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Sample records for high productivity area

  1. Pesticide occurrence in groundwater in areas of high-density row crop production in Alabama, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moreland, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    High-density row crop production occurs in three areas of Alabama that are underlain by productive aquifers, northern Alabama, southeastern Alabama, and Baldwin County in southwestern Alabama. The U.S. Geological Survey collected five groundwater samples from each of these three areas during 2009 for analysis of selected pesticides. Results of these analyses showed detections for 37 of 152 analytes. The three most frequently detected compounds were atrazine, 2-Chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-triazine (CIAT), and metolachlor. The highest concentration for any analyte was 4.08 micrograms per liter for metolachlor.

  2. High surface area calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, L. N.; Andersson, M. P.; Dalby, K. N.; Müter, D.; Okhrimenko, D. V.; Fordsmand, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2013-05-01

    Calcite (CaCO3) is important in many fields—in nature, because it is a component of aquifers, oil reservoirs and prospective CO2 storage sites, and in industry, where it is used in products as diverse as paper, toothpaste, paint, plastic and aspirin. It is difficult to obtain high purity calcite with a high surface area but such material is necessary for industrial applications and for fundamental calcite research. Commercial powder is nearly always contaminated with growth inhibitors such as sugars, citrate or pectin and most laboratory synthesis methods deliver large precipitates, often containing vaterite or aragonite. To address this problem, we (i) adapted the method of carbonating a Ca(OH)2 slurry with CO2 gas to develop the first simple, cheap, safe and reproducible procedure using common laboratory equipment, to obtain calcite that reproducibly had a surface area of 14-17 m2/g and (ii) conducted a thorough characterization of the product. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed nanometer scale, rhombohedral crystals. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) confirmed highly crystalline, pure calcite that more closely resembles the dimensions of the biogenic calcite produced by algae in coccoliths than other methods for synthesizing calcite. We suggest that this calcite is useful when purity and high surface area are important.

  3. Using Very High Resolution Remotely Sensed Imagery to Estimate Agricultural Production: A comparison of food insecure and secure growing areas in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, K.; Husak, G. J.; Bogle, S.

    2013-12-01

    Determining the amount of food produced in a food insecure, isolated, subsistence farming community can be used to help identify households or communities who may be in need of additional food resources. Measuring annual food production in developing countries, much less at a sub-national level, is complicated by lack of data. It can be difficult and costly to access all of the farming households engaged in subsistence farming. However, recent research has focused on the use of remotely sensed data to aid in the estimation of area under cultivation and because food production is the measure of yield (production per hectare) multiplied by area (number of hectares), we can use the area measure to reduce uncertainty in food production estimates. One strategy for estimating cultivated area relies on a fairly time intensive manual interpretation of very high resolution data. Due to the availability of very high resolution data it is possible to construct estimates of cultivated area, even in communities where fields are small. While this strategy has been used to effectively estimate cultivated area in a timely manner, questions remain about the spatial and temporal generalizability of this approach. The purpose of this paper is to produce and compare estimates of cultivated area in two very different agricultural areas of Kenya, a highly food insecure country in East Africa, during two different agricultural seasons. The areas selected represent two different livelihood zones: a marginal growing area where poor farmers rely on inconsistent rainfall and a lush growing area near the mountainous region of the middle-West area of the country where rainfall is consistent and therefore more suited to cultivation. The overarching goal is to determine the effectiveness of very high resolution remotely sensed imagery in calculating estimates of cultivated area in areas where food production strategies are different. Additionally the results of this research will explore the

  4. 7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area and regulated area. 966.4 Section 966... GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.4 Production area and regulated area. (a) Production area means the counties of Pinellas, Hillsborough, Polk, Osceola, and Brevard in the State...

  5. 7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area and regulated area. 966.4 Section 966... GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.4 Production area and regulated area. (a) Production area means the counties of Pinellas, Hillsborough, Polk, Osceola, and Brevard in the State...

  6. 7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area and regulated area. 966.4 Section 966... GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.4 Production area and regulated area. (a) Production area means the counties of Pinellas, Hillsborough, Polk, Osceola, and Brevard in the State...

  7. 7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 925.5 Section 925.5 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.5 Production area. Production area means Imperial County,...

  8. 7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 925.5 Section 925.5 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.5 Production area. Production area means Imperial County,...

  9. 7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 925.5 Section 925.5 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.5 Production area. Production area means Imperial County,...

  10. 7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 925.5 Section 925.5 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.5 Production area. Production area means Imperial County,...

  11. 7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 925.5 Section 925.5 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.5 Production area. Production area means Imperial County,...

  12. 7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 983.25 Section 983.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.25 Production area. Production Area means the States...

  13. 7 CFR 946.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 946.4 Section 946.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.4 Production area. Production area means all...

  14. 7 CFR 953.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 953.4 Section 953.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.4 Production area. Production area means and...

  15. 7 CFR 953.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 953.4 Section 953.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.4 Production area. Production area means and...

  16. 7 CFR 917.11 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 917.11 Section 917.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.11 Production area. Production area means the State...

  17. 7 CFR 947.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 947.4 Section 947.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Definitions § 947.4 Production area. Production area means and includes Modoc and Siskiyou Counties in...

  18. 7 CFR 953.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 953.4 Section 953.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.4 Production area. Production area means and...

  19. 7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 906.4 Section 906.4 Agriculture... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production area. Production area means all territory in the counties of Cameron, Hidalgo, and Willacy in the State of Texas....

  20. 7 CFR 916.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 916.4 Section 916.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.4 Production area. Production area means the State of California....

  1. 7 CFR 915.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 915.4 Section 915.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of...

  2. 7 CFR 945.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 945.4 Section 945.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Production area. Production area means all territory included within Malheur County, Oregon, and the...

  3. 7 CFR 917.11 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 917.11 Section 917.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.11 Production area. Production area means the State...

  4. 7 CFR 923.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 923.4 Section 923.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.4 Production area. Production area...

  5. 7 CFR 958.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 958.4 Section 958.4 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.4 Production area. Production area means all territory included within the boundaries of the County of Malheur in Oregon,...

  6. 7 CFR 927.10 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 927.10 Section 927.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.10 Production area. Production area means and includes...

  7. 7 CFR 917.11 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 917.11 Section 917.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.11 Production area. Production area means the State...

  8. 7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 930.14 Section 930.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 930.14 Production area. Production area means the States of Michigan, New York,...

  9. 7 CFR 958.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 958.4 Section 958.4 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.4 Production area. Production area means all territory included within the boundaries of the County of Malheur in Oregon,...

  10. 7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 906.4 Section 906.4 Agriculture... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production area. Production area means all territory in the counties of Cameron, Hidalgo, and Willacy in the State of Texas....

  11. 7 CFR 959.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 959.4 Section 959.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of Val...

  12. 7 CFR 947.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 947.4 Section 947.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 947.4 Production area. Production area means and includes Modoc and Siskiyou Counties in...

  13. 7 CFR 915.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 915.4 Section 915.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of...

  14. 7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 906.4 Section 906.4 Agriculture... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production area. Production area means all territory in the counties of Cameron, Hidalgo, and Willacy in the State of Texas....

  15. 7 CFR 947.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 947.4 Section 947.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 947.4 Production area. Production area means and includes Modoc and Siskiyou Counties in...

  16. 7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 922.4 Section 922.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.4 Production area. Production area...

  17. 7 CFR 924.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 924.4 Section 924.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Production area. Production area means the Counties of Okanogan, Chelan, Kittitas, Yakima, and Klickitat...

  18. 7 CFR 946.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 946.4 Section 946.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.4 Production area. Production area means all...

  19. 7 CFR 924.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 924.4 Section 924.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Production area. Production area means the Counties of Okanogan, Chelan, Kittitas, Yakima, and Klickitat...

  20. 7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 922.4 Section 922.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.4 Production area. Production area...

  1. 7 CFR 917.11 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 917.11 Section 917.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.11 Production area. Production area means the State...

  2. 7 CFR 958.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 958.4 Section 958.4 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.4 Production area. Production area means all territory included within the boundaries of the County of Malheur in Oregon,...

  3. 7 CFR 915.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 915.4 Section 915.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of...

  4. 7 CFR 927.10 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 927.10 Section 927.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.10 Production area. Production area means and includes...

  5. 7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 930.14 Section 930.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Definitions § 930.14 Production area. Production area means the States of Michigan, New York,...

  6. 7 CFR 923.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 923.4 Section 923.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.4 Production area. Production area...

  7. 7 CFR 915.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 915.4 Section 915.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of...

  8. 7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 906.4 Section 906.4 Agriculture... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production area. Production area means all territory in the counties of Cameron, Hidalgo, and Willacy in the State of Texas....

  9. 7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 930.14 Section 930.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 930.14 Production area. Production area means the States of Michigan, New York,...

  10. 7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 922.4 Section 922.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.4 Production area. Production area...

  11. 7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 930.14 Section 930.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Definitions § 930.14 Production area. Production area means the States of Michigan, New York,...

  12. 7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 983.25 Section 983.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.25 Production area. Production Area means the States...

  13. 7 CFR 916.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 916.4 Section 916.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.4 Production area. Production area means the State of California....

  14. 7 CFR 945.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 945.4 Section 945.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Production area. Production area means all territory included within Malheur County, Oregon, and the...

  15. 7 CFR 917.11 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 917.11 Section 917.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.11 Production area. Production area means the State...

  16. 7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 906.4 Section 906.4 Agriculture... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production area. Production area means all territory in the counties of Cameron, Hidalgo, and Willacy in the State of Texas....

  17. 7 CFR 923.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 923.4 Section 923.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.4 Production area. Production area...

  18. 7 CFR 953.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 953.4 Section 953.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.4 Production area. Production area means and...

  19. 7 CFR 927.10 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 927.10 Section 927.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.10 Production area. Production area means and includes...

  20. 7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 922.4 Section 922.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.4 Production area. Production area...

  1. 7 CFR 927.10 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 927.10 Section 927.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.10 Production area. Production area means and includes...

  2. 7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 930.14 Section 930.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 930.14 Production area. Production area means the States of Michigan, New York,...

  3. 7 CFR 946.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 946.4 Section 946.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.4 Production area. Production area means all...

  4. 7 CFR 946.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 946.4 Section 946.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.4 Production area. Production area means all...

  5. 7 CFR 923.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 923.4 Section 923.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.4 Production area. Production area...

  6. 7 CFR 927.10 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 927.10 Section 927.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.10 Production area. Production area means and includes...

  7. 7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 922.4 Section 922.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.4 Production area. Production area...

  8. 7 CFR 953.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 953.4 Section 953.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.4 Production area. Production area means and...

  9. 7 CFR 923.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 923.4 Section 923.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.4 Production area. Production area...

  10. 7 CFR 946.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 946.4 Section 946.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.4 Production area. Production area means all...

  11. 7 CFR 947.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 947.4 Section 947.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 947.4 Production area. Production area means and includes Modoc and Siskiyou Counties in...

  12. 7 CFR 958.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 958.4 Section 958.4 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.4 Production area. Production area means all territory included within the boundaries of the County of Malheur in Oregon,...

  13. 7 CFR 945.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 945.4 Section 945.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Production area. Production area means all territory included within Malheur County, Oregon, and the...

  14. 7 CFR 947.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 947.4 Section 947.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Definitions § 947.4 Production area. Production area means and includes Modoc and Siskiyou Counties in...

  15. 7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 983.25 Section 983.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.25 Production area. Production Area means the States...

  16. 7 CFR 915.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 915.4 Section 915.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of...

  17. 7 CFR 959.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 959.4 Section 959.4 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of Val Verde..., Dimmit, La Salle, McMullen, Live Oak, Bee, Refugio, Webb, Duval, Jim Wells, San Patricio, Nueces,...

  18. 7 CFR 959.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 959.4 Section 959.4 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of Val Verde..., Dimmit, La Salle, McMullen, Live Oak, Bee, Refugio, Webb, Duval, Jim Wells, San Patricio, Nueces,...

  19. 7 CFR 959.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 959.4 Section 959.4 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of Val Verde..., Dimmit, La Salle, McMullen, Live Oak, Bee, Refugio, Webb, Duval, Jim Wells, San Patricio, Nueces,...

  20. 7 CFR 959.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 959.4 Section 959.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of Val...

  1. 7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 985.5 Section 985.5 Agriculture... area. Production area means all the area within the States of Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and that portion of Nevada north of the 37th parallel and that portion of Utah west of the 111th meridian. The...

  2. 7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 985.5 Section 985.5 Agriculture... area. Production area means all the area within the States of Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and that portion of Nevada north of the 37th parallel and that portion of Utah west of the 111th meridian. The...

  3. 7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 985.5 Section 985.5 Agriculture... area. Production area means all the area within the States of Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and that portion of Nevada north of the 37th parallel and that portion of Utah west of the 111th meridian. The...

  4. 7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 985.5 Section 985.5 Agriculture... area. Production area means all the area within the States of Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and that portion of Nevada north of the 37th parallel and that portion of Utah west of the 111th meridian. The...

  5. HIGH SIERRA PRIMITIVE AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, James G.; Marks, Lawrence Y.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral-resource survey, the High Sierra Primitive Area, California was found to have an area of probable mineral-resource potential for tungsten. A small demonstrated tungsten resource is present on the Obelisk claims near the contact of limy metasedimentary rock and granitic rock in the northwest part of the area, and additional small deposits may be expected to occur to the south, in a similar geologic setting.

  6. Occurrence of pesticides in groundwater underlying areas of high-density row-crop production in Alabama, 2009-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Heather L.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of metolachlor and atrazine have substantially decreased in the northern Alabama wells since 2000. A decline in use of metolachlor and atrazine from a high in the late-1990s and a high in 2004, respectively, in northern Alabama could account for the lower concentrations. Fluometuron use has also declined since 1998, but the relation between time and concentrations differed in the five northern Alabama wells. Fluometuron concentrations in three of the five wells have been decreasing over time, while concentrations in the remaining two wells have been increasing.

  7. 7 CFR 905.17 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 905.17 Section 905.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.17 Production area. Production...

  8. 7 CFR 905.17 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 905.17 Section 905.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.17 Production area. Production...

  9. 7 CFR 905.17 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 905.17 Section 905.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.17 Production area. Production...

  10. 7 CFR 905.17 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 905.17 Section 905.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.17 Production area. Production...

  11. 7 CFR 905.17 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 905.17 Section 905.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.17 Production area. Production...

  12. Measurements of Rn-222, Rn-220 and their decay products in the environmental air of the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Y; Morishima, H; Shen, T; Koga, T; Wei, L; Sugahara, T

    2000-10-01

    For the renewal of dose estimation from internal irradiation in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Yangjiang, the measurements of radon, thoron and their decay products in the environmental air were conducted, including: (1) integrating measurements of Rn-222 and Rn-220 concentrations; (2) eqilibrium factor F for Rn-222 and alpha-potential energy value of Rn-220; (3) external gamma radiation in places where radon measurements were undertaken; (4) cumulative exposure to indoor radon for each family in a case-control study on lung cancer. The Rn-Tn cup monitor method was used for the integrating measurement of Rn-222 and Rn-220 concentration. An alpha track detector was used for the integration measurement of Rn-222 concentration in the case-control study on lung cancer. The results of measurements show that although the investigated areas are located between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer, and that people live in well-ventilated dwellings, the concentrations of radon, especially of Rn-220 are significantly higher in the indoor air of HBRA than those in the control area. The value of equilibrium factors for Rn-222, the alpha potential energy of decay products from Rn-222 and Rn-220 are determined.

  13. 7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area and regulated area. 966.4 Section 966.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  14. 7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area and regulated area. 966.4 Section 966.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  15. Error modelling on burned area products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, M.; Chuvieco, E.

    2012-12-01

    In the last decade multiple efforts have been undertaken to map burned areas (BA) at global scale. Global BA projects usually carry along a validation phase, which aims to assess product quality. Errors are commonly measured in these validation exercises, but they frequently do not tackle error sources, which hampers the use of BA products as input to earth system models. In this study we present a method to assess the relationships between commission and omission errors on one side and landscape and burned patch characteristics on the other side. Errors were extracted by comparing global BA results and Landsat BA perimeters. Selected factors to explain error distribution were related to landscape characteristics and quality of input data. The former included BA spatial properties, tree cover (from MODIS Vegetation Continous Field), and the land cover type (Globcover 2005). The latter were the number of cloud-free observations, the confidence level of the BA algorithm and the sub-pixel proportion of true BA. The relationship between explanatory variables and errors was estimated using Generalized Additive Models. This analysis was undertaken to assess global BA products within the framework of the fire_cci project (www.esa-fire-cci.org). This project is part of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative, which aims to generate long-term global products of Essential Climate Variables (ECV). The fire_cci project aims to generate time series of global BA, merging data from three sensors: MERIS, (A)ATSR and VEGETATION. The error characterization exercise presented in this paper was based on MERIS BA results from 2005 in four study sites (Australia, Brazil, Canada and Kazakhstan). Results show that errors are more frequent on pixels partially burned, and tend to decrease for high and low tree-cover (when areas have either 0 or 100%), as well as when the product confidence level is high. Detected burned pixels surrounded by other burned pixels were found less

  16. A NOVEL LOW THERMAL BUDGET THIN-FILM POLYSILICON FABRICATION PROCESS FOR LARGE-AREA, HIGH-THROUGHPUT SOLAR CELL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Yue Kuo

    2010-08-15

    A novel thin-film poly-Si fabrication process has been demonstrated. This low thermal budget process transforms the single- and multi-layer amorphous silicon thin films into a poly-Si structure in one simple step over a pulsed rapid thermal annealing process with the enhancement of an ultrathin Ni layer. The complete poly-Si solar cell was fabricated in a short period of time without deteriorating the underneath glass substrate. The unique vertical crystallization process including the mechanism is discussed. Influences of the dopant type and process parameters on crystal structure will be revealed. The poly-Si film structure has been proved using TEM, XRD, Raman, and XPS methods. The poly-Si solar cell structure and the performance have been examined. In principle, the new process is potentially applicable to produce large-area thin-film poly-Si solar cells at a high throughput and low cost. A critical issue in this process is to prevent the excessive dopant diffusion during crystallization. Process parameters and the cell structure have to be optimized to achieve the production goal.

  17. High surface area, high permeability carbon monoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this work is to prepare carbon monoliths having precisely tailored pore size distribution. Prior studies have demonstrated that poly(acrylonitrile) can be processed into a precursor having tailored macropore structure. Since the macropores were preserved during pyrolysis, this synthetic process provided a route to porous carbon having macropores with size =0.1 to 10{mu}m. No micropores of size <2 nm could be detected in the carbon, however, by nitrogen adsorption. In the present work, the authors have processed a different polymer, poly(vinylidene chloride) into a macroporous precursor, Pyrolysis produced carbon monoliths having macropores derived from the polymer precursor as well as extensive microporosity produced during the pyrolysis of the polymer. One of these carbons had BET surface area of 1,050 m{sup 2}/g and about 1.2 cc/g total pore volume, with about 1/3 of the total pore volume in micropores and the remainder in 1{mu}m macropores. No mesopores in the intermediate size range could be detected by nitrogen adsorption. Carbon materials having high surface area as well as micron size pores have potential applications as electrodes for double layer supercapacitors containing liquid electrolyte, or as efficient media for performing chemical separations.

  18. 7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 983.25 Section 983.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  19. 7 CFR 956.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 956.4 Section 956.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  20. 7 CFR 956.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 956.4 Section 956.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  1. 7 CFR 956.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 956.4 Section 956.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  2. 7 CFR 955.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 955.4 Section 955.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  3. 7 CFR 955.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 955.4 Section 955.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  4. 7 CFR 955.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 955.4 Section 955.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  5. 7 CFR 955.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 955.4 Section 955.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  6. 7 CFR 956.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 956.4 Section 956.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  7. 7 CFR 956.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 956.4 Section 956.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  8. 7 CFR 955.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 955.4 Section 955.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  9. 7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 985.5 Section 985.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE...

  10. 7 CFR 945.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 945.4 Section 945.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  11. 7 CFR 945.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 945.4 Section 945.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  12. 7 CFR 929.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 929.4 Section 929.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  13. 7 CFR 929.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 929.4 Section 929.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  14. 7 CFR 929.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 929.4 Section 929.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  15. 7 CFR 929.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 929.4 Section 929.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  16. 7 CFR 929.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 929.4 Section 929.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  17. 7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 983.25 Section 983.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  18. 7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 920.4 Section 920.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  19. 7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 920.4 Section 920.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  20. 7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 920.4 Section 920.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  1. 7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 920.4 Section 920.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  2. 7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 920.4 Section 920.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  3. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    2001-08-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

  4. [Distribution features of chlorophyll a and primary productivity in high frequency area of red tide in East China Sea during spring].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weihua; Huo, Wenyi; Yuan, Xiangcheng; Yin, Kedong

    2003-07-01

    The distributions of chlorophyll a and primary productivity were determined during April to May 2002 in the East China Sea. The results showed that the average concentration of chlorophyll a was 1.086 mg.m-3 at surface layer, and that nano- and pico-phytoplankton (< 20 microns) dominated the phytoplankton biomass in this sea region during Spring (up to 64% of total chlorophyll a content). Ultra-phytoplankton (< 5 microns) consisted 27% of total phytoplankton biomass. Nutrients and feeding pressure of zooplankton affected the distribution of chlorophyll a and its size-fractionation. The average primary productivity was 10.091 mg.m-3.h-1, while that of red tide tracking stations R-03, RL-01 and RG-01 was 399.984 mg.m-3.h-1. Light and nutrients were the main factors affecting the distributions of chlorophyll a and primary productivity. The station DC-11 had a high concentration of phytoplankton biomass. The surface layer concentration of chlorophyll a and primary productivity were up to 9,082 mg.m-3 and 128,79 mg.m-3.h-1, respectively, but the color of the seawater was normal.

  5. The Potential for High Technology Manufacturing in Nonmetropolitan Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, David L.; And Others

    This paper asks whether manufacturers of high technology are locating production facilities in nonmetropolitan areas and, if so, which industries and geographical areas are affected. It identifies high-technology manufacturers and estimates national employment trends for the sector from 1975 to 1982. National and regional employment data for…

  6. Intercomparison of global burned area products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvieco, E.; Corti, D.; Padilla, M.

    2012-12-01

    The European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative (CCI) is part of the European contribution to the Global Observing Climate System (GCOS) program. Fire disturbance is one of the Essential Climate Variables included in this phase of the CCI program. The project aims to map globally burned areas (BA) using European sensors (ATSR, VEGETATION and MERIS), and in comparing the performance of the results with other existing datasets (www.esa-fire-cci.org). The project aims at developing and validating algorithms, to produce consistent, stable, error-characterized global BA information. It includes as well algorithms for pre-processing of ATSR, VEGETATION and MERIS data, to improve geometrical accuracy and remove atmospheric effects that may lead to potential confusions with burned areas (clouds, smoke, cloud shadows, water, snow, topographic shadows), as well as algorithms to merge BA from different sensors and adapting the outputs to the needs of the climate modeling community. This paper will present the latest comparisons of the fire_cci BA results with other existing global BA products, using a validation dataset of 100 Landsat multitemporal pairs, from which fire perimeters were semi-automatically drawn. The standard CEOS Cal-Val procedures have been used to document the reference files. The intercomparison method relies on measuring accuracy, error balance and temporal consistency. Preliminary results showed higher accuracy for MCD45, but with lower temporal consistency, particularly in areas dominated by savannah fires.

  7. 7 CFR 987.4 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.4 Area of production. Area of production means Riverside County, Calif. ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area of production. 987.4 Section 987.4...

  8. Update on Area Production in Mixing of Supercritical Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okongo, Nora; Bellan, Josette

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this research is on supercritical C7H16/N2 and O2/H2 mixing layers undergoing transitions to turbulence. The C7H16/N2 system serves as a simplified model of hydrocarbon/air systems in gas-turbine and diesel engines; the O2/H2 system is representative of liquid rocket engines. One goal of this research is to identify ways of controlling area production to increase disintegration of fluids and enhance combustion in such engines. As used in this research, "area production" signifies the fractional rate of change of surface area oriented perpendicular to the mass-fraction gradient of a mixing layer. In the study, a database of transitional states obtained from direct numerical simulations of the aforementioned mixing layers was analyzed to investigate global layer characteristics, phenomena in regions of high density-gradient magnitude (HDGM), irreversible entropy production and its relationship to the HDGM regions, and mechanisms leading to area production.

  9. High power neutron production targets

    SciTech Connect

    Wender, S.

    1996-06-01

    The author describes issues of concern in the design of targets and associated systems for high power neutron production facilities. The facilities include uses for neutron scattering, accelerator driven transmutation, accelerator production of tritium, short pulse spallation sources, and long pulse spallation sources. Each of these applications requires a source with different design needs and consequently different implementation in practise.

  10. The cascade high productivity language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, David; Chamberlain, Branford L.; Zima, Hans P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the design of Chapel, the Cascade High Productivity Language, which is being developed in the DARPA-funded HPCS project Cascade led by Cray Inc. Chapel pushes the state-of-the-art in languages for HEC system programming by focusing on productivity, in particular by combining the goal of highest possible object code performance with that of programmability offered by a high-level user interface.

  11. Mycobiota in the processing areas of two different meat products.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Louise Marie; Jacobsen, Tomas; Nielsen, Per Vaeggemose; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Koch, Anette Granly

    2008-05-10

    Mould growth is not accepted on most types of North European meat products and is considered as both an economic and aesthetic problem for the producers. In order to determine the mycobiota in processing areas of fermented sausage and liver pâté, filamentous fungi were isolated from air, equipment and raw materials in the processing areas of two fermented sausage processing plants and two liver pâté processing plants. A total of 336 samples were examined. The diversity of filamentous fungi in the processing areas was high; at least 17 different genera were identified. The main isolated genera were identified as Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Eurotium, Penicillium, Phaeoacremonium and Phoma. Of these, Penicillium and Eurotium were the most important for contamination of fermented sausage, whereas Penicillium and Cladosporium were most important for liver pâté. Cladosporium was isolated more frequently in the processing plants examined in the autumn than in the spring. The seasonal variation indicates that outdoor air is an important source for this contamination. Eurotium was isolated frequently at one of the fermented sausage plants. Penicillium was isolated frequently at all four processing plants and was in addition found on moulded meat products. Sixteen Penicillium species were identified. The most frequently isolated were P. brevicompactum and the closely related P. bialowiezense, P. solitum, P. palitans, P. fagi and a new, not described species named P. "milanense" (ined.; Frisvad, 2007 personal com.). Isolation of a new species illustrates that the mycobiota in the processing areas of North European meat products has not yet been intensively investigated. Several mycotoxin producing species were isolated; the most prevalent were P. brevicompactum/P. bialowiezense and P. palitans. A screening for secondary metabolites showed that isolates of these species consistently produced mycophenolic acid and cyclopiazonic acid, respectively

  12. Accumulation of DOC in Low Phosphate Low Chlorophyll (LPLC) area: is it related to higher production under high N:P ratio?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauriac, R.; Moutin, T.; Baklouti, M.

    2010-09-01

    The biogeochemistry of carbon and nutrients (N, P) in the surface layer of the ocean strongly depends on the interaction between C, N and P at the cell level and at the population level where interaction between primary producers (phytoplankton) and remineralizers (heterotrophic bacteria) impact the overall stock and dynamics of organic carbon. To understand these interactions in the surface layer of the Mediterranean Sea, we implemented, using Eco3M, a multi-element, steady state, mechanistic model. This cell-based model intend to represent the growth of phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria under various amount of nutrients. As a results, it displays the expected biogeochemical characteristics of the system and give us insight on the expected interaction between phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria both in term of competition for inorganic nutrients and in term of commensalism for organic carbon. In this study, we found a good quantitative agreement between model results and literrature data for stocks and fluxes of the western Mediterranean basin. In addition, for phytoplankton we show how the uncoupling between carbon production and growth could impact the overall DOC dynamic and based on these results, we proposed a new explanantion for the observed DOC accumulation in the surface layer of the Mediterranean Sea.

  13. High spatial variability of phytoplankton assessed by flow cytometry, in a dynamic productive coastal area, in spring: The eastern English Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonato, Simon; Christaki, Urania; Lefebvre, Alain; Lizon, Fabrice; Thyssen, Melilotus; Artigas, Luis Felipe

    2015-03-01

    The distribution of phytoplankton (from pico-to microphytoplankton) was investigated, at single-cell level and at high spatial resolution, during an oceanographic cruise across the eastern English Channel (EEC) between April 27 and 29, 2012. Seawater was continuously collected from surface waters and analysed on board at high frequency (one sample every 10 min), by using a new generation of pulse-shape recording scanning flow cytometer (CytoSense, Cytobuoy©). A Bray-Curtis matrix analysis based on phytoplankton composition allowed the discrimination of 4 communities. Within these communities, abundance, cell size as well as single cell and total red fluorescence of 8 phytoplankton groups were measured. Picoeukaryotes and Synechococcus spp cells dominated the mid Channel and most of the English waters monitored, whereas waters off Eastbourne as well as French coastal waters (under remote and direct estuarine influence) were characterized by the dominance of Phaeocystis globosa haploid and diploid cells. Most of the total red fluorescence signal, which correlated with chlorophyll a concentrations, was attributable to P. globosa and, to a lesser extent, to diatoms. In addition to sub-mesoscale variation within phytoplankton communities, the single-cell features within each phytoplankton group gave information about the physiological status of individual phytoplankton cells.

  14. High Surface Area Tunnels in Hexagonal WO₃.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wanmei; Yeung, Michael T; Lech, Andrew T; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Chain; Li, Tianqi; Duan, Xiangfeng; Zhou, Jun; Kaner, Richard B

    2015-07-01

    High surface area in h-WO3 has been verified from the intracrystalline tunnels. This bottom-up approach differs from conventional templating-type methods. The 3.67 Å diameter tunnels are characterized by low-pressure CO2 adsorption isotherms with nonlocal density functional theory fitting, transmission electron microscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis. These open and rigid tunnels absorb H(+) and Li(+), but not Na(+) in aqueous electrolytes without inducing a phase transformation, accessing both internal and external active sites. Moreover, these tunnel structures demonstrate high specific pseudocapacitance and good stability in an H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. Thus, the high surface area created from 3.67 Å diameter tunnels in h-WO3 shows potential applications in electrochemical energy storage, selective ion transfer, and selective gas adsorption.

  15. High throughput protein production screening

    DOEpatents

    Beernink, Peter T.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Segelke, Brent W.

    2009-09-08

    Methods, compositions, and kits for the cell-free production and analysis of proteins are provided. The invention allows for the production of proteins from prokaryotic sequences or eukaryotic sequences, including human cDNAs using PCR and IVT methods and detecting the proteins through fluorescence or immunoblot techniques. This invention can be used to identify optimized PCR and WT conditions, codon usages and mutations. The methods are readily automated and can be used for high throughput analysis of protein expression levels, interactions, and functional states.

  16. High Yielding Microbubble Production Method

    PubMed Central

    Fiabane, Joe; Prentice, Paul; Pancholi, Ketan

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic approaches to microbubble production are generally disadvantaged by low yield and high susceptibility to (micro)channel blockages. This paper presents an alternative method of producing microbubbles of 2.6 μm mean diameter at concentrations in excess of 30 × 106 mL−1. In this method, the nitrogen gas flowing inside the liquid jet is disintegrated into spray of microbubble when air surrounding this coflowing nitrogen gas-liquid jet passes through a 100 μm orifice at high velocity. Resulting microbubble foam has the polydispersity index of 16%. Moreover, a ratio of mean microbubble diameter to channel width ratio was found to be less than 0.025, which substantially alleviates the occurrence of blockages during production. PMID:27034935

  17. Production of high octane gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, R.H.; La Pierre, R.B.; Owens, P.J.; Varghese, P.

    1988-04-19

    This patent describes a process for producing a high octane gasoline, which comprises hydrocracking a highly aromatic, substantially dealkylated hydrocarbon feed having an initial boiling point of at least 300/sup 0/F. and an end point of not more than 650/sup 0/F., an aromatic content of at least 50 weight percent, an API gravity of not more than 25 and a hydrogen content not more than 12.5 weight percent at a hydrogen partial pressure of not more than 1000 psig and a conversion of not more than 80 to gasoline boiling range products having an octane rating of at least 87 (RON+0).

  18. Soil Fertility Map for Food Legumes Production Areas in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Yang, Tao; Redden, Robert; He, Weifeng; Zong, Xuxiao

    2016-01-01

    Given the limited resources of fossil energy, and the environmental risks of excess fertilizer on crops, it is time to reappraise the potential role of food legume biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) as sources of nitrogen for cropping systems in China. 150 soil samples across 17 provinces and 2 municipalities of China were collected and analyzed. A distribution map of the soil fertilities and their patterns of distribution was constructed. The pH results indicated that soils were neutral to slightly alkaline overall. The soil organic matter (SOM) and the available nitrogen (AN) content were relatively low, while the available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) contents were from moderate to high. Production areas of food legumes (faba bean, pea, adzuki bean, mung bean and common bean) were clearly separated into 4 soil fertility type clusters. In addition, regions with SOM, AN, AP and AK deficiency, high acidity and high alkalinity were listed as target areas for further soil improvement. The potential was considered for biological nitrogen fixation to substitute for the application of mineral nitrogen fertiliser. PMID:27212262

  19. Soil Fertility Map for Food Legumes Production Areas in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Yang, Tao; Redden, Robert; He, Weifeng; Zong, Xuxiao

    2016-01-01

    Given the limited resources of fossil energy, and the environmental risks of excess fertilizer on crops, it is time to reappraise the potential role of food legume biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) as sources of nitrogen for cropping systems in China. 150 soil samples across 17 provinces and 2 municipalities of China were collected and analyzed. A distribution map of the soil fertilities and their patterns of distribution was constructed. The pH results indicated that soils were neutral to slightly alkaline overall. The soil organic matter (SOM) and the available nitrogen (AN) content were relatively low, while the available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) contents were from moderate to high. Production areas of food legumes (faba bean, pea, adzuki bean, mung bean and common bean) were clearly separated into 4 soil fertility type clusters. In addition, regions with SOM, AN, AP and AK deficiency, high acidity and high alkalinity were listed as target areas for further soil improvement. The potential was considered for biological nitrogen fixation to substitute for the application of mineral nitrogen fertiliser. PMID:27212262

  20. Soil Fertility Map for Food Legumes Production Areas in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Yang, Tao; Redden, Robert; He, Weifeng; Zong, Xuxiao

    2016-05-23

    Given the limited resources of fossil energy, and the environmental risks of excess fertilizer on crops, it is time to reappraise the potential role of food legume biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) as sources of nitrogen for cropping systems in China. 150 soil samples across 17 provinces and 2 municipalities of China were collected and analyzed. A distribution map of the soil fertilities and their patterns of distribution was constructed. The pH results indicated that soils were neutral to slightly alkaline overall. The soil organic matter (SOM) and the available nitrogen (AN) content were relatively low, while the available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) contents were from moderate to high. Production areas of food legumes (faba bean, pea, adzuki bean, mung bean and common bean) were clearly separated into 4 soil fertility type clusters. In addition, regions with SOM, AN, AP and AK deficiency, high acidity and high alkalinity were listed as target areas for further soil improvement. The potential was considered for biological nitrogen fixation to substitute for the application of mineral nitrogen fertiliser.

  1. Dioxin/POPs legacy of pesticide production in Hamburg: part 1--securing of the production area.

    PubMed

    Weber, Roland; Varbelow, Hans Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    α-Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), β-HCH, and γ-HCH (lindane) were recently included as new persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Stockholm Convention. Therefore, the chemicals need to be globally addressed, including the disposal of historic wastes. At most sites, the approximately 85% of HCH waste isomers were dumped. At a former lindane factory in Hamburg and some other factories the HCH, waste was recycled producing residues with high polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) levels. The soil and ground water under the former pesticide factory was/is highly contaminated with HCH (260 tons), chlorobenzenes (550 tons), and PCDD/PCDF (6 kg toxic equivalents (TEQ)). This contamination did not result from disposal operations but from spillages and leakages during the 30 years of the factory's production history. A containment wall has been constructed around the production area to prevent the dispersal of the pollutants. The ground water is managed by a pump and treat system. Over the last 15 years, approximately 10-30 tons of this pollution reservoir has been pumped and incinerated. For the contaminated production buildings, specific assessment and demolition technologies have been applied. In addition to their HCH waste isomer deposition, former lindane/HCH productions need to be assessed for possible recycling practice of HCH and related PCDD/PCDF contamination of the production area and buildings. Since such recycling activities have taken place at several factories in different countries, the experience of assessment and management of the described production area and contaminated buildings could be valuable. Such assessment could be addressed within the frame of the Stockholm Convention.

  2. Earthquake Hazard for Aswan High Dam Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Awad

    2016-04-01

    Earthquake activity and seismic hazard analysis are important components of the seismic aspects for very essential structures such as major dams. The Aswan High Dam (AHD) created the second man-made reservoir in the world (Lake Nasser) and is constructed near urban areas pose a high-risk potential for downstream life and property. The Dam area is one of the seismically active regions in Egypt and is occupied with several cross faults, which are dominant in the east-west and north-south. Epicenters were found to cluster around active faults in the northern part of Lake and AHD location. The space-time distribution and the relation of the seismicity with the lake water level fluctuations were studied. The Aswan seismicity separates into shallow and deep seismic zones, between 0 and 14 and 14 and 30 km, respectively. These two seismic zones behave differently over time, as indicated by the seismicity rate, lateral extent, b-value, and spatial clustering. It is characterized by earthquake swarm sequences showing activation of the clustering-events over time and space. The effect of the North African drought (1982 to present) is clearly seen in the reservoir water level. As it decreased and left the most active fault segments uncovered, the shallow activity was found to be more sensitive to rapid discharging than to the filling. This study indicates that geology, topography, lineations in seismicity, offsets in the faults, changes in fault trends and focal mechanisms are closely related. No relation was found between earthquake activity and both-ground water table fluctuations and water temperatures measured in wells located around the Kalabsha area. The peak ground acceleration is estimated in the dam site based on strong ground motion simulation. This seismic hazard analyses have indicated that AHD is stable with the present seismicity. The earthquake epicenters have recently took place approximately 5 km west of the AHD structure. This suggests that AHD dam must be

  3. Effectiveness of protected areas in maintaining plant production.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhiyao; Fang, Jingyun; Sun, Jinyu; Gaston, Kevin J

    2011-01-01

    Given the central importance of protected area systems in local, regional and global conservation strategies, it is vital that there is a good understanding of their effectiveness in maintaining ecological functioning. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first such global analysis, focusing on plant production, a "supporting" ecosystem function necessary for multiple other ecosystem services. We use data on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as a measure of variation in plant production in the core, boundary and surroundings of more than 1000 large protected areas over a 25 year period. Forested protected areas were higher (or similar), and those non-forested were lower (or similar), in NDVI than their surrounding areas, and these differences have been sustained. The differences from surrounding areas have increased for evergreen broadleaf forests and barren grounds, decreased for grasslands, and remained similar for deciduous forests, woodlands, and shrublands, reflecting different pressures on those surroundings. These results are consistent with protected areas being effective both in the representation and maintenance of plant production. However, widespread overall increases in NDVI during the study period suggest that plant production within the core of non-forested protected areas has become higher than it was in the surroundings of those areas in 1982, highlighting that whilst the distinctiveness of protected areas from their surroundings has persisted the nature of that difference has changed.

  4. Comparison of marine productivity among Outer Continental Shelf planning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Darnell, R.M.

    1991-04-01

    Continental Shelf Associates was contracted to update and expand an earlier work on a comparison of primary productivity among Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) planning areas. The update consists of four general objectives. This report addresses the fourth objective, the potential to use measures of marine secondary productivity in determining relative rankings of the OCS planning area. Ideally, comparisons of secondary productivity among diverse geographic areas would take an ecosystem perspective. However, there is not enough ecosystem-level understanding to allow a comparison on that basis. The report focuses on individual species and group of species. Zooplankton and benthic communities represent major portions of the marine ecosystems and would be the preferred subjects for comparative studies. At this time comparisons of secondary productivity among planning areas would be difficult with existing databases. It is unlikely this situation will improve in the near future.

  5. Production of high octane gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.H.; La Pierre, R.B.; Owens, P.J.; Varghese, P.

    1990-07-24

    A process for producing a high octane gasoline, which comprises hydrocracking a highly aromatic, substantially dealkylated hydrocarbon feed having an initial boiling point of at least 300{degrees}F and an end point of not more than 650{degrees}F, and aromatic content of at least 50 weight percent, an API gravity of not more than 25 and a hydrogen content not more than 12.5 weight percent at a hydrogen partial pressure of not more than 1000 psig and a conversion of greater than 50% and not more than 85% to gasoline boiling range products have an octane rating of at least 87 (RON + 0), the hydrocracking taking place in the presence of a catalyst comprising a large pore size crystalline silicate zeolite and a matrix comprising silica.

  6. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    1999-05-31

    construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

  7. General view of the High Bay area of the Space ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the High Bay area of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. This view shows the specially modified fork lift used for horizontal installation and removal of the SSMEs into and out of the Orbiters. SSME number 2059 is in the background and is in the process of being scanned with a high-definition laser scanner to acquire field documentation for the production of historic documentatin. - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  8. Global Topography of Mars from High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) Multi-Orbit Data Products: the first Quadrangle (MC-11E) and the Landing Site Areas of ExoMars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwinner, Klaus; Hauber, Ernst; Jaumann, Ralf; Michael, Gregory; Hoffmann, Harald; Heipke, Christian

    2015-04-01

    After more than 10 years of operation, the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) of ESA's Mars Express mission covered about 70% of the surface by panchromatic images at 10-20 m/pixel, and about 98% at better than 100 m/pixel. As the areas with contiguous coverage by stereo data are increasingly abundant, the HRSC team has recently started a coordinated effort for the systematic mapping of Mars by multi-orbit digital elevation models (DTMs) and image mosaics, using the complete HRSC mission data record. The new global mapping program is based on the USGS MC-30 quadrangle scheme, where quadrangles are split into eastern and western parts to limit data volumes. We present the DTM and orthoimage mosaic (grid spacing of 50 m and 12.5 m, respectively) for the first half-tile, MC-11E (Eastern Oxia Palus), and highlight their use for characterizing the landing site areas of ESA's ExoMars landing mission to be launched in 2018. HRSC is designed to map and investigate the topography of Mars and its satellites. As a push broom scanning instrument with nine CCD line detectors mounted in parallel, its unique feature is the ability to obtain along-track stereo images and four colors during a single orbital pass. The sub-pixel accuracy of derived 3D points allows producing DTMs with grid sizes of up to 50 m and a height accuracy on the order of one pixel on the ground and better. Such data products have been produced for individual HRSC strips covering approximately 40% of the surface of Mars so far. HRSC also bridges the gap between laser altimetry and topography data derived from other stereo imaging instruments, and provides geodetic reference data and geological context to a variety of stereo and non-stereo datasets. A quality assessment of the MC-11E (Eastern Oxia Palus) quadrangle products shows that, using bundle block adjustment, adjacent image strips can be co-registered with an accuracy of approximately one pixel at the highest image resolution available. We will

  9. Determining Suitable Areas for More Efficient Hazelnut Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saralioglu, E.; Yildirim, D.; Gungor, O.

    2016-06-01

    Turkey is the largest hazelnut producer and exporter in the world with approximately 75% worldwide production and 70-75% of world exports, yet according to FAO; annual yield gain rate is significantly lower than Italy and USA. While Turkey produces 0.94 ton/hectare hazelnut, average yield rates for USA, Italy and Spain are 2.6 ton/hectare, 1.68 ton/hectare and 1 ton/hectare, respectively. Hazelnut production in Turkey is primarily concentrated along Black Sea coast centered Giresun and Trabzon provinces. The purpose of this study is to propose a methodology to further improve the efficiency in hazelnut production by determining the most significant geographical criteria and using them for spatial queries and analysis in ArcGIS environment to detect most fertile hazelnut plantation areas. For the study, the Surmene district of Trabzon is selected for pilot region. A thematic map of hazelnut plantation areas created from the classification of WorldView-2 image of the district was used as the base map. Furthermore, a database is created with layers and cost maps using multicriteria decision methods. Detected most suitable areas for hazelnut production area are compared with the present situation. Proposed methodology and the database can be used by officials for better management of hazelnut production in Turkey, therefore in the world.

  10. Comparison of marine productivity among Outer Continental Shelf planning areas. Supplement: An evaluation of benthic habitat primary productivity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Balcom, B.J.; Foster, M.A.; Fourqurean, J.J.; Heine, J.N.; Leonard, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Literature on current primary productivity was reviewed and evaluated for each of nine benthic communities or habitats, estimates of daily and annual benthic primary productivity were derived within each community, the benthic primary estimates were related to an estimate of areal extent of each community within or adjacent to each OCS planning area. Direct comparisons between habitats was difficult because of the varying measures and methodologies used. Coastal marshes were the most prevalent habitat type evaluated. Mangrove and coral reef habitats were highly productive but occur within few planning areas. Benthic diatoms and blue-green algae are less productive in terms of estimated annual productivity on a per square meter basis; these habitats have the potential to occur across wide areas of the OCS and should not be overlooked.

  11. 7 CFR 984.4 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area of production. 984.4 Section 984.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  12. 7 CFR 984.4 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Area of production. 984.4 Section 984.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  13. 7 CFR 984.4 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area of production. 984.4 Section 984.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  14. 7 CFR 984.4 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Area of production. 984.4 Section 984.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  15. 7 CFR 984.4 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Area of production. 984.4 Section 984.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  16. 7 CFR 982.5 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area of production. 982.5 Section 982.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  17. 7 CFR 982.5 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Area of production. 982.5 Section 982.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  18. 7 CFR 982.5 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area of production. 982.5 Section 982.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  19. 7 CFR 982.5 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Area of production. 982.5 Section 982.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  20. 7 CFR 982.5 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Area of production. 982.5 Section 982.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  1. 7 CFR 981.11 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Area of production. 981.11 Section 981.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  2. 7 CFR 981.11 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Area of production. 981.11 Section 981.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  3. 7 CFR 981.11 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area of production. 981.11 Section 981.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  4. 7 CFR 981.11 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Area of production. 981.11 Section 981.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  5. 7 CFR 981.11 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area of production. 981.11 Section 981.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  6. Area (or entropy) product formula for a regular black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-02-01

    We compute the area (or entropy) product formula for a regular black hole derived by Ayón-Beato and García (Phys Rev Lett 80:5056, 1998). By explicit and exact calculation, it is shown that the entropy product formula of two physical horizons strictly depends upon the ADM mass parameter that means it is not an universal (mass-independent) quantity. But a slightly more complicated function of event horizon area and Cauchy horizon area is indeed a mass-independent quantity. We also compute other thermodynamic properties of the said black hole. We further study the stability of such black hole by computing the specific heat for both the horizons. It has been observed that under certain condition the black hole possesses second order phase transition. The pictorial diagram of the phase transition is given.

  7. High productivity injection practices at Rouge Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, D.H.; Hegler, G.L.; Falls, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    Rouge Steel Company, located in Dearborn, Michigan, operates two blast furnaces. The smaller of the pair, ``B`` Furnace, has a hearth diameter of 20 feet and 12 tuyeres. It has averaged 2,290 NTHM (net ton of hot metal) per day of 8.2 NTHM per 100 cubic feet of working volume. ``C`` Furnace has a hearth diameter of 29 feet and 20 tuyeres. Both of these furnaces are single tap hole furnaces. Prior to its reline in 1991, ``C`` Furnace was producing at a rate of 3,300 NTHM/day or about 6.25 NTHM/100 cfwv. In November, 1994 it averaged 5,106 NTHM/day or 9.6 NTHM/100 cfwv. This paper discusses how the current production rates were achieved. Also, the areas that needed to be addressed as production increased will be described. These areas include casthouse arrangement and workload, hot metal ladle capacity, slag pot capacity and charging capability. Coupled with the high blast temperature capability, the furnace was provided with a new natural gas injection system that injected the gas through the blowpipes and a natural gas injection system to enrich the stove gas. Following the furnace reline, natural gas has been used in three ways: tuyere level control; combination injection; and stove gas enrichment. Coke consumption rate has also decreased per NTHM.

  8. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. M.A. Ebadian

    2000-01-13

    The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

  9. Modeling biotic habitat high risk areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Despain, D.G.; Beier, P.; Tate, C.; Durtsche, B.M.; Stephens, T.

    2000-01-01

    Fire, especially stand replacing fire, poses a threat to many threatened and endangered species as well as their habitat. On the other hand, fire is important in maintaining a variety of successional stages that can be important for approach risk assessment to assist in prioritizing areas for allocation of fire mitigation funds. One example looks at assessing risk to the species and biotic communities of concern followed by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. One looks at the risk to Mexican spottled owls. Another looks at the risk to cutthroat trout, and a fourth considers the general effects of fire and elk.

  10. High Efficiency Large Area Polysilicon Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. M.; Winter, C.

    1985-01-01

    Large area (100 sq cm) polysilicon solar cells having efficiencies of up to 14.1% (100 mW/sq cm, 25 C) were fabricated and a detailed analysis was performed to identify the efficiency loss mechanisms. The 1-5 characteristics of the best cell were dominated by recombination in the quasi-neutral base due to the combination of minority carrier diffusion length and base resistivity. An analysis of the microstructural defects present in the material and their effect on the electrical properties is presented.

  11. Facile synthesis of high surface area molybdenum nitride and carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Aaron; Serov, Alexey; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Brosha, Eric L.; Atanassov, Plamen; Ward, Tim L.

    2015-08-15

    The synthesis of high surface area γ-Mo{sub 2}N and α-Mo{sub 2}C is reported (116 and 120 m{sup 2}/g) without the temperature programmed reduction of MoO{sub 3}. γ-Mo{sub 2}N was prepared in an NH{sub 3}-free synthesis using forming gas (7 at% H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}-balance) as the reactive atmosphere. Three precursors were studied ((NH{sub 4}){sub 6}Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}·4H{sub 2}O, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2} Mg(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}, and MgMoO{sub 4}) along with the sacrificial support method (SSM) as a means of reducing the particle size of Mo{sub 2}N and Mo{sub 2}C. In situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were carried out to identify reaction intermediates, the temperature at which various intermediates form, and the average domain size of the Mo{sub 2}N products. Materials were synthesized in bulk and further characterized by XRD, HRTEM, XPS, and BET. - Highlights: • Facile synthesis of γ-Mo2N and α-Mo2C with surface area exceeding 100 m{sup 2}/g. • Sacrificial support method was used to achieve these high surface areas. • Materials can serve as catalysts or supports in (electro)chemical processes.

  12. Production of high purity radiothallium

    DOEpatents

    Lebowitz, Elliot; Greene, Margaret W.

    1976-11-23

    The method of producing high purity thallium-201 for use as a myocardial scanning agent comprising the steps of irradiating a thallium target with protons to give the reaction .sup.203 Tl(p,3n) .sup.201.sub.Pb, separating in ion exchange columns the lead from the thallium isotopes, permitting the lead to decay, and then purifying the thallium solution and converting the thallium present to thallous form in which it can be used.

  13. Acoustic black holes and universal aspects of area products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anacleto, M. A.; Brito, F. A.; Passos, E.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we derive acoustic metrics in the (3 + 1)-dimensional Abelian Higgs model with higher derivative terms. We have found acoustic metrics that are conformally related to the Reissner-Nordström and Kerr-Newman metrics. The universal aspects of area products which depend only on quantized quantities such as conserved electric charge and angular momentum are also addressed. We relate these areas with entanglement entropy of acoustic black holes in BEC systems. We also have shown there is an equivalence between microscopic descriptions of axisymmetric acoustic black hole entropy in a BEC system in four and two dimensions. Particularly, the system seems to develop an analogue of the Kerr/CFT correspondence.

  14. Measurement of Interfacial Area Production and Permeability within Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the pore-level interactions that affect multi-phase flow in porous media is important in many subsurface engineering applications, including enhanced oil recovery, remediation of dense non-aqueous liquid contaminated sites, and geologic CO2 sequestration. Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to have several shortcomings, which might partially be overcome using a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles that includes interfacial area as an additional parameter. A few static experimental studies have been previously performed, which allowed the determination of static parameters of the model, but no information exists concerning the interfacial area dynamic parameters. A new experimental porous flow cell that was constructed using stereolithography for two-phase gas-liquid flow studies was used in conjunction with an in-house analysis code to provide information on dynamic evolution of both fluid phases and gas-liquid interfaces. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the new generalized model of two-phase flow model and describe how the stereolithography flow cell experimental setup was used to obtain the dynamic parameters for the interfacial area numerical model. In particular, the methods used to determine the interfacial area permeability and production terms are shown.

  15. Estimating the Effects of the Terminal Area Productivity Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, David A.; Kostiuk, Peter F.; Hemm, Robert V., Jr.; Wingrove, Earl R., III; Shapiro, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    The report describes methods and results of an analysis of the technical and economic benefits of the systems to be developed in the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. A runway capacity model using parameters that reflect the potential impact of the TAP technologies is described. The runway capacity model feeds airport specific models which are also described. The capacity estimates are used with a queuing model to calculate aircraft delays, and TAP benefits are determined by calculating the savings due to reduced delays. The report includes benefit estimates for Boston Logan and Detroit Wayne County airports. An appendix includes a description and listing of the runway capacity model.

  16. Design-based validation of the MODIS Global Burned Area Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.; Stehman, S. V.

    2012-12-01

    The potential research, policy and management applications of satellite products place a high priority on providing statements about their accuracy. Product comparison with independent reference data is needed to determine product accuracy. Design-based accuracy assessment methods select the independent reference data using a probability sampling and are preferred as the reference data can subsequently be used to compute accuracy metrics that explicitly take into account the sampling probability. To date, no global burned area product has been validated using a design-based methodology due to the technical challenges of designing an appropriate independent reference data sampling strategy, and, until recently, due to the high cost of independent reference data collection. Burned area product errors are not randomly distributed in space and time and tend to be linked to seasonal phenomena that can be confused with burning. This paper describes the design-based sampling strategy developed for the validation of the MODIS Global Burned Area Products using more than 200 globally distributed multi-temporal pairs of Landsat scenes, processed following the recommendations of the CEOS Cal/Val Burned Area Validation Protocol. The sampling design is illustrated and the advantages of the design-based sampling discussed.

  17. Design, Production and Testing of Cost-Effective, Large-Area, MCP-based Planar Photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Junqi; Byrum, Karen; Demarteau, Marcel; Noonan, John; Setru, Sagar; Virgo, Mathew; Wagner, Robert; Walters, Dean; Wang, Xing; Xia, Lei; Zhao, Huyue

    2014-03-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP)-based photodetectors with large-area, thin planar geometry and glass-body assembly, are considered as next generation photodetector to replace photomultiplier tubes. They have shown significant potential for applications in high energy collider physics and astrophysics. Due to the extreme sensitivity of the photocathode to water and oxygen, the production of this kind of photodetectors requires photocathodes to be transferred under high vacuum. A new photodetector production facility at Argonne National Laboratory was designed and constructed. The facility aims to produce small form-factor, MCP-based photodetectors completely made out of glass. 6 x 6 cm2 photodetectors using metal and alkali antimonide as photocathode are currently under production. An overview of the production sequence and first performance results will be presented. Scaling up the production to larger form-factor devices will be discussed. The challenge of sealing a large area photodetector has recently been overcome. Windows with 20 × 20 cm2 active photocathode area were successfully sealed and progress towards large-area photodetector production progress will be reported.

  18. Worldwide production of high-fructose syrup and crystalline fructose.

    PubMed

    Vuilleumier, S

    1993-11-01

    High-fructose syrups (HFS) are now manufactured and used in many countries throughout the world. They are produced from a variety of starch raw materials including corn, rice, tapioca, wheat, cassava, and sugar beet pulp. Production of HFS is highly dependent on local sucrose and economics of agricultural raw materials. HFS is produced and consumed in the largest quantity in the United States by using corn starch as the raw material. Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, and Asia are major growth areas for HFS production. Crystalline fructose is now being used in a growing number of food applications but its production represents a small percentage of total fructose sweeteners.

  19. Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

    2008-12-31

    The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD

  20. Productivity of Premodern Agriculture in the Cucuteni-Trypillia Area.

    PubMed

    Shukurov, Anvar; Sarson, Graeme; Videiko, Mykhailo; Henderson, Kate; Shiel, Robert; Dolukhanov, Pavel; Pashkevich, Galina

    2015-07-01

    We present paleoeconomy reconstructions for premodern agriculture, selecting, wherever required, features and parameter values specific for the Cucuteni-Trypillia cultural unity (CTU; 5,400-2,700 BC, mostly the territory of modern Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania). We verify the self-consistency and viability of the archaeological evidence related to all major elements of the agricultural production cycle within the constraints provided by environmental and technological considerations. The starting point of our analysis is the paleodiet structure suggested by archaeological data, stable isotope analyses of human remains, and palynology studies in the CTU area. We allow for the archeologically attested contributions of domesticated and wild animal products to the diet, develop plausible estimates of the yield of ancient cereal varieties cultivated with ancient techniques, and quantify the yield dependence on the time after initial planting and on rainfall (as a climate proxy). Our conclusions involve analysis of the labor costs of various seasonal parts of the agricultural cycle of both an individual and a family with a majority of members that do not engage in productive activities that require physical fitness, such as tillage. Finally, we put our results into the context of the exploitation territory and catchment analysis, to project various subsistence strategies into the exploitation territory of a farming settlement. The simplest economic complex based on cereals and domestic and wild animal products, with fallow cropping, appears to be capable of supporting an isolated, relatively small farming settlement of 50-300 people (2-10 ha in area) even without recourse to technological improvements such as the use of manure fertilizer. Our results strongly suggest that dairy products played a significant role in the dietary and labor balance. The smaller settlements are typical of the earliest Trypillia A stage but remain predominant at the later stages. A larger

  1. Productivity of Premodern Agriculture in the Cucuteni-Trypillia Area.

    PubMed

    Shukurov, Anvar; Sarson, Graeme; Videiko, Mykhailo; Henderson, Kate; Shiel, Robert; Dolukhanov, Pavel; Pashkevich, Galina

    2015-07-01

    We present paleoeconomy reconstructions for premodern agriculture, selecting, wherever required, features and parameter values specific for the Cucuteni-Trypillia cultural unity (CTU; 5,400-2,700 BC, mostly the territory of modern Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania). We verify the self-consistency and viability of the archaeological evidence related to all major elements of the agricultural production cycle within the constraints provided by environmental and technological considerations. The starting point of our analysis is the paleodiet structure suggested by archaeological data, stable isotope analyses of human remains, and palynology studies in the CTU area. We allow for the archeologically attested contributions of domesticated and wild animal products to the diet, develop plausible estimates of the yield of ancient cereal varieties cultivated with ancient techniques, and quantify the yield dependence on the time after initial planting and on rainfall (as a climate proxy). Our conclusions involve analysis of the labor costs of various seasonal parts of the agricultural cycle of both an individual and a family with a majority of members that do not engage in productive activities that require physical fitness, such as tillage. Finally, we put our results into the context of the exploitation territory and catchment analysis, to project various subsistence strategies into the exploitation territory of a farming settlement. The simplest economic complex based on cereals and domestic and wild animal products, with fallow cropping, appears to be capable of supporting an isolated, relatively small farming settlement of 50-300 people (2-10 ha in area) even without recourse to technological improvements such as the use of manure fertilizer. Our results strongly suggest that dairy products played a significant role in the dietary and labor balance. The smaller settlements are typical of the earliest Trypillia A stage but remain predominant at the later stages. A larger

  2. High volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B.; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Seals, Roland D.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2009-10-13

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  3. Production of High Purity Niobium Ingots at CBMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Moura, Lourenço; de Faria Sousa, Clovis Antonio; Cruz, Edmundo Burgos

    2011-03-01

    CBMM is a fully integrated company, from the mine to the end line of the production chain, supplying different niobium products to the world market: ferroniobium, nickelniobium, niobium pentoxide and high purity metallic niobium. This high purity metallic niobium has long been known to exhibit superconductivity below 9.25 Kelvin. This characteristic has the potential to bring technological benefits for many different areas such as medicine, computing and environment. This paper presents the raw material requirements as well as CBMM experience on producing high purity niobium ingots. The results prove that CBMM material can be the best solution for special applications such as low cost superconductive radiofrequency cavities.

  4. Production of High Purity Niobium Ingots at CBMM

    SciTech Connect

    Moura, Lourenco de; Faria Sousa, Clovis Antonio de; Burgos Cruz, Edmundo

    2011-03-31

    CBMM is a fully integrated company, from the mine to the end line of the production chain, supplying different niobium products to the world market: ferroniobium, nickelniobium, niobium pentoxide and high purity metallic niobium. This high purity metallic niobium has long been known to exhibit superconductivity below 9.25 Kelvin. This characteristic has the potential to bring technological benefits for many different areas such as medicine, computing and environment. This paper presents the raw material requirements as well as CBMM experience on producing high purity niobium ingots. The results prove that CBMM material can be the best solution for special applications such as low cost superconductive radiofrequency cavities.

  5. Strategy For A/M Area Production Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.G.; Looney, B.B.; Bergren, C.L.; Wells, D.G.; Beavers, B.A.

    1996-02-29

    Savannah River Site personnel are planning a two phase program in order to significantly reduce the amount of dissolved chlorinated solvents that are being transported to the McQueen branch Aquifer via the wellbore and gravel pack zones of the A/M Area production well system. In Phase I of the program a commercially available inflatable packer and check valve assembly will be installed inside the casing at the altitude of the McQueen Branch Confining Unit. This immediate, short term solution will eliminate the majority of the contaminant mass that is moving downward through the wellbore of the A/M Area production wells. During the packer installation process several pre- and post- testing activities are planned to aid SRS investigators in understanding the dynamics of the flow conditions and effectiveness of the installed assembly.The second phase of the program will address the small amount of contaminant mass that is moving downward through the continuous gravel pack of the production wells. The investigative data obtained during Phase I of this program will be beneficial for developing plans and appropriate actions for the Phase II activities. Site personnel are currently evaluating various options, i.e. casing perforation with grout injection or partial well abandonment, to eliminate the downward flow in the gravel pack at the altitude of the McQueen Branch Confining Zone. In addressing potential remediation actions for the dissolved solvents in the Cretaceous sediments, due to the limited vertical extent of the plume and the size, any remediation program should incorporate carefully located wells screened vertically within the plume trajectory.This optimizing approach will minimize water treatment and pumping costs and maximize the amount of contaminant removal. Flow and contaminant transport modeling scenarios are currently being developed to address the Cretaceous sediments. These efforts involve incorporating the available characterization data and the

  6. Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Areas. Methodology for Designating High Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HCR, Washington, DC.

    This report describes a method to estimate the number of migrant and seasonal farmworkers present in a prescribed area during crop harvest, and to pinpoint areas of high need for health and social services. The collection of health clinic and federal program data on migrant and seasonal farmworkers in Florida, northwestern Ohio, and Maryland's…

  7. 5. WEST MEZZANINE, LOOKING NORTH, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. WEST MEZZANINE, LOOKING NORTH, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION BUS AND SWITCHING EQUIPMENT FOR BUILDINGS L1 AND L2 - Portland General Electric Company, Lincoln Substation, 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  8. 6. SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION BUS AND SWITCHING EQUIPMENT FOR BUILDINGS L1 AND L2 - Portland General Electric Company, Lincoln Substation, 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  9. Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L.

    1999-05-11

    A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO{sub 2} at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere. 3 figs.

  10. Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, Robert R.; Schroeder, John L.

    1999-05-11

    A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO.sub.2 at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere.

  11. Effects of Climate Change on Range Forage Production in the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; George, Melvin R.

    2013-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA is a highly heterogeneous region in climate, topography, and habitats, as well as in its political and economic interests. Successful conservation strategies must consider various current and future competing demands for the land, and should pay special attention to livestock grazing, the dominant non-urban land-use. The main objective of this study was to predict changes in rangeland forage production in response to changes in temperature and precipitation projected by downscaled output from global climate models. Daily temperature and precipitation data generated by four climate models were used as input variables for an existing rangeland forage production model (linear regression) for California’s annual rangelands and projected on 244 12 km x 12 km grid cells for eight Bay Area counties. Climate model projections suggest that forage production in Bay Area rangelands may be enhanced by future conditions in most years, at least in terms of peak standing crop. However, the timing of production is as important as its peak, and altered precipitation patterns could mean delayed germination, resulting in shorter growing seasons and longer periods of inadequate forage quality. An increase in the frequency of extremely dry years also increases the uncertainty of forage availability. These shifts in forage production will affect the economic viability and conservation strategies for rangelands in the San Francisco Bay Area. PMID:23472102

  12. Effects of climate change on range forage production in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; George, Melvin R

    2013-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA is a highly heterogeneous region in climate, topography, and habitats, as well as in its political and economic interests. Successful conservation strategies must consider various current and future competing demands for the land, and should pay special attention to livestock grazing, the dominant non-urban land-use. The main objective of this study was to predict changes in rangeland forage production in response to changes in temperature and precipitation projected by downscaled output from global climate models. Daily temperature and precipitation data generated by four climate models were used as input variables for an existing rangeland forage production model (linear regression) for California's annual rangelands and projected on 244 12 km x 12 km grid cells for eight Bay Area counties. Climate model projections suggest that forage production in Bay Area rangelands may be enhanced by future conditions in most years, at least in terms of peak standing crop. However, the timing of production is as important as its peak, and altered precipitation patterns could mean delayed germination, resulting in shorter growing seasons and longer periods of inadequate forage quality. An increase in the frequency of extremely dry years also increases the uncertainty of forage availability. These shifts in forage production will affect the economic viability and conservation strategies for rangelands in the San Francisco Bay Area.

  13. Spatial overlap between environmental policy instruments and areas of high conservation value in forest.

    PubMed

    Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Søgaard, Gunnhild; Rusch, Graciela M; Barton, David N

    2014-01-01

    In order to safeguard biodiversity in forest we need to know how forest policy instruments work. Here we use a nationwide network of 9400 plots in productive forest to analyze to what extent large-scale policy instruments, individually and together, target forest of high conservation value in Norway. We studied both instruments working through direct regulation; Strict Protection and Landscape Protection, and instruments working through management planning and voluntary schemes of forest certification; Wilderness Area and Mountain Forest. As forest of high conservation value (HCV-forest) we considered the extent of 12 Biodiversity Habitats and the extent of Old-Age Forest. We found that 22% of productive forest area contained Biodiversity Habitats. More than 70% of this area was not covered by any large-scale instruments. Mountain Forest covered 23%, while Strict Protection and Wilderness both covered 5% of the Biodiversity Habitat area. A total of 9% of productive forest area contained Old-Age Forest, and the relative coverage of the four instruments was similar as for Biodiversity Habitats. For all instruments, except Landscape Protection, the targeted areas contained significantly higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas not targeted by these instruments. Areas targeted by Strict Protection had higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas targeted by other instruments, except for areas targeted by Wilderness Area which showed similar proportions of Biodiversity Habitats. There was a substantial amount of spatial overlap between the policy tools, but no incremental conservation effect of overlapping instruments in terms of contributing to higher percentages of targeted HCV-forest. Our results reveal that although the current policy mix has an above average representation of forest of high conservation value, the targeting efficiency in terms of area overlap is limited. There is a need to improve forest conservation and a potential to cover this need by better

  14. High-resolution sea wind hindcasts over the Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez, M.; García-Díez, M.; Fita, L.; Fernández, J.; Méndez, F. J.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this study is to develop a high-resolution atmospheric hindcast over the Mediterranean area using the WRF-ARW model, focusing on offshore surface wind fields. In order to choose the most adequate model configuration, the study provides details on the calibration of the experimental saet-up through a sensitivity test considering the October-December 2001 period (the 2001 super-storm event in the West Mediterranean). A daily forecast outperforms the spectral technique of previous products and the boundary data from ERA-Interim reanalysis produces the most accurate estimates in terms of wind variability and hour-to-hour correspondence. According to the sensitivity test, two data sets of wind hindcast are produced: the SeaWind I (30-km horizontal resolution for a period of 60 years) and the SeaWind II (15-km horizontal resolution for 20 years). The validation of the resulting surface winds is undertaken considering two offshore observational datasets. On the one hand, hourly surface buoy stations are used to validate wind time series at specific locations; on the other hand, wind altimeter satellite observations are considered for spatial validation in the whole Mediterranean Sea. The results obtained from this validation process show a very good agreement with observations for the southern Europe region. Finally, SeaWind I and II are used to characterize offshore wind fields in the Mediterranean Sea. The statistical structure of sea surface wind is analyzed and the agreement with Weibull probability distribution is discussed. In addition, wind persistence and extreme wind speed (50 year return period) are characterized and relevant areas of wind power generation are described by estimating wind energy quantities.

  15. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  16. High purity silane and silicon production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breneman, William C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Silicon tetrachloride, hydrogen and metallurgical silicon are reacted at about 400.degree.-600.degree. C. and at pressures in excess of 100 psi, and specifically from about 300 up to about 600 psi to form di- and trichlorosilane that is subjected to disproportionation in the presence of an anion exchange resin to form high purity silane. By-product and unreacted materials are recycled, with metallurgical silicon and hydrogen being essentially the only consumed feed materials. The silane product may be further purified, as by means of activated carbon or cryogenic distillation, and decomposed in a fluid bed or free space reactor to form high purity polycrystalline silicon and by-product hydrogen which can be recycled for further use. The process results in simplified waste disposal operations and enhances the overall conversion of metallurgical grade silicon to silane and high purity silicon for solar cell and semiconductor silicon applications.

  17. Validating long-term satellite-derived disturbance products: the case of burned areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The potential research, policy and management applications of satellite products place a high priority on providing statements about their accuracy. A number of NASA, ESA and EU funded global and continental burned area products have been developed using coarse spatial resolution satellite data, and have the potential to become part of a long-term fire Climate Data Record. These products have usually been validated by comparison with reference burned area maps derived by visual interpretation of Landsat or similar spatial resolution data selected on an ad hoc basis. More optimally, a design-based validation method should be adopted that is characterized by the selection of reference data via a probability sampling that can subsequently be used to compute accuracy metrics, taking into account the sampling probability. Design based techniques have been used for annual land cover and land cover change product validation, but have not been widely used for burned area products, or for the validation of global products that are highly variable in time and space (e.g. snow, floods or other non-permanent phenomena). This has been due to the challenge of designing an appropriate sampling strategy, and to the cost of collecting independent reference data. We propose a tri-dimensional sampling grid that allows for probability sampling of Landsat data in time and in space. To sample the globe in the spatial domain with non-overlapping sampling units, the Thiessen Scene Area (TSA) tessellation of the Landsat WRS path/rows is used. The TSA grid is then combined with the 16-day Landsat acquisition calendar to provide tri-dimensonal elements (voxels). This allows the implementation of a sampling design where not only the location but also the time interval of the reference data is explicitly drawn by probability sampling. The proposed sampling design is a stratified random sampling, with two-level stratification of the voxels based on biomes and fire activity (Figure 1). The novel

  18. 15. VIEW OF MODULE H, THE HIGH PRESSURE ASSEMBLY AREA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF MODULE H, THE HIGH PRESSURE ASSEMBLY AREA. PROCESSES IN THIS MODULE OCCURRED UNDER HIGH PRESSURES AND TEMPERATURES. (5/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  19. Identifying high production, low production and degraded rangelands in Senegal with normalized difference vegetation index data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappan, G. Gray; Wood, Lynette; Moore, Donald G.

    1993-01-01

    Seasonal herbaceous vegetation production on Senegal's native rangelands exhibits high spatial and temporal variability. This variability can be monitored using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data computed from 1-km resolution Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) image data. Although annual fluctuations in rainfall account for some of the variability, numerous long-term production patterns are evident in the AVHRR time-series data. Different n productivity reflect variations in the region's climate, topography, soils, and land use. Areas of overgrazing and intensive cultivation have caused long-term soil and vegetation degradation. Rangelands of high and low productivity, and degraded rangelands were identified using NDVI. Time-series image data from 1987 though 1992 were used to map relative rangeland productivity. The results were compared to detailed resource maps on soils, vegetation and land use. Much of the variation in rangeland productivity correlated well to the known distribution of resources. The study developed an approach that identified a number of areas of degraded soils and low vegetation production.

  20. Environmental Quality Assessment of Built Areas with High Vacancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y.; Yuan, Y.; Neale, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Around the world, many urban areas are challenged by vacant and abandoned residential and business property. High vacancy areas have often been associated with increasing public safety problems and declining property values and subsequent tax base. High vacancy can lead to visible signs of city decline and significant barriers to the revitalization of cities. Addressing the problem of vacancy requires knowledge of vacancy patterns and their possible contributing factors. In this study, we evaluated the ten year (2005-2015) urban environmental changes for some high vacancy areas. Social and economic variables derived from U.S. census data such as non-white population, employment rate, housing price, and environmental variables derived from National Land Cover Data such as land cover and impervious area, were used as the basis for analysis. Correlation analysis and principle components analysis were performed at the Census Block Group level. Three components were identified and interpreted as economic status, urbanness, and greenness. A synthetic Urban Environmental Quality (UEQ) index was developed by integrating the three principle components according to their weights. Comparisons of the UEQ indices between the 2005 and 2015 in the increasingly high vacancy area provided useful information for investigating the possible associations between social, economic, and environmental factors, and the vacancy status. This study could provide useful information for understanding the complex issues leading to vacancy and facilitating future rehabilitation of vacant urban area.

  1. Water Production Functions For High Plains Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declining water supplies is the critical resource issue for irrigated agriculture in the High Plains and much of the western U.S. Farmers need to maximize production per unit water consumed to remain economically viable and sustain irrigated agriculture. The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Wat...

  2. Water Production Functions for High Plains Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water Production Functions for High Plains Crops Water consumptive use by a crop can be reduced through limited (deficit) irrigation. If the reduced consumptive use (CU) can be quantified, the saved water can be transferred to other users. If the value of the transferred water is greater than the fa...

  3. The Cancer Mortality in High Natural Radiation Areas in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Fornalski, Krzysztof Wojciech; Dobrzyński, Ludwik

    2012-01-01

    The cancer mortality ratios (CMRs) in Poland in high and low level radiation areas were analyzed based on information from national cancer registry. Presented ecological study concerned six regions, extending from the largest administration areas (a group of voivodeships), to the smallest regions (single counties). The data show that the relative risk of cancer deaths is lower in the higher radiation level areas. The decrease by 1.17%/mSv/year (p = 0.02) of all cancer deaths and by 0.82%/mSv/year (p = 0.2) of lung cancers only are observed. Tribute to Prof. Zbigniew Jaworowski (1927–2011) PMID:23304104

  4. Recruiting and retaining high-quality teachers in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Monk, David H

    2007-01-01

    In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize labor costs. Many, though not all, rural areas, he says, are seriously impoverished. Classes in rural schools are relatively small, and teachers tend to report satisfaction with their work environments and relatively few problems with discipline. But teacher turnover is often high, and hiring can be difficult. Monk observes that rural schools have a below-average share of highly trained teachers. Compensation in rural schools tends to be low, perhaps because of a lower fiscal capacity in rural areas, thus complicating efforts to attract and retain teachers. Several student characteristics, including relatively large shares of students with special needs and with limited English skills and lower shares of students attending college, can also make it difficult to recruit and retain high-quality teachers. Other challenges include meeting the needs of highly mobile children of low-income migrant farm workers. With respect to public policy, Monk asserts a need to focus on a subcategory of what might be called hard-to-staff rural schools rather than to develop a blanket set of policies for all rural schools. In particular, he recommends a focus on such indicators as low teacher qualifications, teaching in fields far removed from the area of training, difficulty in hiring, high turnover, a lack of diversity among teachers in the school, and the presence of migrant farm workers' children. Successful efforts to stimulate economic growth in these areas would be highly beneficial. He also calls attention to the potential for modern telecommunication and computing technologies to offset some of the drawbacks associated with teaching

  5. EAP high-level product architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudlaugsson, T. V.; Mortensen, N. H.; Sarban, R.

    2013-04-01

    EAP technology has the potential to be used in a wide range of applications. This poses the challenge to the EAP component manufacturers to develop components for a wide variety of products. Danfoss Polypower A/S is developing an EAP technology platform, which can form the basis for a variety of EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture. This description breaks down the EAP transducer into organs that perform the functions that may be present in an EAP transducer. A physical instance of an EAP transducer contains a combination of the organs needed to fulfill the task of actuator, sensor, and generation. Alternative principles for each organ allow the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams. The platform approach has resulted in the first version of an EAP technology platform, on which multiple EAP products can be based. The contents of the platform have been the result of multi-disciplinary development work at Danfoss PolyPower, as well as collaboration with potential customers and research institutions. Initial results from applying the platform on demonstrator design for potential applications are promising. The scope of the article does not include technical details.

  6. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOEpatents

    Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Ott, Martin A.; Fowler, Malcolm; Heaton, Richard C.

    2003-10-28

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity Cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  7. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOEpatents

    Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Ott, Martin A.; Fowler, Malcolm; Heaton, Richard C.

    2002-12-03

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  8. Biological productivity regime and associated N cycling in the vicinity of Kerguelen Island area, Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, A. J.; Fripiat, F.; Elskens, M.; Dehairs, F.; Mangion, P.; Chirurgien, L.; Closset, I.; Lasbleiz, M.; Flores-Leiva, L.; Cardinal, D.; Leblanc, K.; Fernandez, C.; Lefèvre, D.; Oriol, L.; Blain, S.; Quéguiner, B.

    2014-12-01

    Although the Southern Ocean is considered a High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll area (HNLC), massive and recurrent blooms are observed over and downstream the Kerguelen Plateau. This mosaic of blooms is triggered by a higher iron supply resulting from the interaction between the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the local bathymetry. Net primary production, N-uptake (NO3- and NH4+), and nitrification rates were measured at 8 stations in austral spring 2011 (October-November) during the KEOPS2 cruise in the Kerguelen area. Iron fertilization stimulates primary production, with integrated net primary production and growth rates much higher in the fertilized areas (up to 315 mmol C m-2 d-1 and up to 0.31 d-1, respectively) compared to the HNLC reference site (12 mmol C m-2 d-1 and 0.06 d-1, respectively). Primary production is mainly sustained by nitrate uptake, with f ratio (corresponding to NO3- uptake/(NO3- uptake + NH4+ uptake)) lying in the upper end of the observations for the Southern Ocean (up to 0.9). Unexpectedly, we report unprecedented rates of nitrification (up to ~3 mmol C m-2 d-1, with ~90% of them <1 mmol C m-2 d-1). It appears that nitrate is assimilated in the upper part of the mixed layer (coinciding with the euphotic layer) and regenerated in the lower parts. We suggest that such high contribution of nitrification to nitrate assimilation is driven by (i) a deep mixed layer, extending well below the euphotic layer, allowing nitrifiers to compete with phytoplankton for the assimilation of ammonium, (ii) extremely high rates of primary production for the Southern Ocean, stimulating the release of dissolved organic matter, and (iii) an efficient food web, allowing the reprocessing of organic N and the retention of nitrogen into the dissolved phase through ammonium, the substrate for nitrification.

  9. Storage Area Networks and The High Performance Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, H; Graf, O; Fitzgerald, K; Watson, R W

    2002-03-04

    The High Performance Storage System (HPSS) is a mature Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system that was developed around a network-centered architecture, with client access to storage provided through third-party controls. Because of this design, HPSS is able to leverage today's Storage Area Network (SAN) infrastructures to provide cost effective, large-scale storage systems and high performance global file access for clients. Key attributes of SAN file systems are found in HPSS today, and more complete SAN file system capabilities are being added. This paper traces the HPSS storage network architecture from the original implementation using HIPPI and IPI-3 technology, through today's local area network (LAN) capabilities, and to SAN file system capabilities now in development. At each stage, HPSS capabilities are compared with capabilities generally accepted today as characteristic of storage area networks and SAN file systems.

  10. Resilience Strategies for New Teachers in High-Needs Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Antonio J.; Kelly, John; Shih, Minyi

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates strategies of resilience exhibited by fifteen novice teachers employed in high-needs areas, such as in urban and rural contexts and in special education. Findings indicated that teachers utilised a variety of strategies, including help-seeking, problem-solving, managing difficult relationships, and seeking…

  11. New concepts regarding the production of waterfowl and other game birds in areas of diversified agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, H.K.; Duebbert, H.F.

    1974-01-01

    Many concepts regarding breeding ecology of waterfowl and the influences of environmental factors on annual production have changed in the past 20 years. These influences are especially pronounced in the prairie region of central North America where agriculture becomes more intensive each year. The principal task assigned to this Research Center when established in 1965 was to determine the relative impact of these influences on production and to identify those facets of breeding biology, nesting habitat requirements and other factors that may be altered to increase production on lands dedicated for this purpose. A corollary objective was to develop methods for enhancing production of waterfowl and other ground-nesting birds on private lands in agricultural areas. Some of the highlights of our findings to date, together with the results from current work of others, provide new information on waterfowl that indicates: (1) homing instincts are not as specific as indicated by earlier workers, (2) there are differences in pioneering between species, sexes and age classes, (3) strength and duration of pair bonds vary by species and age classes, (4) territorial tolerances for most species are greater than previously indicated, (5) there is differential productivity by age classes in some species, (6) there has been a gradual decline in nesting success in the prairie region the past 30 years, (7) adverse influences of intensive agriculture are increasing, (8) mammalian predation is an important factor, (9) high quality, secure nesting habitat and a complex of wetland types are the essential components of an optimum production unit, (10) the size and shape of blocks of nesting cover are important management considerations, (11) overharvest of local breeding populations is becoming a serious problem in some areas. Each of these subjects is discussed as related to research objectives and current management problems. Recommendations are presented for obtaining maximum

  12. Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced PADD IV refining capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.; Chin, S.M.

    1994-02-01

    Studies of Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced refining capacity in Petroleum Administration for Defense IV (PADD IV, part of the Rocky Mountain area) have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model, a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy constraints on emissions of nitrogen oxides and winter toxic air pollutants. The studies do not predict refinery closures in PADD IV. Rather, the reduced refining capacities provide an analytical framework for probing the flexibility of petroleum refining and distribution for winter demand conditions in the year 2000. Industry analysts have estimated that, for worst case scenarios, 20 to 35 percent of PADD IV refining capacity could be shut-down as a result of clean air and energy tax legislation. Given these industry projections, the study scenarios provide the following conclusions: The Rocky Mountain area petroleum system would have the capability to satisfy winter product demand with PADD IV refinery capacity shut-downs in the middle of the range of industry projections, but not in the high end of the range of projections. PADD IV crude oil production can be maintained by re-routing crude released from PADD IV refinery demands to satisfy increased crude oil demands in PADDs II (Midwest), III (Gulf Coast), and Washington. Clean Air Act product quality regulations generally do not increase the difficulty of satisfying emissions reduction constraints in the scenarios.

  13. Mangrove rehabilitation in high erosion areas: Assessment using bioindicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Stephen Ryan; Johnstone, Ron William

    2015-11-01

    This study identifies a potentially effective rehabilitation technique for implementation in high erosion areas through the use of bioindicators. This is significant given that one third of mangroves have been cleared globally with clearing continuing at a rate of 1-2% per annum. There have been various attempts to rehabilitate degraded mangrove forests, however the success or failure of these is mostly unclear due to a lack of assessment. The two rehabilitation techniques assessed in this study were a basic fence system and another more elaborate fence technique designed by the Kien Giang Biosphere Reserve Project (KGBRP), Vietnam. The assessment was conducted by comparing vegetation and faunal communities in rehabilitation areas to those in adjacent old-growth areas. The indicators included: tree and understory plant diversity and density; forest cover and the density of crabs, mudskippers and gastropods. The results show the KGBRP rehabilitation fence technique delivered tree diversity, plant diversity, tree density and forest cover that most closely resembled old-growth areas. This suggests that the additional protection provided by the KGBRP fence was instrumental in achieving these results. In terms of total mudskipper, Boleophthalmus spp., Periophthalmodon spp. and ocypodid crab density, the KGBRP rehabilitation was most similar to the old-growth areas. This similarity is thought to be related to the comparable forest cover at these sites. The density of large crab holes was much higher in old-growth areas than in basic or KGBRP rehabilitation areas. The disparity between large crab hole density at KGBRP rehabilitation and old-growth areas, despite similar levels of forest cover, is thought to be linked to the immaturity of the KGBRP rehabilitation sites. As the KGBRP rehabilitation is most similar in terms of vegetation and faunal communities to the old-growth areas, it appears to be the most successful rehabilitation.

  14. Novel fabrication technology for three-dimensional high surface area pyrolized structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Vinh; Shimada, Mark; Szeto, David; Mukherjee, Partha P.; Kang, Qinjun; Kulinsky, Lawrence; Madou, Marc J.

    2010-04-01

    High specific surface area structures are used in a variety of applications including production of highly sensitive biosensors, fabrication of separation membranes, manufacturing of high throughput catalytic microreactors, and development of efficient electrodes for batteries and fuel cells. In many electrochemical applications (i.e. sensors and batteries) it's also critical to have good conductive properties of the fabricated high surface area structures. For energy harvesting technologies such as batteries and fuel cells, careful design of surface-to-volume ratio of the electrode surface is important, because while high specific surface area facilitates electrochemical reaction rates, it also increases overall electrode resistance. Thus, it is desirable to construct electrodes with a range of hierarchical features (for example with fractal structures). We invented a novel fabrication technology for creating three-dimensional conductive high surface area structures based on the deposition and subsequent processing of the electroactive polymers (EAP). The proposed fabrication technique is capable of fast and inexpensive production of high surface area structures with the designed geometry, porosity, and conductivity.

  15. Hydropower production from bridges in urban or suburban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucciarelli, Tullio; Sammartano, Vincenzo; Sinagra, Marco; Morreale, Gabriele; Ferreira, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    A new technology for hydropower production from rivers crossing urban or suburban areas is proposed, based on the use of Cross-Flow turbines having its axis horizontal and normal to the flow direction. A large part of the river cross-section could be covered by the turbine cross-section and this would generate a small, but consistent jump between the water levels of the inlet and the outlet sections. The turbine should be anchored to a pre-existing bridge and the total length of its axis should be of the same order of the bridge length. Due to the large axis extension, it should be possible to easily attain a gross power similar to the power produced with a more traditional installation, based on weirs or barrages, if single jumps of few tens of centimeters were added over a large number of bridges. If the bridges were set in urbanized areas, the production of electricity would be located close to its consumption, according to the smart grid requirements, and the hydrological basin at the bridge section (along with the corresponding discharge) would be greater than the basin of traditional plants located in more upstream locations. The maximum water level to be attained in the upstream section of the bridge should be the minimum among the following ones: 1) the level corresponding to the maximum flood allowed by the surrounding infra-structures, 2) the level corresponding to the maximum force allowed by the bridge structures. The resulting upstream water level hydrographs should be compatible with the river suspended and bed load equilibrium and with the requirement of the aquatic living population. The system should include a mechanism able to raise the turbine completely out of the water level, if required, for maintenance or other purposes. The complete lifting of the turbine could be used to: a) reconstruct the natural river bed profile during floods, b) allow the navigation or fish movements during some periods of the year, or even some hours of the day. A

  16. Hydroetching of high surface area ceramics using moist supercritical fluids

    DOEpatents

    Fryxell, Glen; Zemanian, Thomas S.

    2004-11-02

    Aerogels having a high density of hydroxyl groups and a more uniform pore size with fewer bottlenecks are described. The aerogel is exposed to a mixture of a supercritical fluid and water, whereupon the aerogel forms a high density of hydroxyl groups. The process also relaxes the aerogel into a more open uniform internal structure, in a process referred to as hydroetching. The hydroetching process removes bottlenecks from the aerogels, and forms the hydrogels into more standard pore sizes while preserving their high surface area.

  17. SANITARY VULNERABILITY OF A TERRITORIAL SYSTEM IN HIGH SEISMIC AREAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teramo, A.; Termini, D.; de Domenico, D.; Marino, A.; Marullo, A.; Saccà, C.; Teramo, M.

    2009-12-01

    An evaluation procedure of sanitary vulnerability of a territorial system falling within a high seismic risk area, related to casualty treatment capability of hospitals after an earthquake, is proposed. The goal of the study is aimed at highlighting hospital criticalities for the arrangement of a prevention policy on the basis of territorial, demographic and sanitary type specific analyses of a given area. This is the first step of a procedure of territorial context reading within a damage scenario, addressed to a verification of preparedness level of the territorial system to a sanitary emergency referable both to a natural disaster and anthropic one. The results of carried out surveys are shown, at a different scale, on several sample areas of Messina Province (Italy) territory, evaluating the consistency of damage scenario with the number of casualties, medical doctors, available beds for the implementation of a emergency sanitary circuit.

  18. High conversion TAME and MTBE production process

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owens, H.

    1991-01-29

    This patent describes isopentene, or isoamylene, conversion to methyl tertamyl ether that can be substantially improved while high conversion of isobutylene to methyl tert-butyl ether can be maintained by carrying out the overall etherification process with alkanol in a staged manner, wherein the first stage is methanol etherification of a C{sub 5+}, or C{sub 5}, hydrocarbon feedstream rich in isoamylene and the second stage is etherification to produce MTBE and additional TAME from a C{sub 4+}, or C{sub 4}, feedstream. Unreacted methanol and hydrocarbons from the first etherification are uniquely separated by fractionation from the TAME product by using the second stage C{sub 4+} feedstream as a reflux stream to the fractionator and passed to the second etherification zone. Products from the second etherification zone are separated by distillation to produce MTBE, TAME and C{sub 5+}, or C{sub 5}, hydrocarbons as a bottom stream.

  19. Effective Area of the AXAF High Resolution Camera (HRC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaude, Daniel; Pease, Deron; Donnelly, Hank; Juda, Mike; Jones, Christine; Murray, Steve; Zombeck, Martin; Kraft, Ralph; Kenter, Almus; Meehan, Gary; Meehan, Gary; Swartz, Doug; Elsner, Ron

    1998-01-01

    The AXAF High-Resolution Camera (HRC) was calibrated at NASA MSFC's X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) during 1997 March and April. We have undertaken an analysis of the HRC effective area using all data presently available from the XRCF. We discuss our spectral fitting of the beam-normalization detectors (BNDs), our method of removing higher order contamination lines present in the spectra, and corrections for beam non-uniformities. We apply a model of photon absorption depth in order to fit a smooth curve to the quantum efficiency of the detector. This is then combined with the most recent model of the AXAF High-Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) to determine the ensemble effective area versus energy for the HRC. We also address future goals and concerns.

  20. CLIC RF High Power Production Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Syratchev, I.; Riddone, G.; Tantawi, S.G.; /SLAC

    2011-11-02

    The CLIC Power Extraction and Transfer Structure (PETS) is a passive microwave device in which bunches of the drive beam interact with the impedance of the periodically loaded waveguide and generate RF power for the main linac accelerating structure. The demands on the high power production ({approx} 150 MW) and the needs to transport the 100 A drive beam for about 1 km without losses, makes the PETS design rather unique and the operation very challenging. In the coming year, an intense PETS testing program will be implemented. The target is to demonstrate the full performance of the PETS operation. The testing program overview and test results available to date are presented.

  1. Photocopy of drawing. VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING MODIFICATIONS, HIGH BAY AREA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING MODIFICATIONS, HIGH BAY AREA. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. File Number 79K05424, Seelye Stevenson Value & Knecht, March 1975. TRANSFER AISLE NORTH DOOR,ARCHITECTURAL NORTH ELEVATION AND MISC. DETAILS. Sheet 78 of 207 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  2. Photocopy of drawing. VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING MODIFICATIONS, HIGH BAY AREA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING MODIFICATIONS, HIGH BAY AREA. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. File Number 79K05424, Seelye Stevenson Value & Knecht, March 1975. TRANSFER AISLE NORTH DOOR, ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL ELEVATIONS, SECTIONS AND DETAILS. Sheet 79 of 207 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  3. NEUTRONIC REACTOR HAVING LOCALIZED AREAS OF HIGH THERMAL NEUTRON DENSITIES

    DOEpatents

    Newson, H.W.

    1958-06-01

    A nuclear reactor for the irradiation of materials designed to provide a localized area of high thermal neutron flux density in which the materials to be irradiated are inserted is described. The active portion of the reactor is comprised of a cubicle graphite moderator of about 25 feet in length along each axis which has a plurality of cylindrical channels for accommodatirg elongated tubular-shaped fuel elements. The fuel elements have radial fins for spacing the fuel elements from the channel walls, thereby providing spaces through which a coolant may be passed, and also to serve as a heatconductirg means. Ducts for accommnodating the sample material to be irradiated extend through the moderator material perpendicular to and between parallel rows of fuel channels. The improvement is in the provision of additional fuel element channels spaced midway between 2 rows of the regular fuel channels in the localized area surrounding the duct where the high thermal neutron flux density is desired. The fuel elements normally disposed in the channels directly adjacent the duct are placed in the additional channels, and the channels directly adjacent the duct are plugged with moderator material. This design provides localized areas of high thermal neutron flux density without the necessity of providing additional fuel material.

  4. Large area, low cost solar cell development and production readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaels, D.

    1982-01-01

    A process sequence for a large area ( or = 25 sq. cm) silicon solar cell was investigated. Generic cell choice was guided by the expected electron fluence, by the packing factors of various cell envelope designs onto each panel to provide needed voltage as well as current, by the weight constraints on the system, and by the cost goals of the contract.

  5. Large-area, triple junction a-Si alloy production

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, R.; Jansen, K.; Johnson, B.; Willing, F.; Raquet, J.; Kloss, T.; Morris, J.; Weiss, P.; Yang, L.; Hainsworth, M.C.; Ashenfelter, W.; Stabinsky, B.; Twesme, E.; Chen, L.F.; O'Dowd, J. )

    1994-06-30

    Amorphous silicon alloy based triple junction 0.1 m[sup 2] modules with initial efficiencies greater than 11% have been produced using manufacturing equipment. Scale-up of equipment to process substrates 0.56 m[sup 2] in area is nearly complete.

  6. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project (LDRD) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There were two primary objectives for the work performed under this project. The first was to take advantage of capabilities and facilities at Los Alamos to produce the radionuclide {sup 32}Si in unusually high specific activity. The second was to combine the radioanalytical expertise at Los Alamos with the expertise at the University of California to develop methods for the application of {sup 32}Si in biological oceanographic research related to global climate modeling. The first objective was met by developing targetry for proton spallation production of {sup 32}Si in KCl targets and chemistry for its recovery in very high specific activity. The second objective was met by developing a validated field-useable, radioanalytical technique, based upon gas-flow proportional counting, to measure the dynamics of silicon uptake by naturally occurring diatoms.

  7. Digital development of products with NX9 for academical areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goanta, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    International competitiveness forced the manufacturing enterprises to look for new ways to accelerate the development of digital products through innovation, global alliances and strategic partnerships. In an environment of global research and development of distributed geographically, all members of the joint teams made up of companies and universities need to access updated and accurate information about products created by any of the type employed, student, teacher. Current design processes involve more complex products consisting of elements of design created by multiple teams, disciplines and suppliers using independent CAD systems. Even when using a 3D CAD mature technology, many companies fail to significantly reduce losses in the process, improve product quality or product type to ensure successful innovations to market arouse interest. These challenges require a radical rethinking of the business model, which belongs to the field of design, which must be based on digital development of products based on integrated files. Through this work, the author has proposed to provide both synthesis and transformations brought news of the integrated NX [1, 2, 3] from Siemens PLM Software 9, following a news results detailed documentary study, and personal results obtained by applying the same version, the digital and integrated development of a product type device test beams. Based on educational license received for NX 9 was made a detailed study of the innovations made by this release, and the application of some of them went to graphical modelling and getting all the documentation of a test device bearing beams. Also, were synthesized in terms of methodology, the steps to take to obtain graphical documentation. The results consist of: 3D models of all parts and assembly 3D model of the three-dimensional constraints of all component parts and not least respectively all drawings and assembly drawing. The most important consequence of the paper is the obtaining of

  8. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provide and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  9. Terminal Area Productivity Program: Dynamic Spacing Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamic spacing human factors deals with the following human factors issues: define controller limits to incorporating dynamic changes in separation standards; identify timing, planning, and coordination strategies; and consider consistency with current practices, policies, and regulations. The AVOSS technologies will make it possible to reduce separation standards in the terminal area under certain meteorological conditions. This paper contains the following sections: Dynamic space human factors overview, Preliminary tests, and current research status & plans.

  10. Effect of surface area of substrates aiming the optimization of carbon nanotube production from ferrocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, A. G.; Bergmann, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    Ferrocene is widely used for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes due to its ability to act as catalyst and precursor of the synthesis. This paper proposes an optimization of the synthesis of carbon nanotubes from ferrocene, using a substrate with high surface area for their nucleation. Four different surface areas of silica powder were tested: 0.5, 50, 200 and 300 m2/g. Raman spectroscopy and microscopy were used to characterize the product obtained and X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis were also performed to evaluate the phases of the material. It was observed that the silica powder with the highest surface area allowed the synthesis of carbon nanotubes to occur at a lower temperature (600 °C), whereas substrates with a surface area lower than 50 m2/g will only form carbon nanotubes at temperatures higher than 750 °C. In order to evaluate the influence of chemical composition of the substrate, three different ceramic powders were analyzed: alumina, silica and zirconia. carbon black and previously synthesized carbon nanotubes were also used as substrate for the synthesis and the results showed that the chemical composition of the substrate does not play a relevant role in the synthesis of carbon nanotubes, only the surface area showed an influence.

  11. The SPES High Power ISOL production target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrighetto, A.; Corradetti, S.; Ballan, M.; Borgna, F.; Manzolaro, M.; Scarpa, D.; Monetti, A.; Rossignoli, M.; Silingardi, R.; Mozzi, A.; Vivian, G.; Boratto, E.; De Ruvo, L.; Sattin, N.; Meneghetti, G.; Oboe, R.; Guerzoni, M.; Margotti, A.; Ferrari, M.; Zenoni, A.; Prete, G.

    2016-11-01

    SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is a facility under construction at INFN-LNL (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro), aimed to produce intense neutron-rich radioactive ion beams (RIBs). These will be obtained using the ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method, bombarding a uranium carbide target with a proton beam of 40MeV energy and currents up to 200μA. The target configuration was designed to obtain a high number of fissions, up to 1013 per second, low power deposition and fast release of the produced isotopes. The exotic isotopes generated in the target are ionized, mass separated and re-accelerated by the ALPI superconducting LINAC at energies of 10AMeV and higher, for masses in the region of A = 130 amu , with an expected rate on the secondary target up to 109 particles per second. In this work, recent results on the R&D activities regarding the SPES RIB production target-ion source system are reported.

  12. High surface area graphene-supported metal chalcogenide assembly

    DOEpatents

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kuntz, Joshua; Orme, Christine A.

    2016-04-19

    A composition comprising at least one graphene-supported assembly, which comprises a three-dimensional network of graphene sheets crosslinked by covalent carbon bonds, and at least one metal chalcogenide compound disposed on said graphene sheets, wherein the chalcogen of said metal chalcogenide compound is selected from S, Se and Te. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the graphene-supported assembly, including graphene-supported MoS.sub.2. Monoliths with high surface area and conductivity can be achieved. Lower operating temperatures in some applications can be achieved. Pore size and volume can be tuned.

  13. Exploration and production operations in an environmentally sensitive area

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, G.W.; Steele, E.J.; Robalino, J.; Baldwin, S.J.

    1994-12-31

    The Ecuadorian portion of the Amazon Basin, known locally as the Oriente, is the major oil producing region in Ecuador. The tropical rain forests of the Oriente contain some of the Earth`s most biologically diverse and ecologically sensitive areas. In addition, the rain forest is home to several groups of indigenous peoples.When formulating an exploration plan and prior to beginning E and P activities in the Oriente, operators must understand the environmental and sociocultural issues in the region. These concerns are considered throughout the planning process, from project conception to project closure. An environmental management plan is adopted which addresses environmental and sociocultural concerns, minimizes environmental impact, prevents delays, and limits environmental liability.

  14. NPDES permit requirements in Gulf Coast exploration and production areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mundt, W.J. )

    1993-09-01

    The Federal Government regulates discharges of pollutants into waters of the United States under the Clean Water Act (CWA) through issuance of permits under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). Anyone discharging pollutants directly into [open quotes]waters of the United States[close quotes] (almost any body of water, including lakes, rivers, streams, wetlands, or offshore waters) from a point source (e.g., oil and gas exploration and production facilities) is a direct discharger. Direct dischargers must have an NPDES permit that specifically allows them to discharge designated pollutants. The permit will normally list the pollutants that the facility may discharge, and limit the discharge of each pollutant on a monthly, weekly, or daily basis. The EPA has developed NPDES requirements for facilities engaged in offshore oil and gas exploration and production. On September 30, 1992, Region 6 of the EPA issued a general NPDES permit for offshore operators within the Gulf of Mexico authorizing discharges in accordance with specific effluent limitations, monitoring requirements, and other conditions of the permit. A general NPDES permit was also formalized by EPA Region 6 in 1991 for onshore oil and gas facilities. This [open quotes]zero discharge[close quotes] NPDES permit (prohibiting any discharge of pollutants into waters of the U.S.) is applicable to most onshore oil and gas facilities within Texas, Louisiana, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. Failure to meet the requirements of a general or site-specific NPDES permit violates the law. The EPA and states with delegated permit authority can penalize violators through fines and imprisonment. Permitting authorities are becoming increasingly diligent in their enforcement efforts.

  15. Synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder by continuous precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Boz, Ismail; Kaluza, Stefan; Boroglu, Mehtap Safak; Muhler, Martin

    2012-05-15

    Graphical abstract: High surface area ZnO powders are synthesized by a low temperature continuous precipitation under ultrasonication. Urea is used as precipitating agent so that no contamination of ZnO powder emanating from precipitating agent, such as, alkalis, is observed. pH and type of precursor greatly affects the surface area and other properties. In this manuscript, we report a very simple and effective continuous precipitation to synthesize high surface area ZnO powder. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder was achieved at 90 Degree-Sign C in a continuous precipitation unit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous precipitation unit was ultrasonicated to improve final product homogeneity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Precipitation intermediate, hydrozincite, was led to high surface area ZnO powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles had a rather uniform mesoporous structure. -- Abstract: Synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder was achieved by continuous precipitation using zinc ions and urea at low temperature of 90 Degree-Sign C. The powder precipitated resulted in high-purity single-phase ZnO powder when calcined at 280 Degree-Sign C for 3 h in air. The solution pH and the precipitation duration strongly affected the surface area of the calcined ZnO powder. Detailed structural characterizations demonstrated that the synthesized ZnO powder were single crystalline with wurtzite hexagonal phase. The powdered samples precipitated by homogeneous precipitation crystallized directly to hydrozincite without any intermediate phase formation. The phase structures, morphologies and properties of the final ZnO powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering particle size analysis (DLS), and nitrogen physisorption in order to determine the specific surface area (BET) and the pore size distribution (BJH).

  16. Benefit Estimates of Terminal Area Productivity Program Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemm, Robert; Shapiro, Gerald; Lee, David; Gribko, Joana; Glaser, Bonnie

    1999-01-01

    This report documents benefit analyses for the NASA Terminal Area Technology (TAP) technology programs. Benefits are based on reductions in arrival delays at ten major airports over the 10 years from 2006 through 2015. Detailed analytic airport capacity and delay models were constructed to produce the estimates. The goal of TAP is enable good weather operations tempos in all weather conditions. The TAP program includes technologies to measure and predict runway occupancy times, reduce runway occupancy times in bad weather, accurately predict wake vortex hazards, and couple controller automation with aircraft flight management systems. The report presents and discusses the estimate results and describes the models. Three appendixes document the model algorithms and discuss the input parameters selected for the TAP technologies. The fourth appendix is the user's guide for the models. The results indicate that the combined benefits for all TAP technologies at all 10 airports range from $550 to $650 million per year (in constant 1997 dollars). Additional benefits will accrue from reductions in departure delays. Departure delay benefits are calculated by the current models.

  17. High surface area aerogels for energy storage and efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, Ryan Patrick

    ADAI are demonstrated in a third-generation prototypical thermoelectric generator for automotive waste heat recovery. The second chapter then details two different aerogel-based materials for electrochemical energy storage. It begins with lithium titanate aerogel, which takes advantage of the high surface area of the aerogel morphology to display a batt-cap behavior. This should allow the lithium titanate aerogel to perform at higher rates than would normally be expected for the bulk oxide material. Additionally, the flexibility of the sol-gel process is demonstrated through the incorporation of electrically conductive high-surface area exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets in the oxide. The last section describes the characterization of a LiMn2O 4 spinel coated carbon nanofoam in a non-aqueous electrolyte. The short diffusion path, high surface area and intimately wired architecture of the nanofoam allows the oxide to retain its capacity at significantly higher rates when compared with literature values for the bulk oxide. Additionally, the nanometric length scale improves cycle life, and the high surface area dramatically increases the insertion capacity by providing a higher concentration of surface defects. Taken together, it is clear that aerogels are an extremely attractive class of material for applications pertaining to energy and efficiency, and further research in this area will provide valuable solutions for pressing societal needs. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  18. Industrial Crafts (Production.) Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Robert; And Others

    This course guide for an industrial crafts course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  19. Plastic Technology (Production). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Robert; And Others

    This course guide for a plastic technology course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  20. Wood Technology (Production). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Robert; And Others

    This course guide for a wood technology course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  1. Cloud obstruction and snow cover in Alpine areas from MODIS products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Ronco, P.; De Michele, C.

    2014-11-01

    Snow cover maps provide information of great practical interest for hydrologic purposes: when combined with point values of snow water equivalent (SWE), they enable estimation of the regional snow resource. In this context, Earth observation satellites are an interesting tool for evaluating large scale snow distribution and extension. MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on board Terra and Aqua satellites) daily Snow Covered Area product has been widely tested and proved to be appropriate for hydrologic applications. However, within a daily map the presence of cloud cover can hide the ground, thus obstructing snow detection. Here, we consider MODIS binary products for daily snow mapping over the Po River basin. Ten years (2003-2012) of MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 snow maps have been analysed and processed with the support of a 500 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM). We first investigate the issue of cloud obstruction, highlighting its dependence on altitude and season. Snow maps seem to suffer the influence of overcast conditions mainly in mountain and during the melting period. Thus, cloud cover highly influences those areas where snow detection is regarded with more interest. In spring, the average percentages of area lying beneath clouds are in the order of 70%, for altitudes over 1000 m a.s.l. Then, starting from previous studies, we propose a cloud removal procedure and we apply it to a wide area, characterized by high geomorphological heterogeneity such as the Po River basin. In conceiving the new procedure, our first target was to preserve the daily temporal resolution of the product. Regional snow and land lines were estimated for detecting snow cover dependence on elevation. In cases when there was not enough information on the same day within the cloud-free areas, we used temporal filters with the aim of reproducing the micro-cycles which characterize the transition altitudes, where snow does not stand continually over the entire winter

  2. Detailed and Highly Accurate 3d Models of High Mountain Areas by the Macs-Himalaya Aerial Camera Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauchle, J.; Hein, D.; Berger, R.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing in areas with extreme altitude differences is particularly challenging. In high mountain areas specifically, steep slopes result in reduced ground pixel resolution and degraded quality in the DEM. Exceptionally high brightness differences can in part no longer be imaged by the sensors. Nevertheless, detailed information about mountainous regions is highly relevant: time and again glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and debris avalanches claim dozens of victims. Glaciers are sensitive to climate change and must be carefully monitored. Very detailed and accurate 3D maps provide a basic tool for the analysis of natural hazards and the monitoring of glacier surfaces in high mountain areas. There is a gap here, because the desired accuracies are often not achieved. It is for this reason that the DLR Institute of Optical Sensor Systems has developed a new aerial camera, the MACS-Himalaya. The measuring unit comprises four camera modules with an overall aperture angle of 116° perpendicular to the direction of flight. A High Dynamic Range (HDR) mode was introduced so that within a scene, bright areas such as sun-flooded snow and dark areas such as shaded stone can be imaged. In 2014, a measuring survey was performed on the Nepalese side of the Himalayas. The remote sensing system was carried by a Stemme S10 motor glider. Amongst other targets, the Seti Valley, Kali-Gandaki Valley and the Mt. Everest/Khumbu Region were imaged at heights up to 9,200 m. Products such as dense point clouds, DSMs and true orthomosaics with a ground pixel resolution of up to 15 cm were produced. Special challenges and gaps in the investigation of high mountain areas, approaches for resolution of these problems, the camera system and the state of evaluation are presented with examples.

  3. 10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High... integrated equivalent dose to the whole body during the entry. (b) Physical controls. One or more of the... penetrates: (1) A control device that prevents entry to the area when high radiation levels exist or...

  4. 10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High... integrated equivalent dose to the whole body during the entry. (b) Physical controls. One or more of the... penetrates: (1) A control device that prevents entry to the area when high radiation levels exist or...

  5. 10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High... integrated equivalent dose to the whole body during the entry. (b) Physical controls. One or more of the... penetrates: (1) A control device that prevents entry to the area when high radiation levels exist or...

  6. 10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High... integrated equivalent dose to the whole body during the entry. (b) Physical controls. One or more of the... penetrates: (1) A control device that prevents entry to the area when high radiation levels exist or...

  7. 10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High... integrated equivalent dose to the whole body during the entry. (b) Physical controls. One or more of the... penetrates: (1) A control device that prevents entry to the area when high radiation levels exist or...

  8. Two photon absorption in high power broad area laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Mehmet; Michael, Christopher P.; Zheng, Yan; Zhu, Lin; Jacob, Jonah H.

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in thermal management and improvements in fabrication and facet passivation enabled extracting unprecedented optical powers from laser diodes (LDs). However, even in the absence of thermal roll-over or catastrophic optical damage (COD), the maximum achievable power is limited by optical non-linear effects. Due to its non-linear nature, two-photon absorption (TPA) becomes one of the dominant factors that limit efficient extraction of laser power from LDs. In this paper, theoretical and experimental analysis of TPA in high-power broad area laser diodes (BALD) is presented. A phenomenological optical extraction model that incorporates TPA explains the reduction in optical extraction efficiency at high intensities in BALD bars with 100μm-wide emitters. The model includes two contributions associated with TPA: the straightforward absorption of laser photons and the subsequent single photon absorption by the holes and electrons generated by the TPA process. TPA is a fundamental limitation since it is inherent to the LD semiconductor material. Therefore scaling the LDs to high power requires designs that reduce the optical intensity by increasing the mode size.

  9. Bicontinuous ceramics with high surface area from block copolymer templates.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Han-Yu; Ho, Rong-Ming

    2012-06-01

    Mesoporous polymers with gyroid nanochannels can be fabricated from the self-assembly of degradable block copolymer, polystyrene-b-poly(L-lactide) (PS-PLLA), followed by hydrolysis of PLLA block. Well-defined polymer/ceramic nanohybrid materials with inorganic gyroid nanostructures in a PS matrix can be obtained by using the mesoporous PS as a template for sol-gel reaction. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) is used as a precursor to give a model system for the fabrication of metal oxide nanostructures from reactive transition metal alkoxides. By controlling the rates of capillary-driven pore filling and sol-gel reaction, the templated synthesis can be well-developed. Also, by taking advantage of calcination, bicontinuous TiO(2) with controlled crystalline phase (i.e., anatase phase) can be fabricated after removal of the PS template and crystallization of TiO(2) by calcination leading to high photocatalytic efficiency. This new approach provides an easy way to fabricate high-surface-area and high-porosity ceramics with self-supporting structure and controlled crystalline phase for practical applications. As a result, a platform technology to fabricate precisely controlled polymer/ceramic nanohybrids and mesoporous ceramic materials can be established. PMID:22530553

  10. Radioactivity in the groundwater of a high background radiation area.

    PubMed

    Shabana, E I; Kinsara, A A

    2014-11-01

    Natural radioactivity was measured in groundwater samples collected from 37 wells scattered in an inhabited area of high natural background radiation, in a purpose of radiation protection. The study area is adjacent to Aja heights of granitic composition in Hail province, Saudi Arabia. Initial screening for gross α and gross β activities showed levels exceeded the national regulation limits set out for gross α and gross β activities in drinking water. The gross α activity ranged from 0.17 to 5.41 Bq L(-)(1) with an average value of 2.15 Bq L(-)(1), whereas gross β activity ranged from 0.48 to 5.16 Bq L(-)(1), with an average value of 2.60 Bq L(-)(1). The detail analyses indicated that the groundwater of this province is contaminated with uranium and radium ((226)Ra and (228)Ra). The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra were 0.40, 0.77, 0.29 and 0.46 Bq L(-)(1), respectively. The higher uranium content was found in the samples of granitic aquifers, whereas the higher radium content was found in the samples of sandstone aquifers. Based on the obtained results, mechanism of leaching of the predominant radionuclides has been discussed in detail.

  11. High Resolution Aircraft Scanner Mapping of Geothermal and Volcanic Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mongillo, M.A.; Cochrane, G.R.; Wood, C.P.; Shibata, Y.

    1995-01-01

    High spectral resolution GEOSCAN Mkll multispectral aircraft scanner imagery has been acquired, at 3-6 m spatial resolutions, over much of the Taupo Volcanic Zone as part of continuing investigations aimed at developing remote sensing techniques for exploring and mapping geothermal and volcanic areas. This study examined the 24-band: visible, near-IR (NIR), mid-IR (MIR) and thermal-IR (TIR) imagery acquired over Waiotapu geothermal area (3 m spatial resolution) and White Island volcano (6 m resolution). Results show that color composite images composed of visible and NIR wavelengths that correspond to color infrared (CIR) photographic wavelengths can be useful for distinguishing among bare ground, water and vegetation features and, in certain cases, for mapping various vegetation types. However, combinations which include an MIR band ({approx} 2.2 {micro}m) with either visible and NIR bands, or two NIR bands, are the most powerful for mapping vegetation types, water bodies, and bare and hydrothermally altered ground. Combinations incorporating a daytime TIR band with NIR and MIR bands are also valuable for locating anomalously hot features and distinguishing among different types of surface hydrothermal alteration.

  12. Radioactivity in the groundwater of a high background radiation area.

    PubMed

    Shabana, E I; Kinsara, A A

    2014-11-01

    Natural radioactivity was measured in groundwater samples collected from 37 wells scattered in an inhabited area of high natural background radiation, in a purpose of radiation protection. The study area is adjacent to Aja heights of granitic composition in Hail province, Saudi Arabia. Initial screening for gross α and gross β activities showed levels exceeded the national regulation limits set out for gross α and gross β activities in drinking water. The gross α activity ranged from 0.17 to 5.41 Bq L(-)(1) with an average value of 2.15 Bq L(-)(1), whereas gross β activity ranged from 0.48 to 5.16 Bq L(-)(1), with an average value of 2.60 Bq L(-)(1). The detail analyses indicated that the groundwater of this province is contaminated with uranium and radium ((226)Ra and (228)Ra). The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra were 0.40, 0.77, 0.29 and 0.46 Bq L(-)(1), respectively. The higher uranium content was found in the samples of granitic aquifers, whereas the higher radium content was found in the samples of sandstone aquifers. Based on the obtained results, mechanism of leaching of the predominant radionuclides has been discussed in detail. PMID:25087070

  13. High surface area ThO/sub 2/ catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1983-06-21

    A ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a high surface area of about 80 to 125m/sup 2//g is synthesized. The compound is synthesized by simultaneously mixing an aqueous solution of ThNO/sub 3/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/.4H/sub 2/O with an aqueous solution of Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/.H/sub 2/O, to produce a solution and solid ThOCO/sub 3/. The solid ThOCO/sub 3/ is separated from the solution, and then calcined at a temperature of about 225 to 300/sup 0/C for about 40 to 55 hours to produce ThO/sub 2/. The ThO/sub 2/ catalyst produced includes Na present as a substitutional cation in an amount equal to about 5 to 10 at. %.

  14. Sodium hydroxide catalyzed monodispersed high surface area silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhakta, Snehasis; Dixit, Chandra K.; Bist, Itti; Abdel Jalil, Karim; Suib, Steven L.; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding of the synthesis kinetics and our ability to modulate medium conditions allowed us to generate nanoparticles via an ultra-fast process. The synthesis medium is kept quite simple with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as precursor and 50% ethanol and sodium hydroxide catalyst. Synthesis is performed under gentle conditions at 20 °C for 20 min Long synthesis time and catalyst-associated drawbacks are most crucial in silica nanoparticle synthesis. We have addressed both these bottlenecks by replacing the conventional Stober catalyst, ammonium hydroxide, with sodium hydroxide. We have reduced the overall synthesis time from 20 to 1/3 h, ∼60-fold decrease, and obtained highly monodispersed nanoparticles with 5-fold higher surface area than Stober particles. We have demonstrated that the developed NPs with ∼3-fold higher silane can be used as efficient probes for biosensor applications.

  15. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy via High Temperature Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be a promising technology for efficient large-scale hydrogen production.

  16. Experimental performance of a high-area-ratio rocket nozzle at high combustion chamber pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Kazaroff, John M.; Pavli, Albert J.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the thrust coefficient of a high-area-ratio rocket nozzle at combustion chamber pressures of 12.4 to 16.5 MPa (1800 to 2400 psia). A nozzle with a modified Rao contour and an expansion area ratio of 1025:1 was tested with hydrogen and oxygen at altitude conditions. The same nozzle, truncated to an area ratio of 440:1, was also tested. Values of thrust coefficient are presented along with characteristic exhaust velocity efficiencies, nozzle wall temperatures, and overall thruster specific impulse.

  17. Manganese concentrations in soil and settled dust in an area with historic ferroalloy production.

    PubMed

    Pavilonis, Brian T; Lioy, Paul J; Guazzetti, Stefano; Bostick, Benjamin C; Donna, Filippo; Peli, Marco; Zimmerman, Neil J; Bertrand, Patrick; Lucas, Erika; Smith, Donald R; Georgopoulos, Panos G; Mi, Zhongyuan; Royce, Steven G; Lucchini, Roberto G

    2015-01-01

    Ferroalloy production can release a number of metals into the environment, of which manganese (Mn) is of major concern. Other elements include lead, iron, zinc, copper, chromium, and cadmium. Mn exposure derived from settled dust and suspended aerosols can cause a variety of adverse neurological effects to chronically exposed individuals. To better estimate the current levels of exposure, this study quantified the metal levels in dust collected inside homes (n=85), outside homes (n=81), in attics (n=6), and in surface soil (n=252) in an area with historic ferroalloy production. Metals contained in indoor and outdoor dust samples were quantified using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, whereas attic and soil measurements were made with a X-ray fluorescence instrument. Mean Mn concentrations in soil (4600 μg/g) and indoor dust (870 μg/g) collected within 0.5 km of a plant exceeded levels previously found in suburban and urban areas, but did decrease outside 1.0 km to the upper end of background concentrations. Mn concentrations in attic dust were ~120 times larger than other indoor dust levels, consistent with historical emissions that yielded high airborne concentrations in the region. Considering the potential health effects that are associated with chronic Mn inhalation and ingestion exposure, remediation of soil near the plants and frequent, on-going hygiene indoors may decrease residential exposure and the likelihood of adverse health effects. PMID:25335867

  18. Seasonal predator removal relative to hatch rate of duck nests in waterfowl production areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.; Sovada, M.A.; Shaffer, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    These authors report that hatch rates of duck nests were related to removal of predators from waterfowl production areas. Cost effectiveness of such efforts is questioned. The prairie pothole region (PPR) is the primary breeding ground of several species of North American ducks (Bellrose 1980). Much habitat of breeding ducks in the PPR has been destroyed or degraded by intensive agriculture (e.g., Kiel et al. 1972, Bellrose 1980, Sugden and Beyersbergen 1984, Boyd 1985), resulting in high predation rates on duck nests (Sargeant and Raveling 1992). Because of predation, hatch rate (HR) of duck nests in Waterfowl Production Areas (WPA's) in the PPR is often less than the 15-20% suggested for stability of populations of the 5 most common species of dabbling ducks (e.g., Cowardin et al. 1985, Greenwood 1986, Klett et al. 1988, Greenwood et al. 1990). Managers seek ways to reduce depredations of duck clutches in WPA's, but little information is available concerning effects of predator removal. We evaluated seasonal (spring and early summer) removal of predators from WPA's in Minnesota and North Dakota. Our objectives were to compare HR in uplands of WPA's with and without predators removed and to determine functional aspects of conducting predator removal.

  19. Manganese concentrations in soil and settled dust in an area with historic ferroalloy production.

    PubMed

    Pavilonis, Brian T; Lioy, Paul J; Guazzetti, Stefano; Bostick, Benjamin C; Donna, Filippo; Peli, Marco; Zimmerman, Neil J; Bertrand, Patrick; Lucas, Erika; Smith, Donald R; Georgopoulos, Panos G; Mi, Zhongyuan; Royce, Steven G; Lucchini, Roberto G

    2015-01-01

    Ferroalloy production can release a number of metals into the environment, of which manganese (Mn) is of major concern. Other elements include lead, iron, zinc, copper, chromium, and cadmium. Mn exposure derived from settled dust and suspended aerosols can cause a variety of adverse neurological effects to chronically exposed individuals. To better estimate the current levels of exposure, this study quantified the metal levels in dust collected inside homes (n=85), outside homes (n=81), in attics (n=6), and in surface soil (n=252) in an area with historic ferroalloy production. Metals contained in indoor and outdoor dust samples were quantified using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, whereas attic and soil measurements were made with a X-ray fluorescence instrument. Mean Mn concentrations in soil (4600 μg/g) and indoor dust (870 μg/g) collected within 0.5 km of a plant exceeded levels previously found in suburban and urban areas, but did decrease outside 1.0 km to the upper end of background concentrations. Mn concentrations in attic dust were ~120 times larger than other indoor dust levels, consistent with historical emissions that yielded high airborne concentrations in the region. Considering the potential health effects that are associated with chronic Mn inhalation and ingestion exposure, remediation of soil near the plants and frequent, on-going hygiene indoors may decrease residential exposure and the likelihood of adverse health effects.

  20. Water Production Functions For High Plains Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing demands on limited water supplies will require maximizing crop production per unit water. Field studies are being carried out near Greeley, Colorado to develop water production functions for crops grown in the Great Plains. These yield per unit water relationships can be used to determi...

  1. Spatiotemporal patterns of cropland area and net primary production in the central United States estimated from USDA agricultural information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Lobell, David B.

    2004-10-01

    The central United States, which is dominated by agriculture, has been selected as the first North American Carbon Program intensive campaign. Data sets that describe spatiotemporal variability in carbon fluxes are needed to support this campaign. Here we report the behavior of county cropland net primary production (NPP) in the first intensive region derived using USDA information together with crop-specific parameters that convert agronomic data into carbon fluxes. Total cropland area in the eight-state region was ~550,000 km2 (40% of total area), with some interannual variability but no temporal trend from 1972 to 2001. Regional production (P) was 0.3 Pg C yr-1 in the late 1990s, roughly 64% of the total US crop production. P was highest in the central counties (>1.2 Tg C yr-1). In contrast to area, both NPP (flux per unit area) and P (spatially aggregated flux) increased during the study period (46 and 51%, respectively). Corn was the dominant crop type grown in the region, contributing 58% of the total production, with soybeans second most productive but substantially less (20%) despite similar harvested area. Maximum year-to-year variability in P was high, generally greater than 30% for most counties, though exceeding 80% for some counties.

  2. Assessing the landscape context and conversion risk of protected areas using satellite data products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Svancara, L.K.; Scott, J.M.; Loveland, T.R.; Pidgorna, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Since the establishment of the first national park (Yellowstone National Park in 1872) and the first wildlife refuge (Pelican Island in 1903), dramatic changes have occurred in both ecological and cultural landscapes across the U.S. The ability of these protected areas to maintain current levels of biodiversity depend, at least in part, on the integrity of the surrounding landscape. Our objective was to quantify and compare the extent and pattern of natural land cover, risk of conversion, and relationships with demographic and economic variables in counties near National Park Service units and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuges with those counties distant from either type of protected area in the coterminous United States. Our results indicate that landscapes in counties within 10??km of both parks and refuges and those within 10??km of just parks were more natural, more intact, and more protected than those in counties within 10??km of just refuges and counties greater than 10??km from either protected area system. However, they also had greater human population density and change in population, indicating potential conversion risk since the percent of landscape protected averaged 2) in 76% of counties near both parks and refuges, 81% of counties near just parks, 91% of counties near just refuges, and 93% of distant counties. Thirteen percent of counties in the coterminous U.S. had moderate to high amounts of natural land cover (> 60%), low protection ( 20%). Although these areas are not the most critically endangered, they represent the greatest conservation opportunity, need, and urgency. Our approach is based on national level metrics that are simple, general, informative, and can be understood by broad audiences and by policy makers and managers to assess the health of lands surrounding parks and refuges. Regular monitoring of these metrics with satellite data products in counties surrounding protected areas provides a consistent, national level assessment

  3. Large scale synthesis of nanoporous BN flake with high surface areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hui-Ling; Han, Qiu-Xia; Wu, Jie; Meng, Xiang-Lin; Cui, Hong-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Nanoporous boron nitride (BN) flake was synthesized in large scale at temperatures between 550 and 600 °C for 10 h via the simple reaction between NaBH4 and CH5N3S. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectra confirm the formation of hexagonal BN. Examination by high-resolution transmission electron microscope reveals that the product is comprised of nanoporous flake, which exhibits a high surface area of 214 m2 g-1 characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The nanoporous BN flake has good thermal stability and oxidation resistance up to 800 °C measured by thermogravimetric analysis.

  4. [Epidemiology of leptospirosis in a livestock production area of the Andes].

    PubMed

    Ochoa, J E; Sánchez, A; Ruiz, I

    2000-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Leptospira infection in populations of workers, cattle, and pigs in livestock operations and to explore some environmental and production system variables associated with seropositivity. The research was done between November 1997 and February 1998 in the municipality of Don Matías, in the northern part of the department of Antioquia, Colombia. The area has a cold climate, and there is a "pigs-grasses-milk" production system that utilizes pig dung to fertilize grazing pastures. A total of 23 farms were studied, and blood samples were obtained from 67 dairy and pig-raising workers, 174 dairy cows, 68 pigs for fattening, and 214 pigs for breeding. The microagglutination test (MAT) was used for six Leptospira serotypes. The seropositivity prevalence was 22.4% among the workers (95% confidence interval: 13.1% to 34.2%), 60.9% among the dairy cows (95% CI: 53.2% to 68.2%), 10.3% in the fattening pigs, and 25.7% in the breeding pigs. Four logistic regression models were constructed to identify the variables that predicted infection in the workers and in the dairy cows. A high prevalence of infection with Leptospira (serotypes pomona, bratislava, and hardjo) was found in this production system, where conditions are favorable for transmitting this microorganism to the different animal species and to humans. PMID:10893973

  5. 43 CFR 3137.88 - What happens when a well outside a participating area does not meet the productivity criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.88 Section 3137.88 Public Lands: Interior... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? If a well outside any of the established participating area(s) does not meet the productivity criteria, all operations on that well are...

  6. 43 CFR 3137.88 - What happens when a well outside a participating area does not meet the productivity criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.88 Section 3137.88 Public Lands: Interior... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? If a well outside any of the established participating area(s) does not meet the productivity criteria, all operations on that well are...

  7. 43 CFR 3137.88 - What happens when a well outside a participating area does not meet the productivity criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.88 Section 3137.88 Public Lands: Interior... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? If a well outside any of the established participating area(s) does not meet the productivity criteria, all operations on that well are...

  8. 43 CFR 3137.88 - What happens when a well outside a participating area does not meet the productivity criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.88 Section 3137.88 Public Lands: Interior... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? If a well outside any of the established participating area(s) does not meet the productivity criteria, all operations on that well are...

  9. Crop area estimation using high and medium resolution satellite imagery in areas with complex topography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Husak, G.J.; Marshall, M. T.; Michaelsen, J.; Pedreros, Diego; Funk, Christopher C.; Galu, G.

    2008-01-01

    Reliable estimates of cropped area (CA) in developing countries with chronic food shortages are essential for emergency relief and the design of appropriate market-based food security programs. Satellite interpretation of CA is an effective alternative to extensive and costly field surveys, which fail to represent the spatial heterogeneity at the country-level. Bias-corrected, texture based classifications show little deviation from actual crop inventories, when estimates derived from aerial photographs or field measurements are used to remove systematic errors in medium resolution estimates. In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid high-medium resolution technique for Central Ethiopia that combines spatially limited unbiased estimates from IKONOS images, with spatially extensive Landsat ETM+ interpretations, land-cover, and SRTM-based topography. Logistic regression is used to derive the probability of a location being crop. These individual points are then aggregated to produce regional estimates of CA. District-level analysis of Landsat based estimates showed CA totals which supported the estimates of the Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development. Continued work will evaluate the technique in other parts of Africa, while segmentation algorithms will be evaluated, in order to automate classification of medium resolution imagery for routine CA estimation in the future.

  10. Crop area estimation using high and medium resolution satellite imagery in areas with complex topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husak, G. J.; Marshall, M. T.; Michaelsen, J.; Pedreros, D.; Funk, C.; Galu, G.

    2008-07-01

    Reliable estimates of cropped area (CA) in developing countries with chronic food shortages are essential for emergency relief and the design of appropriate market-based food security programs. Satellite interpretation of CA is an effective alternative to extensive and costly field surveys, which fail to represent the spatial heterogeneity at the country-level. Bias-corrected, texture based classifications show little deviation from actual crop inventories, when estimates derived from aerial photographs or field measurements are used to remove systematic errors in medium resolution estimates. In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid high-medium resolution technique for Central Ethiopia that combines spatially limited unbiased estimates from IKONOS images, with spatially extensive Landsat ETM+ interpretations, land-cover, and SRTM-based topography. Logistic regression is used to derive the probability of a location being crop. These individual points are then aggregated to produce regional estimates of CA. District-level analysis of Landsat based estimates showed CA totals which supported the estimates of the Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development. Continued work will evaluate the technique in other parts of Africa, while segmentation algorithms will be evaluated, in order to automate classification of medium resolution imagery for routine CA estimation in the future.

  11. An aerial radiological survey of the neutron products company and surrounding area

    SciTech Connect

    Vojtech, R.J.

    1994-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from November 1-10, 1993, over the Neutron Products Company and neighboring areas. The company, located in Dickerson, Maryland, has two major operations involving the radioisotope cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co)-the manufacture of commercial {sup 60}Co sources and the sterilization of medical products by exposure to radiation. The sterilization facility consists of two {sup 60}Co sources with activities of approximately 500,000 and 1,500,000 Ci, respectively. The purpose of the aerial survey was to detect and document any anomalous gamma-emitting radionuclides in the environment which may have resulted from operations of the Neutron Products Company. The survey covered two areas: the first was a 6.5- by 6.5-kilometer area centered over the Neutron Products facility; the second area was a 2- by 2.5-kilometer region surrounding a waste pumping station on Muddy Branch in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This site is approximately fifteen kilometers southeast of the Neutron Products facility and was included because sanitary and other liquid waste materials from the plant site are being disposed of at the pumping station. Contour maps showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level, overlaid on an aerial photo of the area, were constructed from the data measured during the flights. The exposure rates measured within the survey regions were generally uniform and typical of rates resulting from natural background radiation. Only one area showed an enhanced exposure rate not attributable to natural background. This area, located directly over the Neutron Products facility, was analyzed and identified as {sup 60}Co, the radioisotope used in the irradiation and source production operations conducted at the Neutron Products Company. The measurements over the Muddy Branch area in Gaithersburg were typical of natural background radiation and showed no evidence of {sup 60}Co or any other man-made radionuclide.

  12. GIS-technologies for integrated assessment of the productive mining areas

    SciTech Connect

    Zamaraev, R.Y.; Oparin, V.N.; Popov, S.E.; Potapov, V.P.; Pyastunovich,O.L.

    2008-05-15

    The paper describes the bases of a new application of GIS-technologies for integrated assessment and comparison of the productive mining areas, involving a wide range of mining and technological factors, considering mineral properties, mineral occurrence conditions and geographical advantages of a mineral deposit location. The model capabilities are exemplified by a comparison of technological characteristics of coals, transportation and power supply infrastructure of the productive mining areas at the Kuznetsk Coal Basin.

  13. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave

    2015-04-01

    The present day society needs to adjust to the effects of climate change. More extreme weather conditions are expected, which can lead to longer periods of drought, but also to more extreme precipitation events. Urban water systems are not designed for such extreme events. Most sewer systems are not able to drain the excessive storm water, causing urban flooding. This leads to high economic damage. In order to take appropriate measures against extreme urban storms, detailed knowledge about the behaviour of the urban water system above and below the streets is required. To investigate the behaviour of urban water systems during extreme precipitation events new assessment tools are necessary. These tools should provide a detailed and integral description of the flow in the full domain of overland runoff, sewer flow, surface water flow and groundwater flow. We developed a new assessment tool, called 3Di, which provides detailed insight in the urban water system. This tool is based on a new numerical methodology that can accurately deal with the interaction between overland runoff, sewer flow and surface water flow. A one-dimensional model for the sewer system and open channel flow is fully coupled to a two-dimensional depth-averaged model that simulates the overland flow. The tool uses a subgrid-based approach in order to take high resolution information of the sewer system and of the terrain into account [1, 2]. The combination of using the high resolution information and the subgrid based approach results in an accurate and efficient modelling tool. It is now possible to simulate entire urban water systems using extreme high resolution (0.5m x 0.5m) terrain data in combination with a detailed sewer and surface water network representation. The new tool has been tested in several Dutch cities, such as Rotterdam, Amsterdam and The Hague. We will present the results of an extreme precipitation event in the city of Schiedam (The Netherlands). This city deals with

  14. Highball: A high speed, reserved-access, wide area network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, David L.; Boncelet, Charles G.; Elias, John G.; Schragger, Paul A.; Jackson, Alden W.

    1990-01-01

    A network architecture called Highball and a preliminary design for a prototype, wide-area data network designed to operate at speeds of 1 Gbps and beyond are described. It is intended for applications requiring high speed burst transmissions where some latency between requesting a transmission and granting the request can be anticipated and tolerated. Examples include real-time video and disk-disk transfers, national filestore access, remote sensing, and similar applications. The network nodes include an intelligent crossbar switch, but have no buffering capabilities; thus, data must be queued at the end nodes. There are no restrictions on the network topology, link speeds, or end-end protocols. The end system, nodes, and links can operate at any speed up to the limits imposed by the physical facilities. An overview of an initial design approach is presented and is intended as a benchmark upon which a detailed design can be developed. It describes the network architecture and proposed access protocols, as well as functional descriptions of the hardware and software components that could be used in a prototype implementation. It concludes with a discussion of additional issues to be resolved in continuing stages of this project.

  15. High surface area polypyrrole scaffolds for tunable drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manisha; Waterhouse, Geoffrey I N; Loader, Samuel W C; Garg, Sanjay; Svirskis, Darren

    2013-02-25

    Intrinsically conducting polymers such as polypyrrole (PPy) are viable platforms for efficient drug delivery, where release rates can be tuned by external electrical stimulus. In this study, the successful fabrication of 3-dimensionally ordered macroporous PPy inverse opal thin films is described, and the viability of such films for controlled drug release evaluated in vitro. The PPy inverse opal thin films were obtained by electropolymerization of PPy through the interstitial voids of a colloidal crystal template composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) colloids of diameter ∼430 nm. Chemical etching of the template yielded macroporous PPy inverse opal scaffolds. The model drug risperidone was loaded into the PPy inverse opal films, and then entrapped by electropolymerization of a non-porous PPy overlayer. The morphology and chemical composition of the PPy scaffolds were evaluated by SEM and FTIR spectroscopy, respectively. The high surface area PPy inverse opal scaffolds exhibited enhanced drug loading and releasing capabilities compared to conventional non-porous PPy films. Drug release profiles could be modified by applying electrical stimulus, which caused actuation of the porous polypyrrole films. The proposed delivery system may find use as an implantable device where drug release can be electrically tuned according to patient requirements.

  16. 43 CFR 3282.9 - How is production allocated within a participating area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How is production allocated within a participating area? 3282.9 Section 3282.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Participating Area...

  17. Personal Skills, Job Satisfaction, and Productivity in Members of High Performance Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes-Flores, Patricia; Campos-Rodriguez, Javier Arturo

    2008-01-01

    The intention of the study is to identify the development of personal skills, as well as the increase of job satisfaction and productivity of the employee, as a result of their participation in high performance teams. Volunteered in the study 139 members of self-managed teams belonging to the Production Area, 39 of Operational Administrative…

  18. 43 CFR 3282.9 - How is production allocated within a participating area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How is production allocated within a...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Participating Area § 3282.9 How is production allocated within a participating...

  19. 43 CFR 3282.9 - How is production allocated within a participating area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How is production allocated within a...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Participating Area § 3282.9 How is production allocated within a participating...

  20. 43 CFR 3282.9 - How is production allocated within a participating area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How is production allocated within a...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Participating Area § 3282.9 How is production allocated within a participating...

  1. Distinct parietal and temporal connectivity profiles of ventrolateral frontal areas involved in language production.

    PubMed

    Margulies, Daniel S; Petrides, Michael

    2013-10-16

    Broca's region, which in the language-dominant hemisphere of the human brain plays a major role in language production, includes two distinct cytoarchitectonic areas: 44 and 45. The unique connectivity patterns of these two areas have not been well established. In a resting-state functional connectivity study, we tested predictions about these areas from invasive tract-tracing studies of the connectivity of their homologs in the macaque monkey. We demonstrated their distinct connectivity profiles as well as their differences from the caudally adjacent ventral parts of the premotor cortex and the primary motor cortical region that represent the orofacial musculature. Area 45 is strongly connected with the superior temporal sulcus and the cortex on the adjacent superior and middle temporal gyri. In the parietal region, area 45 is connected with the angular gyrus, whereas area 44 is connected with the supramarginal gyrus. The primary motor cortical region in the caudal precentral gyrus is not connected with the posterior parietal region, which lies outside the confines of the postcentral gyrus, whereas the ventrorostral premotor cortical area 6VR, in the most anterior part of the precentral gyrus, has strong connections with the rostral supramarginal gyrus. Thus, area 44, which has stronger connections to the posterior supramarginal gyrus, can be distinguished from both the adjacent area 6VR and area 45. These findings provide a major improvement in understanding the connectivity of the areas in the ventrolateral frontal region that are involved in language production.

  2. Bagasse production from high fibre sugarcane hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Giamalva, M.J.; Clarke, S.; Bischoff, K.

    1981-08-01

    Since 1975, 90% of the sugarcane bagasse produced by the Louisiana sugar industry is now used as a fuel for raw sugar production. Two sugarcane hybrid varieties which are too low in sucrose to be acceptable as commercial sugarcane varieties were tested for their biomass yield. Yields of over 100 tons of total biomass were obtained, resulting in over 30 tons of dry matter per acre per year, using conventional practices. This material could be grown on sub-optimal land in sufficient quantities to meet part of the needs of the sugarcane by-product industries who have been deprived of their source of bagasse.

  3. Highly Productive Tools For Turning And Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilko, Karol

    2015-12-01

    Beside cutting speed, shift is another important parameter of machining. Its considerable influence is shown mainly in the workpiece machined surface microgeometry. In practice, mainly its combination with the radius of cutting tool tip rounding is used. Options to further increase machining productivity and machined surface quality are hidden in this approach. The paper presents variations of the design of productive cutting tools for lathe work and milling on the base of the use of the laws of the relationship among the highest reached uneveness of machined surface, tool tip radius and shift.

  4. Nanofiber adsorbents for high productivity continuous downstream processing.

    PubMed

    Hardick, Oliver; Dods, Stewart; Stevens, Bob; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2015-11-10

    An ever increasing focus is being placed on the manufacturing costs of biotherapeutics. The drive towards continuous processing offers one opportunity to address these costs through the advantages it offers. Continuous operation presents opportunities for real-time process monitoring and automated control with potential benefits including predictable product specification, reduced labour costs, and integration with other continuous processes. Specifically to chromatographic operations continuous processing presents an opportunity to use expensive media more efficiently while reducing their size and therefore cost. Here for the first time we show how a new adsorbent material (cellulosic nanofibers) having advantageous convective mass transfer properties can be combined with a high frequency simulated moving bed (SMB) design to provide superior productivity in a simple bioseparation. Electrospun polymeric nanofiber adsorbents offer an alternative ligand support surface for bioseparations. Their non-woven fiber structure with diameters in the sub-micron range creates a remarkably high surface area material that allows for rapid convective flow operations. A proof of concept study demonstrated the performance of an anion exchange nanofiber adsorbent based on criteria including flow and mass transfer properties, binding capacity, reproducibility and life-cycle performance. Binding capacities of the DEAE adsorbents were demonstrated to be 10mg/mL, this is indeed only a fraction of what is achievable from porous bead resins but in combination with a very high flowrate, the productivity of the nanofiber system is shown to be significant. Suitable packing into a flow distribution device has allowed for reproducible bind-elute operations at flowrates of 2,400 cm/h, many times greater than those used in typical beaded systems. These characteristics make them ideal candidates for operation in continuous chromatography systems. A SMB system was developed and optimised to

  5. High Yields for Enhanced Sustainable Feedstock Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, humankind is in the midst of one of the greatest technological, environmental, and social transitions since the industrial revolution as we strive to replace fossil energy with renewable sources. The Billion Ton Report established a target for U.S. bioenergy feedstock production and throug...

  6. Dependence of zero-bias resistance-area product and quantum efficiency on perimeter-to-area ratio in a variable-area diode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, V.; Gopal, V.

    2001-07-01

    The dependence of the zero-bias resistance-area (RA) product and the quantum efficiency (η) of variable-area diode arrays is numerically calculated by solving the diffusion equation in a cylindrical, three-dimensional geometry in the thick base approximation. The calculation is done for long-wavelength IR HgCdTe n+-on-p diffusion-limited photodiodes at 77 K. The inverse resistance-area product 1/(RA) and the square root of the quantum efficiency, η1/2, are plotted against the perimeter-to-area (P/A) ratio. The 1/RA results are fitted to a quadratic dependence on the P/A ratio. The dependence of the 1/RA on the minority carrier diffusion length, the junction depth and the surface recombination velocity (SRV) is evaluated. An empirical expression is proposed that largely accounts for the dependence of the coefficients of the quadratic on these parameters and is more general than those used in previous studies. The results are also in reasonable agreement with the results of Briggs, expressed in terms of the parameter f3D, that are valid for zero junction depth and zero SRV. The slope of the quantum efficiency versus P/A plot, which is approximately a straight line, is related to an effective length Lopt, that also depends on the diffusion length, junction depth, SRV and the absorption coefficient α. The parameter Lopt varies as α1/2.

  7. High resolution tsunami modelling for the evaluation of potential risk areas in Setúbal (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J.; Silva, A.; Leitão, P.

    2011-08-01

    The use of high resolution hydrodynamic modelling to simulate the potential effects of tsunami events can provide relevant information about the most probable inundation areas. Moreover, the consideration of complementary data such as the type of buildings, location of priority equipment, type of roads, enables mapping of the most vulnerable zones, computing of the expected damage on man-made structures, constrain of the definition of rescue areas and escape routes, adaptation of emergency plans and proper evaluation of the vulnerability associated with different areas and/or equipment. Such an approach was used to evaluate the specific risks associated with a potential occurrence of a tsunami event in the region of Setúbal (Portugal), which was one of the areas most seriously affected by the 1755 tsunami. In order to perform an evaluation of the hazard associated with the occurrence of a similar event, high resolution wave propagation simulations were performed considering different potential earthquake sources with different magnitudes. Based on these simulations, detailed inundation maps associated with the different events were produced. These results were combined with the available information on the vulnerability of the local infrastructures (building types, roads and streets characteristics, priority buildings) in order to impose restrictions in the production of high-scale potential damage maps, escape routes and emergency routes maps.

  8. High frequency noise studies at the Hartousov mofette area (CZE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Andreas; Flores-Estrella, Hortencia; Pommerencke, Julia; Umlauft, Josefine

    2014-05-01

    Ambient noise analysis has been used as a reliable tool to investigate sub-surface structures at seismological quiet regions with none or less specific seismic events. Here, we consider the acoustic signals from a single mofette at the Hartoušov area (CZE) as a noise-like high frequency source caused by multiple near surface degassing processes in a restricted location. From this assumption we have used different array geometries for recording at least one hour of continuous noise. We installed triangular arrays with 3 component geophones: the first deployment consisted on two co-centric triangles with side length of 30 and 50 m with the mofette in the center; the second deployment consisted on two triangular arrays, both with side length of 30 m, co-directional to the mofette. Furthermore, we also installed profiles with 24 channels and vertical geophones locating them in different positions with respect to the mofette. In this work, we present preliminary results from the data analysis dependent on the geometry, to show the characteristics of the noise wave-field referring to frequency content and propagation features, such as directionality and surface wave velocity. The spectral analysis shows that the energy is concentrated in a frequency band among 10 and 40 Hz. However, in this interval there is no evidence of any exclusive fundamental frequencies. From this, man-induced influences can be identified as intermittent signal peaks in narrow frequency bands and can be separated to receive the revised mofette wave-field record. The inversion of dispersive surface waves, that were detected by interferometric methods, provides a velocity model down to 12 m with an S-wave velocity between 160 and 180 m/s on the uppermost layer. Furthermore, the interferometric signal properties indicate that it is not possible to characterize the mofette as a punctual source, but rather as a conglomerate of multiple sources with time and location variations.

  9. Projecting crop yield in northern high latitude area.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Kanichiro

    2014-01-01

    Changing climatic conditions on seasonal and longer time scales influence agricultural production. Improvement of soil and fertilizer is a strong factor in agricultural production, but agricultural production is influenced by climate conditions even in highly developed countries. It is valuable if fewer predictors make it possible to conduct future projections. Monthly temperature and precipitation, wintertime 500hPa geopotential height, and the previous year's yield are used as predictors to forecast spring wheat yield in advance. Canadian small agricultural divisions (SAD) are used for analysis. Each SAD is composed of a collection of Canadian Agricultural Regions (CAR) of similar weather and growing conditions. Spring wheat yields in each CAR are forecast from the following variables: (a) the previous year's yield, (b) earlier stages of the growing season's climate conditions and, (c) the previous year's wintertime northern hemisphere 500hPa geopotential height field. Arctic outflow events in the Okanagan Valley in Canada are associated with episodes of extremely low temperatures during wintertime. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied for wintertime northern hemisphere 500hPa geopotential height anomalies. The spatial PCA mode1 is defined as Arctic Oscillation and it influences prevailing westerlies. The prevailing westerlies meanders and influences climatic conditions. The spatial similarity between wintertime top 5 Arctic outflow event year's composites of 500hPa geopotential height anomalies and mode 3's spatial pattern is found. Mode 3's spatial pattern looks like the Pacific/North American (PNA) pattern which describes the variation of atmospheric circulation pattern over the Pacific Ocean and North America. Climate conditions from April to June, May to July, mode 3's time coefficients, and previous year's yield are used for forecasting spring wheat yield in each SAD. Cross-validation procedure which generates eight sets of models for the eight

  10. An intercomparison of burnt area estimates derived from key operational products: the Greek wildland fires of 2005-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalivas, D. P.; Petropoulos, G. P.; Athanasiou, I. M.; Kollias, V. J.

    2013-06-01

    With the support of new technologies such as of remote sensing, today's societies have been able to map and analyse wildland fires at large observational scales. With regards to burnt area mapping in particular, two of the most widely used operational products are offered today by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Forest Fires Information System (EFFIS) of the European Commission. In this study, a rigorous intercomparison of the burnt area estimates derived by these two products is performed in a geographical information system (GIS) environment for the Greek fires that occurred from 2005 to 2007. For the same temporal interval, the relationships of the burnt area estimates by each product are examined with respect to land use/cover and elevation derived from CORINE 2000 and the ASTER global digital elevation model (GDEM), respectively. Generally, noticeable differences were found in the burnt area estimates by the two products both spatially and in absolute numbers. The main findings are described and the differences in the burnt area estimates between the two operational datasets are discussed. The lack of precise agreement between the two products which was found does not necessarily mean that one or the other product is inaccurate. Rather, it underlines the requirement for their calibration and validation using high-resolution remote sensing data in future studies. Our work not only builds upon a series of analogous studies evaluating the accuracy of the same or similar operational products worldwide, but also contributes towards the development of standardised validation methodologies required in objectively evaluating such datasets.

  11. Secondary production of the fiddler crab Uca rapax from mangrove areas under anthropogenic eutrophication in the Western Atlantic, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Tarso de M M; Soares-Gomes, Abilio

    2015-12-30

    Fiddler crabs Uca rapax were analyzed in three mangrove areas located in both a lagoon and estuarine system in order to study the influence of eutrophication on their population dynamics and production. Populations at the three sites showed a biased sex ratio. Densities were similar at the three sites, but biomass was higher at the lagoon system. Despite biomass being higher at the most eutrophic site, this site exhibited the lowest production. Regarding age structure, the population inhabiting the less eutrophic site mainly comprised younger crabs. The lower production and smaller P/B ratio found in the more eutrophic site were most likely consequences of a high mortality rate and an aged population. Our study evidences the high plasticity of the fiddler crab U. rapax, and confirms secondary production and P/B ratio estimates as useful tools to assess the effects of environmental change.

  12. An assessment of the predictors of the dynamics in arable production per capita index, arable production and permanent cropland and forest area based on structural equation models.

    PubMed

    Epule, Epule Terence; Bryant, Christopher Robin; Akkari, Cherine; Sarr, Mamadou Adama; Peng, Changhui

    2014-01-01

    This study sets out to verify the key predictors of the dynamics of the arable production per capita index, the arable production and permanent crop land and forest area at a national scale in Cameroon. To achieve this objective, data for twelve time series data variables spanning the period 1961-2000 were collected from Oxford University, the United Nations Development program, the World Bank, FAOSTAT and the World Resource Institute. The data were analysed using structural equation models (SEM) based on the two stage least square approach (2SLS). To optimize the results, variables that showed high correlations were dropped because they will not add any new information into the models. The results show that the arable production per capita index is impacted more by population while the influence of rainfall on the arable production per capita index is weak. Arable production and permanent cropland on its part has as the main predictor arable production per capita index. Forest area is seen to be more vulnerable to trade in forest products and logging than any other variable. The models presented in this study are quite reliable because the p and t values are consistent and overall, these results are consistent with previous studies.

  13. Mammoth steppe: a high-productivity phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimov, S. A.; Zimov, N. S.; Tikhonov, A. N.; Chapin, F. S.

    2012-12-01

    At the last deglaciation Earth's largest biome, mammoth-steppe, vanished. Without knowledge of the productivity of this ecosystem, the evolution of man and the glacial-interglacial dynamics of carbon storage in Earth's main carbon reservoirs cannot be fully understood. Analyzes of fossils 14C dates and reconstruction of mammoth steppe climatic envelope indicated that changing climate wasn't a reason for extinction of this ecosystem. We calculate, based on animal skeleton density in frozen soils of northern Siberia, that mammoth-steppe animal biomass and plant productivity, even in these coldest and driest of the planet's grasslands were close to those of an African savanna. Numerous herbivores maintained ecosystem productivity. By reducing soil moisture and permafrost temperature, accumulating carbon in soils, and increasing the regional albedo, mammoth-steppe amplified glacial-interglacial climate variations. The re-establishment of grassland ecosystems would slow permafrost thawing and reduce the current warming rate. Proposed methods can be used to estimate animal density in other ecosystems.

  14. High Radon concentration in the karst area of south Puglia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taroni, Mattia; Bartolomei, Paolo; Esposito, Massimo; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2010-05-01

    The Radon mapping are normally based on regular grids or on geological maps. The geological maps are advantageous because foresee little areas with high hazard in zones which are otherwise considered like a low risk. The Italian national maps consider the South Puglia, Lecce Karst, as a zone with low risk, but this region presents local important anomalies that can be seen with the geological Radon map. The methodology used to understand the natural phenomena (that are the basis of the analysis of potential Radon risk) is based on a preliminary study from literature: Geological study, general classification, environment formation in which it has developed the area or part of it, detailed studies of the area investigated, the underground structure, level of fracturing, cracking, and primary and secondary porosity, seismic of area. The Area's identification with different risk degrees of Radon production, concentration and emanation characterized by natural boundaries, geological, geomorphological, etc... Information obtained from paragraphs 1 and 2 provide the "Indices of potential risk of the generation, emanation and diffusion of Radon'; this hazard indices allow to optimize the measurements distribution in soils. We Identify the sub-areas of the zone study that can be characterized by high Radon concentrations, dividing these by "natural" hypothetical lines such as the lithology changing, permeability, subsoil structure, etc. ... The preliminary study allows the optimisation of sampling strategy based on not Uniform distribution of 'in situ' measures, where to intensive the measures and where to make only control points of Radon concentration. With these information and with Uranium concentration in samples of different geological formations and Radon measures in water and in soil air we obtained thematic maps and box-plots linking the natural geological indices and we identified the factors that govern the Radon rise and diffusion. The Lecce Karst's study have

  15. Product Delivery Expectations: Hanford LAW Product Performance and Acceptance Tanks Focus Area Task

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzscheiter, E.W.

    1999-04-29

    This task has several facets all aimed at providing technical products that will support the immobilization of Hanford's Low Activity Waste. Since this task breaks new ground in developing predictive capability, a review process external to the technical team is critical for acceptance by the technical community and is key to Hanford's Performance Assessment review process.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from environmental samples in an area of intensive poultry production.

    PubMed

    Furtula, Vesna; Jackson, Charlene R; Farrell, Erin Gwenn; Barrett, John B; Hiott, Lari M; Chambers, Patricia A

    2013-03-12

    Enterococcus spp. from two poultry farms and proximate surface and ground water sites in an area of intensive poultry production were tested for resistance to 16 clinical antibiotics. Resistance patterns were compared to assess trends and possible correlations for specific antimicrobials and levels of resistance. Enterococci were detected at all 12 surface water sites and three of 28 ground water sites. Resistance to lincomycin, tetracycline, penicillin and ciprofloxacin in poultry litter isolates was high (80.3%, 65.3%, 61.1% and 49.6%, respectively). Resistance in the surface water to the same antibiotics was 87.1%, 24.1%, 7.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Overall, 86% of litter isolates, 58% of surface water isolates and 100% of ground water isolates were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Fifty-four different resistance patterns were recognised in isolates obtained from litter and environmental samples and several E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from litter and environment samples shared the same resistance pattern. Multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) indices calculated to assess health risks due to the presence of resistant enterococci suggested an increased presence of antibiotics in surface water, likely from poultry sources as no other wastewater contributions in the area were documented.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from environmental samples in an area of intensive poultry production.

    PubMed

    Furtula, Vesna; Jackson, Charlene R; Farrell, Erin Gwenn; Barrett, John B; Hiott, Lari M; Chambers, Patricia A

    2013-03-01

    Enterococcus spp. from two poultry farms and proximate surface and ground water sites in an area of intensive poultry production were tested for resistance to 16 clinical antibiotics. Resistance patterns were compared to assess trends and possible correlations for specific antimicrobials and levels of resistance. Enterococci were detected at all 12 surface water sites and three of 28 ground water sites. Resistance to lincomycin, tetracycline, penicillin and ciprofloxacin in poultry litter isolates was high (80.3%, 65.3%, 61.1% and 49.6%, respectively). Resistance in the surface water to the same antibiotics was 87.1%, 24.1%, 7.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Overall, 86% of litter isolates, 58% of surface water isolates and 100% of ground water isolates were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Fifty-four different resistance patterns were recognised in isolates obtained from litter and environmental samples and several E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from litter and environment samples shared the same resistance pattern. Multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) indices calculated to assess health risks due to the presence of resistant enterococci suggested an increased presence of antibiotics in surface water, likely from poultry sources as no other wastewater contributions in the area were documented. PMID:23481592

  18. Antimicrobial Resistance in Enterococcus spp. Isolated from Environmental Samples in an Area of Intensive Poultry Production

    PubMed Central

    Furtula, Vesna; Jackson, Charlene R.; Farrell, Erin Gwenn; Barrett, John B.; Hiott, Lari M.; Chambers, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus spp. from two poultry farms and proximate surface and ground water sites in an area of intensive poultry production were tested for resistance to 16 clinical antibiotics. Resistance patterns were compared to assess trends and possible correlations for specific antimicrobials and levels of resistance. Enterococci were detected at all 12 surface water sites and three of 28 ground water sites. Resistance to lincomycin, tetracycline, penicillin and ciprofloxacin in poultry litter isolates was high (80.3%, 65.3%, 61.1% and 49.6%, respectively). Resistance in the surface water to the same antibiotics was 87.1%, 24.1%, 7.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Overall, 86% of litter isolates, 58% of surface water isolates and 100% of ground water isolates were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Fifty-four different resistance patterns were recognised in isolates obtained from litter and environmental samples and several E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from litter and environment samples shared the same resistance pattern. Multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) indices calculated to assess health risks due to the presence of resistant enterococci suggested an increased presence of antibiotics in surface water, likely from poultry sources as no other wastewater contributions in the area were documented. PMID:23481592

  19. Measurements and simulation of forest leaf area index and net primary productivity in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, P; Sun, R; Hu, J; Zhu, Q; Zhou, Y; Li, L; Chen, J M

    2007-11-01

    Large scale process-based modeling is a useful approach to estimate distributions of global net primary productivity (NPP). In this paper, in order to validate an existing NPP model with observed data at site level, field experiments were conducted at three sites in northern China. One site is located in Qilian Mountain in Gansu Province, and the other two sites are in Changbaishan Natural Reserve and Dunhua County in Jilin Province. Detailed field experiments are discussed and field data are used to validate the simulated NPP. Remotely sensed images including Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+, 30 m spatial resolution in visible and near infrared bands) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER, 15m spatial resolution in visible and near infrared bands) are used to derive maps of land cover, leaf area index, and biomass. Based on these maps, field measured data, soil texture and daily meteorological data, NPP of these sites are simulated for year 2001 with the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS). The NPP in these sites ranges from 80 to 800 gCm(-2)a(-1). The observed NPP agrees well with the modeled NPP. This study suggests that BEPS can be used to estimate NPP in northern China if remotely sensed images of high spatial resolution are available. PMID:17166651

  20. Evaluation of the MODIS Albedo Product over a Heterogeneous Agricultural Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobrino, Jose Antonio; Franch, B.; Oltra-Carrio, R.; Vermote, E. F.; Fedele, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)/Albedo product (MCD43) is evaluated over a heterogeneous agricultural area in the framework of the Earth Observation: Optical Data Calibration and Information Extraction (EODIX) project campaign, which was developed in Barrax (Spain) in June 2011. In this method, two models, the RossThick-LiSparse-Reciprocal (RTLSR) (which corresponds to the MODIS BRDF algorithm) and the RossThick-Maignan-LiSparse-Reciprocal (RTLSR-HS), were tested over airborne data by processing high-resolution images acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS) sensor. During the campaign, airborne images were retrieved with different view zenith angles along the principal and orthogonal planes. Comparing the results of applying the models to the airborne data with ground measurements, we obtained a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.018 with both RTLSR and RTLSR-HS models. The evaluation of the MODIS BRDF/Albedo product (MCD43) was performed by comparing satellite images with AHS estimations. The results reported an RMSE of 0.04 with both models. Additionally, taking advantage of a homogeneous barley pixel, we compared in situ albedo data to satellite albedo data. In this case, the MODIS albedo estimation was (0.210 +/- 0.003), while the in situ measurement was (0.204 +/- 0.003). This result shows good agreement in regard to a homogeneous pixel.

  1. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bonsignore, P.V.

    1995-11-28

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  2. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    1995-01-01

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid). A poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  3. The environmental impact of buffalo manure in areas specialized in mozzarella production, southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Infascelli, Roberta; Faugno, Salvatore; Pindozzi, Stefania; Pelorosso, Raffaele; Boccia, Lorenzo

    2010-11-01

    Buffalo livestock plays a central role in the regional economy in some areas of southern Italy, through the production of mozzarella cheese. With about 250,000 heads per utilizable agricultural area (equal to 107,400 ha), livestock husbandry is intensive. An important issue with regard to high animal density is manure management, an activity determined by cost optimization and the laws governing environmental sustainability. According to community, national and international rules (European Directive 91/676, Italian rules 152/99 and 258/00), nitrate leakage is considered a pollution indicator related to breeding activities and must be kept within limits. Simulation studies were carried out in the Italian province of Caserta to evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater. Manure was also collected from 35 livestock farms and the nitrogen content measured in the laboratory. The results showed an average content of 2 kg/m3 of nitrogen, corresponding to 50 kg per animal and year, while the nitrate concentrations in the groundwater were found to be lower than those predicted by simulation. The nitrogen content found in buffalo manure <60% of the standard content produced by the bovine species (on average 83 kg nitrogen per adult animal per year). The fact that the bovine species is used as the standard reference for legislation on nitrogen production explains the inconsistency observed between the impact of buffalo livestock on the environment predicted by simulation and the nitrate concentration measured in the groundwater. Although it would be out of line with current regulations, it would theoretically be possible to increase the buffalo load on the territory without environmentally negative effects. Therefore, in this context, the common referral points, i.e. the American Midwest Point Service and others usually consulted for the assessment of livestock impact in terms of nutritional excretion and the risk of pollution for the environment, should be revisited.

  4. The control of Pt and Ru nanoparticle size on high surface area supports.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiuli; Joshi, Upendra A; Über, Kevin; Regalbuto, John R

    2014-12-28

    Supported Ru and Pt nanoparticles are synthesized by the method of strong electrostatic adsorption and subsequently treated under different steaming-reduction conditions to achieve a series of catalysts with controlled particle sizes, ranging from 1 to 8 nm. While in the case of oxidation-reduction conditions, only Pt yielded particles ranging from 2.5 to 8 nm in size and a loss of Ru was observed. Both Ru and Pt sinter faster in air than in hydrogen. This methodology allows the control of particle size using a "production-scalable" catalyst synthesis method which can be applied to high surface area supports with common metal precursors.

  5. The control of Pt and Ru nanoparticle size on high surface area supports.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiuli; Joshi, Upendra A; Über, Kevin; Regalbuto, John R

    2014-12-28

    Supported Ru and Pt nanoparticles are synthesized by the method of strong electrostatic adsorption and subsequently treated under different steaming-reduction conditions to achieve a series of catalysts with controlled particle sizes, ranging from 1 to 8 nm. While in the case of oxidation-reduction conditions, only Pt yielded particles ranging from 2.5 to 8 nm in size and a loss of Ru was observed. Both Ru and Pt sinter faster in air than in hydrogen. This methodology allows the control of particle size using a "production-scalable" catalyst synthesis method which can be applied to high surface area supports with common metal precursors. PMID:25200960

  6. Detection and quantification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shellfish from Italian production areas.

    PubMed

    Suffredini, Elisabetta; Mioni, Renzo; Mazzette, Rina; Bordin, Paola; Serratore, Patrizia; Fois, Federica; Piano, Annamaria; Cozzi, Loredana; Croci, Luciana

    2014-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine microorganism, recognized as an important cause of foodborne illness particularly in Asia, South America and United States. Outbreaks are rarely reported in Europe, but they can occur unexpectedly in relation, among other reasons, to the spread of highly virulent strains. It is known that the risk is proportional to exposure levels to pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus (i.e. carrying the tdh and/or the trh genes) but currently there is a lack of occurrence data for pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in shellfish production areas of the Member States. In this study a total of 147 samples of bivalve molluscs, from harvesting areas of two Italian regions (Sardinia and Veneto) were analyzed for Escherichia coli and salmonella, according to Reg 2073/2005, and for detection and enumeration of total and toxigenic V. parahaemolyticus strains using a new DNA colony hybridization method. Environmental parameters (water temperature and salinity) were also recorded. Results of E. coli were consistently in agreement with the legislation limits for the harvesting class of origin and Salmonella was detected only in one sample. The average contamination levels for total V. parahaemolyticus were 84 and 73 CFU/g respectively for Sardinia and Veneto, with the highest value reaching 8.7 × 10(3)CFU/g. Nineteen samples (12.9%) resulted positive for the presence of potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains, with levels ranging between 10 and 120 CFU/g and most of the positive samples (n=17) showing values equal or below 20 CFU/g. A significant correlation (r=0.41) was found between water temperature and V. parahaemolyticus levels, as well as with isolation frequency. The data provided in this study on contamination levels of total and potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus, seasonal distribution and correlation with water temperature, will help in defining appropriate monitoring programs and post-harvest policies for this hazard, improving the

  7. Rainfed Areas and Animal Agriculture in Asia: The Wanting Agenda for Transforming Productivity Growth and Rural Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Devendra, C.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil

  8. Rainfed areas and animal agriculture in Asia: the wanting agenda for transforming productivity growth and rural poverty.

    PubMed

    Devendra, C

    2012-01-01

    The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil

  9. New High in Engineering Degree Production. Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Several of the state's key industry sectors depend heavily on employees with advanced scientific, analytic and technical knowledge. Among the fields closely related to these sectors, engineering degrees have posted the largest gain. This paper presents details on the following facts: (1) 2009 represented a record high for engineering degrees; (2)…

  10. What controls phytoplankton production in nutrient-rich areas of the open sea

    SciTech Connect

    Weiler, C.S.

    1991-06-25

    The oceans play a critical role in regulating the global carbon cycle. Deep-ocean waters are roughly 200% supersaturated with CO{sub 2} compared to surface waters, which are in contact with the atmosphere. This difference is due to the flux of photosynthetically derived organic material from surface to deep waters and its subsequent remineralization, i.e. the biological pump''. The pump is a complex phytoplankton-based ecosystem. the paradoxical nature of ocean regions containing high nutrients and low phytoplankton populations has intrigued biological oceanographers for many years. Hypotheses to explain the paradox include the regulation of productivity by light, temperature, zooplankton grazing, and trace metal limitation and/or toxicity. To date, none of the hypotheses, or combinations thereof, has emerged as a widely accepted explanation for why the nitrogen and phosphorus are not depleted in these regions of the oceans. Recently, new evidence has emerged which supports the hypothesis that iron limitation regulates primary production in these areas. This has stimulated discussions of the feasibility of fertilizing parts the Southern Ocean with iron, and thus sequestering additional atmospheric CO{sub 2} in the deep oceans, where it would remain over the next few centuries. The economic, social, and ethical concerns surrounding such a proposition, along with the outstanding scientific issues, call for rigorous discussion and debate on the regulation of productivity in these regions. To this end, The American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) held a Special Symposium on the topic Feb. 22--24th, 1991. Participants included leading authorities, from the US and abroad, on physical, chemical, and biological oceanography, plant physiology, microbiology, and trace metal chemistry. Representatives from government agencies and industry were also present.

  11. What controls phytoplankton production in nutrient-rich areas of the open sea?

    SciTech Connect

    Weiler, C.S.

    1991-06-25

    The oceans play a critical role in regulating the global carbon cycle. Deep-ocean waters are roughly 200% supersaturated with CO{sub 2} compared to surface waters, which are in contact with the atmosphere. This difference is due to the flux of photosynthetically derived organic material from surface to deep waters and its subsequent remineralization, i.e. the ``biological pump``. The pump is a complex phytoplankton-based ecosystem. the paradoxical nature of ocean regions containing high nutrients and low phytoplankton populations has intrigued biological oceanographers for many years. Hypotheses to explain the paradox include the regulation of productivity by light, temperature, zooplankton grazing, and trace metal limitation and/or toxicity. To date, none of the hypotheses, or combinations thereof, has emerged as a widely accepted explanation for why the nitrogen and phosphorus are not depleted in these regions of the oceans. Recently, new evidence has emerged which supports the hypothesis that iron limitation regulates primary production in these areas. This has stimulated discussions of the feasibility of fertilizing parts the Southern Ocean with iron, and thus sequestering additional atmospheric CO{sub 2} in the deep oceans, where it would remain over the next few centuries. The economic, social, and ethical concerns surrounding such a proposition, along with the outstanding scientific issues, call for rigorous discussion and debate on the regulation of productivity in these regions. To this end, The American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) held a Special Symposium on the topic Feb. 22--24th, 1991. Participants included leading authorities, from the US and abroad, on physical, chemical, and biological oceanography, plant physiology, microbiology, and trace metal chemistry. Representatives from government agencies and industry were also present.

  12. Large-Area, Highly Ordered Array of Graphitic Carbon Materials Using Surface Active Chitosan Prepatterns.

    PubMed

    Baek, Youn-Kyoung; Kim, Dae Woo; Yang, Seung Bo; Lee, Jung-Goo; Kim, Young Kuk; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate that chitosan prepatterns can generate not only highly periodic DNA pattern but also various types of graphitic carbon materials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence imaging and Raman spectroscopic results revealed that the graphitic carbon materials were selectively deposited on the surface of the periodic chitosan patterns by the electrostatic interaction between protonated amine groups of chitosan and the negative charged carbon materials. One proof-of-concept application of the system to the fabrication of electrical devices based on the micropatterns of SWNTs and RGO was also demonstrated. The strategy to use highly surface active chitosan pattern that can easily fabricate highly periodic pattern via a variety of lithographic tools may pave the way for the production of periodic arrays of graphitic carbon materials for large area device integration. PMID:26353637

  13. Recruiting and Retaining High-Quality Teachers in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, David H.

    2007-01-01

    In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize…

  14. Assessing changes to South African maize production areas in 2055 using empirical and process-based crop models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estes, L.; Bradley, B.; Oppenheimer, M.; Beukes, H.; Schulze, R. E.; Tadross, M.

    2010-12-01

    Rising temperatures and altered precipitation patterns associated with climate change pose a significant threat to crop production, particularly in developing countries. In South Africa, a semi-arid country with a diverse agricultural sector, anthropogenic climate change is likely to affect staple crops and decrease food security. Here, we focus on maize production, South Africa’s most widely grown crop and one with high socio-economic value. We build on previous coarser-scaled studies by working at a finer spatial resolution and by employing two different modeling approaches: the process-based DSSAT Cropping System Model (CSM, version 4.5), and an empirical distribution model (Maxent). For climate projections, we use an ensemble of 10 general circulation models (GCMs) run under both high and low CO2 emissions scenarios (SRES A2 and B1). The models were down-scaled to historical climate records for 5838 quinary-scale catchments covering South Africa (mean area = 164.8 km2), using a technique based on self-organizing maps (SOMs) that generates precipitation patterns more consistent with observed gradients than those produced by the parent GCMs. Soil hydrological and mechanical properties were derived from textural and compositional data linked to a map of 26422 land forms (mean area = 46 km2), while organic carbon from 3377 soil profiles was mapped using regression kriging with 8 spatial predictors. CSM was run using typical management parameters for the several major dryland maize production regions, and with projected CO2 values. The Maxent distribution model was trained using maize locations identified using annual phenology derived from satellite images coupled with airborne crop sampling observations. Temperature and precipitation projections were based on GCM output, with an additional 10% increase in precipitation to simulate higher water-use efficiency under future CO2 concentrations. The two modeling approaches provide spatially explicit projections of

  15. Medina Group geology and production tests indicate area worth further drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Pees, S.T.

    1983-05-30

    The Medina Group sandstones of the Lower Silurian area comprise the currently most active drilling objective for gas in northwestern Pennsylvania. This article discusses the stratigraphy and gives details on production tests of the area. The occurrence of exceptional Medina wells is clearly established in the region. These wells can economically offset average or marginal wells. In spite of the large number of wells, many of which have been drilled since 1979, the region has large undrilled tracts.

  16. An Analysis of Post-Stimulation Production Response in the Madison: Elk Area, ND

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, D.D.

    1984-05-01

    Madison carbonates in the Williston Basin vary widely in productive capacity. Often, wells achieving low oil production rates after acid stimulation respond favorably to a proppant fracturing treatment. This has occurred most frequently in fractured reservoirs with limited matrix permeability (less than 0.1 md). The study area consists of nine contiguous fields 10-15 miles south of the town of Williston, North Dakota. Madison reservoir development was initiated in 1980 and has proceeded steadily. A variety of stimulation techniques have been implemented with proppant fracturing emerging as a frequently used method. This paper reviews and evaluates area reservoir characteristics and completion and stimulation practices. Also included is an analysis of the reservoir behavior during proppant fracturing treatments and of the ensuing production response. In most cases, proppant fracturing techniques have provided better productivity increases than large-scale acidizing and lower than normal decline rates.

  17. High-Throughput Baculovirus Expression System for Membrane Protein Production.

    PubMed

    Kalathur, Ravi C; Panganiban, Marinela; Bruni, Renato

    2016-01-01

    The ease of use, robustness, cost-effectiveness, and posttranslational machinery make baculovirus expression system a popular choice for production of eukaryotic membrane proteins. This system can be readily adapted for high-throughput operations. This chapter outlines the techniques and procedures for cloning, transfection, small-scale production, and purification of membrane protein samples in a high-throughput manner. PMID:27485337

  18. High Efficiency Solar Integrated Roof Membrane Product

    SciTech Connect

    Partyka, Eric; Shenoy, Anil

    2013-05-15

    This project was designed to address the Solar Energy Technology Program objective, to develop new methods to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules within a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) application that will result in lower installed cost as well as higher efficiencies of the encapsulated/embedded PV module. The technology assessment and development focused on the evaluation and identification of manufacturing technologies and equipment capable of producing such low-cost, high-efficiency, flexible BIPV solar cells on single-ply roofing membranes.

  19. Productivity Improvement for the SHX--SEN's Single-Wafer High-Current Ion Implanter

    SciTech Connect

    Ninomiya, Shiro; Ochi, Akihiro; Kimura, Yasuhiko; Yumiyama, Toshio; Kudo, Tetsuya; Kurose, Takeshi; Kariya, Hiroyuki; Tsukihara, Mitsukuni; Ishikawa, Koji; Ueno, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-07

    Equipment productivity is a critical issue for device fabrication. For ion implantation, productivity is determined both by ion current at the wafer and by utilization efficiency of the ion beam. Such improvements not only result in higher fabrication efficiency but also reduce consumption of both electrical power and process gases. For high-current ion implanters, reduction of implant area is a key factor to increase efficiency. SEN has developed the SAVING system (Scanning Area Variation Implantation with Narrower Geometrical pattern) to address this opportunity. In this paper, three variations of the SAVING system are introduced along with discussion of their effects on fab productivity.

  20. How to rejuvenate interest in exploring an old production area in Gabon

    SciTech Connect

    Fontaine, J.M.; Jones, M.; Ombagho, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    The Mandji peninsula area is the oldest explored petroleum province in Gabon. The Clairette, Lopez North and South, N`Tchengue fields were discovered in the 50`s in Senonian and Tertiary turbidites structured by salt domes. A total of 120 wells have led to a production of 12,5 MT (91 MMbls) oil. However, some gaps in the understanding of reservoir distribution and fluids regime appeared as production went on and could not be resolved with the available seismic data which was old (1974 to 1982) and irregular. A new 3D seismic survey was shot in 1992 (245 km2) over an area fringed with shallow water and mangrove forests, covered with savannah liable to flooding, and including several populated areas. The acquisition set-up was adjusted to every type of environment: Airgun in shallow water, explosive in uninhabited areas, and Vibroseis (TM) through the city of Port-Gentil. A carefully designed processing sequence led to consistently good quality throughout the survey, allowing a complete and detailed review of the area. In addition to building a coherent reference model, multi-disciplinary studies have already unveiled new opportunities : complex structural and stratigraphic components in the old fields together with unexpected structural closures and stratigraphic leads are revealed by the 3D interpretation. They will constitute new targets for further exploring an area at late production stage, and may help build a model for the exploration of the turbidites in the Senonian basin.

  1. How to rejuvenate interest in exploring an old production area in Gabon

    SciTech Connect

    Fontaine, J.M.; Jones, M.; Ombagho, M.L. )

    1996-01-01

    The Mandji peninsula area is the oldest explored petroleum province in Gabon. The Clairette, Lopez North and South, N'Tchengue fields were discovered in the 50's in Senonian and Tertiary turbidites structured by salt domes. A total of 120 wells have led to a production of 12,5 MT (91 MMbls) oil. However, some gaps in the understanding of reservoir distribution and fluids regime appeared as production went on and could not be resolved with the available seismic data which was old (1974 to 1982) and irregular. A new 3D seismic survey was shot in 1992 (245 km2) over an area fringed with shallow water and mangrove forests, covered with savannah liable to flooding, and including several populated areas. The acquisition set-up was adjusted to every type of environment: Airgun in shallow water, explosive in uninhabited areas, and Vibroseis (TM) through the city of Port-Gentil. A carefully designed processing sequence led to consistently good quality throughout the survey, allowing a complete and detailed review of the area. In addition to building a coherent reference model, multi-disciplinary studies have already unveiled new opportunities : complex structural and stratigraphic components in the old fields together with unexpected structural closures and stratigraphic leads are revealed by the 3D interpretation. They will constitute new targets for further exploring an area at late production stage, and may help build a model for the exploration of the turbidites in the Senonian basin.

  2. Prospective areas in the production technology of scientific equipment for space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breslavets, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    The average labor of individual types of operations in the percentage ratio of the total labor consumption of manufacturing scientific instruments and apparatus for space research is presented. The prospective areas in the production technology of billet, machining, mechanical assembly, installation and assembly, adjustment and regulation and testing and control operations are noted. Basic recommendations are made with respect to further reduction of labor consumption and an increase in the productivity of labor when manufacturing scientific equipment for space research.

  3. High Energy Astrophysics with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the findings of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Observatory. It includes information about the LAT, and the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM), detection of the quiet sun and the moon in gamma rays, Pulsars observed by the observatory, Globular Star Clusters, Active Galactic Nucleus, and Gamma-Ray Bursts, with specific information about GRB 080916C.

  4. High Surface Area Inorganic Membrane for Water Removal

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to demonstrate the fabrication and performance advantages of minichannel planar membrane modules made of porous metallic supports of surface area packing density one order of magnitude higher than the conventional membrane tube. The new, transformational, ceramic/metallic, hybrid membrane technology will be used for water/ethanol separations and reduce energy consumption by >20% over distillation and adsorption.

  5. Sustaining Fracture Area and Conductivity of Gas shale Reservoirs for Enhancing Long-term Production and Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez-Rivera, R.; Marino, S.; Ghassemi, A.

    2010-12-01

    Natural gas from organic rich shale formations has become an increasingly important energy resource worldwide over the past decade. Extensive hydraulic fracture networks with massive contact surface areas are frequently required to achieve satisfactory economic production in these highly heterogeneous reservoirs, with permeability in the nano-Darcy range. Current operational experience in gas shale plays indicates that the loss of productive fracture area and loss of fracture conductivity, both immediate and over time, are the major factors leading to reduced flow rates, marginal production, and poor gas recovery. This theoretical and experimental project, funded by a RPSEA (Research Partnership to Secure Energy for America) program, is aimed at understanding the multiple causes of loss of fracture surface area and fracture conductivity. The main objectives of the project are: understand the multiple causes of loss of fracture area and fracture conductivity, and define solutions to mitigate the resulting loss of production. Define the types of fracture networks that are more prone to loosing fracture area and define critical parameters, for each reservoir type, (including proppant concentration, fluid interaction, relative shear displacement and others) to preserve fracture conductivity, and define an integrated methodology for evaluating reservoir properties that result in proneness to loss of fracture area and fracture conductivity, and define adequate solutions for the various reservoir types Current results include the evaluation of reservoir geology, mineralogy, reservoir properties, mechanical properties, including surface hardness, and petrologic analysis on cores representative of Barnett, Haynesville and Marcellus reservoir shales. A comparison of these properties provides an initial reference frame for identifying differences in behavior between the various reservoirs, and for anticipating the potential for embedment and loss of fracture conductivity

  6. Software Synthesis for High Productivity Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Bodik, Rastislav

    2010-09-01

    Over the three years of our project, we accomplished three key milestones: We demonstrated how ideas from generative programming and software synthesis can help support the development of bulk-synchronous distributed memory kernels. These ideas are realized in a new language called MSL, a C-like language that combines synthesis features with high level notations for array manipulation and bulk-synchronous parallelism to simplify the semantic analysis required for synthesis. We also demonstrated that these high level notations map easily to low level C code and show that the performance of this generated code matches that of handwritten Fortran. Second, we introduced the idea of solver-aided domain-specific languages (SDSLs), which are an emerging class of computer-aided programming systems. SDSLs ease the construction of programs by automating tasks such as verification, debugging, synthesis, and non-deterministic execution. SDSLs are implemented by translating the DSL program into logical constraints. Next, we developed a symbolic virtual machine called Rosette, which simplifies the construction of such SDSLs and their compilers. We have used Rosette to build SynthCL, a subset of OpenCL that supports synthesis. Third, we developed novel numeric algorithms that move as little data as possible, either between levels of a memory hierarchy or between parallel processors over a network. We achieved progress in three aspects of this problem. First we determined lower bounds on communication. Second, we compared these lower bounds to widely used versions of these algorithms, and noted that these widely used algorithms usually communicate asymptotically more than is necessary. Third, we identified or invented new algorithms for most linear algebra problems that do attain these lower bounds, and demonstrated large speed-ups in theory and practice.

  7. High-Intensity Sweeteners in Alternative Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Shida; Beach, Evan S.; Sommer, Toby J.; Zimmerman, Julie B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sweeteners in tobacco products may influence use initiation and reinforcement, with special appeal to adolescents. Recent analytical studies of smokeless tobacco products (snuff, snus, dissolvables) detected flavorants identical to those added to confectionary products such as hard candy and chewing gum. However, these studies did not determine the levels of sweeteners. The objective of the present study was to quantify added sweeteners in smokeless tobacco products, a dissolvable product, electronic cigarette liquids and to compare with sweetener levels in confectionary products. Methods: Sweetener content of US-sourced smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarette liquid, and confectionary product samples was analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Results: All smokeless products contained synthetic high intensity sweeteners, with snus and dissolvables exceeding levels in confectionary products (as much as 25-fold). All snus samples contained sucralose and most also aspartame, but no saccharin. In contrast, all moist snuff samples contained saccharin. The dissolvable sample contained sucralose and sorbitol. Ethyl maltol was the most common sweet-associated component in electronic cigarette liquids. Discussion: Sweetener content was dependent on product category, with saccharin in moist snuff, an older category, sucralose added at high levels to more recently introduced products (snus, dissolvable) and ethyl maltol in electronic cigarette liquid. The very high sweetener concentrations may be necessary for the consumer to tolerate the otherwise aversive flavors of tobacco ingredients. Regulation of sweetener levels in smokeless tobacco products may be an effective measure to modify product attractiveness, initiation and use patterns. Implications: Dissolvables, snus and electronic cigarettes have been promoted as risk-mitigation products due to their relatively low content of nitrosamines and other tobacco

  8. Application of remote sensors in mapping rice area and forecasting its production: a review.

    PubMed

    Mosleh, Mostafa K; Hassan, Quazi K; Chowdhury, Ehsan H

    2015-01-05

    Rice is one of the staple foods for more than three billion people worldwide. Rice paddies accounted for approximately 11.5% of the World's arable land area during 2012. Rice provided ~19% of the global dietary energy in recent times and its annual average consumption per capita was ~65 kg during 2010-2011. Therefore, rice area mapping and forecasting its production is important for food security, where demands often exceed production due to an ever increasing population. Timely and accurate estimation of rice areas and forecasting its production can provide invaluable information for governments, planners, and decision makers in formulating policies in regard to import/export in the event of shortfall and/or surplus. The aim of this paper was to review the applicability of the remote sensing-based imagery for rice area mapping and forecasting its production. Recent advances on the resolutions (i.e., spectral, spatial, radiometric, and temporal) and availability of remote sensing imagery have allowed us timely collection of information on the growth and development stages of the rice crop. For elaborative understanding of the application of remote sensing sensors, following issues were described: the rice area mapping and forecasting its production using optical and microwave imagery, synergy between remote sensing-based methods and other developments, and their implications as an operational one. The overview of the studies to date indicated that remote sensing-based methods using optical and microwave imagery found to be encouraging. However, there were having some limitations, such as: (i) optical remote sensing imagery had relatively low spatial resolution led to inaccurate estimation of rice areas; and (ii) radar imagery would suffer from speckles, which potentially would degrade the quality of the images; and also the brightness of the backscatters were sensitive to the interacting surface. In addition, most of the methods used in forecasting rice yield were

  9. High Yield Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of High Quality Large-Area AB Stacked Bilayer Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yu; Shaw, Jonathan; Zhong, Xing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2012-01-01

    Bernal stacked (AB stacked) bilayer graphene is of significant interest for functional electronic and photonic devices due to the feasibility to continuously tune its band gap with a vertical electrical field. Mechanical exfoliation can be used to produce AB stacked bilayer graphene flakes but typically with the sizes limited to a few micrometers. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been recently explored for the synthesis of bilayer graphene but usually with limited coverage and a mixture of AB and randomly stacked structures. Herein we report a rational approach to produce large-area high quality AB stacked bilayer graphene. We show that the self-limiting effect of graphene growth on Cu foil can be broken by using a high H2/CH4 ratio in a low pressure CVD process to enable the continued growth of bilayer graphene. A high temperature and low pressure nucleation step is found to be critical for the formation of bilayer graphene nuclei with high AB stacking ratio. A rational design of a two-step CVD process is developed for the growth of bilayer graphene with high AB stacking ratio (up to 90 %) and high coverage (up to 99 %). The electrical transport studies demonstrated that devices made of the as-grown bilayer graphene exhibit typical characteristics of AB stacked bilayer graphene with the highest carrier mobility exceeding 4,000 cm2/V·s at room temperature, comparable to that of the exfoliated bilayer graphene. PMID:22906199

  10. Development and Implementation of Production Area of Agricultural Product Data Collection System Based on Embedded System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Lei; Guo, Wei; Che, Yinchao; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xinming

    To solve problems in detecting the origin of agricultural products, this paper brings about an embedded data-based terminal, applies middleware thinking, and provides reusable long-range two-way data exchange module between business equipment and data acquisition systems. The system is constructed by data collection node and data center nodes. Data collection nodes taking embedded data terminal NetBoxII as the core, consisting of data acquisition interface layer, controlling information layer and data exchange layer, completing the data reading of different front-end acquisition equipments, and packing the data TCP to realize the data exchange between data center nodes according to the physical link (GPRS / CDMA / Ethernet). Data center node consists of the data exchange layer, the data persistence layer, and the business interface layer, which make the data collecting durable, and provide standardized data for business systems based on mapping relationship of collected data and business data. Relying on public communications networks, application of the system could establish the road of flow of information between the scene of origin certification and management center, and could realize the real-time collection, storage and processing between data of origin certification scene and databases of certification organization, and could achieve needs of long-range detection of agricultural origin.

  11. High-Throughput Dry Processes for Large-Area Devices

    SciTech Connect

    BUSS,RICHARD J.; HEBNER,GREGORY A.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.; YANG,PIN

    1999-11-01

    In October 1996, an interdisciplinary team began a three-year LDRD project to study the plasma processes of reactive ion etching and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on large-area silicon devices. The goal was to develop numerical models that could be used in a variety of applications for surface cleaning, selective etching, and thin-film deposition. Silicon solar cells were chosen as the experimental vehicle for this project because an innovative device design was identified that would benefit from immediate performance improvement using a combination of plasma etching and deposition processes. This report presents a summary of the technical accomplishments and conclusions of the team.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from environmental samples in the area of intensive poultry production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we investigated antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. from different environmental compartments including litter from two farms, 12 surface and 28 groundwater sites in an area of intensive poultry production and litter application. The enumerated isolates (n=250) were tested ...

  13. Estimating leaf area index from Landsat using MODIS LAI products and field measurements as reference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a key biophysical parameter used in most land surface models. Operationally, LAI products currently used typically come from coarse resolution sensors such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). While coarse resolution data at the kilometer scale are o...

  14. Validation of Ocean Color Satellite Data Products in Under Sampled Marine Areas. Chapter 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramaniam, Ajit; Hood, Raleigh R.; Brown, Christopher W.; Carpenter, Edward J.; Capone, Douglas G.

    2001-01-01

    The planktonic marine cyanobacterium, Trichodesmium sp., is broadly distributed throughout the oligotrophic marine tropical and sub-tropical oceans. Trichodesmium, which typically occurs in macroscopic bundles or colonies, is noteworthy for its ability to form large surface aggregations and to fix dinitrogen gas. The latter is important because primary production supported by N2 fixation can result in a net export of carbon from the surface waters to deep ocean and may therefore play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. However, information on the distribution and density of Trichodesmium from shipboard measurements through the oligotrophic oceans is very sparse. Such estimates are required to quantitatively estimate total global rates of N2 fixation. As a result current global rate estimates are highly uncertain. Thus in order to understand the broader biogeochemical importance of Trichodesmium and N2 fixation in the oceans, we need better methods to estimate the global temporal and spatial variability of this organism. One approach that holds great promise is satellite remote sensing. Satellite ocean color sensors are ideal instruments for estimating global phytoplankton biomass, especially that due to episodic blooms, because they provide relatively high frequency synoptic information over large areas. Trichodesmium has a combination of specific ultrastructural and biochemical features that lend themselves to identification of this organism by remote sensing. Specifically, these features are high backscatter due to the presence of gas vesicles, and absorption and fluorescence of phycoerythrin. The resulting optical signature is relatively unique and should be detectable with satellite ocean color sensors such as the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS).

  15. Study of production functions for modeling forest biomass: An area for research

    SciTech Connect

    Nautiyal, J.C. ); Belli, K.L. )

    1989-09-01

    The usefulness of production functions, mathematical descriptions of production processes, has long been recognized by economists in manufacturing industries, and more recently by agricultural scientists in the field of biological production. As increasing emphasis in forestry is placed on short-rotation, intensive crop management it would seem that foresters would also require production functions for rational timber management planning. These functions could be useful in a number of areas such as: crop tree growth prediction, control of stand development, economic analysis for decision-making purposes, and for determining the so-called elasticities of inputs and outputs. A very general functional form that may be appropriate for the development of forestry models is the transcendental logarithmic, or translog, function. Unfortunately, at this time, sufficiently detailed data do not seem to be available for any tree species to estimate a production function that could make sophisticated intensive forest management possible.

  16. High surface area stainless steel brushes as cathodes in microbial electrolysis cells.

    PubMed

    Call, Douglas F; Merrill, Matthew D; Logan, Bruce E

    2009-03-15

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are an efficient technology for generating hydrogen gas from organic matter, but alternatives to precious metals are needed for cathode catalysts. We show here that high surface area stainless steel brush cathodes produce hydrogen at rates and efficiencies similar to those achieved with platinum-catalyzed carbon cloth cathodes in single-chamber MECs. Using a stainless steel brush cathode with a specific surface area of 810 m2/m3, hydrogen was produced at a rate of 1.7 +/- 0.1 m3-H2/m3-d (current density of 188 +/- 10 A/m3) at an applied voltage of 0.6 V. The energy efficiency relative to the electrical energy input was 221 +/- 8%, and the overall energy efficiency was 78 +/- 5% based on both electrical energy and substrate utilization. These values compare well to previous results obtained using platinum on flat carbon cathodes in a similar system. Reducing the cathode surface area by 75% decreased performance from 91 +/- 3 A/m3 to 78 +/- 4 A/m3. A brush cathode with graphite instead of stainless steel and a specific surface area of 4600 m2/m3 generated substantially less current (1.7 +/- 0.0 A/m3), and a flat stainless steel cathode (25 m2/m3) produced 64 +/- 1 A/m3, demonstrating that both the stainless steel and the large surface area contributed to high current densities. Linear sweep voltammetry showed that the stainless steel brush cathodes both reduced the overpotential needed for hydrogen evolution and exhibited a decrease in overpotential over time as a result of activation. These results demonstrate for the first time that hydrogen production can be achieved at rates comparable to those with precious metal catalysts in MECs without the need for expensive cathodes. PMID:19368232

  17. High surface area, low weight composite nickel fiber electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Bradley A.; Ferro, Richard E.; Swain, Greg M.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    1993-01-01

    The energy density and power density of light weight aerospace batteries utilizing the nickel oxide electrode are often limited by the microstructures of both the collector and the resulting active deposit in/on the collector. Heretofore, these two microstructures were intimately linked to one another by the materials used to prepare the collector grid as well as the methods and conditions used to deposit the active material. Significant weight and performance advantages were demonstrated by Britton and Reid at NASA-LeRC using FIBREX nickel mats of ca. 28-32 microns diameter. Work in our laboratory investigated the potential performance advantages offered by nickel fiber composite electrodes containing a mixture of fibers as small as 2 microns diameter (Available from Memtec America Corporation). These electrode collectors possess in excess of an order of magnitude more surface area per gram of collector than FIBREX nickel. The increase in surface area of the collector roughly translates into an order of magnitude thinner layer of active material. Performance data and advantages of these thin layer structures are presented. Attributes and limitations of their electrode microstructure to independently control void volume, pore structure of the Ni(OH)2 deposition, and resulting electrical properties are discussed.

  18. High Energy Wide Area Blunt Impact on Composite Aircraft Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFrancisci, Gabriela K.

    The largest source of damage to commercial aircraft is caused by accidental contact with ground service equipment (GSE). The cylindrical bumper typically found on GSE distributes the impact load over a large contact area, possibly spanning multiple internal structural elements (frame bays) of a stiffened-skin fuselage. This type of impact can lead to damage that is widespread and difficult to detect visually. To address this problem, monolithic composite panels of various size and complexity have been modeled and tested quasi-statically and dynamically. The experimental observations have established that detectability is dependent on the impact location and immediately-adjacent internal structure of the panel, as well as the impactor geometry and total deformation of the panel. A methodology to model and predict damage caused by wide area blunt impact events was established, which was then applied to more general cases that were not tested in order to better understand the nature of this type of impact event and how it relates to the final damage state and visual detectability.

  19. High Resolution Marine Magnetic Survey of Shallow Water Littoral Area

    PubMed Central

    Ginzburg, Boris; Cohen, Tsuriel Ram; Zafrir, Hovav; Alimi, Roger; Salomonski, Nizan; Sharvit, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a system developed for detection and accurate mapping of ferro-metallic objects buried below the seabed in shallow waters. The system comprises a precise magnetic gradiometer and navigation subsystem, both installed on a non-magnetic catamaran towed by a low-magnetic interfering boat. In addition we present the results of a marine survey of a near-shore area in the vicinity of Atlit, a town situated on the Mediterranean coast of Israel, about 15 km south of Haifa. The primary purpose of the survey was to search for a Harvard airplane that crashed into the sea in 1960. A magnetic map of the survey area (3.5 km2 on a 0.5 m grid) was created revealing the anomalies at sub-meter accuracy. For each investigated target location a corresponding ferro-metallic item was dug out, one of which turned to be very similar to a part of the crashed airplane. The accuracy of location was confirmed by matching the position of the actual dug artifacts with the magnetic map within a range of ± 1 m, in a water depth of 9 m.

  20. Analysis, improvement and application of the MODIS leaf area index products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenze

    Green leaf area governs the exchanges of energy, mass and momentum between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere. Therefore, leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of incident photosynthetically active radiation (0.4-0.7 mum) absorbed by the vegetation canopy (FPAR) are widely used in vegetation monitoring and modeling. The launch of Terra and Aqua satellites with the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument onboard provided the first global products of LAI and FPAR, derived mainly from an algorithm based on radiative transfer. The objective of this research is to comprehensively evaluate the Terra and Aqua MODIS LAI/FPAR products. Large volumes of these products have been analyzed with the goal of understanding product quality with respect to version (Collection 3 versus 4), algorithm (main versus back-up), snow (snow-free versus snow on the ground) and cloud (cloud-free versus cloudy) conditions. Field validation efforts identified several key factors that influence the accuracy of algorithm retrievals. The strategy of validation efforts guiding algorithm refinements has led to progressively more accurate LAI/FPAR products. The combination of products derived from the Terra and Aqua MODIS sensors increases the success rate of the main radiative transfer algorithm by 10-20 percent over woody vegetation. The Terra Collection 4 LAI data reveal seasonal swings in green leaf area of about 25 percent in a majority of the Amazon rainforests caused by variability in cloud cover and light. The timing and the influence of this seasonal cycle are critical to understanding tropical plant adaptation patterns and ecological processes. The results presented in this dissertation suggest how the product quality has gradually improved largely through the efforts of validation activities. The Amazon case study highlights the utility of these data sets for monitoring global vegetation dynamics. Thus, these results can be seen as a benchmark for evaluation of

  1. High-Level Language Production in Parkinson's Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, Lori J. P.; Troche, Michelle S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses impairments of high-level, complex language production in Parkinson's disease (PD), defined as sentence and discourse production, and situates these impairments within the framework of current psycholinguistic theories of language production. The paper comprises three major sections, an overview of the effects of PD on the brain and cognition, a review of the literature on language production in PD, and a discussion of the stages of the language production process that are impaired in PD. Overall, the literature converges on a few common characteristics of language production in PD: reduced information content, impaired grammaticality, disrupted fluency, and reduced syntactic complexity. Many studies also document the strong impact of differences in cognitive ability on language production. Based on the data, PD affects all stages of language production including conceptualization and functional and positional processing. Furthermore, impairments at all stages appear to be exacerbated by impairments in cognitive abilities. PMID:21860777

  2. Characterizing the impacts of vertical transport and photochemical ozone production on an exceedance area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Emma L.; Iraci, Laura T.; Austerberry, David; Pierce, R. Bradley; Roby, Matthew C.; Tadić, Jovan M.; Loewenstein, Max; Gore, Warren

    2015-05-01

    Offshore and inland vertical profiles of ozone (O3) were measured from an aircraft during 16 flights from January 2012 to January 2013 over the northern San Joaquin Valley (SJV) and over the Pacific Ocean. Analysis of in situ measurements presents an assessment of the seasonality and magnitude of net O3 production and transport within the lower troposphere above the SJV. During the high O3 season (May-October), the Dobson Unit sum of O3 in the 0-2 km above sea level (km.a.s.l.) layer above the SJV exceeds that above the offshore profile by up to 20.5%, implying net O3 production over the SJV or vertical transport from above. During extreme events (e.g. Stratosphere-to-troposphere transport) vertical features (areas of enhanced or depleted O3 or water vapor) are observed in the offshore and SJV profiles at different altitudes, demonstrating the scale of vertical mixing during transport. Correlation analysis between offshore O3 profiles and O3 surface sites in the SJV lends further support the hypothesis of vertical mixing. Correlation analysis indicates that O3 mixing ratios at surface sites in the northern and middle SJV show significant correlations to the 1.5-2 km.a.s.l. offshore altitude range. Southern SJV O3 surface sites show a shift towards maximum correlations at increased time-offsets, and O3 surface sites at elevated altitudes show significant correlations with higher offshore altitudes (2.5-4 km.a.s.l.).

  3. Self-assembly of boehmite nanopetals to form 3D high surface area nanoarchitectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanganeh, Saeid; Kajbafvala, Amir; Zanganeh, Navid; Mohajerani, Matin Sadat; Lak, Aidin; Bayati, M. R.; Zargar, H. R.; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.

    2010-04-01

    A flower-like boehmite nanostructure was prepared through a template-free chemical route by the self-assembly process of nanosize petals 800-1000 nm long, 200-250 nm wide, 20-50 nm thick and having an average crystallite size of about 2.21 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), DTA/TGA analyses and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET-N2) analyses were used in order to characterize the product obtained. XRD results exhibited that the obtained nanostructures composed of pure orthorhombic AlOOH phase. The effects of Cl- ions and TEA on the growth of boehmite three-dimensional nanoarchitectures in the presence of NO3- ions were investigated. BET analyses of as-prepared material demonstrate that this nanostructure material has a high specific surface area, as high as 123 m2 g-1.

  4. Low-level waste disposal in highly populated areas

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, E.; McCombie, C.; Issler, H.

    1989-11-01

    Nuclear-generated electricity supplies almost 40% of the demand in Switzerland (the rest being hydro-power). Allowing for a certain reserve and assuming an operational life-time of 40 years for each reactor, and taking into account wastes from decommissioning and from medicine, industry and research, the total amount of low-level radioactive waste to be disposed of is about 175,000 m{sup 3}. Since there are no unpopulated areas in Switzerland, and since Swiss Federal Law specifies that the safety of disposal may not depend upon supervision of the repository, no shallow-land burial has been foreseen, even for short-lived low-level waste. Instead, geological disposal in a mined cavern system with access through a horizontal tunnel was selected as the best way of meeting the requirements and ensuring the necessary public acceptance.

  5. Method for producing high surface area chromia materials for catalysis

    DOEpatents

    Gash, Alexander E.; Satcher, Joe; Tillotson, Thomas; Hrubesh, Lawrence; Simpson, Randall

    2007-05-01

    Nanostructured chromium(III)-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing and a synthetic route for producing such materials are disclosed herein. Monolithic aerogels and xerogels having surface areas between 150 m.sup.2/g and 520 m.sup.2/g have been produced. The synthetic method employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-chromium(III) inorganic salts and common solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, t-butanol, 2-ethoxy ethanol, and ethylene glycol, DMSO, and dimethyl formamide. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by an addition of a proton scavenger, such as an epoxide, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively.

  6. [Hygienic environmental characteristics and population health in areas of production of heavy oils and natural bitumen].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A V; Korolev, A A; Tafeeva, E A

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with the impact of production of heavy oil and natural bitumens on the environment and human health. It provides a sanitary characteristics of the degree of ambient air pollution, the quality of reservoir and drinking water and soil in the areas of production of heavy oil and natural bitumens. Human health was studied in all age groups by medical and demographic indices and diseases. Hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide, carbon oxide were found to be the leading pollutants in these areas. Production of heavy oil and natural bitumens pollutes surface and underground water-bearing horizons, which is a cause of worse conditions for the population to use water due to a 1.8-fold increase in water hardness and a 1.2-fold increase in the content of sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates, as compared to 1987-1991. The production of heavy oil and natural bitumens is a large source of soil pollution. The greatest soil pollution was observed in the areas of bitumen production by intraseam burning and vapour-heat exposure. There was a relationship of respiratory disorders to sulphur dioxide (r = 0.5-0.73) and hydrogen sulfide (r = 0.6-0.82), of blood and blood-forming organ diseases to nitrogen oxide (r = 0.58-0.79), and of nervous and sensory diseases to sulphur dioxide (r = 0.73-0.82). The study provided sanitary recommendations for environmental sanitation and health promotion in the areas of production of heavy oil and natural bitumens. PMID:11519457

  7. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  8. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  9. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  10. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  11. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  12. Siloxanes removal from biogas by high surface area adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Gislon, P; Galli, S; Monteleone, G

    2013-12-01

    Biogas utilized for energy production needs to be free from organic silicon compounds, as their burning has damaging effects on turbines and engines; organic silicon compounds in the form of siloxanes can be found in biogas produced from urban wastes, due to their massive industrial use in synthetic product, such as cosmetics, detergents and paints. Siloxanes removal from biogas can be carried out by various methods (Mona, 2009; Ajhar et al., 2010 May; Schweigkofler and Niessner, 2001); aim of the present work is to find a single practical and economic way to drastically and simultaneously reduce both the hydrogen sulphide and the siloxanes concentration to less than 1 ppm. Some commercial activated carbons previously selected (Monteleone et al., 2011) as being effective in hydrogen sulfide up taking have been tested in an adsorption measurement apparatus, by flowing the most volatile siloxane (hexamethyldisiloxane or L2) in a nitrogen stream, typically 100-200 ppm L2 over N2, through an activated carbon powder bed; the adsorption process was analyzed by varying some experimental parameters (concentration, grain size, bed height). The best activated carbon shows an adsorption capacity of 0.1g L2 per gram of carbon. The next thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirms the capacity data obtained experimentally by the breakthrough curve tests. The capacity results depend on L2 concentration. A regenerative carbon process is then carried out by heating the carbon bed up to 200 °C and flushing out the adsorbed L2 samples in a nitrogen stream in a three step heating procedure up to 200 °C. The adsorption capacity is observed to degrade after cycling the samples through several adsorption-desorption cycles.

  13. High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jack

    Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are

  14. Hydrogen storage in high surface area graphene scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Klechikov, Alexey; Mercier, Guillaume; Sharifi, Tiva; Baburin, Igor A; Seifert, Gotthard; Talyzin, Alexandr V

    2015-10-25

    Using an optimized KOH activation procedure we prepared highly porous graphene scaffold materials with SSA values up to 3400 m(2) g(-1) and a pore volume up to 2.2 cm(3) g(-1), which are among the highest for carbon materials. Hydrogen uptake of activated graphene samples was evaluated in a broad temperature interval (77-296 K). After additional activation by hydrogen annealing the maximal excess H2 uptake of 7.5 wt% was obtained at 77 K. A hydrogen storage value as high as 4 wt% was observed already at 193 K (120 bar H2), a temperature of solid CO2, which can be easily maintained using common industrial refrigeration methods.

  15. Lithological influences on occurrence of high-fluoride groundwater in Nagar Parkar area, Thar Desert, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Naseem, Shahid; Rafique, Tahir; Bashir, Erum; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Laghari, Amanullah; Usmani, Tanzil Haider

    2010-03-01

    Factors regulating the occurrence of high fluoride (F(-)) concentrations in groundwater near Nagar Parkar Town, SE corner of Pakistan have been investigated considering lithological influences. F(-) ion concentrations in groundwater range up to 7.85 with mean value of 3.33 mg L(-1). Plots of major elements and their normative mineral composition reflect granitic composition of the rocks in the study area. Modal mineralogical analysis show high perthite, plagioclase feldspars and quartz, while micas, amphiboles and pyroxenes occur in minor quantities. Water-rock interactions, based on dissolved ions of F(-), SiO(2), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Li(+) and Sr(2+) suggest that fluoriferous groundwater originates from granitic rocks, typically from albite, biotite, hornblende and pyroxene and its alteration products such as kaolin and soil. The Log TDS, Na/Na+Ca ratio, Mg/Ca+Mg and Cl/Sigma anions are significant to review the impact of weathering processes which promote the availability of F(-) ions in the groundwater of study area. Principal component analysis (PCA) also renders close association among F(-) ions and other elements in the rocks and groundwater. Studies on F(-) estimation in the granite rock, china clay, soil and sand samples also indicate the presence of high F(-) concentration in these materials and average values have been found to be 1939, 710, 254 and 16 mg kg(-1), respectively.

  16. Adaptability and stability of conilon coffee in areas of high altitude.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, D H G S; Rodrigues, W P; Vieira, H D; Partelli, F L; Viana, A P

    2014-09-26

    In view of the predicted models of global climate change and differences in prices and production costs, there is increased interest in Coffea canephora cultivation in areas of high altitude. However, this species is sensitive to low temperatures, where genotypes vary regarding adaptation/tolerance mechanisms, demonstrating genotype x environment interaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability and adaptability of C. canephora varieties in high-altitude areas. The experiments were carried out in February 2004, in Bom Jesus do Itabapoana, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, at an altitude of 725 m. Four clonal varieties (EMCAPA 8111, EMCAPA 8121, EMCAPA 8131, and EMCAPA 8151) and five harvests (2006 to 2010) were used. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments and six plots, with 12 plants in each plot and spaced 2.5 x 1.2 m. Adaptability and stability parameters were determined using methods based on nonparametric analysis and analysis of variance. The results showed that the EMCAPA 8131 had the best performance according to stability and adaptability parameters and may be promising for high-altitude regions.

  17. Continuous downstream processing for high value biological products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Zydney, Andrew L

    2016-03-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility of developing truly continuous processes for the large-scale production of high value biological products. Continuous processing has the potential to provide significant reductions in cost and facility size while improving product quality and facilitating the design of flexible multi-product manufacturing facilities. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in separations technology suitable for continuous downstream bioprocessing, focusing on unit operations that would be most appropriate for the production of secreted proteins like monoclonal antibodies. This includes cell separation/recycle from the perfusion bioreactor, initial product recovery (capture), product purification (polishing), and formulation. Of particular importance are the available options, and alternatives, for continuous chromatographic separations. Although there are still significant challenges in developing integrated continuous bioprocesses, recent technological advances have provided process developers with a number of attractive options for development of truly continuous bioprocessing operations. PMID:26153056

  18. Identifying and Researching Market Opportunities for New High Technology Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunstan, Peter

    Using a product called the synchro-pulse welder as a case study example, this paper discusses the activities of CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) in identifying and marketing new high-technology products. A general discussion of CSIRO's market research plans includes two goals to be attained within the next 5…

  19. Methane production and energy evaluation of a farm scaled biogas plant in cold climate area.

    PubMed

    Fjørtoft, Kristian; Morken, John; Hanssen, Jon Fredrik; Briseid, Tormod

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the specific methane production and the energy balance at a small farm scaled mesophilic biogas plant in a cold climate area. The main substrate was dairy cow slurry. Fish silage was used as co-substrate for two of the three test periods. Energy production, substrate volumes and thermal and electric energy consumption was monitored. Methane production depended mainly on type and amount of substrates, while energy consumption depended mainly on the ambient temperature. During summer the main thermal energy consumption was caused by heating of new substrates, while covering for thermal energy losses from digester and pipes required most thermal energy during winter. Fish silage gave a total energy production of 1623 k Wh/m(3), while the dairy cow slurry produced 79 k Wh/m(3) slurry. Total energy demand at the plant varied between 26.9% and 88.2% of the energy produced. PMID:25033326

  20. Methane production and energy evaluation of a farm scaled biogas plant in cold climate area.

    PubMed

    Fjørtoft, Kristian; Morken, John; Hanssen, Jon Fredrik; Briseid, Tormod

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the specific methane production and the energy balance at a small farm scaled mesophilic biogas plant in a cold climate area. The main substrate was dairy cow slurry. Fish silage was used as co-substrate for two of the three test periods. Energy production, substrate volumes and thermal and electric energy consumption was monitored. Methane production depended mainly on type and amount of substrates, while energy consumption depended mainly on the ambient temperature. During summer the main thermal energy consumption was caused by heating of new substrates, while covering for thermal energy losses from digester and pipes required most thermal energy during winter. Fish silage gave a total energy production of 1623 k Wh/m(3), while the dairy cow slurry produced 79 k Wh/m(3) slurry. Total energy demand at the plant varied between 26.9% and 88.2% of the energy produced.

  1. Flint Water Crisis Taking High Toll on Health, Productivity

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160307.html Flint Water Crisis Taking High Toll on Health, Productivity Michigan ... 2016 MONDAY, Aug. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The water crisis in Flint, Mich., has cost $395 million ...

  2. Flight Qualification And Production Results With Large Area Space Solar Cells And Panel Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. K.; Hanley, James; Jun, Bogim; Bardfield, Rina; Stone, Beth

    2011-10-01

    Spectrolab's product roadmap provides improvement in product performance in parallel with continuous cost reduction to maintain competitive standing in our industry. Product performance improvement is achieved by developing higher efficiency solar cells (e.g. 29.5% XTJ and 33% IMM cells).Reduced product cost is achieved historically through a variety of means including yield improvements, direct material cost reductions, process changes, and most recently, a transition to large area cell configurations (e.g. "LEONE" at 59.65 cm2). Spectrolab has successfully completed the qualification of its latest triple junction space solar cell, the 29.5% 2 XTJ (26.62 cm ), per AIAA-S-111-2005 - augmented by additional Spectrolab testing. Large area LEONE UTJ and XTJ cells (59.65 cm2 from 100 mm diameter germanium wafer) have also been qualified. Use of these large area cells has resulted in the reduction of solar panel cost, add-on mass and manufacturing cycle time for programs. This evolution to larger area cells is the result of a strategic cost reduction effort initiated in 2006; the first step of which was to manufacture the largest possible cells (LEONE) using the 100 mm germanium (Ge) wafer. In flight production since 2007, the LEONE UTJ cell has now completed rigorous qualification testing to 15,549 GEO (Geosynchronous orbit) and 66,060 LEO (Low Earth Orbit) thermal cycles. Over 53,000 LEONE UTJ cells, including more than 27,000 cells on panels delivered to flight programs, have been produced to date. The on-orbit performance of the LEONE UTJ cells is nominal. Finally, progress on the second step of our strategic cost reduction effort towards larger cells and less piece part handling is presented. This effort involves the establishment of a 150 mm Ge -based manufacturing infrastructure.

  3. High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jack

    Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are

  4. Distributed, explicit modeling of technical snow production and ski area management with the hydroclimatological model AMUNDSEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanzer, Florian; Marke, Thomas; Strasser, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    In this presentation, a module for simulating technical snow production in ski areas coupled to the spatially distributed physically based hydroclimatological model AMUNDSEN is presented. The module explicitly considers individual snow guns and distributes the produced snow along the slopes. The amount of snow produced by each device is a function of its type, of wet-bulb temperature at the location, of ski area infrastructure (in terms of water supply and pumping capacity), and of snow demand. An empirical rule in the modeling for snow production, derived from common snowmaking practices, splits the winter season into a period of maximum snowmaking and a successive period of selective on-demand snowmaking. The model is exemplarily set up for a ski area in the Schladming region (Austrian Alps) using actual snowmaking infrastructure data. Integration of these data as model variables, as well as stakeholder-defined indicators and thresholds, have been implemented as defined interfaces in a coupled component model architecture. Comparison of the model results with recordings of snowmaking operation and satellite-derived snow cover maps indicate that the model is capable of accurately simulating the real-world snowmaking practice, and the combined natural and technical snow conditions on the slopes. The explicit consideration of individual snow guns and ski area infrastructure makes the model a valuable tool for scenario applications, e.g. to assess the effects of different ski area management strategies and changes in snowmaking infrastructure for climate change impact studies.

  5. Expansion of Sugarcane area for Ethanol production in Brazil: a Threat to Food Production and Environmental Sustainability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, J. M.; Coutinho, H. L.; Veiga, L. B.

    2012-12-01

    The raise in fossil fuels prices and the increase in Greenhouse Gas emissions is leading nations to adopt non-fossil fuels based energy sources. Sugarcane crops for biofuel production are expanding fast in Brazil, mainly through land use change (LUC) processes, in substitution of pasturelands and grain crops plantations. Would these changes affect negatively sustainability assessments of bioethanol production in the future? We estimate the extent of sugarcane cropland needed to produce sufficient ethanol to attend to market demands. This work presents a baseline scenario for sugarcane cropping area in Brazil in 2017, taking into account market forces (supply and demand). We also comment on a policy instrument targetting sustainable sugarcane production in Brazil. The expansion scenarios took into account the demand for ethanol from 2008-2017, produced by the Energy Research Corporation, of Brazil. In order to develop the expansion scenario, we estimated the amount of sugarcane needed to attend the ethanol demand. We then calculated the area needed to generate that amount of sugarcane. The analytical parameters were: 1) one tonne of sugarcane produces an average 81.6 liters of ethanol; 2) the average sugarcane crop productivity varied linearly from 81.4 tons/hectare in 2008 to 86.2 tons/hectare in 2017. We also assumed that sugarcane productivity in 2017 as the current average productivity of sugarcane in the State of São Paulo. The results show that the requirement for 3.5 million ha in 2007 will increase to 9 million ha in 2017. The Sugarcane Agroecologic Zoning (ZAECANA), published by Embrapa (2009), is a tool that not only informs the territory occupation and use policies, but also classifies land as qualified, restricted or non-qualified for the plantation of sugarcane crops. The ZAECANA is based on soil and climate suitability assessments, and is presented in a spatially-explicit format. Adopting the precautionary principle, a national policy was established

  6. Methods for high volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B.; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Seals, Roland D.; Ludtka, Gerald M.

    2011-03-22

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  7. Stabilizers: indispensable substances in dairy products of high rheology.

    PubMed

    Tasneem, Madiha; Siddique, Farzana; Ahmad, Asif; Farooq, Umar

    2014-01-01

    The functionality of stabilizers is apparent in many food applications including dairy products. The role of stabilizers like gelatin, pectins, alginates, carboxymethylcellulose, gums, ispghol, sago starch, and chitosan in the development of dairy products of high rheology, like yoghurt, ice cream, and flavored milk, is discussed in this review. Attention is also paid to comprehend on interactions among milk proteins, minerals, and other milk constituents with the reactive sites of stabilizers to get the desirable properties such as appearance, body and texture, mouthfeel, consistency. The role played by stabilizers in the control of syneresis and overrun problems in the high-rheology dairy products is also the topic of discussion.

  8. Stabilizers: indispensable substances in dairy products of high rheology.

    PubMed

    Tasneem, Madiha; Siddique, Farzana; Ahmad, Asif; Farooq, Umar

    2014-01-01

    The functionality of stabilizers is apparent in many food applications including dairy products. The role of stabilizers like gelatin, pectins, alginates, carboxymethylcellulose, gums, ispghol, sago starch, and chitosan in the development of dairy products of high rheology, like yoghurt, ice cream, and flavored milk, is discussed in this review. Attention is also paid to comprehend on interactions among milk proteins, minerals, and other milk constituents with the reactive sites of stabilizers to get the desirable properties such as appearance, body and texture, mouthfeel, consistency. The role played by stabilizers in the control of syneresis and overrun problems in the high-rheology dairy products is also the topic of discussion. PMID:24499066

  9. Chemisorption of chromium acetylacetonate on porous high surface area silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haukka, Suvi; Lakomaa, Eeva-Liisa; Suntola, Tuomo

    1994-01-01

    Atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) reactions (i.e. saturating gas-solid reactions) of chromium acetylacetonate (Cr(acac) 3) at 200-280°C with silica preheated at 200-820°C were studied by determining chromium and carbon concentrations, recording FTIR spectra, and reacting Cr(acac) 3 with the silylated silica surface. Cr(acac) 3 was found to be selectively chemisorbed to silica through reaction with the isolated OH groups, leading to release of one acac ligand. The relatively large size of the supported chromium complex that formed had a highly controlling effect on the amount of chromium atoms bound. In addition to this steric hindrance, the saturation density of chromium could be further regulated by the preheat temperature of the silica, which determines the number of OH groups, and by the reaction temperature. The reaction with the silylated silica surface provided a means for achieving an even lower saturation density of chromium and confirmed that the strongly H-bonded OH groups present on silica preheated at 200°C were only partly reactive. The ligands of the surface complex could be removed by water vapor and air treatment.

  10. Evaluation of new large area PMT with high quantum efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Xiang-Cui; Heng, Yue-Kun; Qian, Sen; Xia, Jing-Kai; Liu, Shu-Lin; Wu, Zhi; Yan, Bao-Jun; Xu, Mei-Hang; Wang, Zheng; Li, Xiao-Nan; Ruan, Xiang-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Zhuang; Yang, Yu-Zhen; Wang, Wen-Wen, Wang; Can, Fang; Feng-Jiao, Luo; Liang, Jing-Jing; Yang, Lu-Ping; Yang, Biao

    2016-02-01

    The neutrino detector of the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is designed to use 20 kilotons of liquid scintillator and approximately 16 000 20 inch photomultipliers (PMTs). One of the options is to use the 20 inch R12860 PMT with high quantum efficiency which has recently been developed by Hamamatsu Photonics. The performance of the newly developed PMT preproduction samples is evaluated. The results show that its quantum efficiency is 30% at 400 nm. Its Peak/Valley (P/V) ratio for the single photoelectron is 4.75 and the dark count rate is 27 kHz at the threshold of 3 mV while the gain is at 1 × 107. The transit time spread of a single photoelectron is 2.86 ns. Generally the performances of this new 20 inch PMT are improved over the old one of R3600. Supported by Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (X-DA10010200), Key Deployment Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences and CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP)

  11. Using a dose-area product for absolute measurements in small fields: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Dufreneix, S; Ostrowsky, A; Le Roy, M; Sommier, L; Gouriou, J; Delaunay, F; Rapp, B; Daures, J; Bordy, J-M

    2016-01-21

    To extend the dosimetric reference system to field sizes smaller than 2 cm × 2 cm, the LNE-LNHB laboratory is studying an approach based on a new dosimetric quantity named the dose-area product instead of the commonly used absorbed dose at a point. A graphite calorimeter and a plane parallel ion chamber with a sensitive surface of 3 cm diameter were designed and built for measurements in fields of 2, 1 and 0.75 cm diameter. The detector surface being larger than the beam section, most of the issues linked with absolute dose measurements at a point could be avoided. Calibration factors of the plane parallel ionization chamber were established in terms of dose-area product in water for small fields with an uncertainty smaller than 0.9%. PMID:26690271

  12. Model of areas for identifying risks influencing the compliance of technological processes and products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, A.; Belu, N.

    2016-08-01

    Operation of every company is associated with the risk of interfering with proper performance of its fundamental processes. This risk is associated with various internal areas of the company, as well as the environment in which it operates. From the point of view of ensuring compliance of the course of specific technological processes and, consequently, product conformity with requirements, it is important to identify these threats and eliminate or reduce the risk of their occurrence. The purpose of this article is to present a model of areas of identifying risk affecting the compliance of processes and products, which is based on multiregional targeted monitoring of typical places of interference and risk management methods. The model is based on the verification of risk analyses carried out in small and medium-sized manufacturing companies in various industries..

  13. Application of Remote Sensors in Mapping Rice Area and Forecasting Its Production: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mosleh, Mostafa K.; Hassan, Quazi K.; Chowdhury, Ehsan H.

    2015-01-01

    Rice is one of the staple foods for more than three billion people worldwide. Rice paddies accounted for approximately 11.5% of the World's arable land area during 2012. Rice provided ∼19% of the global dietary energy in recent times and its annual average consumption per capita was ∼65 kg during 2010–2011. Therefore, rice area mapping and forecasting its production is important for food security, where demands often exceed production due to an ever increasing population. Timely and accurate estimation of rice areas and forecasting its production can provide invaluable information for governments, planners, and decision makers in formulating policies in regard to import/export in the event of shortfall and/or surplus. The aim of this paper was to review the applicability of the remote sensing-based imagery for rice area mapping and forecasting its production. Recent advances on the resolutions (i.e., spectral, spatial, radiometric, and temporal) and availability of remote sensing imagery have allowed us timely collection of information on the growth and development stages of the rice crop. For elaborative understanding of the application of remote sensing sensors, following issues were described: the rice area mapping and forecasting its production using optical and microwave imagery, synergy between remote sensing-based methods and other developments, and their implications as an operational one. The overview of the studies to date indicated that remote sensing-based methods using optical and microwave imagery found to be encouraging. However, there were having some limitations, such as: (i) optical remote sensing imagery had relatively low spatial resolution led to inaccurate estimation of rice areas; and (ii) radar imagery would suffer from speckles, which potentially would degrade the quality of the images; and also the brightness of the backscatters were sensitive to the interacting surface. In addition, most of the methods used in forecasting rice yield

  14. Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-30

    The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000 hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology was characterized

  15. Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

    2009-11-01

    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  16. Universal area product formulas for rotating and charged black holes in four and higher dimensions.

    PubMed

    Cvetič, M; Gibbons, G W; Pope, C N

    2011-03-25

    We present explicit results for the product of all horizon areas for general rotating multicharge black holes, both in asymptotically flat and asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes in four and higher dimensions. The expressions are universal, and depend only on the quantized charges, quantized angular momenta and the cosmological constant. If the latter is also quantized these universal results may provide a "looking glass" for probing the microscopics of general black holes.

  17. The strategy for assessing risks associated with remediation of the former production area at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.; Avci, H.; Picel, K.; Janke, R.J.

    1993-10-01

    The strategy for assessing the risks associated with the remediation of the former Production Area at the Fernald Environmental Management Project is discussed. The general approach to risk assessment is strongly influenced by a number of factors related to the nature of the site and to management proposals that have been made concerning the site. How these factors affect the approach to assessing baseline risks, to assessing risks associated with remedial activity, and to establishing cleanup criteria are examined.

  18. High-Volume Production of Lightweight Multijunction Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youtsey, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    MicroLink Devices, Inc., has transitioned its 6-inch epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cell fabrication process into a manufacturing platform capable of sustaining large-volume production. This Phase II project improves the ELO process by reducing cycle time and increasing the yield of large-area devices. In addition, all critical device fabrication processes have transitioned to 6-inch production tool sets designed for volume production. An emphasis on automated cassette-to-cassette and batch processes minimizes operator dependence and cell performance variability. MicroLink Devices established a pilot production line capable of at least 1,500 6-inch wafers per month at greater than 80 percent yield. The company also increased the yield and manufacturability of the 6-inch reclaim process, which is crucial to reducing the cost of the cells.

  19. Retrieving Crops Green Area Index from High Temporal and Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veloso, A.; Demarez, V.; Ceschia, E.

    2012-04-01

    This paper aims at firstly evaluating the correspondence between Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) products from Formosat-2 (F2) and SPOT sensors and then to perform a comparative analysis of two methods for retrieving Green Area Index from high spatial and temporal resolution satellite data (F2 and SPOT). For this purpose, an empirical approach using NDVI plus field data and a Neural Network approach using the PROSAIL model are compared over four different crops: maize, soybean, sunflower and wheat. The performance of both methods were evaluated and compared with in-situ direct (destructive) and indirect (hemispherical photos) measurements. Results suggest better performances for the empirical approach (R², RMSE). Still the physically-based method leads to good results (R², RMSE). The latter seems to be more promising due to its portability and independence from field measurements. Therefore new perspectives to improve this approach are being envisaged.

  20. Phytoremediative urban design: transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood.

    PubMed

    Wilschut, M; Theuws, P A W; Duchhart, I

    2013-12-01

    Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation of urban post-industrial areas, while improving public space. Buiksloterham, a polluted and deprived industrial area in Amsterdam, serves as case study. Buiksloterham is polluted with heavy metals, with Zinc (Zn) concentrations being the highest. A regression-model for Alpine Pennycress (Thlaspi caerulescens) is used to estimate the time needed to remediate the site. This reveals a conflict in time between remediation and urban development. A research by design experiment shows how to overcome this conflict by dealing with polluted soil innovatively while emphasizing spatial and aesthetic qualities of the phytoremediation plant species. The resulting landscape framework integrates phytoremediation with biomass production and gives new ecological, economic and social value to Buiksloterham.

  1. Water - Food Nexus: Impact of Rapid Urbanization on Fishery Production in Jakarta Bay Area, Indonesia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delinom, R.; Lubis, R. F.; Martosuparno, S.; Bakti, H.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    An enormous land-use change is envisaged along the coastline of Jakarta Bay both housing, commercial and industrial zones. Housing and business projects in Jakarta coastal area started from late 1980s have had great impact on mangrove areas and coastal water quality. The next mega project will also be conducted, such as giant sea wall as a sea wall defence and reclamation the north coast of Jakarta as a waterfront city. These reclamation projects should ideally not marginalize fishery production and local fisher communities, but hopefully it will increase their welfare. Therefore, some policy concept base on water-food resilience at coastal area should be carried out before the next activities implemented.

  2. A real-time regional adaptive exposure method for saving dose-area product in x-ray fluoroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Burion, Steve; Speidel, Michael A.; Funk, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Reduction of radiation dose in x-ray imaging has been recognized as a high priority in the medical community. Here the authors show that a regional adaptive exposure method can reduce dose-area product (DAP) in x-ray fluoroscopy. The authors' method is particularly geared toward providing dose savings for the pediatric population. Methods: The scanning beam digital x-ray system uses a large-area x-ray source with 8000 focal spots in combination with a small photon-counting detector. An imaging frame is obtained by acquiring and reconstructing up to 8000 detector images, each viewing only a small portion of the patient. Regional adaptive exposure was implemented by varying the exposure of the detector images depending on the local opacity of the object. A family of phantoms ranging in size from infant to obese adult was imaged in anteroposterior view with and without adaptive exposure. The DAP delivered to each phantom was measured in each case, and noise performance was compared by generating noise arrays to represent regional noise in the images. These noise arrays were generated by dividing the image into regions of about 6 mm2, calculating the relative noise in each region, and placing the relative noise value of each region in a one-dimensional array (noise array) sorted from highest to lowest. Dose-area product savings were calculated as the difference between the ratio of DAP with adaptive exposure to DAP without adaptive exposure. The authors modified this value by a correction factor that matches the noise arrays where relative noise is the highest to report a final dose-area product savings. Results: The average dose-area product saving across the phantom family was (42 ± 8)% with the highest dose-area product saving in the child-sized phantom (50%) and the lowest in the phantom mimicking an obese adult (23%). Conclusions: Phantom measurements indicate that a regional adaptive exposure method can produce large DAP savings without compromising the

  3. A real-time regional adaptive exposure method for saving dose-area product in x-ray fluoroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Burion, Steve; Funk, Tobias; Speidel, Michael A.

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Reduction of radiation dose in x-ray imaging has been recognized as a high priority in the medical community. Here the authors show that a regional adaptive exposure method can reduce dose-area product (DAP) in x-ray fluoroscopy. The authors' method is particularly geared toward providing dose savings for the pediatric population. Methods: The scanning beam digital x-ray system uses a large-area x-ray source with 8000 focal spots in combination with a small photon-counting detector. An imaging frame is obtained by acquiring and reconstructing up to 8000 detector images, each viewing only a small portion of the patient. Regional adaptive exposure was implemented by varying the exposure of the detector images depending on the local opacity of the object. A family of phantoms ranging in size from infant to obese adult was imaged in anteroposterior view with and without adaptive exposure. The DAP delivered to each phantom was measured in each case, and noise performance was compared by generating noise arrays to represent regional noise in the images. These noise arrays were generated by dividing the image into regions of about 6 mm{sup 2}, calculating the relative noise in each region, and placing the relative noise value of each region in a one-dimensional array (noise array) sorted from highest to lowest. Dose-area product savings were calculated as the difference between the ratio of DAP with adaptive exposure to DAP without adaptive exposure. The authors modified this value by a correction factor that matches the noise arrays where relative noise is the highest to report a final dose-area product savings. Results: The average dose-area product saving across the phantom family was (42 {+-} 8)% with the highest dose-area product saving in the child-sized phantom (50%) and the lowest in the phantom mimicking an obese adult (23%). Conclusions: Phantom measurements indicate that a regional adaptive exposure method can produce large DAP savings without

  4. [Smoking. Analysis of the scientific production in the SEPAR smoking area in 2009].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Ruiz, Carlos A; Reina, Segismundo Solano; López, Cristina Esquinas; Rebollo, José Carlos Serrano

    2010-03-01

    The SEPAR Smoking Area was started in the year 1995. Its main aims were to increase awareness of the problem of smoking among the members of our scientific society, to improve their scientific knowledge on this problem, to help in diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in smokers, and finally, to promote interventions for the prevention and treatment of smoking by the health and political administrations. Nowadays, it is the most dynamic areas of SEPAR and has more than 400 members. Throughout the year 2009, the health professionals of the SEPAR smoking area have carried out intense research work that has led to a reasonable scientific production that has covered different aspects of the discipline of smoking. The most impressive studies were those that tried to determine the impact that Law 28/2005 has had in the prevalence of smoking in Spain, the studies that assessed the scientific productivity of the area members and the numerous articles that published the results from different smoking units that are led by Spanish pneumologists.

  5. Improve large area uniformity and production capacity of laser interference lithography with beam flattening device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yin-Kuang; Wu, Yu-Xiang; Lin, Te-Hsun; Yu, Chun-Wen; Fu, Chien-Chung

    2016-03-01

    Laser interference lithography (LIL) is a maskless lithography technique with many advantages such as simple optical design, inexpensive, infinite depth of focus, and large area patterning with single exposure. However, the intensity of normal laser beam is Gaussian distribution. In order to obtain large area uniform structure, we have to expand the laser beam much bigger than the wafer and use only the center part of the beam. Resulting in wasting lots of energy and the production capacity decrease. In this study, we designed a beam shaping device which consists of two parallel fused silicon optical window with different coating on both side. Two optical window form an air thin film. When the expanded laser beam pass through the device, the beam will experience many refraction and reflection between two optical window and interference with each other. The transmittance of laser beam will depend on the incident angle. The output intensity distribution will change from Gaussian distribution to a flat top distribution. In our experiment, we combined the beam shaping device with a Lloyd's mirror LIL system. Experiment results indicated that the LIL system with beam shaping device can obtain large area uniform pattern. And compare with the traditional Lloyd's mirror LIL system, the exposure time is shorten up to 4.5 times. In conclusion, this study design a beam flattening device for LIL system. The flat top beam can improve the large area uniformity and the production capacity of LIL. Making LIL more suitable for industry application.

  6. A global comparison between MODIS hotspot and high resolution burned area data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hantson, S.; Padilla, M.; Cardoso, R.; Corti, D.; Chuvieco, E.

    2012-04-01

    Forest fires are an important environmental factor at a global scale, influencing vegetation dynamics, carbon stocks, land-use change and being an important emission source of CO2 and aerosols. However, large uncertainty exists on the distribution, extend and intensity of fire occurrence over the world. Satellite products are the only source of information on fire occurrence which gives a good spatial resolution at a global scale. Two types of satellite data products have been widely used to study fire occurrence, hotspots and burned area (BA) maps. Hotspots are temperature anomalies registered by the thermal channels of the satellites, while the BA is detected by the contrast between the unburned land and the black carbon, ashes,... and the change between these two states. Till now the existing datasets have been poorly validated, with the hotspot global datasets only been validated by other thermal anomaly detections at higher resolution. Here we studied the relationship between high resolution BA datasets and the global MODIS hotspot dataset (MOD14). The high resolution BA dataset was produced from Landsat-TM/ETM+ scenes covering 10 different areas distributed over the globe. These areas include boreal, temperate, Mediterranean and tropical areas with important fire activity. For each BA dataset a pre and post fire image was analysed and BA, non-burned land and no-data (clouds,...) detected using the ABAMS software. This database, >100 separate BA maps, was produced under the framework of the Fire_cci project (http://www.esa-fire-cci.org/). For each of these BA datasets the MODIS hotspots were extracted for the same spatial and temporal extend. The analysis performed consists in determining the number and size of the omitted fire scares and the commission errors of the hotpots, being those hotspots that could not be related to any fire polygon. Regression analysis was performed to study more in depth the relation between number of hotspots and BA/number of fires

  7. SPIDER Progress Towards High Resolution Correlated Fission Product Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Dan; Meierbachtol, Krista; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arnold, Charles; Blackeley, Rick; Bredeweg, Todd; Devlin, Matt; Hecht, Adam; Jandel, Marian; Jorgenson, Justin; Nelson, Ron; White, Morgan; Spider Team

    2014-09-01

    The SPIDER detector (SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research) is under development with the goal of obtaining high-resolution, high-efficiency, correlated fission product data needed for many applications including the modeling of next generation nuclear reactors, stockpile stewardship, and the fundamental understanding of the fission process. SPIDER simultaneously measures velocity and energy of both fission products to calculate fission product yields (FPYs), neutron multiplicity (ν), and total kinetic energy (TKE). A detailed description of the prototype SPIDER detector components will be presented. Characterization measurements with alpha and spontaneous fission sources will also be discussed. LA-UR-14-24875. The SPIDER detector (SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research) is under development with the goal of obtaining high-resolution, high-efficiency, correlated fission product data needed for many applications including the modeling of next generation nuclear reactors, stockpile stewardship, and the fundamental understanding of the fission process. SPIDER simultaneously measures velocity and energy of both fission products to calculate fission product yields (FPYs), neutron multiplicity (ν), and total kinetic energy (TKE). A detailed description of the prototype SPIDER detector components will be presented. Characterization measurements with alpha and spontaneous fission sources will also be discussed. LA-UR-14-24875. This work is in part supported by LANL Laboratory Directed Research and Development Projects 20110037DR and 20120077DR.

  8. Engineering Escherichia coli for high-level production of propionate.

    PubMed

    Akawi, Lamees; Srirangan, Kajan; Liu, Xuejia; Moo-Young, Murray; Perry Chou, C

    2015-07-01

    Mounting environmental concerns associated with the use of petroleum-based chemical manufacturing practices has generated significant interest in the development of biological alternatives for the production of propionate. However, biological platforms for propionate production have been limited to strict anaerobes, such as Propionibacteria and select Clostridia. In this work, we demonstrated high-level heterologous production of propionate under microaerobic conditions in engineered Escherichia coli. Activation of the native Sleeping beauty mutase (Sbm) operon not only transformed E. coli to be propionogenic (i.e., propionate-producing) but also introduced an intracellular "flux competition" between the traditional C2-fermentative pathway and the novel C3-fermentative pathway. Dissimilation of the major carbon source of glycerol was identified to critically affect such "flux competition" and, therefore, propionate synthesis. As a result, the propionogenic E. coli was further engineered by inactivation or overexpression of various genes involved in the glycerol dissimilation pathways and their individual genetic effects on propionate production were investigated. Generally, knocking out genes involved in glycerol dissimilation (except glpA) can minimize levels of solventogenesis and shift more dissimilated carbon flux toward the C3-fermentative pathway. For optimal propionate production with high C3:C2-fermentative product ratios, glycerol dissimilation should be channeled through the respiratory pathway and, upon suppressed solventogenesis with minimal production of highly reduced alcohols, the alternative NADH-consuming route associated with propionate synthesis can be critical for more flexible redox balancing. With the implementation of various biochemical and genetic strategies, high propionate titers of more than 11 g/L with high yields up to 0.4 g-propionate/g-glycerol (accounting for ~50 % of dissimilated glycerol) were achieved, demonstrating the

  9. The Science Resource Area in the State-of-the-Art High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biehle, James T.

    2000-01-01

    Examines areas that are part of a flexible and integrated science facility within state-of-the-art high schools that allow students to progress at their own speed and learn in their most effective manner. Areas described include outdoor, greenhouse, biological wastewater treatment, controlled environment, and student and faculty meeting areas. (GR)

  10. 47 CFR 54.101 - Supported services for rural, insular and high cost areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... extent the local government in an eligible carrier's service area has implemented 911 or enhanced 911... cost areas. 54.101 Section 54.101 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... services for rural, insular and high cost areas. (a) Services designated for support. The...

  11. Simulation of ground-water flow and areas contributing ground water to production wells, Cadillac, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoard, Christopher J.; Westjohn, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water for domestic, municipal, and industrial use within the northwest section of Michigan's Lower Peninsula. Because of the importance of this resource, numerous communities including the city of Cadillac in Wexford County, Michigan, have begun local wellhead protection programs. In these programs, communities protect their ground-water resources by identifying the areas that contribute water to production wells, identifying potential sources of contamination, and developing methods to cooperatively manage and minimize threats to the water supply. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cadillac, simulated regional ground-water flow and estimated areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the production well field. Ground-water flow models for the Clam River watershed, in Wexford and Missaukee Counties, were developed using the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW 2000). Ground-water flow models were calibrated using the observation, sensitivity, and parameter estimation packages of MODFLOW 2000. Ground-water-head solutions from calibrated flow models were used in conjunction with MODPATH, a particle-tracking program, to simulate regional ground-water flow and estimate areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the Cadillac production-well field for a 10-year period. Model simulations match the conceptual model in that regional ground-water flow in the deep ground-water system is from southeast to northwest across the watershed. Areas contributing water were determined for the optimized parameter set and an alternate parameter set that included increased recharge and hydraulic conductivity values. Although substantially different hydrologic parameters (assumed to represent end-member ranges of realistic hydrologic parameters) were used in alternate numerical simulations, simulation results differ little in predictions of

  12. Capabilities for managing high-volume production of electric engineering equipment at the Electrochemical Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Podlednev, V.M.

    1996-04-01

    The Electromechanical Production Plant is essentially a research center with experimental facilities and power full testing base. Major products of the plant today include heat pipes and devices of their basis of different functions and power from high temperature ranges to cryogenics. This report describes work on porous titanium and carbon-graphite current collectors, electrocatalyst synthesis, and electrocatalyst applications.

  13. Risks of avian influenza transmission in areas of intensive free-ranging duck production with wild waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Nelson, Martha I; Newman, Scott H; Takekawa, John Y; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions.

  14. Risks of Avian Influenza Transmission in Areas of Intensive Free-ranging Duck Production with wild waterfowl

    PubMed Central

    Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Nelson, Martha I.; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J.; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions. PMID:24652313

  15. Risks of avian influenza transmission in areas of intensive free-ranging duck production with wild waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J.; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions.

  16. First high-temperature electronics products survey 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Normann, Randy Allen

    2006-04-01

    On April 4-5, 2005, a High-Temperature Electronics Products Workshop was held. This workshop engaged a number of governmental and private industry organizations sharing a common interest in the development of commercially available, high-temperature electronics. One of the outcomes of this meeting was an agreement to conduct an industry survey of high-temperature applications. This report covers the basic results of this survey.

  17. Automated Production of High Rep Rate Foam Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, F.; Spindloe, C.; Haddock, D.; Tolley, M.; Nazarov, W.

    2016-04-01

    Manufacturing low density targets in the numbers needed for high rep rate experiments is highly challenging. This report summarises advances from manual production to semiautomated and the improvements that follow both in terms of production time and target uniformity. The production process is described and shown to be improved by the integration of an xyz robot with dispensing capabilities. Results are obtained from manual and semiautomated production runs and compared. The variance in the foam thickness is reduced significantly which should decrease experimental variation due to target parameters and could allow for whole batches to be characterised by the measurement of a few samples. The work applies to both foil backed and free standing foam targets.

  18. Intercomparison of Precipitation and Soil Moisture Products in a Semi-Arid Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillman, S.; Zeng, X.

    2014-12-01

    Precipitation is the driving force of the terrestrial water cycle over land, and is also one of the most common indicators of climate change. As such, it is rigorously monitored by many organizations using an array of instruments and/or models. However, disparities between the various products and observations lead to the questions: what are the uncertainties of these products? and how do these uncertainties propagate to the estimation of soil moisture? To address the first question, we have evaluated over 20 gauge-based, satellite-based, modeled, and reanalysis precipitation products using 57 years of observations over a highly instrumented 150 km2 watershed in southern Arizona. Most of the products do a better job of estimating winter precipitation than summer or annual precipitation with higher daily correlation and lower root mean square differences compared with observations. All products with the exception of models estimate the timing of the peaks in the annual cycle well, but overestimate amount with respect to the observations. The gauge and satellite products estimate average intensity of precipitation well, while the models estimate drizzle (<0.01 mm/day) too frequently. Many products reveal positive or negative trends in seasonal and annual precipitation total, while observations do not show any significant trends over the same time period. To answer the second question, several modeled and reanalysis soil moisture products relying on the above mentioned precipitation products are compared with 11 years of in situ soil moisture measurements as well as the modeled soil moisture of Stillman et al. (2014), which extends the measurement period of summer soil moisture to 57 years. Most of the soil moisture products are significantly correlated with observations except for the models, partly due to errors in precipitation estimation. Improvements in soil moisture estimation from updated versions of ERA and MERRA are also shown.

  19. 49 CFR 192.905 - How does an operator identify a high consequence area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.905 How does an operator identify a high consequence area? (a... the definition in § 192.903 to identify a high consequence area. An operator may apply one method to... system. An operator must describe in its integrity management program which method it is applying to...

  20. Reflections on Developing Secondary Vocational Education in High-Poverty Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jiang; Chen, Guofeng

    2013-01-01

    Developing vocational education is a necessity for the economic and social development of high-poverty areas in China. But vocational education in impoverished areas lacks social recognition and faces funding shortages, along with difficulties in recruiting students. Vocational high schools themselves also have shortcomings. This article considers…

  1. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  2. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  3. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  4. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  5. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  6. 75 FR 52780 - Designation of Nine Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... PRESIDENT Office of National Drug Control Policy Designation of Nine Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy designated nine additional counties as High Drug Trafficking Areas pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 1706. The...

  7. High protein production of phytoplankton in the Amundsen Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung Song, Ho; Jung Kang, Jae; Kyung Kim, Bo; Joo, HuiTae; Jin Yang, Eun; Park, Jisoo; Hoon Lee, Sang; Heon Lee, Sang

    2016-01-01

    The Amundsen Sea polynya is one of the largest and most productive polynyas in the Southern Ocean and has recently experienced a rapid change in sea ice coverage. However, very little is known about current physiological status of phytoplankton and its quality as food for pelagic herbivores and consequently higher trophic levels in the Amundsen Sea. Using a 13C isotope tracer technique, macromolecular production measurements of phytoplankton at eleven stations were conducted at three light depths (100, 30, and 1%) onboard R/V ARAON in the Amundsen Sea, 2012. The concentrations of major inorganic nutrients were replete at all the productivity stations and no substantial difference in macromolecular production was found between polynya and non-polynya regions. Distinct vertical trends were not observed in low-molecular-weight metabolites (LMWM) and polysaccharide productions, but weak vertical patterns in lipid and protein productions were found during our cruise period. The vertical patterns of lipids slightly increased with depth whereas decreased for protein synthesis in this study, and these vertical trends were not consistent with the results reported previously in the Arctic Ocean. Overall, phytoplankton allocated more photosynthetic carbon into proteins (60.0%) than other macromolecules in the Amundsen Sea, which is markedly higher than those reported previously in the Antarctic Ocean, ranging from 7 to 23%. The high protein synthesis appears to be sustained by high concentrations of major nutrients, which might be a strong factor for general patterns of macromolecular productions of phytoplankton in polar oceans, even under potential iron limitation.

  8. Selection of oleaginous yeasts with high lipid productivity for practical biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Tanimura, Ayumi; Takashima, Masako; Sugita, Takashi; Endoh, Rikiya; Kikukawa, Minako; Yamaguchi, Shino; Sakuradani, Eiji; Ogawa, Jun; Shima, Jun

    2014-02-01

    The lipid-accumulating ability of 500 yeast strains isolated in Japan was evaluated. Primary screening revealed that 31 strains were identified as potential lipid producers, from which 12 strains were cultivated in a medium containing 3% glucose. It was found that JCM 24511 accumulated the highest lipid content, up to 61.53%, while JCM 24512 grew the fastest. They were tentatively identified as Cryptococcus sp. and Cryptococcus musci, respectively. The maximum lipid concentration of 1.49g/L was achieved by JCM 24512. Similarly, JCM 24511 also achieved a high lipid production of 1.37g/L. High lipid productivity is the most important characteristic of oleaginous yeasts from the viewpoint of practical production. Among the strains tested here, JCM 24512 had the best lipid productivity, 0.37g/L/day. The results show that the isolated yeasts could be promising candidates for biodiesel production.

  9. 'Syntactic Perturbation' During Production Activates the Right IFG, but not Broca's Area or the ATL.

    PubMed

    Matchin, William; Hickok, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Research on the neural organization of syntax - the core structure-building component of language - has focused on Broca's area and the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) as the chief candidates for syntactic processing. However, these proposals have received considerable challenges. In order to better understand the neural basis of syntactic processing, we performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment using a constrained sentence production task. We examined the BOLD response to sentence production for active and passive sentences, unstructured word lists, and syntactic perturbation. Perturbation involved cued restructuring of the planned syntax of a sentence mid utterance. Perturbation was designed to capture the effects of syntactic violations previously studied in sentence comprehension. Our experiment showed that Broca's area and the ATL did not exhibit response profiles consistent with syntactic operations - we found no increase of activation in these areas for sentences > lists or for perturbation. Syntactic perturbation activated a cortical-subcortical network including robust activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG). This network is similar to one previously shown to be involved in motor response inhibition. We hypothesize that RIFG activation in our study and in previous studies of sentence comprehension is due to an inhibition mechanism that may facilitate efficient syntactic restructuring. PMID:26941692

  10. [How to carry out work on family planning after adopting production responsibility systems in rural areas].

    PubMed

    Xiao, S H

    1982-05-29

    After the Third Meeting of the Eleventh People's Congress, the entire responsibility for agricultural production was transferred to a lower level. Peasants in various areas have adopted the so called production responsibility system, and the phenomenon of an increased population rate has also appeared in some areas. In this article, the author discusses how to solve these problems created by the new situation. The 1st step is try to control population growth through socialist propaganda education, administrative measures, economic incentives and punishments, and family planning work. The 2nd step is to popularize the practice of having only 1 child per household in the rural areas. The 2nd and 3rd child in each family should be controlled and prohibited. This policy formulated by the Central Government should be carried out thoroughly. Families which follow the policy and have only 1 child should be encouraged with economic rewards, and those families which have 2 or more children should be punished economically. The 3rd step is to establish a national work team to be in charge of family planning and birth control. There should be an ideological unity among the nation's leadership. Party members and cadres should establish themselves as good examples for the people so that the population control work may become successful.

  11. 'Syntactic Perturbation' During Production Activates the Right IFG, but not Broca's Area or the ATL.

    PubMed

    Matchin, William; Hickok, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Research on the neural organization of syntax - the core structure-building component of language - has focused on Broca's area and the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) as the chief candidates for syntactic processing. However, these proposals have received considerable challenges. In order to better understand the neural basis of syntactic processing, we performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment using a constrained sentence production task. We examined the BOLD response to sentence production for active and passive sentences, unstructured word lists, and syntactic perturbation. Perturbation involved cued restructuring of the planned syntax of a sentence mid utterance. Perturbation was designed to capture the effects of syntactic violations previously studied in sentence comprehension. Our experiment showed that Broca's area and the ATL did not exhibit response profiles consistent with syntactic operations - we found no increase of activation in these areas for sentences > lists or for perturbation. Syntactic perturbation activated a cortical-subcortical network including robust activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG). This network is similar to one previously shown to be involved in motor response inhibition. We hypothesize that RIFG activation in our study and in previous studies of sentence comprehension is due to an inhibition mechanism that may facilitate efficient syntactic restructuring.

  12. Vacuum-thermal-evaporation: the route for roll-to-roll production of large-area organic electronic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, D. M.

    2015-05-01

    Surprisingly little consideration is apparently being given to vacuum-evaporation as the route for the roll-to-roll (R2R) production of large-area organic electronic circuits. While considerable progress has been made by combining silicon lithographic approaches with solution processing, it is not obvious that these will be compatible with a low-cost, high-speed R2R process. Most efforts at achieving this ambition are directed at conventional solution printing approaches such as inkjet and gravure. This is surprising considering that vacuum-evaporation of organic semiconductors (OSCs) is already used commercially in the production of organic light emitting diode displays. Beginning from a discussion of the materials and geometrical parameters determining transistor performance and drawing on results from numerous publications, this review makes a case for vacuum-evaporation as an enabler of R2R organic circuit production. The potential of the vacuum route is benchmarked against solution approaches and found to be highly competitive. For example, evaporated small molecules tend to have higher mobility than printed OSCs. High resolution metal patterning on plastic films is already a low-cost commercial process for high-volume packaging applications. Similarly, solvent-free flash-evaporation and polymerization of thin films on plastic substrates is also a high-volume commercial process and has been shown capable of producing robust gate dielectrics. Reports of basic logic circuit elements produced in a vacuum R2R environment are reviewed and shown to be superior to all-solution printing approaches. Finally, the main issues that need to be resolved in order to fully develop the vacuum route to R2R circuit production are highlighted.

  13. 43 CFR 3137.100 - How must I allocate production to the United States when a participating area includes unleased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... production to the United States when a participating area includes unleased Federal lands? (a) When a... United States when a participating area includes unleased Federal lands? 3137.100 Section 3137.100 Public... be determined under the Minerals Management Service's oil and gas product value regulations at 30...

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccccccc... - Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCCC, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccccccc... - Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCCC, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and...

  16. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccccccc... - Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCCC, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and...

  17. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccccccc... - Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCCC, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and...

  18. Canopy leaf area constrains [CO2]-induced enhancement of productivity and partitioning among aboveground carbon pools

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Heather R.; Oren, Ram; Finzi, Adrien C.; Johnsen, Kurt H.

    2006-01-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) is enhanced under future atmospheric [CO2] in temperate forests representing a broad range of productivity. Yet questions remain in regard to how elevated [CO2]-induced NPP enhancement may be affected by climatic variations and limiting nutrient resources, as well as how this additional production is distributed among carbon (C) pools of different longevities. Using 10 years of data from the Duke free-air CO2 enrichment (Duke FACE) site, we show that spatially, the major control of NPP was nitrogen (N) availability, through its control on canopy leaf area index (L). Elevated CO2 levels resulted in greater L, and thus greater NPP. After canopy closure had occurred, elevated [CO2] did not enhance NPP at a given L, regardless of soil water availability. Additionally, using published data from three other forest FACE sites and replacing L with leaf area duration (LD) to account for differences in growing season length, we show that aboveground NPP responded to [CO2] only through the enhancement of LD. For broadleaf forests, the fraction of aboveground NPP partitioned to wood biomass saturated with increasing LD and was not enhanced by [CO2], whereas it linearly decreased for the conifer forest but was enhanced by [CO2]. These results underscore the importance of resolving [CO2] effects on L to assess the response of NPP and C allocation. Further study is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms that control the differential allocation of C among aboveground pools in different forest types. PMID:17159159

  19. Assessing NO2 variability over urban areas at high spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, M. L.; Szykman, J.; Knepp, T. N.; Chen, G.; Crawford, J. H.; Janz, S. J.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Fishman, J.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a short-lived species within the troposphere, contributing to the production of ozone and aerosols. It is concentrated in urban and industrial areas where an abundance of point and mobile sources exist. Due to its short lifetime, it is difficult to capture the variability of NO2 and represent it within atmospheric chemistry transport models. Understanding this variability is important for emission controls, health impacts, and photochemistry. This analysis uses in situ aircraft measurements collected during ARCTAS-CARB, ICARTT, TexAQS-2000, TexAQS-2006, and DISCOVER-AQ as well as high spatial resolution column measurements of NO2 from the NASA GSFC Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper (ACAM) instrument collected during the first DISCOVER-AQ deployment, to assess the variability over urban areas. First order structure functions are used to generate statistics over a range of spatial scales. Column density is calculated from the DISCOVER-AQ profiles to assess the variability of a column within the aircraft profile. Results show that spatial variability depends on the airmass being sampled, polluted versus background conditions.

  20. Strategies for the production of high concentrations of bioethanol from seaweeds: production of high concentrations of bioethanol from seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Mitsunori; Kawai, Shigeyuki; Murata, Kousaku

    2013-01-01

    Bioethanol has attracted attention as an alternative to petroleum-derived fuel. Seaweeds have been proposed as some of the most promising raw materials for bioethanol production because they have several advantages over lignocellulosic biomass. However, because seaweeds contain low contents of glucans, i.e., polysaccharides composed of glucose, the conversion of only the glucans from seaweed is not sufficient to produce high concentrations of ethanol. Therefore, it is also necessary to produce ethanol from other specific carbohydrate components of seaweeds, including sulfated polysaccharides, mannitol, alginate, agar and carrageenan. This review summarizes the current state of research on the production of ethanol from seaweed carbohydrates for which the conversion of carbohydrates to sugars is a key step and makes comparisons with the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. This review provides valuable information necessary for the production of high concentrations of ethanol from seaweeds. PMID:23314751

  1. Why is the South Orkney Island shelf (the world's first high seas marine protected area) a carbon immobilization hotspot?

    PubMed

    Barnes, David K A; Ireland, Louise; Hogg, Oliver T; Morley, Simon; Enderlein, Peter; Sands, Chester J

    2016-03-01

    The Southern Ocean archipelago, the South Orkney Islands (SOI), became the world's first entirely high seas marine protected area (MPA) in 2010. The SOI continental shelf (~44 000 km(2) ), was less than half covered by grounded ice sheet during glaciations, is biologically rich and a key area of both sea surface warming and sea-ice losses. Little was known of the carbon cycle there, but recent work showed it was a very important site of carbon immobilization (net annual carbon accumulation) by benthos, one of the few demonstrable negative feedbacks to climate change. Carbon immobilization by SOI bryozoans was higher, per species, unit area and ice-free day, than anywhere-else polar. Here, we investigate why carbon immobilization has been so high at SOI, and whether this is due to high density, longevity or high annual production in six study species of bryozoans (benthic suspension feeders). We compared benthic carbon immobilization across major regions around West Antarctica with sea-ice and primary production, from remotely sensed and directly sampled sources. Lowest carbon immobilization was at the northernmost study regions (South Georgia) and southernmost Amundsen Sea. However, data standardized for age and density showed that only SOI was anomalous (high). High immobilization at SOI was due to very high annual production of bryozoans (rather than high densities or longevity), which were 2x, 3x and 5x higher than on the Bellingshausen, South Georgia and Amundsen shelves, respectively. We found that carbon immobilization correlated to the duration (but not peak or integrated biomass) of phytoplankton blooms, both in directly sampled, local scale data and across regions using remote-sensed data. The long bloom at SOI seems to drive considerable carbon immobilization, but sea-ice losses across West Antarctica mean that significant carbon sinks and negative feedbacks to climate change could also develop in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas.

  2. Why is the South Orkney Island shelf (the world's first high seas marine protected area) a carbon immobilization hotspot?

    PubMed

    Barnes, David K A; Ireland, Louise; Hogg, Oliver T; Morley, Simon; Enderlein, Peter; Sands, Chester J

    2016-03-01

    The Southern Ocean archipelago, the South Orkney Islands (SOI), became the world's first entirely high seas marine protected area (MPA) in 2010. The SOI continental shelf (~44 000 km(2) ), was less than half covered by grounded ice sheet during glaciations, is biologically rich and a key area of both sea surface warming and sea-ice losses. Little was known of the carbon cycle there, but recent work showed it was a very important site of carbon immobilization (net annual carbon accumulation) by benthos, one of the few demonstrable negative feedbacks to climate change. Carbon immobilization by SOI bryozoans was higher, per species, unit area and ice-free day, than anywhere-else polar. Here, we investigate why carbon immobilization has been so high at SOI, and whether this is due to high density, longevity or high annual production in six study species of bryozoans (benthic suspension feeders). We compared benthic carbon immobilization across major regions around West Antarctica with sea-ice and primary production, from remotely sensed and directly sampled sources. Lowest carbon immobilization was at the northernmost study regions (South Georgia) and southernmost Amundsen Sea. However, data standardized for age and density showed that only SOI was anomalous (high). High immobilization at SOI was due to very high annual production of bryozoans (rather than high densities or longevity), which were 2x, 3x and 5x higher than on the Bellingshausen, South Georgia and Amundsen shelves, respectively. We found that carbon immobilization correlated to the duration (but not peak or integrated biomass) of phytoplankton blooms, both in directly sampled, local scale data and across regions using remote-sensed data. The long bloom at SOI seems to drive considerable carbon immobilization, but sea-ice losses across West Antarctica mean that significant carbon sinks and negative feedbacks to climate change could also develop in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas. PMID:26682944

  3. High risk of lead contamination for scavengers in an area with high moose hunting success.

    PubMed

    Legagneux, Pierre; Suffice, Pauline; Messier, Jean-Sébastien; Lelievre, Frédérick; Tremblay, Junior A; Maisonneuve, Charles; Saint-Louis, Richard; Bêty, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Top predators and scavengers are vulnerable to pollutants, particularly those accumulated along the food chain. Lead accumulation can induce severe disorders and alter survival both in mammals (including humans) and in birds. A potential source of lead poisoning in wild animals, and especially in scavengers, results from the consumption of ammunition residues in the tissues of big game killed by hunters. For two consecutive years we quantified the level lead exposure in individuals of a sentinel scavenger species, the common raven (Corvus corax), captured during the moose (Alces alces) hunting season in eastern Quebec, Canada. The source of the lead contamination was also determined using stable isotope analyses. Finally, we identified the different scavenger species that could potentially be exposed to lead by installing automatic cameras targeting moose gut piles. Blood lead concentration in ravens increased over time, indicating lead accumulation over the moose-hunting season. Using a contamination threshold of 100 µg x L(-1), more than 50% of individuals were lead-contaminated during the moose hunting period. Lead concentration was twice as high in one year compared to the other, matching the number of rifle-shot moose in the area. Non-contaminated birds exhibited no ammunition isotope signatures. The isotope signature of the lead detected in contaminated ravens tended towards the signature from lead ammunition. We also found that black bears (Ursus americanus), golden eagles and bald eagles (Aquila chrysaetos and Haliaeetus leucocephalus, two species of conservation concern) scavenged heavily on moose viscera left by hunters. Our unequivocal results agree with other studies and further motivate the use of non-toxic ammunition for big game hunting.

  4. High risk of lead contamination for scavengers in an area with high moose hunting success.

    PubMed

    Legagneux, Pierre; Suffice, Pauline; Messier, Jean-Sébastien; Lelievre, Frédérick; Tremblay, Junior A; Maisonneuve, Charles; Saint-Louis, Richard; Bêty, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Top predators and scavengers are vulnerable to pollutants, particularly those accumulated along the food chain. Lead accumulation can induce severe disorders and alter survival both in mammals (including humans) and in birds. A potential source of lead poisoning in wild animals, and especially in scavengers, results from the consumption of ammunition residues in the tissues of big game killed by hunters. For two consecutive years we quantified the level lead exposure in individuals of a sentinel scavenger species, the common raven (Corvus corax), captured during the moose (Alces alces) hunting season in eastern Quebec, Canada. The source of the lead contamination was also determined using stable isotope analyses. Finally, we identified the different scavenger species that could potentially be exposed to lead by installing automatic cameras targeting moose gut piles. Blood lead concentration in ravens increased over time, indicating lead accumulation over the moose-hunting season. Using a contamination threshold of 100 µg x L(-1), more than 50% of individuals were lead-contaminated during the moose hunting period. Lead concentration was twice as high in one year compared to the other, matching the number of rifle-shot moose in the area. Non-contaminated birds exhibited no ammunition isotope signatures. The isotope signature of the lead detected in contaminated ravens tended towards the signature from lead ammunition. We also found that black bears (Ursus americanus), golden eagles and bald eagles (Aquila chrysaetos and Haliaeetus leucocephalus, two species of conservation concern) scavenged heavily on moose viscera left by hunters. Our unequivocal results agree with other studies and further motivate the use of non-toxic ammunition for big game hunting. PMID:25389754

  5. High Risk of Lead Contamination for Scavengers in an Area with High Moose Hunting Success

    PubMed Central

    Legagneux, Pierre; Suffice, Pauline; Messier, Jean-Sébastien; Lelievre, Frédérick; Tremblay, Junior A.; Maisonneuve, Charles; Saint-Louis, Richard; Bêty, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Top predators and scavengers are vulnerable to pollutants, particularly those accumulated along the food chain. Lead accumulation can induce severe disorders and alter survival both in mammals (including humans) and in birds. A potential source of lead poisoning in wild animals, and especially in scavengers, results from the consumption of ammunition residues in the tissues of big game killed by hunters. For two consecutive years we quantified the level lead exposure in individuals of a sentinel scavenger species, the common raven (Corvus corax), captured during the moose (Alces alces) hunting season in eastern Quebec, Canada. The source of the lead contamination was also determined using stable isotope analyses. Finally, we identified the different scavenger species that could potentially be exposed to lead by installing automatic cameras targeting moose gut piles. Blood lead concentration in ravens increased over time, indicating lead accumulation over the moose-hunting season. Using a contamination threshold of 100 µg.L−1, more than 50% of individuals were lead-contaminated during the moose hunting period. Lead concentration was twice as high in one year compared to the other, matching the number of rifle-shot moose in the area. Non-contaminated birds exhibited no ammunition isotope signatures. The isotope signature of the lead detected in contaminated ravens tended towards the signature from lead ammunition. We also found that black bears (Ursus americanus), golden eagles and bald eagles (Aquila chrysaetos and Haliaeetus leucocephalus, two species of conservation concern) scavenged heavily on moose viscera left by hunters. Our unequivocal results agree with other studies and further motivate the use of non-toxic ammunition for big game hunting. PMID:25389754

  6. The production of premixed flame surface area in turbulent shear flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trouve, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the present work, we use three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of premixed flames in turbulent shear flow to characterize the effect of a mean shear motion on flame surface production. The shear is uniform in the unburnt gas, and simulations are performed for different values of the mean shear rate, S. The data base is then used to estimate and compare the different terms appearing in the Sigma-equation as a function of S. The analysis gives in particular the relative weights f the turbulent flow and mean flow components, a(sub T) and A(sub T), of the flame surface production term. This comparison indicates whether the dominant effects of a mean flow velocity gradient on flame surface area are implicit and scale with the modified turbulent flow parameters, kappa and epsilon, or explicit and scale directly with the rate of deformation.

  7. Recent developments in high purity niobium metal production at CBMM

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, Gustavo Giovanni Ribeiro Sousa, Clovis Antonio de Faria Guimarães, Rogério Contato Ribas, Rogério Marques Vieira, Alaércio Salvador Martins Menezes, Andréia Duarte Fridman, Daniel Pallos Cruz, Edmundo Burgos

    2015-12-04

    CBMM is a global supplier of high quality niobium products including pure niobium, the focus of this paper. CBMM’s position has been consolidated over three decades of producing high purity niobium metal ingots. The company supplies, among other products, commercial and reactor grade niobium ingots. One of the main uses of CBMM’s ingots is for the manufacture of particle accelerators (superconducting radio frequency – SRF – cavities), where the purity and homogeneity of niobium metal is essentially important for good performance. CBMM constantly strives to improve process controls and product quality, and is currently implementing innovations in production, research and development to further improve ingot quality. The main aim is to reduce the content of interstitial elements, such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), carbon (C), and hydrogen (H), starting with the raw materials through the final step of ingot production. CBMM held the first trial to produce the world’s largest-diameter niobium ingot (as cast 535 mm). The results of this initial trial presented very low levels of interstitial impurities (N, O, C, H), allowing the achievement of residual resistivity ratio (RRR) values very close to 300 in a six-melt process in an electron beam furnace. These values were reached with 850 ppm of tantalum. SRF cavities will be produced with this material in order to study the effect of low impurities and high RRR on the Q factor and accelerating gradient.

  8. Recent developments in high purity niobium metal production at CBMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo, Gustavo Giovanni Ribeiro; Sousa, Clovis Antonio de Faria; Guimarães, Rogério Contato; Ribas, Rogério Marques; Vieira, Alaércio Salvador Martins; Menezes, Andréia Duarte; Fridman, Daniel Pallos; Cruz, Edmundo Burgos

    2015-12-01

    CBMM is a global supplier of high quality niobium products including pure niobium, the focus of this paper. CBMM's position has been consolidated over three decades of producing high purity niobium metal ingots. The company supplies, among other products, commercial and reactor grade niobium ingots. One of the main uses of CBMM's ingots is for the manufacture of particle accelerators (superconducting radio frequency - SRF - cavities), where the purity and homogeneity of niobium metal is essentially important for good performance. CBMM constantly strives to improve process controls and product quality, and is currently implementing innovations in production, research and development to further improve ingot quality. The main aim is to reduce the content of interstitial elements, such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), carbon (C), and hydrogen (H), starting with the raw materials through the final step of ingot production. CBMM held the first trial to produce the world's largest-diameter niobium ingot (as cast 535 mm). The results of this initial trial presented very low levels of interstitial impurities (N, O, C, H), allowing the achievement of residual resistivity ratio (RRR) values very close to 300 in a six-melt process in an electron beam furnace. These values were reached with 850 ppm of tantalum. SRF cavities will be produced with this material in order to study the effect of low impurities and high RRR on the Q factor and accelerating gradient.

  9. Optimizing the use of breed types in developing country livestock production systems: a neglected research area.

    PubMed

    Marshall, K

    2014-10-01

    Developing country livestock production systems are diverse and dynamic, and include those where existing indigenous breeds are currently optimal and likely to remain so, those where non-indigenous breed types are already in common use, and systems that are changing, such as by intensification, where the introduction of new breed types represents significant opportunities. These include opportunities to improve the livelihood of the world's poor, increase food and nutrition security and enhance environmental sustainability. At present, very little research has focused on this issue, such that significant knowledge gaps in relation to breed-change interventions remain. The purpose of this study is to raise awareness of this issue and suggests strategic research areas to begin filling these knowledge gaps. Such strategic research would include (i) assessing the impact of differing breed types in developing country livestock productions systems, from a range of viewpoints including intrahousehold livelihood benefit, food and nutrition security at different scales, and environmental sustainability; (ii) identification of specific livestock production systems within developing countries, and the type of livestock keepers within these system, that are most likely to benefit from new breed types; and (iii) identification of new breed types as candidates for in-situ testing within these systems, such as through the use of spatial analysis to identify similar production environments combined with community acceptance studies. Results of these studies would primarily assist stakeholders in agriculture, including both policy makers and livestock keepers, to make informed decisions on the potential use of new breed types. PMID:24467512

  10. Investigation of OxProduction Rates in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MILAGRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusanter, S.; Molina, L. T.; Stevens, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and the formation of secondary pollutants are important issues in atmospheric chemistry. For instance, the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone (O3) is of particular interest due to its detrimental effects on both human health and agricultural ecosystems. A detailed characterization of tropospheric O3 production rates will help in the development of effective control strategies. The 2006 Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign (MCMA-2006) was one of four components of MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations) intended to collect information on the impact of megacity emissions on local, regional and global scales. In this presentation, rates of production of Ox (Ox = O3 + NO2) species during MCMA-2006 at the supersite T0 (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo) will be presented using different approaches based on measured and modeled concentrations of ROx (OH + HO2 + RO2) radicals. In addition, we will examine both the reactivity of OH and the contribution of specific peroxy radicals to the oxidation rate of NO to estimate the contribution of groups of VOCs (alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, oxygenated and biogenic VOCs) to the total production rate of Ox species.

  11. Optimizing the use of breed types in developing country livestock production systems: a neglected research area.

    PubMed

    Marshall, K

    2014-10-01

    Developing country livestock production systems are diverse and dynamic, and include those where existing indigenous breeds are currently optimal and likely to remain so, those where non-indigenous breed types are already in common use, and systems that are changing, such as by intensification, where the introduction of new breed types represents significant opportunities. These include opportunities to improve the livelihood of the world's poor, increase food and nutrition security and enhance environmental sustainability. At present, very little research has focused on this issue, such that significant knowledge gaps in relation to breed-change interventions remain. The purpose of this study is to raise awareness of this issue and suggests strategic research areas to begin filling these knowledge gaps. Such strategic research would include (i) assessing the impact of differing breed types in developing country livestock productions systems, from a range of viewpoints including intrahousehold livelihood benefit, food and nutrition security at different scales, and environmental sustainability; (ii) identification of specific livestock production systems within developing countries, and the type of livestock keepers within these system, that are most likely to benefit from new breed types; and (iii) identification of new breed types as candidates for in-situ testing within these systems, such as through the use of spatial analysis to identify similar production environments combined with community acceptance studies. Results of these studies would primarily assist stakeholders in agriculture, including both policy makers and livestock keepers, to make informed decisions on the potential use of new breed types.

  12. Calculates Neutron Production in Canisters of High-level Waste

    1993-01-15

    ALPHN calculates the (alpha,n) neutron production rate of a canister of vitrified high-level waste. The user supplies the chemical composition of the glass or glass-ceramic and the curies of the alpha-emitting actinides present. The output of the program gives the (alpha,n) neutron production of each actinide in neutrons per second and the total for the canister. The (alpha,n) neutron production rates are source terms only; that is, they are production rates within the glass andmore » do not take into account the shielding effect of the glass. For a given glass composition, the user can calculate up to eight cases simultaneously; these cases are based on the same glass composition but contain different quantities of actinides per canister.« less

  13. Neutral strange particle production in high energy neutrino interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wolin, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    In a high energy neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering experiment in the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber filled with a Neon-Hydrogen mixture, production of the neutral strange particles K, Lambda, and anti-Lambda is observed. Global rates of neutral strange particle production, rates versus event kinematical variables, and strange particle kinematical distributions are presented. Absorption, rescattering, etc. of Lambda particles by the Ne nucleus is shown to be negligible within the statistical significance of the data. Production of both charged states the strange resonance Sigma(1385) is observed. These results are extensively compared to the predictions of the Lund model. The Lund model is found to reproduce the data well in most instances. The transverse momentum distribution for neutral K particles has a tail at high transverse momentum, in disagreement with the exponential decrease predicted by the model. Lambda particles are produced with higher average momentum and anti-Lambda's with lower average momentum than is predicted.

  14. The Productive High School: Creating Personalized Academic Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph; Beck, Lynn G.; Crawford, Marilyn; Hodges, Amy; McGaughy, Charis L.

    This book is designed to inform the educational community about the empirical foundations of productive high schools. Part 1 focuses on the core technology (learning and teaching), the organizational systems in which the core function are nested (the ecology of the institution), and the institutional linkages between the school and its…

  15. High-throughput production of two disulphide-bridge toxins.

    PubMed

    Upert, Grégory; Mourier, Gilles; Pastor, Alexandra; Verdenaud, Marion; Alili, Doria; Servent, Denis; Gilles, Nicolas

    2014-08-01

    A quick and efficient production method compatible with high-throughput screening was developed using 36 toxins belonging to four different families of two disulphide-bridge toxins. Final toxins were characterized using HPLC co-elution, CD and pharmacological studies.

  16. Enhancing microalgal photosynthesis and productivity in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Donna L; Howard-Williams, Clive; Turnbull, Matthew H; Broady, Paul A; Craggs, Rupert J

    2015-05-01

    With microalgal biofuels currently receiving much attention, there has been renewed interest in the combined use of high rate algal ponds (HRAP) for wastewater treatment and biofuel production. This combined use of HRAPs is considered to be an economically feasible option for biofuel production, however, increased microalgal productivity and nutrient removal together with reduced capital costs are needed before it can be commercially viable. Despite HRAPs being an established technology, microalgal photosynthesis and productivity is still limited in these ponds and is well below the theoretical maximum. This paper critically evaluates the parameters that limit microalgal light absorption and photosynthesis in wastewater HRAPs and examines biological, chemical and physical options for improving light absorption and utilisation, with the view of enhancing biomass production and nutrient removal.

  17. Ecological risks of Aluminum production and contaminated area by red mud in Western Hungary (Ajka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasulov, Oqil; Horváth, Adrienn; Bidló, András; Winkler, Dániel

    2016-04-01

    In October 2010, Hungary experienced one of the most severe environmental disasters: the dam wall of a red mud depository of an alumina plant in collapsed and more than 1 million m3 of toxic sludge flooded the surrounding area. Red mud is a strongly alkaline (pH of 9-12.5) by-product due to the high NaOH content. Apart from residual minerals and oxides, its components also include heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Pb, Ni, Co. As it has already been assessed, red mud had considerable effect on soil properties and thus on soil biodiversity. The aim of our study was to determine the aftereffects of red mud pollution on the soil mesofauna (Collembola). Study plots were selected in the area affected by the toxic flood, in agricultural and grassland habitats, at different distances (0.3 to 12.5 km) from the contamination source. Control plots of each habitat types were selected for comparative analyses. Soil samples were taken during the summer of 2015, five years after the red mud disaster. From each of the selected plots, 5 soil cores of 100 cm3 volume (3.6 cm in diameter and 10 cm in depth) were sampled from which springtails were extracted within 14 days using a modified Tullgren apparatus. Simultaneously with the Collembola sampling, we collected soil samples on each plots in order to determine soil properties (pH, CaCO3, particle size distribution) and the degree of heavy metal pollution. 25 heavy metals were measured (including total Hg) following the method of total (cc. HNO3 + H2O2-soluble) and bioavailable (NH4-acetate + EDTA-soluble) element content using ICP-OES and AMA 254. The studied habitats presented neutral to moderately alkaline soils (pH 7.2-8.1). Total metal content was higher in the plots formerly affected by red mud flood. The Hg concentration ranged from 0.023 to 1.167 mg.kg-1, exceeding the threshold concentration (0.5 mg.kg-1) defined by Hungarian legislation for toxic trace metals in soil. The collected 1442 Collembola specimens belong to 32

  18. Lignocellulosic ethanol production at high-gravity: challenges and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Koppram, Rakesh; Tomás-Pejó, Elia; Xiros, Charilaos; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    In brewing and ethanol-based biofuel industries, high-gravity fermentation produces 10-15% (v/v) ethanol, resulting in improved overall productivity, reduced capital cost, and reduced energy input compared to processing at normal gravity. High-gravity technology ensures a successful implementation of cellulose to ethanol conversion as a cost-competitive process. Implementation of such technologies is possible if all process steps can be performed at high biomass concentrations. This review focuses on challenges and technological efforts in processing at high-gravity conditions and how these conditions influence the physiology and metabolism of fermenting microorganisms, the action of enzymes, and other process-related factors. Lignocellulosic materials add challenges compared to implemented processes due to high inhibitors content and the physical properties of these materials at high gravity.

  19. Impacts of China's Three Gorges Dam Project on net primary productivity in the reservoir area.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Yang, Guishan; Li, Hengpeng; Su, Weizhong

    2011-10-15

    China's Three Gorges Dam Project (TGP) is the world's largest hydroelectric power project, and as a consequence the reservoir area is at risk of ecological degradation. This study uses net primary productivity (NPP) as an important indicator of the reservoir ecosystem's productivity to estimate the impacts of the TGP in the local resettlement region of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) over the 2000-2010 period. The modeling method is based upon the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) terrestrial carbon model and uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing data for modeling simulation. The results demonstrate that total NPP in the resettlement region decreased by 8.0% (632.8Gg) from 2000 to 2010. The impact of the TGP on NPP is mainly mediated by land-use change brought about by the large-scale inundation of land and subsequent massive resettlement of both rural and urban residents. Nearby resettlement, land inundation, and relocation of old urban centers and affiliated urban dwellers are responsible for 54.3%, 28.0%, and 5.8% respectively of total NPP reduction in the resettlement region over the study period. The major national ecological projects implemented in the TGRA since 1998 have played a key role in offsetting the negative impacts of the TGP on NPP in the region.

  20. Impacts of China's Three Gorges Dam Project on net primary productivity in the reservoir area.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Yang, Guishan; Li, Hengpeng; Su, Weizhong

    2011-10-15

    China's Three Gorges Dam Project (TGP) is the world's largest hydroelectric power project, and as a consequence the reservoir area is at risk of ecological degradation. This study uses net primary productivity (NPP) as an important indicator of the reservoir ecosystem's productivity to estimate the impacts of the TGP in the local resettlement region of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) over the 2000-2010 period. The modeling method is based upon the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) terrestrial carbon model and uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing data for modeling simulation. The results demonstrate that total NPP in the resettlement region decreased by 8.0% (632.8Gg) from 2000 to 2010. The impact of the TGP on NPP is mainly mediated by land-use change brought about by the large-scale inundation of land and subsequent massive resettlement of both rural and urban residents. Nearby resettlement, land inundation, and relocation of old urban centers and affiliated urban dwellers are responsible for 54.3%, 28.0%, and 5.8% respectively of total NPP reduction in the resettlement region over the study period. The major national ecological projects implemented in the TGRA since 1998 have played a key role in offsetting the negative impacts of the TGP on NPP in the region. PMID:21889782

  1. Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgin, Ö.

    2012-04-01

    Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

  2. [Construction of a recombinant Escherichia coli for high trehalose production].

    PubMed

    Gao, Chao; Zhang, Shan; He, Yongzhi; Huang, Jianzhong; Dong, Zhiyang

    2015-12-01

    Trehalose, a compatible solute, is widely used in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products and organ transplantation. Nowadays, trehalose is mostly produced by enzymatic synthesis with many secondary products and lowpurity. In this study, high amount of trehalose was produced by recombinant E. ccli fermentation. First, a bifunctional trehalose gene TPSP was amplified from genome of C. hutchinscoii. Second, an expression vector pTac-HisA containing TPSP was constructed and transformed into the host E. coli. Expression of this bifunctional enzyme-TPSP converted glucose to trehalose. The result suggested that TPSP from C. hutchinsonji has been successfully expressed in E. ccoi. High amount of extracellular trehalose generated from glucose by whole-cell catalysis and After optimization, the production of trehalose in shake flasks was improved to 1.2 g/L and the relative conversion rate reached 21%. The production in bioreactor reached 13.3 g/L and the relative conversion rate reached 48.6%. It is the first time to realize the functional expression of the bifunctional enzyme-TPSP of C. hutchinsonii in E. coli and achieved the conversion form glucose to trehalose. This study laid a foundation for industrial large-scale production of trehalose. PMID:27093841

  3. Uncertainty Analysis in the Creation of a Fine-Resolution Leaf Area Index (LAI) Reference Map for Validation of Moderate Resolution LAI Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The validation process for a moderate resolution leaf area index (LAI) product (i.e., MODIS) involves the creation of a high spatial resolution LAI reference map (Lai-RM), which when scaled to the moderate LAI resolution (i.e., >1 km) allows for comparison and analysis with this ...

  4. Factors affecting phytoplankton distribution and production in the Elephant Island area, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Helbling, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    During the austral summer of four years, 1990 to 1993, studies on phytoplankton were performed in the Elephant Island area as one component of the US Antarctica Marine Living Resources program. In addition to continuous measurements (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, beam attenuation) made on ship's intake water, a profiling CTD-rosette unit was used to obtain water column characteristics (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, attenuation of solar radiation, beam attenuation) from the surface to 750m depth and also water samples from at least 10 depths for chemical and biological analyses. The sampling grid consisted of an average of 70 stations, all of which were occupied two times each year. The Elephant Island area is a transition zone between the rich coastal areas, where phytoplankton can develop dense blooms, and pelagic waters where the phytoplankton biomass is in general very low. A frontal zone was usually found to the north of Elephant Island and over the continental slope, and high phytoplankton biomass was in general associated with this frontal region. Although the location of this frontal system showed seasonal movement in a north-south direction, it seems to be a consistent feature from year to year. There seems to be considerable year-to-year variability in physical (water temperatures and salinity) and phytoplankton characteristics within the study area, in regard to both distributional patterns in surface waters and to profile characteristics in the upper 100m of the water column. With shallow upper mixed layer depths of less than 50 m, phytoplankton can attain relatively high concentrations. Optimum light conditions for growth occurred when the mixed layer was less than 55% of the euphotic zone. As the area around Elephant Island is characterized by relatively strong and frequent winds, the depth of the upper mixed layer at many stations approached the depth of the euphotic zone, with the result that growth of phytoplankton was light limited.

  5. Production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL.

    PubMed

    Sun, L T; Zhao, H W; Lu, W; Zhang, X Z; Feng, Y C; Li, J Y; Cao, Y; Guo, X H; Ma, H Y; Zhao, H Y; Shang, Y; Ma, B H; Wang, H; Li, X X; Jin, T; Xie, D Z

    2010-02-01

    Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an all-superconducting-magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged ion beams to meet the requirements of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, an aluminum chamber has been installed inside a 1.5 mm thick Ta liner used for the reduction of x-ray irradiation at the high voltage insulator. With double-frequency (18+14.5 GHz) heating and at maximum total microwave power of 2.0 kW, SECRAL has successfully produced quite a few very highly charged Xe ion beams, such as 10 e microA of Xe(37+), 1 e microA of Xe(43+), and 0.16 e microA of Ne-like Xe(44+). To further explore the capability of the SECRAL in the production of highly charged heavy metal ion beams, a first test run on bismuth has been carried out recently. The main goal is to produce an intense Bi(31+) beam for HIRFL accelerator and to have a feel how well the SECRAL can do in the production of very highly charged Bi beams. During the test, though at microwave power less than 3 kW, more than 150 e microA of Bi(31+), 22 e microA of Bi(41+), and 1.5 e microA of Bi(50+) have been produced. All of these results have again demonstrated the great capability of the SECRAL source. This article will present the detailed results and brief discussions to the production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL.

  6. A high natural radiation area in Khao-Than hot spring, Southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Bhongsuwan, T; Auisui, S A

    2015-11-01

    Natural radioactivity in Khao-Than hot spring area, Surat Thani Province, Thailand was investigated. Gamma dose survey indicated a possible high radiation risk for this area. Rock, soil and hot spring mud samples were collected and analysed by a low background gamma spectrometer. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in samples were 151-139 092 (mean = 13 794), 12-596 (127), 24-616 (215) Bq kg(-1), respectively. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that quartz and calcite (CaCO3) are the main constituents in mud samples with varying contents. In conclusion, this study area was reasonably classified as a high natural background radiation area. The source of radium in this area is supposed to be related to the fault fluids enriched in radium that precipitated with calcium in the carbonate terrain and partly absorbed by high cation exchange capacity clays.

  7. A high natural radiation area in Khao-Than hot spring, Southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Bhongsuwan, T; Auisui, S A

    2015-11-01

    Natural radioactivity in Khao-Than hot spring area, Surat Thani Province, Thailand was investigated. Gamma dose survey indicated a possible high radiation risk for this area. Rock, soil and hot spring mud samples were collected and analysed by a low background gamma spectrometer. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in samples were 151-139 092 (mean = 13 794), 12-596 (127), 24-616 (215) Bq kg(-1), respectively. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that quartz and calcite (CaCO3) are the main constituents in mud samples with varying contents. In conclusion, this study area was reasonably classified as a high natural background radiation area. The source of radium in this area is supposed to be related to the fault fluids enriched in radium that precipitated with calcium in the carbonate terrain and partly absorbed by high cation exchange capacity clays. PMID:25956781

  8. Global gradients in vertebrate diversity predicted by historical area-productivity dynamics and contemporary environment.

    PubMed

    Jetz, Walter; Fine, Paul V A

    2012-01-01

    Broad-scale geographic gradients in species richness have now been extensively documented, but their historical underpinning is still not well understood. While the importance of productivity, temperature, and a scale dependence of the determinants of diversity is broadly acknowledged, we argue here that limitation to a single analysis scale and data pseudo-replication have impeded an integrated evolutionary and ecological understanding of diversity gradients. We develop and apply a hierarchical analysis framework for global diversity gradients that incorporates an explicit accounting of past environmental variation and provides an appropriate measurement of richness. Due to environmental niche conservatism, organisms generally reside in climatically defined bioregions, or "evolutionary arenas," characterized by in situ speciation and extinction. These bioregions differ in age and their total productivity and have varied over time in area and energy available for diversification. We show that, consistently across the four major terrestrial vertebrate groups, current-day species richness of the world's main 32 bioregions is best explained by a model that integrates area and productivity over geological time together with temperature. Adding finer scale variation in energy availability as an ecological predictor of within-bioregional patterns of richness explains much of the remaining global variation in richness at the 110 km grain. These results highlight the separate evolutionary and ecological effects of energy availability and provide a first conceptual and empirical integration of the key drivers of broad-scale richness gradients. Avoiding the pseudo-replication that hampers the evolutionary interpretation of non-hierarchical macroecological analyses, our findings integrate evolutionary and ecological mechanisms at their most relevant scales and offer a new synthesis regarding global diversity gradients.

  9. Global Gradients in Vertebrate Diversity Predicted by Historical Area-Productivity Dynamics and Contemporary Environment

    PubMed Central

    Jetz, Walter; Fine, Paul V. A.

    2012-01-01

    Broad-scale geographic gradients in species richness have now been extensively documented, but their historical underpinning is still not well understood. While the importance of productivity, temperature, and a scale dependence of the determinants of diversity is broadly acknowledged, we argue here that limitation to a single analysis scale and data pseudo-replication have impeded an integrated evolutionary and ecological understanding of diversity gradients. We develop and apply a hierarchical analysis framework for global diversity gradients that incorporates an explicit accounting of past environmental variation and provides an appropriate measurement of richness. Due to environmental niche conservatism, organisms generally reside in climatically defined bioregions, or “evolutionary arenas,” characterized by in situ speciation and extinction. These bioregions differ in age and their total productivity and have varied over time in area and energy available for diversification. We show that, consistently across the four major terrestrial vertebrate groups, current-day species richness of the world's main 32 bioregions is best explained by a model that integrates area and productivity over geological time together with temperature. Adding finer scale variation in energy availability as an ecological predictor of within-bioregional patterns of richness explains much of the remaining global variation in richness at the 110 km grain. These results highlight the separate evolutionary and ecological effects of energy availability and provide a first conceptual and empirical integration of the key drivers of broad-scale richness gradients. Avoiding the pseudo-replication that hampers the evolutionary interpretation of non-hierarchical macroecological analyses, our findings integrate evolutionary and ecological mechanisms at their most relevant scales and offer a new synthesis regarding global diversity gradients. PMID:22479151

  10. Vegetation productivity patterns at high northern latitudes: a multi-sensor satellite data assessment

    PubMed Central

    Guay, Kevin C; Beck, Pieter S A; Berner, Logan T; Goetz, Scott J; Baccini, Alessandro; Buermann, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity are the primary data source used to study changes in global vegetation productivity over recent decades. Creating coherent, long-term records of vegetation activity from legacy satellite data sets requires addressing many factors that introduce uncertainties into vegetation index time series. We compared long-term changes in vegetation productivity at high northern latitudes (>50°N), estimated as trends in growing season NDVI derived from the most widely used global NDVI data sets. The comparison included the AVHRR-based GIMMS-NDVI version G (GIMMSg) series, and its recent successor version 3g (GIMMS3g), as well as the shorter NDVI records generated from the more modern sensors, SeaWiFS, SPOT-VGT, and MODIS. The data sets from the latter two sensors were provided in a form that reduces the effects of surface reflectance associated with solar and view angles. Our analysis revealed large geographic areas, totaling 40% of the study area, where all data sets indicated similar changes in vegetation productivity over their common temporal record, as well as areas where data sets showed conflicting patterns. The newer, GIMMS3g data set showed statistically significant (α = 0.05) increases in vegetation productivity (greening) in over 15% of the study area, not seen in its predecessor (GIMMSg), whereas the reverse was rare (<3%). The latter has implications for earlier reports on changes in vegetation activity based on GIMMSg, particularly in Eurasia where greening is especially pronounced in the GIMMS3g data. Our findings highlight both critical uncertainties and areas of confidence in the assessment of ecosystem-response to climate change using satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity. Broader efforts are required to evaluate NDVI time series against field measurements of vegetation growth, primary productivity, recruitment, mortality, and other biological processes in order to better understand

  11. Vegetation productivity patterns at high northern latitudes: a multi-sensor satellite data assessment.

    PubMed

    Guay, Kevin C; Beck, Pieter S A; Berner, Logan T; Goetz, Scott J; Baccini, Alessandro; Buermann, Wolfgang

    2014-10-01

    Satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity are the primary data source used to study changes in global vegetation productivity over recent decades. Creating coherent, long-term records of vegetation activity from legacy satellite data sets requires addressing many factors that introduce uncertainties into vegetation index time series. We compared long-term changes in vegetation productivity at high northern latitudes (>50°N), estimated as trends in growing season NDVI derived from the most widely used global NDVI data sets. The comparison included the AVHRR-based GIMMS-NDVI version G (GIMMSg ) series, and its recent successor version 3g (GIMMS3g ), as well as the shorter NDVI records generated from the more modern sensors, SeaWiFS, SPOT-VGT, and MODIS. The data sets from the latter two sensors were provided in a form that reduces the effects of surface reflectance associated with solar and view angles. Our analysis revealed large geographic areas, totaling 40% of the study area, where all data sets indicated similar changes in vegetation productivity over their common temporal record, as well as areas where data sets showed conflicting patterns. The newer, GIMMS3g data set showed statistically significant (α = 0.05) increases in vegetation productivity (greening) in over 15% of the study area, not seen in its predecessor (GIMMSg ), whereas the reverse was rare (<3%). The latter has implications for earlier reports on changes in vegetation activity based on GIMMSg , particularly in Eurasia where greening is especially pronounced in the GIMMS3g data. Our findings highlight both critical uncertainties and areas of confidence in the assessment of ecosystem-response to climate change using satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity. Broader efforts are required to evaluate NDVI time series against field measurements of vegetation growth, primary productivity, recruitment, mortality, and other biological processes in order to better understand

  12. In situ cosmogenic radiocarbon production and 2-D ice flow line modeling for an Antarctic blue ice area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buizert, Christo; Petrenko, Vasilii V.; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey L.; Cuffey, Kurt M.; Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Brook, Edward J.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

    2012-06-01

    Radiocarbon measurements at ice margin sites and blue ice areas can potentially be used for ice dating, ablation rate estimates and paleoclimatic reconstructions. Part of the measured signal comes from in situ cosmogenic 14C production in ice, and this component must be well understood before useful information can be extracted from 14C data. We combine cosmic ray scaling and production estimates with a two-dimensional ice flow line model to study cosmogenic 14C production at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica. We find (1) that 14C production through thermal neutron capture by nitrogen in air bubbles is negligible; (2) that including ice flow patterns caused by basal topography can lead to a surface 14C activity that differs by up to 25% from the activity calculated using an ablation-only approximation, which is used in all prior work; and (3) that at high ablation margin sites, solar modulation of the cosmic ray flux may change the strength of the dominant spallogenic production by up to 10%. As part of this effort we model two-dimensional ice flow along the central flow line of Taylor Glacier. We present two methods for parameterizing vertical strain rates, and assess which method is more reliable for Taylor Glacier. Finally, we present a sensitivity study from which we conclude that uncertainties in published cosmogenic production rates are the largest source of potential error. The results presented here can inform ongoing and future 14C and ice flow studies at ice margin sites, including important paleoclimatic applications such as the reconstruction of paleoatmospheric 14C content of methane.

  13. Production of high intensity Beta beams at the ISOLDE facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hodak, Rastislav; Stora, Thierry; Mendonca, Tania M.

    2011-12-16

    We discuss a design study devoted to a construction of the Beta beams facility at CERN, a next generation European facility aiming for a production of pure and collimated ultra-relativistic beam of electron (anti)neutrinos with help of accelerated {beta}-decaying radioactive ions circulating in a storage decay ring. This high intense source of (anti)neutrinos directed towards a remote underground neutrino detector will allow to measure neutrino oscillations with high accuracy offering a unique chance for establishing a value of the {beta}{sub 13} mixing angle and CP violating phase. Recently, a significant progress have been achieved on the conceptual design of high power targets required for a production and an extraction of two baseline isotopes, {sup 6}He and {sup 18}Ne, at the unexampled rate of several 10{sup 13} ions/s. There is a possibility to produce these isotopes using the so-called Isotope Separation On Line (ISOL) method at the ISOLDE facility (CERN). The {sup 6}He production is realized by taking advantage of the {sup 9}Be(n,{alpha}){sup 6}He reaction and with help of spallation neutrons and porous BeO target material. The production of {sup 18}Ne through the {sup 19}F(p,2n){sup 18}Ne reaction at required intensities is even more challenging. Currently, a molten salt (NaF) loop target is proposed for a production of high rate of {sup 18}Ne required for the Beta beams project. The progress on the design study associated with new data and plans for future is briefly presented.

  14. Technique eliminates high voltage arcing at electrode-insulator contact area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mealy, G.

    1967-01-01

    Coating the electrode-insulator contact area with silver epoxy conductive paint and forcing the electrode and insulator tightly together into a permanent connection, eliminates electrical arcing in high-voltage electrodes supplying electrical power to vacuum facilities.

  15. Cross infection in the high-touch areas of dental radiology clinics.

    PubMed

    Rahmatulla, M; Almas, K; al-Bagieh, N

    1996-01-01

    Disinfection and sterilization have received considerable attention due to the spread of AIDS and HIV. Several infections hazards to the patient and personnel of dental surgery have been identified from blood, saliva and water of dental unit. The high touch areas of dental x-ray equipment is a potential source of infection. The present study was undertaken to determine the extent of cross-infection present in the dental radiology clinics with and without the use of surface disinfectants. Swabs taken from high touch areas of the x-ray equipment in 15 different sessions with in one month were cultured in three different media. The study revealed, almost all high touch areas in dental radiology clinic had bacterial contamination in the absence of surface disinfection. "Webcol" and "Superficid" disinfectants showed minimum or no contamination. To remove risk of cross-infection, disinfection of high-touch areas of dental x-ray equipment is mandatory.

  16. 76 FR 30002 - Establishment of the Antelope Valley of the California High Desert Viticultural Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Antelope Valley of the California High Desert viticultural area in the Federal Register (75 FR 53877) on... granodiorite. These rocks, the granite and diorite granite rocks in particular, weathered to form...

  17. High Surface Area Electrodes Derived from Polymer Wrapped Carbon Nanotubes for Enhanced Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiary Davijani, Amir A; Liu, H Clive; Gupta, Kishor; Kumar, Satish

    2016-09-21

    Electrical double layer capacitors store energy on two adjacent layers, resulting in fast charging and discharging, but their energy density is limited by the available surface area. In this study, using poly(methyl methacrylate) assisted sonication, carbon nanotube buckypapers with specific surface area as high as 950 m(2)/g have been processed. Performance of these high surface area buckypapers have been evaluated as supercapacitor electrodes. The energy density of these high surface area electrodes at low power density of 0.68 kW/kg was 22.3 Wh/kg, and at high power density of 84 kW/kg was 3.13 Wh/kg using the ionic liquid electrolyte. PMID:27556746

  18. High Surface Area Electrodes Derived from Polymer Wrapped Carbon Nanotubes for Enhanced Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiary Davijani, Amir A; Liu, H Clive; Gupta, Kishor; Kumar, Satish

    2016-09-21

    Electrical double layer capacitors store energy on two adjacent layers, resulting in fast charging and discharging, but their energy density is limited by the available surface area. In this study, using poly(methyl methacrylate) assisted sonication, carbon nanotube buckypapers with specific surface area as high as 950 m(2)/g have been processed. Performance of these high surface area buckypapers have been evaluated as supercapacitor electrodes. The energy density of these high surface area electrodes at low power density of 0.68 kW/kg was 22.3 Wh/kg, and at high power density of 84 kW/kg was 3.13 Wh/kg using the ionic liquid electrolyte.

  19. High energy resummation in dihadron production at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celiberto, Francesco G.; Ivanov, Dmitry Yu.; Murdaca, Beatrice; Papa, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    We propose to study at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the inclusive production of a pair of hadrons (a "dihadron" system) in a kinematics where two detected hadrons with high transverse momenta are separated by a large interval of rapidity. This process has much in common with the widely discussed Mueller-Navelet jet production and can also be used to access the dynamics of hard proton-parton interactions in the Regge limit. For both processes large contributions enhanced by logarithms of energy can be resummed in perturbation theory within the Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) formalism with next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. The experimental study of dihadron production would provide an additional clear channel to test the BFKL dynamics. We present here the first theoretical predictions for cross sections and azimuthal angle correlations of the dihadrons produced with LHC kinematics.

  20. HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Joseph J. Hartvigsen

    2005-10-01

    An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. Results presented in this paper were obtained from a ten-cell planar electrolysis stack, with an active area of 64 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrolyte-supported, with scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolytes (~140 µm thick), nickel-cermet steam/hydrogen electrodes, and manganite air-side electrodes. The metallic interconnect plates are fabricated from ferritic stainless steel. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 - 0.6), gas flow rates (1000 - 4000 sccm), and current densities (0 to 0.38 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. Cell operating potentials and cell current were varied using a programmable power supply. Hydrogen production rates up to 90 Normal liters per hour were demonstrated. Values of area-specific resistance and stack internal temperatures are presented as a function of current density. Stack performance is shown to be dependent on inlet steam flow rate.

  1. Reading in the Content Areas for Junior High and High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Judith A.

    Reflecting concern for the myriad problems resulting from the presence of poor readers in secondary schools today, this book shows content area teachers why they must and how they can improve students' reading deficiencies. The book provides an explanation of reading skills and learning difficulties in a quick and easy format; activities to…

  2. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    DOEpatents

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  3. Energetic ion production in high current hollow cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, John; Kovach, Yao; Arthur, Neil; Viges, Eric; Davis, Chris

    2015-09-01

    High power Hall and gridded ion thrusters are being considered as a propulsion option supporting human operations (cargo or tug) to Mars. These engines utilize hollow cathodes for plasma production and beam neutralization. It has now been well documented that these cathodes produce energetic ions when operated at high current densities. Such ions are observed with peak energies approaching 100 eV. Because these ions can drive erosion of the cathode assembly, they represent a credible failure mode. An understanding of energetic ion production and approaches to mitigation is therefore desired. Presented here are data documenting the presence of energetic ions for both a barium oxide and a lanthanum hexaboride cathode as measured using a retarding potential analyzer. Also presented are energetic ion mitigation approaches, which are designed to eliminate the ion energy transfer mechanism. NASA SBIR Contract NNX15CP62P.

  4. Assessment of potential nutrient build-up around beef cattle production areas using electromagnetic induction.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Marcos R C; Ranjan, Ramanathan Sri; Cicek, Nazim

    2011-12-01

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) has been used to map soil properties such as salinity and water content. The objective of this research is to use EMI to map the potential distribution of nutrients around beef cattle pens and to relate this distribution to major physiographic field features. Beef cattle farms in different physiographic locations were surveyed in Manitoba, Canada, using an EM-38 conductivity meter georeferenced with a GPS receiver. Samples were collected using a response surface design and analysed for electrical conductivity (ECe), which was used as a proxy for determining potential build-up of nutrients. Multiple linear regression models (MLR) were used for calibration of the EM readings. The results showed that areas 1 through 4 had ECe < or = 3.5 dSm(-1), but areas 5 and 6 exceeded this concentration and reached maximum values of 5.5 and 7.0 dS m(-1), respectively. Higher values in area 6 were probably due to the presence of a rocky layer at 0.3 m depth, leaving a thin soil layer to accumulate the nutrients. Micro-depressions played a major role in salt accumulation, with the depressions corresponding to higher values of ECe. The presence of features such as drainage ditches and compacted soils beneath roads strongly affected the direction of the plumes. Based on these results, the location of the pens on high elevations and the provision to collect the run-off from the pens were identified as good design criteria. Highly permeable soils may require a low permeability liner to capture the deep percolation and redirect it towards a collection area.

  5. Trends in Multiple Tobacco Product Use, Among High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Creamer, MeLisa R.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Harrell, Melissa B.; Diamond, Pamela M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to identify trends of tobacco use, among all students and current tobacco users, in a nationally representative sample of high school students from 1999 to 2013. Methods Trends in individual and concurrent use of cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco (SLT) products were tested using 8 repeated cross-sections of the YRBS between 1999 and 2013. Tests for effect modification of race/ethnicity and sex were conducted for each trend. Results Among all students, there were significant non-linear changes detected for the concurrent use of all 3 products, and the dual use of cigarettes and cigars. Girls significantly increased their use of SLT. Among users, significant changes were detected for each individual product and all combinations. Female users significantly increased their concurrent use of cigarettes and cigars and concurrent use of cigarettes and SLT. Male users significantly decreased their use of cigarettes and cigars. Conclusion While the decrease in the youth prevalence of cigarette use is a public health success, there is concern about the increase in non-cigarette products, among tobacco users. These changes further drive increases in the concurrent use of tobacco products, adding to the potential health burden. PMID:26478907

  6. Fluoroquinolone prophylaxis against febrile neutropenia in areas with high fluoroquinolone resistance--an Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Ng, Esther Shu-Ting; Liew, Yixin; Koh, Liang Piu; Hsu, Li Yang

    2010-09-01

    Febrile neutropenia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients receiving chemotherapy. Major prophylactic strategies include granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and antibiotics, the most widely used of which are fluoroquinolones. While fluoroquinolone prophylaxis has been shown to be effective in areas where fluoroquinolone resistance is low, this same efficacy has not been proven in areas where resistance is high, such as in Asia. Given the increase in antimicrobial resistance with the use of prophylaxis, the risks and benefits of this strategy need to be carefully considered. This review presents the evidence for and against fluoroquinolone prophylaxis in areas of high fluoroquinolone resistance.

  7. High intensity muon storage rings for neutrino production: Lattice design

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, C>

    1998-05-01

    Five energies, 250, 100, 50, 20, and 10 GeV, have been explored in the design of a muon storage ring for neutrino-beam production. The ring design incorporates exceptionally long straight sections with large beta functions in order to produce an intense, parallel neutrino beam via muon decay. To emphasize compactness and reduce the number of muon decays in the arcs, high-field superconducting dipoles are used in the arc design.

  8. Number-ratio fluctuations in high-energy particle production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, P.; Haslum, E.; Stenlund, E.

    2009-09-01

    In this article we will discuss the previously proposed quantity νdyn [C. Pruneau, S. Gavin, and S. Voloshin, Phys. Rev. C 66, 044904 (2002)], as a measure of the number-ratio fluctuations in high-energy particle production. We will show that νdyn has pleasing mathematical properties making it ideal for the purpose. We will demonstrate its relation to two-particle correlations and how this measure can be generalized to higher-order correlations.

  9. Number-ratio fluctuations in high-energy particle production

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, P.; Haslum, E.; Stenlund, E.

    2009-09-15

    In this article we will discuss the previously proposed quantity {nu}{sub dyn}[C. Pruneau, S. Gavin, and S. Voloshin, Phys. Rev. C 66, 044904 (2002)], as a measure of the number-ratio fluctuations in high-energy particle production. We will show that {nu}{sub dyn} has pleasing mathematical properties making it ideal for the purpose. We will demonstrate its relation to two-particle correlations and how this measure can be generalized to higher-order correlations.

  10. Impact of emissions from natural gas production facilities on ambient air quality in the Barnett Shale area: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, Dave; Samburova, Vera

    2014-12-01

    Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in the Barnett Shale region of Texas in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of the potential contributions of emissions from gas production operations to population exposure to air toxics in the Barnett Shale region. This goal was approached using a combination of chemical characterization of the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from active wells, saturation monitoring for gaseous and particulate pollutants in a residential community located near active gas/oil extraction and processing facilities, source apportionment of VOCs measured in the community using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model, and direct measurements of the pollutant gradient downwind of a gas well with high VOC emissions. Overall, the study results indicate that air quality impacts due to individual gas wells and compressor stations are not likely to be discernible beyond a distance of approximately 100 m in the downwind direction. However, source apportionment results indicate a significant contribution to regional VOCs from gas production sources, particularly for lower-molecular-weight alkanes (< C6). Although measured ambient VOC concentrations were well below health-based safe exposure levels, the existence of urban-level mean concentrations of benzene and other mobile source air toxics combined with soot to total carbon ratios that were high for an area with little residential or commercial development may be indicative of the impact of increased heavy-duty vehicle traffic related to gas production. Implications: Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. This study focused on directly measuring the ambient air pollutant levels occurring at residential properties located near

  11. Advanced Decontamination Technologies: High Hydrostatic Pressure on Meat Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garriga, Margarita; Aymerich, Teresa

    The increasing demand for “natural” foodstuffs, free from chemical additives, and preservatives has triggered novel approaches in food technology developments. In the last decade, practical use of high-pressure processing (HPP) made this emerging non-thermal technology very attractive from a commercial point of view. Despite the fact that the investment is still high, the resulting value-added products, with an extended and safe shelf-life, will fulfil the wishes of consumers who prefer preservative-free minimally processed foods, retaining sensorial characteristics of freshness. Moreover, unlike thermal treatment, pressure treatment is not time/mass dependant, thus reducing the time of processing.

  12. Non-activated high surface area expanded graphite oxide for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermisoglou, E. C.; Giannakopoulou, T.; Romanos, G. E.; Boukos, N.; Giannouri, M.; Lei, C.; Lekakou, C.; Trapalis, C.

    2015-12-01

    Microwave irradiation of graphite oxide constitutes a facile route toward production of reduced graphene oxide, since during this treatment both exfoliation and reduction of graphite oxide occurs. In this work, the effect of pristine graphite (type, size of flakes), pretreatment and oxidation cycles on the finally produced expanded material was examined. All the types of graphite that were tested afforded materials with high BET surface areas ranging from 940 m2/g to 2490 m2/g, without intervening an activation stage at elevated temperature. SEM and TEM images displayed exfoliated structures, where the flakes were significantly detached and curved. The quality of the reduced graphene oxide sheets was evidenced both by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The electrode material capacitance was determined via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The materials with PEDOT binder had better performance (∼97 F/g) at low operation rates while those with PVDF binder performed better (∼20 F/g) at higher rates, opening up perspectives for their application in supercapacitors.

  13. Dielectrophoresis-assisted electroconductive polymer-based fabrication of high surface area electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Gonzalez, Victor H.; Ho, Vinh; Kulinsky, Lawrence; Martinez-Chapa, Sergio O.

    2014-03-01

    In this work we present a novel microfabrication process that is based on combined use of dielectrophoresis (DEP) to attract particles or cells to electrodes and to follow this step by an electrodeposition of polypyrrole (PPy) to entrap the particles or cells on electrode surface. This process can be used for mass-production of high surface area structures as well as to the creation of functionally graded materials. DEP was employed to pull the microparticles toward the surface of the electrodes and hold them in place while PPy was electrodeposited. Polystyrene microbeads with diameters ranging from 1 to 10 microns were employed in this study. Experimental results demonstrated that PPy can entrap the particles attracted to the electrode surface by the positive DEP. It was also demonstrated that hierarchical structures can be created where smaller microbeads are attached to, caught and secured on the surface of larger microbeads entrapped on the electrode surface. Furthermore, as DEP can be employed for manipulating of wide variety of polarizable materials, this process can also entrap inorganic and biological microparticles in the fabricated structure. Applications of this work include, but are not limited to, the development of biomedical, electrokinetic, and energy storage devices, electrochemical sensors, and scaffolds.

  14. Brilliant high-power diode lasers based on broad area lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, V.; Koesters, A.; Koenig, H.; Strauss, U.

    2008-02-01

    Within the German national research project "Briolas" Osram Semiconductors and Laserline GmbH cooperated in the subproject "Brilasi" which focused mainly on Brilliant Laser Diodes for Industrial Applications. The project was finished in December 2007 and lasted more than three years. Laserline and Osram are investigating the performance of broad area diode lasers with a bar width from 1.0 to 10.0 mm in high brilliance diode laser beam sources. Within the program different fibre coupled laser sources are built up: 1. Fibre coupled diode laser beam source with a Beam Parameter Product (BBP) of 40 mmxmrad built from diode laser bars with 10 mm bar width. 2. Fibre coupled diode laser beam source with a BBP of 20 mmxmrad built from Mini-Bars with a bar width of 3.0 mm and 8 emitters. These Different solutions are characterized regarding the electro optical performance. The laser output characteristics are determined for the diode laser device as well as the complete beam source. Lifetime tests are conducted to determine the long term stability of the prototypes and the different chip material.

  15. Multi-core fiber technology for highly reliable optical network in access areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Ken-ichi; Lee, Yong; Nomoto, Etsuko; Arimoto, Hideo; Sugawara, Toshiki

    2015-03-01

    A failure recovery system utilizing a multi-core fiber (MCF) link with field programmable gate array-based optical switch units was developed to achieve high capacity and highly reliable optical networks in access areas. We describe the novel MCF link based on a multi-ring structure and a protection scheme to prevent link failures. Fan-in/ -out devices and connectors are also presented to demonstrate the development status of the MCF connection technology for the link. We demonstrated path recovery by switching operation within a sufficiently short time, which is required by ITU-T. The selection of a protecting path as a failure working path was also optimized as the minimum passage of units for low loss transmission. The results we obtained indicate that our proposed link has potential for the network design of highly reliable network topologies in access areas such as data centers, systems in business areas, and fiber to the home systems in residential areas.

  16. High-Area-Ratio Rocket Nozzle at High Combustion Chamber Pressure: Experimental and Analytical Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Smith, Timothy D.; Pavli, Albert J.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained on an optimally contoured nozzle with an area ratio of 1025:1 and on a truncated version of this nozzle with an area ratio of 440:1. The nozzles were tested with gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants at combustion chamber pressures of 1800 to 2400 psia and mixture ratios of 3.89 to 6.15. This report compares the experimental performance, heat transfer, and boundary layer total pressure measurements with theoretical predictions of the current Joint Army, Navy, NASA, Air Force (JANNAF) developed methodology. This methodology makes use of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) nozzle performance code. Comparisons of the TDK-predicted performance to experimentally attained thrust performance indicated that both the vacuum thrust coefficient and the vacuum specific impulse values were approximately 2.0-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 1025:1 configurations, and approximately 0.25-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 440:1 configuration. Nozzle wall temperatures were measured on the outside of a thin-walled heat sink nozzle during the test fittings. Nozzle heat fluxes were calculated front the time histories of these temperatures and compared with predictions made with the TDK code. The heat flux values were overpredicted for all cases. The results range from nearly 100 percent at an area ratio of 50 to only approximately 3 percent at an area ratio of 975. Values of the integral of the heat flux as a function of nozzle surface area were also calculated. Comparisons of the experiment with analyses of the heat flux and the heat rate per axial length also show that the experimental values were lower than the predicted value. Three boundary layer rakes mounted on the nozzle exit were used for boundary layer measurements. This arrangement allowed total pressure measurements to be obtained at 14 different distances from the nozzle wall. A comparison of boundary layer total pressure profiles and analytical

  17. Modeled velopharyngeal orifice area prediction during simulated stop consonant production in the presence of increased nasal airway resistance.

    PubMed

    Smith, B E; Maddox, C M; Kostinski, A B

    1985-07-01

    This project examined modeled velopharyngeal orifice area estimation under conditions simulating voiceless stop consonant production in the presence of nasal airway obstruction. The results indicated that accurate estimates of velopharyngeal orifice area can be obtained using Warren's hydrokinetic equation during aerodynamic events like those known to exist during speech in the presence of increased nasal airway resistance. These findings provide support for clinical and research use of Warren's pressure-flow approach to investigate velopharyngeal function during speech production.

  18. Modeled velopharyngeal orifice area prediction during simulated stop consonant production in the presence of increased nasal airway resistance.

    PubMed

    Smith, B E; Maddox, C M; Kostinski, A B

    1985-07-01

    This project examined modeled velopharyngeal orifice area estimation under conditions simulating voiceless stop consonant production in the presence of nasal airway obstruction. The results indicated that accurate estimates of velopharyngeal orifice area can be obtained using Warren's hydrokinetic equation during aerodynamic events like those known to exist during speech in the presence of increased nasal airway resistance. These findings provide support for clinical and research use of Warren's pressure-flow approach to investigate velopharyngeal function during speech production. PMID:3860307

  19. Incorporating Sentinel-2-like remote sensing products in the hydrometeorological modelling over an agricultural area in south west France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivalland, Vincent; Gascoin, Simon; Etchanchu, Jordi; Coustau, Mathieu; Cros, Jérôme; Tallec, Tiphaine

    2016-04-01

    The Sentinel-2 mission will enable to monitor the land cover and the vegetation phenology at high-resolution (HR) every 5 days. However, current Land Surface Models (LSM) typically use land cover and vegetation parameters derived from previous low to mid resolution satellite missions. Here we studied the effect of introducing Sentinel-2-like data in the simulation of the land surface energy and water fluxes in a region dominated by cropland. Simulations were performed with the ISBA-SURFEX LSM, which is used in the operational hydrometeorological chain of Meteo-France for hydrological forecasts and drought monitoring. By default, SURFEX vegetation land surface parameters and temporal evolution are from the ECOCLIMAP II European database mostly derived from MODIS products at 1 km resolution. The model was applied to an experimental area of 30 km by 30 km in south west France. In this area the resolution of ECOCLIMAP is coarser than the typical size of a crop field. This means that several crop types can be mixed in a pixel. In addition ECOCLIMAP provides a climatology of the vegetation phenology and thus does not account for the interannual effects of the climate and land management on the crop growth. In this work, we used a series of 26 Formosat-2 images at 8-m resolution acquired in 2006. From this dataset, we derived a land cover map and a leaf area index map (LAI) at each date, which were substituted to the ECOCLIMAP land cover map and the LAI maps. The model output water and energy fluxes were compared to a standard simulation using ECOCLIMAP only and to in situ measurements of soil moisture, latent and sensible heat fluxes. The results show that the introduction of the HR products improved the timing of the evapotranspiration. The impact was the most visible on the crops having a growing season in summer (maize, sunflower), because the growth period is more sensitive to the climate.

  20. [Agricultural production responsibility system and the work of family planning in the rural area].

    PubMed

    Zhu, M

    1982-09-29

    With the establishment of the agricultural production responsibility system, the entire agricultural management and economic system has undergone great changes, and family planning in rural areas has met with many difficulties. Because of this responsibility system, households with more manpower seem to become wealthy more rapidly than others. An existing belief among the rural population is that more children will provide a larger labor force and thus more income. Birth control and family planning are therefore becoming more difficult. In order to change existing beliefs, a comprehensive ideological education for peasants is needed so that they may understand the question of birth control from the viewpoints of national interests. Economic rewards and administrative restrictions may be used as necessary birth control measures. Agricultural production and family planning can be managed well if there is close contact and cooperation between the cadres and the masses. Extra care and benefits should be given to women of childbearing age who undergo birth control operations and agree to a single child in each household. Welfare programs for the masses, such as kindergartens and nursing homes must be established in order to reduce their worries. In addition, efforts are needed to study the new situation and solve new problems. The goal of controlling the rural population growth should be achiefed through practical work and experience.

  1. Balancing livestock production and wildlife conservation in and around southern Africa's transfrontier conservation areas.

    PubMed

    Thomson, G R; Penrith, M-L; Atkinson, M W; Atkinson, S J; Cassidy, D; Osofsky, S A

    2013-12-01

    Biodiversity conservation, of which the transfrontier conservation area movement is an integral part, and more effective livestock production/trade are pivotal to future rural development in southern Africa. For that reason, it is imperative to effectively ameliorate the obstacles that have impeded progress towards the coexistence of these two sectors for more than half a century. Transboundary animal diseases, foot and mouth disease in particular, have been and continue to be the most important of these obstacles. Fortunately, new developments in international sanitary standards applicable to trade in commodities and products derived from animals are beginning to make a solution possible. However, while progress in principle has been achieved, practical implementation remains problematic for technical reasons, exacerbated by inconsistent attitudes towards acceptance of non-traditional international trade standards. This paper describes the background to this situation, progress that has been achieved in the recent past and remaining difficulties that need to be overcome to advance towards achievement of balanced rural development in southern Africa.

  2. Surface area products for Kerr-Taub-NUT space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-08-01

    We examine properties of the inner and outer horizon thermodynamics of Taub-NUT (Newman-Unti-Tamburino) and Kerr-Taub-NUT (KTN) black hole (BH) in four-dimensional Lorentzian geometry. We compare and contrasted these properties with the properties of Reissner Nordstrøm (RN) BH and Kerr BH. We focus on “area product”, “entropy product”, “irreducible mass product” of the event horizon and Cauchy horizons. Due to mass dependence, we speculate that these products have no nice quantization feature. Nor do they have any universal property. We further observe that the first law of BH thermodynamics and Smarr-Gibbs-Duhem relations do not hold for Taub-NUT (TN) and KTN BH in Lorentzian regime. The failure of these aforementioned features are due to the presence of the non-trivial NUT charge which makes the space-time be asymptotically non-flat, in contrast with RN BH and Kerr BH. Another reason for the failure is that Lorentzian TN and Lorentzian KTN geometries contain Dirac-Misner–type singularity, which is a manifestation of a non-trivial topological twist of the manifold. The black-hole mass formula and Christodoulou-Ruffini mass formula for TN and KTN BHs are also computed. These thermodynamic product formulae give us further understanding of the nature of inner as well as outer BH entropy at the microscopic level.

  3. Surface area products for Kerr-Taub-NUT space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-08-01

    We examine properties of the inner and outer horizon thermodynamics of Taub-NUT (Newman-Unti-Tamburino) and Kerr-Taub-NUT (KTN) black hole (BH) in four-dimensional Lorentzian geometry. We compare and contrasted these properties with the properties of Reissner Nordstrøm (RN) BH and Kerr BH. We focus on “area product”, “entropy product”, “irreducible mass product” of the event horizon and Cauchy horizons. Due to mass dependence, we speculate that these products have no nice quantization feature. Nor do they have any universal property. We further observe that the first law of BH thermodynamics and Smarr-Gibbs-Duhem relations do not hold for Taub-NUT (TN) and KTN BH in Lorentzian regime. The failure of these aforementioned features are due to the presence of the non-trivial NUT charge which makes the space-time be asymptotically non-flat, in contrast with RN BH and Kerr BH. Another reason for the failure is that Lorentzian TN and Lorentzian KTN geometries contain Dirac-Misner-type singularity, which is a manifestation of a non-trivial topological twist of the manifold. The black-hole mass formula and Christodoulou-Ruffini mass formula for TN and KTN BHs are also computed. These thermodynamic product formulae give us further understanding of the nature of inner as well as outer BH entropy at the microscopic level.

  4. On the causes of rising gross ecosystem productivity in a regenerating clearcut environment: leaf area vs. species composition.

    PubMed

    Khomik, Myroslava; Williams, Christopher A; Vanderhoof, Melanie K; MacLean, Richard G; Dillen, Sophie Y

    2014-07-01

    Clearcutting a forest ecosystem can result in a drastic reduction of stand productivity. Despite the severity of this disturbance type, past studies have found that the productivity of young regenerating stands can quickly rebound, approaching that of mature undisturbed stands within a few years. One of the obvious reasons is increased leaf area (LA) with each year of recovery. However, a less obvious reason may be the variability in species composition and distribution during the natural regeneration process. The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent the increase in gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), observed during the first 4 years of recovery in a naturally regenerating clearcut stand, was due to (i) an overall expansion of leaf area and (ii) an increase in the canopy's photosynthetic capacity stemming from either species compositional shifts or drift in physiological traits within species. We found that the multi-year rise in GEP following harvest was clearly attributed to the expansion of LA rather than a change in vegetation composition. Sizeable changes in the relative abundance of species were masked by remarkably similar leaf physiological attributes for a range of vegetation types present in this early-successional environment. Comparison of upscaled leaf-chamber estimates with eddy-covariance-based estimates of light-response curves revealed a broad consistency in both maximum photosynthetic capacity and quantum yield efficiency. The approaches presented here illustrate how chamber- and ecosystem-scale measurements of gas exchange can be blended with species-level LA data to draw conclusive inferences about changes in ecosystem processes over time in a highly dynamic environment.

  5. Genetic Population Structure of Cacao Plantings within a Young Production Area in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Trognitz, Bodo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hansel-Hohl, Karin; Kuant, Aldo; Grebe, Hans; Hermann, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Significant cocoa production in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, began in 1961. Since the 1980s, its economic importance to rural smallholders increased, and the region now contributes more than 50% of national cocoa bean production. This research aimed to assist local farmers to develop production of high-value cocoa based on optimal use of cacao biodiversity. Using microsatellite markers, the allelic composition and genetic structure of cacao was assessed from 44 representative plantings and two unmanaged trees. The population at Waslala consists of only three putative founder genotype spectra (lineages). Two (B and R) were introduced during the past 50 years and occur in >95% of all trees sampled, indicating high rates of outcrossing. Based on intermediate allelic diversity, there was large farm-to-farm multilocus genotypic variation. GIS analysis revealed unequal distribution of the genotype spectra, with R being frequent within a 2 km corridor along roads, and B at more remote sites with lower precipitation. The third lineage, Y, was detected in the two forest trees. For explaining the spatial stratification of the genotype spectra, both human intervention and a combination of management and selection driven by environmental conditions, appear responsible. Genotypes of individual trees were highly diverse across plantings, thus enabling selection for farm-specific qualities. On-farm populations can currently be most clearly recognized by the degree of the contribution of the three genotype spectra. Of two possible strategies for future development of cacao in Waslala, i.e. introducing more unrelated germplasm, or working with existing on-site diversity, the latter seems most appropriate. Superior genotypes could be selected by their specific composite genotype spectra as soon as associations with desired quality traits are established, and clonally multiplied. The two Y trees from the forest share a single multilocus genotype, possibly representing the

  6. Genetic population structure of cacao plantings within a young production area in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Trognitz, Bodo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hansel-Hohl, Karin; Kuant, Aldo; Grebe, Hans; Hermann, Michael

    2011-01-14

    Significant cocoa production in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, began in 1961. Since the 1980s, its economic importance to rural smallholders increased, and the region now contributes more than 50% of national cocoa bean production. This research aimed to assist local farmers to develop production of high-value cocoa based on optimal use of cacao biodiversity. Using microsatellite markers, the allelic composition and genetic structure of cacao was assessed from 44 representative plantings and two unmanaged trees. The population at Waslala consists of only three putative founder genotype spectra (lineages). Two (B and R) were introduced during the past 50 years and occur in >95% of all trees sampled, indicating high rates of outcrossing. Based on intermediate allelic diversity, there was large farm-to-farm multilocus genotypic variation. GIS analysis revealed unequal distribution of the genotype spectra, with R being frequent within a 2 km corridor along roads, and B at more remote sites with lower precipitation. The third lineage, Y, was detected in the two forest trees. For explaining the spatial stratification of the genotype spectra, both human intervention and a combination of management and selection driven by environmental conditions, appear responsible. Genotypes of individual trees were highly diverse across plantings, thus enabling selection for farm-specific qualities. On-farm populations can currently be most clearly recognized by the degree of the contribution of the three genotype spectra. Of two possible strategies for future development of cacao in Waslala, i.e. introducing more unrelated germplasm, or working with existing on-site diversity, the latter seems most appropriate. Superior genotypes could be selected by their specific composite genotype spectra as soon as associations with desired quality traits are established, and clonally multiplied. The two Y trees from the forest share a single multilocus genotype, possibly representing the

  7. Characterization, distribution, and risk assessment of heavy metals in agricultural soil and products around mining and smelting areas of Hezhang, China.

    PubMed

    Briki, Meryem; Ji, Hongbing; Li, Cai; Ding, Huaijian; Gao, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Mining and smelting have been releasing huge amount of toxic substances into the environment. In the present study, agricultural soil and different agricultural products (potato, Chinese cabbage, garlic bolt, corn) were analyzed to examine the source, spatial distribution, and risk of 12 elements (As, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) in agricultural soil near mine fields, smelting fields, and mountain field around Hezhang County, west of Guizhou Province, China. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated that in mining area, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Zn were generated from anthropogenic sources; in smelting area, As, Be, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn were derived from anthropogenic sources through zinc smelting ceased in 2004. The enrichment factors (EFs) and ecological risk index (RI) of soil in mining area are the most harmful, showing extremely high enrichment and very high ecological risk of As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Zn. Zinc is the most significant enriched in the smelting area; however, mountain area has a moderate enrichment and ecological risk and do not present any ecological risk. According to spatial distribution, the concentrations depend on the nearby mining and smelting activities. Transfer factors (TFs) in the smelting area and mountain are high, implying a threat for human consumption. Therefore, further studies should be carried out taking into account the harm of those heavy metals and potential negative health effects from the consumption of agricultural products in these circumstances. PMID:26590987

  8. Characterization, distribution, and risk assessment of heavy metals in agricultural soil and products around mining and smelting areas of Hezhang, China.

    PubMed

    Briki, Meryem; Ji, Hongbing; Li, Cai; Ding, Huaijian; Gao, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Mining and smelting have been releasing huge amount of toxic substances into the environment. In the present study, agricultural soil and different agricultural products (potato, Chinese cabbage, garlic bolt, corn) were analyzed to examine the source, spatial distribution, and risk of 12 elements (As, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) in agricultural soil near mine fields, smelting fields, and mountain field around Hezhang County, west of Guizhou Province, China. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated that in mining area, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Zn were generated from anthropogenic sources; in smelting area, As, Be, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn were derived from anthropogenic sources through zinc smelting ceased in 2004. The enrichment factors (EFs) and ecological risk index (RI) of soil in mining area are the most harmful, showing extremely high enrichment and very high ecological risk of As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Zn. Zinc is the most significant enriched in the smelting area; however, mountain area has a moderate enrichment and ecological risk and do not present any ecological risk. According to spatial distribution, the concentrations depend on the nearby mining and smelting activities. Transfer factors (TFs) in the smelting area and mountain are high, implying a threat for human consumption. Therefore, further studies should be carried out taking into account the harm of those heavy metals and potential negative health effects from the consumption of agricultural products in these circumstances.

  9. Tuneable ultra high specific surface area Mg/Al-CO3 layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunping; Wangriya, Aunchana; Buffet, Jean-Charles; O'Hare, Dermot

    2015-10-01

    We report the synthesis of tuneable ultra high specific surface area Aqueous Miscible Organic solvent-Layered Double Hydroxides (AMO-LDHs). We have investigated the effects of different solvent dispersion volumes, dispersion times and the number of re-dispersion cycles specific surface area of AMO-LDHs. In particular, the effects of acetone dispersion on two different morphology AMO-LDHs (Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH flowers and Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH plates) was investigated. It was found that the amount of acetone used in the dispersion step process can significantly affect the specific surface area of Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH flowers while the dispersion time in acetone is critical factor to obtain high specific surface area Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH plates. Optimisation of the acetone washing steps enables Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH to have high specific surface area up to 365 m(2) g(-1) for LDH flowers and 263 m(2) g(-1) for LDH plates. In addition, spray drying was found to be an effective and practical drying method to increase the specific surface area by a factor of 1.75. Our findings now form the basis of an effective general strategy to obtain ultrahigh specific surface area LDHs.

  10. Roadmap for High School Feedback Reports: Key Focus Areas to Ensure Quality Implementation. Data for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    High school feedback reports let school and district leaders know where their students go after graduation and how well they are prepared for college and beyond. This roadmap discusses the seven key focus areas the Data Quality Campaign (DQC) recommends states work on to ensure quality implementation of high school feedback reports.

  11. Cooking methods and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in high-risk areas of Iran.

    PubMed

    Hakami, Roya; Etemadi, Arash; Kamangar, Farin; Pourshams, Akram; Mohtadinia, Javad; Firoozi, Mehdi Saberi; Birkett, Nicholas; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Cooking methods have been implicated in the etiology of gastrointestinal cancers, reflecting exposure to potential carcinogens as results of cooking. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire and a pretested cooking method questionnaire in 3 groups: 40 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases from a high-risk area in northeast of Iran, 40 healthy subjects from the same high-risk area, and 40 healthy subjects from a low-risk area in Southern Iran. We compared the frequency of boiling, grilling, and frying, and the frying score among these 3 groups. We also calculated "frying index" by multiplying the frequency of each fried food item by its frying score. Mean frying to boiling ratios were 18.2:1, 12.8:1, and 2.6:1 for cases, high-risk controls, and low-risk controls, respectively (P < 0.01). Reuse of cooking oil for frying was reported in 37.5% of the ESCC cases, 25% of high-risk controls, and 7.5% of low-risk controls (P < 0.001). Frying index was higher in the high-risk than in the low-risk controls (P < 0.001) and in cases than in the high-risk controls (P < 0.05) after adjusting for smoking, opium use, rural residence, education, and ethnicity. High-temperature cooking and frying may be associated with increased risk of ESCC in high-risk areas.

  12. 49 CFR 192.905 - How does an operator identify a high consequence area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... portion of the operator's pipeline system. The description must include the potential impact radius when utilized to establish a high consequence area. (See appendix E.I. for guidance on identifying high... must use one of the following sources, as appropriate, to identify these sites. (i) Visible marking...

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NESHAP General Provisions (40 CFR part 63, subpart A) as shown in the following table. Citation Subject... Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart GGGGGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt....

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NESHAP General Provisions (40 CFR part 63, subpart A) as shown in the following table. Citation Subject... Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart GGGGGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt....

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... NESHAP General Provisions (40 CFR part 63, subpart A) as shown in the following table. Citation Subject... Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart GGGGGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt....

  16. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... NESHAP General Provisions (40 CFR part 63, subpart A) as shown in the following table. Citation Subject... Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart GGGGGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt....

  17. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NESHAP General Provisions (40 CFR part 63, subpart A) as shown in the following table. Citation Subject... Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart GGGGGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt....

  18. Geohydrology of the High Plains Aquifer system, Cheyenne urban area, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.; Crist, Marvin A.

    1991-01-01

    The Cheyenne area is on broad tablelands that form part of the High Plains aquifer. Surficial deposits, along with the Ogallala Formation and the White River Group, are included in the High Plains aquifer in the study area, and both unconfined and confined ground-water conditions exist within 100 feet of land surface. During wet years, shallow ground-water problems affect urban development. The High Plains aquifer is considered an aquifer system in the Cheyenne area. Water-yielding sandstone and conglomerate units are surrounded by sequences of clay and silt; although the water-yielding units under confined conditions may be areally extensive, they are not easily identified. Urban development has modified the High Plains aquifer system locally as indicated by the mapped potentiometric surfaces, the perched water zones, and the surface-drainage patterns. That part of the system in the shallow zones is affected by excavations and by structures that penetrate the saturated zones. (USGS)

  19. Analyzing Spectral Characteristics of Shadow Area from ADS-40 High Radiometric Resolution Aerial Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Ta; Wu, Shou-Tsung; Chen, Chaur-Tzuhn; Chen, Jan-Chang

    2016-06-01

    The shadows in optical remote sensing images are regarded as image nuisances in numerous applications. The classification and interpretation of shadow area in a remote sensing image are a challenge, because of the reduction or total loss of spectral information in those areas. In recent years, airborne multispectral aerial image devices have been developed 12-bit or higher radiometric resolution data, including Leica ADS-40, Intergraph DMC. The increased radiometric resolution of digital imagery provides more radiometric details of potential use in classification or interpretation of land cover of shadow areas. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to analyze the spectral properties of the land cover in the shadow areas by ADS-40 high radiometric resolution aerial images, and to investigate the spectral and vegetation index differences between the various shadow and non-shadow land covers. According to research findings of spectral analysis of ADS-40 image: (i) The DN values in shadow area are much lower than in nonshadow area; (ii) DN values received from shadowed areas that will also be affected by different land cover, and it shows the possibility of land cover property retrieval as in nonshadow area; (iii) The DN values received from shadowed regions decrease in the visible band from short to long wavelengths due to scattering; (iv) The shadow area NIR of vegetation category also shows a strong reflection; (v) Generally, vegetation indexes (NDVI) still have utility to classify the vegetation and non-vegetation in shadow area. The spectral data of high radiometric resolution images (ADS-40) is potential for the extract land cover information of shadow areas.

  20. SU-E-I-27: Estimating KERMA Area Product for CT Localizer Images

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, K; Greene-Donnelly, K; Bennett, R; Thorpe, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To estimate the free-in-air KERMA-Area Product (KAP) incident on patients due to CT localizer scans for common CT exams. Methods: In-plane beam intensity profiles were measured in localizer acquisition mode using OSLs for a 64 slice MDCT scanner (Lightspeed VCT, GE Medical Systems, Waukesha WI). The z-axis beam width was measured as a function of distance from isocenter. The beam profile and width were used to calculate a weighted average air KERMA per unit mAs as a function of intercepted x-axis beam width for objects symmetric about the localizer centerline.Patient areas were measured using manually drawn regions and divided by localizer length to determine average width. Data were collected for 50 head exams (lateral localizer only), 15 head/neck exams, 50 chest exams, and 50 abdomen/pelvis exams. Mean patient widths and acquisition techniques were used to calculate the weighted average free-in-air KERMA, which was multiplied by the patient area to estimate KAP. Results: Scan technique was 120 kV tube voltage, 10 mA current, and table speed of 10 cm/s. The mean ± standard deviation values of KAP were 120 ± 11.6, 469 ± 62.6, 518 ± 45, and 763 ± 93 mGycm{sup 2} for head, head/neck, chest, and abdomen/pelvis exams, respectively. For studies with AP and lateral localizers, the AP/lateral area ratio was 1.20, 1.33, and 1.24 for the head/neck, chest, and abdomen/pelvis exams, respectively. However, the AP/lateral KAP ratios were 1.12, 1.08, and 1.07, respectively. Conclusion: Calculation of KAP in CT localizers is complicated by the non-uniform intensity profile and z-axis beam width. KAP values are similar to those for simple radiographic exams such as a chest radiograph and represent a small fraction of the x-ray exposure at CT. However, as CT doses are reduced the localizer contribution will be a more significant fraction of the total exposure.