Science.gov

Sample records for high precision experimental

  1. Parameter space of experimental chaotic circuits with high-precision control parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa, Francisco F. G.; Rubinger, Rero M.; Sartorelli, José C.; Albuquerque, Holokx A.; Baptista, Murilo S.

    2016-08-01

    We report high-resolution measurements that experimentally confirm a spiral cascade structure and a scaling relationship of shrimps in the Chua's circuit. Circuits constructed using this component allow for a comprehensive characterization of the circuit behaviors through high resolution parameter spaces. To illustrate the power of our technological development for the creation and the study of chaotic circuits, we constructed a Chua circuit and study its high resolution parameter space. The reliability and stability of the designed component allowed us to obtain data for long periods of time (˜21 weeks), a data set from which an accurate estimation of Lyapunov exponents for the circuit characterization was possible. Moreover, this data, rigorously characterized by the Lyapunov exponents, allows us to reassure experimentally that the shrimps, stable islands embedded in a domain of chaos in the parameter spaces, can be observed in the laboratory. Finally, we confirm that their sizes decay exponentially with the period of the attractor, a result expected to be found in maps of the quadratic family.

  2. Highly precise experimental device for determining the heat capacity of liquids under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Salgado, D.; Valencia, J. L.; Troncoso, J.; Carballo, E.; Peleteiro, J.; Romani, L.; Bessieres, D.

    2007-05-15

    An experimental device for making isobaric heat capacity measurements of liquids under pressure is presented. The device is an adaptation of the Setaram micro-DSC II atmospheric-pressure microcalorimeter, including modifications of vessels and a pressure line allowing the pressure in the measurement system to be set, controlled, and stabilized. The high sensitivity of the apparatus combined with a suitable calibration procedure allows very accurate heat capacity measurements under pressure to be made. The relative uncertainty in the isobaric molar heat capacity measurements provided by the new device is estimated to be 0.08% at atmospheric pressure and 0.2% at higher levels. The device was validated from isobaric molar heat capacity measurements for hexane, nonane, decane, undecane, dodecane, and tridecane, all of which were highly consistent with reported data. It also possesses a high sensitivity as reflected in its response to changes in excess isobaric molar heat capacity with pressure, which were examined in this work for the first time by making heat capacity measurements throughout the composition range of the 1-hexanol+n-hexane system. Finally, preliminary measurements at several pressures near the critical conditions for the nitromethane+2-butanol binary system were made that testify to the usefulness of the proposed device for studying critical phenomena in liquids under pressure.

  3. Design and experimental research of a high-precision wavelength controller for tunable fiber Fabry-Perot filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Hai-bing; Wei, Shu-hua; Wei, Chen

    2013-03-01

    A high-precision wavelength controller is presented in this paper. It is necessary to find out the difference between the central wavelength of a tunable fiber Fabry-Perot (FFP) filter and that of the input laser, while the wavelength controller operates at the states of wavelength-scanning and wavelength-locking modes. Firstly, a dynamic simulation model of tunable FFP filter is established, and the dynamic characteristic of tunable FFP filter modulated by an alternating current (AC) signal is simulated. Then the measuring time at wavelength-scanning mode compared with the theory time is discussed, and this time difference shows the difference between the central wavelength of a tunable FFP filter and that of the input laser. At last, the effects on wavelength-locking precision of time delays, including the time delay of opened-loop circuit, the time constant of the closed-loop circuit and the intrinsic hysteresis of piezoelectric (PZT) element, are analyzed. A wavelength controller of tunable FFP filter is designed and prepared. The experimental results at wavelength-locking mode show that a high locking precision is obtained.

  4. Experimental setup to demonstrate low-frequency high-precision frequency stabilization of 1550 nm ECL Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoen, Steven; Téllez, Gregorio; Quetschke, Volker

    2012-02-01

    Advances in fiber and waveguide technologies have brought about a new type of laser: the Planar Waveguide External Cavity Laser (PW-ECL) that shows a great potential for precision interferometric measurements. We show an experimental setup based on a 1550nm PW-ECL which was designed to achieve a frequency stabilization of 30 Hz/sqrt(Hz) or less at 10 mHz. The presented design makes use of thermal shielding to suppress temperature fluctuations at low frequencies as well as a vacuum system, high finesse cavity and low-noise electronics to reduce the frequency noise. A description of the components used in the design is given and initial results are presented.

  5. Experimental investigation of precision grinding oriented to achieve high process efficiency for large and middle-scale optic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ping; Jin, Tan; Guo, Zongfu; Lu, Ange; Qu, Meina

    2016-10-01

    High efficiency machining of large precision optical surfaces is a challenging task for researchers and engineers worldwide. The higher form accuracy and lower subsurface damage helps to significantly reduce the cycle time for the following polishing process, save the cost of production, and provide a strong enabling technology to support the large telescope and laser energy fusion projects. In this paper, employing an Infeed Grinding (IG) mode with a rotary table and a cup wheel, a multi stage grinding process chain, as well as precision compensation technology, a Φ300mm diameter plano mirror is ground by the Schneider Surfacing Center SCG 600 that delivers a new level of quality and accuracy when grinding such large flats. Results show a PV form error of Pt<2 μm, the surface roughness Ra<30 nm and Rz<180 nm, with subsurface damage <20 μm, and a material removal rates of up to 383.2 mm3/s.

  6. High precision modeling for fundamental physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rievers, Benny; Nesemann, Leo; Costea, Adrian; Andres, Michael; Stephan, Ernst P.; Laemmerzahl, Claus

    With growing experimental accuracies and high precision requirements for fundamental physics space missions the needs for accurate numerical modeling techniques are increasing. Motivated by the challenge of length stability in cavities and optical resonators we propose the develop-ment of a high precision modeling tool for the simulation of thermomechanical effects up to a numerical precision of 10-20 . Exemplary calculations for simplified test cases demonstrate the general feasibility of high precision calculations and point out the high complexity of the task. A tool for high precision analysis of complex geometries will have to use new data types, advanced FE solver routines and implement new methods for the evaluation of numerical precision.

  7. High precision laser sclerostomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Góra, W. S.; Urich, A.; McIntosh, L.; Carter, R. M.; Wilson, C. G.; Dhillon, B.; Hand, D. P.; Shephard, J. D.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrafast lasers offer a possibility of removing soft ophthalmic tissue without introducing collateral damage at the ablation site or in the surrounding tissue. The potential for using ultrashort pico- and femtosecond pulse lasers for modification of ophthalmic tissue has been reported elsewhere and has resulted in the introduction of new, minimally invasive procedures into clinical practice. Our research aims to define the most efficient parameters to allow for the modification of scleral tissue without introducing collateral damage. Our experiments were carried out on hydrated porcine sclera in vitro. Porcine sclera, which has similar collagen organization, histology and water content (~70%) to human tissue was used. Supporting this work we present a 2D finite element blow-off model which employs a one-step heating process. It is assumed that the incident laser radiation that is not reflected is absorbed in the tissue according to the Beer-Lambert law and transformed into heat energy. The experimental setup uses an industrial picosecond laser (TRUMPF TruMicro 5x50) with 5.9 ps pulses at 1030 nm, with pulse energies up to 125 μJ and a focused spot diameter of 35 μm. Use of a beam steering scan head allows flexibility in designing complicated scanning patterns. In this study we have demonstrated that picosecond pulses are capable of removing scleral tissue without introducing any major thermal damage which offers a possible route for minimally invasive sclerostomy. In assessing this we have tested several different scanning patterns including single line ablation, square and circular cavity removal.

  8. Highly Parallel, High-Precision Numerical Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2005-04-22

    This paper describes a scheme for rapidly computing numerical values of definite integrals to very high accuracy, ranging from ordinary machine precision to hundreds or thousands of digits, even for functions with singularities or infinite derivatives at endpoints. Such a scheme is of interest not only in computational physics and computational chemistry, but also in experimental mathematics, where high-precision numerical values of definite integrals can be used to numerically discover new identities. This paper discusses techniques for a parallel implementation of this scheme, then presents performance results for 1-D and 2-D test suites. Results are also given for a certain problem from mathematical physics, which features a difficult singularity, confirming a conjecture to 20,000 digit accuracy. The performance rate for this latter calculation on 1024 CPUs is 690 Gflop/s. We believe that this and one other 20,000-digit integral evaluation that we report are the highest-precision non-trivial numerical integrations performed to date.

  9. High Precision Pressure Measurement with a Funnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Arias, T.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2008-01-01

    A simple experimental device for high precision differential pressure measurements is presented. Its working mechanism recalls that of a hydraulic press, where pressure is supplied by insufflating air under a funnel. As an application, we measure air pressure inside a soap bubble. The soap bubble is inflated and connected to a funnel which is…

  10. High-Precision Computation and Mathematical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2008-11-03

    At the present time, IEEE 64-bit floating-point arithmetic is sufficiently accurate for most scientific applications. However, for a rapidly growing body of important scientific computing applications, a higher level of numeric precision is required. Such calculations are facilitated by high-precision software packages that include high-level language translation modules to minimize the conversion effort. This paper presents a survey of recent applications of these techniques and provides some analysis of their numerical requirements. These applications include supernova simulations, climate modeling, planetary orbit calculations, Coulomb n-body atomic systems, scattering amplitudes of quarks, gluons and bosons, nonlinear oscillator theory, Ising theory, quantum field theory and experimental mathematics. We conclude that high-precision arithmetic facilities are now an indispensable component of a modern large-scale scientific computing environment.

  11. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Young, Kar-Keung David

    1998-01-01

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degreed of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns.

  12. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Young, K.K.D.

    1998-09-22

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space is disclosed. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degrees of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns. 3 figs.

  13. High precision triangular waveform generator

    DOEpatents

    Mueller, Theodore R.

    1983-01-01

    An ultra-linear ramp generator having separately programmable ascending and descending ramp rates and voltages is provided. Two constant current sources provide the ramp through an integrator. Switching of the current at current source inputs rather than at the integrator input eliminates switching transients and contributes to the waveform precision. The triangular waveforms produced by the waveform generator are characterized by accurate reproduction and low drift over periods of several hours. The ascending and descending slopes are independently selectable.

  14. High Precision Laser Range Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge (Inventor); Lay, Oliver P. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is an improved distance measuring interferometer that includes high speed phase modulators and additional phase meters to generate and analyze multiple heterodyne signal pairs with distinct frequencies. Modulation sidebands with large frequency separation are generated by the high speed electro-optic phase modulators, requiring only a single frequency stable laser source and eliminating the need for a fist laser to be tuned or stabilized relative to a second laser. The combination of signals produced by the modulated sidebands is separated and processed to give the target distance. The resulting metrology apparatus enables a sensor with submicron accuracy or better over a multi- kilometer ambiguity range.

  15. High precision thermal neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Radeka, V.; Schaknowski, N.A.; Smith, G.C.; Yu, B.

    1994-12-31

    Two-dimensional position sensitive detectors are indispensable in neutron diffraction experiments for determination of molecular and crystal structures in biology, solid-state physics and polymer chemistry. Some performance characteristics of these detectors are elementary and obvious, such as the position resolution, number of resolution elements, neutron detection efficiency, counting rate and sensitivity to gamma-ray background. High performance detectors are distinguished by more subtle characteristics such as the stability of the response (efficiency) versus position, stability of the recorded neutron positions, dynamic range, blooming or halo effects. While relatively few of them are needed around the world, these high performance devices are sophisticated and fairly complex, their development requires very specialized efforts. In this context, we describe here a program of detector development, based on {sup 3}He filled proportional chambers, which has been underway for some years at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Fundamental approaches and practical considerations are outlined that have resulted in a series of high performance detectors with the best known position resolution, position stability, uniformity of response and reliability over time, for devices of this type.

  16. High-rate precise point positioning (PPP) to measure seismic wave motions: An experimental comparison of GPS PPP with inertial measurement units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peiliang; Shi, Chuang; Fang, Rongxin; Liu, Jingnan; Niu, Xiaoji; Zhang, Quan; Yanagidani, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    High-rate GPS has been widely used to construct displacement waveforms and to invert for source parameters of earthquakes. Almost all works on internal and external evaluation of high-rate GPS accuracy are based on GPS relative positioning. We build an experimental platform to externally evaluate the accuracy of 50 Hz PPP displacement waveforms. Since the shake table allows motion in any of six degrees of freedom, we install an inertial measurement unit (IMU) to measure the attitude of the platform and transform the IMU displacements into the GPS coordinate system. The experimental results have shown that high-rate PPP can produce absolute horizontal displacement waveforms at the accuracy of 2 to 4 millimeters and absolute vertical displacement waveforms at the sub-centimeter level of accuracy within a short period of time. The significance of the experiments indicates that high-rate PPP is capable of detecting absolute seismic displacement waveforms at the same high accuracy as GPS relative positioning techniques but requires no fixed datum station. We have also found a small scaling error of IMU and a small time offset of misalignment between high-rate PPP and IMU displacement waveforms by comparing the amplitudes of and cross-correlating both the displacement waveforms. For more details on this talk, one can now get access to the on-line-first version of our Journal of Geodesy paper: J Geod, DOI 10.1007/s00190-012-0606-z

  17. Precision Crystal Calorimeters in High Energy Physics

    ScienceCinema

    Ren-Yuan Zhu

    2016-07-12

    Precision crystal calorimeters traditionally play an important role in high energy physics experiments. In the last two decades, it faces a challenge to maintain its precision in a hostile radiation environment. This paper reviews the performance of crystal calorimeters constructed for high energy physics experiments and the progress achieved in understanding crystal’s radiation damage as well as in developing high quality scintillating crystals for particle physics. Potential applications of new generation scintillating crystals of high density and high light yield, such as LSO and LYSO, in particle physics experiments is also discussed.

  18. High-precision arithmetic in mathematical physics

    DOE PAGES

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2015-05-12

    For many scientific calculations, particularly those involving empirical data, IEEE 32-bit floating-point arithmetic produces results of sufficient accuracy, while for other applications IEEE 64-bit floating-point is more appropriate. But for some very demanding applications, even higher levels of precision are often required. Furthermore, this article discusses the challenge of high-precision computation, in the context of mathematical physics, and highlights what facilities are required to support future computation, in light of emerging developments in computer architecture.

  19. High precision phase-shifting electron holography

    PubMed

    Yamamoto; Kawajiri; Tanji; Hibino; Hirayama

    2000-01-01

    Today's information-oriented society requires high density and high quality magnetic recording media. The quantitative observation of fine magnetic structures by electron holography is greatly anticipated in the development of such new recording materials. However, the magnetic fields around particles <50 nm have not been observed, because the fields are too weak to observe in the usual way. Here we present a highly precise phase measurement technique: improved phase-shifting electron holography. Using this method, the electric field around a charged polystyrene latex particle (100 nm in diameter) and the magnetic field around iron particles (30 nm in diameter) are observed precisely. A precision of the reconstructed phase image of 2pi/300 rad is achieved in the image of the latex particle.

  20. High-precision laser machining of ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toenshoff, Hans K.; von Alvensleben, Ferdinand; Graumann, Christoph; Willmann, Guido

    1998-09-01

    The increasing demand for highly developed ceramic materials for various applications calls for innovative machining technologies yielding high accuracy and efficiency. Associated problems with conventional, i.e. mechanical methods, are unacceptable tool wear as well as force induced damages on ceramic components. Furthermore, the established grinding techniques often meet their limits if accurate complex 2D or 3D structures are required. In contrast to insufficient mechanical processes, UV-laser precision machining of ceramics offers not only a valuable technological alternative but a considerable economical aspect as well. In particular, excimer lasers provide a multitude of advantages for applications in high precision and micro technology. Within the UV wavelength range and pulses emitted in the nano-second region, minimal thermal effects on ceramics and polymers are observed. Thus, the ablation geometry can be controlled precisely in the lateral and vertical directions. In this paper, the excimer laser machining technology developed at the Laser Zentrum Hannover is explained. Representing current and future industrial applications, examinations concerning the precision cutting of alumina (Al2O3), and HF-composite materials, the ablation of ferrite ceramics for precision inductors and the structuring of SiC sealing and bearing rings are presented.

  1. High precision, rapid laser hole drilling

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2007-03-20

    A laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The laser system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has dimensions of high precision.

  2. High precision, rapid laser hole drilling

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2005-03-08

    A laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The laser system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has dimensions of high precision.

  3. High precision, rapid laser hole drilling

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2013-04-02

    A laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The laser system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has dimensions of high precision.

  4. High precision measurements in crustal dynamic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, F.; Berger, J.

    1984-01-01

    The development of high-precision instrumentation for monitoring benchmark stability and evaluating coseismic strain and tilt signals is reviewed. Laser strainmeter and tilt observations are presented. Examples of coseismic deformation in several geographic locations are given. Evidence suggests that the Earth undergoes elastic response to abrupt faulting.

  5. High-Precision Photometry with the RCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, M.; Howell, S.; Davis, D.; McGruder, C. H., III; Gelderman, R.; Guinan, E.; Mattox, J. R.; Walter, D. K.

    2003-05-01

    We plan to conduct a high-precision photometric search for transitting extra-solar planets using the refurbished 1.3 m (50 inch) Robotically-Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak. The photometric capabilities and extra-solar planet search strategy for the RCT are discussed. Refurbishment of the RCT has been made possible by NASA grant NAG58762.

  6. High precision detector robot arm system

    DOEpatents

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong

    2017-01-31

    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  7. High precision Woelter optic calibration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, R.I.; Remington, B.A.; Schwinn, T. )

    1995-01-01

    We have developed an off-line facility for very precise characterization of the reflectance and spatial resolution of the grazing incidence Woelter type I x-ray optics used at Nova. The primary component of the facility is a new, very versatile, high brightness x-ray source consisting of a focused DC electron beam incident onto a precision manipulated target-pinhole array. The data are recorded with a selection of detectors. For imaging measurements we use direct exposure x-ray film modules or an x-ray charge-coupled device camera. For energy-resolved reflectance measurements, we use lithium drifted silicon detectors and a proportional counter. An [ital in] [ital situ] laser alignment system allows precise location and rapid periodic alignment verification of the x-ray point source, the statically mounted Woelter optic, and the chosen detector.

  8. Portable high precision pressure transducer system

    DOEpatents

    Piper, T.C.; Morgan, J.P.; Marchant, N.J.; Bolton, S.M.

    1994-04-26

    A high precision pressure transducer system is described for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum fluorescent display. 2 figures.

  9. Portable high precision pressure transducer system

    DOEpatents

    Piper, Thomas C.; Morgan, John P.; Marchant, Norman J.; Bolton, Steven M.

    1994-01-01

    A high precision pressure transducer system for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum florescent display.

  10. Portable high precision pressure transducer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, T. C.; Morgan, J. P.; Marchant, N. J.; Bolton, S. M.

    A high precision pressure transducer system for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank is presented. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in a battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on-board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum fluorescent display.

  11. Fiber Scrambling for High Precision Spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Zachary; Spronck, J. F. P.; Fischer, D.

    2011-05-01

    The detection of Earth-like exoplanets with the radial velocity method requires extreme Doppler precision and long-term stability in order to measure tiny reflex velocities in the host star. Recent planet searches have led to the detection of so called "super-Earths” (up to a few Earth masses) that induce radial velocity changes of about 1 m/s. However, the detection of true Earth analogs requires a precision of 10 cm/s. One of the largest factors limiting Doppler precision is variation in the Point Spread Function (PSF) from observation to observation due to changes in the illumination of the slit and spectrograph optics. Thus, this stability has become a focus of current instrumentation work. Fiber optics have been used since the 1980's to couple telescopes to high-precision spectrographs, initially for simpler mechanical design and control. However, fiber optics are also naturally efficient scramblers. Scrambling refers to a fiber's ability to produce an output beam independent of input. Our research is focused on characterizing the scrambling properties of several types of fibers, including circular, square and octagonal fibers. By measuring the intensity distribution after the fiber as a function of input beam position, we can simulate guiding errors that occur at an observatory. Through this, we can determine which fibers produce the most uniform outputs for the severest guiding errors, improving the PSF and allowing sub-m/s precision. However, extensive testing of fibers of supposedly identical core diameter, length and shape from the same manufacturer has revealed the "personality” of individual fibers. Personality describes differing intensity patterns for supposedly duplicate fibers illuminated identically. Here, we present our results on scrambling characterization as a function of fiber type, while studying individual fiber personality.

  12. High precision tracking method for solar telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jingjing; Yang, Yunfei; Feng, Song; Ji, Kanfan; Lin, Jiaben; Zeng, Zhen; Wang, Bingxiang

    2016-07-01

    A high-precision real-time tracking method for solar telescopes was introduced in this paper based on the barycenter of full-disk solar images algorithm. To make sure the calculation was accurate and reliable, a series of strictly logic limits were set, such as setting gray threshold, judging the displacement of the barycenter and measuring the deviation from a perfect disk. A closed-loop control system was designed in the method. We located the barycenter of the full-disk images which recorded by large array CCD image sensor in real time and eliminate noise caused by bad weather, such as clouds and fog. The displacement of the barycenter was analyzed and transferred into control signal drove the motor to adjust the axis of telescope. An Ethernet interface was also provided for remote control. In the observation, the precision of this new method was better than 1″/30 minutes.

  13. High precision radial velocities with GIANO spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carleo, I.; Sanna, N.; Gratton, R.; Benatti, S.; Bonavita, M.; Oliva, E.; Origlia, L.; Desidera, S.; Claudi, R.; Sissa, E.

    2016-06-01

    Radial velocities (RV) measured from near-infrared (NIR) spectra are a potentially excellent tool to search for extrasolar planets around cool or active stars. High resolution infrared (IR) spectrographs now available are reaching the high precision of visible instruments, with a constant improvement over time. GIANO is an infrared echelle spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) and it is a powerful tool to provide high resolution spectra for accurate RV measurements of exoplanets and for chemical and dynamical studies of stellar or extragalactic objects. No other high spectral resolution IR instrument has GIANO's capability to cover the entire NIR wavelength range (0.95-2.45 μm) in a single exposure. In this paper we describe the ensemble of procedures that we have developed to measure high precision RVs on GIANO spectra acquired during the Science Verification (SV) run, using the telluric lines as wavelength reference. We used the Cross Correlation Function (CCF) method to determine the velocity for both the star and the telluric lines. For this purpose, we constructed two suitable digital masks that include about 2000 stellar lines, and a similar number of telluric lines. The method is applied to various targets with different spectral type, from K2V to M8 stars. We reached different precisions mainly depending on the H-magnitudes: for H ˜ 5 we obtain an rms scatter of ˜ 10 m s-1, while for H ˜ 9 the standard deviation increases to ˜ 50 ÷ 80 m s-1. The corresponding theoretical error expectations are ˜ 4 m s-1 and 30 m s-1, respectively. Finally we provide the RVs measured with our procedure for the targets observed during GIANO Science Verification.

  14. Note: High precision measurements using high frequency gigahertz signals.

    PubMed

    Jin, Aohan; Fu, Siyuan; Sakurai, Atsunori; Liu, Liang; Edman, Fredrik; Pullerits, Tõnu; Öwall, Viktor; Karki, Khadga Jung

    2014-12-01

    Generalized lock-in amplifiers use digital cavities with Q-factors as high as 5 × 10(8) to measure signals with very high precision. In this Note, we show that generalized lock-in amplifiers can be used to analyze microwave (giga-hertz) signals with a precision of few tens of hertz. We propose that the physical changes in the medium of propagation can be measured precisely by the ultra-high precision measurement of the signal. We provide evidence to our proposition by verifying the Newton's law of cooling by measuring the effect of change in temperature on the phase and amplitude of the signals propagating through two calibrated cables. The technique could be used to precisely measure different physical properties of the propagation medium, for example, the change in length, resistance, etc. Real time implementation of the technique can open up new methodologies of in situ virtual metrology in material design.

  15. Precision mass measurements of highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Bale, J. C.; Brunner, T.; Chaudhuri, A.; Chowdhury, U.; Ettenauer, S.; Frekers, D.; Gallant, A. T.; Grossheim, A.; Lennarz, A.; Mane, E.; MacDonald, T. D.; Schultz, B. E.; Simon, M. C.; Simon, V. V.; Dilling, J.

    2012-10-01

    The reputation of Penning trap mass spectrometry for accuracy and precision was established with singly charged ions (SCI); however, the achievable precision and resolving power can be extended by using highly charged ions (HCI). The TITAN facility has demonstrated these enhancements for long-lived (T1/2>=50 ms) isobars and low-lying isomers, including ^71Ge^21+, ^74Rb^8+, ^78Rb^8+, and ^98Rb^15+. The Q-value of ^71Ge enters into the neutrino cross section, and the use of HCI reduced the resolving power required to distinguish the isobars from 3 x 10^5 to 20. The precision achieved in the measurement of ^74Rb^8+, a superallowed β-emitter and candidate to test the CVC hypothesis, rivaled earlier measurements with SCI in a fraction of the time. The 111.19(22) keV isomeric state in ^78Rb was resolved from the ground state. Mass measurements of neutron-rich Rb and Sr isotopes near A = 100 aid in determining the r-process pathway. Advanced ion manipulation techniques and recent results will be presented.

  16. High-precision spectroscopy of hydrogen molecular ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zhen-Xiang; Tong, Xin; Yan, Zong-Chao; Shi, Ting-Yun

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we overview recent advances in high-precision structure calculations of the hydrogen molecular ions ( and HD+), including nonrelativistic energy eigenvalues and relativistic and quantum electrodynamic corrections. In combination with high-precision measurements, it is feasible to precisely determine a molecular-based value of the proton-to-electron mass ratio. An experimental scheme is presented for measuring the rovibrational transition frequency (v,L) : (0,0) → (6,1) in HD+, which is currently underway at the Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 11474316, 11004221, 10974224, and 11274348), the “Hundred Talent Program” of Chinese Academy of Sciences. Yan Zong-Chao was supported by NSERC, SHARCnet, ACEnet of Canada, and the CAS/SAFEA International Partnership Program for Creative Research Teams.

  17. Precision timing measurements for high energy photons

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dustin; Apreysan, Artur; Bornheim, Adi; Duarte, Javier; Newman, Harvey; Pena, Cristian; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan

    2014-11-21

    Particle colliders operating at high luminosities present challenging environments for high energy physics event reconstruction and analysis. We discuss how timing information, with a precision on the order of 10 ps, can aid in the reconstruction of physics events under such conditions. We present calorimeter based timing measurements from test beam experiments in which we explore the ultimate timing precision achievable for high energy photons or electrons of 10 GeV and above. Using a prototype calorimeter consisting of a 1.7×1.7×1.7 cm3 lutetium–yttrium oxyortho-silicate (LYSO) crystal cube, read out by micro-channel plate photomultipliers, we demonstrate a time resolution of 33.5±2.1 ps for an incoming beam energy of 32 GeV. In a second measurement, using a 2.5×2.5×20 cm3 LYSO crystal placed perpendicularly to the electron beam, we achieve a time resolution of 59±11 ps using a beam energy of 4 GeV. We also present timing measurements made using a shashlik-style calorimeter cell made of LYSO and tungsten plates, and demonstrate that the apparatus achieves a time resolution of 54±5 ps for an incoming beam energy of 32 GeV.

  18. Precisely parameterized experimental and computational models of tissue organization†

    PubMed Central

    Sekar, Rajesh B.; Blake, Robert; Park, JinSeok; Trayanova, Natalia A.; Tung, Leslie; Levchenko, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of cellular organization in diverse tissues frequently display a complex geometry and topology tightly related to the tissue function. Progressive disorganization of tissue morphology can lead to pathologic remodeling, necessitating the development of experimental and theoretical methods of analysis of the tolerance of normal tissue function to structural alterations. A systematic way to investigate the relationship of diverse cell organization to tissue function is to engineer two-dimensional cell monolayers replicating key aspects of the in vivo tissue architecture. However, it is still not clear how this can be accomplished on a tissue level scale in a parameterized fashion, allowing for a mathematically precise definition of the model tissue organization and properties down to a cellular scale with a parameter dependent gradual change in model tissue organization. Here, we describe and use a method of designing precisely parameterized, geometrically complex patterns that are then used to control cell alignment and communication of model tissues. We demonstrate direct application of this method to guiding the growth of cardiac cell cultures and developing mathematical models of cell function that correspond to the underlying experimental patterns. Several anisotropic patterned cultures spanning a broad range of multicellular organization, mimicking the cardiac tissue organization of different regions of the heart, were found to be similar to each other and to isotropic cell monolayers in terms of local cell–cell interactions, reflected in similar confluency, morphology and connexin-43 expression. However, in agreement with the model predictions, different anisotropic patterns of cell organization, paralleling in vivo alterations of cardiac tissue morphology, resulted in variable and novel functional responses with important implications for the initiation and maintenance of cardiac arrhythmias. We conclude that variations of tissue geometry and

  19. High Precision Rovibrational Spectroscopy of OH+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markus, Charles R.; Hodges, James N.; Perry, Adam J.; Kocheril, G. Stephen; Müller, Holger S. P.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2016-02-01

    The molecular ion OH+ has long been known to be an important component of the interstellar medium. Its relative abundance can be used to indirectly measure cosmic ray ionization rates of hydrogen, and it is the first intermediate in the interstellar formation of water. To date, only a limited number of pure rotational transitions have been observed in the laboratory making it necessary to indirectly calculate rotational levels from high-precision rovibrational spectroscopy. We have remeasured 30 transitions in the fundamental band with MHz-level precision, in order to enable the prediction of a THz spectrum of OH+. The ions were produced in a water cooled discharge of O2, H2, and He, and the rovibrational transitions were measured with the technique Noise Immune Cavity Enhanced Optical Heterodyne Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy. These values have been included in a global fit of field free data to a 3Σ- linear molecule effective Hamiltonian to determine improved spectroscopic parameters which were used to predict the pure rotational transition frequencies.

  20. High precision innovative micropump for artificial pancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappel, E.; Mefti, S.; Lettieri, G.-L.; Proennecke, S.; Conan, C.

    2014-03-01

    The concept of artificial pancreas, which comprises an insulin pump, a continuous glucose meter and a control algorithm, is a major step forward in managing patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The stability of the control algorithm is based on short-term precision micropump to deliver rapid-acting insulin and to specific integrated sensors able to monitor any failure leading to a loss of accuracy. Debiotech's MEMS micropump, based on the membrane pump principle, is made of a stack of 3 silicon wafers. The pumping chamber comprises a pillar check-valve at the inlet, a pumping membrane which is actuated against stop limiters by a piezo cantilever, an anti-free-flow outlet valve and a pressure sensor. The micropump inlet is tightly connected to the insulin reservoir while the outlet is in direct communication with the patient skin via a cannula. To meet the requirement of a pump dedicated to closed-loop application for diabetes care, in addition to the well-controlled displacement of the pumping membrane, the high precision of the micropump is based on specific actuation profiles that balance effect of pump elasticity in low-consumption push-pull mode.

  1. Highly damped kinematic coupling for precision instruments

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.; Jensen, Steven A.

    2001-01-01

    A highly damped kinematic coupling for precision instruments. The kinematic coupling provides support while causing essentially no influence to its nature shape, with such influences coming, for example, from manufacturing tolerances, temperature changes, or ground motion. The coupling uses three ball-cone constraints, each combined with a released flexural degree of freedom. This arrangement enables a gain of higher load capacity and stiffness, but can also significantly reduce the friction level in proportion to the ball radius divided by the distance between the ball and the hinge axis. The blade flexures reduces somewhat the stiffness of the coupling and provides an ideal location to apply constrained-layer damping which is accomplished by attaching a viscoelastic layer and a constraining layer on opposite sides of each of the blade flexures. The three identical ball-cone flexures provide a damped coupling mechanism to kinematically support the projection optics system of the extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system, or other load-sensitive apparatus.

  2. High-precision Photogrammetric Surface Figure Measurements under Cryogenic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Z.; Qian, Y.; Fan, S. H.; Liu, C. R.; Wang, H. R.; Zuo, Y. X.; Cheng, J. Q.; Yang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Limited by the working temperature of the measurement equipments, most of the high-precision surface figure measurement techniques cannot be applied under a cryogenic environment. This paper reports the first attempt to measure the surface figure of a high-precision terahertz reflector panel under low temperatures based on photogrammetry. The measurement employs a high resolution industrial camera sitting on an automatic experimental platform which enables photos been taken in an automatic fashion inside a climate chamber. A repeatable accuracy of 2.1 μm rms is achieved under the cryogenic environment. Furthermore, surface figure measured by a three-coordinate measuring machine under room temperature is used to calibrate the thickness variation of the paper targets. By this technique, the surface figure of an aluminum prototype panel of the 5 meter Dome A Terahertz Telescope (DATE5) is measured from room temperature down to -55°C.

  3. High Precision Isotopic Reference Material Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, J. L.; Vocke, R. D.

    2007-12-01

    Recent developments in thermal ionization and inductively coupled plasma multicollector mass spectrometers have lead to "high precision" isotope ratio measurements with uncertainties approaching a few parts in 106. These new measurement capabilities have revolutionized the study of isotopic variations in nature by increasing the number of elements showing natural variations by almost a factor of two, and new research areas are actively opening up in climate change, health, ecology, geology and forensic studies. Because the isotopic applications are impacting very diverse fields, there is at present little effective coordination between research laboratories over reference materials and the values to apply to those materials. NIST had originally developed the techniques for producing accurate isotopic characterizations, culminating in the NIST Isotopic SRM series. The values on existing materials however are insufficiently precise and, in some cases, may be isotopically heterogeneous. A new generation of isotopic standards is urgently needed and will directly affect the quality and scope of emergent applications and ensure that the results being derived from these diverse fields are comparable. A series of new isotopic reference materials similar to the NIST 3100 single element solution series is being designed for this purpose and twelve elements have been selected as having the most pressing need. In conjunction with other expert users and National Metrology Institutes, an isotopic characterization of the respective 12 selected ampoules from the NIST single element solution series is currently underway. In this presentation the preliminary results of this screening will be discussed as well as the suitability of these materials in terms of homogeneity and purity, long term stability and availability, and isotopic relevance. Approaches to value assignment will also be discussed.

  4. High precision optical surface metrology using deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Run

    Software Configurable Optical Test System (SCOTS) developed at University of Arizona is a highly efficient optical metrology technique based on the principle of deflectometry, which can achieve comparable accuracy with interferometry but with low-cost hardware. In a SCOTS test, an LCD display is used to generate structured light pattern to illuminate the test optics and the reflected light is captured by a digital camera. The surface slope of test optics is determined by triangulation of the display pixels, test optics, and the camera. The surface shape is obtained by the integration of the slopes. Comparing to interferometry, which has long served as an accurate non-contact optical metrology technology, SCOTS overcomes the limitation of dynamic range and sensitivity to environment. It is able to achieve high dynamic range slope measurement without requiring null optics. In this dissertation, the sensitivity and performance of the test system have been analyzed comprehensively. Sophisticated calibrations of system components have been investigated and implemented in different metrology projects to push this technology to a higher accuracy including low-order terms. A compact on-axis SCOTS system lowered the testing geometry sensitivity in the metrology of 1-meter highly aspheric secondary mirror of Large Binocular Telescope. Sub-nm accuracy was achieved in testing a high precision elliptical X-ray mirror by using reference calibration. A well-calibrated SCOTS was successfully constructed and is, at the time of writing this dissertation, being used to provide surface metrology feedback for the fabrication of the primary mirror of Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope which is a 4-meter off-axis parabola with more than 8 mm aspherical departure.

  5. Precision mechatronics based on high-precision measuring and positioning systems and machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Gerd; Manske, Eberhard; Hausotte, Tino; Mastylo, Rostyslav; Dorozhovets, Natalja; Hofmann, Norbert

    2007-06-01

    Precision mechatronics is defined in the paper as the science and engineering of a new generation of high precision systems and machines. Nanomeasuring and nanopositioning engineering represents important fields of precision mechatronics. The nanometrology is described as the today's limit of the precision engineering. The problem, how to design nanopositioning machines with uncertainties as small as possible will be discussed. The integration of several optical and tactile nanoprobes makes the 3D-nanopositioning machine suitable for various tasks, such as long range scanning probe microscopy, mask and wafer inspection, nanotribology, nanoindentation, free form surface measurement as well as measurement of microoptics, precision molds, microgears, ring gauges and small holes.

  6. High-Precision Computation: Mathematical Physics and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, D. H.; Barrio, R.; Borwein, J. M.

    2010-04-01

    At the present time, IEEE 64-bit oating-point arithmetic is suficiently accurate for most scientic applications. However, for a rapidly growing body of important scientic computing applications, a higher level of numeric precision is required. Such calculations are facilitated by high-precision software packages that include high-level language translation modules to minimize the conversion e ort. This pa- per presents a survey of recent applications of these techniques and provides someanalysis of their numerical requirements. These applications include supernova simulations, climate modeling, planetary orbit calculations, Coulomb n-body atomic systems, studies of the one structure constant, scattering amplitudes of quarks, glu- ons and bosons, nonlinear oscillator theory, experimental mathematics, evaluation of orthogonal polynomials, numerical integration of ODEs, computation of periodic orbits, studies of the splitting of separatrices, detection of strange nonchaotic at- tractors, Ising theory, quantum held theory, and discrete dynamical systems. We conclude that high-precision arithmetic facilities are now an indispensable compo- nent of a modern large-scale scientic computing environment.

  7. High precision photon flux determination for photon tagging experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Teymurazyan, A.; Ahmidouch, A.; Ambrozewicz, P.; Asratyan, A.; Baker, K.; Benton, L.; Burkert, V.; Clinton, E.; Cole, P.; Collins, P.; Dale, D.; Danagoulian, S.; Davidenko, G.; Demirchyan, R.; Deur, A.; Dolgolenko, A.; Dzyubenko, G.; Ent, R.; Evdokimov, A.; Feng, J.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gan, L.; Gasparian, A.; Glamazdin, A.; Goryachev, V.; Hardy, K.; He, J.; Ito, M.; Jiang, L.; Kashy, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kolarkar, A.; Konchatnyi, M.; Korchin, A.; Korsch, W.; Kosinov, O.; Kowalski, S.; Kubantsev, M.; Kubarovsky, V.; Larin, I.; Lawrence, D.; Li, X.; Martel, P.; Matveev, V.; McNulty, D.; Mecking, B.; Milbrath, B.; Minehart, R.; Miskimen, R.; Mochalov, V.; Nakagawa, I.; Overby, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Payen, M.; Pedroni, R.; Prok, Y.; Ritchie, B.; Salgado, C.; Shahinyan, A.; Sitnikov, A.; Sober, D.; Stepanyan, S.; Stevens, W.; Underwood, J.; Vasiliev, A.; Vishnyakov, V.; Wood, M.; Zhou, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Jefferson Laboratory PrimEx Collaboration has developed and implemented a method to control the tagged photon flux in photoproduction experiments at the 1% level over the photon energy range from 4.9 to 5.5 GeV. This method has been successfully implemented in a high precision measurement of the neutral pion lifetime. Here, we outline the experimental equipment and the analysis techniques used to accomplish this. These include the use of a total absorption counter for absolute flux calibration, a pair spectrometer for online relative flux monitoring, and a new method for post-bremsstrahlung electron counting.

  8. High precision attitude determination for Magsat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, G.; McCutcheon, R.; Summers, G.; Vanlandingham, F.; Meyers, G.

    1981-08-01

    A two phase approach to attitude determination software development is introduced. The prelaunch planning and software activities connected with the development and testing of the baseline system for processing nominal attitude data for MAGSAT are described and postlaunch analysis and modifications are outlined. Attitude data processing began 5 months after launch so that postlaunch anomalies could be accounted for. Another advantage of the two phase approach is that costs are reduced because the system is not burdened with software dealing with all possible contingencies. A definitive, continuous, time history of the three axis attitude of the spacecraft was generated to a precision of 20 arc sec (one standard deviation), in each axis. Sensor alignment determinations were done continuously because of the deletrious effects of changing alignments on attitude precision.

  9. High-precision positioning of radar scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dheenathayalan, Prabu; Small, David; Schubert, Adrian; Hanssen, Ramon F.

    2016-05-01

    Remote sensing radar satellites cover wide areas and provide spatially dense measurements, with millions of scatterers. Knowledge of the precise position of each radar scatterer is essential to identify the corresponding object and interpret the estimated deformation. The absolute position accuracy of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) scatterers in a 2D radar coordinate system, after compensating for atmosphere and tidal effects, is in the order of centimeters for TerraSAR-X (TSX) spotlight images. However, the absolute positioning in 3D and its quality description are not well known. Here, we exploit time-series interferometric SAR to enhance the positioning capability in three dimensions. The 3D positioning precision is parameterized by a variance-covariance matrix and visualized as an error ellipsoid centered at the estimated position. The intersection of the error ellipsoid with objects in the field is exploited to link radar scatterers to real-world objects. We demonstrate the estimation of scatterer position and its quality using 20 months of TSX stripmap acquisitions over Delft, the Netherlands. Using trihedral corner reflectors (CR) for validation, the accuracy of absolute positioning in 2D is about 7 cm. In 3D, an absolute accuracy of up to ˜ 66 cm is realized, with a cigar-shaped error ellipsoid having centimeter precision in azimuth and range dimensions, and elongated in cross-range dimension with a precision in the order of meters (the ratio of the ellipsoid axis lengths is 1/3/213, respectively). The CR absolute 3D position, along with the associated error ellipsoid, is found to be accurate and agree with the ground truth position at a 99 % confidence level. For other non-CR coherent scatterers, the error ellipsoid concept is validated using 3D building models. In both cases, the error ellipsoid not only serves as a quality descriptor, but can also help to associate radar scatterers to real-world objects.

  10. High-precision triangular-waveform generator

    DOEpatents

    Mueller, T.R.

    1981-11-14

    An ultra-linear ramp generator having separately programmable ascending and decending ramp rates and voltages is provided. Two constant current sources provide the ramp through an integrator. Switching of the current at current source inputs rather than at the integrator input eliminates switching transients and contributes to the waveform precision. The triangular waveforms produced by the waveform generator are characterized by accurate reproduction and low drift over periods of several hours. The ascending and descending slopes are independently selectable.

  11. Ultra-high precision white dwarf asteroseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giammichele, Noemi; Charpinet, Stéphane; Fontaine, Gilles; Brassard, Pierre; Zong, Weikai

    We present a brief progress report in our quest for deriving seismic models of pulsating white dwarfs that can account simultaneously for all the observed periods at the precision of the observations. We point out that this is possible from a pratical point of view only if parametrized models are used to complement evolutionary models. We adopt a double optimization procedure that insures that the best possible model in parameter space is found objectively and automatically. Our ultimate goal is to be able to account for the exquisite period data gathered with Kepler and Kepler-2 on key pulsating white dwarfs of both the DA (ZZ Ceti) and DB (V777 Her) type.

  12. Vertical high-precision Michelson wavemeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, A.; de Urquijo, J.; Mendoza, A.

    1993-01-01

    We have designed and tested a traveling, Michelson-type vertical wavemeter for the wavelength measurement of tunable continuous-wave lasers in the visible part of the spectrum. The interferometer has two movable corner cubes, suspending vertically from a driving setup resembling Atwood's machine. To reduce the fraction-of-fringe error, a vernier-type coincidence circuit was used. Although simple, this wavemeter has a relative precision of 3.2 parts in 109 for an overall fringe count of about 7×106.

  13. High precision applications of the global positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.

    1991-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a constellation of U.S. defense navigation satellites which can be used for military and civilian positioning applications. A wide variety of GPS scientific applications were identified and precise positioning capabilities with GPS were already demonstrated with data available from the present partial satellite constellation. Expected applications include: measurements of Earth crustal motion, particularly in seismically active regions; measurements of the Earth's rotation rate and pole orientation; high-precision Earth orbiter tracking; surveying; measurements of media propagation delays for calibration of deep space radiometric data in support of NASA planetary missions; determination of precise ground station coordinates; and precise time transfer worldwide.

  14. Precision Timing Calorimeter for High Energy Physics

    DOE PAGES

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; ...

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present studies on the performance and characterization of the time resolution of LYSO-based calorimeters. Results for an LYSO sampling calorimeter and an LYSO-tungsten Shashlik calorimeter are presented. We also demonstrate that a time resolution of 30 ps is achievable for the LYSO sampling calorimeter. Timing calorimetry is described as a tool for mitigating the effects due to the large number of simultaneous interactions in the high luminosity environment foreseen for the Large Hadron Collider.

  15. High-precision gauging of metal rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlin, Mats; Lillekjendlie, Bjorn

    1994-11-01

    Raufoss AS designs and produces air brake fittings for trucks and buses on the international market. One of the critical components in the fittings is a small, circular metal ring, which is going through 100% dimension control. This article describes a low-price, high accuracy solution developed at SINTEF Instrumentation based on image metrology and a subpixel resolution algorithm. The measurement system consists of a PC-plugg-in transputer video board, a CCD camera, telecentric optics and a machine vision strobe. We describe the measurement technique in some detail, as well as the robust statistical techniques found to be essential in the real life environment.

  16. High precision mass measurements for wine metabolomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Witting, Michael; Gougeon, Régis; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    An overview of the critical steps for the non-targeted Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-ToF-MS) analysis of wine chemistry is given, ranging from the study design, data preprocessing and statistical analyses, to markers identification. UPLC-Q-ToF-MS data was enhanced by the alignment of exact mass data from FTICR-MS, and marker peaks were identified using UPLC-Q-ToF-MS². In combination with multivariate statistical tools and the annotation of peaks with metabolites from relevant databases, this analytical process provides a fine description of the chemical complexity of wines, as exemplified in the case of red (Pinot noir) and white (Chardonnay) wines from various geographic origins in Burgundy.

  17. High precision mass measurements for wine metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Witting, Michael; Gougeon, Régis D.; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the critical steps for the non-targeted Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-ToF-MS) analysis of wine chemistry is given, ranging from the study design, data preprocessing and statistical analyses, to markers identification. UPLC-Q-ToF-MS data was enhanced by the alignment of exact mass data from FTICR-MS, and marker peaks were identified using UPLC-Q-ToF-MS2. In combination with multivariate statistical tools and the annotation of peaks with metabolites from relevant databases, this analytical process provides a fine description of the chemical complexity of wines, as exemplified in the case of red (Pinot noir) and white (Chardonnay) wines from various geographic origins in Burgundy. PMID:25431760

  18. Precision timing calorimeter for high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Duarte, Javier; Peña, Cristián; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si; Ronzhin, Anatoly

    2016-07-01

    Scintillator based calorimeter technology is studied with the aim to achieve particle detection with a time resolution on the order of a few 10 ps for photons and electrons at energies of a few GeV and above. We present results from a prototype of a 1.4×1.4×11.4 cm3 sampling calorimeter cell consisting of tungsten absorber plates and Cerium-doped Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO) crystal scintillator plates. The LYSO plates are read out with wave lengths shifting fibers which are optically coupled to fast photo detectors on both ends of the fibers. The measurements with electrons were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) and the CERN SPS H2 test beam. In addition to the baseline setup plastic scintillation counter and a MCP-PMT were used as trigger and as a reference for a time of flight measurement (TOF). We also present measurements with a fast laser to further characterize the response of the prototype and the photo sensors. All data were recorded using a DRS4 fast sampling digitizer. These measurements are part of an R&D program whose aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a large scale electromagnetic calorimeter with a time resolution on the order of 10 ps, to be used in high energy physics experiments.

  19. Galvanometer deflection: a precision high-speed system.

    PubMed

    Jablonowski, D P; Raamot, J

    1976-06-01

    An X-Y galvanometer deflection system capable of high precision in a random access mode of operation is described. Beam positional information in digitized form is obtained by employing a Ronchi grating with a sophisticated optical detection scheme. This information is used in a control interface to locate the beam to the required precision. The system is characterized by high accuracy at maximum speed and is designed for operation in a variable environment, with particular attention placed on thermal insensitivity.

  20. System and method for high precision isotope ratio destructive analysis

    DOEpatents

    Bushaw, Bruce A; Anheier, Norman C; Phillips, Jon R

    2013-07-02

    A system and process are disclosed that provide high accuracy and high precision destructive analysis measurements for isotope ratio determination of relative isotope abundance distributions in liquids, solids, and particulate samples. The invention utilizes a collinear probe beam to interrogate a laser ablated plume. This invention provides enhanced single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range, and isotope ratios that can be determined at approximately 1% or better precision and accuracy (relative standard deviation).

  1. Computer-Aided High Precision Verification Of Miniature Spring Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bow, Sing T.; Wang, Da-hao; Chen, Tsung-sheng; Newell, Darrell E.

    1990-01-01

    A system is proposed for the high precision on-line verification of the minia-ture spring structure, including overall height, diameters of various coils as well as pitches between neighboring coils of the miniature conical springs. High preci-sion measurements without physical contact and short processing time are achieved. Deformations of any kind on the conical springs can be identified even from the worst viewing direction.

  2. A detector interferometric calibration experiment for high precision astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzier, A.; Malbet, F.; Henault, F.; Léger, A.; Cara, C.; LeDuigou, J. M.; Preis, O.; Kern, P.; Delboulbe, A.; Martin, G.; Feautrier, P.; Stadler, E.; Lafrasse, S.; Rochat, S.; Ketchazo, C.; Donati, M.; Doumayrou, E.; Lagage, P. O.; Shao, M.; Goullioud, R.; Nemati, B.; Zhai, C.; Behar, E.; Potin, S.; Saint-Pe, M.; Dupont, J.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Exoplanet science has made staggering progress in the last two decades, due to the relentless exploration of new detection methods and refinement of existing ones. Yet astrometry offers a unique and untapped potential of discovery of habitable-zone low-mass planets around all the solar-like stars of the solar neighborhood. To fulfill this goal, astrometry must be paired with high precision calibration of the detector. Aims: We present a way to calibrate a detector for high accuracy astrometry. An experimental testbed combining an astrometric simulator and an interferometric calibration system is used to validate both the hardware needed for the calibration and the signal processing methods. The objective is an accuracy of 5 × 10-6 pixel on the location of a Nyquist sampled polychromatic point spread function. Methods: The interferometric calibration system produced modulated Young fringes on the detector. The Young fringes were parametrized as products of time and space dependent functions, based on various pixel parameters. The minimization of function parameters was done iteratively, until convergence was obtained, revealing the pixel information needed for the calibration of astrometric measurements. Results: The calibration system yielded the pixel positions to an accuracy estimated at 4 × 10-4 pixel. After including the pixel position information, an astrometric accuracy of 6 × 10-5 pixel was obtained, for a PSF motion over more than five pixels. In the static mode (small jitter motion of less than 1 × 10-3 pixel), a photon noise limited precision of 3 × 10-5 pixel was reached.

  3. Experimental studies of adaptive structures for precision performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, G.-S.; Lurie, B. J.; Wada, B. K.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study was made of the adaptive structure concept. Experimental data were obtained for a three-longeron, thirteen-bay truss-type test structure. This test structure can be softly suspended as well as rigidly clamped at the central bay. The load-carrying active member consists of a stack of concentric piezoelectric wafers, an eddy current displacement sensor, and a strain gage force sensor. A bridge (or compound) feedback technique developed in communication engineering is applied to the problem of active damping augmentation in adaptive structures. Using collocated force and velocity feedback around the active member, a desired output mechanical impedance can be implemented to maximize energy absorption by the active members. In addition, large gains can be implemented to linearize the active member's nonlinear behavior. Good agreements with linear finite element analysis was found for both static and dynamic structural responses. An 11 percent damping in the first bending mode was demonstrated in the closed-loop damping experiment.

  4. Experimental Tests of the Astrometric Precision Obtainable with a Ten Micron Interferometer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-18

    declination-dependent phase offset is caused by the failure of the axes of rotation of the heliostat mirrors to intersect precisely . The source...A-Ji>L __ _ _ _ _ _ 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE Of REPORT & PERIOD COVERED EXPERIMENTAL TESTS OF THE ASTROMETRIC PRECISION Final Contract...of tests successfully achieved its objective and demonstrated the usefulness of infrared spatial interferometry for very precise astrometric

  5. Experimental Dynamic Characterization of a Reconfigurable Adaptive Precision Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkle, J. D.; Peterson, L. D.

    1994-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of a reconfigurable adaptive truss structure with non-linear joints is investigated. The objective is to experimentally examine the effects of the local non-linearities on the global dynamics of the structure. Amplitude changes in the frequency response functions are measured at micron levels of motion. The amplitude and frequency variations of a number of modes indicate a non-linear Coulomb friction response. Hysteretic bifurcation behavior is also measured at an amplitude approximately equal to the specified free-play in the joint. Under the 1 g pre-load, however, the non-linearity was dominantly characteristic of Coulomb friction with little evidence of free-play stiffening.

  6. High-precision camera distortion measurements with a ``calibration harp''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhongwei; Grompone von Gioi, Rafael; Monasse, Pascal; Morel, Jean-Michel

    2012-10-01

    This paper addresses the high precision measurement of the distortion of a digital camera from photographs. Traditionally, this distortion is measured from photographs of a flat pattern which contains aligned elements. Nevertheless, it is nearly impossible to fabricate a very flat pattern and to validate its flatness. This fact limits the attainable measurable precisions. In contrast, it is much easier to obtain physically very precise straight lines by tightly stretching good quality strings on a frame. Taking literally "plumb-line methods", we built a "calibration harp" instead of the classic flat patterns to obtain a high precision measurement tool, demonstrably reaching 2/100 pixel precisions. The harp is complemented with the algorithms computing automatically from harp photographs two different and complementary lens distortion measurements. The precision of the method is evaluated on images corrected by state-of-the-art distortion correction algorithms, and by popular software. Three applications are shown: first an objective and reliable measurement of the result of any distortion correction. Second, the harp permits to control state-of-the art global camera calibration algorithms: It permits to select the right distortion model, thus avoiding internal compensation errors inherent to these methods. Third, the method replaces manual procedures in other distortion correction methods, makes them fully automatic, and increases their reliability and precision.

  7. Measurements of experimental precision for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, P E; Torres, F E; Santos, A D; Corrêa, A M; Nascimento, M; Barroso, L M A; Ceccon, G

    2016-05-09

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of statistics as experimental precision degree measures for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes. Cowpea genotype yields were evaluated in 29 trials conducted in Brazil between 2005 and 2012. The genotypes were evaluated with a randomized block design with four replications. Ten statistics that were estimated for each trial were compared using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, and path analysis. According to the class limits established, selective accuracy and F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination adequately estimated the degree of experimental precision. Using these statistics, 86.21% of the trials had adequate experimental precision. Selective accuracy and the F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination were directly related to each other, and were more suitable than the coefficient of variation and the least significant difference (by the Tukey test) to evaluate experimental precision in trials with cowpea genotypes.

  8. An experimental assembly for precise measurement of thermal accommodation coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trott, Wayne M.; Castañeda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John R.; Gallis, Michael A.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2011-03-01

    An experimental apparatus has been developed to determine thermal accommodation coefficients for a variety of gas-surface combinations. Results are obtained primarily through measurement of the pressure dependence of the conductive heat flux between parallel plates separated by a gas-filled gap. Measured heat-flux data are used in a formula based on Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations to determine the coefficients. The assembly also features a complementary capability for measuring the variation in gas density between the plates using electron-beam fluorescence. Surface materials examined include 304 stainless steel, gold, aluminum, platinum, silicon, silicon nitride, and polysilicon. Effects of gas composition, surface roughness, and surface contamination have been investigated with this system; the behavior of gas mixtures has also been explored. Without special cleaning procedures, thermal accommodation coefficients for most materials and surface finishes were determined to be near 0.95, 0.85, and 0.45 for argon, nitrogen, and helium, respectively. Surface cleaning by in situ argon-plasma treatment reduced coefficient values by up to 0.10 for helium and by ˜0.05 for nitrogen and argon. Results for both single-species and gas-mixture experiments compare favorably to DSMC simulations.

  9. High Resolution and High Precision-Spectroscopy with HARPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, F.; Lovis, C.

    Extra-solar planet search at a level of precision below 1 ms-1 sets strong requirements to the quality and stability of the wavelength solution. It also forces us to understand the effects of instrumental stability, on the one hand, and the quality of the wavelength reference, on the other hand, since both will have an impact, although in a different way, on the short- and long-term precision of the instrument. This chapter presents the calibration principles of HARPS, which lead to its extra-ordinary wavelength solution and, as a direct consequence, to its unique radial-velocity precision. In particular it will focus on the improvements of the thorium-lamp calibrations we made during the past three years, but it willl also discuss the present limitations. Finally, we give an outlook on further possible improvements which can be made in view of the extreme precision required by instruments like CODEX@ELT.

  10. A Comparison of three high-precision quadrature schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Li, Xiaoye S.

    2003-07-01

    The authors have implemented three numerical quadrature schemes, using the new Arbitrary Precision (ARPREC) software package, with the objective of seeking a completely ''automatic'' arbitrary precision quadrature facility, namely one that does not rely on a priori information of the function to be integrated. Such a facility is required, for example, to permit the experimental identification of definite integrals based on their numerical values. The performance and accuracy of these three quadrature schemes are compared using a suite of 15 integrals, ranging from continuous, well-behaved functions on finite intervals to functions with vertical derivatives and integrable singularities at endpoints, as well as several integrals on an infinite interval.

  11. An experimental search strategy retrieves more precise results than PubMed and Google for questions about medical interventions

    PubMed Central

    Dylla, Daniel P.; Megison, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We compared the precision of a search strategy designed specifically to retrieve randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of RCTs with search strategies designed for broader purposes. Methods. We designed an experimental search strategy that automatically revised searches up to five times by using increasingly restrictive queries as long at least 50 citations were retrieved. We compared the ability of the experimental and alternative strategies to retrieve studies relevant to 312 test questions. The primary outcome, search precision, was defined for each strategy as the proportion of relevant, high quality citations among the first 50 citations retrieved. Results. The experimental strategy had the highest median precision (5.5%; interquartile range [IQR]: 0%–12%) followed by the narrow strategy of the PubMed Clinical Queries (4.0%; IQR: 0%–10%). The experimental strategy found the most high quality citations (median 2; IQR: 0–6) and was the strategy most likely to find at least one high quality citation (73% of searches; 95% confidence interval 68%–78%). All comparisons were statistically significant. Conclusions. The experimental strategy performed the best in all outcomes although all strategies had low precision. PMID:25922798

  12. An experimental search strategy retrieves more precise results than PubMed and Google for questions about medical interventions.

    PubMed

    Badgett, Robert G; Dylla, Daniel P; Megison, Susan D; Harmon, E Glynn

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We compared the precision of a search strategy designed specifically to retrieve randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of RCTs with search strategies designed for broader purposes. Methods. We designed an experimental search strategy that automatically revised searches up to five times by using increasingly restrictive queries as long at least 50 citations were retrieved. We compared the ability of the experimental and alternative strategies to retrieve studies relevant to 312 test questions. The primary outcome, search precision, was defined for each strategy as the proportion of relevant, high quality citations among the first 50 citations retrieved. Results. The experimental strategy had the highest median precision (5.5%; interquartile range [IQR]: 0%-12%) followed by the narrow strategy of the PubMed Clinical Queries (4.0%; IQR: 0%-10%). The experimental strategy found the most high quality citations (median 2; IQR: 0-6) and was the strategy most likely to find at least one high quality citation (73% of searches; 95% confidence interval 68%-78%). All comparisons were statistically significant. Conclusions. The experimental strategy performed the best in all outcomes although all strategies had low precision.

  13. High precision spectroscopy and imaging in THz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaks, Vladimir L.

    2014-03-01

    Application of microwave methods for development of the THz frequency range has resulted in elaboration of high precision THz spectrometers based on nonstationary effects. The spectrometers characteristics (spectral resolution and sensitivity) meet the requirements for high precision analysis. The gas analyzers, based on the high precision spectrometers, have been successfully applied for analytical investigations of gas impurities in high pure substances. These investigations can be carried out both in absorption cell and in reactor. The devices can be used for ecological monitoring, detecting the components of chemical weapons and explosive in the atmosphere. The great field of THz investigations is the medicine application. Using the THz spectrometers developed one can detect markers for some diseases in exhaled air.

  14. High-precision thermal and electrical characterization of thermoelectric modules

    SciTech Connect

    Kolodner, Paul

    2014-05-15

    This paper describes an apparatus for performing high-precision electrical and thermal characterization of thermoelectric modules (TEMs). The apparatus is calibrated for operation between 20 °C and 80 °C and is normally used for measurements of heat currents in the range 0–10 W. Precision thermometry based on miniature thermistor probes enables an absolute temperature accuracy of better than 0.010 °C. The use of vacuum isolation, thermal guarding, and radiation shielding, augmented by a careful accounting of stray heat leaks and uncertainties, allows the heat current through the TEM under test to be determined with a precision of a few mW. The fractional precision of all measured parameters is approximately 0.1%.

  15. High precision predictions for exclusive VH production at the LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Ye; Liu, Xiaohui

    2014-06-04

    We present a resummation-improved prediction for pp → VH + 0 jets at the Large Hadron Collider. We focus on highly-boosted final states in the presence of jet veto to suppress the tt¯ background. In this case, conventional fixed-order calculations are plagued by the existence of large Sudakov logarithms αnslogm(pvetoT/Q) for Q ~ mV + mH which lead to unreliable predictions as well as large theoretical uncertainties, and thus limit the accuracy when comparing experimental measurements to the Standard Model. In this work, we show that the resummation of Sudakov logarithms beyond the next-to-next-to-leading-log accuracy, combined with the next-to-next-to-leading ordermore » calculation, reduces the scale uncertainty and stabilizes the perturbative expansion in the region where the vector bosons carry large transverse momentum. Thus, our result improves the precision with which Higgs properties can be determined from LHC measurements using boosted Higgs techniques.« less

  16. Experimental setup for precise investigation of raindrop impacted thin water flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fister, Wolfgang; Kinnell, Peter I. A.; Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2015-04-01

    Experimental setups with rainfall simulators over soil flumes are a widely-used method to study laboratory-based erosion processes. Small scale processes, such as splash, sheet, and interrill erosion mechanisms, can be studied with a very high degree of precision and accuracy. However, a major problem when performing investigations on raindrop impacted thin water flows is that accurate measurements of key erosion variables are difficult to obtain. In many investigations, important values are, therefore, not directly measured, but inferred from easier to determine parameters. For example rainfall intensity, plot dimension, and flow discharge are recorded during an experiment to rather crudely estimate velocity and depth of flow. Since water depth and flow velocity vary spatially and temporally during experiments with non-controlled flow conditions, this lack of measurement accuracy clearly reduces the explanatory power of the experimental data. Another example for this imprecision is the use of pressure nozzles for this kind of high accuracy experiments. The main problem associated with spray-type nozzles is that they produce a wide spectrum of drop sizes. In order to characterise simulated rainfall from nozzles, certain parameters, such as mean volumetric drop diameter (d50), are generally used. Knowing that different drop sizes have different effects on particle detachment when impacting on thin water layers of certain depth, it is apparent that this parameter of average drop size is not suitable for the detection of precise relations of, for instance, drop size, flow depth, and particle detachment. Although simulated rainfall from nozzles has a more natural drop size distribution, this use of roughly calculated metadata, instead of accurately measured parameters, is one of the main reasons why it is still not possible to deduce exact physical formulas to precisely model soil erosion mechanisms. In order to be able to control and manipulate the key factors of the

  17. Design and control of a high precision drive mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Bo; He, Yongqiang; Wang, Haowei; Zhang, Shuyang; Zhang, Donghua; Wei, Xiaorong; Jiang, Zhihong

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of a high precision drive mechanism (HPDM) for space application, such as the directional antenna, the laser communication device, the mobile camera and other pointing mechanisms. In view of the great practical significance of high precision drive system, control technology for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) servo system is also studied and a PMSM servo controller is designed in this paper. And the software alignment was applied to the controller to eliminate the steady error of the optical encoder, which helps to realize the 1 arcsec (1σ) control precision. To assess its capabilities, the qualification environment testing including the thermal vacuum cycling testing, and the sinusoidal and random vibration were carried out. The testing results show that the performance of the HPDM is almost the same between the former and the end of each testing.

  18. Precision glass molding: an integrative approach for the production of high precision micro-optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hünten, Martin; Klocke, Fritz; Dambon, Olaf

    2010-02-01

    Miniaturization and integration are the dominating factors for the success of numerous optical devices. Conventional manufacturing processes for the fabrication of precise glass optics by means of grinding and polishing cannot cope the increasing demands in terms of precision, volume and costs. Here, precision glass molding is the enabling technology to meet these demands of the future optical products and applications. Since the market requests further miniaturization and integration of the micro optical components the possession of the entire sequence of processes is absolutely essential. With the accomplished and ongoing developments at the Fraunhofer IPT, the replication of double-sided (a)spherical and (a)cylindrical glass lenses with form accuracies of < 150 nm as well as lens arrays and even freeform optics could be realized. Therefore, a sequence of processes needs to be passed. The FEM-simulation of the molding process which was driven to a point capable to simulate even the molding of freeform optics is the first process step. Further on, new mold design concepts were generated to enable the replication of free formed optics. The research works focusing on the mold manufacturing led to sophisticated grinding process strategies able to realized complex mold geometries such as lens arrays. With regard to the coating of the molds, proceedings were developed assuring a defect free and uniform coating which enables the longevity of the molds and therewith helps reducing the final costs per lens. Thus, the precision glass molding becomes more and more interesting even for highly complex mid volume lots, characteristic for European or US optics manufacturer.

  19. High precision radial velocities: the case for NIR.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carleo, I.; Gratton, R.

    In the context of the preparation for the high resolution spectrograph HIRES for E-ELT, we are studying the possibility to derive high-precision radial velocities (RV) on a prototype:GIANO, the near-infrared (NIR) echelle spectrograph now available at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Radial velocities measured from near-infrared spectra are a potential tool to search for extrasolar planets around cool stars. High resolution infrared spectrographs now available are reaching the high precision of visible instruments, with a constant improvement over time. In particular, no other IR instruments have GIANO's capability to cover the entire NIR wavelength range. We have developed an ensemble of IDL procedures to measure high precision radial velocities on GIANO spectra. Taking into account the achieved precisions with GIANO, we constrain the sample of targets for which GIANO is better than HARPS-N, but with the advent of GIARPS (GIANO+HARPS-N), GIANO will improve its performances and include a much larger sample of stars. The NIR range is the future of RV measurements, especially because the jitter due to the star surface activities is reduced in the NIR. As a consequence, HIRES working in NIR range might be very useful, and for a wide range of cases, it will be more efficient than HIRES working in the visible range, for detection and characterization of planets using radial velocity technique.

  20. Yale High Energy Physics Research: Precision Studies of Reactor Antineutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Heeger, Karsten M.

    2014-09-13

    This report presents experimental research at the intensity frontier of particle physics with particular focus on the study of reactor antineutrinos and the precision measurement of neutrino oscillations. The experimental neutrino physics group of Professor Heeger and Senior Scientist Band at Yale University has had leading responsibilities in the construction and operation of the Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Experiment and made critical contributions to the discovery of non-zero$\\theta_{13}$. Heeger and Band led the Daya Bay detector management team and are now overseeing the operations of the antineutrino detectors. Postdoctoral researchers and students in this group have made leading contributions to the Daya Bay analysis including the prediction of the reactor antineutrino flux and spectrum, the analysis of the oscillation signal, and the precision determination of the target mass yielding unprecedented precision in the relative detector uncertainty. Heeger's group is now leading an R\\&D effort towards a short-baseline oscillation experiment, called PROSPECT, at a US research reactor and the development of antineutrino detectors with advanced background discrimination.

  1. VIEW OF MICROMACHINING, HIGH PRECISION EQUIPMENT USED TO CUSTOM MAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MICRO-MACHINING, HIGH PRECISION EQUIPMENT USED TO CUSTOM MAKE SMALL PARTS. LUMPS OF CLAY; SHOWN IN THE PHOTOGRAPH, WERE USED TO STABILIZE PARTS BEING MACHINED. (11/1/87) - Rocky Flats Plant, Stainless Steel & Non-Nuclear Components Manufacturing, Southeast corner of intersection of Cottonwood & Third Avenues, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  2. Electric Quadrupole Transition Measurements of Hydrogen Molecule with High Precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Cun-Feng; Wang, Jin; Tan, Yan; Liu, An-Wen; Hu, Shui-Ming

    2013-06-01

    Molecular hydrogen is the most fundamental, and the only neutral molecule expected to be both calculated and measured with extremely high accuracy. High-precision measurements of its spectroscopy, especially the levels at the electric ground state, play an important role in the examination of precise quantum chemistry calculations and some fundamental physical constants. In the infrared region, H_2, being a homonuclear diatomic molecule, only has very weak electric quadrupole transitions. We established a new spectroscopy approach with ultra-high precision and sensitivity as well, based on a laser-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer. An equivalent absorption path-length of thousands of kilometers and a frequency precision of 10^{-5} cm^{-1} have been achieved. Ro-vibrational spectra of the second overtone of H_2 have been recorded. The obtained results will provide a direct examination of the high-accuracy quantum theory. It also shades light on the determination of fundamental physical constants such as the electron/proton mass ratio in a molecular system.

  3. GENERATION AND CONTROL OF HIGH PRECISION BEAMS AT LEPTON ACCELERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Yu-Chiu Chao

    2007-06-25

    Parity violation experiments require precision manipulation of helicity-correlated beam coordinates on target at the nm/nrad-level. Achieving this unprecedented level of control requires a detailed understanding of the particle optics and careful tuning of the beam transport to keep anomalies from compromising the design adiabatic damping. Such efforts are often hindered by machine configuration and instrumentation limitations at the low energy end. A technique has been developed at CEBAF including high precision measurements, Mathematica-based analysis for obtaining corrective solutions, and control hardware/software developments for realizing such level of control at energies up to 5 GeV.

  4. Fabrication and metrology of high-precision freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supranowitz, Chris; Dumas, Paul; Nitzsche, Tobias; DeGroote Nelson, Jessica; Light, Brandon B.; Medicus, Kate; Smith, Nathan

    2013-09-01

    Freeform applications are growing and include helmet-mounted displays, conformal optics (e.g. windows integrated into airplane wings), and those requiring the extreme precision of EUV. These non-rotationally symmetric surfaces pose challenges to optical fabrication, mostly in the areas of polishing and metrology. The varying curvature of freeform surfaces drives the need for smaller, more "conformal", tools for polishing and reference beams for interferometry. In this paper, we present fabrication results of a high-precision freeform surface. We will discuss the total manufacturing process, including generation, pre-polishing, MRF®, and metrology, highlighting the capabilities available in today's optical fabrication companies.

  5. High Precision Differential Photometry with CCDs: A Brief History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Steve B.

    I present a brief history of the hunt for high photometric precision using CCDs in astronomy. CCDs were invented in 1969 and only 7 years later they started to appear at the major observatories of the time. The next 10 years constituted a steep learning curve for astronomers as they developed an understanding of CCDs as instruments and analysis techniques for use with digital images. In 1985, differential photometry with CCDs began producing light curves with precisions near 0.01 magnitude. By 2008, ground-based telescopes armed with CCDs and using differential techniques consistently can provide photometric precisions of 1 millimagnitude or better. The challenge now is to continue to improve the photometry using new types of CCD detectors and other advanced digital imagers.

  6. The advancement of the high precision stress polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaoqiang; Lei, Baiping; Han, Yu

    2016-10-01

    The stress polishing is a kind of large-diameter aspheric machining technology with high efficiency. This paper focuses on the principle, application in the processing of large aspheric mirror, and the domestic and foreign research status of stress polishing, aimed at the problem of insufficient precision of mirror surface deformation calculated by some traditional theories and the problem that the output precision and stability of the support device in stress polishing cannot meet the requirements. The improvement methods from these three aspects are put forward, the characterization method of mirror's elastic deformation in stress polishing, the deformation theory of influence function and the calculation of correction force, the design of actuator's mechanical structure. These improve the precision of stress polishing and provide theoretical basis for the further application of stress polishing in large-diameter aspheric machining.

  7. High precision u/th dating of first Polynesian settlement.

    PubMed

    Burley, David; Weisler, Marshall I; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies document Nukuleka in the Kingdom of Tonga as a founder colony for first settlement of Polynesia by Lapita peoples. A limited number of radiocarbon dates are one line of evidence supporting this claim, but they cannot precisely establish when this event occurred, nor can they afford a detailed chronology for sequent occupation. High precision U/Th dates of Acropora coral files (abraders) from Nukuleka give unprecedented resolution, identifying the founder event by 2838±8 BP and documenting site development over the ensuing 250 years. The potential for dating error due to post depositional diagenetic alteration of ancient corals at Nukuleka also is addressed through sample preparation protocols and paired dates on spatially separated samples for individual specimens. Acropora coral files are widely distributed in Lapita sites across Oceania. U/Th dating of these artifacts provides unparalleled opportunities for greater precision and insight into the speed and timing of this final chapter in human settlement of the globe.

  8. High Precision Digital Frequency Signal Source Based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanbin, SHI; Jian, GUO; Ning, CUI

    The realization method of DDS technology is introduced, and its superior technical characteristics are analyzed in this paper. According to its characteristics, the high accuracy digital frequency signal source based on FPGA is designed. The simulation result indicated, compares with the traditional signal source, this type of signal source realized by the method of FPGA+DDS have many merits such as high precision and fast switch speed, which can satisfies the developing tendency of test facility.

  9. High Precision Photometry for the K2 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu; Soares-Furtado, Melinda; Penev, Kaloyan; Hartman, Joel; Bakos, Gaspar; Bhatti, Waqas; Domsa, Istvan; de Val-Borro, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    The two reaction wheel K2 mission brings new challenges for the data reduction processes. We developed a reduction pipeline for extracting high precision photometry from the K2 dataset and we use this pipeline to generate light curves for the K2 Campaign 0 super-stamps and K2 Campaign 1 target pixel dataset. Key to our reduction technique is the derivation of global astrometric solutions from the target stamps from which accurate centroids are passed on for high precision photometry extraction. We also implemented the image subtraction method to reduce the K2 Campaign 0 super-stamps containing open clusters M35 and NGC2158. We extract target light curvesfor sources from a combined UCAC4 and EPIC catalogue -- this includes not only primary targets of the K2 Mission, but also other stars that happen to fall on the pixel stamps. Our astrometric solutions achieve a median residual of ~0.127". For bright stars, our best 6.5 hour precision for raw light curves is ~20 parts per million (ppm). For our detrended light curves, the best 6.5 hour precision achieved is ~15 ppm. We show that our detrended light curves have fewer systematic effects (or trends, or red-noise) than light curves produced by other groups from the same observations. We highlight the measurements of rotation curves using the K2 light curves of stars within open cluster M35 and NGC2158.

  10. Preparation of cold molecules for high-precision measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, T. E.

    2016-12-01

    Molecules can be used to test fundamental physics. Such tests often require cold molecules for detailed spectroscopic analysis. Cooling internal degrees of freedom provides a high level of state-selectivity, with large populations in the molecular states of interest. Cold translational motion allows slow, bright beams to be created, allowing long interaction times. In this tutorial article we describe the common techniques for producing cold molecules for high-precision spectroscopy experiments. For each technique we give examples of its application in experiments that use molecular structure to probe fundamental physics, choosing one experiment in particular as a case study. We then discuss a number of new techniques, some currently under development, others proposed, that promise high flux sources of cold molecules applicable to precise spectroscopic tests of fundamental physics.

  11. Design of high-precision ranging system for laser fuze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shanshan; Zhang, He; Xu, Xiaobin

    2016-10-01

    According to the problem of the high-precision ranging in the circumferential scanning probe laser proximity fuze, a new type of pulsed laser ranging system has been designed. The laser transmitting module, laser receiving module and ranging processing module have been designed respectively. The factors affecting the ranging accuracy are discussed. And the method of improving the ranging accuracy is studied. The high-precision ranging system adopts the general high performance microprocessor C8051FXXX as the core. And the time interval measurement chip TDC-GP21 was used to implement the system. A PCB circuit board was processed to carry on the experiment. The results of the experiment prove that a centimeter level accuracy ranging system has been achieved. The works can offer reference for ranging system design of the circumferential scanning probe laser proximity fuze.

  12. High Precision Measurement of the ^19Ne Lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broussard, Leah; Back, H. O.; Boswell, M. S.; Crowell, A. S.; Howell, C. R.; Kidd, M. F.; Pattie, R. W., Jr.; Young, A. R.; Dendooven, P. G.; Giri, G. S.; van der Hoek, D. J.; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W. L.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Santra, B.; Shidling, P. D.; Sohani, M.; Versolota, O. O.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2009-10-01

    Recently, a rigorous review of the T=12 mirror transitions has identified several systems which can contribute to high precision tests exploring deviations from the Standard Model's description of the electroweak interaction. Arguably, one of the best candidates is the &+circ; decay of ^19Ne to ^19F. In this system, the main contribution to the uncertainty of extracted Standard Model parameters is due to the measured value of the lifetime of the decay. In March 2009, a high precision measurement of the lifetime of ^19Ne was made by a collaboration between the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) and the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI) at the Trapped Radioactive Isotopes: Microlaboratories for Fundamental Physics (Triμp) facility. An overview of the experiment and preliminary results will be presented.

  13. Flight Test Performance of a High Precision Navigation Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierrottet, Diego; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Petway, Larry; Barnes, Bruce; Lockard, George

    2009-01-01

    A navigation Doppler Lidar (DL) was developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) for high precision velocity measurements from a lunar or planetary landing vehicle in support of the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project. A unique feature of this DL is that it has the capability to provide a precision velocity vector which can be easily separated into horizontal and vertical velocity components and high accuracy line of sight (LOS) range measurements. This dual mode of operation can provide useful information, such as vehicle orientation relative to the direction of travel, and vehicle attitude relative to the sensor footprint on the ground. System performance was evaluated in a series of helicopter flight tests over the California desert. This paper provides a description of the DL system and presents results obtained from these flight tests.

  14. High-precision buffer circuit for suppression of regenerative oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Hare, David A.; Tcheng, Ping

    1995-01-01

    Precision analog signal conditioning electronics have been developed for wind tunnel model attitude inertial sensors. This application requires low-noise, stable, microvolt-level DC performance and a high-precision buffered output. Capacitive loading of the operational amplifier output stages due to the wind tunnel analog signal distribution facilities caused regenerative oscillation and consequent rectification bias errors. Oscillation suppression techniques commonly used in audio applications were inadequate to maintain the performance requirements for the measurement of attitude for wind tunnel models. Feedback control theory is applied to develop a suppression technique based on a known compensation (snubber) circuit, which provides superior oscillation suppression with high output isolation and preserves the low-noise low-offset performance of the signal conditioning electronics. A practical design technique is developed to select the parameters for the compensation circuit to suppress regenerative oscillation occurring when typical shielded cable loads are driven.

  15. A high-precision polarimeter for small telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Jeremy; Cotton, Daniel V.; Kedziora-Chudczer, Lucyna

    2017-02-01

    We describe Mini-HIPPI (Miniature HIgh Precision Polarimetric Instrument), a stellar polarimeter weighing just 650 gm but capable of measuring linear polarization to ∼10-5. Mini-HIPPI is based on the use of a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal modulator. It can easily be mounted on a small telescope and allows us to study the polarization of bright stars at levels of precision which are hitherto largely unexplored. We present results obtained with Mini-HIPPI on a 35-cm telescope. Measurements of polarized standard stars are in good agreement with predicted values. Measurements of a number of bright stars agree well with those from other high-sensitivity polarimeters. Observations of the binary system Spica show polarization variability around the orbital cycle.

  16. High-precision Velocimetry Reveals δ Cephei's Secret Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Richard I.; Sahlmann, Johannes; Holl, Berry; Eyer, Laurent

    2015-08-01

    The search for extra-solar planets has driven tremendous improvements in the precision of radial velocities measured with high-resolution echelle spectrographs. However, relatively few studies have as of yet exploited the present-day extreme (m/s) instrumental precision to study Cepheid variable stars.We have been observing the prototype of classical Cepheids, δ Cephei, since September 2011 using the HERMES spectrograph mounted to the Mercator telescope located at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma. Being one of the most-studied variable stars, we originally chose δ Cephei as a maximum-precision reference for other Cepheids in our sample. To our great surprise however, we discovered a clear orbital signature in the homogeneous HERMES data. Adding in radial velocity data from the literature, we then determined δ Cephei's orbit (cf. Anderson et al. 2015, arXiv:1503.04116). The high orbital eccentricity (e=0.647) leads to close pericenter passages (rmin ~ 9.5 RδCep) which suggest an intriguing past that requires further study, since Cepheids are well-known magnifying glasses for stellar evolution (Kippenhahn & Weigert 1994). We furthermore determined a new parallax to δ Cephei (using Hipparcos data) that is in tension with previous estimates and shows that the orbit will have to be accounted for when measuring δ Cephei's parallax with Gaia.While some of our HERMES data are as precise as 9 m/s, we found correlated excess residuals when removing the reference pulsation model and orbital motion from the HERMES radial velocity data, leaving an RMS of 47 m/s. These higher-than-expected residuals are reminiscent of the "period-jitter" or "flickering" observed in high-precision photometry of Cepheids obtained with the Kepler and MOST satellites. This reveals a fortuitous synergy between variable stars studies and the field of exoplanet research and opens the window for a better understanding of Cepheid pulsations via high-precision

  17. High-Precision Direct Method for the Radiative Transfer Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Hou, Su-Qing; Yang, Ping; Wu, Kai-Su

    2013-06-01

    It is the main aim of this paper to investigate the numerical methods of the radiative transfer equation. Using the five-point formula to approximate the differential part and the Simpson formula to substitute for integral part respectively, a new high-precision numerical scheme, which has 4-order local truncation error, is obtained. Subsequently, a numerical example for radiative transfer equation is carried out, and the calculation results show that the new numerical scheme is more accurate.

  18. Dipole model analysis of high precision HERA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luszczak, A.; Kowalski, H.

    2014-04-01

    We analyze, within a dipole model, the inclusive deep inelastic scattering cross section data, obtained from the combination of the measurements of the H1 and ZEUS experiments performed at the HERA collider. We show that these high precision data are very well described within the dipole model framework, which is complemented with valence quark structure functions. We discuss the properties of the gluon density obtained in this way.

  19. Experimental and numerical analysis of thermal forming processes for precision optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Lijuan

    Glass has been fabricated into different optical elements including aspherical lenses and freeform mirrors. However, aspherical lenses are very difficult to manufacture using traditional methods since they were specially developed for spherical lenses. On the other hand, large size mirrors are also difficult to make especially for high precision applications or if designed with complicated shapes. Recently developed two closely related thermal forming processes, i.e. compression molding and thermal slumping, have emerged as two promising methods for manufacturing aspherical lenses and freeform mirrors efficiently. Compression molding has already been used in industry to fabricate consumer products such as the lenses for digital cameras, while thermal slumping has been aggressively tested to create x-ray mirrors for space-based telescopes as well as solar panels. Although both process showed great potentials, there are a quite few technical challenges that prevent them from being readily implemented in industry for high volume production. This dissertation research seeks a fundamental understanding of the thermal forming processes for both precision glass lenses and freeform mirrors by using a combined experimental, analytical and numerical modeling approach. First, a finite element method (FEM) based methodology was presented to predict the refractive index change of glass material occurred during cooling. The FEM prediction was then validated using experimental results. Second, experiments were also conducted on glass samples with different cooling rates to study the refractive index variation caused by non-uniform cooling. A Shack-Hartmann Sensor (SHS) test setup was built to measure the index variations of thermally treated glass samples. Again, an FEM simulation model was developed to predict the refractive index variation. The prediction was compared with the experimental result, and the effects of different parameters were evaluated. In the last phase of this

  20. OPTIMIZING THE PRECISION OF TOXICITY THRESHOLD ESTIMATION USING A TWO-STAGE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    An important consideration for risk assessment is the existence of a threshold, i.e., the highest toxicant dose where the response is not distinguishable from background. We have developed methodology for finding an experimental design that optimizes the precision of threshold mo...

  1. Design and algorithm research of high precision airborne infrared touch screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Shuang-Jie; Fu, Yan; Chen, Zhao-Quan

    2016-10-01

    There are shortcomings of low precision, touch shaking, and sharp decrease of touch precision when emitting and receiving tubes are failure in the infrared touch screen. A high precision positioning algorithm based on extended axis is proposed to solve these problems. First, the unimpeded state of the beam between emitting and receiving tubes is recorded as 0, while the impeded state is recorded as 1. Then, the method of oblique scan is used, in which the light of one emitting tube is used for five receiving tubes. The impeded information of all emitting and receiving tubes is collected as matrix. Finally, according to the method of arithmetic average, the position of the touch object is calculated. The extended axis positioning algorithm is characteristic of high precision in case of failure of individual infrared tube and affects slightly the precision. The experimental result shows that the 90% display area of the touch error is less than 0.25D, where D is the distance between adjacent emitting tubes. The conclusion is gained that the algorithm based on extended axis has advantages of high precision, little impact when individual infrared tube is failure, and using easily.

  2. Dynamic evaluation system for interpolation errors in the encoder of high precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Qiu-hua; Wu, Yong-zhi; Zhao, Chang-hai; Liang, Li-hui; Sun, Ying; Jiang, Yong

    2009-05-01

    In order to measure dynamic interpolation errors of photoelectric encoder of high precision, the dynamic evaluation system of interpolation errors is introduced. Firstly, the fine Moiré signal of encoder which is collected with the high-speed data gathering card into the computer is treated to equiangular data with the method of linear interpolation. Then, the analysis of harmonic wave with the FFT is processed. Compared with the standard signal, the dynamic interpolation errors of the encoder are calculated. Experimental results show that the precision of the dynamic evaluation system of interpolation errors is +/-0.1 %( pitch). The evaluation system is simple, fast, high precision, and can be used in the working field of the encoder.

  3. High precision capacitive beam phase probe for KHIMA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Ji-Gwang; Yang, Tae-Keun; Forck, Peter

    2016-11-01

    In the medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line of KHIMA project, a high precision beam phase probe monitor is required for a precise tuning of RF phase and amplitude of Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator and IH-DTL linac. It is also used for measuring a kinetic energy of ion beam by time-of-flight (TOF) method using two phase probes. The capacitive beam phase probe has been developed. The electromagnetic design of the high precision phase probe was performed to satisfy the phase resolution of 1° (@200 MHz). It was confirmed by the test result using a wire test bench. The measured phase accuracy of the fabricated phase probe is 1.19 ps. The pre-amplifier electronics with the 0.125 ∼ 1.61 GHz broad-band was designed and fabricated for amplifying the signal strength. The results of RF frequency and beam energy measurement using a proton beam from the cyclotron in KIRAMS is presented.

  4. Automated high precision secondary pH measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastkowski, F.; Jakobsen, P. T.; Stefan, F.; Kristensen, H. B.; Jensen, H. D.; Kawiecki, R.; Wied, C. E.; Kauert, A.; Seidl, B.; Spitzer, P.; Eberhardt, R.; Adel, B.

    2013-04-01

    A new setup for high precision, automated secondary pH measurements together with a reference measurement procedure has been developed and tested in interlaboratory comparisons using buffers pH 4.005, pH 7.000, and pH 10.012 at 25 °C and 37 °C. Using primary buffers as standards, a standard uncertainty in pH better than 0.005 can be reached. The central measuring device is a one piece, thermostatted cell of PFA (perfluoroalkoxy) with a built-in Hamilton® Single Pore™ Glass electrode. Due to its flow-through principle this device allows pH measurements with low consumption of measurement solutions. The very hydrophobic and smooth PFA as construction material facilitates complete emptying of the cell. Furthermore, the tempering unit affords very precise temperature control and hence contributes to the low target uncertainty of the produced secondary buffer solutions. Use of a symmetric measurement sequence and the two point calibration was sufficient to reach high precision and accuracy.

  5. PHASES High-Precision Differential Astrometry of δ Equulei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Lane, Benjamin F.; Konacki, Maciej; Burke, Bernard F.; Colavita, M. M.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Shao, M.

    2005-12-01

    Delta Equulei is among the most well-studied nearby binary star systems. Results of its observation have been applied to a wide range of fundamental studies of binary systems and stellar astrophysics. It is widely used to calibrate and constrain theoretical models of the physics of stars. We report 27 high-precision differential astrometry measurements of δ Equ from the Palomar High-precision Astrometric Search for Exoplanet Systems (PHASES). The median size of the minor axes of the uncertainty ellipses for these measurements is 26 μas. These data are combined with previously published radial velocity data and other previously published differential astrometry measurements using other techniques to produce a combined model for the system orbit. The distance to the system is determined to within one twentieth of a parsec, and the component masses are determined at the level of a percent. The constraints on masses and distance are limited by the precisions of the radial velocity data; we outline plans to improve this deficiency and discuss the outlook for further study of this binary.

  6. Strategies for high-precision Global Positioning System orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Border, James S.

    1987-01-01

    Various strategies for the high-precision orbit determination of the GPS satellites are explored using data from the 1985 GPS field test. Several refinements to the orbit determination strategies were found to be crucial for achieving high levels of repeatability and accuracy. These include the fine tuning of the GPS solar radiation coefficients and the ground station zenith tropospheric delays. Multiday arcs of 3-6 days provided better orbits and baselines than the 8-hr arcs from single-day passes. Highest-quality orbits and baselines were obtained with combined carrier phase and pseudorange solutions.

  7. Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor for High Precision Astronomical Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ke-Xun; Allen, G.; Buchman, S.; Byer, R. L.; Conklin, J. W.; DeBra, D. B.; Gill, D.; Goh, A.; Higuchi, S.; Lu, P.; Robertson, N.; Swank, A.

    2006-12-01

    We review the progress in developing the Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor (modular GRS) [1], which was first proposed as a simplified core sensor for space gravitational wave detection missions. In a modular GRS, laser beam from the remote the sensor does not illuminate the proof mass directly. The internal measurement from housing to proof mass is separated from the external interferometry. A double side grating may further simplify the structure and may better preserve the measurement precision. We review the recent progress in developing modular GRS at Stanford. We have further studied optical sensing design that combines advantage of high precision interferometric measurement and robust optical shadow sensing scheme. We have made critical progress in optical measurement of the center of mass position of a spherical proof mass at a precision without costing the dynamic range while spinning. We have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating localized grating pattern onto the dielectric and gold materials. We have conducted an initial experiment of rf heterodyne of cavity reflection and thus lowered optical power than that in the direct detection. We have further studied UV LED that will be used for AC charge management experiment. The modular GRS will be an in-time, cost effective product for the advanced Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA) and the Big Bang Observatory (BBO). [1] K. Sun, G. Allen, S. Buchman, D. DeBra, and R. L. Byer, “Advanced Architecture for High Precision Space Laser Interferometers”, 5th International LISA Symposium, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 12-16 July 2004. Class. Quantum Grav. 22 (2005) S287-S296.

  8. High-precision photometry for K2 Campaign 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. X.; Penev, K.; Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. Á.; Bhatti, W.; Domsa, I.; de Val-Borro, M.

    2015-12-01

    The two reaction wheel K2 mission promises and has delivered new discoveries in the stellar and exoplanet fields. However, due to the loss of accurate pointing, it also brings new challenges for the data reduction processes. In this paper, we describe a new reduction pipeline for extracting high-precision photometry from the K2 data set, and present public light curves for the K2 Campaign 1 target pixel data set. Key to our reduction is the derivation of global astrometric solutions from the target stamps, from which accurate centroids are passed on for high-precision photometry extraction. We extract target light curves for sources from a combined UCAC4 and EPIC catalogue - this includes not only primary targets of the K2 campaign 1, but also any other stars that happen to fall on the pixel stamps. We provide the raw light curves, and the products of various detrending processes aimed at removing different types of systematics. Our astrometric solutions achieve a median residual of ˜0.127 arcsec. For bright stars, our best 6.5 h precision for raw light curves is ˜20 parts per million (ppm). For our detrended light curves, the best 6.5 h precision achieved is ˜15 ppm. We show that our detrended light curves have fewer systematic effects (or trends, or red-noise) than light curves produced by other groups from the same observations. Example light curves of transiting planets and a Cepheid variable candidate, are also presented. We make all light curves public, including the raw and detrended photometry, at http://k2.hatsurveys.org.

  9. Experimental Investigations of a Precision Sensor for an Automatic Weapons Stabilizer System

    PubMed Central

    Korobiichuk, Igor

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental investigations of a precision sensor for an automatic weapons stabilizer system. It also describes the experimental equipment used and the structure of the developed sensor. A weapons stabilizer is designed for automatic guidance of an armament unit in the horizontal and vertical planes when firing at ground and air targets that are quickly maneuvering, and at lower speeds when firing anti-tank missiles, as well as the bypass of construction elements by the armament unit, and the automatic tracking of moving targets when interacting with a fire control system. The results of experimental investigations have shown that the error of the precision sensor developed on the basis of a piezoelectric element is 6 × 10−10 m/s2 under quasi-static conditions, and ~10−5 m/s2 for mobile use. This paper defines metrological and calibration properties of the developed sensor. PMID:28029120

  10. Experimental Investigations of a Precision Sensor for an Automatic Weapons Stabilizer System.

    PubMed

    Korobiichuk, Igor

    2016-12-24

    This paper presents the results of experimental investigations of a precision sensor for an automatic weapons stabilizer system. It also describes the experimental equipment used and the structure of the developed sensor. A weapons stabilizer is designed for automatic guidance of an armament unit in the horizontal and vertical planes when firing at ground and air targets that are quickly maneuvering, and at lower speeds when firing anti-tank missiles, as well as the bypass of construction elements by the armament unit, and the automatic tracking of moving targets when interacting with a fire control system. The results of experimental investigations have shown that the error of the precision sensor developed on the basis of a piezoelectric element is 6 × 10(-10) m/s² under quasi-static conditions, and ~10(-5) m/s² for mobile use. This paper defines metrological and calibration properties of the developed sensor.

  11. Thermal design and flight validation for high precision camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Henghui; Sun, Lixia; Zhang, Chuanqiang; Geng, Liyin

    2015-10-01

    High precision camera, designed for advanced optical system, with a wide field of vision, high resolution and fast response, has a wild range of applications. As the main payload for spacecraft, the optical remote sensor is mounted exposed to the space, which means it should have a reliable optical performance in harsh space environment during lifetime. Because of the special optical characteristic, imaging path should be accurate, and less thermal deformation for the optical parts is required in the working process, so the high precision camera has a high level requirement for temperature. High resolution space camera is generally required to own the capability of adapting to space thermal environments. The flexible satellite's change of rolling attitude affects the temperature distribution of the camera and makes a difference to optical performance. The thermal control design of space camera is presented, and analysis the temperature data in orbit to prove the thermal design correct. It is proved that the rolling attitude has more influence on outer parts and less influence on inner parts, and active thermal control can weaken the influence of rolling attitude.

  12. High Precision U/Th Dating of First Polynesian Settlement

    PubMed Central

    Burley, David; Weisler, Marshall I.; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies document Nukuleka in the Kingdom of Tonga as a founder colony for first settlement of Polynesia by Lapita peoples. A limited number of radiocarbon dates are one line of evidence supporting this claim, but they cannot precisely establish when this event occurred, nor can they afford a detailed chronology for sequent occupation. High precision U/Th dates of Acropora coral files (abraders) from Nukuleka give unprecedented resolution, identifying the founder event by 2838±8 BP and documenting site development over the ensuing 250 years. The potential for dating error due to post depositional diagenetic alteration of ancient corals at Nukuleka also is addressed through sample preparation protocols and paired dates on spatially separated samples for individual specimens. Acropora coral files are widely distributed in Lapita sites across Oceania. U/Th dating of these artifacts provides unparalleled opportunities for greater precision and insight into the speed and timing of this final chapter in human settlement of the globe. PMID:23144962

  13. High-Precision Floating-Point Arithmetic in ScientificComputation

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.

    2004-12-31

    At the present time, IEEE 64-bit floating-point arithmetic is sufficiently accurate for most scientific applications. However, for a rapidly growing body of important scientific computing applications, a higher level of numeric precision is required: some of these applications require roughly twice this level; others require four times; while still others require hundreds or more digits to obtain numerically meaningful results. Such calculations have been facilitated by new high-precision software packages that include high-level language translation modules to minimize the conversion effort. These activities have yielded a number of interesting new scientific results in fields as diverse as quantum theory, climate modeling and experimental mathematics, a few of which are described in this article. Such developments suggest that in the future, the numeric precision used for a scientific computation may be as important to the program design as are the algorithms and data structures.

  14. High-precision ground-based photometry of exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mooij, Ernst J. W.; Jayawardhana, Ray

    2013-04-01

    High-precision photometry of transiting exoplanet systems has contributed significantly to our understanding of the properties of their atmospheres. The best targets are the bright exoplanet systems, for which the high number of photons allow very high signal-to-noise ratios. Most of the current instruments are not optimised for these high-precision measurements, either they have a large read-out overhead to reduce the readnoise and/or their field-of-view is limited, preventing simultaneous observations of both the target and a reference star. Recently we have proposed a new wide-field imager for the Observatoir de Mont-Megantic optimised for these bright systems (PI: Jayawardhana). The instruments has a dual beam design and a field-of-view of 17' by 17'. The cameras have a read-out time of 2 seconds, significantly reducing read-out overheads. Over the past years we have obtained significant experience with how to reach the high precision required for the characterisation of exoplanet atmospheres. Based on our experience we provide the following advice: Get the best calibrations possible. In the case of bad weather, characterise the instrument (e.g. non-linearity, dome flats, bias level), this is vital for better understanding of the science data. Observe the target for as long as possible, the out-of-transit baseline is as important as the transit/eclipse itself. A short baseline can lead to improperly corrected systematic and mis-estimation of the red-noise. Keep everything (e.g. position on detector, exposure time) as stable as possible. Take care that the defocus is not too strong. For a large defocus, the contribution of the total flux from the sky-background in the aperture could well exceed that of the target, resulting in very strict requirements on the precision at which the background is measured.

  15. Describing oscillations of high energy neutrinos in matter precisely.

    PubMed

    Akhmedov, E K H; Maltoni, M; Smirnov, A Y U

    2005-11-18

    We present a formalism for precise description of oscillation phenomena in matter at high energies or high densities, V > Delta m(2)/2E, where V is the matter-induced potential of neutrinos. The accuracy of the approximation is determined by the quantity, where is the mixing angle in matter and is a typical change of the potential over the oscillation length (). We derive simple and physically transparent formulas for the oscillation probabilities, which are valid for arbitrary matter density profiles. They can be applied to oscillations of high-energy accelerator, atmospheric, and cosmic neutrinos in the matter of the Earth, substantially simplifying numerical calculations and providing an insight into the physics of neutrino oscillations in matter. The effect of parametric enhancement of the oscillations of high-energy neutrinos is considered.

  16. Test results of high-precision large cryogenic lens holders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, C.; Reutlinger, A.; Boesz, A.; Leberle, T.; Mottaghibonab, A.; Eckert, P.; Dubowy, M.; Gebler, H.; Grupp, F.; Geis, N.; Bode, A.; Katterloher, R.; Bender, R.

    2012-09-01

    For the Euclid mission a Pre-Development phase is implemented to prove feasibility of individual components of the system [1]. The Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer (NISP) of EUCLID requires high precision large lens holders (?170 mm) at cryogenic temperatures (150K). The four lenses of the optical system are made of different materials: fused silica, CaF2, and LF5G15 that are mounted in a separate lens barrel design. Each lens has its separate mechanical interface to the lens barrel, the so called adaption ring. The performance of the lens holder design is verified by adapted test equipment and test facility including an optical metrology system. The characterization of the lens deformation and displacement (decenter, tilt) due to mechanical loads of the holder itself as well as thermally induced loads are driven by the required submicron precision range and the operational thermal condition. The surface deformation of the lens and its holder is verified by interferometric measurements, while tilt and position accuracy are measured by in-situ fibre based distance sensors. The selected distance measurement sensors have the capability to measure in a few mm range with submicron resolution in ultra high vacuum, in vibration environments and at liquid nitrogen temperatures and below. The calibration of the measurement system is of crucial importance: impacts such as temperature fluctuation, surface roughness, surface reflectivity, straylight effects, etc. on the measured distance are carefully calibrated. Inbuilt thermal expansion effects of the fibre sensors are characterized and proven with lens dummy with quasi zero CTE. The paper presents the test results and measured performance of the high precision large cryogenic lens holders attained by the metrology system. These results are presented on behalf of the EUCLID consortium.

  17. High-precision measurements of global stellar magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plachinda, S. I.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a brief history of the development of devices and techniques for high-precision measurements of stellar magnetic fields. Two main approaches for the processing of spectral-polarimetric observations are described: the method of least-squares deconvolution (LSD), which is used to find a mean-weighted average of the normalized polarization profile using a set of spectral lines, and a method in which each individual spectral line is used to determine the magnetic field, viz., the single line method (SL). The advantages and disadvantages of the LSD and SL methods are discussed.

  18. Precise measurement of magnetization characteristics in high pulsed field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahata, Y.; Borkowski, B.; Shimoji, H.; Yamada, K.; Todaka, T.; Enokizono, M.

    2012-04-01

    Permanent magnets, especially Nd-Fe-B magnets, are very important engineering elements that are widely used in many applications. The detailed design of electrical and electronic equipment using permanent magnets requires the precise measurement of magnetization characteristics. High pulsed magnetic fields can be used to measure the magnetization characteristics of permanent magnets in the easy and hard magnetization directions. Errors influencing the measurements stem from the relationship between the tested material, pick-up sensor configuration, and excitation coil. We present an analysis of the effect of the sensor construction on the accuracy of the measurements of the material's magnetic properties. We investigated the coaxial and series types sensor configurations.

  19. High-precision micro/nano-scale machining system

    DOEpatents

    Kapoor, Shiv G.; Bourne, Keith Allen; DeVor, Richard E.

    2014-08-19

    A high precision micro/nanoscale machining system. A multi-axis movement machine provides relative movement along multiple axes between a workpiece and a tool holder. A cutting tool is disposed on a flexible cantilever held by the tool holder, the tool holder being movable to provide at least two of the axes to set the angle and distance of the cutting tool relative to the workpiece. A feedback control system uses measurement of deflection of the cantilever during cutting to maintain a desired cantilever deflection and hence a desired load on the cutting tool.

  20. High-precision Photogrammetric Surface Figure Measurements under Cryogenic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lou; Yuan, Qian; Sheng-hong, Fan; Chang-ru, Liu; Hai-ren, Wang; Ying-xi, Zuo; Jin-quan, Cheng; Ji, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Limited by the working temperature of the test equipment, most of high-precision surface figure measurement techniques cannot be put into application under a cryogenic environment. This paper reports the first attempt to measure the surface figure of a high-precision terahertz reflector panel under low temperatures based on photogrammetry. The measurement employs a high-resolution industrial camera sitting on the automatic testing platform which enables photos been taken in an automatic fashion inside a climate chamber. A repeatable accuracy of 2.1 μm (rms) is achieved under the cryogenic environment. Furthermore, the surface figure measured by a three-coordinate measuring machine under the room temperature is used to calibrate the thickness differences of the targets. By this technique, the surface figure of an aluminum prototype panel of the 5 meter Dome A Terahertz Telescope (DATE5) is measured from room temperature down to -55°C to obtain the rule of variation of surface deformation of the panel under low temperatures.

  1. A High Precision Terahertz Wave Image Reconstruction Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qijia; Chang, Tianying; Geng, Guoshuai; Jia, Chengyan; Cui, Hong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    With the development of terahertz (THz) technology, the applications of this spectrum have become increasingly wide-ranging, in areas such as non-destructive testing, security applications and medical scanning, in which one of the most important methods is imaging. Unlike remote sensing applications, THz imaging features sources of array elements that are almost always supposed to be spherical wave radiators, including single antennae. As such, well-developed methodologies such as Range-Doppler Algorithm (RDA) are not directly applicable in such near-range situations. The Back Projection Algorithm (BPA) can provide products of high precision at the the cost of a high computational burden, while the Range Migration Algorithm (RMA) sacrifices the quality of images for efficiency. The Phase-shift Migration Algorithm (PMA) is a good alternative, the features of which combine both of the classical algorithms mentioned above. In this research, it is used for mechanical scanning, and is extended to array imaging for the first time. In addition, the performances of PMA are studied in detail in contrast to BPA and RMA. It is demonstrated in our simulations and experiments described herein that the algorithm can reconstruct images with high precision. PMID:27455269

  2. Experimental study on the precise orbit determination of the BeiDou navigation satellite system.

    PubMed

    He, Lina; Ge, Maorong; Wang, Jiexian; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2013-03-01

    The regional service of the Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system is now in operation with a constellation including five Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites (GEO), five Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. Besides the standard positioning service with positioning accuracy of about 10 m, both precise relative positioning and precise point positioning are already demonstrated. As is well known, precise orbit and clock determination is essential in enhancing precise positioning services. To improve the satellite orbits of the BeiDou regional system, we concentrate on the impact of the tracking geometry and the involvement of MEOs, and on the effect of integer ambiguity resolution as well. About seven weeks of data collected at the BeiDou Experimental Test Service (BETS) network is employed in this experimental study. Several tracking scenarios are defined, various processing schemata are designed and carried out; and then, the estimates are compared and analyzed in detail. The results show that GEO orbits, especially the along-track component, can be significantly improved by extending the tracking network in China along longitude direction, whereas IGSOs gain more improvement if the tracking network extends in latitude. The involvement of MEOs and ambiguity-fixing also make the orbits better.

  3. Experimental Study on the Precise Orbit Determination of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System

    PubMed Central

    He, Lina; Ge, Maorong; Wang, Jiexian; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2013-01-01

    The regional service of the Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system is now in operation with a constellation including five Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites (GEO), five Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. Besides the standard positioning service with positioning accuracy of about 10 m, both precise relative positioning and precise point positioning are already demonstrated. As is well known, precise orbit and clock determination is essential in enhancing precise positioning services. To improve the satellite orbits of the BeiDou regional system, we concentrate on the impact of the tracking geometry and the involvement of MEOs, and on the effect of integer ambiguity resolution as well. About seven weeks of data collected at the BeiDou Experimental Test Service (BETS) network is employed in this experimental study. Several tracking scenarios are defined, various processing schemata are designed and carried out; and then, the estimates are compared and analyzed in detail. The results show that GEO orbits, especially the along-track component, can be significantly improved by extending the tracking network in China along longitude direction, whereas IGSOs gain more improvement if the tracking network extends in latitude. The involvement of MEOs and ambiguity-fixing also make the orbits better. PMID:23529116

  4. The importance of high-precision hadronic calorimetry to physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptman, John

    2016-11-01

    The reconstruction and high-precision measurement of the four-vectors of W and Z decays to quarks, which constitute nearly 70% of their decay branching fractions, are critical to a high efficiency and high quality experiment. Furthermore, it is crucial that the energy resolution, and consequently the resolution on the invariant mass of the two fragmenting quarks, is comparable to the energy-momentum resolution on the other particles of the standard model, in particular, electrons, photons, and muons, at energies around 100 GeV. I show that this “unification of resolutions” on all particles of the standard model is now in sight, and will lead to excellent physics at an electron-positron collider.

  5. High-precision branching ratio measurement for the superallowed {beta}{sup +} emitter {sup 62}Ga

    SciTech Connect

    Finlay, P.; Svensson, C. E.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hyland, B.; Leach, K. G.; Phillips, A. A.; Schumaker, M. A.; Wong, J.; Ball, G. C.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Hackman, G.; Kanungo, R.; Morton, A. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Savajols, H.; Leslie, J. R.; Towner, I. S.; Austin, R. A. E.; Chaffey, A.

    2008-08-15

    A high-precision branching ratio measurement for the superallowed {beta}{sup +} decay of {sup 62}Ga was performed at the Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) radioactive ion beam facility. The 8{pi} spectrometer, an array of 20 high-purity germanium detectors, was employed to detect the {gamma} rays emitted following Gamow-Teller and nonanalog Fermi {beta}{sup +} decays of {sup 62}Ga, and the SCEPTAR plastic scintillator array was used to detect the emitted {beta} particles. Thirty {gamma} rays were identified following {sup 62}Ga decay, establishing the superallowed branching ratio to be 99.858(8)%. Combined with the world-average half-life and a recent high-precision Q-value measurement for {sup 62}Ga, this branching ratio yields an ft value of 3074.3{+-}1.1 s, making {sup 62}Ga among the most precisely determined superallowed ft values. Comparison between the superallowed ft value determined in this work and the world-average corrected Ft value allows the large nuclear-structure-dependent correction for {sup 62}Ga decay to be experimentally determined from the CVC hypothesis to better than 7% of its own value, the most precise experimental determination for any superallowed emitter. These results provide a benchmark for the refinement of the theoretical description of isospin-symmetry breaking in A{>=}62 superallowed decays.

  6. Effects of experimental design on calibration curve precision in routine analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Neto, Benício de Barros; Saldanha, Teresa Cristina B.

    1998-01-01

    A computational program which compares the effciencies of different experimental designs with those of maximum precision (D-optimized designs) is described. The program produces confidence interval plots for a calibration curve and provides information about the number of standard solutions, concentration levels and suitable concentration ranges to achieve an optimum calibration. Some examples of the application of this novel computational program are given, using both simulated and real data. PMID:18924816

  7. New machining method of high precision infrared window part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haicheng; Su, Ying; Xu, Zengqi; Guo, Rui; Li, Wenting; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Xuanmin

    2016-10-01

    Most of the spherical shell of the photoelectric multifunctional instrument was designed as multi optical channel mode to adapt to the different band of the sensor, there were mainly TV, laser and infrared channels. Without affecting the optical diameter, wind resistance and pneumatic performance of the optical system, the overall layout of the spherical shell was optimized to save space and reduce weight. Most of the shape of the optical windows were special-shaped, each optical window directly participated in the high resolution imaging of the corresponding sensor system, and the optical axis parallelism of each sensor needed to meet the accuracy requirement of 0.05mrad.Therefore precision machining of optical window parts quality will directly affect the photoelectric system's pointing accuracy and interchangeability. Processing and testing of the TV and laser window had been very mature, while because of the special nature of the material, transparent and high refractive rate, infrared window parts had the problems of imaging quality and the control of the minimum focal length and second level parallel in the processing. Based on years of practical experience, this paper was focused on how to control the shape and parallel difference precision of infrared window parts in the processing. Single pass rate was increased from 40% to more than 95%, the processing efficiency was significantly enhanced, an effective solution to the bottleneck problem in the actual processing, which effectively solve the bottlenecks in research and production.

  8. High Precision Oxygen Measurements as a Tool for CCS Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trugman, A. T.; Dvonch, C.; Clegg, S. M.; Rahn, T.

    2011-12-01

    CO2 emissions from below ground carbon storage reservoirs can be difficult to discriminate from CO2 produced via natural plant and microbial respiration. However, because respiration produces CO2 and consumes O2 in an approximately 1:1 ratio, it is possible to characterize leakage sources by measurement of simultaneous changes of both O2 and CO2. This approach is complicated by the fact that O2 comprises approximately 21% of the atmosphere, while CO2 is only present in the background atmosphere at ~400 parts per million, making it necessary to accurately measure changes in O2 concentration to six significant figures. Here we describe a portable high precision oxygen measurement system that employs a modified commercial fuel cell analyzer to quantify small changes in O2 concentration. High precision is achieved through precise control of flow and pressure, allowing near part per million precision of O2 and CO2 concentrations. This system has been incorporated into a mobile laboratory and has been deployed to the ZERT controlled release site in Bozeman, Montana and to a natural analog CO2 leak at Soda Springs, Idaho. Samples were collected at ground level, 1 meter, and 3 meters above the CO2 source and are displayed as the ratio of the O2 difference relative to a reference to the CO2 difference in concentration relative to the same reference (ΔO2/ΔCO2). It was observed that at wind speeds ≤ 2 m/s, the ΔO2/ΔCO2 anomaly decreased with height and was still significantly different from background at 3 m. With increasing wind speed, ΔO2/ΔCO2 anomalies decreased to background levels at 1 and 3 m but remained detectable at the ground surface. We will discuss attempts to quantify the CO2 release rate utilizing the measured ΔO2/ΔCO2 elevation profiles and will present complementary eddy covariance data for comparison.

  9. High Precision Assembly Line Synthesis for Molecules with Tailored Shapes

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Matthew; Essafi, Stephanie; Bame, Jessica R.; Bull, Stephanie P.; Webster, Matthew P.; Balieu, Sebastien; Dale, James W.; Butts, Craig P.; Harvey, Jeremy N.; Aggarwal, Varinder K.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular assembly lines, where molecules undergo iterative processes involving chain elongation and functional group manipulation are hallmarks of many processes found in Nature. We have sought to emulate Nature in the development of our own molecular assembly line through iterative homologations of boronic esters. Here we report a reagent (α-lithioethyl triispopropylbenzoate) which inserts into carbon-boron bonds with exceptionally high fidelity and stereocontrol. Through repeated iteration we have converted a simple boronic ester into a complex molecule (a carbon chain with ten contiguous methyl groups) with remarkably high precision over its length, its stereochemistry and therefore its shape. Different stereoisomers were targeted and it was found that they adopted different shapes (helical/linear) according to their stereochemistry. This work should now enable scientists to rationally design and create molecules with predictable shape, which could have an impact in all areas of molecular sciences where bespoke molecules are required. PMID:25209797

  10. The development of high precision carbon fiber composite mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liang; Ding, Jiao-teng; Wang, Yong-jie; Xie, Yong-jie; Ma, Zhen; Fan, Xue-wu

    2016-10-01

    Due to low density, high stiffness, low thermal expansion coefficient, duplicate molding, etc., carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) is one of the potential materials of the optical mirror. The process developed for Φ300mm high precision CFRP mirror described in this paper. A placement tool used to improve laying accuracy up to ± 0.1°.A special reinforced cell structure designed to increase rigidity and thermal stability. Optical replication process adopted for surface modification of the carbon fiber composite mirror blank. Finally, surface accuracy RMS of Φ300mm CFRP mirror is 0.22μm, surface roughness Ra is about 2nm, and the thermal stability can achieve 13nm /°C from the test result. The research content is of some reference value in the infrared as well as visible light applications.

  11. High-precision analysis of the solar twin HIP 100963

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yana Galarza, Jhon; Meléndez, Jorge; Ramírez, Ivan; Yong, David; Karakas, Amanda I.; Asplund, Martin; Liu, Fan

    2016-05-01

    Context. HIP 100963 was one of the first solar twins identified. Although some high-precision analyses are available, a comprehensive high-precision study of chemical elements from different nucleosynthetic sources is still lacking from which to obtain potential new insights on planets, stellar evolution, and Galactic chemical evolution (GCE). Aims: We analyze and investigate the origin of the abundance pattern of HIP 100963 in detail, in particular the pattern of the light element Li, the volatile and refractory elements, and heavy elements from the s- and r-processes. Methods: We used the HIRES spectrograph on the Keck I telescope to acquire high-resolution (R ≈ 70 000) spectra with a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≈ 400-650 per pixel) of HIP 100963 and the Sun for a differential abundance analysis. We measured the equivalent widths (EWs) of iron lines to determine the stellar parameters by employing the differential spectroscopic equilibrium. We determined the composition of volatile, refractory, and neutron-capture elements through a differential abundance analysis with respect to the Sun. Results: The stellar parameters we found are Teff = 5818 ± 4 K, log g = 4.49 ± 0.01 dex, vt = 1.03 ± 0.01km s-1, and [Fe/H] = -0.003 ± 0.004 dex. These low errors allow us to compute a precise mass (1.03+0.02-0.01 M⊙) and age (2.0 ± 0.4 Gyr), obtained using Yonsei-Yale isochrones. Using our [Y/Mg] ratio, we have determined an age of 2.1 ± 0.4 Gyr, in agreement with the age computed using isochrones. Our isochronal age also agrees with the age determined from stellar activity (2.4 ± 0.3 Gyr). We study the abundance pattern with condensation temperature (Tcond) taking corrections by the GCE into account. We show that the enhancements of neutron-capture elements are explained by contributions from both the s- and r-process. The lithium abundance follows the tight Li-age correlation seen in other solar twins. Conclusions: We confirm that HIP 100963 is a solar twin

  12. High precision optomechanical assembly using threads as mechanical reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontagne, Frédéric; Desnoyers, Nichola; Bergeron, Guy; Cantin, Mario

    2016-09-01

    A convenient method to assemble optomechanical components is to use threaded interface. For example, lenses are often secured inside barrels using threaded rings. In other cases, multiple optical sub-assemblies such as lens barrels can be threaded to each other. Threads have the advantage to provide a simple assembly method, to be easy to manufacture, and to offer a compact mechanical design. On the other hand, threads are not considered to provide accurate centering between parts because of the assembly clearance between the inner and outer threads. For that reason, threads are often used in conjunction with precision cylindrical surfaces to limit the radial clearance between the parts to be centered. Therefore, tight manufacturing tolerances are needed on these pilot diameters, which affect the cost of the optical assembly. This paper presents a new optomechanical approach that uses threads as mechanical reference. This innovative method relies on geometric principles to auto-center parts to each other with a very low centering error that is usually less than 5 μm. The method allows to auto-center an optical group in a main barrel, to perform an axial adjustment of an optical group inside a main barrel, and to perform stacking of multiple barrels. In conjunction with the lens auto-centering method that also used threads as a mechanical reference, this novel solution opens new possibilities to realize a variety of different high precision optomechanical assemblies at lower cost.

  13. HIGH PRECISION ROVIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY OF OH{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Markus, Charles R.; Hodges, James N.; Perry, Adam J.; Kocheril, G. Stephen; McCall, Benjamin J.; Müller, Holger S. P.

    2016-02-01

    The molecular ion OH{sup +} has long been known to be an important component of the interstellar medium. Its relative abundance can be used to indirectly measure cosmic ray ionization rates of hydrogen, and it is the first intermediate in the interstellar formation of water. To date, only a limited number of pure rotational transitions have been observed in the laboratory making it necessary to indirectly calculate rotational levels from high-precision rovibrational spectroscopy. We have remeasured 30 transitions in the fundamental band with MHz-level precision, in order to enable the prediction of a THz spectrum of OH{sup +}. The ions were produced in a water cooled discharge of O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and He, and the rovibrational transitions were measured with the technique Noise Immune Cavity Enhanced Optical Heterodyne Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy. These values have been included in a global fit of field free data to a {sup 3}Σ{sup −} linear molecule effective Hamiltonian to determine improved spectroscopic parameters which were used to predict the pure rotational transition frequencies.

  14. Developing and implementing a high precision setup system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Lee-Cheng

    The demand for high-precision radiotherapy (HPRT) was first implemented in stereotactic radiosurgery using a rigid, invasive stereotactic head frame. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) with a frameless device was developed along a growing interest in sophisticated treatment with a tight margin and high-dose gradient. This dissertation establishes the complete management for HPRT in the process of frameless SRT, including image-guided localization, immobilization, and dose evaluation. The most ideal and precise positioning system can allow for ease of relocation, real-time patient movement assessment, high accuracy, and no additional dose in daily use. A new image-guided stereotactic positioning system (IGSPS), the Align RT3C 3D surface camera system (ART, VisionRT), which combines 3D surface images and uses a real-time tracking technique, was developed to ensure accurate positioning at the first place. The uncertainties of current optical tracking system, which causes patient discomfort due to additional bite plates using the dental impression technique and external markers, are found. The accuracy and feasibility of ART is validated by comparisons with the optical tracking and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems. Additionally, an effective daily quality assurance (QA) program for the linear accelerator and multiple IGSPSs is the most important factor to ensure system performance in daily use. Currently, systematic errors from the phantom variety and long measurement time caused by switching phantoms were discovered. We investigated the use of a commercially available daily QA device to improve the efficiency and thoroughness. Reasonable action level has been established by considering dosimetric relevance and clinic flow. As for intricate treatments, the effect of dose deviation caused by setup errors remains uncertain on tumor coverage and toxicity on OARs. The lack of adequate dosimetric simulations based on the true treatment coordinates from

  15. Experimental investigation of the ultra-precision turning capability of PVD ZnSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-hao; Yang, Kun; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Gao-feng; Liu, Dan-dan

    2016-10-01

    ZnSe is widely used in infrared optical systems because of the good optical characteristics in 0.5 22μm and the good processability. Physical Vapor Deposition(PVD) of ZnSe is good at no pollution in production process, lower price, etc. Infrared optical parts should be made by single point diamond turning or single point diamond fly-cutting after the experimental investigation of the ultra-precision turning capability of PVD ZnSe. The orthogonal experiment of ultra-precision turning PVD ZnSe was done at first, then the smooth turning surface and the rough turning surface were observed by metallographic microscope and 3D profilometer, and the mechanism of the defects on the turning surface was discussed. The result shows: the quality of ultra-precision turning surface of PVD ZnSe was restricted by the grain size and the distribution of the grain which could easily cause the variegated macula at the grain size, rising the spindle speed, reducing the feed rate and reducing the cut depth could make the quality of ultra-precision turning surface better and reduce the roughness Ra value lower, the roughness Ra value of the smooth turning surface was reached 3 4nm which is enough to the infrared optical image systems currently by using the optimization of parameters.

  16. Simultaneous Precision Gravimetry and Magnetic Gradiometry with a Bose-Einstein Condensate: A High Precision, Quantum Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardman, K. S.; Everitt, P. J.; McDonald, G. D.; Manju, P.; Wigley, P. B.; Sooriyabandara, M. A.; Kuhn, C. C. N.; Debs, J. E.; Close, J. D.; Robins, N. P.

    2016-09-01

    A Bose-Einstein condensate is used as an atomic source for a high precision sensor. A 5 ×1 06 atom F =1 spinor condensate of 87Rb is released into free fall for up to 750 ms and probed with a T =130 ms Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer based on Bragg transitions. The Bragg interferometer simultaneously addresses the three magnetic states |mf=1 ,0 ,-1 ⟩, facilitating a simultaneous measurement of the acceleration due to gravity with a 1000 run precision of Δ g /g =1.45 ×10-9 and the magnetic field gradient to a precision of 120 pT /m .

  17. Active-passive hybrid piezoelectric actuators for high-precision hard disk drive servo systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kwong Wah; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2006-03-01

    Positioning precision is crucial to today's increasingly high-speed, high-capacity, high data density, and miniaturized hard disk drives (HDDs). The demand for higher bandwidth servo systems that can quickly and precisely position the read/write head on a high track density becomes more pressing. Recently, the idea of applying dual-stage actuators to track servo systems has been studied. The push-pull piezoelectric actuated devices have been developed as micro actuators for fine and fast positioning, while the voice coil motor functions as a large but coarse seeking. However, the current dual-stage actuator design uses piezoelectric patches only without passive damping. In this paper, we propose a dual-stage servo system using enhanced active-passive hybrid piezoelectric actuators. The proposed actuators will improve the existing dual-stage actuators for higher precision and shock resistance, due to the incorporation of passive damping in the design. We aim to develop this hybrid servo system not only to increase speed of track seeking but also to improve precision of track following servos in HDDs. New piezoelectrically actuated suspensions with passive damping have been designed and fabricated. In order to evaluate positioning and track following performances for the dual-stage track servo systems, experimental efforts are carried out to implement the synthesized active-passive suspension structure with enhanced piezoelectric actuators using a composite nonlinear feedback controller.

  18. Thermal-mechanical behavior of high precision composite mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, C. P.; Lou, M. C.; Rapp, D.

    1993-04-01

    Composite mirror panels were designed, constructed, analyzed, and tested in the framework of a NASA precision segmented reflector task. The deformations of the reflector surface during the exposure to space enviroments were predicted using a finite element model. The composite mirror panels have graphite-epoxy or graphite-cyanate facesheets, separated by an aluminum or a composite honeycomb core. It is pointed out that in order to carry out detailed modeling of composite mirrors with high accuracy, it is necessary to have temperature dependent properties of the materials involved and the type and magnitude of manufacturing errors and material nonuniformities. The structural modeling and analysis efforts addressed the impact of key design and materials parameters on the performance of mirrors.

  19. Monolithic interferometer for high precision radial velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Ge, Jian; Wang, Ji; Lee, Brian

    2009-08-01

    In high precision radial velocity (RV) measurements for extrasolar planets searching and studies, a stable wide field Michelson interferometer is very critical in Exoplanet Tracker (ET) instruments. Adopting a new design, monolithic interferometers are homogenous and continuous in thermal expansion, and field compensation and thermal compensation are both satisfied. Interferometer design and fabrication are decrypted in details. In performance evaluations, field angle is typically 22° and thermal sensitivity is typically -1.7 x 10-6/°C, which corresponds to ~500 m/s /°C in RV scale. In interferometer stability monitoring using a wavelength stabilized laser source, phase shift data was continuously recorded for nearly seven days. Appling a frequent calibration every 30 minutes as in typical star observations, the interferometer instability contributes less than 1.4 m/s in RV error, in a conservative estimation.

  20. Superconducting Tunnel Junctions for High-Precision EUV Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce, F.; Carpenter, M. H.; Cantor, R.; Friedrich, S.

    2016-08-01

    We have characterized the photon response of superconducting tunnel junctions in the extreme ultraviolet energy range below 100 eV with a pulsed 355 nm laser. The detectors are operated at rates up to 5000 counts/s, are very linear in energy and have an energy resolution between 0.9 and 2 eV. We observe multiple peaks that correspond to an integer number of photons with a Poissonian probability distribution and that can be used for high-accuracy energy calibration. The uncertainty of the centroid depends on the detector resolution and the counting statistics and can be as low as 1 meV for well-separated peaks with >10^5 counts. We discuss the precision of the peak centroid as a function of detector resolution and total number of counts and the accuracy of the energy calibration.

  1. A high precision semi-analytic mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Popolo, Antonino; Pace, Francesco; Le Delliou, Morgan

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, extending past works of Del Popolo, we show how a high precision mass function (MF) can be obtained using the excursion set approach and an improved barrier taking implicitly into account a non-zero cosmological constant, the angular momentum acquired by tidal interaction of proto-structures and dynamical friction. In the case of the ΛCDM paradigm, we find that our MF is in agreement at the 3% level to Klypin's Bolshoi simulation, in the mass range Mvir = 5 × 109 h‑1Msolar–‑5 × 1014 h‑1Msolar and redshift range 0 lesssim z lesssim 10. For z = 0 we also compared our MF to several fitting formulae, and found in particular agreement with Bhattacharya's within 3% in the mass range 1012–1016 h‑1Msolar. Moreover, we discuss our MF validity for different cosmologies.

  2. Precision Viticulture from Multitemporal, Multispectral Very High Resolution Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandylakis, Z.; Karantzalos, K.

    2016-06-01

    In order to exploit efficiently very high resolution satellite multispectral data for precision agriculture applications, validated methodologies should be established which link the observed reflectance spectra with certain crop/plant/fruit biophysical and biochemical quality parameters. To this end, based on concurrent satellite and field campaigns during the veraison period, satellite and in-situ data were collected, along with several grape samples, at specific locations during the harvesting period. These data were collected for a period of three years in two viticultural areas in Northern Greece. After the required data pre-processing, canopy reflectance observations, through the combination of several vegetation indices were correlated with the quantitative results from the grape/must analysis of grape sampling. Results appear quite promising, indicating that certain key quality parameters (like brix levels, total phenolic content, brix to total acidity, anthocyanin levels) which describe the oenological potential, phenolic composition and chromatic characteristics can be efficiently estimated from the satellite data.

  3. Suppression of radiation damping for high precision quantitative NMR.

    PubMed

    Bayle, Kevin; Julien, Maxime; Remaud, Gérald S; Akoka, Serge

    2015-10-01

    True quantitative analysis of concentrated samples by (1)H NMR is made very difficult by Radiation Damping. A novel NMR sequence (inspired by the WET NMR sequence and by Outer Volume Saturation methods) is therefore proposed to suppress this phenomenon by reducing the spatial area and consequently the number of spins contributing to the signal detected. The size of the detected volume can be easily chosen in a large range and line shape distortions are avoided thanks to a uniform signal suppression of the outer volume. Composition of a mixture can as a result be determined with very high accuracy (precision and trueness) at the per mille level whatever the concentrations and without hardware modification.

  4. MultiView High Precision VLBI Astrometry at Low Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioja, María J.; Dodson, Richard; Orosz, Gabor; Imai, Hiroshi; Frey, Sandor

    2017-03-01

    The arrival of the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) will revitalize all aspects of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) astronomy at lower frequencies. In the last decade, there have been huge strides toward routinely achieving high precision VLBI astrometry at frequencies dominated by tropospheric contributions, most notably at 22 GHz, using advanced phase-referencing techniques. Nevertheless, to increase the capability for high precision astrometric measurements at low radio frequencies (<8 GHz), an effective calibration strategy of the systematic ionospheric propagation effects that is widely applicable is required. Observations at low frequencies are dominated by distinct direction-dependent ionospheric propagation errors, which place a very tight limit on the angular separation of a suitable phase-referencing calibrator. The MultiView technique holds the key to compensating for atmospheric spatial-structure errors, by using observations of multiple calibrators and two-dimensional interpolation in the visibility domain. In this paper we present the first demonstration of the power of MultiView using three calibrators, several degrees from the target, along with a comparative study of the astrometric accuracy between MultiView and phase-referencing techniques. MultiView calibration provides an order of magnitude improvement in astrometry with respect to conventional phase referencing, achieving ∼100 μas astrometry errors in a single epoch of observations, effectively reaching the thermal noise limit. MultiView will achieve its full potential with the enhanced sensitivity and multibeam capabilities of SKA and the pathfinders, which will enable simultaneous observations of the target and calibrators. Our demonstration indicates that the 10 μas goal of astrometry at ∼1.6 GHz using VLBI with SKA is feasible using the MultiView technique.

  5. Fast, High-Precision Readout Circuit for Detector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rider, David M.; Hancock, Bruce R.; Key, Richard W.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Wrigley, Chris J.; Seshadri, Suresh; Sander, Stanley P.; Blavier, Jean-Francois L.

    2013-01-01

    The GEO-CAPE mission described in NASA's Earth Science and Applications Decadal Survey requires high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution measurements to monitor and characterize the rapidly changing chemistry of the troposphere over North and South Americas. High-frame-rate focal plane arrays (FPAs) with many pixels are needed to enable such measurements. A high-throughput digital detector readout integrated circuit (ROIC) that meets the GEO-CAPE FPA needs has been developed, fabricated, and tested. The ROIC is based on an innovative charge integrating, fast, high-precision analog-to-digital circuit that is built into each pixel. The 128×128-pixel ROIC digitizes all 16,384 pixels simultaneously at frame rates up to 16 kHz to provide a completely digital output on a single integrated circuit at an unprecedented rate of 262 million pixels per second. The approach eliminates the need for off focal plane electronics, greatly reducing volume, mass, and power compared to conventional FPA implementations. A focal plane based on this ROIC will require less than 2 W of power on a 1×1-cm integrated circuit. The ROIC is fabricated of silicon using CMOS technology. It is designed to be indium bump bonded to a variety of detector materials including silicon PIN diodes, indium antimonide (InSb), indium gallium arsenide (In- GaAs), and mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) detector arrays to provide coverage over a broad spectral range in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet spectral ranges.

  6. Precision muon tracking detectors for high-energy hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadow, Ph.; Kortner, O.; Kroha, H.; Richter, R.

    2017-02-01

    Small-diameter muon drift tube (sMDT) chambers with 15 mm tube diameter are a cost-effective technology for high-precision muon tracking over large areas at high background rates as expected at future high-energy hadron colliders including HL-LHC. The chamber design and construction procedures have been optimised for mass production and provide sense wire positioning accuracy of better than 10 μm. The rate capability of the sMDT chambers has been extensively tested at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility. It exceeds the one of the ATLAS muon drift tube (MDT) chambers, which are operated at unprecedentedly high background rates of neutrons and γ-rays, by an order of magnitude, which is sufficient for almost the whole of the muon detector acceptance at FCC-hh at maximum luminosity. sMDT operational and construction experience exists from ATLAS muon spectrometer upgrades which are in progress or under preparation for LHC Phase 1 and 2.

  7. Precision, high dose radiotherapy: helium ion treatment of uveal melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, W.M.; Char, D.H.; Quivey, J.M.; Castro, J.R.; Chen, G.T.Y.; Collier, J.M.; Cartigny, A.; Blakely, E.A.; Lyman, J.T.; Zink, S.R.

    1985-02-01

    The authors report on 75 patients with uveal melanoma who were treated by placing the Bragg peak of a helium ion beam over the tumor volume. The technique localizes the high dose region very tightly around the tumor volume. This allows critical structures, such as the optic disc and the macula, to be excluded from the high dose region as long as they are 3 to 4 mm away from the edge of the tumor. Careful attention to tumor localization, treatment planning, patient immobilization and treatment verification is required. With a mean follow-up of 22 months (3 to 60 months) the authors have had only five patients with a local recurrence, all of whom were salvaged with another treatment. Pretreatment visual acuity has generally been preserved as long as the tumor edge is at least 4 mm away from the macula and optic disc. The only serious complication to date has been an 18% incidence of neovascular glaucoma in the patients treated at our highest dose level. Clinical results and details of the technique are presented to illustrate potential clinical precision in administering high dose radiotherapy with charged particles such as helium ions or protons.

  8. Evaluation of High-Precision Sensors in Structural Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Erol, Bihter

    2010-01-01

    One of the most intricate branches of metrology involves the monitoring of displacements and deformations of natural and anthropogenic structures under environmental forces, such as tidal or tectonic phenomena, or ground water level changes. Technological progress has changed the measurement process, and steadily increasing accuracy requirements have led to the continued development of new measuring instruments. The adoption of an appropriate measurement strategy, with proper instruments suited for the characteristics of the observed structure and its environmental conditions, is of high priority in the planning of deformation monitoring processes. This paper describes the use of precise digital inclination sensors in continuous monitoring of structural deformations. The topic is treated from two viewpoints: (i) evaluation of the performance of inclination sensors by comparing them to static and continuous GPS observations in deformation monitoring and (ii) providing a strategy for analyzing the structural deformations. The movements of two case study objects, a tall building and a geodetic monument in Istanbul, were separately monitored using dual-axes micro-radian precision inclination sensors (inclinometers) and GPS. The time series of continuous deformation observations were analyzed using the Least Squares Spectral Analysis Technique (LSSA). Overall, the inclinometers showed good performance for continuous monitoring of structural displacements, even at the sub-millimeter level. Static GPS observations remained insufficient for resolving the deformations to the sub-centimeter level due to the errors that affect GPS signals. With the accuracy advantage of inclination sensors, their use with GPS provides more detailed investigation of deformation phenomena. Using inclinometers and GPS is helpful to be able to identify the components of structural responses to the natural forces as static, quasi-static, or resonant. PMID:22163499

  9. Evaluation of high-precision sensors in structural monitoring.

    PubMed

    Erol, Bihter

    2010-01-01

    One of the most intricate branches of metrology involves the monitoring of displacements and deformations of natural and anthropogenic structures under environmental forces, such as tidal or tectonic phenomena, or ground water level changes. Technological progress has changed the measurement process, and steadily increasing accuracy requirements have led to the continued development of new measuring instruments. The adoption of an appropriate measurement strategy, with proper instruments suited for the characteristics of the observed structure and its environmental conditions, is of high priority in the planning of deformation monitoring processes. This paper describes the use of precise digital inclination sensors in continuous monitoring of structural deformations. The topic is treated from two viewpoints: (i) evaluation of the performance of inclination sensors by comparing them to static and continuous GPS observations in deformation monitoring and (ii) providing a strategy for analyzing the structural deformations. The movements of two case study objects, a tall building and a geodetic monument in Istanbul, were separately monitored using dual-axes micro-radian precision inclination sensors (inclinometers) and GPS. The time series of continuous deformation observations were analyzed using the Least Squares Spectral Analysis Technique (LSSA). Overall, the inclinometers showed good performance for continuous monitoring of structural displacements, even at the sub-millimeter level. Static GPS observations remained insufficient for resolving the deformations to the sub-centimeter level due to the errors that affect GPS signals. With the accuracy advantage of inclination sensors, their use with GPS provides more detailed investigation of deformation phenomena. Using inclinometers and GPS is helpful to be able to identify the components of structural responses to the natural forces as static, quasi-static, or resonant.

  10. Developing Performance Estimates for High Precision Astrometry with TMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeck, Matthias; Do, Tuan; Ellerbroek, Brent; Herriot, Glen; Meyer, Leo; Suzuki, Ryuji; Wang, Lianqi; Yelda, Sylvana

    2013-12-01

    Adaptive optics on Extremely Large Telescopes will open up many new science cases or expand existing science into regimes unattainable with the current generation of telescopes. One example of this is high-precision astrometry, which has requirements in the range from 10 to 50 micro-arc-seconds for some instruments and science cases. Achieving these requirements imposes stringent constraints on the design of the entire observatory, but also on the calibration procedures, observing sequences and the data analysis techniques. This paper summarizes our efforts to develop a top down astrometry error budget for TMT. It is predominantly developed for the first-light AO system, NFIRAOS, and the IRIS instrument, but many terms are applicable to other configurations as well. Astrometry error sources are divided into 5 categories: Reference source and catalog errors, atmospheric refraction correction errors, other residual atmospheric effects, opto-mechanical errors and focal plane measurement errors. Results are developed in parametric form whenever possible. However, almost every error term in the error budget depends on the details of the astrometry observations, such as whether absolute or differential astrometry is the goal, whether one observes a sparse or crowded field, what the time scales of interest are, etc. Thus, it is not possible to develop a single error budget that applies to all science cases and separate budgets are developed and detailed for key astrometric observations. Our error budget is consistent with the requirements for differential astrometry of tens of micro-arc-seconds for certain science cases. While no show stoppers have been found, the work has resulted in several modifications to the NFIRAOS optical surface specifications and reference source design that will help improve the achievable astrometry precision even further.

  11. Highly precise and robust packaging of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leers, Michael; Winzen, Matthias; Liermann, Erik; Faidel, Heinrich; Westphalen, Thomas; Miesner, Jörn; Luttmann, Jörg; Hoffmann, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we present the development of a compact, thermo-optically stable and vibration and mechanical shock resistant mounting technique by soldering of optical components. Based on this technique a new generation of laser sources for aerospace applications is designed. In these laser systems solder technique replaces the glued and bolted connections between optical component, mount and base plate. Alignment precision in the arc second range and realization of long term stability of every single part in the laser system is the main challenge. At the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT a soldering and mounting technique has been developed for high precision packaging. The specified environmental boundary conditions (e.g. a temperature range of -40 °C to +50 °C) and the required degrees of freedom for the alignment of the components have been taken into account for this technique. In general the advantage of soldering compared to gluing is that there is no outgassing. In addition no flux is needed in our special process. The joining process allows multiple alignments by remelting the solder. The alignment is done in the liquid phase of the solder by a 6 axis manipulator with a step width in the nm range and a tilt in the arc second range. In a next step the optical components have to pass the environmental tests. The total misalignment of the component to its adapter after the thermal cycle tests is less than 10 arc seconds. The mechanical stability tests regarding shear, vibration and shock behavior are well within the requirements.

  12. Progress Towards a High-Precision Infrared Spectroscopic Survey of the H_3^+ Ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Adam J.; Hodges, James N.; Markus, Charles R.; Kocheril, G. Stephen; Jenkins, Paul A., II; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2015-06-01

    The trihydrogen cation, H_3^+, represents one of the most important and fundamental molecular systems. Having only two electrons and three nuclei, H_3^+ is the simplest polyatomic system and is a key testing ground for the development of new techniques for calculating potential energy surfaces and predicting molecular spectra. Corrections that go beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, including adiabatic, non-adiabatic, relativistic, and quantum electrodynamic corrections are becoming more feasible to calculate. As a result, experimental measurements performed on the H_3^+ ion serve as important benchmarks which are used to test the predictive power of new computational methods. By measuring many infrared transitions with precision at the sub-MHz level it is possible to construct a list of the most highly precise experimental rovibrational energy levels for this molecule. Until recently, only a select handful of infrared transitions of this molecule have been measured with high precision (˜ 1 MHz). Using the technique of Noise Immune Cavity Enhanced Optical Heterodyne Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy, we are aiming to produce the largest high-precision spectroscopic dataset for this molecule to date. Presented here are the current results from our survey along with a discussion of the combination differences analysis used to extract the experimentally determined rovibrational energy levels. O. Polyansky, et al., Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A (2012), 370, 5014. M. Pavanello, et al., J. Chem. Phys. (2012), 136, 184303. L. Diniz, et al., Phys. Rev. A (2013), 88, 032506. L. Lodi, et al., Phys. Rev. A (2014), 89, 032505. J. Hodges, et al., J. Chem. Phys (2013), 139, 164201.

  13. High-precision efficiency calibration of a high-purity co-axial germanium detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, B.; Souin, J.; Ascher, P.; Audirac, L.; Canchel, G.; Gerbaux, M.; Grévy, S.; Giovinazzo, J.; Guérin, H.; Nieto, T. Kurtukian; Matea, I.; Bouzomita, H.; Delahaye, P.; Grinyer, G. F.; Thomas, J. C.

    2015-03-01

    A high-purity co-axial germanium detector has been calibrated in efficiency to a precision of about 0.15% over a wide energy range. High-precision scans of the detector crystal and γ-ray source measurements have been compared to Monte-Carlo simulations to adjust the dimensions of a detector model. For this purpose, standard calibration sources and short-lived online sources have been used. The resulting efficiency calibration reaches the precision needed e.g. for branching ratio measurements of super-allowed β decays for tests of the weak-interaction standard model.

  14. A simple high-precision Jacob's staff design for the high-resolution stratigrapher

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, W.P.

    1989-01-01

    The new generation of high-resolution stratigraphic research depends upon detailed bed-by-bed analysis to enhance regional correlation potential. The standard Jacob's staff is not an efficient and precise tool for measuring thin-bedded strata. The high-precision Jacob's staff design presented and illustrated in this paper meets the qualifications required of such an instrument. The prototype of this simple design consists of a sliding bracket that holds a Brunton-type compass at right angles to a ruled-off staff. This instrument provides rapid and accurate measurement of both thick- or thin-bedded sequences, thus decreasing field time and increasing stratigraphic precision. -Author

  15. High Precision Low-blank Lithium Isotope Ratios in Forams.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, S.; Froelich, P. N.

    2007-12-01

    We present a high precision (±1‰, 2σ) low blank (<500 fg/ml) method for Li isotope measurements of forams using <2 ng of Li by single collector Quad ICP-MS (Agilent 7500cs). The Li isotope ratio of seawater (δ7Li) recorded in planktonic forams has the potential to constrain the evolution of seawater chemistry and elucidate the factors driving variations of oceanic mass balances linked to the continental and sea floor/hydrothermal silica cycles. In addition a δ7Li record of seawater will complement other long-term recorders of seawater chemistry such as Sr, Os and S isotopes. Li isotope measurements of forams are limited by several factors: low Li concentrations in forams (1-2 ppm), instrument-induced fractionation and mass bias effects, matrix effects, high Li blanks and incomplete recovery of Li during column separation. Modest concentrations of alkali and alkaline earth elements in the matrix result in variable mass bias in measured Li isotope ratios. Even worse, Li strongly fractionates during chromatographic clean-up to remove Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+, from +100‰ in the leading edge to - 100‰ in the trailing edge of elution peaks (Urey 1938). Consequently, miniscule incomplete recoveries of Li during chromatographic separations can result in large unrecognized isotope fractionation of eluents. Large mass-dependent fractionation caused by a difference of 17% in mass between 6Li and 7Li, makes Li a powerful tracer of geochemical processes, but also promotes large and difficult-to-fix isotope fractionations during laboratory chemical processing. Matrix effects of Na & Ca and of column chromatography on Li isotope ratios were investigated using artificial Li solutions representative of foram compositions (matrix matching). Li/Ca and Li/Na ratios in cleaned forams are 10 μmol/mol and 3 mmol/mol respectively. An ICP-MS tolerance limit of 20 ppb for Na and 20 μM for Ca was established, much higher tolerances than by TIMS. A single step chromatographic method to

  16. High-precision heliostat for long-path light tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawat, Tom; Stephen, Thomas M.; DeMaziere, Martine M.; Neefs, Eddy

    2003-08-01

    A heliostat has been designed and built for use in optical remote sensing of the atmosphere. The heliostat uses two flat mirrors to track the sun and direct the sunlight to optical instruments. A stepper motor driven horizontal turntable is used to track the sun in azimuth and support an elevation assembly and a mechanical tower. The stepper motor driven elevation assembly drives an acquisition mirror that tracks the sun in elevation. This mirror directs the solar beam to a secondary mirror fixed on the mechanical tower. The secondary mirror then directs the solar beam along the axis of the tracker for use in measurements. A sensitive, high resolution CCD camera, receives a small part of the solar beam to analyze for fine servo-control. Ground based tests have demonstrated this instrument"s tracking capability for the sun, the moon, stars and for long pathlength sources. Presently, this system is coupled with a high-resolution Brucker 120M spectrometer used to obtain solar absorption spectra. The heliostat directs the solar radiation along the spectrometer optical axis. The pointing precision was measured to be better than 0.5 arcsec. A description of the heliostat is presented, as well as the results of ground tests.

  17. High-speed high-precision and ultralong-range complex spectral domain dimensional metrology.

    PubMed

    Bao, Wen; Shen, Yi; Chen, Tao; Li, Peng; Ding, Zhihua

    2015-05-04

    A precise, nondestructive dimensional metrological system is crucial to manufacturing and packaging of multi-component optical system. To this end, an orthogonal dispersive spectrometer based complex spectral domain interferometric system for high-speed high-precision and ultralong-range dimensional metrology is developed. An improved complex method based on actual spectral phase shift is proposed to achieve ultrahigh suppression of artifacts. Suppression ratios of 80 dB for DC and 60 dB for mirror images are realized, the highest ratios among existing complex methods. To ensure high-precision in distance determination, an averaged spectral phase measurement algorithm is adopted. A precision of 60 nm within a measurement range of 200 mm without axial movement of the sample is demonstrated. The measurement range is readily extendable if axial movement of the sample and range cascading are involved. The system holds potential applications in various areas for real-time nondestructive testing and evaluation.

  18. New linear piezomotors for high-force precise positioning applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Letty, Ronan; Claeyssen, Frank; Barillot, Francois; Six, Marc F.; Bouchilloux, Philippe

    1998-07-01

    Piezomotors are an increasingly competitive alternative to electromagnetic stepper motors, especially in applications where large bandwidths and/or precise positioning control are desired. Piezomotors use a combination of electromechanical and frictional forces and, compared to conventional electromagnetic motors, have the advantages that no power supply is required to maintain the motor in position and no lubrication is necessary in the device. The operating principle of these motors relies on the use of an ultrasonic vibration, which is created via the piezoelectric effect (at resonance in most cases), in order to generate vibration forces at the `stator/rotor' contact interface. A mechanical preload is also applied at this contact interface and is responsible for the motor's holding force at rest. To meet the specifications of an aerospace application, we developed a new design of Linear PiezoMotors (LPMs). The first prototype we built shows very promising results, and makes the LPM a serious candidate to replace conventional stepper motors. The LPM features the following characteristics: a standing force of 100 N, a blocked force of 37 N, a maximum actuation speed of 23 mm/s, a maximum run of 10 mm, a mass of 500 g, an electrical power of 2.2 W, and a position accuracy superior to 1 micrometers . To our knowledge, the driving force delivered by the LPM has never before been achieved in resonant devices. This paper describes the physical operating principles of the LPM, as well as the modeling tools and experimental techniques we used for its development. Several implementation schemes are also presented and show the wide range of possible applications offered by the linear piezomotor.

  19. Experimental Demonstration of Higher Precision Weak-Value-Based Metrology Using Power Recycling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Tao; Tang, Jian-Shun; Hu, Gang; Wang, Jian; Yu, Shang; Zhou, Zong-Quan; Cheng, Ze-Di; Xu, Jin-Shi; Fang, Sen-Zhi; Wu, Qing-Lin; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-12-02

    The weak-value-based metrology is very promising and has attracted a lot of attention in recent years because of its remarkable ability in signal amplification. However, it is suggested that the upper limit of the precision of this metrology cannot exceed that of classical metrology because of the low sample size caused by the probe loss during postselection. Nevertheless, a recent proposal shows that this probe loss can be reduced by the power-recycling technique, and thus enhance the precision of weak-value-based metrology. Here we experimentally realize the power-recycled interferometric weak-value-based beam-deflection measurement and obtain the amplitude of the detected signal and white noise by discrete Fourier transform. Our results show that the detected signal can be strengthened by power recycling, and the power-recycled weak-value-based signal-to-noise ratio can surpass the upper limit of the classical scheme, corresponding to the shot-noise limit. This work sheds light on higher precision metrology and explores the real advantage of the weak-value-based metrology over classical metrology.

  20. Experimental Demonstration of Higher Precision Weak-Value-Based Metrology Using Power Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Tao; Tang, Jian-Shun; Hu, Gang; Wang, Jian; Yu, Shang; Zhou, Zong-Quan; Cheng, Ze-Di; Xu, Jin-Shi; Fang, Sen-Zhi; Wu, Qing-Lin; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-12-01

    The weak-value-based metrology is very promising and has attracted a lot of attention in recent years because of its remarkable ability in signal amplification. However, it is suggested that the upper limit of the precision of this metrology cannot exceed that of classical metrology because of the low sample size caused by the probe loss during postselection. Nevertheless, a recent proposal shows that this probe loss can be reduced by the power-recycling technique, and thus enhance the precision of weak-value-based metrology. Here we experimentally realize the power-recycled interferometric weak-value-based beam-deflection measurement and obtain the amplitude of the detected signal and white noise by discrete Fourier transform. Our results show that the detected signal can be strengthened by power recycling, and the power-recycled weak-value-based signal-to-noise ratio can surpass the upper limit of the classical scheme, corresponding to the shot-noise limit. This work sheds light on higher precision metrology and explores the real advantage of the weak-value-based metrology over classical metrology.

  1. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: High resolution imaging requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Xiao -Lei; Treu, Tommaso; Agnello, Adriano; Auger, Matthew W.; Liao, Kai; Marshall, Philip J.

    2015-09-28

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ``Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρtot∝ r–γ' for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. Furthermore, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation Adaptive Optics System, and TMT, will

  2. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: high resolution imaging requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Xiao-Lei; Liao, Kai; Treu, Tommaso; Agnello, Adriano; Auger, Matthew W.; Marshall, Philip J. E-mail: tt@astro.ucla.edu E-mail: mauger@ast.cam.ac.uk E-mail: dr.phil.marshall@gmail.com

    2015-09-01

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ''Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρ{sub tot}∝ r{sup −γ'} for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. However, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation Adaptive Optics System, and TMT, will

  3. Development of a custom high precision motion system to manipulate a 7 ton press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyhim, A.; Van Every, E.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper ADC will discuss the design and test results for a custom high precision motion system to manipulate a 7 ton press (fabricated by Rockland Research Corporation). The system was installed at Beamline X17B2 NSLS for High Pressure Mineral Physics research. The beamline contains 0.391 mm of graphite filters, .500 mm silicon filter, and 2.0 mm of beryllium windows. The experimental apparatus consists of a large volume (~1 cu mm) multi-anvil press in either cubic or octahedral mode, providing pressures up to 29 GPa and temperatures up to 2000 K.

  4. A proposed experimental method for interpreting Doppler effect measurements and determining their precision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klann, P. G.

    1973-01-01

    The principal problem in the measurement of the Doppler reactivity effect is separating it from the thermal reactivity effects of the expansion of the heated sample. It is shown in this proposal that the thermal effects of sample expansion can be experimentally determined by making additional measurements with porous samples having the same mass and/or volume as the primary sample. By combining these results with independent measurements of the linear temperature coefficient and the computed temperature dependence of the Doppler coefficient the magnitude of the Doppler coefficient may be extracted from the data. These addiational measurements are also useful to experimentally determine the precision of the reactivity oscillator technique used to measure the reactivity effects of the heated sample.

  5. High-precision Mg isotopic systematics of bulk chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Martin; Handler, Monica R.; Baker, Joel A.

    2010-08-01

    Variations of the mass-independent abundance of 26Mg ( δ26Mg*) and stable Mg ( δ25Mg) isotope composition of chondrites are important because they constrain the homogeneity of 26Al and Mg isotopes in the proto-planetary disc and the validity of the short-lived 26Al-to- 26Mg chronometer applied to meteorites. We present high-precision Mg isotope data and Al/Mg ratios of chondrites representing nearly all major chondrite classes, including a step-leaching experiment on the CM2 chondrite Murchison. δ26Mg* variations in leachates of Murchison representing acid soluble material are ≤ 30 times smaller than reported for neutron-rich isotopes of Ti and Cr and do not reveal resolvable deficits in δ26Mg* (-0.002 to + 0.118‰). Very small variations in δ26Mg* anomalies in bulk chondrites (-0.006 to + 0.019‰) correlate with increasing 27Al/ 24Mg ratios and δ50Ti, reflecting the variable presence of calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs) in some types of carbonaceous chondrites. Similarly, release of radiogenic 26Mg produced by 26Al decay from CAI material in the step-leaching of Murchison best explains the high δ26Mg* observed in the last, aggressive, leaching steps of this experiment. Overall, the observed variations in δ26Mg* are small and potential differences beyond that which result from the presence of CAI-like material cannot be detected within the analytical uncertainties of this study (± 0.004‰). The results do not allow radical heterogeneity of 26Al (≥±30%) or measurable Mg nucleosynthetic heterogeneity (≥±0.005‰) to have existed on a planetesimal scale in the proto-planetary disc. Combined with published δ26Mg* data for CAIs, the bulk chondrite data yield a precise initial ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 = (5.21 ± 0.06) × 10 -5 and δ26Mg* = -0.0340 ± 0.0016‰ for the Solar System. However, it is not possible with the currently available data to determine with certainty whether CAIs and the material from which planetesimals accreted including

  6. HST high-precision proper motions of globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, Andrea; Anderson, Jay; van der marel, roeland p.; piotto, gianpaolo; Watkins, Laura l.; Vesperini, Enrico; Milone, Antonino; Bedin, Luigi R.

    2015-08-01

    The stable environment of space makes HST an excellent astrometric tool. Its diffraction-limited resolution allows it to distinguish and measure positions and fluxes for stars all the way to the center of most globular clusters. There are now many clusters that have observations in the archive that span 13 years or more, and more observations are being taken all the time. We constructed high-precision proper-motion catalogs for over 20 clusters for which there exist two or more well-separated epochs in the archive, and we are extending the list to over 60 objects, thanks to the new observations taken within the ``HST UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters’’ treasury program. Each catalog contains astrometry and photometry for thousands of stars within two arcmin of the center. The catalogs are focused on the many stars within a few magnitudes of the turnoff and have typical proper-motion errors of 0.1 mas/yr, which translates to 2 km/s for the typical cluster. We are using proper motions to directly measure the clusters' anisotropy, equipartition and rotation on the plane of the sky, as well as to study internal kinematics of the different subpopulations and to probe the presence of an IMBH in their core.

  7. Laser interferometric high-precision angle monitor for JASMINE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, Yoshito; Arai, Koji; Sakagami, Masaaki; Gouda, Naoteru; Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Yano, Taihei

    2006-06-01

    The JASMINE instrument uses a beam combiner to observe two different fields of view separated by 99.5 degrees simultaneously. This angle is so-called basic angle. The basic angle of JASMINE should be stabilized and fluctuations of the basic angle should be monitored with the accuracy of 10 microarcsec in root-mean-square over the satellite revolution period of 5 hours. For this purpose, a high-precision interferometric laser metrogy system is employed. One of the available techniques for measuring the fluctuations of the basic angle is a method known as the wave front sensing using a Fabry-Perot type laser interferometer. This technique is to detect fluctuations of the basic angle as displacement of optical axis in the Fabry-Perot cavity. One of the advantages of the technique is that the sensor is made to be sensitive only to the relative fluctuations of the basic angle which the JASMINE wants to know and to be insensitive to the common one; in order to make the optical axis displacement caused by relative motion enhanced the Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by two mirrors which have long radius of curvature. To verify the principle of this idea, the experiment was performed using a 0.1m-length Fabry-Perot cavity with the mirror curvature of 20m. The mirrors of the cavity were artificially actuated in either relative way or common way and the resultant outputs from the sensor were compared.

  8. High-precision target location for industrial metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosandier, D.; Chapman, Michael A.

    1993-02-01

    Many industrial metrology applications require accurate and real or near-real time measurement tools in often adverse conditions. Over the past three years, the Industrial Alignment Project (IAP) has been focused on the development of precise measurement techniques for use with large rotating machinery. This paper highlights some results using digital array cameras which have been shown to be well suited for many applications. Limited camera resolution and high accuracy point positioning requirements have required the development of specialized targets. Retro-reflective targets are used to reduce the varying effects of lighting/shadows since this material exhibits maximum reflection in the direction of the light source. Using sub-pixel edge detection techniques with the pre-defined targets, it is possible to obtain accuracies of 1/20th a pixel or better. In addition, employing multiple camera stations with an appropriate imaging geometry, the three dimensional coordinates of the point of interest can be obtained by establishing photogrammetric techniques. The results of test projects are given to illustrate the viability of such a measuring system.

  9. Interferometric apparatus for ultra-high precision displacement measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Feng (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A high-precision heterodyne interferometer measures relative displacement by creating a thermally-insensitive system generally not subject to polarization leakage. By using first and second light beams separated by a small frequency difference (.DELTA.f), beams of light at the first frequency (f.sub.0) are reflected by co-axial mirrors, the first mirror of which has a central aperture through which the light is transmitted to and reflected by the second mirror. Prior to detection, the light beams from the two mirrors are combined with light of the second and slightly different frequency. The combined light beams are separated according to the light from the mirrors. The change in phase (.DELTA..phi.) with respect to the two signals is proportional to the change in distance of Fiducial B by a factor of wavelength (.lambda.) divided by 4.pi. (.DELTA.L=.lambda..DELTA..phi.1/(4.pi.)). In a second embodiment, a polarizing beam splitting system can be used.

  10. High precision refractometry based on Fresnel diffraction from phase plates.

    PubMed

    Tavassoly, M Taghi; Naraghi, Roxana Rezvani; Nahal, Arashmid; Hassani, Khosrow

    2012-05-01

    When a transparent plane-parallel plate is illuminated at a boundary region by a monochromatic parallel beam of light, Fresnel diffraction occurs because of the abrupt change in phase imposed by the finite change in refractive index at the plate boundary. The visibility of the diffraction fringes varies periodically with changes in incident angle. The visibility period depends on the plate thickness and the refractive indices of the plate and the surrounding medium. Plotting the phase change versus incident angle or counting the visibility repetition in an incident-angle interval provides, for a given plate thickness, the refractive index of the plate very accurately. It is shown here that the refractive index of a plate can be determined without knowing the plate thickness. Therefore, the technique can be utilized for measuring plate thickness with high precision. In addition, by installing a plate with known refractive index in a rectangular cell filled with a liquid and following the described procedures, the refractive index of the liquid is obtained. The technique is applied to measure the refractive indices of a glass slide, distilled water, and ethanol. The potential and merits of the technique are also discussed.

  11. Measuring Crustal Deformation in Europe by High Precision Geodetic VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J.; Nothnagel, A.; Vennebusch, M.

    2002-06-01

    At the western tip of the Eurasian plate, the European continent is besieged by thrusting and receding neighbour plates causing deformations and ruptures of the Earth's crust evidenced by earthquakes and volcanic outbursts. Measuring the extent and progress of crustal deformation has become one of the primary tasks of geodesists and geophysicists. Realizing that Europe enjoys one of the densest networks of radio telescopes especially equipped for high precision, geodetic VLBI has provided the incentive to organise a campaign of regular geodetic VLBI observations in the European network of fixed radio telescopes. The measurements have been carried out since the late eighties at an average rate of six sessions per year. From these data, site coordinates, baseline length changes and station velocity vectors have been derived with steadily increasing accuracy. The overall picture of the observed present-day site motions emulates quite well the pattern of tectonic motions inferred from the geotectonic setting of central Europe and the western Mediterranean. Interesting details are emerging for horizontal motions of the three stations in Italy, which are strongly affected by the complex interactions between the different tectonic regimes in this area. The accuracy of the vertical components is also improving with increasing length of the observational record, allowing to detect significant trends among the relative vertical motions of the sites. The geodetic VLBI network operations have received supportive funding by the European Union under the 2nd and 4th Framework Programmes.

  12. High-precision VLBI astrometry of radio-emitting stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestrade, J.-F.; Preston, R. A.; Jones, D. L.; Phillips, R. B.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Titus, M. A.; Rioja, M. J.; Gabuzda, D. C.

    1999-04-01

    Multiple-epoch phase-referenced VLBI observations of 11 radio-emitting stars have been conducted as part of an astrometric program to link the Hipparcos optical reference frame to the radio extragalactic reference frame. We present the VLBI positions, proper motions and trigonometric parallaxes from this program in the ICRF (International Celestial Reference Frame). These astrometric parameters are absolute because they are directly measured relative to the distant quasars used as VLBI phase reference calibrators. The mean astrometric precision achieved relative to the calibrators is 0.36 milliarcsecond and the highest precision is for the RS CVn close binary sigma (2) CrB with formal uncertainties of 0.12 milliarcsecond for its relative position, 0.05 milliarcsecond for its annual proper motion and 0.10 milliarcsecond for its trigonometric parallax. In addition to the Hipparcos link, these observations have provided several new results. The distance to the nearby Tau-Auriga star forming region is 148 +/- 5 pc, determined directly through the VLBI trigonometric parallax of the Pre-Main-Sequence star HD283447 of this region. The orthogonality of the 2 orbital planes in the ternary system Algol is supported by new astrometric evidences. The proper motions of HR5110, HR1099 and IM Peg, regarded as possible guide stars for the NASA Gravity Probe B space mission, have formal precisions of 0.16, 0.31 and 0.40 milliarcsecond per year, respectively, and the mission requirement is 0.15 milliarcsecond per year. The close binary UX Ari is the only star that exhibits an acceleration larger than 3sigma and the most plausible cause is the gravitational interaction of a third body. The distances of the stars HD199178, IM Peg and AR Lac were uncertain by as much as 50% before our observations and are now 116 +/- 4, 97 +/- 6, 41.7 +/- 0.6 pc, respectively. The two X-ray binaries in our program, LSI61303 and Cyg X1, exhibit larger than expected post-fit position residuals. The

  13. French Meteor Network for High Precision Orbits of Meteoroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atreya, P.; Vaubaillon, J.; Colas, F.; Bouley, S.; Gaillard, B.; Sauli, I.; Kwon, M. K.

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of precise meteoroids orbit from video observations as most of the meteor stations use off-the-shelf CCD cameras. Few meteoroids orbit with precise semi-major axis are available using film photographic method. Precise orbits are necessary to compute the dust flux in the Earth s vicinity, and to estimate the ejection time of the meteoroids accurately by comparing them with the theoretical evolution model. We investigate the use of large CCD sensors to observe multi-station meteors and to compute precise orbit of these meteoroids. An ideal spatial and temporal resolution to get an accuracy to those similar of photographic plates are discussed. Various problems faced due to the use of large CCD, such as increasing the spatial and the temporal resolution at the same time and computational problems in finding the meteor position are illustrated.

  14. Coating-free mirrors for high precision interferometric experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gossler, Stefan; Cumpston, Jeff; McKenzie, Kirk; Mow-Lowry, Conor M.; Gray, Malcolm B.; McClelland, David E.

    2007-11-15

    Thermal noise in mirror optical coatings may not only limit the sensitivity of future gravitational-wave detectors in their most sensitive frequency band but is also a major impediment for experiments that aim to reach the standard quantum limit or cool mechanical systems to their quantum ground state. We present the design and experimental characterization of a highly reflecting mirror without any optical coating. This coating-free mirror is based on total internal reflection and Brewster-angle coupling. In order to characterize its performance, the coating-free mirror was incorporated into a triangular ring cavity together with a high quality conventional mirror. The finesse of this cavity was measured using an amplitude transfer function to be about F{approx_equal}4000. This finesse corresponds to a reflectivity of the coating-free mirror of about R{approx_equal}99.89%. In addition, the dependence of the reflectivity on rotation was mapped out.

  15. Radio emission from Supernovae and High Precision Astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Torres, M. A.

    1999-11-01

    The present thesis work makes contributions in two scientific fronts: differential astrometry over the largest angular scales ever attempted (approx. 15 arcdegrees) and numerical simulations of radio emission from very young supernovae. In the first part, we describe the results of the use of very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) in one experiment designed to measure with very high precision the angular distance between the radio sources 1150+812 (QSO) and 1803+784 (BL Lac). We observed the radio sources on 19 November 1993 using an intercontinental array of radio telescopes, which simultaneously recorded at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz. VLBI differential astrometry is capable, Nature allowing, of yielding source positions with precisions well below the milliarcsecond level. To achieve this precision, we first had to accurately model the rotation of the interferometric fringes via the most precise models of Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP; precession, polar motion and UT1, nutation). With this model, we successfully connected our phase delay data at both frequencies and, using difference astrometric techniques, determined the coordinates of 1803+784 relative to those of 1150+812-within the IERS reference frame--with an standard error of about 0.6 mas in each coordinate. We then corrected for several effects including propagation medium (mainly the atmosphere and ionosphere), and opacity and source-structure effects within the radio sources. We stress that our dual-frequency measurements allowed us to accurately subtract the ionosphere contribution from our data. We also used GPS-based TEC measurements to independently find the ionosphere contribution, and showed that these contributions agree with our dual-frequency measurements within about 2 standard deviations in the less favorables cases (the longest baselines), but are usually well within one standard deviation. Our estimates of the relative positions, whether using dual-frequency-based or GPS-based ionosphere

  16. High precision metrology based microwave effective linewidth measurement technique

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, Nan; Green, Jerome J.; Beitscher, Bailey A.; Patton, Carl E.

    2007-11-15

    A precision microwave effective linewidth measurement technique for magnetic samples has been developed. The measurement utilizes a high-Q cylindrical cavity that contains the sample of interest, a highly stable and programable static magnetic field source, a computer controlled network analyzer for cavity center frequency {omega}{sub c} and quality factor Q{sub c} determinations, and the standard metrological substitution ABA method for accurate relative {omega}{sub c} and Q{sub c} measurements. Sequential long term ABA measurements show that the time and temperature drifts and random errors are the dominant sources of error, with uncertainties in {omega}{sub c}/2{pi} and Q{sub c} in the range of 50 kHz and 25, respectively. The ABA method is applied to eliminate these drifts and minimize the random errors. For measurements over 25 ABA cycles, accuracy is improved to 0.14 kHz for {omega}{sub c}/2{pi} and 3 for Q{sub c}. The temperature variation over a single ABA cycle is generally on the order of 10{sup -3}-10{sup -5} deg. C and there is no need for any further temperature stabilization or correction measures. The overall uncertainty in the 10 GHz effective linewidth determinations for a 3 mm diam, 0.5 mm thick polycrystalline yttrium iron garnet (YIG) disk is 0.15 Oe or less, well below the intrinsic single crystal YIG linewidth. This represents a factor of 10 improvement in measurement accuracy over previous work.

  17. HIGH-PRECISION ASTROMETRY WITH A DIFFRACTIVE PUPIL TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Guyon, Olivier; Eisner, Josh A.; Angel, Roger; Woolf, Neville J.; Bendek, Eduardo A.; Milster, Thomas D.; Mark Ammons, S.; Shao, Michael; Shaklan, Stuart; Levine, Marie; Nemati, Bijan; Pitman, Joe; Woodruff, Robert A.; Belikov, Ruslan

    2012-06-01

    Astrometric detection and mass determination of Earth-mass exoplanets require sub-{mu}as accuracy, which is theoretically possible with an imaging space telescope using field stars as an astrometric reference. The measurement must, however, overcome astrometric distortions, which are much larger than the photon noise limit. To address this issue, we propose to generate faint stellar diffraction spikes using a two-dimensional grid of regularly spaced small dark spots added to the surface of the primary mirror (PM). Accurate astrometric motion of the host star is obtained by comparing the position of the spikes to the background field stars. The spikes do not contribute to scattered light in the central part of the field and therefore allow unperturbed coronagraphic observation of the star's immediate surroundings. Because the diffraction spikes are created on the PM and imaged on the same focal plane detector as the background stars, astrometric distortions affect equally the diffraction spikes and the background stars and are therefore calibrated. We describe the technique, detail how the data collected by the wide-field camera are used to derive astrometric motion, and identify the main sources of astrometric error using numerical simulations and analytical derivations. We find that the 1.4 m diameter telescope, 0.3 deg{sup 2} field we adopt as a baseline design achieves 0.2 {mu}as single measurement astrometric accuracy. The diffractive pupil concept thus enables sub-{mu}as astrometry without relying on the accurate pointing, external metrology, or high-stability hardware required with previously proposed high-precision astrometry concepts.

  18. Vibratory response of a precision double-multi-layer monochromator positioning system using a generic modeling program with experimental verification.

    SciTech Connect

    Barraza, J.

    1998-07-29

    A generic vibratory response-modeling program has been developed as a tool for designing high-precision optical positioning systems. The systems are modeled as rigid-body structures connected by linear non-rigid elements such as complex actuators and bearings. The full dynamic properties of each non-rigid element are determined experimentally or theoretically, then integrated into the program as inertial and stiffness matrices. Thus, it is possible to have a suite of standardize structural elements for modeling many different positioning systems that use standardized components. This paper will present the application of this program to a double-multi-layer monochromator positioning system that utilizes standardized components. Calculated results are compared to experimental modal analysis results.

  19. Experimental Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of the 2001 Mars Surveyor Precision Lander with Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; OConnell, Tod F.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Prabhu, Ramadas K.; Alter, Stephen J.

    2002-01-01

    Aerodynamic wind-tunnel screening tests were conducted on a 0.029 scale model of a proposed Mars Surveyor 2001 Precision Lander (70 deg half angle spherically blunted cone with a conical afterbody). The primary experimental objective was to determine the effectiveness of a single flap to trim the vehicle at incidence during a lifting hypersonic planetary entry. The laminar force and moment data, presented in the form of coefficients, and shock patterns from schlieren photography were obtained in the NASA Langley Aerothermodynamic Laboratory for post-normal shock Reynolds numbers (based on forebody diameter) ranging from 2,637 to 92,350, angles of attack ranging from 0 tip to 23 degrees at 0 and 2 degree sideslip, and normal-shock density ratios of 5 and 12. Based upon the proposed entry trajectory of the 2001 Lander, the blunt body heavy gas tests in CF, simulate a Mach number of approximately 12 based upon a normal shock density ratio of 12 in flight at Mars. The results from this experimental study suggest that when traditional means of providing aerodynamic trim for this class of planetary entry vehicle are not possible (e.g. offset c.g.), a single flap can provide similar aerodynamic performance. An assessment of blunt body aerodynamic effects attributed to a real gas were obtained by synergistic testing in Mach 6 ideal-air at a comparable Reynolds number. From an aerodynamic perspective, an appropriately sized flap was found to provide sufficient trim capability at the desired L/D for precision landing. Inviscid hypersonic flow computations using an unstructured grid were made to provide a quick assessment of the Lander aerodynamics. Navier-Stokes computational predictions were found to be in very good agreement with experimental measurement.

  20. Precision optical slit for high heat load or ultra high vacuum

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, N.C.; DiGennaro, R.S.; Swain, T.L.

    1995-01-24

    This invention relates generally to slits used in optics that must be precisely aligned and adjusted. The optical slits of the present invention are useful in x-ray optics, x-ray beam lines, optical systems in which the entrance slit is critical for high wavelength resolution. The invention is particularly useful in ultra high vacuum systems where lubricants are difficult to use and designs which avoid the movement of metal parts against one another are important, such as monochromators for high wavelength resolution with ultra high vacuum systems. The invention further relates to optical systems in which temperature characteristics of the slit materials is important. The present invention yet additionally relates to precision slits wherein the opposing edges of the slit must be precisely moved relative to a center line between the edges with each edge retaining its parallel orientation with respect to the other edge and/or the center line. 21 figures.

  1. Precision optical slit for high heat load or ultra high vacuum

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Nord C.; DiGennaro, Richard S.; Swain, Thomas L.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates generally to slits used in optics that must be precisely aligned and adjusted. The optical slits of the present invention are useful in x-ray optics, x-ray beam lines, optical systems in which the entrance slit is critical for high wavelength resolution. The invention is particularly useful in ultra high vacuum systems where lubricants are difficult to use and designs which avoid the movement of metal parts against one another are important, such as monochrometers for high wavelength resolution with ultra high vacuum systems. The invention further relates to optical systems in which temperature characteristics of the slit materials is important. The present invention yet additionally relates to precision slits wherein the opposing edges of the slit must be precisely moved relative to a center line between the edges with each edge retaining its parallel orientation with respect to the other edge and/or the center line.

  2. High-precision photometry of WASP-12 b transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, G.; Errmann, R.; Raetz, St.; Seeliger, M.; Spaleniak, I.; Neuhäuser, R.

    2011-04-01

    Aims: The transiting extrasolar planet WASP-12 b was found to be one of the most intensely irradiated exoplanets. It is unexpectedly bloated and is losing mass that may accrete into the host star. Our aim was to refine the parameters of this intriguing system and search for signs of transit timing variations. Methods: We gathered high-precision light curves for two transits of WASP-12 b. Assuming various limb-darkening laws, we generated best-fitting models and redetermined the parameters of the system. Error estimates were derived by the prayer-bead method and Monte Carlo simulations. Results: System parameters obtained by us are found to agree with previous studies within one sigma. Use of the non-linear limb-darkening laws results in the best-fitting models. With two new mid-transit times, the ephemeris was refined to BJDTDB = (2 454 508.97682 ± 0.00020) + (1.09142245 ± 0.00000033)E. Interestingly, indications of transit timing variation are detected at the level of 3.4 sigma. This signal can be induced by an additional planet in the system. Simplified numerical simulations show that a perturber could be a terrestrial-type planet if both planets are in a low-order orbital resonance. However, we emphasise that further observations are needed to confirm variation and to constrain properties of the perturber. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA), operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC).Photometric data are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/528/A65

  3. Simultaneous Precision Gravimetry and Magnetic Gradiometry with a Bose-Einstein Condensate: A High Precision, Quantum Sensor.

    PubMed

    Hardman, K S; Everitt, P J; McDonald, G D; Manju, P; Wigley, P B; Sooriyabandara, M A; Kuhn, C C N; Debs, J E; Close, J D; Robins, N P

    2016-09-23

    A Bose-Einstein condensate is used as an atomic source for a high precision sensor. A 5×10^{6}  atom F=1 spinor condensate of ^{87}Rb is released into free fall for up to 750 ms and probed with a T=130  ms Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer based on Bragg transitions. The Bragg interferometer simultaneously addresses the three magnetic states |m_{f}=1,0,-1⟩, facilitating a simultaneous measurement of the acceleration due to gravity with a 1000 run precision of Δg/g=1.45×10^{-9} and the magnetic field gradient to a precision of 120  pT/m.

  4. High Precision Prediction of Functional Sites in Protein Structures

    PubMed Central

    Buturovic, Ljubomir; Wong, Mike; Tang, Grace W.; Altman, Russ B.; Petkovic, Dragutin

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of assigning biological function to solved protein structures. Computational tools play a critical role in identifying potential active sites and informing screening decisions for further lab analysis. A critical parameter in the practical application of computational methods is the precision, or positive predictive value. Precision measures the level of confidence the user should have in a particular computed functional assignment. Low precision annotations lead to futile laboratory investigations and waste scarce research resources. In this paper we describe an advanced version of the protein function annotation system FEATURE, which achieved 99% precision and average recall of 95% across 20 representative functional sites. The system uses a Support Vector Machine classifier operating on the microenvironment of physicochemical features around an amino acid. We also compared performance of our method with state-of-the-art sequence-level annotator Pfam in terms of precision, recall and localization. To our knowledge, no other functional site annotator has been rigorously evaluated against these key criteria. The software and predictive models are incorporated into the WebFEATURE service at http://feature.stanford.edu/wf4.0-beta. PMID:24632601

  5. Derivative properties from high-precision equations of state.

    PubMed

    Haghbakhsh, Reza; Konttorp, Morten; Raeissi, Sona; Peters, Cor J; O'Connell, John P

    2014-12-11

    In this study, the behavior of derivative properties estimated by equations of state, including isochoric heat capacity, isobaric heat capacity, speed of sound, and the Joule-Thomson coefficient for pure compounds and a mixture, has been investigated. The Schmidt-Wagner and Jacobsen-Stewart equations of state were used for predictions of derivative properties of 10 different pure compounds from various nonpolar hydrocarbons, nonpolar cyclic hydrocarbons, polar compounds, and refrigerants. The estimations were compared to experimental data. To evaluate the behavior of mixtures, the extended corresponding states principle (ECS) was studied. Analytical relationships were derived for isochoric heat capacity, isobaric heat capacity, the Joule-Thomson coefficient, and the speed of sound. The ECS calculations were compared to the reference surface data of methane + ethane. The ECS principle was found to generate data of high quality.

  6. The interferometric method for measuring the generatrix straightness of high precision cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yanhui; Li, Huailu; Diao, Xiaofei; Zhang, Heng

    2015-10-01

    Cone parts are widely used in advanced manufacturing and precision mechanics, providing air proof, torque transmission and so on. The straightness of generatrix is one of the important parameters, and the required accuracy can be up to submicrometers. In order to realize the rapid and high precision generatrix measurement of smooth surface cone, a laser interferometric method is proposed based on the structure of typical Fizeau interferometer. The high precision optical flat is used for reference standard, and the surface of cone is the measured object. Two cylindrical lenses with different focal lengths realize unidirectional expansion of parallel beam, solving the problem of CCD camera fringe resolution. The interference fringes are curved because of the cone angle, and the peak is the basis for accurate determination of the generatrix. Two fringe processing techniques are described in detail, which are single-frame and phase-shifting methods. Single-frame method includes two steps, i.e. the calculation of integral part and decimal part. The advantage of this method is the simple measurement structure. Phase-shifting method needs piezoelectric transducer (PZT) to generate several steps for phase calculation, with the advantage of high accuracy. The experimental results show that the straightness measurement accuracy can be better than 0.2 μm.

  7. A Novel Gravity Compensation Method for High Precision Free-INS Based on "Extreme Learning Machine".

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao; Yang, Gongliu; Cai, Qingzhong; Wang, Jing

    2016-11-29

    In recent years, with the emergency of high precision inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyros), gravity compensation has become a major source influencing the navigation accuracy in inertial navigation systems (INS), especially for high-precision INS. This paper presents preliminary results concerning the effect of gravity disturbance on INS. Meanwhile, this paper proposes a novel gravity compensation method for high-precision INS, which estimates the gravity disturbance on the track using the extreme learning machine (ELM) method based on measured gravity data on the geoid and processes the gravity disturbance to the height where INS has an upward continuation, then compensates the obtained gravity disturbance into the error equations of INS to restrain the INS error propagation. The estimation accuracy of the gravity disturbance data is verified by numerical tests. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the ELM estimation method can be improved by 23% and 44% compared with the bilinear interpolation method in plain and mountain areas, respectively. To further validate the proposed gravity compensation method, field experiments with an experimental vehicle were carried out in two regions. Test 1 was carried out in a plain area and Test 2 in a mountain area. The field experiment results also prove that the proposed gravity compensation method can significantly improve the positioning accuracy. During the 2-h field experiments, the positioning accuracy can be improved by 13% and 29% respectively, in Tests 1 and 2, when the navigation scheme is compensated by the proposed gravity compensation method.

  8. A High Precision Scanning Control System For A VUV Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    De Oliveira, N.; Nahon, L.; Polack, F.; Joyeux, D.; Phalippou, D.; Rodier, J. C.; Vervloeet, M.

    2007-01-19

    A VUV Fourier transform spectrometer based on a wavefront division interferometer has been built. Our ultimate goal is to provide a high resolution absorption spectrometer in the 140 - 40 nm range using the new third generation French synchrotron source Soleil as the background continuum. Here, we present the design and latest performance of the instrument scanning control system. It is based on multiple reflections of a monomode, frequency-stabilized HeNe laser between two plane mirrors allowing the required sensitivity on the displacement of the interferometer mobile arm. The experimental results on the sampling precision show an rms error below 5 nm for a travel length of 7.5 mm.

  9. High precision ages from the Torres del Paine Intrusion, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, J.; Baumgartner, L.; Cosca, M.; Ovtcharova, M.; Putlitz, B.; Schaltegger, U.

    2006-12-01

    The upper crustal bimodal Torres del Paine Intrusion, southern Chile, consists of the lower Paine-Mafic- Complex and the upper Paine-Granite. Geochronologically this bimodal complex is not well studied except for a few existing data from Halpern (1973) and Sanchez (2006). The aim of this study is to supplement the existing data and to constrain the age relations between the major magmatic pulses by applying high precision U-Pb dating on accessory zircons and 40Ar/39Ar-laser-step-heating-ages on biotites from the Torres del Paine Intrusion. The magmatic rocks from mafic complex are fine to medium-grained and vary in composition from quartz- monzonites to granodiorites and gabbros. Coarse-grained olivine gabbros have intruded these rocks in the west. The granitic body is represented by a peraluminous, biotite-orthoclase-granite and a more evolved leucocratic granite in the outer parts towards the host-rock. Field observations suggest a feeder-zone for the granite in the west and that the granite postdates the mafic complex. Two granite samples of the outermost margins in the Northeast and South were analyzed. The zircons were dated by precise isotope-dilution U-Pb techniques of chemically abraded single grains. The data are concordant within the analytical error and define weighted mean 206/238U ages of 12.59 ± 0.03 Ma and 12.58 ± 0.01 Ma for the two samples respectively. A 40Ar/39Ar-age for the second sample yield a date of 12.37 ± 0.11 Ma. Three 40Ar/39Ar -ages of biotites were obtained for rocks belonging to the mafic complex. A hbl-bio- granodiorite from the central part, approximately 150 m below the subhorizontal contact with the granite, gives an age of 12.81 ± 0.11 Ma. A hbl-bio-granodiorite and an olivine-gabbro west of the feeder-zone date at 12.42 ± 0.14 Ma and 12.49 ± 0.11 Ma, respectively. The obtained older age of 12.81 Ma for the granodiorite in the central part is consistent with structural relationships of brittle fracturing of the mafic

  10. High-Precision Coupling Mechanism Operable By Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voellmer, George

    1992-01-01

    Coupling mechanism has features making it easily operable by hand and suitable for operation by robots: tolerates some initial misalignment, imposes precise final alignment, and protects itself against overtightening. Typically used to mount equipment module on structure. Mechanism includes kinematic mounts, which tolerate small initial misalignment and enforce precise final alignment as two assemblies brought together. Clamping force applied to kinematic mounts via two flexible plates. Bolt and nut tightened on flexible plates to impose spring clamping load. Repeatability of interface tested and found to be better than forty-millionths of inch.

  11. Ultrasonic scattering from a hemispherical pit theory and experimental measurement precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eason, Thomas J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Lozev, Mark G.

    2017-02-01

    The accuracy and precision of pulse-echo ultrasonic thickness measurement systems are influenced by systematic and environmental factors including the topographic profile of the back-wall surface. For the case of thickness measurement from the outside surface of a pipe, the back-wall surface can vary in roughness as a result of internal corrosion. A single corrosive pit can be geometrically represented by a hemisphere in a half-space to model the initiation point of rough surface corrosion, or to model isolated pitting degradation as is possible with naphthenic acid corrosion in oil refineries. The elastic wave scattering from a single hemispherical pit has been studied in the Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) community, as well as scattering from a hemispherical canyon in the seismology community for various incident and reflected wave angles, modes, and frequency ranges with both analytical and discretized numerical methods. This paper looks to first review recent scattering theory (developed in the seismology community) on a full frequency range analytical solution for a normal incident longitudinal wave at a normal reflection angle from a hemispherical canyon, and then extend this theory to NDE applications with the introduction of a new far-field scattering amplitude term. Next, a selection of new theoretical scattering amplitude solutions are presented along with semi-analytical simulation and experimental measurement results. Finally, a statistical methodology to determine thickness measurement accuracy and precision taking into consideration asymmetric measurement uncertainty is referenced.

  12. CUSB-II: a high precision electromagnetic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schamberger, R. D.; Heintz, U.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lovelock, D. M. J.; Narain, M.; Willins, J.; Yanagisawa, C.; Tuts, P. M.; Franzini, P.; Kanekal, S.; Wu, Q. W.

    1991-11-01

    The design, construction and performance of a very compact precision electromagnetic spectrometer is described. The CUSB-II detector has been used to study ϒ spectroscopy, search for exotic particles and measure properties of the B and B ∗ mesons at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring.

  13. Unraveling high precision stereocontrol in a triple cascade organocatalytic reaction.

    PubMed

    Shinisha, C B; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2008-11-07

    The mechanism and stereoselectivity in an organocatalyzed triple cascade reaction between an aldehyde, electron deficient olefin and an alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde are investigated for the first time using density functional theory. The factors responsible for high levels of observed stereoselectivity (Enders et al., Nature, 2006, 441, 861) towards the generation of cyclohexene carbaldehyde with four contiguous stereocentres are unravelled. The triple cascade reaction, comprising a Michael, Michael and aldol sequence as the key elementary reactions, is studied by identifying the corresponding transition states for the stereoselective C-C bond-formation. In the first Michael addition step between the enamine (derived from the chiral catalyst and propanal) and nitrostyrene, energetically the most preferred mode of addition is found to be between the si-face of (E)-anti-enamine on the si-face of nitrostyrene. The addition of the si-face of the nitroalkane anion on the re-face of the iminium ion (formed between the enal and the catalyst) is the lowest energy pathway for the second Michael addition step. The high level of asymmetric induction is rationalized with the help of relative activation barriers associated with the competitive diastereomeric pathways. Interesting weak interactions, along with the steric effects offered by the bulky alpha-substituent on the pyrrolidine ring, are identified as critical to the stereoselectivity in this triple cascade reaction. The predicted stereoselectivities using computed energetics are found to be in perfect harmony with the experimental stereoselectivities.

  14. Experimental high-speed network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeill, Kevin M.; Klein, William P.; Vercillo, Richard; Alsafadi, Yasser H.; Parra, Miguel V.; Dallas, William J.

    1993-09-01

    Many existing local area networking protocols currently applied in medical imaging were originally designed for relatively low-speed, low-volume networking. These protocols utilize small packet sizes appropriate for text based communication. Local area networks of this type typically provide raw bandwidth under 125 MHz. These older network technologies are not optimized for the low delay, high data traffic environment of a totally digital radiology department. Some current implementations use point-to-point links when greater bandwidth is required. However, the use of point-to-point communications for a total digital radiology department network presents many disadvantages. This paper describes work on an experimental multi-access local area network called XFT. The work includes the protocol specification, and the design and implementation of network interface hardware and software. The protocol specifies the Physical and Data Link layers (OSI layers 1 & 2) for a fiber-optic based token ring providing a raw bandwidth of 500 MHz. The protocol design and implementation of the XFT interface hardware includes many features to optimize image transfer and provide flexibility for additional future enhancements which include: a modular hardware design supporting easy portability to a variety of host system buses, a versatile message buffer design providing 16 MB of memory, and the capability to extend the raw bandwidth of the network to 3.0 GHz.

  15. Preliminary design approach for large high precision segmented reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Collins, Timothy J.; Hedgepeth, John M.

    1990-01-01

    A simplified preliminary design capability for erectable precision segmented reflectors is presented. This design capability permits a rapid assessment of a wide range of reflector parameters as well as new structural concepts and materials. The preliminary design approach was applied to a range of precision reflectors from 10 meters to 100 meters in diameter while considering standard design drivers. The design drivers considered were: weight, fundamental frequency, launch packaging volume, part count, and on-orbit assembly time. For the range of parameters considered, on-orbit assembly time was identified as the major design driver. A family of modular panels is introduced which can significantly reduce the number of reflector parts and the on-orbit assembly time.

  16. Joint Estimation of Multiple High-dimensional Precision Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Cai, T. Tony; Li, Hongzhe; Liu, Weidong; Xie, Jichun

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by analysis of gene expression data measured in different tissues or disease states, we consider joint estimation of multiple precision matrices to effectively utilize the partially shared graphical structures of the corresponding graphs. The procedure is based on a weighted constrained ℓ∞/ℓ1 minimization, which can be effectively implemented by a second-order cone programming. Compared to separate estimation methods, the proposed joint estimation method leads to estimators converging to the true precision matrices faster. Under certain regularity conditions, the proposed procedure leads to an exact graph structure recovery with a probability tending to 1. Simulation studies show that the proposed joint estimation methods outperform other methods in graph structure recovery. The method is illustrated through an analysis of an ovarian cancer gene expression data. The results indicate that the patients with poor prognostic subtype lack some important links among the genes in the apoptosis pathway.

  17. Ion source for high-precision mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Todd, Peter J.; McKown, Henry S.; Smith, David H.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is directed to a method for increasing the precision of positive-ion relative abundance measurements conducted in a sector mass spectrometer having an ion source for directing a beam of positive ions onto a collimating slit. The method comprises incorporating in the source an electrostatic lens assembly for providing a positive-ion beam of circular cross section for collimation by the slit.

  18. Ion source for high-precision mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Todd, P.J.; McKown, H.S.; Smith, D.H.

    1982-04-26

    The invention is directed to a method for increasing the precision of positive-ion relative abundance measurements conducted in a sector mass spectrometer having an ion source for directing a beam of positive ions onto a collimating slit. The method comprises incorporating in the source an electrostatic lens assembly for providing a positive-ion beam of circular cross section for collimation by the slit. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Gauges for Highly Precise Metrology of a Compound Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gursel, Yekta

    2005-01-01

    Three optical gauges have been developed for guiding the assembly and measuring precisely the reflecting surfaces of a compound mirror that comprises a corner-cube retroreflector glued in a hole on a flat mirror. In the specific application for which the gauges were developed, the compound mirror is part of a siderostat in a stellar interferometer. The flat-mirror portion of the compound mirror is the siderostat mirror; the retroreflector portion of the compound mirror is to be used, during operation of the interferometer, to monitor the location of the siderostat mirror surface relative to other optical surfaces of the interferometer. Nominally, the optical corner of the retroreflector should lie precisely on the siderostat mirror surface, but this precision cannot be achieved in fabrication: in practice, there remains some distance between the optical corner and the siderostat mirror surface. For proper operation of the interferometer, it is required to make this distance as small as possible and to know this distance within 1 nm. The three gauges make it possible to satisfy these requirements.

  20. Small Scale Landscape Evolution: Rainfall Simulations On High Precision Dtms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, F.; Moretti, S.

    Processes characterizing the evolution of relief have recently been recognized as hav- ing scaling properties both in their physical behavior and in their effects on the shape of landscape. Sophisticated evolutionary models have been devised so far, which takes also into account fractal properties, self-similarity and self-organized criticality, espe- cially in the organization of river networks inside catchments. Despite these efforts, which are generally successful from a theoretical point of view, few attempts have been made to actually test these hypotheses in the field. This is due mainly to the dif- ficulties connected with the practical realization of suitable physical models as well as with the problem of the time scale of such processes when dealing with whole river basins. This paper, that presents experimental data on the geometric and morphometric evolution of small scale soil parcels after simulated cycles of rainfall, could contribute to partially fill this gap giving insight on the spatial patterns of newly formed valleys and ridges as well as on the most stable geomorphological configurations. Starting from chosen parcels on crops or bare soils in central Italy, rainfall simulations have been undertaken over repeating cycles of storms. At the beginning of the experiment and after each event, a high resolution DTM of the parcel was automatically generated by means of a recently developed digital stereo-photogrammetric ground-based tech- nique. At the same time, sediment yield and runoff were measured. All the studied parcels were initially characterized by the absence of an internal channel system. Ini- tial topographies could basically be considered as random space functions with quasi- isotropic distribution of the elevations. Each DTM sequence can thus be regarded as an example of channel building process, from sheet flow erosion to the convergence and intersection of small flows to the full development of the surface, with a system of valleys and

  1. Animal Experimentation in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansevin, Kystyna D.

    1970-01-01

    Recommends that teacher and student be provided with the broadest possible spectrum of meaningful and feasible experiments in which the comfort of the experimental animal is protected by the design of the experiment. (BR)

  2. Computational Calorimetry: High-Precision Calculation of Host-Guest Binding Thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Niel M; Fenley, Andrew T; Gilson, Michael K

    2015-09-08

    We present a strategy for carrying out high-precision calculations of binding free energy and binding enthalpy values from molecular dynamics simulations with explicit solvent. The approach is used to calculate the thermodynamic profiles for binding of nine small molecule guests to either the cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) or β-cyclodextrin (βCD) host. For these systems, calculations using commodity hardware can yield binding free energy and binding enthalpy values with a precision of ∼0.5 kcal/mol (95% CI) in a matter of days. Crucially, the self-consistency of the approach is established by calculating the binding enthalpy directly, via end point potential energy calculations, and indirectly, via the temperature dependence of the binding free energy, i.e., by the van't Hoff equation. Excellent agreement between the direct and van't Hoff methods is demonstrated for both host-guest systems and an ion-pair model system for which particularly well-converged results are attainable. Additionally, we find that hydrogen mass repartitioning allows marked acceleration of the calculations with no discernible cost in precision or accuracy. Finally, we provide guidance for accurately assessing numerical uncertainty of the results in settings where complex correlations in the time series can pose challenges to statistical analysis. The routine nature and high precision of these binding calculations opens the possibility of including measured binding thermodynamics as target data in force field optimization so that simulations may be used to reliably interpret experimental data and guide molecular design.

  3. Processing of high-precision ceramic balls with a spiral V-groove plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ming; Wu, Yongbo; Yuan, Julong; Ping, Zhao

    2017-03-01

    As the demand for high-performance bearings gradually increases, ceramic balls with excellent properties, such as high accuracy, high reliability, and high chemical durability used, are extensively used for highperformance bearings. In this study, a spiral V-groove plate method is employed in processing high-precision ceramic balls. After the kinematic analysis of the ball-spin angle and enveloped lapping trajectories, an experimental rig is constructed and experiments are conducted to confirm the feasibility of this method. Kinematic analysis results indicate that the method not only allows for the control of the ball-spin angle but also uniformly distributes the enveloped lapping trajectories over the entire ball surface. Experimental results demonstrate that the novel spiral Vgroove plate method performs better than the conventional concentric V-groove plate method in terms of roundness, surface roughness, diameter difference, and diameter decrease rate. Ceramic balls with a G3-level accuracy are achieved, and their typical roundness, minimum surface roughness, and diameter difference are 0.05, 0.0045, and 0.105 μm, respectively. These findings confirm that the proposed method can be applied to high-accuracy and high-consistency ceramic ball processing.

  4. Visual Inspection of Machined Metallic High-Precision Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernkopf, Franz; O'Leary, Paul

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents a surface inspection prototype of an automatic system for precision ground metallic surfaces, in this case bearing rolls. The surface reflectance properties are modeled and verified with optical experiments. The aim being to determine the optical arrangement for illumination and observation, where the contrast between errors and intact surface is maximized. A new adaptive threshold selection algorithm for segmentation is presented. Additionally, is included an evaluation of a large number of published sequential search algorithms for selection of the best subset of features for the classification with a comparison of their computational requirements. Finally, the results of classification for 540 flaw images are presented.

  5. Proceedings, High-Precision $\\alpha_s$ Measurements from LHC to FCC-ee

    SciTech Connect

    d'Enterria, David; Skands, Peter Z.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides a writeup of all contributions to the workshop on "High precision measurements of $\\alpha_s$: From LHC to FCC-ee" held at CERN, Oct. 12--13, 2015. The workshop explored in depth the latest developments on the determination of the QCD coupling $\\alpha_s$ from 15 methods where high precision measurements are (or will be) available. Those include low-energy observables: (i) lattice QCD, (ii) pion decay factor, (iii) quarkonia and (iv) $\\tau$ decays, (v) soft parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, as well as high-energy observables: (vi) global fits of parton distribution functions, (vii) hard parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, (viii) jets in $e^\\pm$p DIS and $\\gamma$-p photoproduction, (ix) photon structure function in $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$, (x) event shapes and (xi) jet cross sections in $e^+e^-$ collisions, (xii) W boson and (xiii) Z boson decays, and (xiv) jets and (xv) top-quark cross sections in proton-(anti)proton collisions. The current status of the theoretical and experimental uncertainties associated to each extraction method, the improvements expected from LHC data in the coming years, and future perspectives achievable in $e^+e^-$ collisions at the Future Circular Collider (FCC-ee) with $\\cal{O}$(1--100 ab$^{-1}$) integrated luminosities yielding 10$^{12}$ Z bosons and jets, and 10$^{8}$ W bosons and $\\tau$ leptons, are thoroughly reviewed. The current uncertainty of the (preliminary) 2015 strong coupling world-average value, $\\alpha_s(m_Z)$ = 0.1177 $\\pm$ 0.0013, is about 1\\%. Some participants believed this may be reduced by a factor of three in the near future by including novel high-precision observables, although this opinion was not universally shared. At the FCC-ee facility, a factor of ten reduction in the $\\alpha_s$ uncertainty should be possible, mostly thanks to the huge Z and W data samples available.

  6. High precision high voltage divider and its application to electron beam ion traps

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W. D.; Xiao, J.; Shen, Y.; Fu, Y. Q.; Meng, F. C.; Chen, C. Y.; Zou, Y.; Hutton, R.

    2008-12-15

    A high precision high voltage divider has been developed for the electron beam ion trap in Shanghai. The uncertainty caused by the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and the voltage coefficient of resistance has been studied in detail and was minimized to the level of ppm (10{sup -6}) range. Once the TCR was matched between the resistors, the precision of the dividing ratio finally reached the ppm range also. We measured the delay of the divider caused by the capacitor introduced to minimize voltage ripple to be 2.35 ms. Finally we applied the divider to an experiment to measure resonant energies for some dielectronic recombination processes for highly charged xenon ions. The final energies include corrections for both space charge and fringe field effects are mostly under 0.03%.

  7. Precision compression molding of glass microlenses and microlens arrays--an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Firestone, G C; Yi, A Y

    2005-10-10

    An innovative manufacturing process utilizing high-temperature compression molding to fabricate aspherical microlenses by using optical glasses, such as BK7, K-PG325, and soda-lime glass, is investigated. In a departure from conventional approaches, a unique hollow contactless mold design is adopted. Polished glass substrates and the mold assembly are heated above the glass transition temperature first, followed by initial forming, then annealing. The forming rate is controlled in real time to ensure mold position accuracy. Mold materials used include tungsten carbides, 316 stainless steel, 715 copper nickel, and aluminum alloys. The geometric control of the microlenses or microlens arrays can be precisely controlled by the forming temperature, forming speed, mold design, and annealing time.

  8. Decade-spanning high-precision terahertz frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Finneran, Ian A; Good, Jacob T; Holland, Daniel B; Carroll, P Brandon; Allodi, Marco A; Blake, Geoffrey A

    2015-04-24

    The generation and detection of a decade-spanning terahertz (THz) frequency comb is reported using two Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser oscillators and asynchronous optical sampling THz time-domain spectroscopy. The comb extends from 0.15 to 2.4 THz, with a tooth spacing of 80 MHz, a linewidth of 3.7 kHz, and a fractional precision of 1.8×10^{-9}. With time-domain detection of the comb, we measure three transitions of water vapor at 10 mTorr between 1-2 THz with an average Doppler-limited fractional accuracy of 6.1×10^{-8}. Significant improvements in bandwidth, resolution, and sensitivity are possible with existing technologies.

  9. Aerospace Laser Ignition/Ablation Variable High Precision Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Jonathan W. (Inventor); Edwards, David L. (Inventor); Campbell, Jason J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A laser ignition/ablation propulsion system that captures the advantages of both liquid and solid propulsion. A reel system is used to move a propellant tape containing a plurality of propellant material targets through an ignition chamber. When a propellant target is in the ignition chamber, a laser beam from a laser positioned above the ignition chamber strikes the propellant target, igniting the propellant material and resulting in a thrust impulse. The propellant tape is advanced, carrying another propellant target into the ignition chamber. The propellant tape and ignition chamber are designed to ensure that each ignition event is isolated from the remaining propellant targets. Thrust and specific impulse may by precisely controlled by varying the synchronized propellant tape/laser speed. The laser ignition/ablation propulsion system may be scaled for use in small and large applications.

  10. A high precision, compact electromechanical ground rotation sensor.

    PubMed

    Dergachev, V; DeSalvo, R; Asadoor, M; Bhawal, A; Gong, P; Kim, C; Lottarini, A; Minenkov, Y; Murphy, C; O'Toole, A; Peña Arellano, F E; Rodionov, A V; Shaner, M; Sobacchi, E

    2014-05-01

    We present a mechanical rotation sensor consisting of a balance pivoting on a tungsten carbide knife edge. These sensors are important for precision seismic isolation systems, as employed in land-based gravitational wave interferometers and for the new field of rotational seismology. The position sensor used is an air-core linear variable differential transformer with a demonstrated noise floor of 1 × 10⁻¹¹ m/√Hz. We describe the instrument construction and demonstrate low noise operation with a noise floor upper bound of 5.7 × 10⁻⁹ rad/√Hz at 10 mHz and 6.4 × 10⁻¹⁰ rad/√Hz at 0.1 Hz. The performance of the knife edge hinge is compatible with a behaviorur free of noise from dislocation self-organized criticality.

  11. Decade-Spanning High-Precision Terahertz Frequency Comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finneran, Ian A.; Good, Jacob T.; Holland, Daniel B.; Carroll, P. Brandon; Allodi, Marco A.; Blake, Geoffrey A.

    2015-04-01

    The generation and detection of a decade-spanning terahertz (THz) frequency comb is reported using two Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser oscillators and asynchronous optical sampling THz time-domain spectroscopy. The comb extends from 0.15 to 2.4 THz, with a tooth spacing of 80 MHz, a linewidth of 3.7 kHz, and a fractional precision of 1.8 ×10-9 . With time-domain detection of the comb, we measure three transitions of water vapor at 10 mTorr between 1-2 THz with an average Doppler-limited fractional accuracy of 6.1 ×10-8 . Significant improvements in bandwidth, resolution, and sensitivity are possible with existing technologies.

  12. A high precision, compact electromechanical ground rotation sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Dergachev, V.; DeSalvo, R.; Asadoor, M.; Bhawal, A.; Gong, P.; Kim, C.; Lottarini, A.; Minenkov, Y.; Murphy, C.; O'Toole, A.; Peña Arellano, F. E.; and others

    2014-05-15

    We present a mechanical rotation sensor consisting of a balance pivoting on a tungsten carbide knife edge. These sensors are important for precision seismic isolation systems, as employed in land-based gravitational wave interferometers and for the new field of rotational seismology. The position sensor used is an air-core linear variable differential transformer with a demonstrated noise floor of 1 × 10{sup −11}m/√( Hz ). We describe the instrument construction and demonstrate low noise operation with a noise floor upper bound of 5.7 × 10{sup −9} rad /√( Hz ) at 10 mHz and 6.4 × 10{sup −10} rad /√( Hz ) at 0.1 Hz. The performance of the knife edge hinge is compatible with a behaviorur free of noise from dislocation self-organized criticality.

  13. High Precision Cosmology with the Cosmic Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhang, Marzieh

    In this thesis we investigate the two cosmic epochs of inflation and recombination, through their imprints on the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background radiation. To probe the early universe we develop a map-based maximum-likelihood estimator to measure the amplitude of inflation-induced gravity waves, parametrized by r, from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization maps. Being optimal by construction, the estimator avoids E-B mixing, a possible source of contamination in the tiny B-mode detection, the target of many current and near future CMB experiments. We explore the leakage from the E- to the B-mode of polarization by using this estimator to study the linear response of the B-mode signal at different scales to variations in the E- mode power. Similarly, for various observational cases, we probe the dependence of r measurement on the signal from different scales of E and B polarization. The estimator is used to make forecasts for Spider-like and Planck-like experimental specifications and to investigate the sky-coverage optimization of the Spider-like case. We compare the forecast errors on r to the results from a similar multipole-based estimator which, by ignoring the mode-mixing, sets a lower limit on the achievable error on r. We find that an experiment with Spider-like specifications with fsky ˜ 0:02--0:2 could place a 2sigma r ≈ 0:014 bound (˜ 95% CL), which rises to 0:02 with an ℓ-dependent foreground residual left over from an assumed efficient component separation. For the Planck-like survey, a Galaxy-masked ( fsky = 0:75) sky would give 2sigmar ≈ 0:015, rising to ≈ 0:05 with the foreground residuals. We also use a novel information-based framework to compare how different generations of CMB experiments reveal information about the early universe, through their measurements of r. We also probe the epoch of recombination by investigating possible fluctuations in the free electron fraction Xe

  14. HIGH-PRECISION DYNAMICAL MASSES OF VERY LOW MASS BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacky, Q. M.; Ghez, A. M.; McLean, I. S.; Barman, T. S.; Rice, E. L.; Bailey, J. I.; White, R. J.; Duchene, G. E-mail: ghez@astro.ucla.ed E-mail: barman@lowell.ed E-mail: white@chara.gsu.ed

    2010-03-10

    We present the results of a three year monitoring program of a sample of very low mass (VLM) field binaries using both astrometric and spectroscopic data obtained in conjunction with the laser guide star adaptive optics system on the W. M. Keck II 10 m telescope. Among the 24 systems studied, 15 have undergone sufficient orbital motion, allowing us to derive their relative orbital parameters and hence their total system mass. These measurements more than double the number of mass measurements for VLM objects, and include the most precise mass measurement to date (<2%). Among the 11 systems with both astrometric and spectroscopic measurements, six have sufficient radial velocity variations to allow us to obtain individual component masses. This is the first derivation of the component masses for five of these systems. Altogether, the orbital solutions of these low mass systems show a correlation between eccentricity and orbital period, consistent with their higher mass counterparts. In our primary analysis, we find that there are systematic discrepancies between our dynamical mass measurements and the predictions of theoretical evolutionary models (TUCSON and LYON) with both models either underpredicting or overpredicting the most precisely determined dynamical masses. These discrepancies are a function of spectral type, with late-M through mid-L systems tending to have their masses underpredicted, while one T-type system has its mass overpredicted. These discrepancies imply that either the temperatures predicted by evolutionary and atmosphere models are inconsistent for an object of a given mass, or the mass-radius relationship or cooling timescales predicted by the evolutionary models are incorrect. If these spectral-type trends are correct and hold into the planetary mass regime, the implication is that the masses of directly imaged extrasolar planets are overpredicted by the evolutionary models.

  15. Study on manufacturing method of optical surface with high precision in angle and surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xin; Li, Xin; Yu, Ze; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Xuebin; Sun, Lipeng; Tong, Yi

    2016-10-01

    This paper studied a manufacturing processing of optical surface with high precision in angel and surface. By theoretical analysis of the relationships between the angel precision and surface, the measurement conversion of the technical indicators, optical-cement method application, the optical-cement tooling design, the experiment has been finished successfully, the processing method has been verified, which can be also used in the manufacturing of the optical surface with similar high precision in angle and surface.

  16. High precision (14 bit), high density (octal) analog to digital converter for spectroscopy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, E. T.; Jain, Mamta; Bhowmik, R. K.; Tripon, Michel

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear and particle physics experiments with large number of detectors require signal processing and data collection strategies that call for the ability to collect large amount of data while not sacrificing the precision and accuracy of the data being collected. This paper deals with the development of a high precision pulse peak detection, analog to digital converter (ADC) module with eight independent channels in plug-in daughter card motherboard model, best suited for spectroscopy experiments. This module provides multiple channels without cross-talk and of 14 bit resolution, while maintaining high density (each daughter card has an area of just 4.2″×0.51″) and exhibiting excellent integral nonlinearity (≤±2 mV or ±0.02% full scale reading) and differential nonlinearity (≤±1%). It was designed, developed and tested, in house, and gives added advantages of cost effectiveness and ease of maintenance.

  17. High precision (14 bit), high density (octal) analog to digital converter for spectroscopy applications.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, E T; Jain, Mamta; Bhowmik, R K; Tripon, Michel

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear and particle physics experiments with large number of detectors require signal processing and data collection strategies that call for the ability to collect large amount of data while not sacrificing the precision and accuracy of the data being collected. This paper deals with the development of a high precision pulse peak detection, analog to digital converter (ADC) module with eight independent channels in plug-in daughter card motherboard model, best suited for spectroscopy experiments. This module provides multiple channels without cross-talk and of 14 bit resolution, while maintaining high density (each daughter card has an area of just 4.2(")x0.51(")) and exhibiting excellent integral nonlinearity (< or = +/-2 mV or +/-0.02% full scale reading) and differential nonlinearity (< or = +/-1%). It was designed, developed and tested, in house, and gives added advantages of cost effectiveness and ease of maintenance.

  18. High-precision control of piezoelectric nanopositioning stages using hysteresis compensator and disturbance observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Guo-Ying; Zhu, Li-Min; Su, Chun-Yi

    2014-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel high-performance control scheme with hysteresis compensator and disturbance observer for high-precision motion control of a nanopositioning stage driven by a piezoelectric stack actuator (PSA). In the developed control scheme, a real-time inverse hysteresis compensator (IHC) with the modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is firstly designed to compensate for the asymmetric hysteresis nonlinearity of the PSA. Due to the imperfect compensation, the dynamics behaviors of the PSA-actuated stage with the IHC can be treated as a linear dynamic system plus a lumped disturbance term. Owing to the unknown nature of this lumped disturbance term, a disturbance observer (DOB) is used as a means for disturbance rejection. With the DOB, a tracking controller is finally designed and implemented to stabilize the position error. To verify the proposed control scheme, a real-time experimental platform with a PSA-actuated nanopositioning stage is built, and extensive experimental tests are performed. The comparative experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and improved performance of the developed control approach in terms of the maximum-value errors, root-mean-square-value errors and hysteresis compensation.

  19. High-speed precision weighing of pharmaceutical capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürmen, Miran; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we present a cost-effective method for fast and accurate in-line weighing of hard gelatin capsules based on the optimized capacitance sensor and real-time processing of the capsule capacitance profile resulting from 5000 capacitance measurements per second. First, the effect of the shape and size of the capacitive sensor on the sensitivity and stability of the measurements was investigated in order to optimize the performance of the system. The method was tested on two types of hard gelatin capsules weighing from 50 mg to 650 mg. The results showed that the capacitance profile was exceptionally well correlated with the capsule weight with the correlation coefficient exceeding 0.999. The mean precision of the measurements was in the range from 1 mg to 3 mg, depending on the size of the capsule and was significantly lower than the 5% weight tolerances usually used by the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, the method was found feasible for weighing pharmaceutical hard gelatin capsules as long as certain conditions are met regarding the capsule fill properties and environment stability. The proposed measurement system can be calibrated by using only two or three sets of capsules with known weight. However, for most applications it is sufficient to use only empty and nominally filled capsules for calibration. Finally, a practical application of the proposed method showed that a single system is capable of weighing around 75 000 capsules per hour, while using multiple systems could easily increase the inspection rate to meet almost any requirements.

  20. High-precision timeline for Earth's most severe extinction.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Seth D; Bowring, Samuel; Shen, Shu-zhong

    2014-03-04

    The end-Permian mass extinction was the most severe loss of marine and terrestrial biota in the last 542 My. Understanding its cause and the controls on extinction/recovery dynamics depends on an accurate and precise age model. U-Pb zircon dates for five volcanic ash beds from the Global Stratotype Section and Point for the Permian-Triassic boundary at Meishan, China, define an age model for the extinction and allow exploration of the links between global environmental perturbation, carbon cycle disruption, mass extinction, and recovery at millennial timescales. The extinction occurred between 251.941 ± 0.037 and 251.880 ± 0.031 Mya, an interval of 60 ± 48 ka. Onset of a major reorganization of the carbon cycle immediately precedes the initiation of extinction and is punctuated by a sharp (3‰), short-lived negative spike in the isotopic composition of carbonate carbon. Carbon cycle volatility persists for ∼500 ka before a return to near preextinction values. Decamillenial to millennial level resolution of the mass extinction and its aftermath will permit a refined evaluation of the relative roles of rate-dependent processes contributing to the extinction, allowing insight into postextinction ecosystem expansion, and establish an accurate time point for evaluating the plausibility of trigger and kill mechanisms.

  1. High Precision Photometry of Bright Transiting Exoplanet Hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Maurice; Eastman, Jason; Johnson, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Within the past two decades, the successful search for exoplanets and the characterization of their physical properties have shown the immense progress that has been made towards finding planets with characteristics similar to Earth. For most exoplanets with a radius about the size of Earth, evaluating their physical properties, such as the mass, radius and equilibrium temperature, cannot be determined with satisfactory precision. The MINiature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA) was recently built to obtain spectroscopic and photometric measurements to find, confirm, and characterize Earth-like exoplanets. MINERVA's spectroscopic survey targets the brightest, nearby stars which are well-suited to the array's capabilities, while its primary photometric goal is to search for transits around these bright targets. Typically, it is difficult to find satisfactory comparison stars within a telescope's field of view when the primary target is very bright. This issue is resolved by using one of MINERVA's telescopes to observe the primary bright star while the other telescopes observe a distinct field of view that contains satisfactory bright comparison stars. We describe the code used to identify nearby comparison stars, schedule the four telescopes, produce differential photometry from multiple telescopes, and show the first results from this effort.This work has been funded by the Ronald E. McNair Post-Baccalaureate Achievement Program, the ERAU Honors Program, the ERAU Undergraduate Research Spark Fund, and the Banneker Institute at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.

  2. High Performance and Increased Precision Techniques for Feynman Loop Integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, K.; de Doncker, E.; Ishikawa, T.; Kapenga, J.; Olagbemi, O.; Yuasa, F.

    2016-10-01

    For the investigation of physics within and beyond the Standard Model, a precise evaluation of higher order corrections in perturbative quantum field theory is required. We have worked on the development of a computational method for Feynman loop integrals with a fully numerical approach. It is based on numerical integration and extrapolation techniques. In this paper, we describe the status and new developments in our techniques for the numerical computation of Feynman loop integrals. Separation of ultra-violet divergences is important for the renormalization procedure. In our analyses, the separation can be done numerically. For 2-loop integrals we have performed the calculations for up to 4-point functions, and for 2-point functions we can handle up to 4- loop integrals. We report the status and accuracy of the computations with detailed numerical comparisons to results in the literature, in order to demonstrate that our method will evolve into an important component of automated systems for the study of higher-order radiative corrections.

  3. Application of GPS in a high precision engineering survey network

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, R.; Leick, A.

    1985-04-01

    A GPS satellite survey was carried out with the Macrometer to support construction at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The network consists of 16 stations of which 9 stations were part of the Macrometer network. The horizontal and vertical accuracy of the GPS survey is estimated to be 1 to 2 mm and 2 to 3 mm respectively. The horizontal accuracy of the terrestrial survey, consisting of angles and distances, equals that of the GPS survey only in the ''loop'' portion of the network. All stations are part of a precise level network. The ellipsoidal heights obtained from the GPS survey and the orthometric heights of the level network are used to compute geoid undulations. A geoid profile along the linac was computed by the National Geodetic Survey in 1963. This profile agreed with the observed geoid within the standard deviation of the GPS survey. Angles and distances were adjusted together (TERRA), and all terrestrial observations were combined with the GPS vector observations in a combination adjustment (COMB). A comparison of COMB and TERRA revealed systematic errors in the terrestrial solution. A scale factor of 1.5 ppM +- .8 ppM was estimated. This value is of the same magnitude as the over-all horizontal accuracy of both networks. 10 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Fully stabilized mid-infrared frequency comb for high-precision molecular spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vainio, Markku; Karhu, Juho

    2017-02-20

    A fully stabilized mid-infrared optical frequency comb spanning from 2.9 to 3.4 µm is described in this article. The comb is based on half-harmonic generation in a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator, which transfers the high phase coherence of a fully stabilized near-infrared Er-doped fiber laser comb to the mid-infrared region. The method is simple, as no phase-locked loops or reference lasers are needed. Precise locking of optical frequencies of the mid-infrared comb to the pump comb is experimentally verified at sub-20 mHz level, which corresponds to a fractional statistical uncertainty of 2 × 10-16 at the center frequency of the mid-infrared comb. The fully stabilized mid-infrared comb is an ideal tool for high-precision molecular spectroscopy, as well as for optical frequency metrology in the mid-infrared region, which is difficult to access with other stabilized frequency comb techniques.

  5. Experimental High Energy Neutrino Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Distefano, Carla

    2005-10-12

    Neutrinos are considered promising probes for high energy astrophysics. More than four decades after deep water Cerenkov technique was proposed to detect high energy neutrinos. Two detectors of this type are successfully taking data: BAIKAL and AMANDA. They have demonstrated the feasibility of the high energy neutrino detection and have set first constraints on TeV neutrino production astrophysical models. The quest for the construction of km3 size detectors have already started: in the South Pole, the IceCube neutrino telescope is under construction; the ANTARES, NEMO and NESTOR Collaborations are working towards the installation of a neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea.

  6. High-precision structure fabrication based on an etching resistance layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Man; Deng, Qiling; Shi, Lifang; Cao, Axiu; Pang, Hui; Liu, Xin; Wang, Jiazhou; Hu, Song

    2016-10-01

    The high-precision fabrication of micro-/nano-structure is a challenge. In this paper, we proposed a new fabrication method of high-precision structure based on an etching resistance layer. The high-precision features were fabricated by photolithography technique, followed by the etching process to transfer the features to the substrate. During this process, the etching uniformity and error lead to the feature distortion. We introduced an etching resistance layer between feature layer and substrate. The etching process will stop when arriving at the resistance layer. Due to the high precision of the plating film, the high-precision structure depth was achieved. In our experiment, we introduced aluminum trioxide as the etching resistance layer. The structures with low depth error of less than 5% were fabricated.

  7. On the evaluation of ultra-high-precision frequency ratio measurements: examining closed loops in a graph theory framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertsson, L.

    2016-12-01

    A simple method is proposed for the evaluation of comparative measurements when closed measurement loops are present in the data. Using a graph theory representation of the data a basis for the residual subspace is readily identified that together with loop closure values provide the input to a matrix equation of the same rank as the number of independent loops in the graph. As an example, ultra-high-precision frequency ratio measurements including optical standards are considered and small corrections to the experimental data are derived, yielding a list of consistent frequency ratios for work on precision frequency standards and discussions relating to a possible future redefinition of the SI second.

  8. High-precision steering of multipleholographic optical traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Christian H. J.; Spatz, Joachim P.; Curtis, Jennifer E.

    2005-10-01

    Locating and steering entire ensembles of microscopic objects has become extremely practical with the emergence of holographic optical tweezers. Application of this technology to single molecule experiments requires great accuracy in the spatial positioning of optical traps. This paper calculates the theoretical position resolution of a single holographic beam, predicting that sub-nanometer resolution is easily achieved. Experimental corroboration of the spatial resolution's inverse dependence on the hologram's number of pixels and phase levels is presented. To at least a nanometer range position resolution, multiple optical tweezers created by complex superposition holograms also follow the theoretical predictions for a single beam.

  9. High-temperature precision forming of titanium blades

    SciTech Connect

    Ermachenko, A.G.; Karavayeva, M.V.

    1996-10-01

    Based on the experimental study of superplastic deformation parameters, a technology was developed for producing near-net-shape compressor blade forgings for gas turbine units from Ti-6.2Al-2.5Mo-1.5Cr-0.2Si-0.5Fe. The mechanical properties of these blades are higher than those of blades produced by conventional methods, and the anisotropy coefficient is reduced. The improved properties of the blades can be attributed to the isotropy of mechanical properties resulting from the homogeneous fine-grained equiaxed structure produced throughout the blade volume.

  10. Design and development of a high-precision, high-payload telescope dual-drive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Michael S.; Beets, Timothy A.; Beno, Joseph H.; Mock, Jason R.; Murphy, Brian T.; South, Brian J.; Good, John M.

    2010-07-01

    A high precision, dual drive system has been designed and developed for the Wide Field Upgrade to the Hobby-Eberly Telescope* at McDonald Observatory in support of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment‡. Analysis, design and controls details will be of interest to designers of large scale, high precision robotic motion devices. The drive system positions the 19,000 kg star tracker to a precision of less than 5 microns along its 4-meter travel. While positioning requirements remain essentially equal to the existing HET, tracker mass increases by a factor greater than 5. The 10.5-meter long tracker is driven at each end by planetary roller screws, each having two distinct drive sources dictated by the desired operation: one slowly rotates the screw when tracking celestial objects and the second rotates the nut for rapid displacements. Key results of the roller screw rotordynamics analysis are presented. A description of the complex bearing arrangement providing required degrees of freedom as well as the impact of a detailed Failure Modes and Effects Analysis addressing necessary safety systems is also presented. Finite element analysis results demonstrate how mechanical springs increase the telescope's natural frequency response by 22 percent. The critical analysis and resulting design is provided.

  11. High-precision control of LSRM based X-Y table for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Pan, J F; Cheung, Norbert C; Zou, Yu

    2013-01-01

    The design of an X-Y table applying direct-drive linear switched reluctance motor (LSRM) principle is proposed in this paper. The proposed X-Y table has the characteristics of low cost, simple and stable mechanical structure. After the design procedure is introduced, an adaptive position control method based on online parameter identification and pole-placement regulation scheme is developed for the X-Y table. Experimental results prove the feasibility and its priority over a traditional PID controller with better dynamic response, static performance and robustness to disturbances. It is expected that the novel two-dimensional direct-drive system find its applications in high-precision manufacture area.

  12. All-optical relative intensity noise suppression method for the high precision fiber optic gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yue; Zhang, Chunxi; Li, Lijing; Song, Lailiang; Zhang, Yuhui

    2016-10-01

    The relative intensity noise (RIN) is a main factor that limits the detection accuracy of the high precision fiber optic gyroscope (FOG). The RIN spectrum is determined by the normalized autocorrelation of the optical spectrum of the broadband source and is intrinsically different from other fundamental noises. In this paper, we propose an all-optical technique to suppress the RIN. With the power addition of the optical waves from the signal optical path and the reference optical path, the RIN is effectively eliminated at the eigen frequency of the FOG, which is also the demodulation window for the rotation rate signal. Compared with the traditional optical configuration of the FOG, there is only one additional optical component. Experimental results show that, with this method, we can achieve a nearly 3-fold improvement in the angular random walk coefficient. The improved optical configuration for RIN suppression is simple to realize and suitable for engineering application.

  13. Precision motion control with a high gain disturbance compensator for linear motors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok Kiong; Zhao, Shao

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, we address the problem relating to the precision control of permanent magnet linear motors to track repeated motion trajectories. A high gain disturbance compensator is developed to improve the control performance degraded due to the presence of significant disturbances. An inverse gain of the overall system model is used to set up a disturbance observer. The observed disturbance is then used to generate a "knocker" signal, to be augmented to the control signal, which can provide the additional energy necessary to overcome the effects of the disturbances. A learning scheme is used to adjust the knocker signal iteratively over the repeated cycles. Simulation and experimental results are furnished to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  14. High precision speed measurement by using interferometric techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Ávila, M. A.; Ochoa Valiente, R.; García Trujillo, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present the experimental realization of speed measurement by the use of a two wave interferometer and digital signal processing techniques. We built an automated Michelson interferometer and using an He-Ne laser and with the use of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and computer algorithms we derived a method for finding the speed of displacement. We report uncertainties in the order of 2-3 μm/s. with the use of this procedure. This brings the potential of another physical variable measurement like distance or pressure by this indirect measurement method. This approach is compared with an ultrasonic Logger Pro ® speed measurement system, and the results are compared between systems.

  15. High-Precision Diagnosis of Malfunctioning Apparatus allowed by Serendipity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaibani, Saami J.

    2010-02-01

    ``An electric brake has a resistance of 376 ohms and operates at 90 volts. If the only supply available is 115 volts, show how the brake can still be made to work.'' The preceding exercise is the theoretical counterpart of a practical problem involving a platform elevator for the physically-challenged. The elevator brake had been inoperable for a considerable period due to an intractable ambiguity, even after two independent technicians working together had established that some components might have been installed improperly. It so happened that the author was on handfootnotetextnote: during a visit to the educational institution concerned. and he suggested an experimental approach for a remedy that could be checked if some standard equipment were provided. Once this item was located, his testing confirmed the viability of the proposed remedy, resulting in a prompt repair and a much-needed return to service. This good outcome was achieved by integrating theory and practice to produce maximum synergy. )

  16. High speed, precision motion strategies for lightweight structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, Wayne J.

    1987-01-01

    Abstracts of published papers and dissertations generated during the reporting period are compiled. Work on fine motion control was completed. Specifically, real time control of flexible manipulator vibrations were experimentally investigated. A linear model based on the application of Lagrangian dynamics to a rigid body mode and a series of separable flexible modes was examined with respect to model order requirements, and modal candidate selection. State feedback control laws were implemented based upon linear quadratic regulator design. Specification of the closed loop poles in the regulator design process was obtained by inclusion of a prescribed degree of stability in the manipulator model. Work on gross motion planning and control is also summarized. A systematic method to symbolically derive the full nonlinear dynamic equations of motion of multi-link flexible manipulators was developed.

  17. Experimental Technique for Producing and Recording Precise Particle Impacts on Transparent Window Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Perry; Guven, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    A new facility for making small particle impacts is being developed at NASA. Current sand/particle impact facilities are an erosion test and do not precisely measure and document the size and velocity of each of the impacting particles. In addition, evidence of individual impacts is often obscured by subsequent impacts. This facility will allow the number, size, and velocity of each particle to be measured and adjusted. It will also be possible to determine which particle produced damage at a given location on the target. The particle size and velocity will be measured by high speed imaging techniques. Information as to the extent of damage and debris from impacts will also be recorded. It will be possible to track these secondary particles, measuring size and velocity. It is anticipated that this additional degree of detail will provide input for erosion models and also help determine the impact physics of the erosion process. Particle impacts will be recorded at 90 degrees to the particle flight path and also from the top looking through the target window material.

  18. High-Precision Ramsey-Comb Spectroscopy at Deep Ultraviolet Wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Altmann, R K; Galtier, S; Dreissen, L S; Eikema, K S E

    2016-10-21

    High-precision spectroscopy in systems such as molecular hydrogen and helium ions is very interesting in view of tests of quantum electrodynamics and the proton radius puzzle. However, the required deep ultraviolet and shorter wavelengths pose serious experimental challenges. Here we show Ramsey-comb spectroscopy in the deep ultraviolet for the first time, thereby demonstrating its enabling capabilities for precision spectroscopy at short wavelengths. We excite ^{84}Kr in an atomic beam on the two-photon 4p^{6}→4p^{5}5p[1/2]_{0} transition at 212.55 nm. It is shown that the ac-Stark shift is effectively eliminated, and combined with a counterpropagating excitation geometry to suppress Doppler effects, a transition frequency of 2 820 833 101 679(103) kHz is found. The uncertainty of our measurement is 34 times smaller than the best previous measurement, and only limited by the 27 ns lifetime of the excited state.

  19. High-precision horizontally directed force measurements for high dead loads based on a differential electromagnetic force compensation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyan, Suren; Rivero, Michel; Schleichert, Jan; Halbedel, Bernd; Fröhlich, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present an application for realizing high-precision horizontally directed force measurements in the order of several tens of nN in combination with high dead loads of about 10 N. The set-up is developed on the basis of two identical state-of-the-art electromagnetic force compensation (EMFC) high precision balances. The measurement resolution of horizontally directed single-axis quasi-dynamic forces is 20 nN over the working range of  ±100 μN. The set-up operates in two different measurement modes: in the open-loop mode the mechanical deflection of the proportional lever is an indication of the acting force, whereas in the closed-loop mode it is the applied electric current to the coil inside the EMFC balance that compensates deflection of the lever to the offset zero position. The estimated loading frequency (cutoff frequency) of the set-up in the open-loop mode is about 0.18 Hz, in the closed-loop mode it is 0.7 Hz. One of the practical applications that the set-up is suitable for is the flow rate measurements of low electrically conducting electrolytes by applying the contactless technique of Lorentz force velocimetry. Based on a previously developed set-up which uses a single EMFC balance, experimental, theoretical and numerical analyses of the thermo-mechanical properties of the supporting structure are presented.

  20. Pointing Control System for a High Precision Flight Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    BENTLEY,ANTHONY E.; WILCOXEN,JEFFREY LEE

    2000-12-01

    A pointing control system is developed and tested for a flying gimbaled telescope. The two-axis pointing system is capable of sub-microradian pointing stability and high accuracy in the presence of large host vehicle jitter. The telescope also has high agility--it is capable of a 50-degree retarget (in both axes simultaneously) in less than 2 seconds. To achieve the design specifications, high-accuracy, high-resolution, two-speed resolvers were used, resulting in gimbal-angle measurements stable to 1.5 microradians. In addition, on-axis inertial angle displacement sensors were mounted on the telescope to provide host-vehicle jitter cancellation. The inertial angle sensors are accurate to about 100 nanoradians, but do not measure low frequency displacements below 2 Hz. The gimbal command signal includes host-vehicle attitude information, which is band-limited. This provides jitter data below 20 Hz, but includes a variable latency between 15 and 25 milliseconds. One of the most challenging aspects of this design was to combine the inertial-angle-sensor data with the less perfect information in the command signal to achieve maximum jitter reduction. The optimum blending of these two signals, along with the feedback compensation were designed using Quantitative Feedback Theory.

  1. Experimental High Energy Physics Research

    SciTech Connect

    Hohlmann, Marcus

    2016-01-13

    This final report summarizes activities of the Florida Tech High Energy Physics group supported by DOE under grant #DE-SC0008024 during the period June 2012 – March 2015. We focused on one of the main HEP research thrusts at the Energy Frontier by participating in the CMS experiment. We were exploiting the tremendous physics opportunities at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and prepared for physics at its planned extension, the High-Luminosity LHC. The effort comprised a physics component with analysis of data from the first LHC run and contributions to the CMS Phase-2 upgrades in the muon endcap system (EMU) for the High-Luminosity LHC. The emphasis of our hardware work was the development of large-area Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) for the CMS forward muon upgrade. We built a production and testing site for such detectors at Florida Tech to complement future chamber production at CERN. The first full-scale CMS GE1/1 chamber prototype ever built outside of CERN was constructed at Florida Tech in summer 2013. We conducted two beam tests with GEM prototype chambers at CERN in 2012 and at FNAL in 2013 and reported the results at conferences and in publications. Principal Investigator Hohlmann served as chair of the collaboration board of the CMS GEM collaboration and as co-coordinator of the GEM detector working group. He edited and authored sections of the detector chapter of the Technical Design Report (TDR) for the GEM muon upgrade, which was approved by the LHCC and the CERN Research Board in 2015. During the course of the TDR approval process, the GEM project was also established as an official subsystem of the muon system by the CMS muon institution board. On the physics side, graduate student Kalakhety performed a Z' search in the dimuon channel with the 2011 and 2012 CMS datasets that utilized 20.6 fb⁻¹ of p-p collisions at √s = 8 TeV. For the dimuon channel alone, the 95% CL lower limits obtained on the mass of a Z' resonance are 2770 GeV for a Z

  2. High-Precision Registration of Point Clouds Based on Sphere Feature Constraints.

    PubMed

    Huang, Junhui; Wang, Zhao; Gao, Jianmin; Huang, Youping; Towers, David Peter

    2016-12-30

    Point cloud registration is a key process in multi-view 3D measurements. Its precision affects the measurement precision directly. However, in the case of the point clouds with non-overlapping areas or curvature invariant surface, it is difficult to achieve a high precision. A high precision registration method based on sphere feature constraint is presented to overcome the difficulty in the paper. Some known sphere features with constraints are used to construct virtual overlapping areas. The virtual overlapping areas provide more accurate corresponding point pairs and reduce the influence of noise. Then the transformation parameters between the registered point clouds are solved by an optimization method with weight function. In that case, the impact of large noise in point clouds can be reduced and a high precision registration is achieved. Simulation and experiments validate the proposed method.

  3. High-Precision Registration of Point Clouds Based on Sphere Feature Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Junhui; Wang, Zhao; Gao, Jianmin; Huang, Youping; Towers, David Peter

    2016-01-01

    Point cloud registration is a key process in multi-view 3D measurements. Its precision affects the measurement precision directly. However, in the case of the point clouds with non-overlapping areas or curvature invariant surface, it is difficult to achieve a high precision. A high precision registration method based on sphere feature constraint is presented to overcome the difficulty in the paper. Some known sphere features with constraints are used to construct virtual overlapping areas. The virtual overlapping areas provide more accurate corresponding point pairs and reduce the influence of noise. Then the transformation parameters between the registered point clouds are solved by an optimization method with weight function. In that case, the impact of large noise in point clouds can be reduced and a high precision registration is achieved. Simulation and experiments validate the proposed method. PMID:28042846

  4. Precision Spectroscopy on Highly-Excited Vibrational Levels of H_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Ming Li; Salumbides, Edcel John; Ubachs, Wim

    2015-06-01

    The ground electronic energy levels of H_2 have been used as a benchmark system for the most precise comparisons between ab initio calculations and experimental investigations. Recent examples include the determinations of the ionization energy [1], fundamental vibrational energy splitting [2], and rotational energy progression extending to J=16 [3]. In general, the experimental and theoretical values are in excellent agreement with each other. The energy calculations, however, reduce in accuracy with the increase in rotational and vibrational excitation, limited by the accuracy of non-Born Oppenheimer corrections, as well as the higher-order QED effects. While on the experimental side, it remains difficult to sufficiently populate these excited levels in the ground electronic state. We present here our high-resolution spectroscopic study on the X ^1σ^+_g electronic ground state levels with very high vibrational quanta (ν=10,11,12). Vibrationally-excited H_2 are produced from the photodissociation of H_2S [4], and subsequently probed by a narrowband pulsed dye laser system. The experimental results are consistent with and more accurate than the best theoretical values [5]. These vibrationally-excited level energies are also of interest to studies that extract constraints on the possible new interactions that extend beyond the Standard Model [6]. [1] J. Liu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 174306 (2009). [2] G. Dickenson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 193601 (2013). [3] E.J. Salumbides et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 143005 (2011). [4] J. Steadman and T. Baer, J. Chem. Phys. 91, 6113 (1989). [5] J. Komasa et al., J. Chem. Theory Comp. 7, 3105 (2011). [6] E.J. Salumbides et al., Phys. Rev. D 87, 112008 (2013).

  5. High-precision covariant one-boson-exchange potentials for np scattering below 350 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Franz Gross; Alfred Stadler

    2007-09-10

    Using the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST), we have found One-Boson-Exchange (OBE) potentials that fit the 2006 world np data below 350 MeV with a chi2/Ndata very close to 1, for a total of 3788 data. Our potentials have significantly fewer adjustable parameters than previous high-precision potentials, and they also reproduce the experimental triton binding energy without introducing additional irreducible three-nucleon forces.

  6. High speed precision motion strategies for lightweight structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, Wayne J.

    1987-01-01

    Work during the recording period proceeded along the lines of the proposal, i.e., three aspects of high speed motion planning and control of flexible structures were explored: fine motion control, gross motion planning and control, and automation using light weight arms. In addition, modeling the large manipulator arm to be used in experiments and theory has lead to some contributions in that area. These aspects are reported below. Conference, workshop and journal submissions, and presentations related to this work were seven in number, and are listed. Copies of written papers and abstracts are included.

  7. Combination spindle-drive system for high precision machining

    DOEpatents

    Gerth, Howard L.

    1977-07-26

    A combination spindle-drive is provided for fabrication of optical quality surface finishes. Both the spindle-and-drive utilize the spindle bearings for support, thereby removing the conventional drive-means bearings as a source of vibration. An airbearing spindle is modified to carry at the drive end a highly conductive cup-shaped rotor which is aligned with a stationary stator to produce torque in the cup-shaped rotor through the reaction of eddy currents induced in the rotor. This arrangement eliminates magnetic attraction forces and all force is in the form of torque on the cup-shaped rotor.

  8. High precision, low disturbance calibration system for the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter High Voltage apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasanella, G.

    2017-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter utilizes scintillation lead tungstate crystals, with avalanche photodiodes (APD) as photo-detectors in the barrel part. 1224 HV channels bias groups of 50 APD pairs, each at a voltage of about 380 V. The APD gain dependence on the voltage is 3%/V. A stability of better than 60 mV is needed to have negligible impact on the calorimeter energy resolution. Until 2015 manual calibrations were performed yearly. A new calibration system was deployed recently, which satisfies the requirement of low disturbance and high precision. The system is discussed in detail and first operational experience is presented.

  9. High-precision metrology of highly charged ions via relativistic resonance fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Postavaru, O; Harman, Z; Keitel, C H

    2011-01-21

    Resonance fluorescence of laser-driven highly charged ions is investigated with regard to precisely measuring atomic properties. For this purpose an ab initio approach based on the Dirac equation is employed that allows for studying relativistic ions. These systems provide a sensitive means to test correlated relativistic dynamics, quantum electrodynamic phenomena and nuclear effects by applying x-ray lasers. We show how the narrowing of sidebands in the x-ray fluorescence spectrum by interference due to an additional optical driving can be exploited to determine atomic dipole or multipole moments to unprecedented accuracy.

  10. Decentralized high precision telemetry and telecommand system for sounding rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Heinz-Volker; Schmitt, Günter; Pfeuffer, Horst; Voss, Bernhard

    2005-08-01

    TEXUS and MAXUS payloads are currently providing 12 bit analog channel accuracy for their data acquisition chains with different signal conditioning elements such as temperature measurement, strain gauge, pressure measurement channels, and general purpose amplifiers. Transient recording functions are rather seldom as all data is directly transmitted via PCM to the ground station. However, the user requirements are steadily increasing in terms of accuracy, data security, and high data throughput rate with an ever increasing number of telemetry channels. The newly developed Kayser-Threde telemetry and telecommand system CTS 3000 (Compact Telemetry System) fulfils these requirements by providing up to 16 bit accuracy for its analog channels with a sampling rate up to 2 kHz (at this accuracy), on-board transient memory to protect against data loss and provides an integrated telecommand decoder at the same time, reducing the necessary amount of equipment used for instrumentation. The equipment further reduces the necessary effort for refurbishment because of its internal self calibration over the full environment temperature range. On top of its IRIG PCM interface the system is equipped with a USB bus, a well-known and commonly used PC standard high performance interface. This interface is used for configuration, testing, and monitoring of the CTS 3000 providing a simple and easy to use user environment for the new equipment. The paper will introduce the new equipment and will show the application in the TEXUS/MAXUS project.

  11. High integrity GPS/INS filter for precise relative navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Hafez, Mamoun F.

    A GPS/INS filter design for absolute and relative state estimation is discussed. The GPS code and Doppler measurements are used for absolute state estimation while the GPS carrier phase and Doppler measurements are used for relative state estimation. Real-time results obtained from a Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation and actual F-18 flight tests are presented. To ensure accurate state estimation, the observability of the GPS/INS system is analyzed analytically when the system is at rest and during maneuvers. The system observability enhancement during two different maneuvers is discussed. Simulation results illustrating the observability of the system during the different stages of the GPS/INS system operation are also presented. To allow successful use of the high-accuracy carrier phase measurements, two methods for resolving GPS integer ambiguity are introduced. The first combines an efficient method for obtaining the admissible integer ambiguity hypotheses within a probabilistic volume with an integer hypothesis testing method to reduce the convergence time with high probability to the GPS carrier phase integers. The second GPS integer ambiguity resolution method is based on a log-formulation of the Multiple Hypothesis Wald Sequential Probability Test (MHWSPT). The computational time requirement of the latter method is shown to be smaller than the former method. Real-time results are presented to show the performance of the two methods introduced.

  12. High precision moving magnet chopper for variable operation conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aicher, Winfried; Schmid, Manfred

    1994-01-01

    In the context of an ESTEC technology contract, a Chopping Mechanism was developed and built with the Far Infrared and Submillimeter Telescope (FIRST) astronomy mission as a reference. The task of the mechanism is to tilt the subreflector of the telescope with an assumed mass of 2.5 kg about one chopping axis at nominal frequencies of up to 5 Hz and chopping angles of up to +/- 11.25 mrad with high efficiency (minimum time for position change). The chopping axis is required to run through the subreflector vertex. After performing a concept trade-off also considering the low operational temperatures in the 130 K range, a design using moving magnet actuators was found to be the favorite one. In addition, a bearing concept using flexible pivots was chosen to meet the high chopping accuracy required. With this approach, a very reliable design could be realized, since the actuators work without any mechanical contact between its moving and fixed parts, and the only bearings used are two flexible pivots supporting the subreflector mounting interface. The mechanism was completely built in titanium in a lightweight and stiff design. The moving magnet actuators were designed to meet the stringent requirements for minimum risetime (time necessary to move from one angular position to a new one) in the 20 msec range. The angular position and the corresponding chopping frequency as well can be arbitrarily selected by the user.

  13. Stellar Astrophysics Using Ultra-High Precision CCD Time Series Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, S.; Everett, M.; Huber, M.; Ciardi, D.; van Belle, G.

    2001-05-01

    Using time-series CCD photometry and a wide-field imager, we have extended the techniques of differential photometry to provide robust photometric precisions for each star over the entire field of view. Reaching photometric precisions of 2 milli-magnitudes, we produced high cadence light curves for over 12,000 stars at mid- and high galactic latitude. The fraction of stars seen to be variable is higher than the canonical wisdom, being 10-14 will present the details of our techniques, sample light curves, methods to access the data, and a summary of astrophysical uses of such high precision data.

  14. High precision, medium flux rate CZT spectroscopy for coherent scatter imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Joel A.; Hassan, Mehadi; Brady, David J.; Iniewski, Kris

    2016-05-01

    CZT detectors are primary candidates for many next-generation X-ray imaging systems. These detectors are typically operated in either a high precision, low flux spectroscopy mode or a low precision, high flux photon counting mode. We demonstrate a new detector configuration that enables operation in a high precision, medium flux spectroscopy mode, which opens the potential for a variety of new applications in medical imaging, non-destructive testing and baggage scanning. In particular, we describe the requirements of a coded aperture coherent scattering X-ray system that can perform fast imaging with accurate material discrimination.

  15. Creating high-stability high-precision bipolar trim power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhe; Merz, William A.

    2012-07-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) is founded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) office of science for the technology advancement and physics research in electron beam accelerator. This facility has the state of the art technology to carry out world-class cutting-edge experiments for the nucleus composition and atomic characteristics identification and exploration for the nature of the matter in the universe. A continuous wave electron beam is featured for such experiments, thus precise and stable trim power supply is required to meet such purpose. This paper demonstrates the challenges and solutions to design, assemble, fabrication and test such high-precision high-stability power supplies. This paper presents the novel design and first article test of the ±20A ±75V bipolar, 100ppm stability level current-regulated high-power trim power supplies for the beam manipulation. This special design can provide valuable documentation and reference values for future designs and special applications in particle accelerator power supply creation.

  16. High Precision Assembly of Thin Mirror X-ray Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schattenburg, Mark

    Lightweight high resolution x-ray telescope optics are one of the key technologies under development for next-generation x-ray telescopes. The ultimate goal of this effort is to realize optics with spatial resolution rivaling Chandra (<1 arc-sec) but with collecting areas that are larger by orders of magnitude. In the USA several institutions, including GSFC, MSFC, Harvard-SAO, MIT and Northwest University are working on a variety of approaches to this problem. An excellent example is the NuSTAR x-ray telescope, which teamed Cal Tech, GSFC, Columbia University and LLNL to produce a superb set of hard x-ray optics. The telescope was composed of thousands of 0.2 mm-thick glass mirrors which were epoxied into place around a spindle structure. While very light weight, this process resulted in ~1 arc min resolution. We want to achieve ~100 times better with similar mass. A group at NASA GSFC has recently demonstrated an alternative thin-glass assembly procedure that has achieved ~7 arc sec resolution with x-ray tests. Further progress towards 1 arc-sec will require mirrors with improved figure, lower stress coatings, improved alignment, better metrology, and low stress bonding. Many of the difficulties with current mirror assembly practice stem from the use of epoxy as a bonding agent. Epoxy has many disadvantages, including high shrinkage, large CTE and creep, resin aging effects, water absorption, outgassing, low tensile strength, exothermicity, and requiring large amounts of time and/or heat to cure. These effects can cause errors that become â€oefrozen in― to the bond with no possibility of correction. We propose to investigate replacing epoxy with low temperature, low shrinkage solder alloys. We use these solders in conjunction with high power, millisec-long pulses from a fiber IR laser to deliver controlled amounts of heat into the bond area. We have demonstrated that laser pulses can be used to actuate carefully designed bonds by permanently compressing

  17. Precision high energy liner implosion experiments PHELIX [1

    SciTech Connect

    Reass, William A; Baca, David M; Griego, Jeffrey R; Reinovsky, Robert E; Rousculp, Christopher L; Turchi, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the hardware design of a small megajoule sized transformer coupled pulse power system utilized to drive hydrodynamic liner experiments with a nominal current capability of 10 megAmperes. The resulting liner velocities and characteristics provide properties of physics interest. The capacitor banks utilize the ''Atlas'' plastic cased 60 kV, 60 kJ capacitors [2] and railgaps [3]. The air insulated marx'S are configured to dive a multi-filar toroidal transformer. The 4:1 multi-filar toroidal transformer is mechanically part of a circular disc line and this feature results in an attractive inductance budget. Because of the compact size, re-usable transformer, and resulting low maintenance cost, shot rates can be high compared to other ''large'' machines or explosively driven hydrodynamic methods. The PHELIX modeling, construction status, and test results will also be provided.

  18. A high precision calorimeter for the SOX experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, L.; Agostini, M.; Altenmüller, K.; Appel, S.; Caminata, A.; Cereseto, R.; Di Noto, L.; Farinon, S.; Musenich, R.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Schönert, S.; Testera, G.; Zavatarelli, S.

    2016-07-01

    The SOX (Short distance neutrino Oscillations with BoreXino) experiment is being built to discover or reject eV-scale sterile neutrinos by observing short baseline oscillations of active-to-sterile neutrinos [1]. For this purpose, a 100 kCi 144Ce-144Pr antineutrino generator (CeSOX) will be placed under the BOREXINO detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. Thanks to its large size and very low background, BOREXINO is an ideal detector to discover or reject eV-scale sterile neutrinos. To reach the maximal sensitivity, we aim at determining the neutrino flux emitted by the antineutrino generator with a < 1 % accuracy. With this goal, TU München and INFN Genova are developing a vacuum calorimeter, which is designed to measure the source-generated heat with high accuracy.

  19. High Precision SC Cavity Diagnostics with HOM Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, Josef; Hendrickson, Linda; McCormick, Douglas; May, Justin; Molloy, Stephen; Ross, Marc; /SLAC

    2006-08-18

    Experiments at the FLASH linac at DESY have demonstrated that the Higher Order Modes induced in Superconducting Cavities can be used to provide a variety of beam and cavity diagnostics. The centers of the cavities can be determined from the beam orbit which produces minimum power in the dipole HOM modes. The phase and amplitude of the dipole modes can be used as a high resolution beam position monitor, and the phase of the monopole modes to measure the beam phase relative to the accelerator RF. Beam orbit feedback which minimizes the dipole HOM power in a set of structures has been demonstrated. For most SC accelerators, the existing HOM couplers provide the necessary signals, and the down mix and digitizing electronics are straightforward, similar to those for a conventional BPM.

  20. High precision pointing with a multiline spectrometer at the VTT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staiger, J.

    2012-12-01

    We are investigating the pointing quality of the VTT, Tenerife under the aspect of suitability for long-term heliosesimological observations. Tests have shown that thermal and mechanical loads within the telescope may create spurious image drifts with shift rates of up to 5 arcsec per hour. During daylong recordings this will reduce significantly the effective size of the field-of-view and may infer artificial lateral movements into the data. The underlying problem that not all image position offsets developing during a measurement may be compensated for is common to most high-resolution solar telescopes independently of the type of pointing system used. We are developing new approaches to address this problem which are to be tested in the near future at the VTT. The simulations established so far show that the problem may be reduced by more than 90 %.

  1. High Precision Ti stable Isotope Measurement of Terrestrial Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millet, M. A.; Dauphas, N.; Williams, H. M.; Burton, K. W.; Nowell, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Advances in multi-collection plasma source mass spectrometry have allowed the determination of stable isotope composition of transition metals to address questions relevant to both high and low temperature geochemistry. However, titanium has received only very limited attention. Here we present a new technique allowing the determination of the stable isotope composition of titanium in geological samples (d49Ti or deviation of the 49Ti/47Ti ratio from the OL-Ti in-house standard of reference) using double-spike methodology and high-resolution MC-ICP-MS. We have carried out a range analytical tests for a wide spectrum of samples matrices to demonstrate a external reproducibility of ±0.02‰ on the d49Ti while using as little as 150ng of natural Ti for a single analysis. We have analysed a comprehensive selection of mantle-derived samples covering a range of geodynamic contexts (MORB, IAB, OIB, adakites, eclogites, serpentines) and geographical distribution (MORB: Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Southwest Indian Ridge and Eastern Pacific Ridge; IAB: New Britain reference suite and Marianas Arc). The samples show a very limited range from -0.06‰ to +0.04‰ with a main mode at +0.004‰ relative to the OL-Ti standard. Average values for MORB, IAB and eclogites are similar within uncertainty and thus argue for limited mobility of Ti during subduction zone processes and homogeneity of the Ti stable isotope composition of the upper mantle. However, preliminary data for more evolved igneous rocks suggest that they display heavier Ti stable isotope compositions, which may reflect the removal of isotopically light Ti as a function of Fe-Ti oxide crystallisation. This is in good agreement with Ti being present in 5-fold and 6-fold coordination in basaltic melts and preferential uptake of 6-folded Ti by Ti-bearing oxides [1]. This dataset will be complemented by analysis of abyssal peridotites to confirm the homogeneity of the mantle as well as data for a range of ferromanganese crusts

  2. Gravity Compensation Using EGM2008 for High-Precision Long-Term Inertial Navigation Systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruonan; Wu, Qiuping; Han, Fengtian; Liu, Tianyi; Hu, Peida; Li, Haixia

    2016-12-18

    The gravity disturbance vector is one of the major error sources in high-precision and long-term inertial navigation applications. Specific to the inertial navigation systems (INSs) with high-order horizontal damping networks, analyses of the error propagation show that the gravity-induced errors exist almost exclusively in the horizontal channels and are mostly caused by deflections of the vertical (DOV). Low-frequency components of the DOV propagate into the latitude and longitude errors at a ratio of 1:1 and time-varying fluctuations in the DOV excite Schuler oscillation. This paper presents two gravity compensation methods using the Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008), namely, interpolation from the off-line database and computing gravity vectors directly using the spherical harmonic model. Particular attention is given to the error contribution of the gravity update interval and computing time delay. It is recommended for the marine navigation that a gravity vector should be calculated within 1 s and updated every 100 s at most. To meet this demand, the time duration of calculating the current gravity vector using EGM2008 has been reduced to less than 1 s by optimizing the calculation procedure. A few off-line experiments were conducted using the data of a shipborne INS collected during an actual sea test. With the aid of EGM2008, most of the low-frequency components of the position errors caused by the gravity disturbance vector have been removed and the Schuler oscillation has been attenuated effectively. In the rugged terrain, the horizontal position error could be reduced at best 48.85% of its regional maximum. The experimental results match with the theoretical analysis and indicate that EGM2008 is suitable for gravity compensation of the high-precision and long-term INSs.

  3. Gravity Compensation Using EGM2008 for High-Precision Long-Term Inertial Navigation Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ruonan; Wu, Qiuping; Han, Fengtian; Liu, Tianyi; Hu, Peida; Li, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    The gravity disturbance vector is one of the major error sources in high-precision and long-term inertial navigation applications. Specific to the inertial navigation systems (INSs) with high-order horizontal damping networks, analyses of the error propagation show that the gravity-induced errors exist almost exclusively in the horizontal channels and are mostly caused by deflections of the vertical (DOV). Low-frequency components of the DOV propagate into the latitude and longitude errors at a ratio of 1:1 and time-varying fluctuations in the DOV excite Schuler oscillation. This paper presents two gravity compensation methods using the Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008), namely, interpolation from the off-line database and computing gravity vectors directly using the spherical harmonic model. Particular attention is given to the error contribution of the gravity update interval and computing time delay. It is recommended for the marine navigation that a gravity vector should be calculated within 1 s and updated every 100 s at most. To meet this demand, the time duration of calculating the current gravity vector using EGM2008 has been reduced to less than 1 s by optimizing the calculation procedure. A few off-line experiments were conducted using the data of a shipborne INS collected during an actual sea test. With the aid of EGM2008, most of the low-frequency components of the position errors caused by the gravity disturbance vector have been removed and the Schuler oscillation has been attenuated effectively. In the rugged terrain, the horizontal position error could be reduced at best 48.85% of its regional maximum. The experimental results match with the theoretical analysis and indicate that EGM2008 is suitable for gravity compensation of the high-precision and long-term INSs. PMID:27999351

  4. High-Precision Measurements of the Brightness Variation of Nereid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terai, Tsuyoshi; Itoh, Yoichi

    2013-04-01

    Nereid, the outer satellite of Neptune, has a highly eccentric prograde orbit with a semimajor axis of larger than 200 in units of Neptune's radius, and is classified as an irregular satellite. Although the capture origin of irregular satellites has been widely accepted, several previous studies suggest that Nereid was formed in the circumplanetary disk of Neptune and ejected outward to the present location by Triton. A series of our photometric observations confirm that Nereid's rotation period, 11.5 hr, is stable and nonchaotic, as indicated by Grav, Holman, and Kavelaars (2003, ApJ, 591, L71). The optical colors of Nereid are indistinguishable from those of trans-Neptunian objects and Centaurs, especially from these objects with neutral colors. We also found the consistency of Nereid's rotation period based on the size-rotation distribution of small outer bodies. It is likely that Nereid originated as an immigrant body captured from the heliocentric orbit that was 4-5 AU away from Neptune's orbit.

  5. A research of a high precision multichannel data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Ling-na; Tang, Xiao-ping; Yan, Wei

    2013-08-01

    The output signals of the focusing system in lithography are analog. To convert the analog signals into digital ones which are more flexible and stable to process, a desirable data acquisition system is required. The resolution of data acquisition, to some extent, affects the accuracy of focusing. In this article, we first compared performance between the various kinds of analog-to-digital converters (ADC) available on the market at the moment. Combined with the specific requirements (sampling frequency, converting accuracy, numbers of channels etc) and the characteristics (polarization, amplitude range etc) of the analog signals, the model of the ADC to be used as the core chip in our hardware design was determined. On this basis, we chose other chips needed in the hardware circuit that would well match with ADC, then the overall hardware design was obtained. Validation of our data acquisition system was verified through experiments and it can be demonstrated that the system can effectively realize the high resolution conversion of the multi-channel analog signals and give the accurate focusing information in lithography.

  6. High Resolution Airborne Digital Imagery for Precision Agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herwitz, Stanley R.

    1998-01-01

    The Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program is a NASA initiative that seeks to demonstrate the application of cost-effective aircraft and sensor technology to private commercial ventures. In 1997-98, a series of flight-demonstrations and image acquisition efforts were conducted over the Hawaiian Islands using a remotely-piloted solar- powered platform (Pathfinder) and a fixed-wing piloted aircraft (Navajo) equipped with a Kodak DCS450 CIR (color infrared) digital camera. As an ERAST Science Team Member, I defined a set of flight lines over the largest coffee plantation in Hawaii: the Kauai Coffee Company's 4,000 acre Koloa Estate. Past studies have demonstrated the applications of airborne digital imaging to agricultural management. Few studies have examined the usefulness of high resolution airborne multispectral imagery with 10 cm pixel sizes. The Kodak digital camera integrated with ERAST's Airborne Real Time Imaging System (ARTIS) which generated multiband CCD images consisting of 6 x 106 pixel elements. At the designated flight altitude of 1,000 feet over the coffee plantation, pixel size was 10 cm. The study involved the analysis of imagery acquired on 5 March 1998 for the detection of anomalous reflectance values and for the definition of spectral signatures as indicators of tree vigor and treatment effectiveness (e.g., drip irrigation; fertilizer application).

  7. Development of a facility for high-precision irradiation of cells with carbon ions

    SciTech Connect

    Goethem, Marc-Jan van; Niemantsverdriet, Maarten; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Coppes, Robert P.; Luijk, Peter van

    2011-01-15

    the irradiation of cell samples with the specified accuracy. Measurements of the transverse and longitudinal dose distribution showed that the dose variation over the sample volume was {+-}0.8% and {+-}0.7% in the lateral and longitudinal directions, respectively. The track-averaged LET of 132{+-}10 keV/{mu}m and dose-averaged LET of 189{+-}15 keV/{mu}m at the position of the sample were obtained from a GEANT4 simulation, which was validated experimentally. Three separately measured cell-survival curves yielded nearly identical results. Conclusions: With the new facility, high-precision carbon-ion irradiations of biological samples can be performed with highly reproducible results.

  8. Spectral Unmixing Plate Reader: High-Throughput, High-Precision FRET Assays in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Schaaf, Tory M; Peterson, Kurt C; Grant, Benjamin D; Thomas, David D; Gillispie, Gregory D

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a microplate reader that records a complete high-quality fluorescence emission spectrum on a well-by-well basis under true high-throughput screening (HTS) conditions. The read time for an entire 384-well plate is less than 3 min. This instrument is particularly well suited for assays based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Intramolecular protein biosensors with genetically encoded green fluorescent protein (GFP) donor and red fluorescent protein (RFP) acceptor tags at positions sensitive to structural changes were stably expressed and studied in living HEK cells. Accurate quantitation of FRET was achieved by decomposing each observed spectrum into a linear combination of four component (basis) spectra (GFP emission, RFP emission, water Raman, and cell autofluorescence). Excitation and detection are both conducted from the top, allowing for thermoelectric control of the sample temperature from below. This spectral unmixing plate reader (SUPR) delivers an unprecedented combination of speed, precision, and accuracy for studying ensemble-averaged FRET in living cells. It complements our previously reported fluorescence lifetime plate reader, which offers the feature of resolving multiple FRET populations within the ensemble. The combination of these two direct waveform-recording technologies greatly enhances the precision and information content for HTS in drug discovery.

  9. High-precision spectroscopy of the HD+ molecule at the 1-p.p.b. level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biesheuvel, J.; Karr, J.-Ph.; Hilico, L.; Eikema, K. S. E.; Ubachs, W.; Koelemeij, J. C. J.

    2017-01-01

    Recently we reported a high-precision optical frequency measurement of the ( v, L): (0, 2)→(8, 3) vibrational overtone transition in trapped deuterated molecular hydrogen (HD+) ions at 10 mK temperature. Achieving a resolution of 0.85 parts-per-billion (p.p.b.), we found the experimental value [ ν 0 = 383, 407, 177.38 (41) MHz] to be in agreement with the value from molecular theory [ ν th 383, 407, 177.150 (15) MHz] within 0.6 (1.1) p.p.b. (Biesheuvel et al. in Nat Commun 7:10385, 2016). This enabled an improved test of molecular theory (including QED), new constraints on the size of possible effects due to `new physics,' and the first determination of the proton-electron mass ratio from a molecule. Here, we provide the details of the experimental procedure, spectral analysis, and the assessment of systematic frequency shifts. Our analysis focuses in particular on deviations of the HD+ velocity distribution from thermal (Gaussian) distributions under the influence of collisions with fast ions produced during (laser-induced) chemical reactions, as such deviations turn out to significantly shift the hyperfine-less vibrational frequency as inferred from the saturated and Doppler-broadened spectrum, which contains partly unresolved hyperfine structure.

  10. Design of high precision motor driving system for circular scanning ultrasonic endoscopic imaging equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Haoran; Bai, Baoping; Chen, Xiaodong; Zhao, Qiang; Li, Yanan; Wang, Yi; Yu, Daoyin

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the development of a motor driving system for circular scanning ultrasonic endoscopic imaging equipment. It was designed to guarantee the motor rotating at a relatively constant speed in load fluctuation conditions, which result from the bending and twisting of the flexible shaft which connects the probe to the motor. A hardware feedback circuit based on Frequency-To-Voltage Converter LM331 and Step-Down Voltage Regulator LM2576-ADJ was designed to ensure steady rotation of motor in load fluctuation conditions, and a D/A module offered by MCU was used to regulate the real-time rotary speed. The feedback response cycle is about 20 μs according to theoretical analysis. Experimental results show that the maximum error is +/-1 r/min under the normal running environment (300 ~1500 r/min) and load fluctuation conditions, which means the average instability is reduced to 0.11% as compared with that of the motor drive simply based on MCU which is 0.94%. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that the motor driving system has high accuracy, fast response, excellent reliability and good versatility and portability, and can precisely guarantee the smooth movement of load-changing PMW (Pulse Width Modulation) motor, so as to ensure the imaging quality, and can effectively improve the efficiency and accuracy of the diagnosis.

  11. Research on the high-precision non-contact optical detection technology for banknotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiaofeng; Liang, Tiancai; Luo, Pengfeng; Sun, Jianfeng

    2015-09-01

    The technology of high-precision laser interferometry was introduced for optical measurement of the banknotes in this paper. Taking advantage of laser short wavelength and high sensitivity, information of adhesive tape and cavity about the banknotes could be checked efficiently. Compared with current measurement devices, including mechanical wheel measurement device, Infrared measurement device, ultrasonic measurement device, the laser interferometry measurement has higher precision and reliability. This will improve the ability of banknotes feature information in financial electronic equipment.

  12. New tools for high-precision positioning of optical elements in high-NA microscope objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, Joachim; Bauer, Tobias; Mueller, Willi; Sure, Thomas; Wesner, Joachim

    2004-02-01

    The precise positioning of the individual optical elements is essential for attaining diffraction limited performance in high-numerical-aperture (high-NA) microscope objectives. Tolerances are in the micron range or lower for high-end objectives, e.g. for broad-band scanning confocal applications, metrology objectives in general, and especially for deep ultraviolet (DUV) applications. The ever increasing demands on imaging performance ask for the continuous development and improvement of specialized measurement equipment for the production line. Our award-winning 150x/0.90-DUV-AT-infinity/0 objective for wafer inspection and metrology at 248nm employs air spacings in its doublets because of the instability of optical cements against DUV radiation. This comes however at the cost of a higher number of surfaces and even higher precision demands on their geometry, orientation and positioning. We present several tools enabling us to meet these requirements. A Fourier transform fringe analysis scheme is adapted to high-NA Fizeau interferometry for surface characterization. A white light Mirau interferometer for dimensional measurements on lens groups with sub-μm resolution enables us to keep surface distance errors lower than 2 μm. Residual aberrations of the objective are compensated for by translating special correction elements under observation of the wave-front using a DUV-Twyman-Green interferometer, which also incorporates a 903nm branch for the parfocal adjustment of the infrared (IR) autofocus feature of the objective. To adjust the shifting element for the elimination of on-axis coma, we compute an artificial (real-time) star test from the interferogram, allowing interactive manipulations of the element while monitoring their influence on the point spread function (PSF).

  13. Charge Breeding Techniques in an Electron Beam Ion Trap for High Precision Mass Spectrometry at TITAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, T. D.; Simon, M. C.; Bale, J. C.; Chowdhury, U.; Eibach, M.; Gallant, A. T.; Lennarz, A.; Simon, V. V.; Chaudhuri, A.; Grossheim, A.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Schultz, B. E.; Dilling, J.

    2012-10-01

    Penning trap mass spectrometry is the most accurate and precise method available for performing atomic mass measurements. TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science is currently the only facility to couple its Penning trap to a rare isotope facility and an electron beam ion trap (EBIT). The EBIT is a valuable tool for beam preparation: since the precision scales linearly with the charge state, it takes advantage of the precision gained by using highly charged ions. However, this precision gain is contingent on fast and efficient charge breeding. An optimization algorithm has been developed to identify the optimal conditions for running the EBIT. Taking only the mass number and half-life of the isotope of interest as inputs, the electron beam current density, charge breeding time, charge state, and electron beam energy are all specified to maximize this precision. An overview of the TITAN charge breeding program, and the results of charge breeding simulations will be presented.

  14. Research on controlling middle spatial frequency error of high gradient precise aspheric by pitch tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia; Hou, Xi; Wan, Yongjian; Shi, Chunyan; Zhong, Xianyun

    2016-09-01

    Extreme optical fabrication projects known as EUV and X-ray optic systems, which are representative of today's advanced optical manufacturing technology level, have special requirements for the optical surface quality. In synchroton radiation (SR) beamlines, mirrors of high shape accuracy is always used in grazing incidence. In nanolithograph systems, middle spatial frequency errors always lead to small-angle scattering or flare that reduces the contrast of the image. The slope error is defined for a given horizontal length, the increase or decrease in form error at the end point relative to the starting point is measured. The quality of reflective optical elements can be described by their deviation from ideal shape at different spatial frequencies. Usually one distinguishes between the figure error, the low spatial error part ranging from aperture length to 1mm frequencies, and the mid-high spatial error part from 1mm to 1 μm and from1 μm to some 10 nm spatial frequencies, respectively. Firstly, this paper will disscuss the relationship between slope error and middle spatial frequency error, which both describe the optical surface error along with the form profile. Then, experimental researches will be conducted on a high gradient precise aspheric with pitch tool, which aim to restraining the middle spatial frequency error.

  15. High precision ultrasonic guided wave technique for inspection of power transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jun; Qiu, Jinhao; Ji, Hongli; Wang, Enrong; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Uchimoto, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Due to the merits of high inspection speed and long detecting distance, Ultrasonic Guided Wave(UGW) method has been commonly applied to the on-line maintenance of power transmission line. However, the guided wave propagation in this structure is very complicated, leading to the unfavorable defect localization accuracy. Aiming at this situation, a high precision UGW technique for inspection of local surface defect in power transmission line is proposed. The technique is realized by adopting a novel segmental piezoelectric ring transducer and transducer mounting scheme, combining with the comprehensive characterization of wave propagation and circumferential defect positioning with multiple piezoelectric elements. Firstly, the propagation path of guided waves in the multi-wires of transmission line under the proposed technique condition is investigated experimentally. Next, the wave velocities are calculated by dispersion curves and experiment test respectively, and from comparing of the two results, the guided wave mode propagated in transmission line is confirmed to be F(1,1) mode. Finally, the axial and circumferential positioning of local defective wires in transmission line are both achieved, by using multiple piezoelectric elements to surround the stands and send elastic waves into every single wire. The proposed research can play a role of guiding the development of highly effective UGW method and detecting system for multi-wire transmission line.

  16. Classification of LIDAR Data for Generating a High-Precision Roadway Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, J.; Lee, I.

    2016-06-01

    Generating of a highly precise map grows up with development of autonomous driving vehicles. The highly precise map includes a precision of centimetres level unlike an existing commercial map with the precision of meters level. It is important to understand road environments and make a decision for autonomous driving since a robust localization is one of the critical challenges for the autonomous driving car. The one of source data is from a Lidar because it provides highly dense point cloud data with three dimensional position, intensities and ranges from the sensor to target. In this paper, we focus on how to segment point cloud data from a Lidar on a vehicle and classify objects on the road for the highly precise map. In particular, we propose the combination with a feature descriptor and a classification algorithm in machine learning. Objects can be distinguish by geometrical features based on a surface normal of each point. To achieve correct classification using limited point cloud data sets, a Support Vector Machine algorithm in machine learning are used. Final step is to evaluate accuracies of obtained results by comparing them to reference data The results show sufficient accuracy and it will be utilized to generate a highly precise road map.

  17. A rugged, high precision capacitance diaphragm low pressure gauge for cryogenic use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lago, Leatitia; Herbeaux, Christian; Bol, Marc; Roy, Pascale; Manceron, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    In order to carry out precise laboratory measurements of infrared absorption intensities, line profiles of molecules and organic volatile compounds for atmospheric chemistry in planetary and upper earth atmospheric layers, precise gas pressure measurement between 10-3 and a few mbars in the 77-300 K temperature range is necessary. A prototype, rugged, precision capacitive pressure gauge for cryogenic use has been designed, built at SOLEIL and tested down to 77 K. The design includes corrosion-resistant materials and has been tailored to operate on a differential measurement scheme based on a simple, precision capacitance-to-digital converter chip, instead of high precision floating capacitive bridges, as are used in other designs. The designs conception and performance specifications are presented here, illustrated by a precision of better than 1% in the 0.2-40 mbar range, with a resolution of 2 × 10-3 mbar. The gauge is tunable and can be adjusted for higher precision and a better resolution, at the expense of the maximum high-pressure range.

  18. Research on high precision equal-angle scanning method in rotary kiln temperature measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Shaosheng; Guo, Zhongyuan; You, Changhui; Liu, Jinsong; Cheng, Yang; Tang, Huaming

    2016-05-01

    Aiming at traditional horizontal equal-angle scanning method's disadvantage of measurement error, a high precision equal-angle scanning method is proposed, the proposed method establishes a tilt scanning model by the following steps: introducing height variable, precisely calculating the viewing angle, building scanning model. The model is used to calculate scanning position on rotary kiln's surface, which helps to locate and track temperature variation. The experiment shows that the proposed method can effectively improve the precision of temperature spots' location on the rotary kiln surface.

  19. Proposed design for high precision refractive index sensor using integrated planar lightwave circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maru, Koichi; Fujii, Yusaku; Zhang, Shulian; Hou, Wenmei

    2009-07-01

    A high precision and compact refractive index sensor is proposed. The combination of coarse measurement utilizing the change of the angle of refraction and fine measurement utilizing the phase change is newly proposed to measure absolute refractive index precisely. The proposed method does not need expensive optical measurement equipment such as an optical spectrum analyzer. The integrated planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology enables us to obtain a compact sensor that is preferable for the practical use. The principle, design, and some configurations for precise refractive index measurement are described.

  20. A High-Precision, Optical Polarimeter to Measure Inclinations of High Mass X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Matthews, K.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    2007-12-01

    While most astrophysical objects require many parameters in order to be fully described, black holes are unique in that only three parameters are required: mass, spin, and charge. Of these, mass and spin are enough to describe the black hole's gravitational field and event horizon location. Therefore, theory and observation may jointly pursue one or two quantities to uncover the progenitor star's history. Constraints on black hole mass exist for high mass X-ray binaries, such as Cygnus X-1, which is thought to consist of a 40 ± 10 solar mass O9.7Iab star and a 13.5-29 solar mass black hole (Ziolkowski 2005). While the constraints on the mass of the compact object are tight enough to declare that it is a black hole, they are sufficiently loose as to prohibit precise modeling of the progenitor star's mass. We have built an optical polarimeter for the Hale 5-m telescope at Mt. Palomar to provide an independent method for determining black hole mass. Degree of polarization will vary for an edge-on system, while position angle of net polarization will vary for a face-on system. Therefore, by monitoring the linear polarimetric variability of the binary, inclination can be estimated. Coupled with the known mass function of the binary from radial velocity work (Gies et al. 2003), inclination estimates constrain the mass of the black hole. Our polarimeter, POLISH (POLarimeter for Inclination Studies of High mass x-ray binaries), has achieved linear polarimetric precision of less than 10 parts per million on bright, unpolarized standard stars. We will also present results for polarized standard stars and Cygnus X-1 itself. This instrument has been funded by an endowment from the Moore Foundation.

  1. High precision quantum-chemical treatment of adsorption: Benchmarking physisorption of molecular hydrogen on graphane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usvyat, Denis

    2015-09-01

    A multilevel hierarchical ab initio protocol for calculating adsorption on non-conducting surfaces is presented. It employs fully periodic treatment, which reaches local Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of second order (MP2) with correction for the basis set incompleteness via the local F12 technique. Post-MP2 corrections are calculated using finite clusters. That includes the coupled cluster treatment in the local and canonical frameworks (up to perturbative quadruples) and correlated core (with MP2). Using this protocol, the potential surface of hydrogen molecules adsorbed on graphane was computed. According to the calculations, hydrogen molecules are adsorbed on graphane in a perpendicular to the surface orientation with the minimum of the potential surface of around -3.6 kJ/mol located at the distance of 3.85 Å between the bond center of the hydrogen molecule and the mid-plane of graphane. The adsorption sites along the path from the downward-pointing carbon to the ring center of the graphane are energetically virtually equally preferable, which can enable nearly free translations of hydrogen molecules along these paths. Consequently, the hydrogen molecules on graphane most likely form a non-commensurate monolayer. The analysis of the remaining errors reveals a very high accuracy of the computed potential surface with an error bar of a few tenths of a kJ/mol. The obtained results are a high-precision benchmark for further theoretical and experimental studies of hydrogen molecules interacting with graphane.

  2. High precision quantum-chemical treatment of adsorption: Benchmarking physisorption of molecular hydrogen on graphane

    SciTech Connect

    Usvyat, Denis

    2015-09-14

    A multilevel hierarchical ab initio protocol for calculating adsorption on non-conducting surfaces is presented. It employs fully periodic treatment, which reaches local Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of second order (MP2) with correction for the basis set incompleteness via the local F12 technique. Post-MP2 corrections are calculated using finite clusters. That includes the coupled cluster treatment in the local and canonical frameworks (up to perturbative quadruples) and correlated core (with MP2). Using this protocol, the potential surface of hydrogen molecules adsorbed on graphane was computed. According to the calculations, hydrogen molecules are adsorbed on graphane in a perpendicular to the surface orientation with the minimum of the potential surface of around −3.6 kJ/mol located at the distance of 3.85 Å between the bond center of the hydrogen molecule and the mid-plane of graphane. The adsorption sites along the path from the downward-pointing carbon to the ring center of the graphane are energetically virtually equally preferable, which can enable nearly free translations of hydrogen molecules along these paths. Consequently, the hydrogen molecules on graphane most likely form a non-commensurate monolayer. The analysis of the remaining errors reveals a very high accuracy of the computed potential surface with an error bar of a few tenths of a kJ/mol. The obtained results are a high-precision benchmark for further theoretical and experimental studies of hydrogen molecules interacting with graphane.

  3. HIGH PRECISION K-SHELL PHOTOABSORPTION CROSS SECTIONS FOR ATOMIC OXYGEN: EXPERIMENT AND THEORY

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, B. M.; Ballance, C. P.; Bowen, K. P.; Gardenghi, D. J.; Stolte, W. C. E-mail: ballance@physics.auburn.edu E-mail: dgardenghi@gmail.com

    2013-07-01

    Photoabsorption of atomic oxygen in the energy region below the 1s {sup -1} threshold in X-ray spectroscopy from Chandra and XMM-Newton is observed in a variety of X-ray binary spectra. Photoabsorption cross sections determined from an R-matrix method with pseudo-states and new, high precision measurements from the Advanced Light Source (ALS) are presented. High-resolution spectroscopy with E/{Delta}E Almost-Equal-To 4250 {+-} 400 was obtained for photon energies from 520 eV to 555 eV at an energy resolution of 124 {+-} 12 meV FWHM. K-shell photoabsorption cross section measurements were made with a re-analysis of previous experimental data on atomic oxygen at the ALS. Natural line widths {Gamma} are extracted for the 1s {sup -1}2s {sup 2}2p {sup 4}({sup 4} P)np {sup 3} P Degree-Sign and 1s {sup -1}2s {sup 2}2p {sup 4}({sup 2} P)np {sup 3} P Degree-Sign Rydberg resonances series and compared with theoretical predictions. Accurate cross sections and line widths are obtained for applications in X-ray astronomy. Excellent agreement between theory and the ALS measurements is shown which will have profound implications for the modeling of X-ray spectra and spectral diagnostics.

  4. Machine vision for high-precision volume measurement applied to levitated containerless material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, R.C.; Schmidt, D.P.; Rogers, J.R.; Kelton, K.F.; Hyers, R.W.

    2005-12-15

    By combining the best practices in optical dilatometry with numerical methods, a high-speed and high-precision technique has been developed to measure the volume of levitated, containerlessly processed samples with subpixel resolution. Containerless processing provides the ability to study highly reactive materials without the possibility of contamination affecting thermophysical properties. Levitation is a common technique used to isolate a sample as it is being processed. Noncontact optical measurement of thermophysical properties is very important as traditional measuring methods cannot be used. Modern, digitally recorded images require advanced numerical routines to recover the subpixel locations of sample edges and, in turn, produce high-precision measurements.

  5. Construction of a versatile high precision ambient ionization source for direct analysis and imaging.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Jason S; Hawkridge, Adam M; Muddiman, David C

    2008-10-01

    The design and construction of a high precision ambient ionization source matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (MALDESI) are described in full detail, including a complete parts list. The computer controlled high precision motion control system and high repetition rate Explorer laser are demonstrated during MALDESI-FT-ICR analysis of peptides and proteins ranging from 1 to 17 kDa. The high stability ionization source platform described herein demonstrates both the advantages of the new MALDESI source and versatility for application to numerous desorption and ionization techniques.

  6. FOTOMCAp: a new quasi-automatic code for high-precision photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, R.; Jofré, J. E.

    2016-08-01

    The search for Earth-like planets using the transit technique has encouraged the development of strategies to obtain light curves with increasing precision. In this context we developed the fotomcap program. This is an iraf quasi-automatic code which employs the aperture correction method and allows to obtain high-precision light curves. In this contribution we describe how this code works and show the results obtained for planetary transits light curves.

  7. Deterministic ion beam material adding technology for high-precision optical surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wenlin; Dai, Yifan; Xie, Xuhui; Zhou, Lin

    2013-02-20

    Although ion beam figuring (IBF) provides a highly deterministic method for the precision figuring of optical components, several problems still need to be addressed, such as the limited correcting capability for mid-to-high spatial frequency surface errors and low machining efficiency for pit defects on surfaces. We propose a figuring method named deterministic ion beam material adding (IBA) technology to solve those problems in IBF. The current deterministic optical figuring mechanism, which is dedicated to removing local protuberances on optical surfaces, is enriched and developed by the IBA technology. Compared with IBF, this method can realize the uniform convergence of surface errors, where the particle transferring effect generated in the IBA process can effectively correct the mid-to-high spatial frequency errors. In addition, IBA can rapidly correct the pit defects on the surface and greatly improve the machining efficiency of the figuring process. The verification experiments are accomplished on our experimental installation to validate the feasibility of the IBA method. First, a fused silica sample with a rectangular pit defect is figured by using IBA. Through two iterations within only 47.5 min, this highly steep pit is effectively corrected, and the surface error is improved from the original 24.69 nm root mean square (RMS) to the final 3.68 nm RMS. Then another experiment is carried out to demonstrate the correcting capability of IBA for mid-to-high spatial frequency surface errors, and the final results indicate that the surface accuracy and surface quality can be simultaneously improved.

  8. Flexible, non-contact and high-precision measurements of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutler, A.

    2016-06-01

    A high-accuracy cylindrical coordinate measuring instrument developed for the measurement of optical components is presented. It is equipped with an optical point sensor system including a high aperture probe. This setup allows measurements to be performed with high accuracy in a flexible way. Applications include the measurement of the topography of high-precision aspheric and freeform lenses and diffractive structures. High measuring speeds guarantee the implementation in a closed-loop production process.

  9. Research on high-precision laser displacement sensor-based error compensation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhai, Yusheng; Su, Zhan; Qiao, Lin; Tang, Yiming; Wang, Xinjie; Su, Yuling; Song, Zhijun

    2015-08-01

    The triangulation measurement is a kind of active vision measurement. The laser triangulation displacement is widely used with advantages of non-contact, high precision, high sensitivity. The measuring error will increase with the nonlinear and noise disturbance when sensors work in large distance. The paper introduces the principle of laser triangulation measurement and analyzes the measuring error and establishes the compensation error. Spot centroid is extracted with digital image processing technology to increase noise-signal ratio. Results of simulation and experiment show the method can meet requirement of large distance and high precision.

  10. Methods for high precision 14C AMS measurement of atmospheric CO2 at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Graven, H D; Guilderson, T P; Keeling, R F

    2006-10-18

    Development of {sup 14}C analysis with precision better than 2{per_thousand} has the potential to expand the utility of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} measurements for carbon cycle investigations as atmospheric gradients currently approach traditional measurement precision of 2-5{per_thousand}. The AMS facility at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, produces high and stable beam currents that enable efficient acquisition times for large numbers of {sup 14}C counts. One million {sup 14}C atoms can be detected in approximately 25 minutes, suggesting that near 1{per_thousand} counting precision is economically feasible at LLNL. The overall uncertainty in measured values is ultimately determined by the variation between measured ratios in several sputtering periods of the same sample and by the reproducibility of replicate samples. Experiments on the collection of one million counts on replicate samples of CO{sub 2} extracted from a whole air cylinder show a standard deviation of 1.7{per_thousand} in 36 samples measured over several wheels. This precision may be limited by the reproducibility of Oxalic Acid I standard samples, which is considerably poorer. We outline the procedures for high-precision sample handling and analysis that have enabled reproducibility in the cylinder extraction samples at the <2{per_thousand} level and describe future directions to continue increasing measurement precision at LLNL.

  11. Laser ablation and high precision patterning of biomaterials and intraocular lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafetinides, A. A.; Spyratou, E.; Makropoulou, M.

    2010-10-01

    The use of intraocular lenses (IOL) is the most promising method for restoring excellent vision in cataract surgery. In addition, multifocal intraocular lenses for good distant and near vision are investigated. Several new materials, techniques and patterns are studied for the formation and etching of intraocular lenses in order to improve their optical properties and reduce the diffractive aberrations. As pulsed laser ablation is well established as a universal tool for surface processing of organic polymer materials, this study was focused in using laser ablation with short and ultra short laser pulses for surface modification of PMMA and intraocular lenses, instead of using other conventional techniques. The main advantage of using very short laser pulses, e.g. of ns, ps or fs duration, is that heat diffusion into the polymer material is negligible. As a result high precision patterning of the sample, without thermal damage of the surroundings, becomes possible. In this study, laser ablation was performed using commercially available hydrophobic acrylic IOLs, hydrophilic acrylic IOLs, and PMMA IOLs, with various diopters. We investigated the ablation efficiency and the phenomenology of the etched patterns by testing the ablation rate, versus laser energy fluence, at several wavelengths and the surface modification with atomic force microscopy (AFM), or scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The irradiated polymers have different optical properties, at the applied wavelengths, and therefore, present different ablation behaviour and morphology of the laser ablated crater walls and surrounding surfaces. The experimental results, some theoretical assumptions for mathematical modeling of the relevant ablation mechanisms are discussed.

  12. Development of a low cost high precision three-layer 3D artificial compound eye.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Lei; McCray, David L; Scheiding, Sebastian; Naples, Neil J; Gebhardt, Andreas; Risse, Stefan; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, Andreas; Yi, Allen Y

    2013-09-23

    Artificial compound eyes are typically designed on planar substrates due to the limits of current imaging devices and available manufacturing processes. In this study, a high precision, low cost, three-layer 3D artificial compound eye consisting of a 3D microlens array, a freeform lens array, and a field lens array was constructed to mimic an apposition compound eye on a curved substrate. The freeform microlens array was manufactured on a curved substrate to alter incident light beams and steer their respective images onto a flat image plane. The optical design was performed using ZEMAX. The optical simulation shows that the artificial compound eye can form multiple images with aberrations below 11 μm; adequate for many imaging applications. Both the freeform lens array and the field lens array were manufactured using microinjection molding process to reduce cost. Aluminum mold inserts were diamond machined by the slow tool servo method. The performance of the compound eye was tested using a home-built optical setup. The images captured demonstrate that the proposed structures can successfully steer images from a curved surface onto a planar photoreceptor. Experimental results show that the compound eye in this research has a field of view of 87°. In addition, images formed by multiple channels were found to be evenly distributed on the flat photoreceptor. Additionally, overlapping views of the adjacent channels allow higher resolution images to be re-constructed from multiple 3D images taken simultaneously.

  13. Experimental approaches for addressing fundamental biological questions in living, functioning cells with single molecule precision.

    PubMed

    Lenn, Tchern; Leake, Mark C

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, single molecule experimentation has allowed researchers to observe biological processes at the sensitivity level of single molecules in actual functioning, living cells, thereby allowing us to observe the molecular basis of the key mechanistic processes in question in a very direct way, rather than inferring these from ensemble average data gained from traditional molecular and biochemical techniques. In this short review, we demonstrate the impact that the application of single molecule bioscience experimentation has had on our understanding of various cellular systems and processes, and the potential that this approach has for the future to really address very challenging and fundamental questions in the life sciences.

  14. High precision locating control system based on VCM for Talbot lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jingwei; Zhao, Lixin; Deng, Qian; Hu, Song

    2016-10-01

    Aiming at the high precision and efficiency requirements of Z-direction locating in Talbot lithography, a control system based on Voice Coil Motor (VCM) was designed. In this paper, we built a math model of VCM and its moving characteristic was analyzed. A double-closed loop control strategy including position loop and current loop were accomplished. The current loop was implemented by driver, in order to achieve the rapid follow of the system current. The position loop was completed by the digital signal processor (DSP) and the position feedback was achieved by high precision linear scales. Feed forward control and position feedback Proportion Integration Differentiation (PID) control were applied in order to compensate for dynamic lag and improve the response speed of the system. And the high precision and efficiency of the system were verified by simulation and experiments. The results demonstrated that the performance of Z-direction gantry was obviously improved, having high precision, quick responses, strong real-time and easily to expend for higher precision.

  15. Precision of FLEET Velocimetry Using High-speed CMOS Camera Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Christopher J.; Danehy, Paul M.; Bathel, Brett F.; Jiang, Naibo; Calvert, Nathan D.; Miles, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) is an optical measurement technique that permits quantitative velocimetry of unseeded air or nitrogen using a single laser and a single camera. In this paper, we seek to determine the fundamental precision of the FLEET technique using high-speed complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras. Also, we compare the performance of several different high-speed CMOS camera systems for acquiring FLEET velocimetry data in air and nitrogen free-jet flows. The precision was defined as the standard deviation of a set of several hundred single-shot velocity measurements. Methods of enhancing the precision of the measurement were explored such as digital binning (similar in concept to on-sensor binning, but done in post-processing), row-wise digital binning of the signal in adjacent pixels and increasing the time delay between successive exposures. These techniques generally improved precision; however, binning provided the greatest improvement to the un-intensified camera systems which had low signal-to-noise ratio. When binning row-wise by 8 pixels (about the thickness of the tagged region) and using an inter-frame delay of 65 micro sec, precisions of 0.5 m/s in air and 0.2 m/s in nitrogen were achieved. The camera comparison included a pco.dimax HD, a LaVision Imager scientific CMOS (sCMOS) and a Photron FASTCAM SA-X2, along with a two-stage LaVision High Speed IRO intensifier. Excluding the LaVision Imager sCMOS, the cameras were tested with and without intensification and with both short and long inter-frame delays. Use of intensification and longer inter-frame delay generally improved precision. Overall, the Photron FASTCAM SA-X2 exhibited the best performance in terms of greatest precision and highest signal-to-noise ratio primarily because it had the largest pixels.

  16. Precision of FLEET Velocimetry Using High-Speed CMOS Camera Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Christopher J.; Danehy, Paul M.; Bathel, Brett F.; Jiang, Naibo; Calvert, Nathan D.; Miles, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) is an optical measurement technique that permits quantitative velocimetry of unseeded air or nitrogen using a single laser and a single camera. In this paper, we seek to determine the fundamental precision of the FLEET technique using high-speed complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras. Also, we compare the performance of several different high-speed CMOS camera systems for acquiring FLEET velocimetry data in air and nitrogen free-jet flows. The precision was defined as the standard deviation of a set of several hundred single-shot velocity measurements. Methods of enhancing the precision of the measurement were explored such as digital binning (similar in concept to on-sensor binning, but done in post-processing), row-wise digital binning of the signal in adjacent pixels and increasing the time delay between successive exposures. These techniques generally improved precision; however, binning provided the greatest improvement to the un-intensified camera systems which had low signal-to-noise ratio. When binning row-wise by 8 pixels (about the thickness of the tagged region) and using an inter-frame delay of 65 microseconds, precisions of 0.5 meters per second in air and 0.2 meters per second in nitrogen were achieved. The camera comparison included a pco.dimax HD, a LaVision Imager scientific CMOS (sCMOS) and a Photron FASTCAM SA-X2, along with a two-stage LaVision HighSpeed IRO intensifier. Excluding the LaVision Imager sCMOS, the cameras were tested with and without intensification and with both short and long inter-frame delays. Use of intensification and longer inter-frame delay generally improved precision. Overall, the Photron FASTCAM SA-X2 exhibited the best performance in terms of greatest precision and highest signal-to-noise ratio primarily because it had the largest pixels.

  17. Challenges in mold manufacturing for high precision molded diffractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongs, Guido; Bresseler, Bernd; Schweizer, Klaus; Bergs, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Isothermal precision glass molding of imaging optics is the key technology for mass production of precise optical elements. Especially for numerous consumer applications (e.g. digital cameras, smart phones, …), high precision glass molding is applied for the manufacturing of aspherical lenses. The usage of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) can help to further reduce the number of lenses in the optical systems which will lead to a reduced weight of hand-held optical devices. But today the application of molded glass DOEs is limited due to the technological challenges in structuring the mold surfaces. Depending on the application submicrometer structures are required on the mold surface. Furthermore these structures have to be replicated very precisely to the glass lens surface. Especially the micro structuring of hard and brittle mold materials such as Tungsten Carbide is very difficult and not established. Thus a multitude of innovative approaches using diffractive optical elements cannot be realized. Aixtooling has investigated in different mold materials and different suitable machining technologies for the micro- and sub-micrometer structuring of mold surfaces. The focus of the work lays on ultra-precision grinding to generate the diffractive pattern on the mold surfaces. This paper presents the latest achievements in diffractive structuring of Tungsten Carbide mold surfaces by ultra-precision grinding.

  18. A CCD based approach to high-precision size and refractive index determination of levitated microdroplets using Fraunhofer diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.D.; Lermer, N.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1997-06-01

    We describe a fast and convenient method of high precision size and refractive index determination of electrodynamically levitated microdroplets using Fraunhofer diffraction. The diffraction data were obtained with a 16-bit, unintensified charge coupled device (CCD) camera, and converted into angle-resolved elastic scattering intensity patterns by means of a carefully determined set of transformation parameters. The angular scattering patterns were analyzed without any {ital a priori} estimate of the droplet size and only a nominal estimate ({approx}2{percent}) of the refractive index. Experimental angular scattering patterns were fit to calculated patterns from Mie theory using a graded step-size and scaling algorithm and optimized with respect to both droplet diameter and refractive index (real part only) with a precision of {le}3 parts in 10{sup 4} and 1 part in 10{sup 3}, respectively. Potential application to quantitative fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy, as well as mixture analysis in microdroplets is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. High precision semi-automated vertebral height measurement using computed tomography: A phantom study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sovira; Yao, Jianhua; Yao, Lawrence; Ward, Michael M

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of vertebral heights is necessary for the evaluation of many disorders affecting the spine. High precision is particularly important for longitudinal studies where subtle changes are to be detected. Computed tomography (CT) is the modality of choice for high precision studies. Radiography and dual emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) use 2D images to assess 3D structures, which can result in poor visualization due to the superimposition of extraneous anatomical objects on the same 2D space. We present a semi-automated computer algorithm to measure vertebral heights in the 3D space of a CT scan. The algorithm segments the vertebral bodies, extracts their end plates and computes vertebral heights as the mean distance between end plates. We evaluated the precision of our algorithm using repeat scans of an anthropomorphic vertebral phantom. Our method has high precision, with a coefficient of variation of only 0.197% and Bland-Altmann 95% limits of agreement of [-0.11, 0.13] mm. For local heights (anterior, middle, posterior) the algorithm was up to 4.2 times more precise than a manual mid-sagittal plane method.

  20. High precision measurement of the proton charge radius: The PRad experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Meziane, Mehdi

    2013-11-01

    The recent high precision measurements of the proton charge radius performed at PSI from muonic hydrogen Lamb shift puzzled the hadronic physics community. A value of 0.8418 {+-} 0.0007 fm was extracted which is 7{sigma} smaller than the previous determinations obtained from electron-proton scattering experiments and based on precision spectroscopy of electronic hydrogen. An additional extraction of the proton charge radius from electron scattering at Mainz is also in good agreement with these "electronic" determinations. An independent measurement of the proton charge radius from unpolarized elastic ep scattering using a magnetic spectrometer free method was proposed and fully approved at Jefferson Laboratory in June 2012. This novel technique uses the high precision calorimeter HyCal and a windowless hydrogen gas target which makes possible the extraction of the charge radius at very forward angles and thus very low momentum transfer Q{sup 2} up to 10{sup -4} (GeV/c){sup 2} with an unprecedented sub-percent precision for this type of experiment. In this paper, after a review of the recent progress on the proton charge radius extraction and the new high precision experiment PRad will be presented.

  1. High precision measurement of the proton charge radius: The PRad experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Meziane, Mehdi; Collaboration: PRad Collaboration

    2013-11-07

    The recent high precision measurements of the proton charge radius performed at PSI from muonic hydrogen Lamb shift puzzled the hadronic physics community. A value of 0.8418 ± 0.0007 fm was extracted which is 7σ smaller than the previous determinations obtained from electron-proton scattering experiments and based on precision spectroscopy of electronic hydrogen. An additional extraction of the proton charge radius from electron scattering at Mainz is also in good agreement with these 'electronic' determinations. An independent measurement of the proton charge radius from unpolarized elastic ep scattering using a magnetic spectrometer free method was proposed and fully approved at Jefferson Laboratory in June 2012. This novel technique uses the high precision calorimeter HyCal and a windowless hydrogen gas target which makes possible the extraction of the charge radius at very forward angles and thus very low momentum transfer Q{sup 2} up to 10{sup −4} (GeV/c){sup 2} with an unprecedented sub-percent precision for this type of experiment. In this paper, after a review of the recent progress on the proton charge radius extraction and the new high precision experiment PRad will be presented.

  2. Towards high precision measurements of nuclear g-factors for the Be isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamine, A.; Wada, M.; Okada, K.; Ito, Y.; Schury, P.; Arai, F.; Katayama, I.; Imamura, K.; Ichikawa, Y.; Ueno, H.; Wollnik, H.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    We describe the present status of future high-precision measurements of nuclear g-factors utilizing laser-microwave double and laser-microwave-rf triple resonance methods for online-trapped, laser-cooled radioactive beryllium isotope ions. These methods have applicability to other suitably chosen isotopes and for beryllium show promise in deducing the hyperfine anomaly of 11Be with a sufficiently high precision to study the nuclear magnetization distribution of this one-neutron halo nucleus in a nuclear-model-independent manner.

  3. A high precision attitude determination and control system for the UYS-1 nanosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaurais, J. R.; Ferreira, H. C.; Ishihara, J. Y.; Borges, R. A.; Kulabukhov, A. M.; Larin, V. A.; Belikov, V. V.

    This paper presents the design of a high precision attitude determination and control system for the UYS-1 Ukrainian nanosatellite. Its main task is the 3-axis stabilization with less than 0.5° angle errors, so the satellite may take high precision photos of Earth's surface. To accomplish this task, this system comprises a star tracker and three reaction wheels. To avoid external disturbances and actuators faults, a PD-type and a PID-type robust controllers are simulated and the results are compared to an empirically adjusted PD controller.

  4. High-precision self-adaptive phase-calibration method for wavelength-tuning interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xueliang; Zhao, Huiying; Dong, Longchao; Wang, Hongjun; Liu, Bingcai; Yuan, Daocheng; Tian, Ailing; Wang, Fangjie; Zhang, Chupeng; Ban, Xinxing

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a high-precision self-adaptive phase-calibration method for performing wavelength-tuning interferometry. Our method is insensitive to the nonlinearity of the phase shifter, even under random control. Intensity errors derived from laser voltage changes can be restrained by adopting this approach. Furthermore, this method can effectively overcome the influences from the background and modulation intensities in the interferogram, regardless of the phase structure. Numerical simulations and experiments are implemented to verify the validity of this high-precision calibration method.

  5. A high-precision calculation method for interface normal and curvature on an unstructured grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kei; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Ohno, Shuji; Kamide, Hideki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    In the volume-of-fluid algorithm, the calculations of the interface normal and curvature are crucially important for accurately simulating interfacial flows. However, few methods have been proposed for the high-precision interface calculation on an unstructured grid. In this paper, the authors develop a height function method that works appropriately on an unstructured grid. In the process, the definition of the height function is discussed, and the high-precision calculation method of the interface normal is developed to meet the necessary condition for a second-order method. This new method has highly reduced computational cost compared with a conventional high-precision method because the interface normal calculation is completed by solving relatively simple algebraic equations. The curvature calculation method is also discussed and the approximated quadric curve of an interface is employed to calculate the curvature. Following a basic verification, the developed height function method is shown to successfully provide superior calculation accuracy and highly reduced computational cost compared with conventional calculation methods in terms of the interface normal and curvature. In addition, the height function method succeeds in calculating accurately the slotted-disk revolution problem and the oscillating drop on unstructured grids. Therefore, the developed height function method is confirmed to be an efficient technique for the high-precision numerical simulation of interfacial flows on an unstructured grid.

  6. Experimental Characterization of Hysteresis in a Revolute Joint for Precision Deployable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Fung, Jimmy; Gloss, Kevin; Liechty, Derek S.

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies of the micro-dynamic behavior of a deployable telescope metering truss have identified instabilities in the equilibrium shape of the truss in response to low-energy dynamic loading. Analyses indicate that these micro-dynamic instabilities arise from stick-slip friction within the truss joints (e.g., hinges and latches). The present study characterizes the low-magnitude quasi-static load cycle response of the precision revolute joints incorporated in the deployable telescope metering truss, and specifically, the hysteretic response of these joints caused by stick-slip friction within the joint. Detailed descriptions are presented of the test setup and data reduction algorithms, including discussions of data-error sources and data-filtering techniques. Test results are presented from thirteen specimens, and the effects of joint preload and manufacturing tolerances are investigated. Using a simplified model of stick-slip friction, a relationship is made between joint load-cycle behavior and micro-dynamic dimensional instabilities in the deployable telescope metering truss.

  7. A high-precision K-band LFMCW radar for range measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yingzhuo; Chen, Xiuwei; Zou, Yongliao

    2016-11-01

    K-band LFMCW radar may be applied in high-precision range measurement, if its range resolution is made be close to mm magnitude, good performance is not only needed in hardware design, algorithm selection and optimization is but also needed. In K-band LFMCW radar system, CZT algorithm is modified according to practical radar echo signal, its simulation model is built in the System Generator tool software, the corresponding algorithm is implemented in FPGA. K-band LFMCW radar may be applied in range measurement of great volume storage tank, the outfield experiment was done according to application, experiment result shows that range measurement precision may reach mm magnitude, the system can meet the requirement of remote high-precision measurement.

  8. High-precision absolute distance and vibration measurement with frequency scanned interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, H.-J.; Deibel, Jason; Nyberg, Sven; Riles, Keith

    2005-07-01

    We report high-precision absolute distance and vibration measurements performed with frequency scanned interferometry using a pair of single-mode optical fibers. Absolute distance was determined by counting the interference fringes produced while scanning the laser frequency. A high-finesse Fabry-Perot interferometer was used to determine frequency changes during scanning. Two multiple-distance-measurement analysis techniques were developed to improve distance precision and to extract the amplitude and frequency of vibrations. Under laboratory conditions, measurement precision of {approx}50 nm was achieved for absolute distances ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 m by use of the first multiple-distance-measurement technique. The second analysis technique has the capability to measure vibration frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 100 Hz with an amplitude as small as a few nanometers without a priori knowledge.

  9. High-precision absolute distance and vibration measurement with frequency scanned interferometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai-Jun; Deibel, Jason; Nyberg, Sven; Riles, Keith

    2005-07-01

    We report high-precision absolute distance and vibration measurements performed with frequency scanned interferometry using a pair of single-mode optical fibers. Absolute distance was determined by counting the interference fringes produced while scanning the laser frequency. A high-finesse Fabry-Perot interferometer was used to determine frequency changes during scanning. Two multiple-distance-measurement analysis techniques were developed to improve distance precision and to extract the amplitude and frequency of vibrations. Under laboratory conditions, measurement precision of approximately 50 nm was achieved for absolute distances ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 m by use of the first multiple-distance-measurement technique. The second analysis technique has the capability to measure vibration frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 100 Hz with an amplitude as small as a few nanometers without a priori knowledge.

  10. High-precision rotation angle measurement method based on monocular vision.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jing; Zhao, Lingna; Xu, Shengli

    2014-07-01

    To accurately measure the attitude angles (pitch, roll, and yaw) of a rigid object that rotates in a space, we propose a high-precision rotation angle measurement method based on monocular vision. This method combines camera self-calibration, multiview geometry, and 3D measurement. This monocular vision measuring system consists of an area scan CCD, a prime lens, and a spots array target, which are fixed on the measured object. We can calculate the rotation angle according to the rebuilt rotating spots array target by using this monocular vision measuring system. The measurement precision of rotation angle can reach 1 arc sec in this paper's experiments. This method has high measurement precision and good stability. Therefore we can widely use this method in machinery manufacturing, engineering measurement, aerospace, and the military.

  11. A Novel Gravity Compensation Method for High Precision Free-INS Based on “Extreme Learning Machine”

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao; Yang, Gongliu; Cai, Qingzhong; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, with the emergency of high precision inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyros), gravity compensation has become a major source influencing the navigation accuracy in inertial navigation systems (INS), especially for high-precision INS. This paper presents preliminary results concerning the effect of gravity disturbance on INS. Meanwhile, this paper proposes a novel gravity compensation method for high-precision INS, which estimates the gravity disturbance on the track using the extreme learning machine (ELM) method based on measured gravity data on the geoid and processes the gravity disturbance to the height where INS has an upward continuation, then compensates the obtained gravity disturbance into the error equations of INS to restrain the INS error propagation. The estimation accuracy of the gravity disturbance data is verified by numerical tests. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the ELM estimation method can be improved by 23% and 44% compared with the bilinear interpolation method in plain and mountain areas, respectively. To further validate the proposed gravity compensation method, field experiments with an experimental vehicle were carried out in two regions. Test 1 was carried out in a plain area and Test 2 in a mountain area. The field experiment results also prove that the proposed gravity compensation method can significantly improve the positioning accuracy. During the 2-h field experiments, the positioning accuracy can be improved by 13% and 29% respectively, in Tests 1 and 2, when the navigation scheme is compensated by the proposed gravity compensation method. PMID:27916856

  12. High-precision covariant one-boson-exchange potentials for np scattering below 350 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Franz Gross; Alfred Stadler

    2007-12-01

    All realistic potential models for the two-nucleon interaction are to some extent based on boson exchange. However, in order to achieve an essentially perfect fit to the scattering data, characterized by a chi2/Ndata~ 1, previous potentials have abandoned a pure one boson-exchange mechanism (OBE). Using a covariant theory, we have found a true OBE potential that fits the 2006 world np data below 350 MeV with a chi2/Ndata = 1.00 for 3612 data. Our potential has fewer adjustable parameters than previous high precision potentials, and also reproduces the experimental triton binding energy without introducing additional irreducible three-nucleon forces.

  13. Figures deduction method for mast valuating interpolation errors of encoder with high precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Jie; An, Li-min; Liu, Chun-xia

    2011-08-01

    With the development of technology, especially the need of fast accurately running after and orientating the aim of horizon and air, the photoelectrical rotary encoder with high precision has become the research hotspot in the fields of international spaceflight and avigation, the errors evaluation of encoder with high precision is the one of the key technology that must to be resolved. For the encoder with high precision, the interpolation errors is the main factor which affects its precision. Existing interpolation errors detection adopts accurate apparatus such as little angle measurement apparatus and optics polyhedron, requesting under the strict laboratory condition to carry on. The detection method is also time-consuming, hard to tackle and easy to introduce detect errors. This paper mainly studies the fast evaluation method of interpolation errors of encoder with high precision which is applied to the working field. Taking the Lissajou's figure produced by moiré fringe as foundation, the paper sets up the radius vector's mathematical model to represent figure's form deviation, analyses the implied parameters information of moiré fringe, the relation of the radius vector deviation and interpolation errors in the figures and puts forward the method of interpolation errors figures evaluation. Adopting figure deduction method, and directly from harmonic component of radius vector deviation toward harmonic component of interpolation errors, the interpolation errors can be gotten in the paper. Through data collecting card, the Moiré fringe signal is transmitted into the computer, then, the computer storages the data, using figures evaluation method to analyses the data, drawing the curve of interpolation errors. Comparing with interpolation errors drawing from traditional detect method, the change trend of the interpolation errors curve is similar, peak-peak value is almost equality. The result of experiment indicates: the method of the paper can be applied to

  14. Peculiarities of high-overtone transition probabilities in carbon monoxide revealed by high-precision calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Medvedev, Emile S.; Meshkov, Vladimir V.; Stolyarov, Andrey V.

    2015-10-21

    In the recent work devoted to the calculation of the rovibrational line list of the CO molecule [G. Li et al., Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 216, 15 (2015)], rigorous validation of the calculated parameters including intensities was carried out. In particular, the Normal Intensity Distribution Law (NIDL) [E. S. Medvedev, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 174307 (2012)] was employed for the validation purposes, and it was found that, in the original CO line list calculated for large changes of the vibrational quantum number up to Δn = 41, intensities with Δn > 11 were unphysical. Therefore, very high overtone transitions were removed from the published list in Li et al. Here, we show how this type of validation is carried out and prove that the quadruple precision is indispensably required to predict the reliable intensities using the conventional 32-bit computers. Based on these calculations, the NIDL is shown to hold up for the 0 → n transitions till the dissociation limit around n = 83, covering 45 orders of magnitude in the intensity. The low-intensity 0 → n transition predicted in the work of Medvedev [Determination of a new molecular constant for diatomic systems. Normal intensity distribution law for overtone spectra of diatomic and polyatomic molecules and anomalies in overtone absorption spectra of diatomic molecules, Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, 1984] at n = 5 is confirmed, and two additional “abnormal” intensities are found at n = 14 and 23. Criteria for the appearance of such “anomalies” are formulated. The results could be useful to revise the high-overtone molecular transition probabilities provided in spectroscopic databases.

  15. Is there a resting frame in the universe? A proposed experimental test based on a precise measurement of particle mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Donald C.

    2017-03-01

    According to the Special Theory of Relativity, there should be no resting frame in our universe. Such an assumption, however, could be in conflict with the Standard Model of cosmology today, which regards the vacuum not as an empty space. Thus, there is a strong need to experimentally test whether there is a resting frame in our universe or not. We propose that this can be done by precisely measuring the masses of two charged particles moving in opposite directions. If all inertial frames are equivalent, there should be no detectable mass difference between these two particles. If there is a resting frame in the universe, one will observe a mass difference that is dependent on the orientation of the laboratory frame. The detailed experimental setup is discussed in this paper.

  16. Remote and high precision step height measurement with an optical fiber multiplexing interferometric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunzhi; Xie, Fang; Ma, Sen; Chen, Liang

    2015-03-01

    An optical fiber multiplexing low coherence and high coherence interferometric system, which includes a Fizeau interferometer as the sensing element and a Michelson interferometer as the demodulating element, is designed for remote and high precision step height measurement. The Fizeau interferometer is placed in the remote field for sensing the measurand, while the Michelson interferometer which works in both modes of low coherence interferometry and high coherence interferometry is employed for demodulating the measurand. The range of the step height is determined by the low coherence interferometry and the value of it is measured precisely by the high coherence interferometry. High precision has been obtained by searching precisely the peak of the low coherence interferogram symmetrically from two sides of the low coherence interferogram and stabilizing the Michelson interferometer with a feedback loop. The maximum step height that could be measured is 6 mm while the measurement resolution is less than 1 nm. The standard deviation of 10 times measurement results of a step height of 1 mm configurated with two gauge blocks is 0.5 nm.

  17. High precision position control of voice coil motor based on single neuron PID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liyi; Chen, Qiming; Tan, Guangjun; Zhu, He

    2013-01-01

    Voice coil motor(VCM) is widely used in high-speed and high-precision positioning control system in recent years. However, there are system uncertainty, nonlinear, modeling error, and external disturbances in the high-precision positioning control system, traditional PID control method is difficult to achieve precise positioning control. In this paper, a new position control strategy with a single neuron controller which has the capability of self-studying and self-adapting composed with PID controller is put forward, and the feedforward compensator is added to improve the dynamic response of the system in the position loop. Moreover, the disturbance observer is designed to suppress model parameter uncertainty and external disturbance signal in the current loop. In addition, the problem of high precision position control of VCM under the influence of significant disturbances is addressed, which including the gas-lubricated damping, the spring, the back EMF and ripple forces, on the basis, the mathematical model of VCM is established accurately. The simulation results show that this kind of controller can improve the dynamic characteristic and strengthen the robustness of the system, and the current loop with disturbance observer can also restrain disturbance and high frequency.

  18. Technical Note: Millimeter precision in ultrasound based patient positioning: Experimental quantification of inherent technical limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Ballhausen, Hendrik Hieber, Sheila; Li, Minglun; Belka, Claus; Reiner, Michael

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To identify the relevant technical sources of error of a system based on three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) for patient positioning in external beam radiotherapy. To quantify these sources of error in a controlled laboratory setting. To estimate the resulting end-to-end geometric precision of the intramodality protocol. Methods: Two identical free-hand 3D US systems at both the planning-CT and the treatment room were calibrated to the laboratory frame of reference. Every step of the calibration chain was repeated multiple times to estimate its contribution to overall systematic and random error. Optimal margins were computed given the identified and quantified systematic and random errors. Results: In descending order of magnitude, the identified and quantified sources of error were: alignment of calibration phantom to laser marks 0.78 mm, alignment of lasers in treatment vs planning room 0.51 mm, calibration and tracking of 3D US probe 0.49 mm, alignment of stereoscopic infrared camera to calibration phantom 0.03 mm. Under ideal laboratory conditions, these errors are expected to limit ultrasound-based positioning to an accuracy of 1.05 mm radially. Conclusions: The investigated 3D ultrasound system achieves an intramodal accuracy of about 1 mm radially in a controlled laboratory setting. The identified systematic and random errors require an optimal clinical tumor volume to planning target volume margin of about 3 mm. These inherent technical limitations do not prevent clinical use, including hypofractionation or stereotactic body radiation therapy.

  19. An optical fiber multiplexing interferometric system for measuring remote and high precision step height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunzhi; Xie, Fang; Ma, Sen; Chen, Liang

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, an optical fiber multiplexing interferometric system including a Fizeau interferometer and a Michelson interferometer is designed for remote and high precision step height measurement. The Fizeau interferometer which is inserted in the remote sensing field is used for sensing the measurand, while the Michelson interferometer which is stabilized by a feedback loop works in both modes of low coherence interferometry and high coherence interferometry to demodulate the measurand. The range of the step height is determined by the low coherence interferometry and the value of it is measured precisely by the high coherence interferometry. High precision has been obtained by using the symmetrical peak-searching method to address the peak of the low coherence interferogram precisely and stabilizing the Michelson interferometer with a feedback loop. The maximum step height that could be measured is 6 mm while the measurement resolution is less than 1 nm. The standard deviation of 10 times measurement results of a step height of 1 mm configurated with two gauge blocks is 0.5 nm.

  20. Centroiding Experiment for Determining the Positions of Stars with High Precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, T.; Araki, H.; Hanada, H.; Tazawa, S.; Gouda, N.; Kobayashi, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Niwa, Y.

    2010-12-01

    We have experimented with the determination of the positions of star images on a detector with high precision such as 10 microarcseconds, required by a space astrometry satellite, JASMINE. In order to accomplish such a precision, we take the following two procedures. (1) We determine the positions of star images on the detector with the precision of about 0.01 pixel for one measurement, using an algorithm for estimating them from photon weighted means of the star images. (2) We determine the positions of star images with the precision of about 0.0001-0.00001 pixel, which corresponds to that of 10 microarcseconds, using a large amount of data over 10000 measurements, that is, the error of the positions decreases according to the amount of data. Here, we note that the procedure 2 is not accomplished when the systematic error in our data is not excluded adequately even if we use a large amount of data. We first show the method to determine the positions of star images on the detector using photon weighted means of star images. This algorithm, used in this experiment, is very useful because it is easy to calculate the photon weighted mean from the data. This is very important in treating a large amount of data. Furthermore, we need not assume the shape of the point spread function in deriving the centroid of star images. Second, we show the results in the laboratory experiment for precision of determining the positions of star images. We obtain that the precision of estimation of positions of star images on the detector is under a variance of 0.01 pixel for one measurement (procedure 1). We also obtain that the precision of the positions of star images becomes a variance of about 0.0001 pixel using about 10000 measurements (procedure 2).

  1. High-Precision Calibration of a Weld-On-The-Fly-System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmelmann, Claus; Schenk, Kerstin; Wollnack, Jörg; Kirchhoff, Marc

    Since 20 years the importance of laser based material processing increases constantly due to its significant higher process speed in comparison to conventional processing technologies. A scanner system for laser-remote-welding mounted on a robot hand to achieve more freedom in positioning the laser spot has been investigated. Additionally the scanner head contains two fixed cameras for measurements and process monitoring. To perform required measurements with maximum accuracy the allover system has to be calibrated precise. Therefore a combination of video metric measurement system and a laser tracker has been used. This paper depict this high-precision calibration process and shows reachable accuracies.

  2. Development and Utilization of High Precision Digital Elevation Data taken by Airborne Laser Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akutsu, Osamu; Ohta, Masataka; Isobe, Tamio; Ando, Hisamitsu, Noguchi, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masayuki

    2005-03-01

    Disasters caused by heavy rain in urban areas bring a damage such as chaos in the road and railway transport systems, power failure, breakdown of the telephone system and submersion of built up areas, subways and underground shopping arcades, etc. It is important to obtain high precision elevation data which shows the detailed landform because a slight height difference affects damages by flood very considerably. Therefore, The Geographical Survey Institute (GSI) is preparing 5m grid digital terrain model (DTM) based on precise ground elevation data taken by using airborne laser scanner. This paper describes the process and an example of the use of a 5m grid digital data set.

  3. Highly Accurate and Precise Infrared Transition Frequencies of the H_3^+ Cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Adam J.; Markus, Charles R.; Hodges, James N.; Kocheril, G. Stephen; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2016-06-01

    Calculation of ab initio potential energy surfaces for molecules to high accuracy is only manageable for a handful of molecular systems. Among them is the simplest polyatomic molecule, the H_3^+ cation. In order to achieve a high degree of accuracy (<1 wn) corrections must be made to the to the traditional Born-Oppenheimer approximation that take into account not only adiabatic and non-adiabatic couplings, but quantum electrodynamic corrections as well. For the lowest rovibrational levels the agreement between theory and experiment is approaching 0.001 wn, whereas the agreement is on the order of 0.01 - 0.1 wn for higher levels which are closely rivaling the uncertainties on the experimental data. As method development for calculating these various corrections progresses it becomes necessary for the uncertainties on the experimental data to be improved in order to properly benchmark the calculations. Previously we have measured 20 rovibrational transitions of H_3^+ with MHz-level precision, all of which have arisen from low lying rotational levels. Here we present new measurements of rovibrational transitions arising from higher rotational and vibrational levels. These transitions not only allow for probing higher energies on the potential energy surface, but through the use of combination differences, will ultimately lead to prediction of the "forbidden" rotational transitions with MHz-level accuracy. L.G. Diniz, J.R. Mohallem, A. Alijah, M. Pavanello, L. Adamowicz, O.L. Polyansky, J. Tennyson Phys. Rev. A (2013), 88, 032506 O.L. Polyansky, A. Alijah, N.F. Zobov, I.I. Mizus, R.I. Ovsyannikov, J. Tennyson, L. Lodi, T. Szidarovszky, A.G. Császár Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A (2012), 370, 5014 J.N. Hodges, A.J. Perry, P.A. Jenkins II, B.M. Siller, B.J. McCall J. Chem. Phys. (2013), 139, 164201 A.J. Perry, J.N. Hodges, C.R. Markus, G.S. Kocheril, B.J. McCall J. Molec. Spectrosc. (2015), 317, 71-73.

  4. High precision measurements of the diamond Hugoniot in and above the melt region

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, D; Boehly, T; Celliers, P; Bradley, D; Eggert, J; McWilliams, R S; Collins, G

    2008-08-05

    High precision laser-driven shock wave measurements of the diamond principal Hugoniot have been made at pressures between 6 and 19 Mbar. Shock velocities were determined with 0.3-1.1% precision using a velocity interferometer. Impedance matching analysis, incorporating systematic errors in the equation-of-state of the quartz standard, was used to determine the Hugoniot with 1.2-2.7% precision in density. The results are in good agreement with published ab initio calculations which predict a small negative melt slope along the Hugoniot, but disagree with previous laser-driven shock wave experiments which had observed a large density increase in the melt region. In the extensive solid-liquid coexistence regime between 6 and 10 Mbar these measurements indicate that the mixed phase may be slightly more dense than would be expected from a simple interpolation between liquid and solid Hugoniots.

  5. High-Precision Microwave Spectroscopy of Muonium for Determination of Muonic Magnetic Moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, H. A.; Higashi, Y.; Higuchi, T.; Matsuda, Y.; Mizutani, T.; Tajima, M.; Tanaka, K. S.; Ueno, Y.; Fukao, Y.; Iinuma, H.; Ikedo, Y.; Kadono, R.; Kawamura, N.; Koda, A.; Kojima, K. M.; Mibe, T.; Miyake, Y.; Nagamine, K.; Nishiyama, K.; Ogitsu, T.; Okubo, R.; Saito, N.; Sasaki, K.; Shimomura, K.; Strasser, P.; Sugano, M.; Toyoda, A.; Ueno, K.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.; Ishida, K.; Iwasaki, M.; Kamigaito, O.; Tomono, D.; Kanda, S.; Kubo, K.; Aoki, M.; Torikai, E.; Kawall, D.

    2016-02-01

    The muonium atom is a system suitable for precision measurements for determination of muon’s fundamental properties as well as for the test of quantum electrodynamics (QED). A microwave spectroscopy experiment of this exotic atom is being prepared at J-PARC, jointly operated by KEK and JAEA in Japan, aiming at an improved relative precision at a level of 10-8 in determination of the muonic magnetic moment. A major improvement of statistical uncertainty is expected with the higher muon intensity of the pulsed beam at J-PARC, while reduction of various sources of systematic uncertainties are being studied: those arising from microwave power fluctuations, magnetic field inhomogeneity, muon stopping distribution and atomic collisional shift of resonance frequencies. Experimental strategy and methods are presented in this paper, with an emphasis on our recent development of apparatuses and evaluation of systematic uncertainties.

  6. Integrated hybrid vibration isolator with feedforward compensation for fast high-precision positioning X/Y tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, T. H.; Pu, H. Y.; Chen, X. D.; Li, Q.; Xu, C.

    2010-06-01

    The design, realization and control technologies of a high-performance hybrid microvibration isolator for ultra-high-precision high-speed moving X/Y tables are presented in this paper—the novel isolator with integrated passive-active high level of damping. The passive damping was implemented using air-springs in both vertical and horizontal directions, with parallel linear motors in two directions to realize the active damping and the positioning functions. It is an actual hybrid isolation system because its air-spring can also be controlled through the pneumatic loop. The isolation servo system also has fast positioning capability via the feedforward compensation for the moving tables. Compared with the conventional filtered reference type control algorithms that rely on the assumption for the adaptive filter and the controlled system, in which the disturbance is estimated from the residual signal, the feedforward compensation here shows high effectiveness of vibration isolation and high-precision positioning performance for its platform. The performance of feedforward compensation has been enhanced via an efficient state estimation adaptive algorithm, the fast Kalman filter. Finally, experimental demonstration has been shown for the prototype system and the results have verified the effectiveness of the proposed isolator system design and the adaptive control algorithm for substantially enhanced damping of the platform system with the moving X/Y tables.

  7. Development of high precision laser measurement to Space Debris and Applications in SHAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongping; Chen, Juping; Xiong, Yaoheng; Han, Xingwei

    2016-07-01

    Artificial space debris has become the focus during the space exploration because of producing the damage for the future active spacecrafts and high precision measurement for space debris are required for debris surveillance and collision avoidance. Laser ranging technology is inherently high accurate and will play an important role in precise orbit determination, accurate catalog of space debris. Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO) of CAS, has been developing the technology of laser measurement to space debris for several years. According to characteristics of laser echoes from space debris and the experiences of relevant activities, high repetition rate, high power laser system and low dark noise APD detector with high quantum efficiency and high transmissivity of narrow bandwidth spectral filter are applied to laser measurement to space debris in SHAO. With these configurations, great achievements of laser measurement to space debris are made with hundreds of passes of laser data from space debris in the distance between 500km and 2500km with Radar Cross Section (RCS) of more than 10 m^{2} to less than 0.5m^{2} at the measuring precision of less than 1m (RMS). For better application of laser ranging technology, Chinese Space Debris Observation network, consisting of Shanghai, Changchun and Kunming station, has been preliminary developed and the coordinated observation has been performed to increase the measuring efficiency for space debris. It is referred from data that laser ranging technology can be as the essential high accuracy measurement technology in the study of space debris.

  8. A high-precision method for measurement of paleoatmospheric CO2 in small polar ice samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jinho; Brook, Edward J.; Howell, Kate

    We describe a high-precision method, now in use in our laboratory, for measuring the CO2 mixing ratio of ancient air trapped in polar ice cores. Occluded air in ice samples weighing ˜8-15 g is liberated by crushing with steel pins at -35°C and trapped at -263°C in a cryogenic cold trap. CO2 in the extracted air is analyzed using gas chromatography. Replicate measurements for several samples of high-quality ice from the Siple Dome and Taylor Dome Antarctic ice cores have pooled standard deviations of <0.9 ppm. This high-precision technique is directly applicable to high-temporal-resolution studies for detection of small CO2 variations, for example CO2 variations of a few parts per million on millennial to decadal scales.

  9. A high-precision tunable millimeter-wave photonic LO reference for the ALMA telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shillue, W.; Grammer, W.; Jacques, C.; Meadows, H.; Castro, J.; Banda, J.; Treacy, R.; Masui, Y.; Brito, R.; Huggard, P.; Ellison, B.; Cliche, J.-F.; Ayotte, S.; Babin, A.; Costin, F.; Latrasse, C.; Pelletier, F.; Picard, M.-J.; Poulin, M.; Poulin, P.

    2013-06-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array is a radio telescope array of 66 antennas designed for high performance scientific imaging, covering a frequency range of 27-950 GHz. Each antenna has a front end with ten receiving bands, and each band has a local oscillator which is synchronized between all antennas. We describe a high precision tunable millimeter-wave photonic local oscillator reference system, which is used as the synchronizing reference for all ten bands on each receiver.

  10. High-precision predictions for the light CP-even Higgs boson mass of the minimal supersymmetric standard model.

    PubMed

    Hahn, T; Heinemeyer, S; Hollik, W; Rzehak, H; Weiglein, G

    2014-04-11

    For the interpretation of the signal discovered in the Higgs searches at the LHC it will be crucial in particular to discriminate between the minimal Higgs sector realized in the standard model (SM) and its most commonly studied extension, the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). The measured mass value, having already reached the level of a precision observable with an experimental accuracy of about 500 MeV, plays an important role in this context. In the MSSM the mass of the light CP-even Higgs boson, Mh, can directly be predicted from the other parameters of the model. The accuracy of this prediction should at least match the one of the experimental result. The relatively high mass value of about 126 GeV has led to many investigations where the scalar top quarks are in the multi-TeV range. We improve the prediction for Mh in the MSSM by combining the existing fixed-order result, comprising the full one-loop and leading and subleading two-loop corrections, with a resummation of the leading and subleading logarithmic contributions from the scalar top sector to all orders. In this way for the first time a high-precision prediction for the mass of the light CP-even Higgs boson in the MSSM is possible all the way up to the multi-TeV region of the relevant supersymmetric particles. The results are included in the code FEYNHIGGS.

  11. A valid strategy for precise identifications of transcription factor binding sites in combinatorial regulation using bioinformatic and experimental approaches

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transcription factor (TF) binding sites (cis element) play a central role in gene regulation, and eukaryotic organisms frequently adapt a combinatorial regulation to render sophisticated local gene expression patterns. Knowing the precise cis element on a distal promoter is a prerequisite for studying a typical transcription process; however, identifications of cis elements have lagged behind those of their associated trans acting TFs due to technical difficulties. Consequently, gene regulations via combinatorial TFs, as widely observed across biological processes, have remained vague in many cases. Results We present here a valid strategy for identifying cis elements in combinatorial TF regulations. It consists of bioinformatic searches of available databases to generate candidate cis elements and tests of the candidates using improved experimental assays. Taking the MYB and the bHLH that collaboratively regulate the anthocyanin pathway genes as examples, we demonstrate how candidate cis motifs for the TFs are found on multi-specific promoters of chalcone synthase (CHS) genes, and how to experimentally test the candidate sites by designing DNA fragments hosting the candidate motifs based on a known promoter (us1 allele of Ipomoea purpurea CHS-D in our case) and applying site-mutagenesis at the motifs. It was shown that TF-DNA interactions could be unambiguously analyzed by assays of electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA) and dual-luciferase transient expressions, and the resulting evidence precisely delineated a cis element. The cis element for R2R3 MYBs including Ipomoea MYB1 and Magnolia MYB1, for instance, was found to be ANCNACC, and that for bHLHs (exemplified by Ipomoea bHLH2 and petunia AN1) was CACNNG. A re-analysis was conducted on previously reported promoter segments recognized by maize C1 and apple MYB10, which indicated that cis elements similar to ANCNACC were indeed present on these segments, and tested positive for their bindings to

  12. High precision mobile location framework and its service based on virtual reference station of GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun; Sun, Liangyu; Yao, Lianbi

    2008-10-01

    The wireless communication technology and space technology are synchronously developed in recent years, which bring up the development of location based service (LBS). At present, many location technology methods were developed. However, all these methods can only provide a relative poor location precision and depend on high cost. The technology of Virtual Reference Station (VRS) of GPS is then involved in this paper. One of the objective in this paper is aim to give the LBS position structure to improve the mobile location position when a mobile position instrument is connected with VRS network. The cheaper GPS built-in Personal Designer Aid (PDA) is then used to achieve a higher precision by using RTCM data from existing VRS network. In order to obtain a high precision position when using the low-cost GPS receiver as a rover, the infrusture of the mobile differential correction system is then put forward. According to network transportation of RTCM via internet protocol (NTRIP), the message is communicated through wireless network, such as GPRS, CDMA and so on. The rough coordinate information is sent to VRS control center continuously, and then the VRS correction information is replied to rover in the data format of RTCM3.1. So the position will be updated based on mathematic solution after the decoding of RTCM3.1 data. The thought of LBS position can improve the precision, and can speed the LBS.

  13. Development and simulation of microfluidic Wheatstone bridge for high-precision sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipulya, N. D.; Konakov, S. A.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    In this work we present the results of analytical modeling and 3D computer simulation of microfluidic Wheatstone bridge, which is used for high-accuracy measurements and precision instruments. We propose and simulate a new method of a bridge balancing process by changing the microchannel geometry. This process is based on the “etching in microchannel” technology we developed earlier (doi:10.1088/1742-6596/681/1/012035). Our method ensures a precise control of the flow rate and flow direction in the bridge microchannel. The advantage of our approach is the ability to work without any control valves and other active electronic systems, which are usually used for bridge balancing. The geometrical configuration of microchannels was selected based on the analytical estimations. A detailed 3D numerical model was based on Navier-Stokes equations for a laminar fluid flow at low Reynolds numbers. We investigated the behavior of the Wheatstone bridge under different process conditions; found a relation between the channel resistance and flow rate through the bridge; and calculated the pressure drop across the system under different total flow rates and viscosities. Finally, we describe a high-precision microfluidic pressure sensor that employs the Wheatstone bridge and discuss other applications in complex precision microfluidic systems.

  14. A study on using image serving technology for high precision mechanical positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chuen-Horng; Hsiao, Muh-Don; Lai, Kuo-Jung

    2016-12-01

    This paper focused on using image server technology for high precision mechanical positioning. Rapid and precise positioning systems depend on the correct positions of CCD (Charge Coupled Device) video cameras, as well as on pattern matching modes. This study deals with four different positions captured by an automatic detection system employing a CCD video camera. According to a variety of hybrid image registration systems, this study proposes an entire set of methods for achieving optimal hybrid pattern matching. First, the four different position detections captured by the CCD video camera in low-resolution were examined. Next, the original position detection was carried out in high-resolution, in order to derive a precise set of CCD video camera positions. The fiducial mark (FM) was then divided into two types in the optimal option for pattern matching: the "fiducial mark" and "non-fiducial mark", which were then used for sampling. The automatic detection method is able to achieve the first pattern matching detection for recognized images. Unrecognized images or images that cannot have an FM were subjected to fine pattern matching detection. When it is not possible to find more than one FM after the proposed detection method, this suggests that the position of the CCD video camera should be reset. In this paper, the results of the experiment regarding the CCD camera precision location and the segmentation of fiducial patterns or insignificant fiducial patterns can detect and segment more unique areas and areas with unique features.

  15. Process influences and correction possibilities for high precision injection molded freeform optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Lars; Risse, Stefan; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Modern injection molding processes offer a cost-efficient method for manufacturing high precision plastic optics for high volume applications. Besides form deviation of molded freeform optics, internal material stress is a relevant influencing factor for the functionality of a freeform optics in an optical system. This paper illustrates dominant influence parameters of an injection molding process relating to form deviation and internal material stress based on a freeform demonstrator geometry. Furthermore, a deterministic and efficient way for 3D mold correcting of systematic, asymmetrical shrinkage errors is shown to reach micrometer range shape accuracy at diameters up to 40 mm. In a second case, a stress-optimized parameter combination using unusual molding conditions was 3D corrected to reach high precision and low stress freeform polymer optics.

  16. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the precise transduction mechanism in giant magnetoresistive biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Rok; Sato, Noriyuki; Bechstein, Daniel J. B.; Osterfeld, Sebastian J.; Wang, Junyi; Gani, Adi Wijaya; Hall, Drew A.; Wang, Shan X.

    2016-01-01

    Giant magnetoresistive (GMR) biosensors consisting of many rectangular stripes are being developed for high sensitivity medical diagnostics of diseases at early stages, but many aspects of the sensing mechanism remain to be clarified. Using e-beam patterned masks on the sensors, we showed that the magnetic nanoparticles with a diameter of 50 nm located between the stripes predominantly determine the sensor signals over those located on the sensor stripes. Based on computational analysis, it was confirmed that the particles in the trench, particularly those near the edges of the stripes, mainly affect the sensor signals due to additional field from the stripe under an applied field. We also demonstrated that the direction of the average magnetic field from the particles that contributes to the signal is indeed the same as that of the applied field, indicating that the particles in the trench are pivotal to produce sensor signal. Importantly, the same detection principle was validated with a duplex protein assay. Also, 8 different types of sensor stripes were fabricated and design parameters were explored. According to the detection principle uncovered, GMR biosensors can be further optimized to improve their sensitivity, which is highly desirable for early diagnosis of diseases. PMID:26728870

  17. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the precise transduction mechanism in giant magnetoresistive biosensors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Rok; Sato, Noriyuki; Bechstein, Daniel J B; Osterfeld, Sebastian J; Wang, Junyi; Gani, Adi Wijaya; Hall, Drew A; Wang, Shan X

    2016-01-05

    Giant magnetoresistive (GMR) biosensors consisting of many rectangular stripes are being developed for high sensitivity medical diagnostics of diseases at early stages, but many aspects of the sensing mechanism remain to be clarified. Using e-beam patterned masks on the sensors, we showed that the magnetic nanoparticles with a diameter of 50 nm located between the stripes predominantly determine the sensor signals over those located on the sensor stripes. Based on computational analysis, it was confirmed that the particles in the trench, particularly those near the edges of the stripes, mainly affect the sensor signals due to additional field from the stripe under an applied field. We also demonstrated that the direction of the average magnetic field from the particles that contributes to the signal is indeed the same as that of the applied field, indicating that the particles in the trench are pivotal to produce sensor signal. Importantly, the same detection principle was validated with a duplex protein assay. Also, 8 different types of sensor stripes were fabricated and design parameters were explored. According to the detection principle uncovered, GMR biosensors can be further optimized to improve their sensitivity, which is highly desirable for early diagnosis of diseases.

  18. High-precision reflectometry of multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Wedowski, M; Underwood, J H; Gullikson, E M; Bajt, S; Folta, J A; Kearney, P A; Montcalm, C; Spiller, E

    1999-12-29

    Synchrotron-based reflectometry is an important technique for the precise determination of optical properties of reflective multilayer coatings for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL). Multilayer coatings enable normal incidence reflectances of more than 65% in the wavelength range between 11 and 15 nm. In order to achieve high resolution and throughput of EUVL systems, stringent requirements not only apply to their mechanical and optical layout, but also apply to the optical properties of the multilayer coatings. Therefore, multilayer deposition on near-normal incidence optical surfaces of projection optics, condenser optics and reflective masks requires suitable high-precision metrology. Most important, due to their small bandpass on the order of only 0.5 nm, all reflective multilayer coatings in EUVL systems must be wavelength-matched to within {+-}0.05 nm. In some cases, a gradient of the coating thickness is necessary for wavelength matching at variable average angle of incidence in different locations on the optical surfaces. Furthermore, in order to preserve the geometrical figure of the optical substrates, reflective multilayer coatings need to be uniform to within 0.01 nm in their center wavelength. This requirement can only be fulfilled with suitable metrology, which provides a precision of a fraction of this value. In addition, for the detailed understanding and the further development of reflective multilayer coatings a precision in the determination of peak reflectances is desirable on the order of 0.1%. Substrates up to 200 mm in diameter and 15 kg in mass need to be accommodated. Above requirements are fulfilled at beamline 6.3.2 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley. This beamline proved to be precise within 0.2% (ms) for reflectance and 0.002 nm (rms) for wavelength.

  19. High-Precision Superallowed Fermi β Decay Measurements at TRIUMF-ISAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, C. E.

    2016-09-01

    High-precision measurements of the ft -values for superallowed Fermi β decays between nuclear isobaric analogue states provide demanding tests of the electroweak Standard Model, including confirmation of the Conserved Vector Current hypothesis at the level of 1 . 2 ×10-4 , the most stringent limits on weak scalar currents, and the most precise determination of the Vud element of the CKM quark-mixing matrix. The Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) facility at TRIUMF produces high-quality beams of several of the superallowed emitters with world-record intensities and hosts a suite of state-of-the-art spectrometers for the measurement of superallowed half-lives, branching ratios, QEC values, and charge-radii. Recent highlights from the superallowed program at ISAC, including high-precision half-life measurements for the light superallowed emitters 10C, 14O, 18Ne, and 26mAl and branching-ratio measurements for the heavy superallowed emitters 62Ga and 74Rb will be presented. The impact of these measurements on tests of the Standard Model, and future developments in the superallowed program at ISAC with the new high-efficiency GRIFFIN γ - ray spectrometer, will be discussed. Research supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Canada Foundation for Innovation, and the Canada Research Chairs Program. TRIUMF receives federal funding via the National Research Council of Canada.

  20. A high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of bearing cage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Chen, H; Yu, T; Li, B

    2016-08-01

    The high-precision ball bearing is fundamental to the performance of complex mechanical systems. As the speed increases, the cage behavior becomes a key factor in influencing the bearing performance, especially life and reliability. This paper develops a high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of the bearing cage. The trajectory of the rotational center and non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the cage are used to evaluate the instability of cage motion. This instrument applied an aerostatic spindle to support and spin test the bearing to decrease the influence of system error. Then, a high-speed camera is used to capture images when the bearing works at high speeds. A 3D trajectory tracking software tema Motion is used to track the spot which marked the cage surface. Finally, by developing the matlab program, a Lissajous' figure was used to evaluate the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the cage with different speeds. The trajectory of rotational center and NRRO of the cage with various speeds are analyzed. The results can be used to predict the initial failure and optimize cage structural parameters. In addition, the repeatability precision of instrument is also validated. In the future, the motorized spindle will be applied to increase testing speed and image processing algorithms will be developed to analyze the trajectory of the cage.

  1. A high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of bearing cage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Chen, H.; Yu, T.; Li, B.

    2016-08-01

    The high-precision ball bearing is fundamental to the performance of complex mechanical systems. As the speed increases, the cage behavior becomes a key factor in influencing the bearing performance, especially life and reliability. This paper develops a high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of the bearing cage. The trajectory of the rotational center and non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the cage are used to evaluate the instability of cage motion. This instrument applied an aerostatic spindle to support and spin test the bearing to decrease the influence of system error. Then, a high-speed camera is used to capture images when the bearing works at high speeds. A 3D trajectory tracking software tema Motion is used to track the spot which marked the cage surface. Finally, by developing the matlab program, a Lissajous' figure was used to evaluate the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the cage with different speeds. The trajectory of rotational center and NRRO of the cage with various speeds are analyzed. The results can be used to predict the initial failure and optimize cage structural parameters. In addition, the repeatability precision of instrument is also validated. In the future, the motorized spindle will be applied to increase testing speed and image processing algorithms will be developed to analyze the trajectory of the cage.

  2. Experimental needs of high temperature concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Chern, J.C.; Marchertas, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    The needs of experimental data on concrete structures under high temperature, ranging up to about 370/sup 0/C for operating reactor conditions and to about 900/sup 0/C and beyond for hypothetical accident conditions, are described. This information is required to supplement analytical methods which are being implemented into the finite element code TEMP-STRESS to treat reinforced concrete structures. Recommended research ranges from material properties of reinforced/prestressed concrete, direct testing of analytical models used in the computer codes, to investigations of certain aspects of concrete behavior, the phenomenology of which is not well understood. 10 refs.

  3. [Experimental and theoretical high energy physics program

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, J.; Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.

    1993-04-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics research at Purdue is summarized in a number of reports. Subjects treated include the following: the CLEO experiment for the study of heavy flavor physics; gas microstrip detectors; particle astrophysics; affine Kac{endash}Moody algebra; nonperturbative mass bounds on scalar and fermion systems due to triviality and vacuum stability constraints; resonance neutrino oscillations; e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions at CERN; {bar p}{endash}p collisions at FNAL; accelerator physics at Fermilab; development work for the SDC detector at SSC; TOPAZ; D-zero physics; physics beyond the standard model; and the Collider Detector at Fermilab. (RWR)

  4. A discrete time-varying internal model-based approach for high precision tracking of a multi-axis servo gantry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Yan, Peng; Jiang, Huan; Ye, Peiqing

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the discrete time-varying internal model-based control design for high precision tracking of complicated reference trajectories generated by time-varying systems. Based on a novel parallel time-varying internal model structure, asymptotic tracking conditions for the design of internal model units are developed, and a low order robust time-varying stabilizer is further synthesized. In a discrete time setting, the high precision tracking control architecture is deployed on a Voice Coil Motor (VCM) actuated servo gantry system, where numerical simulations and real time experimental results are provided, achieving the tracking errors around 3.5‰ for frequency-varying signals.

  5. High Precision Calculations of the Lennard-Jones Lattice Constants for Five Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The total potential energy of a crystal as described by the Lennard-Jones (L-J) potential depends in part upon the calculation of lattice constants. Knowing these constants to high precision is useful for prediction of the lattice type and simulation of crystals such as rare-gas solids or germanium detectors, but reaching higher precision is computationally costly and challenging. Presented here is the extension of the precision of the lattice constants, Lp, up to 32 decimal digits, and in some cases corrections from previous publication. The Lp terms are given for 4 <= p <= 30 in the simple cubic, face-centered cubic, body-centered cubic, hexagonal-close-pack, and diamond lattices. This precision was obtained through the use of careful parallelization technique, exploitation of the symmetries of each lattice, and the ``onionization'' of the simulated crystal. The results of this computation, along with the tools and algorithm strategies to make this computation possible, are explained in detail graphically.

  6. Direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton.

    PubMed

    Mooser, A; Ulmer, S; Blaum, K; Franke, K; Kracke, H; Leiteritz, C; Quint, W; Rodegheri, C C; Smorra, C; Walz, J

    2014-05-29

    One of the fundamental properties of the proton is its magnetic moment, µp. So far µp has been measured only indirectly, by analysing the spectrum of an atomic hydrogen maser in a magnetic field. Here we report the direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of a single proton using the double Penning-trap technique. We drive proton-spin quantum jumps by a magnetic radio-frequency field in a Penning trap with a homogeneous magnetic field. The induced spin transitions are detected in a second trap with a strong superimposed magnetic inhomogeneity. This enables the measurement of the spin-flip probability as a function of the drive frequency. In each measurement the proton's cyclotron frequency is used to determine the magnetic field of the trap. From the normalized resonance curve, we extract the particle's magnetic moment in terms of the nuclear magneton: μp = 2.792847350(9)μN. This measurement outperforms previous Penning-trap measurements in terms of precision by a factor of about 760. It improves the precision of the forty-year-old indirect measurement, in which significant theoretical bound state corrections were required to obtain µp, by a factor of 3. By application of this method to the antiproton magnetic moment, the fractional precision of the recently reported value can be improved by a factor of at least 1,000. Combined with the present result, this will provide a stringent test of matter/antimatter symmetry with baryons.

  7. Direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooser, A.; Ulmer, S.; Blaum, K.; Franke, K.; Kracke, H.; Leiteritz, C.; Quint, W.; Rodegheri, C. C.; Smorra, C.; Walz, J.

    2014-05-01

    One of the fundamental properties of the proton is its magnetic moment, µp. So far µp has been measured only indirectly, by analysing the spectrum of an atomic hydrogen maser in a magnetic field. Here we report the direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of a single proton using the double Penning-trap technique. We drive proton-spin quantum jumps by a magnetic radio-frequency field in a Penning trap with a homogeneous magnetic field. The induced spin transitions are detected in a second trap with a strong superimposed magnetic inhomogeneity. This enables the measurement of the spin-flip probability as a function of the drive frequency. In each measurement the proton's cyclotron frequency is used to determine the magnetic field of the trap. From the normalized resonance curve, we extract the particle's magnetic moment in terms of the nuclear magneton: μp = 2.792847350(9)μN. This measurement outperforms previous Penning-trap measurements in terms of precision by a factor of about 760. It improves the precision of the forty-year-old indirect measurement, in which significant theoretical bound state corrections were required to obtain µp, by a factor of 3. By application of this method to the antiproton magnetic moment, the fractional precision of the recently reported value can be improved by a factor of at least 1,000. Combined with the present result, this will provide a stringent test of matter/antimatter symmetry with baryons.

  8. Optical timing receiver for the NASA laser ranging system. Part 2: High precision time interval digitizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leskovar, B.; Turko, B.

    1977-01-01

    The development of a high precision time interval digitizer is described. The time digitizer is a 10 psec resolution stop watch covering a range of up to 340 msec. The measured time interval is determined as a separation between leading edges of a pair of pulses applied externally to the start input and the stop input of the digitizer. Employing an interpolation techniques and a 50 MHz high precision master oscillator, the equivalent of a 100 GHz clock frequency standard is achieved. Absolute accuracy and stability of the digitizer are determined by the external 50 MHz master oscillator, which serves as a standard time marker. The start and stop pulses are fast 1 nsec rise time signals, according to the Nuclear Instrument means of tunnel diode discriminators. Firing level of the discriminator define start and stop points between which the time interval is digitized.

  9. Geometrical aspects of laser-drilled high precision holes for flow control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giedl, Roswitha; Helml, H.-J.; Wagner, F. X.; Wild, Michael J.

    2003-11-01

    Laser drilling has become a valuable tool for the manufacture of high precision micro holes in a variety of materials. Laser drilled precision holes have applications in the automotive, aerospace, medical and sensor industry for flow control applications. The technology is competing with conventional machining micro electro-discharge machining in the field of fuel injection nozzle for combustion engines. Depending on the application, laser and optics have to be chosen which suits the requirements. In this paper, the results achieved with different lasers and drilling techniques will be compared to the hole specifications in flow control applications. The issue of geometry control of high aspect ratio laser drilled holes in metals will be investigated. The comparison of flow measurement results to microscopic hole dimension measurement show that flow characteristics strongly depend on cavitation number during flow.

  10. Determination of the half-life of 213Fr with high precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisichella, M.; Musumarra, A.; Farinon, F.; Nociforo, C.; Del Zoppo, A.; Figuera, P.; La Cognata, M.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Scuderi, V.; Torresi, D.; Strano, E.

    2013-07-01

    High-precision measurement of half-life and Qα value of neutral and highly charged α emitters is a major subject of investigation currently. In this framework, we recently pushed half-life measurements of neutral emitters to a precision of a few per mil. This result was achieved by using different techniques and apparatuses at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS) and GSI Darmstadt. Here we report on 213Fr half-life determination [T1/2(213Fr) = 34.14±0.06 s] at INFN-LNS, detailing the measurement protocol used. Direct comparison with the accepted value in the literature shows a discrepancy of more than three sigma. We propose this new value as a reference, discussing previous experiments.

  11. High-precision image aided inertial navigation with known features: observability analysis and performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weiping; Wang, Li; Niu, Xiaoji; Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Hui; Tang, Min; Hu, Xiangyun

    2014-10-17

    A high-precision image-aided inertial navigation system (INS) is proposed as an alternative to the carrier-phase-based differential Global Navigation Satellite Systems (CDGNSSs) when satellite-based navigation systems are unavailable. In this paper, the image/INS integrated algorithm is modeled by a tightly-coupled iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF). Tightly-coupled integration ensures that the integrated system is reliable, even if few known feature points (i.e., less than three) are observed in the images. A new global observability analysis of this tightly-coupled integration is presented to guarantee that the system is observable under the necessary conditions. The analysis conclusions were verified by simulations and field tests. The field tests also indicate that high-precision position (centimeter-level) and attitude (half-degree-level)-integrated solutions can be achieved in a global reference.

  12. On the Mitigation of Solar Index Variability for High Precision Orbit Determination in Low Earth Orbit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-16

    measurements of solar Lyman-α emissions and X-ray emissions. This index was newly incorporated in the JB08 model, and is used to model energy transfer to the...On the Mitigation of Solar Index Variability for High Precision Orbit Determination in Low Earth Orbit John G. Warner ∗ and Annie Lum ∗ US Naval...atmosphere models used to predict the drag force experienced by a satellite may rely on input parameters such as solar flux and geomagnetic indices

  13. Laser interferometric high-precision geometry (angle and length) monitor for JASMINE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, Y.; Arai, K.; Ueda, A.; Sakagami, M.; Gouda, N.; Kobayashi, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Yano, T.

    2008-07-01

    The telescope geometry of JASMINE should be stabilized and monitored with the accuracy of about 10 to 100 pm or 10 to 100 prad of rms over about 10 hours. For this purpose, a high-precision interferometric laser metrology system is employed. Useful techniques for measuring displacements on extremely small scales are the wave-front sensing method and the heterodyne interferometrical method. Experiments for verification of measurement principles are well advanced.

  14. Usefulness of precise time stamping for exposing network characteristics on high-speed links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitatsuji, Yoshinori; Tsuru, Masato; Katsuno, Satoshi; Oie, Yuji

    2004-09-01

    To expose network characteristics by active/passive measurements, measuring some timing issues such as one-way delay, one-way queuing delay, and inter-packet time is essential, and is conducted by time-stamping for packets passing through an observation point. However, emerging high-speed networks require very high precision of time-stamping, far beyond the precision of conventional software-based time-stamping systems such as 'tcpdump'. For example, the inter-packet time of two consecutive 64-byte length packets on a giga-bit link can be less than 0.001 msec. In this paper, to demonstrate the usefulness and strong necessity of precise time-stamping on high-speed links, experiments of network measurements over a nation-wide IPv6 testbed in Japan have been performed, using a hardware-based time-stamping system that can synchronize to GPS with a high resolution of 0.0001 msec and within a small error of 0.0003 msec. In our experiments, several interesting results are seen, e.g., i) the distribution of one-way queuing delay exhibits a considerable difference depending on the size and the type (UDP/ICMP) of packets; ii) the minimal one-way delays for various sizes of UDP/ICMP packets give an accurate estimate of the transmission delay and the propagation delay; iii) the correlation between interpacket times at the sender and the receiver sides in a sequence of TCP ACK packets clearly shows the degree of ACK compression; iv) the inter-packet time in a UDP stream generated by a DV streaming application shows three dominant sending rates and a very rare peak rate, which might provide crucial information to bandwidth dimensioning; all of which would indicate the usefulness of precise time-stamping.

  15. A highly efficient, compact Yb:KYW laser for mobile precision systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, S A; Pivtsov, V S

    2014-05-30

    We have developed a promising scheme of a multimodediode-pumped ytterbium laser. The Yb:KYW laser in the cw regime demonstrates record-high differential (40%) and total optical (35%) efficiencies. Mode locking is realised, which allows the scheme to be used for the development of compact laser systems, such as mobile femtosecond precision synthesisers. The peculiarities of the laser operation and ways of further improving its efficiency are discussed. (lasers)

  16. A high precision gamma-ray spectrometer for the Mars-94 mission

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrofanov, I.G.; Anfimov, D.S.; Chernenko, A.M.

    1994-06-01

    The high precision gamma-ray spectrometer (PGS) is scheduled to be launched on the Mars-94 mission in October 1994, and to go into an elliptical polar orbit around Mars. The PGS consists of two high-purity germanium (Ge) detectors, associated electronics, and a passive cooler and will be mounted on one of the solar panels. The PGS will measure nuclear gamma-ray emissions from the martian surface, cosmic gamma-ray bursts, and the high-energy component of solar flares in the broad energy range from 50 KeV to 8 MeV using 4096 energy channels.

  17. Accurate time delay technology in simulated test for high precision laser range finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhibin; Xiao, Wenjian; Wang, Weiming; Xue, Mingxi

    2015-10-01

    With the continuous development of technology, the ranging accuracy of pulsed laser range finder (LRF) is higher and higher, so the maintenance demand of LRF is also rising. According to the dominant ideology of "time analog spatial distance" in simulated test for pulsed range finder, the key of distance simulation precision lies in the adjustable time delay. By analyzing and comparing the advantages and disadvantages of fiber and circuit delay, a method was proposed to improve the accuracy of the circuit delay without increasing the count frequency of the circuit. A high precision controllable delay circuit was designed by combining the internal delay circuit and external delay circuit which could compensate the delay error in real time. And then the circuit delay accuracy could be increased. The accuracy of the novel circuit delay methods proposed in this paper was actually measured by a high sampling rate oscilloscope actual measurement. The measurement result shows that the accuracy of the distance simulated by the circuit delay is increased from +/- 0.75m up to +/- 0.15m. The accuracy of the simulated distance is greatly improved in simulated test for high precision pulsed range finder.

  18. High precision U-PB geochronology and implications for the tectonic evolution of the Superior Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. W.; Corfu, F.; Krogh, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms of Archean tectonics and the degree to which modern plate tectonic models are applicable early in Earth's history continue to be a subject of considerable debate. A precise knowledge of the timing of geological events is of the utmost importance in studying this problem. The high precision U-Pb method has been applied in recent years to rock units in many areas of the Superior Province. Most of these data have precisions of about + or - 2-3 Ma. The resulting detailed chronologies of local igneous development and the regional age relationships furnish tight constraints on any Archean tectonic model. Superior province terrains can be classified into 3 types: (1) low grade areas dominated by meta-volcanic rocks (greenstone belts); (2) high grade, largely metaplutonic areas with abundant orthogneiss and foliated to massive I-type granitoid bodies; and (3) high grade areas with abundant metasediments, paragneiss and S-type plutons. Most of the U-Pb age determinations have been done on type 1 terrains with very few having been done in type 3 terrains. A compilation of over 120 ages indicates that the major part of igneous activity took place in the period 2760-2670 Ma, known as the Kenoran event. This event was ubiquitous throughout the Superior Province.

  19. Next generation KATRIN high precision voltage divider for voltages up to 65kV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, S.; Berendes, R.; Hochschulz, F.; Ortjohann, H.-W.; Rosendahl, S.; Thümmler, T.; Schmidt, M.; Weinheimer, C.

    2013-10-01

    The KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino) experiment aims to determine the mass of the electron antineutrino with a sensitivity of 200 meV by precisely measuring the electron spectrum of the tritium beta decay. This will be done by the use of a retarding spectrometer of the MAC-E-Filter type. To achieve the desired sensitivity the stability of the retarding potential of -18.6 kV has to be monitored with a precision of 3 ppm over at least two months. Since this is not feasible with commercial devices, two ppm-class high voltage dividers were developed, following the concept of the standard divider for DC voltages of up to 100 kV of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). In order to reach such high accuracies different effects have to be considered. The two most important ones are the temperature dependence of resistance and leakage currents, caused by insulators or corona discharges. For the second divider improvements were made concerning the high-precision resistors and the thermal design of the divider. The improved resistors are the result of a cooperation with the manufacturer. The design improvements, the investigation and the selection of the resistors, the built-in ripple probe and the calibrations at PTB will be reported here. The latter demonstrated a stability of about 0.1 ppm/month over a period of two years.

  20. High-precision iRT prediction in the targeted analysis of data-independent acquisition and its impact on identification and quantitation.

    PubMed

    Bruderer, Roland; Bernhardt, Oliver M; Gandhi, Tejas; Reiter, Lukas

    2016-08-01

    Targeted analysis of data-independent acquisition (DIA) data is a powerful mass spectrometric approach for comprehensive, reproducible and precise proteome quantitation. It requires a spectral library, which contains for all considered peptide precursor ions empirically determined fragment ion intensities and their predicted retention time (RT). RTs, however, are not comparable on an absolute scale, especially if heterogeneous measurements are combined. Here, we present a method for high-precision prediction of RT, which significantly improves the quality of targeted DIA analysis compared to in silico RT prediction and the state of the art indexed retention time (iRT) normalization approach. We describe a high-precision normalized RT algorithm, which is implemented in the Spectronaut software. We, furthermore, investigate the influence of nine different experimental factors, such as chromatographic mobile and stationary phase, on iRT precision. In summary, we show that using targeted analysis of DIA data with high-precision iRT significantly increases sensitivity and data quality. The iRT values are generally transferable across a wide range of experimental conditions. Best results, however, are achieved if library generation and analytical measurements are performed on the same system.

  1. Direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quint, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    The challenge to measure the properties of the proton with great precision inspires very different branches of physics. The magnetic moment of the proton is a fundamental property of this particle. So far it has only been measured indirectly, by analyzing the spectrum of an atomic hydrogen maser in a magnetic field. Here we report the direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of a single proton using the double Penning-trap technique. We drive proton-spin quantum jumps by a radio-frequency field in a Penning trap with a homogeneous magnetic field. The induced spin transitions are detected in a second trap with a strong superimposed magnetic inhomogeneity. This enables the measurement of the spin-flip probability as a function of the drive frequency. In each measurement the proton's cyclotron frequency is used to determine the magnetic field of the trap. From the normalized resonance curve, we extract the particle's magnetic moment in terms of the nuclear magneton: μp = 2.792 847 350 (9) μN. This measurement outperforms previous Penning-trap measurements in terms of precision by a factor of about 760. It improves the precision of the forty year-old indirect measurement by D. Kleppner et al., in which significant theoretical bound-state corrections were required to obtain μp, by a factor of 3. By application of this method to the antiproton magnetic moment, the fractional precision of the recently reported value can be improved by a factor of at least 1,000. Combined with the present result, this will provide a stringent test of matter/antimatter symmetry with baryons. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, grant QU122/3.

  2. High-precision comparison of the antiproton-to-proton charge-to-mass ratio.

    PubMed

    Ulmer, S; Smorra, C; Mooser, A; Franke, K; Nagahama, H; Schneider, G; Higuchi, T; Van Gorp, S; Blaum, K; Matsuda, Y; Quint, W; Walz, J; Yamazaki, Y

    2015-08-13

    Invariance under the charge, parity, time-reversal (CPT) transformation is one of the fundamental symmetries of the standard model of particle physics. This CPT invariance implies that the fundamental properties of antiparticles and their matter-conjugates are identical, apart from signs. There is a deep link between CPT invariance and Lorentz symmetry--that is, the laws of nature seem to be invariant under the symmetry transformation of spacetime--although it is model dependent. A number of high-precision CPT and Lorentz invariance tests--using a co-magnetometer, a torsion pendulum and a maser, among others--have been performed, but only a few direct high-precision CPT tests that compare the fundamental properties of matter and antimatter are available. Here we report high-precision cyclotron frequency comparisons of a single antiproton and a negatively charged hydrogen ion (H(-)) carried out in a Penning trap system. From 13,000 frequency measurements we compare the charge-to-mass ratio for the antiproton (q/m)p- to that for the proton (q/m)p and obtain (q/m)p-/(q/m)p − 1 =1(69) × 10(-12). The measurements were performed at cyclotron frequencies of 29.6 megahertz, so our result shows that the CPT theorem holds at the atto-electronvolt scale. Our precision of 69 parts per trillion exceeds the energy resolution of previous antiproton-to-proton mass comparisons as well as the respective figure of merit of the standard model extension by a factor of four. In addition, we give a limit on sidereal variations in the measured ratio of <720 parts per trillion. By following the arguments of ref. 11, our result can be interpreted as a stringent test of the weak equivalence principle of general relativity using baryonic antimatter, and it sets a new limit on the gravitational anomaly parameter of |α − 1| < 8.7 × 10(-7).

  3. High-precision comparison of the antiproton-to-proton charge-to-mass ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, S.; Smorra, C.; Mooser, A.; Franke, K.; Nagahama, H.; Schneider, G.; Higuchi, T.; van Gorp, S.; Blaum, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Quint, W.; Walz, J.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Invariance under the charge, parity, time-reversal (CPT) transformation is one of the fundamental symmetries of the standard model of particle physics. This CPT invariance implies that the fundamental properties of antiparticles and their matter-conjugates are identical, apart from signs. There is a deep link between CPT invariance and Lorentz symmetry--that is, the laws of nature seem to be invariant under the symmetry transformation of spacetime--although it is model dependent. A number of high-precision CPT and Lorentz invariance tests--using a co-magnetometer, a torsion pendulum and a maser, among others--have been performed, but only a few direct high-precision CPT tests that compare the fundamental properties of matter and antimatter are available. Here we report high-precision cyclotron frequency comparisons of a single antiproton and a negatively charged hydrogen ion (H-) carried out in a Penning trap system. From 13,000 frequency measurements we compare the charge-to-mass ratio for the antiproton to that for the proton and obtain . The measurements were performed at cyclotron frequencies of 29.6 megahertz, so our result shows that the CPT theorem holds at the atto-electronvolt scale. Our precision of 69 parts per trillion exceeds the energy resolution of previous antiproton-to-proton mass comparisons as well as the respective figure of merit of the standard model extension by a factor of four. In addition, we give a limit on sidereal variations in the measured ratio of <720 parts per trillion. By following the arguments of ref. 11, our result can be interpreted as a stringent test of the weak equivalence principle of general relativity using baryonic antimatter, and it sets a new limit on the gravitational anomaly parameter of < 8.7 × 10-7.

  4. Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; Zhao, Bo; Groot, John; Chang, Liang; Varosi, Frank; Wan, Xiaoke; Powell, Scott; Jiang, Peng; Hanna, Kevin; Wang, Ji; Pais, Rohan; Liu, Jian; Dou, Liming; Schofield, Sidney; McDowell, Shaun; Costello, Erin; Delgado-Navarro, Adriana; Fleming, Scott; Lee, Brian; Bollampally, Sandeep R.; Bosman, Troy; Jakeman, Hali; Fletcher, Adam; Marquez, Gabriel

    2010-07-01

    We report design, performance and early results from two of the Extremely High Precision Extrasolar Planet Tracker Instruments (EXPERT) as part of a global network for hunting for low mass planets in the next decade. EXPERT is a combination of a thermally compensated monolithic Michelson interferometer and a cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph for extremely high precision Doppler measurements for nearby bright stars (e.g., 1m/s for a V=8 solar type star in 15 min exposure). It has R=18,000 with a 72 micron slit and a simultaneous coverage of 390-694 nm. The commissioning results show that the instrument has already produced a Doppler precision of about 1 m/s for a solar type star with S/N~100 per pixel. The instrument has reached ~4 mK (P-V) temperature stability, ~1 mpsi pressure stability over a week and a total instrument throughput of ~30% at 550 nm from the fiber input to the detector. EXPERT also has a direct cross-dispersed echelle spectroscopy mode fed with 50 micron fibers. It has spectral resolution of R=27,000 and a simultaneous wavelength coverage of 390-1000 nm.

  5. High Precision Oxygen Three Isotope Analysis of Wild-2 Particles and Anhydrous Chondritic Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakashima, D.; Ushikubo, T.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Weisberg, M. K.; Joswiak, D. J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Matrajt, G.; Kita, N. T.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important discoveries from comet Wild-2 samples was observation of crystalline silicate particles that resemble chondrules and CAIs in carbonaceous chondrites. Previous oxygen isotope analyses of crystalline silicate terminal particles showed heterogeneous oxygen isotope ratios with delta(sup 18)O to approx. delta(sup 17)O down to -50% in the CAI-like particle Inti, a relict olivine grain in Gozen-sama, and an olivine particle. However, many Wild-2 particles as well as ferromagnesian silicates in anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) showed Delta(sup 17)O values that cluster around -2%. In carbonaceous chondrites, chondrules seem to show two major isotope reservoirs with Delta(sup 17)O values at -5% and -2%. It was suggested that the Delta(sup 17)O = -2% is the common oxygen isotope reservoir for carbonaceous chondrite chondrules and cometary dust, from the outer asteroid belt to the Kuiper belt region. However, a larger dataset with high precision isotope analyses (+/-1-2%) is still needed to resolve the similarities or distinctions among Wild-2 particles, IDPs and chondrules in meteorites. We have made signifi-cant efforts to establish routine analyses of small particles (< or =10micronsm) at 1-2% precision using IMS-1280 at WiscSIMS laboratory. Here we report new results of high precision oxygen isotope analyses of Wild-2 particles and anhydrous chondritic IDPs, and discuss the relationship between the cometary dust and carbonaceous chondrite chondrules.

  6. The high-precision videometrics methods to determining absolute vertical benchmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinbo; Zhu, Zhaokun

    2013-01-01

    The mobile measurement equipment plays an important role in engineering measurement tasks and its measuring device is fixed with the vehicle platform. Therefore, how to correct the measured error in time that caused by swayed platform is a basic problem. Videometrics has its inherent advantages in solving this problem. First of all, videometrics technology is non-contact measurement, which has no effect on the target's structural characteristics and motion characteristics. Secondly, videometrics technology has high precision especially for surface targets and linear targets in the field of view. Thirdly, videometrics technology has the advantages of automatic, real-time and dynamic. This paper is mainly for mobile theodolite.etc that works under the environment of absolute vertical benchmark and proposed two high-precision methods to determine vertical benchmark: Direct-Extracting, which is based on the intersection of plats under the help of two cameras; Benchmark-Transformation, which gets the vertical benchmark by reconstructing the level-plat. Two methods both have the precision of under 10 seconds by digital simulation and physical experiments. The methods proposed by this paper have significance both on the theory and application.

  7. Algorithm research of high-precision optical interferometric phase demodulation based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Chunxiao; Sun, Jinghua

    2012-11-01

    Optical interferometric phase demodulation algorithm is provided based on the principle of phase generated carrier (PGC), which can realize the optical interference measurement of high-precision signal demodulation, applied to optical fiber displacement, vibration sensor. Modulated photoelectric detection signal is performanced by interval 8 frequency multiplication sampling. The samples calculate the phase modulation depth and phase error through a feedback loop to achieve optimum working point control. On the other hand the results of sampling calculate precision of numerical of the phase. The algorithm uses the addition and subtraction method instead of correlation filtering and other related complex calculation process of the traditional PGC digital demodulation, making full use of FPGA data processing with advantage of high speed and parallel; This method can give full play to the advantage of FPGA performance. Otherwise, the speed at the same time, FPGA can also ensure that the phase demodulation precision, wide dynamic range, and give full play to the advantage of completing the data access by single clock cycle.

  8. The flare Package for High Dimensional Linear Regression and Precision Matrix Estimation in R

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xingguo; Zhao, Tuo; Yuan, Xiaoming; Liu, Han

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an R package named flare, which implements a family of new high dimensional regression methods (LAD Lasso, SQRT Lasso, ℓq Lasso, and Dantzig selector) and their extensions to sparse precision matrix estimation (TIGER and CLIME). These methods exploit different nonsmooth loss functions to gain modeling exibility, estimation robustness, and tuning insensitiveness. The developed solver is based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM), which is further accelerated by the multistage screening approach. The package flare is coded in double precision C, and called from R by a user-friendly interface. The memory usage is optimized by using the sparse matrix output. The experiments show that flare is efficient and can scale up to large problems.

  9. Precision Measurement of the Proton Elastic Cross Section at High Q2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Longwu; E12-07-108 Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The measurement of proton electromagnetic form factors (FF) is a powerful way to understand the internal structure of proton and gain insight into the nature of the strong interaction. Current data of FF at high Q2 have large statistical and systematic uncertainties, which translate into large uncertainties in the extracted cross section in this kinematic range. The GMp experiment in Hall A at Jefferson Lab, starting from 2014, performed precision measurements of elastic ep scattering cross section in the Q2 range from 7 to 14 (GeV / c) 2. These measurements will improve the precision on the cross section in the covered Q2 range to about 2 % . They represent a great complement to the world's cross section data set and will be key inputs for future electromagnetic form factor experiments at similar kinematics. In this talk, the instrumentation and techniques used in the experiment will be described, and the current status of the analysis will be presented.

  10. Precision roll-winding equipment for high-reliability liquid-filled plastic-film capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Mauldin, G.H.; Reichenbach, M.L.; Sena, A.A.; Walter, J.K.S. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a precision capacitor-roll-winding technology which we believe is essential to high-reliability designs using plastic-film dielectrics. The need for this winding capability developed during the research and development phase of the perfluorocarbon-capacitor technology described earlier. It has been found during the research and development phase of this technology that a number of winding parameters are critical to the electrical performance of plastic-film capacitors. For example, controlling the looseness of the winding is critical to electrical performance. Small differences in looseness can result in orders of magnitude change in discharge life. Excessive wander of the extended aluminum foils creates a difficult electroding problem. This paper justifies the need for this precision winding technology, summarizes the features required, and describes two machine designs incorporating these features.

  11. High-precision machining of materials for manufacturing applications using diode-pumped solid state lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikumb, Suwas K.; Islam, M. U.

    2000-02-01

    While developments in the field of diode pumped solid state lasers provide a foundation for precision machining of parts with high accuracy and small feature sizes, this promise can not be realized without considering the interactions of individual processes, systems and material parameters. This paper presents our results on the precision machining of small features in various materials using diode pumped solid state lasers. The machined features are characterized geometrically by using optical inspection techniques and the tolerance data is analyzed statistically. Machining parameters relevant to motion system and tool path compensation are discussed along with their relevance to machined feature geometry. The effect of laser beam polarization on the machined kerf width, kerf surface and feature dimensions is reported.

  12. Design of a Laser Ablation Ion Source for High-Precision Penning Trap Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Curtis; Ratnayake, Ishara; Hawks, Paul; Bryce, Richard; Redshaw, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    High-precision atomic mass measurements provide important data for a wide range of fields including atomic, nuclear and neutrino physics, determination of fundamental constants, and metrology. At Central Michigan University we are building a Penning trap system that will utilize ions produced by external ion sources to allow access to a wide range of isotopes, including long-lived radioactive isotopes and isotopes with low natural abundances. The ions will be transported to a ``capture'' trap, before being transferred to double precision-measurement trap structure. In this poster we will present the design of a laser ablation ion source and the ion extraction and transport optics. We will report on the current status of the construction and operation of the ion source and the CMU Penning trap. This work supported in part by NSF award no. 1307233.

  13. Limiting Energy Dissipation Induces Glassy Kinetics in Single-Cell High-Precision Responses

    PubMed Central

    Das, Jayajit

    2016-01-01

    Single cells often generate precise responses by involving dissipative out-of-thermodynamic-equilibrium processes in signaling networks. The available free energy to fuel these processes could become limited depending on the metabolic state of an individual cell. How does limiting dissipation affect the kinetics of high-precision responses in single cells? I address this question in the context of a kinetic proofreading scheme used in a simple model of early-time T cell signaling. Using exact analytical calculations and numerical simulations, I show that limiting dissipation qualitatively changes the kinetics in single cells marked by emergence of slow kinetics, large cell-to-cell variations of copy numbers, temporally correlated stochastic events (dynamic facilitation), and ergodicity breaking. Thus, constraints in energy dissipation, in addition to negatively affecting ligand discrimination in T cells, can create a fundamental difficulty in determining single-cell kinetics from cell-population results. PMID:26958894

  14. Interacting sources for high-precision atom interferometry - a theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posso Trujillo, Katerine; Ahlers, Holger; Schubert, Christian; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst; Gaaloul, Naceur

    2014-05-01

    We theoretically study the possibilities to use binary quantum mixtures as sources for high-precision atom interferometers with interferometry times ranging over several seconds. Such schemes are of timely interest in the context of inertial navigation or fundamental physics laws tests. The mixture expansion dynamics are solved by integrating a set of two coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations. In order to satisfy the severe requirements of a precise differential interferometer, a common delta-kick cooling stage is applied to the two ensembles simultaneously to induce ultra-slow expansion (~ 50 pk regime). Other systematic effects are analysed and mitigation strategies identified. To illustrate this study, we consider the case of three mixtures of 87Rb/85Rb, 87Rb/39Kand87Rb/41K widely used in atom interferometry measurements. The advantages and drawbacks of every pair are highlighted and discussed. K. Posso-Trujillo. thanks the German Academic Exchange Service - DAAD (research grant No. A/10/74250).

  15. High-precision lattice calculation of the decay constants fB and fBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detar, Carleton; Bazavov, Alexei; Bernard, Claude; Bouchard, Christopher; Brown, Nathan; Du, Daping; El Khadra, Aida; Freeland, Elizabeth; Gamiz, Elvira; Gottlieb, Steven; Na, Heechang; Heller, Urs; Komijani, Javad; Kronfeld, Andreas; Laiho, John; MacKenzie, Paul; Neil, Ethan; Simone, James; Sugar, Robert; Toussaint, Douglas; van de Water, Ruth; Zhou, Ran; Fermilab Lattice Collaboration; MILC Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We present preliminary, high-precision results for the hadronic decay constants of the B and the Bs mesons from lattice QCD simulations using a highly improved quark formulation for both heavy and light valence quarks. Calculations are carried out with several heavy valence-quark masses on lattice ensembles with 2+1+1 flavors of HISQ sea quarks at five lattice spacings and three light sea quark mass ratios mud /ms , including approximately physical sea quark masses. This range of parameters provides excellent control of the continuum limit and of heavy-quark discretization errors. Present affiliation: Ohio Supercomputer Center.

  16. High precision long-term stable fiber-based optical synchronization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yurong; Wang, Xiaochao; Jiang, Youen; Qiao, Zhi; Li, Rao; Fan, Wei

    2016-10-01

    A fiber-based high precision long-term stable time synchronization system for multi-channel laser pulses is presented using fiber pulse stacker combined with high-speed optical-electrical conversion and electronics processing technology. This scheme is used to synchronize two individual lasers including a mode-lock laser and a time shaping pulse laser system. The relative timing jitter between two laser pulses achieved with this system is 970 fs (rms) in five minutes and 3.5 ps (rms) in five hours. The synchronization system is low cost and can work at over several tens of MHz repetition rate.

  17. Precision blood-leak detector with high long-time stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiadis, Christos; Kleuver, Wolfram

    1999-11-01

    With this publication a precision blood-leak-detector is presented. The blood-leak-detector is used for recognition of fractures in the dialyzer of a kidney-machine. It has to detect safely a blood flow of ml/min to exclude any risk for the patient. A lot of systems exist for blood-leak-detection. All of them use the same principle. They detect the light absorption in the dialyze fluid. The actual used detectors are inferior to the new developed sensor in resolution and long-time stability. Regular test of the existing systems and high failure rates are responsible for the high maintenance.

  18. Lightweight Metal Matrix Composite Segmented for Manufacturing High-Precision Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vudler, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    High-precision mirrors for space applications are traditionally manufactured from one piece of material, such as lightweight glass sandwich or beryllium. The purpose of this project was to develop and test the feasibility of a manufacturing process capable of producing mirrors out of welded segments of AlBeMet(Registered Trademark) (AM162H). AlBeMet(Registered Trademark) is a HIP'd (hot isostatic pressed) material containing approximately 62% beryllium and 38% aluminum. As a result, AlBeMet shares many of the benefits of both of those materials for use in high performance mirrors, while minimizing many of their weaknesses.

  19. Fabrication of high precision metallic freeform mirrors with magnetorheological finishing (MRF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beier, Matthias; Scheiding, Sebastian; Gebhardt, Andreas; Loose, Roman; Risse, Stefan; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    The fabrication of complex shaped metal mirrors for optical imaging is a classical application area of diamond machining techniques. Aspherical and freeform shaped optical components up to several 100 mm in diameter can be manufactured with high precision in an acceptable amount of time. However, applications are naturally limited to the infrared spectral region due to scatter losses for shorter wavelengths as a result of the remaining periodic diamond turning structure. Achieving diffraction limited performance in the visible spectrum demands for the application of additional polishing steps. Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) is a powerful tool to improve figure and finish of complex shaped optics at the same time in a single processing step. The application of MRF as a figuring tool for precise metal mirrors is a nontrivial task since the technology was primarily developed for figuring and finishing a variety of other optical materials, such as glasses or glass ceramics. In the presented work, MRF is used as a figuring tool for diamond turned aluminum lightweight mirrors with electroless nickel plating. It is applied as a direct follow-up process after diamond machining of the mirrors. A high precision measurement setup, composed of an interferometer and an advanced Computer Generated Hologram with additional alignment features, allows for precise metrology of the freeform shaped optics in short measuring cycles. Shape deviations less than 150 nm PV / 20 nm rms are achieved reliably for freeform mirrors with apertures of more than 300 mm. Characterization of removable and induced spatial frequencies is carried out by investigating the Power Spectral Density.

  20. Experimental high-velocity missile head injury.

    PubMed

    Allen, I V; Scott, R; Tanner, J A

    1982-09-01

    A standardized experimental high-velocity penetrating head-injury model has been produced in which pathological lesions were observed, not only in the wound track but at sites more remote from the track in the hypothalamus, brain stem and cerebellum. Diffuse subarachnoid haemorrhage was common and intraventricular haemorrhage was a constant feature. Other constant histological abnormalities were:L 1. Perivascular "ring' haemorrhages. 2. Perivascular haemorrhage with a surrounding zone of decreased staining intensity. 3. Perivascular increased staining intensity. 4. Areas of decreased staining intensity apparently dissociated from areas of haemorrhage. The pathogenesis of the perivascular lesions is discussed and preliminary studies suggest that these may be the site of early oedema. The implications of this experiment for military surgery and for ballistic protection of the head are discussed.

  1. High-numerical-aperture cryogenic light microscopy for increased precision of superresolution reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Nahmani, Marc; Lanahan, Conor; DeRosier, David; Turrigiano, Gina G

    2017-04-11

    Superresolution microscopy has fundamentally altered our ability to resolve subcellular proteins, but improving on these techniques to study dense structures composed of single-molecule-sized elements has been a challenge. One possible approach to enhance superresolution precision is to use cryogenic fluorescent imaging, reported to reduce fluorescent protein bleaching rates, thereby increasing the precision of superresolution imaging. Here, we describe an approach to cryogenic photoactivated localization microscopy (cPALM) that permits the use of a room-temperature high-numerical-aperture objective lens to image frozen samples in their native state. We find that cPALM increases photon yields and show that this approach can be used to enhance the effective resolution of two photoactivatable/switchable fluorophore-labeled structures in the same frozen sample. This higher resolution, two-color extension of the cPALM technique will expand the accessibility of this approach to a range of laboratories interested in more precise reconstructions of complex subcellular targets.

  2. High-precision measurement of magnetic penetration depth in superconducting films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, X.; Gozar, A.; Sundling, R.; Božović, I.

    2016-11-01

    The magnetic penetration depth (λ) in thin superconducting films is usually measured by the mutual inductance technique. The accuracy of this method has been limited by uncertainties in the geometry of the solenoids and in the film position and thickness, by parasitic coupling between the coils, etc. Here, we present several improvements in the apparatus and the method. To ensure the precise thickness of the superconducting layer, we engineer the films at atomic level using atomic-layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy. In this way, we also eliminate secondary-phase precipitates, grain boundaries, and pinholes that are common with other deposition methods and that artificially increase the field transmission and thus the apparent λ. For better reproducibility, the thermal stability of our closed-cycle cryocooler used to control the temperature of the mutual inductance measurement has been significantly improved by inserting a custom-built thermal conductivity damper. Next, to minimize the uncertainties in the geometry, we fused a pair of small yet precisely wound coils into a single sapphire block machined to a high precision. The sample is spring-loaded to exactly the same position with respect to the solenoids. Altogether, we can measure the absolute value of λ with the accuracy better than ±1%.

  3. High-precision measurement of magnetic penetration depth in superconducting films

    SciTech Connect

    He, X.; Gozar, A.; Sundling, R.; Božović, I.

    2016-11-01

    We report that the magnetic penetration depth (λ) in thin superconducting films is usually measured by the mutual inductance technique. The accuracy of this method has been limited by uncertainties in the geometry of the solenoids and in the film position and thickness, by parasitic coupling between the coils, etc. Here, we present several improvements in the apparatus and the method. To ensure the precise thickness of the superconducting layer, we engineer the films at atomic level using atomic-layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy. In this way, we also eliminate secondary-phase precipitates, grain boundaries, and pinholes that are common with other deposition methods and that artificially increase the field transmission and thus the apparent λ. For better reproducibility, the thermal stability of our closed-cycle cryocooler used to control the temperature of the mutual inductance measurement has been significantly improved by inserting a custom-built thermal conductivity damper. Next, to minimize the uncertainties in the geometry, we fused a pair of small yet precisely wound coils into a single sapphire block machined to a high precision. Lastly, the sample is spring-loaded to exactly the same position with respect to the solenoids. Altogether, we can measure the absolute value of λ with the accuracy better than ±1%.

  4. High-precision measurement of magnetic penetration depth in superconducting films

    DOE PAGES

    He, X.; Gozar, A.; Sundling, R.; ...

    2016-11-01

    We report that the magnetic penetration depth (λ) in thin superconducting films is usually measured by the mutual inductance technique. The accuracy of this method has been limited by uncertainties in the geometry of the solenoids and in the film position and thickness, by parasitic coupling between the coils, etc. Here, we present several improvements in the apparatus and the method. To ensure the precise thickness of the superconducting layer, we engineer the films at atomic level using atomic-layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy. In this way, we also eliminate secondary-phase precipitates, grain boundaries, and pinholes that are common with other depositionmore » methods and that artificially increase the field transmission and thus the apparent λ. For better reproducibility, the thermal stability of our closed-cycle cryocooler used to control the temperature of the mutual inductance measurement has been significantly improved by inserting a custom-built thermal conductivity damper. Next, to minimize the uncertainties in the geometry, we fused a pair of small yet precisely wound coils into a single sapphire block machined to a high precision. Lastly, the sample is spring-loaded to exactly the same position with respect to the solenoids. Altogether, we can measure the absolute value of λ with the accuracy better than ±1%.« less

  5. Multifrequency high precise subTHz-THz-IR spectroscopy for exhaled breath research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaks, Vladimir L.; Domracheva, Elena G.; Pripolzin, Sergey I.; Chernyaeva, Mariya B.

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays the development of analytical spectroscopy with high performance, sensitivity and spectral resolution for exhaled breath research is attended. The method of two-frequency high precise THz spectroscopy and the method of high precise subTHz-THz-IR spectroscopy are presented. Development of a subTHz-THz-IR gas analyzer increases the number of gases that can be identified and the reliability of the detection by confirming the signature in both THz and MIR ranges. The testing measurements have testified this new direction of analytical spectroscopy to open widespread trends of its using for various problems of medicine and biology. First of all, there are laboratory investigations of the processes in exhaled breath and studying of their dynamics. Besides, the methods presented can be applied for detecting intermediate and short time living products of reactions in exhaled breath. The spectrometers have been employed for investigations of acetone, methanol and ethanol in the breath samples of healthy volunteers and diabetes patients. The results have demonstrated an increased concentration of acetone in breath of diabetes patients. The dynamic of changing the acetone concentration before and after taking the medicines is discovered. The potential markers of pre-cancer states and oncological diseases of gastrointestinal tract organs have been detected. The changes in the NO concentration in exhaled breath of cancer patients during radiotherapy as well as increase of the NH3 concentration at gastrointestinal diseases have been revealed. The preliminary investigations of biomarkers in three frequency ranges have demonstrated the advantages of the multifrequency high precise spectroscopy for noninvasive medical diagnostics.

  6. Maintaining high precision of isotope ratio analysis over extended periods of time.

    PubMed

    Brand, Willi A

    2009-06-01

    Stable isotope ratios are reliable and long lasting process tracers. In order to compare data from different locations or different sampling times at a high level of precision, a measurement strategy must include reliable traceability to an international stable isotope scale via a reference material (RM). Since these international RMs are available in low quantities only, we have developed our own analysis schemes involving laboratory working RM. In addition, quality assurance RMs are used to control the long-term performance of the delta-value assignments. The analysis schemes allow the construction of quality assurance performance charts over years of operation. In this contribution, the performance of three typical techniques established in IsoLab at the MPI-BGC in Jena is discussed. The techniques are (1) isotope ratio mass spectrometry with an elemental analyser for delta(15)N and delta(13)C analysis of bulk (organic) material, (2) high precision delta(13)C and delta(18)O analysis of CO(2) in clean-air samples, and (3) stable isotope analysis of water samples using a high-temperature reaction with carbon. In addition, reference strategies on a laser ablation system for high spatial resolution delta(13)C analysis in tree rings is exemplified briefly.

  7. High-precision determination of iron oxidation state in silicate glasses using XANES

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, Elizabeth; Kelley, Katherine A.; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Fischer, Rebecca A.

    2009-11-04

    Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and Moessbauer spectra were collected on natural basaltic glasses equilibrated over a range of oxygen fugacity (QFM - 3.5 to QFM + 4.5). The basalt compositions and fO{sub 2} conditions were chosen to bracket the natural range of redox conditions expected for basalts from mid-ocean ridge, ocean island, back-arc basin, and arc settings, in order to develop a high-precision calibration for the determination of Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe in natural basalts. The pre-edge centroid energy, corresponding to the 1s {yields} 3d transition, was determined to be the most robust proxy for Fe oxidation state, affording significant advantages compared to the use of other spectral features. A second-order polynomial models the correlation between the centroid and Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe, yielding a precision of {+-} 0.0045 in Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe for glasses with Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe > 8%, which is comparable to the precision of wet chemistry. This high precision relies on a Si (311) monochromator to better define the Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} transitions, accurate and robust modeling of the pre-edge feature, dense fO{sub 2}-coverage and compositional appropriateness of reference glasses, and application of a non-linear drift correction. Through re-analysis of the reference glasses across three synchrotron beam sessions, we show that the quoted precision can be achieved (i.e., analyses are reproducible) across multiple synchrotron beam sessions, even when spectral collection conditions (detector parameters or sample geometry) change. Rhyolitic glasses were also analyzed and yield a higher centroid energy at a given Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe than basalts, implying that major variations in melt structure affect the relationship between centroid position and Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe, and that separate calibrations are needed for the determination of oxidation state in basalts and rhyolites.

  8. High-Precision Marine Sr Isotope Geochronology in Deep Time: Permian Tuffs and Conodonts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, M. D.; Davydov, V. I.; Snyder, W. S.

    2007-12-01

    Stratigraphic sections of the Southern Urals containing abundant and well-preserved fauna for precise biostratigraphic correlation and common instratified volcanic ash beds dated by U-Pb zircon geochronology offer a unique opportunity to constrain a temporally accurate Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian seawater Sr curve. The 87Sr/86Sr compositions of conodonts (biogenic apatite) were measured by high-precision thermal ionization mass spectrometry following rigorous pretreatment protocols, and plotted within an age model calibrated by 13 high-precision U-Pb zircon ash bed ages. The resulting seawater Sr curve shows a significant reduction in data scatter by comparison to earlier curves (Denison et al., 1994; Veizer et al., 1999; Bruckschen et al., 1999; Korte et al., 2006), suggesting that our conodont pre-dissolution treatment was highly effective for retrieving the original seawater Sr signal. The relatively flat Late Moscovian through mid-Ghzelian seawater Sr curve of this study is generally consistent with that of Bruckschen et al. (1999). Beginning in the mid-Ghzelian, our data define a decreasing trend in 87Sr/86Sr through the mid-Sakmarian, consistent with the data of Korte et al. (2006). By combining our high precision 87Sr/86Sr measurements and U-Pb age calibration, the resolution of Sr isotope geochronology approaches 0.5 Ma in this interval. This highly resolved seawater 87Sr/86Sr record obtained for the Late Moscovian through mid-Sakmarian will aid in global carbonate chemostratigraphic correlation and contribute to our understanding of the timing of Late Paleozoic glacial and tectonic events. References: Bruckschen, P., Oesmann, S., Veizer, J., 1999. Isotope stratigraphy of the European Carboniferous: proxy signals for ocean chemistry, climate and tectonics. Chemical Geology 161, p. 127-163. Denison, R.E., Koepnick, R.B., Burke, W.H., Hetherington, E.A., Fletcher, A., 1994. Construction of the Mississippian, Pennsylvanian and Permian seawater 87Sr/86Sr

  9. High-Precision Distribution of Highly Stable Optical Pulse Trains with 8.8 × 10−19 instability

    PubMed Central

    Ning, B.; Zhang, S. Y.; Hou, D.; Wu, J. T.; Li, Z. B.; Zhao, J. Y.

    2014-01-01

    The high-precision distribution of optical pulse trains via fibre links has had a considerable impact in many fields. In most published work, the accuracy is still fundamentally limited by unavoidable noise sources, such as thermal and shot noise from conventional photodiodes and thermal noise from mixers. Here, we demonstrate a new high-precision timing distribution system that uses a highly precise phase detector to obviously reduce the effect of these limitations. Instead of using photodiodes and microwave mixers, we use several fibre Sagnac-loop-based optical-microwave phase detectors (OM-PDs) to achieve optical-electrical conversion and phase measurements, thereby suppressing the sources of noise and achieving ultra-high accuracy. The results of a distribution experiment using a 10-km fibre link indicate that our system exhibits a residual instability of 2.0 × 10−15 at1 s and8.8 × 10−19 at 40,000 s and an integrated timing jitter as low as 3.8 fs in a bandwidth of 1 Hz to 100 kHz. This low instability and timing jitter make it possible for our system to be used in the distribution of optical-clock signals or in applications that require extremely accurate frequency/time synchronisation. PMID:24870442

  10. Optical vortex beam based optical fan for high-precision optical measurements and optical switching.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Yan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Shuai; Shi, Bao-Sen

    2014-09-01

    The polarization and orbital angular momentum properties of light are of great importance in optical science and technology in the fields of high-precision optical measurements and high-capacity and high-speed optical communications. Here we show a method for the construction of a simple and robust scheme to rotate a light beam such as a fan, which is based on a combination of these two properties and using the thermal-dispersion and electro-optical effect of birefringent crystals. Using a computer-based digital image-processing technique, we determine the temperature and thermal-dispersion difference of the crystal with high resolution. We also use the rotation phenomenon to realize thermo-optic and electro-optic switches. The basic operating principles for measurement and switching processes are presented in detail. The methods developed here will have wide practical applicability in various fields, including remote sensing, materials science, and optical communication networks.

  11. High-precision β decay half-life measurements of proton-rich nuclei for testing the CVC hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtukian-Nieto, T.

    2011-11-01

    The experimental study of super-allowed nuclear β decays serves as a sensitive probe of the conservation of the weak vector current (CVC) and allows tight limits to be set on the presence of scalar or right-handed currents. Once CVC is verified, it is possible to determine the Vud element of the CKM quark-mixing matrix. Similarly, the study of nuclear mirror β decays allows to arrive at the same final quantity Vud. Whereas dedicated studies of 0+ → 0+ decays are performed for several decades now, the potential of mirror transitions was only rediscovered recently. Therefore, it can be expected that important progress is possible with high-precision studies of different mirror β decays. In the present piece of work the half-life measurements performed by the CENBG group of the proton-rich nuclei 42Ti, 38-39Ca, 30-31S and 29P are summarised.

  12. High-Precision Dispensing of Nanoliter Biofluids on Glass Pedestal Arrays for Ultrasensitive Biomolecule Detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Yang; Xu, QianFeng; Zhu, Jing; Poget, Sébastien F; Lyons, Alan M

    2016-05-04

    Precise dispensing of nanoliter droplets is necessary for the development of sensitive and accurate assays, especially when the availability of the source solution is limited. Conventional approaches are limited by imprecise positioning, large shear forces, surface tension effects, and high costs. To address the need for precise and economical dispensing of nanoliter volumes, we developed a new approach where the dispensed volume is dependent on the size and shape of defined surface features, thus freeing the dispensing process from pumps and fine-gauge needles requiring accurate positioning. The surface we fabricated, called a nanoliter droplet virtual well microplate (nVWP), achieves high-precision dispensing (better than ±0.5 nL or ±1.6% at 32 nL) of 20-40 nL droplets using a small source drop (3-10 μL) on isolated hydrophilic glass pedestals (500 μm on a side) bonded to arrays of polydimethylsiloxane conical posts. The sharp 90° edge of the glass pedestal pins the solid-liquid-vapor triple contact line (TCL), averting the wetting of the glass sidewalls while the fluid is prevented from receding from the edge. This edge creates a sufficiently large energy barrier such that microliter water droplets can be poised on the glass pedestals, exhibiting contact angles greater >150°. This approach relieves the stringent mechanical alignment tolerances required for conventional dispensing techniques, shifting the control of dispensed volume to the area circumscribed by the glass edge. The effects of glass surface chemistry and dispense velocity on droplet volume were studied using optical microscopy and high-speed video. Functionalization of the glass pedestal surface enabled the selective adsorption of specific peptides and proteins from synthetic and natural biomolecule mixtures, such as venom. We further demonstrate how the nVWP dispensing platform can be used for a variety of assays, including sensitive detection of proteins and peptides by fluorescence

  13. Asynchronous RTK precise DGNSS positioning method for deriving a low-latency high-rate output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhang; Hanfeng, Lv; Dingjie, Wang; Yanqing, Hou; Jie, Wu

    2015-07-01

    Low-latency high-rate (1 Hz) precise real-time kinematic (RTK) can be applied in high-speed scenarios such as aircraft automatic landing, precise agriculture and intelligent vehicle. The classic synchronous RTK (SRTK) precise differential GNSS (DGNSS) positioning technology, however, is not able to obtain a low-latency high-rate output for the rover receiver because of long data link transmission time delays (DLTTD) from the reference receiver. To overcome the long DLTTD, this paper proposes an asynchronous real-time kinematic (ARTK) method using asynchronous observations from two receivers. The asynchronous observation model (AOM) is developed based on undifferenced carrier phase observation equations of the two receivers at different epochs with short baseline. The ephemeris error and atmosphere delay are the possible main error sources on positioning accuracy in this model, and they are analyzed theoretically. In a short DLTTD and during a period of quiet ionosphere activity, the main error sources decreasing positioning accuracy are satellite orbital errors: the "inverted ephemeris error" and the integration of satellite velocity error which increase linearly along with DLTTD. The cycle slip of asynchronous double-differencing carrier phase is detected by TurboEdit method and repaired by the additional ambiguity parameter method. The AOM can deal with synchronous observation model (SOM) and achieve precise positioning solution with synchronous observations as well, since the SOM is only a specific case of AOM. The proposed method not only can reduce the cost of data collection and transmission, but can also support the mobile phone network data link transfer mode for the data of the reference receiver. This method can avoid data synchronizing process besides ambiguity initialization step, which is very convenient for real-time navigation of vehicles. The static and kinematic experiment results show that this method achieves 20 Hz or even higher rate output in

  14. Micropropulsion Technologies for the European High-Precision Formation Flying Interferometer DARWIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilter, M.; Karlsson, A.

    2004-10-01

    The ESA mission DARWIN is a formation flying interferometer with high demands on precise relative positioning between the spacecraft. Due to lack of alternatives, the micropropulsion system of choice has persistently been Field-Emission Electric Propulsion. In recent years many other micropropulsion technologies have started to emerge, and these were evaluated for their suitability to DARWIN. It was found that the concept of Cold Gas Microthrusters with internal heating introduces several advantages, albeit drawbacks are the poor performance and low maturity. Nevertheless, with the baseline Ariane-5 launcher configuration the penalties in propellant mass and volume should be acceptable, making Cold Gas Microthrusters a feasible and less risky propulsion option.

  15. Development of laser interferometric high-precision geometry monitor for JASMINE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, Yoshito; Arai, Koji; Ueda, Akitoshi; Sakagami, Masaaki; Gouda, Naoteru; Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Yano, Taihei

    2008-07-01

    The telescope geometry of JASMINE should be stabilized and monitored with the accuracy of about 10 to 100 picometer or 10 to 100 picoradian in root-mean-square over about 10 hours. For this purpose, a high-precision interferometric laser metrology system is employed. One of useful techniques for measuring displacements in extremely minute scales is the heterodyne interferometrical method. Experiment for verification of multi degree of freedom measurement was performed and mirror motions were successfully monitored with three degree of freedom.

  16. Graphic overlays in high-precision teleoperation: Current and future work at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B.; Venema, Steven C.

    1989-01-01

    In space teleoperation additional problems arise, including signal transmission time delays. These can greatly reduce operator performance. Recent advances in graphics open new possibilities for addressing these and other problems. Currently a multi-camera system with normal 3-D TV and video graphics capabilities is being developed. Trained and untrained operators will be tested for high precision performance using two force reflecting hand controllers and a voice recognition system to control two robot arms and up to 5 movable stereo or non-stereo TV cameras. A number of new techniques of integrating TV and video graphics displays to improve operator training and performance in teleoperation and supervised automation are evaluated.

  17. On the recovery of gravity anomalies from high precision altimeter data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lelgemann, D.

    1976-01-01

    A model for the recovery of gravity anomalies from high precision altimeter data is derived which consists of small correction terms to the inverse Stokes' formula. The influence of unknown sea surface topography in the case of meandering currents such as the Gulf Stream is discussed. A formula was derived in order to estimate the accuracy of the gravity anomalies from the known accuracy of the altimeter data. It is shown that for the case of known harmonic coefficients of lower order the range of integration in Stokes inverse formula can be reduced very much.

  18. Precise Access to the Molecular-Frame Complex Recombination Dipole through High-Harmonic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoun, S. B.; Camper, A.; Salières, P.; Lucchese, R. R.; Agostini, P.; DiMauro, L. F.

    2017-01-01

    We report on spectral intensity and group delay measurements of the highest-occupied molecular-orbital (HOMO) recombination dipole moment of N2 in the molecular-frame using high harmonic spectroscopy. We take advantage of the long-wavelength 1.3 μ m driving laser to isolate the HOMO in the near threshold region, 19-67 eV. The precision of our group delay measurements reveals previously unseen angle-resolved spectral features associated with autoionizing resonances, and allows quantitative comparison with cutting-edge correlated 8-channel photoionization dipole moment calculations.

  19. The Asymmetric, Dual-Michelson Wavefront Corrector: High Precision Correction of Amplitude and Phase for Coronagraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Charles; Woodgate, Bruce; Lyon, Richard

    2004-01-01

    To detect extra-solar planets by coronagraphy will require unprecedented levels of wavefront correction of both phase and amplitude. To achieve this, we propose a dual Michelson interferometer arrangement, incorporating two deformable mirrors (DM) and a third, fixed mirror (all at pupils) and two beamsplitters: one with unequal (asymmetric) beam splitting and one with symmetric beamsplitting. This design allows high precision correction of phase and amplitude using DMs with relatively coarse steps and is relatively insensitive to small changes in the DMs. We are constructing such an apparatus incorporating two MEMS devices and will report on features of the design performance.

  20. The Asymmetric, Dual-Michelson Wavefront Corrector: High Precision Correction of Amplitude and Phase for Coronagraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Charles; Woodgate, Bruce; Lyon, Richard

    2004-01-01

    To detect extra-solar planets by coronography will require unprecedented levels of wavefront correction of both phase and amplitude. To achieve this, we propose a dual Michelson interferometer arrangement, incorporating two deformable mirrors (DM) and a third, fixed mirror (all at pupils) and two beamsplitters: one with unequal (asymmetric) beam splitting and one with symmetric beamsplitting. This design allows high precision correction of phase and amplitude using DMs with relatively coarse steps and is relatively insensitive to small changes in the DMs. We are constructing such an apparatus incorporating two MEMS devices and will report on features of the design and performance.

  1. [Physiological and hygienic characteristic of high-precision manufacturing operations in microelectronics].

    PubMed

    Kirillov, V F; Mironov, A I; Gadakchan, K A; Mekhova, M M; Spiridonova, V S

    2010-01-01

    It was shown that workers performing high-precision manufacturing operations in microelectronic industry undergo severe visual, nervous and emotional stress combined with significant locomotor load, air deionization and deozonation, bacterial contamination, and UV deficit at their workplaces. These working conditions promote development of negative changes in the visual analyzer, nervous and emotional disorders, disturbances of systemic and regional hemodynamics. Also impaired is the functional state of the upper limb neuromuscular apparatus, central nervous and cardiovascular systems. The proposed certified complex of organizational, sanitary, hygienic, physiological, ergonomic, therapeutic and preventive measures has positive influence on the working capacity of employees in microelectronic industry.

  2. Design of a fast and high-precision polygonal scanner for HDTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risse, Stefan; Guyenot, Volker

    1997-07-01

    With the continuing development of laser-display-technology, a new possibility for the production high level image projection is forwarded and with it the beginning of a new era in television: TV picture formats previously thought impossible, the sharpness, color intensity and unsurpassed resolution of which make the dream of home cinema a reality. The key to this experience is visible laser light in red, green and blue, projected on a screen with the aid of horizontal and vertical deflection units. In this paper, a primarily horizontal deflection system in the form of a rotating polygonal scanner is described. The design of this scanner assembly combines a double spherical air bearing with an integrated polygonal mirror for deflection and a high torque inside drive for quickly reaching high rotation. The Fraunhofer Institute of Applied Optics and Precision Engineering (IOF Jena) develops, from conception to assembled prototype, new self-acting precision bearing systems. This new scanner solution developed out of IOF's previous developments resulting in the first ever sealed, minimal-maintenance, self- acting bearing.

  3. An Online Gravity Modeling Method Applied for High Precision Free-INS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Yang, Gongliu; Li, Jing; Zhou, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    For real-time solution of inertial navigation system (INS), the high-degree spherical harmonic gravity model (SHM) is not applicable because of its time and space complexity, in which traditional normal gravity model (NGM) has been the dominant technique for gravity compensation. In this paper, a two-dimensional second-order polynomial model is derived from SHM according to the approximate linear characteristic of regional disturbing potential. Firstly, deflections of vertical (DOVs) on dense grids are calculated with SHM in an external computer. And then, the polynomial coefficients are obtained using these DOVs. To achieve global navigation, the coefficients and applicable region of polynomial model are both updated synchronously in above computer. Compared with high-degree SHM, the polynomial model takes less storage and computational time at the expense of minor precision. Meanwhile, the model is more accurate than NGM. Finally, numerical test and INS experiment show that the proposed method outperforms traditional gravity models applied for high precision free-INS. PMID:27669261

  4. An Online Gravity Modeling Method Applied for High Precision Free-INS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Yang, Gongliu; Li, Jing; Zhou, Xiao

    2016-09-23

    For real-time solution of inertial navigation system (INS), the high-degree spherical harmonic gravity model (SHM) is not applicable because of its time and space complexity, in which traditional normal gravity model (NGM) has been the dominant technique for gravity compensation. In this paper, a two-dimensional second-order polynomial model is derived from SHM according to the approximate linear characteristic of regional disturbing potential. Firstly, deflections of vertical (DOVs) on dense grids are calculated with SHM in an external computer. And then, the polynomial coefficients are obtained using these DOVs. To achieve global navigation, the coefficients and applicable region of polynomial model are both updated synchronously in above computer. Compared with high-degree SHM, the polynomial model takes less storage and computational time at the expense of minor precision. Meanwhile, the model is more accurate than NGM. Finally, numerical test and INS experiment show that the proposed method outperforms traditional gravity models applied for high precision free-INS.

  5. High-precision gamma-ray spectroscopy for enhancing production and application of medical isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCutchan, E. A.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Smith, S. V.; Muench, L.; Nino, M.; Greene, J. P.; Carpenter, M. P.; Zhu, S.; Chillery, T.; Chowdhury, P.; Harding, R.; Lister, C. J.

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear medicine is a field which requires precise decay data for use in planning radionuclide production and in imaging and therapeutic applications. To address deficiencies in decay data, sources of medical isotopes were produced and purified at the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer (BLIP) then shipped to Argonne National Laboratory where high-precision, gamma-ray measurements were performed using Gammasphere. New decay schemes for a number of PET isotopes and the impact on dose calculations will be presented. To investigate the production of next-generation theranostic or radiotherapeutic isotopes, cross section measurements with high energy protons have also been explored at BLIP. The 100-200 MeV proton energy regime is relatively unexplored for isotope production, thus offering high discovery potential but at the same time a challenging analysis due to the large number of open channels at these energies. Results of cross sections deduced from Compton-suppressed, coincidence gamma-ray spectroscopy performed at Lowell will be presented, focusing on the production of platinum isotopes by irradiating natural platinum foils with 100 to 200 MeV protons. DOE Isotope Program is acknowledged for funding ST5001030. Work supported by the US DOE under Grant DE-FG02-94ER40848 and Contracts DE-AC02-98CH10946 and DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  6. In-fiber rectangular air fabry-perot strain sensor based on high-precision fiber cutting platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Chen, Mao-qing; Lv, Ri-qing; Xia, Feng

    2017-02-01

    An in-fiber rectangular air Fabry-Perot (FP) strain sensor based on a high-precision fiber cutting platform (HFCP) is proposed. The HFCP consisting of a CCD notation system, a micro-displacement platform, and an optical fiber cleaver can be used to precisely control the length of FP cavity. The microcavity of FP (even only tens of microns) with smooth reflective surface can be realized easily by using this system. The FP structures with different cavity lengths have been fabricated in this paper. Simulation and experimental results prove that the shorter length the cavity has, the higher strain sensitivity and the larger free spectral range (FSR) the sensor obtains. The strain sensitivity and FSR of in-fiber rectangular air FP sensor with a cavity length of 35 μm can be up to 2.23 pm/με and 28.5 nm respectively. Moreover, the proposed FP strain sensor has a negligible temperature sensitivity in the range of 25-75 °C. It is anticipated that such easy making, compact and low-cost fiber-optic strain sensors could find important applications in practice.

  7. High Precision Measurement of the Neutron Polarizabilities via Compton Scattering on Deuterium at Eγ=65 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, Mark; Compton@HIGS Team

    2017-01-01

    The electric (αn) and magnetic (βn) polarizabilities of the neutron are fundamental properties arising from its internal structure which describe the nucleon's response to applied electromagnetic fields. Precise measurements of the polarizabilities provide crucial constraints on models of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in the low energy regime such as Chiral Effective Field Theories as well as emerging ab initio calculations from lattice-QCD. These values also contribute the most uncertainty to theoretical determinations of the proton-neutron mass difference. Historically, the experimental challenges to measuring αn and βn have been due to the difficulty in obtaining suitable targets and sufficiently intense beams, leading to significant statistical uncertainties. To address these issues, a program of Compton scattering experiments on the deuteron is underway at the High Intensity Gamma Source (HI γS) at Duke University with the aim of providing the world's most precise measurement of αn and βn. We report measurements of the Compton scattering differential cross section obtained at an incident photon energy of 65 MeV and discuss the sensitivity of these data to the polarizabilities.

  8. High Precision Measurement of the Neutron Polarizabilities via Compton Scattering on Deuterium at HI γS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The electric (αn) and magnetic (βn) polarizabilities of the neutron are fundamental properties arising from its internal structure which describe the nucleon's response to applied electromagnetic fields. Precise measurements of the polarizabilities provide crucial constraints on models of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in the low energy regime such as Chiral Effective Field Theories as well as emerging ab initio calculations from lattice-QCD. These values also contribute the most uncertainty to theoretical determinations of the proton-neutron mass difference. Historically, the experimental challenges to measuring αn and βn have been due to the difficulty in obtaining suitable targets and sufficiently intense beams, leading to significant statistical uncertainties. To address these issues, a program of Compton scattering experiments on the deuteron is underway at the High Intensity Gamma Source (HI γS) at Duke University with the aim of providing the world's most precise measurement of αn and βn. We report measurements of the Compton scattering differential cross section obtained at incident photon energies of 65 and 85 MeV and discuss the sensitivity of these data to the polarizabilities.

  9. First high-precision differential abundance analysis of extremely metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reggiani, Henrique; Meléndez, Jorge; Yong, David; Ramírez, Ivan; Asplund, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Context. Studies of extremely metal-poor stars indicate that chemical abundance ratios [X/Fe] have a root mean square scatter as low as 0.05 dex (12%). It remains unclear whether this reflects observational uncertainties or intrinsic astrophysical scatter arising from physical conditions in the interstellar medium at early times. Aims: We measure differential chemical abundance ratios in extremely metal-poor stars to investigate the limits of precision and to understand whether cosmic scatter or observational errors are dominant. Methods: We used high-resolution (R ~ 95 000) and high signal-to-noise (S/N = 700 at 5000 Å) HIRES/Keck spectra to determine high-precision differential abundances between two extremely metal-poor stars through a line-by-line differential approach. We determined stellar parameters for the star G64-37 with respect to the standard star G64-12. We performed EW measurements for the two stars for the lines recognized in both stars and performed spectral synthesis to study the carbon abundances. Results: The differential approach allowed us to obtain errors of σ(Teff) = 27 K, σ(log g) = 0.06 dex, σ( [Fe/H] ) = 0.02 dex and σ(vt) = 0.06 km s-1. We estimated relative chemical abundances with a precision as low as σ([X/Fe]) ≈ 0.01 dex. The small uncertainties demonstrate that there are genuine abundance differences larger than the measurement errors. The observed Li difference cannot be explained by the difference in mass because the less massive star has more Li. Conclusions: It is possible to achieve an abundance precision around ≈ 0.01-0.05 dex for extremely metal-poor stars, which opens new windows on the study of the early chemical evolution of the Galaxy. Table A.1 is also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/586/A67

  10. Optical test bench for high precision metrology and alignment of zoom sub-assembly components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leprêtre, F.; Levillain, E.; Wattellier, B.; Delage, P.; Brahmi, D.; Gascon, A.

    2013-09-01

    Thales Angénieux (TAGX) designs and manufactures zoom lens assemblies for cinema applications. These objectives are made of mobile lens assemblies. These need to be precisely characterized to detect alignment, polishing or glass index homogeneity errors, which amplitude may range to a few hundreds of nanometers. However these assemblies are highly aberrated with mainly spherical aberration (>30 μm PV). PHASICS and TAGX developed a solution based on the use of a PHASICS SID4HR wave front sensor. This is based on quadri-wave lateral shearing interferometry, a technology known for its high dynamic range. A 100-mm diameter He:Ne source illuminates the lens assembly entrance pupil. The transmitted wave front is then directly measured by the SID4- HR. The measured wave front (WFmeas) is then compared to a simulation from the lens sub-assembly optical design (WFdesign). We obtain a residual wave front error (WFmanufactured), which reveals lens imperfections due to its manufacturing. WFmeas=WFdesign+(WFEradius+WFEglass+WFEpolish)=WF design + WFmanufactured The optical test bench was designed so that this residual wave front is measured with a precision below 100 nm PV. The measurement of fast F-Number lenses (F/2) with aberrations up to 30 μm, with a precision of 100 nm PV was demonstrated. This bench detects mismatches in sub-assemblies before the final integration step in the zoom. Pre-alignment is also performed in order to overpass the mechanical tolerances. This facilitates the completed zoom alignment. In final, productivity gains are expected due to alignment and mounting time savings.

  11. A low noise and high precision linear power supply with thermal foldback protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Pessina, G.

    2016-05-01

    A low noise and high precision linear power supply was designed for use in rare event search experiments with macrobolometers. The circuit accepts at the input a "noisy" dual supply voltage up to ±15 V and gives at the output precise, low noise, and stable voltages that can be set between ±3.75 V and ±12.5 V in eight 1.25 V steps. Particular care in circuit design, component selection, and proper filtering results in a noise spectral density of 50 nV / √{ Hz } at 1 Hz and 20 nV / √{ Hz } white when the output is set to ±5 V. This corresponds to 125 nV RMS (0.8 μV peak to peak) between 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz, and 240 nV RMS (1.6 μV peak to peak) between 0.1 Hz and 100 Hz. The power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) of the circuit is 100 dB at low frequency, and larger than 40 dB up to high frequency, thanks to a proper compensation design. Calibration allows to reach a precision in the absolute value of the output voltage of ±70 ppm, or ±350 μV at ±5 V, and to reduce thermal drifts below ±1 ppm/∘C in the expected operating range. The maximum peak output current is about 6 A from each output. An original foldback protection scheme was developed that dynamically limits the maximum output current to keep the temperature of the output transistors within their safe operating range. An add-on card based on an ARM Cortex-M3 microcontroller is devoted to the monitoring and control of all circuit functionalities and provides remote communication via CAN bus.

  12. High precision momentum calibration of the magnetic spectrometers at MAMI for hypernuclear binding energy determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margaryan, A.; Annand, J. R. M.; Achenbach, P.; Ajvazyan, R.; Elbakyan, H.; Montgomery, R.; Nakamura, S. N.; Pochodzalla, J.; Schulz, F.; Toyama, Y.; Zhamkochyan, S.

    2017-02-01

    We propose a new method for absolute momentum calibration of magnetic spectrometers used in nuclear physics, using the time-of-flight (TOF) differences of pairs of particles with different masses. In cases where the flight path is not known, a calibration can be determined by using the TOF differences of two pair combinations of three particles. A Cherenkov detector, read out by a radio frequency photomultiplier tube, is considered as the high-resolution and highly stable TOF detector. By means of Monte Carlo simulations it is demonstrated that the magnetic spectrometers at the MAMI electron-scattering facility can be calibrated absolutely with an accuracy δp / p ≤10-4 , which will be crucial for high precision determination of hypernuclear masses.

  13. Application of high-precision matching about multisensor in fast stereo imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huijing; Zhou, Mei; Wu, Haohao; Zhang, Dandan

    2015-10-01

    High precision matching of linear array multi-sensor is the key to ensure fast stereo imaging. This paper has presented the general principle of active and passive imaging sensor, designed a high precision matching calibration system of linear array multi-sensor based on large-diameter collimator combined with assisted laser light source, and put forward an optical axis parallelism calibration technology suitable for linear array active and passive imaging sensor. This technology makes use of image acquisition system to obtain spot center, in order to match multi-linear array laser receive and transmit optical axes. At the same time, this paper uses linear visible light sources to extract the optical axis of the laser, then completes the parallelism calibration between lasers receive and transmit optical axes of multi-linear array sensors and active and passive optical axis. The matching relationship between the visible pixel and laser radar detecting element can be obtained when using this technique to calibrate the active and passive imaging sensor. And this relationship is applied to the fast stereo imaging experiment of active and passive imaging sensor and gained good imaging effect.

  14. Interaction between the low altitude atmosphere and clouds by high-precision polarization lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiina, Tatsuo; Noguchi, Kazuo; Fukuchi, Tetsuo

    2012-11-01

    Lidar is a powerful remote sensing tool to monitor the weather changes and the environmental issues. This technique should not been restricted in those fields. In this study, the authors aim to be apply it to the prediction of weather disaster. The heavy rain and the lightning strike are our targets. The inline typed MPL (micro pulse lidar) has been accomplished to grasp the interaction between the low altitude cloud and the atmosphere and to predict the heavy rain, while it was hard to catch the sign of lightning strike. The authors introduced a new algorism to catch the direct sign of the lightning strike. Faraday effect is caused by lightning discharge in the ionized atmosphere. This effect interacts with the polarization of the propagating beam, that is, the polarization plane is rotated by the effect. In this study, high precision polarization lidar was developed to grasp the small rotation angle of the polarization of the propagating beam. In this report, the interaction between the low altitude cloud and the atmosphere was monitored by the high precision polarization lidar. And the observation result of the lightning discharge were analyzed.

  15. A high precision position sensor design and its signal processing algorithm for a maglev train.

    PubMed

    Xue, Song; Long, Zhiqiang; He, Ning; Chang, Wensen

    2012-01-01

    High precision positioning technology for a kind of high speed maglev train with an electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system is studied. At first, the basic structure and functions of the position sensor are introduced and some key techniques to enhance the positioning precision are designed. Then, in order to further improve the positioning signal quality and the fault-tolerant ability of the sensor, a new kind of discrete-time tracking differentiator (TD) is proposed based on nonlinear optimal control theory. This new TD has good filtering and differentiating performances and a small calculation load. It is suitable for real-time signal processing. The stability, convergence property and frequency characteristics of the TD are studied and analyzed thoroughly. The delay constant of the TD is figured out and an effective time delay compensation algorithm is proposed. Based on the TD technology, a filtering process is introduced in to improve the positioning signal waveform when the sensor is under bad working conditions, and a two-sensor switching algorithm is designed to eliminate the positioning errors caused by the joint gaps of the long stator. The effectiveness and stability of the sensor and its signal processing algorithms are proved by the experiments on a test train during a long-term test run.

  16. A High Precision Position Sensor Design and Its Signal Processing Algorithm for a Maglev Train

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Song; Long, Zhiqiang; He, Ning; Chang, Wensen

    2012-01-01

    High precision positioning technology for a kind of high speed maglev train with an electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system is studied. At first, the basic structure and functions of the position sensor are introduced and some key techniques to enhance the positioning precision are designed. Then, in order to further improve the positioning signal quality and the fault-tolerant ability of the sensor, a new kind of discrete-time tracking differentiator (TD) is proposed based on nonlinear optimal control theory. This new TD has good filtering and differentiating performances and a small calculation load. It is suitable for real-time signal processing. The stability, convergence property and frequency characteristics of the TD are studied and analyzed thoroughly. The delay constant of the TD is figured out and an effective time delay compensation algorithm is proposed. Based on the TD technology, a filtering process is introduced in to improve the positioning signal waveform when the sensor is under bad working conditions, and a two-sensor switching algorithm is designed to eliminate the positioning errors caused by the joint gaps of the long stator. The effectiveness and stability of the sensor and its signal processing algorithms are proved by the experiments on a test train during a long-term test run. PMID:22778582

  17. High Precision Density Measurements of Single Particles: The Density of Metastable Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenyuk, Alla; Cai, Yong; Chieffo, Logan; Imre, Dan G.

    2005-10-01

    We describe a system designed to measure the size, composition and density of individual particles in real-time. It uses a DMA to select a monodisperse particle population and the single particle mass spectrometer to measure individual particle mass spectrometer to measure individual particle aerodynamic diameter and composition. Mobility and aerodynamic diameters are used to extract particle density. The addition of individual particle density to the mass spectrum is intended to improve the data classification process. In the present paper we demonstrate that the system has the requisite accuracy and resolution to make this approach practicable. We also present a high precision variant that uses an internal calibrant to remove any of the systematic errors and significantly improves the measurement quality. The high precision scheme is most suitable for laboratory studies making it possible to follow slight changes in particle density. An application of the system to measure the density of hygroscopic particles of atmospheric importance in metastable phases near zero relative humidity is presented. The density data are consistent with conclusions reached in a number of other studies that some particle systems of atmospheric significance once deliquesced persist as droplets down to near zero relative humidity.

  18. Aspects of ultra-high-precision diamond machining of RSA 443 optical aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkoko, Z.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.

    2015-08-01

    Optical aluminium alloys such as 6061-T6 are traditionally used in ultra-high precision manufacturing for making optical mirrors for aerospace and other applications. However, the optics industry has recently witnessed the development of more advanced optical aluminium grades that are capable of addressing some of the issues encountered when turning with single-point natural monocrystalline diamond cutters. The advent of rapidly solidified aluminium (RSA) grades has generally opened up new possibilities for ultra-high precision manufacturing of optical components. In this study, experiments were conducted with single-point diamond cutters on rapidly solidified aluminium RSA 443 material. The objective of this study is to observe the effects of depth of cut and feed rate at a fixed rotational speed on the tool wear rate and resulting surface roughness of diamond turned specimens. This is done to gain further understanding of the rate of wear on the diamond cutters versus the surface texture generated on the RSA 443 material. The diamond machining experiments yielded machined surfaces which are less reflective but with consistent surface roughness values. Cutting tools were observed for wear through scanning microscopy; relatively low wear pattern was evident on the diamond tool edge. The highest tool wear were obtained at higher depth of cut and increased feed rate.

  19. MEMS - Frequency Agile High Precision Ranging under the Dual Use Applications Program (DUAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauhahn, Paul

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this program was laboratory demonstration of a low cost, jamming resistant, precision ranging system (radar) for proximity fuze and short-range measurement systems. Two approaches were envisioned: (1) The baseline-a baseband system directly radiating and detecting a random sequence of short pulses and (2) A higher risk design based on a transmitter using high-speed modulation of a micro-electromechanical (MEM) oscillator to avoid low frequency antenna radiation requirements. Size constraints drive the design toward small, single-chip monocycle pulse radar implemented in CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductors). This device with two external capacitors, a battery and a miniature antenna for the baseline approach is described in Figure 1-1. Triggering ranges from several inches to more than 6feet were demonstrated. Fabrication of MEM components on gallium arsenide for the second approach will require additional work. While CMOS technology is almost ideal for the long time-constant, multiple pulse integration circuits in the precision ranging receiver and most of the transmitter circuits, it is insufficient for submunition sensor final output amplifiers. The issue is the small size of the submunition antenna. Either step recovery diode circuit or higher performance output transistors are needed to generate the high frequency spectrum required for efficient radiation from these antennas. Using a 0.5-micron BiCMOS/Si(3e process, recently available for prototyping at MOSIS,' all of the required CMOS and faster output devices could be implemented with trivial modifications of the existing circuits.

  20. High-precision temporal constraints on intrusive magmatism of the Siberian Traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Seth; Bowring, Sam; Pavlov, Volodia E.; Veselovsky, Roman V.

    2014-05-01

    The broad temporal coincidence between large igneous province magmatism and some of the most severe biotic/environmental crises in Earth history has led many to infer a causal connection between the two. Notable examples include the end-Permian mass extinction and eruption/emplacement of the Siberian Traps large igneous province (LIP) and the end-Triassic mass extinction and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. In models proposing a causal connection between LIP magmatism and the environmental changes that lead to mass extinction, gases and particulates injected into the atmosphere are thought to cause abrupt changes in climate and ocean chemistry sufficient to drive mass extinction of marine and terrestrial biota. Magmatism has been proposed to cause voluminous volatile release via contact metamorphism of the sedimentary rocks. In the case of the Siberian Traps LIP, the compositions of sedimentary rocks (carbonates, evaporates, organic-rich shales) that host sills and dikes are ideal for greenhouse gas generation. When coupled with the enormous volume of Siberian LIP intrusive rocks, there is the potential for volatile generation on a scale necessary to drive environmental changes and mass extinction. This model must be tested by comparing the timing of intrusive magmatism with that of the mass extinction. Coupled high-precision geochronology and astrochronology have constrained the timing of biotic crisis and associated environmental perturbations from the deca-millennial to sub-millennial timescale, suggesting that the biotic crisis was abrupt, occurring over < 100 ka. Published geochronology on sills and dikes from the LIP are sparse and lack the necessary precision to resolve the relative timing of the two events outside of age uncertainty. We present new high-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology on seventeen gabbroic sills from throughout the magmatic province. This includes samples from the mineralized and differentiated intrusions in the Noril'sk region

  1. Precision-cut liver slices to investigate responsiveness of deep-sea fish to contaminants at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Debier, Cathy; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Thomé, Jean Pierre; Stegeman, John; Mork, Jarle; Rees, Jean François

    2012-09-18

    While deep-sea fish accumulate high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), the toxicity associated with this contamination remains unknown. Indeed, the recurrent collection of moribund individuals precludes experimental studies to investigate POP effects in this fauna. We show that precision-cut liver slices (PCLS), an in vitro tool commonly used in human and rodent toxicology, can overcome such limitation. This technology was applied to individuals of the deep-sea grenadier Coryphaenoides rupestris directly upon retrieval from 530-m depth in Trondheimsfjord (Norway). PCLS remained viable and functional for 15 h when maintained in an appropriate culture media at 4 °C. This allowed experimental exposure of liver slices to the model POP 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC; 25 μM) at levels of hydrostatic pressure mimicking shallow (0.1 megapascal or MPa) and deep-sea (5-15 MPa; representative of 500-1500 m depth) environments. As in shallow water fish, 3-MC induced the transcription of the detoxification enzyme cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A; a biomarker of exposure to POPs). This induction was diminished at elevated pressure, suggesting a limited responsiveness of C. rupestris toward POPs in its native environment. This very first in vitro toxicological investigation on a deep-sea fish opens the route for understanding pollutants effects in this highly exposed fauna.

  2. A High-Precision Protocol for Identification of Preschool Children at Risk for Persisting Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Timpka, Toomas; Angbratt, Marianne; Bolme, Per; Hermansson, Göran; Häger, Anders; Valter, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that adolescent adiposity is established already in preadolescence. Earlier studies have confirmed a strong tracking of obesity from adolescence to adulthood. Our aim was to examine the diagnostic accuracy of a population-derived protocol for identification of preschool children at risk for obesity in preadolescence. Methodology/Principal Findings We analysed data obtained for child health surveillance up to age 5 from 5778 children born in a Swedish county in 1991. The basic data set included age, sex, and weight and height measurements from the regular checkups between ages 1.5 and 5. Data not routinely collected in the child health centre setting were disregarded. The children were at age 10 randomly assigned to protocol derivation and validation cohorts and assessed for obesity according to IOTF criteria. The accuracy of predicting obesity in the validation cohort was measured using decision precision, specificity, and sensitivity. The decision protocol selected 1.4% of preschool children as being at obesity risk. The precision of the protocol at age 10 was 82% for girls and 80% for boys, and the specificity was 100% for both boys and girls. The sensitivity was higher for girls (41%) than for boys (21%). The relative risk for obesity at age 10 estimated by the odds ratio for individuals selected by the protocol compared to non-selected peers was 212.6 (95% confidence interval 56.6 to 798.4) for girls and 120.3 (95% CI 24.5 to 589.9) for boys. Conclusion/Significance A simple and inexpensive decision protocol based on BMI values proved to have high precision and specificity for identification of preschool children at risk for obesity persisting into adolescence, while the sensitivity was low especially for boys. Implementation and further evaluations of the protocol in child health centre settings are warranted. PMID:17579709

  3. Development of a High Precision and Stability Ambient N2O and CO Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jingang; Hoffnagle, John; Tan, Sze; Dong, Feng; Fleck, Derek; Yiu, John; Huang, Kuan; Leggett, Graham; He, Yonggang

    2016-04-01

    With a global warming potential of nearly 300, N2O is a critically important greenhouse gas, contributing about 5 % of the US total GHG emissions. Agriculture soil management practices are the dominant source of anthropogenic N2O emissions, contributing nearly 75 % of US N2O emissions. In urban areas, vehicle tailpipe emissions and waste water treatment plants are significant sources of N2O. We report here a new mid-infrared laser-based cavity ring-down spectrometer (Picarro G5310) that was recently developed to simultaneously measure sub-ppb ambient concentrations of two key greenhouse gas species, N2O and CO, while measuring H2O as well. It combines a quantum cascade laser with a proprietary 3-mirror optical cavity. The ambient N2O and CO measurement precisions are 0.1ppb (10sec), 0.014ppb (600sec), and 0.006ppb (3000sec); and the measurements could even be averaged down over 3 hours, giving measurement precisions of 0.003ppb. The measurable N2O and CO ranges have been tested up to 2.5ppm. With the high precision and unparalleled stability, G5310 is believed a promising tool for long-term monitoring in atmospheric sciences. The new optical analyzer was set up to monitor N2O and CO (G5310), along with CO2 and CH4(G4301), in ambient air obtained from a 10 meter tower in Santa Clara, California. Evidence of contributions from traffic and a nearby sewage treatment facility were expected in the measurement data.

  4. A demonstration of high precision GPS orbit determination for geodetic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, S. M.; Border, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    High precision orbit determination of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites is a key requirement for GPS-based precise geodetic measurements and precise low-earth orbiter tracking, currently under study at JPL. Different strategies for orbit determination have been explored at JPL with data from a 1985 GPS field experiment. The most successful strategy uses multi-day arcs for orbit determination and includes fine tuning of spacecraft solar pressure coefficients and station zenith tropospheric delays using the GPS data. Average rms orbit repeatability values for 5 of the GPS satellites are 1.0, 1.2, and 1.7 m in altitude, cross-track, and down-track componenets when two independent 5-day fits are compared. Orbit predictions up to 24 hours outside the multi-day arcs agree within 4 m of independent solutions obtained with well tracked satellites in the prediction interval. Baseline repeatability improves with multi-day as compared to single-day arc orbit solutions. When tropospheric delay fluctuations are modeled with process noise, significant additional improvement in baseline repeatability is achieved. For a 246-km baseline, with 6-day arc solutions for GPS orbits, baseline repeatability is 2 parts in 100 million (0.4-0.6 cm) for east, north, and length components and 8 parts in 100 million for the vertical component. For 1314 and 1509 km baselines with the same orbits, baseline repeatability is 2 parts in 100 million for the north components (2-3 cm) and 4 parts in 100 million or better for east, length, and vertical components.

  5. Note: High precision angle generator using multiple ultrasonic motors and a self-calibratable encoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Ahn; Kim, Jae Wan; Kang, Chu-Shik; Jin, Jonghan; Bong Eom, Tae

    2011-11-01

    We present an angle generator with high resolution and accuracy, which uses multiple ultrasonic motors and a self-calibratable encoder. A cylindrical air bearing guides a rotational motion, and the ultrasonic motors achieve high resolution over the full circle range with a simple configuration. The self-calibratable encoder can compensate the scale error of a divided circle (signal period: 20″) effectively by applying the equal-division-averaged method. The angle generator configures a position feedback control loop using the readout of the encoder. By combining the ac and dc operation mode, the angle generator produced stepwise angular motion with 0.005″ resolution. We also evaluated the performance of the angle generator using a precision angle encoder and an autocollimator. The expanded uncertainty (k = 2) in the angle generation was estimated less than 0.03″, which included the calibrated scale error and the nonlinearity error.

  6. High-precision soft x-ray polarimeter at Diamond Light Source.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Dhesi, S S; Maccherozzi, F; Cavill, S; Shepherd, E; Yuan, F; Deshmukh, R; Scott, S; van der Laan, G; Sawhney, K J S

    2011-12-01

    The development and performance of a high-precision polarimeter for the polarization analysis in the soft x-ray region is presented. This versatile, high-vacuum compatible instrument is supported on a hexapod to simplify the alignment with a resolution less than 5 μrad, and can be moved with its own independent control system easily between different beamlines and synchrotron facilities. The polarimeter can also be used for the characterization of reflection and transmission properties of optical elements. A W/B(4)C multilayer phase retarder was used to characterize the polarization state up to 1200 eV. A fast and accurate alignment procedure was developed, and complete polarization analysis of the APPLE II undulator at 712 eV has been performed.

  7. High-precision soft x-ray polarimeter at Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Dhesi, S. S.; Maccherozzi, F.; Cavill, S.; Shepherd, E.; Yuan, F.; Deshmukh, R.; Scott, S.; van der Laan, G.; Sawhney, K. J. S.

    2011-12-01

    The development and performance of a high-precision polarimeter for the polarization analysis in the soft x-ray region is presented. This versatile, high-vacuum compatible instrument is supported on a hexapod to simplify the alignment with a resolution less than 5 μrad, and can be moved with its own independent control system easily between different beamlines and synchrotron facilities. The polarimeter can also be used for the characterization of reflection and transmission properties of optical elements. A W/B4C multilayer phase retarder was used to characterize the polarization state up to 1200 eV. A fast and accurate alignment procedure was developed, and complete polarization analysis of the APPLE II undulator at 712 eV has been performed.

  8. Fundamental measurement by in-line typed high-precision polarization lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiina, Tatsuo; Miyamoto, Masakazu; Umaki, Dai; Noguchi, Kazuo; Fukuchi, Tetsuo

    2008-12-01

    An in-line typed new concept lidar system for high precision polarization measurement was developed. A specially designed polarization-independent optical circulator, which was composed by Gran laser prisms and highly transparent Faraday rotators, was developed. Its isolation between the orthogonal polarizations was improved up to more than 30 dB. It is sufficient to detect small rotation of the polarization plane of the propagating beam caused by lightning discharges due to the Faraday effect. The rotation angle of the polarization plane is estimated by the differential detection between the orthogonal polarization components of the lidar echoes. The in-line optics enables near range measurement from the near range of >30 m with the narrow field of view of 0.17 mrad. The fundamental measurements of lidar echoes in near and far fields, and low cloud activities were examined.

  9. High-precision atom localization via controllable spontaneous emission in a cycle-configuration atomic system.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chunling; Li, Jiahua; Yu, Rong; Hao, Xiangying; Wu, Ying

    2012-03-26

    A scheme for realizing two-dimensional (2D) atom localization is proposed based on controllable spontaneous emission in a coherently driven cycle-configuration atomic system. As the spatial-position-dependent atom-field interaction, the frequency of the spontaneously emitted photon carries the information about the position of the atom. Therefore, by detecting the emitted photon one could obtain the position information available, and then we demonstrate high-precision and high-resolution 2D atom localization induced by the quantum interference between the multiple spontaneous decay channels. Moreover, we can achieve 100% probability of finding the atom at an expected position by choosing appropriate system parameters under certain conditions.

  10. High precision tune and coupling measurements and tune/coupling feedback in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, M.; Curcio, A.; Dawson, C.; Degen, C.; Luo, Y.; Marr, G.; Martin, B.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Oddo, P.; Russo, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schroeder, R.; Schulthiess, C.; Wilinski, M.

    2010-08-01

    Precision measurement and control of the betatron tunes and betatron coupling in RHIC are required for establishing and maintaining both good operating conditions and, particularly during the ramp to high beam energies, high proton beam polarization. While the proof-of-principle for simultaneous tune and coupling feedback was successfully demonstrated earlier, routine application of these systems has only become possible recently. Following numerous modifications for improved measurement resolution and feedback control, the time required to establish full-energy beams with the betatron tunes and coupling regulated by feedback was reduced from several weeks to a few hours. A summary of these improvements, select measurements benefitting from the improved resolution and a review of system performance are the subject of this report.

  11. End of Frustration: Catalytic Precision Polymerization with Highly Interacting Lewis Pairs.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Maximilian G M; Giuman, Marco M; Pöthig, Alexander; Rieger, Bernhard

    2016-06-22

    Herein we report on the catalytic polymerization of diverse Michael-type monomers with high precision by using simple but highly active combinations of phosphorus-containing Lewis bases and organoaluminum compounds. The interacting Lewis pair catalysts enable the control of molecular weight and microstructure of the produced polymers. The reactions show a linear Mn vs consumption plot thus proving a living type polymerization. The initiation has been investigated by end-group analysis with ESI mass spectrometric analysis. With these main-group element Lewis acid base pairs, it is not only possible to polymerize sterically demanding, functionalized as well as heteroatom containing monomers but also, for the first time, to catalytically polymerize extended Michael systems, like 4-vinylpyridine.

  12. High-Precision DEM Generation Using Satellite-Borne InSAR Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Tang, Xinming; Gao, Xiaoming; Chen, Weinan; Chen, Qianfu; Wu, Danqin

    2016-08-01

    Satellite-borne InSAR is useful in generating DEM globally. Especially after TanDEM-X interferometer started its mission in 2010. In this paper, we analyze the interferometric geometry in surveying and mapping application. And we locate main error sources, i.e., phase error and baseline error, using the parameters extracted from TanDEM-X interferometer. The phase error is suppressed using multi-look iteration. The rich textures as well as the high phase accuracy are both maintained through this method. The baseline error is reduced by using the long-and-short baseline combination method. Finally, we propose to mosaic the ascending and descending DEM according to coherence values to reduce the low coherent areas. Experiments in flat ground, hill and mountain land are conducted to test the feasibility of the proposed methods. Results demonstrate that TanDEM-X may be used in high-precision DEM generation.

  13. High precision mapping of kidney stones using μ-IR spectroscopy to determine urinary lithogenesis.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Francisco; Ortiz-Alías, Pilar; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Evolution of urinary lithiasis is determined by the metabolism and life-style of the related patient. The appropriate classification of the stone is mandatory for the identification of the lithogenic process. In this study, cros-sections from a single stone of each of the most frequent urolithiasis types (calcium oxalate mono and dihydrate and carbonate apatite) have been selected and imaged using IR microspectroscopy. Moreover, the use of high definition sFTIR (synchrotron source) has revealed hidden information to the conventional FTIR. This work has demonstrated that minor components become key factors on the description of the stages of stone formation. Intensity map for COM (1630 cm(-1) peak). The high spatial definition achieved is key for the precise description of the kidney stone history.

  14. High Precision Tune and Coupling Feedback and Beam Transfer Function Measurements in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, M.; Curcio, A.; Dawson, C.; Degen, C.; Luo, Y.; Marr, G.; Martin, B.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Oddo, P.; Russo, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schroeder, R.; Schultheiss, C.; Wilinski, M.

    2010-05-23

    Precision measurement and control of the betatron tunes and betatron coupling in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are required for establishing and maintaining both good operating conditions and, particularly during the ramp to high beam energies, high proton beam polarization. While the proof-of-principle for simultaneous tune and coupling feedback was successfully demonstrated earlier, routine application of these systems has only become possible recently. Following numerous modifications for improved measurement resolution and feedback control, the time required to establish full-energy beams with the betatron tunes and coupling regulated by feedback was reduced from several weeks to a few hours. A summary of these improvements, select measurements benefitting from the improved resolution and a review of system performance are the subject of this report.

  15. Versatile, kinetically controlled, high precision electrohydrodynamic writing of micro/nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Huang, YongAn; Duan, Yongqing; Ding, Yajiang; Bu, Ningbin; Pan, Yanqiao; Lu, Nanshu; Yin, Zhouping

    2014-01-01

    Direct writing of hierarchical micro/nanofibers have recently gained popularity in flexible/stretchable electronics due to its low cost, simple process and high throughput. A kinetically controlled mechanoelectrospinning (MES) is developed to directly write diversified hierarchical micro/nanofibers in a continuous and programmable manner. Unlike conventional near-field electrospinning, our MES method introduces a mechanical drawing force, to simultaneously enhance the positioning accuracy and morphology controllability. The MES is predominantly controlled by the substrate speed, the nozzle-to-substrate distance, and the applied voltage. As a demonstration, smooth straight, serpentine, self-similar, and bead-on-string structures are direct-written on silicon/elastomer substrates with a resolution of 200 nm. It is believed that MES can promote the low-cost, high precision fabrication of flexible/stretchable electronics or enable the direct writing of the sacrificial structures for nanoscale lithography. PMID:25091829

  16. A Lightweight, Precision-Deployable, Optical Bench for High Energy Astrophysics Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danner, Rolf; Dailey, D.; Lillie, C.

    2011-09-01

    The small angle of total reflection for X-rays, forcing grazing incidence optics with large collecting areas to long focal lengths, has been a fundamental barrier to the advancement of high-energy astrophysics. Design teams around the world have long recognized that a significant increase in effective area beyond Chandra and XMM-Newton requires either a deployable optical bench or separate X-ray optics and instrument module on formation flying spacecraft. Here, we show that we have in hand the components for a lightweight, precision-deployable optical bench that, through its inherent design features, is the affordable path to the next generation of imaging high-energy astrophysics missions. We present our plans for a full-scale engineering model of a deployable optical bench for Explorer-class missions. We intend to use this test article to raise the technology readiness level (TRL) of the tensegrity truss for a lightweight, precision-deployable optical bench for high-energy astrophysics missions from TRL 3 to TRL 5 through a set of four well-defined technology milestones. The milestones cover the architecture's ability to deploy and control the focal point, characterize the deployed dynamics, determine long-term stability, and verify the stowed load capability. Our plan is based on detailed design and analysis work and the construction of a first prototype by our team. Building on our prior analysis and the high TRL of the architecture components we are ready to move on to the next step. The key elements to do this affordably are two existing, fully characterized, flight-quality, deployable booms. After integrating them into the test article, we will demonstrate that our architecture meets the deployment accuracy, adjustability, and stability requirements. The same test article can be used to further raise the TRL in the future.

  17. The Generation of Higher-order Laguerre-Gauss Optical Beams for High-precision Interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Ludovico; Fulda, Paul; Bond, Charlotte; Brueckner, Frank; Brown, Daniel; Wang, Mengyao; Lodhia, Deepali; Palmer, Rebecca; Freise, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Thermal noise in high-reflectivity mirrors is a major impediment for several types of high-precision interferometric experiments that aim to reach the standard quantum limit or to cool mechanical systems to their quantum ground state. This is for example the case of future gravitational wave observatories, whose sensitivity to gravitational wave signals is expected to be limited in the most sensitive frequency band, by atomic vibration of their mirror masses. One promising approach being pursued to overcome this limitation is to employ higher-order Laguerre-Gauss (LG) optical beams in place of the conventionally used fundamental mode. Owing to their more homogeneous light intensity distribution these beams average more effectively over the thermally driven fluctuations of the mirror surface, which in turn reduces the uncertainty in the mirror position sensed by the laser light. We demonstrate a promising method to generate higher-order LG beams by shaping a fundamental Gaussian beam with the help of diffractive optical elements. We show that with conventional sensing and control techniques that are known for stabilizing fundamental laser beams, higher-order LG modes can be purified and stabilized just as well at a comparably high level. A set of diagnostic tools allows us to control and tailor the properties of generated LG beams. This enabled us to produce an LG beam with the highest purity reported to date. The demonstrated compatibility of higher-order LG modes with standard interferometry techniques and with the use of standard spherical optics makes them an ideal candidate for application in a future generation of high-precision interferometry. PMID:23962813

  18. GPS inland water buoys for precise and high temporal resolution water level and movement monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Heiko; Nghia Hung, Nguyen; Thoss, Heiko; Güntner, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring of river and lake stages is one of the basic issues in understanding catchment hydrology and hydraulic systems. There are numerous techniques available for this, but in case of large water bodies technical as well as financial problems may restrict the use of traditional techniques. Therefore we explored the potential of GPS based altimetry for stage monitoring by developing small and easy to handle buoys with mounted high precision GPS devices. The advantages of the buoys are the freedom of positioning over the whole water body and their quick and easy deployment. The developed devices were tested in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam in two different locations: On the Mekong river where high currents over the flood season occur and in a small lake with hydraulic connections to a major channel with hardly any currents present. The collected GPS data were processed differentially and tested against standard pressure gauge data. The recorded stages proved to be of high quality and a valuable resource for flood monitoring and modeling. In addition to the stage data, the high-precision GPS positioning data could also be used for monitoring the movement of the buoys, from which alternating currents caused by ocean tides and flood waves could be detected, thus providing an additional information on the hydraulic system. We conclude that the developed buoys add well to the existing hydrological monitoring pool and are a goof option for the monitoring in large water bodies where a) traditional methods are technically difficult to deploy or are too costly, and b) where additional information about flow direction is needed.

  19. High-precision percolation thresholds and Potts-model critical manifolds from graph polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    >Jesper Lykke Jacobsen,

    2014-04-01

    The critical curves of the q-state Potts model can be determined exactly for regular two-dimensional lattices G that are of the three-terminal type. This comprises the square, triangular, hexagonal and bow-tie lattices. Jacobsen and Scullard have defined a graph polynomial PB(q, v) that gives access to the critical manifold for general lattices. It depends on a finite repeating part of the lattice, called the basis B, and its real roots in the temperature variable v = eK - 1 provide increasingly accurate approximations to the critical manifolds upon increasing the size of B. Using transfer matrix techniques, these authors computed PB(q, v) for large bases (up to 243 edges), obtaining determinations of the ferromagnetic critical point vc > 0 for the (4, 82), kagome, and (3, 122) lattices to a precision (of the order 10-8) slightly superior to that of the best available Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we describe a more efficient transfer matrix approach to the computation of PB(q, v) that relies on a formulation within the periodic Temperley-Lieb algebra. This makes possible computations for substantially larger bases (up to 882 edges), and the precision on vc is hence taken to the range 10-13. We further show that a large variety of regular lattices can be cast in a form suitable for this approach. This includes all Archimedean lattices, their duals and their medials. For all these lattices we tabulate high-precision estimates of the bond percolation thresholds pc and Potts critical points vc. We also trace and discuss the full Potts critical manifold in the (q, v) plane, paying special attention to the antiferromagnetic region v < 0. Finally, we adapt the technique to site percolation as well, and compute the polynomials PB(p) for certain Archimedean and dual lattices (those having only cubic and quartic vertices), using very large bases (up to 243 vertices). This produces the site percolation thresholds pc to a precision of the order of 10-9.

  20. High precision 11B/10B analysis with a simplified MC-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimizu, M.; Nagaishi, K.

    2012-04-01

    Boron isotope ratio is a powerful tracer in the fields of geochemistry, biochemistry, and environmental chemistry. One important application of 11B/10B isotope ratio in geochemistry is as an indicator for paleo pH of seawater recorded in marine carbonates in deep-sea sediments. Boron isotope ratios are determined by TIMS or MC-ICP-MS with precisions of better than 0.1 % RSD, but a large inter-lab discrepancy of 0.6 % is still observed for actual carbonate samples (Foster, 2008). Here, we tried to determine B isotope ratio by MC-ICP-MS with a simple and common analytical techniques using a quartz sample introduction system with a PFA nebulizer, and compared to recently developed precise B isotope ratio analysis techniques by TIMS in positive ion detection mode determined as Cs2BO2+ ions with sample amount of <100 ng (Ishikawa and Nagaishi, 2011) and by MC-ICP-MS (Foster, 2008, Louvat et al., 2011). 11B/10B isotope ratios of a 50 ppb B solution dissolved in a HNO3, mannitol, HF-mixed solution were determined against an isotopic reference NIST-SRM 951 with a standard sample bracketing technique in the wet plasma condition. Resultant analytical reproducibility (twice standard deviation) was +/-0.02 % with a consumption of 50 ng B, and the washout time was comparable to that of NH3 gas addition to the introduction system (Foster, 2008). 11B/10B isotope ratios of actual carbonate sample and seawater were determined after simple chemical purification with a common cation exchange resin instead of a boron selective resin. Their relative differences from the standard were consistent with those determined by the positive TIMS within analytical uncertainty. Current potential of MC-ICP-MS for precise B isotopic analysis will be discussed. Foster, G., 2008. Seawater pH, pCO2 and [CO32-] variations in the Caribbean Sea over the last 130kyr: A boron isotope and B/Ca study of planktic foraminifera, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 271, 254-266. Ishikawa, T. and Nagaishi, K., 2011. High-precision

  1. High Precision Osmium Isotope Measurements Using New Generation Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, A.

    2006-12-01

    The technique for measuring Os isotopes to high precision (e.g. +/-30-50 ppm on the 186/188 ratio, 2 sigma) via negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (NTIMS) was established a decade ago at the University of Maryland. Recent technical advances have resulted in the production of a new generation of TIMS that allows isotopic measurements with substantial improvement in accuracy and precision. Because of the improved capability, the new generation TIMS holds great potential to examine a variety of problems in geochemistry and cosmochemistry. Over the past 5 years, I have refined the technique for higher precision measurements of Os isotopes using the Triton TIMS from Thermo Electron. The measurements are made in static mode using 7 Faraday collectors. 70 or more nanograms of Os is loaded onto a Pt filament with barium hydroxide, the latter is an electron emitter that promotes efficient production of Os trioxide. Oxygen is bled into the source at constant pressures. Signal intensities of 120-180 mV 186Os trioxide are generated and measured as negative ions. Oxygen corrections to the raw data are made using the oxygen isotopic composition obtained for 2 ng loads of Re tetroxide measured on the Faraday cups. Multiple runs over the course of 3 years for the same lecture bottle used to bleed in oxygen to the source showed no change in the oxygen isotopic composition. Oxygen corrections are followed by instrumental mass fractionation corrections using 189/188, 192/189, or 192/188 using the exponential law. Both the internal and external precision for standard and unknown data are best when using 192/188, by a factor of 1.4 over 189/188, and 1.8 over 192/189. Replicate runs on 100 ng standard loads of a single filament shows no change in corrected values within external precision for all Os isotopic ratios over a wide range of fractionation, confirming adherence to the exponential law during emission. 39 runs for a standard solution gave +/-14 ppm (2 sigma) on the

  2. High-precision radiocarbon dating and historical biblical archaeology in southern Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Thomas E.; Higham, Thomas; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Smith, Neil G.; Ben-Yosef, Erez; Robinson, Mark; Münger, Stefan; Knabb, Kyle; Schulze, Jürgen P.; Najjar, Mohammad; Tauxe, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Recent excavations and high-precision radiocarbon dating from the largest Iron Age (IA, ca. 1200–500 BCE) copper production center in the southern Levant demonstrate major smelting activities in the region of biblical Edom (southern Jordan) during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE. Stratified radiocarbon samples and artifacts were recorded with precise digital surveying tools linked to a geographic information system developed to control on-site spatial analyses of archaeological finds and model data with innovative visualization tools. The new radiocarbon dates push back by 2 centuries the accepted IA chronology of Edom. Data from Khirbat en-Nahas, and the nearby site of Rujm Hamra Ifdan, demonstrate the centrality of industrial-scale metal production during those centuries traditionally linked closely to political events in Edom's 10th century BCE neighbor ancient Israel. Consequently, the rise of IA Edom is linked to the power vacuum created by the collapse of Late Bronze Age (LB, ca. 1300 BCE) civilizations and the disintegration of the LB Cypriot copper monopoly that dominated the eastern Mediterranean. The methodologies applied to the historical IA archaeology of the Levant have implications for other parts of the world where sacred and historical texts interface with the material record. PMID:18955702

  3. High-precision correlative fluorescence and electron cryo microscopy using two independent alignment markers☆

    PubMed Central

    Schellenberger, Pascale; Kaufmann, Rainer; Siebert, C. Alistair; Hagen, Christoph; Wodrich, Harald; Grünewald, Kay

    2014-01-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) is an emerging technique which combines functional information provided by fluorescence microscopy (FM) with the high-resolution structural information of electron microscopy (EM). So far, correlative cryo microscopy of frozen-hydrated samples has not reached better than micrometre range accuracy. Here, a method is presented that enables the correlation between fluorescently tagged proteins and electron cryo tomography (cryoET) data with nanometre range precision. Specifically, thin areas of vitrified whole cells are examined by correlative fluorescence cryo microscopy (cryoFM) and cryoET. Novel aspects of the presented cryoCLEM workflow not only include the implementation of two independent electron dense fluorescent markers to improve the precision of the alignment, but also the ability of obtaining an estimate of the correlation accuracy for each individual object of interest. The correlative workflow from plunge-freezing to cryoET is detailed step-by-step for the example of locating fluorescence-labelled adenovirus particles trafficking inside a cell. PMID:24262358

  4. Application of the spherical harmonic gravity model in high precision inertial navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Yang, Gongliu; Li, Xiangyun; Zhou, Xiao

    2016-09-01

    The spherical harmonic gravity model (SHM) may, in general, be considered as a suitable alternative to the normal gravity model (NGM), because it represents the Earth’s gravitational field more accurately. However, the high-resolution SHM has never been used in current inertial navigation systems (INSs) due to its extremely complex expression. In this paper, the feasibility and accuracy of a truncated SHM are discussed for application in a real-time free-INS with a precision demand better than 0.8 nm h-1. In particular, the time and space complexity are analyzed mathematically to verify the feasibility of the SHM. Also, a test on a typical navigation computer shows a storable range of cut-off degrees. To further evaluate the appropriate degree and accuracy of the truncated SHM, analyses of covariance and truncation error are proposed. Finally, a SHM of degree 12 is demonstrated to be the appropriate model for routine INSs in the precision range of 0.4-0.75 nm h-1. Flight simulations and road tests show its outstanding performance over the traditional NGM.

  5. High-precision laser-assisted absolute determination of x-ray diffraction angles

    SciTech Connect

    Kubicek, K.; Braun, J.; Bruhns, H.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.; Mokler, P. H.; Ullrich, J.

    2012-01-15

    A novel technique for absolute wavelength determination in high-precision crystal x-ray spectroscopy recently introduced has been upgraded reaching unprecedented accuracies. The method combines visible laser beams with the Bond method, where Bragg angles ({theta} and -{theta}) are determined without any x-ray reference lines. Using flat crystals this technique makes absolute x-ray wavelength measurements feasible even at low x-ray fluxes. The upgraded spectrometer has been used in combination with first experiments on the 1s2p {sup 1}P{sub 1}{yields} 1s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sub 0} w-line in He-like argon. By resolving a minute curvature of the x-ray lines the accuracy reaches there the best ever reported value of 1.5 ppm. The result is sensitive to predicted second-order QED contributions at the level of two-electron screening and two-photon radiative diagrams and will allow for the first time to benchmark predicted binding energies for He-like ions at this level of precision.

  6. High Precision Bright-Star Astrometry with the USNO Astrometric CMOS Hybrid Camera System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secrest, Nathan; Dudik, Rachel; Berghea, Ciprian T.; Hennessy, Greg; Dorland, Bryan

    2015-05-01

    While GAIA will provide excellent positional measurements of hundreds of millions of stars between 5 < mag < 20, an ongoing challenge in the field of high-precision differential astrometry is the positional accuracy of very bright stars (mag < 5), due to the enormous dynamic range between bright stars of interest, such as those in the Hipparcos catalog, and their background field stars, which are especially important for differential astrometry. Over the past few years, we have been testing the USNO Astrometric CMOS Hybrid Camera System (UAHC), which utilizes an H4RG-10 detector in windowing mode, as a possible solution to the NOFS USNO Bright Star Astrometric Database (UBAD). In this work, we discuss the results of an astrometric analysis of single-epoch Hipparcos data taken with the UAHC from the 1.55m Kaj Strand Astrometric Reflector at NOFS from June 27-30, 2014. We discuss the calibration of this data, as well as an astrometric analysis pipeline we developed that will enable multi-epoch differential and absolute astrometry with the UAHC. We find that while the overall differential astrometric stability of data taken with the UAHC is good (5-10 mas single-measurement precision) and comparable to other ground-based astrometric camera systems, bright stars in the detector window suffer from several systematic effects, such as insufficient window geometry and centroiding failures due to read-out artifacts - both of which can be significantly improved with modifications to the electronics, read-out speed and microcode.

  7. A complex programmable logic device-based high-precision electrical capacitance tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haili; Xu, Lijun; Cao, Zhang; Liu, XiaoLei; Liu, Shi

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, a high-precision measurement system for electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is presented. A low-cost complex programmable logic device (CPLD) is employed to accomplish logic control, signal generation, data acquisition, digital demodulation and communication with the aid of external components. By adopting a simple digital demodulator recently developed by the authors, the demodulation to ac signals becomes rather simple and resource-saving. A double-T-switches configuration is developed to improve the precision and lower the limit of multi-channel capacitance measurement. A capacitance network is constructed for system calibration. A square ECT sensor with 16 electrodes is constructed to test the practical performance of the measurement system. With a data acquisition rate of 185 frame s-1, the signal-to-noise ratio and standard deviation of capacitance measurement can reach up to 70 dB and 0.09 fF, respectively. Image reconstruction experiment has validated the CPLD-based ECT system.

  8. A new, high-precision measurement of the X-ray Cu K α spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Cline, James P.; Henins, Albert; Hudson, Lawrence T.; Szabo, Csilla I.; Windover, Donald

    2016-03-01

    One of the primary measurement issues addressed with NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) for powder diffraction is that of line position. SRMs for this purpose are certified with respect to lattice parameter, traceable to the SI through precise measurement of the emission spectrum of the X-ray source. Therefore, accurate characterization of the emission spectrum is critical to a minimization of the error bounds on the certified parameters. The presently accepted sources for the SI traceable characterization of the Cu K α emission spectrum are those of Härtwig, Hölzer et al., published in the 1990s. The structure of the X-ray emission lines of the Cu K α complex has been remeasured on a newly commissioned double-crystal instrument, with six-bounce Si (440) optics, in a manner directly traceable to the SI definition of the meter. In this measurement, the entire region from 8020 eV to 8100 eV has been covered with a highly precise angular scale and well-defined system efficiency, providing accurate wavelengths and relative intensities. This measurement is in modest disagreement with reference values for the wavelength of the Kα1 line, and strong disagreement for the wavelength of the Kα2 line.

  9. MEASURING HIGH-PRECISION ASTROMETRY WITH THE INFRARED ARRAY CAMERA ON THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L.

    2016-01-15

    The Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope currently offers the greatest potential for high-precision astrometry of faint mid-IR sources across arcminute-scale fields, which would be especially valuable for measuring parallaxes of cold brown dwarfs in the solar neighborhood and proper motions of obscured members of nearby star-forming regions. To more fully realize IRAC's astrometric capabilities, we have sought to minimize the largest sources of uncertainty in astrometry with its 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands. By comparing different routines that estimate stellar positions, we have found that Point Response Function (PRF) fitting with the Spitzer Science Center's Astronomical Point Source Extractor produces both the smallest systematic errors from varying intra-pixel sensitivity and the greatest precision in measurements of positions. In addition, self-calibration has been used to derive new 7th and 8th order distortion corrections for the 3.6 and 4.5 μm arrays of IRAC, respectively. These corrections are suitable for data throughout the mission of Spitzer when a time-dependent scale factor is applied to the corrections. To illustrate the astrometric accuracy that can be achieved by combining PRF fitting with our new distortion corrections, we have applied them to archival data for a nearby star-forming region, arriving at total astrometric errors of ∼20 and 70 mas at signal to noise ratios of 100 and 10, respectively.

  10. Surface-Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering Nanostars for High Precision Cancer Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Harmsen, Stefan; Huang, Ruimin; Wall, Matthew A.; Karabeber, Hazem; Samii, Jason M.; Spaliviero, Massimiliano; White, Julie R.; Monette, Sébastien; O’Connor, Rachael; Pitter, Kenneth L.; Sastra, Stephen A.; Saborowski, Michael; Holland, Eric C.; Singer, Samuel; Olive, Kenneth P.; Lowe, Scott W.; Blasberg, Ronald G.; Kircher, Moritz F.

    2015-01-01

    The inability to visualize the true extent of cancers represents a significant challenge in many areas of oncology. The margins of most cancer types are not well demarcated because the cancer diffusely infiltrates the surrounding tissues. Furthermore, cancers may be multifocal and characterized by the presence of microscopic satellite lesions. Such microscopic foci represent a major reason for persistence of cancer, local recurrences, and metastatic spread and are usually impossible to visualize with currently available imaging technologies. An imaging method to reveal the tumor extent is desired clinically and surgically. Here we show the precise visualization of tumor margins, microscopic tumor invasion, and multifocal loco-regional tumor spread using a new generation of surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) nanoparticles, which are termed here SERRS-nanostars. The SERRS-nanostars feature a star-shaped gold core, a Raman reporter resonant in the near-infrared spectrum, and a primer-free silication method. In mouse models of pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and sarcoma, SERRS-nanostars enabled accurate detection of macroscopic malignant lesions as well as microscopic disease, without the need for a targeting moiety. Moreover, the sensitivity (1.5 femtomolar limit of detection under in vivo Raman imaging conditions) of SERRS-nanostars allowed imaging of premalignant lesions of pancreatic and prostatic neoplasias. High sensitivity and broad applicability, in conjunction with their inert gold-silica composition, render SERRS-nanostars a promising imaging agent for more precise cancer imaging and resection. PMID:25609167

  11. High-precision radiocarbon dating and historical biblical archaeology in southern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Levy, Thomas E; Higham, Thomas; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Smith, Neil G; Ben-Yosef, Erez; Robinson, Mark; Münger, Stefan; Knabb, Kyle; Schulze, Jürgen P; Najjar, Mohammad; Tauxe, Lisa

    2008-10-28

    Recent excavations and high-precision radiocarbon dating from the largest Iron Age (IA, ca. 1200-500 BCE) copper production center in the southern Levant demonstrate major smelting activities in the region of biblical Edom (southern Jordan) during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE. Stratified radiocarbon samples and artifacts were recorded with precise digital surveying tools linked to a geographic information system developed to control on-site spatial analyses of archaeological finds and model data with innovative visualization tools. The new radiocarbon dates push back by 2 centuries the accepted IA chronology of Edom. Data from Khirbat en-Nahas, and the nearby site of Rujm Hamra Ifdan, demonstrate the centrality of industrial-scale metal production during those centuries traditionally linked closely to political events in Edom's 10th century BCE neighbor ancient Israel. Consequently, the rise of IA Edom is linked to the power vacuum created by the collapse of Late Bronze Age (LB, ca. 1300 BCE) civilizations and the disintegration of the LB Cypriot copper monopoly that dominated the eastern Mediterranean. The methodologies applied to the historical IA archaeology of the Levant have implications for other parts of the world where sacred and historical texts interface with the material record.

  12. High-precision magnetic field measurements of Ap and Bp stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, G. A.; Donati, J.-F.; Landstreet, J. D.; Shorlin, S. L. S.

    2000-04-01

    In this paper we describe a new approach for measuring the mean longitudinal magnetic field and net linear polarization of Ap and Bp stars. As was demonstrated by Wade et al., least-squares deconvolution (LSD; Donati et al.) provides a powerful technique for detecting weak Stokes V, Q and U Zeeman signatures in stellar spectral lines. These signatures have the potential to apply strong new constraints to models of stellar magnetic field structure. Here we point out two important uses of LSD Stokes profiles. First, they can provide very precise determinations of the mean longitudinal magnetic field. In particular, this method allows one frequently to obtain 1σ error bars better than 50G, and smaller than 20G in some cases. This method is applicable to both broad- and sharp-lined stars, with both weak and strong magnetic fields, and effectively redefines the quality standard of longitudinal field determinations. Secondly, LSD profiles can in some cases provide a measure of the net linear polarization, a quantity analogous to the broad-band linear polarization recently used to derive detailed magnetic field models for a few stars (e.g. Leroy et al.). In this paper we report new high-precision measurements of the longitudinal fields of 14 magnetic Ap/Bp stars, as well as net linear polarization measurements for four of these stars, derived from LSD profiles.

  13. Development of high precision digital driver of acoustic-optical frequency shifter for ROG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rong; Kong, Mei; Xu, Yameng

    2016-10-01

    We develop a high precision digital driver of the acoustic-optical frequency shifter (AOFS) based on the parallel direct digital synthesizer (DDS) technology. We use an atomic clock as the phase-locked loop (PLL) reference clock, and the PLL is realized by a dual digital phase-locked loop. A DDS sampling clock up to 320 MHz with a frequency stability as low as 10-12 Hz is obtained. By constructing the RF signal measurement system, it is measured that the frequency output range of the AOFS-driver is 52-58 MHz, the center frequency of the band-pass filter is 55 MHz, the ripple in the band is less than 1 dB@3MHz, the single channel output power is up to 0.3 W, the frequency stability is 1 ppb (1 hour duration), and the frequency-shift precision is 0.1 Hz. The obtained frequency stability has two orders of improvement compared to that of the analog AOFS-drivers. For the designed binary frequency shift keying (2-FSK) and binary phase shift keying (2-PSK) modulation system, the demodulating frequency of the input TTL synchronous level signal is up to 10 kHz. The designed digital-bus coding/decoding system is compatible with many conventional digital bus protocols. It can interface with the ROG signal detecting software through the integrated drive electronics (IDE) and exchange data with the two DDS frequency-shift channels through the signal detecting software.

  14. ARTIFICIAL INCOHERENT SPECKLES ENABLE PRECISION ASTROMETRY AND PHOTOMETRY IN HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, N.; Guyon, O.; Pathak, P.; Kudo, T.; Martinache, F.; Hagelberg, J.

    2015-11-10

    State-of-the-art coronagraphs employed on extreme adaptive optics enabled instruments are constantly improving the contrast detection limit for companions at ever-closer separations from the host star. In order to constrain their properties and, ultimately, compositions, it is important to precisely determine orbital parameters and contrasts with respect to the stars they orbit. This can be difficult in the post-coronagraphic image plane, as by definition the central star has been occulted by the coronagraph. We demonstrate the flexibility of utilizing the deformable mirror in the adaptive optics system of the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics system to generate a field of speckles for the purposes of calibration. Speckles can be placed up to 22.5 λ/D from the star, with any position angle, brightness, and abundance required. Most importantly, we show that a fast modulation of the added speckle phase, between 0 and π, during a long science integration renders these speckles effectively incoherent with the underlying halo. We quantitatively show for the first time that this incoherence, in turn, increases the robustness and stability of the adaptive speckles, which will improve the precision of astrometric and photometric calibration procedures. This technique will be valuable for high-contrast imaging observations with imagers and integral field spectrographs alike.

  15. High-precision isothermal titration calorimetry with automated peak-shape analysis.

    PubMed

    Keller, Sandro; Vargas, Carolyn; Zhao, Huaying; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Brautigam, Chad A; Schuck, Peter

    2012-06-05

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a powerful classical method that enables researchers in many fields to study the thermodynamics of molecular interactions. Primary ITC data comprise the temporal evolution of differential power reporting the heat of reaction during a series of injections of aliquots of a reactant into a sample cell. By integration of each injection peak, an isotherm can be constructed of total changes in enthalpy as a function of changes in solution composition, which is rich in thermodynamic information on the reaction. However, the signals from the injection peaks are superimposed by the stochastically varying time-course of the instrumental baseline power, limiting the precision of ITC isotherms. Here, we describe a method for automated peak assignment based on peak-shape analysis via singular value decomposition in combination with detailed least-squares modeling of local pre- and postinjection baselines. This approach can effectively filter out contributions of short-term noise and adventitious events in the power trace. This method also provides, for the first time, statistical error estimates for the individual isotherm data points. In turn, this results in improved detection limits for high-affinity or low-enthalpy binding reactions and significantly higher precision of the derived thermodynamic parameters.

  16. High precision optical fiber fluorescent temperature measurement system and data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yutian; Bo, Xiaoxu; Gui, Feifei

    2010-08-01

    Generally, the theoretical analysis of the fluorescent life time temperature measurement is based on the assumption of the exponential life time characteristic, but in practice, the actual curve of the fluorescence are different from exponential. This is the key-influence on the stability of the high precision fluorescent measurement system. The differences are analyzed base on the theoretical mechanism of fluorescent, and a cutting and normalized method is given to describe the degree of the non-exponent of the actual fluorescent curve defer from the exponential curve. Several kinds of typical fluorescence materials spectrum and its cutting and normalized experiment results verify this theoretical analysis. Some effective measures to improve the non-exponent of the system are taken and are applied to a temperature measurement system based on actual fluorescent curve analysis with resolution 0.1°C, precisions +/-0.2°C, and real-time calibration is carried on. Based the theory base and the actuality of fluorescence optical fiber temperature sensor, two methods about fluorescence decay time constant are proposed. In the mean time, the mathematic model has been formed and analysis, so that the different schemes are selected in different situation.

  17. Microsurgery robots: addressing the needs of high-precision surgical interventions.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Leonardo S; Caldwell, Darwin G; Peretti, Giorgio; Mora, Francesco; Guastini, Luca; Cingolani, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Robotics has a significant potential to enhance the overall capacity and efficiency of healthcare systems. Robots can help surgeons perform better quality operations, leading to reductions in the hospitalisation time of patients and in the impact of surgery on their postoperative quality of life. In particular, robotics can have a significant impact on microsurgery, which presents stringent requirements for superhuman precision and control of the surgical tools. Microsurgery is, in fact, expected to gain importance in a growing range of surgical specialties as novel technologies progressively enable the detection, diagnosis and treatment of diseases at earlier stages. Within such scenarios, robotic microsurgery emerges as one of the key components of future surgical interventions, and will be a vital technology for addressing major surgical challenges. Nonetheless, several issues have yet to be overcome in terms of mechatronics, perception and surgeon-robot interfaces before microsurgical robots can achieve their full potential in operating rooms. Research in this direction is progressing quickly and microsurgery robot prototypes are gradually demonstrating significant clinical benefits in challenging applications such as reconstructive plastic surgery, ophthalmology, otology and laryngology. These are reassuring results offering confidence in a brighter future for high-precision surgical interventions.

  18. Tracking Perfluorocarbon Nanoemulsion Delivery by 19F MRI for Precise High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Tumor Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Soo Hyun; Park, Eun-Joo; Min, Changki; Choi, Sun Il; Jeon, Soyeon; Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, Daehong

    2017-01-01

    Perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions (PFCNEs) have recently been undergoing rigorous study to investigate their ability to improve the therapeutic efficacy of tumor ablation by high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). For precise control of PFCNE delivery and thermal ablation, their accumulation and distribution in a tumor should be quantitatively analyzed. Here, we used fluorine-19 (19F) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantitatively track PFCNE accumulation in a tumor, and analyzed how intra-tumoral PFCNE quantities affect the therapeutic efficacy of HIFU treatment. Ablation outcomes were assessed by intra-voxel incoherent motion analysis and bioluminescent imaging up to 14 days after the procedure. Assessment of PFCNE delivery and treatment outcomes showed that 2-3 mg/mL of PFCNE in a tumor produces the largest ablation volume under the same HIFU insonation conditions. Histology showed varying degrees of necrosis depending on the amount of PFCNE delivered. 19F MRI promises to be a valuable platform for precisely guiding PFCNE-enhanced HIFU ablation of tumors. PMID:28255351

  19. The value of high-frequency, high-precision methane isotopologue measurements for source and sink estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, M.; Manning, A. J.; Prinn, R. G.

    2012-06-01

    We present an observing system simulation experiment examining the potential benefits of new methane isotopologues measurements for global- and national-scale source and sink inversions. New measurements are expected in the coming years, using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy with sample preconcentration, that will allow observations ofδ13C - CH4 and δD - CH4at approximately hourly intervals and higher precision than previously possible. Using model-generated `pseudo-data', we predict the variability that these new systems should encounter in the atmosphere, and estimate the additional uncertainty reduction that should result from their use in source and sink inversions. We find that much of theδ-value variability from seasonal to daily timescales should be resolvable at the target precision of the new observations. For global source estimation, we find additional uncertainty reductions of between 3-9 Tg/year for four major source categories (microbial, biomass burning, landfill and fossil fuel), compared to mole fraction-only inversions, if the higher end of the anticipated isotopologue-measurement precisions can be achieved. On national scales, we obtain average uncertainty reductions of ˜10% of the source strength for countries close to high-frequency monitoring sites, although the degree of uncertainty reduction on such small scales varies significantly (from close to 0% to almost 50%) for different sources and countries.

  20. Closed tubes preparation of graphite for high-precision AMS radiocarbon analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdas, I.; Michczynska, D.; Bonani, G.; Maurer, M.; Wacker, L.

    2009-04-01

    Radiocarbon dating is an established tool applied in Geochronology. Technical developments of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry AMS, which allow measurements of samples containing less than 1 mg of carbon, opened opportunities for new applications. Moreover, high resolution records of the past changes require high-resolution chronologies i.e. sampling for 14C dating. In result, the field of applications is rapidly expanding and number of radiocarbon analysis is growing rapidly. Nowadays dedicated 14C AMS machines have great capacity for analysis but in order to keep up with the demand for analysis and provide the results as fast as possible a very efficient way of sample preparation is required. Sample preparation for 14C AMS analysis consists of two steps: separation of relevant carbon from the sample material (removing contamination) and preparation of graphite for AMS analysis. The last step usually involves reaction of CO2 with H2, in the presence of metal catalyst (Fe or Co) of specific mesh size heated to 550-625°C, as originally suggested by Vogel et al. (1984). Various graphitization systems have been built in order to fulfil the requirement of sample quality needed for high-precision radiocarbon data. In the early 90ties another method has been proposed (Vogel 1992) and applied by few laboratories mainly for environmental or biomedical samples. This method uses TiH2 as a source of H2 and can be easily and flexibly applied to produce graphite. Sample of CO2 is frozen in to the tube containing pre-conditioned Zn/TiH2 and Fe catalyst. Torch sealed tubes are then placed in the stepwise heated oven at 500/550°C and left to react for several hours. The greatest problem is the lack of control of the reaction completeness and considerable fractionation. However, recently reported results (Xu et al. 2007) suggest that high precision dating using graphite produced in closed tubes might be possible. We will present results of radiocarbon dating of the set of standards

  1. High Sensitive Precise 3D Accelerometer for Solar System Exploration with Unmanned Spacecrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savenko, Y. V.; Demyanenko, P. O.; Zinkovskiy, Y. F.

    Solutions of several space and geophysical tasks require creating high sensitive precise accelerometers with sensitivity in order of 10 -13 g. These several tasks are following: inertial navigation of the Earth and Space; gravimetry nearby the Earth and into Space; geology; geophysics; seismology etc. Accelerometers (gravimeters and gradientmeters) with required sensitivity are not available now. The best accelerometers in the world have sensitivity worth on 4-5 orders. It has been developed a new class of fiber-optical sensors (FOS) with light pulse modulation. These sensors have super high threshold sensitivity and wide (up to 10 orders) dynamic range, and can be used as a base for creating of measurement units of physical values as 3D superhigh sensitive precise accelerometers of linear accelerations that is suitable for highest requirements. The principle of operation of the FOS is organically combined with a digital signal processing. It allows decreasing hardware of the accelerometer due to using a usual air-borne or space-borne computer; correcting the influence of natural, design, technological drawbacks of FOS on measured results; neutralising the influence of extraordinary situations available during using of FOS; decreasing the influence of internal and external destabilising factors (as for FOS), such as oscillation of environment temperature, instability of pendulum cycle frequency of sensitive element of the accelerometer etc. We were conducted a quantitative estimation of precise opportunities of analogue FOS in structure of fiber optical measuring devices (FOMD) for elementary FOMD with analogue FOS built on modern element basis of fiber optics (FO), at following assumptions: absolute parameter stability of devices of FOS measuring path; single transmission band of registration path; maximum possible inserted in optical fiber (OF) a radiated power. Even at such idealized assumptions, a calculated value in limit reached minimum inaccuracy of

  2. High precision series solutions of differential equations: Ordinary and regular singular points of second order ODEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noreen, Amna; Olaussen, Kåre

    2012-10-01

    A subroutine for a very-high-precision numerical solution of a class of ordinary differential equations is provided. For a given evaluation point and equation parameters the memory requirement scales linearly with precision P, and the number of algebraic operations scales roughly linearly with P when P becomes sufficiently large. We discuss results from extensive tests of the code, and how one, for a given evaluation point and equation parameters, may estimate precision loss and computing time in advance. Program summary Program title: seriesSolveOde1 Catalogue identifier: AEMW_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMW_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 991 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 488116 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: PC's or higher performance computers. Operating system: Linux and MacOS RAM: Few to many megabytes (problem dependent). Classification: 2.7, 4.3 External routines: CLN — Class Library for Numbers [1] built with the GNU MP library [2], and GSL — GNU Scientific Library [3] (only for time measurements). Nature of problem: The differential equation -s2({d2}/{dz2}+{1-ν+-ν-}/{z}{d}/{dz}+{ν+ν-}/{z2})ψ(z)+{1}/{z} ∑n=0N vnznψ(z)=0, is solved numerically to very high precision. The evaluation point z and some or all of the equation parameters may be complex numbers; some or all of them may be represented exactly in terms of rational numbers. Solution method: The solution ψ(z), and optionally ψ'(z), is evaluated at the point z by executing the recursion A(z)={s-2}/{(m+1+ν-ν+)(m+1+ν-ν-)} ∑n=0N Vn(z)A(z), ψ(z)=ψ(z)+A(z), to sufficiently large m. Here ν is either ν+ or ν-, and Vn(z)=vnz. The recursion is initialized by A(z)=δzν,for n

  3. Crystal optics for precision x-ray spectroscopy on highly charged ions—conception and proof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, H. F.; Gassner, T.; Trassinelli, M.; Heß, R.; Spillmann, U.; Banaś, D.; Blumenhagen, K.-H.; Bosch, F.; Brandau, C.; Chen, W.; Dimopoulou, Chr; Förster, E.; Grisenti, R. E.; Gumberidze, A.; Hagmann, S.; Hillenbrand, P.-M.; Indelicato, P.; Jagodzinski, P.; Kämpfer, T.; Kozhuharov, Chr; Lestinsky, M.; Liesen, D.; Litvinov, Yu A.; Loetzsch, R.; Manil, B.; Märtin, R.; Nolden, F.; Petridis, N.; Sanjari, M. S.; Schulze, K. S.; Schwemlein, M.; Simionovici, A.; Steck, M.; Stöhlker, Th; Szabo, C. I.; Trotsenko, S.; Uschmann, I.; Weber, G.; Wehrhan, O.; Winckler, N.; Winters, D. F. A.; Winters, N.; Ziegler, E.

    2015-07-01

    The experimental investigation of quantum-electrodydamic contributions to the binding energies of inner shells of highly charged heavy ions requires an accurate spectroscopy in the region of hard x-rays suitable at a limited source strength. For this purpose the focusing compensated asymmetric Laue crystal optics has been developed and a twin-spectrometer assembly has been built and commissioned at the experimental storage ring of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum Darmstadt. We characterize the crystal optics and demonstrate the usefulness of the instrumentation for accurate spectroscopy of both stationary and fast moving x-ray sources. The experimental procedures discussed here may also be applied for other spectroscopic studies where a transition from conventional germanium x-ray detectors to crystal spectrometers seems too demanding because of low source intensity.

  4. An autonomous multisensor in situ metrology system for enabling high dynamic range measurement of 3D surfaces on precision machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Samuel M. Y.; Cheung, Benny C. F.; Whitehouse, David; Cheng, Ching-Hsiang

    2016-11-01

    An in situ measurement is of prime importance when trying to maintain the position of the workpiece for further compensation processes in order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the precision machining of three dimensional (3D) surfaces. However, the coordinates of most of the machine tools with closed machine interfaces and control system are not accessible for users, which make it difficult to use the motion axes of the machine tool for in situ measurements. This paper presents an autonomous multisensor in situ metrology system for enabling high dynamic range measurement of 3D surfaces on precision machine tools. It makes use of a designed tool path and an additional motion sensor to assist the registration of time-space data for the position estimation of a 2D laser scanner which measures the surface with a high lateral resolution and large area without the need to interface with the machine tool system. A prototype system was built and integrated into an ultra-precision polishing machine. Experimental results show that it measures the 3D surfaces with high resolution, high repeatability, and large measurement range. The system not only improves the efficiency and accuracy of the precision machining process but also extends the capability of machine tools.

  5. High precision electric gate for time-of-flight ion mass spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, Edward C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer having a chamber with electrodes to generate an electric field in the chamber and electric gating for allowing ions with a predetermined mass and velocity into the electric field. The design uses a row of very thin parallel aligned wires that are pulsed in sequence so the ion can pass through the gap of two parallel plates, which are biased to prevent passage of the ion. This design by itself can provide a high mass resolution capability and a very precise start pulse for an ion mass spectrometer. Furthermore, the ion will only pass through the chamber if it is within a wire diameter of the first wire when it is pulsed and has the right speed so it is near all other wires when they are pulsed.

  6. High-Precision Determination of the Pion-Nucleon σ Term from Roy-Steiner Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoferichter, Martin; Ruiz de Elvira, Jacobo; Kubis, Bastian; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2015-08-01

    We present a determination of the pion-nucleon (π N ) σ term σπ N based on the Cheng-Dashen low-energy theorem (LET), taking advantage of the recent high-precision data from pionic atoms to pin down the π N scattering lengths as well as of constraints from analyticity, unitarity, and crossing symmetry in the form of Roy-Steiner equations to perform the extrapolation to the Cheng-Dashen point in a reliable manner. With isospin-violating corrections included both in the scattering lengths and the LET, we obtain σπ N=(59.1 ±1.9 ±3.0 ) MeV =(59.1 ±3.5 ) MeV , where the first error refers to uncertainties in the π N amplitude and the second to the LET. Consequences for the scalar nucleon couplings relevant for the direct detection of dark matter are discussed.

  7. Non-contact high precision measurement of surface form tolerances and central thickness for optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Ying

    2010-10-01

    The traditional contact measuring methods could not satisfy the current optical elements measuring requirements. Noncontact high precision measuring theory, principle and instrument of the surface form tolerances and central thickness for optical elements were studied in the paper. In comparison with other types of interferometers, such as Twyman-Green and Mach-Zehnder, a Fizeau interferometer has the advantages of having fewer optical components, greater accuracy, and is easier to use. Some relations among the 3/A(B/C), POWER/PV and N/ΔN were studied. The PV with POWER removed can be the reference number of ΔN. The chromatic longitudinal aberration of a special optical probe can be used for non-contanct central thickness measurement.

  8. HIGH-PRECISION PHOTOMETRY OF EXTREME KBO 2003 EL{sub 61}

    SciTech Connect

    Lacerda, Pedro; Jewitt, David; Peixinho, Nuno

    2008-05-15

    We present high-precision, time-resolved, visible and near-infrared photometry of the large (diameter {approx} 2500 km) Kuiper belt object (136108) 2003 EL{sub 61}. The new data confirm rapid rotation at period P = 3.9155 {+-} 0.0001 h with a peak-to-peak photometric range of {delta}m{sub R} = 0.29 {+-} 0.02 mag and further show subtle but reproducible color variations with rotation. Rotational deformation of 2003 EL{sub 61} alone would give rise to a symmetric light curve free of color variations. The observed photometric deviations from the best-fit equilibrium model show the existence of a large surface region with an albedo and color different from the mean surface of 2003 EL{sub 61}. We explore constraints on the nature of this anomalous region set by the existing data.

  9. A Direct Comparison of Two High Precision Relative Gravity Meters at Optimal Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Westrum, D.

    2015-12-01

    NGS has maintained and operated GWR Superconducting Gravimeter #024 since 1995. It has been widely considered one of the most quiet instruments from that era. It was recently upgraded with state of the art electronics and its operating parameters reoptimzied. A Micro-g LaCoste gPhoneX, installed on a high precision tilt table, was collocated with the SG at the Table Mountain Geophysical Observatory near Boulder, CO and the two instruments operated side by side for approximately two months. Results in both the frequency domain and selected time series from large seismic signals (e.g. earthquakes) will be presented, allowing for a direct comparison between the instruments in identical, ideal conditions.

  10. Moving Object Detection Using Scanning Camera on a High-Precision Intelligent Holder

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuoyang; Xu, Tingfa; Li, Daqun; Zhang, Jizhou; Jiang, Shenwang

    2016-01-01

    During the process of moving object detection in an intelligent visual surveillance system, a scenario with complex background is sure to appear. The traditional methods, such as “frame difference” and “optical flow”, may not able to deal with the problem very well. In such scenarios, we use a modified algorithm to do the background modeling work. In this paper, we use edge detection to get an edge difference image just to enhance the ability of resistance illumination variation. Then we use a “multi-block temporal-analyzing LBP (Local Binary Pattern)” algorithm to do the segmentation. In the end, a connected component is used to locate the object. We also produce a hardware platform, the core of which consists of the DSP (Digital Signal Processor) and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) platforms and the high-precision intelligent holder. PMID:27775671

  11. High-precision gravimetric survey in support of lunar laser ranging at Haleakala, Maui, 1976 - 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenck, B. E.; Laurila, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    The planning, observations and adjustment of high-precision gravity survey networks established on the islands of Maui and Oahu as part of the geodetic-geophysical program in support of lunar laser ranging at Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii are described. The gravity survey networks include 43 independently measured gravity differences along the gravity calibration line from Kahului Airport to the summit of Mt. Haleakala, together with some key points close to tidal gauges on Maui, and 40 gravity differences within metropolitan Honolulu. The results of the 1976-1978 survey are compared with surveys made in 1961 and in 1964-1965. All final gravity values are given in the system of the international gravity standardization net 1971 (IGSN 71); values are obtained by subtracting 14.57 mgal from the Potsdam value at the gravity base station at the Hickam Air Force Base, Honolulu.

  12. High precision Penning trap mass spectrometry of rare isotopes produced by projectile fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Barquest, B. R.; Block, M.; Bollen, G.; Campbell, C. M.; Ferrer, R.; Lincoln, D. L.; Morrissey, D. J.; Pang, G. K.; Redshaw, M.; Ringle, R.; Schwarz, S.; Savory, J.

    2011-09-01

    The Low Energy Beam and Ion Trap (LEBIT) is the only present facility to combine high precision Penning trap mass spectrometry with fast beam projectile fragmentation. Located at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), LEBIT is able to measure radionuclides produced in a chemically independent process with minimal decay losses. Recent exotic mass measurements include 66As, 63-66Fe, and 32Si. 66As is a new candidate to test the Conserved Vector Current (CVC) hypothesis. The masses of the neutron-rich iron isotopes provide additional information about the mass surface and the subshell closure at N = 40. 32Si is a member of the A = 32, T = 2 quintet; its measurement permits the most stringent test of the validity of the isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME). An overview of some recent measurements will be presented as well as advanced techniques for ion manipulation.

  13. An anti-disturbance high-precision alignment for distributed POS based on inertial reference frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lijian; Wang, Yue

    2017-03-01

    The distributed POS is playing an important role in the ultra-high resolution aerial survey and remote sensing system, and can accurately provide time-spatial reference information for various imaging sensors. However, the distributed POS faces a special problem that the flexible arms used to connect the inertial measurement units (IMUs) would deteriorate the phenomenon that external disturbance leads to serious alignment errors. In order to improve the alignment precision of distributed POS in external disturbance, an anti-disturbance coarse alignment based on inertial reference frame is proposed. This method is developed mainly based on the structure of non-collinear vectors, which are constructed by a velocity vector determined by gravity vector integration. The disturbed acceleration and rotation is decreased a lot by the integral operation in the proposed method. Finally, the experiments were carried out and verified the validity of the proposed method.

  14. Scalable high-precision tuning of photonic resonators by resonant cavity-enhanced photoelectrochemical etching

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Santos, Eduardo; Baker, Christopher; Lemaître, Aristide; Gomez, Carmen; Leo, Giuseppe; Favero, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Photonic lattices of mutually interacting indistinguishable cavities represent a cornerstone of collective phenomena in optics and could become important in advanced sensing or communication devices. The disorder induced by fabrication technologies has so far hindered the development of such resonant cavity architectures, while post-fabrication tuning methods have been limited by complexity and poor scalability. Here we present a new simple and scalable tuning method for ensembles of microphotonic and nanophotonic resonators, which enables their permanent collective spectral alignment. The method introduces an approach of cavity-enhanced photoelectrochemical etching in a fluid, a resonant process triggered by sub-bandgap light that allows for high selectivity and precision. The technique is presented on a gallium arsenide nanophotonic platform and illustrated by finely tuning one, two and up to five resonators. It opens the way to applications requiring large networks of identical resonators and their spectral referencing to external etalons. PMID:28117394

  15. A continuous-flow system for high-precision kinetics using small volumes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xianzhi; Medhekar, Rohit; Toney, Michael D

    2003-08-01

    A generally applicable continuous-flow kinetic analysis system that gives data of a precision high enough to measure small kinetic isotope effects for enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions is described. It employs commercially available components that are readily assembled into an apparatus that is easy to use. It operates under laminar flow conditions, which requires that the time between the initiation of the reaction in the mixer and the observation be long enough that molecular diffusion can effect a symmetrization of the concentration profile that results from a thin plug of reagents introduced at the mixer. The analysis of a second-order irreversible reaction under pseudo-first-order conditions is presented. The Yersinia pestis protein tyrosine phosphatase catalyzed hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate is characterized with the system, and a proton inventory on kcat is presented.

  16. High stability interleaved fiber Michelson interferometer for on-line precision displacement measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Fang; Chen, Xianfeng; Zhang, Lin

    2009-11-01

    A self-reference fiber Michelson interferometer measurement system, which employs fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) as in-fiber reflective mirrors and interleaves together two fiber Michelson interferometers that share the common-interferometric-optical path, is presented. One of the fiber interferometers is used to stabilise the system by the use of an electronic feedback loop to compensate the influences resulting from the environmental disturbances, while the other one is used to perform the measurement task. The influences resulting from the environmental disturbances have been eliminated by the compensating action of the electronic feedback loop, this makes the system suitable for on-line precision measurement. By means of the homodyne phase-tracking technique, the linearity of the measurement results of displacement measurements has been very high.

  17. Modified hybrid control of robot manipulators for high precision assembly operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Pooran, Farhad J.; Premack, Timothy

    1988-01-01

    This paper is concerned with applications of robot manipulators in high precision assembly tasks that can be successfully performed by employing a hybrid control scheme that independently controls force and position. A traditional hybrid control scheme is implemented in Cartesian space. In the modified hybrid control scheme introduced in this paper, the error driven control signals are expressed in joint space. This paper studies the implementation of the modified hybrid control scheme on a two-degree-of-freedom robot manipulator with a closed-kinematic chain mechanism. The performance of the traditional and modified hybrid control schemes is comparatively evaluated by computer simulation in terms of computation time and accuracy for several study cases.

  18. Scalable high-precision tuning of photonic resonators by resonant cavity-enhanced photoelectrochemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Santos, Eduardo; Baker, Christopher; Lemaître, Aristide; Gomez, Carmen; Leo, Giuseppe; Favero, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Photonic lattices of mutually interacting indistinguishable cavities represent a cornerstone of collective phenomena in optics and could become important in advanced sensing or communication devices. The disorder induced by fabrication technologies has so far hindered the development of such resonant cavity architectures, while post-fabrication tuning methods have been limited by complexity and poor scalability. Here we present a new simple and scalable tuning method for ensembles of microphotonic and nanophotonic resonators, which enables their permanent collective spectral alignment. The method introduces an approach of cavity-enhanced photoelectrochemical etching in a fluid, a resonant process triggered by sub-bandgap light that allows for high selectivity and precision. The technique is presented on a gallium arsenide nanophotonic platform and illustrated by finely tuning one, two and up to five resonators. It opens the way to applications requiring large networks of identical resonators and their spectral referencing to external etalons.

  19. High-precision calculation of the strange nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Jeremy; Meinel, Stefan; Engelhardt, Michael G.; Krieg, Stefan; Laeuchli, Jesse; Negele, John W.; Orginos, Kostas; Pochinsky, Andrew; Syritsyn, Sergey

    2015-08-26

    We report a direct lattice QCD calculation of the strange nucleon electromagnetic form factors GsE and GsM in the kinematic range 0 ≤ Q2 ≤ 1.2GeV2. For the first time, both GsE and GsM are shown to be nonzero with high significance. This work uses closer-to-physical lattice parameters than previous calculations, and achieves an unprecented statistical precision by implementing a recently proposed variance reduction technique called hierarchical probing. We perform model-independent fits of the form factor shapes using the z-expansion and determine the strange electric and magnetic radii and magnetic moment. As a result, we compare our results to parity-violating electron-proton scattering data and to other theoretical studies.

  20. Probing active-edge silicon sensors using a high precision telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiba, K.; Artuso, M.; van Beveren, V.; van Beuzekom, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Buytaert, J.; Collins, P.; Dumps, R.; van der Heijden, B.; Hombach, C.; Hynds, D.; Hsu, D.; John, M.; Koffeman, E.; Leflat, A.; Li, Y.; Longstaff, I.; Morton, A.; Pérez Trigo, E.; Plackett, R.; Reid, M. M.; Rodríguez Perez, P.; Schindler, H.; Tsopelas, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Wysokiński, M.

    2015-03-01

    The performance of prototype active-edge VTT sensors bump-bonded to the Timepix ASIC is presented. Non-irradiated sensors of thicknesses 100-200 μm and pixel-to-edge distances of 50 μm and 100 μm were probed with a beam of charged hadrons with sub-pixel precision using the Timepix telescope assembled at the SPS at CERN. The sensors are shown to be highly efficient up to a few micrometers from the physical edge of the sensor. The distortion of the electric field lines at the edge of the sensors is studied by reconstructing the streamlines of the electric field using two-pixel clusters. These results are supported by TCAD simulations. The reconstructed streamlines are used to study the field distortion as a function of the bias voltage and to apply corrections to the cluster positions at the edge.

  1. High Precision Measurement of the Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio at Low Q2

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaohui Zhan

    2009-12-01

    A high precision measurement of the proton elastic form factor ratio µpGEp/GMp in the range Q2 = 0.3–0.7 GeV2/c2 was performed using recoil polarimetry in Jefferson Lab Hall A. In this low Q2 range, previous data from LEDEX [5] along with many fits and calculations [2, 3, 4] indicate substantial deviations of the ratio from unity. In this new measurement, with 80% polarized electron beam for 24 days, we are able to achieve <1% statistical uncertainty. Preliminary results are a few percent lower than expected from previous world data and fits, indicating a smaller GEp at this region. Beyond the intrinsic interest in nucleon structure, the improved form factor measurements also have implications for DVCS, determinations of the proton Zemach radius and strangeness form factors through parity violation experiments.

  2. High-precision follow-up observations of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanjooloo, Yudish; Tholen, David J.; Fohring, Dora; Hung, Denise

    2016-10-01

    We present the latest results of ongoing high-precision astrometric follow-up observations of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) using the University of Hawaii 2.24 metre telescope (currently 7.5 arcmin FOV), the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT; 1 degree FOV) with MegaPrime, and the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (1.5 degree FOV). The combination of excellent observing conditions at Maunakea, and the use of no filter to maximise our throughput efficiency, allows us to recover targets having V < 24, and sometimes V < 25 under ideal conditions. We frequently achieve astrometric accuracy limited by the reference catalog and plan to improve on this capability with the implementation of the GAIA catalog. This work is funded by NASA grant NXX13AI64G.

  3. High-Precision Stable Isotope Analyses with the NanoSIMS 50L (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauri, E. H.; Wang, J.; Papineau, D.; Hillion, F.

    2009-12-01

    The in situ measurement of isotope ratios at high precision has always been a goal of secondary ion mass spectrometery (SIMS). The NanoSIMS 50L is a third-generation ion microprobe developed by Cameca and modified in collaboration with the Carnegie Institution of Washington. This instrument encorporates a number of design and functional improvements over the stock NS50, including precise stepper motor control over all slits, apertures and stage movements, a larger magnet, and a modified multicollector (6 moveable and 1 fixed) capable of holding both Faraday cups and miniature multi-dynode electron multipliers. The instrument is capable of attaining a minimum beam diameter of <50 nanometers with Cs and <200 nanometers with oxygen, a factor of 5-10 improvement over the IMS6F/7F/1280 generation of instruments. The CIW instrument is also the first NanoSIMS to be fitted with multiple Faradays and associated high-precision electrometers. Most tests to date have been performed on conductive Fe-bearing sulfides mouted in indium and polished with near-zero relief. With Cs, a routine primary beam diameter of 100 nm is obtained with 1-2pA of current, sufficient to yield 1MHz of 32S from pyrite at >6000 MRP. A 2.5 nA Cs beam with a diameter of 700 nm yields 90 pA of 32S from pyrite at >6000 MRP, sufficient to analyze 32S-33S-34S on Faraday cups and 36S in EM @ >10,000 cps. Specification tests immediately after installation in 2005 demonstrated a reproducibility of <0.3‰ (1σ) in 10 analyses within a single sputter crater on Balmat pyrite, and this was subsequently improved to 0.15‰ (1σ) in 2006. Further tests showed that reproducibility on separate craters of a single grain, and separate craters in separate Balmat pyrite grains located in different holes of the sample holder, were improved to better than 0.2‰ (1σ) through careful attention to reproducibility of sample height (Z-axis control) and centering of the secondary ion beam in the entrance slit of the mass

  4. Influence of sulfur-bearing polyatomic species on high precision measurements of Cu isotopic composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pribil, M.J.; Wanty, R.B.; Ridley, W.I.; Borrok, D.M.

    2010-01-01

    An increased interest in high precision Cu isotope ratio measurements using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) has developed recently for various natural geologic systems and environmental applications, these typically contain high concentrations of sulfur, particularly in the form of sulfate (SO42-) and sulfide (S). For example, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD) can range from 100??g/L to greater than 50mg/L with sulfur species concentrations reaching greater than 1000mg/L. Routine separation of Cu, Fe and Zn from AMD, Cu-sulfide minerals and other geological matrices usually incorporates single anion exchange resin column chromatography for metal separation. During chromatographic separation, variable breakthrough of SO42- during anion exchange resin column chromatography into the Cu fractions was observed as a function of the initial sulfur to Cu ratio, column properties, and the sample matrix. SO42- present in the Cu fraction can form a polyatomic 32S-14N-16O-1H species causing a direct mass interference with 63Cu and producing artificially light ??65Cu values. Here we report the extent of the mass interference caused by SO42- breakthrough when measuring ??65Cu on natural samples and NIST SRM 976 Cu isotope spiked with SO42- after both single anion column chromatography and double anion column chromatography. A set of five 100??g/L Cu SRM 976 samples spiked with 500mg/L SO42- resulted in an average ??65Cu of -3.50?????5.42??? following single anion column separation with variable SO42- breakthrough but an average concentration of 770??g/L. Following double anion column separation, the average SO42-concentration of 13??g/L resulted in better precision and accuracy for the measured ??65Cu value of 0.01?????0.02??? relative to the expected 0??? for SRM 976. We conclude that attention to SO42- breakthrough on sulfur-rich samples is necessary for accurate and precise measurements of ??65Cu and may require

  5. Multi-Repeated Projection Lithography for High-Precision Linear Scale Based on Average Homogenization Effect.

    PubMed

    Ren, Dongxu; Zhao, Huiying; Zhang, Chupeng; Yuan, Daocheng; Xi, Jianpu; Zhu, Xueliang; Ban, Xinxing; Dong, Longchao; Gu, Yawen; Jiang, Chunye

    2016-04-14

    A multi-repeated photolithography method for manufacturing an incremental linear scale using projection lithography is presented. The method is based on the average homogenization effect that periodically superposes the light intensity of different locations of pitches in the mask to make a consistent energy distribution at a specific wavelength, from which the accuracy of a linear scale can be improved precisely using the average pitch with different step distances. The method's theoretical error is within 0.01 µm for a periodic mask with a 2-µm sine-wave error. The intensity error models in the focal plane include the rectangular grating error on the mask, static positioning error, and lithography lens focal plane alignment error, which affect pitch uniformity less than in the common linear scale projection lithography splicing process. It was analyzed and confirmed that increasing the repeat exposure number of a single stripe could improve accuracy, as could adjusting the exposure spacing to achieve a set proportion of black and white stripes. According to the experimental results, the effectiveness of the multi-repeated photolithography method is confirmed to easily realize a pitch accuracy of 43 nm in any 10 locations of 1 m, and the whole length accuracy of the linear scale is less than 1 µm/m.

  6. Redefining ALL classification: toward detecting high-risk ALL and implementing precision medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hunger, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the commonest childhood tumor and remains a leading cause of cancer death in the young. In the last decade, microarray and sequencing analysis of large ALL cohorts has revolutionized our understanding of the genetic basis of this disease. These studies have identified new ALL subtypes, each characterized by constellations of structural and sequence alterations that perturb key cellular pathways, including lymphoid development, cell-cycle regulation, and tumor suppression; cytokine receptor, kinase, and Ras signaling; and chromatin modifications. Several of these pathways, particularly kinase-activating lesions and epigenetic alterations, are logical targets for new precision medicine therapies. Genomic profiling has also identified important interactions between inherited genetic variants that influence the risk of leukemia development and the somatic genetic alterations that are required to establish the leukemic clone. Moreover, sequential sequencing studies at diagnosis, remission, and relapse have provided important insights into the relationship among genetic variants, clonal heterogeneity, and the risk of relapse. Ongoing studies are extending our understanding of coding and noncoding genetic alterations in B-progenitor and T-lineage ALL and using these insights to inform the development of faithful experimental models to test the efficacy of new treatment approaches. PMID:25999453

  7. Multi-Repeated Projection Lithography for High-Precision Linear Scale Based on Average Homogenization Effect

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Dongxu; Zhao, Huiying; Zhang, Chupeng; Yuan, Daocheng; Xi, Jianpu; Zhu, Xueliang; Ban, Xinxing; Dong, Longchao; Gu, Yawen; Jiang, Chunye

    2016-01-01

    A multi-repeated photolithography method for manufacturing an incremental linear scale using projection lithography is presented. The method is based on the average homogenization effect that periodically superposes the light intensity of different locations of pitches in the mask to make a consistent energy distribution at a specific wavelength, from which the accuracy of a linear scale can be improved precisely using the average pitch with different step distances. The method’s theoretical error is within 0.01 µm for a periodic mask with a 2-µm sine-wave error. The intensity error models in the focal plane include the rectangular grating error on the mask, static positioning error, and lithography lens focal plane alignment error, which affect pitch uniformity less than in the common linear scale projection lithography splicing process. It was analyzed and confirmed that increasing the repeat exposure number of a single stripe could improve accuracy, as could adjusting the exposure spacing to achieve a set proportion of black and white stripes. According to the experimental results, the effectiveness of the multi-repeated photolithography method is confirmed to easily realize a pitch accuracy of 43 nm in any 10 locations of 1 m, and the whole length accuracy of the linear scale is less than 1 µm/m. PMID:27089348

  8. The Impact of Estimating High-Resolution Tropospheric Gradients on Multi-GNSS Precise Positioning.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feng; Li, Xingxing; Li, Weiwei; Chen, Wen; Dong, Danan; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2017-04-03

    Benefits from the modernized US Global Positioning System (GPS), the revitalized Russian GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS), and the newly-developed Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and European Galileo, multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has emerged as a powerful tool not only in positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT), but also in remote sensing of the atmosphere and ionosphere. Both precise positioning and the derivation of atmospheric parameters can benefit from multi-GNSS observations. In this contribution, extensive evaluations are conducted with multi-GNSS datasets collected from 134 globally-distributed ground stations of the International GNSS Service (IGS) Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) network in July 2016. The datasets are processed in six different constellation combinations, i.e., GPS-, GLONASS-, BDS-only, GPS + GLONASS, GPS + BDS, and GPS + GLONASS + BDS + Galileo precise point positioning (PPP). Tropospheric gradients are estimated with eight different temporal resolutions, from 1 h to 24 h, to investigate the impact of estimating high-resolution gradients on position estimates. The standard deviation (STD) is used as an indicator of positioning repeatability. The results show that estimating tropospheric gradients with high temporal resolution can achieve better positioning performance than the traditional strategy in which tropospheric gradients are estimated on a daily basis. Moreover, the impact of estimating tropospheric gradients with different temporal resolutions at various elevation cutoff angles (from 3° to 20°) is investigated. It can be observed that with increasing elevation cutoff angles, the improvement in positioning repeatability is decreased.

  9. [High Precision Identification of Igneous Rock Lithology by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Wei-gang; Yan, Zhi-quan

    2015-09-01

    In the field of petroleum exploration, lithology identification of finely cuttings sample, especially high precision identification of igneous rock with similar property, has become one of the geological problems. In order to solve this problem, a new method is proposed based on element analysis of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Total Alkali versus Silica (TAS) diagram. Using independent LIBS system, factors influencing spectral signal, such as pulse energy, acquisition time delay, spectrum acquisition method and pre-ablation are researched through contrast experiments systematically. The best analysis conditions of igneous rock are determined: pulse energy is 50 mJ, acquisition time delay is 2 μs, the analysis result is integral average of 20 different points of sample's surface, and pre-ablation has been proved not suitable for igneous rock sample by experiment. The repeatability of spectral data is improved effectively. Characteristic lines of 7 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Fe) commonly used for lithology identification of igneous rock are determined, and igneous rock samples of different lithology are analyzed and compared. Calibration curves of Na, K, Si are generated by using national standard series of rock samples, and all the linearly dependent coefficients are greater than 0.9. The accuracy of quantitative analysis is investigated by national standard samples. Element content of igneous rock is analyzed quantitatively by calibration curve, and its lithology is identified accurately by the method of TAS diagram, whose accuracy rate is 90.7%. The study indicates that LIBS can effectively achieve the high precision identification of the lithology of igneous rock.

  10. The NANOGrav Eleven-Year Data Set: High-precision timing of 48 Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nice, David J.; NANOGrav

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational waves from sources such as supermassive black hole binary systems perturb times-of-flight of signals traveling from pulsars to the Earth. The NANOGrav collaboration aims to measure these perturbations in high precision millisecond pulsar timing data and thus to directly detect gravitational waves and characterize the gravitational wave sources. By observing pulsars over time spans of many years, we are most sensitive to gravitational waves at nanohertz frequencies. This work is complimentary to ground based detectors such as LIGO, which are sensitive to gravitational waves with frequencies 10 orders of magnitude higher.In this presentation we describe the NANOGrav eleven-year data set. This includes pulsar time-of-arrival measurements from 48 millisecond pulsars made with the Arecibo Observatory (for pulsars with declinations between -1 and 39 degrees) and the Green Bank Telescope (for other pulsars, with two pulsars overlapping with Arecibo). The data set consists of more than 300,000 pulse time-of-arrival measurements made in nearly 7000 unique observations (a given pulsar observed with a given telescope receiver on a given day). In the best cases, measurement precision is better than 100 nanoseconds, and in nearly all cases it is better than 1 microsecond.All pulsars in our program are observed at intervals of 3 to 4 weeks. Observations use wideband data acquisition systems and are made at two receivers at widely separated frequencies at each epoch, allowing for characterization and mitigation of the effects of interstellar medium on the signal propagation. Observation of a large number of pulsars allows for searches for correlated perturbations among the pulsar signals, which is crucial for achieving high-significance detection of gravitational waves in the face of uncorrelated noise (from gravitational waves and rotation noise) in the individual pulsars. In addition, seven pulsars are observed at weekly intervals. This increases our sensitivity

  11. Achieving high-precision pointing on ExoplanetSat: initial feasibility analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pong, Christopher M.; Lim, Sungyung; Smith, Matthew W.; Miller, David W.; Villaseñor, Jesus S.; Seager, Sara

    2010-07-01

    ExoplanetSat is a proposed three-unit CubeSat designed to detect down to Earth-sized exoplanets in an orbit out to the habitable zone of Sun-like stars via the transit method. To achieve the required photometric precision to make these measurements, the target star must remain within the same fraction of a pixel, which is equivalent to controlling the pointing of the satellite to the arcsecond level. The satellite will use a two-stage control system: coarse control will be performed by a set of reaction wheels, desaturated by magnetic torque coils, and fine control will be performed by a piezoelectric translation stage. Since no satellite of this size has previously demonstrated this high level of pointing precision, a simulation has been developed to prove the feasibility of realizing such a system. The current baseline simulation has demonstrated the ability to hold the target star to within 0.05 pixels or 1.8 arcseconds (with an 85 mm lens and 15 μm pixels), in the presence of large reaction wheel disturbances as well as external environmental disturbances. This meets the current requirement of holding the target star to 0.14 pixels or 5.0 arcseconds. Other high-risk aspects of the design have been analyzed such as the effect of changing the guide star centroiding error, changing the CMOS sampling frequency, and reaction wheel selection on the slew performance of the satellite. While these results are promising as an initial feasibility analysis, further model improvements and hardware-in-the-loop tests are currently underway.

  12. CORRECTING FOR INTERSTELLAR SCATTERING DELAY IN HIGH-PRECISION PULSAR TIMING: SIMULATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Palliyaguru, Nipuni; McLaughlin, Maura; Stinebring, Daniel; Demorest, Paul; Jones, Glenn E-mail: maura.mclaughlin@mail.wvu.edu E-mail: pdemores@nrao.edu

    2015-12-20

    Light travel time changes due to gravitational waves (GWs) may be detected within the next decade through precision timing of millisecond pulsars. Removal of frequency-dependent interstellar medium (ISM) delays due to dispersion and scattering is a key issue in the detection process. Current timing algorithms routinely correct pulse times of arrival (TOAs) for time-variable delays due to cold plasma dispersion. However, none of the major pulsar timing groups correct for delays due to scattering from multi-path propagation in the ISM. Scattering introduces a frequency-dependent phase change in the signal that results in pulse broadening and arrival time delays. Any method to correct the TOA for interstellar propagation effects must be based on multi-frequency measurements that can effectively separate dispersion and scattering delay terms from frequency-independent perturbations such as those due to a GW. Cyclic spectroscopy, first described in an astronomical context by Demorest (2011), is a potentially powerful tool to assist in this multi-frequency decomposition. As a step toward a more comprehensive ISM propagation delay correction, we demonstrate through a simulation that we can accurately recover impulse response functions (IRFs), such as those that would be introduced by multi-path scattering, with a realistic signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). We demonstrate that timing precision is improved when scatter-corrected TOAs are used, under the assumptions of a high S/N and highly scattered signal. We also show that the effect of pulse-to-pulse “jitter” is not a serious problem for IRF reconstruction, at least for jitter levels comparable to those observed in several bright pulsars.

  13. High-precision method of binocular camera calibration with a distortion model.

    PubMed

    Li, Weimin; Shan, Siyu; Liu, Hui

    2017-03-10

    A high-precision camera calibration method for binocular stereo vision system based on a multi-view template and alternative bundle adjustment is presented in this paper. The proposed method could be achieved by taking several photos on a specially designed calibration template that has diverse encoded points in different orientations. In this paper, the method utilized the existing algorithm used for monocular camera calibration to obtain the initialization, which involves a camera model, including radial lens distortion and tangential distortion. We created a reference coordinate system based on the left camera coordinate to optimize the intrinsic parameters of left camera through alternative bundle adjustment to obtain optimal values. Then, optimal intrinsic parameters of the right camera can be obtained through alternative bundle adjustment when we create a reference coordinate system based on the right camera coordinate. We also used all intrinsic parameters that were acquired to optimize extrinsic parameters. Thus, the optimal lens distortion parameters and intrinsic and extrinsic parameters were obtained. Synthetic and real data were used to test the method. The simulation results demonstrate that the maximum mean absolute relative calibration errors are about 3.5e-6 and 1.2e-6 for the focal length and the principal point, respectively, under zero-mean Gaussian noise with 0.05 pixels standard deviation. The real result shows that the reprojection error of our model is about 0.045 pixels with the relative standard deviation of 1.0e-6 over the intrinsic parameters. The proposed method is convenient, cost-efficient, highly precise, and simple to carry out.

  14. Frontiers of QC Laser spectroscopy for high precision isotope ratio analysis of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim; Harris, Eliza; Eyer, Simon; Ibraim, Erkan; Tuzson, Béla

    2016-04-01

    An important milestone for laser spectroscopy was achieved when isotope ratios of greenhouse gases were reported at precision levels that allow addressing research questions in environmental sciences. Real-time data with high temporal resolution at moderate cost and instrument size make the optical approach highly attractive, complementary to the well-established isotope-ratio mass-spectrometry (IRMS) method. Especially appealing, in comparison to IRMS, is the inherent specificity to structural isomers having the same molecular mass. Direct absorption in the MIR in single or dual QCL configuration has proven highly reliable for the sta-ble isotopes of CO2, N2O and CH4. The longest time series of real-time measurements is currently available for δ13C and δ18O in CO2 at the high-alpine station Jung-fraujoch. At this well-equipped site, QCL based direct absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS) measurements are ongoing since 2008 1,2. Applications of QCLAS for N2O and CH4 stable isotopes are considerably more challenging because of the lower atmospheric mixing ratios, especially for the less abundant species, such as N218O and CH3D. For high precision (< 0.1 ‰) measurements in ambient air, QCLAS may be combined with a fully automated preconcentration unit yielding an up to 500 times concentration increase and the capability to separate the target gas from spectral interferants by se-quential desorption 3. Here, we review our recent developments on high precision isotope ratio analysis of greenhouse gases, with special focus on the isotopic species of N2O and CH4. Furthermore, we show environ-mental applications illustrating the highly valuable information that isotope ratios of atmospheric trace gases can carry. For example, the intramolecular distribution of 15N in N2O gives important information on the geochemical cycle of N2O4-6, while the analysis of δ13C and δ D in CH4 may be applied to disentangle microbial, fossil and landfill sources 7. 1 Sturm, P., Tuzson, B

  15. GIARPS: the unique VIS-NIR high precision radial velocity facility in this world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudi, R.; Benatti, S.; Carleo, I.; Ghedina, A.; Molinari, E.; Oliva, E.; Tozzi, A.; Baruffolo, A.; Cecconi, M.; Cosentino, R.; Fantinel, D.; Fini, L.; Ghinassi, F.; Gonzalez, M.; Gratton, R.; Guerra, J.; Harutyunyan, A.; Hernandez, N.; Iuzzolino, M.; Lodi, M.; Malavolta, L.; Maldonado, J.; Micela, G.; Sanna, N.; Sanjuan, J.; Scuderi, S.; Sozzetti, A.; Pérez Ventura, H.; Diaz Marcos, H.; Galli, A.; Gonzalez, C.; Riverol, L.; Riverol, C.

    2016-08-01

    GIARPS (GIAno and haRPS) is a project devoted to have on the same focal station of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) both the high resolution spectrographs HARPS-N (VIS) and GIANO (NIR) working simultaneously. This could be considered the first and unique worldwide instrument providing cross-dispersed echelle spectroscopy at a high resolution (R=115,000 in the visual and R=50,000 in the IR) and over in a wide spectral range (0.383 - 2.45 μm) in a single exposure. The science case is very broad, given the versatility of such an instrument and the large wavelength range. A number of outstanding science cases encompassing mainly extra-solar planet science starting from rocky planet search and hot Jupiters, atmosphere characterization can be considered. Furthermore both instrument can measure high precision radial velocity by means the simultaneous thorium technique (HARPS - N) and absorbing cell technique (GIANO) in a single exposure. Other science cases are also possible. Young stars and proto- planetary disks, cool stars and stellar populations, moving minor bodies in the solar system, bursting young stellar objects, cataclysmic variables and X-ray binary transients in our Galaxy, supernovae up to gamma-ray bursts in the very distant and young Universe, can take advantage of the unicity of this facility both in terms of contemporaneous wide wavelength range and high resolution spectroscopy.

  16. AN EFFICIENT, COMPACT, AND VERSATILE FIBER DOUBLE SCRAMBLER FOR HIGH PRECISION RADIAL VELOCITY INSTRUMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, Samuel; Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Ramsey, Lawrence; Levi, Eric; Schwab, Christian; Hearty, Fred; MacDonald, Nick E-mail: aur17@psu.edu

    2015-06-10

    We present the design and test results of a compact optical fiber double-scrambler for high-resolution Doppler radial velocity instruments. This device consists of a single optic: a high-index n ∼ 2 ball lens that exchanges the near and far fields between two fibers. When used in conjunction with octagonal fibers, this device yields very high scrambling gains (SGs) and greatly desensitizes the fiber output from any input illumination variations, thereby stabilizing the instrument profile of the spectrograph and improving the Doppler measurement precision. The system is also highly insensitive to input pupil variations, isolating the spectrograph from telescope illumination variations and seeing changes. By selecting the appropriate glass and lens diameter the highest efficiency is achieved when the fibers are practically in contact with the lens surface, greatly simplifying the alignment process when compared to classical double-scrambler systems. This prototype double-scrambler has demonstrated significant performance gains over previous systems, achieving SGs in excess of 10,000 with a throughput of ∼87% using uncoated Polymicro octagonal fibers. Adding a circular fiber to the fiber train further increases the SG to >20,000, limited by laboratory measurement error. While this fiber system is designed for the Habitable-zone Planet Finder spectrograph, it is more generally applicable to other instruments in the visible and near-infrared. Given the simplicity and low cost, this fiber scrambler could also easily be multiplexed for large multi-object instruments.

  17. Development of the High Precision Telescope on the RISING-2 micro satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Junichi; Takahashi, Yukihiro

    We developed the High Precision Telescope (HPT) which will be installed on a micro satellite, RISING-2. The RISING-2 satellite is the succession mission of the RISING satellite, which was successfully launched on 23 January 2009. These two 50 kg class satellites have been developed in-house by the universities. The HPT uses a zero thermal expansion pore-free ceramics (ZPF) mirror for the optical system, a liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) for the spectrometry, and high-sensitivity charge coupled device (CCD) cameras for the imaging. The HPT is a highly-functional multi-purpose space telescope that can be widely used for near-IR observations of the Earth and planets, such as the Jupiter and Venus. One of the applications is a high-resolution observation of thunderclouds in the Earth. Detailed information on a thundercloud structure will help to issue early-warnings of floods caused by torrential rains. The thundercloud structure observations from space are useful especially in areas without a weather radar network. The HPT will give a technology demonstration of the multi-spectral telescopic imaging for global remote sensing of weather disasters, land-use, ocean development, etc.

  18. HPMSS(High Precision Magnetic Survey System) and InterRidge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isezaki, N.; Sayanagi, K.

    2012-12-01

    From the beginning of 1990s to the beginning of 2000s, the Japanese group of IntreRidge conducted many cruises for three component magnetic survey using Shipboard Three Component Magnetometer (STCM) and Deep Towed Three Component Magnetometer (DTCM) in the world wide oceans. We have been developing HPMSS during this time with support of Dr.Tamaki(the late representative of InterRidge Japan) who understood the advantages of three component geomagnetic anomalies (TCGA). TCGA measured by STCM determines the direction of geomagnetic anomaly lineations precisely at every point where TCGA were observed, which playes the important role in magnetic anomaly lineation analysis. Even in the beginning of 2000s, almost all marine magnetic scientists believed that the total intensity anomly (TIA) is the better data than TCGA for analysis because the scalar magnetometers (e.g. proton precession magnetometer) have the better accuracy than any other magnetometers (e.g.flux gate magnetometer (FGM)). We employed the high accrate gyroscope (e.g.ring lase gyroscope (RLG)/optical fiber gyroscope (OFG)) to improve the accuracy of STCM/DTCM equipped with FGM. Moreover we employed accurate and precise FGM which was selected among the market. Finally we developed the new magnetic survey system with high precision usable as airborn, shipboard and dee-ptowed magnetometers which we call HPMSS(High Precision Magnetic Survey System). As an optional equipment, we use LAN to communicate between a data aquisiitin part and a data logging part, and GPS for a position fix. For the deep-towed survey, we use the acoustic position fix (super short base line method) and the acoustic communication to monitor the DTCM status. First we used HPMSS to obtain the magnetization structure of the volcanic island, Aogashima located 300km south of Tokyo using a hellcopter in 2006 and 2009. Next we used HPMSS installed in DTCM in 2010,2011 and 2012 using R/V Bosei-maru belonging to Tokai University. Also we used

  19. High precision and high aspect ratio laser drilling: challenges and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchtmann, Hermann; He, Chao; Gillner, Arnold

    2016-03-01

    Laser drilling is a very versatile tool to produce high accuracy bores in small and large geometries using different technologies. In large and deep hole drilling laser drilling can be found in drilling cooling holes into turbomachinery components such as turbine blades. In micro drilling, the technology is used for the generation of nozzles and filters. However, especially in macro drilling, the process often causes microstructure changes and induces defects such as recast layers and cracks. The defects are caused by the melt dominated drilling process by using pulse durations in the range of some 100 μm up to a few ms. A solution of this problem is the use of ultrashort pulsed laser radiation with pulse durations in the range of some 100 fs up to a few ps, however with the disadvantage of long drilling times. Thus, the aim of this work is to combine the productive process by using ms pulsed fiber laser radiation with subsequent ablation of existing recast layers at the hole wall by using ultrashort pulsed laser radiation. By using fast scanning techniques the recast layer can be avoided almost completely. With a similar technology also very small hole can be produced. Using a rotating dove prism a circular oscillation of the laser spots is performed and holes are drilled at intervals in 1 mm thick stainless steel (1.4301) by ultra-short laser pulses of 7 ps at 515 nm. The formation of hole and the behavior of energy deposition differ from other drilling strategies due to the helical revolution. The temporal evolution of the hole shape is analyzed by means of SEM techniques from which three drilling phases can be distinguished.

  20. QCD Precision Measurements and Structure Function Extraction at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment: NuSOnG

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.; Batra, P.; Bugel, Leonard G.; Camilleri, Leslie Loris; Conrad, Janet Marie; de Gouvea, A.; Fisher, Peter H.; Formaggio, Joseph Angelo; Jenkins, J.; Karagiorgi, Georgia S.; Kobilarcik, T.R.; /Fermilab /Texas U.

    2009-06-01

    We extend the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering On Glass) to address a variety of issues including precision QCD measurements, extraction of structure functions, and the derived Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain a sample of Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) events which is over two orders of magnitude larger than past samples. We outline an innovative method for fitting the structure functions using a parameterized energy shift which yields reduced systematic uncertainties. High statistics measurements, in combination with improved systematics, will enable NuSOnG to perform discerning tests of fundamental Standard Model parameters as we search for deviations which may hint of 'Beyond the Standard Model' physics.