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Sample records for high pathogenicity avian

  1. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 95 RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal... products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist. The... vaccinated for certain types of avian influenza, or that have moved through regions where any subtype...

  2. Current situation on highly pathogenic avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza is one of the most important diseases affecting the poultry industry worldwide. Avian influenza viruses can cause a range of clinical disease in poultry. Viruses that cause severe disease and mortality are referred to as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. The Asian ...

  3. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... importation of bird and poultry products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza... poultry and birds that have been vaccinated for certain types of HPAI, or that have been moved through... into the United States of live birds, poultry, eggs for hatching, and bird and poultry products and...

  4. USGS highly pathogenic avian influenza research strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, M. Camille; Miles, A. Keith; Pearce, John M.; Prosser, Diann J.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Whalen, Mary E.

    2015-09-09

    Avian influenza viruses are naturally occurring in wild birds such as ducks, geese, swans, and gulls. These viruses generally do not cause illness in wild birds, however, when spread to poultry they can be highly pathogenic and cause illness and death in backyard and commercial farms. Outbreaks may cause devastating agricultural economic losses and some viral strains have the potential to infect people directly. Furthermore, the combination of avian influenza viruses with mammalian viruses can result in strains with the ability to transmit from person to person, possibly leading to viruses with pandemic potential. All known pandemic influenza viruses have had some genetic material of avian origin. Since 1996, a strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, H5N1, has caused infection in wild birds, losses to poultry farms in Eurasia and North Africa, and led to the deaths of several hundred people. Spread of the H5N1 virus and other influenza strains from China was likely facilitated by migratory birds. In December 2014, HPAI was detected in poultry in Canada and migratory birds in the United States. Since then, HPAI viruses have spread to large parts of the United States and will likely continue to spread through migratory bird flyways and other mechanisms throughout North America. In the United States, HPAI viruses have severely affected the poultry industry with millions of domestic birds dead or culled. These strains of HPAI are not known to cause disease in humans; however, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise caution when in close contact with infected birds. Experts agree that HPAI strains currently circulating in wild birds of North America will likely persist for the next few years. This unprecedented situation presents risks to the poultry industry, natural resource management, and potentially human health. Scientific knowledge and decision support tools are urgently needed to understand factors affecting the persistence

  5. Rapidly expanding range of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Dusek, Robert J.; Spackman, Erica

    2015-01-01

    The movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus across Eurasia and into North America and the virus’ propensity to reassort with co-circulating low pathogenicity viruses raise concerns among poultry producers, wildlife biologists, aviculturists, and public health personnel worldwide. Surveillance, modeling, and experimental research will provide the knowledge required for intelligent policy and management decisions.

  6. Rapidly Expanding Range of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Dusek, Robert J; Spackman, Erica

    2015-07-01

    The movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus across Eurasia and into North America and the virus' propensity to reassort with co-circulating low pathogenicity viruses raise concerns among poultry producers, wildlife biologists, aviculturists, and public health personnel worldwide. Surveillance, modeling, and experimental research will provide the knowledge required for intelligent policy and management decisions.

  7. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus among wild birds in Mongolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The central Asian country of Mongolia supports large populations of migratory water birds that migrate across much of Asia where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 is endemic. This, together with the near absence of domestic poultry, makes Mongolia an ideal location to unde...

  8. Rapidly expanding range of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N8 into Europe and North America poses significant risks to poultry industries and wildlife populations and warrants continued and heightened vigilance. First discovered in South Korean poultry and wild birds in early 2014...

  9. (Highly pathogenic) avian influenza as a zoonotic agent.

    PubMed

    Kalthoff, Donata; Globig, Anja; Beer, Martin

    2010-01-27

    Zoonotic agents challenging the world every year afresh are influenza A viruses. In the past, human pandemics caused by influenza A viruses had been occurring periodically. Wild aquatic birds are carriers of the full variety of influenza virus A subtypes, and thus, most probably constitute the natural reservoir of all influenza A viruses. Whereas avian influenza viruses in their natural avian reservoir are generally of low pathogenicity (LPAIV), some have gained virulence by mutation after transmission and adaptation to susceptible gallinaceous poultry. Those so-called highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) then cause mass die-offs in susceptible birds and lead to tremendous economical losses when poultry is affected. Besides a number of avian influenza virus subtypes that have sporadically infected mammals, the HPAIV H5N1 Asia shows strong zoonotic characteristics and it was transmitted from birds to different mammalian species including humans. Theoretically, pandemic viruses might derive directly from avian influenza viruses or arise after genetic reassortment between viruses of avian and mammalian origin. So far, HPAIV H5N1 already meets two conditions for a pandemic virus: as a new subtype it has been hitherto unseen in the human population and it has infected at least 438 people, and caused severe illness and high lethality in 262 humans to date (August 2009). The acquisition of efficient human-to-human transmission would complete the emergence of a new pandemic virus. Therefore, fighting H5N1 at its source is the prerequisite to reduce pandemic risks posed by this virus. Other influenza viruses regarded as pandemic candidates derive from subtypes H2, H7, and H9 all of which have infected humans in the past. Here, we will give a comprehensive overview on avian influenza viruses in concern to their zoonotic potential.

  10. Determinants of pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ducks have been implicated in the dissemination and evolution of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. The pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses in domestic ducks has increased over time with some viruses producing 100% mortality in very short time. The determinants of pathogenic...

  11. Immediate early responses of avian tracheal epithelial cells to infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIV) present an on going threat to the U.S. poultry industry. In order to develop new AIV control strategies it is necessary to understand the underlying mechanism of viral infection. Because the early events of AIV infection can occur on tracheal ep...

  12. Immediate early responses of avian tracheal epithelial cells to infection with highly pathogenic avian invluenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIV) present an ongoing threat to the world poultry industry. In order to develop new AIV control strategies it is necessary to understand the underlying mechanism of viral infection at mucosal respiratory sites. Chicken and duck tracheal epithelial ...

  13. USGS role and response to highly pathogenic avian influenza

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, M. Camille; Miles, A. Keith; Pearce, John M.; Prosser, Diann J.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Whalen, Mary E.

    2015-09-09

    Avian influenza viruses are naturally occurring in wild birds such as ducks, geese, swans, and gulls. These viruses generally do not cause illness in wild birds, however, when spread to poultry they can be highly pathogenic and cause illness and death in backyard and commercial farms. Outbreaks may cause devastating agricultural economic losses and some viral strains have the potential to infect people directly. Furthermore, the combination of avian influenza viruses with mammalian viruses can result in strains with the ability to transmit from person to person, possibly leading to viruses with pandemic potential. All known pandemic influenza viruses have had some genetic material of avian origin. Since 1996, a strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, H5N1, has caused infection in wild birds, losses to poultry farms in Eurasia and North Africa, and led to the deaths of several hundred people. Spread of the H5N1 virus and other influenza strains from China was likely facilitated by migratory birds. In December 2014, HPAI was detected in poultry in Canada and migratory birds in the United States. Since then, HPAI viruses have spread to large parts of the United States and will likely continue to spread through migratory bird flyways and other mechanisms throughout North America. In the United States, HPAI viruses have severely affected the poultry industry with millions of domestic birds dead or culled. These strains of HPAI are not known to cause disease in humans; however, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise caution when in close contact with infected birds. Experts agree that HPAI strains currently circulating in wild birds of North America will likely persist for the next few years. This unprecedented situation presents risks to the poultry industry, natural resource management, and potentially human health. Scientific knowledge and decision support tools are urgently needed to understand factors affecting the persistence

  14. Free-grazing ducks and highly pathogenic avian influenza, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Marius; Chaitaweesub, Prasit; Parakamawongsa, Tippawon; Premashthira, Sith; Tiensin, Thanawat; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Wagner, Hans; Slingenbergh, Jan

    2006-02-01

    Thailand has recently had 3 epidemic waves of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI); virus was again detected in July 2005. Risk factors need to be identified to better understand disease ecology and assist HPAI surveillance and detection. This study analyzed the spatial distribution of HPAI outbreaks in relation to poultry, land use, and other anthropogenic variables from the start of the second epidemic wave (July 2004-May 2005). Results demonstrate a strong association between H5N1 virus in Thailand and abundance of free-grazing ducks and, to a lesser extent, native chickens, cocks, wetlands, and humans. Wetlands used for double-crop rice production, where free-grazing duck feed year round in rice paddies, appear to be a critical factor in HPAI persistence and spread. This finding could be important for other duck-producing regions in eastern and southeastern Asian countries affected by HPAI.

  15. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1, Thailand, 2004

    PubMed Central

    Chaitaweesub, Prasit; Songserm, Thaweesak; Chaisingh, Arunee; Hoonsuwan, Wirongrong; Buranathai, Chantanee; Parakamawongsa, Tippawon; Premashthira, Sith; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Gilbert, Marius; Nielen, Mirjam; Stegeman, Arjan

    2005-01-01

    In January 2004, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N1 subtype was first confirmed in poultry and humans in Thailand. Control measures, e.g., culling poultry flocks, restricting poultry movement, and improving hygiene, were implemented. Poultry populations in 1,417 villages in 60 of 76 provinces were affected in 2004. A total of 83% of infected flocks confirmed by laboratories were backyard chickens (56%) or ducks (27%). Outbreaks were concentrated in the Central, the southern part of the Northern, and Eastern Regions of Thailand, which are wetlands, water reservoirs, and dense poultry areas. More than 62 million birds were either killed by HPAI viruses or culled. H5N1 virus from poultry caused 17 human cases and 12 deaths in Thailand; a number of domestic cats, captive tigers, and leopards also died of the H5N1 virus. In 2005, the epidemic is ongoing in Thailand. PMID:16318716

  16. Highly pathogenic avian influenza challenge studies in waterfowl

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waterfowl are the natural hosts of avian influenza (AI) virus. The majority of AI viruses are classified as low pathogenicity (LP) based on their virulence in chickens, which are the reference species for pathotype testing and can be any of the 16 hemagglutinin subtypes (H1-16). Circulation of H5 ...

  17. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus among wild birds in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Martin; Jambal, Losolmaa; Karesh, William B; Fine, Amanda; Shiilegdamba, Enkhtuvshin; Dulam, Purevtseren; Sodnomdarjaa, Ruuragchaa; Ganzorig, Khuukhenbaatar; Batchuluun, Damdinjav; Tseveenmyadag, Natsagdorj; Bolortuya, Purevsuren; Cardona, Carol J; Leung, Connie Y H; Peiris, J S Malik; Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E; Joly, Damien O

    2012-01-01

    Mongolia combines a near absence of domestic poultry, with an abundance of migratory waterbirds, to create an ideal location to study the epidemiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in a purely wild bird system. Here we present the findings of active and passive surveillance for HPAIV subtype H5N1 in Mongolia from 2005-2011, together with the results of five outbreak investigations. In total eight HPAIV outbreaks were confirmed in Mongolia during this period. Of these, one was detected during active surveillance employed by this project, three by active surveillance performed by Mongolian government agencies, and four through passive surveillance. A further three outbreaks were recorded in the neighbouring Tyva Republic of Russia on a lake that bisects the international border. No HPAIV was isolated (cultured) from 7,855 environmental fecal samples (primarily from ducks), or from 2,765 live, clinically healthy birds captured during active surveillance (primarily shelducks, geese and swans), while four HPAIVs were isolated from 141 clinically ill or dead birds located through active surveillance. Two low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) were cultured from ill or dead birds during active surveillance, while environmental feces and live healthy birds yielded 56 and 1 LPAIV respectively. All Mongolian outbreaks occurred in 2005 and 2006 (clade 2.2), or 2009 and 2010 (clade 2.3.2.1); all years in which spring HPAIV outbreaks were reported in Tibet and/or Qinghai provinces in China. The occurrence of outbreaks in areas deficient in domestic poultry is strong evidence that wild birds can carry HPAIV over at least moderate distances. However, failure to detect further outbreaks of clade 2.2 after June 2006, and clade 2.3.2.1 after June 2010 suggests that wild birds migrating to and from Mongolia may not be competent as indefinite reservoirs of HPAIV, or that HPAIV did not reach susceptible populations during our study.

  18. Pathogenicity, Transmission and Antigenic Variation of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Peirong; Song, Hui; Liu, Xiaoke; Song, Yafen; Cui, Jin; Wu, Siyu; Ye, Jiaqi; Qu, Nanan; Zhang, Tiemin; Liao, Ming

    2016-01-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was one of the most important avian diseases in poultry production of China, especially in Guangdong province. In recent years, new H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) still emerged constantly, although all poultry in China were immunized with H5N1 vaccinations compulsorily. To better understand the pathogenicity and transmission of dominant clades of the H5N1 HPAIVs in chicken from Guangdong in 2012, we chose a clade 7.2 avian influenza virus named A/Chicken/China/G2/2012(H5N1) (G2) and a clade 2.3.2.1 avian influenza virus named A/Duck/China/G3/2012(H5N1) (G3) in our study. Our results showed that the chickens inoculated with 10(3) EID50 of G2 or G3 viruses all died, and the titers of virus replication detected in several visceral organs were high but different. In the naive contact groups, virus shedding was not detected in G2 group and all chickens survived, but virus shedding was detected in G3 group and all chickens died. These results showed that the two clades of H5N1 HPAIVs had high pathogenicity in chickens and the contact transmission of them was different in chickens. The results of cross reactive HI assay showed that antigens of G2 and G3 were very different from those of current commercial vaccines isolates (Re-4, Re-6, and D7). And to evaluate the protective efficacy of three vaccines against most isolates form Guangdong belonging to clade 2.3.2.1 in 2012, G3 was chosen to challenge the three vaccines such as Re-4, Re-6, and D7. First, chickens were immunized with 0.3 ml Re-4, Re-6, and D7 inactivated vaccines by intramuscular injection, respectively, and then challenged with 10(6) EID50 of G3 on day 28 post-vaccination. The D7 vaccine had 100% protection against G3 for chickens, the Re-6 vaccine had 88.9%, and the Re-4 vaccine only had 66.7%. Our results suggested that the D7 vaccine could prevent and control H5N1 virus outbreaks more effectively in Guangdong. From the above, it was

  19. Pathogenicity, Transmission and Antigenic Variation of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Peirong; Song, Hui; Liu, Xiaoke; Song, Yafen; Cui, Jin; Wu, Siyu; Ye, Jiaqi; Qu, Nanan; Zhang, Tiemin; Liao, Ming

    2016-01-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was one of the most important avian diseases in poultry production of China, especially in Guangdong province. In recent years, new H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) still emerged constantly, although all poultry in China were immunized with H5N1 vaccinations compulsorily. To better understand the pathogenicity and transmission of dominant clades of the H5N1 HPAIVs in chicken from Guangdong in 2012, we chose a clade 7.2 avian influenza virus named A/Chicken/China/G2/2012(H5N1) (G2) and a clade 2.3.2.1 avian influenza virus named A/Duck/China/G3/2012(H5N1) (G3) in our study. Our results showed that the chickens inoculated with 103 EID50 of G2 or G3 viruses all died, and the titers of virus replication detected in several visceral organs were high but different. In the naive contact groups, virus shedding was not detected in G2 group and all chickens survived, but virus shedding was detected in G3 group and all chickens died. These results showed that the two clades of H5N1 HPAIVs had high pathogenicity in chickens and the contact transmission of them was different in chickens. The results of cross reactive HI assay showed that antigens of G2 and G3 were very different from those of current commercial vaccines isolates (Re-4, Re-6, and D7). And to evaluate the protective efficacy of three vaccines against most isolates form Guangdong belonging to clade 2.3.2.1 in 2012, G3 was chosen to challenge the three vaccines such as Re-4, Re-6, and D7. First, chickens were immunized with 0.3 ml Re-4, Re-6, and D7 inactivated vaccines by intramuscular injection, respectively, and then challenged with 106 EID50 of G3 on day 28 post-vaccination. The D7 vaccine had 100% protection against G3 for chickens, the Re-6 vaccine had 88.9%, and the Re-4 vaccine only had 66.7%. Our results suggested that the D7 vaccine could prevent and control H5N1 virus outbreaks more effectively in Guangdong. From the above, it was

  20. Control strategies for highly pathogenic avian influenza: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Lubroth, J

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive programmes for the prevention, detection and control of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) require a national dimension and relevant national legislation in which veterinary services can conduct surveillance, competent diagnosis and rapid response. Avian influenza was controlled and prevented by vaccination long before the current H5N1 crisis. The use of vaccine cannot be separated from other essential elements of a vaccination campaign, which include education in poultry production practices, such as hygiene, all in-all out production concepts, separation of species, biosecurity (bio-exclusion to keep the disease out and biocontainment to keep the disease from spreading once suspected or detected), competence in giving the vaccine and the role of vaccination teams, post-vaccination monitoring to ensure efficacy and to detect the circulation of wild-type virus, surveillance and buffer zones in outbreak areas, and performance indicators to determine when vaccination can cease. Reporting of disease can be improved through well-structured, adequately financed veterinary services and also by fair compensation for producers who suffer financial loss. A rapid response to suspected cases of HPAI should be ensured in simulation exercises involving various sectors of the food production and marketing chain, policy-makers, official veterinary structures and other government personnel. As for other transboundary animal diseases, national approaches must be part of a regional strategy and regional networks for cooperation and information sharing, which in turn reflect global policies and international standards, such as the quality of vaccines, reporting obligations, humane interventions, cleaning and disinfection methods, restocking times, monitoring and safe trade.

  1. Current status and future needs in diagnostics and vaccines for high pathogenicity avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1959, 31 epizootics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred in birds. Rapid detection and accurate identification of HPAI has been critical to controlling such epizootics in poultry. Specific paradigms for the detection and diagnosis of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry...

  2. Domestic pigs have low susceptibility to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Genetic reassortment of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI) with currently circulating human influenza A strains is one possibility that could lead to efficient human-to-human transmissibility. Domestic pigs which are susceptible to infection with both human and avian ...

  3. The avian and mammalian host range of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Bryan S; Webby, Richard J

    2013-12-05

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses have been isolated from a number of avian and mammalian species. Despite intensive control measures the number of human and animal cases continues to increase. A more complete understanding of susceptible species and of contributing environmental and molecular factors is crucial if we are to slow the rate of new cases. H5N1 is currently endemic in domestic poultry in only a handful of countries with sporadic and unpredictable spread to other countries. Close contact of terrestrial bird or mammalian species with infected poultry/waterfowl or their biological products is the major route for interspecies transmission. Intra-species transmission of H5N1 in mammals, including humans, has taken place on a limited scale though it remains to be seen if this will change; recent laboratory studies suggest that it is indeed possible. Here we review the avian and mammalian species that are naturally susceptible to H5N1 infection and the molecular factors associated with its expanded host range.

  4. The avian and mammalian host range of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Bryan S.; Webby, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses have been isolated from a number of avian and mammalian species. Despite intensive control measures the number of human and animal cases continues to increase. A more complete understanding of susceptible species and of contributing environmental and molecular factors is crucial if we are to slow the rate of new cases. H5N1 is currently endemic in domestic poultry in only a handful of countries with sporadic and unpredictable spread to other countries. Close contact of terrestrial bird or mammalian species with infected poultry/waterfowl or their biological products is the major route for interspecies transmission. Intra-species transmission of H5N1 in mammals, including humans, has taken place on a limited scale though it remains to be seen if this will change; recent laboratory studies suggest that it is indeed possible. Here we review the avian and mammalian species that are naturally susceptible to H5N1 infection and the molecular factors associated with its expanded host range. PMID:24025480

  5. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and generation of novel reassortants,United States, 2014–2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dong-Hun Lee,; Justin Bahl,; Mia Kim Torchetti,; Mary Lea Killian,; Ip, Hon S.; David E Swayne,

    2016-01-01

    Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses spread into North America in 2014 during autumn bird migration. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 H5 viruses identified novel H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses that emerged in late 2014 through reassortment with North American low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses.

  6. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses and Generation of Novel Reassortants, United States, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Bahl, Justin; Torchetti, Mia Kim; Killian, Mary Lea; Ip, Hon S.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses spread into North America in 2014 during autumn bird migration. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 H5 viruses identified novel H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses that emerged in late 2014 through reassortment with North American low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. PMID:27314845

  7. High doses of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in chicken meat are required to infect ferrets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have caused natural and experimental infections in various animals through consumption of infected bird carcasses and meat. However, little is known about the quantity of virus required and if all HPAIV subtypes can cause infections following c...

  8. Evolution of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses in Egypt indicating progressive adaptation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N1 subtype was first diagnosed in poultry in Egypt in 2006, and since then the disease became enzootic in poultry throughout the country affecting the poultry industry and village poultry as well as infecting humans. Vaccination has been used ...

  9. Update on H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In June of 2012, an H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was identified as the cause of a severe disease outbreak in commercial laying chicken farms in Jalisco, Mexico. This region is responsible for approximately 55% of the eggs produced in Mexico, and infection with this virus seve...

  10. Novel Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N8) Virus in Zoos, India.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Shanmugasundaram; Kumar, Manoj; Murugkar, Harshad V; Tripathi, Sushil; Shukla, Shweta; Agarwal, Sonam; Dubey, Garima; Nagi, Raunaq Singh; Singh, Vijendra Pal; Tosh, Chakradhar

    2017-04-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) viruses were detected in waterfowl at 2 zoos in India in October 2016. Both viruses were different 7:1 reassortants of H5N8 viruses isolated in May 2016 from wild birds in the Russian Federation and China, suggesting virus spread during southward winter migration of birds.

  11. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus and generation of novel reassortants, United States, 2014-2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses spread into North America in 2014 during autumn bird migration. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 H5 viruses identified novel H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses that emerged in late 2014 through reassortment with North Americ...

  12. Novel Eurasian highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5 viruses in wild birds, Washington, USA, 2014.

    PubMed

    Ip, Hon S; Torchetti, Mia Kim; Crespo, Rocio; Kohrs, Paul; DeBruyn, Paul; Mansfield, Kristin G; Baszler, Timothy; Badcoe, Lyndon; Bodenstein, Barbara; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Killian, Mary Lea; Pedersen, Janice C; Hines, Nichole; Gidlewski, Thomas; DeLiberto, Thomas; Sleeman, Jonathan M

    2015-05-01

    Novel Eurasian lineage avian influenza A(H5N8) virus has spread rapidly and globally since January 2014. In December 2014, H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 viruses were detected in wild birds in Washington, USA, and subsequently in backyard birds. When they infect commercial poultry, these highly pathogenic viruses pose substantial trade issues.

  13. The role of vaccines and vaccination in high pathogenicity avian influenza control and eradication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty epizootics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred in the world since influenza was identified as the etiology in 1955. Twenty-four of the epizootics were eradicated by using stamping-out programs composed of education, biosecurity, rapid diagnostics and surveillance, and ...

  14. Novel Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N8) Virus in Zoos, India

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Shanmugasundaram; Kumar, Manoj; Murugkar, Harshad V.; Tripathi, Sushil; Shukla, Shweta; Agarwal, Sonam; Dubey, Garima; Nagi, Raunaq Singh; Singh, Vijendra Pal

    2017-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) viruses were detected in waterfowl at 2 zoos in India in October 2016. Both viruses were different 7:1 reassortants of H5N8 viruses isolated in May 2016 from wild birds in the Russian Federation and China, suggesting virus spread during southward winter migration of birds. PMID:28117031

  15. Chlorine inactivation of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two Asian strains of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus were studied to determine their resistance to chlorination. Experiments were conducted at two pH levels (pH 7 and 8) at 5 C. CT (chlorine concentration x exposure time) values were calculated for different levels of inactivation. R...

  16. Global assessments of high pathogenicity avian influenza control, including vaccination programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There have been 32 epizootics of H5 or H7 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) from 1959 to early 2013. The largest has been the H5N1 HPAI which began in Guangdong China in 1996, and has affected over 250 million poultry and/or wild birds in 63 countries. For most countries, stamping-out progra...

  17. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) outbreaks in wild birds and poultry, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Park, Choi-Kyu; Oem, Jae-Ku; Lee, O-Soo; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Choi, Jun-Gu; Bae, You-Chan

    2012-03-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) among wild birds emerged simultaneously with outbreaks in domestic poultry in South Korea during November 2010-May 2011. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these viruses belonged to clade 2.3.2, as did viruses found in Mongolia, the People's Republic of China, and Russia in 2009 and 2010.

  18. Global expansion of high pathogenicity avian influenza: implications on prevention and control programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus emerged in China during 1996 and has spread to infect poultry and/or wild birds in 63 countries during the past 18 years. The majority of the recent outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI have occurred in Indonesia, Egypt, Vietnam, and Bangladesh, in decreas...

  19. Changing pathobiology of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in domestic waterfowl

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Eurasian-African lineage of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses has evolved into many genetic lineages and multiple sublineages. The divergent strains that have arisen express distinct pathobiological features and increased virulence for many bird species including domestic wa...

  20. Airborne transmission of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses during simulated home slaughter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most H5N1 human infections have occurred following exposure to H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus-infected poultry, especially when poultry are home slaughtered or slaughtered in live poultry markets. Previous studies have demonstrated that slaughter of clade 1 isolate A/Vietnam/1...

  1. High pathogenicity avian influenza virus in the reproductive tract of chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) has been associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations in poultry including severe depression in egg production and isolation of HPAIV from eggs laid by infected hens. To evaluate the pathobiology in the reproductive tract of...

  2. Pathogenesis and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5Nx in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Influenza A viruses (IAV) periodically transmit between pigs, people, and birds. If two IAV strains infect the same host, genes can reassort to generate progeny virus with potential to be more infectious or avoid immunity. Pigs pose a risk for such reassortment. Highly pathogenic avian ...

  3. Global expansion of high pathogenicity avian influenza: implications on prevention and control programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus emerged in China during 1996 and has spread to infect poultry and/or wild birds in 63 countries during the past 18 years. The majority of the recent outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI have occurred in Indonesia, Egypt, Vietnam, and Bangladesh, in decreasi...

  4. Survivability of Eurasian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in water varies between strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquatic habitats play critical role in the transmission and maintenance of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in wild waterfowl; however the importance of these environments in the ecology of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses is unknown. In laboratory-based studies, L...

  5. Experimental infection of mallard ducks with different subtype H5 and H7 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV’s) remain a threat to poultry worldwide. Avian influenza viruses, including HPAIV, are usually non-pathogenic for ducks and other wild aquatic birds, with the exception of some Asian lineage H5N1 HPAIVs which can cause severe disease in ducks. With ...

  6. Pathogenicity and Transmission of H5 and H7 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Mallards.

    PubMed

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Shepherd, Eric; DeJesus, Eric; Smith, Diane; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Suarez, David L; Stallknecht, David E; Swayne, David E

    2016-11-01

    Wild aquatic birds have been associated with the intercontinental spread of H5 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 (Gs/GD) lineage during 2005, 2010, and 2014, but dispersion by wild waterfowl has not been implicated with spread of other HPAI viruses. To better understand why Gs/GD H5 HPAI viruses infect and transmit more efficiently in waterfowl than other HPAI viruses, groups of mallard ducks were challenged with one of 14 different H5 and H7 HPAI viruses, including a Gs/GD lineage H5N1 (clade 2.2) virus from Mongolia, part of the 2005 dispersion, and the H5N8 and H5N2 index HPAI viruses (clade 2.3.4.4) from the United States, part of the 2014 dispersion. All virus-inoculated ducks and contact exposed ducks became infected and shed moderate to high titers of the viruses, with the exception that mallards were resistant to Ck/Pennsylvania/83 and Ck/Queretaro/95 H5N2 HPAI virus infection. Clinical signs were only observed in ducks challenged with the H5N1 2005 virus, which all died, and with the H5N8 and H5N2 2014 viruses, which had decreased weight gain and fever. These three viruses were also shed in higher titers by the ducks, which could facilitate virus transmission and spread. This study highlights the possible role of wild waterfowl in the spread of HPAI viruses.

  7. Genetic Characterization of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N8) Virus from Domestic Ducks, England, November 2014

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Jill; Marston, Denise A.; Ellis, Richard J.; Brookes, Sharon M.; Brown, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic sequences of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus in England have high homology to those detected in mainland Europe and Asia during 2014. Genetic characterization suggests this virus is an avian-adapted virus without specific affinity for zoonoses. Spatio-temporal detections of H5N8 imply a role for wild birds in virus spread. PMID:25898126

  8. Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses differentially affect gene expression in primary chicken embryo fibroblasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses cause severe clinical disease associated with high mortality in chickens and other gallinaceous species. However, the mechanism by which different strains of avian influenza viruses overcome host response in birds is still unclear. In the present study, ch...

  9. Wild bird surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Pearce, John M.; Franson, J. Christian; Derksen, Dirk V.

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown how the current Asian origin highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses arrived, but these viruses are now poised to become endemic in North America. Wild birds harbor these viruses and have dispersed them at regional scales. What is unclear is how the viruses may be moving from the wild bird reservoir into poultry holdings. Active surveillance of live wild birds is likely the best way to determine the true distribution of these viruses. We also suggest that sampling be focused on regions with the greatest risk for poultry losses and attempt to define the mechanisms of transfer to enhance biosecurity. Responding to the recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in North America requires an efficient plan with clear objectives and potential management outcomes.

  10. Wild bird surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 in North America.

    PubMed

    Flint, Paul L; Pearce, John M; Franson, J Christian; Derksen, Dirk V

    2015-09-28

    It is unknown how the current Asian origin highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses arrived, but these viruses are now poised to become endemic in North America. Wild birds harbor these viruses and have dispersed them at regional scales. What is unclear is how the viruses may be moving from the wild bird reservoir into poultry holdings. Active surveillance of live wild birds is likely the best way to determine the true distribution of these viruses. We also suggest that sampling be focused on regions with the greatest risk for poultry losses and attempt to define the mechanisms of transfer to enhance biosecurity. Responding to the recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in North America requires an efficient plan with clear objectives and potential management outcomes.

  11. Characterization of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus A(H5N6), Japan, November 2016

    PubMed Central

    Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Ozawa, Makoto; Soda, Kosuke; Takakuwa, Hiroki; Haga, Atsushi; Hiono, Takahiro; Matsuu, Aya; Uchida, Yuko; Iwata, Ritsuko; Matsuno, Keita; Kuwahara, Masakazu; Yabuta, Toshiyo; Usui, Tatsufumi; Ito, Hiroshi; Onuma, Manabu; Saito, Takehiko; Otsuki, Koichi; Ito, Toshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) A(H5N6) were concurrently introduced into several distant regions of Japan in November 2016. These viruses were classified into the genetic clade 2.3.4.4c and were genetically closely related to H5N6 HPAIVs recently isolated in South Korea and China. In addition, these HPAIVs showed further antigenic drift. PMID:28322695

  12. Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N3) virus in poultry workers, Mexico, 2012.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Martinez, Irma; Balish, Amanda; Barrera-Badillo, Gisela; Jones, Joyce; Nuñez-García, Tatiana E; Jang, Yunho; Aparicio-Antonio, Rodrigo; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Belser, Jessica A; Ramirez-Gonzalez, José E; Pedersen, Janice C; Ortiz-Alcantara, Joanna; Gonzalez-Duran, Elizabeth; Shu, Bo; Emery, Shannon L; Poh, Mee K; Reyes-Teran, Gustavo; Vazquez-Perez, Joel A; Avila-Rios, Santiago; Uyeki, Timothy; Lindstrom, Stephen; Villanueva, Julie; Tokars, Jerome; Ruiz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Gonzalez-Roldan, Jesus F; Schmitt, Beverly; Klimov, Alexander; Cox, Nancy; Kuri-Morales, Pablo; Davis, C Todd; Diaz-Quiñonez, José Alberto

    2013-01-01

    We identified 2 poultry workers with conjunctivitis caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N3) viruses in Jalisco, Mexico. Genomic and antigenic analyses of 1 isolate indicated relatedness to poultry and wild bird subtype H7N3 viruses from North America. This isolate had a multibasic cleavage site that might have been derived from recombination with host rRNA.

  13. Multiple reassortment events among highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses detected in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Gerloff, Nancy A; Khan, Salah Uddin; Balish, Amanda; Shanta, Ireen S; Simpson, Natosha; Berman, Lashondra; Haider, Najmul; Poh, Mee Kian; Islam, Ausraful; Gurley, Emily; Hasnat, Md Abdul; Dey, T; Shu, Bo; Emery, Shannon; Lindstrom, Stephen; Haque, Ainul; Klimov, Alexander; Villanueva, Julie; Rahman, Mahmudur; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Ziaur Rahman, Md; Luby, Stephen P; Zeidner, Nord; Donis, Ruben O; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Davis, C Todd

    2014-02-01

    In Bangladesh, little is known about the genomic composition and antigenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses, their geographic distribution, temporal patterns, or gene flow within the avian host population. Forty highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses isolated from humans and poultry in Bangladesh between 2008 and 2012 were analyzed by full genome sequencing and antigenic characterization. The analysis included viruses collected from avian hosts and environmental sampling in live bird markets, backyard poultry flocks, outbreak investigations in wild birds or poultry and from three human cases. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ancestors of these viruses reassorted (1) with other gene lineages of the same clade, (2) between different clades and (3) with low pathogenicity avian influenza A virus subtypes. Bayesian estimates of the time of most recent common ancestry, combined with geographic information, provided evidence of probable routes and timelines of virus spread into and out of Bangladesh.

  14. Microarray analysis following infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in naive and vaccinated SPF chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of poultry that remains a constant threat to commercial poultry throughout the world. Within the last few years, outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 have originated in Southeast Asia and spread to several European, Middle Eastern, and A...

  15. Evolution of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Macken, Catherine A; Green, Margaret A

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian H5N1 viruses have circulated in Southeast Asia for more than a decade, are now endemic in parts of this region, and have also spread to more than 60 countries on three continents. The evolution of these viruses is characterized by frequent reassortment events that have created a significant number of different genotypes, both transient and longer lasting. However, fundamental questions remain about the generation and perpetuation of this substantial genetic diversity. These gaps in understanding may, in part, be due to the difficulties of genotyping closely related viruses, and limitations in the size of the data sets used in analysis. Using our recently published novel genotyping procedure ('two-time test'), which is amenable to high throughput analysis and provides an increased level of resolution relative to previous analyses, we propose a detailed model for the evolution and diversification of avian H5N1 viruses. Our analysis suggests that (i) all current H5N1 genotypes are derived from a single, clearly defined sequence of initial reassortment events; (ii) reassortment of the polymerase and NP genes may have played an important role in avian H5N1 virus evolution; (iii) the current genotype Z viruses have diverged into three distinguishable sub-genotypes in the absence of reassortment; (iv) some potentially significant molecular changes appear to be correlated with particular genotypes (for example, reassortment of the internal genes is often paralleled by a change in the HA clade); and (v) as noted in earlier studies of avian influenza A virus evolution, novel segments are typically derived from different donors (i.e., there is no obvious pattern of gene linkage in reassortment). The model of avian H5N1 viral evolution by reassortment and mutation that emerges from our study provides a context within which significant amino acid changes may be revealed; it also may help in predicting the 'success' of newly emerging avian H5N1 viruses.

  16. Living with avian FLU--Persistence of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Njabo, Kevin Yana; Zanontian, Linda; Sheta, Basma N; Samy, Ahmed; Galal, Shereen; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik; Smith, Thomas B

    2016-05-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) continues to cause mortality in poultry and threaten human health at a panzootic scale in Egypt since it was reported in 2006. While the early focus has been in Asia, recent evidence suggests that Egypt is an emerging epicenter for the disease. Despite control measures, epizootic transmission of the disease continues. Here, we investigate the persistence of HPAIV across wild passerine birds and domestic poultry between 2009 and 2012 and the potential risk for continuous viral transmission in Egypt. We use a new weighted cross J-function to investigate the degree and spatial temporal nature of the clustering between sightings of infected birds of different types, and the risk of infection associated with direct contact with infected birds. While we found no infection in wild birds, outbreaks occurred year round between 2009 and 2012, with a positive interaction between chickens and ducks. The disease was more present in the years 2010 and 2011 coinciding with the political unrest in the country. Egypt thus continues to experience endemic outbreaks of avian influenza HPAIV in poultry and an increased potential risk of infection to other species including humans. With the current trends, the elimination of the HPAIV infection is highly unlikely without a complete revamp of current policies. The application of spatial statistics techniques to these types of data may help us to understand the characteristics of the disease and may subsequently allow practitioners to explore possible preventive solutions.

  17. Pathobiological features of a novel, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Il; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Kwon, Hyeok-Il; Lim, Gyo-Jin; Kim, Eun-Ha; Yoon, Sun-Woo; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Se Mi; Choi, Eun-Ji; Si, Young-Jae; Lee, Ok-Jun; Shim, Woo-Sub; Kim, Si-Wook; Mo, In-Pil; Bae, Yeonji; Lim, Yong Taik; Sung, Moon Hee; Kim, Chul-Joong; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G; Choi, Young Ki

    2014-10-01

    The endemicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) viruses in Asia has led to the generation of reassortant H5 strains with novel gene constellations. A newly emerged HPAI A(H5N8) virus caused poultry outbreaks in the Republic of Korea in 2014. Because newly emerging high-pathogenicity H5 viruses continue to pose public health risks, it is imperative that their pathobiological properties be examined. Here, we characterized A/mallard duck/Korea/W452/2014 (MDk/W452(H5N8)), a representative virus, and evaluated its pathogenic and pandemic potential in various animal models. We found that MDk/W452(H5N8), which originated from the reassortment of wild bird viruses harbored by migratory waterfowl in eastern China, replicated systemically and was lethal in chickens, but appeared to be attenuated, albeit efficiently transmitted, in ducks. Despite predominant attachment to avian-like virus receptors, MDk/W452(H5N8) also exhibited detectable human virus-like receptor binding and replicated in human respiratory tract tissues. In mice, MDk/W452(H5N8) was moderately pathogenic and had limited tissue tropism relative to previous HPAI A(H5N1) viruses. It also induced moderate nasal wash titers in inoculated ferrets; additionally, it was recovered in extrapulmonary tissues and one of three direct-contact ferrets seroconverted without shedding. Moreover, domesticated cats appeared to be more susceptible than dogs to virus infection. With their potential to become established in ducks, continued circulation of A(H5N8) viruses could alter the genetic evolution of pre-existing avian poultry strains. Overall, detailed virological investigation remains a necessity given the capacity of H5 viruses to evolve to cause human illness with few changes in the viral genome.

  18. International standards and guidelines for vaccination of poultry against highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Bruschke, C; Brückner, G; Vallat, B

    2007-01-01

    The current strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), H5N1, has caused an unprecedented situation, spreading over three continents, with severe economic and social consequences. The strategy of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) focuses on the following key actions: early warning, early detection, rapid confirmation of suspected cases, rapid response and rapid and transparent notification. Vaccination is one means that can be used to control the virus. During the current H5N1 outbreak, the OIE received many requests from member countries for guidance in deciding whether to vaccinate and in the design of vaccination programmes. The OIE has published a general information document on vaccination against avian influenza and a document giving guidelines for decision-making, including a checklist of essentials for establishing a vaccination programme.

  19. Genetic data provide evidence for wind-mediated transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Ypma, Rolf J F; Jonges, Marcel; Bataille, Arnaud; Stegeman, Arjan; Koch, Guus; van Boven, Michiel; Koopmans, Marion; van Ballegooijen, W Marijn; Wallinga, Jacco

    2013-03-01

    Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry can cause severe economic damage and represent a public health threat. Development of efficient containment measures requires an understanding of how these influenza viruses are transmitted between farms. However, the actual mechanisms of interfarm transmission are largely unknown. Dispersal of infectious material by wind has been suggested, but never demonstrated, as a possible cause of transmission between farms. Here we provide statistical evidence that the direction of spread of avian influenza A(H7N7) is correlated with the direction of wind at date of infection. Using detailed genetic and epidemiological data, we found the direction of spread by reconstructing the transmission tree for a large outbreak in the Netherlands in 2003. We conservatively estimate the contribution of a possible wind-mediated mechanism to the total amount of spread during this outbreak to be around 18%.

  20. An H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus that invaded Japan through waterfowl migration.

    PubMed

    Kajihara, Masahiro; Matsuno, Keita; Simulundu, Edgar; Muramatsu, Mieko; Noyori, Osamu; Manzoor, Rashid; Nakayama, Eri; Igarashi, Manabu; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Yoshida, Reiko; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Ito, Kimihito; Kida, Hiroshi; Takada, Ayato

    2011-08-01

    In 2010, an H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) was isolated from feces of apparently healthy ducks migrating southward in Hokkaido, the northernmost prefecture of Japan. The H5N1 HPAIVs were subsequently detected in domestic and wild birds at multiple sites corresponding to the flyway of the waterfowl having stopovers in the Japanese archipelago. The Hokkaido isolate was genetically nearly identical to H5N1 HPAIVs isolated from swans in the spring of 2009 and 2010 in Mongolia, but less pathogenic in experimentally infected ducks than the 2009 Mongolian isolate. These findings suggest that H5N1 HPAIVs with relatively mild pathogenicity might be selected and harbored in the waterfowl population during the 2009-2010 migration seasons. Our data provide "early warning" signals for preparedness against the unprecedented situation in which the waterfowl reservoirs serve as perpetual sources and disseminators of HPAIVs.

  1. Genesis and Dissemination of Highly Pathogenic H5N6 Avian Influenza Viruses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Zhu, Wenfei; Li, Xiaodan; Bo, Hong; Zhang, Ye; Zou, Shumei; Gao, Rongbao; Dong, Jie; Zhao, Xiang; Chen, Wenbing; Dong, Libo; Zou, Xiaohui; Xing, Yongcai; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong

    2017-03-01

    Clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H5Nx) have spread from Asia to other parts of the world. Since 2014, human infections with clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6 viruses have been continuously reported in China. To investigate the genesis of the virus, we analyzed 123 H5 or N6 environmental viruses sampled from live-poultry markets or farms from 2012 to 2015 in Mainland China. Our results indicated that clade 2.3.4.4 H5N2/N6/N8 viruses shared the same hemagglutinin gene as originated in early 2009. From 2012 to 2015, the genesis of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6 viruses occurred via two independent pathways. Three major reassortant H5N6 viruses (reassortants A, B, and C) were generated. Internal genes of reassortant A and B viruses and reassortant C viruses derived from clade 2.3.2.1c H5N1 and H9N2 viruses, respectively. Many mammalian adaption mutations and antigenic variations were detected among the three reassortant viruses. Considering their wide circulation and dynamic reassortment in poultry, we highly recommend close monitoring of the viruses in poultry and humans. IMPORTANCE Since 2014, clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5Nx) viruses have caused many outbreaks in both wild and domestic birds globally. Severe human cases with novel H5N6 viruses in this group were also reported in China in 2014 and 2015. To investigate the genesis of the genetic diversity of these H5N6 viruses, we sequenced 123 H5 or N6 environmental viruses sampled from 2012 to 2015 in China. Sequence analysis indicated that three major reassortants of these H5N6 viruses had been generated by two independent evolutionary pathways. The H5N6 reassortant viruses had been detected in most provinces of southern China and neighboring countries. Considering the mammalian adaption mutations and antigenic variation detected, the spread of these viruses should be monitored carefully due to their pandemic potential.

  2. Experimental vaccines against potentially pandemic and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Alaina J; Tompkins, S Mark

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A viruses continue to emerge and re-emerge, causing outbreaks, epidemics and occasionally pandemics. While the influenza vaccines licensed for public use are generally effective against seasonal influenza, issues arise with production, immunogenicity, and efficacy in the case of vaccines against pandemic and emerging influenza viruses, and highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in particular. Thus, there is need of improved influenza vaccines and vaccination strategies. This review discusses advances in alternative influenza vaccines, touching briefly on licensed vaccines and vaccine antigens; then reviewing recombinant subunit vaccines, virus-like particle vaccines and DNA vaccines, with the main focus on virus-vectored vaccine approaches. PMID:23440999

  3. Characaterization of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in Pakistan 2006-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine avian influenza viruses (AIV), H5N1 subtype, were isolated from dead poultry in the Karachi region of Pakistan from 2006-2008. The intravenous pathogenicity indices and HA protein cleavage sites of all nine viruses were consistent with highly pathogenic AIV. Based on phylogenetic analysis of ...

  4. Assessment of national strategies for control of high-pathogenicity avian influenza and low-pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza in poultry, with emphasis on vaccines and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Swayne, D E; Pavade, G; Hamilton, K; Vallat, B; Miyagishima, K

    2011-12-01

    Twenty-nine distinct epizootics of high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred since 1959. The H5N1 HPAI panzootic affecting Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe has been the largest among these, affecting poultry and/or wild birds in 63 countries. A stamping-out programme achieved eradication in 24 of these epizootics (and is close to achieving eradication in the current H5N2 epizootic in South African ostriches), but vaccination was added to the control programmes in four epizootics when stamping out alone was not effective. During the 2002 to 2010 period, more than 113 billion doses of avian influenza (AI) vaccine were used in at-risk national poultry populations of over 131 billion birds. At two to three doses per bird for the 15 vaccinating countries, the average national vaccination coverage rate was 41.9% and the global AI vaccine coverage rate was 10.9% for all poultry. The highest national coverage rate was nearly 100% for poultry in Hong Kong and the lowest national coverage was less than 0.01% for poultry in Israel and The Netherlands. Inactivated AI vaccines accounted for 95.5% and live recombinant virus vaccines for 4.5% of the vaccines used. Most of these vaccines were used in the H5N1 HPAI panzootic, with more than 99% employed in the People's Republic of China, Egypt, Indonesia and Vietnam. Implementation of vaccination in these four countries occurred after H5N1 HPAI became enzootic in domestic poultry and vaccination did not result in the enzootic infections. Vaccine usage prevented clinical disease and mortality in chickens, and maintained rural livelihoods and food security during HPAI outbreaks. Low-pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza (LPNAI) became reportable to the World Organisation for Animal Health in 2006 because some H5 and H7 low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses have the potential to mutate to HPAI viruses. Fewer outbreaks of LPNAI have been reported than of HPAI and only six countries used vaccine in control

  5. 2.1 Natural History of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1

    PubMed Central

    Sonnberg, Stephanie; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    The ecology of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 has significantly changed from sporadic outbreaks in terrestrial poultry to persistent circulation in terrestrial and aquatic poultry and potentially in wild waterfowl. A novel genotype of HPAI H5N1 arose in 1996 in southern China and through ongoing mutation, reassortment, and natural selection, has diverged into distinct lineages and expanded into multiple reservoir hosts. The evolution of Goose/Guangdong-lineage highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses is ongoing: while stable interactions exist with some reservoir hosts, these viruses are continuing to evolve and adapt to others, and pose an un-calculable risk to sporadic hosts, including humans. PMID:23735535

  6. Prevention and control of highly pathogenic avian influenza with particular reference to H5N1.

    PubMed

    Capua, Ilaria; Cattoli, Giovanni

    2013-12-05

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype emerged in Far East Asia in 1996 and spread in three continents in a period of 10 or less years. Before this event, avian influenza infections caused by highly pathogenic viruses had occurred in many different countries, causing minor or major outbreaks, and had always been eradicated. The unique features of these H5N1 viruses combined to the geographic characteristics of the area of emergence, including animal husbandry practices, has caused this subtype to become endemic in several Asian countries, as well as in Egypt. Our aim is to review the direct and indirect control strategies with the rationale for use, advantages and shortcomings - particularly resulting from practicalities linked to field application and economic constraints. Certainly, in low income countries which have applied vaccination, this has resulted in a failure to eradicate the infection. Although the number of infected countries has dropped from over 40 (2006) to under 10 (2012), the extensive circulation of H5N1 in areas with high poultry density still represents a risk for public and animal health.

  7. Unexpected Interfarm Transmission Dynamics during a Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Tassoni, Luca; Milani, Adelaide; Hughes, Joseph; Salviato, Annalisa; Massi, Paola; Zamperin, Gianpiero; Bonfanti, Lebana; Marangon, Stefano; Cattoli, Giovanni; Monne, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Next-generation sequencing technology is now being increasingly applied to study the within- and between-host population dynamics of viruses. However, information on avian influenza virus evolution and transmission during a naturally occurring epidemic is still limited. Here, we use deep-sequencing data obtained from clinical samples collected from five industrial holdings and a backyard farm infected during the 2013 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N7 epidemic in Italy to unravel (i) the epidemic virus population diversity, (ii) the evolution of virus pathogenicity, and (iii) the pathways of viral transmission between different holdings and sheds. We show a high level of genetic diversity of the HPAI H7N7 viruses within a single farm as a consequence of separate bottlenecks and founder effects. In particular, we identified the cocirculation in the index case of two viral strains showing a different insertion at the hemagglutinin cleavage site, as well as nine nucleotide differences at the consensus level and 92 minority variants. To assess interfarm transmission, we combined epidemiological and genetic data and identified the index case as the major source of the virus, suggesting the spread of different viral haplotypes from the index farm to the other industrial holdings, probably at different time points. Our results revealed interfarm transmission dynamics that the epidemiological data alone could not unravel and demonstrated that delay in the disease detection and stamping out was the major cause of the emergence and the spread of the HPAI strain. IMPORTANCE The within- and between-host evolutionary dynamics of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain during a naturally occurring epidemic is currently poorly understood. Here, we perform for the first time an in-depth sequence analysis of all the samples collected during a HPAI epidemic and demonstrate the importance to complement outbreak investigations with genetic data to

  8. Incorporating risk communication into highly pathogenic avian influenza preparedness and response efforts.

    PubMed

    Voss, Shauna J; Malladi, Sasidhar; Sampedro, Fernando; Snider, Tim; Goldsmith, Timothy; Hueston, William D; Lauer, Dale C; Halvorson, David A

    2012-12-01

    A highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak in the United States will initiate a federal emergency response effort that will consist of disease control and eradication efforts, including quarantine and movement control measures. These movement control measures will not only apply to live animals but also to animal products. However, with current egg industry "just-in-time" production practices, limited storage is available to hold eggs. As a result, stop movement orders can have significant unintended negative consequences, including severe disruptions to the food supply chain. Because stakeholders' perceptions of risk vary, waiting to initiate communication efforts until an HPAI event occurs can hinder disease control efforts, including the willingness of producers to comply with the response, and also can affect consumers' demand for the product. A public-private-academic partnership was formed to assess actual risks involved in the movement of egg industry products during an HPAI event through product specific, proactive risk assessments. The risk analysis process engaged a broad representation of stakeholders and promoted effective risk management and communication strategies before an HPAI outbreak event. This multidisciplinary team used the risk assessments in the development of the United States Department of Agriculture, Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Secure Egg Supply Plan, a comprehensive response plan that strives to maintain continuity of business. The collaborative approach that was used demonstrates how a proactive risk communication strategy that involves many different stakeholders can be valuable in the development of a foreign animal disease response plan and build working relationships, trust, and understanding.

  9. The multigenic nature of the differences in pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in domestic ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Eurasian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have evolved into many genetic lineages. The divergent strains that have arisen express distinct pathobiological features and increased virulence for many bird species including domestic waterfowl. The pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI vi...

  10. Variation in infectivity and adaptation of wild duck- and poultry-origin high pathogenicity and low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses for poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses vary in their adaptation which impacts transmission between and infection of different bird species. We determine the intranasal mean bird infectious doses (BID50) for 11 high pathogenicity (HP) AI viruses for layer type chickens (LC), and three low pathogenicity (LP) A...

  11. Genetic evolution of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in domestic poultry in Vietnam between 2011 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Kwang-Il; Choi, Jun-Gu; To, Thanh Long; Nguyen, Tho Dang; Song, Byung-Min; Jeong, Jipseol; Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kim, Ji-Ye; Lee, Hee-Soo; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2015-04-01

    In spite of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 vaccination campaigns for domestic poultry, H5N1 viruses continue to circulate in Vietnam. To estimate the prevalence of avian influenza virus in Vietnam, surveillance was conducted between November 2011 and February 2013. Genetic analysis of 312 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses isolated from poultry in Vietnam was conducted and possible genetic relationships with strains from neighboring countries were investigated. As previously reported, phylogenetic analysis of the avian influenza virus revealed two H5N1 HPAI clades that were circulating in Vietnam. Clade 1.1, related to Cambodian strains, was predominant in the southern provinces, while clade 2.3.2.1 viruses were predominant in the northern and central provinces. Sequence analysis revealed evidence of active genetic evolution. In the gene constellation of clade 2.3.2.1, genotypes A, B, and B(II) existed during the 2011/2012 winter season. In June 2012, new genotype C emerged by reassortment between genotype A and genotype B(II), and this genotype was predominant in 2013 in the northern and central provinces. Interestingly, enzootic Vietnamese clade 2.3.2.1C H5 virus subsequently reassorted with N2, which originated from wild birds, to generate H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza, which was isolated from duck in the northeast region. This investigation indicated that H5N1 outbreaks persist in Vietnam and cause genetic reassortment with circulating viruses. It is necessary to strengthen active influenza surveillance to eradicate highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and sever the link between highly pathogenic avian influenza and other circulating influenza viruses.

  12. Lemna (duckweed) expressed hemagglutinin from avian influenza H5N1 protects chickens against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last two decades, transgenic plants have been explored as safe and cost effective alternative expression platforms for producing recombinant proteins. In this study, a synthetic hemagglutinin (HA) gene from the high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (H5N1)...

  13. Vaccine protection of turkeys against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus with a recombinant HVT expressing the hemagglutinin gene of avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in commercial poultry are a constant threat to animal health and food supplies. While vaccination can enhance protection and reduce the spread of disease, there is considerable evidence that the level of immunity required for protection varies...

  14. Potency, efficacy, and antigenic mapping of H7 avian influenza virus vaccines against the 2012 H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus from Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the spring of 2012 an outbreak of H7N3 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV) occurred in poultry in Mexico. Vaccination was implemented as a control measure along with increased biosecurity and surveillance. At that time there was no commercially available H7 AIV vaccine in North Ame...

  15. Protection of poultry against the 2012 Mexican H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus with inactivated H7 avian influenza vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In June of 2012, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N3 was reported poultry in Jalisco, Mexico. Since that time the virus has spread to the surrounding States of Guanajuato and Aguascalientes and new outbreaks continue to be reported. To date more than 25 million birds have di...

  16. Assessment of reduced vaccine dose on efficacy of an inactivated avian influenza vaccine against an H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) vaccines have emerged to be a viable emergency tool for use in a comprehensive strategy for dealing with high pathogenicity (HP) AI in developed countries. However, the available doses of inactivated AI vaccine are limited to national vaccine banks and inventory stocks of some ...

  17. Protection against H7N3 high pathogenicity avian influenza in chickens immunized with a recombinant fowlpox and an inactivated avian influenza vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning on June 2012, an H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epizootic was reported in the State of Jalisco (Mexico), with some 22.4 million chickens that died, were slaughtered on affected farms or were preemptively culled on neighboring farms. In the current study, layer chickens were ...

  18. Reduction of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in eggs from chickens once or twice vaccinated with an oil-emulsified inactivated H5 avian influenza vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The negative impact of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection on egg production and deposition of virus in eggs, as well as any protective effect of vaccination, is unknown. Individually housed non-vaccinated, sham-vaccinated and inactivated H5N9 vaccinated once or twice adult Wh...

  19. Modelling the wind-borne spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus between farms.

    PubMed

    Ssematimba, Amos; Hagenaars, Thomas J; de Jong, Mart C M

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of the spread of contaminated farm dust between locations is a prerequisite for obtaining much-needed insight into one of the possible mechanisms of disease spread between farms. Here, we develop a model to calculate the quantity of contaminated farm-dust particles deposited at various locations downwind of a source farm and apply the model to assess the possible contribution of the wind-borne route to the transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza virus (HPAI) during the 2003 epidemic in the Netherlands. The model is obtained from a Gaussian Plume Model by incorporating the dust deposition process, pathogen decay, and a model for the infection process on exposed farms. Using poultry- and avian influenza-specific parameter values we calculate the distance-dependent probability of between-farm transmission by this route. A comparison between the transmission risk pattern predicted by the model and the pattern observed during the 2003 epidemic reveals that the wind-borne route alone is insufficient to explain the observations although it could contribute substantially to the spread over short distance ranges, for example, explaining 24% of the transmission over distances up to 25 km.

  20. Newly Emergent Highly Pathogenic H5N9 Subtype Avian Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Wang, Xingbo; Jin, Tao; Wang, Hailong; Si, Weiying; Yang, Hui; Wu, Jiusheng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Guang; Sang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Xiaopeng; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu; Yu, Xinfen; Pan, Jingcao; Gao, George F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The novel H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) was demonstrated to cause severe human respiratory infections in China. Here, we examined poultry specimens from live bird markets linked to human H7N9 infection in Hangzhou, China. Metagenomic sequencing revealed mixed subtypes (H5, H7, H9, N1, N2, and N9). Subsequently, AIV subtypes H5N9, H7N9, and H9N2 were isolated. Evolutionary analysis showed that the hemagglutinin gene of the novel H5N9 virus originated from A/Muscovy duck/Vietnam/LBM227/2012 (H5N1), which belongs to clade 2.3.2.1. The neuraminidase gene of the novel H5N9 virus originated from human-infective A/Hangzhou/1/2013 (H7N9). The six internal genes were similar to those of other H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2 virus strains. The virus harbored the PQRERRRKR/GL motif characteristic of highly pathogenic AIVs at the HA cleavage site. Receptor-binding experiments demonstrated that the virus binds α-2,3 sialic acid but not α-2,6 sialic acid. Identically, pathogenicity experiments also showed that the virus caused low mortality rates in mice. This newly isolated H5N9 virus is a highly pathogenic reassortant virus originating from H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2 subtypes. Live bird markets represent a potential transmission risk to public health and the poultry industry. IMPORTANCE This investigation confirms that the novel H5N9 subtype avian influenza A virus is a reassortant strain originating from H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2 subtypes and is totally different from the H5N9 viruses reported before. The novel H5N9 virus acquired a highly pathogenic H5 gene and an N9 gene from human-infecting subtype H7N9 but caused low mortality rates in mice. Whether this novel H5N9 virus will cause human infections from its avian host and become a pandemic subtype is not known yet. It is therefore imperative to assess the risk of emergence of this novel reassortant virus with potential transmissibility to public health. PMID:26085150

  1. Pseudotyping of vesicular stomatitis virus with the envelope glycoproteins of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Gert; Locher, Samira; Berger Rentsch, Marianne; Halbherr, Stefan J

    2014-08-01

    Pseudotype viruses are useful for studying the envelope proteins of harmful viruses. This work describes the pseudotyping of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with the envelope glycoproteins of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. VSV lacking the homotypic glycoprotein (G) gene (VSVΔG) was used to express haemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) or the combination of both. Propagation-competent pseudotype viruses were only obtained when HA and NA were expressed from the same vector genome. Pseudotype viruses containing HA from different H5 clades were neutralized specifically by immune sera directed against the corresponding clade. Fast and sensitive reading of test results was achieved by vector-mediated expression of GFP. Pseudotype viruses expressing a mutant VSV matrix protein showed restricted spread in IFN-competent cells. This pseudotype system will facilitate the detection of neutralizing antibodies against virulent influenza viruses, circumventing the need for high-level biosafety containment.

  2. Distribution and dynamics of risk factors associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Guo, Z W; Bridge, E S; Li, Y M; Xiao, X M

    2013-11-01

    Within China's Poyang Lake region, close interactions between wild migratory birds and domestic poultry are common and provide an opportunity for the transmission and subsequent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. We overlaid a series of ecological factors associated with HPAI to map the risk of HPAI in relation to natural and anthropogenic variables, and we identified two hotspots for potential HPAI outbreaks in the Poyang Lake region as well as three corridors connecting the two hotspot areas. In hotspot I, there is potential for migratory birds to bring new avian influenza (AI) strains that can reassort with existing strains to form new AI viruses. Hotspot II features high-density poultry production where outbreaks of endemic AI viruses are likely. The three communication corridors that link the two hotspots further promote HPAI H5N1 transmission and outbreaks and lead to the persistence of AI viruses in the Poyang Lake region. We speculate that the region's unevenly distributed poultry supply-and-demand system might be a key factor inducing HPAI H5N1 transmission and outbreaks in the Poyang Lake region.

  3. Updated values for molecular diagnosis for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Akira; Shibasaki, Futoshi

    2012-08-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 strain pose a pandemic threat. H5N1 strain virus is extremely lethal and contagious for poultry. Even though mortality is 59% in infected humans, these viruses do not spread efficiently between humans. In 1997, an outbreak of H5N1 strain with human cases occurred in Hong Kong. This event highlighted the need for rapid identification and subtyping of influenza A viruses (IAV), not only to facilitate surveillance of the pandemic potential of avian IAV, but also to improve the control and treatment of infected patients. Molecular diagnosis has played a key role in the detection and typing of IAV in recent years, spurred by rapid advances in technologies for detection and characterization of viral RNAs and proteins. Such technologies, which include immunochromatography, quantitative real-time PCR, super high-speed real-time PCR, and isothermal DNA amplification, are expected to contribute to faster and easier diagnosis and typing of IAV.

  4. Pathogenicity of the Korean H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in commercial domestic poultry species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Park, Jae-Keun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Sang-Won; Song, Chang-Seon

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N8 triggered outbreaks in wild birds and poultry farms in South Korea. In the present study, we investigated the pathogenicity of the H5N8 HPAI virus, belonging to the clade 2.3.4.4, in different species of poultry. For this, we examined clinical signs and viral shedding levels following intranasal inoculation of the virus in 3-week-old commercial layer chickens and quails, 10-week-old Korean native chickens, and 8-week-old Muscovy ducks. Intranasal inoculation with 10(6.0) viruses at 50% egg-infective dose resulted in 100% mortality in the layer chickens (8/8) and quails (4/4), but 60% and 0% deaths in the Korean native chickens (3/5) and Muscovy ducks (0/4), respectively. In addition, transmission of the inoculated virus to contact-exposed birds was evident in all the species used in this study. Based on our results, we conclude that the H5N8 HPAI virus has lower pathogenicity and transmissibility in poultry species compared with previously reported H5N1 HPAI viruses.

  5. An outbreak of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in Korea, 2008.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Park, Choi-Kyu; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Oem, Jae-Ku; Kim, Seong-Hee; Jean, Young-Hwa; Bae, Yu-Chan; Yoon, Soon-Seek; Roh, In-Soon; Jeong, Ok-Mi; Kim, Ha-Young; Choi, Jeong-Soo; Byun, Jae-Won; Song, Yun-Kyung; Kwon, Jun-Hun; Joo, Yi-Seok

    2010-03-24

    In spite of intensive surveillance programs for the control of HPAI, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in Korea in April 2008 caused serious damage to poultry farms, as did previous outbreaks in 2003/2004 and 2006/2007. Six viruses were selected from the Korean 2008 isolates for genetic analysis, and all eight gene segments from each of the influenza viruses were sequenced. A phylogenetic analysis showed that all of the viruses were of the same virus type and that the hemagglutinin (HA) gene was clustered with that of clade 2.3.2 viruses. However, the internal and neuraminidase (NA) genes were closely related to those of the clade 2.3.4 viruses (recent human and bird isolates from Southeast Asia).

  6. High-pathogenicity avian influenza virus in the reproductive tract of chickens.

    PubMed

    Sá e Silva, M; Rissi, D R; Pantin-Jackwood, M; Swayne, D E

    2013-11-01

    Infection with high-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) has been associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations in poultry, including severe depression in egg production and isolation of HPAIV from eggs laid by infected hens. To evaluate the pathobiology in the reproductive tract of chickens, adult hens were inoculated intranasally with 3 HPAIV strains. All 3 strains induced lesions in the reproductive tract 36 to 72 hours after inoculation. Positive immunostaining was observed in all segments of the reproductive tract, occurring predominantly in stromal cells and superficial germinal epithelium of the ovary, in mucosal epithelial cells and less often glandular epithelium throughout the oviduct, and in vascular endothelium. This study generates important data and explains previously reported virus isolation from yolk, due to ovarian virus replication, and virus recovery from albumin, due to virus replication in epithelial cells in several segments of the oviduct.

  7. Outbreaks of highly pathogenic Eurasian H5N8 avian influenza in two commercial poultry flocks in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In January 2015, a highly pathogenic Eurasian lineage H5N8 avian influenza (AI) virus was detected in a commercial meat turkey flock in Stanislaus County, California. Approximately 3 weeks later, a similar case was diagnosed in commercial chickens from a different company located in Kings County, C...

  8. Emergence of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza strains in Indonesia that are resistant to vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines have been used to protect poultry in Asia against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) since 2002. Reports of vaccine “failures” began to emerge in 2006 in Indonesia, with identification of clinical disease consistent with HPAI or isolation of H5N1 HPAIV in vaccinated flocks or in...

  9. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus in Wild Migratory Birds, Qinghai Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingxin; Liu, Haizhou; Bi, Yuhai; Sun, Jianqing; Wong, Gary; Liu, Di; Li, Laixing; Liu, Juxiang; Chen, Quanjiao; Wang, Hanzhong; He, Yubang; Shi, Weifeng; Gao, George F; Chen, Jianjun

    2017-04-01

    In May 2016, a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus strain caused deaths among 3 species of wild migratory birds in Qinghai Lake, China. Genetic analysis showed that the novel reassortant virus belongs to group B H5N8 viruses and that the reassortment events likely occurred in early 2016.

  10. The pathobiology of highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza virus in Ruddy ducks and Lesser Scaup

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The susceptibility and pathogenesis of avian influenza virus (AIV) has not been characterized in numerous duck species, especially diving ducks, some of which migrate across the continental U.S. The pathobiology of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N2 AIV was characterized in two diving duck species, Ruddy ...

  11. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus in Wild Migratory Birds, Qinghai Lake, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingxin; Liu, Haizhou; Bi, Yuhai; Sun, Jianqing; Wong, Gary; Liu, Di; Li, Laixing; Liu, Juxiang; Chen, Quanjiao; Wang, Hanzhong; He, Yubang; Shi, Weifeng; Gao, George F.

    2017-01-01

    In May 2016, a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus strain caused deaths among 3 species of wild migratory birds in Qinghai Lake, China. Genetic analysis showed that the novel reassortant virus belongs to group B H5N8 viruses and that the reassortment events likely occurred in early 2016. PMID:28169827

  12. Surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in wild birds during outbreaks in domestic poultry, Minnesota, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennelle, Christopher S.; Carstensen, Michelle; Hildebrand, Erik C.; Cornicelli, Louis; Wolf, Paul C.; Grear, Daniel A.; Ip, Hon S.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Minicucci, Larissa A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, a major outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection devastated poultry facilities in Minnesota, USA. To clarify the role of wild birds, we tested 3,139 waterfowl fecal samples and 104 sick and dead birds during March 9–June 4, 2015. HPAIV was isolated from a Cooper’s hawk but not from waterfowl.

  13. Early responses of chicken lungs and spleens to infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus using microarray analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within the last few years, outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) have originated in Asia and spread through several Middle Eastern, African and European countries, resulting in one of the most serious animal disease incident in recent history. These outbreaks were characterized by t...

  14. H5N1 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolated from healthy mallard captured in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Kim, Bang-Sil; Bae, You-Chan; Moon, Oun-Kyoung; Oem, Jae-Ku; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Choi, Jun-Gu; Lee, O-Soo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2011-08-05

    On December 7, 2010, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was isolated from a healthy mallard captured at the Mankyung River in South Korea. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this virus was classified into clade 2.3.2 and closely related to H5N1 viruses isolated from wild birds in Mongolia, Russia and China in 2009 and 2010.

  15. NS1 gene truncations partially attenuate H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The polybasic amino acid sequence in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of H5 and H7 avian influenza (AI) viruses determines the high pathogenicity (HP) phenotype in chickens. The NS1 protein plays an important role in blocking the induction of antiviral defenses and other regulatory functions and thus...

  16. Bronchointerstitial pneumonia in guinea pigs following inoculation with H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have caused widespread disease of poultry in Asia, Africa and the Middle East, and sporadic human infections. The guinea pig model has been used to study human H3N2 and H1N1 influenza viruses, but knowledge is lacking on H5N1 HPAI virus inf...

  17. High pathogenicity avian influenza outbreaks since 2008 except multi-continental panzootic of H5 Goose/Guangdong-lineage viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2008, seven countries from five continents have experienced highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in poultry due to viruses unrelated to H5 Goose/Guangdong lineage viruses. These have covered a range of virus subtypes and affected different production species from chickens to ost...

  18. Efficacy of commercial vaccines in chickens and ducks against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from Vietnam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza (AI) viruses continue to circulate in Asia and have spread to other regions of the world. Though attempts at eradication of the viruses during various outbreaks have been successful for short periods of time, new strains of H5N1 viruses continue to emerge...

  19. Genetic Predisposition To Acquire a Polybasic Cleavage Site for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    Nao, Naganori; Yamagishi, Junya; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Igarashi, Manabu; Manzoor, Rashid; Ohnuma, Aiko; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Furuyama, Wakako; Shigeno, Asako; Kajihara, Masahiro; Kishida, Noriko; Yoshida, Reiko

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses with H5 and H7 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes evolve from low-pathogenic precursors through the acquisition of multiple basic amino acid residues at the HA cleavage site. Although this mechanism has been observed to occur naturally only in these HA subtypes, little is known about the genetic basis for the acquisition of the polybasic HA cleavage site. Here we show that consecutive adenine residues and a stem-loop structure, which are frequently found in the viral RNA region encoding amino acids around the cleavage site of low-pathogenic H5 and H7 viruses isolated from waterfowl reservoirs, are important for nucleotide insertions into this RNA region. A reporter assay to detect nontemplated nucleotide insertions and deep-sequencing analysis of viral RNAs revealed that an increased number of adenine residues and enlarged stem-loop structure in the RNA region accelerated the multiple adenine and/or guanine insertions required to create codons for basic amino acids. Interestingly, nucleotide insertions associated with the HA cleavage site motif were not observed principally in the viral RNA of other subtypes tested (H1, H2, H3, and H4). Our findings suggest that the RNA editing-like activity is the key mechanism for nucleotide insertions, providing a clue as to why the acquisition of the polybasic HA cleavage site is restricted to the particular HA subtypes. PMID:28196963

  20. Gene expression responses to highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus infections in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in host response to infection with avian influenza (AI) viruses were investigated by identifying genes differentially expressed in tissues of infected ducks. Clear differences in pathogenicity were observed among ducks inoculated with five H5N1 HPAI viruses. Virus titers in tissues cor...

  1. Differences in pathogenicity of A/Duck/Vietnam/201/05 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus reassortants in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to understand which viral genes contribute to the high virulence of A/Dk/Vietnam/201/05 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus in ducks, we used reverse genetics to generate single-gene reassortant viruses with genes from A/Ck/Indonesia/7/03, a virus that produces mild disease ...

  2. Epidemiology and ecology of highly pathogenic avian influenza with particular emphasis on South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Martin, V; Sims, L; Lubroth, J; Pfeiffer, D; Slingenbergh, J; Domenech, J

    2006-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has been recognised as a serious viral disease of poultry since 1878. The number of recorded outbreaks of HPAI has increased globally in the past 10 years culminating in 2004 with the unprecedented outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI involving at least nine countries in East and South-East Asia. Apart from the geographical extent of these outbreaks and apparent rapid spread, this epidemic has a number of unique features, among which is the role that asymptomatic domestic waterfowl and more particularly free-ranging ducks play in the transmission of highly pathogenic H5N1. Field epidemiological studies have been conducted by the Food and Agriculture Organization and several collaborative centres to explore the factors that could have led to a change from infection to the emergence of widespread disease in 2003-2004 and 2005. Domestic waterfowl, specific farming practices and agro-ecological environments have been identified to play a key role in the occurrence, maintenance and spread of HPAI. Although there are some questions that remain unanswered regarding the origins of the 2004 outbreaks, the current understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of the disease should now lead to the development of adapted targeted surveillance studies and control strategies.

  3. Comparison of molecular classification and experimental pathogenicity for classification of low and high pathogenicity H5 and H7 avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, which have been restricted to H5 and H7 subtypes, have caused continuous outbreaks in the poultry industry with devastating economic losses and is a severe threat to public health. Genetic features and severity of the disease in poultry determine wh...

  4. Characterization of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza A viruses isolated from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Won; Suarez, David L; Tumpey, Terrence M; Sung, Haan-Woo; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Choi, Jun-Gu; Joh, Seong-Joon; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Park, Jong-Myung; Lu, Xiuhua; Katz, Jacqueline M; Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2005-03-01

    An unprecedented outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has been reported for poultry in eight different Asian countries, including South Korea, since December 2003. A phylogenetic analysis of the eight viral genes showed that the H5N1 poultry isolates from South Korea were of avian origin and contained the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 (Gs/Gd) lineage. The current H5N1 strains in Asia, including the Korean isolates, share a gene constellation similar to that of the Penfold Park, Hong Kong, isolates from late 2002 and contain some molecular markers that seem to have been fixed in the Gs/Gd lineage virus since 2001. However, despite genetic similarities among recent H5N1 isolates, the topology of the phylogenetic tree clearly differentiates the Korean isolates from the Vietnamese and Thai isolates which have been reported to infect humans. A representative Korean isolate was inoculated into mice, with no mortality and no virus being isolated from the brain, although high titers of virus were observed in the lungs. The same isolate, however, caused systemic infections in chickens and quail and killed all of the birds within 2 and 4 days of intranasal inoculation, respectively. This isolate also replicated in multiple organs and tissues of ducks and caused some mortality. However, lower virus titers were observed in all corresponding tissues of ducks than in chicken and quail tissues, and the histological lesions were restricted to the respiratory tract. This study characterizes the molecular and biological properties of the H5N1 HPAI viruses from South Korea and emphasizes the need for comparative analyses of the H5N1 isolates from different countries to help elucidate the risk of a human pandemic from the strains of H5N1 HPAI currently circulating in Asia.

  5. Intersubtype Reassortments of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Quail

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tinh Huu; Than, Van Thai; Thanh, Hien Dang; Hung, Vu-Khac; Nguyen, Duc Tan; Kim, Wonyong

    2016-01-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses are considered a threat to national animal industries, causing production losses and high mortality in domestic poultry. In recent years, quail has become a popular terrestrial poultry species raised for production of meat and eggs in Asia. In this study, to better understand the roles of quail in H5N1 viral evolution, two H5N1-positive samples, designated A/quail/Vietnam/CVVI-49/2010 (CVVI-49/2010) and A/quail/Vietnam/CVVI-50/2014 (CVVI-50/2014), were isolated from quail during H5N1 outbreaks in Vietnam, and their whole genome were analyzed. The phylogenetic analysis reveals new evolutionary variation in the worldwide H5N1 viruses. The quail HA genes were clustered into clades 1.1.1 (CVVI-49/2010) and clade 2.3.2.1c (CVVI-50/2014), which may have evolved from viruses circulating from chickens and/or ducks in Cambodia, mainland of China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and South Korea in recent years. Interestingly, the M2 gene of the CVVI-49/2010 strain contained amino acid substitutions at position 26L-I and 31S-N that are related to amantadine-resistance. In particular, the CVVI-50/2014 strain revealed evidence of multiple intersubtype reassortment events between virus clades 2.3.2.1c, 2.3.2.1b, and 2.3.2.1a. Data from this study supports the possible role of quail as an important intermediate host in avian influenza virus evolution. Therefore, additional surveillance is needed to monitor these HPAI viruses both serologically and virologically in quail. PMID:26900963

  6. Intersubtype Reassortments of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Quail.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tinh Huu; Than, Van Thai; Thanh, Hien Dang; Hung, Vu-Khac; Nguyen, Duc Tan; Kim, Wonyong

    2016-01-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses are considered a threat to national animal industries, causing production losses and high mortality in domestic poultry. In recent years, quail has become a popular terrestrial poultry species raised for production of meat and eggs in Asia. In this study, to better understand the roles of quail in H5N1 viral evolution, two H5N1-positive samples, designated A/quail/Vietnam/CVVI-49/2010 (CVVI-49/2010) and A/quail/Vietnam/CVVI-50/2014 (CVVI-50/2014), were isolated from quail during H5N1 outbreaks in Vietnam, and their whole genome were analyzed. The phylogenetic analysis reveals new evolutionary variation in the worldwide H5N1 viruses. The quail HA genes were clustered into clades 1.1.1 (CVVI-49/2010) and clade 2.3.2.1c (CVVI-50/2014), which may have evolved from viruses circulating from chickens and/or ducks in Cambodia, mainland of China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and South Korea in recent years. Interestingly, the M2 gene of the CVVI-49/2010 strain contained amino acid substitutions at position 26L-I and 31S-N that are related to amantadine-resistance. In particular, the CVVI-50/2014 strain revealed evidence of multiple intersubtype reassortment events between virus clades 2.3.2.1c, 2.3.2.1b, and 2.3.2.1a. Data from this study supports the possible role of quail as an important intermediate host in avian influenza virus evolution. Therefore, additional surveillance is needed to monitor these HPAI viruses both serologically and virologically in quail.

  7. Immunostimulatory motifs enhance antiviral siRNAs targeting highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Cameron R; Karpala, Adam J; Lowther, Sue; Lowenthal, John W; Bean, Andrew G

    2011-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus is endemic in many regions around the world and remains a significant pandemic threat. To date H5N1 has claimed almost 300 human lives worldwide, with a mortality rate of 60% and has caused the death or culling of hundreds of millions of poultry since its initial outbreak in 1997. We have designed multi-functional RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapeutics targeting H5N1 that degrade viral mRNA via the RNAi pathway while at the same time augmenting the host antiviral response by inducing host type I interferon (IFN) production. Moreover, we have identified two factors critical for maximising the immunostimulatory properties of short interfering (si)RNAs in chicken cells (i) mode of synthesis and (ii) nucleoside sequence to augment the response to virus. The 5-bp nucleoside sequence 5'-UGUGU-3' is a key determinant in inducing high levels of expression of IFN-α, -β, -λ and interleukin 1-β in chicken cells. Positioning of this 5'-UGUGU-3' motif at the 5'-end of the sense strand of siRNAs, but not the 3'-end, resulted in a rapid and enhanced induction of type I IFN. An anti-H5N1 avian influenza siRNA directed against the PB1 gene (PB1-2257) tagged with 5'-UGUGU-3' induced type I IFN earlier and to a greater extent compared to a non-tagged PB1-2257. Tested against H5N1 in vitro, the tagged PB1-2257 was more effective than non-tagged PB1-2257. These data demonstrate the ability of an immunostimulatory motif to improve the performance of an RNAi-based antiviral, a finding that may influence the design of future RNAi-based anti-influenza therapeutics.

  8. Model-based evaluation of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza dynamics in wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hénaux, Viviane; Samuel, Michael D.; Bunck, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest in avian influenza (AI) epidemiology to predict disease risk in wild and domestic birds, and prevent transmission to humans. However, understanding the epidemic dynamics of highly pathogenic (HPAI) viruses remains challenging because they have rarely been detected in wild birds. We used modeling to integrate available scientific information from laboratory and field studies, evaluate AI dynamics in individual hosts and waterfowl populations, and identify key areas for future research. We developed a Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model and used published laboratory challenge studies to estimate epidemiological parameters (rate of infection, latency period, recovery and mortality rates), considering the importance of age classes, and virus pathogenicity. Infectious contact leads to infection and virus shedding within 1–2 days, followed by relatively slower period for recovery or mortality. We found a shorter infectious period for HPAI than low pathogenic (LP) AI, which may explain that HPAI has been much harder to detect than LPAI during surveillance programs. Our model predicted a rapid LPAI epidemic curve, with a median duration of infection of 50–60 days and no fatalities. In contrast, HPAI dynamics had lower prevalence and higher mortality, especially in young birds. Based on field data from LPAI studies, our model suggests to increase surveillance for HPAI in post-breeding areas, because the presence of immunologically naïve young birds is predicted to cause higher HPAI prevalence and bird losses during this season. Our results indicate a better understanding of the transmission, infection, and immunity-related processes is required to refine predictions of AI risk and spread, improve surveillance for HPAI in wild birds, and develop disease control strategies to reduce potential transmission to domestic birds and/or humans.

  9. Model-based evaluation of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza dynamics in wild birds.

    PubMed

    Hénaux, Viviane; Samuel, Michael D; Bunck, Christine M

    2010-06-23

    There is growing interest in avian influenza (AI) epidemiology to predict disease risk in wild and domestic birds, and prevent transmission to humans. However, understanding the epidemic dynamics of highly pathogenic (HPAI) viruses remains challenging because they have rarely been detected in wild birds. We used modeling to integrate available scientific information from laboratory and field studies, evaluate AI dynamics in individual hosts and waterfowl populations, and identify key areas for future research. We developed a Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model and used published laboratory challenge studies to estimate epidemiological parameters (rate of infection, latency period, recovery and mortality rates), considering the importance of age classes, and virus pathogenicity. Infectious contact leads to infection and virus shedding within 1-2 days, followed by relatively slower period for recovery or mortality. We found a shorter infectious period for HPAI than low pathogenic (LP) AI, which may explain that HPAI has been much harder to detect than LPAI during surveillance programs. Our model predicted a rapid LPAI epidemic curve, with a median duration of infection of 50-60 days and no fatalities. In contrast, HPAI dynamics had lower prevalence and higher mortality, especially in young birds. Based on field data from LPAI studies, our model suggests to increase surveillance for HPAI in post-breeding areas, because the presence of immunologically naïve young birds is predicted to cause higher HPAI prevalence and bird losses during this season. Our results indicate a better understanding of the transmission, infection, and immunity-related processes is required to refine predictions of AI risk and spread, improve surveillance for HPAI in wild birds, and develop disease control strategies to reduce potential transmission to domestic birds and/or humans.

  10. Evidence of infection by H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in healthy wild waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaidet, N.; Cattoli, G.; Hammoumi, S.; Newman, S.H.; Hagemeijer, W.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Cappelle, J.; Dodman, T.; Joannis, T.; Gil, P.; Monne, I.; Fusaro, A.; Capua, I.; Manu, S.; Micheloni, P.; Ottosson, U.; Mshelbwala, J.H.; Lubroth, J.; Domenech, J.; Monicat, F.

    2008-01-01

    The potential existence of a wild bird reservoir for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has been recently questioned by the spread and the persisting circulation of H5N1 HPAI viruses, responsible for concurrent outbreaks in migratory and domestic birds over Asia, Europe, and Africa. During a large-scale surveillance programme over Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, we detected avian influenza viruses of H5N2 subtype with a highly pathogenic (HP) viral genotype in healthy birds of two wild waterfowl species sampled in Nigeria. We monitored the survival and regional movements of one of the infected birds through satellite telemetry, providing a rare evidence of a non-lethal natural infection by an HP viral genotype in wild birds. Phylogenetic analysis of the H5N2 viruses revealed close genetic relationships with H5 viruses of low pathogenicity circulating in Eurasian wild and domestic ducks. In addition, genetic analysis did not reveal known gallinaceous poultry adaptive mutations, suggesting that the emergence of HP strains could have taken place in either wild or domestic ducks or in non-gallinaceous species. The presence of coexisting but genetically distinguishable avian influenza viruses with an HP viral genotype in two cohabiting species of wild waterfowl, with evidence of non-lethal infection at least in one species and without evidence of prior extensive circulation of the virus in domestic poultry, suggest that some strains with a potential high pathogenicity for poultry could be maintained in a community of wild waterfowl.

  11. Host immune responses of ducks infected with H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of different pathogenicities.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liangmeng; Jiao, Peirong; Song, Yafen; Cao, Lan; Yuan, Runyu; Gong, Lang; Cui, Jin; Zhang, Shuo; Qi, Wenbao; Yang, Su; Liao, Ming

    2013-10-25

    Our previous studies have illustrated three strains of duck-origin H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) had varying levels of pathogenicity in ducks (Sun et al., 2011). However, the host immune response of ducks infected with those of H5N1 HPAIVs was unclear. Here, we compared viral distribution and mRNA expression of immune-related genes in ducks following infection with the two HPAIV (A/Duck/Guangdong/212/2004, DK212 and A/Duck/Guangdong/383/2008, DK383). DK383 could replicate in the tested tissue of ducks (brain, spleen, lungs, cloacal bursa, kidney, and pancreas) more rapid and efficiently than DK212 at 1 and 2 days post-inoculation. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of TLR3, IL-6, IL-8, and MHC class II in brains were higher than those of respective genes in lungs during the early stage of post infection. Furthermore, the expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in the brain of ducks following infection with DK383 were remarkably higher than those of ducks infected with DK212, respectively. Our results suggest that the shift in the H5N1 HPAIVs to increased virulence in ducks may be associated with efficient and rapid replication of the virus, accompanied by early destruction of host immune responses. These data are helpful to understand the underlying mechanism of the different outcome of H5N1 HPAIVs infection in ducks.

  12. Genetic Predisposition To Acquire a Polybasic Cleavage Site for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Nao, Naganori; Yamagishi, Junya; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Igarashi, Manabu; Manzoor, Rashid; Ohnuma, Aiko; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Furuyama, Wakako; Shigeno, Asako; Kajihara, Masahiro; Kishida, Noriko; Yoshida, Reiko; Takada, Ayato

    2017-02-14

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses with H5 and H7 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes evolve from low-pathogenic precursors through the acquisition of multiple basic amino acid residues at the HA cleavage site. Although this mechanism has been observed to occur naturally only in these HA subtypes, little is known about the genetic basis for the acquisition of the polybasic HA cleavage site. Here we show that consecutive adenine residues and a stem-loop structure, which are frequently found in the viral RNA region encoding amino acids around the cleavage site of low-pathogenic H5 and H7 viruses isolated from waterfowl reservoirs, are important for nucleotide insertions into this RNA region. A reporter assay to detect nontemplated nucleotide insertions and deep-sequencing analysis of viral RNAs revealed that an increased number of adenine residues and enlarged stem-loop structure in the RNA region accelerated the multiple adenine and/or guanine insertions required to create codons for basic amino acids. Interestingly, nucleotide insertions associated with the HA cleavage site motif were not observed principally in the viral RNA of other subtypes tested (H1, H2, H3, and H4). Our findings suggest that the RNA editing-like activity is the key mechanism for nucleotide insertions, providing a clue as to why the acquisition of the polybasic HA cleavage site is restricted to the particular HA subtypes.IMPORTANCE Influenza A viruses are divided into subtypes based on the antigenicity of the viral surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase. Of the 16 HA subtypes (H1 to -16) maintained in waterfowl reservoirs of influenza A viruses, H5 and H7 viruses often become highly pathogenic through the acquisition of multiple basic amino acid residues at the HA cleavage site. Although this mechanism has been known since the 1980s, the genetic basis for nucleotide insertions has remained unclear. This study shows the potential role of the viral RNA secondary structure for

  13. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in Mute swans in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Alexander; Machova, Jirina; Hornickova, Jitka; Tomci, Miroslav; Nagl, Ivan; Horyna, Bedrich; Holko, Ivan

    2007-02-25

    In order to determine the actual prevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in wild birds in the Czech Republic extensive surveillance was carried out between January and April 2006. A total of 2101 samples representing 61 bird species were examined for the presence of influenza A by using PCR, sequencing and cultivation on chicken embryos. AIV subtype H5N1 was detected in 12 Mute swans (Cygnus olor). The viruses were determined as HPAI (highly pathogenic avian influenza) and the hemagglutinin sequence was closely similar to A/mallard/Italy/835/06 and A/turkey/Turkey/1194/05. Following the first H5N1 case, about 300 wild birds representing 33 species were collected from the outbreak region and tested for the presence of AIV without any positive result. This is the first report of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 in the Czech Republic. The potential role of swan as an effective vector of avian influenza virus is also discussed.

  14. Animal health policy principles for highly pathogenic avian influenza: shared experience from China and Canada.

    PubMed

    Stephen, C; Ninghui, L; Yeh, F; Zhang, L

    2011-08-01

    Animal health policy for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) must, for the time being, be based on expert opinion and shared international experience. We used the intellectual capital and knowledge of experienced Chinese and Canadian practitioners and policy makers to inform policy options for China and find shared policy elements applicable to both countries. No peer-reviewed comprehensive evaluations or systematic regulatory impact assessments of animal health policies were found. Sixteen guiding policy principles emerged from our thematic analysis of Chinese and Canadian policies. We provide a list of shared policy goals, targets and elements for HPAI preparedness, response and recovery. Policy elements clustered in a manner consistent with core public health competencies. Complex situations like HPAI require complex and adaptive policies, yet policies that cross jurisdictions and are fully integrated across agencies are rare. We encourage countries to develop or deploy capacity to undertake and publish regulatory impact assessments and policy evaluation to identify policy needs and provide a basis for evidence-based policy development.

  15. Scavenging ducks and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza, Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Henning, Joerg; Wibawa, Hendra; Morton, John; Usman, Tri Bhakti; Junaidi, Akhmad; Meers, Joanne

    2010-08-01

    In Java, Indonesia, during March 2007-March 2008, 96 farms with scavenging ducks that were not vaccinated against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) were monitored bimonthly. Bird-level (prevalence among individual birds) H5 seroprevalence was 2.6% for ducks and 0.5% for chickens in contact with ducks. At least 1 seropositive bird was detected during 19.5% and 2.0% of duck- and chicken-flock visits, respectively. Duck flocks were 12.4x more likely than chicken flocks to have seropositive birds. During 21.4% of farm visits,

  16. Surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds during Outbreaks in Domestic Poultry, Minnesota, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Carstensen, Michelle; Hildebrand, Erik C.; Cornicelli, Louis; Wolf, Paul; Grear, Daniel A.; Ip, Hon S.; Vandalen, Kaci K.; Minicucci, Larissa A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, a major outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection devastated poultry facilities in Minnesota, USA. To understand the potential role of wild birds, we tested 3,139 waterfowl fecal samples and 104 sick and dead birds during March 9–June 4, 2015. HPAIV was isolated from a Cooper’s hawk but not from waterfowl fecal samples. PMID:27064759

  17. Rapid Emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Subtypes from a Subtype H5N1 Hemagglutinin Variant.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Erik; Guo, Hongbo; Dai, Meiling; Rottier, Peter J M; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; de Haan, Cornelis A M

    2015-05-01

    In 2014, novel highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N2, H5N5, H5N6, and H5N8 viruses caused outbreaks in Asia, Europe, and North America. The H5 genes of these viruses form a monophyletic group that evolved from a clade 2.3.4 H5N1 variant. This rapid emergence of new H5Nx combinations is unprecedented in the H5N1 evolutionary history.

  18. Pathogenicity of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 in Naturally Infected Poultry in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Hagag, Ibrahim Thabet; Mansour, Shimaa M. G.; Zhang, Zerui; Ali, Ahmed A. H.; Ismaiel, El-Bakry M.; Salama, Ali A.; Cardona, Carol J.; Collins, James; Xing, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 has been endemic in Egypt since 2006, and there is increasing concern for its potential to become highly transmissible among humans. Infection by HPAIV H5N1 has been described in experimentally challenged birds. However, the pathogenicity of the H5N1 isolated in Egypt has never been reported in naturally infected chickens and ducks. Here we report a 2013 outbreak of HPAIV H5N1 in commercial poultry farms and backyards in Sharkia Province, Egypt. The main symptoms were ecchymosis on the shanks and feet, cyanosis of the comb and wattles, subcutaneous edema of the head and neck for chickens, and nervous signs (torticollis) for ducks. Within 48-72 hrs of the onset of illness, the average mortality rates were 22.8-30% and 28.5-40% in vaccinated chickens and non-vaccinated ducks, respectively. Tissue samples of chickens and ducks were collected for analyses with cross-section immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR for specific viral RNA transcripts. While viral RNA was detected in nearly all tissues and sera collected, viral nucleoprotein was detected almost ubiquitously in all tissues, including testis. Interestingly, viral antigen was also observed in endothelial cells of most organs in chickens, and clearly detected in the trachea and brain in particular. Viral nucleoprotein was also detected in mononuclear cells of various organs, especially pulmonary tissue. We performed phylogenetic analyses and compared the genomic sequences of the hemagglutinin (HA) and nonstructural proteins (NS) among the isolated viruses, the HPAIV circulated in Egypt in the past and currently, and some available vaccine strains. Further analysis of deduced amino acids of both HA and NS1 revealed that our isolates carried molecular determinants of HPAIV, including the multibasic amino acids (PQGERRRK/KR*GLF) in the cleavage site in HA and glutamate at position 92 (D92E) in NS1. This is the first report of the pathogenicity of the HPAIVH5N

  19. Pathogenicity of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 in Naturally Infected Poultry in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hagag, Ibrahim Thabet; Mansour, Shimaa M G; Zhang, Zerui; Ali, Ahmed A H; Ismaiel, El-Bakry M; Salama, Ali A; Cardona, Carol J; Collins, James; Xing, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 has been endemic in Egypt since 2006, and there is increasing concern for its potential to become highly transmissible among humans. Infection by HPAIV H5N1 has been described in experimentally challenged birds. However, the pathogenicity of the H5N1 isolated in Egypt has never been reported in naturally infected chickens and ducks. Here we report a 2013 outbreak of HPAIV H5N1 in commercial poultry farms and backyards in Sharkia Province, Egypt. The main symptoms were ecchymosis on the shanks and feet, cyanosis of the comb and wattles, subcutaneous edema of the head and neck for chickens, and nervous signs (torticollis) for ducks. Within 48-72 hrs of the onset of illness, the average mortality rates were 22.8-30% and 28.5-40% in vaccinated chickens and non-vaccinated ducks, respectively. Tissue samples of chickens and ducks were collected for analyses with cross-section immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR for specific viral RNA transcripts. While viral RNA was detected in nearly all tissues and sera collected, viral nucleoprotein was detected almost ubiquitously in all tissues, including testis. Interestingly, viral antigen was also observed in endothelial cells of most organs in chickens, and clearly detected in the trachea and brain in particular. Viral nucleoprotein was also detected in mononuclear cells of various organs, especially pulmonary tissue. We performed phylogenetic analyses and compared the genomic sequences of the hemagglutinin (HA) and nonstructural proteins (NS) among the isolated viruses, the HPAIV circulated in Egypt in the past and currently, and some available vaccine strains. Further analysis of deduced amino acids of both HA and NS1 revealed that our isolates carried molecular determinants of HPAIV, including the multibasic amino acids (PQGERRRK/KR*GLF) in the cleavage site in HA and glutamate at position 92 (D92E) in NS1. This is the first report of the pathogenicity of the HPAIVH5N

  20. Enhanced virulence of clade 2.3.2.1 highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses in ferrets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sporadic avian to human transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N1) viruses necessitates the analysis of currently circulating and evolving clades to assess their potential risk. Following the spread and sustained circulation of clade 2 viruses across multiple continents, num...

  1. A high diversity of Eurasian lineage low pathogenicity avian influenza A viruses circulate among wild birds sampled in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Gerloff, Nancy A; Jones, Joyce; Simpson, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; Elbadry, Maha Adel; Baghat, Verina; Rusev, Ivan; de Mattos, Cecilia C; de Mattos, Carlos A; Zonkle, Luay Elsayed Ahmed; Kis, Zoltan; Davis, C Todd; Yingst, Sam; Cornelius, Claire; Soliman, Atef; Mohareb, Emad; Klimov, Alexander; Donis, Ruben O

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance for influenza A viruses in wild birds has increased substantially as part of efforts to control the global movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus. Studies conducted in Egypt from 2003 to 2007 to monitor birds for H5N1 identified multiple subtypes of low pathogenicity avian influenza A viruses isolated primarily from migratory waterfowl collected in the Nile Delta. Phylogenetic analysis of 28 viral genomes was performed to estimate their nearest ancestors and identify possible reassortants. Migratory flyway patterns were included in the analysis to assess gene flow between overlapping flyways. Overall, the viruses were most closely related to Eurasian, African and/or Central Asian lineage low pathogenicity viruses and belonged to 15 different subtypes. A subset of the internal genes seemed to originate from specific flyways (Black Sea-Mediterranean, East African-West Asian). The remaining genes were derived from a mixture of viruses broadly distributed across as many as 4 different flyways suggesting the importance of the Nile Delta for virus dispersal. Molecular clock date estimates suggested that the time to the nearest common ancestor of all viruses analyzed ranged from 5 to 10 years, indicating frequent genetic exchange with viruses sampled elsewhere. The intersection of multiple migratory bird flyways and the resulting diversity of influenza virus gene lineages in the Nile Delta create conditions favoring reassortment, as evident from the gene constellations identified by this study. In conclusion, we present for the first time a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of full genome sequences from low pathogenic avian influenza viruses circulating in Egypt, underscoring the significance of the region for viral reassortment and the potential emergence of novel avian influenza A viruses, as well as representing a highly diverse influenza A virus gene pool that merits continued monitoring.

  2. A High Diversity of Eurasian Lineage Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Viruses Circulate among Wild Birds Sampled in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Gerloff, Nancy A.; Jones, Joyce; Simpson, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; ElBadry, Maha Adel; Baghat, Verina; Rusev, Ivan; de Mattos, Cecilia C.; de Mattos, Carlos A.; Zonkle, Luay Elsayed Ahmed; Kis, Zoltan; Davis, C. Todd; Yingst, Sam; Cornelius, Claire; Soliman, Atef; Mohareb, Emad; Klimov, Alexander; Donis, Ruben O.

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance for influenza A viruses in wild birds has increased substantially as part of efforts to control the global movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus. Studies conducted in Egypt from 2003 to 2007 to monitor birds for H5N1 identified multiple subtypes of low pathogenicity avian influenza A viruses isolated primarily from migratory waterfowl collected in the Nile Delta. Phylogenetic analysis of 28 viral genomes was performed to estimate their nearest ancestors and identify possible reassortants. Migratory flyway patterns were included in the analysis to assess gene flow between overlapping flyways. Overall, the viruses were most closely related to Eurasian, African and/or Central Asian lineage low pathogenicity viruses and belonged to 15 different subtypes. A subset of the internal genes seemed to originate from specific flyways (Black Sea-Mediterranean, East African-West Asian). The remaining genes were derived from a mixture of viruses broadly distributed across as many as 4 different flyways suggesting the importance of the Nile Delta for virus dispersal. Molecular clock date estimates suggested that the time to the nearest common ancestor of all viruses analyzed ranged from 5 to 10 years, indicating frequent genetic exchange with viruses sampled elsewhere. The intersection of multiple migratory bird flyways and the resulting diversity of influenza virus gene lineages in the Nile Delta create conditions favoring reassortment, as evident from the gene constellations identified by this study. In conclusion, we present for the first time a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of full genome sequences from low pathogenic avian influenza viruses circulating in Egypt, underscoring the significance of the region for viral reassortment and the potential emergence of novel avian influenza A viruses, as well as representing a highly diverse influenza A virus gene pool that merits continued monitoring. PMID:23874653

  3. The performance characteristics of lateral flow devices with 2 strains of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lateral flow devices (LFD) are commercially available and provide a fast, highly specific, on-site test for avian influenza. Because of the low analytic sensitivity of LFD tests at low virus concentrations, targeted sampling of sick and dead birds has been proposed in order to increase detection pr...

  4. Macaque Proteome Response to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza and 1918 Reassortant Influenza Virus Infections▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joseph N.; Palermo, Robert E.; Baskin, Carole R.; Gritsenko, Marina; Sabourin, Patrick J.; Long, James P.; Sabourin, Carol L.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Albrecht, Randy; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.; Katze, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    The host proteome response and molecular mechanisms that drive disease in vivo during infection by a human isolate of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) and 1918 pandemic influenza virus remain poorly understood. This study presents a comprehensive characterization of the proteome response in cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) lung tissue over 7 days of infection with HPAI (the most virulent), a reassortant virus containing 1918 hemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface proteins (intermediate virulence), or a human seasonal strain (least virulent). A high-sensitivity two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy strategy and functional network analysis were implemented to gain insight into response pathways activated in macaques during influenza virus infection. A macaque protein database was assembled and used in the identification of 35,239 unique peptide sequences corresponding to approximately 4,259 proteins. Quantitative analysis identified an increase in expression of 400 proteins during viral infection. The abundance levels of a subset of these 400 proteins produced strong correlations with disease progression observed in the macaques, distinguishing a “core” response to viral infection from a “high” response specific to severe disease. Proteome expression profiles revealed distinct temporal response kinetics between viral strains, with HPAI inducing the most rapid response. While proteins involved in the immune response, metabolism, and transport were increased rapidly in the lung by HPAI, the other viruses produced a delayed response, characterized by an increase in proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, RNA processing, and translation. Proteomic results were integrated with previous genomic and pathological analysis to characterize the dynamic nature of the influenza virus infection process. PMID:20844032

  5. Avian influenza virus hemagglutinins H2, H4, H8, and H14 support a highly pathogenic phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Veits, Jutta; Weber, Siegfried; Stech, Olga; Breithaupt, Angele; Gräber, Marcus; Gohrbandt, Sandra; Bogs, Jessica; Hundt, Jana; Teifke, Jens P.; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Stech, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    High-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) evolve from low-pathogenic precursors specifying the HA serotypes H5 or H7 by acquisition of a polybasic HA cleavage site. As the reason for this serotype restriction has remained unclear, we aimed to distinguish between compatibility of a polybasic cleavage site with H5/H7 HA only and unique predisposition of these two serotypes for insertion mutations. To this end, we introduced a polybasic cleavage site into the HA of several low-pathogenic avian strains with serotypes H1, H2, H3, H4, H6, H8, H10, H11, H14, or H15, and rescued HA reassortants after cotransfection with the genes from either a low-pathogenic H9N2 or high-pathogenic H5N1 strain. Oculonasal inoculation with those reassortants resulted in varying pathogenicity in chicken. Recombinants containing the engineered H2, H4, H8, or H14 in the HPAIV background were lethal and exhibited i.v. pathogenicity indices of 2.79, 2.37, 2.85, and 2.61, respectively, equivalent to naturally occurring H5 or H7 HPAIV. Moreover, the H2, H4, and H8 reassortants were transmitted to some contact chickens. The H2 reassortant gained two mutations in the M2 proton channel gate region, which is affected in some HPAIVs of various origins. Taken together, in the presence of a polybasic HA cleavage site, non-H5/H7 HA can support a highly pathogenic phenotype in the appropriate viral background, indicating requirement for further adaptation. Therefore, the restriction of natural HPAIV to serotypes H5 and H7 is likely a result of their unique predisposition for acquisition of a polybasic HA cleavage site. PMID:22308331

  6. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 in Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Lou; Liu, Kun; Yao, Hong-Wu; Sun, Ye; Chen, Wan-Jun; Sun, Ruo-Xi; de Vlas, Sake J; Fang, Li-Qun; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2015-05-08

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 has posed a significant threat to both humans and birds, and it has spanned large geographic areas and various ecological systems throughout Asia, Europe and Africa, but especially in mainland China. Great efforts in control and prevention of the disease, including universal vaccination campaigns in poultry and active serological and virological surveillance, have been undertaken in mainland China since the beginning of 2006. In this study, we aim to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of HPAI H5N1, and identify influencing factors favoring the occurrence of HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in poultry in mainland China. Our study shows that HPAI H5N1 outbreaks took place sporadically after vaccination campaigns in poultry, and mostly occurred in the cold season. The positive tests in routine virological surveillance of HPAI H5N1 virus in chicken, duck, goose as well as environmental samples were mapped to display the potential risk distribution of the virus. Southern China had a higher positive rate than northern China, and positive samples were mostly detected from chickens in the north, while the majority were from duck in the south, and a negative correlation with monthly vaccination rates in domestic poultry was found (R = -0.19, p value = 0.005). Multivariate panel logistic regression identified vaccination rate, interaction between distance to the nearest city and national highway, interaction between distance to the nearest lake and wetland, and density of human population, as well as the autoregressive term in space and time as independent risk factors in the occurrence of HPAI H5N1 outbreaks, based on which a predicted risk map of the disease was derived. Our findings could provide new understanding of the distribution and transmission of HPAI H5N1 in mainland China and could be used to inform targeted surveillance and control efforts in both human and poultry populations to reduce the risk of future infections.

  7. Mapping H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza risk in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Marius; Xiao, Xiangming; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Epprecht, M.; Boles, Stephen; Czarnecki, Christina; Chaitaweesub, Prasit; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Minh, Phan Q.; Otte, M. J.; Martin, Vincent; Slingenbergh, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus that emerged in southern China in the mid-1990s has in recent years evolved into the first HPAI panzootic. In many countries where the virus was detected, the virus was successfully controlled, whereas other countries face periodic reoccurrence despite significant control efforts. A central question is to understand the factors favoring the continuing reoccurrence of the virus. The abundance of domestic ducks, in particular free-grazing ducks feeding in intensive rice cropping areas, has been identified as one such risk factor based on separate studies carried out in Thailand and Vietnam. In addition, recent extensive progress was made in the spatial prediction of rice cropping intensity obtained through satellite imagery processing. This article analyses the statistical association between the recorded HPAI H5N1 virus presence and a set of five key environmental variables comprising elevation, human population, chicken numbers, duck numbers, and rice cropping intensity for three synchronous epidemic waves in Thailand and Vietnam. A consistent pattern emerges suggesting risk to be associated with duck abundance, human population, and rice cropping intensity in contrast to a relatively low association with chicken numbers. A statistical risk model based on the second epidemic wave data in Thailand is found to maintain its predictive power when extrapolated to Vietnam, which supports its application to other countries with similar agro-ecological conditions such as Laos or Cambodia. The model's potential application to mapping HPAI H5N1 disease risk in Indonesia is discussed. PMID:18362346

  8. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Lou; Liu, Kun; Yao, Hong-Wu; Sun, Ye; Chen, Wan-Jun; Sun, Ruo-Xi; de Vlas, Sake J.; Fang, Li-Qun; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 has posed a significant threat to both humans and birds, and it has spanned large geographic areas and various ecological systems throughout Asia, Europe and Africa, but especially in mainland China. Great efforts in control and prevention of the disease, including universal vaccination campaigns in poultry and active serological and virological surveillance, have been undertaken in mainland China since the beginning of 2006. In this study, we aim to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of HPAI H5N1, and identify influencing factors favoring the occurrence of HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in poultry in mainland China. Our study shows that HPAI H5N1 outbreaks took place sporadically after vaccination campaigns in poultry, and mostly occurred in the cold season. The positive tests in routine virological surveillance of HPAI H5N1 virus in chicken, duck, goose as well as environmental samples were mapped to display the potential risk distribution of the virus. Southern China had a higher positive rate than northern China, and positive samples were mostly detected from chickens in the north, while the majority were from duck in the south, and a negative correlation with monthly vaccination rates in domestic poultry was found (R = −0.19, p value = 0.005). Multivariate panel logistic regression identified vaccination rate, interaction between distance to the nearest city and national highway, interaction between distance to the nearest lake and wetland, and density of human population, as well as the autoregressive term in space and time as independent risk factors in the occurrence of HPAI H5N1 outbreaks, based on which a predicted risk map of the disease was derived. Our findings could provide new understanding of the distribution and transmission of HPAI H5N1 in mainland China and could be used to inform targeted surveillance and control efforts in both human and poultry populations to reduce the risk of future infections

  9. Continuing Reassortant of H5N6 Subtype Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Guangdong

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Runyu; Wang, Zheng; Kang, Yinfeng; Wu, Jie; Zou, Lirong; Liang, Lijun; Song, Yingchao; Zhang, Xin; Ni, Hanzhong; Lin, Jinyan; Ke, Changwen

    2016-01-01

    First identified in May 2014 in China's Sichuan Province, initial cases of H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in humans raised great concerns about the virus's prevalence, origin, and development. To evaluate both AIV contamination in live poultry markets (LPMs) and the risk of AIV infection in humans, we have conducted surveillance of LPMs in Guangdong Province since 2013 as part of environmental sampling programs. With environmental samples associated with these LPMs, we performed genetic and phylogenetic analyses of 10 H5N6 AIVs isolated from different cities of Guangdong Province from different years. Results revealed that the H5N6 viruses were reassortants with hemagglutinin (HA) genes derived from clade 2.3.4.4 of H5-subtype AIV, yet neuraminidase (NA) genes derived from H6N6 AIV. Unlike the other seven H5N6 viruses isolated in first 7 months of 2014, all of which shared remarkable sequence similarity with the H5N1 AIV in all internal genes, the PB2 genes of GZ693, GZ670, and ZS558 more closely related to H6N6 AIV and the PB1 gene of GZ693 to the H3-subtype AIV. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the environmental H5N6 AIV related closely to human H5N6 AIVs isolated in Guangdong. These results thus suggest that continued reassortment has enabled the emergence of a novel H5N6 virus in Guangdong, as well as highlight the potential risk of highly pathogenic H5N6 AIVs in the province. PMID:27148209

  10. Insight into Alternative Approaches for Control of Avian Influenza in Poultry, with Emphasis on Highly Pathogenic H5N1

    PubMed Central

    Abdelwhab, E. M.; Hafez, Hafez M.

    2012-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of subtype H5N1 causes a devastating disease in poultry but when it accidentally infects humans it can cause death. Therefore, decrease the incidence of H5N1 in humans needs to focus on prevention and control of poultry infections. Conventional control strategies in poultry based on surveillance, stamping out, movement restriction and enforcement of biosecurity measures did not prevent the virus spreading, particularly in developing countries. Several challenges limit efficiency of the vaccines to prevent outbreaks of HPAIV H5N1 in endemic countries. Alternative and complementary approaches to reduce the current burden of H5N1 epidemics in poultry should be encouraged. The use of antiviral chemotherapy and natural compounds, avian-cytokines, RNA interference, genetic breeding and/or development of transgenic poultry warrant further evaluation as integrated intervention strategies for control of HPAIV H5N1 in poultry. PMID:23202521

  11. Global distribution patterns of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza: environmental vs. socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Youhua; Chen, You-Fang

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we quantitatively analyzed the essential ecological factors that were strongly correlated with the global outbreak of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza. The ecological niche modeling (ENM) was used to reveal the potential outbreak hotspots of H5N1. A two-step modeling procedure has been proposed: we first used BioClim model to obtain the coarse suitable areas of H5N1, and then those suitable areas with very high probabilities were retained as the inputs of multiple-variable autologistic regression analysis (MAR) for model refinement. MAR was implemented taking spatial autocorrelation into account. The final performance of ENM was evaluated using the areas under the curve (AUC) of receiver-operating characteristic. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to reveal the most important variables and relevant ecological gradients of H5N1 outbreak. Niche visualization was used to identify potential spreading trend of H5N1 along important ecological gradients. For the first time, we combined socioeconomic and environmental variables as joint predictors in developing ecological niche modeling. Environmental variables represented the natural element related to H5N1 outbreak, whereas socioeconomic ones represented the anthropogenic element. Our results indicated that: (1) the high-risk hotspots are mainly located in temperate zones (indicated by ENM)-correspondingly, we argued that the "ecoregions hypothesis" was reasonable to some extent; (2) evaporation, humidity, human population density, livestock population density were the first four important factors (in descending order) that were associated with the H5N1 global outbreak (indicated by PCA); (3) influenza had a tendency to expand into areas with low evaporation (indicated by niche visualization). In conclusion, our study substantiates that both the environmental and socioeconomic variables jointly determined the global spreading trend of H5N1, but environmental variables

  12. Origin and evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in Asia.

    PubMed

    Sims, L D; Domenech, J; Benigno, C; Kahn, S; Kamata, A; Lubroth, J; Martin, V; Roeder, P

    2005-08-06

    Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza caused by H5N1 viruses were reported almost simultaneously in eight neighbouring Asian countries between December 2003 and January 2004, with a ninth reporting in August 2004, suggesting that the viruses had spread recently and rapidly. However, they had been detected widely in the region in domestic waterfowl and terrestrial poultry for several years before this, and the absence of widespread disease in the region before 2003, apart from localised outbreaks in the Hong Kong Special Autonomous Region (SAR), is perplexing. Possible explanations include limited virus excretion by domestic waterfowl infected with H5N1, the confusion of avian influenza with other serious endemic diseases, the unsanctioned use of vaccines, and the under-reporting of disease as a result of limited surveillance. There is some evidence that the excretion of the viruses by domestic ducks had increased by early 2004, and there is circumstantial evidence that they can be transmitted by wild birds. The migratory birds from which viruses have been isolated were usually sick or dead, suggesting that they would have had limited potential for carrying the viruses over long distances unless subclinical infections were prevalent. However, there is strong circumstantial evidence that wild birds can become infected from domestic poultry and potentially can exchange viruses when they share the same environment. Nevertheless, there is little reason to believe that wild birds have played a more significant role in spreading disease than trade through live bird markets and movement of domestic waterfowl. Asian H5N1 viruses were first detected in domestic geese in southern China in 1996. By 2000, their host range had extended to domestic ducks, which played a key role in the genesis of the 2003/04 outbreaks. The epidemic was not due to the introduction and spread of a single virus but was caused by multiple viruses which were genotypically linked to the Goose

  13. Pathogenicity and transmission of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza clade 2.3.4.4 viruses (H5N8 and H5N2) in domestic waterfowl (Pekin ducks and Chinese geese)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic ducks and geese are common backyard poultry in many countries, frequently in contact with wild waterfowl, which are natural reservoirs of avian influenza viruses and have played a key role in the spread of Asian-lineage H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). In late 2014, a reassor...

  14. Differences in pathogenicity, response to vaccination, and innate immune responses in different types of ducks infected with a virulent H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus from Vietnam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild ducks are reservoirs of avian influenza viruses in nature, and usually don’t show signs of disease. However, some Asian lineage H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses can cause disease and death in both wild and domestic ducks. The objective of this study was to compare the cli...

  15. Ecological Determinants of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) Outbreaks in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed S. U.; Ersbøll, Annette K.; Biswas, Paritosh K.; Christensen, Jens P.; Hannan, Abu S. M. A.; Toft, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Background The agro-ecology and poultry husbandry of the south Asian and south-east Asian countries share common features, however, with noticeable differences. Hence, the ecological determinants associated with risk of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI-H5N1) outbreaks are expected to differ between Bangladesh and e.g., Thailand and Vietnam. The primary aim of the current study was to establish ecological determinants associated with the risk of HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks at subdistrict level in Bangladesh. The secondary aim was to explore the performance of two different statistical modeling approaches for unmeasured spatially correlated variation. Methodology/Principal Findings An ecological study at subdistrict level in Bangladesh was performed with 138 subdistricts with HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks during 2007–2008, and 326 subdistricts with no outbreaks. The association between ecological determinants and HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks was examined using a generalized linear mixed model. Spatial clustering of the ecological data was modeled using 1) an intrinsic conditional autoregressive (ICAR) model at subdistrict level considering their first order neighbors, and 2) a multilevel (ML) model with subdistricts nested within districts. Ecological determinants significantly associated with risk of HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks at subdistrict level were migratory birds' staging areas, river network, household density, literacy rate, poultry density, live bird markets, and highway network. Predictive risk maps were derived based on the resulting models. The resulting models indicate that the ML model absorbed some of the covariate effect of the ICAR model because of the neighbor structure implied in the two different models. Conclusions/Significance The study identified a new set of ecological determinants related to river networks, migratory birds' staging areas and literacy rate in addition to already known risk factors, and clarified that the generalized concept of free grazing duck and

  16. High antiviral effects of hibiscus tea extract on the H5 subtypes of low and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    BAATARTSOGT, Tugsbaatar; BUI, Vuong N.; TRINH, Dai Q.; YAMAGUCHI, Emi; GRONSANG, Dulyatad; THAMPAISARN, Rapeewan; OGAWA, Haruko; IMAI, Kunitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Viral neuraminidase inhibitors are widely used as synthetic anti-influenza drugs for the prevention and treatment of influenza. However, drug-resistant influenza A virus variants, including H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs), have been reported. Therefore, the discovery of novel and effective antiviral agents is warranted. We screened the antiviral effects of 11 herbal tea extracts (hibiscus, black tea, tencha, rosehip tea, burdock tea, green tea, jasmine tea, ginger tea, lavender tea, rose tea and oak tea) against the H5N1 HPAIV in vitro. Among the tested extracts, only the hibiscus extract and its fractionated extract (frHibis) highly and rapidly reduced the titers of all H5 HPAIVs and low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs) used in the pre-treatment tests of Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that were inoculated with a mixture of the virus and the extract. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that anti-H5 monoclonal antibodies could not bind to the deformed H5 virus particles pretreated with frHibis. In post-treatment tests of MDCK cells cultured in the presence of frHibis after infection with H5N1 HPAIV, the frHibis inhibited viral replication and the expression of viral antigens and genes. Among the plants tested, hibiscus showed the most prominent antiviral effects against both H5 HPAIV and LPAIV. PMID:27193820

  17. High antiviral effects of hibiscus tea extract on the H5 subtypes of low and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Baatartsogt, Tugsbaatar; Bui, Vuong N; Trinh, Dai Q; Yamaguchi, Emi; Gronsang, Dulyatad; Thampaisarn, Rapeewan; Ogawa, Haruko; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2016-10-01

    Viral neuraminidase inhibitors are widely used as synthetic anti-influenza drugs for the prevention and treatment of influenza. However, drug-resistant influenza A virus variants, including H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs), have been reported. Therefore, the discovery of novel and effective antiviral agents is warranted. We screened the antiviral effects of 11 herbal tea extracts (hibiscus, black tea, tencha, rosehip tea, burdock tea, green tea, jasmine tea, ginger tea, lavender tea, rose tea and oak tea) against the H5N1 HPAIV in vitro. Among the tested extracts, only the hibiscus extract and its fractionated extract (frHibis) highly and rapidly reduced the titers of all H5 HPAIVs and low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs) used in the pre-treatment tests of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that were inoculated with a mixture of the virus and the extract. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that anti-H5 monoclonal antibodies could not bind to the deformed H5 virus particles pretreated with frHibis. In post-treatment tests of MDCK cells cultured in the presence of frHibis after infection with H5N1 HPAIV, the frHibis inhibited viral replication and the expression of viral antigens and genes. Among the plants tested, hibiscus showed the most prominent antiviral effects against both H5 HPAIV and LPAIV.

  18. Variation in protection by seven inactivated H5 vaccine strains against eight H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is an important pathogen for poultry. Vaccines have assisted in control for poultry, and for human pandemic preparedness. However the genetic diversity and rapid antigenic drifting of the field viruses have led to inadequate protection. This s...

  19. A highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 with 2009 pandemic H1N1 internal genes demonstrated increased replication and transmission in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the pathogenicity and transmissibility of a reverse-genetics derived highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 influenza A virus (IAV), A/Iraq/775/06, and a reassortant virus comprised of the HA and NA from A/Iraq/775/06 and the internal genes of a 2009 pandemic H1N1, A/N...

  20. Effect of age on pathogenesis and innate immune responses in Pekin ducks infected with different H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in domestic ducks varies between different viruses and is affected by the age of the ducks, with younger ducks presenting more severe disease. In order to better understand the pathobiology of H5N1 HPAI in ducks, including t...

  1. Expression of H5 hemagglutinin vaccine antigen in common duckweed (Lemna minor) protects against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge in immunized chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A synthetic hemagglutinin (HA) gene from the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (H5N1) (Indo/03) was expressed in aquatic plant Lemna minor (rLemna-HA). In Experiment 1, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on specific pathogen free (SPF) birds immunized with 0.2 ...

  2. Determining the Phylogenetic and Phylogeographic Origin of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H7N3) in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lu; Lycett, Samantha J.; Leigh Brown, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV) H7N3 outbreaks occurred 3 times in the Americas in the past 10 years and caused severe economic loss in the affected regions. In June/July 2012, new HP H7N3 outbreaks occurred at commercial farms in Jalisco, Mexico. Outbreaks continued to be identified in neighbouring states in Mexico till August 2013. To explore the origin of this outbreak, time resolved phylogenetic trees were generated from the eight segments of full-length AIV sequences in North America using BEAST. Location, subtype, avian host species and pathogenicity were modelled as discrete traits upon the trees using continuous time Markov chains. A further joint analysis among segments was performed using a hierarchical phylogenetic model (HPM) which allowed trait rates (location, subtype, host species) to be jointly inferred across different segments. The complete spatial diffusion process was visualised through virtual globe software. Our result indicated the Mexico HP H7N3 originated from the large North America low pathogenicity AIV pool through complicated reassortment events. Different segments were contributed by wild waterfowl from different N. American flyways. Five of the eight segments (HA, NA, NP, M, NS) were introduced from wild birds migrating along the central North American flyway, and PB2, PB1 and PA were introduced via the western North American flyway. These results highlight a potential role for Mexico as a hotspot of virus reassortment as it is where wild birds from different migration routes mix during the winter. PMID:25226523

  3. Determining the phylogenetic and phylogeographic origin of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H7N3) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Lycett, Samantha J; Leigh Brown, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV) H7N3 outbreaks occurred 3 times in the Americas in the past 10 years and caused severe economic loss in the affected regions. In June/July 2012, new HP H7N3 outbreaks occurred at commercial farms in Jalisco, Mexico. Outbreaks continued to be identified in neighbouring states in Mexico till August 2013. To explore the origin of this outbreak, time resolved phylogenetic trees were generated from the eight segments of full-length AIV sequences in North America using BEAST. Location, subtype, avian host species and pathogenicity were modelled as discrete traits upon the trees using continuous time Markov chains. A further joint analysis among segments was performed using a hierarchical phylogenetic model (HPM) which allowed trait rates (location, subtype, host species) to be jointly inferred across different segments. The complete spatial diffusion process was visualised through virtual globe software. Our result indicated the Mexico HP H7N3 originated from the large North America low pathogenicity AIV pool through complicated reassortment events. Different segments were contributed by wild waterfowl from different N. American flyways. Five of the eight segments (HA, NA, NP, M, NS) were introduced from wild birds migrating along the central North American flyway, and PB2, PB1 and PA were introduced via the western North American flyway. These results highlight a potential role for Mexico as a hotspot of virus reassortment as it is where wild birds from different migration routes mix during the winter.

  4. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H7N7): vaccination of zoo birds and transmission to non-poultry species.

    PubMed

    Philippa, Joost D W; Munster, Vincent J; Bolhuis, Hester van; Bestebroer, Theo M; Schaftenaar, Willem; Beyer, Walter E P; Fouchier, Ron A M; Kuiken, Thijs; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2005-12-30

    In 2003 an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H7N7) struck poultry in The Netherlands. A European Commission directive made vaccination of valuable species in zoo collections possible under strict conditions. We determined pre- and post-vaccination antibody titres in 211 birds by haemagglutination inhibition test as a measure of vaccine efficacy. After booster vaccination, 81.5% of vaccinated birds developed a titre of > or =40, while overall geometric mean titre (GMT) was 190 (95% CI: 144-251). Birds of the orders Anseriformes, Galliformes and Phoenicopteriformes showed higher GMT, and larger percentages developed titres > or =40 than those of the other orders. Antibody response decreased with increasing mean body weight in birds > or =1.5 kg body weight. In the vicinity of the outbreak, H7N7 was detected by RT-PCR in wild species (mallards and mute swans) kept in captivity together with infected poultry, illustrating the potential threat of transmission from poultry into other avian species, and the importance of protecting valuable avian species by means of vaccination.

  5. Re-emergence of amantadine-resistant variants among highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Bagato, Ola; Kandeil, Ahmed; Mostafa, Ahmed; Mahmoud, Sara H; Hassanneen, Hamdi M; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A; Kayali, Ghazi

    2016-12-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus continues to undergo substantial evolution. Emergence of antiviral resistance among H5N1 avian influenza viruses is a major challenge in the control of pandemic influenza. Numerous studies have focused on the genetic and evolutionary dynamics of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes; however, studies on the susceptibility of HPAI H5N1 viruses to amantadine and genetic diversity of the matrix (M) gene are limited. Accordingly, we studied the amantadine susceptibility of the HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated in Egypt during 2006-2015 based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. We analyzed data on 253 virus sequences and constructed a phylogenetic tree to calculate selective pressures on sites in the M2 gene associated with amantadine-resistance among different clades. Selection pressure was identified in the transmembrane domain of M2 gene at positions 27 and 31. Amantadine-resistant variants emerged in 2007 but were not circulating between 2012 and 2014. By 2015, amantadine-resistant HPAI H5N1 viruses re-emerged. This may be associated with the uncontrolled prescription of amantadine for prophylaxis and control of avian influenza infections in the poultry farm sector in Egypt. More epidemiological research is required to verify this observation.

  6. Genetic characterization of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses isolated from naturally infected pigeons in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elgendy, Emad Mohamed; Watanabe, Yohei; Daidoji, Tomo; Arai, Yasuha; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Ibrahim, Madiha Salah; Nakaya, Takaaki

    2016-12-01

    Avian influenza viruses impose serious public health burdens with significant mortality and morbidity not only in poultry but also in humans. While poultry susceptibility to avian influenza virus infection is well characterized, pigeons have been thought to have low susceptibility to these viruses. However, recent studies reported natural pigeon infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses. In Egypt, which is one of the H5N1 endemic areas for birds, pigeons are raised in towers built on farms in backyards and on house roofs, providing a potential risk for virus transmission from pigeons to humans. In this study, we performed genetic analysis of two H5N1 virus strains that were isolated from naturally infected pigeons in Egypt. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses showed that these viruses originated from Egyptian H5N1 viruses that were circulating in chickens or ducks. Several unique mutations, not reported before in any Egyptian isolates, were detected in the internal genes (i.e., polymerase residues PB1-V3D, PB1-K363R, PA-A369V, and PA-V602I; nucleoprotein residue NP-R38K; and nonstructural protein residues NS1-D120N and NS2-F55C). Our findings suggested that pigeons are naturally infected with H5N1 virus and can be a potential reservoir for transmission to humans, and showed the importance of genetic analysis of H5N1 internal genes.

  7. Practices associated with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza spread in traditional poultry marketing chains: Social and economic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Paul, Mathilde; Baritaux, Virginie; Wongnarkpet, Sirichai; Poolkhet, Chaithep; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Roger, François; Bonnet, Pascal; Ducrot, Christian

    2013-04-01

    In developing countries, smallholder poultry production contributes to food security and poverty alleviation in rural areas. However, traditional poultry marketing chains have been threatened by the epidemics caused by the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) virus. The article presents a value chain analysis conducted on the traditional poultry marketing chain in the rural province of Phitsanulok, Thailand. The analysis is based on quantitative data collected on 470 backyard chicken farms, and on qualitative data collected on 28 poultry collectors, slaughterhouses and market retailers, using semi-structured interviews. The article examines the organization of poultry marketing chains in time and space, and shows how this may contribute to the spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 in the small-scale poultry sector. The article also discusses the practices and strategies developed by value chain actors facing poultry mortality, with their economic and social determinants. More broadly, this study also illustrates how value chain analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the complex mechanisms associated with the spread of epidemics in rural communities.

  8. Isolation and identification of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    PubMed

    Ismail, Mahmoud Moussa; Khan, Owais Ahmed; Cattoli, Giovanni; Lu, Huaguang

    2010-03-01

    An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 was first diagnosed in a "backyard" flock of peafowl (Pavo cristatus) raised on palace premises in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in December 3, 2007. The flock consisted of 40 peafowl, and their ages ranged from 3 to 5 years old. Affected birds suffered from depression, anorexia, and white diarrhea. Four dead birds were submitted for HPAI diagnosis at the Central Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory in Riyadh. Brain and liver tissues and tracheal and cloacal swabs were taken from the dead birds and processed for a real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR test and virus isolation in specific-pathogen-free embryonating chicken eggs. The H5N1 subtype of avian influenza virus was isolated from the four dead birds and identified by a real-time RT-PCR before and after egg inoculation. The virus isolates were characterized as HPAI H5N1 virus by sequencing analysis. Phylogenetic comparisons revealed that the H5N1 viruses isolated from peafowl belong to the genetic clade 2.2 according to the World Health Organization nomenclature. The peafowl H5N1 virus falls into 2.2.2 sublineage II and clusters with the H5N1 viruses isolated from poultry in Saudi Arabia in 2007-08.

  9. Genetic characterization of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus from live migratory birds in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Parvin, Rokshana; Kamal, Abu H M; Haque, Md E; Chowdhury, Emdadul H; Giasuddin, Mohammed; Islam, Mohammad R; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2014-12-01

    Since the first outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 in Bangladesh in 2007, the virus has been circulating among domestic poultry causing severe economic losses. To investigate the presence of HPAIV H5N1 in migratory birds and their potential role in virus spread, 205 pools of fecal samples from live migratory birds were analyzed. Here, the first virus isolation and genome characterization of two HPAIV H5N1 isolates from migratory birds (A/migratory bird/Bangladesh/P18/2010 and A/migratory bird/Bangladesh/P29/2010)are described. Full-length amplification, sequencing, and a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis were performed for HA, NA, M, NS, NP, PA, PB1, and PB2 gene segments. The selected migratory bird isolates belong to clade 2.3.2.1 along with recent Bangladeshi isolates from chickens, ducks, and crows which grouped in the same cluster with contemporary South and South-East Asian isolates. The studied isolates were genetically similar to other H5N1 isolates from different species within the respective clade although some unique amino acid substitutions were observed among them. Migratory birds remain a real threat for spreading pathogenic avian influenza viruses across the continent and introduction of new strains into Bangladesh.

  10. Spatial Modeling of Wild Bird Risk Factors for Highly Pathogenic A(H5N1) Avian Influenza Virus Transmission.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Diann J; Hungerford, Laura L; Erwin, R Michael; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Takekawa, John Y; Newman, Scott H; Xiao, Xiangming; Ellis, Erle C

    2016-05-01

    One of the longest-persisting avian influenza viruses in history, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) A(H5N1), continues to evolve after 18 yr, advancing the threat of a global pandemic. Wild waterfowl (family Anatidae) are reported as secondary transmitters of HPAIV and primary reservoirs for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses, yet spatial inputs for disease risk modeling for this group have been lacking. Using geographic information software and Monte Carlo simulations, we developed geospatial indices of waterfowl abundance at 1 and 30 km resolutions and for the breeding and wintering seasons for China, the epicenter of H5N1. Two spatial layers were developed: cumulative waterfowl abundance (WAB), a measure of predicted abundance across species, and cumulative abundance weighted by H5N1 prevalence (WPR), whereby abundance for each species was adjusted based on prevalence values and then totaled across species. Spatial patterns of the model output differed between seasons, with higher WAB and WPR in the northern and western regions of China for the breeding season and in the southeast for the wintering season. Uncertainty measures indicated highest error in southeastern China for both WAB and WPR. We also explored the effect of resampling waterfowl layers from 1 to 30 km resolution for multiscale risk modeling. Results indicated low average difference (less than 0.16 and 0.01 standard deviations for WAB and WPR, respectively), with greatest differences in the north for the breeding season and southeast for the wintering season. This work provides the first geospatial models of waterfowl abundance available for China. The indices provide important inputs for modeling disease transmission risk at the interface of poultry and wild birds. These models are easily adaptable, have broad utility to both disease and conservation needs, and will be available to the scientific community for advanced modeling applications.

  11. Molecular pathogenesis of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza: the role of the haemagglutinin cleavage site motif

    PubMed Central

    Luczo, Jasmina M.; Stambas, John; Durr, Peter A.; Michalski, Wojtek P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The emergence of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza has caused a heavy socio‐economic burden through culling of poultry to minimise human and livestock infection. Although human infections with H5N1 have to date been limited, concerns for the pandemic potential of this zoonotic virus have been greatly intensified following experimental evidence of aerosol transmission of H5N1 viruses in a mammalian infection model. In this review, we discuss the dominance of the haemagglutinin cleavage site motif as a pathogenicity determinant, the host‐pathogen molecular interactions driving cleavage activation, reverse genetics manipulations and identification of residues key to haemagglutinin cleavage site functionality and the mechanisms of cell and tissue damage during H5N1 infection. We specifically focus on the disease in chickens, as it is in this species that high pathogenicity frequently evolves and from which transmission to the human population occurs. With >75% of emerging infectious diseases being of zoonotic origin, it is necessary to understand pathogenesis in the primary host to explain spillover events into the human population. © 2015 The Authors. Reviews in Medical Virology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26467906

  12. Comparative susceptibility of waterfowl and gulls to highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild avian species in the Orders Anseriformes (ducks, geese, swans) and Charadriiformes (gulls, terns, shorebirds) have traditionally been considered the natural reservoirs for avian influenza viruses (AIV) and morbidity or mortality is rarely associated with AIV infection in these hosts. However, ...

  13. Unusually High Mortality in Waterfowl Caused by Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Haider, N; Sturm-Ramirez, K; Khan, S U; Rahman, M Z; Sarkar, S; Poh, M K; Shivaprasad, H L; Kalam, M A; Paul, S K; Karmakar, P C; Balish, A; Chakraborty, A; Mamun, A A; Mikolon, A B; Davis, C T; Rahman, M; Donis, R O; Heffelfinger, J D; Luby, S P; Zeidner, N

    2017-02-01

    Mortality in ducks and geese caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) infection had not been previously identified in Bangladesh. In June-July 2011, we investigated mortality in ducks, geese and chickens with suspected H5N1 infection in a north-eastern district of the country to identify the aetiologic agent and extent of the outbreak and identify possible associated human infections. We surveyed households and farms with affected poultry flocks in six villages in Netrokona district and collected cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs from sick birds and tissue samples from dead poultry. We conducted a survey in three of these villages to identify suspected human influenza-like illness cases and collected nasopharyngeal and throat swabs. We tested all swabs by real-time RT-PCR, sequenced cultured viruses, and examined tissue samples by histopathology and immunohistochemistry to detect and characterize influenza virus infection. In the six villages, among the 240 surveyed households and 11 small-scale farms, 61% (1789/2930) of chickens, 47% (4816/10 184) of ducks and 73% (358/493) of geese died within 14 days preceding the investigation. Of 70 sick poultry swabbed, 80% (56/70) had detectable RNA for influenza A/H5, including 89% (49/55) of ducks, 40% (2/5) of geese and 50% (5/10) of chickens. We isolated virus from six of 25 samples; sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase gene of these six isolates indicated clade 2.3.2.1a of H5N1 virus. Histopathological changes and immunohistochemistry staining of avian influenza viral antigens were recognized in the brain, pancreas and intestines of ducks and chickens. We identified ten human cases showing signs compatible with influenza-like illness; four were positive for influenza A/H3; however, none were positive for influenza A/H5. The recently introduced H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1a virus caused unusually high mortality in ducks and geese. Heightened surveillance in poultry is warranted to guide appropriate

  14. Characterization of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus derived from wild pikas in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiyong; Sun, Wenbo; Wang, Junhua; Guo, Junqing; Yin, Wei; Wu, Nanping; Li, Lanjuan; Yan, Yan; Liao, Ming; Huang, Yu; Luo, Kaijian; Jiang, Xuetao; Chen, Hualan

    2009-09-01

    The highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus emerged from China in 1996 and has spread across Eurasia and Africa, with a continuous stream of new cases of human infection appearing since the first large-scale outbreak among migratory birds at Qinghai Lake. The role of wild birds, which are the natural reservoirs for the virus, in the epidemiology of the H5N1 virus has raised great public health concern, but their role in the spread of the virus within the natural ecosystem of free-ranging terrestrial wild mammals remains unclear. In this study, we investigated H5N1 virus infection in wild pikas in an attempt to trace the circulation of the virus. Seroepidemiological surveys confirmed a natural H5N1 virus infection of wild pikas in their native environment. The hemagglutination gene of the H5N1 virus isolated from pikas reveals two distinct evolutionary clades, a mixed/Vietnam H5N1 virus sublineage (MV-like pika virus) and a wild bird Qinghai (QH)-like H5N1 virus sublineage (QH-like pika virus). The amino acid residue (glutamic acid) at position 627 encoded by the PB2 gene of the MV-like pika virus was different from that of the QH-like pika virus; the residue of the MV-like pika virus was the same as that of the goose H5N1 virus (A/GS/Guangdong [GD]/1/96). Further, we discovered that in contrast to the MV-like pika virus, which is nonpathogenic to mice, the QH-like pika virus is highly pathogenic. To mimic the virus infection of pikas, we intranasally inoculated rabbits, a species closely related to pikas, with the H5N1 virus of pika origin. Our findings first demonstrate that wild pikas are mammalian hosts exposed to H5N1 subtype avian influenza viruses in the natural ecosystem and also imply a potential transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus from wild mammals into domestic mammalian hosts and humans.

  15. Detection of H5 and H7 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus with lateral flow devices: performance with healthy, sick and dead chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in the field is critical for effective disease control and to differentiate it from other diseases, such as Newcastle disease. Lateral flow devices (LFD) are commercially available and provide a fast, highly specific, on-site test fo...

  16. Targeted surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza in migratory waterfowl across the conterminous United States: chapter 12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Kendall, William L.; Doherty, Paul F.; Miller, Ryan S.; White, Gary C.; Nichols, James D.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; Franklin, Alan B.; Majumdar, S.; Brenner, F.J.; Huffman, J.E.; McLean, R.G.; Panah, A.I.; Pietrobon, P.J.; Keeler, S.P.; Shive, S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of Asian strain H5N1 Highly Pathogenic avian influenca via waterfowl migration is one potential route of entry into the United States. In conjunction with state, tribe, and laboratory partners, the United States Department of Agriculture collected and tested 124,603 wild bird samples in 2006 as part of a national surveillance effort. A sampling plan was devised to increase the probability fo detecting Asian strain H5N1 at a national scale. Band recovery data were used to identify and prioritize sampling for wild migratory waterfowl, resulting in spatially targeted sampling recommendations focused on reads with high numbers of recoveries. We also compared the spatial and temporal distribution of the 2006 cloacal and fecal waterfowl sampling effort to the bird banding recovery data and found concordance between the two .Finally, we present improvements made to the 2007 fecal sampling component of the surveillance plan and suggest further improvements for future sampling.

  17. Potency, efficacy, and antigenic mapping of H7 avian influenza virus vaccines against the 2012 H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Spackman, Erica; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Kapczynski, Darrell; Xu, Yifei; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Suarez, David L; Swayne, David

    2014-09-01

    In the spring of 2012 an outbreak of H7N3 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV) occurred in poultry in Mexico. Vaccination was implemented as a control measure, along with increased biosecurity and surveillance. At that time there was no commercially available H7 AIV vaccine in North America; therefore, a recent H7N3 wild bird isolate of low pathogenicity from Mexico (A/cinnamon teal/Mexico/2817/2006 H7N3) was selected and utilized as the vaccine seed strain. In these studies, the potency and efficacy of this vaccine strain was evaluated in chickens against challenge with the 2012 Jalisco H7N3 HPAIV. Although vaccine doses of 256 and 102 hemagglutinating units (HAU) per bird decreased morbidity and mortality significantly compared to sham vaccinates, a dose of 512 HAU per bird was required to prevent mortality and morbidity completely. Additionally, the efficacy of 11 other H7 AIV vaccines and an antigenic map of hemagglutination inhibition assay data with all the vaccines and challenge viruses were evaluated, both to identify other potential vaccine strains and to characterize the relationship between genetic and antigenic distance with protection against this HPAIV. Several other isolates provided adequate protection against the 2012 Jalisco H7N3 lineage, but antigenic and genetic differences were not clear indicators of protection because the immunogenicity of the vaccine seed strain was also a critical factor.

  18. U.S. Geological Survey science strategy for highly pathogenic avian influenza in wildlife and the environment (2016–2020)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, M. Camille; Pearce, John M.; Prosser, Diann J.; White, C. LeAnn; Miles, A. Keith; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Brand, Christopher J.; Cronin, James P.; De La Cruz, Susan; Densmore, Christine L.; Doyle, Thomas W.; Dusek, Robert J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Flint, Paul L.; Guala, Gerald F.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Hunt, Randall J.; Ip, Hon S.; Katz, Rachel A.; Laurent, Kevin W.; Miller, Mark P.; Munn, Mark D.; Ramey, Andy M.; Richards, Kevin D.; Russell, Robin E.; Stokdyk, Joel P.; Takekawa, John Y.; Walsh, Daniel P.

    2016-08-18

    IntroductionThrough the Science Strategy for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in Wildlife and the Environment, the USGS will assess avian influenza (AI) dynamics in an ecological context to inform decisions made by resource managers and policymakers from the local to national level. Through collection of unbiased scientific information on the ecology of AI viruses and wildlife hosts in a changing world, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) will enhance the development of AI forecasting tools and ensure this information is integrated with a quality decision process for managing HPAI.The overall goal of this USGS Science Strategy for HPAI in Wildlife and the Environment goes beyond document­ing the occurrence and distribution of AI viruses in wild birds. The USGS aims to understand the epidemiological processes and environmental factors that influence HPAI distribution and describe the mechanisms of transmission between wild birds and poultry. USGS scientists developed a conceptual model describing the process linking HPAI dispersal in wild waterfowl to the outbreaks in poul­try. This strategy focuses on five long-term science goals, which include:Science Goal 1—Augment the National HPAI Surveillance Plan;Science Goal 2—Determine mechanisms of HPAI disease spread in wildlife and the environment;Science Goal 3—Characterize HPAI viruses circulating in wildlife;Science Goal 4—Understand implications of avian ecol­ogy on HPAI spread; andScience Goal 5—Develop HPAI forecasting and decision-making tools.These goals will help define and describe the processes outlined in the conceptual model with the ultimate goal of facilitating biosecurity and minimizing transfer of diseases across the wildlife-poultry interface. The first four science goals are focused on scientific discovery and the fifth goal is application-based. Decision analyses in the fifth goal will guide prioritization of proposed actions in the first four goals.

  19. Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild migratory waterfowl in a region of high poultry production, Delmarva, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prosser, Diann J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Hindman, Larry J.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Ottinger, Christopher A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Driscoll, Cindy P.; Nagel, Jessica L.

    2017-01-01

    Migratory waterfowl are natural reservoirs for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and may contribute to the long-distance dispersal of these pathogens as well as spillover into domestic bird populations. Surveillance for AIVs is critical to assessing risks for potential spread of these viruses among wild and domestic bird populations. The Delmarva Peninsula on the east coast of the United States is both a key convergence point for migratory Atlantic waterfowl populations and a region with high poultry production (>4,700 poultry meat facilities). Sampling of key migratory waterfowl species occurred at 20 locations throughout the Delmarva Peninsula in fall and winter of 2013–14. Samples were collected from 400 hunter-harvested or live-caught birds via cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs. Fourteen of the 400 (3.5%) birds sampled tested positive for the AIV matrix gene using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, all from five dabbling duck species. Further characterization of the 14 viral isolates identified two hemagglutinin (H3 and H4) and four neuraminidase (N2, N6, N8, and N9) subtypes, which were consistent with isolates reported in the Influenza Research Database for this region. Three of 14 isolates contained multiple HA or NA subtypes. This study adds to the limited baseline information available for AIVs in migratory waterfowl populations on the Delmarva Peninsula, particularly prior to the highly pathogenic AIV A(H5N8) and A(H5N2) introductions to the United States in late 2014.

  20. Surveillance for highly pathogenic H5 avian influenza virus in synanthropic wildlife associated with poultry farms during an acute outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Shriner, Susan A.; Root, J. Jeffrey; Lutman, Mark W.; Kloft, Jason M.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Sullivan, Heather J.; White, Timothy S.; Milleson, Michael P.; Hairston, Jerry L.; Chandler, Shannon C.; Wolf, Paul C.; Turnage, Clinton T.; McCluskey, Brian J.; Vincent, Amy L.; Torchetti, Mia K.; Gidlewski, Thomas; DeLiberto, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    In November 2014, a Eurasian strain H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was detected in poultry in Canada. Introduced viruses were soon detected in the United States and within six months had spread to 21 states with more than 48 million poultry affected. In an effort to study potential mechanisms of spread of the Eurasian H5 virus, the United States Department of Agriculture coordinated several epidemiologic investigations at poultry farms. As part of those efforts, we sampled synanthropic birds and mammals at five infected and five uninfected poultry farms in northwest Iowa for exposure to avian influenza viruses. Across all farms, we collected 2,627 samples from 648 individual birds and mammals. House mice were the most common mammal species captured while house sparrows, European starlings, rock pigeons, swallows, and American robins were the most commonly captured birds. A single European starling was positive for Eurasian H5 viral RNA and seropositive for antibodies reactive to the Eurasian H5 virus. Two American robins were also seropositive. No mammal species showed evidence of infection. These results indicate synanthropic species merit further scrutiny to better understand potential biosecurity risks. We propose a set of management practices aimed at reducing wildlife incursions. PMID:27812044

  1. Pathobiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N2 infection in juvenile ostriches from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Howerth, Elizabeth W; Olivier, Adriaan; França, Monique; Stallknecht, David E; Gers, Sophette

    2012-12-01

    In 2011, over 35,000 ostriches were slaughtered in the Oudtshoorn district of the Western Cape province of South Africa following the diagnosis of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N2. We describe the pathology and virus distribution via immunohistochemistry in juvenile birds that died rapidly in this outbreak after showing signs of depression and weakness. Associated sialic acid (SA) receptor distribution in uninfected birds is also described. At necropsy, enlarged spleens, swollen livers, and generalized congestion were noted. Birds not succumbing to acute influenza infection often became cachectic with serous atrophy of fat, airsacculitis, and secondary infections. Necrotizing hepatitis, splenitis, and airsacculitis were prominent histopathologic findings. Virus was detected via immunohistochemistry in abundance in the liver and spleen but also in the air sac and gastrointestinal tract. Infected cells included epithelium, endothelium, macrophages, circulating leukocytes, and smooth muscle of a variety of organs and vessel walls. Analysis of SA receptor distribution in uninfected juvenile ostriches via lectin binding showed abundant expression of SAalpha2,3Gal (avian type) and little or no expression of SAalpha2,6Gal (human type) in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, as well as leukocytes in the spleen and endothelial cells in all organs, which correlated with H5N2 antigen distribution in these tissues.

  2. Human infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N6) virus in Yunnan province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen; Li, Hong; Jiang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N6 virus has caused four human infections in China. This study reports the preliminary findings of the first known human case of H5N6 in Yunnan province. The patient initially developed symptoms of sore throat and coughing on 27 January 2015. The disease rapidly progressed to severe pneumonia, multiple organ dysfunctions and acute respiratory distress syndrome and the patient died on 6 February. Virological analysis determined that the virus belonged to H5 clade 2.3.4.4 and it has obtained partial ability for mammalian adaptation and amantadine resistance. Environmental investigation found H5 in 63% of the samples including poultry faeces, tissues, cage surface swabs and sewage from local live poultry markets by real-time RT-PCR. These findings suggest that the expanding and enhancing of surveillance in both avian and humans are necessary to monitor the evolution of H5 influenza virus and to facilitate early detection of suspected cases.

  3. Supporting business continuity during a highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak: a collaboration of industry, academia, and government.

    PubMed

    Hennessey, Morgan; Lee, Brendan; Goldsmith, Timothy; Halvorson, Dave; Hueston, William; McElroy, Kristina; Waters, Katherine

    2010-03-01

    Since 2006, a collaborative group of egg industry, state, federal, and academia representatives have worked to enhance preparedness in highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) planning. The collaborative group has created a draft egg product movement protocol, which calls for realistic, science-based contingency plans, biosecurity assessments, commodity risk assessments, and real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR testing to support the continuity of egg operations while also preventing and eradicating an HPAI outbreak. The work done by this group serves as an example of how industry, government, and academia can work together to achieve better preparedness in the event of an animal health emergency. In addition, in the event of an HPAI outbreak in domestic poultry, U.S. consumers will be assured that their egg products come from healthy chickens.

  4. Implications of global and regional patterns of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 clades for risk management.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Otte, Martin J; Roland-Holst, David; Inui, Ken; Nguyen, Tung; Zilberman, David

    2011-12-01

    This paper analyses the publicly available data on the distribution and evolution of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 clades, whilst acknowledging the biases resulting from the non-random selection of isolates for gene sequencing. The data indicate molecular heterogeneity in the global distribution of HPAIV H5N1, in particular in different parts of East and Southeast Asia. Analysis of the temporal pattern of haemagglutinin clade data shows a progression from clade 0 (the 'dominant' clade between 1996 and 2002) to clade 1 (2003-2005) and then to clade 2.3.4 (2005 onwards). This process continuously produces variants, depending on the frequency of virus multiplication in the host population, which is influenced by geographical variation in poultry density, poultry production systems and also HPAI risk management measures such as vaccination. Increased multilateral collaboration needs to focus on developing enhanced disease surveillance and control targeted at evolutionary 'hotspots'.

  5. When private actors matter: Information-sharing network and surveillance of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Delabouglise, A; Dao, T H; Truong, D B; Nguyen, T T; Nguyen, N T X; Duboz, R; Fournié, G; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Grosbois, V; Vu, D T; Le, T H; Nguyen, V K; Salem, G; Peyre, M

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of animal health surveillance systems depends on their capacity to gather sanitary information from the animal production sector. In order to assess this capacity we analyzed the flow of sanitary information regarding Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) suspicions in poultry in Vietnam. Participatory methods were applied to assess the type of actors and likelihood of information sharing between actors in case of HPAI suspicion in poultry. While the reporting of HPAI suspicions is mandatory, private actors had more access to information than public actors. Actors of the upstream sector (medicine and feed sellers) played a key role in the diffusion of information. The central role of these actors and the influence of the information flow on the adoption by poultry production stakeholders of behaviors limiting (e.g. prevention measures) or promoting disease transmission (e.g. increased animal movements) should be accounted for in the design of surveillance and control programs.

  6. Protective efficacy of recombinant and inactivated H5 avian influenza vaccines against challenge from the 2014 intercontinental H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H5N8 and H5N2)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protective immunity against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) largely depends on the development of an antibody response against a specific subtype of challenge virus. Historically, the use of antigenically closely matched isolates has proven efficacious when used as inactivated vaccines. M...

  7. Determination of efficacious vaccine seed strains for use against Egyptian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses through antigenic cartography and in vivo challenge studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2006, there have been reported outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in vaccinated chickens in Africa and Asia. This study provides experimental data for selection of efficacious H5N1 vaccine seed strains against recently circulating strains of H5N1 HPAI viruses in Egypt....

  8. Risk reduction modeling of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus titers in non-pasteurized liquid egg obtained from infected but undetected chicken flocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has traditionally involved the establishment of disease containment zones, where poultry products are only permitted to move from within a containment area under permit. Non-pasteurized liquid egg (NPLE) is one such commodity for which movements ma...

  9. H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from the US 2014-2015 outbreak have an unusually long pre-clinical period in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From December 2014 through June 2015, the US experienced the most costly highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak to date. Most cases in commercial poultry were caused by an H5N2 strain which was a reassortant with 5 Eurasian lineage genes, including a clade 2.3.4.4 goose/Guangdong/1996 lin...

  10. Experimental infection with low and high pathogenicity H7N3 Chilean avian influenza viruses in Chiloe Wigeon (Anas sibilatrix) and Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2002, H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have been associated with natural, lethal infections in wild aquatic birds which have been reproduced experimentally. Some aquatic bird species have been suggested as potential transporters of H5N1 HPAI virus via migration. However, ...

  11. Role of immune-related host gene responses in the pathobiology of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have changed from producing mild respiratory infections in ducks to some strains causing severe disease and mortality. In this study we examined host response to infection with HPAI H5N1 viruses in ducks. With the use of a whole genom...

  12. Changes in adaptation of H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 clade 2.3.4.4 viruses in chickens and mallards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses caused a severe poultry outbreak in the United States (U.S.) during 2015. In order to examine changes in adaptation of this viral lineage, the infectivity, transmission and pathogenesis of poultry H5N2 viruses was investigated in chickens and mal...

  13. Comparison of potency required for protection against H7N3 or H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza following vaccination and challenge with homologous virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of H5 and H7 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in commercial poultry are a constant threat to food supplies and animal/human health. While vaccination can enhance protection and reduce the spread of disease, there is considerable evidence that the level of immunity required for pro...

  14. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses Reintroduced into South Korea by Migratory Waterfowl, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Swayne, David E; Noh, Jin-Yong; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Hong, Woo-Tack; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Jeong, Sol; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Song, Chang-Seon

    2016-03-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses were isolated from migratory waterfowl in South Korea during fall 2014-winter 2015, a recurrence after initial introduction in winter 2014. These reappeared viruses were phylogenetically distinct from isolates circulating in poultry farms in South Korea.

  15. Experimental co-infections of domestic ducks with a virulent Newcastle disease virus and low or highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with Avian influenza viruses (AIV) of low and high pathogenicity (LP and HP), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are commonly reported in domestic ducks in parts of the world. However, it’s not clear if co-infections with these viruses affect the severity of the diseases they produce, the ...

  16. Infectious and lethal doses of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus for house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and rock pigeons (Columbia livia)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Terrestrial wild birds commonly associated with poultry farms have the potential to contribute to the spread of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus within or between poultry facilities or between domesticated and wild bird populations. This potential, however, varies between species and is...

  17. Variability in pathobiology of South Korean H5N1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza virus infection for 5 species of migratory waterfowl

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biological outcome of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus infection in wild waterfowl is poorly understood. This study examined infectivity and pathobiology of A/chicken/Korea/IS/06 (H5N1) HPAI virus infection in Mute swans (Cygnus olor), Greylag geese (Anser anser), Ruddy Sheld...

  18. Susceptibility of five migratory aquatic birds to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (A/Chicken/Korea/IS/06)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is not known which migratory aquatic species are important in spreading H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, and the pathobiology of infections by such viruses. The objective of this investigation was to assess the susceptibility of Mute swans (Cygnus olor), Greylag geese (Anse...

  19. Effect of Infection with a Mesogenic Strain of Newcastle Disease Virus on Infection with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known on the interactions between avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) when coinfecting the same poultry host. In a previous study we found that infection of chickens with a mesogenic strain of NDV (mNDV) can reduce highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) replication, clinic...

  20. Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses reintroduced into South Korea by migratory waterfowl, 2014–2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses were isolated from migratory waterfowl in South Korea during all 2014–winter 2015, a recurrence after initial introduction in winter 2014. These reappeared viruses were phylogenetically distinct from isolates circulating in poultry farms in South Kor...

  1. A computationally optimized broadly reactive H5 hemagglutinin vaccine provides protection against homologous and heterologous H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since its emergence in 1996 in China, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus has continuously evolved into different genetic clades that have created challenges to maintaining antigenically relevant H5N1 vaccine seeds. Therefore, a universal (multi-hemagglutinin [HA] subtype) or more c...

  2. Efficacy of commercial vaccines in protecting chickens and ducks against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from Vietnam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza (AI) viruses continue to circulate in Asia and have spread to other regions of the world. Though attempts at eradication of the viruses during various outbreaks have been successful for short periods of time, new strains of H5N1 viruses continue to emerge...

  3. Impact of vaccination on infection with Vietnam H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in hens and the eggs they lay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infections in chickens produce a negative impact on egg production, and virus is deposited on surface and internal contents of eggs. Previously, vaccination maintained egg production and reduced egg contamination when challenged with a North American H...

  4. Suboptimal protection against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from Vietnam in ducks vaccinated with commercial poultry vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza (AI) viruses continue to circulate in Asia and other regions of the world. Vaccination is used as part of H5N1 HPAI control programs in many countries; however, eradication of the disease has not been possible due to the emergence and spread of new viruses...

  5. Impact of vaccination on infection with Vietnam H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in hens and the eggs they lay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infections in chickens decrease egg production and eggs that are laid contain HPAIV. Vaccination once or twice was examined as a way to protect chickens from Vietnamese H5N1 HPAIV. Eighty-three percent of hens without vaccination died within 3 days ...

  6. Pathogenicity of H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from a wild bird fecal specimen and a chicken in Japan in 2014.

    PubMed

    Tanikawa, Taichiro; Kanehira, Katsushi; Tsunekuni, Ryota; Uchida, Yuko; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Saito, Takehiko

    2016-04-01

    Poultry outbreaks caused by H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) occurred in Japan between December 2014 and January 2015. During the same period; H5N8 HPAIVs were isolated from wild birds and the environment in Japan. The hemagglutinin (HA) genes of these isolates were found to belong to clade 2.3.4.4 and three sub-groups were distinguishable within this clade. All of the Japanese isolates from poultry outbreaks belonged to the same sub-group; whereas wild bird isolates belonged to the other sub-groups. To examine whether the difference in pathogenicity to chickens between isolates of different HA sub-groups of clade 2.3.4.4 could explain why the Japanese poultry outbreaks were only caused by a particular sub-group; pathogenicities of A/chicken/Miyazaki/7/2014 (Miyazaki2014; sub-group C) and A/duck/Chiba/26-372-48/2014 (Chiba2014; sub-group A) to chickens were compared and it was found that the lethality of Miyazaki2014 in chickens was lower than that of Chiba2014; according to the 50% chicken lethal dose. This indicated that differences in pathogenicity may not explain why the Japanese poultry outbreaks only involved group C isolates.

  7. Pathogenesis and transmission of H7 and H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in mallards including the recent intercontinental H5 viruses (H5N8 and H5N2)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV’s) remain a threat to poultry worldwide. Avian influenza viruses, including HPAIV, are usually non-pathogenic for ducks and other wild aquatic birds, with the exception of Asian lineage H5N1, and recently H5N8, HPAIVs, which can cause moderate to sev...

  8. Characterization of 10 adjuvants for inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines against challenge with highly pathogenic AIV in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inactivated vaccines comprise 95% of all vaccine used for avian influenza virus (AIV) by dose. Optimizing the adjuvant is one way to improve vaccine efficacy. Inactivated vaccines were produced with beta-propiolactone inactivated A/chicken/BC/314514-1/2004 H7N3 low pathogenicity AIV and standardiz...

  9. Genetic characterization and pathogenicity assessment of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated from migratory wild birds in 2011, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyeok-Il; Song, Min-Suk; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Baek, Yun Hee; Lee, Jun Han; Hong, Seung-Pyo; Rho, Jong-Bok; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Poo, Haryoung; Kim, Chul-Joong; Choi, Young Ki

    2011-09-01

    The continued spread of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus among wild birds and poultry has posed a potential threat to human public health. In the present study, we report the isolation of HPAI H5N1 viruses (A/Md/Korea/W401/11 and A/Md/Korea/W404/11) from fecal samples of migratory birds. Genetic and phlyogenetic analyses demonstrated that these viruses are genetically identical possessing gene segments from avian virus origin and showing highest sequence similarities (as high as 99.8%) to A/Ws/Hokkaido/4/11 and 2009-2010 Mongolian-like clade 2.3.2 isolates rather than previous Korean H5N1 viruses. Both viruses possess the polybasic motif (QRERRRK/R) in HA but other genes did not bear additional virulence markers. Pathogenicity of A/Md/Korea/W401/11 was assessed and compared with a 2006 clade 2.2 HPAI H5N1 migratory bird isolate (A/EM/Korea/W149/06) in chickens, ducks, mice and ferrets. Experimental infection in these hosts showed that both viruses have high pathogenic potential in chickens (2.3-3.0 LD(50)s) and mice (3.3-3.9 LD(50)s), but A/Md/Korea/W401/11 was less pathogenic in duck and ferret models. Despite recovery of both infection viruses in the upper respiratory tract, efficient ferret-to-ferret transmission was not observed. These data suggest that the 2011 Korean HPAI wild bird H5N1 virus could replicate in mammalian hosts without pre-adaptation but could not sustain subsequent infection. This study highlights the role of migratory birds in the perpetuation and spread of HPAI H5N1 viruses in Far-East Asia. With the changing pathobiology caused by H5N1 viruses among wild and poultry birds, continued surveillance of influenza viruses among migratory bird species remains crucial for effective monitoring of high-pathogenicity or pandemic influenza viruses.

  10. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Struck Migratory Birds in China in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Yuhai; Zhang, Zhenjie; Liu, Wenjun; Yin, Yanbo; Hong, Jianmin; Li, Xiangdong; Wang, Haiming; Wong, Gary; Chen, Jianjun; Li, Yunfeng; Ru, Wendong; Gao, Ruyi; Liu, Di; Liu, Yingxia; Zhou, Boping; Gao, George F.; Shi, Weifeng; Lei, Fumin

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 100 migratory birds, including whooper swans and pochards, were found dead in the Sanmenxia Reservoir Area of China during January 2015. The causative agent behind this outbreak was identified as H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV). Genetic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that this Sanmenxia H5N1 virus was a novel reassortant, possessing a Clade 2.3.2.1c HA gene and a H9N2-derived PB2 gene. Sanmenxia Clade 2.3.2.1c-like H5N1 viruses possess the closest genetic identity to A/Alberta/01/2014 (H5N1), which recently caused a fatal respiratory infection in Canada with signs of meningoencephalitis, a highly unusual symptom with influenza infections in humans. Furthermore, this virus was shown to be highly pathogenic to both birds and mammals, and demonstrate tropism for the nervous system. Due to the geographical location of Sanmenxia, these novel H5N1 viruses also have the potential to be imported to other regions through the migration of wild birds, similar to the H5N1 outbreak amongst migratory birds in Qinghai Lake during 2005. Therefore, further investigation and monitoring is required to prevent this novel reassortant virus from becoming a new threat to public health. PMID:26259704

  11. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Struck Migratory Birds in China in 2015.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yuhai; Zhang, Zhenjie; Liu, Wenjun; Yin, Yanbo; Hong, Jianmin; Li, Xiangdong; Wang, Haiming; Wong, Gary; Chen, Jianjun; Li, Yunfeng; Ru, Wendong; Gao, Ruyi; Liu, Di; Liu, Yingxia; Zhou, Boping; Gao, George F; Shi, Weifeng; Lei, Fumin

    2015-08-11

    Approximately 100 migratory birds, including whooper swans and pochards, were found dead in the Sanmenxia Reservoir Area of China during January 2015. The causative agent behind this outbreak was identified as H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV). Genetic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that this Sanmenxia H5N1 virus was a novel reassortant, possessing a Clade 2.3.2.1c HA gene and a H9N2-derived PB2 gene. Sanmenxia Clade 2.3.2.1c-like H5N1 viruses possess the closest genetic identity to A/Alberta/01/2014 (H5N1), which recently caused a fatal respiratory infection in Canada with signs of meningoencephalitis, a highly unusual symptom with influenza infections in humans. Furthermore, this virus was shown to be highly pathogenic to both birds and mammals, and demonstrate tropism for the nervous system. Due to the geographical location of Sanmenxia, these novel H5N1 viruses also have the potential to be imported to other regions through the migration of wild birds, similar to the H5N1 outbreak amongst migratory birds in Qinghai Lake during 2005. Therefore, further investigation and monitoring is required to prevent this novel reassortant virus from becoming a new threat to public health.

  12. Protection of poultry from highly pathogenic avian influenza with multivalent virus-like particle vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses, especially H5 subtypes, cause widespread morbidity and mortality in domestic and wild bird populations. Dissemination of AI results primarily from the movement of the virus through infected poultry and poultry products, but migratory birds have also served as secondary...

  13. Victims and vectors: highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 and the ecology of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Hill, Nichola J.; Yan, Baoping; Xiao, Xiangming; Lei, Fumin; Li, Tianxian; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Howell, Judd A.

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses has raised concerns about the role of wild birds in the spread and persistence of the disease. In 2005, an outbreak of the highly pathogenic subtype H5N1 killed more than 6,000 wild waterbirds at Qinghai Lake, China. Outbreaks have continued to periodically occur in wild birds at Qinghai Lake and elsewhere in Central China and Mongolia. This region has few poultry but is a major migration and breeding area for waterbirds in the Central Asian Flyway, although relatively little is known about migratory movements of different species and connectivity of their wetland habitats. The scientific debate has focused on the role of waterbirds in the epidemiology, maintenance and spread of HPAI H5N1: to what extent are they victims affected by the disease, or vectors that have a role in disease transmission? In this review, we summarise the current knowledge of wild bird involvement in the ecology of HPAI H5N1. Specifically, we present details on: (1) origin of HPAI H5N1; (2) waterbirds as LPAI reservoirs and evolution into HPAI; (3) the role of waterbirds in virus spread and persistence; (4) key biogeographic regions of outbreak; and (5) applying an ecological research perspective to studying AIVs in wild waterbirds and their ecosystems.

  14. Pathogenicity of Genetically Similar, H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Strains in Chicken and the Differences in Sensitivity among Different Chicken Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Matsuu, Aya; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Patchimasiri, Tuangthong; Shiina, Takashi; Suzuki, Shingo; Chaichoune, Kridsada; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Hiromoto, Yasuaki; Abe, Haruka; Parchariyanon, Sujira; Saito, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the pathogenicity of genetically closely related H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) were evaluated in White Leghorn chickens. These viruses varied in the clinical symptoms they induced, including lethality, virus shedding, and replication in host tissues. A comparison of the host responses in the lung, brain, and spleen suggested that the differences in viral replication efficiency were related to the host cytokine response at the early phase of infection, especially variations in the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. Based on these findings, we inoculated the virus that showed the mildest pathogenicity among the five tested, A/pigeon/Thailand/VSMU-7-NPT/2004, into four breeds of Thai indigenous chicken, Phadu-Hung-Dang (PHD), Chee, Dang, and Luang-Hung-Khao (LHK), to explore effects of genetic background on host response. Among these breeds, Chee, Dang, and LHK showed significantly longer survival times than White Leghorns. Virus shedding from dead Thai indigenous chickens was significantly lower than that from White Leghorns. Although polymorphisms were observed in the Mx and MHC class I genes, there was no significant association between the polymorphisms in these loci and resistance to HPAIV. PMID:27078641

  15. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus delays apoptotic responses via activation of STAT3.

    PubMed

    Hui, Kenrie P Y; Li, Hung Sing; Cheung, Man Chun; Chan, Renee W Y; Yuen, Kit M; Mok, Chris K P; Nicholls, John M; Peiris, J S Malik; Chan, Michael C W

    2016-06-27

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus continues to pose pandemic threat, but there is a lack of understanding of its pathogenesis. We compared the apoptotic responses triggered by HPAI H5N1 and low pathogenic H1N1 viruses using physiologically relevant respiratory epithelial cells. We demonstrated that H5N1 viruses delayed apoptosis in primary human bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) compared to H1N1 virus. Both caspase-8 and -9 were activated by H5N1 and H1N1 viruses in AECs, while H5N1 differentially up-regulated TRAIL. H5N1-induced apoptosis was reduced by TRAIL receptor silencing. More importantly, STAT3 knock-down increased apoptosis by H5N1 infection suggesting that H5N1 virus delays apoptosis through activation of STAT3. Taken together, we demonstrate that STAT3 is involved in H5N1-delayed apoptosis compared to H1N1. Since delay in apoptosis prolongs the duration of virus replication and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and TRAIL from H5N1-infected cells, which contribute to orchestrate cytokine storm and tissue damage, our results suggest that STAT3 may play a previously unsuspected role in H5N1 pathogenesis.

  16. Isolation and identification of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 from emus from the Ein Gedi oasis by the Dead Sea.

    PubMed

    Amnon, Inbar; Shkoda, Irina; Lapin, Ekaterina; Raibstein, Israel; Rosenbluth, Ezra; Nagar, Sagit; Perk, Shimon; Bellaiche, Michel; Davidson, Irit

    2011-09-01

    An avian influenza virus (AIV), A/Emu/Israel/552/2010/(H5N1), was isolated from a dead emu that was found in the Ein Gedi oasis near the Dead Sea. The virus molecular characterization was performed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR using AIV subtype-specific primers. The virus was of high pathogenicity, according to its intravenous pathogenicity index of 2.85 and the nucleotide sequencing at the cleavage site of the hemagglutinin gene, GERRRKKR, which is typical for highly pathogenic chicken influenza A viruses.

  17. Molecular evolution of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Bangladesh between 2007 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Haque, M E; Giasuddin, M; Chowdhury, E H; Islam, M R

    2014-01-01

    In Bangladesh, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 was first detected in February 2007. Since then the virus has become entrenched in poultry farms of Bangladesh. There have so far been seven human cases of H5N1 HPAI infection in Bangladesh with one death. The objective of the present study was to investigate the molecular evolution of H5N1 HPAI viruses during 2007 to 2012. Partial or complete nucleotide sequences of all eight gene segments of two chicken isolates, five gene segments of a duck isolate and the haemagglutinin gene segment of 18 isolates from Bangladesh were established in the present study and subjected to molecular analysis. In addition, full-length sequences of different gene segments of other Bangladeshi H5N1 isolates available in GenBank were included in the analysis. The analysis revealed that the first introduction of clade 2.2 virus in Bangladesh in 2007 was followed by the introduction of clade 2.3.2.1 and 2.3.4 viruses in 2011. However, only clade 2.3.2.1 viruses could be isolated in 2012, indicating progressive replacement of clade 2.2 and 2.3.4 viruses. There has been an event of segment re-assortment between H5N1 and H9N2 viruses in Bangladesh, where H5N1 virus acquired the PB1 gene from a H9N2 virus. Point mutations have accumulated in Bangladeshi isolates over the last 5 years with potential modification of receptor binding site and antigenic sites. Extensive and continuous molecular epidemiological studies are necessary to monitor the evolution of circulating avian influenza viruses in Bangladesh.

  18. Four different sublineages of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 introduced in Hungary in 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Szeleczky, Zsófia; Dán, Adám; Ursu, Krisztina; Ivanics, Eva; Kiss, István; Erdélyi, Károly; Belák, Sándor; Muller, Claude P; Brown, Ian H; Bálint, Adám

    2009-10-20

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses were introduced to Hungary during 2006-2007 in three separate waves. This study aimed at determining the full-length genomic coding regions of the index strains from these epizootics in order to: (i) understand the phylogenetic relationship to other European H5N1 isolates, (ii) elucidate the possible connection between the different outbreaks and (iii) determine the putative origin and way of introduction of the different virus variants. Molecular analysis of the HA gene of Hungarian HPAI isolates obtained from wild birds during the first introduction revealed two groups designated Hungarian1 (HUN1) and Hungarian2 (HUN2) within sublineage 2.2B and clade 2.2.1, respectively. Sequencing the whole coding region of the two index viruses A/mute swan/Hungary/3472/2006 and A/mute swan/4571/Hungary/2006 suggests the role of wild birds in the introduction of HUN1 and HUN2 viruses: the most similar isolates to HUN1 and HUN2 group were found in wild avian species in Croatia and Slovakia, respectively. The second introduction of HPAI H5N1 led to the largest epizootic in domestic waterfowl in Europe. The index strain of the epizootic A/goose/Hungary/14756/2006 clustered to sublineage 2.2.A1 forming the Hungarian3 (HUN3) group. A common ancestry of HUN3 isolates with Bavarian strains is suggested as the most likely scenario of origin. Hungarian4 (HUN4) viruses isolated from the third introduction clustered with isolate A/turkey/United Kingdom/750/2007 forming a sublineage 2.2.A2. The origin and way of introduction of HUN4 viruses is still obscure, thus further genetic, phylogenetic, ecological and epidemiological data are required in order to elucidate it.

  19. Analysis of spatial distribution and transmission characters for highly pathogenic avian influenza in Chinese mainland in 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. L.; Wei, C. J.; Yan, L.; Chi, T. H.; Wu, X. B.; Xiao, C. S.

    2006-03-01

    After the outbreak of highly pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in South Korea in the end of year 2003, estimates of the impact of HPAI in affected countries vary greatly, the total direct losses are about 3 billion US dollars, and it caused 15 million birds and poultry flocks death. It is significant to understand the spatial distribution and transmission characters of HPAI for its prevention and control. According to 50 outbreak cases for HPAI in Chinese mainland during 2004, this paper introduces the approach of spatial distribution and transmission characters for HPAI and its results. Its approach is based on remote sensing and GIS techniques. Its supporting data set involves normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and land surface temperature (Ts) derived from a time-series of remote sensing data of 1 kilometer-resolution NOAA/AVHRR, birds' migration routes, topology geographic map, lake and wetland maps, and meteorological observation data. In order to analyze synthetically using these data, a supporting platform for analysis Avian Influenza epidemic situation (SPAS/AI) was developed. Supporting by SPAS/AI, the integrated information from multi-sources can be easily used to the analysis of the spatial distribution and transmission character of HPAI. The results show that the range of spatial distribution and transmission of HPAI in China during 2004 connected to environment factors NDVI, Ts and the distributions of lake and wetland, and especially to bird migration routes. To some extent, the results provide some suggestions for the macro-decision making for the prevention and control of HPAI in the areas of potential risk and reoccurrence.

  20. Spatio-temporal epidemiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza (subtype H5N1) in poultry in eastern India.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Madhur S; Dissanayake, Ravi; Negi, Ajender Bhagat; Oberoi, Mohinder; Castellan, David; Thrusfield, Michael; Linard, Catherine; Gilbert, Marius

    2014-10-01

    In India, majority outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 have occurred in eastern states of West Bengal, Assam and Tripura. This study aimed to identify disease clusters and risk factors of HPAI H5N1 in these states, for targeted surveillance and disease control. A spatial scan statistic identified two significant disease clusters in West Bengal and Assam, occurring during January and November-December 2008, respectively. Key risk factors were identified at sub-district level using bootstrapped logistic regression and boosted regression trees model. With both methods, HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in backyard poultry were associated with accessibility in terms of time taken to access a city with >50,000 persons, human population density and duck density (P<0.005). In addition, areas at lower elevation were also identified as high risk by BRT model. It is recommended that risk-based surveillance should be implemented in high duck density areas and all live-bird markets in high-throughput locations.

  1. Evidence for the Convergence Model: The Emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Saksena, Sumeet; Fox, Jefferson; Epprecht, Michael; Tran, Chinh C.; Nong, Duong H.; Spencer, James H.; Nguyen, Lam; Finucane, Melissa L.; Tran, Vien D.; Wilcox, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Building on a series of ground breaking reviews that first defined and drew attention to emerging infectious diseases (EID), the ‘convergence model’ was proposed to explain the multifactorial causality of disease emergence. The model broadly hypothesizes disease emergence is driven by the co-incidence of genetic, physical environmental, ecological, and social factors. We developed and tested a model of the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 based on suspected convergence factors that are mainly associated with land-use change. Building on previous geospatial statistical studies that identified natural and human risk factors associated with urbanization, we added new factors to test whether causal mechanisms and pathogenic landscapes could be more specifically identified. Our findings suggest that urbanization spatially combines risk factors to produce particular types of peri-urban landscapes with significantly higher HPAI H5N1 emergence risk. The work highlights that peri-urban areas of Viet Nam have higher levels of chicken densities, duck and geese flock size diversities, and fraction of land under rice or aquaculture than rural and urban areas. We also found that land-use diversity, a surrogate measure for potential mixing of host populations and other factors that likely influence viral transmission, significantly improves the model’s predictability. Similarly, landscapes where intensive and extensive forms of poultry production overlap were found at greater risk. These results support the convergence hypothesis in general and demonstrate the potential to improve EID prevention and control by combing geospatial monitoring of these factors along with pathogen surveillance programs. PMID:26398118

  2. The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (subtype H5N1) clades in Bangladesh, 2010 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Osmani, Muzaffar G; Ward, Michael P; Giasuddin, Md; Islam, Md Rafiqul; Kalam, Abul

    2014-04-01

    Since the global spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 during 2005-2006, control programs have been successfully implemented in most affected countries. HPAI H5N1 was first reported in Bangladesh in 2007, and since then 546 outbreaks have been reported to the OIE. The disease has apparently become endemic in Bangladesh. Spatio-temporal information on 177 outbreaks of HPAI H5N1 occurring between February 2010 and April 2011 in Bangladesh, and 37 of these outbreaks in which isolated H5N1 viruses were phylogenetically characterized to clade, were analyzed. Three clades were identified, 2.2 (21 cases), 2.3.4 (2 cases) and 2.3.2.1 (14 cases). Clade 2.2 was identified throughout the time period and was widely distributed in a southeast-northwest orientation. Clade 2.3.2.1 appeared later and was generally confined to central Bangladesh in a north-south orientation. Based on a direction test, clade 2.2 viruses spread in a southeast-to-northwest direction, whereas clade 2.3.2.1 spread west-to-east. The magnitude of spread of clade 2.3.2.1 was greater relative to clade 2.2 (angular concentration 0.2765 versus 0.1860). In both cases, the first outbreak(s) were identified as early outliers, but in addition, early outbreaks (one each) of clade 2.2 were also identified in central Bangladesh and in northwest Bangladesh, a considerable distance apart. The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in Bangladesh is characterized by reported long-distance translocation events. This poses a challenge to disease control efforts. Increased enforcement of biosecurity and stronger control of movements between affected farms and susceptible farms, and better surveillance and reporting, is needed. Although the movement of poultry and equipment appears to be a more likely explanation for the patterns identified, the relative contribution of trade and the market chain versus wild birds in spreading the disease needs further investigation.

  3. Protective immunity against H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza induced following inoculation of chickens with H7 low pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the poultry industry, live virus vaccines are used to induce immunity against numerous respiratory pathogens. These are typically lower virulent forms of virus which are limited in replication and pathology, but induce mucosal, humoral, and cellular immunity. Because of the potential for revers...

  4. Pathogenicity of an H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolated in the 2010-2011 winter in Japan to mandarin ducks.

    PubMed

    Soda, Kosuke; Usui, Tatsufumi; Uno, Yukiko; Yoneda, Kumiko; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Widespread outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) caused by H5N1 viruses occurred in wild birds in Japan from 2010-2011. Forty out of 63 deceased wild birds belonged to the order Anseriformes, and mandarin duck was one of the dominant species. To estimate the risk of mandarin ducks as a source of virus infection in the environment, we examined the pathogenicity of a causal H5N1 HPAI virus to mandarin ducks. About half of the mandarin ducks died by inoculation with 10(7.0)TCID50 of A/mandarin duck/Miyazaki/22M807-1/2011 (H5N1). Viruses were mainly recovered from the trachea of the ducks sacrificed at three days post inoculation (d.p.i.). Viruses were recovered from the laryngopharyngeal swabs of the observation group until 5 d.p.i. In ducks that died at the late phase of infection, viruses were detected in the systemic organs, such as lung, kidney and colon. Together, these results showed that the H5N1 HPAI viruses, which belonged to clade 2.3.2.1 and are mainly circulating in East Asia, were lethal to mandarin ducks, indicating that mandarin ducks have the potential to disseminate the virus to other bird species. Therefore, wild birds should be kept out of poultry farms to prevent HPAI outbreaks in the future.

  5. Evaluation of a high-pathogenicity H5N1 avian influenza A virus isolated from duck meat.

    PubMed

    Tumpey, T M; Suarez, D L; Perkins, L E L; Senne, D A; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Mo, I P; Sung, H W; Swayne, D E

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of an influenza A virus possessing a novel hemagglutinin (HA) into an immunologically naive human population has the potential to cause severe disease and death. Such was the case in 1997 in Hong Kong, where H5N1 influenza was transmitted to humans from infected poultry. Because H5N1 viruses are still isolated from domestic poultry in southern China, there needs to be continued surveillance of poultry and characterization of virus subtypes and variants. This study provides molecular characterization and evaluation of pathogenesis of a recent H5N1 virus isolated from duck meat that had been imported to South Korea from China. The HA gene of A/Duck/Anyang/AVL-1/01 (H5N1) isolate was found to be closely related to the Hong Kong/97 H5N1 viruses. This virus also contained multiple basic amino acids adjacent to the cleavage site between HA1 and HA2, characteristic of high-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (HPAI). The pathogenesis of this virus was characterized in chickens, ducks, and mice. The DK/Anyang/AVL-1/01 isolate replicated well in all species and resulted in 100% and 22% lethality for chickens and mice, respectively. No clinical signs of disease were observed in DK/Anyang/AVL-1/01-inoculated ducks, but high titers of infectious virus could be detected in multiple tissues and oropharyngeal swabs. The presence of an H5N1 influenza virus in ducks bearing a HA gene that is highly similar to those of the pathogenic 1997 human/poultry H5N1 viruses raises the possibility of reintroduction of HPAI to chickens and humans.

  6. Assessing the risk of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 transmission through poultry movements in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Roche, Sharon E; Cogger, Naomi; Garner, M Graeme; Putra, Anak Agung Gde; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2014-03-01

    Indonesia continues to report the highest number of human and poultry cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1. The disease is considered to be endemic on the island of Bali. Live bird markets are integral in the poultry supply chain on Bali and are important, nutritionally and culturally, for the rural and urban human populations. Due to the lack of biosecurity practiced along the supply chain from producer to live bird markets, there is a need to understand the risks associated with the spread of H5N1 through live bird movements for effective control. Resources to control H5N1 in Indonesia are very limited and cost effective strategies are needed. We assessed the probability a live bird market is infected through live poultry movements and assessed the effects of implementing two simple and low cost control measures on this risk. Results suggest there is a high risk a live bird market is infected (0.78), and risk mitigation strategies such as detecting and removing infected poultry from markets reduce this risk somewhat (range 0.67-0.76). The study demonstrates the key role live poultry movements play in transmitting H5N1 and the need to implement a variety of control measures to reduce disease spread.

  7. Amantadine resistance among highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H5N1) isolated from India.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Aron; Sood, Richa; Chanu, Kh Victoria; Bhatia, Sandeep; Khandia, Rekha; Pateriya, A K; Nagarajan, S; Dimri, U; Kulkarni, D D

    2016-02-01

    Emergence of antiviral resistance among H5N1 avian influenza viruses is the major challenge in the control of pandemic influenza. Matrix 2 (M2) inhibitors (amantadine and rimantadine) and neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir) are the two classes of antiviral agents that are specifically active against influenza viruses and are used for both treatment and prophylaxis of influenza infections. Amantadine targets the M2 ion channel of influenza A virus and interrupts virus life cycle through blockade of hydrogen ion influx. This prevents uncoating of the virus in infected host cells which impedes the release of ribonucleoprotein required for transcription and replication of virion in the nucleus. The present study was carried out to review the status of amantadine resistance in H5N1 viruses isolated from India and to study their replicative capability. Results of the study revealed resistance to amantadine in antiviral assay among four H5N1 viruses out of which two viruses had Serine 31 Asparagine (AGT-AAT i.e., S31N) mutation and two had Valine 27 Alanine (GTT-GCT i.e., V27A) mutation. The four resistant viruses not only exhibited significant difference in effective concentration 50% (EC50) values of amantadine hydrochloride from that of susceptible viruses (P < 0.0001) but also showed significant difference between two different types (S31N and V27A) of mutant viruses (P < 0.05). Resistance to amantadine could also be demonstrated in a simple HA test after replication of the viruses in MDCK cells in presence of amantadine. The study identifies the correlation between in vitro antiviral assay and presence of established molecular markers of resistance, the retention of replicative capacity in the presence of amantadine hydrochloride by the resistant viruses and the emergence of resistant mutations against amantadine among avian influenza viruses (H5N1) without selective drug pressure.

  8. Infectivity, transmission and pathogenicity of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza clade 2.3.4.4 (H5N8 and H5N2) United States index viruses in Pekin ducks and Chinese geese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In late 2014, a H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, clade 2.3.4.4, spread by migratory birds into North America mixing with low pathogenicity AI viruses to produce a H5N2 HPAI virus. The H5N8 and H5N2 HPAI viruses were detected initially in wild waterfowl and backyard birds, and lat...

  9. No evidence of infection or exposure to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenzas in peridomestic wildlife on an affected poultry facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grear, Daniel A.; Dusek, Robert J.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the potential transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in wildlife species in three settings in association with an outbreak at a poultry facility: 1) small birds and small mammals on a poultry facility that was affected with highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) in April 2015; 2) small birds and small mammals on a nearby poultry facility that was unaffected by HPAIV; and 3) small birds, small mammals, and waterfowl in a nearby natural area. We live-captured small birds and small mammals and collected samples from hunter-harvested waterfowl to test for active viral shedding and evidence of exposure (serum antibody) to AIV and the H5N2 HPAIV that affected the poultry facility. We detected no evidence of shedding or specific antibody to AIV in small mammals and small birds 5 mo after depopulation of the poultry. We detected viral shedding and exposure to AIV in waterfowl and estimated approximately 15% viral shedding and 60% antibody prevalence. In waterfowl, we did not detect shedding or exposure to the HPAIV that affected the poultry facility. We also conducted camera trapping around poultry carcass depopulation composting barns and found regular visitation by four species of medium-sized mammals. We provide preliminary data suggesting that peridomestic wildlife were not an important factor in the transmission of AIV during the poultry outbreak, nor did small birds and mammals in natural wetland settings show wide evidence of AIV shedding or exposure, despite the opportunity for exposure.

  10. Vaccination of gallinaceous poultry for H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza: current questions and new technology.

    PubMed

    Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E

    2013-12-05

    Vaccination of poultry for avian influenza virus (AIV) is a complex topic as there are numerous technical, logistic and regulatory aspects which must be considered. Historically, control of high pathogenicity (HP) AIV infection in poultry has been accomplished by eradication and stamping out when outbreaks occur locally. Since the H5N1 HPAIV from Asia has spread and become enzootic, vaccination has been used on a long-term basis by some countries to control the virus, other countries have used it temporarily to aid eradication efforts, while others have not used it at all. Currently, H5N1 HPAIV is considered enzootic in China, Egypt, Viet Nam, India, Bangladesh and Indonesia. All but Bangladesh and India have instituted vaccination programs for poultry. Importantly, the specifics of these programs differ to accommodate different situations, resources, and industry structure in each country. The current vaccines most commonly used are inactivated whole virus vaccines, but vectored vaccine use is increasing. Numerous technical improvements to these platforms and novel vaccine platforms for H5N1 vaccines have been reported, but most are not ready to be implemented in the field.

  11. Comprehensive analysis of antibody recognition in convalescent humans from highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 infection.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Teng; Sun, Jianfeng; Wang, Guiqin; Jiang, Liwei; Zuo, Yanan; Li, Danyang; Shi, Xuanling; Liu, Xi; Fan, Shilong; Ren, Huanhuan; Hu, Hongxing; Sun, Lina; Zhou, Boping; Liang, Mifang; Zhou, Paul; Wang, Xinquan; Zhang, Linqi

    2015-12-04

    Understanding the mechanism of protective antibody recognition against highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus H5N1 in humans is critical for the development of effective therapies and vaccines. Here we report the crystal structure of three H5-specific human monoclonal antibodies bound to the globular head of hemagglutinin (HA) with distinct epitope specificities, neutralization potencies and breadth. A structural and functional analysis of these epitopes combined with those reported elsewhere identifies four major vulnerable sites on the globular head of H5N1 HA. Chimeric and vulnerable site-specific mutant pseudoviruses are generated to delineate broad neutralization specificities of convalescent sera from two individuals who recovered from the infection with H5N1 virus. Our results show that the four vulnerable sites on the globular head rather than the stem region are the major neutralizing targets, suggesting that during natural H5N1 infection neutralizing antibodies against the globular head work in concert to provide protective antibody-mediated immunity.

  12. Antigenic analysis of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 sublineages co-circulating in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yohei; Ibrahim, Madiha S; Ellakany, Hany F; Kawashita, Norihito; Daidoji, Tomo; Takagi, Tatsuya; Yasunaga, Teruo; Nakaya, Takaaki; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2012-10-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 has spread across Eurasia and Africa, and outbreaks are now endemic in several countries, including Indonesia, Vietnam and Egypt. Continuous circulation of H5N1 virus in Egypt, from a single infected source, has led to significant genetic diversification with phylogenetically separable sublineages, providing an opportunity to study the impact of genetic evolution on viral phenotypic variation. In this study, we analysed the phylogeny of H5 haemagglutinin (HA) genes in influenza viruses isolated in Egypt from 2006 to 2011 and investigated the effect of conserved amino acid mutations in the HA genes in each of the sublineages on their antigenicity. The analysis showed that viruses in at least four sublineages still persisted in poultry in Egypt as of 2011. Using reverse genetics to generate HA-reassortment viruses with specific HA mutations, we found antigenic drift in the HA in two influenza virus sublineages, compared with the other currently co-circulating influenza virus sublineages in Egypt. Moreover, the two sublineages with significant antigenic drift were antigenically distinguishable. Our findings suggested that phylogenetically divergent H5N1 viruses, which were not antigenically cross-reactive, were co-circulating in Egypt, indicating that there was a problem in using a single influenza virus strain as seed virus to produce influenza virus vaccine in Egypt and providing data for designing more efficacious control strategies in H5N1-endemic areas.

  13. High-virulence CMY-2- and CTX-M-2-producing avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from commercial turkeys.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ketrin Cristina; Cunha, Marcos Paulo Vieira; Cerdeira, Louise; de Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Xavier; de Oliveira, Mirela Caroline Vilela; Gomes, Cleise Ribeiro; Lincopan, Nilton; Knöbl, Terezinha; Moreno, Andrea Micke

    2017-01-01

    This study reports the high-virulence phylogenetic backgrounds of CMY-2- and CTX-M-2-producing avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from turkeys sent to slaughter and condemned by airsacculitis in Brazil. Among 300 air sac samples, seven E. coli strains produced plasmid-mediated CMY-2-type AmpC, of which three carried also the blaCTX-M-2 Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase encoding gene. Interestingly, the transfer of the blaCMY-2 gene was positive for three E. coli strains, being associated with the presence of IncI1 plasmids. The complete sequence of the representative pJB10 plasmid revealed that the blaCMY-2 gene was within a transposon-like element in the classical genetic environment consisting of tnpA-blaCMY-2-blc-sugE structure. This plasmid with 94-kb belonged to the sequence type (ST) 12 among IncI1 plasmids, which has been associated with the worldwide spread of blaCMY-2 among Salmonella enterica and E. coli. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first complete sequence of a CMY-2-encoding plasmid derived from an Escherichia coli isolated from food-producing animals in Latin America.

  14. Comprehensive analysis of antibody recognition in convalescent humans from highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Teng; Sun, Jianfeng; Wang, Guiqin; Jiang, Liwei; Zuo, Yanan; Li, Danyang; Shi, Xuanling; Liu, Xi; Fan, Shilong; Ren, Huanhuan; Hu, Hongxing; Sun, Lina; Zhou, Boping; Liang, Mifang; Zhou, Paul; Wang, Xinquan; Zhang, Linqi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of protective antibody recognition against highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus H5N1 in humans is critical for the development of effective therapies and vaccines. Here we report the crystal structure of three H5-specific human monoclonal antibodies bound to the globular head of hemagglutinin (HA) with distinct epitope specificities, neutralization potencies and breadth. A structural and functional analysis of these epitopes combined with those reported elsewhere identifies four major vulnerable sites on the globular head of H5N1 HA. Chimeric and vulnerable site-specific mutant pseudoviruses are generated to delineate broad neutralization specificities of convalescent sera from two individuals who recovered from the infection with H5N1 virus. Our results show that the four vulnerable sites on the globular head rather than the stem region are the major neutralizing targets, suggesting that during natural H5N1 infection neutralizing antibodies against the globular head work in concert to provide protective antibody-mediated immunity. PMID:26635249

  15. Pathogenesis of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H7N1) infection in chickens inoculated with three different doses.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Aida J; Busquets, Nuria; Campos, Naiana; Ramis, Antonio; Dolz, Roser; Rivas, Raquel; Valle, Rosa; Abad, F Xavier; Darji, Ayub; Majo, Natalia

    2011-04-01

    To study the pathogenesis of a H7N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strain, specific pathogen free chickens were inoculated with decreasing concentrations of virus: 10(5.5) median embryo lethal dose (ELD(50)) (G1), 10(3.5) ELD(50) (G2) and 10(1.5) ELD(50) (G3). Disease progression was monitored over a period of 16 days and sequential necropsies and tissue samples were collected for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Viral RNA loads were also quantified in different tissues, blood, oropharyngeal swabs, and cloacal swabs using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Clinical signs of depression, apathy, listlessness, huddling and ruffled feathers were recorded in G1 and a few G2 birds, whilst neurological signs were only observed in chickens inoculated with the highest dose. Gross lesions of haemorrhages were observed in the unfeathered skin of the comb and legs, and skeletal muscle, lung, pancreas and kidneys of birds inoculated with 10(5.5) ELD(50) and 10(3.5) ELD(50) doses. Microscopic lesions and viral antigen were demonstrated in cells of the nasal cavity, lung, heart, skeletal muscle, brain, spinal cord, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, liver, bone marrow, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, spleen, kidney, adrenal gland and skin. Viral RNA was detected by RT-qPCR in kidney, lung, intestine, and brain samples of G1 and G2 birds. However, in birds infected with the lowest dose, viral RNA was detected only in brain and lung samples in low amounts at 5 and 7 days post infection. Interestingly, viral shedding was observed in oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs with proportionate decrease with the inoculation dose. We conclude that although an adequate infectious dose is critical in reproducing the clinical infection, chickens exposed to lower doses can be infected and shed virus representing a risk for the dissemination of the viral agent.

  16. Highly Pathogenic Reassortant Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Clade 2.3.2.1a in Poultry, Bhutan

    PubMed Central

    Marinova-Petkova, Atanaska; Franks, John; Tenzin, Sangay; Dahal, Narapati; Dukpa, Kinzang; Dorjee, Jambay; Feeroz, Mohammed M.; Rehg, Jerold E.; Barman, Subrata; Krauss, Scott; McKenzie, Pamela; Webby, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1), clade 2.3.2.1a, with an H9-like polymerase basic protein 1 gene, isolated in Bhutan in 2012, replicated faster in vitro than its H5N1 parental genotype and was transmitted more efficiently in a chicken model. These properties likely help limit/eradicate outbreaks, combined with strict control measures. PMID:27584733

  17. Emerging highly pathogenic H5 avian influenza viruses in France during winter 2015/16: phylogenetic analyses and markers for zoonotic potential

    PubMed Central

    Briand, François-Xavier; Schmitz, Audrey; Ogor, Katell; Le Prioux, Aurélie; Guillou-Cloarec, Cécile; Guillemoto, Carole; Allée, Chantal; Le Bras, Marie-Odile; Hirchaud, Edouard; Quenault, Hélène; Touzain, Fabrice; Cherbonnel-Pansart, Martine; Lemaitre, Evelyne; Courtillon, Céline; Gares, Hélène; Daniel, Patrick; Fediaevsky, Alexandre; Massin, Pascale; Blanchard, Yannick; Eterradossi, Nicolas; van der Werf, Sylvie; Jestin, Véronique; Niqueux, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Several new highly pathogenic (HP) H5 avian influenza virus (AIV) have been detected in poultry farms from south-western France since November 2015, among which an HP H5N1. The zoonotic potential and origin of these AIVs immediately became matters of concern. One virus of each subtype H5N1 (150169a), H5N2 (150233) and H5N9 (150236) was characterised. All proved highly pathogenic for poultry as demonstrated molecularly by the presence of a polybasic cleavage site in their HA protein – with a sequence (HQRRKR/GLF) previously unknown among avian H5 HPAI viruses – or experimentally by the in vivo demonstration of an intravenous pathogenicity index of 2.9 for the H5N1 HP isolate. Phylogenetic analyses based on the full genomes obtained by NGS confirmed that the eight viral segments of the three isolates were all part of avian Eurasian phylogenetic lineage but differed from the Gs/Gd/1/96-like lineage. The study of the genetic characteristics at specific amino acid positions relevant for modulating the adaptation to and the virulence for mammals showed that presently, these viruses possess most molecular features characteristic of AIV and lack some major characteristics required for efficient respiratory transmission to or between humans. The three isolates are therefore predicted to have no significant pandemic potential. PMID:28277218

  18. Migration of Whooper Swans and Outbreaks of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus in Eastern Asia

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Scott H.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Gilbert, Martin; Prosser, Diann J.; Batbayar, Nyambyar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Douglas, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluating the potential involvement of wild avifauna in the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (hereafter H5N1) requires detailed analyses of temporal and spatial relationships between wild bird movements and disease emergence. The death of wild swans (Cygnus spp.) has been the first indicator of the presence of H5N1 in various Asian and European countries; however their role in the geographic spread of the disease remains poorly understood. We marked 10 whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) with GPS transmitters in northeastern Mongolia during autumn 2006 and tracked their migratory movements in relation to H5N1 outbreaks. The prevalence of H5N1 outbreaks among poultry in eastern Asia during 2003–2007 peaked during winter, concurrent with whooper swan movements into regions of high poultry density. However outbreaks involving poultry were detected year round, indicating disease perpetuation independent of migratory waterbird presence. In contrast, H5N1 outbreaks involving whooper swans, as well as other migratory waterbirds that succumbed to the disease in eastern Asia, tended to occur during seasons (late spring and summer) and in habitats (areas of natural vegetation) where their potential for contact with poultry is very low to nonexistent. Given what is known about the susceptibility of swans to H5N1, and on the basis of the chronology and rates of whooper swan migration movements, we conclude that although there is broad spatial overlap between whooper swan distributions and H5N1 outbreak locations in eastern Asia, the likelihood of direct transmission between these groups is extremely low. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that swans are best viewed as sentinel species, and moreover, that in eastern Asia, it is most likely that their infections occurred through contact with asymptomatic migratory hosts (e.g., wild ducks) at or near their breeding grounds. PMID:19479053

  19. Migration of whooper swans and outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in Eastern Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, Scott H.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Gilbert, Martin; Prosser, Diann J.; Batbayar, Nyambyar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Douglas, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluating the potential involvement of wild avifauna in the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (hereafter H5N1) requires detailed analyses of temporal and spatial relationships between wild bird movements and disease emergence. The death of wild swans (Cygnus spp.) has been the first indicator of the presence of H5N1 in various Asian and European countries; however their role in the geographic spread of the disease remains poorly understood. We marked 10 whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) with GPS transmitters in northeastern Mongolia during autumn 2006 and tracked their migratory movements in relation to H5N1 outbreaks. The prevalence of H5N1 outbreaks among poultry in eastern Asia during 2003-2007 peaked during winter, concurrent with whooper swan movements into regions of high poultry density. However outbreaks involving poultry were detected year round, indicating disease perpetuation independent of migratory waterbird presence. In contrast, H5N1 outbreaks involving whooper swans, as well as other migratory waterbirds that succumbed to the disease in eastern Asia, tended to occur during seasons (late spring and summer) and in habitats (areas of natural vegetation) where their potential for contact with poultry is very low to nonexistent. Given what is known about the susceptibility of swans to H5N1, and on the basis of the chronology and rates of whooper swan migration movements, we conclude that although there is broad spatial overlap between whooper swan distributions and H5N1 outbreak locations in eastern Asia, the likelihood of direct transmission between these groups is extremely low. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that swans are best viewed as sentinel species, and moreover, that in eastern Asia, it is most likely that their infections occurred through contact with asymptomatic migratory hosts (e.g., wild ducks) at or near their breeding grounds.

  20. Antigenic characterization of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in India, 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Sudipta; Nagarajan, Shanmugasundaram; Kumar, Manoj; Murugkar, Harshad V; Kalaiyarasu, Semmannan; Venkatesh, Govindarajulu; Tosh, Chakradhar

    2017-02-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a major health concern worldwide. In this study, we focused on antigenic analysis of HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated from poultry in India between 2006 and 2015 comprising 25 isolates from four phylogenetic clades 2.2 (1 isolate), 2.2.2.1 (1 isolate), 2.3.2.1a (17 isolates) and 2.3.2.1c (6 isolates). Seven H5N1 isolates from all four clades were selected for production of chicken antiserum, and antigenic analysis was carried out by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. HI data indicated antigenic divergence (6-21 fold reduction in cross-reactivity) between the two recently emerged clades 2.3.2.1a and 2.3.2.1c. These two clades are highly divergent (21-128 fold reduction in HI titre) from the earlier clades 2.2 /2.2.2.1 isolated in India. However, a maximum of 2-fold and 4-fold reduction in cross-reactivity was observed within the isolates of homologous clades 2.3.2.1c and 2.3.2.1a, respectively. The molecular basis of inter-clade antigenic divergence was examined in the haemagglutinin (HA) antigenic sites of the H5N1 virus. Amino acid changes at 8 HA antigenic sites were observed between clades 2.3.2.1a and 2.3.2.1c, whereas 20-23 substitutions were observed between clades 2.3.2.1a/2.3.2.1c and 2.2/2.2.2.1. Therefore, a systematic analysis of antigenic drift of the contemporary field isolates is a pre-requisite for determining the suitable strain(s) for vaccine candidature.

  1. PB1-F2 Attenuates Virulence of Highly Pathogenic Avian H5N1 Influenza Virus in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Leymarie, Olivier; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Chevalier, Christophe; Jouneau, Luc; Moroldo, Marco; Da Costa, Bruno; Berhane, Yohannes; Delmas, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a permanent threat due to its capacity to cross species barriers and generate severe infections and high mortality in humans. Recent findings have highlighted the potential role of PB1-F2, a small accessory influenza protein, in the pathogenesis process mediated by HPAIV in mammals. In this study, using a recombinant H5N1 HPAIV (wt) and its PB1-F2-deleted mutant (ΔF2), we studied the effects of PB1-F2 in a chicken model. Unexpectedly, when using low inoculation dose we observed that the wt-infected chickens had a higher survival rate than the ΔF2-infected chickens, a feature that contrasts with what is usually observed in mammals. High inoculation dose had similar mortality rate for both viruses, and comparison of the bio-distribution of the two viruses indicated that the expression of PB1-F2 allows a better spreading of the virus within chicken embryos. Transcriptomic profiles of lungs and blood cells were characterized at two days post-infection in chickens inoculated with the wild type (wt) or the ΔF2 mutant viruses. In lungs, the expression of PB1-F2 during the infection induced pathways related to calcium signaling and repressed a large panel of immunological functions. In blood cells, PB1-F2 was associated with a gene signature specific for mitochondrial dysfunction and down-modulated leucocytes activation. Finally we compared the effect of PB1-F2 in lungs of chickens and mice. We identified that gene signature associated to tissue damages is a PB1-F2 feature shared by the two species; by contrast, the early inhibition of immune response mediated by PB1-F2 observed in chickens is not seen in mice. In summary, our data suggest that PB1-F2 expression deeply affect the immune response in chickens in a way that may attenuate pathogenicity at low infection dose, a feature differing from what was previously observed in mammal species. PMID:24959667

  2. A quantitative assessment of the risk for highly pathogenic avian influenza introduction into Spain via legal trade of live poultry.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Perez, Andrés; Lainez, Manuel; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2010-05-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is considered one of the most important diseases of poultry. During the last 9 years, HPAI epidemics have been reported in Asia, the Americas, Africa, and in 18 countries of the European Union (EU). For that reason, it is possible that the risk for HPAI virus (HPAIV) introduction into Spain may have recently increased. Because of the EU free-trade policy and because legal trade of live poultry was considered an important route for HPAI spread in certain regions of the world, there are fears that Spain may become HPAIV-infected as a consequence of the legal introduction of live poultry. However, no quantitative assessment of the risk for HPAIV introduction into Spain or into any other EU member state via the trade of poultry has been published in the peer-reviewed literature. This article presents the results of the first quantitative assessment of the risk for HPAIV introduction into a free country via legal trade of live poultry, along with estimates of the geographical variation of the risk and of the relative contribution of exporting countries and susceptible poultry species to the risk. The annual mean risk for HPAI introduction into Spain was estimated to be as low as 1.36 x 10(-3), suggesting that under prevailing conditions, introduction of HPAIV into Spain through the trade of live poultry is unlikely to occur. Moreover, these results support the hypothesis that legal trade of live poultry does not impose a significant risk for the spread of HPAI into EU member states.

  3. The effectiveness of preventative mass vaccination regimes against the incidence of highly pathogenic avian influenza on Java Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Bett, B; McLaws, M; Jost, C; Schoonman, L; Unger, F; Poole, J; Lapar, M L; Siregar, E S; Azhar, M; Hidayat, M M; Dunkle, S E; Mariner, J

    2015-04-01

    We conducted an operational research study involving backyard and semicommercial farms on Java Island, Indonesia, between April 2008 and September 2009 to evaluate the effectiveness of two preventive mass vaccination strategies against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). One regimen used Legok 2003 H5N1 vaccine, while the other used both Legok 2003 H5N1 and HB1 Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine. A total of 16 districts were involved in the study. The sample size was estimated using a formal power calculation technique that assumed a detectable effect of treatment as a 50% reduction in the baseline number of HPAI-compatible outbreaks. Within each district, candidate treatment blocks with village poultry populations ranging from 80 000 to 120 000 were created along subdistrict boundary lines. Subsequently, four of these blocks were randomly selected and assigned one treatment from a list that comprised control, vaccination against HPAI, vaccination against HPAI + ND. Four rounds of vaccination were administered at quarterly intervals beginning in July 2008. A vaccination campaign involved vaccinating 100 000 birds in a treatment block, followed by another 100 000 vaccinations 3 weeks later as a booster dose. Data on disease incidence and vaccination coverage were also collected at quarterly intervals using participatory epidemiological techniques. Compared with the unvaccinated (control) group, the incidence of HPAI-compatible events declined by 32% (P = 0.24) in the HPAI-vaccinated group and by 73% (P = 0.00) in the HPAI- and ND-vaccinated group. The effect of treatment did not vary with time or district. Similarly, an analysis of secondary data from the participatory disease and response (PDSR) database revealed that the incidence of HPAI declined by 12% in the HPAI-vaccinated group and by 24% in the HPAI + ND-vaccinated group. The results suggest that the HPAI + ND vaccination significantly reduced the incidence of HPAI-compatible events in mixed populations of

  4. Risk factors and characteristics of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) post-vaccination outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Henning, Joerg; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Vu, Le Tri

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 is now endemic in South-East Asia but HPAI control methods differ between countries. A widespread HPAI vaccination campaign that started at the end of 2005 in Viet Nam resulted in the cessation of poultry and human cases, but in 2006/2007 severe HPAI outbreaks re-emerged. In this study we investigated the pattern of this first post-vaccination epidemic in southern Viet Nam identifying a spatio-temporal cluster of outbreak occurrence and estimating spatially smoothed incidence rates of HPAI. Spatial risk factors associated with HPAI occurrence were identified. Medium-level poultry density resulted in an increased outbreak risk (Odds ratio (OR) = 5.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6-18.9) but also climate-vegetation factors played an important role: medium-level normalised difference vegetation indices during the rainy season from May to October were associated with higher risk of HPAI outbreaks (OR = 3.7, 95% CI: 1.7-8.1), probably because temporal flooding might have provided suitable conditions for the re-emergence of HPAI by expanding the virus distribution in the environment and by enlarging areas of possible contacts between domestic waterfowl and wild birds. On the other hand, several agricultural production factors, such as sweet potatoes yield, increased buffalo density, as well as increased electricity supply were associated with decreased risk of HPAI outbreaks. This illustrates that preventive control measures for HPAI should include a promotion of low-risk agricultural management practices as well as improvement of the infrastructure in village households. Improved HPAI vaccination efforts and coverage should focus on medium poultry density areas and on the pre-monsoon time period.

  5. Persistence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus defined by agro-ecological niche

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogerwerf, Lenny; Wallace, Rob G.; Ottaviani, Daniela; Slingenbergh, Jan; Prosser, Diann; Bergmann, Luc; Gilbert, Marius

    2010-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has spread across Eurasia and into Africa. Its persistence in a number of countries continues to disrupt poultry production, impairs smallholder livelihoods, and raises the risk a genotype adapted to human-to-human transmission may emerge. While previous studies identified domestic duck reservoirs as a primary risk factor associated with HPAI H5N1 persistence in poultry in Southeast Asia, little is known of such factors in countries with different agro-ecological conditions, and no study has investigated the impact of such conditions on HPAI H5N1 epidemiology at the global scale. This study explores the patterns of HPAI H5N1 persistence worldwide, and for China, Indonesia, and India includes individual provinces that have reported HPAI H5N1 presence during the 2004–2008 period. Multivariate analysis of a set of 14 agricultural, environmental, climatic, and socio-economic factors demonstrates in quantitative terms that a combination of six variables discriminates the areas with human cases and persistence: agricultural population density, duck density, duck by chicken density, chicken density, the product of agricultural population density and chicken output/input ratio, and purchasing power per capita. The analysis identifies five agro-ecological clusters, or niches, representing varying degrees of disease persistence. The agro-ecological distances of all study areas to the medoid of the niche with the greatest number of human cases are used to map HPAI H5N1 risk globally. The results indicate that few countries remain where HPAI H5N1 would likely persist should it be introduced.

  6. The Perceived Value of Passive Animal Health Surveillance: The Case of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Delabouglise, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Phan, T D; Dao, D C; Nguyen, T T; Truong, B D; Nguyen, X N T; Vu, T D; Nguyen, K V; Le, H T; Salem, G; Peyre, M

    2016-03-01

    Economic evaluations are critical for the assessment of the efficiency and sustainability of animal health surveillance systems and the improvement of their efficiency. Methods identifying and quantifying costs and benefits incurred by public and private actors of passive surveillance systems (i.e. actors of veterinary authorities and private actors who may report clinical signs) are needed. This study presents the evaluation of perceived costs and benefits of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) passive surveillance in Vietnam. Surveys based on participatory epidemiology methods were conducted in three provinces in Vietnam to collect data on costs and benefits resulting from the reporting of HPAI suspicions to veterinary authorities. A quantitative tool based on stated preference methods and participatory techniques was developed and applied to assess the non-monetary costs and benefits. The study showed that poultry farmers are facing several options regarding the management of HPAI suspicions, besides reporting the following: treatment, sale or destruction of animals. The option of reporting was associated with uncertain outcome and transaction costs. Besides, actors anticipated the release of health information to cause a drop of markets prices. This cost was relevant at all levels, including farmers, veterinary authorities and private actors of the upstream sector (feed, chicks and medicine supply). One benefit associated with passive surveillance was the intervention of public services to clean farms and the environment to limit the disease spread. Private actors of the poultry sector valued information on HPAI suspicions (perceived as a non-monetary benefit) which was mainly obtained from other private actors and media.

  7. Different environmental drivers of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 outbreaks in poultry and wild birds.

    PubMed

    Si, Yali; de Boer, Willem F; Gong, Peng

    2013-01-01

    A large number of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks in poultry and wild birds have been reported in Europe since 2005. Distinct spatial patterns in poultry and wild birds suggest that different environmental drivers and potentially different spread mechanisms are operating. However, previous studies found no difference between these two outbreak types when only the effect of physical environmental factors was analysed. The influence of physical and anthropogenic environmental variables and interactions between the two has only been investigated for wild bird outbreaks. We therefore tested the effect of these environmental factors on HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in poultry, and the potential spread mechanism, and discussed how these differ from those observed in wild birds. Logistic regression analyses were used to quantify the relationship between HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in poultry and environmental factors. Poultry outbreaks increased with an increasing human population density combined with close proximity to lakes or wetlands, increased temperatures and reduced precipitation during the cold season. A risk map was generated based on the identified key factors. In wild birds, outbreaks were strongly associated with an increased Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and lower elevation, though they were similarly affected by climatic conditions as poultry outbreaks. This is the first study that analyses the differences in environmental drivers and spread mechanisms between poultry and wild bird outbreaks. Outbreaks in poultry mostly occurred in areas where the location of farms or trade areas overlapped with habitats for wild birds, whereas outbreaks in wild birds were mainly found in areas where food and shelters are available. The different environmental drivers suggest that different spread mechanisms might be involved: HPAI H5N1 spread to poultry via both poultry and wild birds, whereas contact with wild birds alone seems to drive the outbreaks

  8. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus could partly be evacuated by pregnant BALB/c mouse during abortion or preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lili; Bao, Linlin; Deng, Wei; Qin, Chuan

    2011-07-08

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus is one of candidates for future pandemic. Since H5N1 viruses had previously been isolated only from avian species, the outbreak raised questions about the ability of these viruses to cause severe disease and death in humans. Pregnant women are at increased risk for influenza-associated illness and death. However, little is known about whether influenza viruses could transmit to the fetus through the placenta, and the effects of abortion and preterm delivery to maternal influenza infection are not well understood. We found that the H5N1 viruses could vertical transmit to the fetus through the placenta in the BALB/c mouse model, and the viruses could partly be evacuated by the pregnant mice during abortion or preterm delivery. This study may further our understanding about the transmission of this highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, supply optimized clinical treatment method for pregnant women, and shed some light on better preventing and controlling for future potential outbreak of H5N1 influenza pandemic.

  9. Surveillance plan for the early detection of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in migratory birds in the United States: surveillance year 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary: This Surveillance Plan (Plan) describes plans for conducting surveillance of wild birds in the United States and its Territories and Freely-Associated States to provide for early detection of the introduction of the H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) subtype of the influenza A virus by migratory birds during the 2009 surveillance year, spanning the period of April 1, 2009 - March 31, 2010. The Plan represents a continuation of surveillance efforts begun in 2006 under the Interagency Strategic Plan for the Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of the Interior, 2006). The Plan sets forth sampling plans by: region, target species or species groups to be sampled, locations of sampling, sample sizes, and sampling approaches and methods. This Plan will be reviewed annually and modified as appropriate for subsequent surveillance years based on evaluation of information from previous years of surveillance, changing patterns and threats of H5N1 HPAI, and changes in funding availability for avian influenza surveillance. Specific sampling strategies will be developed accordingly within each of six regions, defined here as Alaska, Hawaiian/Pacific Islands, Lower Pacific Flyway (Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona), Central Flyway, Mississippi Flyway, and Atlantic Flyway.

  10. The influence of economic indicators, poultry density and the performance of veterinary services on the control of high-pathogenicity avian influenza in poultry.

    PubMed

    Pavade, G; Awada, L; Hamilton, K; Swayne, D E

    2011-12-01

    High-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) and low-pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza (LPNAI) in poultry are notifiable diseases that must be reported to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). There are variations between countries' responses to avian influenza (AI) outbreak situations based on their economic status, diagnostic capacity and other factors. The objective of this study was to ascertain the significant association between HPAI control data and a country's poultry density, the performance of its Veterinary Services, and its economic indicators (gross domestic product, agricultural gross domestic product, gross national income, human development index and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] status). Results indicate that as poultry density increases for least developed countries there is an increase in the number and duration of HPAI outbreaks and in the time it takes to eradicate the disease. There was no significant correlation between HPAI control and any of the economic indicators except membership of the OECD. Member Countries, i.e. those with high-income economies, transparency and good governance, had shorter and significantly fewer HPAI outbreaks, quicker eradication times, lower mortality rates and higher culling rates than non-OECD countries. Furthermore, countries that had effective and efficient Veterinary Services (as measured by the ratings they achieved when they were assessed using the OIE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services) had better HPAI control measures.

  11. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N6 Viruses Exhibit Enhanced Affinity for Human Type Sialic Acid Receptor and In-Contact Transmission in Model Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Honglei; Pu, Juan; Wei, Yandi; Sun, Yipeng; Hu, Jiao; Liu, Litao; Xu, Guanlong; Gao, Weihua; Li, Chong; Zhang, Xuxiao; Huang, Yinhua; Chang, Kin-Chow; Liu, Xiufan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since May 2014, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6 virus has been reported to cause six severe human infections three of which were fatal. The biological properties of this subtype, in particular its relative pathogenicity and transmissibility in mammals, are not known. We characterized the virus receptor-binding affinity, pathogenicity, and transmissibility in mice and ferrets of four H5N6 isolates derived from waterfowl in China from 2013-2014. All four H5N6 viruses have acquired a binding affinity for human-like SAα2,6Gal-linked receptor to be able to attach to human tracheal epithelial and alveolar cells. The emergent H5N6 viruses, which share high sequence similarity with the human isolate A/Guangzhou/39715/2014 (H5N6), were fully infective and highly transmissible by direct contact in ferrets but showed less-severe pathogenicity than the parental H5N1 virus. The present results highlight the threat of emergent H5N6 viruses to poultry and human health and the need to closely track their continual adaptation in humans. IMPORTANCE Extended epizootics and panzootics of H5N1 viruses have led to the emergence of the novel 2.3.4.4 clade of H5 virus subtypes, including H5N2, H5N6, and H5N8 reassortants. Avian H5N6 viruses from this clade have caused three fatalities out of six severe human infections in China since the first case in 2014. However, the biological properties of this subtype, especially the pathogenicity and transmission in mammals, are not known. Here, we found that natural avian H5N6 viruses have acquired a high affinity for human-type virus receptor. Compared to the parental clade 2.3.4 H5N1 virus, emergent H5N6 isolates showed less severe pathogenicity in mice and ferrets but acquired efficient in-contact transmission in ferrets. These findings suggest that the threat of avian H5N6 viruses to humans should not be ignored. PMID:27122581

  12. High-yield production of a stable Vero cell-based vaccine candidate against the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Fangye; Zhou, Jian; Ma, Lei; Song, Shaohui; Zhang, Xinwen; Li, Weidong; Jiang, Shude; Wang, Yue; Liao, Guoyang

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine with stable high yield. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable high yield derived from the YNVa H3N2 backbone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H5N1/YNVa has a similar safety and immunogenicity to H5N1delta. -- Abstract: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses pose a global pandemic threat, for which rapid large-scale vaccine production technology is critical for prevention and control. Because chickens are highly susceptible to HPAI viruses, the supply of chicken embryos for vaccine production might be depleted during a virus outbreak. Therefore, developing HPAI virus vaccines using other technologies is critical. Meeting vaccine demand using the Vero cell-based fermentation process has been hindered by low stability and yield. In this study, a Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine candidate (H5N1/YNVa) with stable high yield was achieved by reassortment of the Vero-adapted (Va) high growth A/Yunnan/1/2005(H3N2) (YNVa) virus with the A/Anhui/1/2005(H5N1) attenuated influenza vaccine strain (H5N1delta) using the 6/2 method. The reassorted H5N1/YNVa vaccine maintained a high hemagglutination (HA) titer of 1024. Furthermore, H5N1/YNVa displayed low pathogenicity and uniform immunogenicity compared to that of the parent virus.

  13. Protective dose of a recombinant Newcastle disease LaSota-avian influenza virus H5 vaccine against H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus and velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease virus in broilers with high maternal antibody levels.

    PubMed

    Sarfati-Mizrahi, David; Lozano-Dubernard, Bernardo; Soto-Priante, Ernesto; Castro-Peralta, Felipa; Flores-Castro, Ricardo; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth; Gay-Gutiérrez, Manuel

    2010-03-01

    The protective dose of a live recombinant LaSota Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-avian influenza H5 vaccine (rNDV-LS/AI-H5) was determined in broiler chickens with high levels of maternal antibodies against NDV and avian influenza virus (AIV). At hatch the geometric mean titers (GMT) of the chickens' maternal antibodies were 2(5.1) and 2(10.3) for NDV and AIV, respectively. At the time of vaccination the GMT was 2(3.1) for NDV and 2(7.9) for AIV. The chickens were vaccinated with one drop (0.03 ml) in the eye at 10 days of age as is typical under field conditions. The test chickens received 10(4.8), 10(5.8), 10(6.8), or 10(7.8) mean chicken embryo infective doses (CEID50) of the rNDV-LS/AI-H5 vaccine. Control chickens were either nonvaccinated, or vaccinated with 10(5.8) or 10(6.8) CEID50 of a commercial live LaSota NDV vaccine. Birds were challenged with either the Mexican highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) strain A/Chicken/Queretaro/14588-19/95 (H5N2) or a Mexican velogenic viscerotropic (VV) NDV strain. One hundred percent of the chickens vaccinated with the rNDV-LS/AI-H5 vaccine were protected against HPAIV and VVNDV when a challenge dose of 10(6.8) EID50 or higher was administered by eye drop. Birds vaccinated with the LaSota NDV vaccine were protected against VVNDV, but not against HPAIV.

  14. Spatial distribution and risk factors of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Vincent; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xiangming; Prosser, Diann J.; Guo, Fusheng; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 was first encountered in 1996 in Guangdong province (China) and started spreading throughout Asia and the western Palearctic in 2004–2006. Compared to several other countries where the HPAI H5N1 distribution has been studied in some detail, little is known about the environmental correlates of the HPAI H5N1 distribution in China. HPAI H5N1 clinical disease outbreaks, and HPAI virus (HPAIV) H5N1 isolated from active risk-based surveillance sampling of domestic poultry (referred to as HPAIV H5N1 surveillance positives in this manuscript) were modeled separately using seven risk variables: chicken, domestic waterfowl population density, proportion of land covered by rice or surface water, cropping intensity, elevation, and human population density. We used bootstrapped logistic regression and boosted regression trees (BRT) with cross-validation to identify the weight of each variable, to assess the predictive power of the models, and to map the distribution of HPAI H5N1 risk. HPAI H5N1 clinical disease outbreak occurrence in domestic poultry was mainly associated with chicken density, human population density, and elevation. In contrast, HPAIV H5N1 infection identified by risk-based surveillance was associated with domestic waterfowl density, human population density, and the proportion of land covered by surface water. Both models had a high explanatory power (mean AUC ranging from 0.864 to 0.967). The map of HPAIV H5N1 risk distribution based on active surveillance data emphasized areas south of the Yangtze River, while the distribution of reported outbreak risk extended further North, where the density of poultry and humans is higher. We quantified the statistical association between HPAI H5N1 outbreak, HPAIV distribution and post-vaccination levels of seropositivity (percentage of effective post-vaccination seroconversion in vaccinated birds) and found that provinces with either outbreaks or HPAIV H5N1 surveillance

  15. Antigenic analysis of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses circulating in Egypt (2006-2012).

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Eladl, Abdel-Fattah; Sultan, Hesham A; Arafa, Abdel Satar; Abdel Razik, Alaa G; Abd El Rahman, Sahar; El-Azm, Kamel I Abou; Saif, Yehia M; Lee, Chang-Won

    2013-12-27

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in Egypt circulated continuously after its introduction in February 2006 with substantial economic losses and frequent human infections. Phylogenetic analysis of the available HA sequences revealed the presence of two main sublineages; the classic 2.2.1 and the variant 2.2.1.1. The classic 2.2.1 had subdivided into two clusters of viruses; cluster C1 contained the originally introduced virus and isolates from 2006 to 2009 and cluster C2 emerged in 2007 and continues to circulate. The variant 2.2.1.1 represents the isolates mainly from chickens and subdivided into two clusters; cluster V1 contains isolates from 2007 to 2009 and cluster V2 contains isolates from 2008 to 2011. Sequence analysis revealed 28 amino acid mutations in the previously reported antigenic sites and high evolution rate which may be due to selective pressure from vaccination and/or natural infection. Antigenic analysis of 18 H5N1 isolates from 2006 to 2012 that represent different clusters was conducted using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus neutralization (VN) assays using hyperimmune sera produced by immunizing SPF chickens with inactivated whole-virus. Antigenic relatedness of ancestral Egyptian H5N1 isolate (459-3/06) with other isolates ranged from 30.7% to 79.1% indicating significant antigenic drift of the H5N1 viruses from the ancestral strains. The antigenic relatedness between C2 and V2 clusters ranged from 28.9% to 68% supporting the need for vaccine seed strains from both clusters. Interestingly, A/CK/EG/1709-6/2008 H5N1 strain showed a broad cross reactivity against viruses in different H5N1 clusters (antigenic relatedness ranged from 63.9% to 85.8%) demonstrating a potential candidate as a vaccine strain. Antigenic cartography which facilitates a quantitative interpretation and easy visualization of serological data was constructed based on HI results and further demonstrated the several antigenic groups among Egyptian H5N

  16. Spatial distribution and risk factors of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in China.

    PubMed

    Martin, Vincent; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xiangming; Prosser, Diann J; Guo, Fusheng; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-03-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 was first encountered in 1996 in Guangdong province (China) and started spreading throughout Asia and the western Palearctic in 2004-2006. Compared to several other countries where the HPAI H5N1 distribution has been studied in some detail, little is known about the environmental correlates of the HPAI H5N1 distribution in China. HPAI H5N1 clinical disease outbreaks, and HPAI virus (HPAIV) H5N1 isolated from active risk-based surveillance sampling of domestic poultry (referred to as HPAIV H5N1 surveillance positives in this manuscript) were modeled separately using seven risk variables: chicken, domestic waterfowl population density, proportion of land covered by rice or surface water, cropping intensity, elevation, and human population density. We used bootstrapped logistic regression and boosted regression trees (BRT) with cross-validation to identify the weight of each variable, to assess the predictive power of the models, and to map the distribution of HPAI H5N1 risk. HPAI H5N1 clinical disease outbreak occurrence in domestic poultry was mainly associated with chicken density, human population density, and elevation. In contrast, HPAIV H5N1 infection identified by risk-based surveillance was associated with domestic waterfowl density, human population density, and the proportion of land covered by surface water. Both models had a high explanatory power (mean AUC ranging from 0.864 to 0.967). The map of HPAIV H5N1 risk distribution based on active surveillance data emphasized areas south of the Yangtze River, while the distribution of reported outbreak risk extended further North, where the density of poultry and humans is higher. We quantified the statistical association between HPAI H5N1 outbreak, HPAIV distribution and post-vaccination levels of seropositivity (percentage of effective post-vaccination seroconversion in vaccinated birds) and found that provinces with either outbreaks or HPAIV H5N1 surveillance

  17. Genetic analysis of an H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolated from a chicken in a live bird market in Northern Vietnam in 2012.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Tatsuya; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Sakurai, Kenji; Chu, Huy Duc; Thanh, Long Pham; van Nguyen, Long; van Hoang, Nam; Thi, Diep Nguyen; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    In August 2012, A/chicken/Vietnam/OIE-2215/2012 (H5N2) was isolated from a chicken in a live bird market (LBM) in Northern Vietnam. Intravenous pathogenicity test revealed that this virus is highly pathogenic in chickens. The PA, HA, NP and M, PB2 and NA, and PB1 and NS genes of the isolate were phylogenetically closely related to those of A/duck/Vietnam/OIE-2202/2012 (H5N1) of clade 2.3.2.1, A/chicken/Vietnam/OIE-1611/2012 (H9N2) and A/chicken/Vietnam/OIE-2468/2012 (H9N2), respectively. All of these viruses were isolated from birds in LBMs in the same province. These results indicate that A/chicken/Vietnam/OIE-2215/2012 (H5N2) is a genetic reassortant and that surveillance of avian influenza in LBMs and stamping out policy are essential for the eradication of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from Asia.

  18. Genetic diversity of highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza viruses at a single overwintering site of migratory birds in Japan, 2014/15.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, M; Matsuu, A; Tokorozaki, K; Horie, M; Masatani, T; Nakagawa, H; Okuya, K; Kawabata, T; Toda, S

    2015-05-21

    We isolated eight highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza viruses (H5N8 HPAIVs) in the 2014/15 winter season at an overwintering site of migratory birds in Japan. Genetic analyses revealed that these isolates were divided into three groups, indicating the co-circulation of three genetic groups of H5N8 HPAIV among these migratory birds. These results also imply the possibility of global redistribution of the H5N8 HPAIVs via the migration of these birds next winter.

  19. Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) outbreaks: protection and management of exposed people in Europe, 2014/15 and 2016

    PubMed Central

    Adlhoch, Cornelia; Brown, Ian H.; Angelova, Svetla G.; Bálint, Ádám; Bouwstra, Ruth; Buda, Silke; Castrucci, Maria R.; Dabrera, Gavin; Dán, Ádám; Grund, Christian; Harder, Timm; van der Hoek, Wim; Krisztalovics, Katalin; Parry-Ford, Frances; Popescu, Rodica; Wallensten, Anders; Zdravkova, Anna; Zohari, Siamak; Tsolova, Svetla; Penttinen, Pasi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A(H5N8) into Europe prompted animal and human health experts to implement protective measures to prevent transmission to humans. We describe the situation in 2016 and list public health measures and recommendations in place. We summarise critical interfaces identified during the A(H5N1) and A(H5N8) outbreaks in 2014/15. Rapid exchange of information between the animal and human health sectors is critical for a timely, effective and efficient response. PMID:27983512

  20. Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) outbreaks: protection and management of exposed people in Europe, 2014/15 and 2016.

    PubMed

    Adlhoch, Cornelia; Brown, Ian H; Angelova, Svetla G; Bálint, Ádám; Bouwstra, Ruth; Buda, Silke; Castrucci, Maria R; Dabrera, Gavin; Dán, Ádám; Grund, Christian; Harder, Timm; van der Hoek, Wim; Krisztalovics, Katalin; Parry-Ford, Frances; Popescu, Rodica; Wallensten, Anders; Zdravkova, Anna; Zohari, Siamak; Tsolova, Svetla; Penttinen, Pasi

    2016-12-08

    Introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A(H5N8) into Europe prompted animal and human health experts to implement protective measures to prevent transmission to humans. We describe the situation in 2016 and list public health measures and recommendations in place. We summarise critical interfaces identified during the A(H5N1) and A(H5N8) outbreaks in 2014/15. Rapid exchange of information between the animal and human health sectors is critical for a timely, effective and efficient response.

  1. Comparing introduction to Europe of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses A(H5N8) in 2014 and A(H5N1) in 2005.

    PubMed

    Adlhoch, C; Gossner, C; Koch, G; Brown, I; Bouwstra, R; Verdonck, F; Penttinen, P; Harder, T

    2014-12-18

    Since the beginning of November 2014, nine outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) A(H5N8) in poultry have been detected in four European countries. In this report, similarities and differences between the modes of introduction of HPAIV A(H5N1) and A(H5N8) into Europe are described. Experiences from outbreaks of A(H5N1) in Europe demonstrated that early detection to control HPAIV in poultry has proven pivotal to minimise the risk of zoonotic transmission and prevention of human cases.

  2. A vaccine prepared from a non-pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus strain from the influenza virus library conferred protective immunity to chickens against the challenge with antigenically drifted highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Samad, Rozanah Asmah Abdul; Nomura, Naoki; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Manzoor, Rashid; Kajihara, Masahiro; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Sasaki, Takashi; Kokumai, Norihide; Ohgitani, Toshiaki; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Takada, Ayato; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi

    2011-02-01

    Inactivated influenza virus vaccine prepared from a non-pathogenic influenza virus strain A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-1/2004 (H5N1) from the virus library conferred protective immunity to chickens against the challenge of antigenically drifted highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), A/whooper swan/Hokkaido/1/2008 (H5N1). The efficacy of the vaccine was comparable to that prepared from genetically modified HPAIV strain deltaRRRRK rg-A/ whooper swan/Mongolia/3/2005 (H5N1), which is more antigenically related to the challenge virus strain, in chickens.

  3. Mucosal vaccination with a codon-optimized hemagglutinin gene expressed by attenuated Salmonella elicits a protective immune response in chickens against highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Liljebjelke, Karen A; Petkov, Daniel I; Kapczynski, Darrell R

    2010-06-17

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical protection from challenge conferred by two attenuated Salmonella enteria serovar typhimurium vaccine strains expressing the hemagglutinin (HA1) gene from a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 (A/whooper swan/Mongolia/3/2005), under control of the anaerobically inducible nir15 promoter. Two-week-old White Leghorn chickens were immunized by oral gavage with one milliliter doses of >109 Salmonella colony-forming units once weekly for 4 weeks prior to challenge. Expression of recombinant protein was confirmed via Western blot. Serum and mucosal gavage samples were collected prior to, and following immunization and antibodies against avian influenza HA were confirmed by Western blot and hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay. Chickens were challenged with homologous (A/whooper swan/Mongolia/3/2005), or heterologous (A/Chicken/Queretaro/14588-19/95) HPAI virus strains. Chickens immunized with attenuated Salmonella strains containing plasmid expression vector (pTETnir15HA) demonstrated a statistically significant increase in survival compared to control groups. Results provide evidence of effectiveness of attenuated Salmonella strains for delivery of recombinant avian influenza HA antigens and induction of mucosal and systemic immune responses protective against lethal challenge with HPAI.

  4. Encephalitis in a stone marten (Martes foina) after natural infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1.

    PubMed

    Klopfleisch, R; Wolf, P U; Wolf, C; Harder, T; Starick, E; Niebuhr, M; Mettenleiter, T C; Teifke, J P

    2007-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of disease in different avian species, caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), have involved infection by subtype H5N1 of the virus. This virus has also crossed species barriers and infected felines and humans. Here, we report the natural infection of a stone marten (Martes foina) from an area with numerous confirmed cases of H5N1 HPAIV infection in wild birds. Histopathological examination of tissues from this animal revealed a diffuse nonsuppurative panencephalitis with perivascular cuffing, multifocal gliosis and neuronal necrosis. Additionally, focal necrosis of pancreatic acinar cells was observed. Immunohistochemically, lesions in these organs were associated with avian influenza virus antigen in neurons, glial cells and pancreatic acinar cells. Thus, the microscopical lesions and viral antigen distribution in this stone marten differs from that recently described for cats naturally and experimentally infected with the same virus subtype. This is the first report of natural infection of a mustelid with HPAIV H5N1.

  5. Serologic cross-reactivity among humans and birds infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza A subtype H5N1 viruses in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Ma, Chi; Liu, Zhonghua; He, Wei

    2011-03-30

    To study immunogenicity and serologic cross-reactivity of hemagglutinins (HAs) among humans and birds infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, four representative H5N1 HA genes from humans and birds infected with distinct genetic clusters of H5N1 viruses in China were cloned, and several H5N1 infected human serum and H5N1 positive bird serum samples were used. Recombinant HA proteins were generated for ELISA assays and pseudotype viruses containing HAs were produced for neutralization assays and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests. We found significant differences among clades compared to species in binding, neutralization and HI activity of H5N1 strains isolated from birds. While significant differences were observed among species in H5N1 isolated from humans, investigation of H5N1 infected human and avian sera provided evidence that the pressure from nAb may be a driving force for positive selection. Therefore, improved anti-viral nAb therapies could block avian influenza transmission in humans.

  6. Surveillance for high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in wild birds in the Pacific Flyway of the United States, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusek, R.J.; Bortner, J.B.; DeLiberto, T.J.; Hoskins, J.; Franson, J. Christian; Bales, B.D.; Yparraguirre, D.; Swafford, S.R.; Ip, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 the U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Interior, and cooperating state fish and wildlife agencies began surveillance for high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in wild birds in the Pacific Flyway of the United States. This surveillance effort was highly integrated in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, and western Montana, with collection of samples coordinated with state agencies. Sampling focused on live wild birds, hunterkilled waterfowl during state hunting seasons, and wild bird mortality events. Of 20,888 samples collected, 18,139 were from order Anseriformes (waterfowl) and 2010 were from order Charadriiformes (shorebirds), representing the two groups of birds regarded to be the primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses. Although 83 birds were positive by H5 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), no HPAI H5N1 virus was found. Thirty-two virus isolates were obtained from the H5- positive samples, including low-pathogenicity H5 viruses identified as H5N2, H5N3, and H5N9.

  7. Surveillance for high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in wild birds in the Pacific Flyway of the United States, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Dusek, Robert J; Bortner, J Bradley; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Hoskins, Jenny; Franson, J Christian; Bales, Bradley D; Yparraguirre, Dan; Swafford, Seth R; Ip, Hon S

    2009-06-01

    In 2006 the U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Interior, and cooperating state fish and wildlife agencies began surveillance for high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in wild birds in the Pacific Flyway of the United States. This surveillance effort was highly integrated in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, and western Montana, with collection of samples coordinated with state agencies. Sampling focused on live wild birds, hunter-killed waterfowl during state hunting seasons, and wild bird mortality events. Of 20,888 samples collected, 18,139 were from order Anseriformes (waterfowl) and 2010 were from order Charadriiformes (shorebirds), representing the two groups of birds regarded to be the primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses. Although 83 birds were positive by H5 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), no HPAI H5N1 virus was found. Thirty-two virus isolates were obtained from the H5-positive samples, including low-pathogenicity H5 viruses identified as H5N2, H5N3, and H5N9.

  8. Enhanced virulence of clade 2.3.2.1 highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Melissa B; Pappas, Claudia; Gustin, Kortney M; Davis, C Todd; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Swayne, David E; Maines, Taronna R; Belser, Jessica A; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2017-02-01

    Sporadic avian to human transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) viruses necessitates the analysis of currently circulating and evolving clades to assess their potential risk. Following the spread and sustained circulation of clade 2 viruses across multiple continents, numerous subclades and genotypes have been described. To better understand the pathogenesis associated with the continued diversification of clade 2A(H5N1) influenza viruses, we investigated the relative virulence of eleven human and poultry isolates collected from 2006 to 2013 by determining their ability to cause disease in the ferret model. Numerous clade 2 viruses, including a clade 2.2 avian isolate, a 2.2.2.1 human isolate, and two 2.2.1 human isolates, were found to be of low virulence in the ferret model, though lethality was detected following infection with one 2.2.1 human isolate. In contrast, three of six clade 2.3.2.1 avian isolates tested led to severe disease and death among infected ferrets. Clade 2.3.2.1b and 2.3.2.1c isolates, but not 2.3.2.1a isolates, were associated with ferret lethality. All A(H5N1) viruses replicated efficiently in the respiratory tract of ferrets regardless of their virulence and lethality. However, lethal isolates were characterized by systemic viral dissemination, including detection in the brain and enhanced histopathology in lung tissues. The finding of disparate virulence phenotypes between clade 2A(H5N1) viruses, notably differences between subclades of 2.3.2.1 viruses, suggests there are distinct molecular determinants present within the established subclades, the identification of which will assist in molecular-based surveillance and public health efforts against A(H5N1) viruses.

  9. Highly (H5N1) and Low (H7N2) Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Falcons Via Nasochoanal Route and Ingestion of Experimentally Infected Prey

    PubMed Central

    Bertran, Kateri; Busquets, Núria; Abad, Francesc Xavier; García de la Fuente, Jorge; Solanes, David; Cordón, Iván; Costa, Taiana; Dolz, Roser; Majó, Natàlia

    2012-01-01

    An experimental infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses was carried out on falcons in order to examine the effects of these viruses in terms of pathogenesis, viral distribution in tissues and viral shedding. The distribution pattern of influenza virus receptors was also assessed. Captive-reared gyr-saker (Falco rusticolus x Falco cherrug) hybrid falcons were challenged with a HPAI H5N1 virus (A/Great crested grebe/Basque Country/06.03249/2006) or a LPAI H7N2 virus (A/Anas plathyrhynchos/Spain/1877/2009), both via the nasochoanal route and by ingestion of previously infected specific pathogen free chicks. Infected falcons exhibited similar infection dynamics despite the different routes of exposure, demonstrating the effectiveness of in vivo feeding route. H5N1 infected falcons died, or were euthanized, between 5–7 days post-infection (dpi) after showing acute severe neurological signs. Presence of viral antigen in several tissues was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and real time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR), which were generally associated with significant microscopical lesions, mostly in the brain. Neither clinical signs, nor histopathological findings were observed in any of the H7N2 LPAI infected falcons, although all of them had seroconverted by 11 dpi. Avian receptors were strongly present in the upper respiratory tract of the falcons, in accordance with the consistent oral viral shedding detected by RRT-PCR in both H5N1 HPAI and H7N2 LPAI infected falcons. The present study demonstrates that gyr-saker hybrid falcons are highly susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus infection, as previously observed, and that they may play a major role in the spreading of both HPAI and LPAI viruses. For the first time in raptors, natural infection by feeding on infected prey was successfully reproduced. The use of avian prey species in falconry husbandry and wildlife rehabilitation facilities could put valuable birds of prey

  10. Differential immune response of mallard duck peripheral blood mononuclear cells to two highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses with distinct pathogenicity in mallard ducks.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhu; Hu, Jiao; He, Liang; Li, Qunhui; Gu, Min; Wang, Xiaoquan; Hu, Shunlin; Liu, Huimou; Liu, Wenbo; Liu, Xiaowen; Liu, Xiufan

    2014-02-01

    CK10 and GS10 are two H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza viruses of similar genetic background but differ in their pathogenicity in mallard ducks. CK10 is highly pathogenic whereas GS10 is low pathogenic. In this study, strong inflammatory response in terms of the expression level of several cytokines was observed in mallard duck peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) infected with CK10 while mild response was triggered in those by GS10 infection. Two remarkable and intense peaks of immune response were induced by CK10 infection within 24 hours (at 8 and 24 hours post infection, respectively) without reducing the virus replication. Our observations indicated that sustained and intense innate immune responses may be central to the high pathogenicity caused by CK10 in ducks.

  11. Movements of wild ruddy shelducks in the Central Asian Flyway and their spatial relationship to outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Collins, Bridget M.; Douglas, David C.; Perry, William M.; Baoping, Yan; Luo, Ze; Hou, Yuansheng; Lei, Fumin; Li, Tianxian; Li, Yongdong; Newman, Scott H.

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 remains a serious concern for both poultry and human health. Wild waterfowl are considered to be the reservoir for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses; however, relatively little is known about their movement ecology in regions where HPAI H5N1 outbreaks regularly occur. We studied movements of the ruddy shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), a wild migratory waterfowl species that was infected in the 2005 Qinghai Lake outbreak. We defined their migration with Brownian Bridge utilization distribution models and their breeding and wintering grounds with fixed kernel home ranges. We correlated their movements with HPAI H5N1 outbreaks, poultry density, land cover, and latitude in the Central Asian Flyway. Our Akaike Information Criterion analysis indicated that outbreaks were correlated with land cover, latitude, and poultry density. Although shelduck movements were included in the top two models, they were not a top parameter selected in AICc stepwise regression results. However, timing of outbreaks suggested that outbreaks in the flyway began during the winter in poultry with spillover to wild birds during the spring migration. Thus, studies of the movement ecology of wild birds in areas with persistent HPAI H5N1 outbreaks may contribute to understanding their role in transmission of this disease.

  12. Spatial modeling of wild bird risk factors to investigate highly pathogenic A(H5N1) avian influenza virus transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prosser, Diann J.; Hungerford, Laura L.; Erwin, R. Michael; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Takekawa, John Y.; Newman, Scott H.; Xiao, Xianming; Ellis, Erie C.

    2016-01-01

    One of the longest-persisting avian influenza viruses in history, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) A(H5N1), continues to evolve after 18 years, advancing the threat of a global pandemic. Wild waterfowl (family Anatidae), are reported as secondary transmitters of HPAIV, and primary reservoirs for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses, yet spatial inputs for disease risk modeling for this group have been lacking. Using GIS and Monte Carlo simulations, we developed geospatial indices of waterfowl abundance at 1 and 30 km resolutions and for the breeding and wintering seasons for China, the epicenter of H5N1. Two spatial layers were developed: cumulative waterfowl abundance (WAB), a measure of predicted abundance across species, and cumulative abundance weighted by H5N1 prevalence (WPR), whereby abundance for each species was adjusted based on prevalence values then totaled across species. Spatial patterns of the model output differed between seasons, with higher WAB and WPR in the northern and western regions of China for the breeding season and in the southeast for the wintering season. Uncertainty measures indicated highest error in southeastern China for both WAB and WPR. We also explored the effect of resampling waterfowl layers from 1 km to 30 km resolution for multi-scale risk modeling. Results indicated low average difference (less than 0.16 and 0.01 standard deviations for WAB and WPR, respectively), with greatest differences in the north for the breeding season and southeast for the wintering season. This work provides the first geospatial models of waterfowl abundance available for China. The indices provide important inputs for modeling disease transmission risk at the interface of poultry and wild birds. These models are easily adaptable, have broad utility to both disease and conservation needs, and will be available to the scientific community for advanced modeling applications.

  13. Experimental infection of mandarin duck with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N8 and H5N1) viruses.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Heo, Gyeong-Beom; Jung, Joojin; Jang, Il; Bae, You-Chan; Jung, Suk Chan; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2017-01-01

    A highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus was first detected in poultry and wild birds in South Korea in January 2014. Here, we determined the pathogenicity and transmissibility of three different clades of H5 viruses in mandarin ducks to examine the potential for wild bird infection. H5N8 (clade 2.3.4.4) replicated more efficiently in the upper and lower respiratory tract of mandarin ducks than two previously identified H5N1 virus clades (clades 2.2 and 2.3.2.1). However, none of the mandarin ducks infected with H5N8 and H5N1 viruses showed severe clinical signs or mortality, and gross lesions were only observed in a few tissues. Viral replication and shedding were greater in H5N8-infected ducks than in H5N1-infected ducks. Recovery of all viruses from control duck in contact with infected ducks indicated that the highly pathogenic H5 viruses spread horizontally through contact. Taken together, these results suggest that H5N8 viruses spread efficiently in mandarin ducks. Further studies of pathogenicity in wild birds are required to examine possible long-distance dissemination via migration routes.

  14. High genetic compatibility and increased pathogenicity of reassortants derived from avian H9N2 and pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yipeng; Qin, Kun; Wang, Jingjing; Pu, Juan; Tang, Qingdong; Hu, Yanxin; Bi, Yuhai; Zhao, Xueli; Yang, Hanchun; Shu, Yuelong; Liu, Jinhua

    2011-03-08

    H9N2 influenza viruses have been circulating worldwide in multiple avian species and repeatedly infecting mammals, including pigs and humans, posing a significant threat to public health. The coexistence of H9N2 and pandemic influenza H1N1/2009 viruses in pigs and humans provides an opportunity for these viruses to reassort. To evaluate the potential public risk of the reassortant viruses derived from these viruses, we used reverse genetics to generate 127 H9 reassortants derived from an avian H9N2 and a pandemic H1N1 virus, and evaluated their compatibility, replication ability, and virulence in mice. These hybrid viruses showed high genetic compatibility and more than half replicated to a high titer in vitro. In vivo studies of 73 of 127 reassortants revealed that all viruses were able to infect mice without prior adaptation and 8 reassortants exhibited higher pathogenicity than both parental viruses. All reassortants with higher virulence than parental viruses contained the PA gene from the 2009 pandemic virus, revealing the important role of the PA gene from the H1N1/2009 virus in generating a reassortant virus with high public health risk. Analyses of the polymerase activity of the 16 ribonucleoprotein combinations in vitro suggested that the PA of H1N1/2009 origin also enhanced polymerase activity. Our results indicate that some avian H9-pandemic reassortants could emerge with a potentially higher threat for humans and also highlight the importance of monitoring the H9-pandemic reassortant viruses that may arise, especially those that possess the PA gene of H1N1/2009 origin.

  15. DotU expression is highly induced during in vivo infection and responsible for virulence and Hcp1 secretion in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaohui; Dai, Jianjun; Meng, Qingmei; Han, Xiangan; Han, Yue; Zhao, Yichao; Yang, Denghui; Ding, Chan; Yu, Shengqing

    2014-01-01

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) contribute to pathogenicity in many pathogenic bacteria. Three distinguishable T6SS loci have been discovered in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). The sequence of APEC T6SS2 locus is highly similar to the sequence of the newborn meningitis Escherichia coli (NMEC) RS218 T6SS locus, which might contribute to meningitis pathogenesis. However, little is known about the function of APEC T6SS2. We showed that the APEC T6SS2 component organelle trafficking protein (DotU) could elicit antibodies in infected ducks, suggesting that DotU might be involved in APEC pathogenicity. To investigate DotU in APEC pathogenesis, mutant and complemented strains were constructed and characterized. Inactivation of the APEC dotU gene attenuated virulence in ducks, diminished resistance to normal duck serum, and reduced survival in macrophage cells and ducks. Furthermore, deletion of the dotU gene abolished hemolysin-coregulated protein (Hcp) 1 secretion, leading to decreased interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 gene expression in HD-11 chicken macrophages. These functions were restored for the complementation strain. Our results demonstrated that DotU plays key roles in the APEC pathogenesis, Hcp1 secretion, and intracellular host response modulation. PMID:25426107

  16. Low-pathogenic avian influenza virus A/turkey/Ontario/6213/1966 (H5N1) is the progenitor of highly pathogenic A/turkey/Ontario/7732/1966 (H5N9)

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Jihui; Selman, Mohammed; Tyler, Shaun; Forbes, Nicole; Keleta, Liya

    2012-01-01

    The first confirmed outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus infections in North America was caused by A/turkey/Ontario/7732/1966 (H5N9); however, the phylogeny of this virus is largely unknown. This study performed genomic sequence analysis of 11 avian influenza isolates from 1956 to 1979 for comparison with A/turkey/Ontario/7732/1966 (H5N9). Phylogenetic and genetic analyses included these viruses in combination with all known full-genome sequences of avian viruses isolated before 1981. It was shown that a low-pathogenic avian influenza virus, A/turkey/Ontario/6213/1966 (H5N1), that had been isolated 3 months previously, was the closest known genetic relative with six genome segments of common lineage encoding the polymerase subunits PB2, PB1 and PA, nucleoprotein (NP), haemagglutinin (HA) and non-structural (NS) proteins. The lineages of these genome segments included reassortment with other North American turkey viruses that were all rooted in North American wild waterfowl with the HA gene originating from the H5N2 serotype. The phylogenies demonstrated adaptation from North American wild birds to turkeys with the possible involvement of domestic waterfowl. The turkey isolate, A/turkey/Wisconsin/1968 (H5N9), was the second most closely related poultry isolate to A/turkey/Ontario/7732/1966 (H5N9), possessing five common lineage genome segments (PB2, PB1, PA, HA and neuraminidase). The A/turkey/Ontario/6213/1966 (H5N1) virus was more virulent than A/turkey/Wisconsin/68 (H5N9) for chicken embryos and mice, indicating a greater biological similarity to A/turkey/Ontario/7732/1966 (H5N9). Thus, A/turkey/Ontario/6213/1966 (H5N1) was identified as the closest known ancestral relative of HPAI A/turkey/Ontario/7732/1966 (H5N9), which will serve as a useful reference virus for characterizing the early genetic and biological properties associated with the emergence of pathogenic avian influenza strains. PMID:22592261

  17. Phylogenetic study-based hemagglutinin (HA) gene of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) detected from backyard chickens in Iran, 2015.

    PubMed

    Ghafouri, Syed Ali; Langeroudi, Arash Ghalyanchi; Maghsoudloo, Hossein; Tehrani, Farshad; Khaltabadifarahani, Reza; Abdollahi, Hamed; Fallah, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-02-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype have been diversified into multiple phylogenetic clades over the past decade and are highly genetically variable. In June 2015, one outbreak of HPAI H5N1 in backyard chickens was reported in the Nogardan village of the Mazandaran Province. Tracheal tissues were taken from the dead domestic chickens (n = 10) and processed for RT-PCR. The positive samples (n = 10) were characterized as HPAI H5N1 by sequencing analysis for the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the samples revealed that the viruses belonged to clade 2.3.2.1c, and cluster with the HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated from different avian species in Bulgaria, Romania, and Nigeria in 2015. They were not closely related to other H5N1 isolates detected in previous years in Iran. Our study provides new insights into the evolution and genesis of H5N1 influenza in Iran and has important implications for targeting surveillance efforts to rapidly identify the spread of the virus into and within Iran.

  18. Rapid acquisition of polymorphic virulence markers during adaptation of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 virus in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Suk; Baek, Yun Hee; Kwon, Jin Jung; Jeong, Ju Hwan; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Young-il; Yoon, Sun-Woo; Hwang, Jungwon; Kim, Myung Hee; Kim, Chul-Joong; Webby, Richard J.; Choi, Young Ki; Song, Min-Suk

    2017-01-01

    Emergence of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus in Asia and its spread to Europe and North America has caused great concern for human health. Although the H5N8 virus has been only moderately pathogenic to mammalian hosts, virulence can still increase. We evaluated the pathogenic potential of several H5N8 strains via the mouse-adaptation method. Two H5N8 viruses were sequentially passaged in BALB/c mice and plaque-purified from lung samples. The viruses rapidly obtained high virulence (MLD50, up to 0.5 log10 PFU/mL) within 5 passages. Sequence analysis revealed the acquisition of several virulence markers, including the novel marker P708S in PB1 gene. Combinations of markers synergistically enhanced viral replication and polymerase activity in human cell lines and virulence and multiorgan dissemination in mice. These results suggest that H5N8 viruses can rapidly acquire virulence markers in mammalian hosts; thus, rapid spread as well as repeated viral introduction into the hosts may significantly increase the risk of human infection and elevate pandemic potential. PMID:28094780

  19. Characterization of the 2012 highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N3 virus isolated from poultry in an outbreak in Mexico: pathobiology and vaccine protection.

    PubMed

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Guzman, Sofia G; Ricardez, Yadira; Spackman, Erica; Bertran, Kateri; Suarez, David L; Swayne, David E

    2013-08-01

    In June of 2012, an H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was identified as the cause of a severe disease outbreak in commercial laying chicken farms in Mexico. The purpose of this study was to characterize the Mexican 2012 H7N3 HPAI virus (A/chicken/Jalisco/CPA1/2012) and determine the protection against the virus conferred by different H7 inactivated vaccines in chickens. Both adult and young chickens intranasally inoculated with the virus became infected and died at between 2 and 4 days postinoculation (p.i.). High virus titers and viral replication in many tissues were demonstrated at 2 days p.i. in infected birds. The virus from Jalisco, Mexico, had high sequence similarity of greater than 97% to the sequences of wild bird viruses from North America in all eight gene segments. The hemagglutinin gene of the virus contained a 24-nucleotide insert at the hemagglutinin cleavage site which had 100% sequence identity to chicken 28S rRNA, suggesting that the insert was the result of nonhomologous recombination with the host genome. For vaccine protection studies, both U.S. H7 low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses and a 2006 Mexican H7 LPAI virus were tested as antigens in experimental oil emulsion vaccines and injected into chickens 3 weeks prior to challenge. All H7 vaccines tested provided ≥90% protection against clinical disease after challenge and decreased the number of birds shedding virus and the titers of virus shed. This study demonstrates the pathological consequences of the infection of chickens with the 2012 Mexican lineage H7N3 HPAI virus and provides support for effective programs of vaccination against this virus in poultry.

  20. Immune escape mutants of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 selected using polyclonal sera: identification of key amino acids in the HA protein.

    PubMed

    Sitaras, Ioannis; Kalthoff, Donata; Beer, Martin; Peeters, Ben; de Jong, Mart C M

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of Avian Influenza (AI) viruses--especially of the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 subtype--is a major issue for the poultry industry. HPAI H5N1 epidemics are associated with huge economic losses and are sometimes connected to human morbidity and mortality. Vaccination (either as a preventive measure or as a means to control outbreaks) is an approach that splits the scientific community, due to the risk of it being a potential driving force in HPAI evolution through the selection of mutants able to escape vaccination-induced immunity. It is therefore essential to study how mutations are selected due to immune pressure. To this effect, we performed an in vitro selection of mutants from HPAI A/turkey/Turkey/1/05 (H5N1), using immune pressure from homologous polyclonal sera. After 42 rounds of selection, we identified 5 amino acid substitutions in the Haemagglutinin (HA) protein, most of which were located in areas of antigenic importance and suspected to be prone to selection pressure. We report that most of the mutations took place early in the selection process. Finally, our antigenic cartography studies showed that the antigenic distance between the selected isolates and their parent strain increased with passage number.

  1. siRNAs targeting PB2 and NP genes potentially inhibit replication of Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Behera, Padmanava; Nagarajan, Shanmugasundaram; Murugkar, Harshad V; Kalaiyarasu, Semmannan; Prakash, Anil; Gothalwal, Ragini; Dubey, Shiv Chandra; Kulkarni, Diwakar D; Tosh, Chakradhar

    2015-06-01

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus is a threat to animal and public health worldwide. Till date, the H5N1 virus has claimed 402 human lives, with a mortality rate of 58 percent and has caused the death or culling of millions of poultry since 2003. In this study, we have designed three siRNAs (PB2-2235, PB2-479 and NP-865) targeting PB2 and NP genes of avian influenza virus and evaluated their potential, measured by hemagglutination (HA), plaque reduction and Real time RT-PCR assay, in inhibiting H5N1 virus (A/chicken/Navapur/7972/2006) replication in MDCK cells. The siRNAs caused 8- to 16-fold reduction in virus HA titers at 24 h after challenged with 100TCID50 of virus. Among these siRNAs, PB2-2235 offered the highest inhibition of virus replication with 16-fold reduction in virus HA titer, 80 percent reduction in viral plaque counts and 94 percent inhibition in expression of specific RNA at 24 h. The other two siRNAs had 68-73 percent and 87-88 percent reduction in viral plaque counts and RNA copy number, respectively. The effect of siRNA on H5N1 virus replication continued till 48h (maximum observation period). These findings suggest that PB2-2235 could efficiently inhibit HPAI H5N1 virus replication.

  2. Intranasal immunization with live recombinant Lactococcus lactis combined with heat-labile toxin B subunit protects chickens from highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus.

    PubMed

    Lei, Han; Peng, Xiaojue; Shu, Handing; Zhao, Daxian

    2015-01-01

    Development of safe and effective vaccines to prevent highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus infection is a challenging goal. Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) is an ideal delivery vector for vaccine development, and it has been shown previously that oral immunization of encapsulated secretory L. lactis-hemagglutinin (HA) could provide complete protection against homologous H5N1 virus challenge in the mice model. While intranasal immunization is an appealing approach, it is now reported that secretory L. lactis-HA combined with mucosal adjuvant heat-labile toxin B subunit (LTB) could provide protective immunity in the chicken model. As compared to intranasal immunization with L. lactis-HA alone, L. lactis-HA combined with LTB (L. lactis-HA + LTB) could elicit robust neutralizing antibody responses and mucosal IgA responses, as well as strong cellular immune responses in the vaccinated chickens. Importantly, intranasal immunization with L. lactis-HA + LTB could provide 100% protection against H5N1 virus challenge. Taken together, these results suggest that intranasal immunization with L. lactis-HA + LTB can be considered as an effective approach for preventing and controlling infection of H5N1 virus in poultry during an avian influenza A/H5N1 pandemic.

  3. Pathological and Immunohistochemical Findings of Natural Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Infection in Tufted Ducks during 2010–2011 Outbreaks in Japan

    PubMed Central

    ABDO, Walied; HARIDY, Mohie; KATOU, Yuki; GOTO, Minami; MIZOGUCHI, Toshio; SAKODA, Yoshihiro; SAKAI, Hiroki; YANAI, Tokuma

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the winter of 2010–2011, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection occurred in wild and domestic birds in Japan. Tufted ducks were found dead in an urban area of Toyota City, Koriyama, Fukushima Prefecture. Two tufted ducks were examined histopathologically, immunohistochemically and molecularly. Gross findings included marked dark-red clotted blood in the pectoral muscles and multifocal hemorrhages on the serous membranes. Microscopically, non-suppurative meningoencephalitis, multifocal to coalescing pancreatic necrosis and severe pulmonary congestion were observed. HPAIV antigen was detected in the malacic areas, neuronal, glial and ependymal cells, pulmonary capillary endothelial cells and epithelium of pulmonary bronchioles, necrotic pancreatic acini and degenerated cardiac myocytes. The HPAIV isolate was genetically classified into clade 2.3.2.1 group A. The broad distribution of virus antigen in brain and pulmonary tissues associated with HPAIV spontaneous infection in tufted ducks might be useful in understanding its pathogenesis in nature. PMID:24881650

  4. Rapid detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus by TaqMan reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Heine, H G; Trinidad, L; Selleck, P; Lowther, S

    2007-03-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) H5N1 viruses have been spreading from Asia since late 2003. Early detection and classification are paramount for control of the disease because these viruses are lethal to birds and have caused fatalities in humans. Here, we described TaqMan reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays for rapid detection of all AI viruses (influenza type A) and for identification of H5N1 of the Eurasian lineage. The assays were sensitive and quantitative over a 10(5)-10(6) linear range, detected all of the tested AI viruses, and enabled differentiation between H5 and H7 subtypes. These tests allow definitive confirmation of an AI virus as H5 within hours, which is crucial for rapid implementation of control measures in the event of an outbreak.

  5. Antibody titer has positive predictive value for vaccine protection against challenge with natural antigenic-drift variants of H5N1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses from Indonesia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning with Hong Kong in 2002, vaccines have been used as part of an integrated control strategy in 14 countries/regions to protect poultry against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI). H5N1 HPAI was first reported in Indonesia in 2003 and vaccination was initiated the following year. ...

  6. Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's egg pasteurization processes on the inactivation of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus and velogenic Newcastle disease virus in processed egg products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/1983 (H5N2), and velogenic Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) AMPV-1/California/212676/2002 were inoculated into various egg products then heat treated at various temperatures for 0 to 30 min to determine thermal inactivation p...

  7. Reduced experimental infectivity and transmissibility of intercontinental H5 (H5N8 and H5N2) compared to Eurasian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses for chickens, turkeys, and Japanese quail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus (HPAIV) emerged in 1996 in Guangdong China and has since spread to infect and cause deaths in wild birds, poultry and humans in over 63 countries in Asia, Europe and Africa; and more recently a reassortant H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI virus has spread ...

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 Egyptian strains isolated from 2006 to 2008 indicates heterogeneity with multiple distinct sublineages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Eurasian lineage H5N1 Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus caused widespread outbreaks in Egypt in 2006 and eventually become enzootic in poultry. Although outbreaks have a seasonal pattern with most occurring during the cooler winter months, it remains unclear if this seasonality ref...

  9. Variation in protection of four divergent avian influenza virus vaccine seed strains against eight clade 2.2.1 and 2.2.1.1. Egyptian H5N1 high pathogenicity variants in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) was introduced to Egyptian poultry in 2006 and has since become enzootic. Vaccination has been utilized as a control tool, but for a variety of reasons the disease has not been eradicated. In 2007, an antigenically divergent hemagglutinin sub-c...

  10. Experimental infection of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) and ruddy shelducks (Tadorna ferruginea) with a clade 2.3.2 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2005, clade 2.2 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have caused infections and disease involving numerous species of wild waterfowl in Eurasia and Africa. However, outbreaks associated with clade 2.3.2 viruses have increased since 2009, and viruses within this clade have beco...

  11. Efficacy of a recombinant turkey herpesvirus H5 vaccine against challenge with H5N1 clades 1.1.2 and 2.3.2.1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Goose/Guangdong (Gs/GD)-lineage H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to circulate and cause great economic losses in poultry in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. Recently, the Gs/GD-lineage H5N8 HPAI virus belonging to clade 2.3.4.4 and its reassortants have caused out...

  12. Genetically Different Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses in West Africa, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Tassoni, Luca; Fusaro, Alice; Milani, Adelaide; Lemey, Philippe; Awuni, Joseph Adongo; Sedor, Victoria Bernice; Dogbey, Otilia; Commey, Abraham Nii Okai; Meseko, Clement; Joannis, Tony; Minoungou, Germaine L.; Ouattara, Lassina; Haido, Abdoul Malick; Cisse-Aman, Diarra; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Cattoli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    To trace the evolution of highly pathogenic influenza A(H5N1) virus in West Africa, we sequenced genomes of 43 viruses collected during 2015 from poultry and wild birds in 5 countries. We found 2 co-circulating genetic groups within clade 2.3.2.1c. Mutations that may increase adaptation to mammals raise concern over possible risk for humans. PMID:27389972

  13. Characterization of the amantadine-resistant H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza variants isolated from quails in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guoying; Luo, Jing; Zhou, Kai; Wu, Bin; Peng, Chao; Ji, Guangju; He, Hongxuan

    2014-10-01

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have spread in poultry and wild birds in Asia, Europe, and Africa since 2003. To evaluate the role of quails in the evolution of influenza A virus, we characterized three H5N1 viruses isolated from quails (QA viruses) in southern China. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that three QA viruses derived from the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96-like lineage and most closely related to HA clade 4 A/chicken/Hong Kong/31.4/02-like viruses. Molecular analysis suggested that QA viruses and clade 4 H5N1 viruses carried consistent residue signatures, such as the characteristic M2 Ser31Asn amantadine-resistance mutation, implying a common origin of these viruses. As revealed by viral pathogenicity tests, these QA viruses could replicate in intranasally infected mice, but were not lethal to them, showing low pathogenicity in mammals. However, they killed all intravenously inoculated chickens, showing high pathogenicity in poultry. Results from amantadine sensitivity tests of wild-type QA viruses and their reverse genetic viruses demonstrated that all QA viruses were resistant to amantadine, and the M2 Ser31Asn mutation was determined as the most likely cause of the increased amantadine-resistance of H5N1 QA viruses. Our study confirmed experimentally that the amino acid at residue 31 in the M2 protein plays a major role in determining the amantadine-resistance phenotype of H5N1 influenza viruses. Our findings provide further evidence that quails may play important roles in the evolution of influenza A viruses, which raises concerns over possible transmissions of H5N1 viruses among poultry, wild birds, and humans.

  14. Previous infection with a mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus affects infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known on the interactions between these two viruses when infecting birds. In a previous study we found that infection of chickens with a mesogenic strain of...

  15. Pathogenesis and Transmission of Novel Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N2 and H5N8 Viruses in Ferrets and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pulit-Penaloza, Joanna A.; Sun, Xiangjie; Creager, Hannah M.; Zeng, Hui; Belser, Jessica A.; Maines, Taronna R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A novel highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus, first detected in January 2014 in poultry and wild birds in South Korea, has spread throughout Asia and Europe and caused outbreaks in Canada and the United States by the end of the year. The spread of H5N8 and the novel reassortant viruses, H5N2 and H5N1 (H5Nx), in domestic poultry across multiple states in the United States pose a potential public health risk. To evaluate the potential of cross-species infection, we determined the pathogenicity and transmissibility of two Asian-origin H5Nx viruses in mammalian animal models. The newly isolated H5N2 and H5N8 viruses were able to cause severe disease in mice only at high doses. Both viruses replicated efficiently in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of ferrets; however, the clinical symptoms were generally mild, and there was no evidence of systemic dissemination of virus to multiple organs. Moreover, these influenza H5Nx viruses lacked the ability to transmit between ferrets in a direct contact setting. We further assessed viral replication kinetics of the novel H5Nx viruses in a human bronchial epithelium cell line, Calu-3. Both H5Nx viruses replicated to a level comparable to a human seasonal H1N1 virus, but significantly lower than a virulent Asian-lineage H5N1 HPAI virus. Although the recently isolated H5N2 and H5N8 viruses displayed moderate pathogenicity in mammalian models, their ability to rapidly spread among avian species, reassort, and generate novel strains underscores the need for continued risk assessment in mammals. IMPORTANCE In 2015, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 viruses have caused outbreaks in domestic poultry in multiple U.S. states. The economic losses incurred with H5N8 and H5N2 subtype virus infection have raised serious concerns for the poultry industry and the general public due to the potential risk of human infection. This recent outbreak underscores the need to better understand the pathogenesis and

  16. Low pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus causes high mortality in ferrets upon intratracheal challenge: a model to study intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Kreijtz, J H C M; Kroeze, E J B Veldhuis; Stittelaar, K J; de Waal, L; van Amerongen, G; van Trierum, S; van Run, P; Bestebroer, T; T Kuiken; Fouchier, R A M; Rimmelzwaan, G F; Osterhaus, A D M E

    2013-10-09

    Infections with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N9) viruses have caused more than 100 hospitalized human cases of severe influenza in China since February 2013 with a case fatality rate exceeding 25%. Most of these human infections presented with severe viral pneumonia, while limited information is available currently on the occurrence of mild and subclinical cases. In the present study, a ferret model for this virus infection in humans is presented to evaluate the pathogenesis of the infection in a mammalian host, as ferrets have been shown to mimic the pathogenesis of human infection with influenza viruses most closely. Ferrets were inoculated intratracheally with increasing doses (>10 e5 TCID50) of H7N9 influenza virus A/Anhui/1/2013 and were monitored for clinical and virological parameters up to four days post infection. Virus replication was detected in the upper and lower respiratory tracts while animals developed fatal viral pneumonia. This study illustrates the high pathogenicity of LPAI-H7N9 virus for mammals. Furthermore, the intratracheal inoculation route in ferrets proofs to offer a solid model for LPAI-H7N9 virus induced pneumonia in humans. This model will facilitate the development and assessment of clinical intervention strategies for LPAI-H7N9 virus infection in humans, such as preventive vaccination and the use of antivirals.

  17. Biological characterization of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses that infected humans in Egypt in 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Mostafa, Ahmed; Kandeil, Ahmed; Mahmoud, Sara H; Bagato, Ola; Naguib, Amel; Refaey, Samir El; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A; Kayali, Ghazi

    2017-03-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 influenza viruses emerged as a human pathogen in 1997 with expected potential to undergo sustained human-to-human transmission and pandemic viral spread. HPAI H5N1 is endemic in Egyptian poultry and has caused sporadic human infection. The first outbreak in early 2006 was caused by clade 2.2 viruses that rapidly evolved genetically and antigenically. A sharp increase in the number of human cases was reported in Egypt in the 2014/2015 season. In this study, we analyzed and characterized three isolates of HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated from infected humans in Egypt in 2014/2015. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the nucleotide sequences of eight segments of the three isolates were clustered with those of members of clade 2.2.1.2. We also found that the human isolates from 2014/2015 had a slight, non-significant difference in their affinity for human-like sialic acid receptors. In contrast, they showed significant differences in their replication kinetics in MDCK, MDCK-SIAT, and A549 cells as well as in embryonated chicken eggs. An antiviral bioassay study revealed that all of the isolates were susceptible to amantadine. Therefore, further investigation and monitoring is required to correlate the genetic and/or antigenic changes of the emerging HPAI H5N1 viruses with possible alteration in their characteristics and their potential to become a further threat to public health.

  18. H5-based DNA constructs derived from selected highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus induce high levels of humoral antibodies in Muscovy ducks against low pathogenic viruses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background H5 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infection in domestic ducks is a major problem in duck producing countries. Their silent circulation is an ongoing source of potential highly pathogenic or zoonotic emerging strains. To prevent such events, vaccination of domestic ducks might be attempted but remains challenging. Currently licensed vector vaccines derived from H5N1 HPAIV possess clade 0, clade 2.2 or clade 2.3.4 HA sequences: selection of the best HA candidate inducing the largest cross protection is a key issue. For this purpose, DNA immunization of specific pathogen free Muscovy ducks was performed using different synthetic codon optimized (opt) or native HA genes from H5N2 LPAIV and several H5N1 HPAIV clade 2.1, 2.2.1 and 2.3.4. Humoral cross-immunity was assessed 3 weeks after boost by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus neutralization (VN) against three French H5 LPAIV antigens. Findings Vaccination with LP H5N2 HA induced the highest VN antibody titre against the homologous antigen; however, the corresponding HI titre was lower and comparable to HI titres obtained after immunization with opt HA derived from clades 2.3.4 or 2.1. Compared to the other HPAIV-derived constructs, vaccination with clade 2.3.4 opt HA consistently induced the highest antibody titres in HI and VN, when tested against all three H5 LPAIV antigens and H5N2 LPAIV, respectively: differences in titres against this last strain were statistically significant. Conclusion The present study provides a standardized method to assess cross-immunity based on HA immunogenicity alone, and suggests that clade 2.3.4-derived recombinant vaccines might be the optimal candidates for further challenge testing to vaccinate domestic Muscovy ducks against H5 LPAIV. PMID:24762011

  19. Susceptibility to and transmission of H5N1 and H7N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    PubMed

    Romero Tejeda, Aurora; Aiello, Roberta; Salomoni, Angela; Berton, Valeria; Vascellari, Marta; Cattoli, Giovanni

    2015-05-13

    The study of influenza type A (IA) infections in wild mammals populations is a critical gap in our knowledge of how IA viruses evolve in novel hosts that could be in close contact with avian reservoir species and other wild animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility to infection, the nasal shedding and the transmissibility of the H7N1 and H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), a wild rodent common throughout Europe and Asia. Two out of 24 H5N1-infected voles displayed evident respiratory distress, while H7N1-infected voles remained asymptomatic. Viable virus was isolated from nasal washes collected from animals infected with both HPAI viruses, and extra-pulmonary infection was confirmed in both experimental groups. Histopathological lesions were evident in the respiratory tract of infected animals, although immunohistochemistry positivity was only detected in lungs and trachea of two H7N1-infected voles. Both HPAI viruses were transmitted by direct contact, and seroconversion was confirmed in 50% and 12.5% of the asymptomatic sentinels in the H7N1 and H5N1 groups, respectively. Interestingly, viable virus was isolated from lungs and nasal washes collected from contact sentinels of both groups. The present study demonstrated that two non-rodent adapted HPAI viruses caused asymptomatic infection in bank voles, which shed high amounts of the viruses and were able to infect contact voles. Further investigations are needed to determine whether bank voles could be involved as silent hosts in the transmission of HPAI viruses to other mammals and domestic poultry.

  20. Human Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells Support Productive Replication of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses: Possible Involvement in the Pathogenesis of Human H5N1 Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hui; Pappas, Claudia; Belser, Jessica A.; Houser, Katherine V.; Zhong, Weiming; Wadford, Debra A.; Stevens, Troy; Balczon, Ron; Katz, Jacqueline M.

    2012-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses continue to cause sporadic human infections with a high fatality rate. Respiratory failure due to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a complication among hospitalized patients. Since progressive pulmonary endothelial damage is the hallmark of ARDS, we investigated host responses following HPAI virus infection of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. Evaluation of these cells for the presence of receptors preferred by influenza virus demonstrated that avian-like (α2-3-linked) receptors were more abundant than human-like (α2-6-linked) receptors. To test the permissiveness of pulmonary endothelial cells to virus infection, we compared the replication of selected seasonal, pandemic (2009 H1N1 and 1918), and potentially pandemic (H5N1) influenza virus strains. We observed that these cells support productive replication only of HPAI H5N1 viruses, which preferentially enter through and are released from the apical surface of polarized human endothelial monolayers. Furthermore, A/Thailand/16/2004 and A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (VN/1203) H5N1 viruses, which exhibit heightened virulence in mammalian models, replicated to higher titers than less virulent H5N1 strains. VN/1203 infection caused a significant decrease in endothelial cell proliferation compared to other subtype viruses. VN/1203 virus was also found to be a potent inducer of cytokines and adhesion molecules known to regulate inflammation during acute lung injury. Deletion of the H5 hemagglutinin (HA) multibasic cleavage site did not affect virus infectivity but resulted in decreased virus replication in endothelial cells. Our results highlight remarkable tropism and infectivity of the H5N1 viruses for human pulmonary endothelial cells, resulting in the potent induction of host inflammatory responses. PMID:22072765

  1. Characterization of low pathogenicity H5N1 avian influenza viruses from North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild bird surveillance in North America for avian influenza (AI) viruses with a goal of early identification of the Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic AI virus has identified at least six low pathogenic H5N1 AI viruses between 2004 and 2006. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from all 6 ...

  2. Characterization of clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from wild birds possessing atypical hemagglutinin polybasic cleavage sites.

    PubMed

    Usui, Tatsufumi; Soda, Kosuke; Tomioka, Yukiko; Ito, Hiroshi; Yabuta, Toshiyo; Takakuwa, Hiroki; Otsuki, Koichi; Ito, Toshihiro; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi

    2017-02-01

    Since 2014, clade 2.3.4.4 H5 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have been distributed worldwide. These viruses, which were reported to be highly virulent in chickens by intravenous inoculation, have a consensus HPAI motif PLRERRRKR at the HA cleavage site. However, two-clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 viruses which we isolated from wild migratory birds in late 2014 in Japan possessed atypical HA cleavage sequences. A swan isolate, Tottori/C6, had a novel polybasic cleavage sequence, PLGERRRKR, and another isolate from a dead mandarin duck, Gifu/01, had a heterogeneous mixture of consensus PLRERRRKR and variant PLRERRRRKR sequences. The polybasic HA cleavage site is the prime virulence determinant of AIVs. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the pathogenicity of these H5N8 isolates in chickens by intravenous inoculation. When 10(6) EID50 of these viruses were intravenously inoculated into chickens, the mean death time associated with Tottori/C6 was substantially longer (>6.1 days) than that associated with Gifu/01 (2.5 days). These viruses had comparable abilities to replicate in tissue culture cells in the presence and absence of exogenous trypsin, but the growth of Tottori/C6 was hampered. These results indicate that the novel cleavage motif of Tottori/C6 did not directly affect the infectivity of the virus, but Tottori/C6 caused attenuated pathogenicity in chickens because of hampered replication efficiency. It is important to test for the emergence of diversified HPAIVs, because introduction of HPAIVs with a lower virulence like Tottori/C6 might hinder early detection of affected birds in poultry farms.

  3. Differential cellular gene expression in duck trachea infected with a highly or low pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Avian influenza A (AI) viruses of subtypes H5 can cause serious disease outbreaks in poultry including panzootic due to H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) viruses. These viruses are a threat not only for animal health but also public health due to their zoonotic potential. The domestic duck plays a major role in the epidemiological cycle of influenza virus subtypes H5 but little is known concerning host/pathogen interactions during influenza infection in duck species. In this study, a subtracted library from duck trachea (a primary site of influenza virus infection) was constructed to analyse and compare the host response after a highly or low pathogenic (LP) H5N1-infection. Results Here, we show that more than 200 different genes were differentially expressed in infected duck trachea to a significant degree. In addition, significant differentially expressed genes between LPAI- and HPAI-infected tracheas were observed. Gene ontology annotation was used and specific signalling pathways were identified. These pathways were different for LPAI and HPAI-infected tracheas, except for the CXCR4 signalling pathway which is implicated in immune response. A different modulation of genes in the CXCR4 signalling pathway and TRIM33 was induced in duck tracheas infected with a HPAI- or a LPAI-H5N1. Conclusion First, this study indicates that Suppressive Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) is an alternative approach to gain insights into the pathogenesis of influenza infection in ducks. Secondly, the results indicate that cellular gene expression in the duck trachea was differently modulated after infection with a LPAI-H5N1 or after infection with a HPAI-H5N1 virus. Such difference found in infected trachea, a primary infection site, could precede continuation of infection and could explain appearance of respiratory symptoms or not. PMID:24015922

  4. New DIVA vaccine for the protection of poultry against H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses irrespective of the N-subtype.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Ben; de Boer, Steffen Matthijn; Tjeerdsma, Gerjanne; Moormann, Rob; Koch, Guus

    2012-11-19

    Most human cases of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection are the result of direct contact with infected poultry. Therefore, infection of poultry should be prevented to avoid human exposure. One method to combat HPAIV outbreaks relies on depopulation. An alternative or supplementary method is the use of DIVA (discriminating infected from vaccinated animals) vaccines to prevent infection of animals on holdings surrounding an outbreak. Discrimination between infected and vaccinated animals is often based on the 'heterologous neuraminidase' strategy. This implies that a suitable vaccine can only be selected when the N-subtype of the outbreak strain is known. Thus, at least two vaccines with different N-subtypes must be available, allowing a switch of vaccine in the event that one of them matches the outbreak strain. However, such vaccines cannot be used preventively in situations in which the N-subtype of the outbreak strain is unknown. In order to circumvent these drawbacks we generated a recombinant influenza virus containing the HA gene of a contemporary H5N1 HPAIV strain in combination with the NA gene of a human type B influenza virus. An inactivated vaccine based on this virus protected chickens against clinical disease, and completely prevented virus shedding after H5N1 HPAIV challenge infection. Serological analyses confirmed that the vaccine complied with the DIVA principle. Since NA of type B does not occur in avian influenza strains, this vaccine is suitable as a DIVA vaccine against any H5 HPAIV, and may be used preventively without compromising the DIVA principle.

  5. The Effect of the PB2 Mutation 627K on Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus Is Dependent on the Virus Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Wendy A.; Núñez, Alejandro; Moncorgé, Olivier; Lycett, Samantha; Banks, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Clade 2.2 Eurasian-lineage H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) were first detected in Qinghai Lake, China, in 2005 and subsequently spread through Asia, Europe, and Africa. Importantly, these viruses carried a lysine at amino acid position 627 of the PB2 protein (PB2 627K), a known mammalian adaptation motif. Previous avian influenza virus isolates have carried glutamic acid in this position (PB2 627E), commonly described to restrict virus polymerase function in the mammalian host. We sought to examine the effect of PB2 627K on viral maintenance in the avian reservoir. Viruses constructed by reverse genetics were engineered to contain converse PB2 627K/E mutations in a Eurasian H5N1 virus (A/turkey/Turkey/5/2005 [Ty/05]) and, for comparison, a historical pre-Asian H5N1 HPAIV that naturally bears PB2 627E (A/turkey/England/50-92/1991 [50-92]). The 50-92 PB2 627K was genetically unstable during virus propagation, resulting in reversion to PB2 627E or the accumulation of the additional mutation PB2 628R and/or a synonymous mutation from an A to a G nucleotide at nucleotide position 1869 (PB2 A1869G). Intriguingly, PB2 628R and/or A1869G appeared to improve the genetic stability of 50-92 PB2 627K. However, the replication of 50-92 PB2 627K in conjunction with these stabilizing mutations was significantly restricted in experimentally infected chickens, where reversion to PB2 627E occurred. In contrast, no significant effects on viral fitness were observed for Ty/05 PB2 627E or 627K in in vitro or in vivo experiments. Our observations suggest that PB2 627K is supported in Eurasian-lineage viruses; in contrast, PB2 627K carries a significant fitness cost in the historical pre-Asian 50-92 virus. PMID:23843645

  6. Serological evidence for non-lethal exposures of Mongolian wild birds to highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Martin; Koel, Björn F; Bestebroer, Theo M; Lewis, Nicola S; Smith, Derek J; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) in wild birds is logistically demanding due to the very low rates of virus detection. Serological approaches may be more cost effective as they require smaller sample sizes to identify exposed populations. We hypothesized that antigenic differences between classical Eurasian H5 subtype viruses (which have low pathogenicity in chickens) and H5N1 viruses of the Goose/Guangdong/96 H5 lineage (which are HPAIV) may be used to differentiate populations where HPAIVs have been circulating, from those where they have not. To test this we performed hemagglutination inhibition assays to compare the reactivity of serum samples from wild birds in Mongolia (where HPAIV has been circulating, n = 1,832) and Europe (where HPAIV has been rare or absent, n = 497) to a panel of reference viruses including classical Eurasian H5 (of low pathogenicity), and five HPAIV H5N1 antigens of the Asian lineage A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96. Antibody titres were detected against at least one of the test antigens for 182 Mongolian serum samples (total seroprevalence of 0.10, n = 1,832, 95% adjusted Wald confidence limits of 0.09-0.11) and 25 of the European sera tested (total seroprevalence of 0.05, n = 497, 95% adjusted Wald confidence limits of 0.03-0.07). A bias in antibody titres to HPAIV antigens was found in the Mongolian sample set (22/182) that was absent in the European sera (0/25). Although the interpretation of serological data from wild birds is complicated by the possibility of exposure to multiple strains, and variability in the timing of exposure, these findings suggest that a proportion of the Mongolian population had survived exposure to HPAIV, and that serological assays may enhance the targeting of traditional HPAIV surveillance toward populations where isolation of HPAIV is more likely.

  7. Serological Evidence for Non-Lethal Exposures of Mongolian Wild Birds to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Martin; Koel, Björn F.; Bestebroer, Theo M.; Lewis, Nicola S.; Smith, Derek J.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) in wild birds is logistically demanding due to the very low rates of virus detection. Serological approaches may be more cost effective as they require smaller sample sizes to identify exposed populations. We hypothesized that antigenic differences between classical Eurasian H5 subtype viruses (which have low pathogenicity in chickens) and H5N1 viruses of the Goose/Guangdong/96 H5 lineage (which are HPAIV) may be used to differentiate populations where HPAIVs have been circulating, from those where they have not. To test this we performed hemagglutination inhibition assays to compare the reactivity of serum samples from wild birds in Mongolia (where HPAIV has been circulating, n = 1,832) and Europe (where HPAIV has been rare or absent, n = 497) to a panel of reference viruses including classical Eurasian H5 (of low pathogenicity), and five HPAIV H5N1 antigens of the Asian lineage A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96. Antibody titres were detected against at least one of the test antigens for 182 Mongolian serum samples (total seroprevalence of 0.10, n = 1,832, 95% adjusted Wald confidence limits of 0.09–0.11) and 25 of the European sera tested (total seroprevalence of 0.05, n = 497, 95% adjusted Wald confidence limits of 0.03–0.07). A bias in antibody titres to HPAIV antigens was found in the Mongolian sample set (22/182) that was absent in the European sera (0/25). Although the interpretation of serological data from wild birds is complicated by the possibility of exposure to multiple strains, and variability in the timing of exposure, these findings suggest that a proportion of the Mongolian population had survived exposure to HPAIV, and that serological assays may enhance the targeting of traditional HPAIV surveillance toward populations where isolation of HPAIV is more likely. PMID:25502318

  8. Short-Term Heat Shock Affects Host–Virus Interaction in Mice Infected with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jia; Fan, Xiaoxu; Yu, Jing; Zhang, Shouping; Xiao, Jin; Hu, Yanxin; Wang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 is a highly contagious virus that can cause acute respiratory infections and high human fatality ratio due to excessive inflammatory response. Short-term heat shock, as a stressful condition, could induce the expression of heat shock proteins that function as molecular chaperones to protect cells against multiple stresses. However, the protective effect of short-term heat shock in influenza infection is far from being understood. In this study, mice were treated at 39°C for 4 h before being infected with HPAIV H5N1. Interestingly, short-term heat shock significantly increased the levels of HSP70 and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-β, and IFN-γ in the lung tissues of mice. Following HPAIV H5N1 infection, short-term heat shock alleviated immunopathology and viral replication in lung tissue and repressed the weight loss and increased the survival rate of H5N1-infected mice. Our data reported that short-term heat shock provided beneficial anti-HPAIV H5N1 properties in mice model, which offers an alternative strategy for non-drug prevention for influenza infection. PMID:27379054

  9. Short-Term Heat Shock Affects Host-Virus Interaction in Mice Infected with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jia; Fan, Xiaoxu; Yu, Jing; Zhang, Shouping; Xiao, Jin; Hu, Yanxin; Wang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 is a highly contagious virus that can cause acute respiratory infections and high human fatality ratio due to excessive inflammatory response. Short-term heat shock, as a stressful condition, could induce the expression of heat shock proteins that function as molecular chaperones to protect cells against multiple stresses. However, the protective effect of short-term heat shock in influenza infection is far from being understood. In this study, mice were treated at 39°C for 4 h before being infected with HPAIV H5N1. Interestingly, short-term heat shock significantly increased the levels of HSP70 and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-β, and IFN-γ in the lung tissues of mice. Following HPAIV H5N1 infection, short-term heat shock alleviated immunopathology and viral replication in lung tissue and repressed the weight loss and increased the survival rate of H5N1-infected mice. Our data reported that short-term heat shock provided beneficial anti-HPAIV H5N1 properties in mice model, which offers an alternative strategy for non-drug prevention for influenza infection.

  10. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus induces cytokine dysregulation with suppressed maturation of chicken monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Kalaiyarasu, Semmannan; Kumar, Manoj; Senthil Kumar, Dhanapal; Bhatia, Sandeep; Dash, Sandeep Kumar; Bhat, Sushant; Khetan, Rohit K; Nagarajan, Shanmugasundaram

    2016-10-01

    One of the major causes of death in highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection in chickens is acute induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (cytokine storm), which leads to severe pathology and acute mortality. DCs and respiratory tract macrophages are the major antigen presenting cells that are exposed to mucosal pathogens. We hypothesized that chicken DCs are a major target for induction of cytokine dysregulation by H5N1 HPAIV. It was found that infection of chicken peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells (chMoDCs) with H5N1 HPAIV produces high titers of progeny virus with more rounding and cytotoxicity than with H9N2 LPAIV. Expression of maturation markers (CD40, CD80 and CD83) was weaker in both H5N1 and H9N2 groups than in a LPS control group. INF-α, -β and -γ were significantly upregulated in the H5N1 group. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-18) were highly upregulated in early mid (IL-1), and late (IL-6) phases of H5N1 virus infection. IL-8 (CXCLi2) mRNA expression was significantly stronger in the H5N1 group from 6 hr of infection. TLR3, 7, 15 and 21 were upregulated 24 hr after infection by H5N1 virus compared with H9N2 virus, with maximum expression of TLR 3 mRNA. Similarly, greater H5N1 virus-induced apoptotic cell death and cytotoxicity, as measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling and lactate dehydrogenase assays, respectively, were found. Thus, both H5N1 and H9N2 viruses evade the host immune system by inducing impairment of chMoDCs maturation and enhancing cytokine dysregulation in H5N1 HPAIV-infected cells.

  11. Prior infection of chickens with H1N1 or H1N2 avian influenza elicits partial heterologous protection against highly pathogenic H5N1.

    PubMed

    Nfon, Charles; Berhane, Yohannes; Pasick, John; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Kobinger, Gary; Kobasa, Darwyn; Babiuk, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    There is a critical need to have vaccines that can protect against emerging pandemic influenza viruses. Commonly used influenza vaccines are killed whole virus that protect against homologous and not heterologous virus. Using chickens we have explored the possibility of using live low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A/goose/AB/223/2005 H1N1 or A/WBS/MB/325/2006 H1N2 to induce immunity against heterologous highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A/chicken/Vietnam/14/2005 H5N1. H1N1 and H1N2 replicated in chickens but did not cause clinical disease. Following infection, chickens developed nucleoprotein and H1 specific antibodies, and reduced H5N1 plaque size in vitro in the absence of H5 neutralizing antibodies at 21 days post infection (DPI). In addition, heterologous cell mediated immunity (CMI) was demonstrated by antigen-specific proliferation and IFN-γ secretion in PBMCs re-stimulated with H5N1 antigen. Following H5N1 challenge of both pre-infected and naïve controls chickens housed together, all naïve chickens developed acute disease and died while H1N1 or H1N2 pre-infected chickens had reduced clinical disease and 70-80% survived. H1N1 or H1N2 pre-infected chickens were also challenged with H5N1 and naïve chickens placed in the same room one day later. All pre-infected birds were protected from H5N1 challenge but shed infectious virus to naïve contact chickens. However, disease onset, severity and mortality was reduced and delayed in the naïve contacts compared to directly inoculated naïve controls. These results indicate that prior infection with LPAI virus can generate heterologous protection against HPAI H5N1 in the absence of specific H5 antibody.

  12. Potential spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 by wildfowl: dispersal ranges and rates determined from large-scale satellite telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaidet, Nicolas; Cappelle, Julien; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Douglas, David C.; Perry, William M.; Mundkur, Taej; Newman, Scott H.

    2010-01-01

    1. Migratory birds are major candidates for long-distance dispersal of zoonotic pathogens. In recent years, wildfowl have been suspected of contributing to the rapid geographic spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus. Experimental infection studies reveal that some wild ducks, geese and swans shed this virus asymptomatically and hence have the potential to spread it as they move. 2. We evaluate the dispersive potential of HPAI H5N1 viruses by wildfowl through an analysis of the movement range and movement rate of birds monitored by satellite telemetry in relation to the apparent asymptomatic infection duration (AID) measured in experimental studies. We analysed the first large-scale data set of wildfowl movements, including 228 birds from 19 species monitored by satellite telemetry in 2006–2009, over HPAI H5N1 affected regions of Asia, Europe and Africa. 3. Our results indicate that individual migratory wildfowl have the potential to disperse HPAI H5N1 over extensive distances, being able to perform movements of up to 2900 km within timeframes compatible with the duration of asymptomatic infection. 4. However, the likelihood of such virus dispersal over long distances by individual wildfowl is low: we estimate that for an individual migratory bird there are, on average, only 5–15 days per year when infection could result in the dispersal of HPAI H5N1 virus over 500 km. 5. Staging at stopover sites during migration is typically longer than the period of infection and viral shedding, preventing birds from dispersing a virus over several consecutive but interrupted long-distance movements. Intercontinental virus dispersion would therefore probably require relay transmission between a series of successively infected migratory birds. 6. Synthesis and applications. Our results provide a detailed quantitative assessment of the dispersive potential of HPAI H5N1 virus by selected migratory birds. Such dispersive potential rests on the

  13. Experimental infection of a North American raptor, American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1).

    PubMed

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Ip, Hon S; Franson, J Christian; Meteyer, Carol; Nashold, Sean; TeSlaa, Joshua L; French, John; Redig, Patrick; Brand, Christopher

    2009-10-22

    Several species of wild raptors have been found in Eurasia infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1. Should HPAIV (H5N1) reach North America in migratory birds, species of raptors are at risk not only from environmental exposure, but also from consuming infected birds and carcasses. In this study we used American kestrels as a representative species of a North American raptor to examine the effects of HPAIV (H5N1) infection in terms of dose response, viral shedding, pathology, and survival. Our data showed that kestrels are highly susceptible to HPAIV (H5N1). All birds typically died or were euthanized due to severe neurologic disease within 4-5 days of inoculation and shed significant amounts of virus both orally and cloacally, regardless of dose administered. The most consistent microscopic lesions were necrosis in the brain and pancreas. This is the first experimental study of HPAIV infection in a North American raptor and highlights the potential risks to birds of prey if HPAIV (H5N1) is introduced into North America.

  14. Chances and limitations of wild bird monitoring for the avian influenza virus H5N1--detection of pathogens highly mobile in time and space.

    PubMed

    Wilking, Hendrik; Ziller, Mario; Staubach, Christoph; Globig, Anja; Harder, Timm C; Conraths, Franz J

    2009-08-14

    Highly pathogenic influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 proved to be remarkably mobile in migratory bird populations where it has led to extensive outbreaks for which the true number of affected birds usually cannot be determined. For the evaluation of avian influenza monitoring and HPAIV early warning systems, we propose a time-series analysis that includes the estimation of confidence intervals for (i) the prevalence in outbreak situations or (ii) in the apparent absence of disease in time intervals for specified regional units. For the German outbreak regions in 2006 and 2007, the upper 95% confidence limit allowed the detection of prevalences below 1% only for certain time intervals. Although more than 25,000 birds were sampled in Germany per year, the upper 95% confidence limit did not fall below 5% in the outbreak regions for most of the time. The proposed analysis can be used to monitor water bodies and high risk areas, also as part of an early-warning system. Chances for an improved targeting of the monitoring system as part of a risk-based approach are discussed with the perspective of reducing sample sizes.

  15. Experimental infection of a North American raptor, American kestrel (Falco sparverius), with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, J.S.; Ip, H.S.; Franson, J.C.; Meteyer, C.; Nashold, S.; Teslaa, J.L.; French, J.; Redig, P.; Brand, C.

    2009-01-01

    Several species of wild raptors have been found in Eurasia infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1. Should HPAIV (H5N1) reach North America in migratory birds, species of raptors are at risk not only from environmental exposure, but also from consuming infected birds and carcasses. In this study we used American kestrels as a representative species of a North American raptor to examine the effects of HPAIV (H5N1) infection in terms of dose response, viral shedding, pathology, and survival. Our data showed that kestrels are highly susceptible to HPAIV (H5N1). All birds typically died or were euthanized due to severe neurologic disease within 4-5 days of inoculation and shed significant amounts of virus both orally and cloacally, regardless of dose administered. The most consistent microscopic lesions were necrosis in the brain and pancreas. This is the first experimental study of HPAIV infection in a North American raptor and highlights the potential risks to birds of prey if HPAIV (H5N1) is introduced into North America.

  16. Southward autumn migration of waterfowl facilitates cross-continental transmission of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanjie; Gong, Peng; Wielstra, Ben; Si, Yali

    2016-08-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) is a worldwide zoonotic infectious disease, threatening humans, poultry and wild birds. The role of wild birds in the spread of HPAI H5N1 has previously been investigated by comparing disease spread patterns with bird migration routes. However, the different roles that the southward autumn and northward spring migration might play in virus transmission have hardly been explored. Using direction analysis, we analyze HPAI H5N1 transmission directions and angular concentration of currently circulating viral clades, and compare these with waterfowl seasonal migration directions along major waterfowl flyways. Out of 22 HPAI H5N1 transmission directions, 18 had both a southward direction and a relatively high concentration. Differences between disease transmission and waterfowl migration directions were significantly smaller for autumn than for spring migration. The four northward transmission directions were found along Asian flyways, where the initial epicenter of the virus was located. We suggest waterfowl first picked up the virus from East Asia, then brought it to the north via spring migration, and then spread it to other parts of world mainly by autumn migration. We emphasize waterfowl autumn migration plays a relatively important role in HPAI H5N1 transmission compared to spring migration.

  17. Quantitative assessment of a spatial multicriteria model for highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in Thailand, and application in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Mathilde C.; Goutard, Flavie L.; Roulleau, Floriane; Holl, Davun; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Roger, François L.; Tran, Annelise

    2016-01-01

    The Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 (HPAI) virus is now considered endemic in several Asian countries. In Cambodia, the virus has been circulating in the poultry population since 2004, with a dramatic effect on farmers’ livelihoods and public health. In Thailand, surveillance and control are still important to prevent any new H5N1 incursion. Risk mapping can contribute effectively to disease surveillance and control systems, but is a very challenging task in the absence of reliable disease data. In this work, we used spatial multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) to produce risk maps for HPAI H5N1 in poultry. We aimed to i) evaluate the performance of the MCDA approach to predict areas suitable for H5N1 based on a dataset from Thailand, comparing the predictive capacities of two sources of a priori knowledge (literature and experts), and ii) apply the best method to produce a risk map for H5N1 in poultry in Cambodia. Our results showed that the expert-based model had a very high predictive capacity in Thailand (AUC = 0.97). Applied in Cambodia, MCDA mapping made it possible to identify hotspots suitable for HPAI H5N1 in the Tonlé Sap watershed, around the cities of Battambang and Kampong Cham, and along the Vietnamese border. PMID:27489997

  18. Therapeutic efficacy of peramivir against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses harboring the neuraminidase H275Y mutation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masanori; Kodama, Makoto; Noshi, Takeshi; Yoshida, Ryu; Kanazu, Takushi; Nomura, Naoki; Soda, Kosuke; Isoda, Norikazu; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Yamano, Yoshinori; Sato, Akihiko; Kida, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    High morbidity and mortality associated with human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, including H5N1 influenza virus, have been reported. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the antiviral effects of peramivir against HPAI viruses. In neuraminidase (NA) inhibition and virus replication inhibition assays, peramivir showed strong inhibitory activity against H5N1, H7N1 and H7N7 HPAI viruses with sub-nanomolar activity in enzyme assays. In H5N1 viruses containing the NA H275Y mutation, the antiviral activity of peramivir against the variant was lower than that against the wild-type. Evaluation of the in vivo antiviral activity showed that a single intravenous treatment of peramivir (10 mg/kg) prevented lethality in mice infected with wild-type H5N1 virus and also following infection with H5N1 virus with the H275Y mutation after a 5 day administration of peramivir (30 mg/kg). Furthermore, mice injected with peramivir showed low viral titers and low levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the lungs. These results suggest that peramivir has therapeutic activity against HPAI viruses even if the virus harbors the NA H275Y mutation.

  19. Molecular characterization of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 viruses isolated from Baikal teals found dead during a 2014 outbreak in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seol-Hee; Hur, Moonsuk; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Woo, Chanjin; Wang, Seung-Jun; Park, Eung-Roh; Hwang, Jongkyung; An, In-Jung; Jo, Seong-Deok; Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Yu, Seung Do; Choi, Kyunghee; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Nineteen highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 viruses were isolated from wild birds in the Donglim reservoir in Gochang, Jeonbuk province, Korea, which was first reported to be an outbreak site on January 17, 2014. Most genes from the nineteen viruses shared high nucleotide sequence identities (i.e., 99.7% to 100%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that these viruses were reassortants of the HPAI H5 subtype and the H4N2 strain and that their hemagglutinin clade was 2.3.4.4, which originated from Eastern China. The hemagglutinin protein contained Q222 and G224 at the receptor-binding site. Although the neuraminidase protein contained I314V and the matrix 2 protein contained an S31N substitution, other mutations resulting in oseltamivir and amantadine resistance were not detected. No substitutions associated with increased virulence and enhanced transmission in mammals were detected in the polymerase basic protein 2 (627E and 701D). Non-structural-1 was 237 amino acids long and had an ESEV motif with additional RGNKMAD amino acids in the C terminal region. These viruses caused deaths in the Baikal teal, which was unusual, and outbreaks occurred at the same time in both poultry and wild birds. These data are helpful for epidemiological understanding of HPAI and the design of prevention strategies. PMID:26245355

  20. Role of vaccination-induced immunity and antigenic distance in the transmission dynamics of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1.

    PubMed

    Sitaras, Ioannis; Rousou, Xanthoula; Kalthoff, Donata; Beer, Martin; Peeters, Ben; de Jong, Mart C M

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 epidemics in poultry cause huge economic losses as well as sporadic human morbidity and mortality. Vaccination in poultry has often been reported as being ineffective in preventing transmission and as a potential driving force in the selection of immune escape mutants. We conducted transmission experiments to evaluate the transmission dynamics of HPAI H5N1 strains in chickens vaccinated with high and low doses of immune escape mutants we have previously selected, and analysed the data using mathematical models. Remarkably, we demonstrate that the effect of antigenic distances between the vaccine and challenge strains used in this study is too small to influence the transmission dynamics of the strains used. This is because the effect of a sufficient vaccine dose on antibody levels against the challenge viruses is large enough to compensate for any decrease in antibody titres due to antigenic differences between vaccine and challenge strains. Our results show that at least under experimental conditions, vaccination will remain effective even after antigenic changes as may be caused by the initial selection in vaccinated birds.

  1. Role of vaccination-induced immunity and antigenic distance in the transmission dynamics of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1

    PubMed Central

    Rousou, Xanthoula; Kalthoff, Donata; Beer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 epidemics in poultry cause huge economic losses as well as sporadic human morbidity and mortality. Vaccination in poultry has often been reported as being ineffective in preventing transmission and as a potential driving force in the selection of immune escape mutants. We conducted transmission experiments to evaluate the transmission dynamics of HPAI H5N1 strains in chickens vaccinated with high and low doses of immune escape mutants we have previously selected, and analysed the data using mathematical models. Remarkably, we demonstrate that the effect of antigenic distances between the vaccine and challenge strains used in this study is too small to influence the transmission dynamics of the strains used. This is because the effect of a sufficient vaccine dose on antibody levels against the challenge viruses is large enough to compensate for any decrease in antibody titres due to antigenic differences between vaccine and challenge strains. Our results show that at least under experimental conditions, vaccination will remain effective even after antigenic changes as may be caused by the initial selection in vaccinated birds. PMID:26763336

  2. Southward autumn migration of waterfowl facilitates cross-continental transmission of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanjie; Gong, Peng; Wielstra, Ben; Si, Yali

    2016-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) is a worldwide zoonotic infectious disease, threatening humans, poultry and wild birds. The role of wild birds in the spread of HPAI H5N1 has previously been investigated by comparing disease spread patterns with bird migration routes. However, the different roles that the southward autumn and northward spring migration might play in virus transmission have hardly been explored. Using direction analysis, we analyze HPAI H5N1 transmission directions and angular concentration of currently circulating viral clades, and compare these with waterfowl seasonal migration directions along major waterfowl flyways. Out of 22 HPAI H5N1 transmission directions, 18 had both a southward direction and a relatively high concentration. Differences between disease transmission and waterfowl migration directions were significantly smaller for autumn than for spring migration. The four northward transmission directions were found along Asian flyways, where the initial epicenter of the virus was located. We suggest waterfowl first picked up the virus from East Asia, then brought it to the north via spring migration, and then spread it to other parts of world mainly by autumn migration. We emphasize waterfowl autumn migration plays a relatively important role in HPAI H5N1 transmission compared to spring migration. PMID:27507581

  3. A retrospective description of a highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H7N1/Carduelis/Germany/72) in a free-living siskin (Carduelis spinus Linnaeus, 1758) and its accidental transmission to yellow canaries (Serinus canaria Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Kaleta, E F; Hönicke, A

    2005-01-01

    A haemagglutinating virus was isolated in summer 1972 from a single free-living siskin (Carduelis spinus Linnaeus, 1758) in embryonated chicken eggs. Additional cases of morbidity or mortality were not observed in the area were the sick siskin was found. The virus was characterized as an avian influenza A virus of the subtype H7N1 and designated H7N1/Carduelis/Germany/72. The virus induced following experimental inoculation of chicken embryos a high rate mortality (mean death time approximately 24 hours), formed plaques in chicken embryo fibroblast cultures without addition of trypsin and has an intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) of 1.80. Therefore, this virus is considered as a highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus. Canaries (Serinus canarius Linnaeus, 1758), that were housed in the same room with the siskin were accidentially exposed by contact to the sick siskin which resulted in virus transmission followed by conjunctivitis, apathy, anorexia and a high rate mortality.

  4. Differential host gene expression in cells infected with highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Sarmento, Luciana; Afonso, Claudio L; Estevez, Carlos; Wasilenko, Jamie; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary

    2008-10-15

    In order to understand the molecular mechanisms by which different strains of avian influenza viruses overcome host response in birds, we used a complete chicken genome microarray to compare early gene expression levels in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) infected with two avian influenza viruses (AIV), A/CK/Hong Kong/220/97 and A/Egret/Hong Kong/757.2/02, with different replication characteristics. Gene ontology revealed that the genes with altered expression are involved in many vital functional classes including protein metabolism, translation, transcription, host defense/immune response, ubiquitination and the cell cycle. Among the immune-related genes, MEK2, MHC class I, PDCD10 and Bcl-3 were selected for further expression analysis at 24 hpi using semi-quantitive RT-PCR. Infection of CEF with A/Egret/Hong Kong/757.2/02 resulted in a marked repression of MEK2 and MHC class I gene expression levels. Infection of CEF with A/CK/Hong Kong/220/97 induced an increase of MEK2 and a decrease in PDCD10 and Bcl-3 expression levels. The expression levels of alpha interferon (IFN-alpha), myxovirus resistance 1 (Mx1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were also analyzed at 24 hpi, showing higher expression levels of all of these genes after infection with A/CK/Hong Kong/220/97 compared to A/Egret/Hong Kong/757.2/02. In addition, comparison of the NS1 sequences of the viruses revealed amino acid differences that may explain in part the differences in IFN-alpha expression observed. Microarray gene expression analysis has proven to be a useful tool on providing important insights into how different AIVs affect host gene expression and how AIVs may use different strategies to evade host response and replicate in host cells.

  5. Mammalian Innate Resistance to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Infection Is Mediated through Reduced Proinflammation and Infectious Virus Release

    PubMed Central

    Nelli, Rahul K.; Dunham, Stephen P.; Kuchipudi, Suresh V.; White, Gavin A.; Baquero-Perez, Belinda; Chang, Pengxiang; Ghaemmaghami, Amir; Brookes, Sharon M.; Brown, Ian H.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory epithelial cells and macrophages are the key innate immune cells that play an important role in the pathogenesis of influenza A virus infection. We found that these two cell types from both human and pig showed comparable susceptibilities to initial infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus (A/turkey/Turkey/1/05) and a moderately pathogenic human influenza H1N1 virus (A/USSR/77), but there were contrasting differences in host innate immune responses. Human cells mounted vigorous cytokine (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α] and interleukin-6 [IL-6]) and chemokine (CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11) responses to H5N1 virus infection. However, pig epithelial cells and macrophages showed weak or no TNF-α and chemokine induction with the same infections. The apparent lack of a strong proinflammatory response, corroborated by the absence of TNF-α induction in H5N1 virus-challenged pigs, coincided with greater cell death and the reduced release of infectious virus from infected pig epithelial cells. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), a protein suppressor of the JAK-STAT pathway, was constitutively highly expressed and transcriptionally upregulated in H5N1 virus-infected pig epithelial cells and macrophages, in contrast to the corresponding human cells. The overexpression of SOCS3 in infected human macrophages dampened TNF-α induction. In summary, we found that the reported low susceptibility of pigs to contemporary Eurasian HPAI H5N1 virus infections coincides at the level of innate immunity of respiratory epithelial cells and macrophages with a reduced output of viable virus and an attenuated proinflammatory response, possibly mediated in part by SOCS3, which could serve as a target in the treatment or prevention of virus-induced hypercytokinemia, as observed for humans. PMID:22718824

  6. Infection Risk for Persons Exposed to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A H5 Virus–Infected Birds, United States, December 2014–March 2015

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Deborah I.; Deliberto, Thomas J.; Blanton, Lenee; Kniss, Krista; Levine, Min Z.; Trock, Susan C.; Finelli, Lyn; Jhung, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Newly emerged highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A H5 viruses have caused outbreaks among birds in the United States. These viruses differ genetically from HPAI H5 viruses that previously caused human illness, most notably in Asia and Africa. To assess the risk for animal-to-human HPAI H5 virus transmission in the United States, we determined the number of persons with self-reported exposure to infected birds, the number with an acute respiratory infection (ARI) during a 10-day postexposure period, and the number with ARI who tested positive for influenza by real-time reverse transcription PCR or serologic testing for each outbreak during December 15, 2014–March 31, 2015. During 60 outbreaks in 13 states, a total of 164 persons were exposed to infected birds. ARI developed in 5 of these persons within 10 days of exposure. H5 influenza virus infection was not identified in any persons with ARI, suggesting a low risk for animal-to-human HPAI H5 virus transmission. PMID:26583382

  7. Agro-ecological features of the introduction and spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Cecchi, Giuliano; Ilemobade, Albert; Le Brun, Yvon; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Slingenbergh, Jan

    2008-11-01

    Nigeria was the first African country to report highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus outbreaks in February 2006 and has since been the most severely hit country in sub-Saharan Africa. A retrospective survey carried out towards the end of 2007, coupled with follow-up spatial analysis, support the notion that the H5N1 virus may have spread from rural areas of northern Nigeria near wetlands frequented by palaearctic migratory birds. Possibly, this could have happened already during November to December 2005, one or two months prior to the first officially reported outbreak in a commercial poultry farm (Kaduna state). It is plausible that backyard poultry played a more important role in the H5N1 propagation than thought previously. Farming landscapes with significant numbers of domestic ducks may have helped to bridge the geographical and ecological gap between the waterfowl in the wetlands and the densely populated poultry rich states in north-central Nigeria, where the virus had more sizeable, visible impact.

  8. Epidemiological and Evolutionary Inference of the Transmission Network of the 2014 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N2 Outbreak in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wanhong; Berhane, Yohannes; Dubé, Caroline; Liang, Binhua; Pasick, John; VanDomselaar, Gary; Alexandersen, Soren

    2016-01-01

    The first North American outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) involving a virus of Eurasian A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (H5N1) lineage began in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, Canada in late November 2014. A total of 11 commercial and 1 non-commercial (backyard) operations were infected before the outbreak was terminated. Control measures included movement restrictions that were placed on a total of 404 individual premises, 150 of which were located within a 3 km radius of an infected premise(s) (IP). A complete epidemiological investigation revealed that the source of this HPAI H5N2 virus for 4 of the commercial IPs and the single non-commercial IP likely involved indirect contact with wild birds. Three IPs were associated with the movement of birds or service providers and localized/environmental spread was suspected as the source of infection for the remaining 4 IPs. Viral phylogenies, as determined by Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood methods, were used to validate the epidemiologically inferred transmission network. The phylogenetic clustering of concatenated viral genomes and the median-joining phylogenetic network of the viruses supported, for the most part, the transmission network that was inferred by the epidemiologic analysis. PMID:27489095

  9. Global mapping of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 and H5Nx clade 2.3.4.4 viruses with spatial cross-validation

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Madhur S; Artois, Jean; Robinson, Timothy P; Linard, Catherine; Chaiban, Celia; Xenarios, Ioannis; Engler, Robin; Liechti, Robin; Kuznetsov, Dmitri; Xiao, Xiangming; Dobschuetz, Sophie Von; Claes, Filip; Newman, Scott H; Dauphin, Gwenaëlle; Gilbert, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Global disease suitability models are essential tools to inform surveillance systems and enable early detection. We present the first global suitability model of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and demonstrate that reliable predictions can be obtained at global scale. Best predictions are obtained using spatial predictor variables describing host distributions, rather than land use or eco-climatic spatial predictor variables, with a strong association with domestic duck and extensively raised chicken densities. Our results also support a more systematic use of spatial cross-validation in large-scale disease suitability modelling compared to standard random cross-validation that can lead to unreliable measure of extrapolation accuracy. A global suitability model of the H5 clade 2.3.4.4 viruses, a group of viruses that recently spread extensively in Asia and the US, shows in comparison a lower spatial extrapolation capacity than the HPAI H5N1 models, with a stronger association with intensively raised chicken densities and anthropogenic factors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19571.001 PMID:27885988

  10. Pathologic Changes in Wild Birds Infected with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses, South Korea, 2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Jang, Il; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Lee, Hee-Soo; Joo, Yi-Seok; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Baek, Kang-Hyun; Bae, You-Chan

    2015-05-01

    In January 2014, an outbreak of infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) virus began on a duck farm in South Korea and spread to other poultry farms nearby. During this outbreak, many sick or dead wild birds were found around habitats frequented by migratory birds. To determine the causes of death, we examined 771 wild bird carcasses and identified HPAI A(H5N8) virus in 167. Gross and histologic lesions were observed in pancreas, lung, brain, and kidney of Baikal teals, bean geese, and whooper swans but not mallard ducks. Such lesions are consistent with lethal HPAI A(H5N8) virus infection. However, some HPAI-positive birds had died of gunshot wounds, peritonitis, or agrochemical poisoning rather than virus infection. These findings suggest that susceptibility to HPAI A(H5N8) virus varies among species of migratory birds and that asymptomatic migratory birds could be carriers of this virus.

  11. Flying over an infected landscape: distribution of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 risk in South Asia and satellite tracking of wild waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, Marius; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Loth, Leo; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Prosser, Diann J.; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Rao, Mandava Venkata Subba; Mundkur, Taej; Yan, Baoping; Xing, Zhi; Hou, Yuansheng; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Tseveenmayadag, Natsagdorj; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Slingenbergh, Jan; Xiao, Xiangming

    2010-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus persists in Asia, posing a threat to poultry, wild birds, and humans. Previous work in Southeast Asia demonstrated that HPAI H5N1 risk is related to domestic ducks and people. Other studies discussed the role of migratory birds in the long distance spread of HPAI H5N1. However, the interplay between local persistence and long-distance dispersal has never been studied. We expand previous geospatial risk analysis to include South and Southeast Asia, and integrate the analysis with migration data of satellite-tracked wild waterfowl along the Central Asia flyway. We find that the population of domestic duck is the main factor delineating areas at risk of HPAI H5N1 spread in domestic poultry in South Asia, and that other risk factors, such as human population and chicken density, are associated with HPAI H5N1 risk within those areas. We also find that satellite tracked birds (Ruddy Shelduck and two Bar-headed Geese) reveal a direct spatio-temporal link between the HPAI H5N1 hot-spots identified in India and Bangladesh through our risk model, and the wild bird outbreaks in May,June,July 2009 in China(Qinghai Lake), Mongolia, and Russia. This suggests that the continental-scale dynamics of HPAI H5N1 are structured as a number of persistence areas delineated by domestic ducks, connected by rare transmission through migratory waterfowl.

  12. Phylodynamics of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Europe, 2005-2010: Potential for Molecular Surveillance of New Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Alkhamis, Mohammad A; Moore, Brian R; Perez, Andres M

    2015-06-23

    Previous Bayesian phylogeographic studies of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) explored the origin and spread of the epidemic from China into Russia, indicating that HPAIV circulated in Russia prior to its detection there in 2005. In this study, we extend this research to explore the evolution and spread of HPAIV within Europe during the 2005-2010 epidemic, using all available sequences of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene regions that were collected in Europe and Russia during the outbreak. We use discrete-trait phylodynamic models within a Bayesian statistical framework to explore the evolution of HPAIV. Our results indicate that the genetic diversity and effective population size of HPAIV peaked between mid-2005 and early 2006, followed by drastic decline in 2007, which coincides with the end of the epidemic in Europe. Our results also suggest that domestic birds were the most likely source of the spread of the virus from Russia into Europe. Additionally, estimates of viral dispersal routes indicate that Russia, Romania, and Germany were key epicenters of these outbreaks. Our study quantifies the dynamics of a major European HPAIV pandemic and substantiates the ability of phylodynamic models to improve molecular surveillance of novel AIVs.

  13. Factors Associated with the Emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Poultry Outbreaks in China: Evidence from an Epidemiological Investigation in Ningxia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Zhou, X; Zhao, Y; Zheng, D; Wang, J; Wang, X; Castellan, D; Huang, B; Wang, Z; Soares Magalhães, R J

    2015-10-30

    In April 2012, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype (HPAIV H5N1) emerged in poultry layers in Ningxia. A retrospective case-control study was conducted to identify possible risk factors associated with the emergence of H5N1 infection and describe and quantify the spatial variation in H5N1 infection. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors significantly associated with the presence of infection; residual spatial variation in H5N1 risk unaccounted by the factors included in the multivariable model was investigated using a semivariogram. Our results indicate that HPAIV H5N1-infected farms were three times more likely to improperly dispose farm waste [adjusted OR = 0.37; 95% CI: 0.12-0.82] and five times more likely to have had visitors in their farm within the past month [adjusted OR = 5.47; 95% CI: 1.97-15.64] compared to H5N1-non-infected farms. The variables included in the final multivariable model accounted only 20% for the spatial clustering of H5N1 infection. The average size of a H5N1 cluster was 660 m. Bio-exclusion practices should be strengthened on poultry farms to prevent further emergence of H5N1 infection. For future poultry depopulation, operations should consider H5N1 disease clusters to be as large as 700 m.

  14. Impact of the implementation of rest days in live bird markets on the dynamics of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Fournié, G; Guitian, F J; Mangtani, P; Ghani, A C

    2011-08-07

    Live bird markets (LBMs) act as a network 'hub' and potential reservoir of infection for domestic poultry. They may therefore be responsible for sustaining H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus circulation within the poultry sector, and thus a suitable target for implementing control strategies. We developed a stochastic transmission model to understand how market functioning impacts on the transmission dynamics. We then investigated the potential for rest days-periods during which markets are emptied and disinfected-to modulate the dynamics of H5N1 HPAI within the poultry sector using a stochastic meta-population model. Our results suggest that under plausible parameter scenarios, HPAI H5N1 could be sustained silently within LBMs with the time spent by poultry in markets and the frequency of introduction of new susceptible birds' dominant factors determining sustained silent spread. Compared with interventions applied in farms (i.e. stamping out, vaccination), our model shows that frequent rest days are an effective means to reduce HPAI transmission. Furthermore, our model predicts that full market closure would be only slightly more effective than rest days to reduce transmission. Strategies applied within markets could thus help to control transmission of the disease.

  15. Phylodynamics of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Europe, 2005–2010: Potential for Molecular Surveillance of New Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Alkhamis, Mohammad A.; Moore, Brian R.; Perez, Andres M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous Bayesian phylogeographic studies of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) explored the origin and spread of the epidemic from China into Russia, indicating that HPAIV circulated in Russia prior to its detection there in 2005. In this study, we extend this research to explore the evolution and spread of HPAIV within Europe during the 2005–2010 epidemic, using all available sequences of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene regions that were collected in Europe and Russia during the outbreak. We use discrete-trait phylodynamic models within a Bayesian statistical framework to explore the evolution of HPAIV. Our results indicate that the genetic diversity and effective population size of HPAIV peaked between mid-2005 and early 2006, followed by drastic decline in 2007, which coincides with the end of the epidemic in Europe. Our results also suggest that domestic birds were the most likely source of the spread of the virus from Russia into Europe. Additionally, estimates of viral dispersal routes indicate that Russia, Romania, and Germany were key epicenters of these outbreaks. Our study quantifies the dynamics of a major European HPAIV pandemic and substantiates the ability of phylodynamic models to improve molecular surveillance of novel AIVs. PMID:26110587

  16. Pathologic Changes in Wild Birds Infected with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses, South Korea, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Jang, Il; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Lee, Hee-Soo; Joo, Yi-Seok; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Baek, Kang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    In January 2014, an outbreak of infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) virus began on a duck farm in South Korea and spread to other poultry farms nearby. During this outbreak, many sick or dead wild birds were found around habitats frequented by migratory birds. To determine the causes of death, we examined 771 wild bird carcasses and identified HPAI A(H5N8) virus in 167. Gross and histologic lesions were observed in pancreas, lung, brain, and kidney of Baikal teals, bean geese, and whooper swans but not mallard ducks. Such lesions are consistent with lethal HPAI A(H5N8) virus infection. However, some HPAI-positive birds had died of gunshot wounds, peritonitis, or agrochemical poisoning rather than virus infection. These findings suggest that susceptibility to HPAI A(H5N8) virus varies among species of migratory birds and that asymptomatic migratory birds could be carriers of this virus. PMID:25897841

  17. Overview of incursions of Asian H5N1 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus into Great Britain, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Dennis J; Manvell, Ruth J; Irvine, Richard; Londt, Brandon Z; Cox, Bill; Ceeraz, Vanessa; Banks, Jill; Browna, Ian H

    2010-03-01

    Since 2005 there have been five incursions into Great Britain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of subtype H5N1 related to the ongoing global epizootic. The first incursion occurred in October 2005 in birds held in quarantine after importation from Taiwan. Two incursions related to wild birds: one involved a single dead whooper swan found in March 2006 in the sea off the east coast of Scotland, and the other involved 10 mute swans and a Canada goose found dead over the period extending from late December 2007 to late February 2008 on or close to a swannery on the south coast of England. The other two outbreaks occurred in commercial poultry in January 2007 and November 2007, both in the county of Suffolk. The first of these poultry outbreaks occurred on a large turkey farm, and there was no further spread. The second outbreak occurred on a free-range farm rearing turkeys, ducks, and geese and spread to birds on a second turkey farm that was culled as a dangerous contact. Viruses isolated from these five outbreaks were confirmed to be Asian H5N1 HPAI viruses; the quarantine outbreak was attributed to a clade 2.3 virus and the other four to clade 2.2 viruses. This article describes the outbreaks, their control, and the possible origins of the responsible viruses.

  18. Infection Risk for Persons Exposed to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A H5 Virus-Infected Birds, United States, December 2014-March 2015.

    PubMed

    Arriola, Carmen S; Nelson, Deborah I; Deliberto, Thomas J; Blanton, Lenee; Kniss, Krista; Levine, Min Z; Trock, Susan C; Finelli, Lyn; Jhung, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Newly emerged highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A H5 viruses have caused outbreaks among birds in the United States. These viruses differ genetically from HPAI H5 viruses that previously caused human illness, most notably in Asia and Africa. To assess the risk for animal-to-human HPAI H5 virus transmission in the United States, we determined the number of persons with self-reported exposure to infected birds, the number with an acute respiratory infection (ARI) during a 10-day postexposure period, and the number with ARI who tested positive for influenza by real-time reverse transcription PCR or serologic testing for each outbreak during December 15, 2014-March 31, 2015. During 60 outbreaks in 13 states, a total of 164 persons were exposed to infected birds. ARI developed in 5 of these persons within 10 days of exposure. H5 influenza virus infection was not identified in any persons with ARI, suggesting a low risk for animal-to-human HPAI H5 virus transmission.

  19. Human microRNA-24 modulates highly pathogenic avian-origin H5N1 influenza A virus infection in A549 cells by targeting secretory pathway furin.

    PubMed

    Loveday, Emma-Kate; Diederich, Sandra; Pasick, John; Jean, François

    2015-01-01

    A common critical cellular event that many human enveloped viruses share is the requirement for proteolytic cleavage of the viral glycoprotein by furin in the host secretory pathway. For example, the furin-dependent proteolytic activation of highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A (infA) H5 and H7 haemagglutinin precursor (HA0) subtypes is critical for yielding fusion-competent infectious virions. In this study, we hypothesized that viral hijacking of the furin pathway by HP infA viruses to permit cleavage of HA0 could represent a novel molecular mechanism controlling the dynamic production of fusion-competent infectious virus particles during the viral life cycle. We explored the biological role of a newly identified furin-directed human microRNA, miR-24, in this process as a potential post-transcriptional regulator of the furin-mediated activation of HA0 and production of fusion-competent virions in the host secretory pathway. We report that miR-24 and furin are differentially expressed in human A549 cells infected with HP avian-origin infA H5N1. Using miR-24 mimics, we demonstrated a robust decrease in both furin mRNA levels and intracellular furin activity in A549 cells. Importantly, pretreatment of A549 cells with miR-24 mimicked these results: a robust decrease of H5N1 infectious virions and a complete block of H5N1 virus spread that was not observed in A549 cells infected with low-pathogenicity swine-origin infA H1N1 virus. Our results suggest that viral-specific downregulation of furin-directed microRNAs such as miR-24 during the life cycle of HP infA viruses may represent a novel regulatory mechanism that governs furin-mediated proteolytic activation of HA0 glycoproteins and production of infectious virions.

  20. 9 CFR 145.15 - Diagnostic surveillance program for low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... low pathogenic avian influenza. 145.15 Section 145.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of...

  1. 9 CFR 145.15 - Diagnostic surveillance program for low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... low pathogenic avian influenza. 145.15 Section 145.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of...

  2. 9 CFR 145.15 - Diagnostic surveillance program for low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... low pathogenic avian influenza. 145.15 Section 145.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of...

  3. 9 CFR 145.15 - Diagnostic surveillance program for low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... low pathogenic avian influenza. 145.15 Section 145.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of...

  4. 9 CFR 145.15 - Diagnostic surveillance program for low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... low pathogenic avian influenza. 145.15 Section 145.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of...

  5. Low-Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild House Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shriner, Susan A.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Mooers, Nicole L.; Ellis, Jeremy W.; Sullivan, Heather J.; Root, J. Jeffrey; Pelzel, Angela M.; Franklin, Alan B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Avian influenza viruses are known to productively infect a number of mammal species, several of which are commonly found on or near poultry and gamebird farms. While control of rodent species is often used to limit avian influenza virus transmission within and among outbreak sites, few studies have investigated the potential role of these species in outbreak dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings We trapped and sampled synanthropic mammals on a gamebird farm in Idaho, USA that had recently experienced a low pathogenic avian influenza outbreak. Six of six house mice (Mus musculus) caught on the outbreak farm were presumptively positive for antibodies to type A influenza. Consequently, we experimentally infected groups of naïve wild-caught house mice with five different low pathogenic avian influenza viruses that included three viruses derived from wild birds and two viruses derived from chickens. Virus replication was efficient in house mice inoculated with viruses derived from wild birds and more moderate for chicken-derived viruses. Mean titers (EID50 equivalents/mL) across all lung samples from seven days of sampling (three mice/day) ranged from 103.89 (H3N6) to 105.06 (H4N6) for the wild bird viruses and 102.08 (H6N2) to 102.85 (H4N8) for the chicken-derived viruses. Interestingly, multiple regression models indicated differential replication between sexes, with significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of avian influenza RNA found in females compared with males. Conclusions/Significance Avian influenza viruses replicated efficiently in wild-caught house mice without adaptation, indicating mice may be a risk pathway for movement of avian influenza viruses on poultry and gamebird farms. Differential virus replication between males and females warrants further investigation to determine the generality of this result in avian influenza disease dynamics. PMID:22720076

  6. Novel Highly Pathogenic Avian A(H5N2) and A(H5N8) Influenza Viruses of Clade 2.3.4.4 from North America Have Limited Capacity for Replication and Transmission in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Bryan S.; Russier, Marion; Jeevan, Trushar; Marathe, Bindumadhav; Govorkova, Elena A.; Russell, Charles J.; Kim-Torchetti, Mia; Choi, Young Ki; Brown, Ian; Saito, Takehiko; Stallknecht, David E.; Krauss, Scott

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Highly pathogenic influenza A(H5N8) viruses from clade 2.3.4.4 were introduced to North America by migratory birds in the fall of 2014. Reassortment of A(H5N8) viruses with avian viruses of North American lineage resulted in the generation of novel A(H5N2) viruses with novel genotypes. Through sequencing of recent avian influenza viruses, we identified PB1 and NP gene segments very similar to those in the viruses isolated from North American waterfowl prior to the introduction of A(H5N8) to North America, highlighting these bird species in the origin of reassortant A(H5N2) viruses. While they were highly virulent and transmissible in poultry, we found A(H5N2) viruses to be low pathogenic in mice and ferrets, and replication was limited in both hosts compared with those of recent highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses. Molecular characterization of the hemagglutinin protein from A(H5N2) viruses showed that the receptor binding preference, cleavage, and pH of activation were highly adapted for replication in avian species and similar to those of other 2.3.4.4 viruses. In addition, North American and Eurasian clade 2.3.4.4 H5NX viruses replicated to significantly lower titers in differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells than did seasonal human A(H1N1) and highly pathogenic A(H5N1) viruses isolated from a human case. Thus, despite their having a high impact on poultry, our findings suggest that the recently emerging North American A(H5N2) viruses are not expected to pose a substantial threat to humans and other mammals without further reassortment and/or adaptation and that reassortment with North American viruses has not had a major impact on viral phenotype. IMPORTANCE Highly pathogenic H5 influenza viruses have been introduced into North America from Asia, causing extensive morbidity and mortality in domestic poultry. The introduced viruses have reassorted with North American avian influenza viruses, generating viral genotypes

  7. Rivers and flooded areas identified by medium-resolution remote sensing improve risk prediction of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Xiao, Xiang-Ming; Gilbert, Marius

    2013-11-01

    Thailand experienced several epidemic waves of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 between 2004 and 2005. This study investigated the role of water in the landscape, which has not been previously assessed because of a lack of high-resolution information on the distribution of flooded land at the time of the epidemic. Nine Landsat 7 - Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus scenes covering 174,610 km(2) were processed using k-means unsupervised classification to map the distribution of flooded areas as well as permanent lakes and reservoirs at the time of the main epidemic HPAI H5N1 wave of October 2004. These variables, together with other factors previously identified as significantly associated with risk, were entered into an autologistic regression model in order to quantify the gain in risk explanation over previously published models. We found that, in addition to other factors previously identified as associated with risk, the proportion of land covered by flooding along with expansion of rivers and streams, derived from an existing, sub-district level (administrative level no. 3) geographical information system database, was a highly significant risk factor in this 2004 HPAI epidemic. These results suggest that water-borne transmission could have partly contributed to the spread of HPAI H5N1 during the epidemic. Future work stemming from these results should involve studies where the actual distribution of small canals, rivers, ponds, rice paddy fields and farms are mapped and tested against farm-level data with respect to HPAI H5N1.

  8. Rivers and flooded areas identified by medium-resolution remote sensing improve risk prediction of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Xiao, Xiangming; Gilbert, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Thailand experienced several epidemic waves of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 between 2004 and 2005. This study investigated the role of water in the landscape, which has not been previously assessed because of a lack of high-resolution information on the distribution of flooded land at the time of the epidemic. Nine Landsat 7-Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus scenes covering 174,610 km2 were processed using k-means unsupervised classification to map the distribution of flooded areas as well as permanent lakes and reservoirs at the time of the main epidemic HPAI H5N1 wave of October 2004. These variables, together with other factors previously identified as significantly associated with risk, were entered into an autologistic regression model in order to quantify the gain in risk explanation over previously published models. We found that, in addition to other factors previously identified as associated with risk, the proportion of land covered by flooding along with expansion of rivers and streams, derived from an existing, sub-district level (administrative level no. 3) geographical information system database, was a highly significant risk factor in this 2004 HPAI epidemic. These results suggest that water-borne transmission could have partly contributed to the spread of HPAI H5N1 during the epidemic. Future work stemming from these results should involve studies where the actual distribution of small canals, rivers, ponds, rice paddy fields and farms are mapped and tested against farm-level data with respect to HPAI H5N1. PMID:24258895

  9. The Landscape Epidemiology of Seasonal Clustering of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) in Domestic Poultry in Africa, Europe and Asia.

    PubMed

    Walsh, M G; Amstislavski, P; Greene, A; Haseeb, M A

    2016-06-16

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 (H5N1) has contributed to substantial economic loss for backyard and large-scale poultry farmers each year since 1997. While the distribution of domestic H5N1 outbreaks across Africa, Europe and Asia is extensive, those features of the landscape conferring greatest risk remain uncertain. Furthermore, the extent to which influential landscape features may vary by season has been inadequately described. The current investigation used World Organization for Animal Health surveillance data to (i) delineate areas at greatest risk of H5N1 epizootics among domestic poultry, (ii) identify those abiotic and biotic features of the landscape associated with outbreak risk and (iii) examine patterns of epizootic clustering by season. Inhomogeneous point process models were used to predict the intensity of H5N1 outbreaks and describe the spatial dependencies between them. During October through March, decreasing precipitation, increasing isothermality and the presence of H5N1 in wild birds were significantly associated with the increased risk of domestic H5N1 epizootics. Conversely, increasing precipitation and decreasing isothermality were associated with the increased risk during April through September. Increasing temperature during the coldest quarter, domestic poultry density and proximity to surface water were associated with the increased risk of domestic outbreaks throughout the year. Spatial dependencies between outbreaks appeared to vary seasonally, with substantial clustering at small and large scales identified during October through March even after accounting for inhomogeneity due to landscape factors. In contrast, during April to September, H5N1 outbreaks exhibited no clustering at small scale once accounting for landscape factors. This investigation has identified seasonal differences in risk and clustering patterns of H5N1 outbreaks in domestic poultry and may suggest strategies in high-risk areas with features

  10. The Use of Spatial and Spatiotemporal Modeling for Surveillance of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Poultry in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Alkhamis, Mohammad; Hijmans, Robert J; Al-Enezi, Abdullah; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Perea, Andres M

    2016-05-01

    Since 2005, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) has severely impacted the economy and public health in the Middle East (ME) with Egypt as the most affected country. Understanding the high-risk areas and spatiotemporal distribution of the H5N1 HPAIV in poultry is prerequisite for establishing risk-based surveillance activities at a regional level in the ME. Here, we aimed to predict the geographic range of H5N1 HPAIV outbreaks in poultry in the ME using a set of environmental variables and to investigate the spatiotemporal clustering of outbreaks in the region. Data from the ME for the period 2005-14 were analyzed using maximum entropy ecological niche modeling and the permutation model of the scan statistics. The predicted range of high-risk areas (P > 0.60) for H5N1 HPAIV in poultry included parts of the ME northeastern countries, whereas the Egyptian Nile delta and valley were estimated to be the most suitable locations for occurrence of H5N1 HPAIV outbreaks. The most important environmental predictor that contributed to risk for H5N1 HPAIV was the precipitation of the warmest quarter (47.2%), followed by the type of global livestock production system (18.1%). Most significant spatiotemporal clusters (P < 0.001) were detected in Egypt, Turkey, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Sudan. Results suggest that more information related to poultry holding demographics is needed to further improve prediction of risk for H5N1 HPAIV in the ME, whereas the methodology presented here may be useful in guiding the design of surveillance programs and in identifying areas in which underreporting may have occurred.

  11. Isolation and characterization of avian influenza viruses, including highly pathogenic H5N1, from poultry in live bird markets in Hanoi, Vietnam, in 2001.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Doan C; Uyeki, Timothy M; Jadhao, Samadhan; Maines, Taronna; Shaw, Michael; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Smith, Catherine; Rowe, Thomas; Lu, Xiuhua; Hall, Henrietta; Xu, Xiyan; Balish, Amanda; Klimov, Alexander; Tumpey, Terrence M; Swayne, David E; Huynh, Lien P T; Nghiem, Ha K; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Hoang, Long T; Cox, Nancy J; Katz, Jacqueline M

    2005-04-01

    Since 1997, outbreaks of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 and circulation of H9N2 viruses among domestic poultry in Asia have posed a threat to public health. To better understand the extent of transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV) to humans in Asia, we conducted a cross-sectional virologic study in live bird markets (LBM) in Hanoi, Vietnam, in October 2001. Specimens from 189 birds and 18 environmental samples were collected at 10 LBM. Four influenza A viruses of the H4N6 (n = 1), H5N2 (n = 1), and H9N3 (n = 2) subtypes were isolated from healthy ducks for an isolation frequency of over 30% from this species. Two H5N1 viruses were isolated from healthy geese. The hemagglutinin (HA) genes of these H5N1 viruses possessed multiple basic amino acid motifs at the cleavage site, were HP for experimentally infected chickens, and were thus characterized as HP AIV. These HA genes shared high amino acid identities with genes of other H5N1 viruses isolated in Asia during this period, but they were genetically distinct from those of H5N1 viruses isolated from poultry and humans in Vietnam during the early 2004 outbreaks. These viruses were not highly virulent for experimentally infected ducks, mice, or ferrets. These results establish that HP H5N1 viruses with properties similar to viruses isolated in Hong Kong and mainland China circulated in Vietnam as early as 2001, suggest a common source for H5N1 viruses circulating in these Asian countries, and provide a framework to better understand the recent widespread emergence of HP H5N1 viruses in Asia.

  12. Epidemiological and ornithological aspects of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 of Asian lineage in wild birds in Germany, 2006 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Globig, A; Staubach, C; Beer, M; Köppen, U; Fiedler, W; Nieburg, M; Wilking, H; Starick, E; Teifke, J P; Werner, O; Unger, F; Grund, C; Wolf, C; Roost, H; Feldhusen, F; Conraths, F J; Mettenleiter, T C; Harder, T C

    2009-04-01

    In Germany, two distinct episodes of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of subtype H5N1 (HPAIV H5N1) in wild birds occurred at the beginning of 2006, and in summer 2007. High local densities of wild bird populations apparently sparked clinically detectable outbreaks. However, these remained restricted in (i) number of birds, (ii) species found to be affected, (iii) time, and (iv) location despite the presence of several hundred thousands of susceptible wild birds and further stressors (food shortage, harsh weather conditions and moulting). Northern and southern subpopulations of several migratory anseriform species can be distinguished with respect to their preference for wintering grounds in Germany. This corroborates viral genetic data by Starick et al. (2008) demonstrating the introduction of two geographically restricted virus subpopulations of Qinghai-like lineage (cluster 2.2.A and 2.2.B) into northern and southern Germany, respectively, in 2006. The incursion of virus emerging in 2007, found to be distinct from the clusters detected in 2006 (Starick et al., 2008), may have been associated with moulting movements. Intensive past-outbreak investigations with negative results of live and dead wild birds and of terrestrial scavengers excluded continued circulation of virus on a larger scale. However, persistence of virus in small pockets of local wild bird populations could not be ruled out resiliently. 1.5% of investigated sera originating from cats sampled at the epicentres of the Ruegen 2006-outbreak contained H5-antibodies. Passive monitoring was found to be highly superior to live bird surveillance when aiming at the detection of HPAIV H5N1 in wild birds (P < 0.0001).

  13. Heterogeneity in the haemagglutinin gene and emergence of the highly pathogenic phenotype among recent H5N2 avian influenza viruses from Mexico.

    PubMed

    García, M; Crawford, J M; Latimer, J W; Rivera-Cruz, E; Perdue, M L

    1996-07-01

    Molecular changes in the haemagglutinin (HA)-coding regions and proteolytic cleavage sites from multiple H5N2 subtype viruses isolated during a recent outbreak of avian influenza (AI) in central Mexico have been characterized. Eighteen isolates, collected during a 15 month period (October 1993 to January 1995) from six central states, were sequenced. None of the 18 predicted HA1 amino acid sequences were identical and changes were not restricted to a specific region of the sequence. Phylogenetic analyses of the HA1 sequences demonstrated two virus lineages, designated Puebla and Jalisco, with sequence variation as high as 10.5 percent for amino acid and 6.2 percent for nucleotide sequences. During the latter months of the surveillance period, highly pathogenic (HP) strains of AI emerged causing lethal disease in commercial poultry flocks. In each of the HP strains isolated, the HA protein was cleaved in chicken embryo fibroblast cells in the absence of trypsin, and two alterations not found in earlier non-HP isolates were detected. In the HA protein, HP strains all had a glutamic acid --> lysine substitution at amino acid position 324 and an insertion of arginine and lysine as new residues 325 and 326. The insertion appears to be due to a duplication of the nucleotide sequence AAAGAA at nucleotide positions 965-970 of the HA1-coding region. Computer-assisted secondary structure analyses place the target for the insertion in a predicted RNA stem-loop structure. A mechanism is suggested by which the polymerase duplicates the sequence.

  14. Previous infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus reduces highly pathogenic avian influenza virus replication, disease, and mortality in chickens.

    PubMed

    Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J; Shepherd, Eric; Cha, Ra Mi; Smith, Diane; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Suarez, David L; Swayne, David E; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J

    2015-09-23

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide and produce co-infections especially in areas of the world where both viruses are endemic; but little is known about the interactions between these two viruses. The objective of this study was to determine if co-infection with NDV affects HPAIV replication in chickens. Only infections with virulent NDV strains (mesogenic Pigeon/1984 or velogenic CA/2002), and not a lentogenic NDV strain (LaSota), interfered with the replication of HPAIV A/chicken/Queretaro/14588-19/95 (H5N2) when the H5N2 was given at a high dose (10(6.9) EID50) two days after the NDV inoculation, but despite this interference, mortality was still observed. However, chickens infected with the less virulent mesogenic NDV Pigeon/1984 strain three days prior to being infected with a lower dose (10(5.3-5.5) EID50) of the same or a different HPAIV, A/chicken/Jalisco/CPA-12283-12/2012 (H7N3), had reduced HPAIV replication and increased survival rates. In conclusion, previous infection of chickens with virulent NDV strains can reduce HPAIV replication, and consequently disease and mortality. This interference depends on the titer of the viruses used, the virulence of the NDV, and the timing of the infections. The information obtained from these studies helps to understand the possible interactions and outcomes of infection (disease and virus shedding) when HPAIV and NDV co-infect chickens in the field.

  15. Brief literature review for the WHO global influenza research agenda--highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 risk in humans.

    PubMed

    Van Kerkhove, Maria D

    2013-09-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses remain a significant health threat to humans given the continued rare occurrence of human cases with a high case fatality rate. This brief literature review summarizes available evidence of risk factors for H5N1 infection in humans and updates a recent systematic review published in early 2011. Several epidemiologic studies have been published to evaluate the risk factors for H5N1 infection in humans, including contact with poultry and poultry products and non-poultry-related contact such as from H5N1-contaminated water. While most H5N1 cases are attributed to exposure to sick poultry, it is unclear how many may be due to human-to-human transmission. The collective results of published literature suggest that transmission risk of H5N1 from poultry to humans may be highest among individuals who may have been in contact with the highest potential concentrations of virus shed by poultry. This suggests that there may be a threshold of virus concentration needed for effective transmission and that circulating H5N1 strains have not yet mutated to transmit readily from either poultry to human or from human to human. However, the mode of potential transmission can be quite varied throughout different countries and by study with exposures ranging from visiting a wet market, preparing infected poultry for consumption, to swimming or bathing in ponds frequented by poultry. Several important data gaps remain in the understanding of the epidemiology of H5N1 in humans and limit our ability to interpret the results of the available H5N1 seroepidemiologic studies.

  16. A genetically engineered H5 protein expressed in insect cells confers protection against different clades of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Cavalcanti, Marcia; Vaughn, Eric; Capua, Ilaria; Cattoli, Giovanni; Terregino, Calogero; Harder, Timm; Grund, Christian; Vega, Carlos; Robles, Francisco; Franco, Julio; Darji, Ayub; Arafa, Abdel-Satar; Mundt, Egbert

    2017-04-01

    The evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses (HPAI-H5N1) has resulted in the appearance of a number of diverse groups of HPAI-H5N1 based on the presence of genetically similar clusters of their haemagglutinin sequences (clades). An H5 antigen encoded by a recombinant baculovirus and expressed in insect cells was used for oil-emulsion-based vaccine prototypes. In several experiments, vaccination was performed at 10 days of age, followed by challenge infection on day 21 post vaccination (PV) with HPAI-H5N1 clades 2.2, 2.2.1, and 2.3.2. A further challenge infection with HPAI-H5N1 clade 2.2.1 was performed at day 42 PV. High haemagglutination inhibition titres were observed for the recH5 vaccine antigen, and lower haemagglutination inhibition titres for the challenge virus antigens. Nevertheless, the rate of protection from mortality and clinical signs was 100% when challenged at 21 days PV and 42 days PV, indicating protection over the entire broiler chicken rearing period without a second vaccination. The unvaccinated control chickens mostly died between two and five days after challenge infection. A low level of viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription followed by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction in a limited number of birds for a short period after challenge infection, indicating a limited spread of HPAI-H5N1 at flock level. Furthermore, it was observed that the vaccine can be used in a differentiation infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) approach, based on the detection of nucleoprotein antibodies in vaccinated/challenged chickens. The vaccine fulfilled all expectations of an inactivated vaccine after one vaccination against challenge with different clades of H5N1-HPAI and is suitable for a DIVA approach.

  17. The epidemiology of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) and other Anatidae in the Dombes region (France), 2006.

    PubMed

    Hars, Jean; Ruette, Sandrine; Benmergui, Maurice; Fouque, Carol; Fournier, Jean-Yves; Legouge, Arnaud; Cherbonnel, Martine; Daniel, Baroux; Dupuy, Catherine; Jestin, Véronique

    2008-10-01

    In February 2006, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus was isolated from Common Pochards (Aythia ferina) in the Dombes region of France, an important migrating and wintering waterfowl area. Thereafter, HPAI H5N1 virus was isolated from 39 swab pools collected from dead waterfowl found in the Dombes, but only from three pooled samples collected outside of this area but located on the same migration flyway. A single turkey farm was infected in the Dombes. The epizootic lasted 2 mo and was restricted to the Dombes area. Virus-positive pools were detected in 20 of 1,200 ponds and infected Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) represented 82% of the virus-positive pools. Other infected species included Common Pochard (n=4), Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea, n=1), Eurasian Buzzard (Buteo buteo, n=1), and Greylag Goose (Anser anser, n=1). Despite intensive monitoring during and after the outbreak, HPAI H5N1 virus was not isolated from healthy wild birds. Our results are consistent with an HPAI H5N1-virus introduction into the Dombes via migrating ducks. These birds could have been pushed west by a severe cold spell in central Europe where the virus had already been detected. The Mute Swan served as an excellent epidemiologic sentinel during this outbreak; swans appear to be highly sensitive to infection with these viruses and swan mortality was easy to detect. During the outbreak, the mortality rates for wild birds remained moderate and the virus affected a limited number of species.

  18. Risk Reduction Modeling of High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus Titers in Nonpasteurized Liquid Egg Obtained from Infected but Undetected Chicken Flocks.

    PubMed

    Weaver, J Todd; Malladi, Sasidhar; Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E

    2015-11-01

    Control of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in poultry has traditionally involved the establishment of disease containment zones, where poultry products are only permitted to move from within a zone under permit. Nonpasteurized liquid egg (NPLE) is one such commodity for which movements may be permitted, considering inactivation of HPAI virus via pasteurization. Active surveillance testing at the flock level, using targeted matrix gene real-time reversed transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction testing (RRT-PCR) has been incorporated into HPAI emergency response plans as the primary on-farm diagnostic test procedure to detect HPAI in poultry and is considered to be a key risk mitigation measure. To inform decisions regarding the potential movement of NPLE to a pasteurization facility, average HPAI virus concentrations in NPLE produced from a HPAI virus infected, but undetected, commercial table-egg-layer flock were estimated for three HPAI virus strains using quantitative simulation models. Pasteurization under newly proposed international design standards (5 log10 reduction) is predicted to inactivate HPAI virus in NPLE to a very low concentration of less than 1 embryo infectious dose (EID)50 /mL, considering the predicted virus titers in NPLE from a table-egg flock under active surveillance. Dilution of HPAI virus from contaminated eggs in eggs from the same flock, and in a 40,000 lb tanker-truck load of NPLE containing eggs from disease-free flocks was also considered. Risk assessment can be useful in the evaluation of commodity-specific risk mitigation measures to facilitate safe trade in animal products from countries experiencing outbreaks of highly transmissible animal diseases.

  19. Age is not a determinant factor in susceptibility of broilers to H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Bertran, Kateri; Lee, Dong-Hun; Balzli, Charles; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E

    2016-11-21

    In 2014-2015, the US experienced an unprecedented outbreak of H5 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. The H5N2 HPAI virus outbreak in the Midwest in 2015 affected commercial turkey and layer farms, but not broiler farms. To assess any potential genetic resistance of broilers and/or age-related effects, we investigated the pathogenesis and transmission of A/turkey/Minnesota/12582/2015 (H5N2) (Tk/MN/15) virus in commercial 5-week-old broilers, 8-week-old broilers, and >30-week-old broiler breeders. The mean bird lethal dose (BLD50) was 5.0 log10 mean egg infectious dose (EID50) for all age groups. The mean death time (MDT) was statistically not different among the three age groups, ranging between 3.2 and 4.8 days. All broilers that became infected shed high levels of virus with transmission to contacts and demonstrated severe pathology. Mortality and virus shedding results indicated that age is not a determinant factor in susceptibility of broilers to H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI virus. Previously, the Tk/MN/15 virus had a BLD50 of 3.6 log10 EID50 and MDT of 2 days in White Leghorn chickens and a BLD50 of 5.0 log10 EID50 and MDT of 5.9 days in turkeys, suggesting that the broiler breed is less susceptible to Midwestern H5N2 virus than the layer breed but similarly susceptible to turkeys. Therefore, genetic resistance of broilers to infection may have accounted only partially for the lack of affected broiler farms in the Midwestern outbreaks, with other contributing factors such as fewer outside to on farm exposure to contacts, type of production management system or enhanced biosecurity.

  20. The evolutionary dynamics of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in south-central Vietnam reveals multiple clades evolving from Chinese and Cambodian viruses.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tinh Huu; Than, Van Thai; Thanh, Hien Dang; Nguyen, Van Quang; Nguyen, Kim Hue; Nguyen, Duc Tan; Park, Jong-Hwa; Chung, In Sik; Jeong, Dae Gwin; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Oh, Tae Kwang; Kim, Wonyong

    2015-10-01

    In Vietnam, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), such as that caused by H5N1 viruses, is the most highly contagious infectious disease that has been affecting domestic poultry in recent years. Vietnam might be an evolutionary hotspot and a potential source of globally pandemic strains. However, few studies have reported viruses circulating in the south-central region of Vietnam. In the present study, 47 H5N1-positive samples were collected from both vaccinated and unvaccinated poultry farms in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam during 2013-2014, and their genetic diversity was analyzed. A common sequence motif for HPAI virus was identified at HA-cleavage sites in all samples: either RERRRKR/G (clades 2.3.2.1c and 2.3.2.1a) or REGRRKKR/G (clade 1.1.2). Phylogenetic analysis of HA genes identified three clades of HPAI H5N1: 1.1.2 (n=1), 2.3.2.1a (n=1), and 2.3.2.1c (n=45). The phylogenetic analysis indicated that these Vietnamese clades may have evolved from Chinese and Cambodian virus clades isolated in 2012-2013 but are less closely related to the clades detected from the Tyva Republic, Bulgaria, Mongolia, Japan, and Korea in 2009-2011. Detection of the coexistence of virus clades 2.3.2.1 and the very virulent 1.1.2 in the south-central regions suggests their local importance and highlights concerns regarding their spread, both northwards and southwards, as well as the potential for reassortment. The obtained data highlight the importance of regular identification of viral evolution and the development and use of region-specific vaccines.

  1. Genetic changes that accompanied shifts of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses toward higher pathogenicity in poultry

    PubMed Central

    Abdelwhab, El-Sayed M; Veits, Jutta; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

    2013-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIV) of H5 and H7 subtypes exhibit two different pathotypes in poultry: infection with low pathogenic (LP) strains results in minimal, if any, health disturbances, whereas highly pathogenic (HP) strains cause severe morbidity and mortality. LPAIV of H5 and H7 subtypes can spontaneously mutate into HPAIV. Ten outbreaks caused by HPAIV are known to have been preceded by circulation of a predecessor LPAIV in poultry. Three of them were caused by H5N2 subtype and seven involved H7 subtype in combination with N1, N3, or N7. Here, we review those outbreaks and summarize the genetic changes which resulted in the transformation of LPAIV to HPAIV under natural conditions. Mutations that were found directly in those outbreaks are more likely to be linked to virulence, pathogenesis, and early adaptation of AIV. PMID:23863606

  2. Characterization of human single-chain antibodies against highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses: mimotope and neutralizing activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiupian; Yoshida, Reiko; Kariya, Yuki; Zhang, Xu; Hashiguchi, Shuhei; Nakashima, Toshihiro; Suda, Yasuo; Takada, Ayato; Ito, Yuji; Sugimura, Kazuhisa

    2010-10-01

    The development of new therapeutic targets and strategies to control highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus infection in humans is urgently needed. Neutralizing recombinant human antibodies would provide important agents for immunotherapy on human H5N1 virus infection and definition of the critical mimotope for vaccine development. In this study, we have characterized an anti-H5-specific scFv clone, 3D1 from the human-scFv-displaying phage library. 3D1 blocked the binding of H5-Fc to MDCK cells in flow cytometry and neutralized H5N1 subtype influenza A viruses in a microneutralization assay. Employing a peptide-displaying phage library, Ph.D-12, the mimotope was determined to be at #128-131 and #204-211 of H5, which are silic acid-binding regions. In consistency with this result, 3D1 binds the recombinant sugar-binding domain (#50G-#272E) produced by a baculovirus vector. The 3D1 antibody employs the germline gene VH1-23. As this antibody is the first human anti-H5 scFv clearly defined on the sugar-binding epitope, it allows us to investigate the influence of amino acid substitutions in this region on the determination of the binding specificity to either sialic acid α2,6-galactose (SA α2,6Gal) or sialic acid α2,3-galactose (SA α2,3Gal) providing new insight for the development of effective H5N1 pandemic vaccines.

  3. Role of wild birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 and implications for global surveillance.

    PubMed

    Feare, Chris J

    2010-03-01

    This paper reviews outbreaks of Asian-lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 in wild birds since June 2006, surveillance strategies, and research on virus epidemiology in wild birds to summarize advances in understanding the role of wild birds in the spread of HPAIV H5N1 and the risk that infected wild birds pose for the poultry industry and for public health. Surveillance of apparently healthy wild birds ("active" surveillance) has not provided early warning of likely infection for the poultry industry, whereas searches for and reports of dead birds ("passive" surveillance) have provided evidence of environmental presence of the virus, but not necessarily its source. Most outbreaks in wild birds have occurred during periods when they are experiencing environmental, physiologic, and possibly psychological stress, including adverse winter weather and molt, but not, apparently, long-distance migration. Examination of carcasses of infected birds and experimental challenge with strains of HPAIV H5N1 have provided insight into the course of infection, the extent of virus shedding, and the relative importance of cloacal vs. oropharyngeal excretion. Satellite telemetry of migrating birds is now providing data on the routes taken by individual birds, their speed of migration, and the duration of stopovers. It is still not clear how virus shedding during the apparently clinically silent phase of infection relates to the distance travelled by infected birds. Mounting an immune response and undertaking strenuous exercise associated with long migratory flights may be competitive. This is an area where further research should be directed in order to discover whether wild birds infected with HPAIV H5N1 are able or willing to embark on migration.

  4. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N8) in domestic poultry and its relationship with migratory birds in South Korea during 2014.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jipseol; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kim, Ji-Ye; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Moon, Oun-Kyong; Jeong, Wooseog; Choi, Jida; Baek, Jong-Ho; Joo, Yi-Seok; Park, Yong Ho; Lee, Hee-Soo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2014-10-10

    Highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) were introduced into South Korea during 2014, thereby caused outbreaks in wild birds and poultry farms. During the 2014 outbreak, H5N8 HPAIVs were isolated from 38 wild birds and 200 poultry farms (up to May 8, 2014). To better understand the introduction of these viruses and their relationships with wild birds and poultry farm, we analyzed the genetic sequences and available epidemiological data related to the viruses. Genetic analysis of 37 viruses isolated from wild birds and poultry farms showed that all of the isolates belonged to clade 2.3.4.6 of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene, but comprised two distinct groups. During the initial stage of the outbreak, identical isolates from each group were found in wild birds and poultry farms near Donglim Reservoir, which is a resting site for migratory birds, thereby indicating that two types of H5N8 HPAIVs were introduced into the lake at the same time. Interestingly, the one group of H5N8 HPAIV predominated around Donglim Reservoir, and the predominant virus was dispersed by wild birds among the migratory bird habitats in the western region of South Korea as time passed, and it was also detected in nearby poultry farms. Furthermore, compared with the results of the annual AIV surveillance of captured wild birds, which has been performed since 2008, more HPAIVs were isolated and H5 sero-prevalence was also detected during the 2014 outbreak. Overall, our results strongly suggest that migratory birds played a key role in the introduction and spread of viruses during the initial stage of the 2014 outbreak.

  5. Genetics and infectivity of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from chickens and wild birds in Japan during 2010-11.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yuko; Suzuki, Yasushi; Shirakura, Masayuki; Kawaguchi, Akira; Nobusawa, Eri; Tanikawa, Taichiro; Hikono, Hirokazu; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Mase, Masaji; Kanehira, Katsushi; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Tagawa, Yuichi; Tashiro, Masato; Saito, Takehiko

    2012-12-01

    Outbreaks of H5N1 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) were recorded in chickens, domesticated birds and wild birds throughout Japan from November 2010 to March 2011. Genetic analysis of the Japanese isolates indicated that all gene segments, except the PA gene, were closely related to Japanese wild bird isolates in 2008 and belonged to clade 2.3.2.1 classified by the WHO/OIE/FAO H5N1 Evolution Working Group. Direct ancestors of the PA gene segment of all Japanese viruses analyzed in this study can be found in wild bird strains of several subtypes other than H5N1 isolated between 2007 and 2009. The PA gene of these wild bird isolates share a common ancestor with H5N1 HPAIVs belonging to clades 2.5, 7 and 9, indicating that wild birds were involved in the emergence of the current reassortant 2.3.2.1 viruses. To determine how viruses were maintained in the wild bird population, two isolates derived from chickens (A/chicken/Shimane/1/2010, Ck10 and A/chicken/Miyazaki/S4/2011, CkS411) and one from a wild bird (A/mandarin duck/Miyazaki/22M-765/2011, MandarinD11) were compared in their ability to infect and be transmitted to chickens. There was a significant difference in the survival of chickens that were infected with 10(6)EID(50) of CkS411 compared to those with MandarinD11 and the transmission efficiency of CkS411 was greater than the other viruses. The increased titer of CkS411 excreted from infected chickens contributed to the improved transmission rates. It was considered that reduced virus excretion and transmission of MandarinD11 could have been due to adaptation of the virus in wild birds.

  6. Lessons from emergence of A/goose/Guangdong/1996-like H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and recent influenza surveillance efforts in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wan, X F

    2012-09-01

    Southern China is proposed as an influenza epicentre. At least two of the three pandemics in the last century, including 1957 and 1968 influenza pandemics, originated from this area. In 1996, A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (H5N1), the precursor of currently circulating highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) was identified in farmed geese in southern China. These H5N1 HPAIVs have been spread across Asia, Europe and Africa and poses a continuous threat to both animal and human health. However, how and where this H5N1 HPAIV emerged are not fully understood. In the past decade, many influenza surveillance efforts have been carried out in southern China, and our understanding of the genetic diversity of non-human influenza A viruses in this area has been much better than ever. Here, the historical and first-hand experimental data on A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996(H5N1)-like HPAIVs are reviewed within the context of the findings from recent surveillance efforts on H5N1 HPAIVs and other non-human influenza A viruses. Such a retrospective recapitulation suggests that long-term and systematic surveillance programmes should continue to be implemented in southern China that the wet markets on the animal-human interface shall be the priority area and that the surveillance on the animal species bridging the interface between wildlife and domestic animal populations and the interface between the aquatics and territories shall be the strengthened.

  7. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses circulating in Bangladesh from 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Mondal, S P; Balasuriya, U B R; Yamage, M

    2013-12-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has been endemic in Bangladesh since its first isolation in February 2007. Phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of HPAI H5N1 viruses demonstrated that 25 Bangladeshi isolates including two human isolates from 2007-2011 along with some isolates from neighbouring Asian countries (India, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, China and Vietnam) segregate into two distinct clades (2.2 and 2.3). There was clear evidence of introduction of clade 2.3.2 and 2.3.4 viruses in 2011 in addition to clade 2.2 viruses that had been in circulation in Bangladesh since 2007. The data clearly demonstrated the movement of H5N1 strains between Asian countries included in this study due to migration of wild birds and/or illegal movement of poultry across borders. Interestingly, the two human isolates were closely related to the clade 2.2 Bangladeshi chicken isolates indicating that they have originated from chickens. Furthermore, comparative amino acid sequence analysis revealed several substitutions (including 189R>K and 282I>V) in HA protein of some clade 2.2 Bangladeshi viruses including the human isolates, suggesting there was antigenic drift in clade 2.2.3 viruses that were circulating between 2008 and 2011. Overall, the data imply genetic diversity among circulating viruses and multiple introductions of H5N1 viruses with an increased risk of human infections in Bangladesh, and establishment of H5N1 virus in wild and domestic bird populations, which demands active surveillance.

  8. Experimental co-infections of domestic ducks with a virulent Newcastle disease virus and low or highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Shepherd, Eric; Smith, Diane; Swayne, David E

    2015-05-15

    Infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV) of low and high pathogenicity (LP and HP) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are commonly reported in domestic ducks in many parts of the world. However, it is not clear if co-infections with these viruses affect the severity of the diseases they produce, the amount of virus shed, and transmission of the viruses. In this study we infected domestic ducks with a virulent NDV virus (vNDV) and either a LPAIV or a HPAIV by giving the viruses individually, simultaneously, or sequentially two days apart. No clinical signs were observed in ducks infected or co-infected with vNDV and LPAIV, but co-infection decreased the number of ducks shedding vNDV and the amount of virus shed (P<0.01) at 4 days post inoculation (dpi). Co-infection did not affect the number of birds shedding LPAIV, but more LPAIV was shed at 2 dpi (P<0.0001) from ducks inoculated with only LPAIV compared to ducks co-infected with vNDV. Ducks that received the HPAIV with the vNDV simultaneously survived fewer days (P<0.05) compared to the ducks that received the vNDV two days before the HPAIV. Co-infection also reduced transmission of vNDV to naïve contact ducks housed with the inoculated ducks. In conclusion, domestic ducks can become co-infected with vNDV and LPAIV with no effect on clinical signs but with reduction of virus shedding and transmission. These findings indicate that infection with one virus can interfere with replication of another, modifying the pathogenesis and transmission of the viruses.

  9. Estimating the Per-Contact Probability of Infection by Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H7N7) Virus during the 2003 Epidemic in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Ssematimba, Amos; Elbers, Armin R. W.; Hagenaars, Thomas J.; de Jong, Mart C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of the per-contact probability of transmission between farms of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza virus of H7N7 subtype during the 2003 epidemic in the Netherlands are important for the design of better control and biosecurity strategies. We used standardized data collected during the epidemic and a model to extract data for untraced contacts based on the daily number of infectious farms within a given distance of a susceptible farm. With these data, we used a maximum likelihood estimation approach to estimate the transmission probabilities by the individual contact types, both traced and untraced. The estimated conditional probabilities, conditional on the contact originating from an infectious farm, of virus transmission were: 0.000057 per infectious farm within 1 km per day, 0.000413 per infectious farm between 1 and 3 km per day, 0.0000895 per infectious farm between 3 and 10 km per day, 0.0011 per crisis organisation contact, 0.0414 per feed delivery contact, 0.308 per egg transport contact, 0.133 per other-professional contact and, 0.246 per rendering contact. We validate these outcomes against literature data on virus genetic sequences for outbreak farms. These estimates can be used to inform further studies on the role that improved biosecurity between contacts and/or contact frequency reduction can play in eliminating between-farm spread of the virus during future epidemics. The findings also highlight the need to; 1) understand the routes underlying the infections without traced contacts and, 2) to review whether the contact-tracing protocol is exhaustive in relation to all the farm’s day-to-day activities and practices. PMID:22808285

  10. Satellite Tracking on the Flyways of Brown-Headed Gulls and Their Potential Role in the Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ratanakorn, Parntep; Wiratsudakul, Anuwat; Wiriyarat, Witthawat; Eiamampai, Krairat; Farmer, Adrian H.; Webster, Robert G.; Chaichoune, Kridsada; Suwanpakdee, Sarin; Pothieng, Duangrat; Puthavathana, Pilaipan

    2012-01-01

    Brown-headed gulls (Larus brunnicephalus), winter visitors of Thailand, were tracked by satellite telemetry during 2008–2011 for investigating their roles in the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus spread. Eight gulls negative for influenza virus infection were marked with solar-powered satellite platform transmitters at Bang Poo study site in Samut Prakarn province, Thailand; their movements were monitored by the Argos satellite tracking system, and locations were mapped. Five gulls completed their migratory cycles, which spanned 7 countries (China, Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam) affected by the HPAI H5N1 virus. Gulls migrated from their breeding grounds in China to stay overwinter in Thailand and Cambodia; while Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, and Vietnam were the places of stopovers during migration. Gulls traveled an average distance of about 2400 km between Thailand and China and spent 1–2 weeks on migration. Although AI surveillance among gulls was conducted at the study site, no AI virus was isolated and no H5N1 viral genome or specific antibody was detected in the 75 gulls tested, but 6.6% of blood samples were positive for pan-influenza A antibody. No AI outbreaks were reported in areas along flyways of gulls in Thailand during the study period. Distance and duration of migration, tolerability of the captive gulls to survive the HPAI H5N1 virus challenge and days at viral shedding after the virus challenging suggested that the Brown-headed gull could be a potential species for AI spread, especially among Southeast Asian countries, the epicenter of H5N1 AI outbreak. PMID:23209623

  11. Satellite tracking on the flyways of brown-headed gulls and their potential role in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus.

    PubMed

    Ratanakorn, Parntep; Wiratsudakul, Anuwat; Wiriyarat, Witthawat; Eiamampai, Krairat; Farmer, Adrian H; Webster, Robert G; Chaichoune, Kridsada; Suwanpakdee, Sarin; Pothieng, Duangrat; Puthavathana, Pilaipan

    2012-01-01

    Brown-headed gulls (Larus brunnicephalus), winter visitors of Thailand, were tracked by satellite telemetry during 2008-2011 for investigating their roles in the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus spread. Eight gulls negative for influenza virus infection were marked with solar-powered satellite platform transmitters at Bang Poo study site in Samut Prakarn province, Thailand; their movements were monitored by the Argos satellite tracking system, and locations were mapped. Five gulls completed their migratory cycles, which spanned 7 countries (China, Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam) affected by the HPAI H5N1 virus. Gulls migrated from their breeding grounds in China to stay overwinter in Thailand and Cambodia; while Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, and Vietnam were the places of stopovers during migration. Gulls traveled an average distance of about 2400 km between Thailand and China and spent 1-2 weeks on migration. Although AI surveillance among gulls was conducted at the study site, no AI virus was isolated and no H5N1 viral genome or specific antibody was detected in the 75 gulls tested, but 6.6% of blood samples were positive for pan-influenza A antibody. No AI outbreaks were reported in areas along flyways of gulls in Thailand during the study period. Distance and duration of migration, tolerability of the captive gulls to survive the HPAI H5N1 virus challenge and days at viral shedding after the virus challenging suggested that the Brown-headed gull could be a potential species for AI spread, especially among Southeast Asian countries, the epicenter of H5N1 AI outbreak.

  12. The application of GIS and RS for epidemics: a case study of the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza in China in 2004-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shaobo; Lan, Guiwen; Zhu, Haiguo; Wen, Renqiang; Zhao, Qiansheng; Huang, Quanyi

    2008-12-01

    Because of their inherent advantages, Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) are extremely useful for dealing with geographically referenced information. In the study of epidemics, most data are geographically referenced, which makes GIS and RS the perfect even necessary tools for processing, analysis, representation of epidemic data. Comprehensively considering the data requirements in the study of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) coupled with the quality of the existing remotely sensed data in terms of the resolution of space, time and spectra, the data sensed by MODIS are chosen and the relevant methods and procedures of data processing from RS and GIS for some environmental factors are proposed. Through using spatial analysis functions and Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) of GIS, some results of relationship between HPAI occurrences and these potential factors are presented. The role played by bird migration is also preliminarily illustrated with some operations such as visualization, overlapping etc. provided by GIS. Through the work of this paper, we conclude: Firstly, the migration of birds causes the spread of HPAI all over the country in 2004-2005. Secondly, the migration of birds is the reason why the spread of HPAI is perturbed. That is, for some classic communicable diseases, their spread exhibits obvious spatial diffusion process. However, the spread of HPAI breaks this general rule. We think leap diffusion and time lag are the probable reasons for this kind of phenomena. Potential distribution of HPAI viruses (corresponding to the distribution of flyways and putative risk sources) is not completely consistent with the occurrences of HPAI. For this phenomenon, we think, in addition to the flyways of birds, all kinds of geographical, climatic factors also have important effect on the occurrences of HPAI. Through the case study of HPAI, we can see that GIS and RS can play very important roles in the study of epidemics.

  13. Host-specific exposure and fatal neurologic disease in wild raptors from highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 during the 2006 outbreak in Germany.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, Judith Ma; Krone, Oliver; Wolf, Peter U; van de Bildt, Marco W G; van Amerongen, Geert; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs

    2015-03-05

    Raptors may contract highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 by hunting or scavenging infected prey. However, natural H5N1 infection in raptors is rarely reported. Therefore, we tested raptors found dead during an H5N1 outbreak in wild waterbirds in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany, in 2006 for H5N1-associated disease. We tested 624 raptors of nine species-common buzzard (385), Eurasian sparrowhawk (111), common kestrel (38), undetermined species of buzzard (36), white-tailed sea eagle (19), undetermined species of raptor (12), northern goshawk (10), peregrine falcon (6), red kite (3), rough-legged buzzard (3), and western marsh-harrier (1)-for H5N1 infection in tracheal or combined tracheal/cloacal swabs of all birds, and on major tissues of all white-tailed sea eagles. H5N1 infection was detected in two species: common buzzard (12 positive, 3.1%) and peregrine falcon (2 positive, 33.3%). In all necropsied birds (both peregrine falcons and the six freshest common buzzards), H5N1 was found most consistently and at the highest concentration in the brain, and the main H5N1-associated lesion was marked non-suppurative encephalitis. Other H5N1-associated lesions occurred in air sac, lung, oviduct, heart, pancreas, coelomic ganglion, and adrenal gland. Our results show that the main cause of death in H5N1-positive raptors was encephalitis. Our results imply that H5N1 outbreaks in wild waterbirds are more likely to lead to exposure to and mortality from H5N1 in raptors that hunt or scavenge medium-sized birds, such as common buzzards and peregrine falcons, than in raptors that hunt small birds and do not scavenge, such as Eurasian sparrowhawks and common kestrels.

  14. Recombinant Parainfluenza Virus 5 Expressing Hemagglutinin of Influenza A Virus H5N1 Protected Mice against Lethal Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuo; Mooney, Alaina J.; Gabbard, Jon D.; Gao, Xiudan; Xu, Pei; Place, Ryan J.; Hogan, Robert J.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2013-01-01

    A safe and effective vaccine is the best way to prevent large-scale highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks in the human population. The current FDA-approved H5N1 vaccine has serious limitations. A more efficacious H5N1 vaccine is urgently needed. Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), a paramyxovirus, is not known to cause any illness in humans. PIV5 is an attractive vaccine vector. In our studies, a single dose of a live recombinant PIV5 expressing a hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H5N1 (rPIV5-H5) from the H5N1 subtype provided sterilizing immunity against lethal doses of HPAI H5N1 infection in mice. Furthermore, we have examined the effect of insertion of H5N1 HA at different locations within the PIV5 genome on the efficacy of a PIV5-based vaccine. Interestingly, insertion of H5N1 HA between the leader sequence, the de facto promoter of PIV5, and the first viral gene, nucleoprotein (NP), did not lead to a viable virus. Insertion of H5N1 HA between NP and the next gene, V/phosphorprotein (V/P), led to a virus that was defective in growth. We have found that insertion of H5N1 HA at the junction between the small hydrophobic (SH) gene and the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene gave the best immunity against HPAI H5N1 challenge: a dose as low as 1,000 PFU was sufficient to protect against lethal HPAI H5N1 challenge in mice. The work suggests that recombinant PIV5 expressing H5N1 HA has great potential as an HPAI H5N1 vaccine. PMID:23077314

  15. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 infection in a long-distance migrant shorebird under migratory and non-migratory states.

    PubMed

    Reperant, Leslie A; van de Bildt, Marco W G; van Amerongen, Geert; Buehler, Debbie M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Jenni-Eiermann, Susi; Piersma, Theunis; Kuiken, Thijs

    2011-01-01

    Corticosterone regulates physiological changes preparing wild birds for migration. It also modulates the immune system and may lead to increased susceptibility to infection, with implications for the spread of pathogens, including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1. The red knot (Calidris canutus islandica) displays migratory changes in captivity and was used as a model to assess the effect of high plasma concentration of corticosterone on HPAIV H5N1 infection. We inoculated knots during pre-migration (N = 6), fueling (N = 5), migration (N = 9) and post-migration periods (N = 6). Knots from all groups shed similar viral titers for up to 5 days post-inoculation (dpi), peaking at 1 to 3 dpi. Lesions of acute encephalitis, associated with virus replication in neurons, were seen in 1 to 2 knots per group, leading to neurological disease and death at 5 to 11 dpi. Therefore, the risk of HPAIV H5N1 infection in wild birds and of potential transmission between wild birds and poultry may be similar at different times of the year, irrespective of wild birds' migratory status. However, in knots inoculated during the migration period, viral shedding levels positively correlated with pre-inoculation plasma concentration of corticosterone. Of these, knots that did not become productively infected had lower plasma concentration of corticosterone. Conversely, elevated plasma concentration of corticosterone did not result in an increased probability to develop clinical disease. These results suggest that birds with elevated plasma concentration of corticosterone at the time of migration (ready to migrate) may be more susceptible to acquisition of infection and shed higher viral titers--before the onset of clinical disease--than birds with low concentration of corticosterone (not ready for take-off). Yet, they may not be more prone to the development of clinical disease. Therefore, assuming no effect of sub-clinical infection on the likelihood of

  16. Impact of vaccination on infection with Vietnam H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in hens and the eggs they lay.

    PubMed

    Bertran, Kateri; Moresco, Kira; Swayne, David E

    2015-03-10

    High pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infections in chickens negatively impact egg production and cause egg contamination. Previously, vaccination maintained egg production and reduced egg contamination when challenged with a North American H5N2 HPAIV. However, Asian H5N1 HPAIV infection has some characteristics of increased pathogenicity compared to other H5 HPAIV such as more rapid drop and complete cessation in egg production. Sham (vaccinated at 25 and 28 weeks of age), inactivated H5N1 Once (1X-H5-Vax; vaccinated at 28 weeks of age only) and inactivated H5N1 Twice (2X-H5-Vax; vaccinated at 25 and 28 weeks of age) vaccinated adult White Leghorn hens were challenged intranasally at 31 weeks of age with 6.1 log10 mean embryo infectious doses (EID50) of clade 2.3.2.1a H5N1 HPAIV (A/chicken/Vietnam/NCVD-675/2011) which was homologous to the inactivated vaccine. Sham-vaccinated layers experienced 100% mortality within 3 days post-challenge; laid soft and thin-shelled eggs; had recovery of virus from oral swabs and in 53% of the eggs from eggshell surface (35%), yolk (24%), and albumin (41%); and had very high titers of virus (average 7.91 log10 EID50/g) in all segments of the oviduct and ovary. By comparison, 1X- and 2X-H5-Vax challenged hens survived infection, laid similar number of eggs pre- and post-challenge, all eggs had normal egg shell quality, and had significantly fewer contaminated eggs with reduced virus quantity. The 2X-H5-Vax hens had significantly higher HI titers by the day of challenge (304 GMT) and at termination (512 GMT) than 1X-H5-Vax hens (45 GMT and 128 GMT). The current study demonstrated that AIV infections caused by clade 2.3.2.1a H5N1 variants can be effectively controlled by either double or single homologous vaccination.

  17. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 Infection in a Long-Distance Migrant Shorebird under Migratory and Non-Migratory States

    PubMed Central

    Reperant, Leslie A.; van de Bildt, Marco W. G.; van Amerongen, Geert; Buehler, Debbie M.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Jenni-Eiermann, Susi; Piersma, Theunis; Kuiken, Thijs

    2011-01-01

    Corticosterone regulates physiological changes preparing wild birds for migration. It also modulates the immune system and may lead to increased susceptibility to infection, with implications for the spread of pathogens, including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1. The red knot (Calidris canutus islandica) displays migratory changes in captivity and was used as a model to assess the effect of high plasma concentration of corticosterone on HPAIV H5N1 infection. We inoculated knots during pre-migration (N = 6), fueling (N = 5), migration (N = 9) and post-migration periods (N = 6). Knots from all groups shed similar viral titers for up to 5 days post-inoculation (dpi), peaking at 1 to 3 dpi. Lesions of acute encephalitis, associated with virus replication in neurons, were seen in 1 to 2 knots per group, leading to neurological disease and death at 5 to 11 dpi. Therefore, the risk of HPAIV H5N1 infection in wild birds and of potential transmission between wild birds and poultry may be similar at different times of the year, irrespective of wild birds' migratory status. However, in knots inoculated during the migration period, viral shedding levels positively correlated with pre-inoculation plasma concentration of corticosterone. Of these, knots that did not become productively infected had lower plasma concentration of corticosterone. Conversely, elevated plasma concentration of corticosterone did not result in an increased probability to develop clinical disease. These results suggest that birds with elevated plasma concentration of corticosterone at the time of migration (ready to migrate) may be more susceptible to acquisition of infection and shed higher viral titers—before the onset of clinical disease—than birds with low concentration of corticosterone (not ready for take-off). Yet, they may not be more prone to the development of clinical disease. Therefore, assuming no effect of sub-clinical infection on the likelihood of

  18. A novel hemagglutinin protein produced in bacteria protects chickens against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses by inducing H5 subtype-specific neutralizing antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Sączyńska, Violetta; Romanik, Agnieszka; Florys, Katarzyna; Cecuda-Adamczewska, Violetta; Kęsik-Brodacka, Małgorzata; Śmietanka, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Monika; Domańska-Blicharz, Katarzyna; Minta, Zenon; Szewczyk, Bogusław; Płucienniczak, Grażyna; Płucienniczak, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    The highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) cause a mortality rate of up to 100% in infected chickens and pose a permanent pandemic threat. Attempts to obtain effective vaccines against H5N1 HPAIVs have focused on hemagglutinin (HA), an immunodominant viral antigen capable of eliciting neutralizing antibodies. The vast majority of vaccine projects have been performed using eukaryotic expression systems. In contrast, we used a bacterial expression system to produce vaccine HA protein (bacterial HA) according to our own design. The HA protein with the sequence of the H5N1 HPAIV strain was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli, recovered in the form of inclusion bodies and refolded by dilution between two chromatographic purification steps. Antigenicity studies showed that the resulting antigen, referred to as rH5-E. coli, preserves conformational epitopes targeted by antibodies specific for H5-subtype HAs, inhibiting hemagglutination and/or neutralizing influenza viruses in vitro. The proper conformation of this protein and its ability to form functional oligomers were confirmed by a hemagglutination test. Consistent with the biochemical characteristics, prime-boost immunizations with adjuvanted rH5-E. coli protected 100% and 70% of specific pathogen-free, layer-type chickens against challenge with homologous and heterologous H5N1 HPAIVs, respectively. The observed protection was related to the positivity in the FluAC H5 test (IDVet) but not to hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers. Due to full protection, the effective contact transmission of the homologous challenge virus did not occur. Survivors from both challenges did not or only transiently shed the viruses, as established by viral RNA detection in oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs. Our results demonstrate that vaccination with rH5-E. coli could confer control of H5N1 HPAIV infection and transmission rates in chicken flocks, accompanied by reduced virus shedding. Moreover, the role of

  19. Experimental infection of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses to chickens, ducks, tree sparrows, jungle crows, and black rats for the evaluation of their roles in virus transmission.

    PubMed

    Hiono, Takahiro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ogasawara, Kohei; Endo, Mayumi; Kuribayashi, Saya; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Motohashi, Yurie; Chu, Duc-Huy; Suzuki, Mizuho; Ichikawa, Takaya; Nishi, Tatsuya; Abe, Yuri; Matsuno, Keita; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Tanigawa, Tsutomu; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have spread in both poultry and wild birds. Determining transmission routes of these viruses during an outbreak is essential for the control of avian influenza. It has been widely postulated that migratory ducks play crucial roles in the widespread dissemination of HPAIVs in poultry by carrying viruses along with their migrations; however close contacts between wild migratory ducks and poultry are less likely in modern industrial poultry farming settings. Therefore, we conducted experimental infections of HPAIVs and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) to chickens, domestic ducks, tree sparrows, jungle crows, and black rats to evaluate their roles in virus transmission. The results showed that chickens, ducks, sparrows, and crows were highly susceptible to HPAIV infection. Significant titers of virus were recovered from the sparrows and crows infected with HPAIVs, which suggests that they potentially play roles of transmission of HPAIVs to poultry. In contrast, the growth of LPAIVs was limited in each of the animals tested compared with that of HPAIVs. The present results indicate that these common synanthropes play some roles in influenza virus transmission from wild birds to poultry.

  20. Characterization of clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds (mandarin duck and Eurasian eagle owl) in 2010 in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Gu; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kim, Kwang-Il; Song, Byung Min; Lee, Hee-Soo; Kim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2013-04-23

    Starting in late November 2010, the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was isolated from many types of wild ducks and raptors and was subsequently isolated from poultry in Korea. We assessed the genetic and pathogenic properties of the HPAI viruses isolated from a fecal sample from a mandarin duck and a dead Eurasian eagle owl, the most affected wild bird species during the 2010/2011 HPAI outbreak in Korea. These viruses have similar genetic backgrounds and exhibited the highest genetic similarity with recent Eurasian clade 2.3.2.1 HPAI viruses. In animal inoculation experiments, regardless of their originating hosts, the two Korean isolates produced highly pathogenic characteristics in chickens, ducks and mice without pre-adaptation. These results raise concerns about veterinary and public health. Surveillance of wild birds could provide a good early warning signal for possible HPAI infection in poultry as well as in humans.

  1. Characterization of Clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds (Mandarin Duck and Eurasian Eagle Owl) in 2010 in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jun-Gu; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kim, Kwang-Il; Song, Byung Min; Lee, Hee-Soo; Kim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Starting in late November 2010, the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was isolated from many types of wild ducks and raptors and was subsequently isolated from poultry in Korea. We assessed the genetic and pathogenic properties of the HPAI viruses isolated from a fecal sample from a mandarin duck and a dead Eurasian eagle owl, the most affected wild bird species during the 2010/2011 HPAI outbreak in Korea. These viruses have similar genetic backgrounds and exhibited the highest genetic similarity with recent Eurasian clade 2.3.2.1 HPAI viruses. In animal inoculation experiments, regardless of their originating hosts, the two Korean isolates produced highly pathogenic characteristics in chickens, ducks and mice without pre-adaptation. These results raise concerns about veterinary and public health. Surveillance of wild birds could provide a good early warning signal for possible HPAI infection in poultry as well as in humans. PMID:23611846

  2. Cultural Practices Shaping Zoonotic Diseases Surveillance: The Case of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza and Thailand Native Chicken Farmers.

    PubMed

    Delabouglise, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Tatong, D; Chumkaeo, A; Binot, A; Fournié, G; Pilot, E; Phimpraphi, W; Kasemsuwan, S; Paul, M C; Duboz, R; Salem, G; Peyre, M

    2016-04-17

    Effectiveness of current passive zoonotic disease surveillance systems is limited by the under-reporting of disease outbreaks in the domestic animal population. Evaluating the acceptability of passive surveillance and its economic, social and cultural determinants appears a critical step for improving it. A participatory rural appraisal was implemented in a rural subdistrict of Thailand. Focus group interviews were used to identify sanitary risks perceived by native chicken farmers and describe the structure of their value chain. Qualitative individual interviews with a large diversity of actors enabled to identify perceived costs and benefits associated with the reporting of HPAI suspicions to sanitary authorities. Besides, flows of information on HPAI suspected cases were assessed using network analysis, based on data collected through individual questionnaires. Results show that the presence of cockfighting activities in the area negatively affected the willingness of all chicken farmers and other actors to report suspected HPAI cases. The high financial and affective value of fighting cocks contradicted the HPAI control policy based on mass culling. However, the importance of product quality in the native chicken meat value chain and the free veterinary services and products delivered by veterinary officers had a positive impact on suspected case reporting. Besides, cockfighting practitioners had a significantly higher centrality than other actors in the information network and they facilitated the spatial diffusion of information. Social ties built in cockfighting activities and the shared purpose of protecting valuable cocks were at the basis of the diffusion of information and the informal collective management of diseases. Building bridges with this informal network would greatly improve the effectiveness of passive surveillance.

  3. Knowledge and Perceptions of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) among Poultry Traders in Live Bird Markets in Bali and Lombok, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Kurscheid, Johanna; Millar, Joanne; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ambarawati, I Gusti Agung Ayu; Suadnya, Wayan; Yusuf, Ria Puspa; Fenwick, Stanley; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L. M. L

    2015-01-01

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) has been prevalent in Indonesia since 2003 causing major losses to poultry production and human deaths. Live bird markets are considered high risk areas due to the density of large numbers of mixed poultry species of unknown disease status. Understanding trader knowledge and perceptions of HPAI and biosecurity is critical to reducing transmission risk and controlling the disease. An interview-administered survey was conducted at 17 live bird markets on the islands of Bali and Lombok in 2008 and 2009. A total of 413 live poultry traders were interviewed. Respondents were mostly male (89%) with a mean age of 45 years (range: 19–81). The main source of AI information was TV (78%), although personal communication was also identified to be an important source, particularly among female traders (60%) and respondents from Bali (43%). More than half (58%) of live poultry traders interviewed knew that infected birds can transmit HPAI viruses but were generally unaware that viruses can be introduced to markets by fomites. Cleaning cages and disposing of sick and dead birds were recognized as the most important steps to prevent the spread of disease by respondents. Two thirds (n = 277) of respondents were unwilling to report sudden or suspicious bird deaths to authorities. Bali vendors perceive biosecurity to be of higher importance than Lombok vendors and are more willing to improve biosecurity within markets than traders in Lombok. Collectors and traders selling large numbers (>214) of poultry, or selling both chickens and ducks, have better knowledge of HPAI transmission and prevention than vendors or traders selling smaller quantities or only one species of poultry. Education was strongly associated with better knowledge but did not influence positive reporting behavior. Our study reveals that most live poultry traders have limited knowledge of HPAI transmission and prevention and are generally reluctant to report bird deaths

  4. Knowledge and Perceptions of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) among Poultry Traders in Live Bird Markets in Bali and Lombok, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kurscheid, Johanna; Millar, Joanne; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ambarawati, I Gusti Agung Ayu; Suadnya, Wayan; Yusuf, Ria Puspa; Fenwick, Stanley; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2015-01-01

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) has been prevalent in Indonesia since 2003 causing major losses to poultry production and human deaths. Live bird markets are considered high risk areas due to the density of large numbers of mixed poultry species of unknown disease status. Understanding trader knowledge and perceptions of HPAI and biosecurity is critical to reducing transmission risk and controlling the disease. An interview-administered survey was conducted at 17 live bird markets on the islands of Bali and Lombok in 2008 and 2009. A total of 413 live poultry traders were interviewed. Respondents were mostly male (89%) with a mean age of 45 years (range: 19-81). The main source of AI information was TV (78%), although personal communication was also identified to be an important source, particularly among female traders (60%) and respondents from Bali (43%). More than half (58%) of live poultry traders interviewed knew that infected birds can transmit HPAI viruses but were generally unaware that viruses can be introduced to markets by fomites. Cleaning cages and disposing of sick and dead birds were recognized as the most important steps to prevent the spread of disease by respondents. Two thirds (n = 277) of respondents were unwilling to report sudden or suspicious bird deaths to authorities. Bali vendors perceive biosecurity to be of higher importance than Lombok vendors and are more willing to improve biosecurity within markets than traders in Lombok. Collectors and traders selling large numbers (>214) of poultry, or selling both chickens and ducks, have better knowledge of HPAI transmission and prevention than vendors or traders selling smaller quantities or only one species of poultry. Education was strongly associated with better knowledge but did not influence positive reporting behavior. Our study reveals that most live poultry traders have limited knowledge of HPAI transmission and prevention and are generally reluctant to report bird deaths

  5. Different routes of inoculation impact infectivity and pathogenesis of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus infection in chickens and domestic ducks.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Y K; Swayne, D E

    2010-12-01

    The H5N1 type A influenza viruses classified as Qinghai-like virus (clade 2.2) are a unique lineage of type A influenza viruses with the capacity to produce significant disease and mortality in gallinaceous and anseriform birds, including domestic and wild ducks. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility and pathogenesis of chickens and domestic ducks to A/Whooper Swan/Mongolia/224/05 (H5N1) high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus when administered through respiratory or alimentary routes of exposure. The chickens and ducks were more susceptible to the H5N1 HPAI virus, as evidenced by low infectious and lethal viral doses, when exposed by intranasal as compared to alimentary routes of inoculation (intragastric or oral-fed infected chicken meat). In the alimentary exposure pathogenesis study, pathologic changes included hemorrhage, necrosis, and inflammation in association with virus detection. These changes were generally observed in most of the visceral organs of chickens, between 2 and 4 days postinoculation (DPI), and are similar to lesions and virus localization seen in birds in natural cases or in experimental studies using the intranasal route. Alimentary exposure to the virus caused systemic infection in the ducks, characterized by moderate lymphocytic encephalitis, necrotized hepatitis, and pancreatitis with a corresponding demonstration of virus within the lesions. In both chickens and ducks with alimentary exposure, lesions, virus, or both were first demonstrated in the upper alimentary tract on 1 DPI, suggesting that the alimentary tract was the initial site affected upon consumption of infected meat or on gavage of virus in liquid medium. However, as demonstrated in the infectivity study in chickens, alimentary infection required higher exposure doses to produce infection as compared to intranasal exposure in chickens. These data suggest that upper respiratory exposure to H5N1 HPAI virus in birds is more likely to result in

  6. Identification and characterization of a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza A virus during an outbreak in vaccinated chickens in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amen, O; Vemula, S V; Zhao, J; Ibrahim, R; Hussein, A; Hewlett, I K; Moussa, S; Mittal, S K

    2015-12-02

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) H5N1 viruses continue to be a major veterinary and public health problem in Egypt. Continued surveillance of these viruses is necessary to devise strategies to control the spread of the virus and to monitor its evolutionary patterns. This is a report of the identification of a variant strain of HPAI H5N1 virus during an outbreak in 2010 in vaccinated chicken flocks in a poultry farm in Assiut, Egypt. Vaccination of chickens with an oil-emulsified inactivated A/chicken/Mexico/232/94 (H5N2) vaccine induced high levels of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers reaching up to 9 log2. However, all flocks irrespective of the number of vaccine doses and the resultant HI titer levels came down with severe influenza infections. The qRT-PCR and rapid antigen test confirmed the influenza virus to be from H5N1 subtype. Sequencing of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene fragment from ten independent samples demonstrated that a single H5N1 strain was involved. This strain belonged to clade 2.2.1 and had several mutations in the receptor-binding site of the HA protein, thereby producing a variant strain of HPAI H5N1 virus which was antigenically different from the parent clade 2.2.1 virus circulating in Egypt at that time. In order to define the variability in HPAI H5N1 viruses over time in Egypt, we sequenced another H5N1 virus that was causing infections in chickens in 2014. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both viruses had further distanced from the parent virus circulating during 2010. This study highlights that the antigenic mutations in HPAI H5N1 viruses represent a definitive challenge for the development of an effective vaccine for poultry. Overall, the results emphasize the need for continued surveillance of H5N1 outbreaks and extensive characterization of virus isolates from vaccinated and non-vaccinated poultry populations to better understand genetic changes and their implications.

  7. Transcriptional analysis of the innate immune response of ducks to different species-of-origin low pathogenic H7 avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Ducks represent an important reservoir for avian influenza (AI) viruses and are partly responsible for the worldwide dissemination of AI. Due to the ability of some low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) of the hemagglutinin H7 subtype to mutate into a highly pathogenic form o...

  8. Farm- and flock-level risk factors associated with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza outbreaks on small holder duck and chicken farms in the Mekong Delta of Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Henning, Kate A; Henning, Joerg; Morton, John; Long, Ngo Thanh; Ha, Nguyen Truc; Meers, Joanne

    2009-10-01

    After 11 consecutive months of control, the Mekong Delta in Viet Nam experienced a wave of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks on small holder poultry farms from December 2006 to January 2007. We conducted a retrospective matched case-control study to investigate farm- and flock-level risk factors for outbreak occurrence during this period. Twenty-two case farms were selected from those where clinical signs consistent with HPAI H5N1 had been present and HPAI H5N1 had been confirmed with a positive real-time PCR test from samples obtained from affected birds. For every case farm enrolled, two control farms were selected matched on time of outbreak occurrence, farm location and species. Veterinarians conducted interviews with farmers, to collect information on household demographics, farm characteristics, husbandry practices, trading practices, poultry health, vaccination and biosecurity. Exact stratified logistic regression models were used to assess putative risk factors associated with a flock having or not having a HPAI outbreak. Nested analyses were also performed, restricted to subsets of farms using scavenging, confinement or supplementary feeding practices. Risk of an outbreak of HPAI H5N1 was increased in flocks that had received no vaccination (odds ratio (OR)=20.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, +infinity) or only one vaccination (OR=85.2; 95% CI: 6.5, +infinity) of flocks compared to two vaccinations, and in flocks on farms that had family and friends visiting (OR=8.2; 95% CI: 1.0, +infinity) and geese present (OR=11.5; 95% CI: 1.1, +infinity). The subset analysis using only flocks that scavenged showed that sharing of scavenging areas with flocks from other farms was associated with increased risk of an outbreak (OR=10.9; 95% CI: 1.4, 492.9). We conclude that none or only one vaccination, visitors to farms, the presence of geese on farms and sharing of scavenging areas with ducks from other farms increase the risk of HPAI H5N1

  9. Experimental infection of Muscovy ducks with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) belonging to clade 2.2.

    PubMed

    Guionie, Olivier; Guillou-Cloarec, Cécile; Courtois, David; Bougeard, B Stéphanie; Amelot, Michel; Jestin, Véronique

    2010-03-01

    Highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza (AI) is enzootic in several countries of Asia and Africa and constitutes a major threat, at the world level, for both animal and public health. Ducks play an important role in the epidemiology of AI, including HP H5N1 AI. Although vaccination can be a useful tool to control AI, duck vaccination has not proved very efficient in the field, indicating a need to develop new vaccines and a challenge model to evaluate the protection for duck species. Although Muscovy duck is the duck species most often reared in France, the primary duck-producing country in Europe, and is also produced in Asia, it is rarely studied. Our team recently demonstrated a good cross-reactivity with hemagglutinin from clade 2.2 and inferred that this could be a good vaccine candidate for ducks. Two challenges using two French H5N1 HP strains, 1) A/mute swan/France/06299/06 (Swan/06299), clade 2.2.1, and 2) A/mute swan/France/070203/07 (Swan/070203), clade 2.2 (but different from subclade 2.2.1), were performed (each) on 20 Muscovy ducks (including five contacts) inoculated by oculo-nasal route (6 log10 median egg infectious doses per duck). Clinical signs were recorded daily, and cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected throughout the assay. Autopsies were done on all dead ducks, and organs were taken for analyses. Virus was measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR based on the M gene AI virus. Ducks presented severe nervous signs in both challenges. Swan/070203 strain led to 80% morbidity (12/15 sick ducks) and 73% mortality (11/15 ducks) at 13.5 days postinfection (dpi), whereas Swan/06299 strain produced 100% mortality at 6.5 dpi. Viral RNA load was significantly lower via the cloacal route than via the oropharyngeal route in both trials, presenting a peak in the first challenge at 3.5 dpi and being more stable in the second challenge. The brain was the organ containing the highest viral RNA load in both challenges. Viral RNA load in

  10. Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli bind fibronectin and laminin.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Rosa María; Almanza, Yolanda; González, Rafael; García, Santos; Heredia, Norma

    2009-04-01

    Avian colisepticemia frequently occurs after respiratory tract damage, the primary site for infection allows bacteria to encounter an exposed basement membrane, where laminin and fibronectin are important components. We investigated the ability of an isolate of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli to bind fibronectin and laminin. Using Far-western dot blot analysis, we demonstrated the ability of this microorganism to bind basement membrane proteins fibronectin and laminin. Results from an ELISA-based approach indicate that the binding to these membrane proteins was bacterial-dose dependent. Furthermore, two specific E. coli polypeptides, of 32 kDa and 130 kDa, reacted with laminin and fibronectin, respectively. Further evaluation of these potential bacterial adhesins may provide insights into the pathogenesis of colibacillosis.

  11. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) in ducks and in-contact chickens in backyard and smallholder commercial duck farms in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Henning, Joerg; Henning, Kate A; Morton, John M; Long, Ngo T; Ha, Nguyen T; Vu, Le T; Vu, Pham P; Hoa, Dong M; Meers, Joanne

    2011-09-01

    Scavenging ducks are thought to play an important role in the maintenance and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus among domesticated and wild bird populations in South East Asia, but detailed field epidemiological results describing the infection status of domestic ducks and in-contact chickens have not been published. We conducted a longitudinal study, monitoring ducks and in-contact chickens in 80 flocks in the Mekong Delta of Viet Nam with bi-monthly testing from May 2007 until May 2008. Because H5 vaccination campaigns are conducted at regular intervals in poultry flocks in Viet Nam, both unvaccinated sentinel and H5 vaccinates were monitored. On each farm, a total of 10 birds were selected: 7 ducks (4 unvaccinated and 3 vaccinated) and 3 chickens (2 unvaccinated and 1 vaccinated) that were in close contact with the ducks. Blood samples were tested for H5 antibodies using the hemagglutination inhibition test, with H5 antibody titers ≥2(4) considered to indicate past exposure to H5 field or vaccine virus. Titers of vaccinated birds were analyzed for samples collected more than 3 weeks post-vaccination. Pooled oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were assessed for H5 viral RNA using real-time PCR. Bird- and flock-level prevalences were estimated accounting for sampling fractions and clustering under the multi-stage sampling design with birds being sampled within flocks within villages in four different provinces. In total, serum and swab samples from 5409 birds-samplings were analyzed. Bird-level seroprevalence was 17.5% (95% CI: 14.1, 20.9) amongst unvaccinated ducks and 10.7% (95% CI: 7.4, 14.4) amongst unvaccinated in-contact chickens. Flock-level seroprevalence (proportion of flock-visits with at least one unvaccinated bird test positive) was 42.6% (95% CI: 38.0, 47.2) for ducks and 19.0% (95% CI: 13.6, 24.4) for chickens. Only 54.3% (95% CI: 39.2, 69.3) of vaccinated ducks and 55.5% (95% CI: 46.8, 64.2) of vaccinated in

  12. 9 CFR 146.14 - Diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .../H7 low pathogenic avian influenza. 146.14 Section 146.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of...

  13. 9 CFR 146.14 - Diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .../H7 low pathogenic avian influenza. 146.14 Section 146.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of...

  14. 9 CFR 146.14 - Diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .../H7 low pathogenic avian influenza. 146.14 Section 146.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of...

  15. 9 CFR 146.14 - Diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .../H7 low pathogenic avian influenza. 146.14 Section 146.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of...

  16. 9 CFR 146.14 - Diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .../H7 low pathogenic avian influenza. 146.14 Section 146.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of...

  17. Peptidomimetic furin inhibitor MI-701 in combination with oseltamivir and ribavirin efficiently blocks propagation of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and delays high level oseltamivir resistance in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yinghui; Hardes, Kornelia; Dahms, Sven O; Böttcher-Friebertshäuser, Eva; Steinmetzer, Torsten; Than, Manuel E; Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Garten, Wolfgang

    2015-08-01

    Antiviral medication is used for the treatment of severe influenza infections, of which the neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are the most effective drugs, approved so far. Here, we investigated the antiviral efficacy of the peptidomimetic furin inhibitor MI-701 in combination with oseltamivir carboxylate and ribavirin against the infection of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) that are activated by the host protease furin. Cell cultures infected with the strains A/Thailand/1(KAN-1)/2004 (H5N1) and A/FPV/Rostock/1934 (H7N1) were treated with each agent alone, or in double and triple combinations. MI-701 alone achieved a concentration-dependent reduction of virus propagation. Double treatment of MI-701 with oseltamivir carboxylate and triple combination with ribavirin showed synergistic inhibition and a pronounced delay of virus propagation. MI-701 resistant mutants were not observed. Emergence of NA mutation H275Y conferring high oseltamivir resistance was significantly delayed in the presence of MI-701. Our data indicate that combination with a potent furin inhibitor significantly enhances the therapeutic efficacy of conventional antivirals drugs against HPAIV infection.

  18. mcr-1 identified in Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC)

    PubMed Central

    Lima Barbieri, Nicolle; Nielsen, Daniel W.; Wannemuehler, Yvonne; Cavender, Tia; Hussein, Ashraf; Yan, Shi-gan; Nolan, Lisa K.; Logue, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance associated with colistin has emerged as a significant concern worldwide threatening the use of one of the most important antimicrobials for treating human disease. Here, we examined a collection (n = 980) of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolated from poultry with colibacillosis from the US and internationally for the presence of mcr-1 and mcr-2, genes known to encode colistin resistance. Included in the analysis was an additional set of avian fecal E. coli (AFEC) (n = 220) isolates from healthy birds for comparative analysis. The mcr-1 gene was detected in a total of 12 isolates recovered from diseased production birds from China and Egypt. No mcr genes were detected in the healthy fecal isolates. The full mcr-1 gene from positive isolates was sequenced using specifically designed primers and were compared with sequences currently described in NCBI. mcr-1 positive isolates were also assessed for phenotypic colistin resistance and extended spectrum beta lactam phenotypes and genotypes. This study has identified mcr-1 in APEC isolates dating back to at least 2010 and suggests that animal husbandry practices could result in a potential source of resistance to the human food chain in countries where application of colistin in animal health is practiced. PMID:28264015

  19. Goose Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and antiviral molecules involved in anti-H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus response.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liangmeng; Jiao, Peirong; Yuan, Runyu; Song, Yafen; Cui, Pengfei; Guo, Xuchen; Zheng, Bofang; Jia, Weixin; Qi, Wenbao; Ren, Tao; Liao, Ming

    2013-05-15

    In mammals, Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is an important membrane-bound receptor triggered by antiviral compounds and single-stranded RNA. It is implicated in the immune response to viruses such as influenza virus. It was not known whether geese, a natural host for avian influenza viruses, possess a homologue of mammalian TLR7 for recognizing avian influenza virus. In this study, we cloned the full-length of goose TLR7 and partial sequences of its adaptor protein, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), some antiviral molecules such as RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS). Goose TLR7 has a protein secondary structure identical to that of mammals, consisting of several leucine-rich domains, a transmembrane domain, and Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain. To further understand whether the MyD88-dependent pathway of TLR7 is involved in the antiviral innate immune response against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection in geese, we inoculated geese with an H5N1 HPAIV isolated from ducks in 2004. The virus, A/Duck/Guangdong/212/2004, replicated in various tissues resulting in 40% mortality. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed upregulation of mRNA transcripts for TLR7, MyD88, PKR and OAS in the lungs of geese at 1, 2 and 3 days post-inoculation. Therefore, the MyD88-dependent pathway of TLR7 was involved in the early stage of antiviral innate immune response in geese during H5N1 HPAIV infection.

  20. Modeling the association of space, time, and host species with variation of the HA, NA, and NS genes of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from birds in Romania in 2005-2007.

    PubMed

    Alkhamis, Mohammad; Perez, Andres; Batey, Nicole; Howard, Wendy; Baillie, Greg; Watson, Simon; Franz, Stephanie; Focosi-Snyman, Raffaella; Onita, Iuliana; Cioranu, Raluca; Turcitu, Mihai; Kellam, Paul; Brown, Ian H; Breed, Andrew C

    2013-09-01

    Molecular characterization studies of a diverse collection of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have demonstrated that AIVs' greatest genetic variability lies in the HA, NA, and NS genes. The objective here was to quantify the association between geographical locations, periods of time, and host species and pairwise nucleotide variation in the HA, NA, and NS genes of 70 isolates of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) collected from October 2005 to December 2007 from birds in Romania. A mixed-binomial Bayesian regression model was used to quantify the probability of nucleotide variation between isolates and its association with space, time, and host species. As expected for the three target genes, a higher probability of nucleotide differences (odds ratios [ORs] > 1) was found between viruses sampled from places at greater geographical distances from each other, viruses sampled over greater periods of time, and viruses derived from different species. The modeling approach in the present study maybe useful in further understanding the molecular epidemiology of H5N1 HPAI virus in bird populations. The methodology presented here will be useful in predicting the most likely genetic distance for any of the three gene segments of viruses that have not yet been isolated or sequenced based on space, time, and host species during the course of an epidemic.

  1. High rates of detection of Clade 2.3.4.4 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5 viruses in wild birds in the Pacific Northwest during the winter of 2014/2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ip, Hon S.; Dusek, Robert J.; Bodenstein, Barbara L.; Kim Torchetti, Mia; DeBruyn, Paul; Mansfield, Kristin G.; DeLiberto, Thomas; Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, Clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses spread across the Republic of Korea and ultimately were reported in China, Japan, Russia and Europe. Mortality associated with a reassortant HPAI H5N2 virus was detected in poultry farms in Western Canada at the end of November. The same strain (with identical genetic structure) was then detected in free-living wild birds that had died prior to December 8 of unrelated causes in Whatcom County, Washington, USA in an area contiguous with the index Canadian location. A gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) that had hunted and fed on an American wigeon (Anas americana) on December 6 in the same area and died two days later, tested positive for the Eurasian origin HPAI H5N8. Subsequently, an Active Surveillance Program using hunter-harvest waterfowl in Washington and Oregon detected ten HPAI H5 viruses, of three different subtypes (four H5N2, three H5N8 and three H5N1) with 4 segments in common (HA, PB2, NP and MA). In addition, a mortality-based Passive Surveillance Program detected 18 HPAI (14 H5N2 and four H5N8) cases from Idaho, Kansas, Oregon, Minnesota, Montana, Washington and Wisconsin. Comparatively, mortality-based passive surveillance appears to be detecting these HPAI infections at a higher rate than active surveillance during the period following initial introduction into the US.

  2. Lack of chicken adaptation of newly emergent Eurasian H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in the U.S. is consistent with restricted poultry outbreaks in the Pacific flyway during 2014-2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014-2015, the U.S. experienced an unprecedented outbreak of Eurasian clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, initially affecting mainly wild birds and few backyard and commercial poultry premises. To better model the outbreak, the pathogenesis and transmission dynamics o...

  3. Antiviral susceptibility of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses isolated from poultry, Vietnam, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ha T; Nguyen, Tung; Mishin, Vasiliy P; Sleeman, Katrina; Balish, Amanda; Jones, Joyce; Creanga, Adrian; Marjuki, Henju; Uyeki, Timothy M; Nguyen, Dang H; Nguyen, Diep T; Do, Hoa T; Klimov, Alexander I; Davis, Charles T; Gubareva, Larisa V

    2013-12-01

    We assessed drug susceptibilities of 125 avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses isolated from poultry in Vietnam during 2009-2011. Of 25 clade 1.1 viruses, all possessed a marker of resistance to M2 blockers amantadine and rimantadine; 24 were inhibited by neuraminidase inhibitors. One clade 1.1 virus contained the R430W neuraminidase gene and reduced inhibition by oseltamivir, zanamivir, and laninamivir 12-, 73-, and 29-fold, respectively. Three of 30 clade 2.3.4 viruses contained a I223T mutation and showed 7-fold reduced inhibition by oseltamivir. One of 70 clade 2.3.2.1 viruses had the H275Y marker of oseltamivir resistance and exhibited highly reduced inhibition by oseltamivir and peramivir; antiviral agents DAS181 and favipiravir inhibited H275Y mutant virus replication in MDCK-SIAT1 cells. Replicative fitness of the H275Y mutant virus was comparable to that of wildtype virus. These findings highlight the role of drug susceptibility monitoring of H5N1 subtype viruses circulating among birds to inform antiviral stockpiling decisions for pandemic preparedness.

  4. Antiviral Susceptibility of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses Isolated from Poultry, Vietnam, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ha T.; Nguyen, Tung; Mishin, Vasiliy P.; Sleeman, Katrina; Balish, Amanda; Jones, Joyce; Creanga, Adrian; Marjuki, Henju; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Nguyen, Dang H.; Nguyen, Diep T.; Do, Hoa T.; Klimov, Alexander I.; Davis, Charles T.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed drug susceptibilities of 125 avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses isolated from poultry in Vietnam during 2009–2011. Of 25 clade 1.1 viruses, all possessed a marker of resistance to M2 blockers amantadine and rimantadine; 24 were inhibited by neuraminidase inhibitors. One clade 1.1 virus contained the R430W neuraminidase gene and reduced inhibition by oseltamivir, zanamivir, and laninamivir 12-, 73-, and 29-fold, respectively. Three of 30 clade 2.3.4 viruses contained a I223T mutation and showed 7-fold reduced inhibition by oseltamivir. One of 70 clade 2.3.2.1 viruses had the H275Y marker of oseltamivir resistance and exhibited highly reduced inhibition by oseltamivir and peramivir; antiviral agents DAS181 and favipiravir inhibited H275Y mutant virus replication in MDCK-SIAT1 cells. Replicative fitness of the H275Y mutant virus was comparable to that of wildtype virus. These findings highlight the role of drug susceptibility monitoring of H5N1 subtype viruses circulating among birds to inform antiviral stockpiling decisions for pandemic preparedness. PMID:24274711

  5. Susceptibility of swine to H5 and H7 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of pigs to become infected with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses from an avian reservoir, and then generate mammalian adaptable influenza A viruses (IAVs) is difficult to determine. Yet, it is an important link to understanding any relationship between LPAI virus ecology and...

  6. Vaccine protection of chickens against antigenically diverse H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza isolates with a live HVT vector vaccine expressing the influenza hemagglutinin gene derived from a clade 2.2 avian influenza vi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination is an important tool in the protection of poultry against avian influenza (AI). For field use, the overwhelming majority of AI vaccines produced are inactivated whole virus formulated into an oil emulsion. However, recombinant vectored vaccines are gaining use for their ability to induce...

  7. Previous infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus reduces highly pathogenic avian influenza virus replication, disease, and mortality in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known about the interaction between these two viruses when simultaneously co-infecting the same host, especially in areas of the world where both viruses are...

  8. Vaccination of SPF turkeys with a recombinant HVT expressing the HA from H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza protects against lethal challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination is an important tool in the protection of poultry against avian influenza (AI). For field use, the overwhelming majority of AI vaccines produced are inactivated whole virus formulated into an oil emulsion and to a lesser degree recombinant vectored vaccines (e.g. virus expressing AI gen...

  9. Vaccination of SPF chickens with recombinant HVT expressing the HA from H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza protects against lethal challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination is an important tool in the protection of poultry against avian influenza (AI). For field use, the overwhelming majority of AI vaccines produced are inactivated whole virus formulated into an oil emulsion and to a lesser degree recombinant vectored vaccines (e.g. virus expressing AI gen...

  10. Phylogenetic and biological characterization of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses (Vietnam 2005) in chickens and ducks virus research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of Asian H5N1 avian influenza (AI) virus hemagglutinin (HA) genes shows a common origin, but the virus has evolved into at least three major clades (clades 0, 1, and 2) over the last 11 years. Previous reports of Vietnam viruses have documented predominantly clade 1 viruses. Unexpectedly,...

  11. Using mean infectious dose of wild duck-and poultry-origin high and low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses as one measure of infectivity and adaptation to poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mean infectious doses of selected avian influenza virus (AIV) isolates, determined in domestic poultry under experimental conditions, were shown to be both host and virus dependent and could be considered one measure of the infectivity and adaptation to a specific host. As such, the mean infect...

  12. Evaluation of a conserved HA274-288 epitope to detect antibodies to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in Indonesian commercial poultry.

    PubMed

    Wawegama, Nadeeka K; Tarigan, Simson; Indriani, Risa; Selleck, Paul; Adjid, Rm Abdul; Syafriati, Tati; Hardiman; Durr, Peter A; Ignjatovic, Jagoda

    2016-08-01

    A peptide enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on an epitope in the haemagglutinin (HA) of avian influenza virus H5N1, amino acid positions 274-288 (HA274-288) was evaluated for detection of H5N1-specific antibodies. An optimized ELISA based on the tetrameric form of the HA274-288 epitope designated MP15 gave low background with non-immune chicken sera and detected vaccinated and infected birds. The HA274-288 epitope was highly conserved in Indonesian H5N1 strains and antibody responses were detected in the majority of the vaccinated chickens regardless of the H5N1 strain used for vaccination. The HA274-288 epitope was also conserved in the majority of H5N1 strains from the neighbouring Asian region, and other H5 subtypes potentially allowing for a wider use of the MP15 ELISA in H5N1 vaccinated and infected flocks. The MP15 ELISA results correlated significantly with haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test results and test sensitivity and specificity were 87% and 92%, respectively. The MP15 ELISA titres were significantly higher than the HI titres in all immune sera allowing for sera to be tested at a single dilution of 1:400 which is of advantage in routine surveillance. The study indicated that the MP15 ELISA is potentially useful for serological detection of H5N1 vaccinated or infected poultry and to have some advantages over the standard HI test for routine monitoring of flocks' immunity after vaccination.

  13. Efficacy of single dose of a bivalent vaccine containing inactivated Newcastle disease virus and reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus against lethal HPAI and NDV infection in chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Park, Jae-Keun; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Jang, Yo-Han; Seong, Baik-Lin; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are 2 devastating diseases of poultry, which cause great economic losses to the poultry industry. In the present study, we developed a bivalent vaccine containing antigens of inactivated ND and reassortant HPAI H5N1 viruses as a candidate poultry vaccine, and we evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in specific pathogen-free chickens. The 6:2 reassortant H5N1 vaccine strain containing the surface genes of the A/Chicken/Korea/ES/2003(H5N1) virus was successfully generated by reverse genetics. A polybasic cleavage site of the hemagglutinin segment was replaced by a monobasic cleavage site. We characterized the reverse genetics-derived reassortant HPAI H5N1 clade 2.5 vaccine strain by evaluating its growth kinetics in eggs, minimum effective dose in chickens, and cross-clade immunogenicity against HPAI clade 1 and 2. The bivalent vaccine was prepared by emulsifying inactivated ND (La Sota strain) and reassortant HPAI viruses with Montanide ISA 70 adjuvant. A single immunization with this vaccine induced high levels of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers and protected chickens against a lethal challenge with the wild-type HPAI and ND viruses. Our results demonstrate that the bivalent, inactivated vaccine developed in this study is a promising approach for the control of both HPAI H5N1 and ND viral infections.

  14. Physiology and pathogenicity of cpdB deleted mutant of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huifang; Chen, Liping; Si, Wei; Wang, Chunlai; Zhu, Fangna; Li, Guangxing; Liu, Siguo

    2017-04-01

    Avian colibacillosis is one of the most common infectious diseases caused partially or entirely by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) in birds. In addition to spontaneous infection, APEC can also cause secondary infections that result in greater severity of illness and greater losses to the poultry industry. In order to assess the role of 2', 3'-cyclic phosphodiesterase (cpdB) in APEC on disease physiology and pathogenicity, an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli-34 (APEC-34) cpdB mutant was obtained using the Red system. The cpdB mutant grew at a slower rate than the natural strain APEC-34. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the bacteria of the cpdB mutant were significantly longer than the bacteria observed in the natural strain (P<0.01), and that the width of the cpdB mutant was significantly smaller than its natural counterpart (P<0.01). In order to evaluate the role of cpdB in APEC in the colonization of internal organs (lung, liver and spleen) in poultry, seven-day-old SPF chicks were infected with 10(9)CFU/chick of the cpdB mutant or the natural strain. No colonizations of cpdB mutants were observed in the internal organs 10days following the infection, though numerous natural strains were observed at 20days following infection. Additionally, the relative expression of division protein ftsZ, outer membrane protein A ompA, ferric uptake regulator fur and tryptophanase tnaA genes in the mutant strain were all significantly lower than in the natural strain (P<0.05 or P<0.01). These results suggested that cpdB is involved in the long-term colonization of APEC in the internal organs of the test subjects. The deletion of the cpdB gene also significantly affected the APEC growth and morphology.

  15. Cost Analysis of Various Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Surveillance Systems in the Dutch Egg Layer Sector

    PubMed Central

    Rutten, Niels; Gonzales, José L.; Elbers, Armin R. W.; Velthuis, Annet G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background As low pathogenic avian influenza viruses can mutate into high pathogenic viruses the Dutch poultry sector implemented a surveillance system for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) based on blood samples. It has been suggested that egg yolk samples could be sampled instead of blood samples to survey egg layer farms. To support future decision making about AI surveillance economic criteria are important. Therefore a cost analysis is performed on systems that use either blood or eggs as sampled material. Methodology/Principal Findings The effectiveness of surveillance using egg or blood samples was evaluated using scenario tree models. Then an economic model was developed that calculates the total costs for eight surveillance systems that have equal effectiveness. The model considers costs for sampling, sample preparation, sample transport, testing, communication of test results and for the confirmation test on false positive results. The surveillance systems varied in sampled material (eggs or blood), sampling location (farm or packing station) and location of sample preparation (laboratory or packing station). It is shown that a hypothetical system in which eggs are sampled at the packing station and samples prepared in a laboratory had the lowest total costs (i.e. € 273,393) a year. Compared to this a hypothetical system in which eggs are sampled at the farm and samples prepared at a laboratory, and the currently implemented system in which blood is sampled at the farm and samples prepared at a laboratory have 6% and 39% higher costs respectively. Conclusions/Significance This study shows that surveillance for avian influenza on egg yolk samples can be done at lower costs than surveillance based on blood samples. The model can be used in future comparison of surveillance systems for different pathogens and hazards. PMID:22523543

  16. Pathogenicity of avian malaria in experimentally-infected Hawaii Amakihi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Dusek, Robert J.; Woods, K.L.; Iko, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus) to the Hawaiian Islands (USA) is believed to have played a major role in the decline and extinction of native Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae). This introduced disease is thought to be one of the primary factors limiting recovery of honeycreepers at elevations below 1,200 m where native forest habitats are still relatively intact. One of the few remaining species of honeycreepers with a wide elevational distribution is the Hawaii Amakihi (Hernignathus virens). We measured morbidity and mortality in experimentally-infected Hawaii Amakihi that were captured in a high elevation, xeric habitat that is above the current range of the mosquito vector. Mortality among amakihi exposed to a single infective mosquito bite was 65% (13/20). All infected birds had significant declines in food consumption and a corresponding loss in body weight over the 60 day course of the experiment. Gross and microscopic lesions in birds that succumbed to malaria included enlargement and discoloration of the spleen and liver and parasitemias as high as 50% of circulating erythrocytes. Mortality in experimentally-infected amakihi was similar to that observed in Apapane (Himnatione sanguinea) and lower than that observed in Iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) infected under similar conditions with the same parasite isolate. We conclude that the current elevational and geographic distribution of Hawaiian honeycreepers is determined by relative susceptibility to avian malaria.

  17. Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1c in hunting falcons and kept wild birds in Dubai implicate intercontinental virus spread.

    PubMed

    Naguib, Mahmoud M; Kinne, Jörg; Chen, Honglin; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Joseph, Sunitha; Wong, Po-Chun; Woo, Patrick C Y; Wernery, Renate; Beer, Martin; Wernery, Ulrich; Harder, Timm C

    2015-11-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of subtype H5N1 have continued to perpetuate with divergent genetic variants in poultry within Asia since 2003. Further dissemination of Asian-derived H5 HPAIVs to Europe, Africa and, most recently, to the North American continent has occurred. We report an outbreak of HPAIV H5N1 among falcons kept for hunting and other wild bird species bred as falcon prey in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, during the autumn of 2014. The causative agent was identified as avian influenza virus subtype H5N1, clade 2.3.2.1c, by genetic and phylogenetic analyses. High mortality in infected birds was in accordance with systemic pathomorphological and histological alterations in affected falcons. Genetic analysis showed the HPAIV H5N1 of clade 2.3.2.1c is a reassortant in which the PB2 segment was derived from an Asian-origin H9N2 virus lineage. The Dubai H5N1 viruses were closely related to contemporary H5N1 HPAIVs from Nigeria, Burkina-Faso, Romania and Bulgaria. Median-joining network analysis of 2.3.2.1c viruses revealed that the Dubai outbreak was an episode of a westward spread of these viruses on a larger scale from unidentified Asian sources. The incursion into Dubai, possibly via infected captive hunting falcons returning from hunting trips to central Asian countries, preceded outbreaks in Nigeria and other West African countries. The alarmingly enhanced geographical mobility of clade 2.3.2.1.c and clade 2.3.4.4 viruses may represent another wave of transcontinental dissemination of Asian-origin HPAIV H5 viruses, such as the outbreak at Qinghai Lake caused by clade 2.2 (‘Qinghai’ lineage) in 2005.

  18. High level of genetic compatibility between swine-origin H1N1 and highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Octaviani, Cássio Pontes; Ozawa, Makoto; Yamada, Shinya; Goto, Hideo; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2010-10-01

    Reassortment is an important mechanism for the evolution of influenza viruses. Here, we coinfected cultured cells with the pandemic swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) and a contemporary H5N1 virus and found that these two viruses have high genetic compatibility. Studies of human lung cell lines indicated that some reassortants had better growth kinetics than their parental viruses. We conclude that reassortment between these two viruses can occur and could create pandemic H5N1 viruses.

  19. Characterization of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Dou, Xinhong; Gong, Jiansen; Han, Xiangan; Xu, Ming; Shen, Haiyu; Zhang, Di; Zhuang, Linlin; Liu, Jiasheng; Zou, Jianmin

    2016-01-15

    In order to investigate the biological characteristics of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolated in eastern China, a total of 243 isolates were isolated from diseased poultry on different farms during the period from 2007 to 2014. These isolates were characterized for serogroups (polymerase chain reaction and agglutination), the presence of virulence-associated genes (fimC, iss, ompA, fyuA, stx2f, iroC, iucD, hlyE, tsh, cvaC, irp2, and papC) and class I integrons (polymerase chain reaction), drug susceptibilities (disk diffusion method) and the biofilm-forming abilities (semi-quantitative method). The results showed that the most predominant serogroups were O78 (87 isolates, 35.8%) and O2 (35 isolates, 14.4%). Gene profiling found that fimC and ompA were frequently distributed among the isolates and that 77.4% of the isolates were positive for class 1 integrons. Overall, isolates displayed resistance to tetracycline (97.5%), nalidixic acid (82.3%), ampicillin (81.1%), sulphafurazole (80.7%), streptomycin (79.0%), trimethoprim (78.2%) and cotrimoxazole (78.2%). Multiple-drug resistance was exhibited in 80.3% of the isolates, and the presence of class 1 integrons is associated with multidrug resistance. Finally, 151 isolates had the ability to form biofilms in vitro, and drug resistance seemed relative to biofilm-forming abilities.

  20. A comparative evaluation of feathers, oropharyngeal swabs, and cloacal swabs for the detection of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in experimentally infected chickens and ducks.

    PubMed

    Nuradji, Harimurti; Bingham, John; Lowther, Sue; Wibawa, Hendra; Colling, Axel; Long, Ngo Thanh; Meers, Joanne

    2015-11-01

    Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs have been widely used for the detection of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian Influenza A virus (HPAI virus) in birds. Previous studies have shown that the feather calamus is a site of H5N1 virus replication and therefore has potential for diagnosis of avian influenza. However, studies characterizing the value of feathers for this purpose are not available, to our knowledge; herein we present a study investigating feathers for detection of H5N1 virus. Ducks and chickens were experimentally infected with H5N1 HPAI virus belonging to 1 of 3 clades (Indonesian clades 2.1.1 and 2.1.3, Vietnamese clade 1). Different types of feathers and oropharyngeal and cloacal swab samples were compared by virus isolation. In chickens, virus was detected from all sample types: oral and cloacal swabs, and immature pectorosternal, flight, and tail feathers. During clinical disease, the viral titers were higher in feathers than swabs. In ducks, the proportion of virus-positive samples was variable depending on viral strain and time from challenge; cloacal swabs and mature pectorosternal feathers were clearly inferior to oral swabs and immature pectorosternal, tail, and flight feathers. In ducks infected with Indonesian strains, in which most birds did not develop clinical signs, all sampling methods gave intermittent positive results; 3-23% of immature pectorosternal feathers were positive during the acute infection period; oropharyngeal swabs had slightly higher positivity during early infection, while feathers performed better during late infection. Our results indicate that immature feathers are an alternative sample for the diagnosis of HPAI in chickens and ducks.

  1. Infections with Avian Pathogenic and Fecal Escherichia coli Strains Display Similar Lung Histopathology and Macrophage Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Fabiana; Corrêa, André Mendes Ribeiro; Barbieri, Nicolle Lima; Glodde, Susanne; Weyrauch, Karl Dietrich; Kaspers, Bernd; Driemeier, David; Ewers, Christa; Wieler, Lothar H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare histopathological changes in the lungs of chickens infected with avian pathogenic (APEC) and avian fecal (Afecal) Escherichia coli strains, and to analyze how the interaction of the bacteria with avian macrophages relates to the outcome of the infection. Chickens were infected intratracheally with three APEC strains, MT78, IMT5155, and UEL17, and one non-pathogenic Afecal strain, IMT5104. The pathogenicity of the strains was assessed by isolating bacteria from lungs, kidneys, and spleens at 24 h post-infection (p.i.). Lungs were examined for histopathological changes at 12, 18, and 24 h p.i. Serial lung sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), terminal deoxynucleotidyl dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) for detection of apoptotic cells, and an anti-O2 antibody for detection of MT78 and IMT5155. UEL17 and IMT5104 did not cause systemic infections and the extents of lung colonization were two orders of magnitude lower than for the septicemic strains MT78 and IMT5155, yet all four strains caused the same extent of inflammation in the lungs. The inflammation was localized; there were some congested areas next to unaffected areas. Only the inflamed regions became labeled with anti-O2 antibody. TUNEL labeling revealed the presence of apoptotic cells at 12 h p.i in the inflamed regions only, and before any necrotic foci could be seen. The TUNEL-positive cells were very likely dying heterophils, as evidenced by the purulent inflammation. Some of the dying cells observed in avian lungs in situ may also be macrophages, since all four avian E. coli induced caspase 3/7 activation in monolayers of HD11 avian macrophages. In summary, both pathogenic and non-pathogenic fecal strains of avian E. coli produce focal infections in the avian lung, and these are accompanied by inflammation and cell death in the infected areas. PMID:22848424

  2. A novel eight amino acid insertion contributes to the hemagglutinin cleavability and the virulence of a highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H7N3) virus in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiangjie; Belser, Jessica A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2016-01-15

    In 2012, an avian influenza A H7N3 (A/Mexico/InDRE7218/2012; Mx/7218) virus was responsible for two confirmed cases of human infection and led to the death or culling of more than 22 million chickens in Jalisco, Mexico. Interestingly, this virus acquired an 8-amino acid (aa)-insertion (..PENPK-DRKSRHRR-TR/GLF) near the hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site by nonhomologous recombination with host rRNA. It remains unclear which specific residues at the cleavage site contribute to the virulence of H7N3 viruses in mammals. Using loss-of-function approaches, we generated a series of cleavage site mutant viruses by reverse genetics and characterized the viruses in vitro and in vivo. We found that the 8-aa insertion and the arginine at position P4 of the Mx/7218 HA cleavage site are essential for intracellular HA cleavage in 293T cells, but have no effect on the pH of membrane fusion. However, we identified a role for the histidine residue at P5 position in viral fusion pH. In mice, the 8-aa insertion is required for Mx/7218 virus virulence; however, the basic residues upstream of the P4 position are dispensable for virulence. Overall, our study provides the first line of evidence that the insertion in the Mx/7218 virus HA cleavage site confers its intracellular cleavability, and consequently contributes to enhanced virulence in mice. - Highlights: • An avian influenza H7N3 virus acquired a unique 8-amino acid (aa) insertion. • The role of specific basic residues in the HA insertion in viral pathogenesis was determined. • In mice, the 8-aa insertion is required for H7N3 virus virulence. • The R residue at position P4 is essential for HA intracellular cleavage and virus virulence.

  3. Phylogenetic Analysis and Pathogenicity Assessment of Two Strains of Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H9N2 Isolated from Migratory Birds: High Homology of Internal Genes with Human H10N8 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ge; Liang, Chai Hong; Hua, Deng Guo; Song, Lei Yong; Xiang, Yang Guo; Guang, Chen; Lan, Chen Hua; Ping, Hua Yu

    2016-01-01

    Two human-infecting avian influenza viruses (AIVs), H7N9 and H10N8, have emerged in China, which further indicate that the H9N2 subtype of AIVs, as an internal gene donor, may have an important role in the generation of new viruses with cross-species transmissibility and pathogenicity. H9N2 viruses that contain such internal genes widely exist in poultry but are rarely reported in migratory birds. In this study, two strains of the H9N2 virus were isolated from fecal samples of migratory birds in 2014: one strain from Caizi Lake in Anhui Province and one from Chen Lake in Hubei Province of China. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed high homology of all six internal genes of these two strains with the internal genes of the human H10N8 virus in Jiangxi Province, as well as with the human H7N9 virus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a possible origin of these two strains from poultry in South China. Both of the two viruses tested could replicated in respiratory organs of infective mice without adaption, by both strains of the H9N2 AIVs from wild birds, suggesting their potential capacity for directly infecting mammals. Our findings indicate the existence of H9N2 viruses that contain internal genes highly homologous with human H10N8 or H7N9 viruses. Wild birds can contribute to the spread of the H9N2 virus that contains the “harmful” internal gene complex, leading to gene rearrangement with other influenza viruses and to the generation of new pathogenic viruses. Therefore, strengthening AIV surveillance in wild birds can promote an understanding of the presence and prevalence of viruses and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of AIVs and human-infecting AIVs. PMID:26973600

  4. Phylogenetic Analysis and Pathogenicity Assessment of Two Strains of Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H9N2 Isolated from Migratory Birds: High Homology of Internal Genes with Human H10N8 Virus.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ge; Liang, Chai Hong; Hua, Deng Guo; Song, Lei Yong; Xiang, Yang Guo; Guang, Chen; Lan, Chen Hua; Ping, Hua Yu

    2016-01-01

    Two human-infecting avian influenza viruses (AIVs), H7N9 and H10N8, have emerged in China, which further indicate that the H9N2 subtype of AIVs, as an internal gene donor, may have an important role in the generation of new viruses with cross-species transmissibility and pathogenicity. H9N2 viruses that contain such internal genes widely exist in poultry but are rarely reported in migratory birds. In this study, two strains of the H9N2 virus were isolated from fecal samples of migratory birds in 2014: one strain from Caizi Lake in Anhui Province and one from Chen Lake in Hubei Province of China. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed high homology of all six internal genes of these two strains with the internal genes of the human H10N8 virus in Jiangxi Province, as well as with the human H7N9 virus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a possible origin of these two strains from poultry in South China. Both of the two viruses tested could replicated in respiratory organs of infective mice without adaption, by both strains of the H9N2 AIVs from wild birds, suggesting their potential capacity for directly infecting mammals. Our findings indicate the existence of H9N2 viruses that contain internal genes highly homologous with human H10N8 or H7N9 viruses. Wild birds can contribute to the spread of the H9N2 virus that contains the "harmful" internal gene complex, leading to gene rearrangement with other influenza viruses and to the generation of new pathogenic viruses. Therefore, strengthening AIV surveillance in wild birds can promote an understanding of the presence and prevalence of viruses and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of AIVs and human-infecting AIVs.

  5. Assessing alternative low pathogenic avian influenza virus surveillance strategies in a live bird market.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Tim E; Cardona, Carol

    2012-12-01

    Surveillance, comprised of sampling and testing, of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in a live bird market (LBM) may enable the detection of the virus, reducing its spread within the market to humans and birds and to other markets within the LBM system. In addition, detection of infected birds would also reduce the probability of reassortment and possible change from a LPAIV to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, which would have a devastating impact on the economy, trade, and society. In this paper we present results from a computer simulation model based on previously collected survey and experimental transmission data. Once we validated the model with experimental transmission data, we applied it to address some of the questions that need to be answered in order to create an efficient surveillance system in an LBM. We have identified effective sampling times, patterns, and sizes that would enhance the probability of an early detection of LPAIV if present and minimize the associated labor and cost. The model may be modified to evaluate different sized and structured LBMs. It also provides the basis to evaluate an entire LBM system for the United States or other countries.

  6. Homosubtypic and heterosubtypic antibodies against highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 recombinant proteins in H5N1 survivors and non-H5N1 subjects.

    PubMed

    Noisumdaeng, Pirom; Pooruk, Phisanu; Prasertsopon, Jarunee; Assanasen, Susan; Kitphati, Rungrueng; Auewarakul, Prasert; Puthavathana, Pilaipan

    2014-04-01

    Six recombinant vaccinia viruses containing HA, NA, NP, M or NS gene insert derived from a highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus, and the recombinant vaccinia virus harboring plasmid backbone as the virus control were constructed. The recombinant proteins were characterized for their expression and subcellular locations in TK(-) cells. Antibodies to the five recombinant proteins were detected in all 13 sequential serum samples collected from four H5N1 survivors during four years of follow-up; and those directed to rVac-H5 HA and rVac-NA proteins were found in higher titers than those directed to the internal proteins as revealed by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Although all 28 non-H5N1 subjects had no neutralizing antibodies against H5N1 virus, they did have cross-reactive antibodies to those five recombinant proteins. A significant increase in cross-reactive antibody titer to rVac-H5 HA and rVac-NA was found in paired blood samples from patients infected with the 2009 pandemic virus.

  7. Protection against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus infection in cynomolgus monkeys by an inactivated H5N1 whole particle vaccine.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Misako; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Itoh, Yasushi; Ishigaki, Hirohito; Kitano, Mitsutaka; Arikata, Masahiko; Pham, Van Loi; Ishida, Hideaki; Kitagawa, Naoko; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Ichikawa, Takaya; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Le, Quynh Mai; Ito, Mutsumi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi; Ogasawara, Kazumasa

    2013-01-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection has been reported in poultry and humans with expanding clade designations. Therefore, a vaccine that induces immunity against a broad spectrum of H5N1 viruses is preferable for pandemic preparedness. We established a second H5N1 vaccine candidate, A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-3/2007 (Vac-3), in our virus library and examined the efficacy of inactivated whole particles of this strain against two clades of H5N1 HPAIV strains that caused severe morbidity in cynomolgus macaques. Virus propagation in vaccinated macaques infected with either of the H5N1 HPAIV strains was prevented compared with that in unvaccinated macaques. This vaccine also prevented propagation of a pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in macaques. In the vaccinated macaques, neutralization activity, which was mainly shown by anti-hemagglutinin antibody, against H5N1 HPAIVs in plasma was detected, but that against H1N1 virus was not detected. However, neuraminidase inhibition activity in plasma and T-lymphocyte responses in lymph nodes against H1N1 virus were detected. Therefore, cross-clade and heterosubtypic protective immunity in macaques consisted of humoral and cellular immunity induced by vaccination with Vac-3.

  8. Addition of N-glycosylation sites on the globular head of the H5 hemagglutinin induces the escape of highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses from vaccine-induced immunity.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Pierre-Louis; Lorin, Valérie; Jouvion, Grégory; Da Costa, Bruno; Escriou, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses remain endemic in poultry in several countries and still constitute a pandemic threat. Since the early 20th century, we experienced four influenza A pandemics. H3N2 and H1N1pdm09 viruses that respectively emerged during 1968 and 2009 pandemics are still responsible for seasonal epidemics. These viruses evolve regularly by substitutions in antigenic sites of the hemagglutinin (HA), which prevent neutralization by antibodies directed against previous strains (antigenic drift). For seasonal H3N2 viruses, an addition of N-glycosylation sites (glycosites) on H3 contributed to this drift. Here, we questioned whether additional glycosites on H5 could induce an escape of H5N1 virus from neutralization, as it was observed for seasonal H3N2 viruses. Seven H5N1 mutants were produced by adding glycosites on H5. The most glycosylated virus escaped from neutralizing antibodies, in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, a single additional glycosite was responsible for this escape.

  9. Use of ex vivo and in vitro cultures of the human respiratory tract to study the tropism and host responses of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) and other influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Chan, Renee W Y; Chan, Michael C W; Nicholls, John M; Malik Peiris, J S

    2013-12-05

    The tropism of influenza viruses for the human respiratory tract is a key determinant of host-range, and consequently, of pathogenesis and transmission. Insights can be obtained from clinical and autopsy studies of human disease and relevant animal models. Ex vivo cultures of the human respiratory tract and in vitro cultures of primary human cells can provide complementary information provided they are physiologically comparable in relevant characteristics to human tissues in vivo, e.g. virus receptor distribution, state of differentiation. We review different experimental models for their physiological relevance and summarize available data using these cultures in relation to highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, in comparison where relevant, with other influenza viruses. Transformed continuous cell-lines often differ in important ways to the corresponding tissues in vivo. The state of differentiation of primary human cells (respiratory epithelium, macrophages) can markedly affect virus tropism and host responses. Ex vivo cultures of human respiratory tissues provide a close resemblance to tissues in vivo and may be used to risk assess animal viruses for pandemic threat. Physiological factors (age, inflammation) can markedly affect virus receptor expression and virus tropism. Taken together with data from clinical studies on infected humans and relevant animal models, data from ex vivo and in vitro cultures of human tissues and cells can provide insights into virus transmission and pathogenesis and may provide understanding that leads to novel therapeutic interventions.

  10. Lack of virological and serological evidence for continued circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 virus in wild birds in the Netherlands, 14 November 2014 to 31 January 2016

    PubMed Central

    Poen, Marjolein J; Verhagen, Josanne H; Manvell, Ruth J; Brown, Ian; Bestebroer, Theo M; van der Vliet, Stefan; Vuong, Oanh; Scheuer, Rachel D; van der Jeugd, Henk P; Nolet, Bart A; Kleyheeg, Erik; Müskens, Gerhard J D M; Majoor, Frank A; Grund, Christian; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 lineage emerged in poultry and wild birds in Asia, Europe and North America. Here, wild birds were extensively investigated in the Netherlands for HPAI H5N8 virus (real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting the matrix and H5 gene) and antibody detection (haemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralisation assays) before, during and after the first virus detection in Europe in late 2014. Between 21 February 2015 and 31 January 2016, 7,337 bird samples were tested for the virus. One HPAI H5N8 virus-infected Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope) sampled on 25 February 2015 was detected. Serological assays were performed on 1,443 samples, including 149 collected between 2007 and 2013, 945 between 14 November 2014 and 13 May 2015, and 349 between 1 September and 31 December 2015. Antibodies specific for HPAI H5 clade 2.3.4.4 were absent in wild bird sera obtained before 2014 and present in sera collected during and after the HPAI H5N8 emergence in Europe, with antibody incidence declining after the 2014/15 winter. Our results indicate that the HPAI H5N8 virus has not continued to circulate extensively in wild bird populations since the 2014/15 winter and that independent maintenance of the virus in these populations appears unlikely. PMID:27684783

  11. Characteristics of two duck farming systems in the Mekong Delta of Viet Nam: stationary flocks and moving flocks, and their potential relevance to the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Henning, Joerg; Henning, Kate A; Long, Ngo Thanh; Ha, Nguyen Truc; Vu, Le Tri; Meers, Joanne

    2013-03-01

    Ducks are considered to play a major role in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in Viet Nam, but detailed information on their management is limited. We distinguished two different systems (1) stationary duck flocks that are not commonly driven to rice fields beyond village boundaries and that are confined overnight on farms and (2) moving duck flocks that are intentionally driven to rice fields beyond village boundaries, that are not returning to home farms for extended periods and that are housed overnight in temporary enclosures in rice paddies. A total of 115 stationary and 22 moving flock farmers were interviewed in 2007 in the Mekong Delta of Viet Nam. Moving duck flocks are larger than stationary flocks, which is indicative of their more commercial production. Moving flock farmers apparently are more aware of HPAI risks than stationary flock farmers, as their flocks are more likely fully vaccinated and have less contact with chickens during scavenging. On the other hand, the spread of HPAI virus between birds might be promoted by moving duck flocks as they repeatedly use transport vehicles and numerous rice paddies for scavenging and are often visited by hatchery owners in the field for purchasing duck eggs. In addition, long distances travelled by moving duck flocks might also result in widespread dissemination of HPAI virus. Further studies are necessary to describe HPAI prevalence and travel patterns of moving duck flocks and to explore the moving duck flock network in detail.

  12. Inactivation of high and low pathogenic avian influenza virus H5 subtypes by copper ions incorporated in zeolite-textile materials.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kunitoshi; Ogawa, Haruko; Bui, Vuong Nghia; Inoue, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Jiro; Ohba, Masayoshi; Yamamoto, Yu; Nakamura, Kikuyasu

    2012-02-01

    The effect of cotton textiles containing Cu(2+) held by zeolites (CuZeo-textile) on the inactivation of H5 subtype viruses was examined. Allantoic fluid (AF) containing a virus (AF virus) (0.1 ml) was applied to the textile (3×3-cm), and incubated for a specific period at ambient temperature. After each incubation, 0.9 ml of culture medium was added followed by squeezing to recover the virus into the medium. The recovered virus was titrated using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells or 10-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. The highly pathogenic H5N1 and the low pathogenic H5N3 viruses were inactivated on the CuZeo-textile, even after short incubation. The titer of A/chicken/Yamaguchi/7/04 (H5N1) in MDCK cells and in eggs declined by >5.0 log(10) and 5.0 log(10), respectively, in 30 s. The titer of A/whooper swan/Hokkaido/1/08 (H5N1) in MDCK cells declined by 2.3 and 3.5 in 1 and 5 min, respectively. When A/whistling swan/Shimane/499/83 (H5N3) was treated on the CuZeo-textile for 10 min, the titer declined by >5.0 log(10) in MDCK cells and by >3.5 log(10) in eggs. In contrast, no decrease in the titers was observed on cotton textiles containing zeolites alone (Zeo-textile). Neither cytopathic effects nor NP antigens were detected in MDCK cells inoculated with the H5N1 virus treated on the CuZeo-textile. The viral genes (H5, N1, M, and NP) were amplified from the virus treated on the CuZeo-textile by RT-PCR. The hemagglutinating activity of the CuZeo-textile treated virus was unaffected, indicating that virus-receptor interactions were maintained. Electron microscopic analysis revealed a small number of particles with morphological abnormalities in the H5N3 virus samples recovered immediately from the CuZeo-textile, while no particles were detectable in the 10-min treated sample, suggesting the rapid destruction of virions by the Cu(2+) in the CuZeo-textile. The loss of infectivity of H5 viruses could, therefore, be due to the destruction of virions by Cu(2

  13. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) recovered from a clinically healthy chicken in the United States and characterization of its pathogenicity in specific-pathogen-free chickens.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuk Moo; LeRoith, Tanya; Pudupakam, R S; Pierson, F William; Huang, Yao-Wei; Dryman, Barbara A; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2011-01-27

    A genetically distinct strain of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV-VA strain) was isolated from a healthy chicken in Virginia, and thus it is important to characterize and compare its pathogenicity with the prototype strain (avian HEV-prototype) isolated from a diseased chicken. Here we first constructed an infectious clone of the avian HEV-VA strain. Capped RNA transcripts from the avian HEV-VA clone were replication-competent after transfection of LMH chicken liver cells. Chickens inoculated intrahepatically with RNA transcripts of avian HEV-VA clone developed active infection as evidenced by fecal virus shedding, viremia, and seroconversion. To characterize the pathogenicity, RNA transcripts of both avian HEV-VA and avian HEV-prototype clones were intrahepatically inoculated into the livers of chickens. Avian HEV RNA was detected in feces, serum and bile samples from 10/10 avian HEV-VA-inoculated and 9/9 avian HEV-prototype-inoculated chickens although seroconversion occurred only in some chickens during the experimental period. The histopathological lesion scores were lower for avian HEV-VA group than avian HEV-prototype group in the liver at 3 and 5 weeks post-inoculation (wpi) and in the spleen at 3 wpi, although the differences were not statistically significant. The liver/body weight ratio, indicative of liver enlargement, of both avian HEV-VA and avian HEV-prototype groups were significantly higher than that of the control group at 5 wpi. Overall, the avian HEV-VA strain still induces histological liver lesions even though it was isolated from a healthy chicken. The results also showed that intrahepatic inoculation of chickens with RNA transcripts of avian HEV infectious clone may serve as an alternative for live virus in animal pathogenicity studies.

  14. PA-X-associated early alleviation of the acute lung injury contributes to the attenuation of a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiao; Mo, Yiqun; Gao, Zhao; Wang, Xiaoquan; Gu, Min; Liang, Yanyan; Cheng, Xin; Hu, Shunlin; Liu, Wenbo; Liu, Huimou; Chen, Sujuan; Liu, Xiaowen; Peng, Daxing; Liu, Xiufan

    2016-08-01

    PA-X is a novel discovered accessory protein encoded by the PA mRNA. Our previous study demonstrated that PA-X decreases the virulence of a highly pathogenic H5N1 strain A/Chicken/Jiangsu/k0402/2010 in mice. However, the underlying mechanism of virulence attenuation associated with PA-X is still unknown. In this study, we compared two PA-X-deficient mutant viruses and the parental virus in terms of induction of pathology and manipulation of host response in the mouse lung, stimulation of cell death and PA nuclear accumulation. We first found that down-regulated PA-X expression markedly aggravated the acute lung injury of the infected mice early on day 1 post-infection (p.i.). We then determined that loss of PA-X expression induced higher levels of cytokines, chemokines and complement-derived peptides (C3a and C5a) in the lung, especially at early time point's p.i. In addition, in vitro assays showed that the PA-X-deficient viruses enhanced cell death and increased expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells. Moreover, we also found that PA nuclear accumulation of the PA-X-null viruses accelerated in MDCK cells. These results demonstrate that PA-X decreases the level of complement components, ROS, cell death and inflammatory response, which may together contribute to the alleviated lung injury and the attenuation of the virulence of H5N1 virus in mice.

  15. Tropism and Induction of Cytokines in Human Embryonic-Stem Cells-Derived Neural Progenitors upon Inoculation with Highly- Pathogenic Avian H5N1 Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Pringproa, Kidsadagon; Rungsiwiwut, Ruttachuk; Tantilertcharoen, Rachod; Praphet, Reunkeaw; Pruksananonda, Kamthorn; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction caused by neurovirulent influenza viruses is a dreaded complication of infection, and may play a role in some neurodegenerative conditions, such as Parkinson-like diseases and encephalitis lethargica. Although CNS infection by highly pathogenic H5N1 virus has been demonstrated, it is unknown whether H5N1 infects neural progenitor cells, nor whether such infection plays a role in the neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. To pursue this question, we infected human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) differentiated from human embryonic stem cells in vitro with H5N1 virus, and studied the resulting cytopathology, cytokine expression, and genes involved in the differentiation. Human embryonic stem cells (BG01) were maintained and differentiated into the neural progenitors, and then infected by H5N1 virus (A/Chicken/Thailand/CUK2/04) at a multiplicity of infection of 1. At 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours post-infection (hpi), cytopathic effects were observed. Then cells were characterized by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, supernatants quantified for virus titers, and sampled cells studied for candidate genes.The hNPCs were susceptible to H5N1 virus infection as determined by morphological observation and immunofluorescence. The infection was characterized by a significant up-regulation of TNF-α gene expression, while expressions of IFN-α2, IFN-β1, IFN-γ and IL-6 remained unchanged compared to mock-infected controls. Moreover, H5N1 infection did not appear to alter expression of neuronal and astrocytic markers of hNPCs, such as β-III tubulin and GFAP, respectively. The results indicate that hNPCs support H5N1 virus infection and may play a role in the neuroinflammation during acute viral encephalitis.

  16. Association of Mx1 Asn631 variant alleles with reductions in morbidity, early mortality, viral shedding, and cytokine responses in chickens infected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Sandra J; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Livant, Emily J; Suarez, David L; Ralph, John; McLeod, Scott; Miller, Carolyn

    2011-06-01

    Myxovirus-resistance (Mx) proteins are produced by host cells in response to type I interferons, and some members of the Mx gene family in mammals have been shown to limit replication of influenza and other viruses. According to an early report, chicken Mx1 variants encoding Asn at position 631 have antiviral activity, whereas variants with Ser at 631 lack activity in experiments evaluating Mx1 complementary DNA (cDNA) expressed ectopically in a cell line. We evaluated whether the Mx1 631 dimorphism influenced pathogenesis of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection in chickens of two commercial broiler lines, each segregating for Asn631 and Ser631 variants. Following intranasal infection with HPAIV strain A/Chicken/Queretaro/14588-19/1995 H5N2, chickens homozygous for Asn631 allele were significantly more resistant to disease based on early mortality, morbidity, or virus shedding than Ser631 homozygotes. Higher amounts of splenic cytokine transcripts were observed in the Ser631 birds after infection, consistent with higher viral loads seen in this group and perhaps contributing to their higher morbidity. Nucleotide sequence determination of Mx1 cDNAs demonstrated that the Asn631 variants in the two chicken lines differed at several amino acid positions outside 631. In vitro experiments with a different influenza strain (low pathogenicity) failed to demonstrate an effect of Mx1 Asn631 on viral replication suggesting that in vivo responses may differ markedly from in vitro, or that choice of virus strain may be critical in demonstrating effects of chicken Mx1. Overall, these studies provide the first evidence that Mx1 has antiviral effects in chickens infected with influenza virus.

  17. Tissue tropism of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in naturally infected mute swans (Cygnus Olor ), domestic geese (Aser Anser var. domestica), pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and mulard ducks ( Cairina moschata x anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Szeredi, Levente; Dán, Adám; Pálmai, Nimród; Ursu, Krisztina; Bálint, Adám; Szeleczky, Zsófia; Ivanics, Eva; Erdélyi, Károly; Rigó, Dóra; Tekes, Lajos; Glávits, Róbert

    2010-03-01

    The 2006 epidemic due to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 in Hungary caused the most severe losses in waterfowl which were, according to the literature at the time, supposed to be the most resistant to this pathogen. The presence of pathological lesions and the amount of viral antigen were quantified by gross pathology, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the organs of four waterfowl species [mute swans (n = 10), domestic geese (n = 6), mulard ducks (n = 6) and Pekin ducks (n = 5)] collected during the epidemic. H5N1 subtype HPAIV was isolated from all birds examined. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRRT-PCR) was also applied on a subset of samples [domestic geese (n = 3), mulard (n = 4) and Pekin duck (n = 4)] in order to compare its sensitivity with IHC. Viral antigen was detected by IHC in all cases. However, the overall presence of viral antigen in tissue samples was quite variable: virus antigen was present in 56/81 (69%) swan, 22/38 (58%) goose, 28/46 (61%) mulard duck and 5/43 (12%) Pekin duck tissue samples. HPAIV subtype H5N1 was detected by qRRT-PCR in all birds examined, in 19/19 (100%) goose, 7/28 (25%) mulard duck and 12/28 (43%) Pekin duck tissue samples. As compared to qRRTPCR, the IHC was less sensitive in geese and Pekin ducks but more sensitive in mulard ducks. The IHC was consistently positive above 4.31 log10 copies/reaction but it gave very variable results below that level. Neurotropism of the isolated virus strains was demonstrated by finding the largest amount of viral antigen and the highest average RNA load in the brain in all four waterfowl species examined.

  18. Different counteracting host immune responses to clade 2.2.1.1 and 2.2.1.2 Egyptian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in naïve and vaccinated chickens.

    PubMed

    Samy, Ahmed A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; El-Sanousi, Ahmed A; Nasef, Soad A; Naguib, Mahmoud M; Abdelwhab, E M; Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko

    2016-02-01

    In Egypt, two distinct lineages of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, "classic 2.2.1.2" and "variant 2.2.1.1" strains, have evolved. The underlying host immune responses counteracting these viruses in chickens remain not well understood. In the present study, the cytokine responses to a classic strain (C121) and those to a variant strain (V1063) were compared in naïve and vaccinated chickens. In naïve chickens, the C121 replicated more efficiently than the V1063. Both the C121 and the V1063 increased interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-10 gene expression at 48 h post inoculation (hpi) in the lung and spleen but the levels of these cytokines were lower in chickens infected with the C121 than those infected with the V1063. In contrast, in chickens vaccinated with inactivated C121-based vaccine, the C121 replicated less than the V1063. Both challenge with the C121 and that with the V1063 did not increase IFN-γ gene expression at 48 hpi; rather, the C121 increased IL-4 gene expression in the lung accompanied with lower viral titer and higher HI titers. These results suggested that the pathogenicity of HPAI viruses correlated with IFN-γ-producing helper and/or cytotoxic T cell responses in naïve chickens, whereas vaccine efficacy to HPAI viruses correlated with IL-4 producing helper T cell responses in the lung in vaccinated chickens. It implies that IL-4 in the lung, in addition to the traditional serum HI titers, could be used to screen novel vaccine strategies, such as strains, adjuvant, prime/boost protocols, against HPAI in chickens.

  19. Ferrets develop fatal influenza after inhaling small particle aerosols of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is limited knowledge about the potential routes for H5N1 influenza virus transmission to and between humans, and it is not clear whether humans can be infected through inhalation of aerosolized H5N1 virus particles. Ferrets are often used as a surrogate for humans in influenza pathogenicity a...

  20. Practical problems in controlling H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza at village level in Vietnam and introduction of biosecurity measures.

    PubMed

    Cristalli, Alessandro; Capua, Ilaria

    2007-03-01

    After a consultancy mission funded by a nongovernmental organization (NGO), information was collected on the dynamics of avian influenza (AI) infection at the rural level in a Vietnamese province with several ongoing outbreaks. AI outbreaks are frequent at village level due to environmental, ecological, agroecological, physical, social, and cultural factors, the underlying factor being poor hygienic conditions. Viral circulation is facilitated by the interactions of the integrated aquaculture, animal raising, horticulture agroecosystem, which relies in the peculiar integration of aquaculture (ponding), animal activities, and horticulture and by the connections with the live-bird market system. The interactions of these factors determine the complex system in which wild birds interact with domestic birds and in which people are constantly exposed to sources of infection, leading to the association between poverty and AI infection in humans. This experience underlines that despite all efforts by the Vietnamese Government, international institutions, and the NGO sector, awareness of AI at the village level needs to be improved. In turn, the leading institutions and international donors funding projects of technical cooperation aimed at tackling AI in Vietnam should invest in a system based on a deep knowledge of the practical problems of village condition to address AI with an effective approach. On the basis of the data collected during the mission, particularly on rural and semi-intensive poultry rearing systems, proposals that encompass the application of an effective vaccination strategy including backyard flocks coupled with dissemination of relevant information on biosecurity measures have been developed for decision makers.

  1. Highly pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) virus infection among workers at live bird markets, Bangladesh, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Nasreen, Sharifa; Khan, Salah Uddin; Luby, Stephen P; Gurley, Emily S; Abedin, Jaynal; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Sohel, Badrul Munir; Rahman, Mustafizur; Hancock, Kathy; Levine, Min Z; Veguilla, Vic; Wang, David; Holiday, Crystal; Gillis, Eric; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Bresee, Joseph S; Rahman, Mahmudur; Uyeki, Timothy M; Katz, Jacqueline M; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    The risk for influenza A(H5N1) virus infection is unclear among poultry workers in countries where the virus is endemic. To assess H5N1 seroprevalence and seroconversion among workers at live bird markets (LBMs) in Bangladesh, we followed a cohort of workers from 12 LBMs with existing avian influenza surveillance. Serum samples from workers were tested for H5N1 antibodies at the end of the study or when LBM samples first had H5N1 virus-positive test results. Of 404 workers, 9 (2%) were seropositive at baseline. Of 284 workers who completed the study and were seronegative at baseline, 6 (2%) seroconverted (7 cases/100 poultry worker-years). Workers who frequently fed poultry, cleaned feces from pens, cleaned food/water containers, and did not wash hands after touching sick poultry had a 7.6 times higher risk for infection compared with workers who infrequently performed these behaviors. Despite frequent exposure to H5N1 virus, LBM workers showed evidence of only sporadic infection.

  2. Avian influenza outbreak management: action at time of confirmation, depopulation and disposal methods; the 'Belgian experience' during the H7N7 highly pathogenic avian influenza epidemic in 2003.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, T; Houdart, P

    2008-01-01

    Eradication of H5 and H7 influenza in a positive flock will include mass depopulation of birds, containment and inactivation of the virus in the carcasses and litter, and decontamination of the facility. A quick response is desired in the event of a disease outbreak. Ideally, birds should be depopulated within 24 h after detecting the virus. Mass depopulation of birds must be performed in a humane manner while minimizing human health and biosecurity risks. In the framework of the European legislation, a number of methods are authorized for the killing of poultry for processing prior to marketing. However, during emergencies such as a disease outbreak, there are fewer options. The current most commonly used procedures for large-scale emergency depopulation of birds consist of exposing poultry to CO or CO(2) gas. Both gasses have been used in Belgium during the H7N7 crisis in 2003. The gassing procedures include whole house gassing, portable panel enclosures, cage cabinets, containers and polyethylene tent method. Whole house gassing requires sealing the house to prevent gas leakage and, using specialized equipment, introducing large volumes of gas evenly over the birds. All procedures are very labour intensive, create a biosecurity risk and require a large number of personnel. There are considerable region-to-region differences in emergency depopulation techniques and disposal of carcasses and infected material. Because of the differences in bird type and species, management, housing and stocking density, it is difficult to propose a depopulation technique that will be suitable for all circumstances. Safety of the human operators is an increasing concern with all H5 and H7 strains and in particular with the highly pathogenic H5N1 strain. Researchers and commercial poultry companies in the United States recently established that non-toxic water-based foam with a certain bubble size presents a practicable, effective and humane method for mass depopulation. Foam of the

  3. The presence of monocytes enhances the susceptibility of B cells to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus possibly through the increased expression of α2,3 SA receptor.

    PubMed

    Lersritwimanmaen, Patharapan; Na-Ek, Prasit; Thanunchai, Maytawan; Thewsoongnoen, Jutarat; Sa-Ard-Iam, Noppadol; Wiboon-ut, Suwimon; Mahanonda, Rangsini; Thitithanyanont, Arunee

    2015-08-28

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus causes severe systemic infection in avian and mammalian species, including humans by first targeting immune cells. This subsequently renders the innate and adaptive immune responses less active, thus allowing dissemination of the virus to systemic organs. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of H5N1, this study aims to determine the susceptibility of human PBMCs to the H5N1 virus and explore the factors which influence this susceptibility. We found that PBMCs were a target of H5N1 infection, and that monocytes and B cells were populations which were clearly the most susceptible. Analysis of PBMC subpopulations showed that isolated monocytes and monocytes residing in whole PBMCs had comparable percentages of infection (28.97 ± 5.54% vs 22.23 ± 5.14%). In contrast, isolated B cells were infected to a much lower degree than B cells residing in a mixture of whole PBMCs (0.88 ± 0.34% vs 34.87 ± 4.63%). Different susceptibility levels of B cells for these tested conditions spurred us to explore the B cell-H5N1 interaction mechanisms. Here, we first demonstrated that monocytes play a crucial role in the enhancement of B cell susceptibility to H5N1 infection. Although the actual mechanism by which this enhancement occurs remains in question, α2,3-linked sialic acid (SA), known for influenza virus receptors, could be a responsible factor for the greater susceptibility of B cells, as it was highly expressed on the surface of B cells upon H5N1 infection of B cell/monocyte co-cultures. Our findings reveal some of the factors involved with the permissiveness of human immune cells to H5N1 virus and provide a better understanding of the tropism of H5N1 in immune cells.

  4. Pathogenic potential of North American H7N2 avian influenza virus: a mutagenesis study using reverse genetics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Won; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Senne, Dennis A; Suarez, David L

    2006-09-30

    An H7N2 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) first appeared in the live bird marketing system (LBMS) in the Northeastern United States in 1994. Since then this lineage of virus has become the predominant subtype of AIV isolated from the LBMS and has been linked to several costly commercial poultry outbreaks. Concern for this low pathogenicity isolate mutating to the highly pathogenic form has remained high because of the increasing number of basic amino acids at the hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site, which is known to be associated with increased pathogenicity of AIV. To address the risk of low pathogenic LBMS-lineage H7N2 virus mutating to the highly pathogenic form of the virus, we generated a series of mutant viruses that have changes in the sequence at the HA cleavage site by using plasmid-based reverse genetics. We confirmed that a conserved proline at -5 position from the HA cleavage site could be changed to a basic amino acid, producing a virus with five basic amino acids in a row at the cleavage site, but with no increase in virulence. Increased virulence was only observed when additional basic amino acids were inserted. We also observed that the virus preferred the arginine instead of lysine at the -4 position from the cleavage site to manifest increased virulence both in vitro and in vivo. Using helper virus-based reverse genetics, where only one transcription plasmid expressing a mutated HA vRNA is used, we identified specific HA cleavage site sequences that were preferentially incorporated into the low pathogenic wild-type virus. The resultant reassortant viruses were highly pathogenic in chickens. This study provides additional evidence that H7 avian influenza viruses require an insertional event to become highly pathogenic, as compared to H5 viruses that can become highly pathogenic strictly by mutation or by insertions.

  5. Eutrophication and bacterial pathogens as risk factors for avian botulism outbreaks in wetlands receiving effluents from urban wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Anza, Ibone; Vidal, Dolors; Laguna, Celia; Díaz-Sánchez, Sandra; Sánchez, Sergio; Chicote, Alvaro; Florín, Máximo; Mateo, Rafael

    2014-07-01

    Due to the scarcity of water resources in the "Mancha Húmeda" Biosphere Reserve, the use of treated wastewater has been proposed as a solution for the conservation of natural threatened floodplain wetlands. In addition, wastewater treatment plants of many villages pour their effluent into nearby natural lakes. We hypothesized that certain avian pathogens present in wastewater may cause avian mortalities which would trigger avian botulism outbreaks. With the aim of testing our hypothesis, 24 locations distributed in three wetlands, two that receive wastewater effluents and one serving as a control, were monitored during a year. Sediment, water, water bird feces, and invertebrates were collected for the detection of putative avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), Salmonella spp., Clostridium perfringens type A, and Clostridium botulinum type C/D. Also, water and sediment physicochemical properties were determined. Overall, APEC, C. perfringens, and C. botulinum were significantly more prevalent in samples belonging to the wetlands which receive wastewater. The occurrence of a botulism outbreak in one of the studied wetlands coincided with high water temperatures and sediment 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), a decrease in water redox potential, chlorophyll a, and sulfate levels, and an increase in water inorganic carbon levels. The presence of C. botulinum in bird feces before the onset of the outbreak indicates that carrier birds exist and highlights the risk of botulinum toxin production in their carcasses if they die by other causes such as bacterial diseases, which are more probable in wastewater wetlands.

  6. Eutrophication and Bacterial Pathogens as Risk Factors for Avian Botulism Outbreaks in Wetlands Receiving Effluents from Urban Wastewater Treatment Plants

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Dolors; Laguna, Celia; Díaz-Sánchez, Sandra; Sánchez, Sergio; Chicote, Álvaro; Florín, Máximo; Mateo, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Due to the scarcity of water resources in the “Mancha Húmeda” Biosphere Reserve, the use of treated wastewater has been proposed as a solution for the conservation of natural threatened floodplain wetlands. In addition, wastewater treatment plants of many villages pour their effluent into nearby natural lakes. We hypothesized that certain avian pathogens present in wastewater may cause avian mortalities which would trigger avian botulism outbreaks. With the aim of testing our hypothesis, 24 locations distributed in three wetlands, two that receive wastewater effluents and one serving as a control, were monitored during a year. Sediment, water, water bird feces, and invertebrates were collected for the detection of putative avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), Salmonella spp., Clostridium perfringens type A, and Clostridium botulinum type C/D. Also, water and sediment physicochemical properties were determined. Overall, APEC, C. perfringens, and C. botulinum were significantly more prevalent in samples belonging to the wetlands which receive wastewater. The occurrence of a botulism outbreak in one of the studied wetlands coincided with high water temperatures and sediment 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), a decrease in water redox potential, chlorophyll a, and sulfate levels, and an increase in water inorganic carbon levels. The presence of C. botulinum in bird feces before the onset of the outbreak indicates that carrier birds exist and highlights the risk of botulinum toxin production in their carcasses if they die by other causes such as bacterial diseases, which are more probable in wastewater wetlands. PMID:24795377

  7. A triclade DNA vaccine designed on the basis of a comprehensive serologic study elicits neutralizing antibody responses against all clades and subclades of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fan; Wang, Guiqin; Buchy, Philippe; Cai, Zhipeng; Chen, Honglin; Chen, Zhiwei; Cheng, Genhong; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Deubel, Vincent; Zhou, Paul

    2012-06-01

    Because of their rapid evolution, genetic diversity, broad host range, ongoing circulation in birds, and potential human-to-human transmission, H5N1 influenza viruses remain a major global health concern. Their high degree of genetic diversity also poses enormous burdens and uncertainties in developing effective vaccines. To overcome this, we took a new approach, i.e., the development of immunogens based on a comprehensive serologic study. We constructed DNA plasmids encoding codon-optimized hemagglutinin (HA) from 17 representative strains covering all reported clades and subclades of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses. Using DNA plasmids, we generated the corresponding H5N1 pseudotypes and immune sera. We performed an across-the-board pseudotype-based neutralization assay and determined antigenic clusters by cartography. We then designed a triclade DNA vaccine and evaluated its immunogenicity and protection in mice. We report here that (sub)clades 0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.1, and 9 were grouped into antigenic cluster 1, (sub)clades 2.1.3.2, 2.3.4, 2.4, 2.5, and 8 were grouped into another antigenic cluster, with subclade 2.2.1 loosely connected to it, and each of subclades 2.3.2.1 and 7.2 was by itself. Importantly, the triclade DNA vaccine encoding HAs of (sub)clades 0, 2.3.2.1, and 7.2 elicited broadly neutralizing antibody responses against all H5 clades and subclades and protected mice against high-lethal-dose heterologous H5N1 challenge. Thus, we conclude that broadly neutralizing antibodies against all H5 clades and subclades can indeed be elicited with immunogens on the basis of a comprehensive serologic study. Further evaluation and optimization of such an approach in ferrets and in humans is warranted.

  8. Experimental and Field Results Regarding Immunity Induced by a Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus H5 Vector Vaccine Against H5N1 and Other H5 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Challenges.

    PubMed

    Gardin, Yannick; Palya, Vilmos; Dorsey, Kristi Moore; El-Attrache, John; Bonfante, Francesco; Wit, Sjaak de; Kapczynski, Darrell; Kilany, Walid Hamdy; Rauw, Fabienne; Steensels, Mieke; Soejoedono, Retno D

    2016-05-01

    Vaccination against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) virus (HPAIV) is one of the possible complementary means available for affected countries to control AI when the disease has become, or with a high risk of becoming, endemic. Efficacy of the vaccination against AI relies essentially, but not exclusively, on the capacity of the vaccine to induce immunity against the targeted virus (which is prone to undergo antigenic variations), as well as its capacity to overcome interference with maternal immunity transmitted by immunized breeding hens to their progeny. This property of the vaccine is a prerequisite for its administration at the hatchery, which assures higher and more reliable vaccine coverage of the populations than vaccination at the farm. A recombinant vector vaccine (Vectormune® AI), based on turkey herpesvirus expressing the hemagglutinin gene of an H5N1 HPAIV as an insert, has been used in several experiments conducted in different research laboratories, as well as in controlled field trials. The results have demonstrated a high degree of homologous and cross protection against different genetic clades of the H5N1 HPAIV. Furthermore, vaccine-induced immunity was not impaired by the presence of passive immunity, but on the contrary, cumulated with it for improved early protection. The demonstrated levels of protection against the different challenge viruses exhibited variations in terms of postchallenge mortality, as well as challenge virus shedding. The data presented here highlight the advantages of this vaccine as a useful and reliable tool to complement biosecurity and sanitary policies for better controlling the disease due to HPAIV of H5 subtypes, when the vaccination is applied as a control measure.

  9. A Triclade DNA Vaccine Designed on the Basis of a Comprehensive Serologic Study Elicits Neutralizing Antibody Responses against All Clades and Subclades of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fan; Wang, Guiqin; Buchy, Philippe; Cai, Zhipeng; Chen, Honglin; Chen, Zhiwei; Cheng, Genhong; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Deubel, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Because of their rapid evolution, genetic diversity, broad host range, ongoing circulation in birds, and potential human-to-human transmission, H5N1 influenza viruses remain a major global health concern. Their high degree of genetic diversity also poses enormous burdens and uncertainties in developing effective vaccines. To overcome this, we took a new approach, i.e., the development of immunogens based on a comprehensive serologic study. We constructed DNA plasmids encoding codon-optimized hemagglutinin (HA) from 17 representative strains covering all reported clades and subclades of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses. Using DNA plasmids, we generated the corresponding H5N1 pseudotypes and immune sera. We performed an across-the-board pseudotype-based neutralization assay and determined antigenic clusters by cartography. We then designed a triclade DNA vaccine and evaluated its immunogenicity and protection in mice. We report here that (sub)clades 0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.1, and 9 were grouped into antigenic cluster 1, (sub)clades 2.1.3.2, 2.3.4, 2.4, 2.5, and 8 were grouped into another antigenic cluster, with subclade 2.2.1 loosely connected to it, and each of subclades 2.3.2.1 and 7.2 was by itself. Importantly, the triclade DNA vaccine encoding HAs of (sub)clades 0, 2.3.2.1, and 7.2 elicited broadly neutralizing antibody responses against all H5 clades and subclades and protected mice against high-lethal-dose heterologous H5N1 challenge. Thus, we conclude that broadly neutralizing antibodies against all H5 clades and subclades can indeed be elicited with immunogens on the basis of a comprehensive serologic study. Further evaluation and optimization of such an approach in ferrets and in humans is warranted. PMID:22496212

  10. Interspecies transmission and limited persistence of low pathogenic avian influenza genomes among Alaska dabbling ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, A.B.; Pearce, J.M.; Ramey, A.M.; Meixell, B.W.; Runstadler, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The reassortment and geographic distribution of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus genes are well documented, but little is known about the persistence of intact LPAI genomes among species and locations. To examine persistence of entire LPAI genome constellations in Alaska, we calculated the genetic identities among 161 full-genome LPAI viruses isolated across 4. years from five species of duck: northern pintail (Anas acuta), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American green-winged teal (Anas crecca), northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) and American wigeon (Anas americana). Based on pairwise genetic distance, highly similar LPAI genomes (>99% identity) were observed within and between species and across a range of geographic distances (up to and >1000 km), but most often between isolates collected 0-10. km apart. Highly similar viruses were detected between years, suggesting inter-annual persistence, but these were rare in our data set with the majority occurring within 0-9. days of sampling. These results identify LPAI transmission pathways in the context of species, space and time, an initial perspective into the extent of regional virus distribution and persistence, and insight into why no completely Eurasian genomes have ever been detected in Alaska. Such information will be useful in forecasting the movement of foreign-origin avian influenza strains should they be introduced to North America. ?? 2011.

  11. Interspecies transmission and limited persistence of low pathogenic avian influenza genomes among Alaska dabbling ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Andrew B.; Pearce, John M.; Ramey, Andy M.; Meixell, Brandt; Runstadler, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    The reassortment and geographic distribution of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus genes are well documented, but little is known about the persistence of intact LPAI genomes among species and locations. To examine persistence of entire LPAI genome constellations in Alaska, we calculated the genetic identities among 161 full-genome LPAI viruses isolated across 4 years from five species of duck: northern pintail (Anas acuta), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American green-winged teal (Anas crecca), northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) and American wigeon (Anas Americana). Based on pairwise genetic distance, highly similar LPAI genomes (>99 percent identity) were observed within and between species and across a range of geographic distances (up to and >1000 km), but most often between isolates collected 0-10 km apart. Highly similar viruses were detected between years, suggesting inter-annual persistence, but these were rare in our data set with the majority occurring within 0-9 days of sampling. These results identify LPAI transmission pathways in the context of species, space and time, an initial perspective into the extent of regional virus distribution and persistence, and insight into why no completely Eurasian genomes have ever been detected in Alaska. Such information will be useful in forecasting the movement of foreign-origin avian influenza strains should they be introduced to North America.

  12. Evaluation of two commercial lateral flow devices (LFDs) used for flockside testing of H5N1 highly-pathogenic avian influenza infections in backyard gallinaceous poultry in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Mohammed; Selim, Abdullah; Coward, Vivien J; Hassan, Mohammed K; Aly, Mona M; Banks, Jill; Slomka, Marek J

    2010-10-13

    Quickvue and Anigen lateral flow devices (LFDs) were evaluated for detection of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) infections in Egyptian poultry. Sixty five chickens and two turkeys were sampled in eight flocks where H5N1 HPAI infection was suspected. Swabs (tracheal and cloacal) and feathers were collected from each bird for flockside testing by the two LFDs. The same clinical specimens were transported for laboratory testing by M gene RRT PCR where a positive result by this "gold standard" test for one or both swabs from a given bird indicated infection at the bird level, showing 57 birds (including 15 carcassess) to be truly AI infected. Among these 57, similar bird-level LFD testing of swabs showed 43 and 44 to be AI infected by Quickvue and Anigen LFDs, respectively. Nine birds were AI negative by M gene RRT PCR and both LFDs, and one was M gene RRT PCR negative but positive by both LFDs, suggesting one false positive LFD result. Sensitivities of the LFDs relative to M gene RRT PCR were 77.2% for Anigen and 75.4% for Quickvue tests, with 90.0% specificity for both. By including feathers with swabs for LFD testing, the number of LFD positives among 57 infected birds increased by four to 48 by Anigen and 47 by Quickvue, increasing the sensitivity of the LFDs to 84.2% and 82.5% for Anigen and Quickvue, respectively. Although LFD sensitivity cannot compare to the high sensitivity displayed by validated AI RRT PCRs, they may be utilised for flockside testing of birds infected with HPAI at the peak of viral shedding, when birds are displaying advanced clinical signs or sampled as fresh carcasses. Swabs are classic field specimens collected from outbreaks, but inclusion of feathers from birds infected with H5N1 HPAI increased LFD sensitivity. However, the LFD false positive observation emphasises the importance of returning samples for confirmatory laboratory testing.

  13. A Simulation-Based Evaluation of Premovement Active Surveillance Protocol Options for the Managed Movement of Turkeys to Slaughter During an Outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in the United States.

    PubMed

    Todd Weaver, J; Malladi, Sasidhar; Bonney, Peter J; Patyk, Kelly A; Bergeron, Justin G; Middleton, Jamie L; Alexander, Catherine Y; Goldsmith, Timothy J; Halvorson, David A

    2016-05-01

    Risk management decisions associated with live poultry movement during a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak should be carefully considered. Live turkey movements may pose a risk for disease spread. On the other hand, interruptions in scheduled movements can disrupt business continuity. The Secure Turkey Supply (STS) Plan was developed through an industry-government-academic collaboration to address business continuity concerns that might arise during a HPAI outbreak. STS stakeholders proposed outbreak response measure options that were evaluated through risk assessment. The developed approach relies on 1) diagnostic testing of two pooled samples of swabs taken from dead turkeys immediately before movement via the influenza A matrix gene real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) test; 2) enhanced biosecurity measures in combination with a premovement isolation period (PMIP), restricting movement onto the premises for a few days before movement to slaughter; and 3) incorporation of a distance factor from known infected flocks such that exposure via local area spread is unlikely. Daily exposure likelihood estimates from spatial kernels from past HPAI outbreaks were coupled with simulation models of disease spread and active surveillance to evaluate active surveillance protocol options that differ with respect to the number of swabs per pooled sample and the timing of the tests in relation to movement. Simulation model results indicate that active surveillance testing, in combination with strict biosecurity, substantially increased HPAI virus detection probability. When distance from a known infected flock was considered, the overall combined likelihood of moving an infected, undetected turkey flock to slaughter was predicted to be lower at 3 and 5 km. The analysis of different active surveillance protocol options is designed to incorporate flexibility into HPAI emergency response plans.

  14. Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's egg pasteurization processes on the inactivation of high-pathogenicity avian influenza virus and velogenic Newcastle disease virus in processed egg products.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Revis A; Beck, Joan R; Swayne, David E

    2013-04-01

    Globally, 230,662 metric tons of liquid egg products are marketed each year. The presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) or Newcastle disease in an exporting country can legitimately inhibit trade in eggs and processed egg products; development and validation of pasteurization parameters are essential for safe trade to continue. The HPAI virus (HPAIV) A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/1983 (H5N2) and velogenic Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) AMPV-1/chicken/California/S01212676/2002 were inoculated into five egg products and heat treated at various times and temperatures to determine thermal inactivation rates to effect a 5-log viral reduction. For HPAIV and vNDV, the pasteurization processes for fortified, sugared, plain, and salted egg yolk, and homogenized whole egg (HPAIV only) products resulted in >5-log reductions in virus at the lower temperature-longer times of U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)-approved Salmonella pasteurization processes. In addition, a >5-log reduction of HPAIV was also demonstrated for the five products at the higher temperatures-shorter times of USDA-approved pasteurization processes, whereas the vNDV virus was adequately inactivated in only fortified and plain egg yolk products. For the salted and sugared egg yolk products, an additional 0.65 and 1.6 min of treatment, respectively, at 63.3 °C was necessary to inactivate 5 log of vNDV. Egg substitute with fat does not have standard USDA pasteurization criteria, but the D59-value was 0.75 min, adequate to inactivate 5 log of vNDV in <4 min.

  15. Comparative Epidemiology of Human Fatal Infections with Novel, High (H5N6 and H5N1) and Low (H7N9 and H9N2) Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zu-Qun; Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Na; Yu, Zhao; Pan, Hao; Chan, Ta-Chien; Zhang, Zhi-Ruo; Liu, She-Lan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the mortality risks for human infection with high (HPAI) and low (LPAI) pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. The HPAI case fatality rate (CFR) was far higher than the LPAI CFR [66.0% (293/444) vs. 68.75% (11/16) vs. 40.4% (265/656) vs. 0.0% (0/18) in the cases with H5N1, H5N6, H7N9, and H9N2 viruses, respectively; p < 0.001]. Similarly, the CFR of the index cases was greater than the secondary cases with H5N1 [100% (43/43) vs. 43.3% (42/97), p < 0.001]. Old age [22.5 vs. 17 years for H5N1, p = 0.018; 61 vs. 49 years for H7H9, p < 0.001], concurrent diseases [18.8% (15/80) vs. 8.33% (9/108) for H5N1, p = 0.046; 58.6% (156/266) vs. 34.8% (135/388) for H7H9, p < 0.001], delayed confirmation [13 vs. 6 days for H5N1, p < 0.001; 10 vs. 8 days for H7N9, p = 0.011] in the fatalities and survivors, were risk factors for deaths. With regard to the H5N1 clusters, exposure to poultry [67.4% (29/43) vs. 45.2% (19/42), p = 0.039] was the higher risk for the primary than the secondary deaths. In conclusion, old age, comorbidities, delayed confirmation, along with poultry exposure are the major risks contributing to fatal outcomes in human HPAI and LPAI infections. PMID:28273867

  16. Recovery Based Nanowire Field-Effect Transistor Detection of Pathogenic Avian Influenza DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chih-Heng; Chu, Chia-Jung; Teng, Kang-Ning; Su, Yi-Jr; Chen, Chii-Dong; Tsai, Li-Chu; Yang, Yuh-Shyong

    2012-02-01

    Fast and accurate diagnosis is critical in infectious disease surveillance and management. We proposed a DNA recovery system that can easily be adapted to DNA chip or DNA biosensor for fast identification and confirmation of target DNA. This method was based on the re-hybridization of DNA target with a recovery DNA to free the DNA probe. Functionalized silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW FET) was demonstrated to monitor such specific DNA-DNA interaction using high pathogenic strain virus hemagglutinin 1 (H1) DNA of avian influenza (AI) as target. Specific electric changes were observed in real-time for AI virus DNA sensing and device recovery when nanowire surface of SiNW FET was modified with complementary captured DNA probe. The recovery based SiNW FET biosensor can be further developed for fast identification and further confirmation of a variety of influenza virus strains and other infectious diseases.

  17. Characterization of low-pathogenicity H5N1 avian influenza viruses from North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E.; Suarez, David L.; Senne, Dennis A.; Pedersen, Janice C.; Killian, Mary Lea; Pasick, John; Handel, Katherine; Somanathan Pillai, Smitha; Lee, Chang-Won; Stallknecht, David; Slemons, Richard; Ip, Hon S.; Deliberto, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Wild-bird surveillance in North America for avian influenza (AI) viruses with a goal of early identification of the Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic AI virus has identified at least six low-pathogenicity H5N1 AI viruses between 2004 and 2006. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from all 6 H5N1 viruses and an additional 38 North American wild-bird-origin H5 subtype and 28 N1 subtype viruses were sequenced and compared with sequences available in GenBank by phylogenetic analysis. Both HA and NA were phylogenetically distinct from those for viruses from outside of North America and from those for viruses recovered from mammals. Four of the H5N1 AI viruses were characterized as low pathogenicity by standard in vivo pathotyping tests. One of the H5N1 viruses, A/MuteSwan/MI/451072-2/06, was shown to replicate to low titers in chickens, turkeys, and ducks. However, transmission of A/MuteSwan/MI/451072-2/06 was more efficient among ducks than among chickens or turkeys based on virus shed. The 50% chicken infectious dose for A/MuteSwan/MI/451072-2/06 and three other wild-waterfowl-origin H5 viruses were also determined and were between 105.3 and 107.5 50% egg infective doses. Finally, seven H5 viruses representing different phylogenetic clades were evaluated for their antigenic relatedness by hemagglutination inhibition assay, showing that the antigenic relatedness was largely associated with geographic origin. Overall, the data support the conclusion that North American H5 wild-bird-origin AI viruses are low-pathogenicity wild-bird-adapted viruses and are antigenically and genetically distinct from the highly pathogenic Asian H5N1 virus lineage.

  18. Characterization of low-pathogenicity H5N1 avian influenza viruses from North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spackman, Erica; Swayne, D. E.; Suarez, D. L.; Senne, D. A.; Pedersen, J. C.; Killian, M. L.; Pasick, J.; Handel, K.; Pillai, S. P. S.; Lee, C. -W.; Stallknecht, D.; Slemons, R.; Ip, H. S.; Deliberto, T.

    2007-01-01

    Wild-bird surveillance in North America for avian influenza (AI) viruses with a goal of early identification of the Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic AI virus has identified at least six low-pathogenicity H5N1 AI viruses between 2004 and 2006. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from all 6 H5N1 viruses and an additional 38 North American wild-bird-origin H5 subtype and 28 N1 subtype viruses were sequenced and compared with sequences available in GenBank by phylogenetic analysis. Both HA and NA were phylogenetically distinct from those for viruses from outside of North America and from those for viruses recovered from mammals. Four of the H5N1 AI viruses were characterized as low pathogenicity by standard in vivo pathotyping tests. One of the H5N1 viruses, A/MuteSwan/MI/451072-2/06, was shown to replicate to low titers in chickens, turkeys, and ducks. However, transmission of A/MuteSwan/MI/451072-2/06 was more efficient among ducks than among chickens or turkeys based on virus shed. The 50% chicken infectious dose for A/MuteSwan/MI/451072-2/06 and three other wild-waterfowl-origin H5 viruses were also determined and were between 10 5.3 and 107.5 50% egg infective doses. Finally, seven H5 viruses representing different phylogenetic clades were evaluated for their antigenic relatedness by hemagglutination inhibition assay, showing that the antigenic relatedness was largely associated with geographic origin. Overall, the data support the conclusion that North American H5 wild-bird-origin AI viruses are low-pathogenicity wild-bird-adapted viruses and are antigenically and genetically distinct from the highly pathogenic Asian H5N1 virus lineage. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Global phylogeography of the avian malaria pathogen Plasmodium relictum based on MSP1 allelic diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hellgren, Olof; Atkinson, Carter T.; Bensch, Staffan; Albayrak, Tamer; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Ewen, John G.; Kim, Kyeong Soon; Lima, Marcos R.; Martin, Lynn; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Ricklefs, Robert; Sehgal, Ravinder N. M.; Gediminas, Valkiunas; Tsuda, Yoshio; Marzal, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Knowing the genetic variation that occurs in pathogen populations and how it is distributed across geographical areas is essential to understand parasite epidemiology, local patterns of virulence, and evolution of host-resistance. In addition, it is important to identify populations of pathogens that are evolutionarily independent and thus ‘free’ to adapt to hosts and environments. Here, we investigated genetic variation in the globally distributed, highly invasive avian malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum, which has several distinctive mitochondrial haplotyps (cyt b lineages, SGS1, GRW11 and GRW4). The phylogeography of P. relictum was accessed using the highly variable nuclear gene merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1), a gene linked to the invasion biology of the parasite. We show that the lineage GRW4 is evolutionarily independent of GRW11 and SGS1 whereas GRW11 and SGS1 share MSP1 alleles and thus suggesting the presence of two distinct species (GRW4 versus SGS1 and GRW11). Further, there were significant differences in the global distribution of MSP1 alleles with differences between GRW4 alleles in the New and the Old World. For SGS1, a lineage formerly believed to have both tropical and temperate transmission, there were clear differences in MSP1 alleles transmitted in tropical Africa compared to the temperate regions of Europe and Asia. Further, we highlight the occurrence of multiple MSP1 alleles in GRW4 isolates from the Hawaiian Islands, where the parasite has contributed to declines and extinctions of endemic forest birds since it was introduced. This study stresses the importance of multiple independent loci for understanding patterns of transmission and evolutionary independence across avian malaria parasites.

  20. H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza in Pakistan (2012-2015)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Significant economic losses from deaths and decreased egg production have resulted from H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infections in poultry across North Africa, the Middle East and Asia. The H9N2 LPAIVs have been endemic in Pakistani poultry since 1996, but no new viruses have be...

  1. 75 FR 10645 - Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza; Voluntary Control Program and Payment of Indemnity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... Poultry Improvement Plan, a voluntary program for the control of the H5/H7 subtypes of low pathogenic avian influenza in commercial poultry. As amended by this document, the rule provides that the amount of... on their contracts when poultry in their care are destroyed, clarifies the roles of cooperating...

  2. Poultry vaccination directed evolution of H9N2 low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Significant economic losses in the poultry industries have resulted from H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus infections across North Africa, the Middle East and Asia. The present study investigated the evolutionary dynamics of H9N2 viruses circulating in Korea from 1996 to 2012. Our analysis o...

  3. Role of outer membrane protein T in pathogenicity of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hejair, Hassan M A; Ma, Jiale; Zhu, Yingchu; Sun, Min; Dong, Wenyang; Zhang, Yue; Pan, Zihao; Zhang, Wei; Yao, Huochun

    2017-01-27

    An outer membrane protein T (OmpT) could play a vital role in the pathogenesis of the neonatal meningitis Escherichia coli (NMEC) in human and animals. However, whether ompT plays a role in avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) infection remains unclear. In this study we evaluated the potential of ompT in APEC pathogenesis. An ompT gene was deleted from APEC mutant strain (TW-XM) was constructed and characterized. The inactivation of ompT reduced significantly the adherence and invasion capabilities of APEC to mouse brain microvascular endothelial cell (BMEC) bEnd.3 cells at the rates of 43.8% and 28.8% respectively, compared with the wild strain TW-XM. Further studies showed that deletion of ompT gene reduced the bacterial virulence with 15.2-fold in ducklings and 9.7-fold in mouse models based on the measurement of the LD50. Furthermore, experimental infection of animals revealed that, loss of ompT showed reduced APEC colonization and invasion capacity in brains, lungs and blood by 2-fold, 1.96-fold, and 1.7-fold, respectively, compared with the wild-type strain TW-XM. These virulence-related phenotypes were partially recoverable by genetic complementation. The results of the quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) indicated that the loss of ompT significantly decreased the expression levels of ompA, fimC and tsh in the mutant strain ΔOmpT, when compared with TW-XM (p<0.01). Collectively, our data showed that inactivation of ompT decreased adhesion, invasion, colonization, proliferation capacities, possibly by reduced expression levels of ompA, fimC and tsh, which may justify that, ompT is implicated in APEC pathogenicity.

  4. Widespread detection of highly pathogenic H5 influenza viruses in wild birds from the Pacific Flyway of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel highly pathogenic avian influenza virus belonging to the H5 clade 2.3.4.4 variant viruses was detected in North America in late 2014. Motivated by the identification of these viruses in domestic poultry in Canada, an intensive study was initiated to conduct highly pathogenic avian influenza ...

  5. Experimental challenge and pathology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in dunlin (Calidris alpina), an intercontinental migrant shorebird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Franson, J. Christian; Gill, Robert E.; Meteyer, Carol U.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean; Dusek, Robert J.; Ip, Hon S.

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions Dunlin are highly susceptible to infection with HPAIV H5N1. They become infected after exposure to relatively small doses of the virus and if they become infected, they are most likely to suffer mortality within 3–5 days. These results have important implications regarding the risks of transport and transmission of HPAIV H5N1 to North America by this species and raises questions for further investigation.

  6. Alternative scan-based approaches to identify space-time clusters of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in wild birds in Denmark and Sweden in 2006.

    PubMed

    Alkhamis, Mohammad; Willeberg, Preben; Carlsson, Ulla; Carpenter, Tim; Perez, Andres

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effects of the nature of the information collected through passive surveillance on the detection of space-time clusters of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 cases reported among dead wild birds in Denmark and Sweden in 2006. Data included 1469 records (109 cases, 1360 controls) collected during the regional epidemic between February and June by passive surveillance of dead wild birds. Laboratory diagnoses were obtained by PCR methods and/or virus isolation. The nature of available information influences both the type of model suitable for analysis and its parameterization. Here, we explored four alternative scan-based methods, suitable for detection of clusters only when case data (univariate permutation model), case and hypothesized epidemiological variables (multivariate permutation model), case and control data (univariate Bernoulli model), and case, control, and hypothesized epidemiological variables (multivariate Bernoulli model) are available. Tufted ducks were particularly common among infected wild bird species detected in Denmark and Sweden during the initial phases of this epidemic, and species group (tufted ducks [62 cases, 57 controls] vs. other wild bird species [47 cases, 1303 controls]) was considered in the multivariate models as a covariate potentially associated with clustering. Bernoulli and permutation scan analyses both detected multiple significant (P < 0.01) clusters with similar locations, but with certain differences in their numbers and sizes. The observed-to-expected case ratios in the two clusters detected by the multivariate Bernoulli scan model were substantially heterogeneous. However, the permutation model detected only one of the Swedish clusters and only pinpointed the heterogeneity between species on clustering in the same Danish cluster as detected by the Bernoulli model. The output of the methods described here were shown to be highly sensitive to the choice

  7. Molecular surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds across the United States: inferences from the hemagglutinin gene.

    PubMed

    Piaggio, Antoinette J; Shriner, Susan A; VanDalen, Kaci K; Franklin, Alan B; Anderson, Theodore D; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis

    2012-01-01

    A United States interagency avian influenza surveillance plan was initiated in 2006 for early detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) in wild birds. The plan included a variety of wild bird sampling strategies including the testing of fecal samples from aquatic areas throughout the United States from April 2006 through December 2007. Although HPAIV was not detected through this surveillance effort we were able to obtain 759 fecal samples that were positive for low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV). We used 136 DNA sequences obtained from these samples along with samples from a public influenza sequence database for a phylogenetic assessment of hemagglutinin (HA) diversity in the United States. We analyzed sequences from all HA subtypes except H5, H7, H14 and H15 to examine genetic variation, exchange between Eurasia and North America, and geographic distribution of LPAIV in wild birds in the United States. This study confirms intercontinental exchange of some HA subtypes (including a newly documented H9 exchange event), as well as identifies subtypes that do not regularly experience intercontinental gene flow but have been circulating and evolving in North America for at least the past 20 years. These HA subtypes have high levels of genetic diversity with many lineages co-circulating within the wild birds of North America. The surveillance effort that provided these samples demonstrates that such efforts, albeit labor-intensive, provide important information about the ecology of LPAIV circulating in North America.

  8. Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) mutants transmissible by air are susceptible to human and animal neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Du, Lanying; Li, Ye; Zhao, Guangyu; Wang, Lili; Zou, Peng; Lu, Lu; Zhou, Yusen; Jiang, Shibo

    2013-10-15

    A laboratory-generated reassortant H5 hemagglutinin (HA)/influenza A(H1N1) strain containing 4 mutations in influenza A(H5N1) HA has become transmissible by air among mammals. Here, we constructed 15 influenza A(H5N1) pseudoviruses containing a single mutation or a combination of mutations and showed that the pseudoviruses were susceptible to neutralizing antibodies from patients with influenza A(H5N1) infection and from mice immunized with a vaccine containing the conserved HA1 sequence of influenza A(H5N1). These results indicate that antibodies in patients currently infected by influenza A(H5N1) and antibodies induced by vaccines containing conserved sequences in HA1 of wild-type influenza A(H5N1) are highly effective in cross-neutralizing future influenza A(H5N1) mutants with airborne transmissibility, suggesting that human influenza pandemics caused by these influenza A(H5N1) variants can be prevented.

  9. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 Clade 2.3.2.1c virus in migratory birds, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yuhai; Chen, Jianjun; Zhang, Zhenjie; Li, Mingxin; Cai, Tianlong; Sharshov, Kirill; Susloparov, Ivan; Shestopalov, Alexander; Wong, Gary; He, Yubang; Xing, Zhi; Sun, Jianqing; Liu, Di; Liu, Yingxia; Liu, Lei; Liu, Wenjun; Lei, Fumin; Shi, Weifeng; Gao, George F

    2016-08-01

    A novel Clade 2.3.2.1c H5N1 reassortant virus caused several outbreaks in wild birds in some regions of China from late 2014 to 2015. Based on the genetic and phylogenetic analyses, the viruses possess a stable gene constellation with a Clade 2.3.2.1c HA, a H9N2-derived PB2 gene and the other six genes of Asian H5N1-origin. The Clade 2.3.2.1c H5N1 reassortants displayed a high genetic relationship to a human H5N1 strain (A/Alberta/01/2014). Further analysis showed that similar viruses have been circulating in wild birds in China, Russia, Dubai (Western Asia), Bulgaria and Romania (Europe), as well as domestic poultry in some regions of Africa. The affected areas include the Central Asian, East Asian-Australasian, West Asian-East African, and Black Sea/Mediterranean flyways. These results show that the novel Clade 2.3.2.1c reassortant viruses are circulating worldwide and may have gained a selective advantage in migratory birds, thus posing a serious threat to wild birds and potentially humans.

  10. 76 FR 4046 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... animal products to prohibit or restrict the importation of bird and poultry products from regions where... restrictions concerning importation of live poultry and birds that have been vaccinated for certain types of... importation of live birds and poultry, and bird and poultry products and byproducts from regions where...

  11. Anti-viral properties and mode of action of standardized Echinacea purpurea extract against highly pathogenic avian Influenza virus (H5N1, H7N7) and swine-origin H1N1 (S-OIV)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Influenza virus (IV) infections are a major threat to human welfare and animal health worldwide. Anti-viral therapy includes vaccines and a few anti-viral drugs. However vaccines are not always available in time, as demonstrated by the emergence of the new 2009 H1N1-type pandemic strain of swine origin (S-OIV) in April 2009, and the acquisition of resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors such as Tamiflu® (oseltamivir) is a potential problem. Therefore the prospects for the control of IV by existing anti-viral drugs are limited. As an alternative approach to the common anti-virals we studied in more detail a commercial standardized extract of the widely used herb Echinacea purpurea (Echinaforce®, EF) in order to elucidate the nature of its anti-IV activity. Results Human H1N1-type IV, highly pathogenic avian IV (HPAIV) of the H5- and H7-types, as well as swine origin IV (S-OIV, H1N1), were all inactivated in cell culture assays by the EF preparation at concentrations ranging from the recommended dose for oral consumption to several orders of magnitude lower. Detailed studies with the H5N1 HPAIV strain indicated that direct contact between EF and virus was required, prior to infection, in order to obtain maximum inhibition in virus replication. Hemagglutination assays showed that the extract inhibited the receptor binding activity of the virus, suggesting that the extract interferes with the viral entry into cells. In sequential passage studies under treatment in cell culture with the H5N1 virus no EF-resistant variants emerged, in contrast to Tamiflu®, which produced resistant viruses upon passaging. Furthermore, the Tamiflu®-resistant virus was just as susceptible to EF as the wild type virus. Conclusion As a result of these investigations, we believe that this standard Echinacea preparation, used at the recommended dose for oral consumption, could be a useful, readily available and affordable addition to existing control options for IV replication and

  12. Molecular detection of avian pathogens in poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) collected in chicken farms.

    PubMed

    Huong, Chu Thi Thanh; Murano, Takako; Uno, Yukiko; Usui, Tatsufumi; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi

    2014-12-01

    Poultry red mite (PRM, Dermanyssus gallinae) is a blood-sucking ectoparasite as well as a possible vector of several avian pathogens. In this study, to define the role of PRM in the prevalence of avian infectious agents, we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to check for the presence of seven pathogens: Avipox virus (APV), Fowl Adenovirus (FAdV), Marek's disease virus (MDV), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (ER), Salmonella enterica (SE), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). A total of 159 PRM samples collected between 2004 and 2012 from 142 chicken farms in 38 prefectures in Japan were examined. APV DNA was detected in 22 samples (13.8%), 19 of which were wild-type APV. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) of MS was detected in 15 samples (9.4%), and the mgc2 gene of MG was detected in 2 samples (1.3%). Eight of 15 MS 16S rRNA sequences differed from the vaccine sequence, indicating they were wild-type strains, while both of the MG mgc2 gene sequences detected were identical to the vaccine sequences. Of these avian pathogen-positive mite samples, three were positive for both wild-types of APV and MS. On the other hand, the DNAs of ER, SE, FAdV and MDV were not detected in any samples. These findings indicated that PRM can harbor the wild-type pathogens and might play a role as a vector in spreading these diseases in farms.

  13. Comparative pathogenicity of avian encephalomyelitis viruses in chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Miyamae, T

    1975-07-01

    Multiplications of wild, various embryo-adapting and completely embryo-adapted avian encephalomyelitis (AE) viruses in chicken embryos were compared by the fluorescent-antibody technique (FAT). With a wild AE virus, viral antigens were randomly seen in the central nervous system (CNS), appearing least often in the cerebellum. Other organs seldom became test positive, except for heart and kidney. Even with 4 chicken brain-passaged viruses in the process of embryo adaptation, there was little augmentation of antigens except in the alimentary tract. However, the 2 midpassage viruses showed a peculiar localization of antigens in the white matter of the lumbosacral cord, together with the appearance of test-positive spinal ganglion cells. With 2 strains of embryo-adapted AE virus, the antigens appeared first in the spinal ganglion cells and secondly in the lumbosacral cord and then spread to the cerebrum. Subsequently, clinical signs of AE were evident. This peculiar invasion order was a prominent feature.

  14. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Potential Pathogens in Obligate and Facultative Scavenging Avian Species in California.

    PubMed

    Straub, Mary H; Kelly, Terra R; Rideout, Bruce A; Eng, Curtis; Wynne, Janna; Braun, Josephine; Johnson, Christine K

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the world, populations of scavenger birds are declining rapidly with some populations already on the brink of extinction. Much of the current research into the factors contributing to these declines has focused on exposure to drug residues, lead, and other toxins. Despite increased monitoring of these declining populations, little is known about infectious diseases affecting scavenger bird species. To assess potential infectious disease risks to both obligate and facultative scavenger bird species, we performed a serosurvey for eleven potential pathogens in three species of scavenging birds in California: the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). California condors were seropositive for avian adenovirus, infectious bronchitis virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, avian paramyxovirus-2, West Nile virus (WNV) and Toxoplasma gondii. Golden eagles were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci and Toxoplasma gondii, and turkey vultures were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci, avian paramyxovirus-1, Toxoplasma gondii and WNV. Risk factor analyses indicated that rearing site and original release location were significantly associated with a positive serologic titer to WNV among free-flying condors. This study provides preliminary baseline data on infectious disease exposure in these populations for aiding in early disease detection and provides potentially critical information for conservation of the endangered California condor as it continues to expand its range and encounter new infectious disease threats.

  15. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Potential Pathogens in Obligate and Facultative Scavenging Avian Species in California

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Mary H.; Kelly, Terra R.; Rideout, Bruce A.; Eng, Curtis; Wynne, Janna; Braun, Josephine; Johnson, Christine K.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the world, populations of scavenger birds are declining rapidly with some populations already on the brink of extinction. Much of the current research into the factors contributing to these declines has focused on exposure to drug residues, lead, and other toxins. Despite increased monitoring of these declining populations, little is known about infectious diseases affecting scavenger bird species. To assess potential infectious disease risks to both obligate and facultative scavenger bird species, we performed a serosurvey for eleven potential pathogens in three species of scavenging birds in California: the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). California condors were seropositive for avian adenovirus, infectious bronchitis virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, avian paramyxovirus-2, West Nile virus (WNV) and Toxoplasma gondii. Golden eagles were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci and Toxoplasma gondii, and turkey vultures were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci, avian paramyxovirus-1, Toxoplasma gondii and WNV. Risk factor analyses indicated that rearing site and original release location were significantly associated with a positive serologic titer to WNV among free-flying condors. This study provides preliminary baseline data on infectious disease exposure in these populations for aiding in early disease detection and provides potentially critical information for conservation of the endangered California condor as it continues to expand its range and encounter new infectious disease threats. PMID:26606755

  16. Low pathogenic influenza A virus activity at avian interfaces in Ohio zoos, 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Nolting, Jacqueline M; Dennis, Patricia; Long, Lindsey; Holtvoigt, Lauren; Brown, Deniele; King, Mary Jo; Shellbarger, Wynonna; Hanley, Chris; Killian, Mary Lea; Slemons, Richard D

    2013-09-01

    This investigation to examine influenza A virus activity in avian species at four Ohio zoos was initiated to better understand the ecology of avian-origin influenza A (AIV) virus in wild aquatic birds and the possibility of spill-over of such viruses into captive zoo birds, both native and foreign species. Virus isolation efforts resulted in the recovery of three low pathogenic (LP) AIV isolates (one H7N3 and two H3N6) from oral-pharyngeal or cloacal swabs collected from over 1000 zoo birds representing 94 species. In addition, 21 LPAIV isolates possessing H3N6, H4N6, or H7N3 subtype combinations were recovered from 627 (3.3%) environmental fecal samples collected from outdoor habitats accessible to zoo and wild birds. Analysis of oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs collected from free-ranging mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) live-trapped at one zoo in 2007 resulted in the recovery of 164 LPAIV isolates (48% of samples) representing five HA and six NA subtypes and at least nine HA-NA combinations. The high frequency of isolate recovery is undoubtedly due to the capture and holding of wild ducks in a common pen before relocation. Serologic analyses using an agar gel immune diffusion assay detected antibodies to the influenza A virus type-specific antigen in 147 of 1237 (11.9%) zoo bird sera and in 14 of 154 (9%) wild mallard sera. Additional analyses of a limited number of zoo bird sera demonstrated HA- and NA-inhibition activity to 15 HA and nine NA subtypes. The spectrum of HA antibodies indicate antibody diversity of AIV infecting zoo birds; however, the contribution of heterologous cross-reactions and steric interference was not ruled out. This proactive investigation documented that antigenically diverse LPAIVs were active in all three components of the avian zoologic-wild bird interfaces at Ohio zoos (zoo birds, the environment, and wild birds). The resulting baseline data provides insight and justification for preventive medicine strategies for zoo birds.

  17. Efficacy of a Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus H5 Vaccine Against Challenge With H5N1 Clades 1.1.2 and 2.3.2.1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Domestic Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus).

    PubMed

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Kapczynski, Darrell R; DeJesus, Eric; Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Tripodi, Astrid; Dunn, John R; Swayne, David E

    2016-03-01

    Domestic ducks are the second most abundant poultry species in many Asian countries and have played a critical role in the epizootiology of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI).In this study, the protective efficacy of a live recombinant vector vaccine based on a turkey herpesvirus (HVT) expressing the H5 gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAI strain (A/Swan/Hungary/4999/ 2006) (rHVT-H5/2.2), given at 3 days of age, was examined in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus). The vaccine was given alone or in combination with an inactivated H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1 reverse genetic (rgGD/2.3.2.1) vaccine given at 16 days of age, either as a single vaccination or in a prime-boost regime. At 30 days of age, ducks were challenged with one of two H5N1 HPAI viruses: A/duck/Vietnam/NCVD-2721/2013 (clade 1.1.2) or A/duck/Vietnam/NCVD-1584/2012 (clade 2.3.2.1.C). These viruses produced 100% mortality in less than 5 days in nonvaccinated control ducks. Ducks vaccinated with the rgGD/2.3.2.1 vaccine, with or without the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine, were 90%-100% protected against mortality after challenge with either of the two H5N1 HPAI viruses. The rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine alone, however, conferred only 30% protection against mortality after challenge with either H5N1 HPAI virus; the surviving ducks from these groups shed higher amount of virus and for longer than the single-vaccinated rgGD/2.3.2.1 group. Despite low protection, ducks vaccinated with the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine and challenged with the clade 1.1.2 Vietnam virus had a longer mean death time than nonvaccinated controls (P = 0.02). A booster effect was found on reduction of virus shedding when using both vaccines, with lower oropharyngeal viral titers at 4 days after challenge with either HPAI virus (P < 0.05). Neither rHVT-H5/2.2 nor standard HVT vaccine could be detected in samples collected from multiple tissues at different time points, indicting minimal levels of viral replication. In conclusion, although a minor effect on

  18. Characterization of two low pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated in Hungary in 2007.

    PubMed

    Szeleczky, Zsófia; Bálint, Adám; Gyarmati, Péter; Metreveli, Giorgi; Dán, Adám; Ursu, Krisztina; Belák, Sándor; Lomniczi, Béla; Kiss, István

    2010-09-28

    Two low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza virus strains, A/mallard/Hungary/19616/07 (H3N8) and A/mute swan/Hungary/5973/07 (H7N7), isolated as part of the National Surveillance Program in Hungary, were fully sequenced and characterized. The two viruses showed the closest phylogenetic relationship regarding their acidic polymerase genes. The H7N7 Hungarian virus and some H5N2 influenza viruses isolated from Korean pigs appeared to have their basic polymerase gene 1 from a relatively recent common ancestor. The matrix gene nucleotide sequence of each Hungarian virus showed close relationship with contemporaneous Czech H3N8 mallard isolates, which belonged to distinct phylogenetic branches. The non-structural protein genes belonged to different alleles, rendering a peculiar characteristic to the H7N7 isolate compared to the so far analyzed Eurasian H7 viruses. The surface glycoprotein genes of the H3N8 isolate showed a close phylogenetic relationship and high nucleotide identities to H3N8 subtype isolates from Northern Europe collected in 2003-2006, and to an H3N2 isolate in Italy in 2006, extending the perceptions of this HA subtype across Northern and Southern Europe close to this period. These findings provide further data to the diversity of influenza viruses found in wild migratory birds and present useful information for large scale studies on influenza virus evolution.

  19. Detection of virulence-associated genes in pathogenic and commensal avian Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Paixão, A C; Ferreira, A C; Fontes, M; Themudo, P; Albuquerque, T; Soares, M C; Fevereiro, M; Martins, L; Corrêa de Sá, M I

    2016-07-01

    Poultry colibacillosis due to Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is responsible for several extra-intestinal pathological conditions, leading to serious economic damage in poultry production. The most commonly associated pathologies are airsacculitis, colisepticemia, and cellulitis in broiler chickens, and salpingitis and peritonitis in broiler breeders. In this work a total of 66 strains isolated from dead broiler breeders affected with colibacillosis and 61 strains from healthy broilers were studied. Strains from broiler breeders were typified with serogroups O2, O18, and O78, which are mainly associated with disease. The serogroup O78 was the most prevalent (58%). All the strains were checked for the presence of 11 virulence genes: 1) arginine succinyltransferase A (astA); ii) E.coli hemeutilization protein A (chuA); iii) colicin V A/B (cvaA/B); iv) fimbriae mannose-binding type 1 (fimC); v) ferric yersiniabactin uptake A (fyuA); vi) iron-repressible high-molecular-weight proteins 2 (irp2); vii) increased serum survival (iss); viii) iron-uptake systems of E.coli D (iucD); ix) pielonefritis associated to pili C (papC); x) temperature sensitive haemaglutinin (tsh), and xi) vacuolating autotransporter toxin (vat), by Multiplex-PCR. The results showed that all genes are present in both commensal and pathogenic E. coli strains. The iron uptake-related genes and the serum survival gene were more prevalent among APEC. The adhesin genes, except tsh, and the toxin genes, except astA, were also more prevalent among APEC isolates. Except for astA and tsh, APEC strains harbored the majority of the virulence-associated genes studied and fimC was the most prevalent gene, detected in 96.97 and 88.52% of APEC and AFEC strains, respectively. Possession of more than one iron transport system seems to play an important role on APEC survival.

  20. Molecular Detection of Avian Pathogens in Poultry Red Mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) Collected in Chicken Farms

    PubMed Central

    HUONG, Chu Thi Thanh; MURANO, Takako; UNO, Yukiko; USUI, Tatsufumi; YAMAGUCHI, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Poultry red mite (PRM, Dermanyssus gallinae) is a blood-sucking ectoparasite as well as a possible vector of several avian pathogens. In this study, to define the role of PRM in the prevalence of avian infectious agents, we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to check for the presence of seven pathogens: Avipox virus (APV), Fowl Adenovirus (FAdV), Marek’s disease virus (MDV), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (ER), Salmonella enterica (SE), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). A total of 159 PRM samples collected between 2004 and 2012 from 142 chicken farms in 38 prefectures in Japan were examined. APV DNA was detected in 22 samples (13.8%), 19 of which were wild-type APV. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) of MS was detected in 15 samples (9.4%), and the mgc2 gene of MG was detected in 2 samples (1.3%). Eight of 15 MS 16S rRNA sequences differed from the vaccine sequence, indicating they were wild-type strains, while both of the MG mgc2 gene sequences detected were identical to the vaccine sequences. Of these avian pathogen-positive mite samples, three were positive for both wild-types of APV and MS. On the other hand, the DNAs of ER, SE, FAdV and MDV were not detected in any samples. These findings indicated that PRM can harbor the wild-type pathogens and might play a role as a vector in spreading these diseases in farms. PMID:25649939

  1. The live bird market system and low-pathogenic avian influenza prevention in southern California.

    PubMed

    Yee, Karen S; Carpenter, Tim E; Mize, Sarah; Cardona, Carol J

    2008-06-01

    Although live bird markets (LBMs) have been associated with outbreaks of avian influenza (AI), there are some LBM systems where AI outbreaks are extremely rare events. The California LBMs have not had any detected avian influenza viruses (AIVs) since December 2005. Responses to a detailed questionnaire on the practices and characteristics of the participants in the California low-pathogenic (LP) AI control program have been described to characterize possible reasons for the lack of AI outbreaks in LBMs. Compliance with an LPAI control program that contains active surveillance, prevention, and rapid response measures by those involved in the LBM system, rendering services to dispose of carcasses, no wholesalers, and few third-party bird deliveries was associated with the lack of LPAIV circulating in the Southern California LBM system.

  2. Prevalence of avian-pathogenic Escherichia coli strain O1 genomic islands among extraintestinal and commensal E. coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy J; Wannemuehler, Yvonne; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Johnson, James R; Logue, Catherine M; Nolan, Lisa K

    2012-06-01

    Escherichia coli strains that cause disease outside the intestine are known as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and include pathogens of humans and animals. Previously, the genome of avian-pathogenic E. coli (APEC) O1:K1:H7 strain O1, from ST95, was sequenced and compared to those of several other E. coli strains, identifying 43 genomic islands. Here, the genomic islands of APEC O1 were compared to those of other sequenced E. coli strains, and the distribution of 81 genes belonging to 12 APEC O1 genomic islands among 828 human and avian ExPEC and commensal E. coli isolates was determined. Multiple islands were highly prevalent among isolates belonging to the O1 and O18 serogroups within phylogenetic group B2, which are implicated in human neonatal meningitis. Because of the extensive genomic similarities between APEC O1 and other human ExPEC strains belonging to the ST95 phylogenetic lineage, its ability to cause disease in a rat model of sepsis and meningitis was assessed. Unlike other ST95 lineage strains, APEC O1 was unable to cause bacteremia or meningitis in the neonatal rat model and was significantly less virulent than uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) CFT073 in a mouse sepsis model, despite carrying multiple neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC) virulence factors and belonging to the ST95 phylogenetic lineage. These results suggest that host adaptation or genome modifications have occurred either in APEC O1 or in highly virulent ExPEC isolates, resulting in differences in pathogenicity. Overall, the genomic islands examined provide targets for further discrimination of the different ExPEC subpathotypes, serogroups, phylogenetic types, and sequence types.

  3. Emerging infectious diseases: Focus on infection control issues for novel coronaviruses (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-CoV), hemorrhagic fever viruses (Lassa and Ebola), and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, A(H5N1) and A(H7N9).

    PubMed

    Weber, David J; Rutala, William A; Fischer, William A; Kanamori, Hajime; Sickbert-Bennett, Emily E

    2016-05-02

    Over the past several decades, we have witnessed the emergence of many new infectious agents, some of which are major public threats. New and emerging infectious diseases which are both transmissible from patient-to-patient and virulent with a high mortality include novel coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CV), hemorrhagic fever viruses (Lassa, Ebola), and highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses, A(H5N1) and A(H7N9). All healthcare facilities need to have policies and plans in place for early identification of patients with a highly communicable diseases which are highly virulent, ability to immediately isolate such patients, and provide proper management (e.g., training and availability of personal protective equipment) to prevent transmission to healthcare personnel, other patients and visitors to the healthcare facility.

  4. Avian pathogenic, uropathogenic, and newborn meningitis-causing Escherichia coli: how closely related are they?

    PubMed

    Ewers, Christa; Li, Ganwu; Wilking, Hendrik; Kiessling, Sabine; Alt, Katja; Antáo, Esther-Maria; Laturnus, Claudia; Diehl, Ines; Glodde, Susanne; Homeier, Timo; Böhnke, Ute; Steinrück, Hartmut; Philipp, Hans-C; Wieler, Lothar H

    2007-06-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), and newborn meningitis-causing E. coli (NMEC) establish infections in extraintestinal habitats (extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli; ExPEC) of different hosts. As diversity, epidemiological sources, and evolutionary origins of ExPEC are so far only partially defined, we screened a collection of 526 strains of medical and veterinary origin of various O-types for assignment to E. coli reference collection (ECOR) group and virulence gene patterns. Results of ECOR typing confirmed that human ExPEC strains mostly belong to groups B2, followed by group D. Although a considerable portion of APEC strains did also fell into ECOR group B2 (35.1%), a higher amount (46.1%) belonged to group A, which has previously been described to also harbour strains with a high pathogenic potential for humans. The number of virulence-associated genes of single strains ranged from 5 to 26 among 33 genes tested and high numbers were rather related to K1-positive and ECOR B2 strains than to a certain pathotype. With a few exceptions (iha, afa/draB, sfa/foc, and hlyA), which were rarely present in APEC strains, most chromosomally located genes were widely distributed among all ExPEC strains irrespective of host and pathotype. However, prevalence of invasion genes (ibeA and gimB) and K1 capsule-encoding gene neuC indicated a closer relationship between APEC and NMEC strains. Genes associated with ColV plasmids (tsh, iss, and the episomal sit locus) were in general more prevalent in APEC than in UPEC and NMEC strains, indicating that APEC could be a source of ColV-located genes or complete plasmids for other ExPEC strains. Our data support the hypothesis that (a) poultry may be a vehicle or even a reservoir for human ExPEC strains, (b) APEC potentially serve as a reservoir of virulence-associated genes for UPEC and NMEC, (c) some ExPEC strains, although of different pathotypes, may share common ancestors, and (d) as a

  5. Genetically Diverse Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Virus Subtypes Co-Circulate among Poultry in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Gerloff, Nancy A; Khan, Salah Uddin; Zanders, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; Haider, Najmul; Islam, Ausraful; Chowdhury, Sukanta; Rahman, Mahmudur Ziaur; Haque, Ainul; Hosseini, Parviez; Gurley, Emily S; Luby, Stephen P; Wentworth, David E; Donis, Ruben O; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Davis, C Todd

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus surveillance, poultry outbreak investigations and genomic sequencing were assessed to understand the ecology and evolution of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) A viruses in Bangladesh from 2007 to 2013. We analyzed 506 avian specimens collected from poultry in live bird markets and backyard flocks to identify influenza A viruses. Virus isolation-positive specimens (n = 50) were subtyped and their coding-complete genomes were sequenced. The most frequently identified subtypes among LPAI isolates were H9N2, H11N3, H4N6, and H1N1. Less frequently detected subtypes included H1N3, H2N4, H3N2, H3N6, H3N8, H4N2, H5N2, H6N1, H6N7, and H7N9. Gene sequences were compared to publicly available sequences using phylogenetic inference approaches. Among the 14 subtypes identified, the majority of viral gene segments were most closely related to poultry or wild bird viruses commonly found in Southeast Asia, Europe, and/or northern Africa. LPAI subtypes were distributed over several geographic locations in Bangladesh, and surface and internal protein gene segments clustered phylogenetically with a diverse number of viral subtypes suggesting extensive reassortment among these LPAI viruses. H9N2 subtype viruses differed from other LPAI subtypes because genes from these viruses consistently clustered together, indicating this subtype is enzootic in Bangladesh. The H9N2 strains identified in Bangladesh were phylogenetically and antigenically related to previous human-derived H9N2 viruses detected in Bangladesh representing a potential source for human infection. In contrast, the circulating LPAI H5N2 and H7N9 viruses were both phylogenetically and antigenically unrelated to H5 viruses identified previously in humans in Bangladesh and H7N9 strains isolated from humans in China. In Bangladesh, domestic poultry sold in live bird markets carried a wide range of LPAI virus subtypes and a high diversity of genotypes. These findings, combined with the seven year

  6. Genetically Diverse Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Virus Subtypes Co-Circulate among Poultry in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Gerloff, Nancy A.; Khan, Salah Uddin; Zanders, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; Haider, Najmul; Islam, Ausraful; Chowdhury, Sukanta; Rahman, Mahmudur Ziaur; Haque, Ainul; Hosseini, Parviez; Gurley, Emily S.; Luby, Stephen P.; Wentworth, David E.; Donis, Ruben O.; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Davis, C. Todd

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus surveillance, poultry outbreak investigations and genomic sequencing were assessed to understand the ecology and evolution of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) A viruses in Bangladesh from 2007 to 2013. We analyzed 506 avian specimens collected from poultry in live bird markets and backyard flocks to identify influenza A viruses. Virus isolation-positive specimens (n = 50) were subtyped and their coding-complete genomes were sequenced. The most frequently identified subtypes among LPAI isolates were H9N2, H11N3, H4N6, and H1N1. Less frequently detected subtypes included H1N3, H2N4, H3N2, H3N6, H3N8, H4N2, H5N2, H6N1, H6N7, and H7N9. Gene sequences were compared to publicly available sequences using phylogenetic inference approaches. Among the 14 subtypes identified, the majority of viral gene segments were most closely related to poultry or wild bird viruses commonly found in Southeast Asia, Europe, and/or northern Africa. LPAI subtypes were distributed over several geographic locations in Bangladesh, and surface and internal protein gene segments clustered phylogenetically with a diverse number of viral subtypes suggesting extensive reassortment among these LPAI viruses. H9N2 subtype viruses differed from other LPAI subtypes because genes from these viruses consistently clustered together, indicating this subtype is enzootic in Bangladesh. The H9N2 strains identified in Bangladesh were phylogenetically and antigenically related to previous human-derived H9N2 viruses detected in Bangladesh representing a potential source for human infection. In contrast, the circulating LPAI H5N2 and H7N9 viruses were both phylogenetically and antigenically unrelated to H5 viruses identified previously in humans in Bangladesh and H7N9 strains isolated from humans in China. In Bangladesh, domestic poultry sold in live bird markets carried a wide range of LPAI virus subtypes and a high diversity of genotypes. These findings, combined with the seven year

  7. Infectivity and pathogenicity of Newcastle disease virus strains of different avian origin and different virulence for mallard ducklings.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yabin; Liu, Mei; Cheng, Xu; Shen, Xinyue; Wei, Yuyong; Zhou, Sheng; Yu, Shengqing; Ding, Chan

    2013-03-01

    Experimental infections of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains of different avian origin and different virulence in mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings were undertaken to evaluate infectivity and pathogenicity of NDV for ducks and the potential role of ducks in the epidemiology of Newcastle disease (ND). Ducklings were experimentally infected with seven NDV strains, and their clinical sign, weight gain, antibody response, virus shedding, and virus distribution in tissues were investigated. The duck origin virulent strain duck/Jiangsu/JSD0812/2008 (JSD0812) and the Chinese standard virulent strain F48E8 were highly pathogenic for ducklings. They caused high morbidity and mortality, and they distributed extensively in various tissues of infected ducklings. Other strains, including pigeon origin virulent strain pigeon/Jiangsu/JSP0204/2002 (JSP0204), chicken origin virulent strain chicken/Jiangsu/JSC0804/2008 (JSC0804), goose origin virulent goose/Jiangsu/JSG0210/2002 (JSG0210), and vaccine strains Mukteswar and LaSota had no pathogenicity to ducklings. They produced neither clinical signs of the disease nor adverse effect on growth of infected ducklings, and they persisted in duck bodies for only a short period. Virus shedding was detectable in all infected ducklings, but its period and route varied with the virulence of NDV strains. The results suggest that NDV with high pathogenicity in ducks may arise from the evolution within its corresponding host, further confirming that the ducks play an important role in the epidemiology of ND.

  8. Avian Diagnostic and Therapeutic Antibodies to Viral Emerging Pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    David Bradley

    2011-03-31

    During the current period the following key objectives were achieved: demonstration of high titer antibody production by geese following immunization with inactived H1N1 virus; completion of the epitope mapping of West Nile Virus-specific goose antibodies and initiation of epitope mapping of H1N1 flu-specific goose antibodies; advancement in scalable purification of goose antibodies.

  9. Serial passage in ducks of a low-pathogenic avian influenza virus isolated from a chicken reveals a high mutation rate in the hemagglutinin that is likely due to selection in the host.

    PubMed

    Ridenour, Callie; Williams, Susan M; Jones, Les; Tompkins, S Mark; Tripp, Ralph A; Mundt, Egbert

    2015-10-01

    A comparative study of the ability of three low-pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) isolates to be transmitted from duck to duck was performed. Pekin ducks were inoculated with two LPAIV isolates from chickens (A/Ck/PA/13609/93 [H5N2], H5N2-Ck; A/Ck/TX/167280-4/02 [H5N3], H5N3-Ck) and one isolate from a wild bird (A/Mute Swan/ MI/451072/06 [H5N1], H5N1-WB). During the establishment of the passage model, only two viruses (H5N1, H5N2) were able to be transmitted from duck to duck. Transmission of these isolates was dependent on the inoculation dose and route of infection. Analysis of swab samples taken from ducks revealed that the wild-bird isolate, H5N1-WB, was primarily shed via the cloacal route. The chicken isolate, H5N2-Ck, was isolated from cloacal as well as oro-pharyngeal swabs. Analysis of the amino acid sequences of the viral surface glycoproteins showed that the hemagglutinin (HA) of the H5N2-Ck isolate was under a stronger evolutionary pressure than the HA of the H5N1-WB isolate, as indicated by the presence of a larger number of amino acid changes observed during passage. The neuraminidase (NA) of both viruses showed either no (in the case of H5N1-WB) or very few amino acid changes.

  10. ArcA Controls Metabolism, Chemotaxis, and Motility Contributing to the Pathogenicity of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fengwei; An, Chunxia; Bao, Yinli; Zhao, Xuefeng; Jernigan, Robert L.; Lithio, Andrew; Nettleton, Dan; Li, Ling; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Nolan, Lisa K.; Lu, Chengping

    2015-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains cause one of the three most significant infectious diseases in the poultry industry and are also potential food-borne pathogens threating human health. In this study, we showed that ArcA (aerobic respiratory control), a global regulator important for E. coli's adaptation from anaerobic to aerobic conditions and control of that bacterium's enzymatic defenses against reactive oxygen species (ROS), is involved in the virulence of APEC. Deletion of arcA significantly attenuates the virulence of APEC in the duck model. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) analyses comparing the APEC wild type and the arcA mutant indicate that ArcA regulates the expression of 129 genes, including genes involved in citrate transport and metabolism, flagellum synthesis, and chemotaxis. Further investigations revealed that citCEFXG contributed to APEC's microaerobic growth at the lag and log phases when cultured in duck serum and that ArcA played a dual role in the control of citrate metabolism and transportation. In addition, deletion of flagellar genes motA and motB and chemotaxis gene cheA significantly attenuated the virulence of APEC, and ArcA was shown to directly regulate the expression of motA, motB, and cheA. The combined results indicate that ArcA controls metabolism, chemotaxis, and motility contributing to the pathogenicity of APEC. PMID:26099584

  11. Avian lipocalin expression in chickens following Escherichia coli infection and inhibition of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli growth by Ex-FABP.

    PubMed

    Garénaux, Amélie; Houle, Sébastien; Folch, Benjamin; Dallaire, Geneviève; Truesdell, Mélanie; Lépine, François; Doucet, Nicolas; Dozois, Charles M

    2013-03-15

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes respiratory disease and sepsis in poultry. To persist in its host, E. coli requires essential nutrients including iron. Since iron is limited in extra-intestinal tissues, E. coli produces siderophores, small molecules with high affinity for ferric iron, to sequester this essential nutrient. To counter bacterial siderophore systems, mammalian hosts secrete siderocalin (also called lipocalin 2 or NGAL), which binds ferric-siderophore complexes rendering them unavailable to bacteria. In humans and mice, siderocalin is known to play a role in primary defense against bacterial infections. In poultry, 4 proteins display homology to the human NGAL (CALβ, CALγ, Ggal-C8GC and Ex-FABP). The function and expression of the genes coding for these 4 proteins during infection by APEC is still unknown. Expression levels of these genes were determined by quantitative RT-PCR using RNA extracted from lungs, livers and spleens of healthy 3-week-old chickens and chickens infected with APEC. The gene coding for Ex-FABP was overexpressed in all organs tested. It was significantly more overexpressed in the lungs and liver than in the spleen (37.3 and 27.3 times versus 11.5 times, respectively). The genes coding for Calβ and Calγ were also found significantly overexpressed in the liver (27 and 8.2 times, respectively). To confirm the function of Ex-FABP as a siderocalin, the gene coding for this protein was cloned in an expression vector and the protein was purified. In vitro growth inhibition of E. coli strains by Ex-FABP was assayed in parallel with growth inhibition caused by human siderocalin. Purified Ex-FABP inhibited growth of E. coli K-12, which only produces the siderophore enterobactin. However, E. coli strains producing pathogen-associated siderophores including salmochelins (glucosylated enterobactin), aerobactin and yersiniabactin grew normally in the presence of Ex-FABP. These results indicate that Ex-FABP is an avian

  12. Phylogenetic analysis and pathogenicity of H3 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from live poultry markets in China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hongrui; Shi, Ying; Ruan, Tao; Li, Xuesong; Teng, Qiaoyang; Chen, Hongjun; Yang, Jianmei; Liu, Qinfang; Li, Zejun

    2016-01-01

    H3 subtype influenza A virus is one of the main subtypes that threats both public and animal health. However, the evolution and pathogenicity of H3 avian influenza virus (AIV) circulating in domestic birds in China remain largely unclear. In this study, seven H3 AIVs (four H3N2 and three H3N8) were isolated from poultry in live poultry market (LPM) in China. Phylogenetic analyses of full genomes showed that all viruses were clustered into Eurasian lineage, except N8 genes of two H3N8 isolates fell into North American lineage. Intriguingly, the N8 gene of one H3N8 and PB2, PB1, NP and NS of two H3N2 isolates have close relationship with those of the highly pathogenic H5N8 viruses circulating in Korea and United States, suggesting that the H3-like AIV may contribute internal genes to the highly pathogenic H5N8 viruses. Phylogenetic tree of HA gene and antigenic cross-reactivity results indicated that two antigenically different H3 viruses are circulating in LPM in China. Most of the H3 viruses replicated in mice lung and nasal turbinate without prior adaptation, and the representative H3 viruses infected chickens without causing clinical signs. The reassortment of H3 subtype influenza viruses warrants continuous surveillance in LPM in China. PMID:27270298

  13. Avian Migrants Facilitate Invasions of Neotropical Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens into the United States

    PubMed Central

    Auckland, Lisa D.; Marra, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds have the potential to transport exotic vectors and pathogens of human and animal health importance across vast distances. We systematically examined birds that recently migrated to the United States from the Neotropics for ticks. We screened both ticks and birds for tick-borne pathogens, including Rickettsia species and Borrelia burgdorferi. Over two spring seasons (2013 and 2014), 3.56% of birds (n = 3,844) representing 42.35% of the species examined (n = 85) were infested by ticks. Ground-foraging birds with reduced fuel stores were most commonly infested. Eight tick species were identified, including seven in the genus Amblyomma, of which only Amblyomma maculatum/Amblyomma triste is known to be established in the United States. Most ticks on birds (67%) were neotropical species with ranges in Central and South America. Additionally, a single Ixodes genus tick was detected. A total of 29% of the ticks (n = 137) and no avian blood samples (n = 100) were positive for infection with Rickettsia species, including Rickettsia parkeri, an emerging cause of spotted fever in humans in the southern United States, a species in the group of Rickettsia monacensis, and uncharacterized species and endosymbionts of unknown pathogenicity. No avian tick or blood samples tested positive for B. burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease. An extrapolation of our findings suggests that anywhere from 4 to 39 million exotic neotropical ticks are transported to the United States annually on migratory songbirds, with uncertain consequences for human and animal health if the current barriers to their establishment and spread are overcome. PMID:26431964

  14. Avian migrants facilitate invasions of neotropical ticks and tick-borne pathogens into the United States.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Emily B; Auckland, Lisa D; Marra, Peter P; Hamer, Sarah A

    2015-12-01

    Migratory birds have the potential to transport exotic vectors and pathogens of human and animal health importance across vast distances. We systematically examined birds that recently migrated to the United States from the Neotropics for ticks. We screened both ticks and birds for tick-borne pathogens, including Rickettsia species and Borrelia burgdorferi. Over two spring seasons (2013 and 2014), 3.56% of birds (n = 3,844) representing 42.35% of the species examined (n = 85) were infested by ticks. Ground-foraging birds with reduced fuel stores were most commonly infested. Eight tick species were identified, including seven in the genus Amblyomma, of which only Amblyomma maculatum/Amblyomma triste is known to be established in the United States. Most ticks on birds (67%) were neotropical species with ranges in Central and South America. Additionally, a single Ixodes genus tick was detected. A total of 29% of the ticks (n = 137) and no avian blood samples (n = 100) were positive for infection with Rickettsia species, including Rickettsia parkeri, an emerging cause of spotted fever in humans in the southern United States, a species in the group of Rickettsia monacensis, and uncharacterized species and endosymbionts of unknown pathogenicity. No avian tick or blood samples tested positive for B. burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease. An extrapolation of our findings suggests that anywhere from 4 to 39 million exotic neotropical ticks are transported to the United States annually on migratory songbirds, with uncertain consequences for human and animal health if the current barriers to their establishment and spread are overcome.

  15. Taqman real-time PCR assays for rapid detection of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Nilo; De Oliveira Solla Sobral, Fabiana; Lehmann, Fernanda Kieling Moreira; da Silveira, Proença Vinicius; de Carli, Silvia; Casanova, Yara Silva; Celmer, Álvaro José; Fonseca, André Salvador Kazantzi; Lunge, Vagner Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolates are currently differentiated from nonpathogenic strains by classical PCR of virulence genes. This study improves the detection of the five main virulence genes used for APEC detection with the development of duplex and single Taqman real-time PCR to these targets. Primers and probes targeted to ompT, hlyF, iroN, iutA, and iss genes were designed and used in the implementation of single (iss) and duplex (hlyF/ompT and iroN/iutA) Taqman PCR assays. All five virulence genes of E coli strains were successfully detected by classical and Taqman real-time (single and duplex) PCR. A panel of 111 E coli isolates, obtained from avian samples collected in different Brazilian regions between 2010 and 2011, were further tested by both assays. Complete agreement was observed in the detection of four genes, ompT, hlyF, iron, iutA, but not for iss. This issue was addressed by combining the forward primer of the classical PCR to the new iss reverse primer and probe, resulting in complete agreement for all five genes. In total, 61 (55%) Brazilian E. coli isolates were detected as APEC, and the remaining 50 (45%) as avian fecal E. coli (AFEC). In conclusion, classical and Taqman real-time PCR presented exactly the same analytical performance for the differentiation of APEC and AFEC isolates. The developed real-time Taqman PCR assays could be used for the detection and differentiation of APEC isolates.

  16. D701N mutation in the PB2 protein contributes to the pathogenicity of H5N1 avian influenza viruses but not transmissibility in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Peirong; Wei, Liangmeng; Song, Yafen; Cui, Jin; Song, Hui; Cao, Lan; Yuan, Runyu; Luo, Kaijian; Liao, Ming

    2014-01-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of clade 2.3.2 has been circulating in waterfowl in Southern China since 2003. Our previous studies showed that certain H5N1 HPAIV isolates within clade 2.3.2 from Southern China had high pathogenicity in different birds. Guinea pigs have been successfully used as models to evaluate the transmissibility of AIVs and other species of influenza viruses in mammalian hosts. However, few studies have reported pathogenicity and transmissibility of H5N1 HPAIVs of this clade in guinea pigs. In this study, we selected an H5N1 HPAIV isolate, A/duck/Guangdong/357/2008, to investigate the pathogenicity and transmissibility of the virus in guinea pigs. The virus had high pathogenicity in mice; additionally, it only replicated in some tissues of the guinea pigs without production of clinical signs, but was transmissible among guinea pigs. Interestingly, virus isolates from co-caged guinea pigs had the D701N mutation in the PB2 protein. These mutant viruses showed higher pathogenicity in mice and higher replication capability in guinea pigs but did not demonstrate enhanced the transmissibility among guinea pigs. These findings indicate the transmission of the H5N1 virus between mammals could induce virus mutations, and the mutant viruses might have higher pathogenicity in mammals without higher transmissibility. Therefore, the continued evaluation of the pathogenicity and transmissibility of avian influenza virus (AIVs) in mammals is critical to the understanding of the evolutionary characteristics of AIVs and the emergence of potential pandemic strains.

  17. Expression of Immune-Related Genes of Ducks Infected with Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rong; Li, Ning; Zhang, Jinzhou; Wang, Yao; Liu, Jiyuan; Cai, Yumei; Chai, Tongjie; Wei, Liangmeng

    2016-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) can cause severe disease in ducks, characterized by perihepatitis, pericarditis, and airsacculitis. Although the studies of bacteria isolation and methods of detection have been reported, host immune responses to APEC infection remain unclear. In response, we systemically examined the expression of immune-related genes and bacteria distribution in APEC-infected ducks. Results demonstrated that APEC can quickly replicate in the liver, spleen, and brain, with the highest bacteria content at 2 days post infection. The expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs), avian β-defensins (AvBDs) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) were tested in the liver, spleen, and brain of infected ducks. TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR15 showed different expression patterns, which indicated that they all responded to APEC infection. The expression of AvBD2 was upregulated in all tested tissues during the 3 days of testing, whereas the expression of AvBD4, AvBD5, AvBD7, and AvBD9 were downregulated, and though MHC-I was upregulated on all test days, MHC-II was dramatically downregulated. Overall, our results suggest that APEC can replicate in various tissues in a short time, and the activation of host immune responses begins at onset of infection. These findings thus clarify duck immune responses to APEC infection and offer insights into its pathogenesis. PMID:27199963

  18. Two Functional Type VI Secretion Systems in Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Are Involved in Different Pathogenic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jiale; Bao, Yinli; Sun, Min; Dong, Wenyang; Pan, Zihao; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chengping

    2014-01-01

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are involved in the pathogenicity of several Gram-negative bacteria. The VgrG protein, a core component and effector of T6SS, has been demonstrated to perform diverse functions. The N-terminal domain of VgrG protein is a homologue of tail fiber protein gp27 of phage T4, which performs a receptor binding function and determines the host specificity. Based on sequence analysis, we found that two putative T6SS loci exist in the genome of the avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strain TW-XM. To assess the contribution of these two T6SSs to TW-XM pathogenesis, the crucial clpV clusters of these two T6SS loci and their vgrG genes were deleted to generate a series of mutants. Consequently, T6SS1-associated mutants presented diminished adherence to and invasion of several host cell lines cultured in vitro, decreased pathogenicity in duck and mouse infection models in vivo, and decreased biofilm formation and bacterial competitive advantage. In contrast, T6SS2-associated mutants presented a significant decrease only in the adherence to and invasion of mouse brain microvascular endothelial cell (BMEC) line bEnd.3 and brain tissue of the duck infection model. These results suggested that T6SS1 was involved in the proliferation of APEC in systemic infection, whereas VgrG-T6SS2 was responsible only for cerebral infection. Further study demonstrated that VgrG-T6SS2 was able to bind to the surface of bEnd.3 cells, whereas it did not bind to DF-1 (chicken embryo fibroblast) cells, which further proved the interaction of VgrG-T6SS2 with the surface of BMECs. PMID:24980972

  19. Systematic pathogenesis and replication of avian hepatitis E virus in specific-pathogen-free adult chickens.

    PubMed

    Billam, P; Huang, F F; Sun, Z F; Pierson, F W; Duncan, R B; Elvinger, F; Guenette, D K; Toth, T E; Meng, X J

    2005-03-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important human pathogen. Due to the lack of a cell culture system and a practical animal model for HEV, little is known about its pathogenesis and replication. The discovery of a strain of HEV in chickens, designated avian HEV, prompted us to evaluate chickens as a model for the study of HEV. Eighty-five 60-week-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 chickens (n=28) were each inoculated with 5 x 10(4.5) 50% chicken infectious doses of avian HEV by the oronasal route, group 2 chickens (n=29) were each inoculated with the same dose by the intravenous (i.v.) route, and group 3 chickens (n=28) were not inoculated and were used as controls. Two chickens from each group were necropsied at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 13, 16, 20, 24, 28, 35, and 42 days postinoculation (dpi), and the remaining chickens were necropsied at 56 dpi. Serum, fecal, and various tissue samples, including liver and spleen samples, were collected at each necropsy for pathological and virological testing. By 21 dpi, all oronasally and i.v. inoculated chickens had seroconverted. Fecal virus shedding was detected variably from 1 to 20 dpi for the i.v. group and from 10 to 56 dpi for the oronasal group. Avian HEV RNA was detected in serum, bile, and liver samples from both i.v. and oronasally inoculated chickens. Gross liver lesions, characterized by subcapsular hemorrhages or enlargement of the right intermediate lobe, were observed in 7 of 28 oronasally and 7 of 29 i.v. inoculated chickens. Microscopic liver lesions were mainly lymphocytic periphlebitis and phlebitis. The lesion scores were higher for oronasal (P=0.0008) and i.v. (P=0.0029) group birds than for control birds. Slight elevations of the plasma liver enzyme lactate dehydrogenase were observed in infected chickens. The results indicated that chickens are a useful model for studying HEV replication and pathogenesis. This is the first report of HEV transmission via its natural

  20. Presence of pathogenicity islands and virulence genes of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) in isolates from avian organic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Gazal, Luís Eduardo S; Puño-Sarmiento, Juan J; Medeiros, Leonardo P; Cyoia, Paula S; da Silveira, Wanderlei D; Kobayashi, Renata K T; Nakazato, Gerson

    2015-12-01

    Poultry litter is commonly used as fertilizer in agriculture. However, this poultry litter must be processed prior to use, since poultry have a large number of pathogenic microorganisms. The aims of this study were to isolate and genotypically and phenotypically characterize Escherichia coli from avian organic fertilizer. Sixty-four E. coli isolates were identified from avian organic fertilizer and characterized for ExPEC virulence factors, pathogenicity islands, phylogenetic groups, antimicrobial resistance, biofilm formation, and adhesion to HEp-2 cells. Sixty-three isolates (98.4%) showed at least one virulence gene (fimH, ecpA, sitA, traT, iutA, iroN, hlyF, ompT and iss). The predominant phylogenetic groups were groups A (59.3%) and B1 (34.3%). The pathogenicity island CFT073II (51.5%) was the most prevalent among the isolates tested. Thirty-two isolates (50%) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Approximately 90% of isolates adhered to HEp-2 cells, and the predominant pattern was aggregative adherence (74.1%). In the biofilm assay, it was observed that 75% of isolates did not produce biofilm. These results lead us to conclude that some E. coli isolates from avian organic fertilizer could be pathogenic for humans.