent SureSelect XT and performed well in downstream variant calling. For RNA extraction, all protocols gave comparable yields and amplifiable RNA. However, for fusion gene detection using the Archer FusionPlex Sarcoma Assay, the truXTRAC FFPE RNA kit from Covaris and Agencourt FormaPure kit from Beckman Coulter showed the highest percentage of unique read-pairs, providing higher complexity of HTS data and more frequent detection of recurrent fusion genes. truXTRAC simultaneous DNA and RNA extraction gave similar outputs as individual protocols. These findings show that although successful HTS libraries could be generated in most cases, the different protocols gave variable quantity and quality for FFPE nucleic acid extraction. Selecting the optimal procedure is highly valuable and may generate results in borderline quality specimens.

  20. Study on Building Extraction from High-Resolution Images Using Mbi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Z.; Wang, X. Q.; Li, Y. L.; Zhang, S. S.

    2018-04-01

    Building extraction from high resolution remote sensing images is a hot research topic in the field of photogrammetry and remote sensing. However, the diversity and complexity of buildings make building extraction methods still face challenges in terms of accuracy, efficiency, and so on. In this study, a new building extraction framework based on MBI and combined with image segmentation techniques, spectral constraint, shadow constraint, and shape constraint is proposed. In order to verify the proposed method, worldview-2, GF-2, GF-1 remote sensing images covered Xiamen Software Park were used for building extraction experiments. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method improve the original MBI significantly, and the correct rate is over 86 %. Furthermore, the proposed framework reduces the false alarms by 42 % on average compared to the performance of the original MBI.

  1. In situ Orbit Extraction from Live, High Precision Collisionless Simulations of Systems Formed by Cold Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriega-Mendoza, H.; Aguilar, L. A.

    2018-04-01

    We performed high precision, N-body simulations of the cold collapse of initially spherical, collisionless systems using the GYRFALCON code of Dehnen (2000). The collapses produce very prolate spheroidal configurations. After the collapse, the systems are simulated for 85 and 170 half-mass radius dynamical timescales, during which energy conservation is better than 0.005%. We use this period to extract individual particle orbits directly from the simulations. We then use the TAXON code of Carpintero and Aguilar (1998) to classify 1 to 1.5% of the extracted orbits from our final, relaxed configurations: less than 15% are chaotic orbits, 30% are box orbits and 60% are tube orbits (long and short axis). Our goal has been to prove that direct orbit extraction is feasible, and that there is no need to "freeze" the final N-body system configuration to extract a time-independent potential.

  2. Andrographis paniculata extract attenuates pathological cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis in high-fat diet fed mice.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, You-Liang; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Lin, Yi-Lin; Lai, Chao-Hung; Chen, Yu-Feng; Lin, Kuan-Ho; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-11-04

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Acanthaceae) has a considerable medicinal reputation in most parts of Asia as a potent medicine in the treatment of Endocrine disorders, inflammation and hypertension. Water extract of A. paniculata and its active constituent andrographolide are known to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Our aim is to identify whether A. paniculata extract could protect myocardial damage in high-fat diet induced obese mice. The test mice were divided into three groups fed either with normal chow or with high fat diet (obese) or with high fat diet treated with A. paniculata extract (2g/kg/day, through gavage, for a week). We found that the myocardial inflammation pathway related proteins were increased in the obese mouse which potentially contributes to cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial apoptosis. But feeding with A. paniculata extract showed significant inhibition on the effects of high fat diet. Our study strongly suggests that supplementation of A. paniculata extract can be used for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in obese patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) on high fat diet induced quail atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi; Li, Ping; Wang, Chenjing; Jiang, Qixiao; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Yu; Zhong, Weizhen; Wang, Chunbo

    2016-01-08

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) from different extraction methods (aqueous, ethanol, chloroform and flavone) on atherosclerosis. Quails (Coturnix coturnix) were subjected to high fat diet, with or without one of the four different AREs or positive control simvastatin. Blood samples were collected before treatment, after 4.5 weeks or ten weeks to assess lipid profile (Levels of total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)). After ten weeks, the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) as well as antioxidant and pro-oxidative status (Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) were measured. Furthermore, aortas were collected after ten weeks treatment, aorta lipid contents (TC, TG and LDL) were assessed, and histology was used to confirm atherosclerotic changes. The results indicated that high fat diet significantly deteriorated lipid profile and antioxidant status in quail serum, while all the extracts significantly reverted the changes similar to simvastatin. Aorta lipid profile assessment revealed similar results. Histology on aortas from quails treated for ten weeks confirmed atherosclerotic changes in high fat diet group, while the extracts significantly alleviated the atherosclerotic changes similar to simvastatin. Among the different extracts, flavones fraction exerted best protective effects. Our data suggest that the protective effects of AREs were medicated via hypolipidemic and anti-oxidant effects. Underlying molecular mechanisms are under investigation.

  4. Ginger extract and aerobic training reduces lipid profile in high-fat fed diet rats.

    PubMed

    Khosravani, M; Azarbayjani, M A; Abolmaesoomi, M; Yusof, A; Zainal Abidin, N; Rahimi, E; Feizolahi, F; Akbari, M; Seyedjalali, S; Dehghan, F

    2016-04-01

    Obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, are major risk factors. However, natural therapies, dietary components, and physical activity may effect on these concerns. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise and consumption of liquid ginger extract on lipid profile of Male rats with a high-fat fed diet. 32 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: 1) aerobic exercise, 2) Ginger extract, 3) combined aerobic exercise and Ginger extract, and 4) the control. Subjects of the first three groups received ginger extract via gavage feeding of 250 mg/kg. The exercise program was 3 sessions per week on 3 different days over 4 weeks. Total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), HDL and LDL were measured 24-h before the first session and 24-h after the final training session. The concentration of TG in the control group was significantly higher than other groups. In addition, the mean concentration of TG in the aerobic exercise group was significantly lower than Ginger extract group but there was no significant difference as compared to combined aerobic exercise and ginger extract group. The combination of aerobic exercise and ginger consumption significantly reduced the TG level compared to ginger group. TC and LDL concentrations were significantly decreased in all groups compare to control. The combination of aerobic exercise and ginger extract feeding caused a significant increase in HDL levels. The finding of this study suggests that the combination of aerobic exercise and liquid ginger extract consumption might be an effective method of reducing lipid profiles, which will reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases caused by high-fat diets.

  5. Extraction of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes via high-index coupling.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Bert J; Frischeisen, Jörg; Jaeger, Arndt; Setz, Daniel S; Reusch, Thilo C G; Brütting, Wolfgang

    2012-03-12

    The efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is still limited by poor light outcoupling. In particular, the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at metal-organic interfaces represents a major loss channel. By combining optical simulations and experiments on simplified luminescent thin-film structures we elaborate the conditions for the extraction of SPPs via coupling to high-index media. As a proof-of-concept, we demonstrate the possibility to extract light from wave-guided modes and surface plasmons in a top-emitting white OLED by a high-index prism.

  6. Optimization of high pressure bioactive compounds extraction from pansies (Viola × wittrockiana) by response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Luana; Casal, Susana I. P.; Pereira, José A.; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Saraiva, Jorge A.

    2017-07-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed for the first time to optimize high pressure extraction (HPE) conditions of bioactive compounds from pansies, namely: pressure (X1: 0-500 MPa), time (X2: 5-15 min) and ethanol concentration (X3: 0-100%). Consistent fittings using second-order polynomial models were obtained for flavonoids, tannins, anthocyanins, total reducing capacity (TRC) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity. The optimum extraction conditions based on combination responses for TRC, tannins and anthocyanins were: X1 = 384 MPa, X2 = 15 min and X3 = 35% (v/v) ethanol, shortening the extraction time when compared to the classic method of stirring (approx. 24 h). When the optimum extraction conditions were applied, 65.1 mg of TRC, 42.8 mg of tannins and 56.15 mg of anthocyanins/g dried flower were obtained. Thus, HPE has shown to be a promising technique to extract bioactive compounds from pansies, by reducing the extraction time and by using green solvents (ethanol and water), for application in diverse industrial fields.

  7. Optimisation of olive oil phenol extraction conditions using a high-power probe ultrasonication.

    PubMed

    Jerman Klen, T; Mozetič Vodopivec, B

    2012-10-15

    A new method of ultrasound probe assisted liquid-liquid extraction (US-LLE) combined with a freeze-based fat precipitation clean-up and HPLC-DAD-FLD-MS detection is described for extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) phenol analysis. Three extraction variables (solvent type; 100%, 80%, 50% methanol, sonication time; 5, 10, 20 min, extraction steps; 1-5) and two clean-up methods (n-hexane washing vs. low temperature fat precipitation) were studied and optimised with aim to maximise extracts' phenol recoveries. A three-step extraction of 10 min with pure methanol (5 mL) resulted in the highest phenol content of freeze-based defatted extracts (667 μg GAE g(-1)) from 10 g of EVOO, providing much higher efficiency (up to 68%) and repeatability (up to 51%) vs. its non-sonicated counterpart (LLE-agitation) and n-hexane washing. In addition, the overall method provided high linearity (r(2)≥0.97), precision (RSD: 0.4-9.3%) and sensitivity with LODs/LOQs ranging from 0.03 to 0.16 μg g(-1) and 0.10-0.51 μg g(-1) of EVOO, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enzyme-aided extraction of lycopene from high-pigment tomato cultivars by supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore; De Caroli, Monica; Marrese, Pier Paolo; Iurlaro, Andrea; Rescio, Leonardo; Böhm, Volker; Dalessandro, Giuseppe; Piro, Gabriella

    2015-03-01

    This work reports a novel enzyme-assisted process for lycopene concentration into a freeze-dried tomato matrix and describes the results of laboratory scale lycopene supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) extractions carried out with untreated (control) and enzyme-digested matrices. The combined use of food-grade commercial plant cell-wall glycosidases (Celluclast/Novozyme plus Viscozyme) allows to increase lycopene (∼153%) and lipid (∼137%) concentration in the matrix and rises substrate load onto the extraction vessel (∼46%) compared to the control. The addition of an oleaginous co-matrix (hazelnut seeds) to the tomato matrix (1:1 by weight) increases CO2 diffusion through the highly dense enzyme-treated matrix bed and provides lipids that are co-extracted increasing lycopene yield. Under the same operative conditions (50 MPa, 86 °C, 4 mL min(-1) SC-CO2 flow) extraction yield from control and Celluclast/Novozyme+Viscozyme-treated tomato matrix/co-matrix mixtures was similar, exceeding 75% after 4.5h of extraction. However, the total extracted lycopene was ∼3 times higher in enzyme-treated matrix than control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High antiviral effects of hibiscus tea extract on the H5 subtypes of low and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    BAATARTSOGT, Tugsbaatar; BUI, Vuong N.; TRINH, Dai Q.; YAMAGUCHI, Emi; GRONSANG, Dulyatad; THAMPAISARN, Rapeewan; OGAWA, Haruko; IMAI, Kunitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Viral neuraminidase inhibitors are widely used as synthetic anti-influenza drugs for the prevention and treatment of influenza. However, drug-resistant influenza A virus variants, including H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs), have been reported. Therefore, the discovery of novel and effective antiviral agents is warranted. We screened the antiviral effects of 11 herbal tea extracts (hibiscus, black tea, tencha, rosehip tea, burdock tea, green tea, jasmine tea, ginger tea, lavender tea, rose tea and oak tea) against the H5N1 HPAIV in vitro. Among the tested extracts, only the hibiscus extract and its fractionated extract (frHibis) highly and rapidly reduced the titers of all H5 HPAIVs and low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs) used in the pre-treatment tests of Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that were inoculated with a mixture of the virus and the extract. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that anti-H5 monoclonal antibodies could not bind to the deformed H5 virus particles pretreated with frHibis. In post-treatment tests of MDCK cells cultured in the presence of frHibis after infection with H5N1 HPAIV, the frHibis inhibited viral replication and the expression of viral antigens and genes. Among the plants tested, hibiscus showed the most prominent antiviral effects against both H5 HPAIV and LPAIV. PMID:27193820

  10. High antiviral effects of hibiscus tea extract on the H5 subtypes of low and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Baatartsogt, Tugsbaatar; Bui, Vuong N; Trinh, Dai Q; Yamaguchi, Emi; Gronsang, Dulyatad; Thampaisarn, Rapeewan; Ogawa, Haruko; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2016-10-01

    Viral neuraminidase inhibitors are widely used as synthetic anti-influenza drugs for the prevention and treatment of influenza. However, drug-resistant influenza A virus variants, including H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs), have been reported. Therefore, the discovery of novel and effective antiviral agents is warranted. We screened the antiviral effects of 11 herbal tea extracts (hibiscus, black tea, tencha, rosehip tea, burdock tea, green tea, jasmine tea, ginger tea, lavender tea, rose tea and oak tea) against the H5N1 HPAIV in vitro. Among the tested extracts, only the hibiscus extract and its fractionated extract (frHibis) highly and rapidly reduced the titers of all H5 HPAIVs and low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs) used in the pre-treatment tests of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that were inoculated with a mixture of the virus and the extract. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that anti-H5 monoclonal antibodies could not bind to the deformed H5 virus particles pretreated with frHibis. In post-treatment tests of MDCK cells cultured in the presence of frHibis after infection with H5N1 HPAIV, the frHibis inhibited viral replication and the expression of viral antigens and genes. Among the plants tested, hibiscus showed the most prominent antiviral effects against both H5 HPAIV and LPAIV.

  11. Using Mobile Laser Scanning Data for Features Extraction of High Accuracy Driving Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bisheng; Liu, Yuan; Liang, Fuxun; Dong, Zhen

    2016-06-01

    High Accuracy Driving Maps (HADMs) are the core component of Intelligent Drive Assistant Systems (IDAS), which can effectively reduce the traffic accidents due to human error and provide more comfortable driving experiences. Vehicle-based mobile laser scanning (MLS) systems provide an efficient solution to rapidly capture three-dimensional (3D) point clouds of road environments with high flexibility and precision. This paper proposes a novel method to extract road features (e.g., road surfaces, road boundaries, road markings, buildings, guardrails, street lamps, traffic signs, roadside-trees, power lines, vehicles and so on) for HADMs in highway environment. Quantitative evaluations show that the proposed algorithm attains an average precision and recall in terms of 90.6% and 91.2% in extracting road features. Results demonstrate the efficiencies and feasibilities of the proposed method for extraction of road features for HADMs.

  12. Hierarchical graph-based segmentation for extracting road networks from high-resolution satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshehhi, Rasha; Marpu, Prashanth Reddy

    2017-04-01

    Extraction of road networks in urban areas from remotely sensed imagery plays an important role in many urban applications (e.g. road navigation, geometric correction of urban remote sensing images, updating geographic information systems, etc.). It is normally difficult to accurately differentiate road from its background due to the complex geometry of the buildings and the acquisition geometry of the sensor. In this paper, we present a new method for extracting roads from high-resolution imagery based on hierarchical graph-based image segmentation. The proposed method consists of: 1. Extracting features (e.g., using Gabor and morphological filtering) to enhance the contrast between road and non-road pixels, 2. Graph-based segmentation consisting of (i) Constructing a graph representation of the image based on initial segmentation and (ii) Hierarchical merging and splitting of image segments based on color and shape features, and 3. Post-processing to remove irregularities in the extracted road segments. Experiments are conducted on three challenging datasets of high-resolution images to demonstrate the proposed method and compare with other similar approaches. The results demonstrate the validity and superior performance of the proposed method for road extraction in urban areas.

  13. Comparison of reduced sugar high quality chocolates sweetened with stevioside and crude stevia 'green' extract.

    PubMed

    Torri, Luisa; Frati, Alessandra; Ninfali, Paolino; Mantegna, Stefano; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Morini, Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    The demand for zero and reduced-sugar food products containing cocoa is expanding continuously. The present study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of producing high-quality chocolate sweetened with a crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) prepared by a green microwave-assisted water-steam extraction procedure. Seven approximately isosweet chocolate formulations were developed, mixing cocoa paste, sucrose, commercial stevioside, crude green extract and maltitol in different proportions. All samples were analyzed for the determination of polyphenol and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, and sensory acceptability. The use of a crude stevia extract allowed low-sugar, high-quality chocolates to be obtained that were also acceptable by consumers and had a significant increased antioxidant activity. Moreover, consumers' segmentation revealed a cluster of consumers showing the same overall liking for the sample with 50% sucrose replaced by the stevia crude extract as that obtained with the commercial stevioside and the control sample (without sucrose replacement). The results provide information that can contribute to promoting the development of sweet food products, with advantages in terms of an improved nutritional value (reduced sugar content and increased antioxidant activity) and a reduced impact of the production process on the environment. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Selective extraction of high-value phenolic compounds from distillation wastewater of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Imma; Sánchez-Camargo, Andrea Del Pilar; Mendiola, Jose Antonio; Campone, Luca; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Rastrelli, Luca; Ibañez, Elena

    2018-01-31

    During the essential oil steam distillation from aromatic herbs, huge amounts of distillation wastewaters (DWWs) are generated. These by-products represent an exceptionally rich source of phenolic compounds such as rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid (CA). Herein, the alternative use of dried basil DWWs (dDWWs) to perform a selective extraction of RA and CA by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) employing bio-based solvent was studied. To select the most suitable solvent for PLE, the theoretical modelling of Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) was carried out. This approach allows reducing the list of candidate to two solvents: ethanol and ethyl lactate. Due to the composition of the sample, mixtures of water with those solvents were also tested. An enriched PLE extract in RA (23.90 ± 2.06 mg/g extract) with an extraction efficiency of 75.89 ± 16.03% employing a water-ethanol mixture 25:75 (% v/v) at 50°C was obtained. In the case of CA, a PLE extract with 2.42 ± 0.04 mg/g extract, having an extraction efficiency of 13.86 ± 4.96% using ethanol absolute at 50°C was achieved. DWWs are proposed as new promising sources of natural additives and/or functional ingredients for cosmetic, nutraceutical, and food applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Effect of Pulsed Ultraviolet Light and High Hydrostatic Pressure on the Antigenicity of Almond Protein Extracts.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The efficacy of pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV) and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on reducing the IgE binding to the almond extracts, was studied using SDS-PAGE, Western Blot, and ELISA probed with human plasma containing IgE antibodies to almond allergens, and a polyclonal antibody against almond ...

  16. Deposition and thermal characterization of nano-structured aluminum nitride thin film on Cu-W substrate for high power light emitting diode package.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun Min; Kim, Min-Sun

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we developed AlN thick film on metal substrate for hybrid type LED package such as chip on board (COB) using metal printed circuit board (PCB). Conventional metal PCB uses ceramic-polymer composite as electrical insulating layer. Thermal conductivities of such type dielectric film are typically in the range of 1~4 W/m · K depending on the ceramic filler. Also, Al or Cu alloy are mainly used for metal base for high thermal conduction to dissipate heat from thermal source mounted on metal PCB. Here we used Cu-W alloy with low thermal expansion coefficient as metal substrate to reduce thermal stress between insulating layer and base metal. AlN with polyimide (PI) powder were used as starting materials for deposition. We could obtain very high thermal conductivity of 28.3 W/m · K from deposited AlN-PI thin film by AlN-3 wt% PI powder. We made hybrid type high power LED package using AlN-PI thin film. We tested thermal performance of this film by thermal transient measurement and compared with conventional metal PCB substrate.

  17. Laser Welding in Electronic Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The laser has proven its worth in numerous high reliability electronic packaging applications ranging from medical to missile electronics. In particular, the pulsed YAG laser is an extremely flexible and versatile too] capable of hermetically sealing microelectronics packages containing sensitive components without damaging them. This paper presents an overview of details that must be considered for successful use of laser welding when addressing electronic package sealing. These include; metallurgical considerations such as alloy and plating selection, weld joint configuration, design of optics, use of protective gases and control of thermal distortions. The primary limitations on use of laser welding electronic for packaging applications are economic ones. The laser itself is a relatively costly device when compared to competing welding equipment. Further, the cost of consumables and repairs can be significant. These facts have relegated laser welding to use only where it presents a distinct quality or reliability advantages over other techniques of electronic package sealing. Because of the unique noncontact and low heat inputs characteristics of laser welding, it is an ideal candidate for sealing electronic packages containing MEMS devices (microelectromechanical systems). This paper addresses how the unique advantages of the pulsed YAG laser can be used to simplify MEMS packaging and deliver a product of improved quality.

  18. FTOOLS: A FITS Data Processing and Analysis Software Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, J. K.

    FTOOLS, a highly modular collection of over 110 utilities for processing and analyzing data in the FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) format, has been developed in support of the HEASARC (High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Each utility performs a single simple task such as presentation of file contents, extraction of specific rows or columns, appending or merging tables, binning values in a column or selecting subsets of rows based on a boolean expression. Individual utilities can easily be chained together in scripts to achieve more complex operations such as the generation and displaying of spectra or light curves. The collection of utilities provides both generic processing and analysis utilities and utilities specific to high energy astrophysics data sets used for the ASCA, ROSAT, GRO, and XTE missions. A core set of FTOOLS providing support for generic FITS data processing, FITS image analysis and timing analysis can easily be split out of the full software package for users not needing the high energy astrophysics mission utilities. The FTOOLS software package is designed to be both compatible with IRAF and completely stand alone in a UNIX or VMS environment. The user interface is controlled by standard IRAF parameter files. The package is self documenting through the IRAF help facility and a stand alone help task. Software is written in ANSI C and \\fortran to provide portability across most computer systems. The data format dependencies between hardware platforms are isolated through the FITSIO library package.

  19. Sequential extraction protocol for organic matter from soils and sediments using high resolution mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tfaily, Malak M.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Toyoda, Jason

    A vast number of organic compounds are present in soil organic matter (SOM) and play an important role in the terrestrial carbon cycle, facilitate interactions between organisms, and represent a sink for atmospheric CO2. The diversity of different SOM compounds and their molecular characteristics is a function of the organic source material and biogeochemical history. By understanding how SOM composition changes with sources and the processes by which it is biogeochemically altered in different terrestrial ecosystems, it may be possible to predict nutrient and carbon cycling, response to system perturbations, and impact of climate change will have on SOM composition.more » In this study, a sequential chemical extraction procedure was developed to reveal the diversity of organic matter (OM) in different ecosystems and was compared to the previously published protocol using parallel solvent extraction (PSE). We compared six extraction methods using three sample types, peat soil, spruce forest soil and river sediment, so as to select the best method for extracting a representative fraction of organic matter from soils and sediments from a wide range of ecosystems. We estimated the extraction yield of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by total organic carbon analysis, and measured the composition of extracted OM using high resolution mass spectrometry. This study showed that OM composition depends primarily on soil and sediment characteristics. Two sequential extraction protocols, progressing from polar to non-polar solvents, were found to provide the highest number and diversity of organic compounds extracted from the soil and sediments. Water (H2O) is the first solvent used for both protocols followed by either co-extraction with methanol-chloroform (MeOH-CHCl3) mixture, or acetonitrile (ACN) and CHCl3 sequentially. The sequential extraction protocol developed in this study offers improved sensitivity, and requires less sample compared to the PSE workflow where a new

  20. Sequential extraction protocol for organic matter from soils and sediments using high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tfaily, Malak M; Chu, Rosalie K; Toyoda, Jason; Tolić, Nikola; Robinson, Errol W; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Hess, Nancy J

    2017-06-15

    A vast number of organic compounds are present in soil organic matter (SOM) and play an important role in the terrestrial carbon cycle, facilitate interactions between organisms, and represent a sink for atmospheric CO 2 . The diversity of different SOM compounds and their molecular characteristics is a function of the organic source material and biogeochemical history. By understanding how SOM composition changes with sources and the processes by which it is biogeochemically altered in different terrestrial ecosystems, it may be possible to predict nutrient and carbon cycling, response to system perturbations, and impact of climate change will have on SOM composition. In this study, a sequential chemical extraction procedure was developed to reveal the diversity of organic matter (OM) in different ecosystems and was compared to the previously published protocol using parallel solvent extraction (PSE). We compared six extraction methods using three sample types, peat soil, spruce forest soil and river sediment, so as to select the best method for extracting a representative fraction of organic matter from soils and sediments from a wide range of ecosystems. We estimated the extraction yield of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by total organic carbon analysis, and measured the composition of extracted OM using high resolution mass spectrometry. This study showed that OM composition depends primarily on soil and sediment characteristics. Two sequential extraction protocols, progressing from polar to non-polar solvents, were found to provide the highest number and diversity of organic compounds extracted from the soil and sediments. Water (H 2 O) is the first solvent used for both protocols followed by either co-extraction with methanol-chloroform (MeOH-CHCl 3 ) mixture, or acetonitrile (ACN) and CHCl 3 sequentially. The sequential extraction protocol developed in this study offers improved sensitivity, and requires less sample compared to the PSE workflow where a new

  1. Semi-automatic building extraction in informal settlements from high-resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayunga, Selassie David

    The extraction of man-made features from digital remotely sensed images is considered as an important step underpinning management of human settlements in any country. Man-made features and buildings in particular are required for varieties of applications such as urban planning, creation of geographical information systems (GIS) databases and Urban City models. The traditional man-made feature extraction methods are very expensive in terms of equipment, labour intensive, need well-trained personnel and cannot cope with changing environments, particularly in dense urban settlement areas. This research presents an approach for extracting buildings in dense informal settlement areas using high-resolution satellite imagery. The proposed system uses a novel strategy of extracting building by measuring a single point at the approximate centre of the building. The fine measurement of the building outlines is then effected using a modified snake model. The original snake model on which this framework is based, incorporates an external constraint energy term which is tailored to preserving the convergence properties of the snake model; its use to unstructured objects will negatively affect their actual shapes. The external constrained energy term was removed from the original snake model formulation, thereby, giving ability to cope with high variability of building shapes in informal settlement areas. The proposed building extraction system was tested on two areas, which have different situations. The first area was Tungi in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania where three sites were tested. This area is characterized by informal settlements, which are illegally formulated within the city boundaries. The second area was Oromocto in New Brunswick, Canada where two sites were tested. Oromocto area is mostly flat and the buildings are constructed using similar materials. Qualitative and quantitative measures were employed to evaluate the accuracy of the results as well as the performance

  2. An improved high-throughput lipid extraction method for the analysis of human brain lipids.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Sarah K; Jenner, Andrew M; Mitchell, Todd W; Brown, Simon H J; Halliday, Glenda M; Garner, Brett

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a protocol suitable for high-throughput lipidomic analysis of human brain samples. The traditional Folch extraction (using chloroform and glass-glass homogenization) was compared to a high-throughput method combining methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) extraction with mechanical homogenization utilizing ceramic beads. This high-throughput method significantly reduced sample handling time and increased efficiency compared to glass-glass homogenizing. Furthermore, replacing chloroform with MTBE is safer (less carcinogenic/toxic), with lipids dissolving in the upper phase, allowing for easier pipetting and the potential for automation (i.e., robotics). Both methods were applied to the analysis of human occipital cortex. Lipid species (including ceramides, sphingomyelins, choline glycerophospholipids, ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and phosphatidylserines) were analyzed via electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and sterol species were analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. No differences in lipid species composition were evident when the lipid extraction protocols were compared, indicating that MTBE extraction with mechanical bead homogenization provides an improved method for the lipidomic profiling of human brain tissue.

  3. Extraction of High Quality DNA from Seized Moroccan Cannabis Resin (Hashish)

    PubMed Central

    El Alaoui, Moulay Abdelaziz; Melloul, Marouane; Alaoui Amine, Sanaâ; Stambouli, Hamid; El Bouri, Aziz; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; El Fahime, Elmostafa

    2013-01-01

    The extraction and purification of nucleic acids is the first step in most molecular biology analysis techniques. The objective of this work is to obtain highly purified nucleic acids derived from Cannabis sativa resin seizure in order to conduct a DNA typing method for the individualization of cannabis resin samples. To obtain highly purified nucleic acids from cannabis resin (Hashish) free from contaminants that cause inhibition of PCR reaction, we have tested two protocols: the CTAB protocol of Wagner and a CTAB protocol described by Somma (2004) adapted for difficult matrix. We obtained high quality genomic DNA from 8 cannabis resin seizures using the adapted protocol. DNA extracted by the Wagner CTAB protocol failed to give polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase coding gene. However, the extracted DNA by the second protocol permits amplification of THCA synthase coding gene using different sets of primers as assessed by PCR. We describe here for the first time the possibility of DNA extraction from (Hashish) resin derived from Cannabis sativa. This allows the use of DNA molecular tests under special forensic circumstances. PMID:24124454

  4. Instantaneous Coastline Extraction from LIDAR Point Cloud and High Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Zhoing, L.; Lai, Z.; Gan, Z.

    2018-04-01

    A new method was proposed for instantaneous waterline extraction in this paper, which combines point cloud geometry features and image spectral characteristics of the coastal zone. The proposed method consists of follow steps: Mean Shift algorithm is used to segment the coastal zone of high resolution remote sensing images into small regions containing semantic information;Region features are extracted by integrating LiDAR data and the surface area of the image; initial waterlines are extracted by α-shape algorithm; a region growing algorithm with is taking into coastline refinement, with a growth rule integrating the intensity and topography of LiDAR data; moothing the coastline. Experiments are conducted to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  5. Extraction and Characterization of Highly Gelling Low Methoxy Pectin from Cashew Apple Pomace

    PubMed Central

    Yapo, Beda M.; Koffi, Kouassi L.

    2013-01-01

    Investigation on the pectic substances of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) apple under different acid-extraction conditions (pH 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) showed that more than 10%–25% of A. occidentale pectins (AOP) could be extracted, depending on the extractant strength. The extracted AOP contained high amounts of galacturonic acid (GalA: 69.9%–84.5%) with some neutral sugars of which rhamnose (Rha: 1.3%–2.5%), arabinose (Ara: 2.6%–5.4%), and galactose (Gal: 4.7%–8.6%) were the main constituents. The degree of methoxylation (DM) was in the range of 28%–46% and was only slightly affected by the extractant strength, thereby indicating isolation of naturally low methoxy pectins (LMP). In terms of gelling capability, AOP yielded firmer Ca2+-mediated LMP gels than commercial citrus LMP with comparable DM. Cashew apple pomace, therefore, appears to be a potentially viable source for possible production of “non-chemically or enzymatically-tailored” LMP. PMID:28234301

  6. Extraction of high-quality DNA from ethanol-preserved tropical plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Eduardo A; Rossi, Mônica L; Gerald, Lee T S; Figueira, Antonio

    2014-04-24

    Proper conservation of plant samples, especially during remote field collection, is essential to assure quality of extracted DNA. Tropical plant species contain considerable amounts of secondary compounds, such as polysaccharides, phenols, and latex, which affect DNA quality during extraction. The suitability of ethanol (96% v/v) as a preservative solution prior to DNA extraction was evaluated using leaves of Jatropha curcas and other tropical species. Total DNA extracted from leaf samples stored in liquid nitrogen or ethanol from J. curcas and other tropical species (Theobroma cacao, Coffea arabica, Ricinus communis, Saccharum spp., and Solanum lycopersicon) was similar in quality, with high-molecular-weight DNA visualized by gel electrophoresis. DNA quality was confirmed by digestion with EcoRI or HindIII and by amplification of the ribosomal gene internal transcribed spacer region. Leaf tissue of J. curcas was analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy before and after exposure to ethanol. Our results indicate that leaf samples can be successfully preserved in ethanol for long periods (30 days) as a viable method for fixation and conservation of DNA from leaves. The success of this technique is likely due to reduction or inactivation of secondary metabolites that could contaminate or degrade genomic DNA. Tissue conservation in 96% ethanol represents an attractive low-cost alternative to commonly used methods for preservation of samples for DNA extraction. This technique yields DNA of equivalent quality to that obtained from fresh or frozen tissue.

  7. Extraction of high-quality DNA from ethanol-preserved tropical plant tissues

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Proper conservation of plant samples, especially during remote field collection, is essential to assure quality of extracted DNA. Tropical plant species contain considerable amounts of secondary compounds, such as polysaccharides, phenols, and latex, which affect DNA quality during extraction. The suitability of ethanol (96% v/v) as a preservative solution prior to DNA extraction was evaluated using leaves of Jatropha curcas and other tropical species. Results Total DNA extracted from leaf samples stored in liquid nitrogen or ethanol from J. curcas and other tropical species (Theobroma cacao, Coffea arabica, Ricinus communis, Saccharum spp., and Solanum lycopersicon) was similar in quality, with high-molecular-weight DNA visualized by gel electrophoresis. DNA quality was confirmed by digestion with EcoRI or HindIII and by amplification of the ribosomal gene internal transcribed spacer region. Leaf tissue of J. curcas was analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy before and after exposure to ethanol. Our results indicate that leaf samples can be successfully preserved in ethanol for long periods (30 days) as a viable method for fixation and conservation of DNA from leaves. The success of this technique is likely due to reduction or inactivation of secondary metabolites that could contaminate or degrade genomic DNA. Conclusions Tissue conservation in 96% ethanol represents an attractive low-cost alternative to commonly used methods for preservation of samples for DNA extraction. This technique yields DNA of equivalent quality to that obtained from fresh or frozen tissue. PMID:24761774

  8. Optimization of extraction of high purity all-trans-lycopene from tomato pulp waste.

    PubMed

    Poojary, Mahesha M; Passamonti, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize the extraction of pure all-trans-lycopene from the pulp fractions of tomato processing waste. A full factorial design (FFD) consisting of four independent variables including extraction temperature (30-50 °C), time (1-60 min), percentage of acetone in n-hexane (25-75%, v/v) and solvent volume (10-30 ml) was used to investigate the effects of process variables on the extraction. The absolute amount of lycopene present in the pulp waste was found to be 0.038 mg/g. The optimal conditions for extraction were as follows: extraction temperature 20 °C, time 40 min, a solvent composition of 25% acetone in n-hexane (v/v) and solvent volume 40 ml. Under these conditions, the maximal recovery of lycopene was 94.7%. The HPLC-DAD analysis demonstrated that, lycopene was obtained in the all-trans-configuration at a very high purity grade of 98.3% while the amount of cis-isomers and other carotenoids were limited. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Treating high angle bimaxillary protrusion with three kinds of extraction method: a clinical study].

    PubMed

    Dai, Jia-Yin; Zhang, Miao-Miao; Sun, Miao; Ni, Hui

    2009-06-01

    To compare the effect of three kinds of extraction model on high angle bimaxillary protrusion patients. A total of 30 patients with Class I malocclusion and bimaxillary protrusion, aged 14-25 years old, were selected and divided into three groups. Four first premolars were extracted in the first group. The two maxillary first premolars and two mandibular first molars were extracted in the second group. The two maxillary first premolars and two mandibular first molars were extracted in the third group, and two additional micro-implants used as orthodontic anchorage in maxilla. Three groups were all treated with MBT appliance. Cephalometric analysis were carried out before and after treatment, and the results were analyzed with statistics. 1) About the hard tissues, compared with the first group, there were statistically significant differences of N-Me, SGo/NMe, ANS-Me, FH/MP, SN/MP, and ODI in the second and the third group after treatment (P<0.01). 2) About the soft tissues, the teeth and the alveolar bone, compared with the first group, there were statistically significant differences of Pg-Pos, Li-SnPos, Si-LiPos, LL-E, L1-NB, L1/NB, U1/L1, L7-MP in the second and the third group after treatment (P<0.01). 3) All patients received consummate orthodontic treatment and obtained fine occlusion. Facial profiles were improved significantly after orthodontic treatment. 1) After orthodontic treatment with mandibular first molars extraction, FH/MP, SN/MP, N-Me, ANS-Me, L1-NB and L1/NB decreased respectively, and soft tissue profiles were improved significantly. 2) Additional micro-implant used as orthodontic anchorage in maxilla significantly contributed to the maxillary incisor retraction and subsequent soft tissue change. 3) The first molars extraction and additional micro-implant used as orthodontic anchorage are efficient in improving the facial profiles for high angle bimaxillary protrusion patients.

  10. High-antibacterial activity of Urtica spp. seed extracts on food and plant pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Körpe, Didem Aksoy; İşerı, Özlem Darcansoy; Sahin, Feride Iffet; Cabi, Evren; Haberal, Mehmet

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate antibacterial activities of methanol (MetOH) and aqueous (dw) leaf (L), root (R) and seed (S) extracts of Urtica dioica L. (Ud; stinging nettle) and Urtica pilulifera L. (Up; Roman nettle) on both food- and plant-borne pathogens, with total phenolic contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities (DRSA). MetOH extracts of leaves and roots of U. dioica had the highest DRSA. Extracts with high antibacterial activity were in the order Up-LMetOH (13/16) > Ud-SMetOH (11/16) > Up-SMetOH (9/16). Results obtained with Up-SMetOH against food spoiling Bacillus pumilus, Shigella spp. and Enterococcus gallinarum with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in 128-1024 μg/ml range seem to be promising. Up-SMetOH also exerted strong inhibition against Clavibacter michiganensis with a considerably low MIC (32 μg/ml). Ud-SMetOH and Up-LMetOH were also effective against C. michiganensis (MIC = 256 and 1024 μg/ml, respectively). Ud-SMetOH and Ud-RMetOH had also antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas vesicatoria (MIC = 512 and 1024 μg/ml, respectively). Results presented here demonstrate high-antibacterial activity of U. pilulifera extracts and U. dioica seed extract against phytopathogens for the first time, and provide the most comprehensive data on the antibacterial activity screening of U. pilulifera against food-borne pathogens. Considering limitations in plant disease control, antibacterial activities of these extracts would be of agricultural importance.

  11. The Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Addition of Rosemary Extract, Sodium Acetate and Calcium Lactate Mixture on the Quality of Pre-cooked Hamburger Patties during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    Muhlisin; Kang, Sun Moon; Choi, Won Hee; Lee, Keun Taik; Cheong, Sung Hee; Lee, Sung Ki

    2013-01-01

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; 30% CO2+70% N2 or 100% N2) and an additive mixture (500 ppm rosemary extract, 3,000 ppm sodium acetate and 1,500 ppm calcium lactate) on the quality of pre-cooked hamburger patties during storage at 5°C for 14 d was evaluated. The addition of the additive mixture reduced aerobic and anaerobic bacteria counts in both 30% CO2-MAP (30% CO2+70% N2) and 100% N2-MAP (p<0.05). The 30% CO2-MAP was more effective to suppress the microbial growth than 100% N2-MAP, moreover the 30% CO2-MAP combined with additive mixture resulted in the lowest bacterial counts. The hamburger patties with additive mixture showed lower CIE L* and CIE a*, and higher CIE b* than those with no additive mixture. The 30% CO2-MAP tended to decrease the TBARS during storage regardless of the addition of additives. The use of 30% CO2-MAP in combination with additives mixture was effective for maintaining the quality and extending the shelf-life of pre-cooked hamburger patties. PMID:25049716

  12. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, amore » batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been

  13. Analytical strategies for organic food packaging contaminants.

    PubMed

    Sanchis, Yovana; Yusà, Vicent; Coscollà, Clara

    2017-03-24

    In this review, we present current approaches in the analysis of food-packaging contaminants. Gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detection have been widely used in the analysis of some relevant families of these compounds such as primary aromatic amines, bisphenol A, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and related compounds, UV-ink photoinitiators, perfluorinated compounds, phthalates and non-intentionally added substances. Main applications for sample treatment and different types of food-contact material migration studies have been also discussed. Pressurized Liquid Extraction, Solid-Phase Microextraction, Focused Ultrasound Solid-Liquid Extraction and Quechers have been mainly used in the extraction of food contact material (FCM) contaminants, due to the trend of minimising solvent consumption, automatization of sample preparation and integration of extraction and clean-up steps. Recent advances in analytical methodologies have allowed unequivocal identification and confirmation of these contaminants using Liquid Chromatography coupled to High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) through mass accuracy and isotopic pattern applying. LC-HRMS has been used in the target analysis of primary aromatic amines in different plastic materials, but few studies have been carried out applying this technique in post-target and non-target analysis of FCM contaminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnetic field extraction of trap-based electron beams using a high-permeability grid

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, N. C.; Danielson, J. R.; Surko, C. M., E-mail: csurko@physics.ucsd.edu

    2015-07-15

    A method to form high quality electrostatically guided lepton beams is explored. Test electron beams are extracted from tailored plasmas confined in a Penning-Malmberg trap. The particles are then extracted from the confining axial magnetic field by passing them through a high magnetic permeability grid with radial tines (a so-called “magnetic spider”). An Einzel lens is used to focus and analyze the beam properties. Numerical simulations are used to model non-adiabatic effects due to the spider, and the predictions are compared with the experimental results. Improvements in beam quality are discussed relative to the use of a hole in amore » high permeability shield (i.e., in lieu of the spider), and areas for further improvement are described.« less

  15. Enforcement of food packaging legislation.

    PubMed

    van Lierop, J B

    1997-01-01

    A survey of the results of the analysis of samples of packaging materials, obtained from the Dutch market during the last 5 years is presented. The diethylether extracts of food contact polymers were analysed by GC-MS according to the Dutch testing system. Lists of the identified constituents in the extracts of polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), polyethylene terephthlate (PET) and polyvinylchloride (PVC) are given. More than 50 constituents were identified in the more than 1000 samples investigated. An estimation of the quantities of the extracted constituents has been made. In PVC the following compounds were present in relatively large quantities (10 times the height of the internal standards): diethylhexyladipate, dinonylphthalate, and other phthalates. However 68% of the extracts contained no peaks higher than the internal standards.

  16. Analysis of Free Amino Acids in Different Extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus Leaves by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Combined with Solid-Phase Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Shafaei, Armaghan; Halim, Nor Hidayah Ab; Zakaria, Norhidayah; Ismail, Zhari

    2017-01-01

    Background: Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) Benth is a medicinal plant and native in Southeast Asia. Previous studies have shown that OS leaves possess antioxidant, cytotoxic, diuretic, antihypertensive, and uricosuric effects. These beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of primary and secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, amino acids, and flavonoids. Objective: To develop and validate an high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector (DAD) method combined with solid-phase extraction that involves precolumn derivatization with O-phthaladehyde for simultaneous analysis of free amino acids in OS leaves extracts. Materials and Methods: OS leaves were extracted with water (OS-W), ethanol (OS-E), methanol (OS-M), 50% ethanol (OS-EW), and 50% methanol (OS-MW). The extracts were treated by C18 cartridge before derivatization, resulting in great improvement of separation by Zorbox Eclipse XDB-C18 column. Results: The HPLC–DAD method was successfully developed and validated for analyzing the contents of free amino acids in OS extracts. The results showed that l-aspartic acid with 0.93 ± 0.01 nmol/mg was the major free amino acid in OS-W extract. However, in OS-E, OS-M, OS-EW, and OS-MW, l-glutamic acid with 3.53 ± 0.16, 2.17 ± 0.10, 4.01 ± 0.12, and 2.49 ± 0.12 nmol/mg, respectively, was the major free amino acid. Subsequently, l-serine, which was detected in OS-W, OS-E, and OS-M, was the minor free amino acid with 0.33 ± 0.02, 0.12 ± 0.01, and 0.06 ± 0.01 nmol/mg, respectively. However, l-threonine with 0.26 ± 0.02 and 0.19 ± 0.08 nmol/mL in OS-EW and OS-MW, respectively, had the lowest concentration compared with other amino acid components. Conclusion: All validation parameters of the developed method indicate that the method is reliable and efficient to simultaneously determine the free amino acids content for routine analysis of OS extracts. SUMMARY The HPLC-DAD method combined with solid phase extraction was

  17. Analysis of Free Amino Acids in Different Extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus Leaves by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Combined with Solid-Phase Extraction.

    PubMed

    Shafaei, Armaghan; Halim, Nor Hidayah Ab; Zakaria, Norhidayah; Ismail, Zhari

    2017-10-01

    Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) Benth is a medicinal plant and native in Southeast Asia. Previous studies have shown that OS leaves possess antioxidant, cytotoxic, diuretic, antihypertensive, and uricosuric effects. These beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of primary and secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, amino acids, and flavonoids. To develop and validate an high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector (DAD) method combined with solid-phase extraction that involves precolumn derivatization with O -phthaladehyde for simultaneous analysis of free amino acids in OS leaves extracts. OS leaves were extracted with water (OS-W), ethanol (OS-E), methanol (OS-M), 50% ethanol (OS-EW), and 50% methanol (OS-MW). The extracts were treated by C18 cartridge before derivatization, resulting in great improvement of separation by Zorbox Eclipse XDB-C 18 column. The HPLC-DAD method was successfully developed and validated for analyzing the contents of free amino acids in OS extracts. The results showed that l-aspartic acid with 0.93 ± 0.01 nmol/mg was the major free amino acid in OS-W extract. However, in OS-E, OS-M, OS-EW, and OS-MW, l-glutamic acid with 3.53 ± 0.16, 2.17 ± 0.10, 4.01 ± 0.12, and 2.49 ± 0.12 nmol/mg, respectively, was the major free amino acid. Subsequently, l-serine, which was detected in OS-W, OS-E, and OS-M, was the minor free amino acid with 0.33 ± 0.02, 0.12 ± 0.01, and 0.06 ± 0.01 nmol/mg, respectively. However, l-threonine with 0.26 ± 0.02 and 0.19 ± 0.08 nmol/mL in OS-EW and OS-MW, respectively, had the lowest concentration compared with other amino acid components. All validation parameters of the developed method indicate that the method is reliable and efficient to simultaneously determine the free amino acids content for routine analysis of OS extracts. The HPLC-DAD method combined with solid phase extraction was successfully developed and validated for simultaneous determination and

  18. High efficiency liquid chromatography techniques coupled to mass spectrometry for the characterization of mate extracts.

    PubMed

    Dugo, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Donato, Paola; Jacques, Rosângela Assis; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Mondello, Luigi

    2009-10-23

    There is growing interest related to rapid screening and full characterization of the constituents of plants with medicinal properties; among these, "Mate" or Yerba Maté is a tea-like beverage widely consumed in South America, obtained from the dried leaves of Ilex paraguariensis. The high content in polyphenols accounts for in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of the extracts obtained from this plant; on the other hand, the high complexity of the samples extracted, depending on the method employed, may preclude complete resolution by conventional HPLC techniques. For this purpose, a comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC x LC) system, comprised of an RP-Amide first dimension and a partially porous octadecylsilica column in the second dimension, has been compared with a one-dimensional system. The latter was operated using a partially porous octadecylsilica column, with diode array (DAD) and electrospray/ion trap-time of flight (ESI/IT-TOF) detection for the most complex extracts. The employment of the hybrid mass spectrometer allowed unequivocal identification of several compounds in the mate extracts. Using LC x LC-MS(3), it was possible to discriminate between congeners of chlorogenic acids, along with monoacyl- and diacylchlorogenic acid esters.

  19. Research of building information extraction and evaluation based on high-resolution remote-sensing imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qiong; Gu, Lingjia; Ren, Ruizhi; Wang, Lang

    2016-09-01

    Building extraction currently is important in the application of high-resolution remote sensing imagery. At present, quite a few algorithms are available for detecting building information, however, most of them still have some obvious disadvantages, such as the ignorance of spectral information, the contradiction between extraction rate and extraction accuracy. The purpose of this research is to develop an effective method to detect building information for Chinese GF-1 data. Firstly, the image preprocessing technique is used to normalize the image and image enhancement is used to highlight the useful information in the image. Secondly, multi-spectral information is analyzed. Subsequently, an improved morphological building index (IMBI) based on remote sensing imagery is proposed to get the candidate building objects. Furthermore, in order to refine building objects and further remove false objects, the post-processing (e.g., the shape features, the vegetation index and the water index) is employed. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, the omission errors (OE), commission errors (CE), the overall accuracy (OA) and Kappa are used at final. The proposed method can not only effectively use spectral information and other basic features, but also avoid extracting excessive interference details from high-resolution remote sensing images. Compared to the original MBI algorithm, the proposed method reduces the OE by 33.14% .At the same time, the Kappa increase by 16.09%. In experiments, IMBI achieved satisfactory results and outperformed other algorithms in terms of both accuracies and visual inspection

  20. Extractive Fermentation of Sugarcane Juice to Produce High Yield and Productivity of Bioethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rofiqah, U.; Widjaja, T.; Altway, A.; Bramantyo, A.

    2017-04-01

    Ethanol production by batch fermentation requires a simple process and it is widely used. Batch fermentation produces ethanol with low yield and productivity due to the accumulation of ethanol in which poisons microorganisms in the fermenter. Extractive fermentation technique is applied to solve the microorganism inhibition problem by ethanol. Extractive fermentation technique can produce ethanol with high yield and productivity. In this process raffinate still, contains much sugar because conversion in the fermentation process is not perfect. Thus, to enhance ethanol yield and productivity, recycle system is applied by returning the raffinate from the extraction process to the fermentation process. This raffinate also contains ethanol which would inhibit the performance of microorganisms in producing ethanol during the fermentation process. Therefore, this study aims to find the optimum condition for the amount of solvent to broth ratio (S: B) and recycle to fresh feed ratio (R: F) which enter the fermenter to produce high yield and productivity. This research was carried out by experiment. In the experiment, sugarcane juice was fermented using Zymomonasmobilis mutant. The fermentation broth was extracted using amyl alcohol. The process was integrated with the recycle system by varying the recycle ratio. The highest yield and productivity is 22.3901% and 103.115 g / L.h respectively, obtained in a process that uses recycle to fresh feed ratio (R: F) of 50:50 and solvents to both ratio of 1.

  1. Extraction of hydrocarbons from high-maturity Marcellus Shale using supercritical carbon dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarboe, Palma B.; Philip A. Candela,; Wenlu Zhu,; Alan J. Kaufman,

    2015-01-01

    Shale is now commonly exploited as a hydrocarbon resource. Due to the high degree of geochemical and petrophysical heterogeneity both between shale reservoirs and within a single reservoir, there is a growing need to find more efficient methods of extracting petroleum compounds (crude oil, natural gas, bitumen) from potential source rocks. In this study, supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) was used to extract n-aliphatic hydrocarbons from ground samples of Marcellus shale. Samples were collected from vertically drilled wells in central and western Pennsylvania, USA, with total organic carbon (TOC) content ranging from 1.5 to 6.2 wt %. Extraction temperature and pressure conditions (80 °C and 21.7 MPa, respectively) were chosen to represent approximate in situ reservoir conditions at sample depth (1920−2280 m). Hydrocarbon yield was evaluated as a function of sample matrix particle size (sieve size) over the following size ranges: 1000−500 μm, 250−125 μm, and 63−25 μm. Several methods of shale characterization including Rock-Eval II pyrolysis, organic petrography, Brunauer−Emmett−Teller surface area, and X-ray diffraction analyses were also performed to better understand potential controls on extraction yields. Despite high sample thermal maturity, results show that supercritical CO2 can liberate diesel-range (n-C11 through n-C21) n-aliphatic hydrocarbons. The total quantity of extracted, resolvable n-aliphatic hydrocarbons ranges from approximately 0.3 to 12 mg of hydrocarbon per gram of TOC. Sieve size does have an effect on extraction yield, with highest recovery from the 250−125 μm size fraction. However, the significance of this effect is limited, likely due to the low size ranges of the extracted shale particles. Additional trends in hydrocarbon yield are observed among all samples, regardless of sieve size: 1) yield increases as a function of specific surface area (r2 = 0.78); and 2) both yield and surface area increase with increasing

  2. Automated road network extraction from high spatial resolution multi-spectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiaoping

    For the last three decades, the Geomatics Engineering and Computer Science communities have considered automated road network extraction from remotely-sensed imagery to be a challenging and important research topic. The main objective of this research is to investigate the theory and methodology of automated feature extraction for image-based road database creation, refinement or updating, and to develop a series of algorithms for road network extraction from high resolution multi-spectral imagery. The proposed framework for road network extraction from multi-spectral imagery begins with an image segmentation using the k-means algorithm. This step mainly concerns the exploitation of the spectral information for feature extraction. The road cluster is automatically identified using a fuzzy classifier based on a set of predefined road surface membership functions. These membership functions are established based on the general spectral signature of road pavement materials and the corresponding normalized digital numbers on each multi-spectral band. Shape descriptors of the Angular Texture Signature are defined and used to reduce the misclassifications between roads and other spectrally similar objects (e.g., crop fields, parking lots, and buildings). An iterative and localized Radon transform is developed for the extraction of road centerlines from the classified images. The purpose of the transform is to accurately and completely detect the road centerlines. It is able to find short, long, and even curvilinear lines. The input image is partitioned into a set of subset images called road component images. An iterative Radon transform is locally applied to each road component image. At each iteration, road centerline segments are detected based on an accurate estimation of the line parameters and line widths. Three localization approaches are implemented and compared using qualitative and quantitative methods. Finally, the road centerline segments are grouped into a

  3. Effects of high intensity ultrasound treatment, storage time and cooking method on shear, sensory, instrumental color and cooking properties of packaged and unpackaged beef pectoralis muscle.

    PubMed

    Pohlman, F W; Dikeman, M E; Kropf, D H

    1997-05-01

    Beef pectoralis muscles were removed at 24 h post mortem from nine steers, and samples were vacuum packaged and exposed to high-intensity ultrasound (20 kHz, 22 W/cm(2)) for 0, 5 or 10 min, then aged for 1, 6 or 10 days before evaluation of purge and cooking losses, instrumental shear and color and sensory traits (Experiment 1). For Experiment 2, unpackaged beef pectoralis muscle samples from eight steers were subjected to ultrasonic cooking, boiling, convection cooking or ultrasound treatment for 5 or 10 min followed by cooking in a convection oven. Neither duration of sonication nor storage of packaged pectoralis muscles affected (p > 0.05) storage purge or cooking losses, shear properties or sensory characteristics (Experiment 1). However, muscles receiving ultrasonic treatment showed tendencies for reduced peak force and total work to shear. Increased length of storage caused pectoralis muscles to become more vivid red-orange colored (p < 0.05), whereas ultrasonic treatment caused muscles to become less vivid, less red and more orange colored (p < 0.05). Ultrasonically cooked pectoralis muscles (Experiment 2) had lower (p < 0.05) cooking losses than muscles cooked by other methods. Both ultrasonic cooking and boiling were faster than convection cooking only and ultrasound exposure followed by convection cooking. Additional studies are needed to verify the ability of ultrasound to promote improved cooking, sensory and shear properties of muscle.

  4. Reliability Assessment and Activation Energy Study of Au and Pd-Coated Cu Wires Post High Temperature Aging in Nanoscale Semiconductor Packaging.

    PubMed

    Gan, C L; Hashim, U

    2013-06-01

    Wearout reliability and high temperature storage life (HTSL) activation energy of Au and Pd-coated Cu (PdCu) ball bonds are useful technical information for Cu wire deployment in nanoscale semiconductor device packaging. This paper discusses the influence of wire type on the wearout reliability performance of Au and PdCu wire used in fine pitch BGA package after HTSL stress at various aging temperatures. Failure analysis has been conducted to identify the failure mechanism after HTSL wearout conditions for Au and PdCu ball bonds. Apparent activation energies (Eaa) of both wire types are investigated after HTSL test at 150 °C, 175 °C and 200 °C aging temperatures. Arrhenius plot has been plotted for each ball bond types and the calculated Eaa of PdCu ball bond is 0.85 eV and 1.10 eV for Au ball bond in 110 nm semiconductor device. Obviously Au ball bond is identified with faster IMC formation rate with IMC Kirkendall voiding while PdCu wire exhibits equivalent wearout and or better wearout reliability margin compare to conventional Au wirebond. Lognormal plots have been established and its mean to failure (t 50 ) have been discussed in this paper.

  5. Radiolysis products and sensory properties of electron-beam-irradiated high-barrier food-packaging films containing a buried layer of recycled low-density polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Chytiri, S D; Badeka, A V; Riganakos, K A; Kontominas, M G

    2010-04-01

    The aim was to study the effect of electron-beam irradiation on the production of radiolysis products and sensory changes in experimental high-barrier packaging films composed of polyamide (PA), ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE). Films contained a middle buried layer of recycled LDPE, while films containing 100% virgin LDPE as the middle buried layer were taken as controls. Irradiation doses ranged between zero and 60 kGy. Generally, a large number of radiolysis products were produced during electron-beam irradiation, even at the lower absorbed doses of 5 and 10 kGy (approved doses for food 'cold pasteurization'). The quantity of radiolysis products increased with irradiation dose. There were no significant differences in radiolysis products identified between samples containing a recycled layer of LDPE and those containing virgin LDPE (all absorbed doses), indicating the 'functional barrier' properties of external virgin polymer layers. Sensory properties (mainly taste) of potable water were affected after contact with irradiated as low as 5 kGy packaging films. This effect increased with increasing irradiation dose.

  6. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    DOE PAGES

    Samarasinghe, Nalin; Fernando, Sandun; Faulkner, William B.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage.more » Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.« less

  7. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Samarasinghe, Nalin; Fernando, Sandun; Faulkner, William B.

    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage.more » Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.« less

  8. Method Optimization for Extracting High-Quality RNA From the Human Pancreas Tissue.

    PubMed

    Jun, Eunsung; Oh, Juyun; Lee, Song; Jun, Hye-Ryeong; Seo, Eun Hye; Jang, Jin-Young; Kim, Song Cheol

    2018-06-01

    Nucleic acid sequencing is frequently used to determine the molecular basis of diseases. Therefore, proper storage of biological specimens is essential to inhibit nucleic acid degradation. RNA isolated from the human pancreas is generally of poor quality because of its high concentration of endogenous RNase. In this study, we optimized the method for extracting high quality RNA from paired tumor and normal pancreatic tissues obtained from eight pancreatic cancer patients post-surgery. RNA integrity number (RIN) was checked to evaluate the integrity of RNA, we tried to extract the RNA with an RIN value of 8 or higher that allows for the latest genetic analysis. The effect of several parameters, including the method used for tissue lysis, RNAlater treatment, tissue weight at storage, and the time to storage after surgical resection, on the quantity and quality of RNA extracted was examined. Data showed that the highest quantity of RNA was isolated using a combination of manual and mechanical methods of tissue lysis. Additionally, sectioning the tissues into small pieces (<100 mg) and treating them with RNAlater solution prior to storage increased RNA stability. Following these guidelines, high quality RNA was obtained from 100% (8/8) of tumor tissues and 75% (6/8) of normal tissues. High-quality RNA was still stable under repeated freezing and thawing. The application of these results during sample handling and storage in clinical settings will facilitate the genetic diagnosis of diseases and their subsequent treatment. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of high pressure treatment and intramuscular fat content on colour changes and protein and lipid oxidation in sliced and vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Verónica; Utrera, Mariana; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Jesús; Ventanas, Sonia

    2014-08-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (600MPa) and intramuscular fat content (IMF) on colour parameters and oxidative stability of lipids and proteins in sliced vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham during refrigerated storage (120 days at 2°C) was investigated. Several studies have investigated the influence of HHP on lipid oxidation of meat products. However, its effects on protein carbonylation, as also the influence of IMF content on this carbonylation are poorly understood. HHP treatment had a significant effect on lean lightness after 0 and 120 days of storage while IMF content increased lightness and yellowness over time. Regarding oxidative stability, the effect of HHP treatment depended on IMF content samples with a high IMF having greater lipid instability while samples with a low IMF underwent more protein carbonylation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Packaging for Food Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  11. A Modified Protocol for High-Quality RNA Extraction from Oleoresin-Producing Adult Pines.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Júlio César; Füller, Thanise Nogueira; de Costa, Fernanda; Rodrigues-Corrêa, Kelly C S; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-01-01

    RNA extraction resulting in good yields and quality is a fundamental step for the analyses of transcriptomes through high-throughput sequencing technologies, microarray, and also northern blots, RT-PCR, and RTqPCR. Even though many specific protocols designed for plants with high content of secondary metabolites have been developed, these are often expensive, time consuming, and not suitable for a wide range of tissues. Here we present a modification of the method previously described using the commercially available Concert™ Plant RNA Reagent (Invitrogen) buffer for field-grown adult pine trees with high oleoresin content.

  12. Graphene Oxide Derivatives as Hole- and Electron-Extraction Layers for High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-20

    Graphene oxide derivatives as hole- and electron- extraction layers for high-performance polymer solar cells Jun Liu,*a Michael Durstockb and Liming...oxide (GO) and its derivatives have been used as a new class of efficient hole- and electron-extraction materials in polymer solar cells (PSCs...new class of efficient hole- and electron-extraction materials in polymer solar cells (PSCs). Highly efficient and stable PSCs have been fabricated

  13. Vegetation extraction from high-resolution satellite imagery using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlShamsi, Meera R.

    2016-10-01

    Over the past years, there has been various urban development all over the UAE. Dubai is one of the cities that experienced rapid growth in both development and population. That growth can have a negative effect on the surrounding environment. Hence, there has been a necessity to protect the environment from these fast pace changes. One of the major impacts this growth can have is on vegetation. As technology is evolving day by day, there is a possibility to monitor changes that are happening on different areas in the world using satellite imagery. The data from these imageries can be utilized to identify vegetation in different areas of an image through a process called vegetation detection. Being able to detect and monitor vegetation is very beneficial for municipal planning and management, and environment authorities. Through this, analysts can monitor vegetation growth in various areas and analyze these changes. By utilizing satellite imagery with the necessary data, different types of vegetation can be studied and analyzed, such as parks, farms, and artificial grass in sports fields. In this paper, vegetation features are detected and extracted through SAFIY system (i.e. the Smart Application for Feature extraction and 3D modeling using high resolution satellite ImagerY) by using high-resolution satellite imagery from DubaiSat-2 and DEIMOS-2 satellites, which provide panchromatic images of 1m resolution and spectral bands (red, green, blue and near infrared) of 4m resolution. SAFIY system is a joint collaboration between MBRSC and DEIMOS Space UK. It uses image-processing algorithms to extract different features (roads, water, vegetation, and buildings) to generate vector maps data. The process to extract green areas (vegetation) utilize spectral information (such as, the red and near infrared bands) from the satellite images. These detected vegetation features will be extracted as vector data in SAFIY system and can be updated and edited by end-users, such as

  14. Aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum decreases atherosclerotic lesions in high cholesterolemic experimental rabbits

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Piper sarmentosum (P.s) has flavonoid component in its leaves which has antioxidative effect. To date, its effect on atherosclerosis has not been studied histologically. Aim The study aimed to investigate the effect of P.s on atherosclerotic changes in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Methods Forty two male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into seven groups. C - control group fed normal rabbit chow, CH - cholesterol diet (1% cholesterol), W1 - 1% cholesterol with water extract of P.s (62.5 mg/kg), W2 - 1% cholesterol with water extract of P.s (125 mg/kg), W3 - 1% cholesterol with water extract of P.s (250 mg/kg), W4 - 1% cholesterol with water extract of P.s (500 mg/kg) and Smv - 1% cholesterol supplemented with simvistatin drug (1.2 mg/kg). All rabbits were treated for 10 weeks. Following 10 weeks of supplementation, the animals were sacrificed and the aortic tissue was taken for histological study. Results Rabbits fed only with high cholesterol diet 1% cholesterol (CH) showed focal fatty streak lesions compared to the C group and 1% cholesterol supplemented with simvistatin drug (Smv) group. Atherosclerotic lesions in the 1% cholesterol group supplemented with P.s (500 mg/kg) i.e. W4 group showed significant reduction (30 ± 6.0%, p < 0.05) in fatty streak compared to the high cholesterol group (85.6 ± 4.1%) under Sudan IV stain. The atherosclerotic lesions under transmission electron microscope showed reduction in foam cells in the treatment groups compared to the CH groups. Conclusion Administration of P.s extract has protective effect against atheroscleros PMID:20433693

  15. Surface area generation and droplet size control in solvent extraction systems utilizing high intensity electric fields

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy C.; Wham, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    A method and system for solvent extraction where droplets are shattered by a high intensity electric field. These shattered droplets form a plurality of smaller droplets which have a greater combined surface area than the original droplet. Dispersion, coalescence and phase separation are accomplished in one vessel through the use of the single pulsing high intensity electric field. Electric field conditions are chosen so that simultaneous dispersion and coalescence are taking place in the emulsion formed in the electric field. The electric field creates a large amount of interfacial surface area for solvent extraction when the droplet is disintegrated and is capable of controlling droplet size and thus droplet stability. These operations take place in the presence of a counter current flow of the continuous phase.

  16. Optimisation of phenolics recovery from Vitex agnus-castus Linn. leaves by high-pressure and temperature extraction.

    PubMed

    Lataoui, Mohammed; Seffen, Mongi; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Casazza, Alessandro Alberto; Converti, Attilio; Perego, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    To optimise recovery of phenolics from Vitex agnus-castus Linn., a non-conventional high-pressure (2-24 bar) and temperature (100-180°C) extraction method was used under nitrogen atmosphere with methanol as a solvent. Optimal temperature was between 100 and 140°C, and optimal extraction time was about one half that of conventional solid/liquid extraction at room temperature. Final yields of total polyphenols, total flavonoids, o-diphenols and anthocyanins extraction were 2.0, 3.0, 2.5 and 11-fold those obtained by conventional extraction.

  17. Extraction of drainage networks from large terrain datasets using high throughput computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jianya; Xie, Jibo

    2009-02-01

    Advanced digital photogrammetry and remote sensing technology produces large terrain datasets (LTD). How to process and use these LTD has become a big challenge for GIS users. Extracting drainage networks, which are basic for hydrological applications, from LTD is one of the typical applications of digital terrain analysis (DTA) in geographical information applications. Existing serial drainage algorithms cannot deal with large data volumes in a timely fashion, and few GIS platforms can process LTD beyond the GB size. High throughput computing (HTC), a distributed parallel computing mode, is proposed to improve the efficiency of drainage networks extraction from LTD. Drainage network extraction using HTC involves two key issues: (1) how to decompose the large DEM datasets into independent computing units and (2) how to merge the separate outputs into a final result. A new decomposition method is presented in which the large datasets are partitioned into independent computing units using natural watershed boundaries instead of using regular 1-dimensional (strip-wise) and 2-dimensional (block-wise) decomposition. Because the distribution of drainage networks is strongly related to watershed boundaries, the new decomposition method is more effective and natural. The method to extract natural watershed boundaries was improved by using multi-scale DEMs instead of single-scale DEMs. A HTC environment is employed to test the proposed methods with real datasets.

  18. Highly Stable Wideband Microwave Extraction by Synchronizing Widely Tunable Optoelectronic Oscillator with Optical Frequency Comb

    PubMed Central

    Hou, D.; Xie, X. P.; Zhang, Y. L.; Wu, J. T.; Chen, Z. Y.; Zhao, J. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Optical frequency combs (OFCs), based on mode-locked lasers (MLLs), have attracted considerable attention in many fields over recent years. Among the applications of OFCs, one of the most challenging works is the extraction of a highly stable microwave with low phase noise. Many synchronisation schemes have been exploited to synchronise an electronic oscillator with the pulse train from a MLL, helping to extract an ultra-stable microwave. Here, we demonstrate novel wideband microwave extraction from a stable OFC by synchronising a single widely tunable optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) with an OFC at different harmonic frequencies, using an optical phase detection technique. The tunable range of the proposed microwave extraction extends from 2 GHz to 4 GHz, and in a long-term synchronisation experiment over 12 hours, the proposed synchronisation scheme provided a rms timing drift of 18 fs and frequency instabilities at 1.2 × 10−15/1 s and 2.2 × 10−18/10000 s. PMID:24336459

  19. Determination of xanthohumol in beer based on cloud point extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ligang; Zhao, Qi; Jin, Haiyan; Zhang, Xiaopan; Xu, Yang; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Hanqi; Ding, Lan

    2010-04-15

    A method based on coupling of cloud point extraction (CPE) with high performance liquid chromatography separation and ultraviolet detection was developed for determination of xanthohumol in beer. The nonionic surfactant Triton X-114 was chosen as the extraction medium. The parameters affecting the CPE were evaluated and optimized. The highest extraction yield of xanthohumol was obtained with 2.5% of Triton X-114 (v/v) at pH 5.0, 15% of sodium chloride (w/v), 70 degrees C of equilibrium temperature and 10 min of equilibrium time. Under these conditions, the limit of detection of xanthohumol is 0.003 mg L(-1). The intra- and inter-day precisions expressed as relative standard deviations are 4.6% and 6.3%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for determination of xanthohumol in various beer samples. The contents of xanthohumol in these samples are in the range of 0.052-0.628 mg L(-1), and the recoveries ranging from 90.7% to 101.9% were obtained. The developed method was demonstrated to be efficient, green, rapid and inexpensive for extraction and determination of xanthohumol in beer. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Extraction of high value added gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) head bones

    SciTech Connect

    Sockalingam, K., E-mail: gd130106@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Abdullah, H. Z., E-mail: hasan@uthm.edu.my

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish head bones were evaluated for its possibilities in extracting gelatin. Head bones were subjected to pre-treatment with 3% of hydrochloric acid (HCl) for demineralization before undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw head bones were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to investigate the external and internal surface morphology. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber with 1 µm diameter in the head bone. The black tilapia fish head bones yields 5.75 % of gelatin in wet weight basis, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations weremore » done on both raw head bones and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The head bones gelatin shows high protein (10.55%) and ash (3.11 %) content with low moisture. This further proves the effectiveness of demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish head bones are found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.« less

  1. Highly Stable Wideband Microwave Extraction by Synchronizing Widely Tunable Optoelectronic Oscillator with Optical Frequency Comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, D.; Xie, X. P.; Zhang, Y. L.; Wu, J. T.; Chen, Z. Y.; Zhao, J. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Optical frequency combs (OFCs), based on mode-locked lasers (MLLs), have attracted considerable attention in many fields over recent years. Among the applications of OFCs, one of the most challenging works is the extraction of a highly stable microwave with low phase noise. Many synchronisation schemes have been exploited to synchronise an electronic oscillator with the pulse train from a MLL, helping to extract an ultra-stable microwave. Here, we demonstrate novel wideband microwave extraction from a stable OFC by synchronising a single widely tunable optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) with an OFC at different harmonic frequencies, using an optical phase detection technique. The tunable range of the proposed microwave extraction extends from 2 GHz to 4 GHz, and in a long-term synchronisation experiment over 12 hours, the proposed synchronisation scheme provided a rms timing drift of 18 fs and frequency instabilities at 1.2 × 10-15/1 s and 2.2 × 10-18/10000 s.

  2. Sugarcane Crop Extraction Using Object-Oriented Method from ZY-3 High Resolution Satellite Tlc Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, H.; Ling, Z. Y.; Shao, G. Z.; Huang, Y.; He, Y. Q.; Ning, W. Y.; Zhong, Z.

    2018-04-01

    Sugarcane is one of the most important crops in Guangxi, China. As the development of satellite remote sensing technology, more remotely sensed images can be used for monitoring sugarcane crop. With the help of Three Line Camera (TLC) images, wide coverage and stereoscopic mapping ability, Chinese ZY-3 high resolution stereoscopic mapping satellite is useful in attaining more information for sugarcane crop monitoring, such as spectral, shape, texture difference between forward, nadir and backward images. Digital surface model (DSM) derived from ZY-3 TLC images are also able to provide height information for sugarcane crop. In this study, we make attempt to extract sugarcane crop from ZY-3 images, which are acquired in harvest period. Ortho-rectified TLC images, fused image, DSM are processed for our extraction. Then Object-oriented method is used in image segmentation, example collection, and feature extraction. The results of our study show that with the help of ZY-3 TLC image, the information of sugarcane crop in harvest time can be automatic extracted, with an overall accuracy of about 85.3 %.

  3. Highly efficient extraction of anthocyanins from grape skin using deep eutectic solvents as green and tunable media.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyung Min; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Yan; Heo, Seong Rok; Han, Se Young; Yoo, Da Eun; Lee, Jeongmi

    2015-12-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were investigated as tunable, environmentally benign, yet superior extraction media to enhance the extraction of anthocyanins from grape skin, which is usually discarded as waste. Ten DESs containing choline chloride as hydrogen bond acceptor combined with different hydrogen bond donors were screened for high extraction efficiencies based on the anthocyanin extraction yields. As a result, citric acid, D-(+)-maltose, and fructose were selected as the effective DES components, and the newly designed DES, CM-6 that is composed of citric acid and D-(+)-maltose at 4:1 molar ratio, exhibited significantly higher levels of anthocyanin extraction yields than conventional extraction solvents such as 80% aqueous methanol. The final extraction method was established based on the ultrasound-assisted extraction under conditions optimized using response surface methodology. Its extraction yields were double or even higher than those of conventional methods that are time-consuming and use volatile organic solvents. Our method is truly a green method for anthocyanin extraction with great extraction efficiency using a minimal amount of time and solvent. Moreover, this study suggested that grape skin, the by-products of grape juice processing, could serve as a valuable source for safe, natural colorants or antioxidants by use of the eco-friendly extraction solvent, CM-6.

  4. An economical and effective high-throughput DNA extraction protocol for molecular marker analysis in honey bees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extraction of DNA from tissue samples can be expensive both in time and monetary resources and can often require handling and disposal of hazardous chemicals. We have developed a high throughput protocol for extracting DNA from honey bees that is of a high enough quality and quantity to enable hundr...

  5. Packaging - Materials review

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in manymore » shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt

  6. Packaging - Materials review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  7. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  8. Creative Thinking Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Clive

    1972-01-01

    A look at the latest package from a British managment training organization, which explains and demonstrates creative thinking techniques, including brainstorming. The package, designed for groups of twelve or more, consists of tapes, visuals, and associated exercises. (Editor/JB)

  9. Research on Methods of High Coherent Target Extraction in Urban Area Based on Psinsar Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, N.; Wu, J.

    2018-04-01

    PSInSAR technology has been widely applied in ground deformation monitoring. Accurate identification of Persistent Scatterers (PS) is key to the success of PSInSAR data processing. In this paper, the theoretic models and specific algorithms of PS point extraction methods are summarized and the characteristics and applicable conditions of each method, such as Coherence Coefficient Threshold method, Amplitude Threshold method, Dispersion of Amplitude method, Dispersion of Intensity method, are analyzed. Based on the merits and demerits of different methods, an improved method for PS point extraction in urban area is proposed, that uses simultaneously backscattering characteristic, amplitude and phase stability to find PS point in all pixels. Shanghai city is chosen as an example area for checking the improvements of the new method. The results show that the PS points extracted by the new method have high quality, high stability and meet the strong scattering characteristics. Based on these high quality PS points, the deformation rate along the line-of-sight (LOS) in the central urban area of Shanghai is obtained by using 35 COSMO-SkyMed X-band SAR images acquired from 2008 to 2010 and it varies from -14.6 mm/year to 4.9 mm/year. There is a large sedimentation funnel in the cross boundary of Hongkou and Yangpu district with a maximum sedimentation rate of more than 14 mm per year. The obtained ground subsidence rates are also compared with the result of spirit leveling and show good consistent. Our new method for PS point extraction is more reasonable, and can improve the accuracy of the obtained deformation results.

  10. Modular avionics packaging standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, M.; McNichols, J. K.

    The Modular Avionics Packaging (MAP) Program for packaging future military avionics systems with the objective of improving reliability, maintainability, and supportability, and reducing equipment life cycle costs is addressed. The basic MAP packaging concepts called the Standard Avionics Module, the Standard Enclosure, and the Integrated Rack are summarized, and the benefits of modular avionics packaging, including low risk design, technology independence with common functions, improved maintainability and life cycle costs are discussed. Progress made in MAP is briefly reviewed.

  11. Microstructure and Sn crystal orientation evolution in Sn-3.5Ag lead-free solders in high temperature packaging applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Bite; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Kurumaddali, Nalini Kanth

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the reliability of eutectic Sn-3.5Ag lead-free solders in high temperature packaging applications is of significant interest in power electronics for the next generation electric grid. Large area (2.5mm 2.5mm) Sn-3.5Ag solder joints between silicon dies and direct bonded copper substrates were thermally cycled between 5 C and 200 C. Sn crystal orientation and microstructure evolution during thermal cycling were characterized by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in scanning electron microscope (SEM). Comparisons are made between observed initial texture and microstructure and its evolution during thermal cycling. Gradual lattice rotation and grain boundary misorientation evolution suggested the continuous recrystallization mechanism. Recrystallizationmore » behavior was correlated with dislocation slip activities.« less

  12. Highway extraction from high resolution aerial photography using a geometric active contour model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Xutong

    Highway extraction and vehicle detection are two of the most important steps in traffic-flow analysis from multi-frame aerial photographs. The traditional method of deriving traffic flow trajectories relies on manual vehicle counting from a sequence of aerial photographs, which is tedious and time-consuming. This research presents a new framework for semi-automatic highway extraction. The basis of the new framework is an improved geometric active contour (GAC) model. This novel model seeks to minimize an objective function that transforms a problem of propagation of regular curves into an optimization problem. The implementation of curve propagation is based on level set theory. By using an implicit representation of a two-dimensional curve, a level set approach can be used to deal with topological changes naturally, and the output is unaffected by different initial positions of the curve. However, the original GAC model, on which the new model is based, only incorporates boundary information into the curve propagation process. An error-producing phenomenon called leakage is inevitable wherever there is an uncertain weak edge. In this research, region-based information is added as a constraint into the original GAC model, thereby, giving this proposed method the ability of integrating both boundary and region-based information during the curve propagation. Adding the region-based constraint eliminates the leakage problem. This dissertation applies the proposed augmented GAC model to the problem of highway extraction from high-resolution aerial photography. First, an optimized stopping criterion is designed and used in the implementation of the GAC model. It effectively saves processing time and computations. Second, a seed point propagation framework is designed and implemented. This framework incorporates highway extraction, tracking, and linking into one procedure. A seed point is usually placed at an end node of highway segments close to the boundary of the

  13. Trends in Food Packaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  14. Packaging of electronic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzin, L.

    1966-01-01

    Study of design approaches that are taken toward optimizing the packaging of electronic modules with respect to size, shape, component orientation, interconnections, and structural support. The study does not present a solution to specific packaging problems, but rather the factors to be considered to achieve optimum packaging designs.

  15. A solvent-extraction module for cyclotron production of high-purity technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Martini, Petra; Boschi, Alessandra; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Uccelli, Licia; Pasquali, Micòl; Duatti, Adriano; Pupillo, Gaia; Marengo, Mario; Loriggiola, Massimo; Esposito, Juan

    2016-12-01

    The design and fabrication of a fully-automated, remotely controlled module for the extraction and purification of technetium-99m (Tc-99m), produced by proton bombardment of enriched Mo-100 molybdenum metallic targets in a low-energy medical cyclotron, is here described. After dissolution of the irradiated solid target in hydrogen peroxide, Tc-99m was obtained under the chemical form of 99m TcO 4 - , in high radionuclidic and radiochemical purity, by solvent extraction with methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). The extraction process was accomplished inside a glass column-shaped vial especially designed to allow for an easy automation of the whole procedure. Recovery yields were always >90% of the loaded activity. The final pertechnetate saline solution Na 99m TcO 4 , purified using the automated module here described, is within the Pharmacopoeia quality control parameters and is therefore a valid alternative to generator-produced 99m Tc. The resulting automated module is cost-effective and easily replicable for in-house production of high-purity Tc-99m by cyclotrons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A High-Q Resonant Pressure Microsensor with Through-Glass Electrical Interconnections Based on Wafer-Level MEMS Vacuum Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhenyu; Chen, Deyong; Wang, Junbo; Li, Yinan; Chen, Jian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a high-Q resonant pressure microsensor with through-glass electrical interconnections based on wafer-level MEMS vacuum packaging. An approach to maintaining high-vacuum conditions by integrating the MEMS fabrication process with getter material preparation is presented in this paper. In this device, the pressure under measurement causes a deflection of a pressure-sensitive silicon square diaphragm, which is further translated to stress build up in “H” type doubly-clamped micro resonant beams, leading to a resonance frequency shift. The device geometries were optimized using FEM simulation and a 4-inch SOI wafer was used for device fabrication, which required only three photolithographic steps. In the device fabrication, a non-evaporable metal thin film as the getter material was sputtered on a Pyrex 7740 glass wafer, which was then anodically bonded to the patterned SOI wafer for vacuum packaging. Through-glass via holes predefined in the glass wafer functioned as the electrical interconnections between the patterned SOI wafer and the surrounding electrical components. Experimental results recorded that the Q-factor of the resonant beam was beyond 22,000, with a differential sensitivity of 89.86 Hz/kPa, a device resolution of 10 Pa and a nonlinearity of 0.02% F.S with the pressure varying from 50 kPa to 100 kPa. In addition, the temperature drift coefficient was less than −0.01% F.S/°C in the range of −40 °C to 70 °C, the long-term stability error was quantified as 0.01% F.S over a 5-month period and the accuracy of the microsensor was better than 0.01% F.S. PMID:25521385

  17. A high-Q resonant pressure microsensor with through-glass electrical interconnections based on wafer-level MEMS vacuum packaging.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhenyu; Chen, Deyong; Wang, Junbo; Li, Yinan; Chen, Jian

    2014-12-16

    This paper presents a high-Q resonant pressure microsensor with through-glass electrical interconnections based on wafer-level MEMS vacuum packaging. An approach to maintaining high-vacuum conditions by integrating the MEMS fabrication process with getter material preparation is presented in this paper. In this device, the pressure under measurement causes a deflection of a pressure-sensitive silicon square diaphragm, which is further translated to stress build up in "H" type doubly-clamped micro resonant beams, leading to a resonance frequency shift. The device geometries were optimized using FEM simulation and a 4-inch SOI wafer was used for device fabrication, which required only three photolithographic steps. In the device fabrication, a non-evaporable metal thin film as the getter material was sputtered on a Pyrex 7740 glass wafer, which was then anodically bonded to the patterned SOI wafer for vacuum packaging. Through-glass via holes predefined in the glass wafer functioned as the electrical interconnections between the patterned SOI wafer and the surrounding electrical components. Experimental results recorded that the Q-factor of the resonant beam was beyond 22,000, with a differential sensitivity of 89.86 Hz/kPa, a device resolution of 10 Pa and a nonlinearity of 0.02% F.S with the pressure varying from 50 kPa to 100 kPa. In addition, the temperature drift coefficient was less than -0.01% F.S/°C in the range of -40 °C to 70 °C, the long-term stability error was quantified as 0.01% F.S over a 5-month period and the accuracy of the microsensor was better than 0.01% F.S.

  18. Salvus: A flexible high-performance and open-source package for waveform modelling and inversion from laboratory to global scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasiev, Michael; Boehm, Christian; van Driel, Martin; Krischer, Lion; May, Dave; Rietmann, Max; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Recent years have been witness to the application of waveform inversion to new and exciting domains, ranging from non-destructive testing to global seismology. Often, each new application brings with it novel wave propagation physics, spatial and temporal discretizations, and models of variable complexity. Adapting existing software to these novel applications often requires a significant investment of time, and acts as a barrier to progress. To combat these problems we introduce Salvus, a software package designed to solve large-scale full-waveform inverse problems, with a focus on both flexibility and performance. Currently based on an abstract implementation of high order finite (spectral) elements, we have built Salvus to work on unstructured quad/hex meshes in both 2 or 3 dimensions, with support for P1-P3 bases on triangles and tetrahedra. A diverse (and expanding) collection of wave propagation physics are supported (i.e. viscoelastic, coupled solid-fluid). With a focus on the inverse problem, functionality is provided to ease integration with internal and external optimization libraries. Additionally, a python-based meshing package is included to simplify the generation and manipulation of regional to global scale Earth models (quad/hex), with interfaces available to external mesh generators for complex engineering-scale applications (quad/hex/tri/tet). Finally, to ensure that the code remains accurate and maintainable, we build upon software libraries such as PETSc and Eigen, and follow modern software design and testing protocols. Salvus bridges the gap between research and production codes with a design based on C++ template mixins and Python wrappers that separates the physical equations from the numerical core. This allows domain scientists to add new equations using a high-level interface, without having to worry about optimized implementation details. Our goal in this presentation is to introduce the code, show several examples across the scales, and

  19. Plastic-Sealed Hybrid Power Circuit Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. N.; Gray, O. E.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed design for hybrid high-voltage power-circuit package uses molded plastic for hermetic sealing instead of glass-to-metal seal. New package used to house high-voltage regulators and solid-state switches for applications in aircraft, electric automobiles, industrial equipment, satellites, solarcell arrays, and other equipment in extreme environments.

  20. Extraction and purification of high-value metabolites from microalgae: essential lipids, astaxanthin and phycobiliproteins

    PubMed Central

    Cuellar-Bermudez, Sara P; Aguilar-Hernandez, Iris; Cardenas-Chavez, Diana L; Ornelas-Soto, Nancy; Romero-Ogawa, Miguel A; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The marked trend and consumers growing interest in natural and healthy products have forced researches and industry to develop novel products with functional ingredients. Microalgae have been recognized as source of functional ingredients with positive health effects since these microorganisms produce polyunsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, natural pigments, essential minerals, vitamins, enzymes and bioactive peptides. For this reason, the manuscript reviews two of the main high-value metabolites which can be obtained from microalgae: pigments and essential lipids. Therefore, the extraction and purification methods for polyunsaturated fatty acids, astaxanthin, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin are described. Also, the effect that environmental growth conditions have in the production of these metabolites is described. This review summarizes the existing methods to extract and purify such metabolites in order to develop a feasible and sustainable algae industry. PMID:25223877

  1. High-speed shaking of frozen blood clots for extraction of human and malaria parasite DNA.

    PubMed

    Lundblom, Klara; Macharia, Alex; Lebbad, Marianne; Mohammed, Adan; Färnert, Anna

    2011-08-08

    Frozen blood clots remaining after serum collection is an often disregarded source of host and pathogen DNA due to troublesome handling and suboptimal outcome. High-speed shaking of clot samples in a cell disruptor manufactured for homogenization of tissue and faecal specimens was evaluated for processing frozen blood clots for DNA extraction. The method was compared to two commercial clot protocols based on a chemical kit and centrifugation through a plastic sieve, followed by the same DNA extraction protocol. Blood clots with different levels of parasitaemia (1-1,000 p/μl) were prepared from parasite cultures to assess sensitivity of PCR detection. In addition, clots retrieved from serum samples collected within two epidemiological studies in Kenya (n = 630) were processed by high speed shaking and analysed by PCR for detection of malaria parasites and the human α-thalassaemia gene. High speed shaking succeeded in fully dispersing the clots and the method generated the highest DNA yield. The level of PCR detection of P. falciparum parasites and the human thalassaemia gene was the same as samples optimally collected with an anticoagulant. The commercial clot protocol and centrifugation through a sieve failed to fully dissolve the clots and resulted in lower sensitivity of PCR detection. High speed shaking was a simple and efficacious method for homogenizing frozen blood clots before DNA purification and resulted in PCR templates of high quality both from humans and malaria parasites. This novel method enables genetic studies from stored blood clots.

  2. High-speed shaking of frozen blood clots for extraction of human and malaria parasite DNA

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Frozen blood clots remaining after serum collection is an often disregarded source of host and pathogen DNA due to troublesome handling and suboptimal outcome. Methods High-speed shaking of clot samples in a cell disruptor manufactured for homogenization of tissue and faecal specimens was evaluated for processing frozen blood clots for DNA extraction. The method was compared to two commercial clot protocols based on a chemical kit and centrifugation through a plastic sieve, followed by the same DNA extraction protocol. Blood clots with different levels of parasitaemia (1-1,000 p/μl) were prepared from parasite cultures to assess sensitivity of PCR detection. In addition, clots retrieved from serum samples collected within two epidemiological studies in Kenya (n = 630) were processed by high speed shaking and analysed by PCR for detection of malaria parasites and the human α-thalassaemia gene. Results High speed shaking succeeded in fully dispersing the clots and the method generated the highest DNA yield. The level of PCR detection of P. falciparum parasites and the human thalassaemia gene was the same as samples optimally collected with an anticoagulant. The commercial clot protocol and centrifugation through a sieve failed to fully dissolve the clots and resulted in lower sensitivity of PCR detection. Conclusions High speed shaking was a simple and efficacious method for homogenizing frozen blood clots before DNA purification and resulted in PCR templates of high quality both from humans and malaria parasites. This novel method enables genetic studies from stored blood clots. PMID:21824391

  3. The Ettention software package.

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem "reconstruction from projections" in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A highly efficient bead extraction technique with low bead number for digital microfluidic immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Po-Yen; Lee, I-Chin; Hsu, Hsin-Yun; Huang, Hong-Yuan; Fan, Shih-Kang; Liu, Cheng-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a technique to manipulate a low number of beads to achieve high washing efficiency with zero bead loss in the washing process of a digital microfluidic (DMF) immunoassay. Previously, two magnetic bead extraction methods were reported in the DMF platform: (1) single-side electrowetting method and (2) double-side electrowetting method. The first approach could provide high washing efficiency, but it required a large number of beads. The second approach could reduce the required number of beads, but it was inefficient where multiple washes were required. More importantly, bead loss during the washing process was unavoidable in both methods. Here, an improved double-side electrowetting method is proposed for bead extraction by utilizing a series of unequal electrodes. It is shown that, with proper electrode size ratio, only one wash step is required to achieve 98% washing rate without any bead loss at bead number less than 100 in a droplet. It allows using only about 25 magnetic beads in DMF immunoassay to increase the number of captured analytes on each bead effectively. In our human soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (sTNF-RI) model immunoassay, the experimental results show that, comparing to our previous results without using the proposed bead extraction technique, the immunoassay with low bead number significantly enhances the fluorescence signal to provide a better limit of detection (3.14 pg/ml) with smaller reagent volumes (200 nl) and shorter analysis time (<1 h). This improved bead extraction technique not only can be used in the DMF immunoassay but also has great potential to be used in any other bead-based DMF systems for different applications. PMID:26858807

  5. Effect of thermal and high pressure processing on stability of betalain extracted from red beet stalks.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Cláudia Destro; Ismail, Marliya; Cassini, Aline Schilling; Marczak, Ligia Damasceno Ferreira; Tessaro, Isabel Cristina; Farid, Mohammed

    2018-02-01

    Red beet stalks are a potential source of betalain, but their pigments are not widely used because of their instability. In the present work, the applicability of high pressure processing (HPP) and high temperature short time (HTST) thermal treatment was investigated to improve betalain stability in extracts with low and high concentrations. The HPP was applied at 6000 bar for 10, 20 and 30 min and HTST treatment was applied at 75.7 °C for 80 s, 81.1 °C for 100 s and 85.7 °C for 120 s, HPP treatment did not show any improvement in the betalain stability. In turn, the degradation rate of the control and the HTST thermal treatment at 85.7 °C for 120 s of the sample with high initial betalain concentration were 1.2 and 0.4 mg of betanin/100 ml of extract per day respectively. Among the treatments studied, HTST was considered the most suitable to maintain betalain stability from red beet stalks.

  6. 20171015 - Capabilities and Evaluation of the US EPA’s HTTK (High Throughput Toxicokinetics) R package (ISES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicokinetics (TK) provides a bridge between toxicity and exposure assessment by predicting tissue concentrations due to exposure, however traditional TK methods are resource intensive. Relatively high throughput TK (HTTK) methods have been used by the pharmaceutical industry to...

  7. Advancements in meat packaging.

    PubMed

    McMillin, Kenneth W

    2017-10-01

    Packaging of meat provides the same or similar benefits for raw chilled and processed meats as other types of food packaging. Although air-permeable packaging is most prevalent for raw chilled red meat, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging offer longer shelf life. The major advancements in meat packaging have been in the widely used plastic polymers while biobased materials and their integration into composite packaging are receiving much attention for functionality and sustainability. At this time, active and intelligent packaging are not widely used for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and other functions to stabilize and enhance meat properties although many options are being developed and investigated. The advances being made in nanotechnology will be incorporated into food packaging and presumably into meat packaging when appropriate and useful. Intelligent packaging using sensors for transmission of desired information and prompting of subsequent changes in packaging materials, environments or the products to maintain safety and quality are still in developmental stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Edible packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  9. Preliminary Study of Radioactive Waste Package Made of High-Strength and Ultra Low-Permeability Concrete for Geological Disposal of TRU Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuo, T.; Kawasaki, T.; Sakamoto, H.

    2003-02-27

    We have been developing a radioactive waste package made of high-strength and ultra low-permeability concrete (HSULPC) for geological disposal of TRU wastes, which is expected to be much more impervious to water than conventional concrete. In this study, basic data for the HSULPC regarding its the impervious character and the thermodynamics during cement hydration were obtained through water permeability measurements using cold isostatic pressing (CIP) and adiabatic concrete hydration experiments, respectively. Then, a prediction tool to find concrete package construction conditions to avoid thermal cracking was developed, which could deal with coupled calculations of cement hydration, heat transfer, stress, andmore » cracking. The developed tool was applied to HSULPC hydration on a small-scale cylindrical model to examine whether there was any effect on cracking which depended on the ratio of concrete cylinder thickness to its inner diameter. The results were compared to experiments. For concrete with a compressive strength of 200MPa, the water permeability coefficient was 4 x 10{sup 19} m/s. Dependences of activation energy and frequency factor on degree of cement hydration had a sharp peaking due to the nucleation rate-determining step, and a gradual increase region due to the diffusion rate-determining step. From analyses of the small-scale cylindrical model, dependences of the maximum principal stress on the radius were obtained. When the ratio of the concrete thickness to the heater diameter was around 1, the risk of cracking was predicted to be minimized. These numerical predictions from the developed tool were verified by experiments.« less

  10. Field-Based Video Pre-Test Counseling, Oral Testing, and Telephonic Post-Test Counseling: Implementation of an HIV Field Testing Package among High-Risk Indian Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Hannah; Yeldandi, Vijay V.; Kumar, G. Prem; Liao, Chuanhong; Lakshmi, Vemu; Gandham, Sabitha R.; Muppudi, Uma; Oruganti, Ganesh; Schneider, John A.

    2012-01-01

    In India, men who have sex with men (MSM) and truck drivers are high-risk groups that often do not access HIV testing due to stigma and high mobility. This study evaluated a field testing package (FTP) that identified HIV positive participants through video pre-test counseling, OraQuick oral fluid HIV testing, and telephonic post-test counseling…

  11. Object-Based Arctic Sea Ice Feature Extraction through High Spatial Resolution Aerial photos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, X.; Xie, H.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution aerial photographs used to detect and classify sea ice features can provide accurate physical parameters to refine, validate, and improve climate models. However, manually delineating sea ice features, such as melt ponds, submerged ice, water, ice/snow, and pressure ridges, is time-consuming and labor-intensive. An object-based classification algorithm is developed to automatically extract sea ice features efficiently from aerial photographs taken during the Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition in summer 2010 (CHINARE 2010) in the MIZ near the Alaska coast. The algorithm includes four steps: (1) the image segmentation groups the neighboring pixels into objects based on the similarity of spectral and textural information; (2) the random forest classifier distinguishes four general classes: water, general submerged ice (GSI, including melt ponds and submerged ice), shadow, and ice/snow; (3) the polygon neighbor analysis separates melt ponds and submerged ice based on spatial relationship; and (4) pressure ridge features are extracted from shadow based on local illumination geometry. The producer's accuracy of 90.8% and user's accuracy of 91.8% are achieved for melt pond detection, and shadow shows a user's accuracy of 88.9% and producer's accuracies of 91.4%. Finally, pond density, pond fraction, ice floes, mean ice concentration, average ridge height, ridge profile, and ridge frequency are extracted from batch processing of aerial photos, and their uncertainties are estimated.

  12. Extraction of anthocyanins from red cabbage using high pressure CO2.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenzhen; Wu, Jihong; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Xiaosong; Liao, Xiaojun; Wang, Zhengfu

    2010-09-01

    The extraction kinetics of anthocyanins from red cabbage using high pressure CO(2) (HPCD) against conventional acidified water (CAW) was investigated. The HPCD time, temperature, pressure and volume ratio of solid-liquid mixture vs. pressurized CO(2) (R((S+L)/G)) exhibited important roles on the extraction kinetics of anthocyanins. The extraction kinetics showed two phases, the yield increased with increasing the time in the first phase, the yield defined as steady-state yield (y(*)) was constant in the second phase. The y(*) of anthocyanins using HPCD increased with higher temperature, higher pressure and lower R((S+L)/G). The general mass transfer model with higher regression coefficients (R(2)>0.97) fitted the kinetic data better than the Fick's second law diffusion model. As compared with CAW, the time (t(*)) to reach the y(*) of anthocyanins using HPCD was reduced by half while its corresponding overall volumetric mass transfer coefficients k(L)xa from the general mass transfer model increased by two folds. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Inexpensive metagenomic DNA extraction protocol with high quality from marine sediments contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    García-Bautista, I; Toledano-Thompson, T; Dantán-González, E; González-Montilla, J; Valdez-Ojeda, R

    2017-09-21

    Marine environments are a reservoir of relevant information on dangerous contaminants such as hydrocarbons, as well as microbial communities with probable degradation skills. However, to access microbial diversity, it is necessary to obtain high-quality DNA. An inexpensive, reliable, and effective metagenomic DNA (mgDNA) extraction protocol from marine sediments contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was established in this study from modifications to Zhou's protocol. The optimization included pretreatment of sediment with saline solutions for the removal of contaminants, a second precipitation and enzymatic degradation of RNA, followed by purification of mgDNA extracted by electroelution. The results obtained indicated that the modifications applied to 12 sediments with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations from 22.6-174.3 (µg/g dry sediment) yielded 20.3-321.3 ng/µL mgDNA with A 260 /A 280 and A 260 /A 230 ratios of 1.75 ± 0.08 and 1.19 ± 0.22, respectively. The 16S rRNA amplification confirmed the purity of the mgDNA. The suitability of this mgDNA extraction protocol lies in the fact that all chemical solutions utilized are common in all molecular biology laboratories, and the use of dialysis membrane does not require any sophisticated or expensive equipment, only an electrophoretic chamber.

  14. Neuronavigation Based on Track Density Image Extracted from Deterministic High-Definition Fiber Tractography.

    PubMed

    Wei, Peng-Hu; Cong, Fei; Chen, Ge; Li, Ming-Chu; Yu, Xin-Guang; Bao, Yu-Hai

    2017-02-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging-based navigation is unable to resolve crossing fibers or to determine with accuracy the fanning, origin, and termination of fibers. It is important to improve the accuracy of localizing white matter fibers for improved surgical approaches. We propose a solution to this problem using navigation based on track density imaging extracted from high-definition fiber tractography (HDFT). A 28-year-old asymptomatic female patient with a left-lateral ventricle meningioma was enrolled in the present study. Language and visual tests, magnetic resonance imaging findings, both preoperative and postoperative HDFT, and the intraoperative navigation and surgery process are presented. Track density images were extracted from tracts derived using full q-space (514 directions) diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) and integrated into a neuronavigation system. Navigation accuracy was verified via intraoperative records and postoperative DSI tractography, as well as a functional examination. DSI successfully represented the shape and range of the Meyer loop and arcuate fasciculus. Extracted track density images from the DSI were successfully integrated into the navigation system. The relationship between the operation channel and surrounding tracts was consistent with the postoperative findings, and the patient was functionally intact after the surgery. DSI-based TDI navigation allows for the visualization of anatomic features such as fanning and angling and helps to identify the range of a given tract. Moreover, our results show that our HDFT navigation method is a promising technique that preserves neural function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Continuous extraction of phenolic compounds from pomegranate peel using high voltage electrical discharge.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jun; He, Lang; Yan, Liang-Gong

    2017-09-01

    Pomegranate peel, a waste generated from fruit processing industry, is a potential source of phenolic compounds that are known for their anti-oxidative properties. In this study, a continuous high voltage electrical discharge (HVED) extraction system was for the first time designed and optimized for phenolic compounds from pomegranate peel. The optimal conditions for HVED were: flow rate of materials 12mL/min, electrodes gap distance 3.1mm (corresponding to 29kV/cm of electric field intensity) and liquid to solid ratio 35mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of phenolic compounds was 196.7±6.4mg/g, which closely agreed with the predicted value (199.83mg/g). Compared with the warm water maceration, HVED method possessed higher efficiency for the extraction of phenolic compounds. The results demonstrated that HVED technique could be a very effective method for continuous extraction of natural compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High-throughput screening and mechanism-based evaluation of estrogenic botanical extracts

    PubMed Central

    Overk, Cassia R.; Yao, Ping; Chen, Shaonong; Deng, Shixing; Imai, Ayano; Main, Matthew; Schinkovitz, Andreas; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Pauli, Guido F.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2009-01-01

    Symptoms associated with menopause can greatly affect the quality of life for women. Botanical dietary supplements have been viewed by the public as safe and effective despite a lack of evidence indicating a urgent necessity to standardize these supplements chemically and biologically. Seventeen plants were evaluated for estrogenic biological activity using standard assays: competitive estrogen receptor (ER) binding assay for both alpha and beta subtypes, transient transfection of the estrogen response element luciferase plasmid into MCF-7 cells expressing either ER alpha or ER beta, and the Ishikawa alkaline phosphatase induction assay for both estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities. Based on the combination of data pooled from these assays, the following was determined: a) a high rate of false positive activity for the competitive binding assays, b) some extracts had estrogenic activity despite a lack of ability to bind the ER, c) one extract exhibited selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) activity, and d) several extracts show additive/synergistic activity. Taken together, these data indicate a need to reprioritize the order in which the bioassays are performed for maximal efficiency of programs involving bioassay-guided fractionation. In addition, possible explanations for the conflicts in the literature over the estrogenicity of Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) are suggested. PMID:18473738

  17. [Comparative study of complications among routine method,high speed turbine handpiece and piezosurgery device after extraction of impacted wisdom teeth].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhao-zhong; Zhang, Heng; Li, Yan; Li, Xin; Liu, Yin; Wang, Yang; Yuan, Chun-xia; Liu, Xue

    2012-04-01

    To investigate complications in extraction of complicated impacted wisdom teeth whose root apex near to the inferior alveolar nerve(IAN) by using routine method(chisels),high speed turbine handpiece and piezosurgery device respectively. Three hundred qualified patients with impacted wisdom teeth were divided into three groups randomly,one hundred patients in group A were extracted by routine method, one hundred patients in group B were extracted by high speed turbine handpiece, and one hundred patients in group C were extracted by piezosurgery device. The operation time, postoperative pain duration,dry socket and IAN injury were compared between each two groups. All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0 software package. Differences between groups were compared using a paired t test (quantitative data) or Chi-square test (qualitative data). The operation time in group A was(14.12±0.12)min, (7.22±0.15)min in group B, (25.23±0.32)min in group C; Significant difference was found between group A and group B(P<0.05), group B and group C(P<0.05),group A and group C(P<0.05).Postoperative pain duration was(62.15±1.51)h in group A, (48.23±1.23)h in group B, (14.34±O.80)h in group C; Significant difference was found between group A and group B(P<0.05), group B and group C(P<0.05),group A and group C(P<0.05).9 patients developed dry socket in group A, 2 in group B, and 1 in group C; Significant difference was found between group A and group B(P<0.05), group A and group C(P<0.05). Six patients had IAN injury in group A, 2 in group B, 0 in group C. Significant difference was found between group A and group C. Compared with routine method, high speed turbine is better in extraction of impacted wisdom teeth, which can shorten operation time, lessen postoperative complications. Although there was longer operation time compared with group A and B, piezosurgery device is more effective in reducing postoperative complications.

  18. QCD Precision Measurements and Structure Function Extraction at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment:. NuSOnG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, T.; Batra, P.; Bugel, L.; Camilleri, L.; Conrad, J. M.; de Gouvêa, A.; Fisher, P. H.; Formaggio, J. A.; Jenkins, J.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kobilarcik, T. R.; Kopp, S.; Kyle, G.; Loinaz, W. A.; Mason, D. A.; Milner, R.; Moore, R.; Morfín, J. G.; Nakamura, M.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Olness, F. I.; Owens, J. F.; Pate, S. F.; Pronin, A.; Seligman, W. G.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Schellman, H.; Schienbein, I.; Syphers, M. J.; Tait, T. M. P.; Takeuchi, T.; Tan, C. Y.; van de Water, R. G.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Yu, J. Y.

    We extend the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering On Glass) to address a variety of issues including precision QCD measurements, extraction of structure functions, and the derived Parton Distribution Functions (PDF's). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain a sample of Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) events which is over two orders of magnitude larger than past samples. We outline an innovative method for fitting the structure functions using a parametrized energy shift which yields reduced systematic uncertainties. High statistics measurements, in combination with improved systematics, will enable NuSOnG to perform discerning tests of fundamental Standard Model parameters as we search for deviations which may hint of "Beyond the Standard Model" physics.

  19. Highly charged swelling mica reduces free and extractable Cu levels in Cu-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Stuckey, Jason W; Neaman, Alexander; Ravella, Ramesh; Komarneni, Sridhar; Martínez, Carmen Enid

    2008-12-15

    Smelting of copper (Cu) results in the atmospheric deposition of Cu onto surrounding soils. Excess concentrations of Cu in soils can be absorbed by soil biota to toxic levels or leached into the groundwater, threatening the entire ecosystem. A means to restrict Cu mobility and uptake by plants is to remove it from the aqueous phase by applying an adsorptive material. A synthetic clay (highly charged swelling mica) was tested for its ability to decrease the levels of free and 0.1 M KNO3-extractable Cu in 15 surface soils from three different Cu mining areas in central Chile. The soils contained excessive total Cu levels (112-2790 mg Cu (kg soil)(-1)), while extractable Cu ranged from 0.3 to 22.9 mg Cu L(-1). The mica was applied to each soil at rates of 0.1%, 1%, and 2% (w/w). A 2% sodium-montmorillonite treatment and the nonamended soil served as controls. The order of treatment efficacy in reducing extractable Cu and free Cu2+ for low pH soils ( 1% mica > 2% montmorillonite > 0.1% mica. At 120 days, the 2% mica treatment maintained reductions of up to 93% in the free Cu2+ activity and up to 75% in the extractable Cu concentration upon acidification to the original soil pH value. In addition, Cu retention in mica-treated soils was more resistant to acidification than in lime-treated soils. This mica has promise for the remediation of acidic soils with metal contamination at the surface.

  20. Antihypertensive activities of the aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae) in high salt-loaded rats.

    PubMed

    Bopda, Orelien Sylvain Mtopi; Longo, Frida; Bella, Thierry Ndzana; Edzah, Protais Marcellin Ohandja; Taïwe, Germain Sotoing; Bilanda, Danielle Claude; Tom, Esther Ngo Lemba; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Dimo, Theophile

    2014-04-28

    The leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae) are used in Cameroon folk medicine to manage many diseases such as cardiovascular dysfunctions. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the activities of aqueous leaf extract of Kalanchoe pinnata on the blood pressure of normotensive rat (NTR) and salt hypertensive rats (SHR), as well as its antioxidant properties. Hypertension was induced in rats by oral administration of 18% NaCl for 4 weeks. For the preventive study, three groups of rats received 18% NaCl solution and the plant extract at 25 mg/kg/day, 50 mg/kg/day or 100 mg/kg/day by gavage. Two positive control groups received 18% NaCl solution and either spironolactone (0.71 mg/kg/day) or eupressyl (0.86 mg/kg/day) by gavage for 4 weeks. At the end of this experimental period, systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured by the invasive method. Some oxidative stress biomarkers (reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric monoxide (NO) were evaluated in heart, aorta, liver and kidney. NO level was indirectly evaluated by measuring nitrite concentration. Kalanchoe pinnata extract prevented significantly the increase of systolic and diastolic arterial pressures in high salt-loaded rats (SHR). In SHR, concomitant administration of Kalanchoe pinnata at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure by 32%, 24% and 47% (for SAP); 35%, 33% and 56% (for DAP), respectively. No significant change was recorded in heart rate of those rats. The plant extract improved antioxidant status in various organs, but more potently in aorta. Thus, antioxidant and modulatory effects of Kalanchoe pinnata at the vasculature might be of preponderant contribution to its overall antihypertensive activity. The work demonstrated that the concomitant administration of high-salt and the aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata elicits prevention of salt-induced hypertension in rat. This

  1. Extracting DNA from 'jaws': high yield and quality from archived tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) skeletal material.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, E E; Morgan, J A T; Maher, S L; Edson, J; Gauthier, M; Pepperell, J; Holmes, B J; Bennett, M B; Ovenden, J R

    2017-05-01

    Archived specimens are highly valuable sources of DNA for retrospective genetic/genomic analysis. However, often limited effort has been made to evaluate and optimize extraction methods, which may be crucial for downstream applications. Here, we assessed and optimized the usefulness of abundant archived skeletal material from sharks as a source of DNA for temporal genomic studies. Six different methods for DNA extraction, encompassing two different commercial kits and three different protocols, were applied to material, so-called bio-swarf, from contemporary and archived jaws and vertebrae of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier). Protocols were compared for DNA yield and quality using a qPCR approach. For jaw swarf, all methods provided relatively high DNA yield and quality, while large differences in yield between protocols were observed for vertebrae. Similar results were obtained from samples of white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). Application of the optimized methods to 38 museum and private angler trophy specimens dating back to 1912 yielded sufficient DNA for downstream genomic analysis for 68% of the samples. No clear relationships between age of samples, DNA quality and quantity were observed, likely reflecting different preparation and storage methods for the trophies. Trial sequencing of DNA capture genomic libraries using 20 000 baits revealed that a significant proportion of captured sequences were derived from tiger sharks. This study demonstrates that archived shark jaws and vertebrae are potential high-yield sources of DNA for genomic-scale analysis. It also highlights that even for similar tissue types, a careful evaluation of extraction protocols can vastly improve DNA yield. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Maximal exercise and muscle oxygen extraction in acclimatizing lowlanders and high altitude natives

    PubMed Central

    Lundby, Carsten; Sander, Mikael; van Hall, Gerrit; Saltin, Bengt; Calbet, José A L

    2006-01-01

    The tight relation between arterial oxygen content and maximum oxygen uptake () within a given person at sea level is diminished with altitude acclimatization. An explanation often suggested for this mismatch is impairment of the muscle O2 extraction capacity with chronic hypoxia, and is the focus of the present study. We have studied six lowlanders during maximal exercise at sea level (SL) and with acute (AH) exposure to 4100 m altitude, and again after 2 (W2) and 8 weeks (W8) of altitude sojourn, where also eight high altitude native (Nat) Aymaras were studied. Fractional arterial muscle O2 extraction at maximal exercise was 90.0 ± 1.0% in the Danish lowlanders at sea level, and remained close to this value in all situations. In contrast to this, fractional arterial O2 extraction was 83.2 ± 2.8% in the high altitude natives, and did not change with the induction of normoxia. The capillary oxygen conductance of the lower extremity, a measure of oxygen diffusing capacity, was decreased in the Danish lowlanders after 8 weeks of acclimatization, but was still higher than the value obtained from the high altitude natives. The values were (in ml min−1 mmHg−1) 55.2 ± 3.7 (SL), 48.0 ± 1.7 (W2), 37.8 ± 0.4 (W8) and 27.7 ± 1.5 (Nat). However, when correcting oxygen conductance for the observed reduction in maximal leg blood flow with acclimatization the effect diminished. When calculating a hypothetical leg at altitude using either the leg blood flow or the O2 conductance values obtained at sea level, the former values were almost completely restored to sea level values. This would suggest that the major determinant for not to increase with acclimatization is the observed reduction in maximal leg blood flow and O2 conductance. PMID:16581864

  3. Curriculum Package: High School Social Studies Lessons. [A Visit to the Louisville, Kentucky Airports: Standiford and Bowman Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSensi, Frank; Rostov, Susan

    These lesson plans are designed for use by high school social studies teachers who take their students on a field trip to the regional airports of Louisville, Kentucky. Twelve lesson plans are included: "It's the Computer's Fault"; "The Play's the Thing"; "A Hub! Yes, There's the Rub!"; "People and…

  4. Curriculum Package: Junior High - Middle School Science Lessons. [A Visit to the Louisville, Kentucky Airports: Standiford and Bowman Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Frances H.

    This science curriculum was written for teachers of children in junior high or middle school. It contains science activities for the following lessons: (1) Anemometers and Wind Speed; (2) Up! Up! and Away; (3) Jet Lag--Time Zones; (4) Inventors; (5) Model Rocketry; (6) Geometry and Kites; and (7) Super Savers. In lesson one, students construct an…

  5. High Efficiency Energy Extraction from a Relativistic Electron Beam in a Strongly Tapered Undulator

    DOE PAGES

    Sudar, N.; Musumeci, P.; Duris, J.; ...

    2016-10-19

    Here we present results of an experiment where, using a 200 GW CO 2 laser seed, a 65 MeV electron beam was decelerated down to 35 MeV in a 54-cm-long strongly tapered helical magnetic undulator, extracting over 30% of the initial electron beam energy to coherent radiation. These results, supported by simulations of the radiation field evolution, demonstrate unparalleled electro-optical conversion efficiencies for a relativistic beam in an undulator field and represent an important step in the development of high peak and average power coherent radiation sources.

  6. A software package for interactive motor unit potential classification using fuzzy k-NN classifier.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Sarbast; Stashuk, Daniel; Kamel, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    We present an interactive software package for implementing the supervised classification task during electromyographic (EMG) signal decomposition process using a fuzzy k-NN classifier and utilizing the MATLAB high-level programming language and its interactive environment. The method employs an assertion-based classification that takes into account a combination of motor unit potential (MUP) shapes and two modes of use of motor unit firing pattern information: the passive and the active modes. The developed package consists of several graphical user interfaces used to detect individual MUP waveforms from a raw EMG signal, extract relevant features, and classify the MUPs into motor unit potential trains (MUPTs) using assertion-based classifiers.

  7. Vibration extraction based on fast NCC algorithm and high-speed camera.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiujun; Jin, Yi; Guo, Jie; Zhu, Chang'an

    2015-09-20

    In this study, a high-speed camera system is developed to complete the vibration measurement in real time and to overcome the mass introduced by conventional contact measurements. The proposed system consists of a notebook computer and a high-speed camera which can capture the images as many as 1000 frames per second. In order to process the captured images in the computer, the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) template tracking algorithm with subpixel accuracy is introduced. Additionally, a modified local search algorithm based on the NCC is proposed to reduce the computation time and to increase efficiency significantly. The modified algorithm can rapidly accomplish one displacement extraction 10 times faster than the traditional template matching without installing any target panel onto the structures. Two experiments were carried out under laboratory and outdoor conditions to validate the accuracy and efficiency of the system performance in practice. The results demonstrated the high accuracy and efficiency of the camera system in extracting vibrating signals.

  8. Extraction of cellulose nanofibrils from dry softwood pulp using high shear homogenization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiangqi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Xinxing; Lu, Canhui; Deng, Yulin

    2013-09-12

    The objective of this study was to extract cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) from dry softwood pulp through a simple and environmentally friendly physical method of refining pretreatment coupled with high shear homogenization. An optical microscopy (OM) clearly showed the morphological development from the cellulose fibers to CNFs under repeated shear forces. The morphology, structure and properties of the obtained CNFs were comprehensively investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. The results indicated that the CNFs had diameters mainly ranged from 16 to 28nm. Compared with the pulp fibers, the CNFs exhibited a slightly higher crystallinity and a lower thermal stability. Moreover, a novel nanopaper with high optical transparency was prepared from the obtained CNFs, and a possible mechanism for the high optical transparency was discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ultra-low temperature sintering of Cu@Ag core-shell nanoparticle paste by ultrasonic in air for high-temperature power device packaging.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hongjun; Zhou, Junbo; Liang, Meng; Lu, Huajun; Li, Mingyu

    2018-03-01

    Sintering of low-cost Cu nanoparticles (NPs) for interconnection of chips to substrate at low temperature and in atmosphere conditions is difficult because they are prone to oxidation, but dramatically required in semiconductor industry. In the present work, we successfully synthesized Cu@Ag NPs paste, and they were successfully applied for joining Cu/Cu@Ag NPs paste/Cu firstly in air by the ultrasonic-assisted sintering (UAS) at a temperature of as low as 160 °C. Their sintered microstructures featuring with dense and crystallized cells are completely different from the traditional thermo-compression sintering (TCS). The optimized shear strength of the joints reached to 54.27 MPa, exhibiting one order of magnitude higher than TCS at the same temperature (180 °C) under the UAS. This ultra-low sintering temperature and high performance of the sintered joints were ascribed to ultrasonic effects. The ultrasonic vibrations have distinct effects on the metallurgical reactions of the joints, resulting in the contact and growth of Cu core and the stripping and connection of Ag shell, which contributes to the high shear strength. Thus, the UAS of Cu@Ag NPs paste has a great potential to be applied for high-temperature power device packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Method for reworkable packaging of high speed, low electrical parasitic power electronics modules through gate drive integration

    DOEpatents

    Passmore, Brandon; Cole, Zach; Whitaker, Bret; Barkley, Adam; McNutt, Ty; Lostetter, Alexander

    2016-08-02

    A multichip power module directly connecting the busboard to a printed-circuit board that is attached to the power substrate enabling extremely low loop inductance for extreme environments such as high temperature operation. Wire bond interconnections are taught from the power die directly to the busboard further enabling enable low parasitic interconnections. Integration of on-board high frequency bus capacitors provide extremely low loop inductance. An extreme environment gate driver board allows close physical proximity of gate driver and power stage to reduce overall volume and reduce impedance in the control circuit. Parallel spring-loaded pin gate driver PCB connections allows a reliable and reworkable power module to gate driver interconnections.

  11. Application of natural deep eutectic solvents to the extraction of anthocyanins from Catharanthus roseus with high extractability and stability replacing conventional organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yuntao; Rozema, Evelien; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2016-02-19

    Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) have attracted a great deal of attention in recent times as promising green media. They are generally composed of neutral, acidic or basic compounds that form liquids of high viscosity when mixed in certain molar ratio. Despite their potential, viscosity and acid or basic nature of some ingredients may affect the extraction capacity and stabilizing ability of the target compounds. To investigate these effects, extraction with a series of NADES was employed for the analysis of anthocyanins in flower petals of Catharanthus roseus in combination with HPLC-DAD-based metabolic profiling. Along with the extraction yields of anthocyanins their stability in NADES was also studied. Multivariate data analysis indicates that the lactic acid-glucose (LGH), and 1,2-propanediol-choline chloride (PCH) NADES present a similar extraction power for anthocyanins as conventional organic solvents. Furthermore, among the NADES employed, LGH exhibits an at least three times higher stabilizing capacity for cyanidins than acidified ethanol, which facilitates their extraction and analysis process. Comparing NADES to the conventional organic solvents, in addition to their reduced environmental impact, they proved to provide higher stability for anthocyanins, and therefore have a great potential as possible alternatives to those organic solvents in health related areas such as food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Review: nanocomposites in food packaging.

    PubMed

    Arora, Amit; Padua, G W

    2010-01-01

    The development of nanocomposites is a new strategy to improve physical properties of polymers, including mechanical strength, thermal stability, and gas barrier properties. The most promising nanoscale size fillers are montmorillonite and kaolinite clays. Graphite nanoplates are currently under study. In food packaging, a major emphasis is on the development of high barrier properties against the migration of oxygen, carbon dioxide, flavor compounds, and water vapor. Decreasing water vapor permeability is a critical issue in the development of biopolymers as sustainable packaging materials. The nanoscale plate morphology of clays and other fillers promotes the development of gas barrier properties. Several examples are cited. Challenges remain in increasing the compatibility between clays and polymers and reaching complete dispersion of nanoplates. Nanocomposites may advance the utilization of biopolymers in food packaging.

  13. High-quality RNA extraction from the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus embryos

    PubMed Central

    Ruocco, Nadia; Costantini, Susan; Zupo, Valerio; Romano, Giovanna; Ianora, Adrianna; Fontana, Angelo; Costantini, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) is a keystone herbivore in the Mediterranean Sea due to its ability to transform macroalgal-dominated communities into barren areas characterized by increased cover of bare substrates and encrusting coralline algae, reduced biodiversity and altered ecosystem functions. P. lividus is also an excellent animal model for toxicology, physiology and biology investigations having been used for more than a century as a model for embryological studies with synchronously developing embryos which are easy to manipulate and analyze for morphological aberrations. Despite its importance for the scientific community, the complete genome is still not fully annotated. To date, only a few molecular tools are available and a few Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) studies have been performed. Here we aimed at setting-up an RNA extraction method to obtain high quality and sufficient quantity of RNA for NGS from P. lividus embryos at the pluteus stage. We compared five different RNA extraction protocols from four different pools of plutei (500, 1000, 2500 and 5000 embryos): TRIzol®, and four widely-used Silica Membrane kits, GenElute™ Mammalian Total RNA Miniprep Kit, RNAqueous® Micro Kit, RNeasy® Micro Kit and Aurum™ Total RNA Mini Kit. The quantity of RNA isolated was evaluated using NanoDrop. The quality, considering the purity, was measured as A260/A280 and A260/230 ratios. The integrity was measured by RNA Integrity Number (RIN). Our results demonstrated that the most efficient procedures were GenElute, RNeasy and Aurum, producing a sufficient quantity of RNA for NGS. The Bioanalyzer profiles and RIN values revealed that the most efficient methods guaranteeing for RNA integrity were RNeasy and Aurum combined with an initial preservation in RNAlater. This research represents the first attempt to standardize a method for high-quality RNA extraction from sea urchin embryos at the pluteus stage, providing a new resource for this

  14. High resolution mapping of development in the wildland-urban interface using object based image extraction.

    PubMed

    Caggiano, Michael D; Tinkham, Wade T; Hoffman, Chad; Cheng, Antony S; Hawbaker, Todd J

    2016-10-01

    The wildland-urban interface (WUI), the area where human development encroaches on undeveloped land, is expanding throughout the western United States resulting in increased wildfire risk to homes and communities. Although census based mapping efforts have provided insights into the pattern of development and expansion of the WUI at regional and national scales, these approaches do not provide sufficient detail for fine-scale fire and emergency management planning, which requires maps of individual building locations. Although fine-scale maps of the WUI have been developed, they are often limited in their spatial extent, have unknown accuracies and biases, and are costly to update over time. In this paper we assess a semi-automated Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) approach that utilizes 4-band multispectral National Aerial Image Program (NAIP) imagery for the detection of individual buildings within the WUI. We evaluate this approach by comparing the accuracy and overall quality of extracted buildings to a building footprint control dataset. In addition, we assessed the effects of buffer distance, topographic conditions, and building characteristics on the accuracy and quality of building extraction. The overall accuracy and quality of our approach was positively related to buffer distance, with accuracies ranging from 50 to 95% for buffer distances from 0 to 100 m. Our results also indicate that building detection was sensitive to building size, with smaller outbuildings (footprints less than 75 m 2 ) having detection rates below 80% and larger residential buildings having detection rates above 90%. These findings demonstrate that this approach can successfully identify buildings in the WUI in diverse landscapes while achieving high accuracies at buffer distances appropriate for most fire management applications while overcoming cost and time constraints associated with traditional approaches. This study is unique in that it evaluates the ability of an OBIA

  15. High resolution mapping of development in the wildland-urban interface using object based image extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caggiano, Michael D.; Tinkham, Wade T.; Hoffman, Chad; Cheng, Antony S.; Hawbaker, Todd J.

    2016-01-01

    The wildland-urban interface (WUI), the area where human development encroaches on undeveloped land, is expanding throughout the western United States resulting in increased wildfire risk to homes and communities. Although census based mapping efforts have provided insights into the pattern of development and expansion of the WUI at regional and national scales, these approaches do not provide sufficient detail for fine-scale fire and emergency management planning, which requires maps of individual building locations. Although fine-scale maps of the WUI have been developed, they are often limited in their spatial extent, have unknown accuracies and biases, and are costly to update over time. In this paper we assess a semi-automated Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) approach that utilizes 4-band multispectral National Aerial Image Program (NAIP) imagery for the detection of individual buildings within the WUI. We evaluate this approach by comparing the accuracy and overall quality of extracted buildings to a building footprint control dataset. In addition, we assessed the effects of buffer distance, topographic conditions, and building characteristics on the accuracy and quality of building extraction. The overall accuracy and quality of our approach was positively related to buffer distance, with accuracies ranging from 50 to 95% for buffer distances from 0 to 100 m. Our results also indicate that building detection was sensitive to building size, with smaller outbuildings (footprints less than 75 m2) having detection rates below 80% and larger residential buildings having detection rates above 90%. These findings demonstrate that this approach can successfully identify buildings in the WUI in diverse landscapes while achieving high accuracies at buffer distances appropriate for most fire management applications while overcoming cost and time constraints associated with traditional approaches. This study is unique in that it evaluates the ability of an OBIA

  16. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  17. Mixing compatibilities of Aspergillus and American cockroach allergens with other high-protease fungal and insect extracts.

    PubMed

    Grier, Thomas J; Hall, Dawn M; Duncan, Elizabeth A; Coyne, Terrance C

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that Alternaria and German cockroach allergens can be degraded by endogenous proteases from other insect and fungal extracts when combined for immunotherapy, but data supporting the compatibilities of other high-protease products in comparable mixtures have not been reported. To assess the stabilities and compatibilities of Aspergillus fumigatus and American cockroach allergens after mixing with protease-rich extracts from other insects or fungi at concentrations similar to those recommended for subcutaneous immunotherapy. Mixtures containing A fumigatus, American cockroach, and other fungal or insect extracts were evaluated by quantitative (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) and qualitative (immunoblotting) methods. Test mixtures and control samples at 10% to 50% glycerin concentrations were analyzed after storage for up to 12 months at 2°C to 8°C. Moderate to high recoveries of Aspergillus extract activities were retained in control samples and extract mixtures under all conditions examined. American cockroach extract controls were partly degraded at 10% to 25% glycerin, and cockroach allergen compatibilities were decreased significantly in mixtures with several fungal extracts at 25% glycerin. Mixing with other insects did not compromise the stability of American cockroach allergens at 25% to 50% glycerin. Aspergillus extracts exhibited favorable stabilities after mixing with other high-protease products. American cockroach extract potencies were unstable in less than 50% glycerin, even in the absence of other protease-containing allergens, and were destabilized in mixtures with several fungal extracts. Addition of fungal and insect extracts to separate treatment vials or preparation of fungal-insect mixtures at elevated glycerin concentrations might be necessary to produce compatible patient formulations for allergen immunotherapy injections. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier

  18. Feature extraction and classification of clouds in high resolution panchromatic satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharghi, Elan

    The development of sophisticated remote sensing sensors is rapidly increasing, and the vast amount of satellite imagery collected is too much to be analyzed manually by a human image analyst. It has become necessary for a tool to be developed to automate the job of an image analyst. This tool would need to intelligently detect and classify objects of interest through computer vision algorithms. Existing software called the Rapid Image Exploitation Resource (RAPIER®) was designed by engineers at Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific (SSC PAC) to perform exactly this function. This software automatically searches for anomalies in the ocean and reports the detections as a possible ship object. However, if the image contains a high percentage of cloud coverage, a high number of false positives are triggered by the clouds. The focus of this thesis is to explore various feature extraction and classification methods to accurately distinguish clouds from ship objects. An examination of a texture analysis method, line detection using the Hough transform, and edge detection using wavelets are explored as possible feature extraction methods. The features are then supplied to a K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) or Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. Parameter options for these classifiers are explored and the optimal parameters are determined.

  19. Tannin extraction pretreatment and very high gravity fermentation of acorn starch for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Chao, Bin; Liu, Ruiliang; Zhang, Xueling; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2017-10-01

    The bioethanol production from a novel non-grain feedstock, acorn starch, was studied in this work. The inhibition of tannin in strain growth was investigated, and the effect of tannin was negligible when the tannin concentration was lower than 1g/L in medium. Therefore, the extraction of tannin was performed using 40% (v/v) ethanol-water solution as the solvent for three times under the conditions of solid/liquid ratio 1:20, 60°C, 3h, by which more than 80% of tannin in acorn was extracted and the content of tannin in acorn decreased from 7.4% (w/w) to 1.5% (w/w). Very high gravity (VHG) fermentation technology was subsequently carried out to achieve a high ethanol concentration at 86.4g/L. A comprehensive process for bioethanol production from acorn starch was designed and a preliminary economic assessment was then performed revealing that this process appeared technically and economically justified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Wavelet feature extraction for reliable discrimination between high explosive and chemical/biological artillery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohil, Myron E.; Desai, Sachi V.; Bass, Henry E.; Chambers, Jim

    2005-03-01

    Feature extraction methods based on the discrete wavelet transform and multiresolution analysis are used to develop a robust classification algorithm that reliably discriminates between conventional and simulated chemical/biological artillery rounds via acoustic signals produced during detonation. Distinct characteristics arise within the different airburst signatures because high explosive warheads emphasize concussive and shrapnel effects, while chemical/biological warheads are designed to disperse their contents over large areas, therefore employing a slower burning, less intense explosive to mix and spread their contents. The ensuing blast waves are readily characterized by variations in the corresponding peak pressure and rise time of the blast, differences in the ratio of positive pressure amplitude to the negative amplitude, and variations in the overall duration of the resulting waveform. Unique attributes can also be identified that depend upon the properties of the gun tube, projectile speed at the muzzle, and the explosive burn rates of the warhead. In this work, the discrete wavelet transform is used to extract the predominant components of these characteristics from air burst signatures at ranges exceeding 2km. Highly reliable discrimination is achieved with a feedforward neural network classifier trained on a feature space derived from the distribution of wavelet coefficients and higher frequency details found within different levels of the multiresolution decomposition.

  1. Profiling of metal ions leached from pharmaceutical packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Fliszar, Kyle A; Walker, David; Allain, Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    Metal leachables from packaging components can affect the safety and efficacy of a pharmaceutical formulation. As liquid formulations continue to contain surfactants, salts, and chelating agents coupled with lower drug levels, the interaction between the formulation and the packaging material becomes more important. This study examines the interaction of commonly used packaging materials with extraction solvents representative of liquid formulations found in the pharmaceutical industry stressed under conditions encountered during accelerated stability studies.

  2. Packaged die heater

    DOEpatents

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  3. Extraction and preparation of high-aroma and low-caffeine instant green teas by the novel column chromatographic extraction method with gradient elution.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-Rong; Wu, Min; Huang, Rui-Jie; Chen, Ya-Fei; Chen, Chan-Jian; Li, Hui; Ni, He; Li, Hai-Hang

    2017-06-01

    The lack of aroma and natural taste is a critical problem in production and consumption of instant green teas. A method to prepare instant green teas high in-natural-aroma and low-caffeine by the novel column chromatographic extraction with gradient elution is reported. This method simultaneously extracted aroma (or volatile) and non-aroma compounds from green tea. Green tea was loaded into columns with 2.0-fold of petroleum ether (PE): ethanol (8:2). After standing for 3 h until the aroma compounds dissolved, the column was sequentially eluted with 3.0-fold 40% ethanol and 3.5-fold water. The eluant was collected together and automatically separated into PE and ethanol aqueous phases. The aroma extracts was obtained by vacuum-evaporation of PE phase at 45 °C. The ethanol aqueous phase was vacuum-concentrated to aqueous and partially or fully decaffeinated with 4% or 9% charcoal at 70 °C. A regular instant green tea with epigallocatechin-3-gallate: caffeine of 3.5:1 and a low-caffeine instant green tea (less than 1% caffeine) with excellent aroma and taste were prepared, by combining the aroma and non-aroma extracts at a 1:10 ratio. This work provides a practical approach to solve the low-aroma and low-taste problems in the production of high quality instant green teas.

  4. Rapid extraction and determination of 25 bioactive constituents in Alpinia oxyphylla using microwave extraction with ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhi; Kong, Xiangzhen; Zuo, Lihua; Kang, Jian; Hou, Lei; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2016-02-01

    A novel and rapid microwave extraction and ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 25 bioactive constituents (including two new constituents) in Fructus Alpinia oxyphylla. The optimized conditions of the microwave extraction was a microwave power of 300 W, extraction temperature of 80°C, solvent-to-solid ratio of 30 mL/g and extraction time of 8 min. Separation was achieved on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC(®) HSS C18 column (2.1 mm× 50 mm, 1.8 μm) using gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 1 mM ammonium acetate at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. This is the first report of the simultaneous determination of 25 bioactive constituents in Fructus Alpinia oxyphylla by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The method was validated with good linearity, acceptable precision and accuracy. The validated method was successfully applied to determine the contents of 25 bioactive constituents in Fructus Alpinia oxyphylla from different sources and the analysis results were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis, which indicated the effect of different cultivation regions on the contents of constituents. This study provides powerful and practical guidance in the quality control of Alpinia oxyphylla and lays the foundation for further research of Alpinia oxyphylla. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. EXTRACTION AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ELEMENTAL SULFUR FROM SULFIDE MINERAL SURFACES BY HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY. (R826189)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple method for the quantitative determination of elemental sulfur on oxidized sulfide minerals is described. Extraction of elemental sulfur in perchloroethylene and subsequent analysis with high-performance liquid chromatography were used to ascertain the total elemental ...

  6. High-performance polymeric photovoltaic cells with a gold chloride-treated polyacrylonitrile hole extraction interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Ji-Ho; Noh, Yong-Jin; Kim, Seok-Soon; Kwon, Sung-Nam; Na, Seok-In

    2018-03-01

    We introduce a high efficiency polymeric photovoltaic cell (PPV) to be obtained by polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hole extraction layer (HEL) modification with gold chloride (AuCl3). The role of PAN HELs with AuCl3 and their effects on solar cell performances were studied with ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, internal resistances in PPVs, and current-voltage power curves. The resultant PPVs with AuCl3-treated PAN HELs showed improved cell efficiency compared to PSCs with no interlayer and PAN without AuCl3. Furthermore, with AuCl3-treated PAN, we finally achieved a high efficiency of 6.91%, and a desirable PPV-stability in poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b‧]dithiophe-ne-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-thylhexyl)carbonyl]-thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  7. Identification of a high affinity nucleocapsid protein binding element within the Moloney murine leukemia virus Psi-RNA packaging signal: implications for genome recognition.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, V; Melamed, J; Habib, D; Pullen, K; Wallace, K; Summers, M F

    2001-11-23

    Murine leukemia virus (MLV) is currently the most widely used gene delivery system in gene therapy trials. The simple retrovirus packages two copies of its RNA genome by a mechanism that involves interactions between the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of a virally-encoded Gag polyprotein and a segment of the RNA genome located just upstream of the Gag initiation codon, known as the Psi-site. Previous studies indicated that the MLV Psi-site contains three stem loops (SLB-SLD), and that stem loops SLC and SLD play prominent roles in packaging. We have developed a method for the preparation and purification of large quantities of recombinant Moloney MLV NC protein, and have studied its interactions with a series of oligoribonucleotides that contain one or more of the Psi-RNA stem loops. At RNA concentrations above approximately 0.3 mM, isolated stem loop SLB forms a duplex and stem loops SL-C and SL-D form kissing complexes, as expected from previous studies. However, neither the monomeric nor the dimeric forms of these isolated stem loops binds NC with significant affinity. Longer constructs containing two stem loops (SL-BC and SL-CD) also exhibit low affinities for NC. However, NC binds with high affinity and stoichiometrically to both the monomeric and dimeric forms of an RNA construct that contains all three stem loops (SL-BCD; K(d)=132(+/-55) nM). Titration of SL-BCD with NC also shifts monomer-dimer equilibrium toward the dimer. Mutagenesis experiments demonstrate that the conserved GACG tetraloops of stem loops C and D do not influence the monomer-dimer equilibrium of SL-BCD, that the tetraloop of stem loop B does not participate directly in NC binding, and that the tetraloops of stem loops C and D probably also do not bind to NC. These surprising results differ considerably from those observed for HIV-1, where NC binds to individual stem loops with high affinity via interactions with exposed residues of the tetraloops. The present results indicate that MLV NC binds

  8. Microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for packaging of microelectronic devices, including an integral window. The microelectronic device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can include a cofired ceramic frame or body. The package can have an internal stepped structure made of one or more plates, with apertures, which are patterned with metallized conductive circuit traces. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded on the plate to these traces, and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A cover lid can be attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed. The package body can be formed by low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. Multiple chips can be located within a single package. The cover lid can include a window. The apparatus is particularly suited for packaging of MEMS devices, since the number of handling steps is greatly reduced, thereby reducing the potential for contamination.

  9. Investigation of high pressure steaming (HPS) as a thermal treatment for lipid extraction from Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Ana-Maria; Bassi, Amarjeet

    2014-07-01

    Biofuels from algae are considered a technically viable energy source that overcomes several of the problems present in previous generations of biofuels. In this research high pressure steaming (HPS) was studied as a hydrothermal pre-treatment for extraction of lipids from Chlorella vulgaris, and analysis by response surface methodology allowed finding operational points in terms of target temperature and algae concentration for high lipid and glucose yields. Within the range covered by these experiments the best conditions for high bio-crude yield are temperatures higher than 174°C and low biomass concentrations (<5 g/L). For high glucose yield there are two suitable operational ranges, either low temperatures (<105°C) and low biomass concentrations (<4 g/L); or low temperatures (<105°C) and high biomass concentrations (<110 g/L). High pressure steaming is a good hydrothermal treatment for lipid recovery and does not significantly change the fatty acids profile for the range of temperatures studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Screening of extraction methods for glycoproteins from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms by high performance liquid chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Guoyan; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang; Yan, Mingyan; Hou, Hu; Zhang, Xiukun; Chen, Li

    2009-03-01

    In order to select an optimum extraction method for the target glycoprotein (TGP) from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-assay for the determination of the TGP was developed. Purified target glycoprotein was taken as a standard glycoprotein. The results showed that the calibration curves for peak area plotted against concentration for TGP were linear ( r = 0.9984, y = 4.5895 x+47.601) over concentrations ranging from 50 to 400 mgL-1. The mean extraction recovery was 97.84% (CV2.60%). The fractions containing TGP were isolated from jellyfish ( R. esculentum) oral-arms by four extraction methods: 1) water extraction (WE), 2) phosphate buffer solution (PBS) extraction (PE), 3) ultrasound-assisted water extraction (UA-WE), 4) ultrasound-assisted PBS extraction (UA-PE). The lyophilized extract was dissolved in Milli-Q water and analyzed directly on a short TSK-GEL G4000PWXL (7.8 mm×300 mm) column. Our results indicated that the UA-PE method was the optimum extraction method selected by HPLC.

  11. GENERAL PURPOSE ADA PACKAGES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Ten families of subprograms are bundled together for the General-Purpose Ada Packages. The families bring to Ada many features from HAL/S, PL/I, FORTRAN, and other languages. These families are: string subprograms (INDEX, TRIM, LOAD, etc.); scalar subprograms (MAX, MIN, REM, etc.); array subprograms (MAX, MIN, PROD, SUM, GET, and PUT); numerical subprograms (EXP, CUBIC, etc.); service subprograms (DATE_TIME function, etc.); Linear Algebra II; Runge-Kutta integrators; and three text I/O families of packages. In two cases, a family consists of a single non-generic package. In all other cases, a family comprises a generic package and its instances for a selected group of scalar types. All generic packages are designed to be easily instantiated for the types declared in the user facility. The linear algebra package is LINRAG2. This package includes subprograms supplementing those in NPO-17985, An Ada Linear Algebra Package Modeled After HAL/S (LINRAG). Please note that LINRAG2 cannot be compiled without LINRAG. Most packages have widespread applicability, although some are oriented for avionics applications. All are designed to facilitate writing new software in Ada. Several of the packages use conventions introduced by other programming languages. A package of string subprograms is based on HAL/S (a language designed for the avionics software in the Space Shuttle) and PL/I. Packages of scalar and array subprograms are taken from HAL/S or generalized current Ada subprograms. A package of Runge-Kutta integrators is patterned after a built-in MAC (MIT Algebraic Compiler) integrator. Those packages modeled after HAL/S make it easy to translate existing HAL/S software to Ada. The General-Purpose Ada Packages program source code is available on two 360K 5.25" MS-DOS format diskettes. The software was developed using VAX Ada v1.5 under DEC VMS v4.5. It should be portable to any validated Ada compiler and it should execute either interactively or in batch. The largest package

  12. Paperless Work Package Application

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgore, Jr., William R.; Morrell, Jr., Otto K.; Morrison, Dan

    2014-07-31

    Paperless Work Package (PWP) System is a computer program process that takes information from Asset Suite, provides a platform for other electronic inputs, Processes the inputs into an electronic package that can be downloaded onto an electronic work tablet or laptop computer, provides a platform for electronic inputs into the work tablet, and then transposes those inputs back into Asset Suite and to permanent SRS records. The PWP System will basically eliminate paper requirements from the maintenance work control system. The program electronically relays the instructions given by the planner to work on a piece of equipment which is currentlymore » relayed via a printed work package. The program does not control/approve what is done. The planner will continue to plan the work package, the package will continue to be routed, approved, and scheduled. The supervisor reviews and approves the work to be performed and assigns work to individuals or to a work group. (The supervisor conducts pre job briefings with the workers involved in the job) The Operations Manager (Work Controlling Entity) approves the work package electronically for the work that will be done in his facility prior to work starting. The PWP System will provide the package in an electronic form. All the reviews, approvals, and safety measures taken by people outside the electronic package does not change from the paper driven work packages.« less

  13. FTOOLS: A FITS Data Processing and Analysis Software Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, J. Kent; Greene, Emily A.; Pence, William

    1993-05-01

    FTOOLS, a highly modular collection of utilities for processing and analyzing data in the FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) format, has been developed in support of the HEASARC (High Energy Astrophysics Research Archive Center) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Each utility performs a single simple task such as presentation of file contents, extraction of specific rows or columns, appending or merging tables, binning values in a column or selecting subsets of rows based on a boolean expression. Individual utilities can easily be chained together in scripts to achieve more complex operations such as the generation and displaying of spectra or light curves. The collection of utilities provides both generic processing and analysis utilities and utilities common to high energy astrophysics data sets. The FTOOLS software package is designed to be both compatible with IRAF and completely stand alone in a UNIX or VMS environment. The user interface is controlled by standard IRAF parameter files. The package is self documenting through the IRAF help facility and a stand alone help task. Software is written in ANSI C and FORTRAN to provide portability across most computer systems. The data format dependencies between hardware platforms are isolated through the FITSIO library package.

  14. Theoretical study of the design and performance of a high-gain, high-extraction-efficiency FEL oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, J.; Nguyen, D.C.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1996-10-01

    We present the results of theoretical and simulation studies of the design and performance of a new F type of FEL oscillator. This device, known by the acronym RAFEL for Regenerative Amplifier Free-Electron Laser, will be constructed in the space presently occupied by the AFEL (Advanced FEL) at Los Alamos, and will be driven by an upgraded (to higher average power) version of the present AFEL linac. In order to achieve a long-time-averaged optical output power of {approximately} 1 kW using an electron beam with an average power of {approximately} 20 kW, a rather high extraction efficiency {eta} {approximately} 5%more » is required. We have designed a 2-m-long undulator to attain this goal: the first meter is untapered and provides high gain while the second meter is linearly-tapered in magnetic field amplitude to provide high extraction efficiency in the standard K-M-R manner. Two-plane focusing and linear polarization of the undulator are assumed. Electron-beam properties from PARMEIA simulations of the AFEL accelerator were used in the design. A large saturated gain, {approximately} 500, requires a very small optical feedback to keep the device operating at steady-state. However, the large gain leads to distorted optical modes which require two- and three-dimensional simulations to adequately treat diffraction effects. This FEL will be driven by 17 MeV electrons and will operate in the 16 {mu}m spectral region.« less

  15. Detailed Hydrographic Feature Extraction from High-Resolution LiDAR Data

    SciTech Connect

    Danny L. Anderson

    Detailed hydrographic feature extraction from high-resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data is investigated. Methods for quantitatively evaluating and comparing such extractions are presented, including the use of sinuosity and longitudinal root-mean-square-error (LRMSE). These metrics are then used to quantitatively compare stream networks in two studies. The first study examines the effect of raster cell size on watershed boundaries and stream networks delineated from LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs). The study confirmed that, with the greatly increased resolution of LiDAR data, smaller cell sizes generally yielded better stream network delineations, based on sinuosity and LRMSE. The second study demonstrates amore » new method of delineating a stream directly from LiDAR point clouds, without the intermediate step of deriving a DEM. Direct use of LiDAR point clouds could improve efficiency and accuracy of hydrographic feature extractions. The direct delineation method developed herein and termed “mDn”, is an extension of the D8 method that has been used for several decades with gridded raster data. The method divides the region around a starting point into sectors, using the LiDAR data points within each sector to determine an average slope, and selecting the sector with the greatest downward slope to determine the direction of flow. An mDn delineation was compared with a traditional grid-based delineation, using TauDEM, and other readily available, common stream data sets. Although, the TauDEM delineation yielded a sinuosity that more closely matches the reference, the mDn delineation yielded a sinuosity that was higher than either the TauDEM method or the existing published stream delineations. Furthermore, stream delineation using the mDn method yielded the smallest LRMSE.« less

  16. Hidden discriminative features extraction for supervised high-order time series modeling.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ngoc Anh Thi; Yang, Hyung-Jeong; Kim, Sunhee

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, an orthogonal Tucker-decomposition-based extraction of high-order discriminative subspaces from a tensor-based time series data structure is presented, named as Tensor Discriminative Feature Extraction (TDFE). TDFE relies on the employment of category information for the maximization of the between-class scatter and the minimization of the within-class scatter to extract optimal hidden discriminative feature subspaces that are simultaneously spanned by every modality for supervised tensor modeling. In this context, the proposed tensor-decomposition method provides the following benefits: i) reduces dimensionality while robustly mining the underlying discriminative features, ii) results in effective interpretable features that lead to an improved classification and visualization, and iii) reduces the processing time during the training stage and the filtering of the projection by solving the generalized eigenvalue issue at each alternation step. Two real third-order tensor-structures of time series datasets (an epilepsy electroencephalogram (EEG) that is modeled as channel×frequency bin×time frame and a microarray data that is modeled as gene×sample×time) were used for the evaluation of the TDFE. The experiment results corroborate the advantages of the proposed method with averages of 98.26% and 89.63% for the classification accuracies of the epilepsy dataset and the microarray dataset, respectively. These performance averages represent an improvement on those of the matrix-based algorithms and recent tensor-based, discriminant-decomposition approaches; this is especially the case considering the small number of samples that are used in practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High purity Fe3O4 from Local Iron Sand Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunanto, Y. E.; Izaak, M. P.; Jobiliong, E.; Cahyadi, L.; Adi, W. A.

    2018-04-01

    Indonesia has a long coastline and is rich with iron sand. The iron sand is generally rich in various elements such as iron and titanium. One of the products processing of the iron sand mineral is iron (II) (III) oxide (magnetite Fe3O4). The stages of purification process to extracting magnetite phase and discarding the other phases has been performed. Magnetite phase analysis of ironsand extraction retrieved from Indonesia have been investigated. The result of analysis element of iron sand shows that it consists of majority Fe around 65 wt%. However, there are still 17 impurities such as Ti, Al, Ce, Co, Cr, Eu, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Sc, Sm, Th, V, Yb, and Zn. After extraction process, Fe element content increases up to 94%. The iron sand powder after milling for 10 hours and separating using a magnetic separator, the iron sand powders are dissolved in acid chloride solution to form a solution of iron chloride, and this solution is sprinkled with sodium hydroxide to obtain fine powders of Fe3O4. The fine powders which formed were washed with de-mineralization water. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows that the fine powders have a single phase of Fe3O4. The analysis result shows that the sample has the chemical formula: Fe3O4 with a cubic crystal system, space group: Fd-3m and lattice parameters: a = b = c = 8.3681 (1) Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The microstructure analysis shows that the particle of Fe3O4 homogeneously shaped like spherical. The magnetic properties using vibrating sample magnetometer shows that Fe3O4 obtained have ferromagnetic behavior with soft magnetic characteristics. We concluded that this purification of iron sand had been successfully performed to obtain fine powders of Fe3O4 with high purity.

  18. Item Response Data Analysis Using Stata Item Response Theory Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ji Seung; Zheng, Xiaying

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce and review the capability and performance of the Stata item response theory (IRT) package that is available from Stata v.14, 2015. Using a simulated data set and a publicly available item response data set extracted from Programme of International Student Assessment, we review the IRT package from…

  19. Application of Quality by Design (QbD) Principles to Extractables/Leachables Assessment. Establishing a Design Space for Terminally Sterilized Aqueous Drug Products Stored in a Plastic Packaging System.

    PubMed

    Jenke, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The concept of quality by design (QbD) reflects the current global regulatory thinking related to pharmaceutical products. A cornerstone of the QbD paradigm is the concept of a design space, where the design space is a multidimensional combination of input variables and process parameters that have been demonstrated to provide the assurance of product quality. If a design space can be established for a pharmaceutical process or product, then operation within the design space confirms that the product or process output possesses the required quality attributes. This concept of design space can be applied to the safety (leachables) assessment of drug products manufactured and stored in packaging systems. Critical variables in such a design space would include those variables that affect the interaction of the drug product and its packaging, including (a) composition of the drug product, (b) composition of the packaging system, (c) configuration of the packaging system, and (d) the conditions of contact. This paper proposes and justifies such a leachables design space for aqueous drug products packaged in a specific plastic packaging system. Such a design space has the following boundaries:Aqueous drug products with a pH in the range of 2 to 8 and that contain no polarity-impacting agents such as organic solubilizers and stabilizers (addressing variable a). Packaging systems manufactured from materials that meet the system's existing material specifications (addressing variable b). Nominal fill volumes from 50 to 1000 mL (addressing variable c). Products subjected to terminal sterilization and then stored at room temperature for a period of up to 24 months (addressing variable d). The ramification of such a design space is that any drug product that falls within these boundaries is deemed to be compatible with the packaging system, from the perspective of safety, without the requirement of supporting drug product testing. When drug products are packaged in plastic

  20. High Resolution SAR Imaging Employing Geometric Features for Extracting Seismic Damage of Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, L. P.; Wang, X. P.; Dou, A. X.; Ding, X.

    2018-04-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image is relatively easy to acquire but difficult for interpretation. This paper probes how to identify seismic damage of building using geometric features of SAR. The SAR imaging geometric features of buildings, such as the high intensity layover, bright line induced by double bounce backscattering and dark shadow is analysed, and show obvious differences texture features of homogeneity, similarity and entropy in combinatorial imaging geometric regions between the un-collapsed and collapsed buildings in airborne SAR images acquired in Yushu city damaged by 2010 Ms7.1 Yushu, Qinghai, China earthquake, which implicates a potential capability to discriminate collapsed and un-collapsed buildings from SAR image. Study also shows that the proportion of highlight (layover & bright line) area (HA) is related to the seismic damage degree, thus a SAR image damage index (SARDI), which related to the ratio of HA to the building occupation are of building in a street block (SA), is proposed. While HA is identified through feature extraction with high-pass and low-pass filtering of SAR image in frequency domain. A partial region with 58 natural street blocks in the Yushu City are selected as study area. Then according to the above method, HA is extracted, SARDI is then calculated and further classified into 3 classes. The results show effective through validation check with seismic damage classes interpreted artificially from post-earthquake airborne high resolution optical image, which shows total classification accuracy 89.3 %, Kappa coefficient 0.79 and identical to the practical seismic damage distribution. The results are also compared and discussed with the building damage identified from SAR image available by other authors.

  1. A Straightforward Method for Glucosinolate Extraction and Analysis with High-pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).

    PubMed

    Grosser, Katharina; van Dam, Nicole M

    2017-03-15

    Glucosinolates are a well-studied and highly diverse class of natural plant compounds. They play important roles in plant resistance, rapeseed oil quality, food flavoring, and human health. The biological activity of glucosinolates is released upon tissue damage, when they are mixed with the enzyme myrosinase. This results in the formation of pungent and toxic breakdown products, such as isothiocyanates and nitriles. Currently, more than 130 structurally different glucosinolates have been identified. The chemical structure of the glucosinolate is an important determinant of the product that is formed, which in turn determines its biological activity. The latter may range from detrimental (e.g., progoitrin) to beneficial (e.g., glucoraphanin). Each glucosinolate-containing plant species has its own specific glucosinolate profile. For this reason, it is important to correctly identify and reliably quantify the different glucosinolates present in brassicaceous leaf, seed, and root crops or, for ecological studies, in their wild relatives. Here, we present a well-validated, targeted, and robust method to analyze glucosinolate profiles in a wide range of plant species and plant organs. Intact glucosinolates are extracted from ground plant materials with a methanol-water mixture at high temperatures to disable myrosinase activity. Thereafter, the resulting extract is brought onto an ion-exchange column for purification. After sulfatase treatment, the desulfoglucosinolates are eluted with water and the eluate is freeze-dried. The residue is taken up in an exact volume of water, which is analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a photodiode array (PDA) or ultraviolet (UV) detector. Detection and quantification are achieved by conducting comparisons of the retention times and UV spectra of commercial reference standards. The concentrations are calculated based on a sinigrin reference curve and well-established response factors. The advantages and

  2. A Straightforward Method for Glucosinolate Extraction and Analysis with High-pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    PubMed Central

    Grosser, Katharina; van Dam, Nicole M.

    2017-01-01

    Glucosinolates are a well-studied and highly diverse class of natural plant compounds. They play important roles in plant resistance, rapeseed oil quality, food flavoring, and human health. The biological activity of glucosinolates is released upon tissue damage, when they are mixed with the enzyme myrosinase. This results in the formation of pungent and toxic breakdown products, such as isothiocyanates and nitriles. Currently, more than 130 structurally different glucosinolates have been identified. The chemical structure of the glucosinolate is an important determinant of the product that is formed, which in turn determines its biological activity. The latter may range from detrimental (e.g., progoitrin) to beneficial (e.g., glucoraphanin). Each glucosinolate-containing plant species has its own specific glucosinolate profile. For this reason, it is important to correctly identify and reliably quantify the different glucosinolates present in brassicaceous leaf, seed, and root crops or, for ecological studies, in their wild relatives. Here, we present a well-validated, targeted, and robust method to analyze glucosinolate profiles in a wide range of plant species and plant organs. Intact glucosinolates are extracted from ground plant materials with a methanol-water mixture at high temperatures to disable myrosinase activity. Thereafter, the resulting extract is brought onto an ion-exchange column for purification. After sulfatase treatment, the desulfoglucosinolates are eluted with water and the eluate is freeze-dried. The residue is taken up in an exact volume of water, which is analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a photodiode array (PDA) or ultraviolet (UV) detector. Detection and quantification are achieved by conducting comparisons of the retention times and UV spectra of commercial reference standards. The concentrations are calculated based on a sinigrin reference curve and well-established response factors. The advantages and

  3. Microextraction by packed sorbent: an emerging, selective and high-throughput extraction technique in bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Jorge; Câmara, José S; Colmsjö, Anders; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2014-06-01

    Sample preparation is an important analytical step regarding the isolation and concentration of desired components from complex matrices and greatly influences their reliable and accurate analysis and data quality. It is the most labor-intensive and error-prone process in analytical methodology and, therefore, may influence the analytical performance of the target analytes quantification. Many conventional sample preparation methods are relatively complicated, involving time-consuming procedures and requiring large volumes of organic solvents. Recent trends in sample preparation include miniaturization, automation, high-throughput performance, on-line coupling with analytical instruments and low-cost operation through extremely low volume or no solvent consumption. Micro-extraction techniques, such as micro-extraction by packed sorbent (MEPS), have these advantages over the traditional techniques. This paper gives an overview of MEPS technique, including the role of sample preparation in bioanalysis, the MEPS description namely MEPS formats (on- and off-line), sorbents, experimental and protocols, factors that affect the MEPS performance, and the major advantages and limitations of MEPS compared with other sample preparation techniques. We also summarize MEPS recent applications in bioanalysis. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Determination of Decabrominated Diphenyl Ether in Soils by Soxhlet Extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xing-Jian; Dang, Zhi; Zhang, Fang-Li; Lin, Zhao-Ying; Zou, Meng-Yao; Tao, Xue-Qin; Lu, Gui-Ning

    2013-01-01

    This study described the development of a method based on soxhlet extraction combining high performance liquid chromatography (soxhlet-HPLC) for the accurate detection of BDE-209 in soils. The solvent effect of working standard solutions in HPLC was discussed. Results showed that 1 : 1 of methanol and acetone was the optimal condition which could totally dissolve the BDE-209 in environmental samples and avoid the decrease of the peak area and the peak deformation difference of BDE-209 in HPLC. The preliminary experiment was conducted on the configured grassland (1 μg/g) to validate the method feasibility. The method produced reliable reproducibility, simulated soils (n = 4) RSD 1.0%, and was further verified by the analysis e-waste contaminated soils, RSD range 5.9–11.4%. The contamination level of BDE-209 in burning site was consistent with the previous study of Longtang town but lower than Guiyu town, and higher concentration of BDE-209 in paddy field mainly resulted from the long-standing disassembling area nearby. This accurate and fast method was successfully developed to extract and analyze BDE-209 in soil samples, showing its potential use for replacing GC to determinate BDE-209 in soil samples. PMID:24302876

  5. A highly sensitive quantitative cytosensor technique for the identification of receptor ligands in tissue extracts.

    PubMed

    Lenkei, Z; Beaudet, A; Chartrel, N; De Mota, N; Irinopoulou, T; Braun, B; Vaudry, H; Llorens-Cortes, C

    2000-11-01

    Because G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute excellent putative therapeutic targets, functional characterization of orphan GPCRs through identification of their endogenous ligands has great potential for drug discovery. We propose here a novel single cell-based assay for identification of these ligands. This assay involves (a) fluorescent tagging of the GPCR, (b) expression of the tagged receptor in a heterologous expression system, (c) incubation of the transfected cells with fractions purified from tissue extracts, and (d) imaging of ligand-induced receptor internalization by confocal microscopy coupled to digital image quantification. We tested this approach in CHO cells stably expressing the NT1 neurotensin receptor fused to EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein), in which neurotensin promoted internalization of the NT1-EGFP receptor in a dose-dependent fashion (EC(50) = 0.98 nM). Similarly, four of 120 consecutive reversed-phase HPLC fractions of frog brain extracts promoted internalization of the NT1-EGFP receptor. The same four fractions selectively contained neurotensin, an endogenous ligand of the NT1 receptor, as detected by radioimmunoassay and inositol phosphate production. The present internalization assay provides a highly specific quantitative cytosensor technique with sensitivity in the nanomolar range that should prove useful for the identification of putative natural and synthetic ligands for GPCRs.

  6. Comparison of three sequential extraction procedures for arsenic fractionation in highly polluted sites.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiang; Dong, Haochen; Feng, Liu; Lin, Zhijia; Luo, Qiuchen

    2017-07-01

    Three sequential extraction procedures (SEPs) including Tessier, Rauret, and Shiowatana SEPs, were compared for arsenic fractionation using highly polluted soils. In the definition context of exchangeable, reducible, oxidizable and residual fractions, with similar arsenic recovery and reproducibility, Tessier and Rauret SEPs were comparable to each other, whereas Shiowatana SEP showed higher extraction efficiency in all the first three arsenic fractions, although it might overestimate the reducible arsenic. Pot experiment indicated three SEPs all could provide an estimation of the most bioavailable arsenic fraction, and the application of Shiowatana SEP should be preferred. Accordingly, a case study with Shiowatana SEP for a site near a realgar mine area is conducted. The results show that although arsenic in this area presents predominantly in the stable fractions, the sum of most bioavailable fractions was accounted around 11% of total arsenic, and moreover, about another 10% of the total arsenic, the fourth fraction in Shiowatana SEP is likely to be transferred into bioavailable species under suitable conditions, such as strong acid impact, revealing a real major risk source being formed. The study indicated that Shiowatana should be more suitable for arsenic fractionation to provide valuable information in the framework of risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chromium Extraction via Chemical Processing of Fe-Cr Alloys Fine Powder with High Carbon Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, D. M.; Navarro, R. C. S.; Souza, R. F. M.; Brocchi, E. A.

    2017-06-01

    Ferrous alloys are important raw materials for special steel production. In this context, alloys from the Fe-Cr system, with typical Cr weight fraction ranging from 0.45 to 0.95, are prominent, particularly for the stainless steel industry. During the process in which these alloys are obtained, there is considerable production of fine powder, which could be reused after suitable chemical treatment, for example, through coupling pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical processes. In the present study, the extraction of chromium from fine powder generated during the production of a Fe-Cr alloy with high C content was investigated. Roasting reactions were performed at 1073 K, 1173 K, and 1273 K (800 °C, 900 °C, and 1000 °C) with 300 pct (w/w) excess NaOH in an oxidizing atmosphere (air), followed by solubilization in deionized water, selective precipitation, and subsequent calcination at 1173 K (900 °C) in order to convert the obtained chromium hydroxide to Cr2O3. The maximum achieved Cr recovery was around 86 pct, suggesting that the proposed chemical route was satisfactory regarding the extraction of the chromium initially present. Moreover, after X-ray diffraction analysis, the final produced oxide has proven to be pure Cr2O3 with a mean crystallite size of 200 nm.

  8. An optimized high quality male DNA extraction from spermatophores in open thelycum shrimp species.

    PubMed

    Planella, Laia; Heras, Sandra; Vera, Manuel; García-Marín, José-Luis; Roldán, María Inés

    2017-09-01

    The crucial step of most of the current genetic studies is the extraction of DNA of sufficient quantity and quality. Several genomic DNA isolation methods have been described to successfully obtain male DNA from shrimp species. However, all current protocols require invasive handling methods with males for DNA isolation. Using Aristeus antennatus as a model we tested a reliable non-invasive differential DNA extraction method to male DNA isolation from spermatophores attached to female thelycum. The present protocol provides high quality and quantity DNA for polymerase chain reaction amplification and male genotyping. This new approach could be useful to experimental shrimp culture to select sires with relevant genetic patterns for selective breeding programs. More importantly, it can be applied to identify the mating pairs and male structure in wild populations of species as A. antennatus, where males are often difficult to capture. Our method could be also valuable for biological studies on other spermatophore-using species, such as myriapods, arachnids and insects. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Robotic solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of ranitidine in serum or plasma.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, T L; Perschy, T B; Gooding, A E; Tomlinson, J J

    1992-01-01

    A fully automated assay for the analysis of ranitidine in serum and plasma, with and without an internal standard, was validated. It utilizes robotic solid phase extraction with on-line high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis. The ruggedness of the assay was demonstrated over a three-year period. A Zymark Py Technology II robotic system was used for serial processing from initial aspiration of samples from original collection containers, to final direct injection onto the on-line HPLC system. Automated serial processing with on-line analysis provided uniform sample history and increased productivity by freeing the chemist to analyse data and perform other tasks. The solid phase extraction efficiency was 94% throughout the assay range of 10-250 ng/mL. The coefficients of variation for within- and between-day quality control samples ranged from 1 to 6% and 1 to 5%, respectively. Mean accuracy for between-day standards and quality control results ranged from 97 to 102% of the respective theoretical concentrations.

  10. High-grade glioma diffusive modeling using statistical tissue information and diffusion tensors extracted from atlases.

    PubMed

    Roniotis, Alexandros; Manikis, Georgios C; Sakkalis, Vangelis; Zervakis, Michalis E; Karatzanis, Ioannis; Marias, Kostas

    2012-03-01

    Glioma, especially glioblastoma, is a leading cause of brain cancer fatality involving highly invasive and neoplastic growth. Diffusive models of glioma growth use variations of the diffusion-reaction equation in order to simulate the invasive patterns of glioma cells by approximating the spatiotemporal change of glioma cell concentration. The most advanced diffusive models take into consideration the heterogeneous velocity of glioma in gray and white matter, by using two different discrete diffusion coefficients in these areas. Moreover, by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), they simulate the anisotropic migration of glioma cells, which is facilitated along white fibers, assuming diffusion tensors with different diffusion coefficients along each candidate direction of growth. Our study extends this concept by fully exploiting the proportions of white and gray matter extracted by normal brain atlases, rather than discretizing diffusion coefficients. Moreover, the proportions of white and gray matter, as well as the diffusion tensors, are extracted by the respective atlases; thus, no DTI processing is needed. Finally, we applied this novel glioma growth model on real data and the results indicate that prognostication rates can be improved. © 2012 IEEE

  11. Automatic Extraction of High-Resolution Rainfall Series from Rainfall Strip Charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Valencia, Jose Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is a complex phenomenon involving the detachment and transport of soil particles, storage and runoff of rainwater, and infiltration. The relative magnitude and importance of these processes depends on a host of factors, including climate, soil, topography, cropping and land management practices among others. Most models for soil erosion or hydrological processes need an accurate storm characterization. However, this data are not always available and in some cases indirect models are generated to fill this gap. In Spain, the rain intensity data known for time periods less than 24 hours back to 1924 and many studies are limited by it. In many cases this data is stored in rainfall strip charts in the meteorological stations but haven't been transfer in a numerical form. To overcome this deficiency in the raw data a process of information extraction from large amounts of rainfall strip charts is implemented by means of computer software. The method has been developed that largely automates the intensive-labour extraction work based on van Piggelen et al. (2011). The method consists of the following five basic steps: 1) scanning the charts to high-resolution digital images, 2) manually and visually registering relevant meta information from charts and pre-processing, 3) applying automatic curve extraction software in a batch process to determine the coordinates of cumulative rainfall lines on the images (main step), 4) post processing the curves that were not correctly determined in step 3, and 5) aggregating the cumulative rainfall in pixel coordinates to the desired time resolution. A colour detection procedure is introduced that automatically separates the background of the charts and rolls from the grid and subsequently the rainfall curve. The rainfall curve is detected by minimization of a cost function. Some utilities have been added to improve the previous work and automates some auxiliary processes: readjust the bands properly, merge bands when

  12. [Extraction of buildings three-dimensional information from high-resolution satellite imagery based on Barista software].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei-feng; Hu, Yuan-man; He, Hong-shi

    2010-05-01

    The demand for accurate and up-to-date spatial information of urban buildings is becoming more and more important for urban planning, environmental protection, and other vocations. Today's commercial high-resolution satellite imagery offers the potential to extract the three-dimensional information of urban buildings. This paper extracted the three-dimensional information of urban buildings from QuickBird imagery, and validated the precision of the extraction based on Barista software. It was shown that the extraction of three-dimensional information of the buildings from high-resolution satellite imagery based on Barista software had the advantages of low professional level demand, powerful universality, simple operation, and high precision. One pixel level of point positioning and height determination accuracy could be achieved if the digital elevation model (DEM) and sensor orientation model had higher precision and the off-Nadir View Angle was relatively perfect.

  13. compMS2Miner: An Automatable Metabolite Identification, Visualization, and Data-Sharing R Package for High-Resolution LC-MS Data Sets.

    PubMed

    Edmands, William M B; Petrick, Lauren; Barupal, Dinesh K; Scalbert, Augustin; Wilson, Mark J; Wickliffe, Jeffrey K; Rappaport, Stephen M

    2017-04-04

    A long-standing challenge of untargeted metabolomic profiling by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) is efficient transition from unknown mass spectral features to confident metabolite annotations. The compMS 2 Miner (Comprehensive MS 2 Miner) package was developed in the R language to facilitate rapid, comprehensive feature annotation using a peak-picker-output and MS 2 data files as inputs. The number of MS 2 spectra that can be collected during a metabolomic profiling experiment far outweigh the amount of time required for pain-staking manual interpretation; therefore, a degree of software workflow autonomy is required for broad-scale metabolite annotation. CompMS 2 Miner integrates many useful tools in a single workflow for metabolite annotation and also provides a means to overview the MS 2 data with a Web application GUI compMS 2 Explorer (Comprehensive MS 2 Explorer) that also facilitates data-sharing and transparency. The automatable compMS 2 Miner workflow consists of the following steps: (i) matching unknown MS 1 features to precursor MS 2 scans, (ii) filtration of spectral noise (dynamic noise filter), (iii) generation of composite mass spectra by multiple similar spectrum signal summation and redundant/contaminant spectra removal, (iv) interpretation of possible fragment ion substructure using an internal database, (v) annotation of unknowns with chemical and spectral databases with prediction of mammalian biotransformation metabolites, wrapper functions for in silico fragmentation software, nearest neighbor chemical similarity scoring, random forest based retention time prediction, text-mining based false positive removal/true positive ranking, chemical taxonomic prediction and differential evolution based global annotation score optimization, and (vi) network graph visualizations, data curation, and sharing are made possible via the compMS 2 Explorer application. Metabolite identities and comments

  14. Super-chilling (-0.7°C) with high-CO2 packaging inhibits biochemical changes of microbial origin in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) muscle during storage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingchun; Ma, Lizhen; Yang, Hua; Xiao, Yan; Xiong, Youling L

    2016-09-01

    Controlled freezing-point storage (CFPS) is an emerging preservative technique desirable for fish. In the present study, catfish fillets were stored at -0.7°C under different packaging atmospheres: air (AP), vacuum (VP), and 60% CO2/40% N2 (MAP). Chemical, microbiological, and sensory analyses were performed during storage. Results showed the following descending order of chemical changes (degradation of nucleotides, conversion of protein to volatile-based nitrogen and biogenic amines, and production of trimethylamine nitrogen), as well as loss of sensory properties: 4°C AP>-0.7°C AP≈4°C VP>-0.7°C VP≈4°C MAP>-0.7°C MAP. The chemical changes were well-correlated with microbial growth suggesting the microbiological pathways. Hence, CFPS at -0.7°C in combination with high-CO2 MAP can effectively maintain the quality of fresh catfish meat compared to traditional preservation methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel combined stir bar sorptive extraction coupled with ultrasonic assisted extraction for the determination of brominated flame retardants in environmental samples using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunhe; Hu, Bin

    2007-08-10

    A combined stir bar coated with poly (dimethysiloxane)-beta-cyclodextrin (PDMS-beta-CD) on single side has been prepared for the first time by sol-gel method and was coupled with ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) for the determination of some brominated flame-retardant compounds (BFRs) in soil and dust samples by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Four different kinds of coatings including PDMS-beta-CD, PDMS, carbowax (CW)-PDMS-poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and PDMS-PVA were evaluated for stir bar sorptive extraction of BFRs by orthogonal experiment design. The experimental results reveal that the PDMS-beta-CD combined stir bar exhibited the best extraction efficiency for the target analytes. The reproducibility for the preparation of PDMS-beta-CD combined stir bar ranged from 1.3% to 15.7% in one batch, and 7.2% to 15.1% among batches. Extraction time, desorption solvent, concentration of methanol and NaCl in the matrix, pH, temperature and stirring speed were optimized. The combined stir bar can avoid direct friction of the coating with the bottom of the vessel, and could be used for more than 100 times. Linearity (>0.993), repeatability (<10.5%), reproducibility (<16.5%), recovery (56-118%) and detection limits (2.9-4.2 microg L(-1)) were proper to determine the seven BFRs. The developed method was applied to the determination of BFRs in soil and dust with satisfactory results.

  16. Study of optimal extraction conditions for achieving high yield and antioxidant activity of tomato seed oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato seeds resulting from tomato processing by-product have not been effectively utilized as value-added products. This study investigated the kinetics of oil extraction from tomato seeds and sought to optimize the oil extraction conditions. The oil was extracted by using hexane as solvent for 0 t...

  17. High performance curcumin subcritical water extraction from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    PubMed

    Valizadeh Kiamahalleh, Mohammad; Najafpour-Darzi, Ghasem; Rahimnejad, Mostafa; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Valizadeh Kiamahalleh, Meisam

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin is a hydrophobic polyphenolic compound derived from turmeric rhizome, which consists about 2-5% of the total rhizome content and is a more valuable component of turmeric. For reducing the drawbacks of conventional extraction (using organic solvents) of curcumin, the water as a clean solvent was used for extracting curcumin. Subcritical water extraction (SWE) experimental setup was fabricated in a laboratory scale and the influences of some parameters (e.g. extraction temperature, particle size, retention time and pressure) on the yield of extraction were investigated. Optimum extraction conditions such as SWE pressure of 10bar, extractive temperature of 140°C, particle size of 0.71mm and retention time of 14min were defined. The maximum amount of curcumin extracted at the optimum condition was 3.8wt%. The yield of curcumin extraction was more than 76wt% with regards to the maximum possible curcumin content of turmeric, as known to be 5%. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images from the outer surface of turmeric, before and after extraction, clearly demonstrated the effect of each parameter; changes in porosity and hardness of turmeric that is directly related to the amount of extracted curcumin in process optimization of the extraction parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Study to find the best extraction solvent for use with guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) for high antioxidant efficacy.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jongkwon; Lee, Soojung; Elam, Marcus L; Johnson, Sarah A; Kang, Jonghoon; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2014-03-01

    The effects of guava leaves extracted using solvents of water, ethanol, methanol, and different concentrations of hydroethanolic solvents on phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and antioxidant properties have been investigated. The antioxidant capability was assessed based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical-scavenging abilities, reducing power, and nitric oxide-and nitrate-scavenging activities. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant ability of guava leaf extracts has a strong relationship with phenolic compound content rather than flavonoid content. Phenolic compound content of water extracted guava leaves was higher compared to pure ethanol and methanol extracts. However, phenolic compound content extracted using hydroethanolic solvent was higher than water, whereas 50% hydroethanolic was observed to be the most effective solvent showing high antioxidant ability.

  19. Study to find the best extraction solvent for use with guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) for high antioxidant efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jongkwon; Lee, Soojung; Elam, Marcus L; Johnson, Sarah A; Kang, Jonghoon; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2014-01-01

    The effects of guava leaves extracted using solvents of water, ethanol, methanol, and different concentrations of hydroethanolic solvents on phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and antioxidant properties have been investigated. The antioxidant capability was assessed based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical-scavenging abilities, reducing power, and nitric oxide-and nitrate-scavenging activities. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant ability of guava leaf extracts has a strong relationship with phenolic compound content rather than flavonoid content. Phenolic compound content of water extracted guava leaves was higher compared to pure ethanol and methanol extracts. However, phenolic compound content extracted using hydroethanolic solvent was higher than water, whereas 50% hydroethanolic was observed to be the most effective solvent showing high antioxidant ability. PMID:24804076

  20. Chip packaging technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaraj, Kumaraswamy (Inventor); Noll, Thomas E. (Inventor); Lockwood, Harry F. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A hermetically sealed package for at least one semiconductor chip is provided which is formed of a substrate having electrical interconnects thereon to which the semiconductor chips are selectively bonded, and a lid which preferably functions as a heat sink, with a hermetic seal being formed around the chips between the substrate and the heat sink. The substrate is either formed of or includes a layer of a thermoplastic material having low moisture permeability which material is preferably a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) and is a multiaxially oriented LCP material for preferred embodiments. Where the lid is a heat sink, the heat sink is formed of a material having high thermal conductivity and preferably a coefficient of thermal expansion which substantially matches that of the chip. A hermetic bond is formed between the side of each chip opposite that connected to the substrate and the heat sink. The thermal bond between the substrate and the lid/heat sink may be a pinched seal or may be provided, for example by an LCP frame which is hermetically bonded or sealed on one side to the substrate and on the other side to the lid/heat sink. The chips may operate in the RF or microwave bands with suitable interconnects on the substrate and the chips may also include optical components with optical fibers being sealed into the substrate and aligned with corresponding optical components to transmit light in at least one direction. A plurality of packages may be physically and electrically connected together in a stack to form a 3D array.

  1. Extreme temperature packaging: challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. Wayne

    2016-05-01

    Consumer electronics account for the majority of electronics manufactured today. Given the temperature limits of humans, consumer electronics are typically rated for operation from -40°C to +85°C. Military applications extend the range to -65°C to +125°C while underhood automotive electronics may see +150°C. With the proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT), the goal of instrumenting (sensing, computation, transmission) to improve safety and performance in high temperature environments such as geothermal wells, nuclear reactors, combustion chambers, industrial processes, etc. requires sensors, electronics and packaging compatible with these environments. Advances in wide bandgap semiconductors (SiC and GaN) allow the fabrication of high temperature compatible sensors and electronics. Integration and packaging of these devices is required for implementation into actual applications. The basic elements of packaging are die attach, electrical interconnection and the package or housing. Consumer electronics typically use conductive adhesives or low melting point solders for die attach, wire bonds or low melting solder for electrical interconnection and epoxy for the package. These materials melt or decompose in high temperature environments. This paper examines materials and processes for high temperature packaging including liquid transient phase and sintered nanoparticle die attach, high melting point wires for wire bonding and metal and ceramic packages. The limitations of currently available solutions will also be discussed.

  2. Nutrition. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Carolyn

    This learning activity package on nutrition is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  3. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-31

    This Guide supplements the Department of Energy (DOE) Order, DOE O 460.1A, PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION SAFETY, 10-2-96, by providing clarifying material for the implementation of packaging and transportation safety of hazardous materials. DOE O 460....

  4. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  5. Cranberry extract attenuates hepatic inflammation in high fat-fed obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Glisan, Shannon L.; Ryan, Caroline; Neilson, Andrew P.; Lambert, Joshua D.

    2016-01-01

    Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) consumption has been associated with health beneficial effects. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a co-morbidity of obesity. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a polyphenol-rich cranberry extract (CBE) on hepatic inflammation in high fat-fed obese C57BL/6J mice. Following dietary treatment with 0.8% CBE for 10 weeks, we observed no change in body weight or visceral fat mass in CBE supplemented mice compared to high fat-fed control mice. We did observe a significant decrease in plasma alanine aminotransferase (31%) and histological severity of NAFLD (33% decrease in area of involvement, 29% decrease in lipid droplet size) compared to high fat-fed controls. Hepatic protein levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and C-C chemokine ligand 2 were reduced by 28% and 19%, respectively, following CBE supplementation. CBE significantly decreased hepatic mRNA levels of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, 63%) and nuclear factorκ B (NFκB, 24%), as well as a number of genes related to the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain-containing-3 inflammasome. In conclusion, CBE reduced NAFLD and hepatic inflammation in high fat-fed obese C57BL/6J mice. These effects appear to be related to mitigation of TLR4-NFκB related signaling, however further studies into the underlying mechanisms of these hepatoprotective effects are needed. PMID:27619543

  6. Grape seed and skin extract prevents high-fat diet-induced brain lipotoxicity in rat.

    PubMed

    Charradi, Kamel; Elkahoui, Salem; Karkouch, Ines; Limam, Ferid; Hassine, Fethy Ben; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2012-09-01

    Obesity is related to an elevated risk of dementia and the physiologic mechanisms whereby fat adversely affects the brain are poorly understood. The present investigation analyzed the effect of a high fat diet (HFD) on brain steatosis and oxidative stress and the intracellular mediators involved in signal transduction, as well as the protection offered by grape seed and skin extract (GSSE). HFD induced ectopic deposition of cholesterol and phospholipid but not triglyceride. Moreover brain lipotoxicity is linked to an oxidative stress characterized by increased lipoperoxidation and carbonylation, inhibition of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, depletion of manganese and a concomitant increase in ionizable calcium and acetylcholinesterase activity. Importantly GSSE alleviated all the deleterious effects of HFD treatment. Altogether our data indicated that HFD could find some potential application in the treatment of manganism and that GSSE should be used as a safe anti-lipotoxic agent in the prevention and treatment of fat-induced brain injury.

  7. Photonuclear production of yttrium-88 - A high energy gamma emitter for hydrocarbon extraction applications.

    PubMed

    Dale, Daniel S; Starovoitova, Valeriia N; Forest, Tony A; Oliphant, Emily

    2018-05-05

    The use of fracing has risen over the past decade and revolutionized energy production in the US. However, there is still an impetus for further optimization of the extraction of oil and natural gas from vast shale reservoirs. In this work, we discuss photonuclear production of yttrium-88 as a promising radiotracer for fracing operations. Single neutron knock-out from natural monoisotopic yttrium-89 is an inexpensive process resulting in high activity of 88 Y with minimal impurities. MCNPX simulations were performed to estimate the 88 Y yield. Irradiations of natural yttrium using a 32 MeV electron linac equipped with a tungsten bremsstrahlung converter were done to benchmark the simulations. Activities of 88 Y, 87g Y, and 87m Y were measured and found to be in good agreement with the predictions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of pigments of red wines.

    PubMed

    Csiktusnádi Kiss, G A; Forgács, E; Cserháti, T; Candeias, M; Vilas-Boas, L; Bronze, R; Spranger, I

    2000-08-11

    The adsorption and desorption capacities of 11 different solid-phase extraction sorbents were tested for the preconcenration of pigments of various Hungarian red wines. The concentrates were evaluated by multiwavelengh spectrophotometry combined with a spectral mapping technique (SPM) and by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The highest (10-fold) concentration of pigments was achieved on octadecylsilica sorbent. It can be used five times without losing adsorption and desorption characteristics. SPM indicated that multiwavelength spectrophotometry can be employed for the differentiation of red wines. Comparison of the chromatograms of pigments with and without preconcentration showed that preconcentration makes possible the separation and detection of pigments present in low concentration in red wines.

  9. Effect of solvent type and high pressure treatment on the extraction of Gomphrena globosa L. bioactive compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, L.; Ramalhosa, E.; Pereira, J. A.; Casal, S.; Saraiva, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to compare the influence of different extraction solvents (water, methanol, water:acetone (6:4, v/v)), methods (heating (37 °C, 30 min) or high pressure (HP) (300 or 500 MPa) and extraction time (7.5 or 15 min)) on flavonoids, hydrolysable tannins and antioxidant activity (Total Reducing Capacity (TRC), DPPH Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Reducing Power) of Gomphrena globosa L. flower extracts. The water:acetone extracts obtained by heating had the highest values of flavonoids, hydrolysable tannins and antioxidant activity. When applying HP, variable results were obtained. Still, the application of HP to water allowed to extract more hydrolysable tannins, as well as to obtain extracts with higher antioxidant activity than with heating, but no significant alterations were observed with methanol. In conclusion, both solvent and extraction method influence the content of bioactive compounds, being HP treatment a promising method to obtain enriched aqueous extracts in line with the principles of green-chemistry.

  10. High voltage photoconductive switch package

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, George J.

    2016-11-22

    A photoconductive switch having a wide bandgap material substrate between opposing electrodes, and a doped dielectric filler that is in contact with both the electrodes and the substrate at the triple point. The dielectric filler material is doped with a conductive material to make it partially or completely conducting, to minimize the field enhancement near the triple point both when the substrate is not conducting in the "off" state and when the substrate is rendered conducting by radiation in the "on" state.

  11. Toward high-throughput phenotyping: unbiased automated feature extraction and selection from knowledge sources.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sheng; Liao, Katherine P; Shaw, Stanley Y; Gainer, Vivian S; Churchill, Susanne E; Szolovits, Peter; Murphy, Shawn N; Kohane, Isaac S; Cai, Tianxi

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of narrative (text) data from electronic health records (EHRs) can improve population-scale phenotyping for clinical and genetic research. Currently, selection of text features for phenotyping algorithms is slow and laborious, requiring extensive and iterative involvement by domain experts. This paper introduces a method to develop phenotyping algorithms in an unbiased manner by automatically extracting and selecting informative features, which can be comparable to expert-curated ones in classification accuracy. Comprehensive medical concepts were collected from publicly available knowledge sources in an automated, unbiased fashion. Natural language processing (NLP) revealed the occurrence patterns of these concepts in EHR narrative notes, which enabled selection of informative features for phenotype classification. When combined with additional codified features, a penalized logistic regression model was trained to classify the target phenotype. The authors applied our method to develop algorithms to identify patients with rheumatoid arthritis and coronary artery disease cases among those with rheumatoid arthritis from a large multi-institutional EHR. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) for classifying RA and CAD using models trained with automated features were 0.951 and 0.929, respectively, compared to the AUCs of 0.938 and 0.929 by models trained with expert-curated features. Models trained with NLP text features selected through an unbiased, automated procedure achieved comparable or slightly higher accuracy than those trained with expert-curated features. The majority of the selected model features were interpretable. The proposed automated feature extraction method, generating highly accurate phenotyping algorithms with improved efficiency, is a significant step toward high-throughput phenotyping. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All

  12. Modular electronics packaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Don J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A modular electronics packaging system includes multiple packaging slices that are mounted horizontally to a base structure. The slices interlock to provide added structural support. Each packaging slice includes a rigid and thermally conductive housing having four side walls that together form a cavity to house an electronic circuit. The chamber is enclosed on one end by an end wall, or web, that isolates the electronic circuit from a circuit in an adjacent packaging slice. The web also provides a thermal path between the electronic circuit and the base structure. Each slice also includes a mounting bracket that connects the packaging slice to the base structure. Four guide pins protrude from the slice into four corresponding receptacles in an adjacent slice. A locking element, such as a set screw, protrudes into each receptacle and interlocks with the corresponding guide pin. A conduit is formed in the slice to allow electrical connection to the electronic circuit.

  13. New Finsler package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Nabil L.; Elgendi, S. G.

    2014-03-01

    The book “Handbook of Finsler geometry” has been included with a CD containing an elegant Maple package, FINSLER, for calculations in Finsler geometry. Using this package, an example concerning a Finsler generalization of Einstein’s vacuum field equations was treated. In this example, the calculation of the components of the hv-curvature of Cartan connection leads to wrong expressions. On the other hand, the FINSLER package works only in dimension four. We introduce a new Finsler package in which we fix the two problems and solve them. Moreover, we extend this package to compute not only the geometric objects associated with Cartan connection but also those associated with Berwald, Chern and Hashiguchi connections in any dimension. These improvements have been illustrated by a concrete example. Furthermore, the problem of simplifying tensor expressions is treated. This paper is intended to make calculations in Finsler geometry more easier and simpler.

  14. Highly Processed and Ready-to-Eat Packaged Food and Beverage Purchases Differ by Race/Ethnicity among US Households123

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Racial/ethnic disparities in dietary quality persist among Americans, but it is unclear whether highly processed foods or convenience foods contribute to these inequalities. Objective: We examined the independent associations of race/ethnicity with highly processed and ready-to-eat (RTE) food purchases among US households. We determined whether controlling for between-group differences in purchases of these products attenuated associations between race/ethnicity and the nutritional quality of purchases. Methods: The 2000–2012 Homescan Panel followed US households (n = 157,142) that scanned their consumer packaged goods (CPG) food and beverage purchases. By using repeated-measures regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, we examined time-varying associations of race/ethnicity with processed and convenience food purchases, expressed as a percentage of calories purchased. We estimated associations between race/ethnicity and saturated fat, sugar, or energy density of total purchases with and without adjustment for processed and convenience food purchases. Results: Compared with white households, black households had significantly lower purchases of highly processed foods (–4.1% kcal) and RTE convenience foods (–4.9% kcal) and had higher purchases of basic processed foods, particularly cooking oils and sugar (+5.4% kcal), foods requiring cooking/preparation (+4.5% kcal), and highly processed beverages (+7.1% kcal). Hispanics also had lower purchases of highly processed and RTE foods than whites. Blacks had CPG purchases with significantly higher median sugar (+2.2% kcal) and energy density (+72 kcal/1000 g), whereas Hispanics had purchases with lower saturated fat (–0.6% kcal) and energy density (–25 kcal/1000 g) than whites. Racial/ethnic differences remained significant after adjustment for processed and convenience food purchases. Conclusions: In our study, compared with white households, both black and Hispanic

  15. High-throughput and selective solid-phase extraction of urinary catecholamines by crown ether-modified resin composite fiber.

    PubMed

    Chen, LiQin; Wang, Hui; Xu, Zhen; Zhang, QiuYue; Liu, Jia; Shen, Jun; Zhang, WanQi

    2018-08-03

    In the present study, we developed a simple and high-throughput solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure for selective extraction of catecholamines (CAs) in urine samples. The SPE adsorbents were electrospun composite fibers functionalized with 4-carboxybenzo-18-crown-6 ether modified XAD resin and polystyrene, which were packed into 96-well columns and used for high-throughput selective extraction of CAs in healthy human urine samples. Moreover, the extraction efficiency of packed-fiber SPE (PFSPE) was examined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency and impurity removal efficiency were optimized, and good linearity ranging from 0.5 to 400 ng/mL was obtained with a low limit of detection (LOD, 0.2-0.5 ng/mL) and a good repeatability (2.7%-3.7%, n = 6). The extraction recoveries of three CAs ranged from 70.5% to 119.5%. Furthermore, stable and reliable results obtained by the fluorescence detector were superior to those obtained by the electrochemical detector. Collectively, PFSPE coupled with 96-well columns was a simple, rapid, selective, high-throughput and cost-efficient method, and the proposed method could be applied in clinical chemistry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of aroma compound absorption in plastic packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenström, Kristina; Erlandsson, Bengt; Hellborg, Ragnar; Wiebert, Anders; Skog, Göran; Nielsen, Tim

    1994-05-01

    Absorption of aroma compounds in plastic packaging materials may affect the taste of the packaged food and it may also change the quality of the packaging material. A method to determine the aroma compound absorption in polymers by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is being developed at the Lund Pelletron AMS facility. The high sensitivity of the AMS method makes it possible to study these phenomena under realistic conditions. As a first test low density polyethylene exposed to 14C-doped ethyl acetate is examined. After converting the polymer samples with the absorbed aroma compounds to graphite, the {14C }/{13C } ratio of the samples is measured by the AMS system and the degree of aroma compound absorption is established. The results are compared with those obtained by supercritical fluid extraction coupled to gas chromatography (SFE-GC).

  17. Grape seed and skin extract alleviates high-fat diet-induced renal lipotoxicity and prevents copper depletion in rat.

    PubMed

    Charradi, Kamel; Elkahoui, Salem; Karkouch, Ines; Limam, Ferid; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Ben Hassine, Fethy; El May, Michèle Veronique; El May, Ahmed; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2013-03-01

    Obesity is a public health problem that contributes to morbidity and mortality from diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and cancers. The purpose of this investigation was to analyse the link between obesity-induced oxidative stress, renal steatosis, and kidney dysfunction, as well as the protective effect of grape seed and skin extract. Rats were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and were either treated or not treated with grape seed and skin extract. Fat-induced oxidative stress was evaluated in the kidney with a special emphasis on transition metals. High-fat diet induced triglyceride deposition and disturbances in kidney function parameters, which are linked to an oxidative stress status and depletion of copper from the kidney. Grape seed and skin extract abrogated almost all fat-induced kidney disturbances. Grape seed and skin extract exerted potential protection against fat-induced kidney lipotoxicity and should find potential application in other kidney-related diseases.

  18. Small-signal modeling with direct parameter extraction for impact ionization effect in high-electron-mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, He; Lv, Hongliang; Guo, Hui, E-mail: hguan@stu.xidian.edu.cn

    2015-11-21

    Impact ionization affects the radio-frequency (RF) behavior of high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs), which have narrow-bandgap semiconductor channels, and this necessitates complex parameter extraction procedures for HEMT modeling. In this paper, an enhanced small-signal equivalent circuit model is developed to investigate the impact ionization, and an improved method is presented in detail for direct extraction of intrinsic parameters using two-step measurements in low-frequency and high-frequency regimes. The practicability of the enhanced model and the proposed direct parameter extraction method are verified by comparing the simulated S-parameters with published experimental data from an InAs/AlSb HEMT operating over a wide frequency range. The resultsmore » demonstrate that the enhanced model with optimal intrinsic parameter values that were obtained by the direct extraction approach can effectively characterize the effects of impact ionization on the RF performance of HEMTs.« less

  19. Extracting biomolecule collision cross sections from the high-resolution FT-ICR mass spectral linewidths.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ting; Chen, Yu; Mao, Lu; Marshall, Alan G; Xu, Wei

    2016-01-14

    It is known that the ion collision cross section (CCS) may be calculated from the linewidth of a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectral peak at elevated pressure (e.g., ∼10(-6) Torr). However, the high mass resolution of FT-ICR is sacrificed in those experiments due to high buffer gas pressure. In this study, we describe a linewidth correction method to eliminate the windowing-induced peak broadening effect. Together with the energetic ion-neutral collision model previously developed by our group, this method enables the extraction of CCSs of biomolecules from high-resolution FT-ICR mass spectral linewidths, obtained at a typical operating buffer gas pressure of modern FT-ICR instruments (∼10(-10) Torr). CCS values of peptides including MRFA, angiotensin I, and bradykinin measured by the proposed method agree well with ion mobility measurements, and the unfolding of protein ions (ubiquitin) at higher charge states is also observed.

  20. Corn silk extract improves cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Rim; Kang, Hyun Joong; Kim, Myung Hwan; Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2016-10-01

    Corn silk (CS) extract contains large amounts of maysin, which is a major flavonoid in CS. However, studies regarding the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets. Normal-fat group fed 7% fat diet, high-fat (HF) group fed 25% fat diet, and high-fat with corn silk (HFCS) group were orally administered CS extract (100 mg/kg body weight) daily. Serum and hepatic levels of total lipids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol as well as serum free fatty acid, glucose, and insulin levels were determined. The mRNA expression levels of acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase (CYP7A1), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), low-density lipoprotein receptor, 3-hyroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), adiponectin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor α were determined. Oral administration of CS extract with HF improved serum glucose and insulin levels as well as attenuated HF-induced fatty liver. CS extracts significantly elevated mRNA expression levels of adipocytokines and reduced mRNA expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT, and FXR. The mRNA expression levels of CYP7A1 and LCAT between the HF group and HFCS group were not statistically different. CS extract supplementation with a high-fat diet improves levels of adipocytokine secretion and glucose homeostasis. CS extract is also effective in decreasing the regulatory pool of hepatic cholesterol, in line with decreased blood and hepatic levels of cholesterol though modulation of mRNA expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT, and FXR.

  1. Separation and purification of polyphenols from red wine extracts using high speed counter current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Lingxi; Cui, Yan; Zhang, Shuting; Sun, Baoshan

    2017-06-01

    Polyphenols are important compounds of red wine owing to their contribution to sensory properties and antioxidant activities. In this study, high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) coupled with semi-preparative HPLC was used for large-scale separation and purification of polyphenols from red wine extracts. With the solvent system of hexane-ethyl acetate-water (1-50-50), various oligomeric procyanidins including monomer catechin, epicatechin, dimers B1, B2; phenolic acids including coutaric acid, caftaric acid and other type of polyphenols were largely separated within 370min and most of these compounds presented high yields (0.97mg to 13.79mg) with high purity (90.34% to 98.91%) after the semi-preparative HPLC isolation. Using the solvent system of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) - n-butyl alcohol- acetonitrile-water (1-40-1-50, acidified with 0.01% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)) by one-step HSCCC of 100mg of the red wine extracts, the major anthocyanins, i.e., malvidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-O-glucoside, as well as two polymeric proanthocyanidin fractions were successfully separated one another within 320min. The yields of malvidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-O-glucoside were 12.12mg, 1.78mg and 11.57mg with the purity of 92.74%, 91.03% and 91.21%, respectively. Thiolysis-UPLC analysis indicated that the two polymeric proanthocyanidin fractions presented high purity, with mean degree of polymerization of 7.66±0.12 and 6.20±0.09, respectively. The further experiments on the antioxidant activities by DPPH radical test, FRAP assay and ABTS method showed that all of the isolated procyandins and anthocyanins and the two polymeric proanthocyanidin fractions, with exception of phenolic acids possessed much greater antioxidant activities compared to standard Trolox andl-ascorbic acid (2-14 times). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Flat conductor cable for electrical packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1972-01-01

    Flat conductor cable (FCC) is relatively new, highly promising means for electrical packaging and system integration. FCC offers numerous desirable traits (weight, volume and cost savings, flexibility, high reliability, predictable and repeatable electrical characteristics) which make it extremely attractive as a packaging medium. FCC, today, finds wide application in everything from integration of lunar equipment to the packaging of electronics in nuclear submarines. Described are cable construction and means of termination, applicable specifications and standards, and total FCC systems. A list of additional sources of data is also included for more intensive study.

  3. FTOOLS: A general package of software to manipulate FITS files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, J. K.; Shaw, R. A.; Payne, H. E.; Hayes, J. J. E.; Heasarc

    1999-12-01

    FTOOLS, a highly modular collection of utilities for processing and analyzing data in the FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) format, has been developed in support of the HEASARC (High Energy Astrophysics Research Archive Center) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The FTOOLS package contains many utility programs which perform modular tasks on any FITS image or table, as well as higher-level analysis programs designed specifically for data from current and past high energy astrophysics missions. The utility programs for FITS tables are especially rich and powerful, and provide functions for presentation of file contents, extraction of specific rows or columns, appending or merging tables, binning values in a column or selecting subsets of rows based on a boolean expression. Individual FTOOLS programs can easily be chained together in scripts to achieve more complex operations such as the generation and displaying of spectra or light curves. FTOOLS development began in 1991 and has produced the main set of data analysis software for the current ASCA and RXTE space missions and for other archival sets of X-ray and gamma-ray data. The FTOOLS software package is supported on most UNIX platforms and on Windows machines. The user interface is controlled by standard parameter files that are very similar to those used by IRAF. The package is self documenting through a stand alone help task called fhelp. Software is written in ANSI C and FORTRAN to provide portability across most computer systems. The data format dependencies between hardware platforms are isolated through the FITSIO library package.

  4. Highly Efficient Extraction of Phenolic Compounds by Use of Magnetic Room Temperature Ionic Liquids for Environmental Remediation

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ning; Li, Min; Zhao, Lijie; Lu, Chengfei; de Rooy, Sergio L.; Warner, Isiah M.

    2011-01-01

    A hydrophobic magnetic room temperature ionic liquid (MRTIL), trihexyltetradecylphosphonium tetrachloroferrate(III) ([3C6PC14][FeCl4]), was synthesized from trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride and FeCl3·6H2O. This MRTIL was investigated as a possible separation agent for solvent extraction of phenolic compounds from aqueous solution. Due to its strong paramagnetism, [3C6PC14][FeCl4] responds to an external neodymium magnet, which was employed in the design of a novel magnetic extraction technique. The conditions for extraction, including extraction time, volume ratio between MRTIL and aqueous phase, pH of aqueous solution, and structures of phenolic compounds were investigated and optimized. The magnetic extraction of phenols achieved equilibrium in 20 min and the phenolic compounds were found to have higher distribution ratios under acidic conditions. In addition, it was observed that phenols containing a greater number of chlorine or nitro substitutents exhibited higher distribution ratios. For example, the distribution ratio of phenol (DPh) was 107. In contrast, 3,5-dichlorophenol distribution ratio (D3,5-DCP) had a much higher value of 6372 under identical extraction conditions. When compared with four selected traditional non-magnetic room temperature ionic liquids, our [3C6PC14][FeCl4] exhibited significantly higher extraction efficiency under the same experimental conditions used in this work. Pentachlorophenol, a major component in the contaminated soil sample obtained from a superfund site, was successfully extracted and removed by use of [3C6PC14][FeCl4] with high extraction efficiency. Pentachlorophenol concentration was dramatically reduced from 7.8 μg.mL−1 to 0.2 μg.mL−1 after the magnetic extraction by use of [3C6PC14][FeCl4]. PMID:21783320

  5. Effect of Carnitine and herbal mixture extract on obesity induced by high fat diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Amin, Kamal A; Nagy, Mohamed A

    2009-10-16

    Obesity-associated type 2 diabetes is rapidly increasing throughout the world. It is generally recognized that natural products with a long history of safety can modulate obesity. To investigate the development of obesity in response to a high fat diet (HFD) and to estimate the effect of L-carnitine and an Egyptian Herbal mixture formulation (HMF) (consisting of T. chebula, Senae, rhubarb, black cumin, aniseed, fennel and licorice) on bodyweight, food intake, lipid profiles, renal, hepatic, cardiac function markers, lipid Peroxidation, and the glucose and insulin levels in blood and liver tissue in rats. White male albino rats weighing 80-90 gm, 60 days old. 10 rats were fed a normal basal diet (Cr), 30 rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks during the entire study. Rats of the HFD group were equally divided into 3 subgroups each one include 10 rats. The first group received HFD with no supplement (HFD), the 2nd group HFD+L-carnitine and the third group received HFD+HMF. Carnitine and HMF were administered at 10th week (start time for treatments) for 4 weeks.Body weight, lipid profile & renal function (urea, uric acid creatinine) ALT & AST activities, cardiac markers, (LDH, C.K-NAC and MB) the oxidative stress marker reduced glutathione (GSH), and Malondialdehyde (MDA) catalase activity, in addition to glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance in serum & tissues were analyzed. Data showed that feeding HFD diet significantly increased final body weight, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, & LDL concentration compared with controls, while significantly decreasing HDL; meanwhile treatment with L-carnitine, or HMF significantly normalized the lipid profile.Serum ALT, urea, uric acid, creatinine, LDH, CK-NAC, CK-MB were significantly higher in the high fat group compared with normal controls; and administration of L-carnitine or herbal extract significantly lessened the effect of the HFD. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and high insulin resistance (IR

  6. [High-dose Crataegus extract WS 1442 in the treatment of NYHA stage II heart failure].

    PubMed

    Tauchert, M; Gildor, A; Lipinski, J

    1999-10-01

    The efficacy and tolerance of the standardized hawthorn (crataegus) extract WS 1442 were tested in a multicenter utilization observational study. We monitored 1,011 patients with cardiac insufficiency stage NYHA II, treated with this extract (Crataegutt novo 450, 1 tablet b.i.d.) over a period of 24 weeks. During and at the end of the observation period a significant improvement in clinical symptoms (reduced performance in the exercise tolerance test, fatigue, palpitation and exercise dyspnea) was observed. Ankle edema and nocturia disappeared by 83%, and by half of the patients respectively manifesting these symptoms before treatment. The improvement and economization of cardiac performance were additionally shown by a reduction in blood pressure, an increased maximal exercise tolerance and a reduction in the difference in the pressure/heart rate product (PHRP). The positive effects of WS 1442 were further demonstrated by an improved ejection fraction and an increased percentile shortening fraction measured using M-mode echocardiography. The stabilizing effect of the hawthorn extract on the heart rate was shown by a slower rest pulse, as well as by an increase in the number of day and night normorhythmic patients, as documented by long-term ECG. The reduction in the number of patients showing ST depressions, arrhythmias and ventricular extrasystoles at the maximum exercise level is regarded as an indication for an improved myocardial perfusion. Fourteen side effects were noted. In two cases (abdominal discomfort and facial pains accompanied by tachycardia) a possible relationship with the hawthorn therapy, was postulated which however was considered unlikely by the treating physicians. Almost 2/3 of the patients felt better or much better following the 24 weeks of treatment. More than 3/4 of the participating physicians noted a good or a very good efficacy, and 98.7% noted a good or a very good tolerance. High-dose hawthorn therapy is an efficient, well

  7. Extraction of Airport Features from High Resolution Satellite Imagery for Design and Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Chris; Qiu, You-Liang; Jensen, John R.; Schill, Steven R.; Floyd, Mike

    2001-01-01

    The LPA Group, consisting of 17 offices located throughout the eastern and central United States is an architectural, engineering and planning firm specializing in the development of Airports, Roads and Bridges. The primary focus of this ARC project is concerned with assisting their aviation specialists who work in the areas of Airport Planning, Airfield Design, Landside Design, Terminal Building Planning and design, and various other construction services. The LPA Group wanted to test the utility of high-resolution commercial satellite imagery for the purpose of extracting airport elevation features in the glide path areas surrounding the Columbia Metropolitan Airport. By incorporating remote sensing techniques into their airport planning process, LPA wanted to investigate whether or not it is possible to save time and money while achieving the equivalent accuracy as traditional planning methods. The Affiliate Research Center (ARC) at the University of South Carolina investigated the use of remotely sensed imagery for the extraction of feature elevations in the glide path zone. A stereo pair of IKONOS panchromatic satellite images, which has a spatial resolution of 1 x 1 m, was used to determine elevations of aviation obstructions such as buildings, trees, towers and fence-lines. A validation dataset was provided by the LPA Group to assess the accuracy of the measurements derived from the IKONOS imagery. The initial goal of this project was to test the utility of IKONOS imagery in feature extraction using ERDAS Stereo Analyst. This goal was never achieved due to problems with ERDAS software support of the IKONOS sensor model and the unavailability of imperative sensor model information from Space Imaging. The obstacles encountered in this project pertaining to ERDAS Stereo Analyst and IKONOS imagery will be reviewed in more detail later in this report. As a result of the technical difficulties with Stereo Analyst, ERDAS OrthoBASE was used to derive aviation

  8. 10 CFR 60.135 - Criteria for the waste package and its components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 60.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES... for the waste package and its components. (a) High-level-waste package design in general. (1) Packages... package's permanent written records. (c) Waste form criteria for HLW. High-level radioactive waste that is...

  9. Orthodontic Extraction of High-Risk Impacted Mandibular Third Molars in Close Proximity to the Mandibular Canal: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Kalantar Motamedi, Mahmood Reza; Heidarpour, Majid; Siadat, Sara; Kalantar Motamedi, Alimohammad; Bahreman, Ali Akbar

    2015-09-01

    Extraction of mandibular third molars (M3s) in close proximity to the mandibular canal has some inherent risks to adjacent structures, such as neurologic damage to teeth, bone defects distal to the mandibular second molar (M2), or pathologic fractures in association with enlarged dentigerous cysts. The procedure for extrusion and subsequent extraction of high-risk M3s is called orthodontic extraction. This is a systematic review of the available approaches for orthodontic extraction of impacted mandibular M3s in close proximity to the mandibular canal and their outcomes. The PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), DOAJ, Google Scholar, OpenGrey, Iranian Science Information Database (SID), Iranmedex, and Irandoc databases were searched using specific keywords up to June 2, 2014. Studies were evaluated based on predetermined eligibility criteria, treatment approaches, and their outcomes. Thirteen articles met the inclusion criteria. A total of 123 impacted teeth were extracted by orthodontic extraction and 2 cases were complicated by transient paresthesia. Three types of biomechanical approaches were used: 1) using the posterior maxillary region as the anchor for orthodontic extrusion of lower M3s, 2) simple cantilever springs attached to the M3 buttonhole, and 3) cantilever springs tied to a bonded orthodontic bracket on the M3 plus multiple-loop spring wire for distal movement of the M3. Osteo-periodontal status of M2s also improved uneventfully. Despite the drawbacks of orthodontic extraction, removal of deeply impacted M3s using the described techniques is safe with regard to mandibular nerve injury and neurologic damage. Orthodontic extraction is recommended for extraction of impacted M3s that present a high risk of postoperative osteo-periodontal defects on the distal surface of the adjacent M2 and those associated with dentigerous cysts. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by

  10. Protein Oxidation and Sensory Quality of Brine-Injected Pork Loins Added Ascorbate or Extracts of Green Tea or Maté during Chill-Storage in High-Oxygen Modified Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Jongberg, Sisse; Tørngren, Mari Ann; Skibsted, Leif H

    2018-01-15

    Background: Ascorbate is often applied to enhance stability and robustness of brine-injected pork chops sold for retail, but may affect protein oxidation, while plant extracts are potential substitutes. Methods: Brine-injected pork chops (weight-gain ~12%, NaCl ~0.9%) prepared with ascorbate (225 ppm), green tea extract (25 ppm gallic acid equivalents (GAE)), or maté extract (25 ppm GAE) stored (5 °C, seven days) in high-oxygen atmosphere packaging (MAP: 80% O₂ and 20% CO₂) were analyzed for color changes, sensory quality, and protein oxidation compared to a control without antioxidant. Results: No significant differences were observed for green tea and maté extracts as compared to ascorbate when evaluated based on lipid oxidation derived off-flavors, except for stale flavor, which maté significantly reduced. All treatments increased the level of the protein oxidation product, α-aminoadipic semialdehyde as compared to the control, and ascorbate was further found to increase thiol loss and protein cross-linking, with a concomitant decrease in the sensory perceived tenderness. Conclusions: Green tea and maté were found to equally protect against lipid oxidation derived off-flavors, and maté showed less prooxidative activity towards proteins as compared to ascorbate, resulting in more tender meat. Maté is a valuable substitute for ascorbate in brine-injected pork chops.

  11. Protein Oxidation and Sensory Quality of Brine-Injected Pork Loins Added Ascorbate or Extracts of Green Tea or Maté during Chill-Storage in High-Oxygen Modified Atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Tørngren, Mari Ann

    2018-01-01

    Background: Ascorbate is often applied to enhance stability and robustness of brine-injected pork chops sold for retail, but may affect protein oxidation, while plant extracts are potential substitutes. Methods: Brine-injected pork chops (weight-gain ~12%, NaCl ~0.9%) prepared with ascorbate (225 ppm), green tea extract (25 ppm gallic acid equivalents (GAE)), or maté extract (25 ppm GAE) stored (5 °C, seven days) in high-oxygen atmosphere packaging (MAP: 80% O2 and 20% CO2) were analyzed for color changes, sensory quality, and protein oxidation compared to a control without antioxidant. Results: No significant differences were observed for green tea and maté extracts as compared to ascorbate when evaluated based on lipid oxidation derived off-flavors, except for stale flavor, which maté significantly reduced. All treatments increased the level of the protein oxidation product, α-aminoadipic semialdehyde as compared to the control, and ascorbate was further found to increase thiol loss and protein cross-linking, with a concomitant decrease in the sensory perceived tenderness. Conclusions: Green tea and maté were found to equally protect against lipid oxidation derived off-flavors, and maté showed less prooxidative activity towards proteins as compared to ascorbate, resulting in more tender meat. Maté is a valuable substitute for ascorbate in brine-injected pork chops. PMID:29342928

  12. RCrawler: An R package for parallel web crawling and scraping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Salim; Fakir, Mohamed

    RCrawler is a contributed R package for domain-based web crawling and content scraping. As the first implementation of a parallel web crawler in the R environment, RCrawler can crawl, parse, store pages, extract contents, and produce data that can be directly employed for web content mining applications. However, it is also flexible, and could be adapted to other applications. The main features of RCrawler are multi-threaded crawling, content extraction, and duplicate content detection. In addition, it includes functionalities such as URL and content-type filtering, depth level controlling, and a robot.txt parser. Our crawler has a highly optimized system, and can download a large number of pages per second while being robust against certain crashes and spider traps. In this paper, we describe the design and functionality of RCrawler, and report on our experience of implementing it in an R environment, including different optimizations that handle the limitations of R. Finally, we discuss our experimental results.

  13. Packaging Concerns/Techniques for Large Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews packaging challenges and options for electronic parts. The presentation includes information about non-hermetic packages, space challenges for packaging and complex package variations.

  14. Extraction of High Molecular Weight DNA from Fungal Rust Spores for Long Read Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Schwessinger, Benjamin; Rathjen, John P

    2017-01-01

    Wheat rust fungi are complex organisms with a complete life cycle that involves two different host plants and five different spore types. During the asexual infection cycle on wheat, rusts produce massive amounts of dikaryotic urediniospores. These spores are dikaryotic (two nuclei) with each nucleus containing one haploid genome. This dikaryotic state is likely to contribute to their evolutionary success, making them some of the major wheat pathogens globally. Despite this, most published wheat rust genomes are highly fragmented and contain very little haplotype-specific sequence information. Current long-read sequencing technologies hold great promise to provide more contiguous and haplotype-phased genome assemblies. Long reads are able to span repetitive regions and phase structural differences between the haplomes. This increased genome resolution enables the identification of complex loci and the study of genome evolution beyond simple nucleotide polymorphisms. Long-read technologies require pure high molecular weight DNA as an input for sequencing. Here, we describe a DNA extraction protocol for rust spores that yields pure double-stranded DNA molecules with molecular weight of >50 kilo-base pairs (kbp). The isolated DNA is of sufficient purity for PacBio long-read sequencing, but may require additional purification for other sequencing technologies such as Nanopore and 10× Genomics.

  15. Criteria to Extract High-Quality Protein Data Bank Subsets for Structure Users.

    PubMed

    Carugo, Oliviero; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    It is often necessary to build subsets of the Protein Data Bank to extract structural trends and average values. For this purpose it is mandatory that the subsets are non-redundant and of high quality. The first problem can be solved relatively easily at the sequence level or at the structural level. The second, on the contrary, needs special attention. It is not sufficient, in fact, to consider the crystallographic resolution and other feature must be taken into account: the absence of strings of residues from the electron density maps and from the files deposited in the Protein Data Bank; the B-factor values; the appropriate validation of the structural models; the quality of the electron density maps, which is not uniform; and the temperature of the diffraction experiments. More stringent criteria produce smaller subsets, which can be enlarged with more tolerant selection criteria. The incessant growth of the Protein Data Bank and especially of the number of high-resolution structures is allowing the use of more stringent selection criteria, with a consequent improvement of the quality of the subsets of the Protein Data Bank.

  16. Taraxacum official (dandelion) leaf extract alleviates high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Hur, Haeng Jeon; Yang, Hye Jeong; Hwang, Jin-Taek; Park, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Min Jung; Kwon, Dae Young; Sung, Mi Jeong

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the protective effect of Taraxacum official (dandelion) leaf extract (DLE) on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis, and elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind its effects. To determine the hepatoprotective effect of DLE, we fed C57BL/6 mice with normal chow diet (NCD), high-fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with 2g/kg DLE DLE (DL), and HFD supplemented with 5 g/kg DLE (DH). We found that the HFD supplemented by DLE dramatically reduced hepatic lipid accumulation compared to HFD alone. Body and liver weights of the DL and DH groups were significantly lesser than those of the HFD group, and DLE supplementation dramatically suppressed triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), insulin, fasting glucose level in serum, and Homeostatic Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) induced by HFD. In addition, DLE treatment significantly increased activation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in liver and muscle protein. DLE significantly suppressed lipid accumulation in the liver, reduced insulin resistance, and lipid in HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice via the AMPK pathway. These results indicate that the DLE may represent a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Separation of three phenolic high-molecular-weight compounds from the crude extract of Terminalia Chebula Retz. by ultrasound-assisted extraction and high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zou, Deng-lang; Chen, Tao; Li, Hong-mei; Chen, Chen; Zhao, Jing-yang; Li, Yu-lin

    2016-04-01

    This study presents an efficient strategy for separation of three phenolic compounds with high molecular weight from the crude extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. by ultrasound-assisted extraction and high-speed counter-current chromatography. The ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions were optimized by response surface methodology and the results showed the target compounds could be well enriched under the optimized extraction conditions. Then the crude extract was directly separated by high-speed counter-current chromatography without any pretreatment using n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (1:7:0.5:3, v/v/v/v) as the solvent system. In 180 min, 13 mg of A, 18 mg of B, and 9 mg of C were obtained from 200 mg of crude sample. Their structures were identified as Chebulagic acid (A, 954 Da), Chebulinic acid (B, 956 Da), and Ellagic acid (C) by (1) H NMR spectroscopy. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Ultrahigh pressure extraction of lignan compounds from Dysosma versipellis and purification by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qing; Liu, Feng; Xu, Meixia; Lin, Xiaojing; Wang, Xiao

    2012-09-15

    Ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE) was employed to extract podophyllotoxin and 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxin from Dysosma versipellis. The effects of extraction parameters including extraction solvents, pressure, time and solid/liquid ratio were investigated using a High Hydrostatic Pressure Processor. The optimal condition for UPE of the target compounds was 80% methanol, 200 MPa of pressure, 1 min of extraction time and 1:12 (g/mL) of solid/liquid ratio. Podophyllotoxin and 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxin in the crude extract were purified by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (10:10:8:12, v/v), and the fractions were analyzed by HPLC, ESI-MS and (1)H NMR. As a result, 73.7 mg podophyllotoxin and 16.5mg 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxin with purities over 96% were obtained from 260 mg crude sample in one-step separation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. High-power ultrasonic system for the enhancement of mass transfer in supercritical CO2 extraction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riera, Enrique; Blanco, Alfonso; García, José; Benedito, José; Mulet, Antonio; Gallego-Juárez, Juan A.; Blasco, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Oil is an important component of almonds and other vegetable substrates that can show an influence on human health. In this work the development and validation of an innovative, robust, stable, reliable and efficient ultrasonic system at pilot scale to assist supercritical CO2 extraction of oils from different substrates is presented. In the extraction procedure ultrasonic energy represents an efficient way of producing deep agitation enhancing mass transfer processes because of some mechanisms (radiation pressure, streaming, agitation, high amplitude vibrations, etc.). A previous work to this research pointed out the feasibility of integrating an ultrasonic field inside a supercritical extractor without losing a significant volume fraction. This pioneer method enabled to accelerate mass transfer and then, improving supercritical extraction times. To commercially develop the new procedure fulfilling industrial requirements, a new configuration device has been designed, implemented, tested and successfully validated for supercritical fluid extraction of oil from different vegetable substrates.

  20. Package Design Affects Accuracy Recognition for Medications.

    PubMed

    Endestad, Tor; Wortinger, Laura A; Madsen, Steinar; Hortemo, Sigurd

    2016-12-01

    Our aim was to test if highlighting and placement of substance name on medication package have the potential to reduce patient errors. An unintentional overdose of medication is a large health issue that might be linked to medication package design. In two experiments, placement, background color, and the active ingredient of generic medication packages were manipulated according to best human factors guidelines to reduce causes of labeling-related patient errors. In two experiments, we compared the original packaging with packages where we varied placement of the name, dose, and background of the active ingredient. Age-relevant differences and the effect of color on medication recognition error were tested. In Experiment 1, 59 volunteers (30 elderly and 29 young students), participated. In Experiment 2, 25 volunteers participated. The most common error was the inability to identify that two different packages contained the same active ingredient (young, 41%, and elderly, 68%). This kind of error decreased with the redesigned packages (young, 8%, and elderly, 16%). Confusion errors related to color design were reduced by two thirds in the redesigned packages compared with original generic medications. Prominent placement of substance name and dose with a band of high-contrast color support recognition of the active substance in medications. A simple modification including highlighting and placing the name of the active ingredient in the upper right-hand corner of the package helps users realize that two different packages can contain the same active substance, thus reducing the risk of inadvertent medication overdose. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  1. Package Design Affects Accuracy Recognition for Medications

    PubMed Central

    Endestad, Tor; Wortinger, Laura A.; Madsen, Steinar; Hortemo, Sigurd

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to test if highlighting and placement of substance name on medication package have the potential to reduce patient errors. Background: An unintentional overdose of medication is a large health issue that might be linked to medication package design. In two experiments, placement, background color, and the active ingredient of generic medication packages were manipulated according to best human factors guidelines to reduce causes of labeling-related patient errors. Method: In two experiments, we compared the original packaging with packages where we varied placement of the name, dose, and background of the active ingredient. Age-relevant differences and the effect of color on medication recognition error were tested. In Experiment 1, 59 volunteers (30 elderly and 29 young students), participated. In Experiment 2, 25 volunteers participated. Results: The most common error was the inability to identify that two different packages contained the same active ingredient (young, 41%, and elderly, 68%). This kind of error decreased with the redesigned packages (young, 8%, and elderly, 16%). Confusion errors related to color design were reduced by two thirds in the redesigned packages compared with original generic medications. Conclusion: Prominent placement of substance name and dose with a band of high-contrast color support recognition of the active substance in medications. Application: A simple modification including highlighting and placing the name of the active ingredient in the upper right-hand corner of the package helps users realize that two different packages can contain the same active substance, thus reducing the risk of inadvertent medication overdose. PMID:27591209

  2. TaqMan 5′-Nuclease Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 PCR Assay with Phage-Packaged Competitive Internal Control for High-Throughput Blood Donor Screening

    PubMed Central

    Drosten, C.; Seifried, E.; Roth, W. K.

    2001-01-01

    Screening of blood donors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection by PCR permits the earlier diagnosis of HIV-1 infection compared with that by serologic assays. We have established a high-throughput reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay based on 5′-nuclease PCR. By in-tube detection of HIV-1 RNA with a fluorogenic probe, the 5′-nuclease PCR technology (TaqMan PCR) eliminates the risk of carryover contamination, a major problem in PCR testing. We outline the development and evaluation of the PCR assay from a technical point of view. A one-step RT-PCR that targets the gag genes of all known HIV-1 group M isolates was developed. An internal control RNA detectable with a heterologous 5′-nuclease probe was derived from the viral target cDNA and was packaged into MS2 coliphages (Armored RNA). Because the RNA was protected against digestion with RNase, it could be spiked into patient plasma to control the complete sample preparation and amplification process. The assay detected 831 HIV-1 type B genome equivalents per ml of native plasma (95% confidence interval [CI], 759 to 936 HIV-1 B genome equivalents per ml) with a ≥95% probability of a positive result, as determined by probit regression analysis. A detection limit of 1,195 genome equivalents per ml of (individual) donor plasma (95% CI, 1,014 to 1,470 genome equivalents per ml of plasma pooled from individuals) was achieved when 96 samples were pooled and enriched by centrifugation. Up to 4,000 plasma samples per PCR run were tested in a 3-month trial period. Although data from the present pilot feasibility study will have to be complemented by a large clinical validation study, the assay is a promising approach to the high-throughput screening of blood donors and is the first noncommercial test for high-throughput screening for HIV-1. PMID:11724836

  3. Packaging for Posterity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sias, Jim

    1990-01-01

    A project in which students designed environmentally responsible food packaging is described. The problem definition; research on topics such as waste paper, plastic, metal, glass, incineration, recycling, and consumer preferences; and the presentation design are provided. (KR)

  4. [The preliminary study on nursing the extraction of mandibular mesioangular impacted third molar using reversal high-speed air turbine].

    PubMed

    Song, Juan; Bi, Xiaoqin

    2012-08-01

    To study the nursing methods and its effect in mandibular mesioangular impacted third molar extraction with reversal high-speed air turbine. 60 patients with mandibular mesioangular impacted third molar were selected in this study, who were treated in Department of Senior Dentists, West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University, between June to December 2010. They were randomly and equally divided into control group and experimental group (n=30). The former was treated with tradition chisel splint method while the latter was treated with reversal high-speed air turbine extraction and provided appropriate nursing interventions. Postoperative reactions and wound healing status were evaluated through consultation. There were significant differences between control group and experimental group in terms of postoperative bleeding wound, swelling, dry socket and so on (P<0.05). Mandibular mesioangular impacted third molar extraction with reversal high-speed air turbine is effective, and the corresponding nursing measure is worthy further promotion.

  5. System for high throughput water extraction from soil material for stable isotope analysis of water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A major limitation in the use of stable isotope of water in ecological studies is the time that is required to extract water from soil and plant samples. Using vacuum distillation the extraction time can be less than one hour per sample. Therefore, assembling a distillation system that can process m...

  6. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  7. The ENSDF Java Package

    SciTech Connect

    Sonzogni, A.A.

    2005-05-24

    A package of computer codes has been developed to process and display nuclear structure and decay data stored in the ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) library. The codes were written in an object-oriented fashion using the java language. This allows for an easy implementation across multiple platforms as well as deployment on web pages. The structure of the different java classes that make up the package is discussed as well as several different implementations.

  8. Effect of high carbon dioxide atmosphere packaging and soluble gas stabilization pre-treatment on the shelf-life and quality of chicken drumsticks.

    PubMed

    Al-Nehlawi, A; Saldo, J; Vega, L F; Guri, S

    2013-05-01

    The effects of an aerobic modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (70% CO2, 15% O2 and 15% N2) with and without a CO2 3-h soluble gas stabilization (SGS) pre-treatment of chicken drumsticks were determined for various package and product quality characteristics. The CO2 dissolved into drumsticks was determined. The equilibrium between CO2 dissolved in drumsticks and CO2 in head space was reached within 48h after packaging, showing highest values of CO2 in SGS pre-treated samples. This greater availability of CO2 resulted in lower counts of TAB and Pseudomonas in SGS than in MAP drumsticks. Package collapse was significantly reduced in SGS samples. The average of CO2 dissolved in the MAP treatment was 567mg CO2kg(-1) of chicken and, 361mg CO2kg(-1) of chicken during the MAP treatment, in SGS pre-treated samples. This difference could be the quantity of CO2 dissolved during SGS pre-treatment. These results highlight the advantages of using SGS versus traditional MAP for chicken products preservation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An Improved Metal-Packaged Strain Sensor Based on A Regenerated Fiber Bragg Grating in Hydrogen-Loaded Boron-Germanium Co-Doped Photosensitive Fiber for High-Temperature Applications.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yun; Ye, Lin; Zhou, Shao-Ping; Tu, Shan-Tung

    2017-02-23

    Local strain measurements are considered as an effective method for structural health monitoring of high-temperature components, which require accurate, reliable and durable sensors. To develop strain sensors that can be used in higher temperature environments, an improved metal-packaged strain sensor based on a regenerated fiber Bragg grating (RFBG) fabricated in hydrogen (H₂)-loaded boron-germanium (B-Ge) co-doped photosensitive fiber is developed using the process of combining magnetron sputtering and electroplating, addressing the limitation of mechanical strength degradation of silica optical fibers after annealing at a high temperature for regeneration. The regeneration characteristics of the RFBGs and the strain characteristics of the sensor are evaluated. Numerical simulation of the sensor is conducted using a three-dimensional finite element model. Anomalous decay behavior of two regeneration regimes is observed for the FBGs written in H₂-loaded B-Ge co-doped fiber. The strain sensor exhibits good linearity, stability and repeatability when exposed to constant high temperatures of up to 540 °C. A satisfactory agreement is obtained between the experimental and numerical results in strain sensitivity. The results demonstrate that the improved metal-packaged strain sensors based on RFBGs in H₂-loaded B-Ge co-doped fiber provide great potential for high-temperature applications by addressing the issues of mechanical integrity and packaging.

  10. An Improved Metal-Packaged Strain Sensor Based on A Regenerated Fiber Bragg Grating in Hydrogen-Loaded Boron–Germanium Co