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Sample records for high redshifts characterizing

  1. Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Fournon, I.; Balcells, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Sánchez, F.

    2010-08-01

    Participants; Group photograph; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Galaxy formation and evolution: recent progress R. Ellis; 2. Galaxies at high redshift M. Dickinson; 3. High-redshift galaxies: the far-infrared and sub-millimeter view A. Franceschini; 4. Quasar absorption lines J. Bechtold; 5. Stellar population synthesis models at low and high redshift G. Bruzual A.; 6. Elliptical galaxies K. C. Freeman; 7. Disk galaxies K. C. Freeman; 8. Dark matter in disk galaxies K. C. Freeman.

  2. Characterization and Modeling of Contamination for Lyman Break Galaxy Samples at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulcani, Benedetta; Trenti, Michele; Calvi, Valentina; Bouwens, Rychard; Oesch, Pascal; Stiavelli, Massimo; Franx, Marijn

    2017-02-01

    The selection of high-redshift sources from broadband photometry using the Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) technique is a well established methodology, but the characterization of its contamination for the faintest sources is still incomplete. We use the optical and near-IR data from four (ultra)deep Hubble Space Telescope legacy fields to investigate the contamination fraction of LBG samples at z∼ 5{--}8 selected using a color–color method. Our approach is based on characterizing the number count distribution of interloper sources, that is, galaxies with colors similar to those of LBGs, but showing detection at wavelengths shorter than the spectral break. Without sufficient sensitivity at bluer wavelengths, a subset of interlopers may not be properly classified, and contaminate the LBG selection. The surface density of interlopers in the sky gets steeper with increasing redshift of LBG selections. Since the intrinsic number of dropouts decreases significantly with increasing redshift, this implies increasing contamination from misclassified interlopers with increasing redshift, primarily by intermediate redshift sources with unremarkable properties (intermediate ages, lack of ongoing star formation and low/moderate dust content). Using Monte-Carlo simulations, we estimate that the CANDELS deep data have contamination induced by photometric scatter increasing from ∼ 2 % at z∼ 5 to ∼ 6 % at z∼ 8 for a typical dropout color ≥slant 1 mag, with contamination naturally decreasing for a more stringent dropout selection. Contaminants are expected to be located preferentially near the detection limit of surveys, ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 contaminants per arcmin2 at {J}125 = 30, depending on the field considered. This analysis suggests that the impact of contamination in future studies of z> 10 galaxies needs to be carefully considered.

  3. High Redshift Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin S.

    1996-01-01

    The report for this period includes three papers: 'Associated Absorption at Low and High Redshift'; 'Strong X-ray Absorption in a Broad Absorption Line Quasar: PHL5200'; and 'ASCA and ROSAT X-ray Spectra of High-Redshift Radio-Loud Quasars'. The first gives examples from both low and high redshift for combining information on absorbing material in active galactic nuclei from both x-ray and the UV. The second presents ASCA observations of the z = 1.98 prototype broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO): PHL 5200, detected with both the solid-state imaging spectrometers and the gas imaging spectometers. The third paper presents results on the x-ray properties of 9 high-redshift radio-loud quasars observed by ASCA and ROSAT, including ASCA observations of S5 0014+81 (z = 3.38) and S5 0836+71 (z = 2.17) and ROSAT observations of PKS 2126-158.

  4. High Redshift GRBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

    2012-01-01

    The Swift mission has opened a new, high redshift window on the universe. In this review we provide an overview of gamma-ray burst (GRB) science, describe the Swift mission, discuss high-z GRBs and tools for high-z studies, and look forward at future capabilities. A new mission concept - Lobster - is described that would monitor the X-ray sky at order of magnitude higher sensitivity than current missions.

  5. High redshift blazars .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.

    Blazars are sources whose jet is pointing at us. Since their jets are relativistic, the flux is greatly amplified in the direction of motion, making blazars the most powerful persistent objects in the Universe. This is true at all frequencies, but especially where their spectrum peaks. Although the spectrum of moderate powerful sources peaks in the ˜GeV range, extremely powerful sources at high redshifts peak in the ˜MeV band. This implies that the hard X-ray band is the optimal one to find powerful blazars beyond a redshift of ˜4. First indications strongly suggest that powerful high-z blazars harbor the most massive and active early black holes, exceeding a billion solar masses. Since for each detected blazars there must exist hundreds of similar, but misaligned, sources, the search for high-z blazars is becoming competitive with the search of early massive black holes using radio-quiet quasars. Finding how the two populations of black holes (one in jetted sources, the other in radio-quiet objects) evolve in redshift will shed light on the growth of the most massive black holes and possibly on the feedback between the central engine and the rest of the host galaxy.

  6. High redshift radio galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, Patrick J.

    1993-01-01

    High redshift galaxies that host powerful radio sources are examined. An overview is presented of the content of radio surveys: 3CR and 3CRR, 4C and 4C/USS, B2/1 Jy, MG, MRC/1Jy, Parkes/PSR, B3, and ESO Key-Project. Narrow-line radio galaxies in the visible and UV, the source of ionization and excitation of the emission lines, emission-line luminosities, morphology of the line-emitting gas, physical properties and energetics, kinematics of the line-emitting gas, and implications from the emission lines are discussed. The morphologies and environments of the host galaxies, the alignment effect, and spectral energy distributions and ages are also examined.

  7. Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, F. E.

    2014-10-01

    Recent years have seen tremendous progress in finding and charactering star-forming galaxies at high redshifts across the electromagnetic spectrum, giving us a more complete picture of how galaxies evolve, both in terms of their stellar and gas content, as well as the growth of their central supermassive black holes. A wealth of studies now demonstrate that star formation peaked at roughly half the age of the Universe and drops precariously as we look back to very early times, and that their central monsters apparently growth with them. At the highest-redshifts, we are pushing the boundaries via deep surveys at optical, X-ray, radio wavelengths, and more recently using gamma-ray bursts. I will review some of our accomplishments and failures. Telescope have enabled Lyman break galaxies to be robustly identified, but the UV luminosity function and star formation rate density of this population at z = 6 - 8 seems to be much lower than at z = 2 - 4. High escape fractions and a large contribution from faint galaxies below our current detection limits would be required for star-forming galaxies to reionize the Universe. We have also found that these galaxies have blue rest-frame UV colours, which might indicate lower dust extinction at z > 5. There has been some spectroscopic confirmation of these Lyman break galaxies through Lyman-α emission, but the fraction of galaxies where we see this line drops at z > 7, perhaps due to the onset of the Gunn-Peterson effect (where the IGM is opaque to Lyman-α).

  8. Very high redshift radio galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    van Breugel, W.J.M., LLNL

    1997-12-01

    High redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs) provide unique targets for the study of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies and galaxy clusters at very high redshifts. We discuss how efficient HzRG samples ae selected, the evidence for strong morphological evolution at near-infracd wavelengths, and for jet-induced star formation in the z = 3 800 HzRG 4C41 17

  9. Simulating high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvaterra, Ruben; Ferrara, Andrea; Dayal, Pratika

    2011-06-01

    Recent observations have gathered a considerable sample of high-redshift galaxy candidates and determined the evolution of their luminosity function (LF). To interpret these findings, we use cosmological SPH simulations including, in addition to standard physical processes, a detailed treatment of the Pop III-Pop II transition in early objects. The simulated high-z galaxies match remarkably well the amplitude and slope of the observed LF in the redshift range 5 < z < 10. The LF shifts towards fainter luminosities with increasing redshift, while its faint-end slope keeps an almost constant value, α≈-2. The stellar populations of high-z galaxies have ages of 100-300 (40-130) Myr at z= 5 (z= 7-8), implying an early (z > 9.4) start of their star formation activity; the specific star formation rate is almost independent of galactic stellar mass. These objects are enriched rapidly with metals and galaxies identified by HST/WFC3 (?) show metallicities ≈0.1 Z⊙ even at z= 7-8. Most of the simulated galaxies at z≈ 7 (noticeably the smallest ones) are virtually dust-free, and none of them has an extinction larger than E(B-V) = 0.01. The bulk (50 per cent) of the ionizing photons is produced by objects populating the faint end of the LF (?), which JWST will resolve up to z= 7.3. Pop III stars continue to form essentially at all redshifts; however, at z= 6 (z= 10) the contribution of Pop III stars to the total galactic luminosity is always less than 5 per cent for ? (?). The typical high-z galaxies closely resemble the GRB host galaxy population observed at lower redshifts, strongly encouraging the use of GRBs to detect the first galaxies.

  10. High-redshift galaxy populations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Esther M; Cowie, Lennox L

    2006-04-27

    We now see many galaxies as they were only 800 million years after the Big Bang, and that limit may soon be exceeded when wide-field infrared detectors are widely available. Multi-wavelength studies show that there was relatively little star formation at very early times and that star formation was at its maximum at about half the age of the Universe. A small number of high-redshift objects have been found by targeting X-ray and radio sources and most recently, gamma-ray bursts. The gamma-ray burst sources may provide a way to reach even higher-redshift galaxies in the future, and to probe the first generation of stars.

  11. Element abundances at high redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, David M.; Welty, D. E.; York, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    Abundances of Si(+), S(+), Cr(+), Mn(+), Fe(_), and Zn(+) are considered for two absorption-line systems in the spectrum of the QSO PKS 0528 - 250. Zinc and sulfur are underabundant, relative to H, by a factor of 10 compared to their solar and Galactic interstellar abundances. The silicon-, chromium-, iron-, and nickel-to-hydrogen ratios are less than the solar values and comparable to the local interstellar ratios. A straightforward interpretation is that nucleosynthesis in these high-redshift systems has led to only about one-tenth as much heavy production as in the gas clouds around the sun, and that the amount of the observed underabundances attributable to grain depletion is small. The dust-to-gas ratio in these clouds is less than 8 percent of the Galactic value.

  12. High-redshift Fermi blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Foschini, L.; Ghirlanda, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Della Ceca, R.; Haardt, F.; Volonteri, M.; Gehrels, N.

    2011-02-01

    With the release of the first-year Fermi catalogue, the number of blazars detected above 100 MeV lying at high redshift has been largely increased. There are 28 blazars at z > 2 in the `clean' sample. All of them are flat spectrum radio quasars. We study and model their overall spectral energy distribution in order to find the physical parameters of the jet-emitting region, and for all of them, we estimate their black hole masses and accretion rates. We then compare the jet with the accretion disc properties, setting these sources in the broader context of all the other bright γ-ray or hard X-ray blazars. We confirm that the jet power correlates with the accretion luminosity. We find that the high-energy emission peak shifts to smaller frequencies as the observed luminosity increases, according to the blazar sequence, making the hard X-ray band the most suitable for searching the most-luminous and distant blazars.

  13. Imaging of Three Possible Low-redshift Analogs to High-redshift Compact Red Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan

    2011-05-01

    As part of a larger program to identify and characterize possible low-redshift analogs to massive compact red galaxies found at high redshift, we have examined the morphologies of three low-redshift compact galaxies drawn from the sample of Trujillo et al. Using deeper and higher resolution images, we have found faint and relatively extensive outer structures in addition to the compact cores identified in the earlier measurements. One object appears to have a small companion that may be involved in an ongoing minor merger of the sort that could be responsible for building up the outer parts of these galaxies. The ages of the dominant stellar populations in these objects are found to be around 2-4 Gyr, in good agreement with the previous estimates. The presence of diffuse outer structures in these galaxies indicates that truly compact and massive red galaxies are exceedingly rare at low redshift. The relatively young stellar populations suggest that the accretion of the extensive outer material must occur essentially universally on relatively short timescales of a few billion years or less. These results confirm and extend previous suggestions that the driving mechanism behind the size evolution of high-redshift compact galaxies cannot be highly stochastic processes such as major mergers, which would inevitably leave a non-negligible fraction of survivors at low redshift.

  14. Moderate resolution spectrophotometry of high redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Schmidt, Maarten; Gunn, James E.

    1991-01-01

    A uniform set of photometry and high signal-to-noise moderate resolution spectroscopy of 33 quasars with redshifts larger than 3.1 is presented. The sample consists of 17 newly discovered quasars (two with redshifts in excess of 4.4) and 16 sources drawn from the literature. The objects in this sample have r magnitudes between 17.4 and 21.4; their luminosities range from -28.8 to -24.9. Three of the 33 objects are broad absorption line quasars. A number of possible high redshift damped Ly-alpha systems were found.

  15. Cosmology from High Redshift Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnavich, Peter

    The discovery of a correlation between the light curve shape and intrinsic b rightness has made Type Ia supernovae exceptionally accurate distance indicators out to cosmologically interesting redshifts. Ground-based searches and follow-up as well as Hubble S pace Telescope observations of Type Ia supernovae have produced a significant number of object s with redshifts between 0.3 and 1.0. The distant SNe, when combined with a local samp le analyzed in the same way, provide reliable constraints on the deceleration and age of th e Universe. Early this year, an analysis of a handful of Type Ia events indicated that the deceleration was too small for gravitating matter alone to make a flat Universe. A larger sa mple of supernovae gives the surprising result that the Universe is accelerating, implying the exi stence of a cosmological constant or some other exotic form of energy. The success of this research has depended on the development of algorithms and software to register, scale and subtract CCD images taken weeks apart and to search for var iable objects. A good fraction of the point-sources identified are asteroids, variable stars, or AGN, so spectra are needed to confirm the identification as a Type Ia supernova and obt ain a redshift. The best candidates are followed photometrically to construct light curves. The steps to transform the observed light curves into cosmologically interestin g results will also be described.

  16. High Resolution Science with High Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windhorst, R.

    I will first review high resolution science that has been done with the Hubble Space Telescope on high redshift galaxies Next I will review the capabilities of the 6 5 meter James Webb Space Telescope JWST which is an optimized infrared telescope that can deploy automatically in space slated for launch to a halo L2 orbit in 2013 I will outline how the JWST can go about measuring First Light Reionization and Galaxy Assembly building on lessons learned from the Hubble Space Telescope I will show what more nearby galaxies observed in their restframe UV--optical light may look like to JWST at high redshifts Last I will summarize the Generation-X mission concept for an X-ray telescope designed to study the very early universe with 1000-times greater sensitivity than current facilities Gen-X will study the first generations of stars and black holes in the epoch z 10-20 the evolution of black holes and galaxies from high z to the present the chemical evolution of the universe and the properties of matter under extreme conditions This requires an effective area of 100 m 2 at 1 keV an angular resolution of 0 1 HPD over 0 1-10 keV

  17. Astronomical redshifts of highly ionized regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Peter M.

    2014-07-01

    Astronomical or cosmological redshifts are an observable property of extragalactic objects and have historically been wholly attributed to the recessional velocity of that object. The question of other, or intrinsic, components of the redshift has been highly controversial since it was first proposed. This paper investigates one theoretical source of intrinsic redshift that has been identified. The highly ionized regions of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSO) are, by definition, plasmas. All plasmas have electromagnetic scattering characteristics that could contribute to the observed redshift. To investigate this possibility, one region of a generalized AGN was selected, the so called Broad Line Region (BLR). Even though unresolvable with current instrumentation, physical estimates of this region have been published for years in the astronomical literature. These data, selected and then averaged, are used to construct an overall model that is consistent with the published data to within an order of magnitude. The model is then subjected to a theoretical scattering investigation. The results suggest that intrinsic redshifts, derivable from the characteristics of the ambient plasma, may indeed contribute to the overall observed redshift of these objects.

  18. High redshift quasars and high metallicities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferland, Gary J.

    1997-01-01

    A large-scale code called Cloudy was designed to simulate non-equilibrium plasmas and predict their spectra. The goal was to apply it to studies of galactic and extragalactic emission line objects in order to reliably deduce abundances and luminosities. Quasars are of particular interest because they are the most luminous objects in the universe and the highest redshift objects that can be observed spectroscopically, and their emission lines can reveal the composition of the interstellar medium (ISM) of the universe when it was well under a billion years old. The lines are produced by warm (approximately 10(sup 4)K) gas with moderate to low density (n less than or equal to 10(sup 12) cm(sup -3)). Cloudy has been extended to include approximately 10(sup 4) resonance lines from the 495 possible stages of ionization of the lightest 30 elements, an extension that required several steps. The charge transfer database was expanded to complete the needed reactions between hydrogen and the first four ions and fit all reactions with a common approximation. Radiative recombination rate coefficients were derived for recombination from all closed shells, where this process should dominate. Analytical fits to Opacity Project (OP) and other recent photoionization cross sections were produced. Finally, rescaled OP oscillator strengths were used to compile a complete set of data for 5971 resonance lines. The major discovery has been that high redshift quasars have very high metallicities and there is strong evidence that the quasar phenomenon is associated with the birth of massive elliptical galaxies.

  19. GLAST observation of high-redshift GRBs

    SciTech Connect

    Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Calura, Francesco; Matteucci, Francesca; Omodei, Nicola

    2007-07-12

    We compare predicted Type Ib/c supernova (SNIb/c) rates with the observed long-duration Gamma-Ray-Burst (GRB) rates both locally and as a function of redshift, by assuming different star formation histories in galaxies of different morphological types. Due to the high star formation in spheroids at high redshift, we predict a large number of GRBs beyond z > 7. Moreover, based on our studies and on the current LAT performance, an estimate of the detection possibility of this burst population is presented.

  20. SCUBA Observations of High Redshift Radio Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Reuland, M; Rottgering, H; van Breugel, W

    2003-03-11

    High redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs) are key targets for studies of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies.The role of dust in these processes is uncertain. We have therefore observed the dust continuum emission from a sample of z > 3 radio galaxies with the SCUBA bolometer array. We confirm and strengthen the result found by Archibald et al. (1), that HzRGs are massive starforming systems and that submillimeter detection rate appears to be primarily a strong function of redshift. We also observed HzRG-candidates that have so far eluded spectroscopic redshift determination. Four of these have been detected, and provide evidence that they may be extremely obscured radio galaxies, possibly in an early stage of their evolution.

  1. Stars and gas in high redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettini, Max

    Recent advances in instrumentation and observing techniques have made it possible to begin to study in detail the stellar populations and the interstellar media of galaxies at redshift z=3, when the universe was still in its "teen years". In keeping with the theme of this conference, I show how our knowledge of local star-forming regions can be applied directly to these distant galaxies to deduce their ages, metallicities, initial mass function, and masses. I also discuss areas where current limitations in stellar astrophysics have a direct bearing on the interpretation of the data being gathered, at an ever increasing rate, on the high redshift universe.

  2. High Energy Continuum of High Redshift Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Discussion with the RXTE team at GSFC showed that a sufficiently accurate background subtraction procedure had now, been derived for sources at the flux level of PKS 2126-158. However this solution does not apply to observations carried out before April 1997, including our observation. The prospect of an improved solution becoming available soon is slim. As a result the RXTE team agreed to re-observe PKS2126-158. The new observation was carried out in April 1999. Quasi-simultaneous optical observations were obtained, as Service observing., at the 4-meter Anglo-Australian Telescope, and ftp-ed from the AAT on 22April. The RXTE data was processed in late June, arriving at SAO in early July. Coincidentally, our collaborative Beppo-SAX observation of PKS2126-158 was made later in 1999, and a GTO Chandra observation (with which we are involved) was made on November 16. Since this gives us a unique monitoring data for a high redshift quasar over a broad pass-band we are now combining all three observations into a single comprehensive study Final publication of the RXTE data will thus take place under another grant.

  3. Finding high-redshift voids using Lyman α forest tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Casey W.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; White, Martin; Lee, Khee-Gan

    2015-11-01

    We present a new method of finding cosmic voids using tomographic maps of Lyα forest flux. We identify cosmological voids with radii of 2-12 h-1 Mpc in a large N-body simulation at z = 2.5, and characterize the signal of the high-redshift voids in density and Lyα forest flux. The void properties are similar to what has been found at lower redshifts, but they are smaller and have steeper radial density profiles. Similarly to what has been found for low-redshift voids, the radial velocity profiles have little scatter and agree very well with the linear theory prediction. We run the same void finder on an ideal Lyα flux field and tomographic reconstructions at various spatial samplings. We compare the tomographic map void catalogues to the density void catalogue and find good agreement even with modest-sized voids (r > 6 h-1 Mpc). Using our simple void-finding method, the configuration of the ongoing COSMOS Lyman Alpha Mapping And Tomography Observations (CLAMATO) survey covering 1 deg2 would provide a sample of about 100 high-redshift voids. We also provide void-finding forecasts for larger area surveys, and discuss how these void samples can be used to test modified gravity models, study high-redshift void galaxies, and to make an Alcock-Paczynski measurement. To aid future work in this area, we provide public access to our simulation products, catalogues, and sample tomographic flux maps.

  4. Morphologies at High Redshift from Galaxy Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen; Melvin, Tom; Simmons, Brooke; Willett, Kyle; Lintott, Chris

    2015-08-01

    I will present results from Galaxy Zoo classification of galaxies observed in public observed frame optical HST surveys (e.g. COSMOS, GOODS) as well as in observed frame NIR with (ie. CANDELS). Early science results from these classifications have investigated the changing bar fraction in disc galaxies as a function of redshift (to z~1 in Melvin et al. 2014; and at z>1 in Simmons et al. 2015), as well as how the morphologies of galaxies on the red sequence have been changing since z~1 (Melvin et al. in prep.). These unique dataset of quantitative visual classifications for high redshift galaxies will be made public in forthcoming publications (planned as Willett et al. for Galaxy Zoo Hubble, and Simmons et al. for Galaxy Zoo CANDELS).

  5. Powerful Quasar Outflows at High Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljanahi, Sara; Robert Scott Barrows

    2017-01-01

    Powerful quasar outflows can be driven by radiation pressure or radio jets, and they are capable of effecting the evolution of their host galaxies, particularly at high-redshifts (z~2)) when the quasar density peaks. We present a multi-wavelength analysis of 131 quasar outflows at high-redshifts (0.8high-redshift nature of this sample has pushed the systematic study of quasar outflows closer to the epoch in which quasar feedback is likely to have been important in galaxy evolution.

  6. Spectra of High-Redshift Type Ia Supernovae and a Comparison withtheir Low-Redshift Counterparts

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, I.M.; Howell, D.A.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Burns,M.S.; Conley, A.; Deustua, S.E.; Ellis, R.; Fabbro, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Folatelli, G.; Garavini, G.; Gibbons, R.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.E.; Kim, A.G.; Knop, R.A.; Kowalski, M.; Lidman, C.; Nobili, S.; Nugent, P.E.; Pain, R.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruiz-Lapuente,P.; Sainton, G.; Schaefer, B.E.; Smith, E.; Spadafora, A.L.; Stanishev,V.; Thomas, R.C.; Walton, N.A.; Wang, L.; Wood-Vasey, W.M.

    2005-07-20

    We present spectra for 14 high-redshift (0.17 < z < 0.83) supernovae, which were discovered by the Supernova Cosmology Project as part of a campaign to measure cosmological parameters. The spectra are used to determine the redshift and classify the supernova type, essential information if the supernovae are to be used for cosmological studies. Redshifts were derived either from the spectrum of the host galaxy or from the spectrum of the supernova itself. We present evidence that these supernovae are of Type Ia by matching to spectra of nearby supernovae. We find that the dates of the spectra relative to maximum light determined from this fitting process are consistent with the dates determined from the photometric light curves, and moreover the spectral time-sequence for SNe Type Ia at low and high redshift is indistinguishable. We also show that the expansion velocities measured from blueshifted Ca H&K are consistent with those measured for low-redshift Type Ia supernovae. From these first-level quantitative comparisons we find no evidence for evolution in SNIa properties between these low- and high-redshift samples. Thus even though our samples may not be complete, we conclude that there is a population of SNe Ia at high redshift whose spectral properties match those at low redshift.

  7. Unveiling high redshift structures with Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welikala, Niraj

    2012-07-01

    The Planck satellite, with its large wavelength coverage and all-sky survey, has a unique potential of systematically detecting the brightest and rarest submillimetre sources on the sky. We present an original method based on a combination of Planck and IRAS data which we use to select the most luminous submillimetre high-redshift (z>1-2) cold sources over the sky. The majority of these sources are either individual, strongly lensed galaxies, or represent the combined emission of several submillimetre galaxies within the large beam of Planck. The latter includes, in particular, rapidly growing galaxy groups and clusters. We demonstrate our selection method on the first 5 confirmations that include a newly discovered over-density of 5 submillimetre-bright sources which has been confirmed with Herschel/SPIRE observations and followed up with ground-based observations including VLT/XSHOOTER spectroscopy. Using Planck, we also unveil the nature of 107 high-redshift dusty, lensed submillimetre galaxies that have been previously observed over 940 square degrees by the South Pole Telescope (SPT). We stack these galaxies in the Planck maps, obtaining mean SEDs for both the bright (SPT flux F _{220 GHz} > 20 mJy) and faint (F _{220 GHz} < 20 mJy) galaxy populations. These SEDs and the derived mean redshifts suggest that the bright and faint sources belong to the same population of submillimetre galaxies. Stacking the lensed submillimetre galaxies in Planck also enables us to probe the z~1 environments around the foreground lenses and we obtain estimates of their clustering. Finally, we use the stacks to extrapolate SPT source counts to the Planck HFI frequencies, thereby estimating the contribution of the SPT sources at 220 GHz to the galaxy number counts at 353 and 545 GHz.

  8. Survey For Very High-Redshift Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemley, S.; MacAlpine, G.

    1997-12-01

    I will present the results from the deep, three color survey for very high redshift quasars. The survey involved direct imaging through Gunn gri filters using a 2048 x 2048 STIS ccd chip and Cerro Tololo's Curtis Scmidt Telescope. Quasar candidates in the range 4.0 < z < 5.4 were selected based on the detection of the Lyman alpha line and the strong drop in the spectrum blueward of this. Because of this response, quasars are clearly located away from the stellar locus on g - r vs. r - i diagrams. Quasar candidates in this redshift range have large values of g - r and small values of r - i. To confirm the candidates as quasars, the multi-fiber spectroscope Hydra, located on the WIYN telescope, was used. To date, spectral confirmation has been completed for ten degrees out of the approximately fifteen square degress of survey area. Several quasars were discovered, and I will present their spectra and information on the viability of this technique.

  9. Narrowband selected high-redshift galaxy candidates contaminated by lower redshift [OIII] ultra-strong emitter line galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pénin, Aurélie; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel; Clément, Benjamin; Hibon, Pascale; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Cassata, Paolo; Ilbert, Olivier

    2015-05-01

    Context. Lyman-break galaxies (LBG) and narrowband (NB) surveys have been successful at detecting large samples of high-redshift galaxies. Both methods are subject to contamination from low-redshift interlopers. Aims: Our aim is to investigate the nature of low-redshift interlopers in NB Lyman-α emitters (LAE) searches. Methods: From previous HAWK-I NB imaging at z ~ 7.7, we identify three objects that would have been selected as high-redshift LAEs had our optical data been one magnitude shallower (but still one to two magnitudes fainter than the near infrared data). We follow up these objects in spectroscopy with X-Shooter at the VLT. Results: Despite low quality data due to bad weather conditions, for each of the three objects we identify one, and only one emission line, in the spectra of the objects that we identify as the [OIII]5007 Å line. From this result, combined with spectral energy density fitting and tests based on line ratios of several populations of galaxies, we infer that the three objects are ultra-strong line emitters at redshifts ~1.1. Conclusions: From this work and the literature we remark that the [OIII] line appears to be a common source of contamination in high-redshift LBG and LAE samples and we suggest that efforts be made to characterize with high accuracy the [OIII] luminosity function out to redshift ~3 or higher. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programmes ID 385.A-1025(A) and 181.A-0485.

  10. High-Redshift Astrophysics Using Every Photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breysse, Patrick; Kovetz, Ely; Rahman, Mubdi; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Large galaxy surveys have dramatically improved our understanding of the complex processes which govern gas dynamics and star formation in the nearby universe. However, we know far less about the most distant galaxies, as existing high-redshift observations can only detect the very brightest sources. Intensity mapping surveys provide a promising tool to access this poorly-studied population. By observing emission lines with low angular resolution, these surveys can make use of every photon in a target line to study faint emitters which are inaccessible using traditional techniques. With upcoming carbon monoxide experiments in mind, I will demonstrate how an intensity map can be used to measure the luminosity function of a galaxy population, and in turn how these measurements will allow us to place robust constraints on the cosmic star formation history. I will then show how cross-correlating CO isotopologue lines will make it possible to study gas dynamics within the earliest galaxies in unprecedented detail.

  11. A new method to search for high-redshift clusters using photometric redshifts

    SciTech Connect

    Castignani, G.; Celotti, A.; Chiaberge, M.; Norman, C.

    2014-09-10

    We describe a new method (Poisson probability method, PPM) to search for high-redshift galaxy clusters and groups by using photometric redshift information and galaxy number counts. The method relies on Poisson statistics and is primarily introduced to search for megaparsec-scale environments around a specific beacon. The PPM is tailored to both the properties of the FR I radio galaxies in the Chiaberge et al. sample, which are selected within the COSMOS survey, and to the specific data set used. We test the efficiency of our method of searching for cluster candidates against simulations. Two different approaches are adopted. (1) We use two z ∼ 1 X-ray detected cluster candidates found in the COSMOS survey and we shift them to higher redshift up to z = 2. We find that the PPM detects the cluster candidates up to z = 1.5, and it correctly estimates both the redshift and size of the two clusters. (2) We simulate spherically symmetric clusters of different size and richness, and we locate them at different redshifts (i.e., z = 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) in the COSMOS field. We find that the PPM detects the simulated clusters within the considered redshift range with a statistical 1σ redshift accuracy of ∼0.05. The PPM is an efficient alternative method for high-redshift cluster searches that may also be applied to both present and future wide field surveys such as SDSS Stripe 82, LSST, and Euclid. Accurate photometric redshifts and a survey depth similar or better than that of COSMOS (e.g., I < 25) are required.

  12. Dust in the High Redshift Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurer, G. R.

    2004-05-01

    This paper reviews the dust content of the high redshift (z > 2) universe. Studies of the various ``species'' in the high-z ``zoo'' show that almost all have strong evidence for containing dust. The one exception, where the evidence is not yet convincing, is in quasar absorption line systems, particularly those with low column density. These may not even be associated with galaxies. The high-z galaxy types which do show evidence for dust are all strongly star forming. Hence, as seen locally, star formation and dust in the distant universe are also strongly correlated. It is beyond debate that star formation at z ˜ 3 is dominated by dusty systems who emit most of their bolometric flux in the rest-frame FIR. What is not clear is whether these systems are totally invisible at shorter wavelengths, or whether a large fraction are visible in the rest-frame UV as Lyman Break Galaxies. The issue may not be settled until the sub-mm background is definitively resolved.

  13. Feedback in high redshift radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Breuck, Carlos; Nesvadba, Nicole; Lehnert, Matthew; Best, Philip

    High redshift radio galaxies are among the best objects to study AGN feedback in action, as they are among the most massive galaxies (1011 - 1012 M ) hosting powerful radio-loud AGN. I will present near-infrared imaging spectroscopy of a sample of over 50 radio galaxies at 2 < z < 5 using SINFONI at the VLT. We identify kpc-sized outflows of few x 1010 M of ionized gas, located along the radio source axis. Velocity fields are consistent with bipolar outflows, with total velocity offsets of 1000 km/s. FWHMs 1000 km/s suggest strong turbulence. The geometry is consistent with the radio source driving these outflows. Over the lifetime of the radio source (˜ 107 yr), these outflows can eject up to 1011 M of gas out of the gravitational potential of the host galaxy. Such mass loss would be sufficient to terminate star formation within the host galaxy. I will also present results from an ongoing follow-up programme to study the molecular gas in these high z radio galaxies using the IRAM interferometer. In several sources, we find a remarkable deficit in cold molecular relative to ionized gas, which may imply that significant fractions of the interstellar medium of these galaxies are participating in the winds.

  14. High-redshift major mergers weakly enhance star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fensch, J.; Renaud, F.; Bournaud, F.; Duc, P.-A.; Agertz, O.; Amram, P.; Combes, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Elmegreen, B.; Emsellem, E.; Jog, C. J.; Perret, V.; Struck, C.; Teyssier, R.

    2017-02-01

    Galaxy mergers are believed to trigger strong starbursts. This is well assessed by observations in the local Universe. However, the efficiency of this mechanism has poorly been tested so far for high-redshift, actively star-forming, galaxies. We present a suite of pc-resolution hydrodynamical numerical simulations to compare the star formation process along a merging sequence of high- and low-redshift galaxies, by varying the gas mass fraction between the two models. We show that, for the same orbit, high-redshift gas-rich mergers are less efficient than low-redshift ones at producing starbursts; the star formation rate excess induced by the merger and its duration are both around 10 times lower than in the low gas fraction case. The mechanisms that account for the star formation triggering at low redshift - the increased compressive turbulence, gas fragmentation, and central gas inflows - are only mildly, if not at all, enhanced for high gas fraction galaxy encounters. Furthermore, we show that the strong stellar feedback from the initially high star formation rate in high-redshift galaxies does not prevent an increase of the star formation during the merger. Our results are consistent with the observed increase of the number of major mergers with increasing redshift being faster than the respective increase in the number of starburst galaxies.

  15. Stellar Population Maps of High-Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetherolf, Tara; Reddy, Naveen; MOSDEF

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive study of resolved galaxy structure can shed light on the formation and evolution of galactic properties, such as the distribution of stars and interstellar dust that obscures starlight. This requires high-resolution, multi-waveband photometry and spectroscopy to completely characterize the galaxies. Previous studies lacked key spectroscopic information, were comprised of small samples, or focused on the local universe. We use HST ACS/WFC3 high-resolution, multi-waveband imaging from the CANDELS project in parallel with moderate-resolution Keck I MOSFIRE spectra from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey to produce resolved stellar population and dust maps of ~500 galaxies at redshifts 1.4 < z < 2.6—covering the key epoch when galaxies accreted most of their mass. For data preparation and analysis we develop an automated Python program to process our large, comprehensive dataset. From the multi-waveband imaging and spectroscopic redshifts, we model the spectral energy distribution for every resolution element within each galaxy and compare these results to the spectroscopically measured global properties. From our stellar population and dust maps we identify resolved structures within these galaxies. We also investigate if spectroscopically measured galaxy properties are biased when compared with that of localized sub-galactic structures.

  16. Photometric Properties of the Most Massive High-Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Brant; Li, Yuexing; Cox, Thomas J.; Hernquist, Lars; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2007-09-01

    We calculate the observable properties of the most massive high-redshift galaxies in the hierarchical formation scenario where stellar spheroid and supermassive black hole growth are fueled by gas-rich mergers. Combining high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations of the hierarchical formation of a z~6 quasar, stellar population synthesis models, template active galactic nucleus (AGN) spectra, prescriptions for interstellar and intergalactic absorption, and the response of modern telescopes, the photometric evolution of galaxies destined to host z~6 quasars is modeled at redshifts z~4-14. These massive galaxies, with enormous stellar masses of M*~1011.5-1012 Msolar and star formation rates of SFR~103-104 Msolar yr-1 at z>~7, satisfy a variety of photometric selection criteria based on Lyman break techniques, including V-band dropouts at z>~5, i-band dropouts at z>~6, and z-band dropouts at z>~7. The observability of the most massive high-redshift galaxies is assessed and compared with a wide range of existing and proposed photometric surveys, including the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS)/Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), National Optical Astronomy Observatory Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS), UKIRT Infared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS), Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) Shallow Survey, Ultradeep Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA), Dark Universe Explorer (DUNE), Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS), Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP). Massive stellar spheroids descended from z~6 quasars will likely be detected at z~4 by existing surveys, but owing to their low number densities the discovery of quasar progenitor galaxies at z>7 will likely require future surveys of large portions of the sky (>~0.5%) at wavelengths λ>~1 μm. The detection of rare, starbursting, massive galaxies at redshifts z>~6 would provide support for the

  17. Detecting Dual AGN at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The existence of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in most, if not all, galaxies, along with observations of galaxy mergers, suggests that pairs of SMBHs should exist for some time in the merger remnant. Observational evidence for these systems at kpc-scale separations (i.e. dual AGN) has dramatically increased recently through a combination of spectral and morphological selections. I discuss observations of CXOXBJ142607.6+353351 (CXOJ1426+35), a candidate dual AGN at z=1.175, and put its properties, including significant obscuration, within the context of other candidate/confirmed dual AGN at lower redshifts. Though dual AGN are expected to be more common at higher redshifts, they are more difficult to detect. Furthermore, adding to the difficulties of detection are a number of other physical mechanisms which can mimic the spectroscopic signature of two Type 2 AGN. In particular, I will discuss the possibility of strong outflows from an AGN. These outflow phenomena can be an important feedback mechanism in galaxies and are apparently common in AGN, making them a viable alternative to the dual AGN scenario. Based on our candidate's luminosity and emission line intensities, we find that an outflow is a possibility. If this is the case, such an outflow would be especially strong and has implications for AGN feedback in galaxies. However, the dual AGN scenario cannot be ruled out, and at z=1.175, the two putative AGN could potentially be resolved with Chandra. Other candidate dual AGN at similar redshifts and with significant obscuration could also be confirmed this way. This research was sponsored by the Strategic University Research Partnership Program, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Arkansas NASA EPSCoR program.

  18. First Detection of the [O(sub III)] 88 Micrometers Line at High Redshifts: Characterizing the Starburst and Narrow-Line Regions in Extreme Luminosity Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferkinhoff, C.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Nikola, T.; Parshley, S. C.; Stacey, G. J.; Benford, D. J.; Staguhn, J. G.

    2010-01-01

    We have made the first detections of the 88 micrometers [O(sub III)] line from galaxies in the early universe, detecting the line from the lensed active galactic nucleus (AGN)/starburst composite systems APM 08279+5255 at z 3.911 and SMM J02399-0136 at z = 2.8076. The line is exceptionally bright from both systems, with apparent (lensed) luminosities approx.10(exp 11) Solar Luminosity, For APM 08279, the [O(sub III)] line flux can be modeled in a star formation paradigm, with the stellar radiation field dominated by stars with effective temperatures, T(sub eff) > 36,000 K, similar to the starburst found in M82. The model implies approx.35% of the total far-IR luminosity of the system is generated by the starburst, with the remainder arising from dust heated by the AGN. The 881,tm line can also be generated in the narrow-line region of the AGN if gas densities are around a few 1000 cu cm. For SMM J02399, the [O(sub III)] line likely arises from HII regions formed by hot (T(sub eff) > 40,000 K) young stars in a massive starburst that dominates the far-IR luminosity of the system. The present work demonstrates the utility of the [O(sub III)] line for characterizing starbursts and AGN within galaxies in the early universe. These are the first detections of this astrophysically important line from galaxies beyond a redshift of 0.05.s

  19. Infrared/optical energy distributions of high redshifted quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Oke, J. B.; Matthews, K.; Lacy, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements at 1.2, 1.6 and 2.2 microns were combined with visual spectrophotometry of 21 quasars having redshifts z or = 2.66. The primary result is that the rest frame visual/ultraviolet continua of the high redshift quasars are well described by a sum of a power law continuum with slope of approximately -0.4 and a 3000 A bump. The rest frame visual/ultraviolet continua of these quasars are quite similar to that of 3C273, the archetype of low redshift quasars. There does not appear to be any visual/ultraviolet properties distinguishing high redshift quasars selected via visual or radio techniques.

  20. Structure of the Universe at Small and High Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshkevich, A.; Turchaninov, V.

    1998-12-01

    The approximate theoretical description of the formation and evolution of the structure of the universe proposed by Demianski and Doroshkevich (1998) is compared with observed and simulated matter distribution at small and high redshifts. It is found that for the CDM-like power spectrum and suitable parameters of the cosmological model the effective matter compression reaches at small redshifts the observed scales Rwall ~20 - 25h^{-1}Mpc with the typical mean separation of wall-like elements DSLSS 50 - 70h^{-1}Mpc. We show that the same theoretical model explains well both the redshift, temperature and NHI distributions of absorption lines observed in the spectra of quasars at redshifts 2 <= z <= 3.5. The models with 0.3 <= Omega_m <= 0.5 give better description of the observed structure parameters.

  1. Galaxies at High Redshift and Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunker, A.; Stanway, E.; Ellis, R.; Lacy, M.; McMahon, R.; Eyles, L.; Stark, D.; Chiu, K.

    2008-08-01

    The quest to discover the most distant galaxies has developed rapidly in the last decade. We are now exploring redshifts of 6 and beyond, when the universe was less than a billion years old, an epoch when the previously neutral intergalactic medium was reionized. The continuing discovery of galaxies at progressively higher and higher redshifts has been driven by the availability of large telescopes on the ground and in space, improvements in detector technology, and new search strategies. Over the past 4 years, the Lyman-break technique has been shown to be effective in isolating z˜ 6 star-forming i'-drop galaxies through spectroscopic confirmation with large ground-based telescopes (Keck, Gemini, and the ESO VLTs). Narrow-band imaging, notably with the wide field of the Subaru telescope, has also produced samples of Lyman-α emitters at these redshifts. Analysis of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF---the deepest images obtained so far, and likely to remain so until the James Webb Space Telescope, JWST), has enabled us to explore the faint end of the luminosity function, which may contribute the bulk of the total star formation. The discovery of this i'-drop galaxy population has been used to infer the global star-formation-rate density at this epoch (z˜ 6), and we are now beginning to constrain the contribution to reionization of the UV flux from these galaxies. Infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope have been used to determine the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from the rest-frame UV to the optical of some i'-drops and constrain the previous star-formation histories, masses, and ages of these sources. The indications are that much of the stellar mass of these galaxies might have formed in vigorous bursts at z>6. The next big advances would be to test the population-synthesis modelling of these z˜ 6 galaxies through spectroscopy of the rest-frame optical (rather than crude broad-band SEDs) and also to push the observational horizon for galaxies

  2. Lyman Break Analogs: Constraints on the Formation of Extreme Starbursts at Low and High Redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goncalves, Thiago S.; Overzier, Roderik; Basu-Zych, Antara; Martin, D. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Lyman Break Analogs (LBAs), characterized by high far-UV luminosities and surface brightnesses as detected by GALEX, are intensely star-forming galaxies in the low-redshift universe (z approximately equal to 0.2), with star formation rates reaching up to 50 times that of the Milky Way. These objects present metallicities, morphologies and other physical properties similar to higher redshift Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs), motivating the detailed study of LBAs as local laboratories of this high-redshift galaxy population. We present results from our recent integral-field spectroscopy survey of LBAs with Keck/OSIRIS, which shows that these galaxies have the same nebular gas kinematic properties as high-redshift LBGs. We argue that such kinematic studies alone are not an appropriate diagnostic to rule out merger events as the trigger for the observed starburst. Comparison between the kinematic analysis and morphological indices from HST imaging illustrates the difficulties of properly identifying (minor or major) merger events, with no clear correlation between the results using either of the two methods. Artificial redshifting of our data indicates that this problem becomes even worse at high redshift due to surface brightness dimming and resolution loss. Whether mergers could generate the observed kinematic properties is strongly dependent on gas fractions in these galaxies. We present preliminary results of a CARMA survey for LBAs and discuss the implications of the inferred molecular gas masses for formation models.

  3. Local analogs of high-redshift galaxies: Interstellar medium conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Fuyan; Kewley, Lisa J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Juneau, Stephanie

    2017-03-01

    Local analog galaxies play an important role in understanding the properties of high-redshift galaxies. We present a method to select a type of local analog that closely resembles the ionized interstellar medium conditions in high-redshift galaxies. These galaxies are selected based on their locations in the [O III]/Hβ versus [N II]/Hα nebular emission-line diagnostic diagram. The ionization parameters and electron densities in these analogs are comparable to those in z ~= 2 - 3 galaxies, but higher than those in normal SDSS galaxies by ~= 0.6 dex and ~= 0.9 dex, respectively. We find that the high sSFR and SFR surface density can enhance the electron densities and the ionization parameters, but still cannot fully explain the difference in ISM condition between nearby galaxies and the local analogs/high-redshift galaxies.

  4. The High-Redshift Clustering of Photometrically Selected Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timlin, John

    2017-01-01

    We present the data from the Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES) along with our first high-redshift (2.9high-redshift quasars. Using the infrared data from SpIES and SHELA, and the deep optical data from SDSS, we employ the multi-dimensional Bayesian selection algorithm outlined in Richards et al. 2015 to identify ~5000 high-redshift quasar candidates in this field. We then combine these candidates with spectroscopically confirmed high-redshift quasars and measure the redshift space correlation function and the projected correlation function. Finally, using these results, we compute the linear bias to try to constrain quasar feedback models akin to those in Hopkins et al. 2007.

  5. The Physical Conditions of Atomic Gas at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeleman, Marcel

    In this thesis we provide insight into the chemical composition, physical conditions and cosmic distribution of atomic gas at high redshift. We study this gas in absorption against bright background quasars in absorption systems known as Damped Ly-alpha Systems (DLAs). These systems contain the bulk of the atomic gas at high redshift and are the likely progenitors of modern-day galaxies. In Chapter 2, we find that the atomic gas in DLAs obeys a mass-metallicity relationship that is similar to the mass-metallicity relationship seen in star-forming galaxies. The evolution of this relationship is linear with redshift, allowing for a planar equation to accurately describe this evolution, which provides a more stringent constraint on simulations modeling DLAs. Furthermore, the concomitant evolution of the mass-metallicity relationship of atomic gas and star-forming galaxies suggests an intimate link between the two. We next use a novel way to measure the physical conditions of the gas by using fine-structure line ratios of singly ionized carbon and silicon. By measuring the density of the upper and lower level states, we are able to determine the temperature, hydrogen density and electron density of the gas. We find that the conditions present in this high redshift gas are consistent with the conditions we see in the local interstellar medium (ISM). A few absorbers have higher than expected pressure, which suggests that they probe the ISM of star-forming galaxies. Finally in Chapter 4, we measure the cosmic neutral hydrogen density at redshifts below 1.6. Below this redshift, the Ly-alpha line of hydrogen is absorbed by the atmosphere, making detection difficult. Using the archive of the Hubble Space Telescope, we compile a comprehensive list of quasars for a search of DLAs at redshift below 1.6. We find that the incidence rate of DLAs and the cosmic neutral hydrogen density is smaller than previously measured, but consistent with the values both locally and at

  6. X-ray spectral evolution of high redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtold, Jill; Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Kuhn, Olga; Cutri, Roc M.; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Rieke, Marcia; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Wilkes, Belinda J.

    1994-01-01

    At z approx. equals 3, the x-ray spectra of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars are different. High-redshift radio-quiet quasars either have large absorbing columns, N(sub H), and steeper power law spectral indices, alpha(sub epsilon), than low redshift quasars, or no absorption and similar alpha(sub epsilon)'s. In contrast, the radio-loud quasars at high redshift have substantial absorption and similar alpha(sub epsilon)'s to low redshift quasars. Implications for the interpretation of the evolution of the luminosity function of quasars are discussed. If the absorption arises outside the central engine for both radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, then radio-quiet quasars differ from the radio-loud quasars in that their emitted power law spectrum has evolved with redshift. We argue that this favors models where quasars are numerous and short-lived, rather than rare and long-lived.

  7. Pushing the Limits: High Redshift Fermi-LAT Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, Roopesh; Gasparrini, Dario; Lott, Benoit; Cutini, Sara; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    High-redshift blazars detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) are of great astrophysical import as they are extreme objects whose energetics remain a mystery. Such blazars are intrinsically interesting since they inform us about the evolution of gamma-ray blazars and are, by definition, some of the more luminous blazars in the LAT sample. They are also an excellent tool to study the EBL and thus the gamma-ray horizon. We present the latest high redshift blazar detections in the LAT and discuss some of their implications.

  8. Detectability of Gravitational Waves from High-Redshift Binaries.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Pablo A; Lasky, Paul D; Thrane, Eric; Zhu, Xingjiang; Mandel, Ilya; Sesana, Alberto

    2016-03-11

    Recent nondetection of gravitational-wave backgrounds from pulsar timing arrays casts further uncertainty on the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries. We study the capabilities of current gravitational-wave observatories to detect individual binaries and demonstrate that, contrary to conventional wisdom, some are, in principle, detectable throughout the Universe. In particular, a binary with rest-frame mass ≳10^{10}M_{⊙} can be detected by current timing arrays at arbitrarily high redshifts. The same claim will apply for less massive binaries with more sensitive future arrays. As a consequence, future searches for nanohertz gravitational waves could be expanded to target evolving high-redshift binaries. We calculate the maximum distance at which binaries can be observed with pulsar timing arrays and other detectors, properly accounting for redshift and using realistic binary waveforms.

  9. Detectability of Gravitational Waves from High-Redshift Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosado, Pablo A.; Lasky, Paul D.; Thrane, Eric; Zhu, Xingjiang; Mandel, Ilya; Sesana, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Recent nondetection of gravitational-wave backgrounds from pulsar timing arrays casts further uncertainty on the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries. We study the capabilities of current gravitational-wave observatories to detect individual binaries and demonstrate that, contrary to conventional wisdom, some are, in principle, detectable throughout the Universe. In particular, a binary with rest-frame mass ≳1010M⊙ can be detected by current timing arrays at arbitrarily high redshifts. The same claim will apply for less massive binaries with more sensitive future arrays. As a consequence, future searches for nanohertz gravitational waves could be expanded to target evolving high-redshift binaries. We calculate the maximum distance at which binaries can be observed with pulsar timing arrays and other detectors, properly accounting for redshift and using realistic binary waveforms.

  10. A Catalog of Candidate High-redshift Blazars for GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Tersi M.; /SLAC /San Francisco State U.

    2006-09-27

    High-redshift blazars are promising candidates for detection by the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). GLAST, expected to be launched in the Fall of 2007, is a high-energy gamma-ray observatory designed for making observations of celestial gamma-ray sources in the energy band extending from 10 MeV to more than 200 GeV. It is estimated that GLAST will find several thousand blazars. The motivations for measuring the gamma-ray emission from distant blazars include the study of the high-energy emission processes occurring in these sources and an indirect measurement of the extragalactic background light. In anticipation of the launch of GLAST we have compiled a catalog of candidate high-redshift blazars. The criteria for sources chosen for the catalog were: high radio emission, high redshift, and a flat radio spectrum. A preliminary list of 307 radio sources brighter than 70mJy with a redshift z {ge} 2.5 was acquired using data from the NASA Extragalactic Database. Flux measurements of each source were obtained at two or more radio frequencies from surveys and catalogs to calculate their radio spectral indices {alpha}. The sources with a flat-radio spectrum ({alpha} {le} 0.5) were selected for the catalog, and the final catalog includes about 200 sources.

  11. Radio-loud high-redshift protogalaxy canidates in Bootes

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, S; van Breugel, W; Brown, M J; de Vries, W; Dey, A; Eisenhardt, P; Jannuzi, B; Rottgering, H; Stanford, S A; Stern, D; Willner, S P

    2007-07-20

    We used the Near Infrared Camera (NIRC) on Keck I to obtain K{sub s}-band images of four candidate high-redshift radio galaxies selected using optical and radio data in the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey in Bootes. Our targets have 1.4 GHz radio flux densities greater than 1 mJy, but are undetected in the optical. Spectral energy distribution fitting suggests that three of these objects are at z > 3, with radio luminosities near the FR-I/FR-II break. The other has photometric redshift z{sub phot} = 1.2, but may in fact be at higher redshift. Two of the four objects exhibit diffuse morphologies in K{sub s}-band, suggesting that they are still in the process of forming.

  12. A high deuterium abundance at redshift z = 0.7.

    PubMed

    Webb, J K; Carswell, R F; Lanzetta, K M; Ferlet, R; Lemoine, M; Vidal-Madjar, A; Bowen, D V

    1997-07-17

    Of the light elements, the primordial abundance of deuterium relative to hydrogen, (D/H)p, provides the most sensitive diagnostic for the cosmological mass density parameter, omegaB. Recent high-redshift D/H measurements are highly discrepant, although this may reflect observational uncertainties. The larger primordial D/H values imply a low omegaB (requiring the Universe to be dominated by non-baryonic matter), and cause problems for galactic chemical evolution models, which have difficulty in reproducing the steep decline in D/H to the present-day values. Conversely, the lower D/H values measured at high redshift imply an omegaB greater than that derived from 7Li and 4He abundance measurements, and may require a deuterium-abundance evolution that is too low to easily explain. Here we report the first measurement of D/H at intermediate redshift (z = 0.7010), in a gas cloud selected to minimize observational uncertainties. Our analysis yields a value of D/H ((2.0 +/- 0.5) x 10[-4]) which is at the upper end of the range of values measured at high redshifts. This finding, together with other independent observations, suggests that there may be inhomogeneity in (D/H)p of at least a factor of ten.

  13. Population synthesis and the diagnostics of high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzoni, Alberto

    The effect of redshift on the observation of distant galaxies is briefly discussed emphasizing the possible sources of bias in the interpretation of high-z data. A general energetic criterion to assess physical self-consistency of evolutionary population synthesis models is also proposed, for a more appropriate use of this important tool to investigate distinctive properties of primeval galaxies.

  14. Searching for Extreme High Redshift Galaxies with HST Grism Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, John R.; Maseda, Michael

    2017-01-01

    With ever increasing capability, we are now able to push galaxy evolution studies to extreme high redshift (z>6). At these early times, the first galaxies begin forming stars but some of their light is quickly absorbed by the neutral intergalactic medium. The result is that the La line of hydrogen is lost. But, with the recent upgrades to HST, we can now utilize the unique multiplexing capacity of slitless grism spectroscopy to explore large samples of candidate systems. By taking near-IR spectra for for every object in the field-of-view simultaneously, we can begin searching for galaxies with a favorable circumgalactic gas distribution where La emission may be obtained. In this study we build on the work of 3D-HST to search for extreme high redshift galaxies (6high-z emission lines using expanded prior redshift distributions compared to previous studies. We present preliminary results of 29 spectroscopic candidates selected for the first time as extreme high redshift galaxies. Follow-up of confirmed candidates will strengthen existing samples of distant galaxies and constrain properties of the early universe.

  15. Identifying high-redshift gamma-ray bursts with RATIR

    SciTech Connect

    Littlejohns, O. M.; Butler, N. R.; Cucchiara, A.; Watson, A. M.; Lee, W. H.; Richer, M. G.; De Diego, J. A.; Georgiev, L.; González, J.; Román-Zúñiga, C. G.; Kutyrev, A. S.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.; Moseley, H.; Klein, C. R.; Fox, O. D.; Bloom, J. S.; Prochaska, J. X.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.

    2014-07-01

    We present a template-fitting algorithm for determining photometric redshifts, z {sub phot}, of candidate high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Using afterglow photometry, obtained by the Reionization and Transients InfraRed (RATIR) camera, this algorithm accounts for the intrinsic GRB afterglow spectral energy distribution, host dust extinction, and the effect of neutral hydrogen (local and cosmological) along the line of sight. We present the results obtained by this algorithm and the RATIR photometry of GRB 130606A, finding a range of best-fit solutions, 5.6 < z {sub phot} < 6.0, for models of several host dust extinction laws (none, the Milky Way, Large Magellanic Clouds, and Small Magellanic Clouds), consistent with spectroscopic measurements of the redshift of this GRB. Using simulated RATIR photometry, we find that our algorithm provides precise measures of z {sub phot} in the ranges of 4 < z {sub phot} ≲ 8 and 9 < z {sub phot} < 10 and can robustly determine when z {sub phot} > 4. Further testing highlights the required caution in cases of highly dust-extincted host galaxies. These tests also show that our algorithm does not erroneously find z {sub phot} < 4 when z {sub sim} > 4, thereby minimizing false negatives and allowing us to rapidly identify all potential high-redshift events.

  16. Bimodal star formation - Constraints from galaxy colors at high redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Silk, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    The possibility that at early epochs the light from elliptical galaxies is dominated by stars with an initial mass function (IMF) which is deficient in low-mass stars, relative to the solar neighborhood is investigated. V-R colors for the optical counterparts of 3CR radio sources offer the most severe constraints on the models. Reasonable fits are obtained to both the blue, high-redshift colors and the redder, low-redshift colors with a model galaxy which forms with initially equal star formation rates in each of two IMF modes: one lacking low-mass stars, and one with stars of all masses. The net effect is that the time-integrated IMF has twice as many high-mass stars as the solar neighborhood IMF, relative to low mass stars. A conventional solar neighborhood IMF does not simultaneously account for both the range in colors at high redshift and the redness of nearby ellipticals, with any single star formation epoch. Models with a standard IMF require half the stellar population to be formed in a burst at low redshift z of about 1.

  17. DUST ATTENUATION IN HIGH REDSHIFT GALAXIES: 'DIAMONDS IN THE SKY'

    SciTech Connect

    Scoville, Nick; Capak, Peter; Steinhardt, Charles; Faisst, Andreas; Kakazu, Yuko; Li, Gongjie

    2015-02-20

    We use observed optical to near-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 266 galaxies in the COSMOS survey to derive the wavelength dependence of the dust attenuation at high redshift. All of the galaxies have spectroscopic redshifts in the range z = 2-6.5. The presence of the C IV absorption feature, indicating that the rest-frame UV-optical SED is dominated by OB stars, is used to select objects for which the intrinsic, unattenuated spectrum has a well-established shape. Comparison of this intrinsic spectrum with the observed broadband photometric SED then permits derivation of the wavelength dependence of the dust attenuation. The derived dust attenuation curve is similar in overall shape to the Calzetti curve for local starburst galaxies. We also see the 2175 Å bump feature which is present in the Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud extinction curves but not seen in the Calzetti curve. The bump feature is commonly attributed to graphite or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. No significant dependence is seen with redshift between sub-samples at z = 2-4 and z = 4-6.5. The 'extinction' curve obtained here provides a firm basis for color and extinction corrections of high redshift galaxy photometry.

  18. CHARACTERIZING AND PROPAGATING MODELING UNCERTAINTIES IN PHOTOMETRICALLY DERIVED REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamse, Augusta; Knox, Lloyd; Schmidt, Samuel; Thorman, Paul; Anthony Tyson, J.; Zhan Hu

    2011-06-10

    The uncertainty in the redshift distributions of galaxies has a significant potential impact on the cosmological parameter values inferred from multi-band imaging surveys. The accuracy of the photometric redshifts measured in these surveys depends not only on the quality of the flux data, but also on a number of modeling assumptions that enter into both the training set and spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting methods of photometric redshift estimation. In this work we focus on the latter, considering two types of modeling uncertainties: uncertainties in the SED template set and uncertainties in the magnitude and type priors used in a Bayesian photometric redshift estimation method. We find that SED template selection effects dominate over magnitude prior errors. We introduce a method for parameterizing the resulting ignorance of the redshift distributions, and for propagating these uncertainties to uncertainties in cosmological parameters.

  19. Local Analogs for High-redshift Galaxies: Resembling the Physical Conditions of the Interstellar Medium in High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Fuyan; Kewley, Lisa J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Juneau, Stephanie

    2016-05-01

    We present a sample of local analogs for high-redshift galaxies selected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The physical conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM) in these local analogs resemble those in high-redshift galaxies. These galaxies are selected based on their positions in the [O iii]/Hβ versus [N ii]/Hα nebular emission-line diagnostic diagram. We show that these local analogs share similar physical properties with high-redshift galaxies, including high specific star formation rates (sSFRs), flat UV continuums, and compact galaxy sizes. In particular, the ionization parameters and electron densities in these analogs are comparable to those in z ≃ 2-3 galaxies, but higher than those in normal SDSS galaxies by ≃0.6 dex and ≃0.9 dex, respectively. The mass-metallicity relation (MZR) in these local analogs shows -0.2 dex offset from that in SDSS star-forming galaxies at the low-mass end, which is consistent with the MZR of the z˜ 2{--}3 galaxies. We compare the local analogs in this study with those in other studies, including Lyman break analogs (LBA) and green pea (GP) galaxies. The analogs in this study share a similar star formation surface density with LBAs, but the ionization parameters and electron density in our analogs are higher than those in LBAs by factors of 1.5 and 3, respectively. The analogs in this study have comparable ionization parameters and electron densities to the GP galaxies, but our method can select galaxies in a wider redshift range. We find the high sSFR and SFR surface density can increase the electron density and ionization parameters, but still cannot fully explain the difference in ISM condition between nearby galaxies and the local analogs/high-redshift galaxies.

  20. Close companions to two high-redshift quasars

    SciTech Connect

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui; Bian, Fuyan; Strauss, Michael A.; Haiman, Zoltàn; Richards, Gordon T.; Jiang, Linhua; Schneider, Donald P.

    2014-10-01

    We report the serendipitous discoveries of companion galaxies to two high-redshift quasars. SDSS J025617.7+001904 is a z = 4.79 quasar included in our recent survey of faint quasars in the SDSS Stripe 82 region. The initial MMT slit spectroscopy shows excess Lyα emission extending well beyond the quasar's light profile. Further imaging and spectroscopy with LBT/MODS1 confirms the presence of a bright galaxy (i {sub AB} = 23.6) located 2'' (12 kpc projected) from the quasar with strong Lyα emission (EW{sub 0} ≈ 100 Å) at the redshift of the quasar, as well as faint continuum. The second quasar, CFHQS J005006.6+344522 (z = 6.25), is included in our recent HST SNAP survey of z ∼ 6 quasars searching for evidence of gravitational lensing. Deep imaging with ACS and WFC3 confirms an optical dropout ∼4.5 mag fainter than the quasar (Y {sub AB} = 25) at a separation of 0.''9. The red i {sub 775} – Y {sub 105} color of the galaxy and its proximity to the quasar (5 kpc projected if at the quasar redshift) strongly favor an association with the quasar. Although it is much fainter than the quasar, it is remarkably bright when compared to field galaxies at this redshift, while showing no evidence for lensing. Both systems may represent late-stage mergers of two massive galaxies, with the observed light for one dominated by powerful ongoing star formation and for the other by rapid black hole growth. Observations of close companions are rare; if major mergers are primarily responsible for high-redshift quasar fueling then the phase when progenitor galaxies can be observed as bright companions is relatively short.

  1. X-RAY ABSORPTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Eitan, Assaf; Behar, Ehud E-mail: behar@physics.technion.ac.il

    2013-09-01

    The soft X-ray photoelectric absorption of high-z quasars has been known for two decades, but has no unambiguous astrophysical context. We construct the largest sample to date of 58 high-redshift quasars (z > 0.45) selected from the XMM-Newton archive based on a high photon count criterion (>1800). We measure the optical depth {tau} at 0.5 keV and find that 43% of the quasars show significant absorption. We aim to find which physical parameters of the quasars, e.g., redshift, radio luminosity, radio loudness, or X-ray luminosity, drive their observed absorption. We compare the absorption behavior with redshift with the pattern expected if the diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM) is responsible for the observed absorption. We also compare the absorption with a comparison sample of gamma-ray burst (GRB) X-ray afterglows. Although the z > 2 quasar opacity is consistent with diffuse IGM absorption, many intermediate-z (0.45 < z < 2) quasars are not sufficiently absorbed for this scenario, and are appreciably less absorbed than GRBs. Only 10/37 quasars at z < 2 are absorbed, and only 5/30 radio-quiet quasars are absorbed. We find a weak correlation between {tau} and z, and an even weaker correlation between {tau} and radio luminosity. These findings lead to the conclusion that although a diffuse IGM origin for the quasar absorption is unlikely, the optical depth does seem to increase with redshift, roughly as (1 + z){sup 2.2{+-}0.6}, tending to {tau} Almost-Equal-To 0.4 at high redshifts, similar to the high-z GRBs. This result can be explained by an ionized and clumpy IGM at z < 2, and a cold, diffuse IGM at higher redshift. If, conversely, the absorption occurs at the quasar, and owing to the steep L{sub x} {proportional_to}(1 + z){sup 7.1{+-}0.5} correlation in the present sample, the host column density scales as N{sub H}{proportional_to}L{sub x}{sup 0.7{+-}0.1}.

  2. Bulge Growth Through Disc Instabilities in High-Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bournaud, Frédéric

    The role of disc instabilities, such as bars and spiral arms, and the associated resonances, in growing bulges in the inner regions of disc galaxies have long been studied in the low-redshift nearby Universe. There it has long been probed observationally, in particular through peanut-shaped bulges (Chap. 14 10.1007/978-3-319-19378-6_14"). This secular growth of bulges in modern disc galaxies is driven by weak, non-axisymmetric instabilities: it mostly produces pseudobulges at slow rates and with long star-formation timescales. Disc instabilities at high redshift (z > 1) in moderate-mass to massive galaxies (1010 to a few 1011 M⊙ of stars) are very different from those found in modern spiral galaxies. High-redshift discs are globally unstable and fragment into giant clumps containing 108-9 M⊙ of gas and stars each, which results in highly irregular galaxy morphologies. The clumps and other features associated to the violent instability drive disc evolution and bulge growth through various mechanisms on short timescales. The giant clumps can migrate inward and coalesce into the bulge in a few 108 years. The instability in the very turbulent media drives intense gas inflows toward the bulge and nuclear region. Thick discs and supermassive black holes can grow concurrently as a result of the violent instability. This chapter reviews the properties of high-redshift disc instabilities, the evolution of giant clumps and other features associated to the instability, and the resulting growth of bulges and associated sub-galactic components.

  3. The growth efficiency of high-redshift black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Volonteri, Marta; Ferrara, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    The observational evidence that Super-Massive Black Holes (M• ˜ 109-10 M⊙) are already in place less than 1 Gyr after the big bang poses stringent time constraints on the growth efficiency of their seeds. Among proposed possibilities, the formation of massive (˜103-6 M⊙) seeds and/or the occurrence of super-Eddington (dot{M}>dot{M}_{Edd}) accretion episodes may contribute to the solution of this problem. In this work, using a set of astrophysically motivated initial conditions, we analytically and numerically investigate the accretion flow on to high-redshift (z ˜ 10) black holes to understand the physical requirements favouring rapid and efficient growth. Our model identifies a `feeding-dominated' accretion regime and a `feedback-limited' one, the latter being characterized by intermittent (duty cycles D ≲ 0.5) and inefficient growth, with recurring outflow episodes. We find that low-mass seeds (≲103-4 M⊙) evolve in the feedback-limited regime, while more massive seeds (≳105-6 M⊙) grow very rapidly as they are found in the feeding-dominated regime. In addition to the standard accretion model with a fixed matter-energy conversion factor (ɛ = 0.1), we have also explored slim disc models, appropriate for super-Eddington accretion, where radiation is trapped in the disc and the radiative efficiency is reduced (ɛ ≲ 0.04), which may ensure a continuous growth with dot{M} ≫ dot{M}_{Edd} (up to {˜ } 300 dot{M}_{Edd} in our simulations). Under these conditions, outflows play a negligible role and a black hole can accrete 80-100 per cent of the gas mass of the host halo (˜107 M⊙) in ˜10 Myr, while in feedback-limited systems we predict that black holes can accrete only up to ˜15 per cent of the available mass.

  4. Radio Selected Clusters of Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, Joshua; Blanton, Elizabeth

    2010-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that three-component radio sources exhibiting some degree of bending between components are likely to be found in galaxy clusters. Often this radio emission is associated with a cD type galaxy at the center of a cluster. We have cross-correlated the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with samples selected from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST) catalog and measured the richness of the cluster environments surrounding three- component sources exhibiting both bent and straight lobes. This has lead to the discovery and classification of a large number of galaxy clusters out to a redshift of z ~ 0.5. For both bent- and straight- lobed sources without an optical counterpart it is likely that the radio emission is associated with a galaxy fainter than m_r=22 (the limiting magnitude of the SDSS) and at a redshift higher than z~0.8. We propose to observe a small sub-sample of these sources with the FLAMINGOS instrument on the Mayall 4-m telescope in an attempt to discover if these sources are located in high redshift (z≳0.8) galaxy clusters. In our visually-selected bent radio source sample, 78% of sources with counterparts in the SDSS are associated with clusters.

  5. Accessing the population of high-redshift Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirlanda, G.; Salvaterra, R.; Ghisellini, G.; Mereghetti, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Campana, S.; Osborne, J. P.; O'Brien, P.; Tanvir, N.; Willingale, D.; Amati, L.; Basa, S.; Bernardini, M. G.; Burlon, D.; Covino, S.; D'Avanzo, P.; Frontera, F.; Götz, D.; Melandri, A.; Nava, L.; Piro, L.; Vergani, S. D.

    2015-04-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are a powerful probe of the high-redshift Universe. We present a tool to estimate the detection rate of high-z GRBs by a generic detector with defined energy band and sensitivity. We base this on a population model that reproduces the observed properties of GRBs detected by Swift, Fermi and CGRO in the hard X-ray and γ-ray bands. We provide the expected cumulative distributions of the flux and fluence of simulated GRBs in different energy bands. We show that scintillator detectors, operating at relatively high energies (e.g. tens of keV to the MeV), can detect only the most luminous GRBs at high redshifts due to the link between the peak spectral energy and the luminosity (Epeak-Liso) of GRBs. We show that the best strategy for catching the largest number of high-z bursts is to go softer (e.g. in the soft X-ray band) but with a very high sensitivity. For instance, an imaging soft X-ray detector operating in the 0.2-5 keV energy band reaching a sensitivity, corresponding to a fluence, of ˜10-8 erg cm-2 is expected to detect ≈40 GRBs yr-1 sr-1 at z ≥ 5 (≈3 GRBs yr-1 sr-1 at z ≥ 10). Once high-z GRBs are detected the principal issue is to secure their redshift. To this aim we estimate their NIR afterglow flux at relatively early times and evaluate the effectiveness of following them up and construct usable samples of events with any forthcoming GRB mission dedicated to explore the high-z Universe.

  6. Close Companions to Two High-redshift Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui; Strauss, Michael A.; Haiman, Zoltàn; Richards, Gordon T.; Jiang, Linhua; Bian, Fuyan; Schneider, Donald P.

    2014-10-01

    We report the serendipitous discoveries of companion galaxies to two high-redshift quasars. SDSS J025617.7+001904 is a z = 4.79 quasar included in our recent survey of faint quasars in the SDSS Stripe 82 region. The initial MMT slit spectroscopy shows excess Lyα emission extending well beyond the quasar's light profile. Further imaging and spectroscopy with LBT/MODS1 confirms the presence of a bright galaxy (i AB = 23.6) located 2'' (12 kpc projected) from the quasar with strong Lyα emission (EW0 ≈ 100 Å) at the redshift of the quasar, as well as faint continuum. The second quasar, CFHQS J005006.6+344522 (z = 6.25), is included in our recent HST SNAP survey of z ~ 6 quasars searching for evidence of gravitational lensing. Deep imaging with ACS and WFC3 confirms an optical dropout ~4.5 mag fainter than the quasar (Y AB = 25) at a separation of 0.''9. The red i 775 - Y 105 color of the galaxy and its proximity to the quasar (5 kpc projected if at the quasar redshift) strongly favor an association with the quasar. Although it is much fainter than the quasar, it is remarkably bright when compared to field galaxies at this redshift, while showing no evidence for lensing. Both systems may represent late-stage mergers of two massive galaxies, with the observed light for one dominated by powerful ongoing star formation and for the other by rapid black hole growth. Observations of close companions are rare; if major mergers are primarily responsible for high-redshift quasar fueling then the phase when progenitor galaxies can be observed as bright companions is relatively short. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs #12184 and #12493. Observations were also made with the LBT and MMT.

  7. High Redshift Radio Galaxies at Low Redshift, and Some Other Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonucci, Robert

    Cygnus A is the only high redshift radio galaxy at low redshift, that is it's the only nearby object with radio power in the range of the high redshift 3C objects. It is clear now that this is somewhat misleading in that Cyg A is an overachiever in the radio, and that its actual bolometric luminosity is much more modest than this would indicate. (This point has been explored and generalized in Barthel and Arnaud 1996; also see Carilli and Barthel 1996 for a detailed review of Cyg A). But the energy content of the lobes is famously large. There is a whole history of attempts to show that Cygnus A fits the Unified Model, and our particular contribution was detecting an apparent broad MgII line with the HST (Antonucci, Kinney and Hurt 1994, which includes references to previous work). The spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was less than amazing; furthermore an unflagged dead diode took out ~12 Å from the line profile; and there was an uncertain ``noise" contribution from confusing narrow lines (gory details in Antonucci 1994). One of the referees of our paper - the favorable one - stated that ``only a mother could love that line." Thus we reobserved it with somewhat better SNR and with the bad diode flagged, and the old and new data are presented to the same scale in Figure 1. Most of the bins are within the combined 1 σ statistical errors, and the many statistically significant wiggles are almost all present in NGC1068 as well (Antonucci, Hurt and Miller 1994). The point is that the errors are believable, and that the continuum should be set low. I believe the MgII line is there and is broader than we thought originally. (A detailed discussion of the spectrum is in prep.) In the 1994 paper we also stated that the polarization in the UV (F320W FOC filter) is ~6 %, and perpendicular to the radio axis, indicating that there is a fairly large contribution from scattered light from a quasar in this region. This is consistent with the scenario of Jackson and Tadhunter

  8. The Rest-frame Submillimeter Spectrum of High-redshift, Dusty, Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, J. S.; Marrone, D. P.; Aguirre, J. E.; Aravena, M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Béthermin, M.; Bradford, C. M.; Bothwell, M. S.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chapman, S. C.; Crawford, T. M.; de Breuck, C.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Greve, T. R.; Gullberg, B.; Hezaveh, Y.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Husband, K.; Ma, J.; Malkan, M.; Murphy, E. J.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rotermund, K. M.; Stalder, B.; Stark, A. A.; Strandet, M.; Vieira, J. D.; Weiß, A.; Welikala, N.

    2014-04-01

    We present the average rest-frame spectrum of high-redshift dusty, star-forming galaxies from 250 to 770 GHz. This spectrum was constructed by stacking Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 3 mm spectra of 22 such sources discovered by the South Pole Telescope and spanning z = 2.0-5.7. In addition to multiple bright spectral features of 12CO, [C I], and H2O, we also detect several faint transitions of 13CO, HCN, HNC, HCO+, and CN, and use the observed line strengths to characterize the typical properties of the interstellar medium of these high-redshift starburst galaxies. We find that the 13CO brightness in these objects is comparable to that of the only other z > 2 star-forming galaxy in which 13CO has been observed. We show that the emission from the high-critical density molecules HCN, HNC, HCO+, and CN is consistent with a warm, dense medium with T kin ~ 55 K and n_{H_2} \\gtrsim 10^{5.5} cm-3. High molecular hydrogen densities are required to reproduce the observed line ratios, and we demonstrate that alternatives to purely collisional excitation are unlikely to be significant for the bulk of these systems. We quantify the average emission from several species with no individually detected transitions, and find emission from the hydride CH and the linear molecule CCH for the first time at high redshift, indicating that these molecules may be powerful probes of interstellar chemistry in high-redshift systems. These observations represent the first constraints on many molecular species with rest-frame transitions from 0.4 to 1.2 mm in star-forming systems at high redshift, and will be invaluable in making effective use of ALMA in full science operations.

  9. The rest-frame submillimeter spectrum of high-redshift, dusty, star-forming galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Spilker, J. S.; Marrone, D. P.; Aguirre, J. E.; Aravena, M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Béthermin, M.; Bothwell, M. S.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Crawford, T. M.; Chapman, S. C.; De Breuck, C.; Gullberg, B.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Greve, T. R.; Hezaveh, Y.; Holzapfel, W. L.; and others

    2014-04-20

    We present the average rest-frame spectrum of high-redshift dusty, star-forming galaxies from 250 to 770 GHz. This spectrum was constructed by stacking Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 3 mm spectra of 22 such sources discovered by the South Pole Telescope and spanning z = 2.0-5.7. In addition to multiple bright spectral features of {sup 12}CO, [C I], and H{sub 2}O, we also detect several faint transitions of {sup 13}CO, HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and CN, and use the observed line strengths to characterize the typical properties of the interstellar medium of these high-redshift starburst galaxies. We find that the {sup 13}CO brightness in these objects is comparable to that of the only other z > 2 star-forming galaxy in which {sup 13}CO has been observed. We show that the emission from the high-critical density molecules HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and CN is consistent with a warm, dense medium with T {sub kin} ∼ 55 K and n{sub H{sub 2}}≳10{sup 5.5} cm{sup –3}. High molecular hydrogen densities are required to reproduce the observed line ratios, and we demonstrate that alternatives to purely collisional excitation are unlikely to be significant for the bulk of these systems. We quantify the average emission from several species with no individually detected transitions, and find emission from the hydride CH and the linear molecule CCH for the first time at high redshift, indicating that these molecules may be powerful probes of interstellar chemistry in high-redshift systems. These observations represent the first constraints on many molecular species with rest-frame transitions from 0.4 to 1.2 mm in star-forming systems at high redshift, and will be invaluable in making effective use of ALMA in full science operations.

  10. ASSOCIATIONS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASI-STELLAR OBJECTS WITH ACTIVE, LOW-REDSHIFT SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Burbidge, G.; Napier, W. M. E-mail: smawmn@cardiff.ac.u

    2009-11-20

    Following the discovery in the 1960s of radio and optical QSOs it was found that some of them lie very close to low-redshift (z <= 0.01) spiral galaxies with separations of approx<2 arcmin. These were discovered both serendipitously by many observers, and systematically by Arp. They are some of the brightest QSOs in radio and optical wavelengths and are very rare. We have carried out a new statistical analysis of most of those galaxy-QSO pairs and find that the configurations have high statistical significance. We show that gravitational microlensing due to stars or other dark objects in the halos of the galaxies apparently cannot account for the excess. Sampling or identification bias likewise seems unable to explain it. Following this up we selected all approx4000 QSOs with g <= 18 from a catalog of confirmed QSOs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and compared them with various subsets of galaxies from the RC 3 galaxy catalog. In contrast to the earlier results, no significant excess of such QSOs was found around these galaxies. Possible reasons for the discrepancy are discussed.

  11. The High Redshift Universe Seen Through the Eyes of ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiklind, Tommy

    2012-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submm Array (ALMA) is an interferometric telescope currently under construction on the Chajnantor Plateau in northern Chile. It is situated at an altitude of 5000m, in one of the driest places in the world. The combination of the meteorological conditions, increased total collecting area and the use of state-of-the-art receivers means that the fully operational ALMA is a factor 10-1000 more sensitive than existing facilities, depending on the wavelength. When completed in 2013, ALMA will consists of 66 antennas, with maximum baselines of up to 15 km and it will be able to observe at wavelengths from 10 millimeter to ~350micron. ALMA will be able to provide an angular resolution of ~0.05 arcseconds. ALMA is still under construction, but has started producing science in an 'Early Science' phase. The goal with ALMA has from the beginning been to provide very high sensitivity as well as an angular resolution matching that of space based optical observatories such as the HST. One of three main drivers when designing ALMA has been the ability to study the high redshift universe. The main reason behind this is that almost half of the integrated background radiation comes from the far-infrared wavelength regime. This emission is interpreted as originating from dust re-radiated stellar emission in high redshift galaxies. Interstellar dust is almost invariably associated with molecular gas, that can be studied using molecular rotational transitions. The shape of the dust spectral energy distribution ensures that the observed flux at a fixed wavelength long-ward of the far-infrared peak (about 100micron) remains more or less constant over a redshift range z=1-10. This aspect makes dust continuum emission extraordinarily important for studying galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei at high redshift. Through observations of line emission from molecular transitions it is possible to study the associated molecular gas distribution and its kinematics. The

  12. UV Properties and Evolution of High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzoni, Alberto

    I assess the problem of morphological and photometric evolution of high-redshift galaxies in the ultraviolet wavelength range. My discussion will partly rely on a new set of template galaxy models, in order to infer the expected changes along the Hubble morphological sequence at the different cosmic epochs. The impact of evolution on the faint-end galaxy luminosity function at z~1 and beyond will also be evaluated and briefly discussed. See http://www.merate.mi.astro.it/~eps/home.html for more info and model retrieval.

  13. THE FIRST HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASAR FROM Pan-STARRS

    SciTech Connect

    Morganson, Eric; De Rosa, Gisella; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Rix, Hans-Walter; Chambers, Ken; Burgett, William; Flewelling, Heather; Hodapp, Klaus; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugene; Sweeney, Bill; Waters, Christopher; McGreer, Ian; Fan, Xiaohui; Greiner, Jochen; Price, Paul

    2012-06-15

    We present the discovery of the first high-redshift (z > 5.7) quasar from the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1 or PS1). This quasar was initially detected as an i{sub P1} dropout in PS1, confirmed photometrically with the SAO Wide-field InfraRed Camera at Arizona's Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) and the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical/Near-Infrared Detector at the MPG 2.2 m telescope in La Silla. The quasar was verified spectroscopically with the MMT Spectrograph, Red Channel and the Cassegrain Twin Spectrograph at the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope. Its near-infrared spectrum was taken at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBT) with the LBT Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Utility with Camera and Integral Field Unit for Extragalactic Research. It has a redshift of 5.73, an AB z{sub P1} magnitude of 19.4, a luminosity of 3.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 47} erg s{sup -1}, and a black hole mass of 6.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }. It is a broad absorption line quasar with a prominent Ly{beta} peak and a very blue continuum spectrum. This quasar is the first result from the PS1 high-redshift quasar search that is projected to discover more than 100 i{sub P1} dropout quasars and could potentially find more than 10 z{sub P1} dropout (z > 6.8) quasars.

  14. The problematic growth of dust in high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrara, A.; Viti, S.; Ceccarelli, C.

    2016-11-01

    Dust growth via accretion of gas species has been proposed as the dominant process to increase the amount of dust in galaxies. We show here that this hypothesis encounters severe difficulties that make it unfit to explain the observed UV and IR properties of such systems, particularly at high redshifts. Dust growth in the diffuse ISM phases is hampered by (a) too slow accretion rates, (b) too high dust temperatures, and (c) the Coulomb barrier that effectively blocks accretion. In molecular clouds these problems are largely alleviated. Grains are cold (but not colder than the CMB temperature, TCMB ≈ 20 K at redshift z = 6). However, in dense environments accreted materials form icy water mantles, perhaps with impurities. Mantles are immediately (≲1 yr) photo-desorbed as grains return to the diffuse ISM at the end of the cloud lifetime, thus erasing any memory of the growth. We conclude that dust attenuating stellar light at high-z must be ready-made stardust largely produced in supernova ejecta.

  15. High-redshift Fermi blazars observed by GROND and Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Nardini, M.; Tagliaferri, Greiner, J.; Schady, P.; Rau, A.; Foschini, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Ghirlanda, G.; Sbarrato, T.

    2013-01-01

    We observed five γ-ray-loud blazars at redshift greater than 2 with the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and the UltraViolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT) on-board the Swift satellite, and the Gamma-Ray burst Optical Near-Infrared Detector (GROND) instrument. These observations were quasi-simultaneous, usually within a few hours. For four of these blazars, the near-IR to UV data show the presence of an accretion disc, and we could reliably estimate its accretion rate and black hole mass. One of them, PKS 1348+007, was found in an extraordinarily high IR-optical state, almost two orders of magnitude brighter than at the epoch of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations. For all the five quasars, the physical parameters of the jet-emitting zone, derived by applying a one-zone emission model, are similar to that found for the bulk of other γ-ray-loud quasars. With our observations, we have X-ray data for the full sample of blazars at z > 2 present in the Fermi 2-year (2LAC) catalogue. This allows us to have a rather complete view of the spectral energy distribution of all high-redshift Fermi blazars, and to draw some conclusions about their properties, and especially about the relation between the accretion rate and the jet power.

  16. A Survey for Very High-Redshift Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemley, Shelley R.

    1995-12-01

    I have been conducting a deep, three color survey for very high redshift quasars and will present information on how my candidates, which are awaiting spectroscopic confirmation, have been selected. The survey involves direct imaging through Gunn gri filters using a 2048 x 2048 STIS ccd chip and Cerro Tololo's Curtis Scmidt Telescope. Quasar candidates in the range 4.2 < z < 5.4 have been selected based on the detection of the Lyman alpha line and the strong drop in the spectrum blueward of this. Because of this response, quasars are clearly located away from the stellar locus on g - r vs. r - i diagrams. Quasar candidates with z ~ 4.5 have large values of g - r and values of r - i near zero. The z>5 candidates have large r - i values and g - r values near zero. Before beginning the survey, test observations using this selection method were made of two known quasars with redshifts of 4.5 and 4.7. The quasars were successfully relocated by the technique and several candidates, which will also be observed for spectroscopic confirmation, were selected from those two fields. To date, 13 square degrees have been surveyed.

  17. Tracing high redshift cosmic web with quasar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einasto, Maret

    2016-10-01

    We study the cosmic web at redshifts 1.0 <= <= 1.8 using quasar systems based on quasar data from the SDSS DR7 QSO catalogue. Quasar systems were determined with a friend-of-friend (FoF) algorithm at a series of linking lengths. At the linking lengths l <= 30 h -1 Mpc the diameters of quasar systems are smaller than the diameters of random systems, and are comparable to the sizes of galaxy superclusters in the local Universe. The mean space density of quasar systems is close to the mean space density of local rich superclusters. At larger linking lengths the diameters of quasar systems are comparable with the sizes of supercluster complexes in our cosmic neighbourhood. The richest quasar systems have diameters exceeding 500h Mpc. Very rich systems can be found also in random distribution but the percolating system which penetrate the whole sample volume appears in quasar sample at smaller linking length than in random samples showing that the large-scale distribution of quasar systems differs from random distribution. Quasar system catalogues at our web pages (http://www.aai.ee/maret/QSOsystems.html) serve as a database to search for superclusters of galaxies and to trace the cosmic web at high redshifts.

  18. Star formation and mass assembly in high redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, P.; Fontana, A.; Grazian, A.; Salimbeni, S.; Fiore, F.; Fontanot, F.; Boutsia, K.; Castellano, M.; Cristiani, S.; de Santis, C.; Gallozzi, S.; Giallongo, E.; Menci, N.; Nonino, M.; Paris, D.; Pentericci, L.; Vanzella, E.

    2009-09-01

    Aims: The goal of this work is to infer the star formation properties and the mass assembly process of high redshift (0.3 ≤ z < 2.5) galaxies from their IR emission using the 24 μm band of MIPS-Spitzer. Methods: We used an updated version of the GOODS-MUSIC catalog, which has multiwavelength coverage from 0.3 to 24 μm and either spectroscopic or accurate photometric redshifts. We describe how the catalog has been extended by the addition of mid-IR fluxes derived from the MIPS 24 μm image. We compared two different estimators of the star formation rate (SFR hereafter). One is the total infrared emission derived from 24 μm, estimated using both synthetic and empirical IR templates. The other one is a multiwavelength fit to the full galaxy SED, which automatically accounts for dust reddening and age-star formation activity degeneracies. For both estimates, we computed the SFR density and the specific SFR. Results: We show that the two SFR indicators are roughly consistent, once the uncertainties involved are taken into account. However, they show a systematic trend, IR-based estimates exceeding the fit-based ones as the star formation rate increases. With this new catalog, we show that: a) at z>0.3, the star formation rate is correlated well with stellar mass, and this relationship seems to steepen with redshift if one relies on IR-based estimates of the SFR; b) the contribution to the global SFRD by massive galaxies increases with redshift up to ≃ 2.5, more rapidly than for galaxies of lower mass, but appears to flatten at higher z; c) despite this increase, the most important contributors to the SFRD at any z are galaxies of about, or immediately lower than, the characteristic stellar mass; d) at z≃ 2, massive galaxies are actively star-forming, with a median {SFR} ≃ 300 M_⊙ yr-1. During this epoch, our targeted galaxies assemble a substantial part of their final stellar mass; e) the specific SFR (SSFR) shows a clear bimodal distribution. Conclusions

  19. OPTIMAL MASS CONFIGURATIONS FOR LENSING HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Kenneth C.; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Ammons, S. Mark; Keeton, Charles R.

    2012-06-20

    We investigate the gravitational lensing properties of lines of sight containing multiple cluster-scale halos, motivated by their ability to lens very high redshift (z {approx} 10) sources into detectability. We control for the total mass along the line of sight, isolating the effects of distributing the mass among multiple halos and of varying the physical properties of the halos. Our results show that multiple-halo lines of sight can increase the magnified source-plane region compared to the single cluster lenses typically targeted for lensing studies and thus are generally better fields for detecting very high redshift sources. The configurations that result in optimal lensing cross sections benefit from interactions between the lens potentials of the halos when they overlap somewhat on the sky, creating regions of high magnification in the source plane not present when the halos are considered individually. The effect of these interactions on the lensing cross section can even be comparable to changing the total mass of the lens from 10{sup 15} M{sub Sun} to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} M{sub Sun }. The gain in lensing cross section increases as the mass is split into more halos, provided that the lens potentials are projected close enough to interact with each other. A nonzero projected halo angular separation, equal halo mass ratio, and high projected halo concentration are the best mass configurations, whereas projected halo ellipticity, halo triaxiality, and the relative orientations of the halos are less important. Such high-mass, multiple-halo lines of sight exist in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

  20. Understanding the dark matter-light connection at high redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo

    Deep, wide-field surveys have enhanced our understanding of galaxy formation and its close connection to the large-scale structures of dark matter in the universe. At high redshifts ( z > 2), in particular, where it is not possible to observe dark matter structures in other methods such as gravitational lensing or galaxy rotation curves, study of galaxy clustering provides a unique view into the formation of galaxies in large look-back times. In this thesis, I present a clustering study of star-forming galaxies at high redshifts ( z ~ 3- 5), observed and selected from two of the deepest multi-wavelength photometric data to date. First, I show that the UV luminosity (or star formation rate) of these galaxies scales closely with the degree of spatial clustering at all cosmic epochs probed from these surveys. In conjunction with the current, well- established theoretical framework of cold dark matter cosmology, this implies that star formation rate is primarily determined by the total mass of the virialized dark matter structures, or dark matter halos. In addition, I show that the measures of galaxy correlation function exhibits a strong upturn on small scales, which cannot be explained with the clustering of halos hosting these galaxies alone. This strongly suggests that multiple galaxies can share a single massive dark matter halo. A simple scaling law between the number of galaxy occupants and halo mass is sufficient to successfully reproduce the observed shape of the correlation function. However, there is uncertainty in drawing physical parameters of the halo-galaxy association which depends on the assumed form of the scaling law, or the halo occupation distribution (HOD). Physical interpretations are further exacerbated by the unknown degree of "fairness" that color-selected galaxies represent. I present an alternative approach which requires precise measurements of both the luminosity function and correlation function (of various luminosity thresholds). By

  1. Relativistic jet feedback in high-redshift galaxies - I. Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Bicknell, Geoffrey V.; Sutherland, Ralph; Wagner, Alex

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of 3D relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of interaction of active galactic nucleus jets with a dense turbulent two-phase interstellar medium, which would be typical of high-redshift galaxies. We describe the effect of the jet on the evolution of the density of the turbulent interstellar medium (ISM). The jet-driven energy bubble affects the gas to distances up to several kiloparsecs from the injection region. The shocks resulting from such interactions create a multiphase ISM and radial outflows. One of the striking result of this work is that low-power jets (Pjet ≲ 1043 ergs-1), although less efficient in accelerating clouds, are trapped in the ISM for a longer time and hence affect the ISM over a larger volume. Jets of higher power drill through with relative ease. Although the relativistic jets launch strong outflows, there is little net mass ejection to very large distances, supporting a galactic fountain scenario for local feedback.

  2. STAR FORMATION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT CLUSTER ELLIPTICALS

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Cory R.; Brodwin, Mark; Snyder, Gregory F.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Mancone, Conor L.; Stanford, S. A.; Alberts, Stacey; Pope, Alexandra; Stern, Daniel; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Dey, Arjun; Moustakas, John

    2015-02-20

    We measure the star formation rates (SFRs) of massive (M {sub *} > 10{sup 10.1} M {sub ☉}) early-type galaxies (ETGs) in a sample of 11 high-redshift (1.0 < z < 1.5) galaxy clusters drawn from the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS). We identify ETGs visually from Hubble Space Telescope imaging and select likely cluster members as having either an appropriate spectroscopic redshift or red-sequence color. Mid-infrared SFRs are measured using Spitzer 24 μm data for isolated cluster galaxies for which contamination by neighbors, and active galactic nuclei, can be ruled out. Cluster ETGs show enhanced specific star formation rates (sSFRs) compared to cluster galaxies in the local universe, but have sSFRs more than four times lower than that of field ETGs at 1 < z < 1.5. Relative to the late-type cluster population, isolated ETGs show substantially quenched mean SFRs, yet still contribute 12% of the overall star formation activity measured in 1 < z < 1.5 clusters. We find that new ETGs are likely being formed in ISCS clusters; the fraction of cluster galaxies identified as ETGs increases from 34% to 56% from z ∼ 1.5 → 1.25. While the fraction of cluster ETGs that are highly star-forming (SFR ≥ 26 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) drops from 27% to 10% over the same period, their sSFRs are roughly constant. All these factors taken together suggest that, particularly at z ≳ 1.25, the events that created these distant cluster ETGs—likely mergers, at least among the most massive—were both recent and gas-rich.

  3. An empirical SFR estimator for high redshift galaxies:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnouts, Stephane

    2015-08-01

    At high redshift, most of the SFR indicators are limited to the most massive galaxies (Far-IR, radio) and out of reach of optical spectroscopy (Halpha). The UV continuum is the only one available at all redshifts and for galaxies within a large range of mass. The main question is then to properly account for dust absorption. The SED fitting are always limited in the choice of popular attenuation laws (if not only one, starburst) which relies on the slope of the UV continuum. The alternative is to measure the net budget between the absorbed vs un-absorbed UV light i.e. the infrared excess (IRX= Lir/Luv).By using the deep 24 micron in the COSMOS field, we have observed a remarkable behaviour of IRX stripes within the (NUV-r)o vs (r-K)o color diagram which can be used to derive robust SFR estimates just with the Luv, Lr and Lk luminosities (Arnouts et al, 2013). We have shown that we can explain the correlation if we consider a two component models for the birth clouds and the ISM and also a complete model for galaxy inclination to explain the extrem IRX values. We are now extended the method with Herschel data at higher redshift (z~2) and lower masses (M~10^8Mo) by using stacking techniques and find that the IRX-NUVrK correlation persists (Le Floc’h , in prep). This method allows us to derive an accurate SFR for each individual galaxy based on its location in the NUVrK diagram and with no assumption on dust attenuation law, a main caveat for SED fitting technique.We investigated the behavior of the scatter of the SFR-Mass in GOODS and COSMOS fields and find that both SFR (Lir+Luv) or SFR(NUVrK) estimatesare consistent (Ilbert et al., 2015). Finally will investigate the dust-free UV luminosity functions in between 0

  4. FRONTIER FIELDS: HIGH-REDSHIFT PREDICTIONS AND EARLY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, Dan; Bradley, Larry; Zitrin, Adi

    2015-02-20

    The Frontier Fields program is obtaining deep Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope images of new ''blank'' fields and nearby fields gravitationally lensed by massive galaxy clusters. The Hubble images of the lensed fields are revealing nJy sources (AB mag > 31), the faintest galaxies yet observed. The full program will transform our understanding of galaxy evolution in the first 600 million years (z > 9). Previous programs have yielded a dozen or so z > 9 candidates, including perhaps fewer than expected in the Ultra Deep Field and more than expected in shallower Hubble images. In this paper, we present high-redshift (z > 6) number count predictions for the Frontier Fields and candidates in three of the first Hubble images. We show the full Frontier Fields program may yield up to ∼70 z > 9 candidates (∼6 per field). We base this estimate on an extrapolation of luminosity functions observed between 4 < z < 8 and gravitational lensing models submitted by the community. However, in the first two deep infrared Hubble images obtained to date, we find z ∼ 8 candidates but no strong candidates at z > 9. We defer quantitative analysis of the z > 9 deficit (including detection completeness estimates) to future work including additional data. At these redshifts, cosmic variance (field-to-field variation) is expected to be significant (greater than ±50%) and include clustering of early galaxies formed in overdensities. The full Frontier Fields program will significantly mitigate this uncertainty by observing six independent sightlines each with a lensing cluster and nearby blank field.

  5. Probing the Intergalactic Medium with high-redshift quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calverley, Alexander Peter

    2011-11-01

    Clues about the timing of reionization and the nature of the ionizing sources responsible are imprinted in the ionization and thermal state of the IGM. In this thesis, I use high-resolution quasar spectra in conjunction with state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations to probe the IGM at high redshift, focusing on the ionization and thermal state of the gas. After reionization, the ionization state of the IGM is set by the intensity of the ultraviolet background (UVB), quantified by the hydrogen photoionization rate, Γ_bkg. At high redshifts this has been estimated by measuring the mean flux in the Lyα forest, and scaling Γ_bkg in simulations such that the simulated mean flux matches the observed value. In Chapter 3 I investigate whether the precision of these estimates can be improved by using the entire flux probability distribution function (PDF) instead of only the mean flux. Although I find it cannot improve the precision directly, the flux PDF can potentially be used to constrain other sources of error in observational estimates of Γ_bkg, and so may increase the precision indirectly. The ionizing output of a quasar will locally dominate over the UVB, and this leads to enhanced transmission bluewards of the quasar Lyα line, known as the proximity effect. In Chapter 4 I present the first measurements of Γ_bkg at z > 5 from the proximity effect. The UVB intensity declines smoothly with redshift over 4.6 < z < 6.4, implying a smooth evolution in the mean free path of ionizing photons. This suggests that reionization ends at z > 6.4. There is a drop in Γ_bkg by roughly a factor of five, which corresponds to a drop in the ionizing emissivity by about a factor of two. Such a redshift evolution in the emissivity cannot continue to much higher redshift without reionization failing to complete, which suggests that reionization cannot have ended much higher than z = 6.4. Estimates of Γ_bkg from the proximity effect and the mean flux are generally discrepant

  6. The formation and evolution of high-redshift dusty galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Ge, Jian; Vieira, Joaquin D.; Prochaska, Jason X.; Spilker, Justin; Strandet, Maria; Ashby, Matthew; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Lundgren, Britt; Zhao, Yinan; Ji, Tuo; Zhang, Shaohua; Caucal, Paul; SPT SMG Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Star formation and chemical evolution are among the biggest questions in galaxy formation and evolution. High-redshift dusty galaxies are the best sites to investigate mass assembly and growth, star formation rates, star formation history, chemical enrichment, and physical conditions. My thesis is based on two populations of high-redshift dusty galaxies, submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) and quasar 2175 Å dust absorbers, which are selected by dust emission and dust absorption, respectively.For the SMG sample, I have worked on the gravitationally lensed dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) at 2.8 < z < 5.7, which were first discovered by the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and further confirmed by ALMA. My thesis is focused on the stellar masses and star formation rates of these objects by means of multi-wavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) modelling. The data include HST/WFC3, Spitzer/IRAC, Herschel/PACS, Herschel/SPIRE, APEX/Laboca and SPT. Compared to the star-forming main sequence (MS), these DSFGs have specific SFRs that lie above the MS, suggesting that we are witnessing ongoing strong starburst events that may be driven by major mergers. SPT0346-52 at z = 5.7, the most extraordinary source in the SPT survey for which we obtained Chandra X-ray and ATCA radio data, was confirmed to have the highest star formation surface density of any known galaxy at high-z.The other half of my thesis is focused on a new population of quasar absorption line systems, 2175 Å dust absorbers, which are excellent probes of gas and dust properties, chemical evolution and physical conditions in the absorbing galaxies. This sample was selected from the SDSS and BOSS surveys and followed up with the Echelle Spectrographs and Imager on the Keck-II telescope, the Red & Blue Channel Spectrograph on the Multiple Mirror Telescope, and the Ultraviolet and Visible Echelle Spectrograph onboard the Very Large Telescope. We found a correlation between the presence of the 2175 Å bump and other

  7. Planck intermediate results. XXXIX. The Planck list of high-redshift source candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Catalano, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Welikala, N.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Planck mission, thanks to its large frequency range and all-sky coverage, has a unique potential for systematically detecting the brightest, and rarest, submillimetre sources on the sky, including distant objects in the high-redshift Universe traced by their dust emission. A novel method, based on a component-separation procedure using a combination of Planck and IRAS data, has been validated and characterized on numerous simulations, and applied to select the most luminous cold submillimetre sources with spectral energy distributions peaking between 353 and 857 GHz at 5' resolution. A total of 2151 Planck high-z source candidates (the PHZ) have been detected in the cleanest 26% of the sky, with flux density at 545 GHz above 500 mJy. Embedded in the cosmic infrared background close to the confusion limit, these high-z candidates exhibit colder colours than their surroundings, consistent with redshifts z > 2, assuming a dust temperature of Txgal = 35 K and a spectral index of βxgal = 1.5. Exhibiting extremely high luminosities, larger than 1014L⊙, the PHZ objects may be made of multiple galaxies or clumps at high redshift, as suggested by a first statistical analysis based on a comparison with number count models. Furthermore, first follow-up observations obtained from optical to submillimetre wavelengths, which can be found in companion papers, have confirmed that this list consists of two distinct populations. A small fraction (around 3%) of the sources have been identified as strongly gravitationally lensed star-forming galaxies at redshift 2 to 4, while the vast majority of the PHZ sources appear as overdensities of dusty star-forming galaxies, having colours consistent with being at z > 2, and may be considered as proto-cluster candidates. The PHZ provides an original sample, which is complementary to the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich Catalogue (PSZ2); by extending the population of virialized massive galaxy clusters detected below z < 1.5 through their SZ

  8. Detection of high Lyman continuum leakage from four low-redshift compact star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izotov, Y. I.; Schaerer, D.; Thuan, T. X.; Worseck, G.; Guseva, N. G.; Orlitová, I.; Verhamme, A.

    2016-10-01

    Following our first detection reported in Izotov et al., we present the detection of Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation of four other compact star-forming galaxies observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. These galaxies, at redshifts of z ˜ 0.3, are characterized by high emission-line flux ratios [O III] λ5007/[O II] λ3727 ≳ 5. The escape fractions of the LyC radiation fesc(LyC) in these galaxies are in the range of ˜6-13 per cent, the highest values found so far in low-redshift star-forming galaxies. Narrow double-peaked Ly α emission lines are detected in the spectra of all four galaxies, compatible with predictions for LyC leakers. We find escape fractions of Ly α, fesc(Ly α) ˜ 20-40 per cent, among the highest known for Ly α emitting galaxies. Surface brightness profiles produced from the COS acquisition images reveal bright star-forming regions in the centre and exponential discs in the outskirts with disc scalelengths α in the range ˜0.6-1.4 kpc. Our galaxies are characterized by low metallicity, ˜1/8-1/5 solar, low stellar mass ˜(0.2-4) × 109 M⊙, high star formation rates, SFR ˜ 14-36 M⊙ yr-1, and high SFR densities, Σ ˜ 2-35 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2. These properties are comparable to those of high-redshift star-forming galaxies. Finally, our observations, combined with our first detection reported in Izotov et al., reveal that a selection for compact star-forming galaxies showing high [O III] λ5007/[O II] λ3727 ratios appears to pick up very efficiently sources with escaping LyC radiation: all five of our selected galaxies are LyC leakers.

  9. EUV spectroscopy of high-redshift x-ray objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, M. P.; Wolff, M. T.; Wood, K. S.; Barbee, T. W., Jr.; Barstow, M. A.

    2010-07-01

    As astronomical observations are pushed to cosmological distances (z>3) the spectral energy distributions of X-ray objects, AGN for example, will be redshifted into the EUV waveband. Consequently, a wealth of critical spectral diagnostics, provided by, for example, the Fe L-shell complex and the O VII/VIII lines, will be lost to future planned X-ray missions (e.g., IXO, Gen-X) if operated at traditional X-ray energies. This opens up a critical gap in performance located at short EUV wavelengths, where critical X-ray spectral transitions occur in high-z objects. However, normal-incidence multilayer-grating technology, which performs best precisely at such wavelengths, together with advanced nanolaminate replication techniques have been developed and are now mature to the point where advanced EUV instrument designs with performance complementary to IXO and Gen-X are practical. Such EUV instruments could be flown either independently or as secondary instruments on these X-ray missions. We present here a critical examination of the limits placed on extragalactic EUV measurements by ISM absorption, the range where high-z measurements are practical, and the requirements this imposes on next-generation instrument designs. We conclude with a discussion of a breakthrough technology, nanolaminate replication, which enables such instruments.

  10. Mining the Infrared Sky for High-Redshift Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Gordon

    The Spitzer and WISE satellites have opened up new avenues for the study of active galactic nuclei (AGN) by peering through the dust shrouding half (or more) of AGNs. However, despite being more sensitive to shrouded AGNs, current selection methods being used in the mid-IR are still largely blind to the highest redshift quasars-both those that are shrouded and those that are not (and should therefore be easy to find). We describe projects to identify both unobscured (at z>3) and obscured quasars (at z>2) that have heretofore been missed in significant numbers. Finding the high-z obscured quasars in large numbers is crucial for fulfilling the legacy of NASA missions in the IR and X-ray. With these quasars we will be able to perform clustering analyses that break the degeneracy of models describing how black holes can ``feed back" energy to the large-scale host galaxy, significantly influencing its evolution. We will further trace the luminosity function of galaxies undergoing active accretion from low-luminosity AGNs to luminous quasars—probing the growth of the supermassive black holes that we see today in the local universe. Our new insights come about from leveraging new Spitzer data, primarily from the PI's SpitzerIRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES). The Spitzer data are 2.5 magnitudes deeper than the "AllWISE" survey in a 125 square degree, multiwavelength-rich, equatorial region known as SDSS "Stripe 82". These data are crucial for extending mid-IR investigations to higher redshifts, both for unobscured and obscured sources. The PI's team are among the world's experts in using the proposed machine learning techniques to find both unobscured (type-1) and obscured (type- 2) quasars and in using quasar clustering and luminosity functions to do cutting-edge science. The luminosity function and clustering algorithms are already in place, allowing for timely completion of this project once the multi-wavelength NASA data have been incorporated. This project is directly

  11. The Confirmation and Characterization of the Highest Redshift Galaxies: The Power of Complementary Observations by Keck, Spitzer and Hubble.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, Garth D.

    2017-01-01

    Extraordinary numbers of high-redshift galaxies have been detected in deep Hubble imaging over the last ~20-yrs. While much is learned from the images, spectroscopy holds the key to both confirming their redshifts and to characterizing their astrophysical properties. The faintness of the galaxies requires our biggest telescopes and high-throughput instruments to do such spectroscopy, and many such combinations are now available on 8-10 m class telescopes. This talk will largely concentrate on Keck's role given the focus of this special session. Since the HDF in 1995 and the HUDF and GOODS in 2003-4, Keck and its powerful optical instruments such as LRIS and DEIMOS have played a major role in spectroscopic studies. With the advent of the WFC3/IR in 2009 and near-IR imaging of fields such as HUDF09, CANDELS and HUDF12 between 2009-and 2012, not only were greater insights for z~1-6 galaxies enabled, but whole new opportunities were opened up for the detection of large samples of galaxies in the first billion years at z>6. The recognition that Spitzer could measure galaxies in the IR well into the confusion-limited regime also resulted in much enhanced datasets on the most distant galaxies. Keck soon was positioned to take advantage of these new higher redshift sources with instruments such as MOSFIRE. The result was a series of detections of the highest redshift galaxies. I will discuss the role that Keck spectroscopy has played in pushing the spectroscopic frontiers for high-redshift galaxies and highlight the synergies that have resulted from Hubble, Spitzer and Keck observations.

  12. Selection and Physical Properties of High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, G. W.

    2014-09-01

    that the fraction of OGs and DGs in our sample (COSMOS) is similar, about 52% of them are DGs, and the other 48% are OGs. For 24 EROs in the UDF, 16 fall into DGs, while 8 are OGs. To reduce the redundancy of these three different classification methods, we perform a principal component analysis on the measurements of EROs, and find that the nonparametric measures and SEDs are efficient in segregating DGs and OGs. We investigate the dependence of the fraction of EROs on their observational properties, and the results suggest that DGs become increasingly important toward fainter magnitudes, redder colors, and higher redshifts. Moreover, we find that the clustering of EROs is much stronger than that of full K-limited samples of galaxies; and the clustering amplitude of OGs is a factor of ˜2 larger than DGs. In Chapter 3, we pick out 1609 star-forming galaxies (sgzKs: gzK=(z-K)_{AB}-1.4(g-z)_{AB}≥ 0.2) and 422 passively evolving galaxies (pgzKs: gzK<0.2 and (z-K)_{AB}>2.7) at z˜2 in the AEGIS field (K_{AB} < 22.0). The number counts of pgzKs in our sample turn over at K_{AB} ˜ 21.0, and both the number of faint and bright objects (including sgzKs and pgzKs) exceed the predictions of a recent semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. A more successful model is needed to explain this diversity. It is also found that the star formation rate (SFR) and specific SFR (sSFR) of sgzKs increase with redshift at all masses, implying that star-forming galaxies were much more active on average in the past. Moreover, the sSFR of massive galaxies is lower at all redshifts, suggesting that the mass growth of low-mass galaxies is more attributed to the star formation while comparing with high-mass galaxies. From the HST WFC3/F160W imaging data, we find that gzKs not only have diffuse structures, but also have single-object morphologies, implying that there are morphological variety and different formation processes for these galaxies at z˜2. In addition, we also find ˜ 10% of 828 gz

  13. Predicting the High Redshift Galaxy Population for JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Zoey; Benson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will be launched in Oct 2018 with the goal of observing galaxies in the redshift range of z = 10 - 15. As redshift increases, the age of the Universe decreases, allowing us to study objects formed only a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. This will provide a valuable opportunity to test and improve current galaxy formation theory by comparing predictions for mass, luminosity, and number density to the observed data. We have made testable predictions with the semi-analytical galaxy formation model Galacticus. The code uses Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to determine viable sets of model parameters that match current astronomical data. The resulting constrained model was then set to match the specifications of the JWST Ultra Deep Field Imaging Survey. Predictions utilizing up to 100 viable parameter sets were calculated, allowing us to assess the uncertainty in current theoretical expectations. We predict that the planned UDF will be able to observe a significant number of objects past redshift z > 9 but nothing at redshift z > 11. In order to detect these faint objects at redshifts z = 11-15 we need to increase exposure time by at least a factor of 1.66.

  14. CO Linewidths and the Black Hole - Bulge Relationship for High Redshift QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, K. L.; Shields, G. A.; Massart, C. A.; vanden Bout, P.

    2005-10-01

    Supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei have masses MBH related to the mass and velocity dispersion σ* of the host galaxy. We examine the MBH - σ* in high redshift QSOs, deriving MBH from the broad emission-line widths and σ* from the radio CO lines. At redshifts z = 4 to 6, gigantic black holes appear to exist in relatively modest galaxies.

  15. High-Redshift Supernovae in the Hubble Deep Field

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliland, R.L.; Nugent, P.E.; Phillips, M.M.

    1999-08-01

    Two supernovae detected in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) using the original 1995 December epoch and data from a shorter (63,000 s in F814W) 1997 December visit with {ital HST} are discussed. The supernovae (SNe) are both associated with distinct galaxies at redshifts of 0.95 (spectroscopic) from Cohen et al. and 1.32 (photometric) from the work of Fern{acute a}ndez-Soto, Lanzetta, & Yahil. These redshifts are near, in the case of 0.95, and well beyond, for 1.32, the greatest distance reported previously for SNe. We show that our observations are sensitive to supernovae to z{approx_lt}1.8 in either epoch for an event near peak brightness. Detailed simulations are discussed that quantify the level at which false events from our search phase would start to arise and the completeness of our search as a function of both SN brightness and host galaxy redshift. The number of Type Ia and Type II SNe expected as a function of redshift in the two HDF epochs are discussed in relation to several published predictions and our own detailed calculations. A mean detection frequency of one SN per epoch for the small HDF area is consistent with expectations from current theory. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1999.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  16. Intergalactic Helium Absorption toward High-Redshift Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giroux, Mark L.; Fardal, Mark A.; Shull, J. Michael

    1995-01-01

    The recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the z(q) = 3.286 quasar Q0302-003 (Jakobsen et at. 1994) and the z(q) = 3.185 quasar Q1935-67 by Tytler (1995) show absorption edges at the redshifted wavelength of He II 304 A. A key goal is to distinguish between contributions from discrete Ly-alpha forest clouds and a smoothly distributed intergalactic medium (IGM). We model the contributions from each of these sources of He II absorption, including the distribution of line Doppler widths and column densities, the 'He II proximity effect' from the quasar, and a self-consistent derivation of the He II opacity of the universe as a function of the spectrum of ionizing sources, with the assumption that both the clouds and the IGM are photoionized. The He II edge can be fully accounted for by He II line blanketing for reasonable distributions of line widths and column densities in the Ly-alpha forest, provided that the ionizing sources have spectral index alpha(s) greater than 1.5, and any He II proximity effect is neglected. Even with some contribution from a diffuse IGM, it is difficult to account for the edge observed by Jakobsen et al. (1994) with a 'hard' source spectrum (alpha(s) less than 1.3). The proximity effect modifies the relative contributions of the clouds and IGM to tau(He II) near the quasar (z approx. less than z(q)) and markedly increases the amount of He II absorption required. This implies, for example, that to account for the He II edge with line blanketing alone, the minimum spectral index alpha(s) must be increased from 1.5 to 1.9. We demonstrate the need for higher resolution observations that characterize the change in transmission as z approaches z(q) and resolve line-free gaps in the continuum. We set limits on the density of the diffuse IGM and suggest that the IGM and Ly-alpha clouds are likely to be a significant repository for dark baryons.

  17. A Search for Moderate-redshift Survivors from the Population of Luminous Compact Passive Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Alan; Shih, Hsin-Yi; Larson, Kirsten; Mann, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    From a search of a ~2400 deg2 region covered by both the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey databases, we have attempted to identify galaxies at z ~ 0.5 that are consistent with their being essentially unmodified examples of the luminous passive compact galaxies found at z ~ 2.5. After isolating good candidates via deeper imaging, we further refine the sample with Keck moderate-resolution spectroscopy and laser guide star adaptive-optics imaging. For four of the five galaxies that so far remain after passing through this sieve, we analyze plausible star-formation histories based on our spectra in order to identify galaxies that may have survived with little modification from the population formed at high redshift. We find two galaxies that are consistent with having formed >~ 95% of their mass at z > 5. We attempt to estimate masses both from our stellar population determinations and from velocity dispersions. Given the high frequency of small axial ratios, both in our small sample and among samples found at high redshifts, we tentatively suggest that some of the more extreme examples of passive compact galaxies may have prolate morphologies. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  18. A search for moderate-redshift survivors from the population of luminous compact passive galaxies at high redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Stockton, Alan; Shih, Hsin-Yi; Larson, Kirsten; Mann, Andrew W. E-mail: hsshih@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: amann@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2014-01-10

    From a search of a ∼2400 deg{sup 2} region covered by both the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey databases, we have attempted to identify galaxies at z ∼ 0.5 that are consistent with their being essentially unmodified examples of the luminous passive compact galaxies found at z ∼ 2.5. After isolating good candidates via deeper imaging, we further refine the sample with Keck moderate-resolution spectroscopy and laser guide star adaptive-optics imaging. For four of the five galaxies that so far remain after passing through this sieve, we analyze plausible star-formation histories based on our spectra in order to identify galaxies that may have survived with little modification from the population formed at high redshift. We find two galaxies that are consistent with having formed ≳ 95% of their mass at z > 5. We attempt to estimate masses both from our stellar population determinations and from velocity dispersions. Given the high frequency of small axial ratios, both in our small sample and among samples found at high redshifts, we tentatively suggest that some of the more extreme examples of passive compact galaxies may have prolate morphologies.

  19. A WISE Search for the Most Massive High-Redshift Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Anthony

    We propose a comprehensive program to detect and characterize the most massive galaxy clusters at z>1 over half the sky. The foundation for this program is the Preliminary Release data from the NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). WISE is an all-sky infrared survey mission for which the first 23,600 sq. deg. of data are publicly available, providing images and photometric catalogs at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns. The shortest wavelength band achieves a 5-sigma depth of 50 microJansky, which is sufficient to detect L* galaxies out to a z~1 (8 Gyr lookback time). Our team has developed a modified version of a cluster detection algorithm developed by Papovich (2008) that employs color selection in the two bluest bands (3.4 and 4.6 microns) to isolate galaxies at z>1 and identify galaxy clusters as overdensities of galaxies brighter than L*. The technique has been been tested using WISE data for a small (3,000 sq. deg.) subfield and optimized to enable an efficient search over the full Preliminary Release area. Within this subfield we find candidates that appear comparable to the most massive z>1 systems known. As a continuation of this pilot study, we propose to conduct a search over the full PR area (excluding the galactic plane) for high-redshift clusters. We will use multiwavelength observations of known and newly confirmed clusters to understand the mass and redshift selection function. The cluster sample resulting from this program is designed to be optimal for investigations of the Gaussianity of the initial density perturbations after inflation, the evolution of massive galaxies in the most overdense environments during their epoch of star formation and mass assembly, and the high-redshift Universe by employing the clusters as gravitational telescopes.

  20. EUV Spectroscopy of High-redshift X-ray Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Michael Paul; Wolff, M. T.; Wood, K. S.; Barbee, T. W., Jr.

    2010-03-01

    As astronomical observations are pushed to cosmological distances (z>3) the spectral energy distributions of X-ray objects, AGNs for example, will have their maxima redshifted into the EUV waveband ( 90-912 Å/0.1-0.01 keV). Consequently, a wealth of spectral diagnostics, provided by, for example, the Fe L-shell complex ( 60-6 Å/0.2-2.0 keV) and the O VII/VIII lines ( 20 Å/0.5 keV), will be lost to X-ray instruments operating at traditional ( 0.5-10 keV) and higher X-ray energies. There are precedents in other wavebands. For example, HST evolutionary studies will become largely the province of JWST. Despite the successes of EUVE, the ROSAT WFC, and the Chandra LETG, the EUV continues to be unappreciated and under-utilized, partly because of a preconception that absorption by neutral galactic Hydrogen in the ISM prevents any useful extragalactic measurements at all EUV wavelengths and, until recently, by a lack of a suitable enabling technology. Thus, if future planned X-ray missions (e.g., IXO, Gen-X) are optimized again for traditional X-ray energies, their performance (effective area, resolving power) will be cut off at ultrasoft X-ray energies or at best be radically reduced in the EUV. This opens up a critical gap in performance located right at short EUV wavelengths, where the critical X-ray spectral transitions occur in high-z objects. However, normal-incidence multilayer-grating technology, which performs best precisely at such wavelengths, together with advanced nano-laminate fabrication techniques have been developed and are now mature to the point where advanced EUV instrument designs with performance complementary to IXO and Gen-X are practical. Such EUV instruments could be flown either independently or as secondary instruments on these X-ray missions. We present here a critical examination of the limits placed on extragalactic EUV measurements by ISM absorption, the range where high-z measurements are practical, and the requirements this imposes on

  1. Mass-size relation at high redshift in different environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaye, L.; Huertas-Company, M.; Mei, S.

    2012-12-01

    We study cluster early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the HAWK-I cluster survey in the redshift range 0.8

  2. GALAXY CLUSTERS AT HIGH REDSHIFT AND EVOLUTION OF BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Z. L.; Han, J. L.

    2011-06-10

    Identification of high-redshift clusters is important for studies of cosmology and cluster evolution. Using photometric redshifts of galaxies, we identify 631 clusters from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) wide field, 202 clusters from the CFHT deep field, 187 clusters from the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field, and 737 clusters from the Spitzer Wide-area InfraRed Extragalactic Survey (SWIRE) field. The redshifts of these clusters are in the range 0.1 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.6. Merging these cluster samples gives 1644 clusters in the four survey fields, of which 1088 are newly identified and more than half are from the large SWIRE field. Among 228 clusters of z {>=} 1, 191 clusters are newly identified, and most of them from the SWIRE field. With this large sample of high-redshift clusters, we study the color evolution of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). The r' - z' and r{sup +} - m{sub 3.6{mu}m} colors of the BCGs are consistent with a stellar population synthesis model in which the BCGs are formed at redshift z{sub f} {>=} 2 and evolved passively. The g' - z' and B - m{sub 3.6{mu}m} colors of the BCGs at redshifts z > 0.8 are systematically bluer than the passive evolution model for galaxies formed at z{sub f} {approx} 2, indicating star formation in high-redshift BCGs.

  3. Resolving the properties of massive, high-redshift starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, James Matthew

    2015-06-01

    Sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) are a population of dusty, obscured sources that represent some of the most extreme sites of star-formation in the Universe. These galaxies have total far-infrared (FIR) luminosities of 10E12-10E13Lsol and colossal star formation rates (SFRs) of ∼100-1000 Msol/yr, with the FIR-emission arising due to the reprocessing of ultraviolet radiation from massive, young stars by dust. Despite their discovery nearly 20 years ago, our understanding of the SMG population has been hampered by the coarse resolution (FWHM = 15-30") of single-dish sub-millimeter surveys. In this thesis I present observations of FIR-bright (S870≳1mJy) galaxies that have precise identifications from high-resolution imaging taken with sub-mm/mm interferometers. I present a multi-wavelength study of 96 SMGs that have unambiguous identifications from observations with Atacama Large Millimeter sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) and determine that the photometric redshift distribution for the SMG population has a median of zphot=2.5±0.2. I show that if the star formation activity in SMGs has a timescale of ∼100Myr then their descendants at z∼0 would have a space density and absolute H -band magnitude distribution that are in good agreement with a volume limited sample of local ellipticals. The low resolution of single-dish surveys has led to concerns about the blending of multiple individual galaxies into a single sub-millimeter source. I present ALMA observations of a sample of 30 bright, single-dish-identified sub-mm sources and show that 61(+19 -15)% are comprised of a blend of multiple SMGs brighter than ≳1mJy. Furthermore, I show that source blending boosts the apparent single-dish number counts by 20% at S870>7.5 mJy. A morphological analysis of the far-infrared emission from a subset of 23 of the brightest sources detected in the ALMA maps shows that the intense starburst in SMGs occurs in a compact region with a median physical half-light diameter of 2.4±0.2kpc

  4. Dissecting High-Redshift Galaxies with GRBs: Three Hosts at z 6 Observed with HST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, J. T. W.

    2016-10-01

    The first detection of three GRB hosts at z 6 is presented, along with their comparison to Lyman-break galaxies, potential star formation histories and a brief look at their impact on the high-redshift galaxy luminosity function.

  5. Quantitative comparison between Type Ia supernova spectra at low and high redshifts: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Supernova Cosmology Project; Nugent, Peter E; Garavini, G.; Folatelli, G.; Nobili, S.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Antilogus, P.; Astier, P.; Blanc, G.; Bronder, J.; Burns, M.S.; Conley, A.; Deustua, S. E.; Doi, M.; Fabbro, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Gibbons, R.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D. E.; Hook, I.; Howell, D. A.; Kashikawa, N.; Kim, A. G.; Kowalski, M.; Kuznetsova, N.; Lee, B. C.; Lidman, C.; Mendez, J.; Morokuma, T.; Motohara, K.; Nugent, P. E.; Pain, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Quimby, R.; Raux, J.; Regnault, N.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Sainton, G.; Schahmaneche, K.; Smith, E.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stanishev, V.; Thomas, R. C.; Walton, N. A.; Wang, L.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Yasuda, N.

    2008-03-24

    We develop a method to measure the strength of the absorption features in type Ia supernova (SN Ia) spectra and use it to make a quantitative comparisons between the spectra of type Ia supernovae at low and high redshifts. In this case study, we apply the method to 12 high-redshift (0.212 = z = 0.912) SNe Ia observed by the Supernova Cosmology Project. Through measurements of the strengths of these features and of the blueshift of theabsorption minimum in Ca ii H&K, we show that the spectra of the high-redshift SNe Ia are quantitatively similar to spectra of nearby SNe Ia (z< 0.15). One supernova in our high redshift sample, SN 2002fd at z = 0.279, is found to have spectral characteristics that are associated with peculiar SN 1991T/SN 1999aa-like supernovae.

  6. Characterizing the redshifts and luminosities of WISE selected obscured AGN using SALT optical spectra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hviding, Raphael E.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Hainline, Kevin N.; Carroll, Christopher M.; DiPompeo, Mike A.; Jones, Mackenzie L.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of several optical spectroscopic surveys covering over 100 candidate luminous obscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) identified by their mid-infrared emission detected with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). These galaxies were selected based on red WISE colors and galaxy-like optical emission, and were studied using long-slit optical spectroscopy with the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). Our spectra were analyzed to obtain redshifts and emission line flux ratios for each galaxy. These results verify that WISE is an effective section method for luminous obscured AGN, allow for the characterization of redshifts and luminosities of the WISE color selected obscured AGN population, and could potentially contribute to large statistical studies of obscured AGN distributions in the future.

  7. ON THE EFFECT OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND IN HIGH-REDSHIFT (SUB-)MILLIMETER OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Da Cunha, Elisabete; Groves, Brent; Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Rix, Hans-Walter; Weiss, Axel; Bertoldi, Frank; Carilli, Chris; Daddi, Emanuele; Sargent, Mark; Maiolino, Roberto; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian

    2013-03-20

    Modern (sub-)millimeter interferometers enable the measurement of the cool gas and dust emission of high-redshift galaxies (z > 5). However, at these redshifts the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature is higher, approaching, and even exceeding, the temperature of cold dust and molecular gas observed in the local universe. In this paper, we discuss the impact of the warmer CMB on (sub-)millimeter observations of high-redshift galaxies. The CMB affects the observed (sub-)millimeter dust continuum and the line emission (e.g., carbon monoxide, CO) in two ways: (1) it provides an additional source of (both dust and gas) heating and (2) it is a non-negligible background against which the line and continuum emission are measured. We show that these two competing processes affect the way we interpret the dust and gas properties of high-redshift galaxies using spectral energy distribution models. We quantify these effects and provide correction factors to compute what fraction of the intrinsic dust (and line) emission can be detected against the CMB as a function of frequency, redshift, and temperature. We discuss implications on the derived properties of high-redshift galaxies from (sub-)millimeter data. Specifically, the inferred dust and molecular gas masses can be severely underestimated for cold systems if the impact of the CMB is not properly taken into account.

  8. High-Redshift Quasars Found in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Commissioning Data

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, X.; Strauss, M.A.; Schneider, D.P.; Gunn, J.E.; Lupton, R.H.; Yanny, B.; Anderson, S.F.; Anderson, J.E. Jr.; Annis, J.; Bahcall, N.A.; Bakken, J.A.; Bastian, S.; Berman, E.; Boroski, W.N.; Briegel, C.; Briggs, J.W.; Brinkmann, J.; Carr, M.A.; Colestock, P.L.; Connolly, A.J.; Crocker, J.H.; Csabai, I. |; Davis, J.E.; and others

    1999-07-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of 15 high-redshift quasars (z{gt}3.6) discovered from {approximately}140 deg{sup 2} of five-color ({ital u}{prime}, {ital g}{prime}, {ital r}{prime}, {ital i}{prime}, and {ital z}{prime}) imaging data taken by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) during its commissioning phase. The quasars are selected by their distinctive colors in SDSS multicolor space. Four of the quasars have redshifts higher than 4.6 (z=4.63, 4.75, 4.90, and 5.00, the latter being the highest redshift quasar yet known). In addition, two previously known z{gt}4 objects were recovered from the data. The quasars all have i{sup *} {lt}20 and have luminosities comparable to that of 3C 273. The spectra of the quasars have similar features (strong, broad emission lines and substantial absorption blueward of the Ly{alpha} emission line) seen in previously known high-redshift quasars. Although the photometric accuracy and image quality fail to meet the final survey requirements, our success rate for identifying high-redshift quasars (17 quasars from 27 candidates) is much higher than that of previous multicolor surveys. However, the numbers of high-redshift quasars found is in close accord with the number density inferred from previous surveys. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1999.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  9. Distribution of Satellite Galaxies in High-redshift Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yougang; Park, Changbom; Hwang, Ho Seong; Chen, Xuelei

    2010-08-01

    We use galaxy groups at redshifts between 0.4 and 1.0 selected from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey to study the color-morphological properties of satellite galaxies and investigate possible alignment between the distribution of the satellites and the orientation of their central galaxy. We confirm the bimodal color and morphological-type distribution for satellite galaxies at this redshift range: the red and blue classes correspond to the early and late morphological types, respectively, and the early-type satellites are on average brighter than the late-type ones. Furthermore, there is a morphological conformity between the central and satellite galaxies: the fraction of early-type satellites in groups with an early-type central is higher than those with a late-type central galaxy. This effect is stronger at smaller separations from the central galaxy. We find a marginally significant signal of alignment between the major axis of the early-type central galaxy and its satellite system, while for the late-type centrals no significant alignment signal is found. We discuss the alignment signal in the context of shape evolution of groups.

  10. UV Spectroscopy of Type Ia Supernovae at Low- andHigh-Redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, Peter

    2005-04-20

    In the past three years two separate programs were initiated to study the restframe UV properties of Type Ia Supernovae. The low-redshift study was carried out using several ground-based facilities coupled with HST/STIS observations. The high-redshift program is an offshoot of the CFHT Legacy Survey and uses Keck/LRIS to obtain spectra. Here we present the preliminary results from each program and their implications for current cosmology measurements.

  11. Detecting Relativistic X-Ray Jets in High-redshift Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeough, Kathryn; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Cheung, C. C.; Stawarz, Łukasz; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Stein, Nathan; Stampoulis, Vasileios; van Dyk, David A.; Wardle, J. F. C.; Lee, N. P.; Harris, D. E.; Schwartz, D. A.; Donato, Davide; Maraschi, Laura; Tavecchio, Fabrizio

    2016-12-01

    We analyze Chandra X-ray images of a sample of 11 quasars that are known to contain kiloparsec scale radio jets. The sample consists of five high-redshift (z ≥ 3.6) flat-spectrum radio quasars, and six intermediate redshift (2.1 < z < 2.9) quasars. The data set includes four sources with integrated steep radio spectra and seven with flat radio spectra. A total of 25 radio jet features are present in this sample. We apply a Bayesian multi-scale image reconstruction method to detect and measure the X-ray emission from the jets. We compute deviations from a baseline model that does not include the jet, and compare observed X-ray images with those computed with simulated images where no jet features exist. This allows us to compute p-value upper bounds on the significance that an X-ray jet is detected in a pre-determined region of interest. We detected 12 of the features unambiguously, and an additional six marginally. We also find residual emission in the cores of three quasars and in the background of one quasar that suggest the existence of unresolved X-ray jets. The dependence of the X-ray to radio luminosity ratio on redshift is a potential diagnostic of the emission mechanism, since the inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons (IC/CMB) is thought to be redshift dependent, whereas in synchrotron models no clear redshift dependence is expected. We find that the high-redshift jets have X-ray to radio flux ratios that are marginally inconsistent with those from lower redshifts, suggesting that either the X-ray emissions are due to the IC/CMB rather than the synchrotron process, or that high-redshift jets are qualitatively different.

  12. Lyman alpha emitting galaxies at high redshift: Direct detection of young galaxies in a young universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Steven Arthur

    An early result of galaxy formation theory was the prediction that the copious ionizing radiation produced in nascent galaxies undergoing their first starbursts should in turn produce a strong Lya emission line. We report on our efforts to detect and characterize primeval galaxies by searching for this expected Lya signature with two observational techniques: serendipitous slit spectroscopy, and narrowband imaging selection. In Part I, we describe our serendipitous slit spectroscopy survey of the Hubble Deep Field and its environs, which resulted in a catalog of 74 spectroscopic redshifts spanning 0.10 < z < 5.77, including a galaxy cluster at z = 0.85 and five galaxies at z > 5. Follow-up observations at higher resolution resulted in the additional serendipitous detection of a strong Lya-emitting galaxy at z = 5.190 (ES1). At the time of its discovery, ES1 was one of only nine known galaxies at z > 5, and was the sixth most distant known galaxy. The unprecedented spectral purity of the observation offers evidence for a galaxy-scale outflow with a. velocity of v > 300 km s -1 , consistent with wind speeds observed in powerful local starbursts (typically 10 2 to 10 3 km s -1 ), and with simulations of the late- stage evolution of Lya emission in star-forming systems. Our final serendipitous detection is the remarkable source CXOHDFN J123635.6+621424, which is both the highest redshift known spiral galaxy, and a rare example of a high redshift, hard X-ray-emitting Type II AGN. Significantly, all of these results were acquired with no direct allocation of telescope time. In Part II, we report on our implementation of narrowband imaging selection, with which we traded redshift coverage for survey volume, focusing on the systematic study of galaxies at a particular epoch in favor of chasing that rare, most-distant object. This effort resulted in a catalog of 76 z [approximate] 4.5 Lya-emitting galaxies spectroscopically-confirmed in campaigns of Keck/LRIS and Keck

  13. Probing Pre-Galactic Metal Enrichment with High-Redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, F. Y.; Bromm, Volker; Greif, Thomas H.; Stacy, Athena; Dai, Z. G.; Loeb, Abraham; Cheng, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    We explore high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as promising tools to probe pre-galactic metal enrichment. We utilize the bright afterglow of a Population III (Pop III) GRB exploding in a primordial dwarf galaxy as a luminous background source, and calculate the strength of metal absorption lines that are imprinted by the first heavy elements in the intergalactic medium (IGM). To derive the GRB absorption line diagnostics, we use an existing highly resolved simulation of the formation of a first galaxy which is characterized by the onset of atomic hydrogen cooling in a halo with virial temperature approximately greater than10(exp 4) K.We explore the unusual circumburst environment inside the systems that hosted Pop III stars, modeling the density evolution with the self-similar solution for a champagne flow. For minihalos close to the cooling threshold, the circumburst density is roughly proportional to (1 + z) with values of about a few cm(exp -3). In more massive halos, corresponding to the first galaxies, the density may be larger, n approximately greater than100 cm(exp -3). The resulting afterglow fluxes are weakly dependent on redshift at a fixed observed time, and may be detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope and Very Large Array in the near-IR and radio wavebands, respectively, out to redshift z approximately greater than 20. We predict that the maximum of the afterglow emission shifts from near-IR to millimeter bands with peak fluxes from mJy to Jy at different observed times. The metal absorption line signature is expected to be detectable in the near future. GRBs are ideal tools for probing the metal enrichment in the early IGM, due to their high luminosities and featureless power-law spectra. The metals in the first galaxies produced by the first supernova (SN) explosions are likely to reside in low-ionization stages (C II, O I, Si II and Fe II). We show that, if the afterglow can be observed sufficiently early, analysis of the metal lines may

  14. RUNAWAY STARS AND THE ESCAPE OF IONIZING RADIATION FROM HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Charlie; Kratter, Kaitlin M.

    2012-08-20

    Approximately 30% of all massive stars in the Galaxy are runaways with velocities exceeding 30 km s{sup -1}. Their high speeds allow them to travel {approx}0.1-1 kpc away from their birthplace before they explode at the end of their several Myr lifetimes. At high redshift, when galaxies were much smaller than in the local universe, runaways could venture far from the dense inner regions of their host galaxies. From these large radii, and therefore low column densities, much of their ionizing radiation is able to escape into the intergalactic medium. Runaways may therefore significantly enhance the overall escape fraction of ionizing radiation, f{sub esc}, from small galaxies at high redshift. We present simple models of the high-redshift runaway population and its impact on f{sub esc} as a function of halo mass, size, and redshift. We find that the inclusion of runaways enhances f{sub esc} by factors of Almost-Equal-To 1.1-8, depending on halo mass, galaxy geometry, and the mechanism of runaway production, implying that runaways may contribute 50%-90% of the total ionizing radiation escaping from high-redshift galaxies. Runaways may therefore play an important role in reionizing the universe.

  15. Intensity Mapping of Molecular Gas at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Geoffrey; Keating, Garrett; Marrone, Dan; DeBoer, David; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Ming-Tang; Jiang, Homin; Koch, Patrick; Kubo, Derek; Li, Chao-Te; Lin, K. Y.; Srinivasan, Ranjani; Darling, Jeremy

    2015-08-01

    The origin and evolution of structure in the Universe is one of the major challenges of observational astronomy. How and when did the first stars and galaxies form? How does baryonic structure trace the underlying dark matter? A multi-wavelength, multi-tool approach is necessary to provide the complete story or the evolution of structure in the Universe. Intensity mapping, which relies on the ability to detect many objects at once through their integrated emission rather than direct detection of individual objects, is a critical part of this mosaic. Intensity mapping provides a window on lower luminosity objects that cannot be detected individually but that collectively drive important processes. In particular, our understanding of the molecular gas component of massive galaxies is being revolutionized by ALMA and EVLA but the population of smaller, star-forming galaxies, which provide the bulk of star formation cannot be individually probed by these instruments.In this talk, I will summarize two intensity mapping experiments to detect molecular gas through the carbon monoxide (CO) rotational transition. We are currently completing sensitive observations with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovic Array (SZA) telescope at a wavelength of 1 cm that are sensitive to emission at redshifts 2.3 to 3.3. The SZA experiments sets strong limits on models for the CO emission and demonstrates the ability to reject foregrounds and telescope systematics in very deep integrations. I also describe the development of an intensity mapping capability for the Y.T. Lee Array, a 13-element interferometer located on Mauna Loa. In its first phase, this project focuses on detection of CO at redshifts 2.3 - 3.3 with detection via power spectrum and cross-correlation with other surveys. The project includes a major technical upgrade, a new digital correlator and IF electronics component to be deployed in 2015/2016. The Y.T. Lee Array observations will be more sensitive and extend to larger angular scales

  16. Relic HII regions and radiative feedback at high redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesinger, Andrei; Bryan, Greg L.; Haiman, Zoltán

    2009-11-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from early astrophysical sources could have a large impact on subsequent star formation in nearby protogalaxies, and in general on the progress of cosmological reionization. Theoretical arguments based on the absence of metals in the early Universe suggest that the first stars were likely massive, bright, yet short-lived, with lifetimes of a few million years. Here we study the radiative feedback arising from such stars using hydrodynamical simulations with transient UV backgrounds (UVBs) and persistent Lyman-Werner backgrounds (LWBs) of varying intensity. We extend our prior work in Mesinger et al., by studying a more typical region whose protogalaxies form at lower redshifts, z ~ 13-20, in the epoch likely preceding the bulk of reionization. We confirm our previous results that feedback in the relic HII regions resulting from such transient radiation is itself transient. Feedback effects dwindle away after ~30 per cent of the Hubble time, and the same critical specific intensity of JUV ~ 0.1 × 10-21ergs-1cm-2Hz-1sr-1 separates positive and negative feedback regimes. This suggests that overall feedback is fairly insensitive to the large-scale environment, overdensity and redshift-dependent halo parameters, and can accurately be modelled in this regime with just the intensity of the impinging UVB. Additionally, we discover a second episode of eventual positive feedback in haloes which have not yet collapsed when their progenitor regions were exposed to the transient UVB. When exposed to the transient UVB, this gas suffers relatively little density depletion but a significant enhancement of the molecular hydrogen abundance, thus resulting in net positive feedback. This eventual positive feedback appears in all runs, regardless of the strength of the UVB. However, this feedback regime is very sensitive to the presence of Lyman-Werner radiation, and notable effects disappear under fairly modest background intensities of JLW >~ 10-3 × 10

  17. Infrared-faint radio sources are at high redshifts. Spectroscopic redshift determination of infrared-faint radio sources using the Very Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, A.; Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Sharp, R.; Spitler, L. R.; Parker, Q. A.

    2014-07-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are characterised by relatively high radio flux densities and associated faint or even absent infrared and optical counterparts. The resulting extremely high radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousands were previously known only for high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs), suggesting a link between the two classes of object. However, the optical and infrared faintness of IFRS makes their study difficult. Prior to this work, no redshift was known for any IFRS in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) fields which would help to put IFRS in the context of other classes of object, especially of HzRGs. Aims: This work aims at measuring the first redshifts of IFRS in the ATLAS fields. Furthermore, we test the hypothesis that IFRS are similar to HzRGs, that they are higher-redshift or dust-obscured versions of these massive galaxies. Methods: A sample of IFRS was spectroscopically observed using the Focal Reducer and Low Dispersion Spectrograph 2 (FORS2) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The data were calibrated based on the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF) and redshifts extracted from the final spectra, where possible. This information was then used to calculate rest-frame luminosities, and to perform the first spectral energy distribution modelling of IFRS based on redshifts. Results: We found redshifts of 1.84, 2.13, and 2.76, for three IFRS, confirming the suggested high-redshift character of this class of object. These redshifts and the resulting luminosities show IFRS to be similar to HzRGs, supporting our hypothesis. We found further evidence that fainter IFRS are at even higher redshifts. Conclusions: Considering the similarities between IFRS and HzRGs substantiated in this work, the detection of IFRS, which have a significantly higher sky density than HzRGs, increases the number of active galactic nuclei in the early universe and adds to the problems of explaining the formation of

  18. A distortion of very-high-redshift galaxy number counts by gravitational lensing.

    PubMed

    Wyithe, J Stuart B; Yan, Haojing; Windhorst, Rogier A; Mao, Shude

    2011-01-13

    The observed number counts of high-redshift galaxy candidates have been used to build up a statistical description of star-forming activity at redshift z ≳ 7, when galaxies reionized the Universe. Standard models predict that a high incidence of gravitational lensing will probably distort measurements of flux and number of these earliest galaxies. The raw probability of this happening has been estimated to be ∼0.5 per cent (refs 11, 12), but can be larger owing to observational biases. Here we report that gravitational lensing is likely to dominate the observed properties of galaxies with redshifts of z ≳ 12, when the instrumental limiting magnitude is expected to be brighter than the characteristic magnitude of the galaxy sample. The number counts could be modified by an order of magnitude, with most galaxies being part of multiply imaged systems, located less than 1 arcsec from brighter foreground galaxies at z ≈ 2. This lens-induced association of high-redshift and foreground galaxies has perhaps already been observed among a sample of galaxy candidates identified at z ≈ 10.6. Future surveys will need to be designed to account for a significant gravitational lensing bias in high-redshift galaxy samples.

  19. Fluctuations in radiation backgrounds at high redshift and the first stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzbauer, Lauren Nicole

    detected after subtracting all known foreground stars and galaxies. Pop III stars have been the leading candidates thought responsible for this observed NIRB excess. We model the Pop III stellar contribution to the NIRB mean intensity and fluctuations and generate observationally motivated values of the star formation (SF) efficiency using high redshift measurements of the UV luminosity density with UDF09, UDF12, and WMAP-9 data. This allows us to characterize the properties of a Pop III stellar population that are required to produce the measured excess. Finally, we propose a new method for detecting primordial metal-free and very metal-poor stellar populations by cross-correlating fluctuations in the intensity of Lyman-alpha and He II &λ;1640A emission sourced from high redshifts. Pop III stars are expected to be more massive and more compact than later generations of stars. This results in a much harder ionizing spectrum. A large portion of the ionizing photons have energies with hnu > 54.4 eV that carve out substantial patches of doubly ionized helium, He III. These photoionized regions then begin to shine brightly in He II recombination emission. Due to the lack of heavy elements in these regions, Pop III stars must rely on hydrogen and helium for cooling, enhancing both the Lyman-alpha and He II emission lines. In this regard, Pop III stars can be characterized as `dual emitters,' i.e. producers of both Lyman-alpha and He II emission signatures. Though Lyman-alpha emission is characteristic of both metal-free and metal-enriched stars, He II emission appears to be unique to extremely metal poor stars and metal-free stars, making it a very strong signature of the first stars. Detecting Lyman-alpha + He II dual emission in individual galaxies at high redshift is difficult and so far rare. The astrophysical engines powering the few Lyman-alpha + He II dual emitters that have been discovered have still not been clearly identified. Alternatively, we may be able to map

  20. New quasar surveys with WIRO: Searching for high redshift (z~6) quasar candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haze Nunez, Evan; Bassett, Neil; Deam, Sophie; Dixon, Don; Griffith, Emily; Harvey, William Bradford; Lee, Daniel; Lyke, Bradley; Parziale, Ryan; Witherspoon, Catherine; Myers, Adam D.; Findlay, Joseph; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Dale, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    High redshift quasars (z~6) are of great interest to fundamental astronomy due to the information they hold about the early universe. With their low number density in the sky, however, they are elusive objects. Reported here is our search for these high redshift quasars using the Wyoming Infrared Observatory (WIRO) 2.3m telescope. We search for potential candidates that have been detected by surveys such as WISE, which have been mostly redshifted out of the optical. The main emission feature of these quasars (the Lyman-Alpha line at ~1216 Angstroms rest-frame) would be redshifted to the z-band or beyond. This means that the quasars should have very low levels of i-band flux. These objects are known as i-dropouts. By imaging the quasars in the i-band and running photometric analysis on our fields, candidates can be identified or rejected by whether or not they appear in our fields. We also provide an analysis of the colors of our candidate high-redshift quasars.This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under REU grant AST1560461

  1. Were Progenitors of Local L* Galaxies Lyα Emitters at High Redshift?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yajima, Hidenobu; Li, Yuexing; Zhu, Qirong; Abel, Tom; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin

    2012-08-01

    The Lyα emission has been observed from galaxies over a redshift span z ~ 0-8.6. However, the evolution of high-redshift Lyα emitters (LAEs), and the link between these populations and local galaxies, remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate the Lyα properties of progenitors of a local L* galaxy by combining cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with three-dimensional radiative transfer calculations using the new ART2 code. We find that the main progenitor (the most massive one) of a Milky-Way-like galaxy has a number of Lyα properties close to those of observed LAEs at z ~ 2-6, but most of the fainter ones appear to fall below the detection limits of current surveys. The Lyα photon escape fraction depends sensitively on a number of physical properties of the galaxy, such as mass, star formation rate, and metallicity, as well as galaxy morphology and orientation. Moreover, we find that high-redshift LAEs show blueshifted Lyα line profiles characteristic of gas inflow, and that the Lyα emission by excitation cooling increases with redshift, and becomes dominant at z >~ 6. Our results suggest that some observed LAEs at z ~ 2-6 with luminosity of L Lyα ~ 1042-1043 erg s-1 may be similar to the main progenitor of the Milky Way at high redshift, and that they may evolve into present-day L* galaxies.

  2. A Study of Massive and Evolved Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayyeri, H.; Mobasher, B.; Hemmati, S.; De Barros, S.; Ferguson, H. C.; Wiklind, T.; Dahlen, T.; Dickinson, M.; Giavalisco, M.; Fontana, A.; Ashby, M.; Barro, G.; Guo, Y.; Hathi, N. P.; Kassin, S.; Koekemoer, A.; Willner, S.; Dunlop, J. S.; Paris, D.; Targett, T. A.

    2014-10-01

    We use data taken as part of Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) observations of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) to identify massive and evolved galaxies at 3 < z < 4.5. This is performed using the strength of the Balmer break feature at rest-frame 3648 Å, which is a diagnostic of the age of the stellar population in galaxies. Using the WFC3 H-band-selected catalog for the CANDELS GOODS-S field and deep multi-waveband photometry from optical (HST) to mid-infrared (Spitzer) wavelengths, we identify a population of old and evolved post-starburst galaxies based on the strength of their Balmer breaks (Balmer break galaxies, BBGs). The galaxies are also selected to be bright in rest-frame near-IR wavelengths and hence massive. We identify a total of 16 BBGs. Fitting the spectral energy distribution of the BBGs shows that the candidate galaxies have average estimated ages of ~800 Myr and average stellar masses of ~5 × 1010 M ⊙, consistent with being old and massive systems. Two of our BBG candidates are also identified by the criteria that are sensitive to star-forming galaxies (Lyman break galaxy selection). We find a number density of ~3.2 × 10-5 Mpc-3 for the BBGs, corresponding to a mass density of ~2.0 × 106 M ⊙ Mpc-3 in the redshift range covering the survey. Given the old age and the passive evolution, it is argued that some of these objects formed the bulk of their mass only a few hundred million years after the big bang.

  3. A study of massive and evolved galaxies at high redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Nayyeri, H.; Mobasher, B.; Hemmati, S.; De Barros, S.; Ferguson, H. C.; Wiklind, T.; Dahlen, T.; Kassin, S.; Koekemoer, A.; Dickinson, M.; Giavalisco, M.; Fontana, A.; Paris, D.; Ashby, M.; Willner, S.; Barro, G.; Guo, Y.; Hathi, N. P.; Dunlop, J. S.; Targett, T. A.

    2014-10-10

    We use data taken as part of Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) observations of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) to identify massive and evolved galaxies at 3 < z < 4.5. This is performed using the strength of the Balmer break feature at rest-frame 3648 Å, which is a diagnostic of the age of the stellar population in galaxies. Using the WFC3 H-band-selected catalog for the CANDELS GOODS-S field and deep multi-waveband photometry from optical (HST) to mid-infrared (Spitzer) wavelengths, we identify a population of old and evolved post-starburst galaxies based on the strength of their Balmer breaks (Balmer break galaxies, BBGs). The galaxies are also selected to be bright in rest-frame near-IR wavelengths and hence massive. We identify a total of 16 BBGs. Fitting the spectral energy distribution of the BBGs shows that the candidate galaxies have average estimated ages of ∼800 Myr and average stellar masses of ∼5 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, consistent with being old and massive systems. Two of our BBG candidates are also identified by the criteria that are sensitive to star-forming galaxies (Lyman break galaxy selection). We find a number density of ∼3.2 × 10{sup –5} Mpc{sup –3} for the BBGs, corresponding to a mass density of ∼2.0 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} Mpc{sup –3} in the redshift range covering the survey. Given the old age and the passive evolution, it is argued that some of these objects formed the bulk of their mass only a few hundred million years after the big bang.

  4. Spectral Evolution in High Redshift Quasars from the Final Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Trey W.; Vivek, M.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Anderson, Scott F.; Bautista, Julian; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brandt, William N.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Green, Paul; Harris, David W.; Kamble, Vikrant; McGreer, Ian D.; Merloni, Andrea; Myers, Adam; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Pâris, Isabelle; Schneider, Donald P.; Simmons, Audrey; Suzuki, Nao

    2016-12-01

    We report on the diversity in quasar spectra from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. After filtering the spectra to mitigate selection effects and Malmquist bias associated with a nearly flux-limited sample, we create high signal-to-noise ratio composite spectra from 58,656 quasars (2.1≤slant z≤slant 3.5), binned by luminosity, spectral index, and redshift. With these composite spectra, we confirm the traditional Baldwin effect (BE, i.e., the anti-correlation of C iv equivalent width (EW) and luminosity) that follows the relation {W}λ \\propto {L}{β w} with slope {β }w=-0.35+/- 0.004, -0.35 ± 0.005, and -0.41 ± 0.005 for z = 2.25, 2.46, and 2.84, respectively. In addition to the redshift evolution in the slope of the BE, we find redshift evolution in average quasar spectral features at fixed luminosity. The spectroscopic signature of the redshift evolution is correlated at 98% with the signature of varying luminosity, indicating that they arise from the same physical mechanism. At a fixed luminosity, the average C iv FWHM decreases with increasing redshift and is anti-correlated with C iv EW. The spectroscopic signature associated with C iv FWHM suggests that the trends in luminosity and redshift are likely caused by a superposition of effects that are related to black hole mass and Eddington ratio. The redshift evolution is the consequence of a changing balance between these two quantities as quasars evolve toward a population with lower typical accretion rates at a given black hole mass.

  5. Five New High-Redshift Quasar Lenses from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Shin, Min-Su; Kayo, Issha; Strauss, Michael A.; Morokuma, Tomoki; Schneider, Donald P.; Becker, Robert H.; Bahcall, Neta A.; York, Donald G.

    2008-09-08

    We report the discovery of five gravitationally lensed quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). All five systems are selected as two-image lensed quasar candidates from a sample of high-redshift (z > 2.2) SDSS quasars. We confirmed their lensing nature with additional imaging and spectroscopic observations. The new systems are SDSS J0819+5356 (source redshift z{sub s} = 2.237, lens redshift z{sub l} = 0.294, and image separation {theta} = 4.04 inch), SDSS J1254+2235 (z{sub s} = 3.626, {theta} = 1.56 inch), SDSS J1258+1657 (z{sub s} = 2.702, {theta} = 1.28 inch), SDSS J1339+1310 (z{sub s} = 2.243, {theta} = 1.69 cin), and SDSS J1400+3134 (z{sub s} = 3.317, {theta} = 1.74 inch). We estimate the lens redshifts of the latter four systems to be z{sub l} = 0.4-0.6 from the colors and magnitudes of the lensing galaxies. We find that the image configurations of all systems are well reproduced by standard mass models. Although these lenses will not be included in our statistical sample of z{sub s} < 2.2 lenses, they expand the number of lensed quasars which can be used for high-redshift galaxy and quasar studies.

  6. Photometric Redshifts for High Resolution Radio Galaxies in the SuperCLASS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Sinclaire; Casey, Caitlin; Battye, Richard; Hales, Christopher A.; Chapman, Scott; Smail, Ian; SuperCLASS Team

    2017-01-01

    SuperCLASS (the Super-Cluster Assisted Shear Survey) is a deep, wide-area (~2 square degrees) extragalactic field with high resolution (0.1”) radio continuum coverage from e-MERLIN (Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network.) The combination of sensitivity and spatial resolution make e-MERLIN an ideal tool to trace spatially resolved star-formation in heavily obscured, dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs). Plus, thanks to the tight relationship between radio continuum and far-IR observations we have an observationally inexpensive and accurate method of mapping star formation density in distant galaxies. We present a photometric redshift catalog for DSFGs located in the SuperCLASS field. Multiwavelength photometric data was obtained with Subaru SuprimeCam (B,V,r,i,z) and photometric redshifts were generated using the public photometric redshift code, EAZY. With these redshifts we aim to conduct the first large sample morphological analysis of z~1-3 obscured galaxies. We plan to address two important questions: 1) Are the majority of obscured SFR>50 Msolar/yr galaxies driven by major collisions? and 2) do luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) play a crucial role in the quenching of highly obscured star-formation? These photometric redshifts are crucial in determining the physical origins of our DSFG sample and to also conduct radio weak lensing experiments with the e-MERLIN dataset.

  7. Expanding the Gamma-ray Universe: High Redshift Fermi-LAT Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, Roopesh; Paliya, Vaidehi; Gasparrini, Dario; Ajello, Marco; Cutini, Sara; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High-redshift blazars detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) are of great astrophysical import as they are extreme objects whose energetics remain a mystery. Such blazars are intrinsically interesting since they inform us about the evolution of gamma-ray blazars and are, by definition, some of the more luminous blazars in the Fermi-LAT sample. These blazars appear to host very massive black holes and could shed light on the origin and growth of black holes in the early Universe. We present the latest high redshift blazar detections in the LAT and discuss some of their implications.

  8. The Lyman-continuum photon production efficiency in the high-redshift Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Stephen M.; Feng, Yu; Di-Matteo, Tiziana; Croft, Rupert; Stanway, Elizabeth R.; Bouwens, Rychard J.; Thomas, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The Lyman-continuum photon production efficiency (ξion) is a critical ingredient for inferring the number of photons available to reionize the intergalactic medium. To estimate the theoretical production efficiency in the high-redshift Universe we couple the BlueTides cosmological hydrodynamical simulation with a range of stellar population synthesis models. We find Lyman-continuum photon production efficiencies of log10(ξion/erg-1 Hz) ≈ 25.1-25.5 depending on the choice of stellar population synthesis model. These results are broadly consistent with recent observational constraints at high-redshift though favour a model incorporating the effects of binary evolution.

  9. The SFR of high redshift galaxies: mid-IR vs SED fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, P.; Fontana, A.; Grazian, A.

    2009-05-01

    In this work we compare two distinct techniques to estimate the star formation rate (SFR) in high redshift galaxies: mid-infrared emission and SED fitting analysis. We used the multiwavelength GOODS-MUSIC catalog to estimate the total infrared luminosity, which is a SFR indicator arising from dust reprocessed emission, and the star formation rate from the overall SED shape using the 14 bands photometry. We will apply the two methods to a couple of physical topics: the selection of a sample of quiescent galaxies at high redshift and the measure of the star formation rate.

  10. The Black Hole-Bulge Relationship for QSOs at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, G. A.; Menezes, K. L.; Massart, C. A.; Vanden Bout, P.

    2006-04-01

    We examine the black hole mass-galaxy bulge relationship in high-redshift QSOs. Black hole masses are derived from broad emission lines, and the host galaxy stellar velocity dispersion σ* is estimated from the widths of the radio CO emission lines. At redshifts z>3, the CO line widths are narrower than expected for the black hole mass, indicating that these giant black holes reside in undersized bulges by an order of magnitude or more. The largest black holes (MBH>109 Msolar) evidently grow rapidly in the early universe without commensurate growth of their host galaxies. CO line widths offer a unique opportunity to study AGN host galaxy dynamics at high redshift.

  11. The fate of high redshift massive compact galaxies in dense environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, Tobias; Mayer, Lucio; Carollo, Marcella; Feldmann, Robert; /Fermilab /Chicago U., KICP

    2012-01-01

    Massive compact galaxies seem to be more common at high redshift than in the local universe, especially in denser environments. To investigate the fate of such massive galaxies identified at z {approx} 2 we analyse the evolution of their properties in three cosmological hydrodynamical simulations that form virialized galaxy groups of mass {approx} 10{sup 13} M{sub {circle_dot}} hosting a central massive elliptical/S0 galaxy by redshift zero. We find that at redshift {approx} 2 the population of galaxies with M{sub *} > 2 x 10{sup 10} M{sub {circle_dot}} is diverse in terms of mass, velocity dispersion, star formation and effective radius, containing both very compact and relatively extended objects. In each simulation all the compact satellite galaxies have merged into the central galaxy by redshift 0 (with the exception of one simulation where one of such satellite galaxy survives). Satellites of similar mass at z = 0 are all less compact than their high redshift counterparts. They form later than the galaxies in the z = 2 sample and enter the group potential at z < 1, when dynamical friction times are longer than the Hubble time. Also, by z = 0 the central galaxies have increased substantially their characteristic radius via a combination of in situ star formation and mergers. Hence in a group environment descendants of compact galaxies either evolve towards larger sizes or they disappear before the present time as a result of the environment in which they evolve. Since the group-sized halos that we consider are representative of dense environments in the {Lambda}CDM cosmology, we conclude that the majority of high redshift compact massive galaxies do not survive until today as a result of the environment.

  12. Galaxy formation in the Planck cosmology - III. The high-redshift universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, Scott J.; Thomas, Peter A.; Wilkins, Stephen M.; Henriques, Bruno M. B.

    2015-08-01

    We present high-redshift predictions of the star formation rate distribution function (SFRDF), UV luminosity function (UVLF), galactic stellar mass function (GSMF), and specific star formation rates (sSFRs) of galaxies from the latest version of the Munich semi-analytic model L-GALAXIES. We find a good fit to both the shape and normalization of the SFRDF at z = 4-7, apart from a slight underprediction at the low-SFR end at z = 4. Likewise, we find a good fit to the faint number counts for the observed UVLF at brighter magnitudes our predictions lie below the observations, increasingly so at higher redshifts. At all redshifts and magnitudes, the raw (unattenuated) number counts for the UVLF lie above the observations. Because of the good agreement with the SFR we interpret our underprediction as an overestimate of the amount of dust in the model for the brightest galaxies, especially at high redshift. While the shape of our GSMF matches that of the observations, we lie between (conflicting) observations at z = 4-5, and underpredict at z = 6-7. The sSFRs of our model galaxies show the observed trend of increasing normalization with redshift, but do not reproduce the observed mass dependence. Overall, we conclude that the latest version of L-GALAXIES, which is tuned to match observations at z ≤ 3, does a fair job of reproducing the observed properties of galaxies at z ≥ 4. More work needs to be done on understanding observational bias at high redshift, and upon the dust model, before strong conclusions can be drawn on how to interpret remaining discrepancies between the model and observations.

  13. Gamma-ray bursts: cosmic rulers for the high-redshift universe?

    PubMed

    Speirits, Fiona C; Hendry, Martin A; Gonzalez, Alejandro

    2007-05-15

    The desire to extend the Hubble Diagram to higher redshifts than the range of current Type 1a Supernovae observations has prompted investigation into spectral correlations in gamma-ray bursts (GBRs), in the hope that standard candle-like properties can be identified. In this paper, we discuss the potential of these new 'cosmic rulers' and highlight their limitations by investigating the constraints that current data can place on an alternative Cosmological model in the form of Conformal Gravity. By fitting current Type 1a Supernovae and GRB data to the predicted luminosity distance redshift relation of both the standard Concordance Model and the Conformal Gravity, we show that currently neither model is strongly favoured at high redshift. The scatter in the current GRB data testifies to the further work required if GRBs are to cement their place as effective probes of the cosmological distance scale.

  14. HIghZ: A search for HI absorption in high-redshift radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, J.; Callingham, J.; Sadler, E.; Wayth, R.; Curran, S.; Mahoney, E.

    2017-01-01

    We will use the unique low-frequency spectral capability of the MWA to carry out a pilot survey for neutral gas in the interstellar medium of the most distant (z>5) radio galaxies in the Universe. Through detection of the HI 21-cm line in absorption we aim to place stringent lower limits on the source redshift, confirming its location in the early Universe. Our sample makes use of the excellent wide-band spectral information available from the recently completed MWA GLEAM survey, from which we have selected a sample of ultra-steep peaked-spectrum radio sources that have a spectral turnover below 300 MHz. These sources should be ideal candidates for high-redshift compact radio galaxies since they have (a) spectral peaks that turnover below 1GHz and (b) very steep (alpha < -1.0) spectral indices that are consistent with the high density environments expected for radio galaxies in the early Universe. Using the MWA, we aim to verify this hypothesis through the detection of significant column densities of cold HI. This pathfinder project will provide important technical information that will inform future absorption surveys both with the MWA and, ultimately, the SKA-LOW telescope.

  15. Weak Line Quasars at High Redshift: Extremely High Accretion Rates or Anemic Broad-line Regions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Lira, Paulina; Netzer, Hagai; Plotkin, Richard M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2010-10-01

    We present Gemini-North K-band spectra of two representative members of the class of high-redshift quasars with exceptionally weak rest-frame ultraviolet emission lines (WLQs), SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 at z = 3.55 and SDSS J123743.08+630144.9 at z = 3.49. In both sources, we detect an unusually weak broad Hβ line and place tight upper limits on the strengths of their [O III] lines. Virial, Hβ-based black hole mass determinations indicate normalized accretion rates of L/L Edd=0.4 for these sources, which is well within the range observed for typical quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts. We also present high-quality XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 and find a hard-X-ray photon index of Γ = 1.91+0.24 -0.22, which supports the virial L/L Edd determination in this source. Our results suggest that the weakness of the broad emission lines in WLQs is not a consequence of an extreme continuum-emission source but instead due to abnormal broad emission line region properties.

  16. Observational Signatures of High-Redshift Quasars and Local Relics of Black Hole Seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Amy E.; Comastri, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    Observational constraints on the birth and early evolution of massive black holes come from two extreme regimes. At high redshift, quasars signal the rapid growth of billion-solar-mass black holes and indicate that these objects began remarkably heavy and/or accreted mass at rates above the Eddington limit. At low redshift, the smallest nuclear black holes known are found in dwarf galaxies and provide the most concrete limits on the mass of black hole seeds. Here, we review current observational work in these fields that together are critical for our understanding of the origin of massive black holes in the Universe.

  17. THE FAINT END OF THE CLUSTER-GALAXY LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Mancone, Conor L.; Baker, Troy; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Snyder, Greg; Stanford, Spencer A.; Brodwin, Mark; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Wright, Edward L.

    2012-12-20

    We measure the faint-end slope of the galaxy luminosity function (LF) for cluster galaxies at 1 < z < 1.5 using Spitzer IRAC data. We investigate whether this slope, {alpha}, differs from that of the field LF at these redshifts, and with the cluster LF at low redshifts. The latter is of particular interest as low-luminosity galaxies are expected to undergo significant evolution. We use seven high-redshift spectroscopically confirmed galaxy clusters drawn from the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey to measure the cluster-galaxy LF down to depths of M* + 3 (3.6 {mu}m) and M* + 2.5 (4.5 {mu}m). The summed LF at our median cluster redshift (z = 1.35) is well fit by a Schechter distribution with {alpha}{sub 3.6{mu}m} = -0.97 {+-} 0.14 and {alpha}{sub 4.5{mu}m} = -0.91 {+-} 0.28, consistent with a flat faint-end slope and is in agreement with measurements of the field LF in similar bands at these redshifts. A comparison to {alpha} in low-redshift clusters finds no statistically significant evidence of evolution. Combined with past studies which show that M* is passively evolving out to z {approx} 1.3, this means that the shape of the cluster LF is largely in place by z {approx} 1.3. This suggests that the processes that govern the buildup of the mass of low-mass cluster galaxies have no net effect on the faint-end slope of the cluster LF at z {approx}< 1.3.

  18. Dust Formation, Evolution, and Obscuration Effects in the Very High-Redshift Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli; Staguhn, Johannes; Arendt, Richard G.; Kovacs, Attila; Su, Ting; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of dust at redshifts z > or approx. 9, and consequently the dust properties, differs greatly from that in the local universe. In contrast to the local universe, core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the only source of thermally-condensed dust. Because of the low initial dust-to-gas mass ratio, grain destruction rates are low, so that CCSNe are net producers of interstellar dust. Galaxies with large initial gas mass or high mass infall rate will therefore have a more rapid net rate of dust production comported to galaxies with lower gas mass, even at the same star formation rate. The dust composition is dominated by silicates, which exhibit a strong rise in the UV opacity near the Lyman break. This "silicate-UV break" may be confused with the Lyman break, resulting in a misidentification of a galaxies' photometric redshift. In this paper we demonstrate these effects by analyzing the spectral energy distribution (SED) of MACS1149-JD, a lensed galaxy at z = 9.6. A potential 2mm counterpart of MACS1149-JD has been identified with GISMO. While additional observations are required to corroborate this identification, we use this possible association to illustrate the physical processes and the observational effects of dust in the very high redshift universe. Subject headings: galaxies: high-redshift - galaxies: evolution - galaxies: individual (MACS1149- JD) - Interstellar medium (ISM), nebulae: dust, extinction - physical data and processes: nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances.

  19. The high-redshift galaxy population in hierarchical galaxy formation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitzbichler, M. G.; White, S. D. M.

    2007-03-01

    We compare observations of the high-redshift galaxy population to the predictions of the galaxy formation model of Croton et al. and De Lucia & Blaizot. This model, implemented on the Millennium Simulation of the concordance Lambda cold dark matter cosmogony, introduces `radio mode' feedback from the central galaxies of groups and clusters in order to obtain quantitative agreement with the luminosity, colour, morphology and clustering properties of the present-day galaxy population. Here we construct deep light cone surveys in order to compare model predictions to the observed counts and redshift distributions of distant galaxies, as well as to their inferred luminosity and mass functions out to redshift 5. With the exception of the mass functions, all these properties are sensitive to modelling of dust obscuration. A simple but plausible treatment agrees moderately well with most of the data. The predicted abundance of relatively massive (~M*) galaxies appears systematically high at high redshift, suggesting that such galaxies assemble earlier in this model than in the real Universe. An independent galaxy formation model implemented on the same simulation matches the observed mass functions slightly better, so the discrepancy probably reflects incomplete or inaccurate galaxy formation physics rather than problems with the underlying cosmogony.

  20. A supernova origin for dust in a high-redshift quasar.

    PubMed

    Maiolino, R; Schneider, R; Oliva, E; Bianchi, S; Ferrara, A; Mannucci, F; Pedani, M; Sogorb, M Roca

    2004-09-30

    Interstellar dust plays a crucial role in the evolution of the Universe by assisting the formation of molecules, by triggering the formation of the first low-mass stars, and by absorbing stellar ultraviolet-optical light and subsequently re-emitting it at infrared/millimetre wavelengths. Dust is thought to be produced predominantly in the envelopes of evolved (age >1 Gyr), low-mass stars. This picture has, however, recently been brought into question by the discovery of large masses of dust in the host galaxies of quasars at redshift z > 6, when the age of the Universe was less than 1 Gyr. Theoretical studies, corroborated by observations of nearby supernova remnants, have suggested that supernovae provide a fast and efficient dust formation environment in the early Universe. Here we report infrared observations of a quasar at redshift 6.2, which are used to obtain directly its dust extinction curve. We then show that such a curve is in excellent agreement with supernova dust models. This result demonstrates a supernova origin for dust in this high-redshift quasar, from which we infer that most of the dust at high redshifts probably has the same origin.

  1. The Main Sequences of Star-forming Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancuso, C.; Lapi, A.; Shi, J.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Béthermin, M.; Danese, L.

    2016-12-01

    We provide a novel, unifying physical interpretation on the origin, average shape, scatter, and cosmic evolution for the main sequences of star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at high redshift z≳ 1. We achieve this goal in a model-independent way by exploiting: (i) the redshift-dependent star formation rate functions based on the latest UV/far-IR data from HST/Herschel, and related statistics of strong gravitationally lensed sources; (ii) deterministic evolutionary tracks for the history of star formation and black hole accretion, gauged on a wealth of multiwavelength observations including the observed Eddington ratio distribution. We further validate these ingredients by showing their consistency with the observed galaxy stellar mass functions and AGN bolometric luminosity functions at different redshifts via the continuity equation approach. Our analysis of the main sequence for high-redshift galaxies and AGNs highlights that the present data are consistently interpreted in terms of an in situ coevolution scenario for star formation and black hole accretion, envisaging these as local, time-coordinated processes.

  2. Understanding the Physical Conditions in Local Analogs of High-Redshift Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiewak, Renée; Erb, Dawn; Tremonti, Christina A.; Berg, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Observations of strong nebular emission lines in high-redshift galaxies (z~2) can be illuminated through the use of analogous local galaxies (z<0.4), for which many more emission lines can be measured. The observed offset in the "BPT" ([N II]λ6584/Hα vs. [O III]λ5007/Hβ) nebular diagnostic diagram between the locus of high redshift galaxies and that of typical local galaxies indicates a change in the physical conditions of the galaxies with redshift; the cause of this offset is unknown, but it may be associated with the ionization parameter, the hardness of the ionizing spectrum, or the N/O abundance ratio. To study the offset, we have selected a sample of local galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 12 (SDSS-III/BOSS DR12), which occupies the same space in the [N II]λ6584/Hα vs. [O III]λ5007/Hβ diagnostic diagram as the z~2 sample. Using a suite of >50 different emission lines, most of which are unavailable in analyses of higher redshift galaxies, and a novel method of improving the spectrophotometric calibration of BOSS data, we investigate the metallicity, ionization state, and abundance ratios of this offset sample in order to shed light on the physical conditions in galaxies in the early universe.

  3. Broadband and Narrowband Search for z < 1 Analogs of High Redshift Star Forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenwasser, Benjamin; Barger, Amy J.; Wold, Isak; Lauchlan Cowie, Lennox

    2017-01-01

    Studies of high redshift (z > 6) galaxies rely on extreme broadband colors from Spitzer/IRAC to select samples of low-mass star forming galaxies. These broadband excess searches are biased towards galaxies with the strongest emission lines, and the extent to which existing studies miss fainter galaxies with lower star formation rates remains unknown. Using both broadband (BB) and narrowband (NB) imaging from the HyperSuprimeCam (HSC) and SuprimeCam (SC) on the Subaru Telescope, we have performed a search for z < 1 strong emission line galaxies, which are analogs of the high redshift population. The search was performed over roughly 4 square degrees centered on the COSMOS field, and the narrowband filters allow us to probe fainter emission lines than the broadband searches. We carried out spectral followup of our BB excess and NB excess samples using WIYN/Hydra to measure redshifts and line ratios in order to understand the biases in the different selection techniques. We also investigate the rest frame UV properties of our sample using data from GALEX. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of using broadband colors to select intermediate redshift emission line galaxies.

  4. Strong magnetic fields in normal galaxies at high redshift.

    PubMed

    Bernet, Martin L; Miniati, Francesco; Lilly, Simon J; Kronberg, Philipp P; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava

    2008-07-17

    The origin and growth of magnetic fields in galaxies is still something of an enigma. It is generally assumed that seed fields are amplified over time through the dynamo effect, but there are few constraints on the timescale. It was recently demonstrated that field strengths as traced by rotation measures of distant (and hence ancient) quasars are comparable to those seen today, but it was unclear whether the high fields were in the unusual environments of the quasars themselves or distributed along the lines of sight. Here we report high-resolution spectra that demonstrate that the quasars with strong Mg II absorption lines are unambiguously associated with larger rotation measures. Because Mg ii absorption occurs in the haloes of normal galaxies along the sightlines to the quasars, this association requires that organized fields of surprisingly high strengths are associated with normal galaxies when the Universe was only about one-third of its present age.

  5. THE POPULATION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE CHANDRA-COSMOS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Hao, H.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Gilli, R.; Mignoli, M.; Salvato, M.; Capak, P.; Kakazu, Y.; Masters, D.; Fiore, F.; Ikeda, H.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Miyaji, T.; Puccetti, S.; Shankar, F.; Silverman, J.; Vignali, C.

    2011-11-10

    We present the high-redshift (3 redshifts plus 20 sources with a formal z{sub phot} < 3 but with a broad photometric redshift probability distribution, such that z{sub phot} + 1{sigma} > 3. Eighty-one sources are selected in the 0.5-2 keV band, fourteen are selected in the 2-10 keV and six in the 0.5-10 keV bands. We sample the high-luminosity (log L{sub (2-10keV)} > 44.15 erg s{sup -1}) space density up to z {approx} 5 and a fainter luminosity range (43.5 erg s{sup -1} < log L{sub (2-10keV)} < 44.15 erg s{sup -1}) than previous studies, up to z = 3.5. We weighted the contribution to the number counts and the space density of the sources with photometric redshift by using their probability of being at z > 3. We find that the space density of high-luminosity AGNs declines exponentially at all the redshifts, confirming the trend observed for optically selected quasars. At lower luminosity, the measured space density is not conclusive, and a larger sample of faint sources is needed. Comparisons with optical luminosity functions and black hole formation models are presented together with prospects for future surveys.

  6. High-Redshift Galaxies with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes and will continue their rich legacy of high-z galaxy studies with a combination of deep, high-resolution infrared photometry and multi-object or integral field spectroscopy. As a large (6.6m) cold (50K) space telescope, JWST is well optimized for studying high-z galaxies and the science goals include the formation of the first stars and galaxies in the early universe and the chemical, morphological and dynamical buildup of galaxies. Webb has four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory is confirmed for launch into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction and test phase. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors and scientific instruments and the start of high-level assembly and cryogenic testing. Proposals for the first cycle of scientific observations will be due in February 2018; the community should begin planning their proposals now.

  7. The high-redshift star formation history from carbon-monoxide intensity maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breysse, Patrick C.; Kovetz, Ely D.; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate how cosmic star formation history can be measured with one-point statistics of carbon-monoxide intensity maps. Using a P(D) analysis, the luminosity function of CO-emitting sources can be inferred from the measured one-point intensity PDF. The star formation rate density (SFRD) can then be obtained, at several redshifts, from the CO luminosity density. We study the effects of instrumental noise, line foregrounds, and target redshift, and obtain constraints on the CO luminosity density of the order of 10 per cent. We show that the SFRD uncertainty is dominated by that of the model connecting CO luminosity and star formation. For pessimistic estimates of this model uncertainty, we obtain an error of the order of 50 per cent on SFRD for surveys targeting redshifts between two and seven with reasonable noise and foregrounds included. However, comparisons between intensity maps and galaxies could substantially reduce this model uncertainty. In this case, our constraints on SFRD at these redshifts improve to roughly 5 - 10 per cent, which is highly competitive with current measurements.

  8. On the [CII]-SFR Relation in High Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallini, L.; Gallerani, S.; Ferrara, A.; Pallottini, A.; Yue, B.

    2015-11-01

    After two Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observing cycles, only a handful of [C ii] 158 μm emission line searches in z > 6 galaxies have reported a positive detection, questioning the applicability of the local [C ii]-star formation rate (SFR) relation to high-z systems. To investigate this issue we use the Vallini et al. (V13) model,based on high-resolution, radiative transfer cosmological simulations to predict the [C ii] emission from the interstellar medium of a z ≈ 7 (halo mass Mh = 1.17 × 1011 M⊙) galaxy. We improve the V13 model by including (a) a physically motivated metallicity (Z) distribution of the gas, (b) the contribution of photodissociation regions (PDRs), and (c) the effects of cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the [C ii] line luminosity. We study the relative contribution of diffuse neutral gas to the total [C ii] emission (Fdiff/Ftot) for different SFR and Z values. We find that the [C ii] emission arises predominantly from PDRs: regardless of the galaxy properties, Fdiff/Ftot ≤ 10%, since at these early epochs the CMB temperature approaches the spin temperature of the [C ii] transition in the cold neutral medium (TCMB ˜ {T}s{{CNM}} ˜ 20 K). Our model predicts a high-z [C ii]-SFR relation, consistent with observations of local dwarf galaxies (0.02 < Z/Z⊙ < 0.5). The [C ii] deficit suggested by actual data (LCii < 2.0 × 107 L⊙ in BDF3299 at z ≈ 7.1) if confirmed by deeper ALMA observations, can be ascribed to negative stellar feedback disrupting molecular clouds around star formation sites. The deviation from the local [C ii]-SFR would then imply a modified Kennicutt-Schmidt relation in z > 6 galaxies. Alternatively/in addition, the deficit might be explained by low gas metallicities (Z < 0.1 Z⊙).

  9. The premature formation of high-redshift galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Melia, Fulvio

    2014-05-01

    Observations with WFC3/IR on the Hubble Space Telescope and the use of gravitational lensing techniques have facilitated the discovery of galaxies as far back as z ∼ 10-12, a truly remarkable achievement. However, this rapid emergence of high-z galaxies, barely ∼200 Myr after the transition from Population III star formation to Population II, appears to be in conflict with the standard view of how the early universe evolved. This problem has much in common with the better known (and probably related) premature appearance of supermassive black holes at z ≳ 6. It is difficult to understand how ∼10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} black holes could have appeared so quickly after the big bang without invoking non-standard accretion physics and the formation of massive seeds, neither of which is seen in the local universe. In earlier work, we showed that the appearance of high-z quasars could instead be understood more reasonably in the context of the R {sub h} = ct universe, which does not suffer from the same time compression issues as ΛCDM does at early epochs. Here, we build on that work by demonstrating that the evolutionary growth of primordial galaxies was consistent with the current view of how the first stars formed, but only with the timeline afforded by the R {sub h} = ct cosmology. We also show that the growth of high-z quasars was mutually consistent with that of the earliest galaxies, though it is not yet clear whether the former grew from 5-20 M {sub ☉} seeds created in Population III or Population II supernova explosions.

  10. Feedback regulated escape of ionising radiation from high redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trebitsch, M.; Blaizot, J.

    2016-12-01

    Small galaxies are thought to provide the bulk of the radiation necessary to reionise the Universe by z ˜ 6. Their ionising efficiency is usually quantified by their escape fraction f_{esc}, but it is extremely hard to constrain from observations. With the goal of studying the physical processes that determine the values of the escape fraction, we have run a series of high resolution, cosmological, radiative hydrodynamics simulations centred on three galaxies. We find that the variability of the escape fraction follows that of the star formation rate, and that local feedback is necessary for radiation to escape.

  11. The superluminous supernova PS1-11ap: bridging the gap between low and high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrum, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Kotak, R.; Rest, A.; Jerkstrand, A.; Inserra, C.; Rodney, S. A.; Chen, T.-W.; Howell, D. A.; Huber, M. E.; Pastorello, A.; Tonry, J. L.; Bresolin, F.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Smith, K.; Botticella, M. T.; Foley, R. J.; Fraser, M.; Milisavljevic, D.; Nicholl, M.; Riess, A. G.; Stubbs, C. W.; Valenti, S.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Wright, D.; Young, D. R.; Drout, M.; Czekala, I.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Draper, P.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Price, P. A.; Sweeney, W.; Wainscoat, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    We present optical photometric and spectroscopic coverage of the superluminous supernova (SLSN) PS1-11ap, discovered with the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey at z = 0.524. This intrinsically blue transient rose slowly to reach a peak magnitude of Mu = -21.4 mag and bolometric luminosity of 8 × 1043 erg s-1 before settling on to a relatively shallow gradient of decline. The observed decline is significantly slower than those of the SLSNe-Ic which have been the focus of much recent attention. Spectroscopic similarities with the lower redshift SN2007bi and a decline rate similar to 56Co decay time-scale initially indicated that this transient could be a candidate for a pair instability supernova (PISN) explosion. Overall the transient appears quite similar to SN2007bi and the lower redshift object PTF12dam. The extensive data set, from 30 d before peak to 230 d after, allows a detailed and quantitative comparison with published models of PISN explosions. We find that the PS1-11ap data do not match these model explosion parameters well, supporting the recent claim that these SNe are not pair instability explosions. We show that PS1-11ap has many features in common with the faster declining SLSNe-Ic, and the light-curve evolution can also be quantitatively explained by the magnetar spin-down model. At a redshift of z = 0.524, the observer-frame optical coverage provides comprehensive rest-frame UV data and allows us to compare it with the SLSNe recently found at high redshifts between z = 2 and 4. While these high-z explosions are still plausible PISN candidates, they match the photometric evolution of PS1-11ap and hence could be counterparts to this lower redshift transient.

  12. Galactic Synchrotron Emission and the Far-infrared-Radio Correlation at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schober, J.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Klessen, R. S.

    2016-08-01

    Theoretical scenarios, including the turbulent small-scale dynamo, predict that strong magnetic fields already exist in young galaxies. Based on the assumption of energy equipartition between magnetic fields and turbulence, we determine the galactic synchrotron flux as a function of redshift z. Galaxies in the early universe are different from local galaxies, in particular, the former have more intense star formation. To cover a large range of conditions, we consider two different systems: one model galaxy comparable to the Milky Way and one typical high-z starburst galaxy. We include a model of the steady-state cosmic ray spectrum and find that synchrotron emission can be detected up to cosmological redshifts with current and future radio telescopes. The turbulent dynamo theory is in agreement with the origin of the observed correlation between the far-infrared (FIR) luminosity L FIR and the radio luminosity L radio. Our model reproduces this correlation well at z = 0. We extrapolate the FIR-radio correlation to higher redshifts and predict a time evolution with a significant deviation from its present-day appearance already at z≈ 2 for a gas density that increases strongly with z. In particular, we predict a decrease of the radio luminosity with redshift which is caused by the increase of cosmic ray energy losses at high z. The result is an increase of the ratio between L FIR and L radio. Simultaneously, we predict that the slope of the FIR-radio correlation becomes shallower with redshift. This behavior of the correlation could be observed in the near future with ultra-deep radio surveys.

  13. Nonadiabatic spectral redshift of high-order harmonics with the help of a VUV pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hongchuan; Xue, Shan; Wang, Huiqiao; Zhang, Zhilei; Hu, Bitao

    2015-06-01

    We theoretically investigate the nonadiabatic spectral redshift of high-order harmonics with the help of a VUV pulse. It is found that the nonadiabatic spectral redshift of high-order harmonics can be observed when a weak VUV pulse is properly added in the falling part of the fundamental laser due to the nonadiabatic response of the dipole to rapid change of laser intensity. Further time-frequency analysis shows that the high-order harmonics are mainly generated in the falling part of the fundamental pulse. This is because the VUV pulse enhances the ionization in the falling part of the fundamental pulse by the 1s-2p transition of He+ . In addition, this scheme is also used to observe the nonadiabatic spectral blueshift of high-order harmonics by changing the time delay between the fundamental laser and the VUV pulse.

  14. PROBING THE PHYSICAL CONDITIONS OF ATOMIC GAS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Neeleman, Marcel; Wolfe, Arthur M.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2015-02-10

    A new method is used to measure the physical conditions of the gas in damped Lyα systems (DLAs). Using high-resolution absorption spectra of a sample of 80 DLAs, we are able to measure the ratio of the upper and lower fine-structure levels of the ground state of C{sup +} and Si{sup +}. These ratios are determined solely by the physical conditions of the gas. We explore the allowed physical parameter space using a Monte Carlo Markov chain method to constrain simultaneously the temperature, neutral hydrogen density, and electron density of each DLA. The results indicate that at least 5% of all DLAs have the bulk of their gas in a dense, cold phase with typical densities of ∼100 cm{sup –3} and temperatures below 500 K. We further find that the typical pressure of DLAs in our sample is log (P/k{sub B} ) = 3.4 (K cm{sup –3}), which is comparable to the pressure of the local interstellar medium (ISM), and that the components containing the bulk of the neutral gas can be quite small with absorption sizes as small as a few parsecs. We show that the majority of the systems are consistent with having densities significantly higher than expected for a purely canonical warm neutral medium, indicating that significant quantities of dense gas (i.e., n {sub H} > 0.1 cm{sup –3}) are required to match observations. Finally, we identify eight systems with positive detections of Si II*. These systems have pressures (P/k{sub B} ) in excess of 20,000 K cm{sup –3}, which suggest that these systems tag a highly turbulent ISM in young, star-forming galaxies.

  15. A high-redshift quasar absorber without C IV. A galactic outflow caught in the act?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Anne; Richter, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    We present a detailed analysis of a very unusual sub-damped Lyman α (sub-DLA) system at redshift z = 2.304 towards the quasar Q 0453-423, based on high signal-to-noise (S/N), high-resolution spectral data obtained with VLT/UVES. With a neutral hydrogen column density of log N(H i) = 19.23 and a metallicity of -1.61 as indicated by [O i/H i] the sub-DLA mimics the properties of many other optically thick absorbers at this redshift. A very unusual feature of this system is, however, the lack of any C iv absorption at the redshift of the neutral hydrogen absorption, although the relevant spectral region is free of line blends and has very high S/N. Instead, we find high-ion absorption from C iv and O vi in another metal absorber at a velocity more than 220 km s-1 redwards of the neutral gas component. We explore the physical conditions in the two different absorption systems using Cloudy photoionisation models. We find that the weakly ionised absorber is dense and metal-poor while the highly ionised system is thin and more metal-rich. The absorber pair towards Q 0453-423 mimics the expected features of a galactic outflow with highly ionised material that moves away with high radial velocities from a (proto)galactic gas disk in which star-formation takes place. We discuss our findings in the context of C iv absorption line statistics at high redshift and compare our results to recent galactic-wind and outflow models.

  16. High Resolution Spectra of Low Redshift Damped Lyalpha Absorption Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, R. D.; Beaver, E. A.; Junkkarinen, V. T.; Lyons, R. W.; Smith, H. E.

    1998-05-01

    We have been able to form a fairly complete picture of the galaxy responsible for the z_a=0.395 absorption line system in PKS 1229--021 by combining Keck HIRES and LRIS spectroscopy with observations taken with the Hubble Space Telescope. The image of the absorber is consistent with the inclined disk of a moderately luminous spiral galaxy. We have not been able to detect the continuum from this galaxy spectroscopically, but our LRIS spectra show emission from [O II] lambda3727 which can be interpreted to be indicative of star formation at the rate of a few M_⊙ per year. The HIRES spectra clearly show an ``edge--leading'' absorption profile. Prochaska and Wolfe have predicted that the velocity of the center of mass of the absorbing galaxy should fall near one edge of the absorption profile if the damped Lyalpha systems are due to the rotating disks of spiral galaxies. The [O II] emission velocity is consistent with this, but there is some ambiguity due to the doublet nature of the [O II] emission. Although the absorption lines of the abundant elements are saturated in the components which correspond to the H I absorption, we have been able to measure accurate column densities for Ca II, Ti II, and Mn II for comparison with the H I column density determined from low resolution HST/FOS spectra. The abundances are compatible with approximately 0.1 of solar, with little or no dust, but they are also consistent with lines of sight toward zeta Oph through warm interstellar clouds. HIRES observations of the z_a=0.692 absorption line system in 3CR 286 will also be discussed, after the data are fully analyzed. This work is part of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph Guaranteed Time Observations and is supported by NASA grant NAG5--1858 and the NSF.

  17. OUTFLOW AND HOT DUST EMISSION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huiyuan; Xing, Feijun; Wang, Tinggui; Zhou, Hongyan; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Shaohua

    2013-10-10

    Correlations of hot dust emission with outflow properties are investigated, based on a large z ∼ 2 non-broad absorption line quasar sample built from the Wide-field Infrared Survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data releases. We use the near-infrared slope and the infrared to UV luminosity ratio to indicate the hot dust emission relative to the emission from the accretion disk. In our luminous quasars, these hot dust emission indicators are almost independent of the fundamental parameters, such as luminosity, Eddington ratio and black hole mass, but moderately dependent on the blueshift and asymmetry index (BAI) and FWHM of C IV lines. Interestingly, the latter two correlations dramatically strengthen with increasing Eddington ratio. We suggest that, in high Eddington ratio quasars, C IV regions are dominated by outflows so the BAI and FWHM (C IV) can reliably reflect the general properties and velocity of outflows, respectively. In low Eddington ratio quasars, on the other hand, C IV lines are primarily emitted by virialized gas so the BAI and FWHM (C IV) become less sensitive to outflows. Therefore, the correlations for the highest Eddington ratio quasars are more likely to represent the true dependence of hot dust emission on outflows and the correlations for the entire sample are significantly diluted by the low Eddington ratio quasars. Our results show that an outflow with a large BAI or velocity can double the hot dust emission on average. We suggest that outflows either contain hot dust in themselves or interact with the dusty interstellar medium or torus.

  18. Detecting Massive, High-Redshift Galaxy Clusters Using the Thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Carson; Steinhardt, Charles L.; Loeb, Abraham; Karim, Alexander; Staguhn, Johannes; Erler, Jens; Capak, Peter L.

    2017-01-01

    We develop the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect as a direct astrophysical measure of the mass distribution of dark matter halos. The SZ effect increases with cosmological distance, a unique astronomical property, and is highly sensitive to halo mass. We find that this presents a powerful methodology for distinguishing between competing models of the halo mass function distribution, particularly in the high-redshift domain just a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. Recent surveys designed to probe this epoch of initial galaxy formation such as CANDELS and SPLASH report an over-abundance of highly massive halos as inferred from stellar ultraviolet (UV) luminosities and the stellar mass to halo mass ratio estimated from nearby galaxies. If these UV luminosity to halo mass relations hold to high-redshift, observations estimate several orders of magnitude more highly massive halos than predicted by hierarchical merging and the standard cosmological paradigm. Strong constraints on the masses of these galaxy clusters are essential to resolving the current tension between observation and theory. We conclude that detections of thermal SZ sources are plausible at high-redshift only for the halo masses inferred from observation. Therefore, future SZ surveys will provide a robust determination between theoretical and observational predictions.

  19. An empirical model for the galaxy luminosity and star formation rate function at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashian, Natalie; Oesch, Pascal A.; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Using the most recent measurements of the ultraviolet (UV) luminosity functions (LFs) and dust estimates of early galaxies, we derive updated dust-corrected star formation rate functions (SFRFs) at z ˜ 4-8, which we model to predict the evolution to higher redshifts, z > 8. We employ abundance matching techniques to calibrate a relation between galaxy star formation rate (SFR) and host halo mass Mh by mapping the shape of the observed SFRFs at z ˜ 4-8 to that of the halo mass function. The resulting scaling law remains roughly constant over this redshift range. We apply the average SFR-Mh relation to reproduce the observed SFR functions at 4 ≲ z ≲ 8 and also derive the expected UV LFs at higher redshifts. At z ˜ 9 and z ˜ 10 these model LFs are in excellent agreement with current observed estimates. Our predicted number densities and UV LFs at z > 10 indicate that James Webb Space Telescope will be able to detect galaxies out to z ˜ 15 with an extensive treasury sized program. We also derive the redshift evolution of the star formation rate density (SFRD) and associated reionization history by galaxies. Models which integrate down to the current HUDF12/XDF detection limit (MUV ˜ -17.7 mag) result in a SFRD that declines as (1 + z)-10.4 ± 0.3 at high redshift and fail to reproduce the observed cosmic microwave background electron scattering optical depth, τ ≃ 0.066, to within 1σ. On the other hand, we find that the inclusion of galaxies with SFRs well below the current detection limit (MUV < -5.7 mag) leads to a fully reionized universe by z ˜ 6.5 and an optical depth of τ ≃ 0.054, consistent with the recently derived Planck value at the 1σ level.

  20. The Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey High Redshift Search for Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strolger, L.-G.; Riess, A. G.; Dahlen, T.; GOODS SN Searchers; HHZS Team

    2003-05-01

    We have recently concluded the Hubble Higher-z Supernova Team's search for high redshift supernovae in conjunction with the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS). Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), we have surveyed ˜170 sq. arcmin fields about the CDF-S and HSF-N on five epochs each, with ˜45 day baselines. These deep observations have allowed us to discover ˜40 supernovae in the range of 0.2redshift SNe using Keck and the VLT. With the ACS grism, and novel color-magnitude-redshift methods, we have been able to classify higher redshift events too faint to be spectroscopically identified from the ground. Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia) observations at /line{z}˜=0.5 provide the only direct evidence for an accelerating Universe. Using a sample of SNe Ia harvested from this survey, we will report elsewhere (Riess et al 2003; in preparation) a direct test of this measurement by looking for cosmic deceleration at z>=1. A cosmic evolution of SN Ia luminosity or ``grey dust'' would cause SNe Ia to be systematically fainter at higher-z and thus show a different sign and shape on the Hubble diagram. We are also investigating the rate of SNe at /line{z}˜=0.8-1.0, the relation to the local rates, comparisons of host environments to low redshift host environments, and the implications of each to SN progenitors, star formation rate history, and possibly to cosmology.

  1. RED-SEQUENCE GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFT BY THE COMBO-17+4 SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Nicol, Marie-Helene; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Wolf, Christian; Tapken, Christian E-mail: meise@mpia.de E-mail: ctapken@aip.de

    2011-01-20

    We investigate the evolution of the galaxy population since redshift 2 with a focus on the color bimodality and mass density of the red sequence. We obtain precise and reliable photometric redshifts up to z = 2 by supplementing the optical survey COMBO-17 with observations in four near-infrared bands on 0.2 deg{sup 2} of the COMBO-17 A901-field. Our results are based on an H-band-selected catalog of 10,692 galaxies complete to H = 21fm7. We measure the rest-frame color (U{sub 280}-V) of each galaxy, which across the redshift range of our interest requires no extrapolation and is robust against moderate redshift errors by staying clear of the 4000 A break. We measure the color-magnitude relation of the red sequence as a function of look-back time from the peak in a color-error-weighted histogram, and thus trace the galaxy bimodality out to z {approx_equal} 1.65. The (U{sub 280}-V) of the red sequence is found to evolve almost linearly with look-back time. At high redshift, we find massive galaxies in both the red and the blue population. Red-sequence galaxies with log M{sub *}/M{sub sun}>11 increase in mass density by a factor of {approx}4 from z {approx} 2 to 1 and remain nearly constant at z < 1. However, some galaxies as massive as log M{sub *}/M{sub sun} = 11.5 are already in place at z {approx} 2.

  2. Probing the Physical Properties of High-Redshift Lyman-Alpha Emitters with Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, Keely; Finkelstein, Steven; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta

    2015-08-01

    Abstract: Studies of Lyman Alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs) offer insight into an understanding of early galaxies and the build-up of galaxies at early times. To better understand these objects and constrain their stellar properties, we have observed a sample of 162 z=4.5 and 14 z=5.7 LAEs with deep Spitzer IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 micron imaging from the Spitzer Lyman Alpha Survey. This is by far the largest sample of high-redshift LAEs imaged with Spitzer, which probes rest-frame optical wavelengths at these redshifts, dramatically improving constraints on the stellar masses and star-formation rates. By fitting the spectral energy distributions of individual LAEs using ground-based optical, HST near-IR, and Spitzer mid-IR imaging, we show that our sample of LAEs has a wide range of stellar properties. For individual LAEs detected with IRAC, stellar mass ranges from 5x10^8 - 10^11 solar masses. In addition, we find a correlation between stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR), similar to trends measured at lower redshift (e.g. Noeske et al. 2007; Daddi et al. 2007). However for this sample of higher redshift LAEs, the LAE sequence is elevated compared to continuum-selected galaxies at the same redshift, meaning that for a given stellar mass, the LAEs tend to have higher star formation rates. However, a subset of massive LAEs sits on the continuum-selected galaxy trend, tentatively implying that there may be two mechanisms for Lyman alpha escape.

  3. Dusty Star Forming Galaxies and Supermassive Black Holes at High Redshifts: In- Situ Coevolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancuso, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    We have exploited the continuity equation approach and the star-formation timescales derived from the observed 'main sequence' relation (Star Formation Rate vs Stellar Mass), to show that the observed high abundance of galaxies with stellar masses ≥ a few 10^10 M⊙ at redshift z ≥ 4 implies the existence of a galaxy population featuring large star formation rates (SFRs) ψ ≥ 10^2 M⊙ yr^-1 in heavily dust-obscured conditions. These galaxies constitute the high-redshift counterparts of the dusty star-forming population already surveyed for z ≤ 3 in the Far-InfraRed (FIR) band by the Herschel space observatory. We work out specific predictions for the evolution of the corresponding stellar mass and SFR functions out to z ∼10, elucidating that the number density at z ≤ 8 for SFRs ψ ≥ 30 M⊙ yr^-1 cannot be estimated relying on the UltraViolet (UV) luminosity function alone, even when standard corrections for dust extinction based on the UV slope are applied. We compute the number counts and redshift distributions (including galaxy-scale gravitational lensing) of this galaxy population, and show that current data from AzTEC-LABOCA, SCUBA-2 and ALMA-SPT surveys are already digging into it. We substantiate how an observational strategy based on a color preselection in the far-IR or (sub-)mm band with Herschel and SCUBA-2, supplemented by photometric data via on-source observations with ALMA, can allow to reconstruct the bright end of the SFR functions out to z ≤ 8. In parallel, such a challenging task can be managed by exploiting current UV surveys in combination with (sub-)mm observations by ALMA and NIKA2. The same could be done with radio observations by SKA and its precursors. In particular we have worked out predictions for the radio counts of star-forming galaxies down to nJy levels, along with redshift distributions down to the detection limits of the phase 1 Square Kilometer Array MID telescope (SKA1-MID) and of its precursors. To do that we

  4. Stellar Populations, Outflows, and Morphologies of High-Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornei, Katherine Anne

    the centroids of FeII interstellar absorption lines, are found to span the interval -217, +155 km s-1. We find that ˜ 40% (10%) of the sample exhibits blueshifted FeII lines at the 1sigma (3sigma) level. We also measure maximal outflow velocities using the profiles of the FeII and MgII lines; we find that MgII frequently traces higher velocity gas than FeII. Using quantitative morphological parameters derived from the HST imaging, we find that mergers are not a prerequisite for driving outflows. More face-on galaxies also show stronger winds than highly inclined systems, consistent with the canonical picture of winds emanating perpendicular to galactic disks. Galactic winds are further explored in the third study of this thesis, where we present a study at z ˜ 1 of the prevalence and kinematics of ultraviolet emission lines from fine-structure FeII* transitions and resonance MgII transitions. Utilizing a multiwavelength dataset of 212 star-forming galaxies, we investigate how the strength and kinematics of FeII* and MgII emission lines vary as a function of galaxy properties. We find that FeII* emission is prevalent in the sample; composite spectra assembled on the basis of a variety of galaxy properties all show FeII* emission, particularly in the stronger 2396 and 2626 A lines. This prevalence of emission is in contrast to observations of local galaxies; the lack of FeII* emission in the small star-forming regions targeted by spectroscopic observations at z ˜ 0 may imply that FeII* emission arises in more extended galaxy halos. The strength of FeII* emission is most strongly modulated by star-formation rate, dust attenuation, and [OII] equivalent width, such that systems with lower star-formation rates, lower dust levels, and larger [OII] equivalent widths show stronger FeII* emission. MgII emission, while not observed in a spectral stack of all the data in our sample, is seen in ˜ 30% of individual objects. We find that objects showing MgII emission have

  5. Astrophysical dynamos and the growth of magnetic fields in high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, Michael; Teyssier, Romain

    2015-08-01

    The origin and evolution of magnetic fields in the Universe is still an open question. Observations of galaxies at high-redshift give evidence for strong galactic magnetic fields even in the early Universe which are consistently measured at later times up to the present age. However, primordial magnetic fields and seed field generation by battery processes cannot explain such high field strengths, suggesting the presence of a rapid growth mechanism in those high-redshift galaxies and subsequent maintenance against decay. Astrophysical dynamo theory provides efficient means of field amplification where even weak initial fields can grow exponentially on sufficiently fast timescales, driving the conversion of kinetic energy into magnetic energy. We investigate the role which feedback mechanisms play in the creation of the turbulence necessary for dynamos to operate. Performing magnetohydrodynamic simulations of cooling halos of dwarf and Milky Way-like high-redshift progenitors, we compare the magnetic field evolution of weak seed fields with various topologies and stellar feedback mechanisms. We find that strong feedback can drive galactic gas turbulence which gives rise to velocity fields with fast exponential magnetic field growth. The simulations display a high gas fraction and a clumpy morphology with kinematics resembling Kolmogorov turbulence and magnetic energy spectra as predicted by Kazantsev dynamo theory. Magnetic fields reach equipartition with $\\mu$G field strength. In a final quiescent phase where feedback is turned off, gas turbulence is reduced and a quadrupole symmetry is observed in the magnetic field. These findings support the theory of rapid magnetic field amplification inside high-redshift galaxies, when the Universe was still young.

  6. Seeding High Redshift QSOs by Collisional Runaway in Primordial Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Harley; Sijacki, Debora; Haehnelt, Martin

    2015-08-01

    The formation and evolution of high mass galaxies across cosmic time is believed to be fundamentally related to the activity and growth of their constituent supermassive black holes. Such black holes with masses of over a billion solar masses were in place in galaxies when the Universe was less than ten percent of its current age, leaving in doubt whether known mechanisms of forming black holes could be responsible for seeding these massive objects and posing the question of how such objects impacted the early Universe. We study a channel, whereby the runaway stellar collisions in high redshift, metal poor, star clusters result in very massive stars of up to ~1000 M⊙, which can then directly collapse into intermediate mass black holes. We present novel, high resolution, hydrodynamical, zoom-in simulations, with non-equilibrium cooling to follow the detailed chemical properties, collapse, and evolution of a pair high redshift dwarf galaxies which subsequently produce a metal enriched, dense, gaseous clump. We then use the spatial configuration of this flattened, asymmetrical birth cloud to set the initial conditions for simulations of an initially non-spherical star cluster with a direct summation code. We find that, for a variety of different parameters, collisional runaway is a promising mechanism to produce large numbers of high redshift seeds required for the formation of super massive black holes by z=6.

  7. Imaging Cold Gas to 1 kpc scales in high-redshift galaxies with the ngVLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Caitlin; Narayanan, Desika; Dave, Romeel; Hung, Chao-Ling; Champagne, Jaclyn; Carilli, Chris Luke; Decarli, Roberto; Murphy, Eric J.; Popping, Gergo; Riechers, Dominik; Somerville, Rachel S.; Walter, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    The next generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) will revolutionize our understanding of the distant Universe via the detection of cold molecular gas in the first galaxies. Its impact on studies of galaxy characterization via detailed gas dynamics will provide crucial insight on dominant physical drivers for star-formation in high redshift galaxies, including the exchange of gas from scales of the circumgalactic medium down to resolved clouds on mass scales of ~10^5 M_sun. In this study, we employ a series of high-resolution, cosmological, hydrodynamic zoom simulations from the MUFASA simulation suite and a CASA simulator to generate mock ngVLA observations. Based on a direct comparison between the inferred results from our mock observations and the cosmological simulations, we investigate the capabilities of ngVLA to constrain the mode of star formation, dynamical mass, and molecular gas kinematics in individual high-redshift galaxies using cold gas tracers like CO(1-0) and CO(2-1). Using the Despotic radiative transfer code that encompasses simultaneous thermal and statistical equilibrium in calculating the molecular and atomic level populations, we generate parallel mock observations of high-J transitions of CO and C+ from ALMA for comparison. The factor of 100 times improvement in mapping speed for the ngVLA beyond the Jansky VLA and the proposed ALMA Band 1 will make these detailed, high-resolution imaging and kinematic studies routine at z=2 and beyond.

  8. The long lives of giant clumps and the birth of outflows in gas-rich galaxies at high redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Bournaud, Frédéric; Renaud, Florent; Daddi, Emanuele; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Elbaz, David; Gabor, Jared M.; Juneau, Stéphanie; Kraljic, Katarina; Le Floch', Emeric; Dekel, Avishai; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Teyssier, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Star-forming disk galaxies at high redshift are often subject to violent disk instability, characterized by giant clumps whose fate is yet to be understood. The main question is whether the clumps disrupt within their dynamical timescale (≤50 Myr), like the molecular clouds in today's galaxies, or whether they survive stellar feedback for more than a disk orbital time (≈300 Myr) in which case they can migrate inward and help building the central bulge. We present 3.5-7 pc resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations of high-redshift disks including photoionization, radiation pressure, and supernovae feedback. Our modeling of radiation pressure determines the mass loading and initial velocity of winds from basic physical principles. We find that the giant clumps produce steady outflow rates comparable to and sometimes somewhat larger than their star formation rate, with velocities largely sufficient to escape the galaxy. The clumps also lose mass, especially old stars, by tidal stripping, and the stellar populations contained in the clumps hence remain relatively young (≤200 Myr), as observed. The clumps survive gaseous outflows and stellar loss, because they are wandering in gas-rich turbulent disks from which they can reaccrete gas at high rates compensating for outflows and tidal stripping, overall keeping realistic and self-regulated gaseous and stellar masses. The outflow and accretion rates have specific timescales of a few 10{sup 8} yr, as opposed to rapid and repeated dispersion and reformation of clumps. Our simulations produce gaseous outflows with velocities, densities, and mass loading consistent with observations, and at the same time suggest that the giant clumps survive for hundreds of Myr and complete their migration to the center of high-redshift galaxies. These long-lived clumps are gas-dominated and contain a moderate mass fraction of stars; they drive inside-out disk evolution, thickening, spheroid growth, and fueling of the central

  9. Clustering of High Redshift (z>2.9) Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yue; Strauss, Michael A.; Oguri, Masamune; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Fan, Xiaohui; Richards, Gordon T.; Hall, Patrick B.; Schneider, Donald P.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thakar, Anirudda R.; Berk, Daniel E.Vanden; Anderson, Scott F.; Bahcall, Neta A.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-11-30

    We study the two-point correlation function of a uniformly selected sample of 4,428 optically selected luminous quasars with redshift 2.9 {le} z {le} 5.4 selected over 4041 deg{sup 2} from the Fifth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We fit a power-law to the projected correlation function w{sub p}(r{sub p}) to marginalize over redshift space distortions and redshift errors. For a real-space correlation function of the form {zeta}(r) = (r/r{sub 0}){sup -{gamma}}, the fitted parameters in comoving coordinates are r{sub 0} = 15.2 {+-} 2.7 h{sup -1} Mpc and {gamma} = 2.0 {+-} 0.3, over a scale range 4 {le} r{sub p} {le} 150 h{sup -1} Mpc. Thus high-redshift quasars are appreciably more strongly clustered than their z {approx} 1.5 counterparts, which have a comoving clustering length r{sub 0} {approx} 6.5 h{sup -1} Mpc. Dividing our sample into two redshift bins: 2.9 {le} z {le} 3.5 and z {ge} 3.5, and assuming a power-law index {gamma} = 2.0, we find a correlation length of r{sub 0} = 16.9 {+-} 1.7 h{sup -1} Mpc for the former, and r{sub 0} = 24.3 {+-} 2.4 h{sup -1} Mpc for the latter. Strong clustering at high redshift indicates that quasars are found in very massive, and therefore highly biased, halos. Following Martini & Weinberg, we relate the clustering strength and quasar number density to the quasar lifetimes and duty cycle. Using the Sheth & Tormen halo mass function, the quasar lifetime is estimated to lie in the range 4 {approx} 50 Myr for quasars with 2.9 {le} z {le} 3.5; and 30 {approx} 600 Myr for quasars with z {ge} 3.5. The corresponding duty cycles are 0.004 {approx} 0.05 for the lower redshift bin and 0.03 {approx} 0.6 for the higher redshift bin. The minimum mass of halos in which these quasars reside is 2-3 x 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}} for quasars with 2.9 {le} z {le} 3.5 and 4-6 x 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}} for quasars with z {ge} 3.5; the effective bias factor b{sub eff} increases with redshift, e.g., b

  10. Damped Ly alpha absorbers at high redshift: Large disks or galactic building blocks?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haehnelt, Martin G.; Steinmetz, Matthias; Rauch, Michael

    1997-01-01

    The nature of the physical structures giving rise to damped Lyman alpha absorption systems (DLAS) at high redshifts is investigated. The proposal that rapidly rotating large disks are the only viable explanation for the observed asymmetric profiles of low ionization absorption lines is examined. Using hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation, it is demonstated that irregular protogalactic clumps can reproduce the observed velocity width distribution and asymmetries of the absorption profiles equally well. The velocity broadening in the simulated clumps is due to a mixture of rotation, random motions, infall and merging. The observed velocity width correlates with the virial velocity for the dark matter halo of the forming protogalactic clump. The typical virial velocity of the halos required to lead to the DLAS population is approximately 100 km/s. It is concluded that the evidence that DLAS at high redshift are related to large, rapidly rotating disks, is not compelling.

  11. Probing the EBL evolution at high redshifts using 22 GRBs detected with the Fermi-LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amitbhai Desai, Abhishek; Ajello, Marco; Omodei, Nicola; Hartmann, Dieter; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) is the collective emission of all the stars and galaxies over the history of the universe. The most efficient method to study the EBL is through the imprint it leaves via photon-photon annihilation in the spectra of distant gamma-ray sources. Here we present a combined analysis of a sample of 22 Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) detected by Fermi Large Area Telescope. GRBs are short-lived, bright, high-energy sources detected up to very high redshifts. This allows us to probe the EBL at much higher redshifts than before. We report the first constrain on the EBL when the Universe was one fourth of its present age (z=1.8). This will be discussed in the context of the generation of the UV-optical background and the star-formation activity of the Universe.

  12. Studies of Resolved Stellar Clumps in High-Redshift Galaxy Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messa, Matteo Maria; Adamo, Angela; Östlin, Göran; Hayes, Matthew; Melinder, Jens

    2015-08-01

    The Lyman-alpha reference sample (LARS) is a sample of 14 local high-redshift analogues observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These local galaxies (z = 0.028 - 0.19) have been selected to have moderately high EW(Hα) to ensure the selection of star-forming systems and far UV luminosities ranging from log(LFUV) = 9.2 to 10.7 LSUN, comparable to those of high-redshift Lyα emitters and Lyman Break Galaxies. The survey is providing fundamental insights into Lyα emission process, allowing the investigation of Lyα radiation transport and photon escape.In this poster, we present the statistical study of the spatially resolved stellar cluster complexes and of the main star-forming regions of the LARS sample. The exquisite multiband HST coverage and the proximity of the galaxies of the sample allow us to derive the physical properties of these stellar clumps, such as ages, masses, extinction, and sizes. Using the UV fluxes, we constraint which fraction of the current star formation is condensed in these compact regions. We try to quantify their contribution to the total ionizing photon budget derived from total Hα fluxes. The properties of these cluster complexes are compared to clump properties detected in high-redshift galaxies.

  13. See Change: the Supernova Sample from the Supernova Cosmology Project High Redshift Cluster Supernova Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Brian; Perlmutter, Saul; Boone, Kyle; Nordin, Jakob; Rubin, David; Lidman, Chris; Deustua, Susana E.; Fruchter, Andrew S.; Aldering, Greg Scott; Brodwin, Mark; Cunha, Carlos E.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Jee, James; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hoekstra, Henk; Santos, Joana; Stanford, S. Adam; Stern, Daniel; Fassbender, Rene; Richard, Johan; Rosati, Piero; Wechsler, Risa H.; Muzzin, Adam; Willis, Jon; Boehringer, Hans; Gladders, Michael; Goobar, Ariel; Amanullah, Rahman; Hook, Isobel; Huterer, Dragan; Huang, Xiaosheng; Kim, Alex G.; Kowalski, Marek; Linder, Eric; Pain, Reynald; Saunders, Clare; Suzuki, Nao; Barbary, Kyle H.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Meyers, Joshua; Spadafora, Anthony L.; Sofiatti, Caroline; Wilson, Gillian; Rozo, Eduardo; Hilton, Matt; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; Luther, Kyle; Yen, Mike; Fagrelius, Parker; Dixon, Samantha; Williams, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The Supernova Cosmology Project has finished executing a large (174 orbits, cycles 22-23) Hubble Space Telescope program, which has measured ~30 type Ia Supernovae above z~1 in the highest-redshift, most massive galaxy clusters known to date. Our SN Ia sample closely matches our pre-survey predictions; this sample will improve the constraint by a factor of 3 on the Dark Energy equation of state above z~1, allowing an unprecedented probe of Dark Energy time variation. When combined with the improved cluster mass calibration from gravitational lensing provided by the deep WFC3-IR observations of the clusters, See Change will triple the Dark Energy Task Force Figure of Merit. With the primary observing campaign completed, we present the preliminary supernova sample and our path forward to the supernova cosmology results. We also compare the number of SNe Ia discovered in each cluster with our pre-survey expectations based on cluster mass and SFR estimates. Our extensive HST and ground-based campaign has already produced unique results; we have confirmed several of the highest redshift cluster members known to date, confirmed the redshift of one of the most massive galaxy clusters at z~1.2 expected across the entire sky, and characterized one of the most extreme starburst environments yet known in a z~1.7 cluster. We have also discovered a lensed SN Ia at z=2.22 magnified by a factor of ~2.7, which is the highest spectroscopic redshift SN Ia currently known.

  14. From Nearby Low Luminosity AGN to High Redshift Radio Galaxies: Science Interests with Square Kilometre Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharb, P.; Lal, D. V.; Singh, V.; Bagchi, J.; Ishwara Chandra, C. H.; Hota, A.; Konar, C.; Wadadekar, Y.; Shastri, P.; Das, M.; Baliyan, K.; Nath, B. B.; Pandey-Pommier, M.

    2016-12-01

    We present detailed science cases that a large fraction of the Indian AGN community is interested in pursuing with the upcoming Square Kilometre Array (SKA). These interests range from understanding low luminosity active galactic nuclei in the nearby Universe to powerful radio galaxies at high redshifts. Important unresolved science questions in AGN physics are discussed. Ongoing low-frequency surveys with the SKA pathfinder telescope GMRT, are highlighted.

  15. The X-ray properties of high redshift, optically selected QSOs. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    In order to study the X-ray properties of high redshift QSOs, grism/grens plates covering 17 deg. of sky previously imaged to very sensitive X-ray flux levels with the Einstein Observatory were taken. Following optical selection of the QSO, the archived X-ray image is examined to extract an X-ray flux detection or a sensitive upper limit.

  16. High resolution frequency analysis techniques with application to the redshift experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decher, R.; Teuber, D.

    1975-01-01

    High resolution frequency analysis methods, with application to the gravitational probe redshift experiment, are discussed. For this experiment a resolution of .00001 Hz is required to measure a slowly varying, low frequency signal of approximately 1 Hz. Major building blocks include fast Fourier transform, discrete Fourier transform, Lagrange interpolation, golden section search, and adaptive matched filter technique. Accuracy, resolution, and computer effort of these methods are investigated, including test runs on an IBM 360/65 computer.

  17. Structure formation simulations with momentum exchange: alleviating tensions between high-redshift and low-redshift cosmological probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Marco; Simpson, Fergus

    2017-02-01

    Persisting tensions between the cosmological constraints derived from low-redshift probes and the ones obtained from temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) - although not yet providing compelling evidence against the Λcold dark matter model - seem to consistently indicate a slower growth of density perturbations as compared to the predictions of the standard cosmological scenario. Such behaviour is not easily accommodated by the simplest extensions of General Relativity, such as f(R) models, which generically predict an enhanced growth rate. In this work, we present the outcomes of a suite of large N-body simulations carried out in the context of a cosmological model featuring a non-vanishing scattering cross-section between the dark matter and the dark energy fields, for two different parametrizations of the dark energy equation of state. Our results indicate that these dark scattering models have very mild effects on many observables related to large-scale structures formation and evolution, while providing a significant suppression of the amplitude of linear density perturbations and the abundance of massive clusters. Our simulations therefore confirm that these models offer a promising route to alleviate existing tensions between low-redshift measurements and those of the CMB.

  18. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Imaging of the Host Galaxies of High-RedshiftRadio-loud Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Matthew D.; van Breugel, Wil J. M.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Miley, George K.

    1999-09-01

    We present rest-frame UV and Lyα images of spatially resolved structures (``hosts'') around five high-redshift radio-loud quasars obtained with the WFPC2 camera on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The quasars were imaged with the PC1 through the F555W (``V''-band) filter, which at the redshifts of the quasars (2.1high redshift have prominent host galaxies that appeared to have properties similar to those of high-redshift radio galaxies. Our HST observations allow a more detailed investigation of quasar host morphologies and a comparison with similar HST studies of radio galaxies by others. Using several methods to measure and quantify the host properties we find that all five quasars are extended and that this ``fuzz'' contains ~5%-40% of the total continuum flux and 15%-65% of the Lyα flux within a radius of about 1.5". The rest-frame UV luminosities of the hosts are log λPλ~11.9-12.5 Lsolar (assuming no internal dust extinction), comparable to the luminous radio galaxies at similar redshifts and a factor 10 higher than both radio-quiet field galaxies at z~2-3 and the most UV-luminous low-redshift starburst galaxies. The Lyα luminosities of the hosts are log LLyα~44.3-44.9 ergs s-1, which are also similar to the those of luminous high-redshift radio galaxies and considerably larger than the Lyα luminosities of high-redshift field galaxies. To generate the Lyα luminosities of the hosts would require roughly a few percent of the total observed ionizing luminosity of the quasar. The UV continuum morphologies of the hosts appear complex and knotty at the relatively high surface brightness levels of our exposures (about 24 V mag arcsec-2). In two quasars we find evidence for foreground galaxies that confuse the

  19. Herschel-ATLAS: The Angular Correlation Function of Submillimetre Galaxies at High and Low Redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddox, S. J.; Dunne, L.; Rigby, E.; Eales, S.; Cooray, A.; Scott, D.; Peacock, J. A.; Negrello, M.; Smith, D. J. B.; Benford, D.; Amblard, A.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Bonfield, D.; Burgarella, D.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Clements, D.; Dariush, A.; deZotti, G.; Dye, S.; Frayer, D.; Fritz, J.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Herranz, D.

    2010-01-01

    We present measurements of the angular correlation function of galaxies selected from the first field of the H-ATLAS survey. Careful removal of the background from galactic cirrus is essential, and currently dominates the uncertainty in our measurements. For our 250 micrometer-selected sample we detect no significant clustering, consistent with the expectation that the 250 pm-selected sources are mostly normal galaxies at z < or equal to 1. For our 350 micrometer and 500 micrometer-selected samples we detect relatively strong clustering with correlation amplitudes A of 0.2 and 1.2 at 1', but with relatively large uncertainties. For samples which preferentially select high redshift galaxies at z approx. 2-3 we detect significant strong clustering, leading to an estimate of r(0) approx. 7-11/h Mpc. The slope of our clustering measurements is very steep. delta approx. 2. The measurements are consistent with the idea that sub-mm sources consist of a low redshift population of normal galaxies and a high redshift population of highly clustered star-bursting galaxies.

  20. MORPHOLOGY AND SIZE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN LOCAL AND HIGH-REDSHIFT LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Rieke, George H.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Juneau, Stephanie

    2011-01-10

    We show that the star-forming regions in high-redshift luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) and submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) have similar physical scales to those in local normal star-forming galaxies. To first order, their higher infrared (IR) luminosities result from higher luminosity surface density. We also find a good correlation between the IR luminosity and IR luminosity surface density in starburst galaxies across over five orders of magnitude of IR luminosity from local normal galaxies to z {approx} 2 SMGs. The intensely star-forming regions of local ULIRGs are significantly smaller than those in their high-redshift counterparts and hence diverge significantly from this correlation, indicating that the ULIRGs found locally are a different population from the high-redshift ULIRGs and SMGs. Based on this relationship, we suggest that luminosity surface density should serve as a more accurate indicator for the IR emitting environment, and hence the observable properties, of star-forming galaxies than their IR luminosity. We demonstrate this approach by showing that ULIRGs at z {approx} 1 and a lensed galaxy at z {approx} 2.5 exhibit aromatic features agreeing with local LIRGs that are an order of magnitude less luminous, but have similar IR luminosity surface density. A consequence of this relationship is that the aromatic emission strength in star-forming galaxies will appear to increase at z>1 for a given IR luminosity compared to their local counterparts.

  1. Searching for the Progenitors of High-redshift Compact Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Christina; Giavalisco, M.; Cassata, P.; Guo, Y.

    2012-05-01

    High-redshift galaxy surveys have revealed a population of very massive and already evolved early-type galaxies at z > 1, which appear to be ultra-compact in size relative to local galaxies of similar stellar mass. The compactness and stellar masses of these galaxies, which are already in place at high-redshift, pose challenges for theories in which mergers drive the evolution of galaxies. We investigate the properties of Lyman Break Galaxies at z > 3 in CANDELS, among whom must be the progenitor population of these ultra-compact early-type galaxies, to assess the extent to which they were also ultra-compact while building up their stellar mass. Since merging and accretion generally increase the size of galaxies, the progenitors of the ultra-compact ellipticals must be compact star-forming galaxies themselves. Using rest-frame optical imaging from HST and SED fitting, we study the evolution in the mass-radius relation using their morphologies and stellar masses. We also discuss the implications that these ultra-compact star-forming galaxies have on theories of galaxy evolution and the quenching of star-formation at high-redshift.

  2. THE AzTEC/SMA INTERFEROMETRIC IMAGING SURVEY OF SUBMILLIMETER-SELECTED HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Younger, Joshua D.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Huang Jiasheng; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Petitpas, Glen R.; Wilner, David J.; Yun, Min S.; Wilson, Grant W.; Scott, Kimberly S.; Austermann, Jason; Perera, Thushara; Peck, Alison B.; Hughes, David H.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Kim, Sungeun; Lowenthal, James D.

    2009-10-10

    We present results from a continuing interferometric survey of high-redshift submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with the Submillimeter Array, including high-resolution (beam size approx2 arcsec) imaging of eight additional AzTEC 1.1 mm selected sources in the COSMOS field, for which we obtain six reliable (peak signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) >5 or peak S/N >4 with multiwavelength counterparts within the beam) and two moderate significance (peak S/N >4) detections. When combined with previous detections, this yields an unbiased sample of millimeter-selected SMGs with complete interferometric follow up. With this sample in hand, we (1) empirically confirm the radio-submillimeter association, (2) examine the submillimeter morphology-including the nature of SMGs with multiple radio counterparts and constraints on the physical scale of the far infrared-of the sample, and (3) find additional evidence for a population of extremely luminous, radio-dim SMGs that peaks at higher redshift than previous, radio-selected samples. In particular, the presence of such a population of high-redshift sources has important consequences for models of galaxy formation-which struggle to account for such objects even under liberal assumptions-and dust production models given the limited time since the big bang.

  3. CLASH: EXTREME EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON SELECTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xingxing; Wang, Junxian; Shu, Xinwen; Zheng, Wei; Ford, Holland; Lemze, Doron; Moustakas, John; Van der Wel, Arjen; Zitrin, Adi; Frye, Brenda L.; Bartelmann, Matthias; Benítez, Narciso; Infante, Leopoldo; and others

    2015-03-01

    We utilize the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble observations of 25 clusters to search for extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs). The selections are carried out in two central bands: F105W (Y {sub 105}) and F125W (J {sub 125}), as the flux of the central bands could be enhanced by the presence of [O III] λλ4959, 5007 at redshifts of ∼0.93-1.14 and 1.57-1.79, respectively. The multiband observations help to constrain the equivalent widths (EWs) of emission lines. Thanks to cluster lensing, we are able to identify 52 candidates down to an intrinsic limiting magnitude of 28.5 and to a rest-frame [O III] λλ4959, 5007 EW of ≅ 3700 Å. Our samples include a number of EELGs at lower luminosities that are missed in other surveys, and the extremely high EW can only be found in such faint galaxies. These EELGs can mimic a dropout feature similar to that of high-redshift galaxies and contaminate the color-color selection of high-redshift galaxies when the signal-to-noise ratio is limited or the band coverage is incomplete.

  4. The first detection of [OIII] emission from high-redshift damped Lyman-α galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weatherley, S. J.; Warren, S. J.; Møller, P.; Fall, S. M.; Fynbo, J. U.; Croom, S. M.

    2005-04-01

    We present the detection of [OIII] emission lines from the galaxies responsible for two high-redshift z > 1.75 damped Lyman-α (DLA) absorption lines. We find two sources of [OIII] emission corresponding to the z= 1.92 DLA absorber towards the quasar Q2206-1958, and we also detect [OIII] emission from the galaxy responsible for the z= 3.10 DLA absorber towards the quasar 2233.9+1381. These are the first detections of rest-frame optical emission lines from high-redshift DLA galaxies. Unlike the Lyα line, the [OIII] line provides a measure of the systemic velocity of the galaxy. We compare the [OIII] redshifts with the velocity profile of the low-ionization metal lines in these two absorbers, with the goal of distinguishing between the model of Prochaska and Wolfe of DLA absorbers as large rapidly rotating cold thick discs, and the standard hierarchical cold dark matter model of structure formation, in which DLAs arise in protogalactic fragments. We find some discrepancies with the predictions of the former model. Furthermore, the image of the DLA galaxy towards Q2206-1958 shows a complex disturbed morphology, which is more in accord with the hierarchical picture. We use the properties of the rest-frame optical emission lines to further explore the question posed by Møller et al.: are high-redshift DLA galaxies Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) selected by gas cross-section? The measured velocity dispersions of the DLA galaxies are in agreement with this picture, while the data on the [OIII] luminosities and the velocity differences between the Lyα and [OIII] lines are inconclusive, as there are insufficient LBG measurements overlapping in luminosity. Finally, we estimate the star formation rates in these two DLA galaxies, using a variety of diagnostics, and include a discussion of the extent to which the [OIII] line is useful for this purpose.

  5. Supermassive Black Hole Mass and Spiral Galaxy Pitch Angle at Intermediate to High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, John A.; Barrows, R. S.; Berrier, J. C.; Davis, B. L.; Kennefick, D.; Kennefick, J. D.; Lacy, C. H. S.; Seigar, M. S.; Shields, D. W.; Zoldak, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    A possible correlation between spiral galaxy pitch angle (P) and the mass of the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) of the galaxy (M) was reported (Seigar et al. 2008) from a sample of 27 nearby galaxies. Here we investigate the extension of this result to intermediate and high redshifts. We have selected AGN showing spiral structure in their host galaxies from the GOODS fields and from a sample of AGN with reverberation mapping SMBH mass estimates. After careful measure of the pitch angle of these galaxies, we compare the mass found from the M-P relation to that reported from reverberation mapping or estimated from their MgII profiles. By extending the sample to higher redshift, we demonstrate how the M-P relationship can be used to estimate the mass of SMBHs in the center of galaxies with imaging data alone, a useful tool in the study of galaxy evolution.

  6. The Evolution of Metals and Dust in the High-Redshift Universe (z greater than 6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2007-01-01

    Dusty hyperluminous galaxies in the early universe provide unique environments for studying the role of massive stars in the formation and destruction of dust. At redshifts above approx. 6, when the universe was less than approx. 1 Gyr old, dust could have only condensed in the explosive ejecta of Type-II supernovae (SNe), since most of the progenitors of the AGB stars, the major alternative source of interstellar dust, did not have time to evolve off the main sequence. I will present analytical models for the evolution of the gas, dust, and metals in high redshift galaxies, with a special application to SDSS J1148+5251, a hyperluminous quasar at $z = 6.4$. I will also discuss possible star formation scenarios consistent with observational constraints on the dust and gas content of this object.

  7. High redshift signatures in the 21 cm forest due to cosmic string wakes

    SciTech Connect

    Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Silk, Joseph E-mail: toyokazu.sekiguchi@nagoya-u.jp

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic strings induce minihalo formation in the early universe. The resultant minihalos cluster in string wakes and create a ''21 cm forest'' against the cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectrum. Such a 21 cm forest can contribute to angular fluctuations of redshifted 21 cm signals integrated along the line of sight. We calculate the root-mean-square amplitude of the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings and show that these fluctuations can dominate signals from minihalos due to primordial density fluctuations at high redshift (z∼>10), even if the string tension is below the current upper bound, Gμ < 1.5 × 10{sup −7}. Our results also predict that the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) can potentially detect the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings with Gμ ≈ 7.5 × 10{sup −8} for the single frequency band case and 4.0 × 10{sup −8} for the multi-frequency band case.

  8. Absorption in X-ray spectra of high-redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Wilkes, Belinda; Mcdowell, Jonathan; Bechtold, Jill

    1994-01-01

    We present evidence that X-ray absorption is common in high-redshift quasars. We have studied six high-redshift (z approximately 3) quasars with the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) of which four are in directions of low Galactic N(sub H). Three out of these four show excess absorption, while only three in approximately 50 z approximately less than 0.4 quasars do, indicating that such absorption must be common, but not ubiquitous, at high redshifts, and that the absorbers must lie at z greater than 0.4. The six quasars were: S5 0014+81, Q0420-388, PKS 0438-436, S4 0636+680. PKS 2000-330, PKS 2126-158, which have redshifts between 2.85 and 3.78. PKS 0438-436 and PKS 2126-158 show evidence for absorption above the local Galactic value at better than 99.999% confidence level. If the absorber is at the redshift of the quasar, then values of N(sub H) = (0.86(+0.49, -0.28)) x 10(exp 22) atoms/sq cm for PKS 0438-436, and N(sub H) = (1.45(+1.20, -0.64)) x 10(exp 22) atoms/ sq cm for PKS 2126-158, are implied, assuming solar abundances. The spectrum of S4 0636+680 also suggests the presence of a similarly large absorption column density at the 98% confidence level. This absorption reverses the trend for the most luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) to have the least X-ray absorption, so a new mechanism is likely to be responsible. Intervening absorption due to damped Lyman(alpha) systems is a plausible cause. We also suggest, as an intrinsic model, that intracluster material, e.g., a cooling flow, around the quasar could account for both the X-ray spectrum and other properties of these quasars. All the quasars are radio-loud and three are gigahertz peaked (two of the three showing absorption). No excess absorption above the Galactic value is seen toward Q0420-388. This quasar has two damped Lyman(alpha) systems at z = 3.08. The limit on the X-ray column density implies a low ionization fraction, N(H I)/N(H) approximately greater than 4 x 10(exp -3) (3

  9. High-Redshift Clusters form NVSS: The TexOx Cluster (TOC) Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, S; Rawlings, S; Hill, G J

    2003-02-11

    The TexOx Cluster (TOC) Survey uses overdensities of radiosources in the NVSS to trace clusters of galaxies. The links between radiosources and rich environments make this a powerful way to find clusters which may potentially be overlooked by other selection techniques. By including constraints from optical surveys, TOC is an extremely efficient way to find clusters at high redshift. One such field, TOC J0233.3+3021, contains at least one galaxy cluster (at z {approx} 1.4) and has been detected using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. Even in targeted deep optical observations, however, distinguishing the cluster galaxies from the background is difficult, especially given the tendency of TOC to select fields containing multiple structures at different redshifts.

  10. Probabilistic Selection of High-redshift Quasars with Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoue, Masafusa

    High-redshift quasars are an important probe of the distant Universe. They enable observational studies of the early growth of supermassive blackholes, cosmic reionization, chemical enrichment of host galaxies, and so on. Through pioneering optical and near-infrared wide-area surveys such as the SDSS and the VIKING Survey, about one hundred quasars have been found at z > 6 (e.g., Fan et al. (2006b), Venemans et al. (2013)). However, its current small sample size and the fact that most of them are the most luminous (M 1450 <~ -24) population in this epoch prevents one from constraining statistics on high-redshift quasars, namely quasar luminosity function (QLF), and redshift evolution of IGM neutral fraction. Thus, discovery of large number of z > 6 quasars, especially low-luminous or z > 7 quasars, is highly desired for further understanding of the early universe. We are now starting a new ground-breaking survey of high-redshift (z > 6) quasars using the exquisite imaging data provided by the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Subaru Strategic Program (SSP) Survey. Thanks to its extremely wide coverage and its high sensitivity thorough five optical bands (1,400 deg2 to the depth of r ~ 26 in HSC-Wide layer), it is one of the most powerful contemporary surveys that makes it possible for us to increase the number of z > 6 quasars by almost an order of magnitude, i.e., 300 at z ~ 6 and 50 at z ~ 7, based on the current estimate of the QLF at z > 6 by Willott et al. (2010b). One of the biggest challenges in z > 6 quasar candidate selection is contamination of Galactic brown dwarfs, which have the same point-like appearance as and similarly red colors to the quasars. To overcome this issue and maximize the selection efficiency, we apply a double-layered approach to the HSC survey products, namely combination of two probabilistic selections: SED-fitting and Bayesian selection. In particular, we have developed a template SED fitting method optimized to high-redshift quasars

  11. The search for high-redshift supernovae and the image reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Matthew Yongsok

    1999-11-01

    The absolute peak magnitudes of Type Ia supernovae are tightly bound and their small variation shows a strong correlation with their lightcurve widths and spectral features. This correlation can be used to calibrate Type Ia supernovae peak magnitudes, making Type Ia supernovae one of the most powerful cosmological distance indicators. The Supernova Cosmology Project has developed a new search technique for detecting Type Ia supernovae at high redshift and found more than 70 supernovae at 0.3 < z < 1.2. We have used these high-redshift Type Ia supernovae to measure the cosmological parameters, ΩM, and ΩΛ , of the standard big bang model. By analyzing the redshift-apparent brightness relationship on a sample of the first 42 supernovae at 0.3 < z < .85, we have succeeded in putting a significant constraint, on the cosmological parameters. In this paper, I will discuss our supernova detection technique and the image reduction process we have used in our project.

  12. Dust Formation, Evolution, and Obscuration Effects in the Very High-Redshift Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli; Staguhn, Johannes; Arendt, Richard G.; Kovacks, Attila; Su, Ting; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of dust at redshifts z > or approx. 9, and consequently the dust properties, differs greatly from that in the local universe. In contrast to the local universe, core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the only source of thermally-condensed dust. Because of the low initial dust-togas mass ratio, grain destruction rates are low, so that CCSNe are net producers of interstellar dust. Galaxies with large initial gas mass or high mass infall rate will therefore have a more rapid net rate of dust production comported to galaxies with lower gas mass, even at the same star formation rate. The dust composition is dominated by silicates, which exhibit a strong rise in the UV opacity near the Lyman break. This "silicate-UV break" may be confused with the Lyman break, resulting in a misidentification of a galaxies' photometric redshift. In this paper we demonstrate these effects by analyzing the spectral energy distribution (SED) of MACS1149-JD, a lensed galaxy at z = 9.6. A potential 2mm counterpart of MACS1149-JD has been identified with GISMO. While additional observations are required to corroborate this identification, we use this possible association to illustrate the physical processes and the observational effects of dust in the very high redshift universe.

  13. Distance Estimates for High Redshift Clusters SZ and X-Ray Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joy, Marshall K.

    1999-01-01

    I present interferometric images of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect for the high redshift (z $ greater than $ 0.5) galaxy clusters in the \\emph(Einstein) Medium Sensitivity Survey: MS0451.5-0305 (z = 0.54), MS0015.9+1609 (z = 0.55), MS2053.7-0449 (z = 0.58), MS1 137.5+6625 (z = 0.78), and MS 1054.5-0321 (z = 0.83). Isothermal $\\beta$ models are applied to the data to determine the magnitude of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (S-Z) decrement in each cluster. Complementary ROSAT PSPC and HRI x-ray data are also analyzed, and are combined with the S-Z data to generate an independent estimate of the cluster distance. Since the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect is invariant with redshift, sensitive S-Z imaging can provide an independent determination of the size, shape, density, and distance of high redshift galaxy clusters; we will discuss current systematic uncertainties with this approach, as well as future observations which will yield stronger constraints.

  14. DUST FORMATION, EVOLUTION, AND OBSCURATION EFFECTS IN THE VERY HIGH-REDSHIFT UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Dwek, Eli; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes; Su, Ting; Arendt, Richard G.; Kovacks, Attila

    2014-06-20

    The evolution of dust at redshifts z ≳ 9, and consequently the dust properties, differs greatly from that in the local universe. In contrast to the local universe, core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the only source of thermally condensed dust. Because of the low initial dust-to-gas mass ratio, grain destruction rates are low, so that CCSNe are net producers of interstellar dust. Galaxies with large initial gas mass or high mass infall rate will therefore have a more rapid net rate of dust production compared to galaxies with lower gas mass, even at the same star formation rate. The dust composition is dominated by silicates, which exhibit a strong rise in the UV opacity near the Lyman break. This ''silicate-UV break'' may be confused with the Lyman break, resulting in a misidentification of a galaxy's photometric redshift. In this Letter we demonstrate these effects by analyzing the spectral energy distribution of MACS1149-JD, a lensed galaxy at z = 9.6. A potential 2 mm counterpart of MACS1149-JD has been identified with GISMO. While additional observations are required to corroborate this identification, we use this possible association to illustrate the physical processes and the observational effects of dust in the very high-redshift universe.

  15. Using Bayesian Evidence to Deduce the Dust-Attenuation Law at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, Brett W.; Papovich, Casey J.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Closson Ferguson, Henry; Long, James; CANDELS

    2016-01-01

    Although the nature of dust attenuation affects nearly all aspects of galaxy evolution, very little is known about the form of the dust-attenuation law in the distant Universe. Dust enshrouds and obscures UV star formation, convoluting our understanding of galaxy evolution at high redshift. Recent literature has recognized how the inferred physical properties of distant galaxies can be influenced by the non-universality of their attenuation curve shape. In this talk, I will present a Bayesian method to quantitatively constrain the dust-attenuation curve in high-redshift star-forming galaxies. This method is tested on galaxies at z~2 where we have CANDELS UV-to-optical photometry and Spitzer/Herschel IR luminosities. We find that the dust law implied from using only UV/optical data to calculate the full posterior probability densities supports the observed IR luminosities as predicted by that dust law. This method shows promise to deduce the shape of the attenuation curve at higher redshifts (z>4), as supported by our experiments using mock data from a semi-analytic model with qualities like those of the CANDELS GOODS fields.

  16. GISMO, a 2 mm Bolometer Camera Optimized for the Study of High Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staguhn, J.

    2007-01-01

    The 2mm spectral range provides a unique terrestrial window enabling ground based observations of the earliest active dusty galaxies in the universe and thereby allowing a better constraint on the star formation rate in these objects. We present a progress report for our bolometer camera GISMO (the Goddard-IRAM Superconducting 2-Millimeter Observer), which will obtain large and sensitive sky maps at this wavelength. The instrument will be used at the IRAM 30 m telescope and we expect to install it at the telescope in 2007. The camera uses an 8 x 16 planar array of multiplexed TES bolometers, which incorporates our recently designed Backshort Under Grid (BUG) architecture. GISMO will be very efficient at detecting sources serendipitously in large sky surveys. With the background limited performance of the detectors, the camera provides significantly greater imaging sensitivity and mapping speed at this wavelength than has previously been possible. The major scientific driver for the instrument is to provide the IRAM 30 m telescope with the capability to rapidly observe galactic and extragalactic dust emission, in particular from high-zeta ULI RGs and quasar s, even in the summer season. The instrument will fill in the SEDs of high redshift galaxies at the Rayleigh-Jeans part of the dust emission spectrum, even at the highest redshifts. Our source count models predict that GISMO will serendipitously detect one galaxy every four hours on the blank sky, and that one quarter of these galaxies will be at a redshift of zeta 6.5.

  17. Infrared-faint radio sources in the SERVS deep fields. Pinpointing AGNs at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maini, A.; Prandoni, I.; Norris, R. P.; Spitler, L. R.; Mignano, A.; Lacy, M.; Morganti, R.

    2016-12-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) represent an unexpected class of objects which are relatively bright at radio wavelength, but unusually faint at infrared (IR) and optical wavelengths. A recent and extensive campaign on the radio-brightest IFRSs (S1.4 GHz≳ 10 mJy) has provided evidence that most of them (if not all) contain an active galactic nuclei (AGN). Still uncertain is the nature of the radio-faintest IFRSs (S1.4 GHz≲ 1 mJy). Aims: The scope of this paper is to assess the nature of the radio-faintest IFRSs, testing their classification and improving the knowledge of their IR properties by making use of the most sensitive IR survey available so far: the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS). We also explore how the criteria of IFRSs can be fine-tuned to pinpoint radio-loud AGNs at very high redshift (z > 4). Methods: We analysed a number of IFRS samples identified in SERVS fields, including a new sample (21 sources) extracted from the Lockman Hole. 3.6 and 4.5 μm IR counterparts of the 64 sources located in the SERVS fields were searched for and, when detected, their IR properties were studied. Results: We compared the radio/IR properties of the IR-detected IFRSs with those expected for a number of known classes of objects. We found that IR-detected IFRSs are mostly consistent with a mixture of high-redshift (z ≳ 3) radio-loud AGNs. The faintest ones (S1.4 GHz 100 μJy), however, could be also associated with nearer (z 2) dust-enshrouded star-burst galaxies. We also argue that, while IFRSs with radio-to-IR ratios >500 can very efficiently pinpoint radio-loud AGNs at redshift 2 < z < 4, lower radio-to-IR ratios ( 100-200) are expected for higher redshift radio-loud AGNs.

  18. An Increasing Stellar Baryon Fraction in Bright Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Song, Mimi; Behroozi, Peter; Somerville, Rachel S.; Papovich, Casey; Milosavljević, Miloš; Dekel, Avishai; Narayanan, Desika; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Cooray, Asantha; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Salmon, Brett; Willner, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    Recent observations have shown that the characteristic luminosity of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function does not significantly evolve at 4 < z < 7 and is approximately {M}{UV}*˜ -21. We investigate this apparent non-evolution by examining a sample of 173 bright, MUV < -21 galaxies at z = 4-7, analyzing their stellar populations and host halo masses. Including deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging to constrain the rest-frame optical light, we find that {M}{UV}* galaxies at z = 4-7 have similar stellar masses of log(M/M⊙) = 9.6-9.9 and are thus relatively massive for these high redshifts. However, bright galaxies at z = 4-7 are less massive and have younger inferred ages than similarly bright galaxies at z = 2-3, even though the two populations have similar star formation rates and levels of dust attenuation for a fixed dust-attenuation curve. Matching the abundances of these bright z = 4-7 galaxies to halo mass functions from the Bolshoi ΛCDM simulation implies that the typical halo masses in ˜ {M}{{UV}}* galaxies decrease from log(Mh/M⊙) = 11.9 at z = 4 to log(Mh/M⊙) = 11.4 at z = 7. Thus, although we are studying galaxies at a similar stellar mass across multiple redshifts, these galaxies live in lower mass halos at higher redshift. The stellar baryon fraction in ˜ {M}{{UV}}* galaxies in units of the cosmic mean Ωb/Ωm rises from 5.1% at z = 4 to 11.7% at z = 7; this evolution is significant at the ˜3σ level. This rise does not agree with simple expectations of how galaxies grow, and implies that some effect, perhaps a diminishing efficiency of feedback, is allowing a higher fraction of available baryons to be converted into stars at high redshifts.

  19. Constraints on the Extragalactic Background Light from Gamma-Ray Observations of High-Redshift Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madau, Piero; Phinney, E. Sterl

    1996-01-01

    We propose to use the detectability of energetic y-rays in the 10-200 GeV range from high-redshift quasars to set limits on the energy density and era of formation of the extragalactic background light (EBL) in the near-ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared portion of the spectrum. We study a variety of EBL models based on recent estimates of the density of starlight at the present epoch, a detailed modeling of the transfer of ionizing radiation through the intergalactic medium and of the spectral energy distribution of young galaxies, and simple parameterizations of the star formation history. We demonstrate that a cosmic background of optical photons which is comparable to the integrated EBL contributed by ordinary galaxies and originates as near-ultraviolet radiation at redshift z ˜ 2 will make the universe optically thick to γ-ray photons above ˜30 GeV through electron-positron pair production. We also show that a detection by the EGRET instrument aboard the Compton Observatory of ≥15 GeV photons from the quasar 1633+382 (Mattox et al. 1993) would rule out models in which a diffuse optical background with an energy density several times in excess that of known galaxies was formed at z ˜ 2 by a new class of sources. The universe to intermediate redshifts is optically thin to pair production below ˜10 GeV.

  20. The accelerated build-up of the red sequence in high-redshift galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerulo, P.; Couch, W. J.; Lidman, C.; Demarco, R.; Huertas-Company, M.; Mei, S.; Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Barrientos, L. F.; Muñoz, R. P.

    2016-04-01

    We analyse the evolution of the red sequence in a sample of galaxy clusters at redshifts 0.8 < z < 1.5 taken from the HAWK-I Cluster Survey (HCS). The comparison with the low-redshift (0.04 < z < 0.08) sample of the WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS) and other literature results shows that the slope and intrinsic scatter of the cluster red sequence have undergone little evolution since z = 1.5. We find that the luminous-to-faint ratio and the slope of the faint end of the luminosity distribution of the HCS red sequence are consistent with those measured in WINGS, implying that there is no deficit of red galaxies at magnitudes fainter than M_V^{ast } at high redshifts. We find that the most massive HCS clusters host a population of bright red sequence galaxies at MV < -22.0 mag, which are not observed in low-mass clusters. Interestingly, we also note the presence of a population of very bright (MV < -23.0 mag) and massive (log (M*/M⊙) > 11.5) red sequence galaxies in the WINGS clusters, which do not include only the brightest cluster galaxies and which are not present in the HCS clusters, suggesting that they formed at epochs later than z = 0.8. The comparison with the luminosity distribution of a sample of passive red sequence galaxies drawn from the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field in the photometric redshift range 0.8 < zphot < 1.5 shows that the red sequence in clusters is more developed at the faint end, suggesting that halo mass plays an important role in setting the time-scales for the build-up of the red sequence.

  1. Can Life Survive Gamma-Ray Bursts in the High-redshift Universe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ye; Zhang, Bing

    2015-09-01

    Nearby gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been proposed as a possible cause of mass extinctions on Earth. Due to the higher event rate of GRBs at higher redshifts, it has been speculated that life as we know it may not survive above a certain redshift (e.g., z\\gt 0.5). We examine the duty cycle of lethal (life-threatening) GRBs in the solar neighborhood, in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies, and GRB host galaxies, with the dependence of the long GRB rate on star formation and metallicity properly taken into account. We find that the number of lethal GRBs attacking Earth within the past 500 Myr (˜epoch of the Ordovician mass extinction) is 0.93. The number of lethal GRBs hitting a certain planet increases with redshift, as a result of the increasing star formation rate (SFR) and decreasing metallicity in high-z galaxies. Taking 1 per 500 Myr as a conservative duty cycle for life to survive, as evidenced by our existence, we find that there is still a good fraction of SDSS galaxies beyond z=0.5 where the GRB rate at half-mass radius is lower than this value. We derive the fraction of such benign galaxies as a function of redshift through Monte Carlo simulations, and we find that the fraction is ˜ 50% at z˜ 1.5 and ˜ 10% even at z˜ 3. The mass distribution of benign galaxies is dominated by Milky Way-like ones, due to their commonness, relatively large mass, and low SFR. GRB host galaxies are among the most dangerous ones.

  2. Imaging the host galaxies of high-redshift radio-quiet QSOs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowenthal, James D.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Lehnert, Matthew, D.; Elias, J. H.

    1995-01-01

    We present new deep K-band and optical images of four radio-quiet QSOs at z approximately = 1 and six radio-quiet QSOs at z approximately = 2.5, as well as optical images only of six more at z approximately = 2.5. We have examined the images carefully for evidence of extended 'fuzz' from any putative QSO host galaxy. None of the z approximately = 2.5 QSOs shows any extended emission, and only two of the z approximately = 1 QSOs show marginal evidence for extended emission. Our 3 sigma detection limits in the K images, m(sub K) approximately = 21 for an isolated source, would correspond approximately to an unevolved L(sup star) elliptical galaxy at z = 2.5 or 2-3 mag fainter than an L(sup star) elliptical at z = 1, although our limits on host galaxy light are weaker than this due to the difficulty of separating galaxy light from QSO light. We simulate simple models of disk and elliptical host galaxies, and find that the marginal emission around the two z approximately = 1 QSOs can be explained by disks or bulges that are approximately 1-2 mag brighter than an unevolved L(sup star) galaxy in one case and approximately 1.5-2.5 mag brighter than L(sub star) in the other. For two other z approximately = 1 QSOs, we have only upper limits (L approximately = L(sup star)). The hosts of the high-redshift sample must be no brighter than about 3 mag above an unevolved L(sup star) galaxy, and are at least 1 magnitude fainter than the hosts of radio-loud QSOs at the same redshift. If the easily detected K-band light surrounding a previous sample of otherwise similar but radio-loud QSOs is starlight, then it must evolve on timescales of greater than or approximately equal to 10(exp 8) yr (e.g., Chambers & Charlot 1990); therefore our non-detection of host galaxy fuzz around radio-quiet QSOs supports the view that high-redshift radio-quiet and radio-loud QSOs inhabit different host objects, rather than being single types of objects that turn their radio emission on and off over

  3. Low Masses and High Redshifts: The Evolution of the Mass-Metallicity Relation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Alaina; Scarlata, Claudia; Dominguez, Alberto; Malkan, Matthew; Martin, Crystal L.; Siana, Brian; Atek, Hakim; Bedregal, Alejandro G.; Colbert, James W.; Rafelski, Marc; Ross, Nathaniel; Teplitz, Harry; Bunker, Andrew J.; Dressler, Alan; Hathi, Nimish; Masters, Daniel; McCarthy, Patrick; Straughn, Amber

    2013-01-01

    We present the first robust measurement of the high redshift mass-metallicity (MZ) relation at 10(exp 8) < M/Stellar Mass < or approx. 10(exp 10), obtained by stacking spectra of 83 emission-line galaxies with secure redshifts between 1.3 < or approx. z < or approx. 2.3. For these redshifts, infrared grism spectroscopy with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 is sensitive to the R23 metallicity diagnostic: ([O II] (lambda)(lambda)3726, 3729 + [OIII] (lambda)(lambda)4959, 5007)/H(beta). Using spectra stacked in four mass quartiles, we find a MZ relation that declines significantly with decreasing mass, extending from 12+log(O/H) = 8.8 at M = 10(exp 9.8) Stellar Mass to 12+log(O/H)= 8.2 at M = 10(exp 8.2) Stellar Mass. After correcting for systematic offsets between metallicity indicators, we compare our MZ relation to measurements from the stacked spectra of galaxies with M > or approx. 10(exp 9.5) Stellar Mass and z approx. 2.3. Within the statistical uncertainties, our MZ relation agrees with the z approx. 2.3 result, particularly since our somewhat higher metallicities (by around 0.1 dex) are qualitatively consistent with the lower mean redshift (z = 1.76) of our sample. For the masses probed by our data, the MZ relation shows a steep slope which is suggestive of feedback from energy-driven winds, and a cosmological downsizing evolution where high mass galaxies reach the local MZ relation at earlier times. In addition, we show that our sample falls on an extrapolation of the star-forming main sequence (the SFR-M* relation) at this redshift. This result indicates that grism emission-line selected samples do not have preferentially high star formation rates (SFRs). Finally, we report no evidence for evolution of the mass-metallicity-SFR plane; our stack-averaged measurements show excellent agreement with the local relation.

  4. Constraining the minimum luminosity of high redshift galaxies through gravitational lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Mashian, Natalie; Loeb, Abraham E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-12-01

    We simulate the effects of gravitational lensing on the source count of high redshift galaxies as projected to be observed by the Hubble Frontier Fields program and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in the near future. Taking the mass density profile of the lensing object to be the singular isothermal sphere (SIS) or the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile, we model a lens residing at a redshift of z{sub L} = 0.5 and explore the radial dependence of the resulting magnification bias and its variability with the velocity dispersion of the lens, the photometric sensitivity of the instrument, the redshift of the background source population, and the intrinsic maximum absolute magnitude (M{sub max}) of the sources. We find that gravitational lensing enhances the number of galaxies with redshifts z∼> 13 detected in the angular region θ{sub E}/2 ≤ θ ≤ 2θ{sub E} (where θ{sub E} is the Einstein angle) by a factor of ∼ 3 and 1.5 in the HUDF (df/dν{sub 0} ∼ 9 nJy) and medium-deep JWST surveys (df/dν{sub 0} ∼ 6 nJy). Furthermore, we find that even in cases where a negative magnification bias reduces the observed number count of background sources, the lensing effect improves the sensitivity of the count to the intrinsic faint-magnitude cut-off of the Schechter luminosity function. In a field centered on a strong lensing cluster, observations of z∼> 6 and z∼> 13 galaxies with JWST can be used to infer this cut-off magnitude for values as faint as M{sub max} ∼ -14.4 and -16.1 mag (L{sub min} ≈ 2.5 × 10{sup 26} and 1.2 × 10{sup 27} erg s{sup −1} Hz{sup −1}) respectively, within the range bracketed by existing theoretical models. Gravitational lensing may therefore offer an effective way of constraining the low-luminosity cut-off of high-redshift galaxies.

  5. Scheduled discoveries of 7+ high-Redshift supernovae: First cosmology results and bounds on q{sub 0}

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, S., FNAL

    1998-09-01

    Our search for high-redshift Type Ia supernovae discovered, in its first years, a sample of seven supernovae. Using a ``batch`` search strategy, almost all were discovered before maximum light and were observed over the peak of their light curves. The spectra and light curves indicate that almost all were Type Ia supernovae at redshifts z = 0.35 - 0.5. These high-redshift supernovae can provide a distance indicator and ``standard clock`` to study the cosmological parameters q{sub 0} , {Lambda}, {Omega}{sub 0} , and H{sub 0}. This presentation and the following presentations of Kim et al. (1996), Goldhaber et al. (1996), and Pain et al. (1996) will discuss observation strategies and rates, analysis and calibration issues, the sources of measurement uncertainty, and the cosmological implications, including bounds on q{sub 0} , of these first high-redshift supernovae from our ongoing search.

  6. Why do high-redshift galaxies show diverse gas-phase metallicity gradients?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiangcheng; Hopkins, Philip F.; Feldmann, Robert; Torrey, Paul; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan

    2017-01-01

    Recent spatially resolved observations of galaxies at z ˜ 0.6-3 reveal that high-redshift galaxies show complex kinematics and a broad distribution of gas-phase metallicity gradients. To understand these results, we use a suite of high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations from the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) project, which include physically motivated models of the multi-phase ISM, star formation, and stellar feedback. Our simulations reproduce the observed diversity of kinematic properties and metallicity gradients, broadly consistent with observations at z ˜ 0-3. Strong negative metallicity gradients only appear in galaxies with a rotating disk, but not all rotationally supported galaxies have significant gradients. Strongly perturbed galaxies with little rotation always have flat gradients. The kinematic properties and metallicity gradient of a high-redshift galaxy can vary significantly on short time-scales, associated with starburst episodes. Feedback from a starburst can destroy the gas disk, drive strong outflows, and flatten a pre-existing negative metallicity gradient. The time variability of a single galaxy is statistically similar to the entire simulated sample, indicating that the observed metallicity gradients in high-redshift galaxies reflect the instantaneous state of the galaxy rather than the accretion and growth history on cosmological time-scales. We find weak dependence of metallicity gradient on stellar mass and specific star formation rate (sSFR). Low-mass galaxies and galaxies with high sSFR tend to have flat gradients, likely due to the fact that feedback is more efficient in these galaxies. We argue that it is important to resolve feedback on small scales in order to produce the diverse metallicity gradients observed.

  7. A New Determination of the High Redshift Type Ia Supernova Rateswith the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsova, N.; Barbary, K.; Connolly, B.; Kim, A.G.; Pain, R.; Roe, N.A.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Dawson, K.; Doi, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Fruchter, A.S.; Gibbons, R.; Goldhaber, G.; Goober, A.; Gude, A.; Knop,R.A.; Kowalski, M.; Lidman, C.; Morokuma, T.; Meyers, J.; Perlmutter, S.; Rubin, D.; Schlegel, D.J.; Spadafora, A.L.; Stanishev, V.; Strovink, M.; Suzuki, N.; Wang, L.; Yasuda, N.

    2007-10-01

    We present a new measurement of the volumetric rate of Type Ia supernova up to a redshift of 1.7, using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) GOODS data combined with an additional HST dataset covering the North GOODS field collected in 2004. We employ a novel technique that does not require spectroscopic data for identifying Type Ia supernovae (although spectroscopic measurements of redshifts are used for over half the sample); instead we employ a Bayesian approach using only photometric data to calculate the probability that an object is a Type Ia supernova. This Bayesian technique can easily be modified to incorporate improved priors on supernova properties, and it is well-suited for future high-statistics supernovae searches in which spectroscopic follow up of all candidates will be impractical. Here, the method is validated on both ground- and space-based supernova data having some spectroscopic follow up. We combine our volumetric rate measurements with low redshift supernova data, and fit to a number of possible models for the evolution of the Type Ia supernova rate as a function of redshift. The data do not distinguish between a flat rate at redshift > 0.5 and a previously proposed model, in which the Type Ia rate peaks at redshift {approx} 1 due to a significant delay from star-formation to the supernova explosion. Except for the highest redshifts, where the signal to noise ratio is generally too low to apply this technique, this approach yields smaller or comparable uncertainties than previous work.

  8. Discovery of high-redshift quasars from Pan-STARRS1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banados, Eduardo; Venemans, B.; Morganson, E.; Decarli, R.; Walter, F.; Chambers, K. C.; Rix, H.; Farina, E.; De Rosa, G.; Pan-STARRS

    2014-01-01

    High-z quasars provide unique information about the evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and the intergalactic medium (IGM) at early cosmic times. Over the last decade, numerous studies have established a sample of ~60 quasars at 5.5characterization of a statistically significant sample of bright quasars in this redshift range is crucial to further study this important era in the history of the Universe. The Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) 3pi survey represents a fundamental step forward in high-z quasar searches for three reasons: 1) it covers more than two times the area observed with SDSS; 2) it goes significantly deeper than SDSS in the reddest bands where 6 quasars are visible; and 3) the additional y-band enables the search for luminous quasars beyond the SDSS limit, z>6.5. In early 2013, PS1 produced its first 3pi stacked catalog, marking a leap forward in terms of depth and area. Already in 2012 we discovered the first PS1 high-z quasar (Morganson et al 2012). Our aim is to discover a complete sample of 5.7

  9. High redshift in greatness scale caused by Interstellar and Intergalactic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    gravitational wave of dipole radiation will be produced from the change in masses of A and B caused by the nonlinearity of Einstein's equation or by mass renormalization of QFT. The change in period of energy loss of pulsar binary PSR1913+16 calculated with Eq. (4) is consistent with the observation value of Taylar et al. The change in mass of photons on the way calculated from F Q or F G is the redshift ratio: Red=(E-Ei)/Ei= F G ds / Ei = - 4 GM / c 2 D (5) Where E is actual energy, Ei is in inertial system energy, which is just the metrical definition of redshift. The redshift ratio of Eq. (5) is numerically equal to the deflection ratio of GR, which is consistent with relativistic combination of energy and momentum. When light sweep the sun once maximal redshift ratio is 4GM / c2 R =-8×10-6 . When photons pass through greatness scale interstellar and intergalactic media high gravitational redshift will arises, e.g., if universal luminosity mass density ( about 10-31 g cm -3 )is entirely constituted by stars with M in homogeneous distribution, the distance of two stars is about 800 PC, maximal redshift constant is 3000 km s-1 / MPC, average value is 62.5 km s-1 / MPC ( near the observational Hubble's constant ), which will influence astronomical distance estimated by redshift and many astrophysical parameter.

  10. THE GEOMETRY EFFECTS OF AN EXPANDING UNIVERSE ON THE DETECTION OF COOL NEUTRAL GAS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, S. J.

    2012-03-20

    Recent high-redshift surveys for 21 cm absorption in damped Ly{alpha} absorption systems (DLAs) take the number of published searches at z{sub abs} > 2 to 25, the same number as at z{sub abs} < 2, although the detection rate at high redshift remains significantly lower (20% compared to 60%). Using the known properties of the DLAs to estimate the unknown profile widths of the 21 cm non-detections and including the limits via a survival analysis, we show that the mean spin temperature/covering factor degeneracy at high redshift is, on average, double that of the low-redshift sample. This value is significantly lower than the previous factor of eight for the spin temperatures and is about the same factor as in the angular diameter distance ratios between the low- and high-redshift samples. That is, without the need for the several pivotal assumptions, which lead to an evolution in the spin temperature, we show that the observed distribution of 21 cm detections in DLAs can be accounted for by the geometry effects of an expanding universe. That is, as yet there is no evidence of the spin temperature of gas-rich galaxies evolving with redshift.

  11. Molecular gas in the halo fuels the growth of a massive cluster galaxy at high redshift.

    PubMed

    Emonts, B H C; Lehnert, M D; Villar-Martín, M; Norris, R P; Ekers, R D; van Moorsel, G A; Dannerbauer, H; Pentericci, L; Miley, G K; Allison, J R; Sadler, E M; Guillard, P; Carilli, C L; Mao, M Y; Röttgering, H J A; De Breuck, C; Seymour, N; Gullberg, B; Ceverino, D; Jagannathan, P; Vernet, J; Indermuehle, B T

    2016-12-02

    The largest galaxies in the universe reside in galaxy clusters. Using sensitive observations of carbon monoxide, we show that the Spiderweb galaxy-a massive galaxy in a distant protocluster-is forming from a large reservoir of molecular gas. Most of this molecular gas lies between the protocluster galaxies and has low velocity dispersion, indicating that it is part of an enriched intergalactic medium. This may constitute the reservoir of gas that fuels the widespread star formation seen in earlier ultraviolet observations of the Spiderweb galaxy. Our results support the notion that giant galaxies in clusters formed from extended regions of recycled gas at high redshift.

  12. Long-Term Multiwavelength Studies of High-Redshift Blazar 0836+710

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Akyuz, A.; Donato, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Larsson, S.; Sokolovsky, K.; Fuhrmann, L.; Kurtanidze, O.

    2012-01-01

    Following gamma-ray flaring activity of high-redshift (z=2.218) blazar 0836+710 in 2011, we have assembled a long-term multiwavelength study of this object. Although this source is monitored regularly by radio telescopes and the Fermi Large Area Telescope, its coverage at other wavelengths is limited. The optical flux appears generally correlated with the gamma-ray flux, while little variability has been seen at X-ray energies. The gamma-ray/radio correlation is complex compared to some other blazars. As for many blazars, the largest variability is seen at gamma-ray wavelengths.

  13. Molecular gas in the halo fuels the growth of a massive cluster galaxy at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emonts, B. H. C.; Lehnert, M. D.; Villar-Martín, M.; Norris, R. P.; Ekers, R. D.; van Moorsel, G. A.; Dannerbauer, H.; Pentericci, L.; Miley, G. K.; Allison, J. R.; Sadler, E. M.; Guillard, P.; Carilli, C. L.; Mao, M. Y.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; De Breuck, C.; Seymour, N.; Gullberg, B.; Ceverino, D.; Jagannathan, P.; Vernet, J.; Indermuehle, B. T.

    2016-12-01

    The largest galaxies in the universe reside in galaxy clusters. Using sensitive observations of carbon monoxide, we show that the Spiderweb galaxy—a massive galaxy in a distant protocluster—is forming from a large reservoir of molecular gas. Most of this molecular gas lies between the protocluster galaxies and has low velocity dispersion, indicating that it is part of an enriched intergalactic medium. This may constitute the reservoir of gas that fuels the widespread star formation seen in earlier ultraviolet observations of the Spiderweb galaxy. Our results support the notion that giant galaxies in clusters formed from extended regions of recycled gas at high redshift.

  14. The Connection Between Reddening, Gas Covering Fraction, and the Escape of Ionizing Radiation at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Naveen A.; Steidel, Charles C.; Pettini, Max; Bogosavljević, Milan; Shapley, Alice E.

    2016-09-01

    Using a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed z∼ 3 galaxies, we establish an empirical relationship between reddening (E(B-V)), neutral gas covering fraction ({f}{{cov}}({{H}} {{I}})), and the escape of ionizing (Lyman continuum, LyC) photons. Our sample includes 933 galaxies at z∼ 3,121 of which have deep spectroscopic observations (≳ 7 hr) at 850≲ {λ }{{rest}}≲ 1300 Å with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph on Keck. The high covering fraction of outflowing optically thick {{H}} {{I}} indicated by the composite spectra of these galaxies implies that photoelectric absorption, rather than dust attenuation, dominates the depletion of LyC photons. By modeling the composite spectra as the combination of an unattenuated stellar spectrum including nebular continuum emission with one that is absorbed by {{H}} {{I}} and reddened by a line-of-sight extinction, we derive an empirical relationship between E(B-V) and {f}{{cov}}({{H}} {{I}}). Galaxies with redder UV continua have larger covering fractions of {{H}} {{I}} characterized by higher line-of-sight extinctions. We develop a model which connects the ionizing escape fraction with E(B-V), and which may be used to estimate the ionizing escape fraction for an ensemble of galaxies. Alternatively, direct measurements of the escape fraction for our sample allow us to constrain the intrinsic LyC-to-UV flux density ratio to be < S(900 \\mathring{{A}} )/S(1500 \\mathring{{A}} ){> }{{int}}≳ 0.20, a value that favors stellar population models that include weaker stellar winds, a flatter initial mass function, and/or binary evolution. Last, we demonstrate how the framework discussed here may be used to assess the pathways by which ionizing radiation escapes from high-redshift galaxies. Based on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous

  15. THE GENTLE GROWTH OF GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFTS IN OVERDENSE ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Romano-Díaz, Emilio; Shlosman, Isaac; Choi, Jun-Hwan; Sadoun, Raphael

    2014-08-01

    We have explored prevailing modes of galaxy growth for redshifts z ∼ 6-14, comparing substantially overdense and normal regions of the universe, using high-resolution zoom-in cosmological simulations. Such rare overdense regions have been projected to host high-z quasars. We demonstrate that galaxies in such environments grow predominantly by a smooth accretion from cosmological filaments which dominates the mass input from major, intermediate, and minor mergers. We find that by z ∼ 6, the accumulated galaxy mass fraction from mergers falls short by a factor of 10 of the cumulative accretion mass for galaxies in the overdense regions, and by a factor of 5 in the normal environments. Moreover, the rate of the stellar mass input from mergers also lies below that of an in situ star formation (SF) rate. The fraction of stellar masses in galaxies contributed by mergers in overdense regions is ∼12%, and ∼33% in the normal regions, at these redshifts. Our median SF rates for ∼few × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} galaxies agrees well with the recently estimated rates for z ∼ 7 galaxies from Spitzer's SURF-UP survey. Finally, we find that the main difference between the normal and overdense regions lies in the amplified growth of massive galaxies in massive dark matter halos. This leads to the formation of ≳ 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} galaxies due to the ∼100 fold increase in mass during the above time period. Such galaxies are basically absent in the normal regions at these redshifts.

  16. The Quest for Dusty Star-forming Galaxies at High Redshift z ≳ 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancuso, C.; Lapi, A.; Shi, J.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Aversa, R.; Danese, L.

    2016-06-01

    We exploit the continuity equation approach and “main-sequence” star formation timescales to show that the observed high abundance of galaxies with stellar masses ≳ a few 1010 M ⊙ at redshift z ≳ 4 implies the existence of a galaxy population featuring large star formation rates (SFRs) ψ ≳ 102 M ⊙ yr-1 in heavily dust-obscured conditions. These galaxies constitute the high-redshift counterparts of the dusty star-forming population already surveyed for z ≲ 3 in the far-IR band by the Herschel Space Observatory. We work out specific predictions for the evolution of the corresponding stellar mass and SFR functions out to z ˜ 10, determining that the number density at z ≲ 8 for SFRs ψ ≳ 30 M ⊙ yr-1 cannot be estimated relying on the UV luminosity function alone, even when standard corrections for dust extinction based on the UV slope are applied. We compute the number counts and redshift distributions (including galaxy-scale gravitational lensing) of this galaxy population, and show that current data from the AzTEC-LABOCA, SCUBA-2, and ALMA-SPT surveys are already addressing it. We demonstrate how an observational strategy based on color preselection in the far-IR or (sub-)millimeter band with Herschel and SCUBA-2, supplemented by photometric data from on-source observations with ALMA, can allow us to reconstruct the bright end of the SFR functions out to z ≲ 8. In parallel, such a challenging task can be managed by exploiting current UV surveys in combination with (sub-)millimeter observations by ALMA and NIKA2 and/or radio observations by SKA and its precursors.

  17. AN OBSERVED LINK BETWEEN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND VIOLENT DISK INSTABILITIES IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bournaud, Frederic; Juneau, Stephanie; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Mullaney, James; Daddi, Emanuele; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Elbaz, David; Salmi, Fadia; Dekel, Avishai; Dickinson, Mark

    2012-09-20

    We provide evidence for a correlation between the presence of giant clumps and the occurrence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in disk galaxies. Giant clumps of 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} arise from violent gravitational instability in gas-rich galaxies, and it has been proposed that this instability could feed supermassive black holes (BHs). We use emission line diagnostics to compare a sample of 14 clumpy (unstable) disks and a sample of 13 smoother (stable) disks at redshift z {approx} 0.7. The majority of clumpy disks in our sample have a high probability of containing AGNs. Their [O III] {lambda}5007 emission line is strongly excited, inconsistent with low-metallicity star formation (SF) alone. [Ne III] {lambda}3869 excitation is also higher. Stable disks rarely have such properties. Stacking ultra sensitive Chandra observations (4 Ms) reveals an X-ray excess in clumpy galaxies, which confirms the presence of AGNs. The clumpy galaxies in our intermediate-redshift sample have properties typical of gas-rich disk galaxies rather than mergers, being in particular on the main sequence of SF. This suggests that our findings apply to the physically similar and numerous gas-rich unstable disks at z > 1. Using the observed [O III] and X-ray luminosities, we conservatively estimate that AGNs hosted by clumpy disks have typical bolometric luminosities of the order of a few 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}, BH growth rates m-dot{sub BH}{approx}10{sup -2} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, and that these AGNs are substantially obscured in X-rays. This moderate-luminosity mode could provide a large fraction of today's BH mass with a high duty cycle (>10%), accretion bursts with higher luminosities being possible over shorter phases. Violent instabilities at high redshift (giant clumps) are a much more efficient driver of BH growth than the weak instabilities in nearby spirals (bars), and the evolution of disk instabilities with mass and redshift could explain the simultaneous downsizing of

  18. Awakening of The High-Redshift Blazar CGRaBS J0809+5341

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Parker, M. L.; Stalin, C. S.; Fabian, A. C.; Ramya, S.; Covino, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Sahayanathan, S.; Ravikumar, C. D.

    2015-04-01

    CGRaBS J0809+5341, a high-redshift blazar at z = 2.144, underwent a giant optical outburst on 2014 April 19 when it brightened by ˜5 mag and reached an unfiltered apparent magnitude of 15.7 mag. This implies an absolute magnitude of -30.5 mag, making it one of the brightest quasars in the universe. This optical flaring triggered us to carry out observations during the decaying part of the flare covering a wide energy range using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, Swift, and ground-based optical facilities. For the first time, the source is detected in γ-rays by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. A high optical polarization of ˜10% is also observed. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum, the accretion disk luminosity and black hole mass are estimated as 1.5 × 1045 erg s-1 and 108.4 M⊙, respectively. Using a single zone leptonic emission model, we reproduce the spectral energy distribution of the source during the flaring activity. This analysis suggests that the emission region is probably located outside the broad-line region, and the jet becomes radiatively efficient. We also show that the overall properties of CGRaBS J0809+5341 seem to not be in agreement with the general properties observed in high-redshift blazars up to now.

  19. AWAKENING OF THE HIGH-REDSHIFT BLAZAR CGRaBS J0809+5341

    SciTech Connect

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Stalin, C. S.; Parker, M. L.; Fabian, A. C.; Ramya, S.; Covino, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Sahayanathan, S.; Ravikumar, C. D.

    2015-04-20

    CGRaBS J0809+5341, a high-redshift blazar at z = 2.144, underwent a giant optical outburst on 2014 April 19 when it brightened by ∼5 mag and reached an unfiltered apparent magnitude of 15.7 mag. This implies an absolute magnitude of −30.5 mag, making it one of the brightest quasars in the universe. This optical flaring triggered us to carry out observations during the decaying part of the flare covering a wide energy range using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, Swift, and ground-based optical facilities. For the first time, the source is detected in γ-rays by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. A high optical polarization of ∼10% is also observed. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum, the accretion disk luminosity and black hole mass are estimated as 1.5 × 10{sup 45} erg s{sup −1} and 10{sup 8.4} M{sub ⊙}, respectively. Using a single zone leptonic emission model, we reproduce the spectral energy distribution of the source during the flaring activity. This analysis suggests that the emission region is probably located outside the broad-line region, and the jet becomes radiatively efficient. We also show that the overall properties of CGRaBS J0809+5341 seem to not be in agreement with the general properties observed in high-redshift blazars up to now.

  20. NEARBY CLUMPY, GAS RICH, STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: LOCAL ANALOGS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT CLUMPY GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, C. A.; Pisano, D. J.; Rabidoux, K.; Low, M.-M. Mac; Kreckel, K.; Guzmán, R. E-mail: djpisano@mail.wvu.edu E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org E-mail: guzman@astro.ufl.edu

    2015-07-10

    Luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) have enhanced star formation rates (SFRs) and compact morphologies. We combine Sloan Digital Sky Survey data with H i data of 29 LCBGs at redshift z ∼ 0 to understand their nature. We find that local LCBGs have high atomic gas fractions (∼50%) and SFRs per stellar mass consistent with some high-redshift star-forming galaxies (SFGs). Many local LCBGs also have clumpy morphologies, with clumps distributed across their disks. Although rare, these galaxies appear to be similar to the clumpy SFGs commonly observed at z ∼ 1–3. Local LCBGs separate into three groups: (1) interacting galaxies (∼20%); (2) clumpy spirals (∼40%); and (3) non-clumpy, non-spirals with regular shapes and smaller effective radii and stellar masses (∼40%). It seems that the method of building up a high gas fraction, which then triggers star formation, is not the same for all local LCBGs. This may lead to a dichotomy in galaxy characteristics. We consider possible gas delivery scenarios and suggest that clumpy spirals, preferentially located in clusters and with companions, are smoothly accreting gas from tidally disrupted companions and/or intracluster gas enriched by stripped satellites. Conversely, as non-clumpy galaxies are preferentially located in the field and tend to be isolated, we suggest clumpy, cold streams, which destroy galaxy disks and prevent clump formation, as a likely gas delivery mechanism for these systems. Other possibilities include smooth cold streams, a series of minor mergers, or major interactions.

  1. Detectability of cold streams into high-redshift galaxies by absorption lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goerdt, Tobias; Dekel, Avishai; Sternberg, Amiel; Gnat, Orly; Ceverino, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Cold gas streaming along the dark matter filaments of the cosmic web is predicted to be the major source of fuel for disc buildup, violent disc instability and star formation in massive galaxies at high redshift. We investigate to what extent such cold gas is detectable in the extended circumgalactic environment of galaxies via Lyα absorption and selected low-ionization metal absorption lines. We model the expected absorption signatures using high-resolution zoom-in adaptive mesh refinement cosmological simulations. In the post-processing, we distinguish between self-shielded gas and unshielded gas. In the self-shielded gas, which is optically thick to Lyman continuum radiation, we assume pure collisional ionization for species with an ionization potential greater than 13.6 eV. In the optically-thin, unshielded gas, these species are also photoionized by the metagalactic radiation. In addition to absorption of radiation from background quasars, we compute the absorption line profiles of radiation emitted by the galaxy at the centre of the same halo. We predict the strength of the absorption signal for individual galaxies without stacking. We find that the Lyα absorption profiles produced by the streams are consistent with observations of absorption and emission Lyα profiles in high-redshift galaxies. Due to the low metallicities in the streams, and their low covering factors, the metal absorption features are weak and difficult to detect.

  2. Infrared to x-ray spectral energy distributions of high redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtold, Jill; Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Kuhn, Olga; Cutri, Roc M.; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Rieke, Marcia; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Wilkes, Belinda J.

    1994-01-01

    We have observed 14 quasars with z greater than 2.8 with the ROSAT-PSPC, and detected 12 of them, including the z=4.11 quasar 0000-263. We present the first x-ray spectrum of a radio quiet quasar with z greater than 3, 1946+768. Its x-ray spectrum is consistent with a power law with spectral index alpha(sub E)=1.8(sup +2.1, sub -1.4) and no evidence for absorption in excess of the galactic column (alpha(sub E)=1.00(sup +0.28, sub -0.32) assuming N(sub H)=N(sub H)(Gal)). A Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) hardness ratio is used to constrain the x-ray spectral properties of the quasars for which there were less than 100 photons detected. For the radio quiet quasars, (alpha(sub E)) approximately equals 1.2, if one assumes that there is no absorption in excess of the galactic column. We combine the x-ray data with new ground based optical and near-IR spectrophotometry obtained at the Steward 2.3 m and Multiple Mirror Telescope, and data from the literature. The spectral energy distributions are compared to those of low redshift objects. For the radio quiet quasars with z greater than 2.5, the mean (alpha(sub ox)) is approximately 1.8. This is larger than the mean for quasars with z less than 2.5, but consistent with the expected value for quasars with the high optical luminosities of the objects in this sample. For the radio-loud quasars, (alpha(sub ox)) is approximately 1.4, independent of redshift. This is smaller than the expected value for the optically luminous, high redshift objects in this sample, if they are mostly GHz peaked radio sources and hence comparable to steep-spectrum, compact radio sources at lower redshift. Finally, we compare the spectral energy distributions of two representative objects to the predicted spectrum of a thin accretion disk in the Kerr geometry, and discuss the uncertainties in deriving black hole masses and mass accretion rates.

  3. A K{sub S} AND IRAC SELECTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT EXTREMELY RED OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei-Hao; Barger, Amy J.; Cowie, Lennox L.

    2012-01-10

    In order to find the most extreme dust-hidden high-redshift galaxies, we select 196 extremely red objects in the K{sub S} and Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands (KIEROs, [K{sub s} - 4.5 {mu}m]{sub AB} > 1.6) in the 0.06 deg{sup 2} Great Observatories Origins Deep Surveys-North (GOODS-N) region. This selection avoids the Balmer breaks of galactic spectra at z < 4 and picks up red galaxies with strong dust extinction. The photometric redshifts of KIEROs are between 1.5 and 5, with {approx}70% at z {approx} 2-4. KIEROs are very massive, with M{sub *} {approx} 10{sup 10}-10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }. They are optically faint and usually cannot be picked out by the Lyman break selection. On the other hand, the KIERO selection includes approximately half of the known millimeter and submillimeter galaxies in the GOODS-N. Stacking analyses in the radio, millimeter, and submillimeter all show that KIEROs are much more luminous than average 4.5 {mu}m-selected galaxies. Interestingly, the stacked fluxes for Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)-undetected KIEROs in these wave bands are 2.5-5 times larger than those for ACS-detected KIEROs. With the stacked radio fluxes and the local radio-FIR correlation, we derive mean infrared luminosities of (2-7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun} and mean star formation rates (SFRs) of 400-1200 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for KIEROs with redshifts. We do not find evidence of a significant subpopulation of passive KIEROs. The large stellar masses and SFRs imply that KIEROs are z > 2 massive galaxies in rapid formation. Our results show that a large sample of dusty ultraluminous sources can be selected in this way and that a large fraction of high-redshift star formation is hidden by dust.

  4. Giant clumps in the FIRE simulations: a case study of a massive high-redshift galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oklopčić, Antonija; Hopkins, Philip F.; Feldmann, Robert; Kereš, Dušan; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Murray, Norman

    2017-02-01

    The morphology of massive star-forming galaxies at high redshift is often dominated by giant clumps of mass ˜108-109 M⊙ and size ˜100-1000 pc. Previous studies have proposed that giant clumps might have an important role in the evolution of their host galaxy, particularly in building the central bulge. However, this depends on whether clumps live long enough to migrate from their original location in the disc or whether they get disrupted by their own stellar feedback before reaching the centre of the galaxy. We use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations from the FIRE (Feedback in Realistic Environments) project which implement explicit treatments of stellar feedback and interstellar medium physics to study the properties of these clumps. We follow the evolution of giant clumps in a massive (M* ˜ 1010.8 M⊙ at z = 1), discy, gas-rich galaxy from redshift z ≳ 2 to z = 1. Even though the clumpy phase of this galaxy lasts over a gigayear, individual gas clumps are short-lived, with mean lifetime of massive clumps of ˜20 Myr. During that time, they turn between 0.1 per cent and 20 per cent of their gas into stars before being disrupted, similar to local giant molecular clouds. Clumps with M ≳ 107 M⊙ account for ˜20 per cent of the total star formation in the galaxy during the clumpy phase, producing ˜1010 M⊙ of stars. We do not find evidence for net inward migration of clumps within the galaxy. The number of giant clumps and their mass decrease at lower redshifts, following the decrease in the overall gas fraction and star formation rate.

  5. Detecting the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect with high-redshift 21-cm surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raccanelli, Alvise; Kovetz, Ely; Dai, Liang; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the possibility of detecting the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect by cross-correlating 21-cm surveys at high redshifts with galaxies in a way similar to the usual CMB-galaxy cross-correlation. The high-redshift 21-cm signal is dominated by CMB photons that travel freely without interacting with the intervening matter, and hence its late-time ISW signature should correlate extremely well with that of the CMB at its peak frequencies. Using the 21-cm temperature brightness instead of the CMB would thus be a further check of the detection of the ISW effect, measured by different instruments at different frequencies and suffering from different systematics. We also study the ISW effect on the photons that are scattered by HI clouds. We show that a detection of the unscattered photons is achievable with planned radio arrays, while one using scattered photons will require advanced radio interferometers, either an extended version of the planned Square Kilometre Array or futuristic experiments such as a lunar radio array.

  6. VLP - High-Redshift AGNs and the X-SERVS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, W.

    2016-06-01

    In the first part of this talk, I will review how X-ray observations of high-redshift AGNs at z = 4-7 have played a critical role in understanding their basic demographics as well as their physical processes; e.g., accretion rates, jet emission, X-ray absorption by nuclear material and winds. Since 2000, XMM-Newton and Chandra have provided new X-ray detections for more than 120 such objects, and well-defined samples of z > 4 AGNs now allow reliable basic X-ray population studies. I will point out key remaining areas of uncertainty, highlighting where further XMM-Newton and Chandra observations can advance understanding. I will then describe the X-SERVS project which aims to go ``beyond COSMOS'' via a 12 deg^2 survey of three prime sky regions: W-CDF-S, XMM-LSS, and ELAIS-S1. The X-SERVS survey will allow outstanding studies of the detected AGNs and groups/clusters by powerfully leveraging multiple intensive radio-to-UV surveys: ATLAS/HerMES/SERVS/VIDEO/DES/HSC/PS1MD/VOICE/CSI/PRIMUS. We aim to dramatically advance studies of SMBH growth across the full range of cosmic environments, links between SMBH accretion and star formation, exceptional AGNs at high redshifts, protoclusters, etc. The targeted X-SERVS fields will have extraordinary legacy value as MOONS massive spectroscopy fields, prime ALMA fields, and DES/LSST deep-drilling fields.

  7. Identification of a galaxy responsible for a high-redshift Lyman-α absorption system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djorgovski, S. G.; Pahre, M. A.; Bechtold, J.; Elston, R.

    1996-07-01

    DAMPEDLyman-α systems are high-column-density intergalactic clouds of hydrogen, the existence of which is inferred from absorption lines appearing in the emission spectra of distant quasars. The galaxies believed to be responsible for these absorption systems have been suggested as possible progenitors of the normal disk galaxies observed in the local Universe1. Indeed, Lyman-α systems appear to contain a substantial fraction of the baryons known to exist in galaxies today2,3. Here we report the optical detection of a galaxy (designated DLA2233 + 131) associated with a known4 damped Lyman-α absorption system at a redshift of z = 3.150. The properties of this galaxy correspond closely to those expected of a young disk galaxy in the early stages of formation, and show no evidence for an active nucleus. This finding gives strong support to the idea that damped Lyman-α systems represent a population of young galaxies at high red-shifts.

  8. THE MID-INFRARED ENVIRONMENTS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT RADIO GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Galametz, Audrey; Stern, Daniel; De Breuck, Carlos; Vernet, Joeel; Hatch, Nina; Mayo, Jack; Miley, George; Rettura, Alessandro; Seymour, Nick; Adam Stanford, S.

    2012-04-20

    Taking advantage of the impressive sensitivity of Spitzer to detect massive galaxies at high redshift, we study the mid-infrared environments of powerful, high-redshift radio galaxies at 1.2 < z < 3. Galaxy cluster member candidates were isolated using a single Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared color criterion, [3.6]-[4.5] > -0.1 (AB), in the fields of 48 radio galaxies at 1.2 < z < 3. Using a counts-in-cell analysis, we identify a field as overdense when 15 or more red IRAC sources are found within 1' (i.e., 0.5 Mpc at 1.2 < z < 3) of the radio galaxy to the 5{sigma} flux density limits of our IRAC data (f{sub 4.5} = 13.4 {mu}Jy). We find that radio galaxies lie preferentially in medium to dense regions, with 73% of the targeted fields denser than average. Our (shallow) 120 s data permit the rediscovery of previously known clusters and protoclusters associated with radio galaxies as well as the discovery of new promising galaxy cluster candidates at z > 1.2.

  9. Physical properties of high-redshift WFC3 galaxies at z=7-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamine, Kentaro

    2010-09-01

    Over the past decade, large samples of Ly-break galaxies {LBGs} have been assembled at z=3-6. The observers are now pushing the forefront of galaxy formation study into the range of z=7-9 utilizing the new data from the WFC3 camera. However, due to the faintness of the sources at these redshifts, it is difficult to derive the physical parameters such as stellar mass and star formation histories of the candidate galaxies. Therefore, it would be helpful to obtain predictions on these quantities from theoretical models using self-consistent, cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation. In the proposed work, we will examine the physical properties of high-redshift star-forming galaxies at z=7-10 using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. In the first step, we will develop a model for estimating the variable extinction values of individual galaxies based on their metal column densities. We will also examine the spectro-photometric properties, stellar masses, star formation histories, and spatial correlations, and provide feedback to the WFC3 observations. The second step of our project is to perform the radiative transfer calculations of stellar radiation from high-z galaxies using the Authentic Radiative Transfer {ART} code. This exact RT calculation will allow us to check the accuracy of our earlier results from part {1}, and to develop a better model of dust distribution in cosmological simulations.

  10. High-redshift formation and evolution of central massive objects - II. The census of BH seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devecchi, B.; Volonteri, M.; Rossi, E. M.; Colpi, M.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2012-04-01

    We present results of simulations aimed at tracing the formation of nuclear star clusters (NCs) and black hole (BH) seeds in the framework of the current Λcold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmogony. These BH seeds are considered to be progenitors of the supermassive BHs that inhabit today's galaxies. We focus on two mechanisms for the formation of BHs at high redshifts: as end-products of (1) Population III stars in metal-free haloes, and (2) runaway stellar collisions in metal-poor NCs. Our model tracks the chemical, radiative and mechanical feedback of stars on the baryonic component of the evolving haloes. This procedure allows us to evaluate when and where the conditions for BH formation are met, and to trace the emergence of BH seeds arising from the dynamical channel, in a cosmological context. BHs start to appear already at redshift ˜30 as remnants of Population III stars. The efficiency of this mechanism begins decreasing once feedbacks become increasingly important. Around redshift z˜ 15, BHs mostly form in the centre of mildly metal-enriched haloes inside dense NCs. The seed BHs that form along the two pathways have at birth a mass of around 100-1000 M⊙. The occupation fraction of BHs is a function of both halo mass and mass growth rate: at a given redshift, heavier and faster growing haloes have a higher chance to form a native BH, or to acquire an inherited BH via merging of another system. With decreasing z, the probability of finding a BH shifts towards progressively higher mass halo intervals. This is due to the fact that, at later cosmic times, low-mass systems rarely form a seed, and already formed BHs are deposited into larger mass systems due to hierarchical mergers. Our model predicts that at z= 0, all haloes above 1011 M⊙ should host a BH (in agreement with observational results), most probably inherited during their lifetime. Haloes less massive than 109 M⊙ have a higher probability to host a native BH, but their occupation fraction decreases

  11. H-ATLAS: a candidate high redshift cluster/protocluster of star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, D. L.; Braglia, F.; Petitpas, G.; Greenslade, J.; Cooray, A.; Valiante, E.; De Zotti, G.; O'Halloran, B.; Holdship, J.; Morris, B.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Herranz, D.; Riechers, D.; Baes, M.; Bremer, M.; Bourne, N.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dariush, A.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; Fritz, J.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Hopwood, R.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Leeuw, L. L.; Maddox, S.; Michałowski, M. J.; Negrello, M.; Omont, A.; Oteo, I.; Serjeant, S.; Valtchanov, I.; Vieira, J. D.; Wardlow, J.; van der Werf, P.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the region around the Planck-detected z = 3.26 gravitationally lensed galaxy HATLAS J114637.9-001132 (hereinafter HATLAS12-00) using both archival Herschel data from the H-ATLAS survey and using submm data obtained with both LABOCA and SCUBA2. The lensed source is found to be surrounded by a strong overdensity of both Herschel-SPIRE sources and submm sources. We detect 17 bright (S870 > ˜7 mJy) sources at >4σ closer than 5 arcmin to the lensed object at 850/870 μm. 10 of these sources have good cross-identifications with objects detected by Herschel-SPIRE which have redder colours than other sources in the field, with 350 μm flux >250 μm flux, suggesting that they lie at high redshift. Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations localise one of these companions to ˜1 arcsec, allowing unambiguous cross identification with a 3.6 and 4.5 μm Spitzer source. The optical/near-IR spectral energy distribution of this source is measured by further observations and found to be consistent with z > 2, but incompatible with lower redshifts. We conclude that this system may be a galaxy cluster/protocluster or larger scale structure that contains a number of galaxies undergoing starbursts at the same time.

  12. Human high intelligence is involved in spectral redshift of biophotonic activities in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Niting; Li, Zehua; Xiao, Fangyan; Dai, Jiapei

    2016-01-01

    Human beings hold higher intelligence than other animals on Earth; however, it is still unclear which brain properties might explain the underlying mechanisms. The brain is a major energy-consuming organ compared with other organs. Neural signal communications and information processing in neural circuits play an important role in the realization of various neural functions, whereas improvement in cognitive function is driven by the need for more effective communication that requires less energy. Combining the ultraweak biophoton imaging system (UBIS) with the biophoton spectral analysis device (BSAD), we found that glutamate-induced biophotonic activities and transmission in the brain, which has recently been demonstrated as a novel neural signal communication mechanism, present a spectral redshift from animals (in order of bullfrog, mouse, chicken, pig, and monkey) to humans, even up to a near-infrared wavelength (∼865 nm) in the human brain. This brain property may be a key biophysical basis for explaining high intelligence in humans because biophoton spectral redshift could be a more economical and effective measure of biophotonic signal communications and information processing in the human brain. PMID:27432962

  13. Constraining high-redshift X-ray sources with next generation 21-cm power spectrum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Hewitt, Jacqueline; Mesinger, Andrei; Dillon, Joshua S.; Liu, Adrian; Pober, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    We use the Fisher matrix formalism and seminumerical simulations to derive quantitative predictions of the constraints that power spectrum measurements on next-generation interferometers, such as the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) and the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will place on the characteristics of the X-ray sources that heated the high-redshift intergalactic medium. Incorporating observations between z = 5 and 25, we find that the proposed 331 element HERA and SKA phase 1 will be capable of placing ≲ 10 per cent constraints on the spectral properties of these first X-ray sources, even if one is unable to perform measurements within the foreground contaminated `wedge' or the FM band. When accounting for the enhancement in power spectrum amplitude from spin temperature fluctuations, we find that the observable signatures of reionization extend well beyond the peak in the power spectrum usually associated with it. We also find that lower redshift degeneracies between the signatures of heating and reionization physics lead to errors on reionization parameters that are significantly greater than previously predicted. Observations over the heating epoch are able to break these degeneracies and improve our constraints considerably. For these two reasons, 21-cm observations during the heating epoch significantly enhance our understanding of reionization as well.

  14. The discovery of high-redshift supernovae and their cosmological implications

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Alex G.

    1997-09-01

    In this thesis the author discusses the methodology for doing photometry from procedure of extracting supernova counts from images that contain combined supernova plus galaxy flux, to standard star calibration, to additional instrumental corrections that arise due to the multiple telescopes used for observations. He discusses the different sources of photometric error and their correlations, and the construction of the covariance matrix for all the points in the light curve. He then describes the K corrections which account for the redshifting of spectra that are necessary to compare the photometry of the high-redshift data with those from nearby (z < 0.1) supernovae. Finally, he uses the first seven of the supernovae to test the hypothesis that they live in an under-dense bubble where the locally measured Hubble constant differs significantly from the true Hubble constant. He also uses the data to place limits on the value of the Hubble constant. Discussions of several other important aspects of the data analysis are or will be included in other papers. These topics include a description of how the covariance matrix is used to generate light-curve fits, a discussion of non-photometric systematic errors that also effect the measurements, and a discussion of the application of the supernovae to address other scientific/cosmological problems.

  15. Inflow velocities of cold flows streaming into massive galaxies at high redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goerdt, Tobias; Ceverino, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    We study the velocities of the accretion along streams from the cosmic web into massive galaxies at high redshift with the help of three different suites of AMR hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. The results are compared to free-fall velocities and to the sound speeds of the hot ambient medium. The sound speed of the hot ambient medium is calculated using two different methods to determine the medium's temperature. We find that the simulated cold stream velocities are in violent disagreement with the corresponding free-fall profiles. The sound speed is a better albeit not always correct description of the cold flows' velocity. Using these calculations as a first order approximation for the gas inflow velocities vinflow = 0.9 vvir is given. We conclude from the hydrodynamical simulations as our main result that the velocity profiles for the cold streams are constant with radius. These constant inflow velocities seem to have a `parabola-like' dependency on the host halo mass in units of the virial velocity that peaks at Mvir = 1012 M⊙ and we also propose that the best-fitting functional form for the dependency of the inflow velocity on the redshift is a square root power-law relation: v_inflow ∝ √{z + 1} v_vir.

  16. A PARAMETRIC STUDY OF POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS TO THE HIGH-REDSHIFT OVERPRODUCTION OF STARS IN MODELED DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    White, Catherine E.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Ferguson, Henry C.

    2015-02-01

    Both numerical hydrodynamic and semi-analytic cosmological models of galaxy formation struggle to match observed star formation histories of galaxies in low-mass halos (M {sub H} ≲ 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}), predicting more star formation at high redshift and less star formation at low redshift than observed. The fundamental problem is that galaxies' gas accretion and star formation rates are too closely coupled in the models: the accretion rate largely drives the star formation rate. Observations point to gas accretion rates that outpace star formation at high redshift, resulting in a buildup of gas and a delay in star formation until lower redshifts. We present three empirical adjustments of standard recipes in a semi-analytic model motivated by three physical scenarios that could cause this decoupling: (1) the mass-loading factors of outflows driven by stellar feedback may have a steeper dependence on halo mass at earlier times, (2) the efficiency of star formation may be lower in low-mass halos at high redshift, and (3) gas may not be able to accrete efficiently onto the disk in low-mass halos at high redshift. These new recipes, once tuned, better reproduce the evolution of f {sub *}≡ M {sub *}/M {sub H} as a function of halo mass as derived from abundance matching over redshifts z = 0 to 3, though they have different effects on cold gas fractions, star formation rates, and metallicities. Changes to gas accretion and stellar-driven winds are promising, while direct modification of the star formation timescale requires drastic measures that are not physically well motivated.

  17. Investigating the Local and High Redshift Universe With Deep Survey Data and Ground-Based Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Daniel Charles

    Large multiwavelength surveys are now driving the frontiers of astronomical research. I describe results from my work using data from two large astronomical surveys: the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), which has obtained deep photometric and spectroscopic data on two square degrees of the sky using many of the most powerful telescopes in the world, and the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) Survey, which uses the highly sensitive slitless spectroscopic capability of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 to detect star-forming galaxies over most of the universe's history. First I describe my work on the evolution of the high-redshift quasar luminosity function, an important observational quantity constraining the growth of the supermassive black holes in the early universe. I show that the number density of faint quasars declines rapidly above z ˜ 3. This result is discussed in the context of cosmic reionization and the coevolution of galaxies and their central black holes. Next I present results of a multi-year campaign of near-infrared spectroscopy with FIRE, a world-class near-infrared spectrometer on the Magellan Baade 6.5 meter telescope in Chile, targeting emission-line galaxies at z ˜ 2 discovered with the Hubble Space Telescope. Our results showed that the typical emission-line galaxy at this redshift has low-metallicity, low dust obscuration, high ionization parameter, and little evidence for significant active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution to the emission lines. We also find evidence that high redshift star-forming galaxies have enhanced nitrogen abundances. This result has interesting implications for the nature of the star formation in such galaxies -- in particular, it could mean that a large fraction of such galaxies harbor substantial populations of Wolf-Rayet stars, which are massive, evolved stars ejecting large amounts of enriched matter into the interstellar medium. Finally, I will discuss the discovery of three

  18. High-Redshift Quasars Found in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Commissioning Data. II. The Spring Equatorial Stripe

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Xiaohui; Strauss, Michael A.; Schneider, Donald P.; Gunn, James E.; Lupton, Robert H.; Anderson, Scott F.; Voges, Wolfgang; Margon, Bruce; Annis, James; Bahcall, Neta A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the second paper in a series aimed at finding high-redshift quasars from five-color (u{sup '} g{sup '} r{sup '} i{sup '} z{sup '}) imaging data taken along the Celestial Equator by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) during its commissioning phase. In this paper, we present 22 high-redshift quasars (z>3.6) discovered from {approx}250 deg2 of data in the spring Equatorial Stripe, plus photometry for two previously known high-redshift quasars in the same region of the sky. Our success rate in identifying high-redshift quasars is 68%. Five of the newly discovered quasars have redshifts higher than 4.6 (z=4.62, 4.69, 4.70, 4.92, and 5.03). All the quasars have i{sup *} <20.2 with absolute magnitude - 28.8

  19. A high-redshift IRAS galaxy with huge luminosity - Hidden quasar or protogalaxy?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.; Broadhurst, T.; Oliver, S. J.; Taylor, A. N.; Lawrence, A.; Mcmahon, R. G.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Hacking, P. B.; Conrow, T.

    1991-01-01

    An emission line galaxy with the enormous far-IR luminosity of 3 x 10 to the 14th solar has been found at z = 2.286. The spectrum is very unusual, showing lines of high excitation but with very weak Lyman-alpha emission. A self-absorbed synchrotron model for the IR energy distribution cannot be ruled out, but a thermal origin seems more plausible. A radio-quiet quasar embedded in a very dusty galaxy could account for the IR emission, as might a starburst embedded in 1-10 billion solar masses of dust. The latter case demands so much dust that the object would probably be a massive galaxy in the process of formation. The presence of a large amount of dust in an object of such high redshift implies the generation of heavy elements at an early cosmological epoch.

  20. A Very Hot, High Redshift Cluster of Galaxies: More Trouble for Omega(0) = 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Megan; Voit, G. Mark; Gioia, Isabella; Luppino, Gerry; Hughes, John P.; Stocke, John T.

    1998-01-01

    We have observed the most distant (= 0.829) cluster of galaxies in the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS), with the ASCA and ROSAT satellites. We find an X-ray temperature of 12.3 (sup +3.1) (sub -2.2)keV for this cluster, and the ROSAT map reveals significant substructure. The high temperature of MS1054-0321 is consistent with both its approximate velocity dispersion, based on the redshifts of 12 cluster members we have obtained at the Keck and the Canada-France-Hawaii telescopes, and with its weak lensing signature. The X-ray temperature of this cluster implies a virial mass approx. 7.4 x 10 (sup 14) h (sup -1) M (circle dot), if the mean matter density in the universe equals the critical value (OMEGA (sub 0) = 1), or larger if OMEGA (sub 0) is less than 1. Finding such a hot, massive cluster in the EMSS is extremely improbable if clusters grew from Gaussian perturbations in an OMEGA (sub 0) = 1 universe. Combining the assumptions that OMEGA (sub 0) = 1 and that the initial perturbations were Gaussian with the observed X-ray temperature function at low redshift, we show that this probability of this cluster occurring in the volume sampled by the EMSS is less than a few times 10 (sup -5). Nor is MS1054-0321 the only hot cluster at high redshift; the only two other z greater than 0.5 EMSS clusters already observed with ASCA also have temperatures exceeding 8 keV. Assuming again that the initial perturbations were Gaussian and OMEGA (sub 0) = 1, we find that each one is improbable at the less than 10 (sup -2) level. These observations, along with the fact that these luminosities and temperatures of the high-z clusters all agree with the low-z L (sub X) - T (sub X) relation, argue strongly that OMEGA (sub 0) less than 1. Otherwise, the initial perturbations must be non-Gaussian, if these clusters' temperatures do indeed reflect their gravitational potentials.

  1. COSMIC RAYS CAN DRIVE STRONG OUTFLOWS FROM GAS-RICH HIGH-REDSHIFT DISK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hanasz, M.; Kowalik, K.; Wóltański, D.; Lesch, H.; Naab, T.; Gawryszczak, A.

    2013-11-10

    We present simulations of the magnetized interstellar medium (ISM) in models of massive star-forming (40 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) disk galaxies with high gas surface densities (Σ{sub gas} ∼ 100 M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2}) similar to observed star-forming high-redshift disks. We assume that type II supernovae deposit 10% of their energy into the ISM as cosmic rays (CRs) and neglect the additional deposition of thermal energy or momentum. With a typical Galactic diffusion coefficient for CRs (3 × 10{sup 28} cm{sup 2} s{sup –1}), we demonstrate that this process alone can trigger the local formation of a strong low-density galactic wind maintaining vertically open field lines. Driven by the additional pressure gradient of the relativistic fluid, the wind speed can exceed 10{sup 3} km s{sup –1}, much higher than the escape velocity of the galaxy. The global mass loading, i.e., the ratio of the gas mass leaving the galactic disk in a wind to the star formation rate, becomes of order unity once the system has settled into an equilibrium. We conclude that relativistic particles accelerated in supernova remnants alone provide a natural and efficient mechanism to trigger winds similar to observed mass-loaded galactic winds in high-redshift galaxies. These winds also help in explaining the low efficiencies for the conversion of gas into stars in galaxies, as well as the early enrichment of the intergalactic medium with metals. This mechanism may be at least of similar importance to the traditionally considered momentum feedback from massive stars and thermal and kinetic feedback from supernova explosions.

  2. Line and continuum variability of two intermediate-redshift, high-luminosity quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevese, D.; Paris, D.; Stirpe, G. M.; Vagnetti, F.; Zitelli, V.

    2007-08-01

    Context: It has been shown that the luminosity of active galactic nuclei and the size of their broad line region obey a simple relation of the type R_BLR=a Lγ, from faint Seyfert nuclei to bright quasars, allowing single-epoch determination of the central black hole mass M_BH= b Lγ Δ^2_Hβ from their luminosity L and width of Hβ emission line. Adopting this mass determination for cosmological studies requires the extrapolation to high redshift and luminosity of a relation whose calibration relies so far on reverberation mapping measurements performed for L ⪉ 1046 erg s-1 and redshift z ⪉ 0.4. Aims: We initiated a campaign for the spectrophotometric monitoring of a few luminous, intermediate redshift quasars whose apparent magnitude, V < 15.7, allows observations with a 1.8 m telescope, aimed at proving that emission lines vary and respond to continuum variations even for luminosities ⪆1047 erg s-1, and determining eventually their M_BH from reverberation mapping. Methods: We have repeatedly performed simultaneous spectrophotometric observations of quasars and reference stars to determine relative variability of continuum and emission lines. We describe the observations and methods of analysis. Results: For the quasars PG 1634+706 and PG 1247+268 we obtain light-curves respectively for CIII] (λλ1909 Å), MgII(λλ2798 Å) and for CIV(λλ1549 Å), CIII] (λλ1909 Å) emission lines with the relevant continua. During 3.2 years of observation, in the former case no continuum variability was detected and the evidence for line variability is marginal, while in the latter case both continuum and line variability are detected with high significance and the line variations appear correlated with continuum variations. Conclusions: The detection of the emission line variability in a quasar with L ~ 1047 erg s-1 encourages the continuation of the monitoring campaign which should provide a black hole mass estimate in another 5-6 years, constraining the mass

  3. Using Line Profiles to Test the Fraternity of Type Ia Supernovae at High and Low Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blondin, Stéphane; Dessart, Luc; Leibundgut, Bruno; Branch, David; Höflich, Peter; Tonry, John L.; Matheson, Thomas; Foley, Ryan J.; Chornock, Ryan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Sollerman, Jesper; Spyromilio, Jason; Kirshner, Robert P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Aguilera, Claudio; Barris, Brian; Becker, Andrew C.; Challis, Peter; Covarrubias, Ricardo; Davis, Tamara M.; Garnavich, Peter; Hicken, Malcolm; Jha, Saurabh; Krisciunas, Kevin; Li, Weidong; Miceli, Anthony; Miknaitis, Gajus; Pignata, Giuliano; Prieto, Jose Luis; Rest, Armin; Riess, Adam G.; Salvo, Maria Elena; Schmidt, Brian P.; Smith, R. Chris; Stubbs, Christopher W.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2006-03-01

    Using archival data of low-redshift (z<0.01 Center for Astrophysics and SUSPECT databases) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and recent observations of high-redshift (0.16high signal-to-noise ratio observations. We also quantify the associated sources of error, assessing the effect of line blending with assistance from the parameterized code SYNOW. We find that the evolution of vabs and vpeak for our sample lines (Ca II λ3945, Si II λ6355, and S II λλ5454, 5640) is similar for both the low- and high-redshift samples. We find that vabs for the weak S II λλ5454, 5640 lines and vpeak for S II λ5454 can be used to identify fast-declining [Δm15(B)>1.7] SNe Ia, which are also subluminous. In addition, we give the first direct evidence in two high-z SN Ia spectra of a double-absorption feature in Ca II λ3945, an event also observed, although infrequently, in low-redshift SN Ia spectra (6 out of 22 SNe Ia in our local sample). Moreover, echoing the recent studies of Dessart & Hillier in the context of Type II supernovae (SNe II), we see similar P Cygni line profiles in our large sample of SN Ia spectra. First, the magnitude of the velocity location at maximum profile absorption may underestimate that at the continuum photosphere, as observed, for example, in the optically thinner line S II λ5640. Second, we report for the first time the unambiguous and systematic intrinsic blueshift of peak emission of optical P Cygni line profiles in SN Ia spectra, by as much as 8000 km s-1. All the high-z SNe Ia analyzed in this paper were discovered and followed up by the ESSENCE

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: KMOS AGN Survey at High redshift (KASHz) (Harrison+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, C. M.; Alexander, D. M.; Mullaney, J. R.; Stott, J. P.; Swinbank, A. M.; Arumugam, V.; Bauer, F. E.; Bower, R. G.; Bunker, A. J.; Sharples, R. M.

    2016-08-01

    KASHz is designed to ultimately obtain spatially resolved emission-line kinematics of ~(100-200) high-redshift (z~0.6-3.6) AGN. For our target selection we make use of deep X-ray surveys performed in extragalactic fields (COSMOS, see Scoville et al., 2007, Cat. J/ApJS/171/1; CDF-S, see Giacconi et al. 2001ApJ...551..624G and Xue et al., 2011, Cat. J/ApJS/195/10 (CDFS); UDS, SXDS: see Furusawa et al. 2008, Cat. J/ApJS/176/1 (UDS) and SSA22, see Steidel et al. 1998ApJ...492..428S). (1 data file).

  5. A Detailed Study of Two Optically Selected, High-Redshift Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubin, Lori M.

    2000-01-01

    We are obtaining detailed X-ray spectral and structural data for two distant, optically-selected clusters of galaxies which are known X-ray emitters, CL1324+3011 at z = 0.76 and CL,1604+4304 at z = 0.90. These observations will allow us to place accurate constraints on the temperature, surface-brightness profile, and mass fraction of the intracluster medium in rich, optically-selected clusters at very high redshift. The two target clusters are the most well-studied systems at z greater than 0.7 in the optical and infrared regimes; therefore, with the addition of the XMM data, we plan to study the specifies of the relationship between the X-ray and optical properties and their implications for galaxy and cluster evolution.

  6. The coevolution of supermassive black holes and massive galaxies at high redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Lapi, A.; Raimundo, S.; Aversa, R.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Celotti, A.; De Zotti, G.; Danese, L.; Negrello, M.

    2014-02-20

    We exploit the recent, wide samples of far-infrared (FIR) selected galaxies followed up in X-rays and of X-ray/optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) followed up in the FIR band, along with the classic data on AGNs and stellar luminosity functions at high redshift z ≳ 1.5, to probe different stages in the coevolution of supermassive black holes (BHs) and host galaxies. The results of our analysis indicate the following scenario: (1) the star formation in the host galaxy proceeds within a heavily dust-enshrouded medium at an almost constant rate over a timescale ≲ 0.5-1 Gyr and then abruptly declines due to quasar feedback, over the same timescale; (2) part of the interstellar medium loses angular momentum, reaches the circum-nuclear regions at a rate proportional to the star formation, and is temporarily stored in a massive reservoir/proto-torus wherefrom it can be promptly accreted; (3) the BH grows by accretion in a self-regulated regime with radiative power that can slightly exceed the Eddington limit L/L {sub Edd} ≲ 4, particularly at the highest redshifts; (4) for massive BHs, the ensuing energy feedback at its maximum exceeds the stellar one and removes the interstellar gas, thus stopping the star formation and the fueling of the reservoir; (5) afterward, if the latter has retained enough gas, a phase of supply-limited accretion follows, exponentially declining with a timescale of about two e-folding times. We also discuss how the detailed properties and the specific evolution of the reservoir can be investigated via coordinated, high-resolution observations of star-forming, strongly lensed galaxies in the (sub-)mm band with ALMA and in the X-ray band with Chandra and the next-generation X-ray instruments.

  7. Radiative transfer in a clumpy universe: The colors of high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madau, Piero

    1995-01-01

    We assess the effects of the stochastic attenuation produced by intervening QSO absorption systems on the broadband colors of galaxies at cosmological distances. We compute the H I opacity of a clumpy universe as a function of redshift, including scattering in resonant lines, such as Lyman alpha, Lyman beta, Lyman gamma, and higher order members, and Lyman-continuum absorption. Both the numerous, optically thin Lyman-alpha forest clouds and the rarer, optically thick Lyman limit systems are found to contribute to the obscuration of background sources. We study the mean properties of primeval galaxies at high redshift in four broad optical passbands, U(sub n), B, G, and R. Even if young galaxies radiated a significant amount of ionizing photons, the attenuation due to the accumulated photoelectric opacity along the path is so severe that sources beyond z approximately 3 will drop out of the U(sub n) image together. We also show that the observed B-R color of distant galaxies can be much redder than expected from a stellar population. At z approximately 3.5, the blanketing by discrete absorption lines in the Lyman series is so effective that background galaxies appear, on average, 1 mag fainter in B. By z approximately 4, the observed B magnitude increment due to intergalactic absorption exceeds 2 mag. By modeling the intrinsic UV spectral energy distribution of star-forming galaxies with a stellar population synthesis code, we show that the (B-R)(sub AB) approximately 0 criterion for identifying 'flat-spectrum,' metal-producing galaxies is biased against objects at z greater than 3. The continuum blanketing from the Lyman series produces a characteristic staircase profile in the transmitted power. We suggest that this cosmic Lyman decrement might be used as a tool to identify high-z galaxies.

  8. High-redshift blazar identification for Swift J1656.3-3302

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masetti, N.; Mason, E.; Landi, R.; Giommi, P.; Bassani, L.; Malizia, A.; Bird, A. J.; Bazzano, A.; Dean, A. J.; Gehrels, N.; Palazzi, E.; Ubertini, P.

    2008-03-01

    We report on the high-redshift blazar identification of a new gamma-ray source, Swift J1656.3-3302, detected with the BAT imager onboard the Swift satellite and the IBIS instrument on the INTEGRAL satellite. Follow-up optical spectroscopy has allowed us to identify the counterpart as an R˜ 19 mag source that shows broad Lyman-α, Si iv, He ii, C iv, and C iii] emission lines at redshift z = 2.40 ± 0.01. Spectral evolution is observed in X-rays when the INTEGRAL/IBIS data are compared to the Swift/BAT results, with the spectrum steepening when the source gets fainter. The 0.7-200 keV X-ray continuum, observed with Swift/XRT and INTEGRAL/IBIS, shows the power law shape typical of radio loud (broad emission line) active galactic nuclei (with a photon index Γ ˜ 1.6) and a hint of spectral curvature below ~2 keV, possibly due to intrinsic absorption (NH ˜ 7× 10 22 cm-2) local to the source. Alternatively, a slope change (Δ Γ ˜ 1) around 2.7 keV can describe the X-ray spectrum equally well. At this redshift, the observed 20-100 keV luminosity of the source is ~1048 erg s-1 (assuming isotropic emission), making Swift J1656.3-3302 one of the most X-ray luminous blazars. This source is yet another example of a distant gamma-ray loud quasar discovered above 20 keV. It is also the farthest object, among the previously unidentified INTEGRAL sources, whose nature has been determined a posteriori through optical spectroscopy. Partly based on X-ray observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data centre funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain), Czech Republic and Poland, and with the participation of Russia and the USA, and on optical observations collected at ESO (La Silla, Chile) under programme 079.A-0171(A).

  9. Bayesian Multiscale Analysis of X-Ray Jet Features in High Redshift Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeough, Kathryn; Siemiginowska, A.; Kashyap, V.; Stein, N.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray emission of powerful quasar jets may be a result of the inverse Compton (IC) process in which the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons gain energy by interactions with the jet’s relativistic electrons. However, there is no definite evidence that IC/CMB process is responsible for the observed X-ray emission of large scale jets. A step toward understanding the X-ray emission process is to study the Radio and X-ray morphologies of the jet. We implement a sophisticated Bayesian image analysis program, Low-count Image Reconstruction and Analysis (LIRA) (Esch et al. 2004; Conners & van Dyk 2007), to analyze jet features in 11 Chandra images of high redshift quasars (z ~ 2 - 4.8). Out of the 36 regions where knots are visible in the radio jets, nine showed detectable X-ray emission. We measured the ratios of the X-ray and radio luminosities of the detected features and found that they are consistent with the CMB radiation relationship. We derived a range of the bulk lorentz factor (Γ) for detected jet features under the CMB jet emission model. There is no discernible trend of Γ with redshift within the sample. The efficiency of the X-ray emission between the detected jet feature and the corresponding quasar also shows no correlation with redshift. This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation REU and the Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant no.1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution, and by NASA Contract NAS8-39073 to the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC). This research has made use of data obtained from the Chandra Data Archive and Chandra Source Catalog, and software provided by the CXC in the application packages CIAO, ChIPS, and Sherpa. We thank Teddy Cheung for providing the VLA radio images. Connors, A., & van Dyk, D. A. 2007, Statistical Challenges in Modern Astronomy IV, 371, 101 Esch, D. N., Connors, A., Karovska, M., & van Dyk, D. A. 2004, ApJ, 610, 1213

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VUDS Dicovery of a high-redshift protocluster (Lemaux+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaux, B. C.; Cucciati, O.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Le Fevre, O.; Zamorani, G.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Pentericci, L.; Thomas, R.; Vanzella, E.; Zucca, E.; Amorin, R.; Bardelli, S.; Capak, P.; Cassara, L.; Castellano, M.; Cimatti, A.; Cuby, J. G.; de la Torre, S.; Durkalec, A.; Fontana, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Ilbert, O.; Moreau, C.; Paltani, S.; Ribeiro, B.; Salvato, M.; Schaerer, D.; Scodeggio, M.; Sommariva, V.; Talia, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Wang, P. W.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; Fotopoulou, S.; Gal, R. R.; Kocevski, D. D.; Lopez-Sanjuan, C.; Lubin, L. M.; Mellier, Y.; Sadibekova, T.; Scoville, N.

    2014-08-01

    Parameters for the 19 secure spectroscopic members and the 6 questionable spectroscopic members of Cl J0227-0421. The given parameters are galaxy equatorial coordinates, all optical and NIR magnitudes, spectroscopic redshifts with a corresponding confidence flag, photometric redshifts, absolute magnitudes in the NUV, r', & J bands, stellar mass, and star formation rate. The latter four quantities only available when the photometry allowed for a fit. Magnitudes are either MAG_AUTO (optical+JHK) or aperture-corrected total magnitudes (Spitzer Channels 1 & 2) and are corrected for Galactic extinction. Stellar masses and SFRs are calculated for a Chabrier (2003PASP..115..763C) initial mass function. Best-fit values from the spectral energy distribution fitting are adopted. For galaxies with a confidence flag 1 or 9, the redshift was not fixed in the spectral energy distribution fitting process. For all other galaxies the redshift was fixed to the spectroscopic redshift. (1 data file).

  11. Clustering analysis of high-redshift luminous red galaxies in Stripe 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoloudakis, N.; Shanks, T.; Sawangwit, U.

    2013-03-01

    We present a clustering analysis of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) in Stripe 82 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We study the angular two-point autocorrelation function, w(θ), of a selected sample of over 130 000 LRG candidates via colour-cut selections in izK with the K-band coverage coming from UKIRT (United Kingdom Infrared Telescope) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS). We have used the cross-correlation technique of Newman to establish the redshift distribution of the LRGs. Cross-correlating them with SDSS quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), MegaZ-LRGs and DEEP Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 (DEEP2) galaxies, implies an average redshift of the LRGs to be z ≈ 1 with space density, ng ≈ 3.20 ± 0.16 × 10-4 h3 Mpc-3. For θ ≤ 10 arcmin (corresponding to ≈10 h-1 Mpc), the LRG w(θ) significantly deviates from a conventional single power law as noted by previous clustering studies of highly biased and luminous galaxies. A double power law with a break at rb ≈ 2.4 h-1 Mpc fits the data better, with best-fitting scale length, r0, 1 = 7.63 ± 0.27 h-1 Mpc and slope γ1 = 2.01 ± 0.02 at small scales and r0, 2 = 9.92 ± 0.40 h-1 Mpc and γ2 = 1.64 ± 0.04 at large scales. Due to the flat slope at large scales, we find that a standard Λ cold dark matter (Λ CDM) linear model is accepted only at 2-3σ, with the best-fitting bias factor, b = 2.74 ± 0.07. We also fitted the halo occupation distribution (HOD) models to compare our measurements with the predictions of the dark matter clustering. The effective halo mass of Stripe 82 LRGs is estimated as Meff = 3.3 ± 0.6 × 1013 h-1 M⊙. But at large scales, the current HOD models did not help explain the power excess in the clustering signal. We then compare the w(θ) results to the results of Sawangwit et al. from three samples of photometrically selected LRGs at lower redshifts to measure clustering evolution. We find that a long-lived model may be a poorer fit than at lower

  12. The Star Formation History of Local Starbursts as Benchmark for High Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Henrique R.; Calzetti, Daniela; Armus, Lee

    2001-08-01

    We propose to use the WIYN telescope and MIMO to obtain broad band B and R, and narrow band H(alpha) and H(beta) images for a sample of 13 local starburst galaxies detected by ISO at 170-200(micron) and for which we are obtaining ultraviolet (1600Å) images with an approved HST/STIS program. With these observations we will complete the ground based portion of this project. This sample spans a wide range in the luminosity, star formation rate, metallicity and morphology parameters, and will be used as a low-redshift benchmark to explore the relationship between the Lyman-break and the SCUBA galaxies at z~3. The broad- band ground-based and HST images will be used to characterize the stellar populations and determine the ages of the star forming regions of these galaxies, while the H(alpha)/H(beta) ratio will be used to determine the reddening and gas morphology of these regions. We will study the conditions for the escape of UV light from a dusty galaxy, as a function of the sample parameters. The H(alpha) and UV HST images will be combined to derive a relative empirical calibration between these two star formation indicators. We will measure the fraction of nuclear and disk emission, the fraction of star formation in massive clusters and the properties of those star clusters, the structural properties of star forming bars, rings, and tidally-driven star formation in IR-bright galaxies.

  13. The Star Formation History of Local Starbursts as Benchmark for High Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Henrique R.; Calzetti, Daniela; Armus, Lee

    2001-02-01

    We propose to use the WIYN telescope and MIMO to obtain broad band B and R, and narrow band H(alpha) and H(beta) images for a sample of 22 local starburst galaxies detected by ISO at 170-200(micron) and for which we are obtaining ultraviolet (1600Å) images with an approved HST/STIS program. This sample spans a wide range in the luminosity, star formation rate, metallicity and morphology parameters, and will be used as a low-redshift benchmark to explore the relationship between the Lyman-break and the SCUBA galaxies at z~3. The broad-band ground- based and HST images will be used to characterize the stellar populations and determine the ages of the star forming regions of these galaxies, while the H(alpha)/H(beta) ratio will be used to determine the reddening and gas morphology of these regions. We will study the conditions for the escape of UV light from a dusty galaxy, as a function of the sample parameters. The H(alpha) and UV HST images will be combined to derive a relative empirical calibration between these two star formation indicators. We will measure the fraction of nuclear and disk emission, the fraction of star formation in massive clusters and the properties of those star clusters, the structural properties of star forming bars, rings, and tidally-driven star formation in IR-bright galaxies.

  14. Reconciling the Stellar and Nebular Spectra of High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steidel, Charles C.; Strom, Allison L.; Pettini, Max; Rudie, Gwen C.; Reddy, Naveen A.; Trainor, Ryan F.

    2016-08-01

    We present a combined analysis of rest-frame far-UV (FUV; 1000-2000 Å) and rest-frame optical (3600-7000 Å) composite spectra formed from very deep Keck/LRIS and Keck/MOSFIRE observations of a sample of 30 star-forming galaxies with z=2.40+/- 0.11, selected to be broadly representative of the full KBSS-MOSFIRE spectroscopic survey. Since the same massive stars are responsible for the observed FUV continuum and for the excitation of the observed nebular emission, a self-consistent stellar population synthesis model should simultaneously match the details of the FUV stellar+nebular continuum and—when inserted as the excitation source in photoionization models—predict all observed nebular emission line ratios. We find that only models including massive star binaries, having low stellar metallicity ({Z}* /{Z}⊙ ≃ 0.1) but relatively high nebular (ionized gas-phase) abundances ({Z}{{neb}}/{Z}⊙ ≃ 0.5), can successfully match all of the observational constraints. We show that this apparent discrepancy is naturally explained by highly super-solar O/Fe (≃ 4{--}5 {({{O}}/{Fe})}⊙ ), expected for a gas whose enrichment is dominated by the products of core-collapse supernovae. While O dominates the physics of the ionized gas (and thus the nebular emission lines), Fe dominates the extreme-UV (EUV) and FUV opacity and controls the mass-loss rate from massive stars, resulting in particularly dramatic effects for massive stars in binary systems. This high nebular excitation—caused by the hard EUV spectra of Fe-poor massive stars—is much more common at high redshift (z≳ 2) than low redshift due to systematic differences in the star formation history of typical galaxies. Based on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  15. Gamma-Ray Bursts from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope: Instrumental Sensitivity and Implication on the High-Redshift GRBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, A.; Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cannizzo, J. K.; Chen, K.; Collins, N. R.; Cummings, J. R.; Gehrels, N.; Graziani, C.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Stamatikos, M.; Troja, E.; Ukwatta, T. N.

    2016-10-01

    We present the analyses of the Swift/BAT GRBs for the past 11years. In particular, we discuss the instrumental sensitivity and selection effects of the BAT GRB detections, and its implication on the observations of high-redshift bursts.

  16. Characterizing the Properties of Clusters of Galaxies As a Function of Luminosity and Redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, K.; Peterson, J.R.; Madejski, G.; Goobar, A.; /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC

    2009-02-24

    We report the application of the new Monte Carlo method, Smoothed Particle Inference (SPI, described in a pair of companion papers), towards analysis and interpretation of X-ray observations of clusters of galaxies with the XMM-Newton satellite. Our sample consists of publicly available well-exposed observations of clusters at redshifts z > 0.069, totaling 101 objects. We determine the luminosity and temperature structure of the X-ray emitting gas, with the goal to quantify the scatter and the evolution of the L{sub X} - T relation, as well as to investigate the dependence on cluster substructure with redshift. This work is important for the establishment of the potential robustness of mass estimates from X-ray data which in turn is essential towards the use of clusters for measurements of cosmological parameters. We use the luminosity and temperature maps derived via the SPI technique to determine the presence of cooling cores, via measurements of luminosity and temperature contrast. The L{sub X}-T relation is investigated, and we confirm that L{sub X} {proportional_to} T{sup 3}. We find a weak redshift dependence ({proportional_to} (1 + z){sup {beta}{sub LT}}, {beta}{sub LT} = 0.50 {+-} 0.34), in contrast to some Chandra results. The level of dynamical activity is established using the 'power ratios' method, and we compare our results to previous application of this method to Chandra data for clusters. We find signs of evolution in the P{sub 3}/P{sub 0} power ratio. A new method, the 'temperature two-point correlation function', is proposed. This method is used to determine the 'power spectrum' of temperature fluctuations in the X-ray emitting gas as a function of spatial scale. We show how this method can be fruitfully used to identify cooling core clusters as well as those with disturbed structures, presumably due to on-going or recent merger activity.

  17. QUEST FOR COSMOS SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY COUNTERPARTS USING CARMA AND VLA: IDENTIFYING THREE HIGH-REDSHIFT STARBURST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Smolcic, V.; Navarrete, F.; Bertoldi, F.; Aravena, M.; Sheth, K.; Ilbert, O.; Yun, M. S.; Salvato, M.; Finoguenov, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Diener, C.; Aretxaga, I.; Hughes, D.; Wilson, G.; Riechers, D. A.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N. Z.; Karim, A.; Schinnerer, E.

    2012-05-01

    We report on interferometric observations at 1.3 mm at 2''-3'' resolution using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. We identify multi-wavelength counterparts of three submillimeter galaxies (SMGs; F{sub 1m} > 5.5 mJy) in the COSMOS field, initially detected with MAMBO and AzTEC bolometers at low, {approx}10''-30'', resolution. All three sources-AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8-are identified to coincide with positions of 20 cm radio sources. Cosbo-3, however, is not associated with the most likely radio counterpart, closest to the MAMBO source position, but with that farther away from it. This illustrates the need for intermediate-resolution ({approx}2'') mm-observations to identify the correct counterparts of single-dish-detected SMGs. All of our three sources become prominent only at NIR wavelengths, and their mm-to-radio flux based redshifts suggest that they lie at redshifts z {approx}> 2. As a proof of concept, we show that photometric redshifts can be well determined for SMGs, and we find photometric redshifts of 5.6 {+-} 1.2, 1.9{sup +0.9}{sub -0.5}, and {approx}4 for AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8, respectively. Using these we infer that these galaxies have radio-based star formation rates of {approx}> 1000 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}and IR luminosities of {approx}10{sup 13} L{sub Sun} consistent with properties of high-redshift SMGs. In summary, our sources reflect a variety of SMG properties in terms of redshift and clustering, consistent with the framework that SMGs are progenitors of z {approx} 2 and today's passive galaxies.

  18. Quest for COSMOS Submillimeter Galaxy Counterparts using CARMA and VLA: Identifying Three High-redshift Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolčić, V.; Navarrete, F.; Aravena, M.; Ilbert, O.; Yun, M. S.; Sheth, K.; Salvato, M.; McCracken, H. J.; Diener, C.; Aretxaga, I.; Riechers, D. A.; Finoguenov, A.; Bertoldi, F.; Capak, P.; Hughes, D.; Karim, A.; Schinnerer, E.; Scoville, N. Z.; Wilson, G.

    2012-05-01

    We report on interferometric observations at 1.3 mm at 2''-3'' resolution using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. We identify multi-wavelength counterparts of three submillimeter galaxies (SMGs; F 1 mm > 5.5 mJy) in the COSMOS field, initially detected with MAMBO and AzTEC bolometers at low, ~10''-30'', resolution. All three sources—AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8—are identified to coincide with positions of 20 cm radio sources. Cosbo-3, however, is not associated with the most likely radio counterpart, closest to the MAMBO source position, but with that farther away from it. This illustrates the need for intermediate-resolution (~2'') mm-observations to identify the correct counterparts of single-dish-detected SMGs. All of our three sources become prominent only at NIR wavelengths, and their mm-to-radio flux based redshifts suggest that they lie at redshifts z >~ 2. As a proof of concept, we show that photometric redshifts can be well determined for SMGs, and we find photometric redshifts of 5.6 ± 1.2, 1.9+0.9 - 0.5, and ~4 for AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8, respectively. Using these we infer that these galaxies have radio-based star formation rates of >~ 1000 M ⊙ yr-1and IR luminosities of ~1013 L ⊙ consistent with properties of high-redshift SMGs. In summary, our sources reflect a variety of SMG properties in terms of redshift and clustering, consistent with the framework that SMGs are progenitors of z ~ 2 and today's passive galaxies.

  19. First detection of CO in a high-redshift damped Lyman-α system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srianand, R.; Noterdaeme, P.; Ledoux, C.; Petitjean, P.

    2008-05-01

    We present the first detection of carbon monoxide (CO) in a damped Lyman-α system (DLA) at z_abs = 2.41837 toward SDSS J143912.04+111740.5. We also detected H2 and HD molecules. The measured total column densities (in log units) of H i, H2, and CO are 20.10±0.10, 19.38±0.10, and 13.89±0.02, respectively. The molecular fraction, f = 2N(H2)/(N(H i)+2N(H2)) = 0.27^+0.10-0.08, is the highest among all known DLAs. The abundances relative to solar of S, Zn, Si, and Fe are -0.03±0.12, +0.16±0.11, -0.86±0.11, and -1.32±0.11, respectively, indicating a high metal enrichment and a depletion pattern onto dust-grains similar to the cold ISM of our Galaxy. The measured N(CO)/N(H2) = 3×10-6 is much less than the conventional CO/H2 ratio used to convert the CO emission into gaseous mass but is consistent with what is measured along translucent sightlines in the Galaxy. The CO rotational excitation temperatures are higher than those measured in our Galactic ISM for similar kinetic temperature and density. Using the C i fine structure absorption lines, we show that this is a consequence of the excitation being dominated by radiative pumping by the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). From the CO excitation temperatures, we derive T_CMBR = 9.15±0.72 K, while 9.315±0.007 K is expected from the hot big-bang theory. This is the most precise high-redshift measurement of T_CMBR and the first confirmation of the theory using molecular transitions at high redshift. Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory (ESO), under programme 278.A-5062 with the UVES echelle spectrograph installed at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), unit Kueyen, on Mount Paranal in Chile.

  20. Characterizing the Low-Redshift Intergalactic Medium toward PKS 1302-102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooksey, Kathy L.; Prochaska, Jason X.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Mulchaey, John S.; Weiner, Benjamin J.

    2008-03-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the intergalactic metal-line absorption systems in the archival HST STIS and FUSE ultraviolet spectra of the low-redshift quasar PKS 1302-102 (zQSO = 0.2784). We supplement the archive data with CLOUDY ionization models and a survey of galaxies in the quasar field. There are 15 strong Lyα absorbers with column densities NH I > 14. Of these, six are associated with at least C III λ977 absorption [log N(C+ +) > 13]; this implies a redshift density dNC III/dz = 36-9+13 (68% confidence limits) for the five detections with rest equivalent width Wr > 50 mÅ. Two systems show O VI λλ1031, 1037 absorption in addition to C III [log N(O+ 5) > 14]. One is a partial Lyman limit system ( log NH I = 17) with associated C III, O VI, and Si III λ1206 absorption. There are three tentative O VI systems that do not have C III detected. For one O VI doublet with both lines detected at 3 σ with Wr > 50 mÅ, dNO VI/dz = 7-4+9. We also search for O VI doublets without Lyα absorption but identify none. From CLOUDY modeling, these metal-line systems have metallicities spanning the range -4 lesssim [ M/H ] lesssim - 0.3. The two O VI systems with associated C III absorption cannot be single-phase, collisionally ionized media based on the relative abundances of the metals and kinematic arguments. From the galaxy survey, we discover that the absorption systems are in a diverse set of galactic environments. Each metal-line system has at least one galaxy within 500 km s-1 and 600 h-175 kpc with L > 0.1L*.

  1. Tests of the Accelerating Universe with Near-Infrared Observations of a High-Redshift Type IA Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riess, Adam G.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Liu, Michael C.; Challis, Peter; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Diercks, Alan; Garnavich, Peter M.; Hogan, Craig J.; Jha, Saurabh; Kirshner, Robert P.; Leibundgut, B.; Phillips, M. M.; Reiss, David; Schmidt, Brian P.; Schommer, Robert A.; Smith, R. Chris; Spyromilio, J.; Stubbs, Christopher; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Tonry, John; Woudt, Patrick; Brunner, Robert J.; Dey, Arjun; Gal, Roy; Graham, James; Larkin, James; Odewahn, Steve C.; Oppenheimer, Ben

    2000-06-01

    We have measured the rest-frame B-, V-, and I-band light curves of a high-redshift type Ia supernova (SN Ia), SN 1999Q (z=0.46), using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based near-infrared detectors. A goal of this study is the measurement of the color excess, EB-I, a sensitive indicator of interstellar or intergalactic dust, which could affect recent cosmological measurements from high-redshift SNe Ia. Our observations disfavor a 30% opacity of SN Ia visual light by dust as an alternative to an accelerating universe. This statement applies to both Galactic-type dust (rejected at the 3.4 σ confidence level) and grayer dust (grain size >0.1 μm, rejected at the 2.3-2.6 σ confidence level) as proposed by Aguirre. The rest-frame I-band light curve shows the secondary maximum 1 month after the B maximum typical of nearby SNe Ia of normal luminosity, providing no indication of evolution as a function of redshift out to z~0.5. An expanded set of similar observations could improve the constraints on any contribution of extragalactic dust to the dimming of high-redshift SNe Ia.

  2. ACCOUNTING FOR COSMIC VARIANCE IN STUDIES OF GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES IN THE HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELD CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Brant E.; Stark, Dan P.; Ellis, Richard S.; Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J.; McLeod, Derek

    2014-12-01

    Strong gravitational lensing provides a powerful means for studying faint galaxies in the distant universe. By magnifying the apparent brightness of background sources, massive clusters enable the detection of galaxies fainter than the usual sensitivity limit for blank fields. However, this gain in effective sensitivity comes at the cost of a reduced survey volume and, in this Letter, we demonstrate that there is an associated increase in the cosmic variance uncertainty. As an example, we show that the cosmic variance uncertainty of the high-redshift population viewed through the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field cluster Abell 2744 increases from ∼35% at redshift z ∼ 7 to ≳ 65% at z ∼ 10. Previous studies of high-redshift galaxies identified in the Frontier Fields have underestimated the cosmic variance uncertainty that will affect the ultimate constraints on both the faint-end slope of the high-redshift luminosity function and the cosmic star formation rate density, key goals of the Frontier Field program.

  3. Weak-Line Quasars at High Redshift: Extremely High Accretion Rates or Anemic Broad-Line Regions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Anderson, S. F.; Brandt, W. N.; Diamond-Stanic, A. M.; Fan, X.; Lira, P.; Netzer, H.; Plotkin, R. M.; Richards, G. T.; Schneider, D. P.; Strauss, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    We present Gemini-North K-band spectra of two representative members of the class of high-redshift quasars with exceptionally weak rest-frame ultraviolet emission lines (WLQs), SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 at z=3.55 and SDSS J123743.08+630144.9 at z=3.49. In both sources we detect an unusually weak broad Hβ line and we place tight upper limits on the strengths of their [O III] lines. Virial, Hβ-based black-hole mass determinations indicate normalized accretion rates of L/LEdd=0.4 for these sources, which is well within the range observed for typical quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts. We also present high-quality XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 and find a hard-X-ray photon index of Γ=1.91+0.24-0.22which supports the virial L/LEdd determination in this source. Our results suggest that the weakness of the broad-emission lines in WLQs is not a consequence of an extreme continuum-emission source but instead due to abnormal broad-emission line region properties.

  4. Rapid, Machine-learned Resource Allocation: Application to High-redshift Gamma-Ray Burst Follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, A. N.; Long, James; Richards, Joseph W.; Broderick, Tamara; Butler, Nathaniel R.; Bloom, Joshua S.

    2012-02-01

    As the number of observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) continues to grow, follow-up resources need to be used more efficiently in order to maximize science output from limited telescope time. As such, it is becoming increasingly important to rapidly identify bursts of interest as soon as possible after the event, before the afterglows fade beyond detectability. Studying the most distant (highest redshift) events, for instance, remains a primary goal for many in the field. Here, we present our Random Forest Automated Triage Estimator for GRB redshifts (RATE GRB-z ) for rapid identification of high-redshift candidates using early-time metrics from the three telescopes onboard Swift. While the basic RATE methodology is generalizable to a number of resource allocation problems, here we demonstrate its utility for telescope-constrained follow-up efforts with the primary goal to identify and study high-z GRBs. For each new GRB, RATE GRB-z provides a recommendation—based on the available telescope time—of whether the event warrants additional follow-up resources. We train RATE GRB-z using a set consisting of 135 Swift bursts with known redshifts, only 18 of which are z > 4. Cross-validated performance metrics on these training data suggest that ~56% of high-z bursts can be captured from following up the top 20% of the ranked candidates, and ~84% of high-z bursts are identified after following up the top ~40% of candidates. We further use the method to rank 200 + Swift bursts with unknown redshifts according to their likelihood of being high-z.

  5. RAPID, MACHINE-LEARNED RESOURCE ALLOCATION: APPLICATION TO HIGH-REDSHIFT GAMMA-RAY BURST FOLLOW-UP

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, A. N.; Richards, Joseph W.; Butler, Nathaniel R.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Long, James; Broderick, Tamara

    2012-02-20

    As the number of observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) continues to grow, follow-up resources need to be used more efficiently in order to maximize science output from limited telescope time. As such, it is becoming increasingly important to rapidly identify bursts of interest as soon as possible after the event, before the afterglows fade beyond detectability. Studying the most distant (highest redshift) events, for instance, remains a primary goal for many in the field. Here, we present our Random Forest Automated Triage Estimator for GRB redshifts (RATE GRB-z ) for rapid identification of high-redshift candidates using early-time metrics from the three telescopes onboard Swift. While the basic RATE methodology is generalizable to a number of resource allocation problems, here we demonstrate its utility for telescope-constrained follow-up efforts with the primary goal to identify and study high-z GRBs. For each new GRB, RATE GRB-z provides a recommendation-based on the available telescope time-of whether the event warrants additional follow-up resources. We train RATE GRB-z using a set consisting of 135 Swift bursts with known redshifts, only 18 of which are z > 4. Cross-validated performance metrics on these training data suggest that {approx}56% of high-z bursts can be captured from following up the top 20% of the ranked candidates, and {approx}84% of high-z bursts are identified after following up the top {approx}40% of candidates. We further use the method to rank 200 + Swift bursts with unknown redshifts according to their likelihood of being high-z.

  6. The light up and early evolution of high redshift Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comastri, Andrea; Brusa, Marcella; Aird, James; Lanzuisi, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    The known AGN population at z > 6 is made by luminous optical QSO hosting Supermassive Black Holes (M > 10 ^{9}solar masses), likely to represent the tip of the iceberg of the luminosity and mass function. According to theoretical models for structure formation, Massive Black Holes (M _{BH} 10^{4-7} solar masses) are predicted to be abundant in the early Universe (z > 6). The majority of these lower luminosity objects are expected to be obscured and severely underepresented in current optical near-infrared surveys. The detection of such a population would provide unique constraints on the Massive Black Holes formation mechanism and subsequent growth and is within the capabilities of deep and large area ATHENA surveys. After a summary of the state of the art of present deep XMM and Chandra surveys, at z >3-6 also mentioning the expectations for the forthcoming eROSITA all sky survey; I will present the observational strategy of future multi-cone ATHENA Wide Field Imager (WFI) surveys and the expected breakthroughs in the determination of the luminosity function and its evolution at high (> 4) and very high (>6) redshifts.

  7. The high-redshift gamma-ray burst GRB 140515A

    DOE PAGES

    Melandri, A.; Bernardini, M. G.; D'Avanzo, P. D.; ...

    2015-09-09

    High-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) offer several advantages when studying the distant Universe, providing unique information about the structure and properties of the galaxies in which they exploded. Spectroscopic identification with large ground-based telescopes has improved our knowledge of this kind of distant events. We present the multi-wavelength analysis of the high-zSwift GRB GRB 140515A (z = 6.327). The best estimate of the neutral hydrogen fraction of the intergalactic medium towards the burst is xHI ≤ 0.002. The spectral absorption lines detected for this event are the weakest lines ever observed in GRB afterglows, suggesting that GRB 140515A exploded in amore » very low-density environment. Its circum-burst medium is characterised by an average extinction (AV ~ 0.1) that seems to be typical of z ≥ 6 events. The observed multi-band light curves are explained either with a very hard injected spectrum (p = 1.7) or with a multi-component emission (p = 2.1). In the second case a long-lasting central engine activity is needed in order to explain the late time X-ray emission. Furthermore, the possible origin of GRB 140515A in a Pop III (or in a Pop II star with a local environment enriched by Pop III) massive star is unlikely.« less

  8. The high-redshift gamma-ray burst GRB 140515A

    SciTech Connect

    Melandri, A.; Bernardini, M. G.; D'Avanzo, P. D.; Sanchez-Ramirez, R.; Nappo, F.; Nava, L.; Japelj, J.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Oates, S.; Campana, S.; Covino, S.; D'Elia, V.; Ghirlanda, G.; Gafton, E.; Ghisellini, G.; Gnedin, N.; Goldoni, P.; Gorosabel, J.; Libbrecht, T.; Malesani, D.; Salvaterra, R.; Thone, C. C.; Vergani, S. D.; Xu, D.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2015-09-09

    High-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) offer several advantages when studying the distant Universe, providing unique information about the structure and properties of the galaxies in which they exploded. Spectroscopic identification with large ground-based telescopes has improved our knowledge of this kind of distant events. We present the multi-wavelength analysis of the high-zSwift GRB GRB 140515A (z = 6.327). The best estimate of the neutral hydrogen fraction of the intergalactic medium towards the burst is xHI ≤ 0.002. The spectral absorption lines detected for this event are the weakest lines ever observed in GRB afterglows, suggesting that GRB 140515A exploded in a very low-density environment. Its circum-burst medium is characterised by an average extinction (AV ~ 0.1) that seems to be typical of z ≥ 6 events. The observed multi-band light curves are explained either with a very hard injected spectrum (p = 1.7) or with a multi-component emission (p = 2.1). In the second case a long-lasting central engine activity is needed in order to explain the late time X-ray emission. Furthermore, the possible origin of GRB 140515A in a Pop III (or in a Pop II star with a local environment enriched by Pop III) massive star is unlikely.

  9. The Origin and Evolution of Interstellar Dust in the Local and High-Redshift Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2011-01-01

    In this talk I will begin by reviewing our current state of knowledge regarding the origin and evolution of dust in the local solar neighborhood. Using chemical evolution models, I will discuss their many different input parameters and their uncertainties. An important consequence of these models is the delayed injection of dust from AGB stars, compared to supernova-condensed dust, into the interstellar medium. I will show that these stellar evolutionary effects on dust composition are manifested in the infrared spectra of local galaxies. The delayed production of dust in AGB stars has also important consequences for the origin of the large amount of dust detected in high-redshift galaxies, when the universe was less that - 1 Gyr old. Supernovae may have been the only viable dust sources in those galaxies. Recent observations of SN1987a show a significant mass of dust in the ejecta of this SN. Is that production rate high enough to account for the observed dust mass in these galaxies? If not, what are the alternative viable sources of dust, and how do they depend on the nature of the galaxy (starburst or AGN) and its star formation history.

  10. The Origin and Evolution of Interstellar Dust in the Local and High-redshift Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2012-01-01

    In this talk I will begin by reviewing our current state of knowledge regarding the origin and evolution of dust in the local solar neighborhood. using chemical evolution models, I will discuss their many different input parameters and their uncertainties. An important consequence of these models is the delayed injection of dust from AGB stars, compared to supernova-condensed dust, into the interstellar medium. I will show that these stellar evolutionary effects on dust composition are manifested in the infrared spectra of local galaxies. The delayed production of dust in AGB stars has also important consequences for the origin of the large amount of dust detected in high-redshift galaxies, when the universe was less that approx. 1 Gyr old. Supernovae may have been the only viable dust sources in those galaxies. Recent observations of sN1987a show a significant mass of dust in the ejecta of this SN. Is that production rate high enough to account for the observed dust mass in these galaxies? If not, what are the alternative viable sources of dust, and how do they depend on the nature of the galaxy (starburst or AGN) and its star formation history .

  11. Submillimetre observations of WISE-selected high-redshift, luminous AGN and their surrounding overdense environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Suzy F.

    2016-08-01

    We present JCMT SCUBA-2 850 μm submillimetre (submm) observations of 10 mid-infrared (mid-IR) luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs), detected by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky IR survey and 30 that have also been detected by the NVSS/FIRST radio survey. These rare sources are selected by their extremely red mid-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Further investigations show that they are highly obscured, have abundant warm AGN-heated dust and are thought to be experiencing intense AGN feedback. When comparing the number of submm galaxies detected serendipitously in the surrounding 1.5 arcmin to those in blank-field submm surveys, there is a very significant overdensity, of order 3-5, but no sign of radial clustering centred at our primary objects. The WISE-selected AGN thus reside in 10-Mpc-scale overdense environments that could be forming in pre-viralized clusters of galaxies. WISE-selected AGNs appear to be the strongest signposts of high-density regions of active, luminous and dusty galaxies. SCUBA-2 850 μm observations indicate that their submm fluxes are low compared to many popular AGN SED templates, hence the WISE/radio-selected AGNs have either less cold and/or more warm dust emission than normally assumed for typical AGN. Most of the targets have total IR luminosities ≥1013 L⊙, with known redshifts of 20 targets between z ˜ 0.44-4.6.

  12. XMM-Newton analysis of a newly discovered, extremely X-ray luminous galaxy cluster at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoelken, S.; Schrabback, T.

    2016-06-01

    Galaxy clusters, the largest virialized structures in the universe, provide an excellent method to test cosmology on large scales. The galaxy cluster mass function as a function of redshift is a key tool to determine the fundamental cosmological parameters and especially measurements at high redshifts can e.g. provide constraints on dark energy. The fgas test as a direct cosmological probe is of special importance. Therefore, relaxed galaxy clusters at high redshifts are needed but these objects are considered to be extremely rare in current structure formation models. Here we present first results from an XMM-Newton analysis of an extremely X-ray luminous, newly discovered and potentially cool core cluster at a redshift of z=0.9. We carefully account for background emission and PSF effects and model the cluster emission in three radial bins. Our preliminary results suggest that this cluster is indeed a good candidate for a cool core cluster and thus potentially of extreme value for cosmology.

  13. Spatially Resolved Emission of a High-redshift DLA Galaxy with the Keck/OSIRIS IFU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgenson, Regina A.; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    2014-04-01

    We present the first Keck/OSIRIS infrared IFU observations of a high-redshift damped Lyα (DLA) galaxy detected in the line of sight to a background quasar. By utilizing the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics to reduce the quasar point-spread function to FWHM ~ 0.''15, we were able to search for and map the foreground DLA emission free from the quasar contamination. We present maps of the Hα and [O III] λλ5007, 4959 emission of DLA 2222-0946 at a redshift of z ~ 2.35. From the composite spectrum over the Hα emission region, we measure a star formation rate of 9.5 ± 1.0 M ⊙ yr-1 and a dynamical mass of M dyn = 6.1 × 109 M ⊙. The average star formation rate surface density is langΣSFRrang = 0.55 M ⊙ yr-1 kpc-2, with a central peak of 1.7 M ⊙ yr-1 kpc-2. Using the standard Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, this corresponds to a gas mass surface density of Σgas = 243 M ⊙ pc-2. Integrating over the size of the galaxy, we find a total gas mass of M gas = 4.2 × 109 M ⊙. We estimate the gas fraction of DLA 2222-0946 to be f gas ~ 40%. We detect [N II] λ6583 emission at 3σ significance with a flux corresponding to a metallicity of 75% solar. Comparing this metallicity with that derived from the low-ion absorption gas ~6 kpc away, ~30% solar, indicates possible evidence for a metallicity gradient or enriched in/outflow of gas. Kinematically, both Hα and [O III] emission show relatively constant velocity fields over the central galactic region. While we detect some red and blueshifted clumps of emission, they do not correspond with rotational signatures that support an edge-on disk interpretation. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  14. Spatially resolved emission of a high-redshift DLA galaxy with the Keck/OSIRIS IFU

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson, Regina A.; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    2014-04-10

    We present the first Keck/OSIRIS infrared IFU observations of a high-redshift damped Lyα (DLA) galaxy detected in the line of sight to a background quasar. By utilizing the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics to reduce the quasar point-spread function to FWHM ∼ 0.''15, we were able to search for and map the foreground DLA emission free from the quasar contamination. We present maps of the Hα and [O III] λλ5007, 4959 emission of DLA 2222–0946 at a redshift of z ∼ 2.35. From the composite spectrum over the Hα emission region, we measure a star formation rate of 9.5 ± 1.0 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and a dynamical mass of M {sub dyn} = 6.1 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. The average star formation rate surface density is (Σ{sub SFR}) = 0.55 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}, with a central peak of 1.7 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}. Using the standard Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, this corresponds to a gas mass surface density of Σ{sub gas} = 243 M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2}. Integrating over the size of the galaxy, we find a total gas mass of M {sub gas} = 4.2 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. We estimate the gas fraction of DLA 2222–0946 to be f {sub gas} ∼ 40%. We detect [N II] λ6583 emission at 3σ significance with a flux corresponding to a metallicity of 75% solar. Comparing this metallicity with that derived from the low-ion absorption gas ∼6 kpc away, ∼30% solar, indicates possible evidence for a metallicity gradient or enriched in/outflow of gas. Kinematically, both Hα and [O III] emission show relatively constant velocity fields over the central galactic region. While we detect some red and blueshifted clumps of emission, they do not correspond with rotational signatures that support an edge-on disk interpretation.

  15. LOW-METALLICITY STAR FORMATION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES AT z {approx} 8

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Y.; Shioya, Y.; Trump, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Based on the recent very deep near-infrared imaging of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field with WFC3 on the Hubble Space Telescope, five groups published the most probable samples of galaxies at z {approx} 8, selected by the so-called dropout method or photometric redshift; e.g., Y{sub 105}-dropouts (Y{sub 105} - J{sub 125} > 0.8). These studies are highly useful for investigating both the early star formation history of galaxies and the sources of cosmic re-ionization. In order to better understand these issues, we carefully examine whether there are low-z interlopers in the samples of z {approx} 8 galaxy candidates. We focus on the strong emission-line galaxies at z {approx} 2 in this paper. Such galaxies may be selected as Y{sub 105}-dropouts since the [O III] {lambda}5007 emission line is redshifted into the J{sub 125} band. We have found that the contamination from such low-z interlopers is negligibly small. Therefore, all objects found by the five groups are free from this type of contamination. However, it remains difficult to extract real z {approx} 8 galaxies because all the sources are very faint and the different groups have found different candidates. With this in mind, we construct a robust sample of eight galaxies at z {approx} 8 from the objects found by the five groups: each of these eight objects has been selected by at least two groups. Using this sample, we discuss their UV continuum slope. We also discuss the escape fraction of ionizing photons adopting various metallicities. Our analysis suggests that massive stars forming in low-metallicity gas (Z {approx} 5 x 10{sup -4} Z{sub sun}) can be responsible for the completion of cosmic re-ionization if the escape fraction of the ionizing continuum from galaxies is as large as 0.5, and this is consistent with the observed blue UV continua.

  16. Far Infrared Spectroscopy of the Nearby Analogues of High-Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    We propose far infrared emission line spectroscopy of a sample of 23 local star-forming galaxies, drawn from the Lyman alpha Reference Sample (LARS), for which we have unrivalled high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy from HST, and 21cm HI observations from VLA+GMRT. Moreover the galaxies are selected as the close analogues of the high-redshift Lyman-break galaxies and Spitzer+Herschel selected galaxies found in extragalactic deep fields. The science goal of LARS is to determine what governs the escape of Lyman alpha (Lya) photons from galaxies, and thereby aid interpretation of high-z observations where Lya is the most used spectral probe. However given its clean selection and multiwavelength nature, LARS can equally well improve our understanding of FIR line observations of high-z galaxies. The target emission lines in this proposal are [CII], [OI], and [OIII] at 158, 63, and 88 micron, respectively. The motivations are that these lines: 1. are of increasing interest at high-z as new sensitive submm/radio interferometers come online 2. are proposed quantitative tracers of star formation rates, but their utility must be proven in appropriately analogous well-studied galaxies 3. when combined with models of photodissociation regions, enable estimates of the density and mass of PDR gas and provide vital constraints on our Lya radiative transfer models of galaxies. 4. provide uniquely robust estimates of nebular extinction and metallicity when combined with our optical IFU data. Astrophysical applications are many, especially when combined with the array of existing data. Specifically they will provide vital constraints on ISM structure, that are required for understanding the emission of the cosmologically vital Lya emission line. Moreover, SFR calibrations will be tested in star forming environments that resemble those of early galaxies and the legacy value of the sample is hard to overstate.

  17. A revised host galaxy association for GRB 020819B: a high-redshift dusty starburst, not a low-redshift gas-poor spiral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perley, Daniel A.; Krühler, Thomas; Schady, Patricia; Michałowski, Michał J.; Thöne, Christina C.; Petry, Dirk; Graham, John F.; Greiner, Jochen; Klose, Sylvio; Schulze, Steve; Kim, Sam

    2017-02-01

    The purported spiral host galaxy of GRB 020819B at z = 0.41 has been seminal in establishing our view of the diversity of long-duration gamma-ray burst environments: Optical spectroscopy of this host provided evidence that gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can form even at high metallicities, whereas millimetric observations suggested that GRBs may preferentially form in regions with minimal molecular gas. We report new observations from the Very Large Telescope (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer and X-shooter), which demonstrate that the purported host is an unrelated foreground galaxy. The probable radio afterglow is coincident with a compact, highly star forming, dusty galaxy at z = 1.9621. The revised redshift naturally explains the apparent non-detection of CO(3-2) line emission at the afterglow site from the Atacama Large Millimetre Observatory. There is no evidence that molecular gas properties in GRB host galaxies are unusual, and limited evidence that GRBs can form readily at a super-Solar metallicity.

  18. GRB afterglows: Dust extinction properties from the low to high redshift universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, Tayyaba

    2016-11-01

    Long-duration Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are excellent probes to study dust extinction due to their occurrence in star-forming regions and having simple synchrotron emission spectra. Inclusion of spectroscopic data to the GRB X-ray to the infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) could better define the continuum and confirm extinction feature. A preliminary SED analysis of GRB afterglows targeted with the VLT/X-Shooter spectrograph finds that all the 60% of extinguished bursts fit-well with featureless extinction curves. The longer wavelength coverage from ultraviolet to the near-infrared of X-Shooter helps to derive individual extinction curves and determine the total-to-selective extinction, RV precisely, suggesting extinction curves steeper (with a mean of RV = 2.66 ± 0.10) than the Small Magellanic Cloud. Moreover, addition of more data to the study of dust-to-metals ratios in GRB afterglows, quasar absorbers, and multiply lensed galaxies still shows the dust-to-metals ratios close to the Galactic value (with a mean value of log - 21.2cm-2mag-1), hinting short time delay between metals and dust formation. Such studies demonstrate the strength of using GRB afterglows to study dust origin and its properties the from low to high redshift Universe.

  19. Limits to Seeing High-Redshift Galaxies Due to Planck-Scale-Induced Blurring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbring, Eric

    2015-08-01

    Carefully accounting for cosmological surface-brightness dimming and K-corrections are two important steps in teasing out the underlying properties of evolving high-z galaxy populations. Another potential effect is worthy of scrutiny simply because of its profound physical implications, if seen. In the last decade or so there has been debate over the possibility that the fuzzy quantum nature of spacetime might decohere wavefronts emanating from very distant sources. Consequences of that could be "blurred" or "faded" images of compact structures in galaxies, primarily at z>1 for their emitted X-rays and gamma-rays, but perhaps even in UV through optical light at higher redshift. So far there are only inconclusive hints of this from z~4 active-galactic nucleii and gamma-ray bursts viewed with Fermi and Hubble Space Telescope. If correct though, that would impose a significant, fundamental resolution limit for galaxies out to z~8 in the era of the James Webb Space Telescope and the next generation of ground-based telescopes using adaptive optics. I consider what to look for (and maybe not see).

  20. The gas distribution in the high-redshift cluster MS 1054-0321

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirakhor, M. S.; Birkinshaw, M.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the gas mass distribution in the high-redshift cluster MS 1054-0321 using Chandra X-ray and One Centimetre Receiver array Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect data. We use a superposition of offset β-type models to describe the composite structure of MS 1054-0321. We find gas mass fractions f_{gas}^{X {-}ray} = 0.087_{-0.001}^{+0.005} and f_{gas}^SZ=0.094_{-0.001}^{+0.003} for the (main) eastern component of MS 1054-0321 using X-ray or SZ data, but f_{gas}^{X {-}ray}=0.030_{-0.014}^{+0.010} for the western component. The gas mass fraction for the eastern component is in agreement with some results reported in the literature, but inconsistent with the cosmic baryon fraction. The low-gas mass fraction for the western component is likely to be a consequence of gas stripping during the ongoing merger. The gas mass fraction of the integrated system is 0.060_{-0.009}^{+0.004}: we suggest that the missing baryons from the western component are present as hot diffuse gas which is poorly represented in existing X-ray images. The missing gas could appear in sensitive SZ maps.

  1. The Bright and Dark Sides of High-redshift Starburst Galaxies from Herschel and Subaru Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, A.; Daddi, E.; Renzini, A.; Rodighiero, G.; Silverman, J. D.; Kashino, D.; Rodríguez-Muñoz, L.; Mancini, C.; Mainieri, V.; Man, A.; Franceschini, A.; Valentino, F.; Calabrò, A.; Jin, S.; Darvish, B.; Maier, C.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Sanders, D. B.

    2017-04-01

    We present rest-frame optical spectra from the FMOS-COSMOS survey of 12 z ∼ 1.6 Herschel starburst galaxies, with star formation rate (SFR) elevated by ×8, on average, above the star-forming main sequence (MS). Comparing the Hα to IR luminosity ratio and the Balmer decrement, we find that the optically thin regions of the sources contain on average only ∼10% of the total SFR, whereas ∼90% come from an extremely obscured component that is revealed only by far-IR observations and is optically thick even in Hα. We measure the [N ii]6583/Hα ratio, suggesting that the less obscured regions have a metal content similar to that of the MS population at the same stellar masses and redshifts. However, our objects appear to be metal-rich outliers from the metallicity–SFR anticorrelation observed at fixed stellar mass for the MS population. The [S ii]6732/[S ii]6717 ratio from the average spectrum indicates an electron density n e ∼ 1100 cm‑3 , larger than what was estimated for MS galaxies but only at the 1.5σ level. Our results provide supporting evidence that high-z MS outliers are analogous of local ULIRGs and are consistent with a major-merger origin for the starburst event.

  2. A high stellar velocity dispersion for a compact massive galaxy at redshift z = 2.186.

    PubMed

    van Dokkum, Pieter G; Kriek, Mariska; Franx, Marijn

    2009-08-06

    Recent studies have found that the oldest and most luminous galaxies in the early Universe are surprisingly compact, having stellar masses similar to present-day elliptical galaxies but much smaller sizes. This finding has attracted considerable attention, as it suggests that massive galaxies have grown in size by a factor of about five over the past ten billion years (10 Gyr). A key test of these results is a determination of the stellar kinematics of one of the compact galaxies: if the sizes of these objects are as extreme as has been claimed, their stars are expected to have much higher velocities than those in present-day galaxies of the same mass. Here we report a measurement of the stellar velocity dispersion of a massive compact galaxy at redshift z = 2.186, corresponding to a look-back time of 10.7 Gyr. The velocity dispersion is very high at km s(-1), consistent with the mass and compactness of the galaxy inferred from photometric data. This would indicate significant recent structural and dynamical evolution of massive galaxies over the past 10 Gyr. The uncertainty in the dispersion was determined from simulations that include the effects of noise and template mismatch. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that some subtle systematic effect may have influenced the analysis, given the low signal-to-noise ratio of our spectrum.

  3. Extended radio jets in the high-redshift quasars 3C 9 and 280.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarup, G.; Sinha, R. P.; Saikia, D. J.

    1982-10-01

    Total intensity and polarization observations made with the VLA at 5 GHz of two high-redshift quasars 3C 9 and 280.1 are presented. They appear to have extended one-sided radio jets, which are the most luminous yet to be reported. The jet in 3C 280.1 which was observed with rather higher resolution is discussed in greater detail. This jet has no prominent hotspot at its end and shows several wiggles along its path. The magnetic field is nearly aligned with the axis of the jet and appears to bend along with it. Several possible explanations for the morphological features of the jet are considered, and it is suggested that they are likely to be due to hydrodynamic instabilities. In this scenario, the observed wiggles in the jet are attributed to the onset of helical modes of large wavelength. The absence of a prominent hotspot at the end of the jet may be understood if the energy in the beam is gradually dissipated in shocks and small-wavelength perturbations.

  4. The high-ion content and kinematics of low-redshift Lyman limit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Andrew J.; Tumlinson, Jason; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J. Christopher; Tripp, Todd M.; Katz, Neal; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Werk, Jessica K.; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Davé, Romeel

    2013-12-01

    We study the high-ion content and kinematics of the circumgalactic medium around low-redshift galaxies using a sample of 23 Lyman limit systems (LLSs) at 0.08 < z < 0.93 observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. In Lehner et al., we recently showed that low-z LLSs have a bimodal metallicity distribution. Here we extend that analysis to search for differences between the high-ion and kinematic properties of the metal-poor and metal-rich branches. We find that metal-rich LLSs tend to show higher O VI columns and broader O VI profiles than metal-poor LLSs. The total H I line width (Δv {sub 90} statistic) in LLSs is not correlated with metallicity, indicating that the H I kinematics alone cannot be used to distinguish inflow from outflow and gas recycling. Among the 17 LLSs with O VI detections, all but two show evidence of kinematic sub-structure, in the form of O VI-H I centroid offsets, multiple components, or both. Using various scenarios for how the metallicities in the high-ion and low-ion phases of each LLS compare, we constrain the ionized hydrogen column in the O VI phase to lie in the range log N(H II) ∼ 17.6-20. The O VI phase of LLSs is a substantial baryon reservoir, with M(high-ion) ∼ 10{sup 8.5-10.9} (r/150 kpc){sup 2} M {sub ☉}, similar to the mass in the low-ion phase. Accounting for the O VI phase approximately doubles the contribution of low-z LLSs to the cosmic baryon budget.

  5. The effects of the small-scale DM power on the cosmological neutral hydrogen (HI) distribution at high redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Abir; Mondal, Rajesh; Das, Subinoy; Sethi, Shiv. K.; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Marsh, David J. E.

    2016-04-01

    The particle nature of dark matter remains a mystery. In this paper, we consider two dark matter models—Late Forming Dark Matter (LFDM) and Ultra-Light Axion (ULA) models—where the matter power spectra show novel effects on small scales. The high redshift universe offers a powerful probe of their parameters. In particular, we study two cosmological observables: the neutral hydrogen (HI) redshifted 21-cm signal from the epoch of reionization, and the evolution of the collapsed fraction of HI in the redshift range 2 < z < 5. We model the theoretical predictions of the models using CDM-like N-body simulations with modified initial conditions, and generate reionization fields using an excursion set model. The N-body approximation is valid on the length and halo mass scales studied. We show that LFDM and ULA models predict an increase in the HI power spectrum from the epoch of reionization by a factor between 2-10 for a range of scales 0.1 < k < 4 Mpc-1. Assuming a fiducial model where a neutral hydrogen fraction bar xHI = 0.5 must be achieved by z = 8, the reionization process allows us to put approximate bounds on the redshift of dark matter formation zf > 4 × 105 (for LFDM) and the axion mass ma > 2.6 × 10-23 eV (for ULA). The comparison of the collapsed mass fraction inferred from damped Lyman-α observations to the theoretical predictions of our models lead to the weaker bounds: zf > 2 × 105 and ma > 10-23 eV. These bounds are consistent with other constraints in the literature using different observables; we briefly discuss how these bounds compare with possible constraints from the observation of luminosity function of galaxies at high redshifts. In the case of ULAs, these constraints are also consistent with a solution to the cusp-core problem of CDM.

  6. 36 new, high-probability, damped Lyα absorbers at redshift 0.42 < z < 0.70

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnshek, David A.; Monier, Eric M.; Rao, Sandhya M.; Hamilton, Timothy S.; Sardane, Gendith M.; Held, Ryan

    2015-05-01

    Quasar damped Lyα (DLA) absorption-line systems with redshifts z < 1.65 are used to trace neutral gas over approximately 70 per cent of the most recent history of the Universe. However, such systems fall in the UV and are rarely found in blind UV spectroscopic surveys. Therefore, it has been difficult to compile a moderate-sized sample of UV DLAs in any narrow cosmic time interval. However, DLAs are easy to identify in low-resolution spectra because they have large absorption rest equivalent widths. We have performed an efficient strong-Mg II-selected survey for UV DLAs at redshifts z = [0.42, 0.70] using Hubble Space Telescope's low-resolution ACS-HRC-PR200L prism. This redshift interval covers ˜1.8 Gyr in cosmic time, i.e. t ≈ [7.2, 9.0] Gyr after the big bang. A total of 96 strong Mg II absorption-line systems identified in Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra were successfully observed with the prism at the predicted UV wavelengths of Lyα absorption. We found that 35 of the 96 systems had a significant probability of being DLAs. One additional observed system could be a very high N_{H I} DLA (N_{H I} ˜ 2× 10^{22} atoms cm-2 or possibly higher), but since very high N_{H I} systems are extremely rare, it would be unusual for this system to be a DLA given the size of our sample. Here we present information on our prism sample, including our best estimates of N_{H I} and errors for the 36 systems fitted with DLA profiles. This list is valuable for future follow-up studies of low-redshift DLAs in a small redshift interval, although such work would clearly benefit from improved UV spectroscopy to more accurately determine their neutral hydrogen column densities.

  7. CONTAMINATION OF BROADBAND PHOTOMETRY BY NEBULAR EMISSION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES: INVESTIGATIONS WITH KECK'S MOSFIRE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH

    SciTech Connect

    Schenker, Matthew A; Ellis, Richard S; Konidaris, Nick P; Stark, Daniel P

    2013-11-01

    Earlier work has raised the potential importance of nebular emission in the derivation of the physical characteristics of high-redshift Lyman break galaxies. Within certain redshift ranges, and especially at z ≅ 6-7, such lines may be strong enough to reduce estimates of the stellar masses and ages of galaxies compared with those derived assuming the broadband photometry represents stellar light alone. To test this hypothesis at the highest redshifts where such lines can be probed with ground-based facilities, we examine the near-infrared spectra of a representative sample of 28 3.0 < z < 3.8 Lyman break galaxies using the newly commissioned MOSFIRE near-infrared spectrograph at the Keck I telescope. We use these data to derive the rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) of [O III] emission and show that these are comparable with estimates derived using the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting technique introduced for sources of known redshift by Stark et al. Although our current sample is modest, its [O III] EW distribution is consistent with that inferred for Hα based on SED fitting of Stark et al.'s larger sample of 3.8 < z < 5 galaxies. For a subset of survey galaxies, we use the combination of optical and near-infrared spectroscopy to quantify kinematics of outflows in z ≅ 3.5 star-forming galaxies and discuss the implications for reionization measurements. The trends we uncover underline the dangers of relying purely on broadband photometry to estimate the physical properties of high-redshift galaxies and emphasize the important role of diagnostic spectroscopy.

  8. Contamination of Broadband Photometry by Nebular Emission in High-redshift Galaxies: Investigations with Keck's MOSFIRE Near-infrared Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenker, Matthew A.; Ellis, Richard S.; Konidaris, Nick P.; Stark, Daniel P.

    2013-11-01

    Earlier work has raised the potential importance of nebular emission in the derivation of the physical characteristics of high-redshift Lyman break galaxies. Within certain redshift ranges, and especially at z ~= 6-7, such lines may be strong enough to reduce estimates of the stellar masses and ages of galaxies compared with those derived assuming the broadband photometry represents stellar light alone. To test this hypothesis at the highest redshifts where such lines can be probed with ground-based facilities, we examine the near-infrared spectra of a representative sample of 28 3.0 < z < 3.8 Lyman break galaxies using the newly commissioned MOSFIRE near-infrared spectrograph at the Keck I telescope. We use these data to derive the rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) of [O III] emission and show that these are comparable with estimates derived using the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting technique introduced for sources of known redshift by Stark et al. Although our current sample is modest, its [O III] EW distribution is consistent with that inferred for Hα based on SED fitting of Stark et al.'s larger sample of 3.8 < z < 5 galaxies. For a subset of survey galaxies, we use the combination of optical and near-infrared spectroscopy to quantify kinematics of outflows in z ~= 3.5 star-forming galaxies and discuss the implications for reionization measurements. The trends we uncover underline the dangers of relying purely on broadband photometry to estimate the physical properties of high-redshift galaxies and emphasize the important role of diagnostic spectroscopy.

  9. Local Turbulent Disks: analogs of high-redshift vigorously star-forming disks and laboratories for galaxy assembly?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damjanov, Ivana

    2012-10-01

    Kinematical investigations at redshifts 1high-redshift galaxies exhibit very high internal velocity dispersions. Dynamical data collected with integral field spectrographs {IFS} suggest that the level of rotational support in these systems follows a trend in mass, with compact dispersion-dominated Lyman Break Galaxies at lower stelar masses and large dynamically unstable turbulent disks at stellar masses larger than 10^10 solar masses. The high velocity dispersion of these young disks results in a large characteristic scale for star-forming clusters thereby also explaining their 'clump cluster' morphology. Galaxies like these were thought to be absent from the local Universe. As part of a IFS campaign to observe the most H-alpha luminous galaxies in SDSS, we have discovered a sample of very rare objects seemingly identical to these high-z turbulent disks. In this proposal we seek imaging in H-alpha of thirteen local disk galaxies in our sample, using the ACS tunable-wavelength ramp filters. Our goal is to measure the size distribution of the star-forming complexes in these objects, with ten times the typical physical resolution of HST observations of high-z galaxies, in order to test the idea that they are indeed dynamically unstable turbulent disks caught in the process of formation. In synergy with existing high resolution HST imaging of the local analogs of low-mass dispersion-dominated galaxies at high redshift {Lyman Break Analogs}, our proposed observations of the local counterparts to large turbulent disks at high redshift will help to paint a complete picture of local analogs of high-z star-forming galaxies.

  10. A simple model to link the properties of quasars to the properties of dark matter haloes out to high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croton, Darren J.

    2009-04-01

    We present a simple model of how quasars occupy dark matter haloes from z = 0 to 5 using the observed mBH-σ relation and quasar luminosity functions. This provides a way for observers to statistically infer host halo masses for quasar observations using luminosity and redshift alone. Our model is deliberately simple and sidesteps any need to explicitly describe the physics. In spite of its simplicity, the model reproduces many key observations and has predictive power: (i) model quasars have the correct luminosity function (by construction) and spatial clustering (by consequence); (ii) we predict high-redshift quasars of a given luminosity live in less massive dark matter haloes than the same luminosity quasars at low redshifts; (iii) we predict a factor of ~5 more 108.5Msolar black holes at z ~ 2 than is currently observed; (iv) we predict a factor of ~20 evolution in the amplitude of the mBH-Mhalo relation between z = 5 and the present day; (v) we expect luminosity-dependent quasar lifetimes of between tQ ~ 107 and 108yr, but which may become as short as 105-6yr for quasars brighter than L* and (vi) while little luminosity-dependent clustering evolution is expected at z <~ 1, increasingly strong evolution is predicted for L > L* quasars at higher redshifts. These last two results arise from the narrowing distribution of halo masses that quasars occupy as the Universe ages. We also deconstruct both `downsizing' and `upsizing' trends predicted by the model at different redshifts and space densities. Importantly, this work illustrates how current observations cannot distinguish between more complicated physically motivated quasar models and our simple phenomenological approach. It highlights the opportunities such methodologies provide.

  11. KECK SPECTROSCOPY OF FAINT 3>z>7 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES: A HIGH FRACTION OF LINE EMITTERS AT REDSHIFT SIX

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Daniel P.; Ellis, Richard S.; Ouchi, Masami

    2011-02-10

    As Ly{alpha} photons are scattered by neutral hydrogen, a change with redshift in the Ly{alpha} equivalent width (EW) distribution of distant galaxies offers a promising probe of the degree of ionization in the intergalactic medium and hence when cosmic reionization ended. This simple test is complicated by the fact that Ly{alpha} emission can also be affected by variations in the kinematics and dust content of the host galaxies. In the first paper in this series, we demonstrated both a luminosity- and redshift-dependent trend in the fraction of Ly{alpha} emitters seen within color-selected 'Lyman break' galaxies (LBGs) over the range 3 < z < 6; lower luminosity galaxies and those at higher redshift show an increased likelihood of strong emission. Here, we present the results from 12.5 hr exposures with the Keck DEIMOS spectrograph focused primarily on LBGs at z {approx_equal} 6 which enable us to confirm the redshift dependence of line emission more robustly and to higher redshift than was hitherto possible. We find that 54% {+-} 11% of faint z {approx_equal} 6 LBGs show strong (W{sub Ly{alpha},0}>25 A) emission, an increase of 55% from a sample of similarly luminous z {approx_equal} 4 galaxies. With a total sample of 74 z {approx_equal} 6 LBGs, we determine the luminosity-dependent Ly{alpha} EW distribution. Assuming continuity in these trends to the new population of z {approx_equal} 7 sources located with the Hubble WFC3/IR camera, we predict that unless the neutral fraction rises in the intervening 200 Myr, the success rate for spectroscopic confirmation using Ly{alpha} emission should be high.

  12. Outflows driven by quasars in high-redshift galaxies with radiation hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieri, Rebekka; Dubois, Yohan; Rosdahl, Joakim; Wagner, Alexander; Silk, Joseph; Mamon, Gary A.

    2017-01-01

    The quasar mode of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the high-redshift Universe is routinely observed in gas-rich galaxies together with large-scale AGN-driven winds. It is crucial to understand how photons emitted by the central AGN source couple to the ambient interstellar medium to trigger large-scale outflows. By means of radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of idealized galactic discs, we study the coupling of photons with the multiphase galactic gas, and how it varies with gas cloud sizes, and the radiation bands included in the simulations, which are ultraviolet, optical, and infrared (IR). We show how a quasar with a luminosity of 1046 erg s- 1 can drive large-scale winds with velocities of 10^2-10^3 km s^{-1} and mass outflow rates around 103 M⊙ yr- 1 for times of the order of a few million years. IR radiation is necessary to efficiently transfer momentum to the gas via multiscattering on dust in dense clouds. However, IR multiscattering, despite being extremely important at early times, quickly declines as the central gas cloud expands and breaks up, allowing the radiation to escape through low gas density channels. The typical number of multiscattering events for an IR photon is only about a quarter of the mean optical depth from the centre of the cloud. Our models account for the observed outflow rates of ˜500-1000 M⊙ yr- 1 and high velocities of ˜ 103 km s- 1, favouring winds that are energy driven via extremely fast nuclear outflows, interpreted here as being IR radiatively driven winds.

  13. GROWTH OF EARLY SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND THE HIGH-REDSHIFT EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    DeGraf, C.; Di Matteo, T.; Khandai, N.; Croft, R.

    2012-08-10

    Using a new large-scale ({approx} 0.75 Gpc){sup 3} hydrodynamic cosmological simulation, we investigate the growth rate of supermassive black holes (BHs) in the early universe (z {approx}> 4.75). Remarkably we find a clear peak in the typical Eddington ratio ({lambda}) at BH masses of (4-8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} (typically in halos of {approx}7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} to 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }, close to their shock heating scale), independent of redshift and indicative that most BH growth occurs in the cold-flow-dominated regime. BH growth is enhanced at high-z and by and large regulated by the cosmological evolution of gas density, with {lambda} scaling simply as (1 + z){sup 3}. The peak in {lambda} is caused by the competition between increased gas density available in more massive hosts, and a decrease due to active galactic nucleus feedback that becomes effective above the shock heating halo mass scale and at high BH masses. We show that the distribution of {lambda} among both mass-selected and luminosity-selected samples is approximately lognormal. We combine these findings into a single lognormal fitting formula for the distribution of Eddington ratios as a function of (M{sub BH}, z). This formula can be used in analytic and semianalytic models for evolving BH populations, predicting BH masses of observed quasars, and, in conjunction with the observed distribution of Eddington ratios, can be used to constrain the BH mass function.

  14. The Progenitors of the Compact Early-type Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Christina C.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Cassata, Paolo; Tundo, Elena; Wiklind, Tommy; Guo, Yicheng; Lee, Bomee; Barro, Guillermo; Wuyts, Stijn; Bell, Eric F.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Dekel, Avishai; Faber, Sandra M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman; Hathi, Nimish; Huang, Kuang-Han; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton; Koo, David C.; Ravindranath, Swara; Salimbeni, Sara

    2014-01-01

    We use GOODS and CANDELS images to identify progenitors of massive (M > 1010 M ⊙) compact early-type galaxies (ETGs) at z ~ 1.6. Because merging and accretion increase the size of the stellar component of galaxies, if the progenitors are among known star-forming galaxies, these must be compact themselves. We select candidate progenitors among compact Lyman-break galaxies at z ~ 3 on the basis of their mass, star-formation rate (SFR), and central stellar density, and we find that these account for a large fraction of, and possibly all, compact ETGs at z ~ 1.6. We find that the average far-UV spectral energy distribution (SED) of the candidates is redder than that of the non-candidates, but the optical and mid-IR SED are the same, implying that the redder UV of the candidates is inconsistent with larger dust obscuration and consistent with more evolved (aging) star formation. This is in line with other evidence suggesting that compactness is a sensitive predictor of passivity among high-redshift massive galaxies. We also find that the light distribution of both the compact ETGs and their candidate progenitors does not show any extended "halos" surrounding the compact "core,"both in individual images and in stacks. We argue that this is generally inconsistent with the morphology of merger remnants, even if gas rich, as predicted by N-body simulations. This suggests that the compact ETGs formed via highly dissipative, mostly gaseous accretion of units whose stellar components are very small and undetected in the Hubble Space Telescope images, with their stellar mass assembling in situ, and that they have not experienced any major merging until the epoch of observations at z ~ 1.6.

  15. The progenitors of the compact early-type galaxies at high redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Christina C.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Lee, Bomee; Cassata, Paolo; Tundo, Elena; Conselice, Christopher J.; Wiklind, Tommy; Guo, Yicheng; Barro, Guillermo; Faber, Sandra M.; Koo, David C.; Bell, Eric F.; Dekel, Avishai; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton; Hathi, Nimish; Huang, Kuang-Han; Kocevski, Dale; and others

    2014-01-01

    We use GOODS and CANDELS images to identify progenitors of massive (M > 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}) compact early-type galaxies (ETGs) at z ∼ 1.6. Because merging and accretion increase the size of the stellar component of galaxies, if the progenitors are among known star-forming galaxies, these must be compact themselves. We select candidate progenitors among compact Lyman-break galaxies at z ∼ 3 on the basis of their mass, star-formation rate (SFR), and central stellar density, and we find that these account for a large fraction of, and possibly all, compact ETGs at z ∼ 1.6. We find that the average far-UV spectral energy distribution (SED) of the candidates is redder than that of the non-candidates, but the optical and mid-IR SED are the same, implying that the redder UV of the candidates is inconsistent with larger dust obscuration and consistent with more evolved (aging) star formation. This is in line with other evidence suggesting that compactness is a sensitive predictor of passivity among high-redshift massive galaxies. We also find that the light distribution of both the compact ETGs and their candidate progenitors does not show any extended 'halos' surrounding the compact 'core,' both in individual images and in stacks. We argue that this is generally inconsistent with the morphology of merger remnants, even if gas rich, as predicted by N-body simulations. This suggests that the compact ETGs formed via highly dissipative, mostly gaseous accretion of units whose stellar components are very small and undetected in the Hubble Space Telescope images, with their stellar mass assembling in situ, and that they have not experienced any major merging until the epoch of observations at z ∼ 1.6.

  16. HEAVILY OBSCURED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN HIGH-REDSHIFT LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Treister, Ezequiel; Sanders, David B.; Urry, C. Megan; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Schawinski, Kevin

    2010-10-20

    We take advantage of the rich multiwavelength data available in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), including the 4 Ms Chandra observations (the deepest X-ray data to date), in order to search for heavily obscured low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) among infrared-luminous galaxies. In particular, we obtained a stacked rest-frame X-ray spectrum for samples of galaxies binned in terms of their IR luminosity or stellar mass. We detect a significant signal at E {approx} 1-8 keV, which we interpret as originating from a combination of emission associated with star formation processes at low energies combined with a heavily obscured AGN at E > 5 keV. We further find that the relative strength of this AGN signal decays with decreasing IR luminosity, indicating a higher AGN fraction for more luminous IR sources. Together, these results strongly suggest the presence of a large number of obscured AGNs in IR-luminous galaxies. Using samples binned in terms of stellar mass in the host galaxy, we find a significant excess at E = 6-7 keV for sources with M > 10{sup 11} M {sub sun}, consistent with a large obscured AGN population in high mass galaxies. In contrast, no strong evidence of AGN activity was found for less-massive galaxies. The integrated intensity at high energies indicates that a significant fraction of the total black hole growth, {approx}22%, occurs in heavily obscured systems that are not individually detected in even the deepest X-ray observations. There are also indications that the number of low-luminosity, heavily obscured AGNs does not evolve significantly with redshift, in contrast to the strong evolution seen in higher luminosity sources.

  17. Resolved Gas Kinematics in a Sample of Low-Redshift High Star-Formation Rate Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varidel, Mathew; Pracy, Michael; Croom, Scott; Owers, Matt S.; Sadler, Elaine

    2016-03-01

    We have used integral field spectroscopy of a sample of six nearby (z 0.01-0.04) high star-formation rate (SFR ˜ 10-40 M_⊙ yr^{-1}) galaxies to investigate the relationship between local velocity dispersion and star-formation rate on sub-galactic scales. The low-redshift mitigates, to some extent, the effect of beam smearing which artificially inflates the measured dispersion as it combines regions with different line-of-sight velocities into a single spatial pixel. We compare the parametric maps of the velocity dispersion with the Hα flux (a proxy for local star-formation rate), and the velocity gradient (a proxy for the local effect of beam smearing). We find, even for these very nearby galaxies, the Hα velocity dispersion correlates more strongly with velocity gradient than with Hα flux-implying that beam smearing is still having a significant effect on the velocity dispersion measurements. We obtain a first-order non parametric correction for the unweighted and flux weighted mean velocity dispersion by fitting a 2D linear regression model to the spaxel-by-spaxel data where the velocity gradient and the Hα flux are the independent variables and the velocity dispersion is the dependent variable; and then extrapolating to zero velocity gradient. The corrected velocity dispersions are a factor of 1.3-4.5 and 1.3-2.7 lower than the uncorrected flux-weighted and unweighted mean line-of-sight velocity dispersion values, respectively. These corrections are larger than has been previously cited using disc models of the velocity and velocity dispersion field to correct for beam smearing. The corrected flux-weighted velocity dispersion values are σ m 20-50 km s-1.

  18. MASSIVE CLUMPS IN LOCAL GALAXIES: COMPARISONS WITH HIGH-REDSHIFT CLUMPS

    SciTech Connect

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Dewberry, J.; Putko, J.; Teich, Y.; Popinchalk, M.; Sanchez Almeida, J.; Munoz-Tunon, C.

    2013-09-01

    Local UV-bright galaxies in the Kiso survey include clumpy systems with kiloparsec-size star complexes that resemble clumpy young galaxies in surveys at high redshift. We compare clump masses and underlying disks in several dozen galaxies from each of these surveys to the star complexes and disks of normal spirals. Photometry and spectroscopy for the Kiso and spiral sample come from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that the largest Kiso clumpy galaxies resemble Ultra Deep Field (UDF) clumpies in terms of the star formation rates, clump masses, and clump surface densities. Clump masses and surface densities in normal spirals are smaller. If the clump masses are proportional to the turbulent Jeans mass in the interstellar medium, then for the most luminous galaxies in the sequence of normal:Kiso:UDF, the turbulent speeds and surface densities increase in the proportions 1.0:4.7:5.0 and 1.0:4.0:5.1, respectively, for fixed restframe B-band absolute magnitude. For the least luminous galaxies in the overlapping magnitude range, the turbulent speed and surface density trends are 1.0:2.7:7.4 and 1.0:1.4:3.0, respectively. We also find that while all three types have radially decreasing disk intensities when measured with ellipse-fit azimuthal averages, the average profiles are more irregular for UDF clumpies (which are viewed in their restframe UV) than for Kiso galaxies (viewed at g-band), and major axis intensity scans are even more irregular for the UDF than Kiso galaxies. Local clumpy galaxies in the Kiso survey appear to be intermediate between UDF clumpies and normal spirals.

  19. EXPLORING THE CHEMICAL LINK BETWEEN LOCAL ELLIPTICALS AND THEIR HIGH-REDSHIFT PROGENITORS

    SciTech Connect

    Leja, Joel; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Brammer, Gabriel; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Andrews, Brett H.; Franx, Marijn; Patel, Shannon G.; Kriek, Mariska; Van der Wel, Arjen; Bezanson, Rachel; Conroy, Charlie; Förster Schreiber, Natascha

    2013-12-01

    We present Keck/MOSFIRE K-band spectroscopy of the first mass-selected sample of galaxies at z ∼ 2.3. Targets are selected from the 3D-Hubble Space Telescope Treasury survey. The six detected galaxies have a mean [N II]λ6584/Hα ratio of 0.27 ± 0.01, with a small standard deviation of 0.05. This mean value is similar to that of UV-selected galaxies of the same mass. The mean gas-phase oxygen abundance inferred from the [N II]/Hα ratios depends on the calibration method, and ranges from 12+log(O/H){sub gas} = 8.57 for the Pettini and Pagel calibration to 12+log(O/H){sub gas} = 8.87 for the Maiolino et al. calibration. Measurements of the stellar oxygen abundance in nearby quiescent galaxies with the same number density indicate 12+log(O/H){sub stars} = 8.95, similar to the gas-phase abundances of the z ∼ 2.3 galaxies if the Maiolino et al. calibration is used. This suggests that these high-redshift star forming galaxies may be progenitors of today's massive early-type galaxies. The main uncertainties are the absolute calibration of the gas-phase oxygen abundance and the incompleteness of the z ∼ 2.3 sample: the galaxies with detected Hα tend to be larger and have higher star formation rates than the galaxies without detected Hα, and we may still be missing the most dust-obscured progenitors.

  20. Exploring the Chemical Link Between Local Ellipticals and Their High-Redshift Progenitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leja, Joel; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Momcheva, Ivelina; Brammer, Gabriel; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Andrews, Brett H.; Franx, Marijn; Kriek, Mariska; Van Der Wel, Arjen; Bezanson, Rachel; Conroy, Charlie; Schreiber, Natascha Foerster; Nelson, Erica; Patel, Shannon G.

    2013-01-01

    We present Keck/MOSFIRE K-band spectroscopy of the first mass-selected sample of galaxies at z approximately 2.3. Targets are selected from the 3D-Hubble Space Telescope Treasury survey. The six detected galaxies have a mean [N II]lambda6584/H-alpha ratio of 0.27 +/- 0.01, with a small standard deviation of 0.05. This mean value is similar to that of UV-selected galaxies of the same mass. The mean gas-phase oxygen abundance inferred from the [N II]/Halpha ratios depends on the calibration method, and ranges from 12+log(O/H)(sub gas) = 8.57 for the Pettini & Pagel calibration to 12+log(O/H)(sub gas) = 8.87 for the Maiolino et al. calibration. Measurements of the stellar oxygen abundance in nearby quiescent galaxies with the same number density indicate 12+log(O/H)(sub stars) = 8.95, similar to the gas-phase abundances of the z approximately 2.3 galaxies if the Maiolino et al. calibration is used. This suggests that these high-redshift star forming galaxies may be progenitors of today's massive early-type galaxies. The main uncertainties are the absolute calibration of the gas-phase oxygen abundance and the incompleteness of the z approximately 2.3 sample: the galaxies with detected Ha tend to be larger and have higher star formation rates than the galaxies without detected H-alpha, and we may still be missing the most dust-obscured progenitors.

  1. Galaxy Evolution at High Redshift: Obscured Star Formation, GRB Rates, Cosmic Reionization, and Missing Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapi, A.; Mancuso, C.; Celotti, A.; Danese, L.

    2017-01-01

    We provide a holistic view of galaxy evolution at high redshifts z ≳ 4, which incorporates the constraints from various astrophysical/cosmological probes, including the estimate of the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) density from UV/IR surveys and long gamma-ray burst (GRBs) rates, the cosmic reionization history following the latest Planck measurements, and the missing satellites issue. We achieve this goal in a model-independent way by exploiting the SFR functions derived by Mancuso et al. on the basis of an educated extrapolation of the latest UV/far-IR data from HST/Herschel, and already tested against a number of independent observables. Our SFR functions integrated down to a UV magnitude limit MUV ≲ ‑13 (or SFR limit around 10‑2 M⊙ yr‑1) produce a cosmic SFR density in excellent agreement with recent determinations from IR surveys and, taking into account a metallicity ceiling Z ≲ Z⊙/2, with the estimates from long GRB rates. They also yield a cosmic reionization history consistent with that implied by the recent measurements of the Planck mission of the electron scattering optical depth τes ≈ 0.058 remarkably, this result is obtained under a conceivable assumption regarding the average value fesc ≈ 0.1 of the escape fraction for ionizing photons. We demonstrate via the abundance-matching technique that the above constraints concurrently imply galaxy formation becoming inefficient within dark matter halos of mass below a few 108 M⊙ pleasingly, such a limit is also required so as not to run into the missing satellites issue. Finally, we predict a downturn of the Galaxy luminosity function faintward of MUV ≲ ‑12, and stress that its detailed shape, to be plausibly probed in the near future by the JWST, will be extremely informative on the astrophysics of galaxy formation in small halos, or even on the microscopic nature of the dark matter.

  2. The Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog: A High Redshift Galaxy Morphology Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Roger; Newman, J.; Cooper, M.; Stern, D.; Moustakas, L.; Davis, M.

    2009-05-01

    We use publicly available data obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope to construct the ACS General Catalog (ACS-GC). The ACS-GC includes over 370,000 astronomical sources (stars + galaxies) derived from the AEGIS, COSMOS, GEMS, and GOODS surveys. We include publicly available redshifts from the DEEP2, COMBO-17, TKRS, PEARS and zCOSMOS surveys to supply redshifts for a considerable fraction ( 52%) of the imaging sample. GALAPAGOS was used to construct photometric (SExtractor) and morphological (GALFIT) catalogs. The morphological analysis assumes a single Sersic model for each object to derive quantitative structural parameters. Galaxy Zoo will measure visual morphologies for 200,000 of these galaxies. The ACS-GC includes color images, GALFIT residual images, a galaxy atlas, and a photometry + morphology + redshift catalog. We use these data to investigate the size-redshift relationship for both early and late-type galaxies out to z 1. The entire data set will be made publicly available through the NASA Extragalactic Database (NED) and LEVEL5.

  3. Why Do Compact Active Galactic Nuclei at High Redshift Twinkle Less?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koay, J. Y.; Macquart, J.-P.; Bignall, H. E.; Reynolds, C.; Rickett, B. J.; Jauncey, D. L.; Pursimo, T.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Kedziora-Chudczer, L.; Ojha, R.

    2012-01-01

    The fraction of compact active galactic.nuclei (AGNs) that exhibit interstellar scintillation (ISS) at radio wavelengths, as well as their scintillation amplitudes, have been found to decrease significantly for sources at redshifts z approx greater than 2. This can be attributed to an increase in the angular sizes of the mu-as-scale cores or a decrease in the flux densities of the compact mu-as cores relative to that of the mas-scale components with increasing redshift, possibly arising from (1) the space-time curvature of an expanding Universe, (2) AGN evolution, (3) source selection biases, (4) scatter broadening in the ionized intergalactic medium (IGM), or (5) gravitational lensing. We examine the frequency scaling of this redshift dependence of ISS to determine its origin, using data from a dual-frequency survey of ISS of 128 sources at 0 approx < z approx < 4. We present a novel method of analysis which accounts for selection effects in the source sample. We determine that the redshift dependence of ISS is partially linked to the steepening of source spectral indices (alpha (sup 8.4, sub 4.9)) with redshift, caused either by selection biases or AGN evolution, coupled with weaker ISS in the alpha (sup 8.4, sub 4.9) < -0.4 sources. Selecting only the -0.4 < alpha (sup 8.4, sub 4.9) < 0.4 sources, we find that the redshift dependence of ISS is still significant, but is not significantly steeper than the expected (1 + z)(exp 0.5) scaling of source angular sizes due to cosmological expansion for a brightness temperature and flux-limited sample of sources. We find no significant evidence for scatter broadening in the IGM, ruling it out as the main cause of the redshift dependence of ISS. We obtain an upper limit to IGM scatter broadening of approx. < 110 mu-as at 4.9 GHz with 99% confidence for all lines of sight, and as low as approx. < 8 mu-as for sight-lines to the most compact, approx 10 mu-as sources.

  4. The Cycle of Dust in the Milky Ways: Clues from the High-Redshift and the Local Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2008-01-01

    Massive amount of dust has been observed at high-redshifts when the universe was a mere 900 Myr old. The formation and evolution of dust is there dominated by massive stars and interstellar processes. In contrast, in the local universe lower mass stars, predominantly 2-5 Msun AGB stars, play the dominant role in the production of interstellar dust. These two extreme environments offer fascinating clues about the evolution of dust in the Milky Way galaxy

  5. MARZ: Redshifting Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinton, Samuel

    2016-05-01

    MARZ analyzes objects and produces high quality spectroscopic redshift measurements. Spectra not matched correctly by the automatic algorithm can be redshifted manually by cycling automatic results, manual template comparison, or marking spectral features. The software has an intuitive interface and powerful automatic matching capabilities on spectra, and can be run interactively or from the command line, and runs as a Web application. MARZ can be run on a local server; it is also available for use on a public server.

  6. High Resolution Simulations for Hierarchical Formation of Dark Matter Halos Hosting Galaxies and AGNs at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki

    2015-08-01

    We present the evolution of dark matter halos in six large cosmological N-body simulations, called the ν2GC (New Numerical Galaxy Catalog) simulations on the basis of the LCDM cosmology consistent with observational results obtained by the Planck satellite. The largest simulation consists of 81923 (550 billion) dark matter particles in a box of 1.12h-1Gpc (a mass resolution of 2.20×108 h-1M⊙). Among simulations utilizing boxes larger than 1h-1Gpc, our simulation yields the highest resolution simulation that has ever been achieved. Compared with the Millennium simulation (Springel et al. 2005), our simulation offers the advantages of a mass resolution that is four times better and a spatial volume that is 11 times larger. A ν2GC simulation with the smallest box consists of eight billions particles in a box of 70h-1Mpc (a mass resolution of 3.44×106 -1M⊙). These simulations can follow the evolution of halos over masses of eight orders of magnitude, from small dwarf galaxies to massive clusters. Using the unprecedentedly high resolution and powerful statistics of the ν2GC simulations, we provide statistical results of the halo mass function, mass accretion rate, formation redshift, and merger statistics, and present accurate fitting functions for the Planck cosmology, from redshift 10 to 0. By combining the ν2GC simulations with our new semi-analytic galaxy formation model, we are able to prepare mock catalogs of galaxies and active galactic nuclei, which will be made publicly available in the near future.

  7. The High-Redshift Quasar Luminosity Function from Multi-Epoch Imaging Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSayyad, Yusra

    Upcoming time-domain imaging surveys such as the LSST will detect over a million high-redshift z > 4 quasars, making complete spectroscopic followup unfeasible. Statistical estimates such as luminosity functions and clustering measurements will require purely photometric methods for classifying quasars, estimating redshifts and estimating selection functions. We validate these methods and constrain the optical, type I quasar luminosity function (QLF) at 3.75 < z < 4.5 for -27.5 < M1450 3.75) and constraint on the characteristic luminosity (M*1450 = -26.7) from a single, uniformly-selected survey at z 4. We used the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) repeated imaging of the 275 sq. deg. equatorial region of the sky (-50 < R.A. < +60; -1.26 < Dec. < +1.26), known as Stripe 82, to select a statistical sample of z 4 quasars. We extracted 40 million lightcurves from the imaging using forced photometry on all u, g, r, i, z epochs at the positions of sources detected on a deep i-band co-add. We developed a classification method based on photometric information alone (colors and variability metrics derived from these new multi-band lightcurves), which we validated with a spectroscopically complete 55 sq. deg. sub-region augmented with 102 new spectroscopic observations of quasars at z > 3.4 with i < 22.5. We demonstrate that selection functions for ensemble classifiers can be estimated by building generative models of empirical distributions of quasars previously selected with a diverse set of selection criteria. The z 4 QLF contributes to our understanding of supermassive black hole growth and cosmic reionization of both H I and He II which likely began at z 4 as a result of hard UV emissivity from quasars. The resulting QLF measurement is consistent with the previous lower number densities reported from deep, narrow-field surveys (COSMOS); it is not consistent with higher number densities reported from the NDWFS-DLS and CANDELS GOODS-S fields. In the context of recent 2

  8. Escape fraction of ionizing photons from high-redshift galaxies in cosmological SPH simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yajima, Hidenobu; Choi, Jun-Hwan; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2011-03-01

    Combing the three-dimensional radiative transfer (RT) calculation and cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, we study the escape fraction of ionizing photons (fesc) of high-redshift galaxies at z= 3-6. Our simulations cover the halo mass range of Mh= 109-1012 M⊙. We post-process several hundred simulated galaxies with the Authentic Radiative Transfer (ART) code to study the halo mass dependence of fesc. In this paper, we restrict ourselves to the transfer of stellar radiation from local stellar population in each dark matter halo. We find that the average fesc steeply decreases as the halo mass increases, with a large scatter for the lower-mass haloes. The low-mass haloes with Mh˜ 109 M⊙ have large values of fesc (with an average of ˜0.4), whereas the massive haloes with Mh˜ 1011 M⊙ show small values of fesc (with an average of ˜0.07). This is because in our simulations, the massive haloes show more clumpy structure in gas distribution, and the star-forming regions are embedded inside these clumps, making it more difficult for the ionizing photons to escape. On the other hand, in low-mass haloes, there are often conical regions of highly ionized gas due to the shifted location of young star clusters from the centre of dark matter halo, which allows the ionizing photons to escape more easily than in the high-mass haloes. By counting the number of escaped ionizing photons, we show that the star-forming galaxies can ionize the intergalactic medium at z= 3-6. The main contributor to the ionizing photons is the haloes with Mh≲ 1010 M⊙ owing to their high fesc. The large dispersion in fesc suggests that there may be various sizes of H II bubbles around the haloes even with the same mass in the early stages of reionization. We also examine the effect of UV background radiation field on fesc using simple, four different treatments of UV background.

  9. The ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Molecular Gas Reservoirs in High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Aravena, Manuel; Carilli, Chris; Bouwens, Rychard; da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Bacon, Roland; Bauer, Franz; Bell, Eric F.; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Colina, Luis; Cortes, Paulo C.; Cox, Pierre; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Inami, Hanae; Ivison, Rob; Hodge, Jacqueline; Karim, Alex; Magnelli, Benjamin; Ota, Kazuaki; Popping, Gergö; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sargent, Mark; van der Wel, Arjen; van der Werf, Paul

    2016-12-01

    We study the molecular gas properties of high-z galaxies observed in the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey (ASPECS) that targets an ˜1 arcmin2 region in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF), a blind survey of CO emission (tracing molecular gas) in the 3 and 1 mm bands. Of a total of 1302 galaxies in the field, 56 have spectroscopic redshifts and correspondingly well-defined physical properties. Among these, 11 have infrared luminosities {L}{IR}\\gt {10}11 {L}⊙ , i.e., a detection in CO emission was expected. Out of these, 7 are detected at various significance in CO, and 4 are undetected in CO emission. In the CO-detected sources, we find CO excitation conditions that are lower than those typically found in starburst/sub-mm galaxy/QSO environments. We use the CO luminosities (including limits for non-detections) to derive molecular gas masses. We discuss our findings in the context of previous molecular gas observations at high redshift (star formation law, gas depletion times, gas fractions): the CO-detected galaxies in the UDF tend to reside on the low-{L}{IR} envelope of the scatter in the {L}{IR}{--}{L}{CO}\\prime relation, but exceptions exist. For the CO-detected sources, we find an average depletion time of ˜1 Gyr, with significant scatter. The average molecular-to-stellar mass ratio ({M}{{H}2}/M *) is consistent with earlier measurements of main-sequence galaxies at these redshifts, and again shows large variations among sources. In some cases, we also measure dust continuum emission. On average, the dust-based estimates of the molecular gas are a factor ˜2-5× smaller than those based on CO. When we account for detections as well as non-detections, we find large diversity in the molecular gas properties of the high-redshift galaxies covered by ASPECS.

  10. THE RELATION BETWEEN EJECTA VELOCITY, INTRINSIC COLOR, AND HOST-GALAXY MASS FOR HIGH-REDSHIFT TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Ryan J.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, using a large low-redshift sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), we discovered a relation between SN Ia ejecta velocity and intrinsic color that improves the distance precision of SNe Ia and reduces potential systematic biases related to dust reddening. No SN Ia cosmological results have yet made a correction for the 'velocity-color' relation. To test the existence of such a relation and constrain its properties at high redshift, we examine a sample of 75 SNe Ia discovered and observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey and Supernova Legacy Survey. From each spectrum, we measure ejecta velocities at maximum brightness for the Ca H and K and Si II {lambda}6355 features, v{sup 0}{sub CaHandK} and v{sup 0}{sub SiII}, respectively. Using SN light curve parameters, we determine the intrinsic B{sub max} - V{sub max} for each SN. Similar to what was found at low redshift, we find that SNe Ia with higher ejecta velocity tend to be intrinsically redder than SNe Ia with lower ejecta velocity. The distributions of ejecta velocities for SNe Ia at low and high redshift are similar, indicating that current cosmological results should have little bias related to the velocity-color relation. Additionally, we find a slight (2.4{sigma} significant) trend between SN Ia ejecta velocity and host-galaxy mass such that SNe Ia in high-mass host galaxies tend to have lower ejecta velocities as probed by v{sup 0}{sub CaHandK}. These results emphasize the importance of spectroscopy for SN Ia cosmology.

  11. Comparing High-redshift Galaxy Dropouts in GOODS-S from SelfCal and MultiDrizzle Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Jennifer; Cooray, Asantha R.; Nayyeri, Hooshang

    2017-01-01

    A subset of the multi-wavelength CANDELS survey is utilized to compare results of high-redshift photometric dropout galaxies from two different image processing techniques in the GOODS-S region. The maps used are the publicly available CANDELS mosaics and SelfCal, which is a self-calibration method that removes anisotropy offsets that are introduced from combining frames taken at different times. The identified dropout sources for redshifts 4 and larger from each dataset are compared to Lyman-break galaxy catalogs. Preliminary results indicate a low match rate for sources between the SelfCal maps and published catalogs, which could be attributed to differing map depth and processing techniques.

  12. DISCOVERY OF VERY HIGH ENERGY GAMMA RAYS FROM PKS 1424+240 AND MULTIWAVELENGTH CONSTRAINTS ON ITS REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Boltuch, D.; Arlen, T.; Chow, Y. C.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Cogan, P.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Boettcher, M.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Duke, C. E-mail: amy.furniss@gmail.com

    2010-01-10

    We report the first detection of very high energy{sup 83}Gamma-ray emission above 100 GeV. (VHE) gamma-ray emission above 140 GeV from PKS 1424+240, a BL Lac object with an unknown redshift. The photon spectrum above 140 GeV measured by VERITAS is well described by a power law with a photon index of 3.8 {+-} 0.5{sub stat} {+-} 0.3{sub syst} and a flux normalization at 200 GeV of (5.1 {+-} 0.9{sub stat} {+-} 0.5{sub syst}) x 10{sup -11} TeV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, where stat and syst denote the statistical and systematical uncertainties, respectively. The VHE flux is steady over the observation period between MJD 54881 and 55003 (from 2009 February 19 to June 21). Flux variability is also not observed in contemporaneous high-energy observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Contemporaneous X-ray and optical data were also obtained from the Swift XRT and MDM observatory, respectively. The broadband spectral energy distribution is well described by a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model favoring a redshift of less than 0.1. Using the photon index measured with Fermi in combination with recent extragalactic background light absorption models it can be concluded from the VERITAS data that the redshift of PKS 1424+240 is less than 0.66.

  13. Discovery of Very High Energy Gamma Rays from PKS 1424+240 and Multiwavelength Constraints on its Redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Acciari, V.A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Beilicke, M. Benbow, W.; Bottcher, M.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S.M.; Buckley, J.H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Chow, Y.C.; Ciupik, L.; Cogan, P.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A.; /more authors..

    2012-04-05

    We report the first detection of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission above 140GeV from PKS 1424+240, a BL Lac object with an unknown redshift. The photon spectrum above 140GeV measured by VERITAS is well described by a power law with a photon index of 3.8 {+-}0.5{sub stat} {+-} 0.3{sub syst} and a flux normalization at 200 GeV of (5.1 {+-} 0.9{sub stat} {+-} 0.5{sub syst}) x 10{sup -11} TeV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, where stat and syst denote the statistical and systematical uncertainty, respectively. The VHE flux is steady over the observation period between MJD 54881 and 55003 (2009 February 19 to June 21). Flux variability is also not observed in contemporaneous high energy observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Contemporaneous X-ray and optical data were also obtained from the Swift XRT and MDM observatory, respectively. The broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) is well described by a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model favoring a redshift of less than 0.1. Using the photon index measured with Fermi in combination with recent extragalactic background light (EBL) absorption models it can be concluded from the VERITAS data that the redshift of PKS 1424+240 is less than 0.66.

  14. The hard X-ray luminosity function of high-redshift (3 < z ≲ 5) active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vito, F.; Gilli, R.; Vignali, C.; Comastri, A.; Brusa, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Iwasawa, K.

    2014-12-01

    We present the hard-band (2-10 keV) X-ray luminosity function (HXLF) of 0.5-2 keV band selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) at high redshift. We have assembled a sample of 141 AGN at 3 < z ≲ 5 from X-ray surveys of different size and depth, in order to sample different regions in the LX - z plane. The HXLF is fitted in the range log LX ˜ 43-45 with standard analytical evolutionary models through a maximum likelihood procedure. The evolution of the HXLF is well described by a pure density evolution, with the AGN space density declining by a factor of ˜10 from z = 3 to 5. A luminosity-dependent density evolution model, which, normally, best represents the HXLF evolution at lower redshift, is also consistent with the data, but a larger sample of low-luminosity (log LX < 44), high-redshift AGN is necessary to constrain this model. We also estimated the intrinsic fraction of AGN obscured by a column density log NH ≥ 23 to be 0.54 ± 0.05, with no strong dependence on luminosity. This fraction is higher than the value in the Local Universe, suggesting an evolution of the luminous (LX > 1044 erg s-1) obscured AGN fraction from z = 0 to z > 3.

  15. A LINK TO THE PAST: USING MARKOV CHAIN MONTE CARLO FITTING TO CONSTRAIN FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Pirzkal, N.; Rothberg, B.; Koekemoer, Anton; Nilsson, Kim K.; Finkelstein, S.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James

    2012-04-01

    We have developed a new method for fitting spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to identify and constrain the physical properties of high-redshift (4 < z < 8) galaxies. Our approach uses an implementation of Bayesian based Markov Chain Monte Carlo that we have dubbed '{pi}MC{sup 2}'. It allows us to compare observations to arbitrarily complex models and to compute 95% credible intervals that provide robust constraints for the model parameters. The work is presented in two sections. In the first, we test {pi}MC{sup 2} using simulated SEDs to not only confirm the recovery of the known inputs but to assess the limitations of the method and identify potential hazards of SED fitting when applied specifically to high-redshift (z > 4) galaxies. In the second part of the paper we apply {pi}MC{sup 2} to thirty-three 4 < z < 8 objects, including the spectroscopically confirmed Grism ACS Program for Extragalactic Science Ly{alpha} sample (4 < z < 6), supplemented by newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 near-IR observations, and several recently reported broadband selected z > 6 galaxies. Using {pi}MC{sup 2}, we are able to constrain the stellar mass of these objects and in some cases their stellar age and find no evidence that any of these sources formed at a redshift larger than z = 8, a time when the universe was Almost-Equal-To 0.6 Gyr old.

  16. Tracing quasar narrow-line regions across redshift: a library of high-S/N optical spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammour, A.; Gallagher, S. C.; Richards, Gordon

    2015-04-01

    In a single optical spectrum, the quasar narrow-line region (NLR) reveals low-density, photoionized gas in the host galaxy interstellar medium (ISM), while the immediate vicinity of the central engine generates the accretion disc continuum and broad emission lines. To isolate these two components, we construct a library of high-S/N optical composite spectra created from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We divide the sample into bins of continuum luminosity and Hβ full width at half-maximum that are used to construct median composites at different redshift steps up to 0.75. We measure the luminosities of the narrow-emission lines [Ne V] λ3427, [Ne III] λ3870, [O III] λ5007, and [O II] λ3728 with ionization potentials (IPs) of 97, 40, 35, and 13.6 eV, respectively. The high IP lines' luminosities show no evidence of increase with redshift consistent with no evolution in the AGN spectral energy distribution or the host galaxy ISM illuminated by the continuum. In contrast, we find that the [O II] line becomes stronger at higher redshifts, and we interpret this as a consequence of enhanced star formation contributing to the [O II] emission in host galaxies at higher redshifts. The SFRs estimated from the [O II] luminosities show a flatter increase with z than non-AGN galaxies given our assumed AGN contribution to the [O II] luminosity. Finally, we confirm an inverse correlation between the strength of the Fe II λ4570 complex and both the [O III] equivalent width (though not the luminosity) and the width of the Hβ line as known from the eigenvector 1 correlations.

  17. GALAXY EVOLUTION IN OVERDENSE ENVIRONMENTS AT HIGH REDSHIFT: PASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN A CLUSTER AT z {approx} 2

    SciTech Connect

    Strazzullo, V.; Gobat, R.; Daddi, E.; Onodera, M.; Carollo, M.; Dickinson, M.; Renzini, A.; Arimoto, N.; Cimatti, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Chary, R.-R.

    2013-08-01

    We present a study of galaxy populations in the central region of the IRAC-selected, X-ray-detected galaxy cluster Cl J1449+0856 at z = 2. Based on a sample of spectroscopic and photometric cluster members, we investigate stellar populations and the morphological structure of cluster galaxies over an area of {approx}0.7 Mpc{sup 2} around the cluster core. The cluster stands out as a clear overdensity both in redshift space and in the spatial distribution of galaxies close to the center of the extended X-ray emission. The cluster core region (r < 200 kpc) shows a clearly enhanced passive fraction with respect to field levels. However, together with a population of massive, passive galaxies mostly with early-type morphologies, the cluster core also hosts massive, actively star-forming, often highly dust reddened sources. Close to the cluster center, a multi-component system of passive and star-forming galaxies could represent the future brightest cluster galaxy still forming. We observe a clear correlation between passive stellar populations and an early-type morphology, in agreement with field studies at similar redshift. Passive early-type galaxies in this cluster are typically a factor of 2-3 smaller than similarly massive early types at z {approx} 0. On the other hand, these same objects are on average larger by a factor of {approx}2 than field early-types at similar redshift, lending support to recent claims of an accelerated structural evolution in high-redshift dense environments. These results point toward the early formation of a population of massive galaxies, already evolved both in their structure and stellar populations, coexisting with still actively forming massive galaxies in the central regions of young clusters 10 billion years ago.

  18. A lower fragmentation mass scale for clumps in high redshift galaxies: a systematic numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamburello, Valentina; Mayer, Lucio; Shen, Sijing; Wadsley, James

    2015-08-01

    We perform a systematic study of the effect of sub-grid physics, resolution and structural parameters on the fragmentation of gas-rich galaxy discs into massive star forming clumps due to gravitational instability. We use the state-of-the-art zoom-in cosmological hydrodynamical simulation ARGO (Fiacconi et al. 2015) to set up the initial conditions of our models, and then carry out 26 high resolution controlled simulations of high-z galaxies using the GASOLINE2 code, which includes a modern, numerically robust SPH implementation.We find that when blast-wave feedback is included, the formation of long-lived, gravitationally bound clumps requires disc gas fractions of at least 50% and massive discs, which should have Vmax > 200 km/s at z ˜ 2, more massive than the typical galaxies expected at those redshifts.Less than 50 Myr after formation, clumps have stellar masses in the range 4 × 106 - 5 × 107 M⊙.Formation of clumps with mass exceeding ˜108 M⊙ is a rare occurrence, since it requires mergers between multiple massive clumps, as we verified by tracing back in time the particles belonging to such clumps. Such mergers happen after a few orbital times (˜200-300 Myr), but normally clumps migrate inward and are tidally disrupted on shorter timescales.Clump sizes are in the range 100-500 pc. We argue that giant clumps identified in observations (˜109 M⊙ and 1 kpc in size) might either have a different origin, such as minor mergers and clumpy gas accretion, or their sizes and masses may be overestimated due to resolution issues.Using an analytical model, already developed to explain the fragmentation scale in gravitationally unstable 3D protoplanetary discs, we can predict fairly accurately the characteristic gaseous masses of clumps soon after fragmentation, when standard Toome analysis becomes invalid.Due to their modest size, clumps have little effect on bulge growth as they migrate to the center. In our unstable discs a small bulge can form irrespective of

  19. DUST EXTINCTION BIAS IN THE COLUMN DENSITY DISTRIBUTION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: HIGH COLUMN DENSITY, LOW-REDSHIFT GRBs ARE MORE HEAVILY OBSCURED

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Darach; Jakobsson, Pall E-mail: pja@raunvis.hi.is

    2012-08-01

    The afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have more soft-X-ray absorption than expected from the foreground gas column in the Galaxy. While the redshift of the absorption can in general not be constrained from current X-ray observations, it has been assumed that the absorption is due to metals in the host galaxy of the GRB. The large sample of X-ray afterglows and redshifts now available allows the construction of statistically meaningful distributions of the metal column densities. We construct such a sample and show, as found in previous studies, that the typical absorbing column density (N{sub H{sub X}}) increases substantially with redshift, with few high column density objects found at low-to-moderate redshifts. We show, however, that when highly extinguished bursts are included in the sample, using redshifts from their host galaxies, high column density sources are also found at low-to-moderate redshift. We infer from individual objects in the sample and from observations of blazars that the increase in column density with redshift is unlikely to be related to metals in the intergalactic medium or intervening absorbers. Instead we show that the origin of the apparent increase with redshift is primarily due to dust extinction bias: GRBs with high X-ray absorption column densities found at z {approx}< 4 typically have very high dust extinction column densities, while those found at the highest redshifts do not. It is unclear how such a strongly evolving N{sub H{sub X}}/A{sub V} ratio would arise, and based on current data, remains a puzzle.

  20. Ly{alpha} EMISSION FROM HIGH-REDSHIFT SOURCES IN COSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Mallery, Ryan P.; Mobasher, Bahram; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Capak, Peter; Kakazu, Yuko; Masters, Dan; Scoville, Nick; Scarlata, Claudia; Salvato, Mara; McCracken, Henry

    2012-12-01

    We investigate spectroscopically measured Ly{alpha} equivalent widths (EWs) and escape fractions of 244 sources of which 95 are Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) and 106 Lyman alpha emitters (LAEs) at z {approx} 4.2, z {approx} 4.8, and z {approx} 5.6 selected from intermediate and narrowband observations. The sources were selected from the Cosmic Evolution Survey and observed with the DEIMOS spectrograph. We find that the distribution of EWs shows no evolution with redshift for both the LBG selected sources and the intermediate/narrowband LAEs. We also find that the Ly{alpha} escape fraction of intermediate/narrowband LAEs is on average higher and has a larger variation than the escape fraction of LBG selected sources. The escape fraction does not show a dependence with redshift. Similar to what has been found for LAEs at low redshifts, the sources with the highest extinctions show the lowest escape fractions. The range of escape fractions increases with decreasing extinction. This is evidence that the dust extinction is the most important factor affecting the escape of Ly{alpha} photons, but at low extinctions other factors, such as the H I covering fraction and gas kinematics, can be just as effective at inhibiting the escape of Ly{alpha} photons.

  1. Breaking through the high redshift bottleneck of Observational Hubble parameter Data: the Sandage-Loeb signal Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Shuo; Zhang, Tong-Jie

    2015-02-01

    We propose a robust scheme to measure the Hubble parameter H(z) at high redshifts by detecting the Sandage-Loeb signal (SL signal) which can be realized by the next generation extremely large telescope. It will largely extend the current observational Hubble parameter data (OHD) towards the redshift range of z in [2.0,5.0] where other dark energy probes is difficult to provide useful information of the cosmic expansion. To quantify the capability of such future measurement to constrain cosmological models, we simulate observational data for a CODEX (COsmic Dynamics and EXo-earth experiment)-like survey. We find that the SL signal scheme brings the redshift upper-limit of OHD from zmax = 2.3 to 0zmax simeq 5., provides more accurate constraints on different dark energy models, and greatly changes the degeneracy direction of the parameters. For the ΛCDM case, the accuracy of Ωm is improved by 58% and the degeneracy between Ωm and ΩΛ is rotated to the vertical direction of Ωm - ΩΛ plane; for the wCDM case, the accuracy of w is improved by 15%. The Fisher matrix forecast on different time-dependent w(z) cosmological model is also performed.

  2. Discovery of an Obscured Broad-Line Region in the High-Redshift Radio Galaxy MRC 2025-218.

    PubMed

    Larkin; McLean; Graham; Becklin; Figer; Gilbert; Levenson; Teplitz; Wilcox; Glassman

    2000-04-10

    This Letter presents infrared spectra taken with the newly commissioned near-infrared spectrometer (NIRSPEC) on the Keck II telescope of the high-redshift radio galaxy MRC 2025-218 (z=2.63). These observations represent the deepest infrared spectra of a radio galaxy to date and have allowed for the detection of Hbeta, [O iii] lambdalambda4959, 5007, [O i] lambda6300, Halpha, [N ii] lambdalambda6548, 6583, and [S ii] lambdalambda6716, 6713. The Halpha emission is very broad (FWHM=9300 km s-1) and luminous (2.6x1044 ergs s-1), and it is very comparable to the line widths and strengths of radio-loud quasars at the same redshift. This strongly supports active galactic nucleus unification models linking radio galaxies and quasars, although we discuss some of the outstanding differences. The line [O iii] lambda5007 is extremely strong and has extended emission with large relative velocities toward the nucleus. We also derive that if the extended emission is due to star formation, each knot has a star formation rate comparable to a Lyman-break galaxy at the same redshift.

  3. Escape of about five per cent of Lyman-alpha photons from high-redshift star-forming galaxies.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Matthew; Ostlin, Göran; Schaerer, Daniel; Mas-Hesse, J Miguel; Leitherer, Claus; Atek, Hakim; Kunth, Daniel; Verhamme, Anne; de Barros, Stéphane; Melinder, Jens

    2010-03-25

    The Lyman-alpha (Lyalpha) emission line is the primary observational signature of star-forming galaxies at the highest redshifts, and has enabled the compilation of large samples of galaxies with which to study cosmic evolution. The resonant nature of the line, however, means that Lyalpha photons scatter in the neutral interstellar medium of their host galaxies, and their sensitivity to absorption by interstellar dust may therefore be greatly enhanced. This implies that the Lyalpha luminosity may be significantly reduced, or even completely suppressed. Hitherto, no unbiased empirical test of the escaping fraction (f(esc)) of Lyalpha photons has been performed at high redshifts. Here we report that the average f(esc) from star-forming galaxies at redshift z = 2.2 is just 5 per cent by performing a blind narrowband survey in Lyalpha and Halpha. This implies that numerous conclusions based on Lyalpha-selected samples will require upwards revision by an order of magnitude and we provide a benchmark for this revision. We demonstrate that almost 90 per cent of star-forming galaxies emit insufficient Lyalpha to be detected by standard selection criteria. Both samples show an anti-correlation of f(esc) with dust content, and we show that Lyalpha- and Halpha-selection recovers populations that differ substantially in dust content and f(esc).

  4. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy-formation simulation - VII. The sizes of high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuanwu; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Angel, P. W.; Duffy, Alan R.; Geil, Paul M.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate high-redshift galaxy sizes using a semi-analytic model constructed for the Dark-ages Reionization And Galaxy-formation Observables from Numerical Simulation project. Our fiducial model, including strong feedback from supernovae and photoionization background, accurately reproduces the evolution of the stellar mass function and ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function. Using this model, we study the size-luminosity relation of galaxies and find that the effective radius scales with UV luminosity as Re ∝ L0.25 at z ∼ 5-9. We show that recently discovered very luminous galaxies at z ∼ 7 and 11 lie on our predicted size-luminosity relations. We find that a significant fraction of galaxies at z > 8 will not be resolved by James Webb Space Telescope, but Giant Magellan Telescope will have the ability to resolve all galaxies in haloes above the atomic cooling limit. We show that our fiducial model successfully reproduces the redshift evolution of average galaxy sizes at z > 5. We also explore galaxy sizes in models without supernova feedback. The no-supernova feedback models produce galaxy sizes that are smaller than observations. We therefore confirm that supernova feedback plays an important role in determining the size-luminosity relation of galaxies and its redshift evolution during reionization.

  5. Extragalactic Backgrounds in the Far UV and Exploring Star Formation at High Redshifts with Gamma-ray Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2006-01-01

    The determination of the intergalactic photon densities from the FIR to the UV which is produced by stellar emission and dust reradiation at various redshifts can provide an independent measure of the star formation history of the universe. Using recent Spitzer and GALEX data in conjunction with other observational inputs, Stecker, Malkan and Scully have calculated the intergalactic photon density as a function of both energy and redshift for 0 < zeta < 6 for photon energies from 0.003 eV to the Lyman limit cutoff at 13.6 eV in a ACDM universe with Omega(sub Lambda) = 0.7 and Omega(sub m) = 0.3. Their results are based on backwards evolution models for galaxies which were developed by Malkan and Stecker previously. The calculated background SEDs at zeta = 0 are in good agreement with the present observational data and limits. The calculated intergalactic photon densities as a function of redshift were used to predict to extend the absorption of high energy 7-rays in intergalactic space from sources such as blazars and quasars, this absorption being produced by interactions the y-rays with the intergalactic FIR-UV photons having the calculated densities. The results are in excellent agreement with absorption features found in the low gamma-ray spectra of Mkn 421, Mkn 501 at, zeta = 0.03 and PKS

  6. GRB 120521C at z ∼ 6 and the properties of high-redshift γ-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Laskar, Tanmoy; Berger, Edo; Zauderer, B. Ashley; Margutti, Raffaella; Fong, Wen-fai; Tanvir, Nial; Wiersema, Klaas; Levan, Andrew; Perley, Daniel; Menten, Karl; Hrudkova, Marie

    2014-01-20

    We present optical, near-infrared, and radio observations of the afterglow of GRB 120521C. By modeling the multi-wavelength data set, we derive a photometric redshift of z ≈ 6.0, which we confirm with a low signal-to-noise ratio spectrum of the afterglow. We find that a model with a constant-density environment provides a good fit to the afterglow data, with an inferred density of n ≲ 0.05 cm{sup –3}. The radio observations reveal the presence of a jet break at t {sub jet} ≈ 7 d, corresponding to a jet opening angle of θ{sub jet} ≈ 3°. The beaming-corrected γ-ray and kinetic energies are E {sub γ} ≈ E{sub K} ≈ 3 × 10{sup 50} erg. We quantify the uncertainties in our results using a detailed Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis, which allows us to uncover degeneracies between the physical parameters of the explosion. To compare GRB 120521C to other high-redshift bursts in a uniform manner we re-fit all available afterglow data for the two other bursts at z ≳ 6 with radio detections (GRBs 050904 and 090423). We find a jet break at t {sub jet} ≈ 15 d for GRB 090423, in contrast to previous work. Based on these three events, we find that γ-ray bursts (GRBs) at z ≳ 6 appear to explode in constant-density environments, and exhibit a wide range of energies and densities that span the range inferred for lower redshift bursts. On the other hand, we find a hint for narrower jets in the z ≳ 6 bursts, potentially indicating a larger true event rate at these redshifts. Overall, our results indicate that long GRBs share a common progenitor population at least to z ∼ 8.

  7. The ratio of CO to total gas mass in high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashian, Natalie; Sternberg, Amiel; Loeb, Abraham

    2013-11-01

    Walter et al. have recently identified the J = 6 - 5, 5 - 4, and 2 - 1 CO rotational emission lines, and [C II] fine-structure emission line from the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in the high-redshift submillimetre source HDF 850.1, at z = 5.183. We employ large velocity gradient (LVG) modelling to analyse the spectra of this source assuming the [C II] and CO emissions originate from (i) separate virialized regions, (ii) separate unvirialized regions, (iii) uniformly mixed virialized regions and (iv) uniformly mixed unvirialized regions. We present the best-fitting set of parameters, including for each case the ratio α between the total hydrogen/helium gas mass and the CO(1-0) line luminosity. We also present computations of the ratio of H2 mass to [C II] line luminosity for optically thin conditions, for a range of gas temperatures and densities, for direct conversion of [C II] line luminosities to `CO-dark' H2 masses. For HDF 850.1 we find that a model in which the CO and C+ are uniformly mixed in gas that is shielded from ultraviolet radiation requires a cosmic ray or X-ray ionization rate of ζ ≈ 3 × 10-14 s-1, plausibly consistent with the large star formation rate (˜103 M⊙ yr-1) observed in this source. Enforcing the cosmological constraint posed by the abundance of dark matter haloes in the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology and taking into account other possible contributions to the total gas mass, we find that the two models in which the virialization condition is enforced can be ruled out at the ≳2σ level, while the model assuming mixed unvirialized regions is less likely. We conclude that modelling HDF 850.1's ISM as a collection of unvirialized molecular clouds with distinct CO and C+ layers, for which α = 1.2 M⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1 for the CO to H2 mass-to-luminosity ratio (similar to the standard ultraluminous infrared galaxy value), is most consistent with the ΛCDM cosmology.

  8. Gemini Spectroscopy of Supernovae from the Supernova Legacy Survey: Improving High-Redshift Supernova Selection and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, D. A.; Sullivan, M.; Perrett, K.; Bronder, T. J.; Hook, I. M.; Astier, P.; Aubourg, E.; Balam, D.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Lafoux, H.; Neill, J. D.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Taillet, R.; Knop, R.; McMahon, R. G.; Perlmutter, S.; Walton, N. A.

    2005-12-01

    We present new techniques for improving the efficiency of supernova (SN) classification at high redshift using 64 candidates observed at Gemini North and South during the first year of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). The SNLS is an ongoing 5 year project with the goal of measuring the equation of state of dark energy by discovering and following over 700 high-redshift SNe Ia using data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. We achieve an improvement in the SN Ia spectroscopic confirmation rate: at Gemini 71% of candidates are now confirmed as SNe Ia, compared to 54% using the methods of previous surveys. This is despite the comparatively high redshift of this sample, in which the median SN Ia redshift is z=0.81 (0.155<=z<=1.01). These improvements were realized because we use the unprecedented color coverage and light curve sampling of the SNLS to predict whether a candidate is a SN Ia and to estimate its redshift, before obtaining a spectrum, using a new technique called the ``SN photo-z.'' In addition, we have improved techniques for galaxy subtraction and SN template χ2 fitting, allowing us to identify candidates even when they are only 15% as bright as the host galaxy. The largest impediment to SN identification is found to be host galaxy contamination of the spectrum-when the SN was at least as bright as the underlying host galaxy the target was identified more than 90% of the time. However, even SNe in bright host galaxies can be easily identified in good seeing conditions. When the image quality was better than 0.55", the candidate was identified 88% of the time. Over the 5 year course of the survey, using the selection techniques presented here, we will be able to add ~170 more confirmed SNe Ia than would be possible using previous methods. APC, 11 Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France. DSM/DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France.

  9. Quasar redshifts: the intrinsic component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Peter M.

    2016-09-01

    The large observed redshift of quasars has suggested large cosmological distances and a corresponding enormous energy output to explain the brightness or luminosity as seen at earth. Alternative or complementary sources of redshift have not been identified by the astronomical community. This study examines one possible source of additional redshift: an intrinsic component based on the plasma characteristics of high temperature and high electron density which are believed to be present.

  10. Is There a Maximum Star Formation Rate in High-redshift Galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.; Chen, C.-C.; Owen, F. N.; Wang, W.-H.; Casey, C. M.; Lee, N.; Sanders, D. B.; Williams, J. P.

    2014-03-01

    We use the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope's SCUBA-2 camera to image a 400 arcmin2 area surrounding the GOODS-N field. The 850 μm rms noise ranges from a value of 0.49 mJy in the central region to 3.5 mJy at the outside edge. From these data, we construct an 850 μm source catalog to 2 mJy containing 49 sources detected above the 4σ level. We use an ultradeep (11.5 μJy at 5σ) 1.4 GHz image obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array together with observations made with the Submillimeter Array to identify counterparts to the submillimeter galaxies. For most cases of multiple radio counterparts, we can identify the correct counterpart from new and existing Submillimeter Array data. We have spectroscopic redshifts for 62% of the radio sources in the 9' radius highest sensitivity region (556/894) and 67% of the radio sources in the GOODS-N region (367/543). We supplement these with a modest number of additional photometric redshifts in the GOODS-N region (30). We measure millimetric redshifts from the radio to submillimeter flux ratios for the unidentified submillimeter sample, assuming an Arp 220 spectral energy distribution. We find a radio-flux-dependent K - z relation for the radio sources, which we use to estimate redshifts for the remaining radio sources. We determine the star formation rates (SFRs) of the submillimeter sources based on their radio powers and their submillimeter fluxes and find that they agree well. The radio data are deep enough to detect star-forming galaxies with SFRs >2000 M ⊙ yr-1 to z ~ 6. We find galaxies with SFRs up to ~6000 M ⊙ yr-1 over the redshift range z = 1.5-6, but we see evidence for a turn-down in the SFR distribution function above 2000 M ⊙ yr-1. The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope is operated by the Joint Astronomy Centre on behalf of the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom, the National Research Council of Canada, and (until 2013 March 31) the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific

  11. Is there a maximum star formation rate in high-redshift galaxies? , , ,

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.; Chen, C.-C.; Casey, C. M.; Lee, N.; Sanders, D. B.; Williams, J. P.; Owen, F. N.; Wang, W.-H.

    2014-03-20

    We use the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope's SCUBA-2 camera to image a 400 arcmin{sup 2} area surrounding the GOODS-N field. The 850 μm rms noise ranges from a value of 0.49 mJy in the central region to 3.5 mJy at the outside edge. From these data, we construct an 850 μm source catalog to 2 mJy containing 49 sources detected above the 4σ level. We use an ultradeep (11.5 μJy at 5σ) 1.4 GHz image obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array together with observations made with the Submillimeter Array to identify counterparts to the submillimeter galaxies. For most cases of multiple radio counterparts, we can identify the correct counterpart from new and existing Submillimeter Array data. We have spectroscopic redshifts for 62% of the radio sources in the 9' radius highest sensitivity region (556/894) and 67% of the radio sources in the GOODS-N region (367/543). We supplement these with a modest number of additional photometric redshifts in the GOODS-N region (30). We measure millimetric redshifts from the radio to submillimeter flux ratios for the unidentified submillimeter sample, assuming an Arp 220 spectral energy distribution. We find a radio-flux-dependent K – z relation for the radio sources, which we use to estimate redshifts for the remaining radio sources. We determine the star formation rates (SFRs) of the submillimeter sources based on their radio powers and their submillimeter fluxes and find that they agree well. The radio data are deep enough to detect star-forming galaxies with SFRs >2000 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} to z ∼ 6. We find galaxies with SFRs up to ∼6000 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} over the redshift range z = 1.5-6, but we see evidence for a turn-down in the SFR distribution function above 2000 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}.

  12. Zoomed high-resolution simulations of Multi-coupled Dark Energy: cored galaxy density profiles at high redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Garaldi, Enrico; Baldi, Marco; Moscardini, Lauro E-mail: marco.baldi5@unibo.it

    2016-01-01

    We perform for the first time high-resolution zoom-in re-simulations of individual halos in the context of the Multi-coupled Dark Energy (McDE) scenario, which is characterised by the existence of two distinct Dark Matter particle species with opposite couplings to a Dark Energy scalar field. We compare the structural properties of the simulated halos to the standard ΛCDM results. The zoomed-in initial conditions are set up using a specifically designed code called ZInCo that we publicly release along with the present paper. Our numerical results allow to investigate in detail and with unprecedented resolution the halo segregation process that characterises McDE cosmologies from its very early stages. In particular, we find that in contrast to what could be inferred from previous numerical analysis at lower resolution, the segregation process is already in place at redshifts as high as z ∼ 7. Most remarkably, we find that the subsequent evolution of the segregation leads to the formation of cored total matter density profiles with a core size that progressively increases in time. The shape of the cored profiles can be accurately predicted as the superposition of two NFW profiles with an increasing offset, thereby confirming the interpretation of the simulations results in terms of the segregation of the two dark matter components of the halo as a consequence of their different coupling to the Dark Energy field.

  13. The effects of the small-scale DM power on the cosmological neutral hydrogen (HI) distribution at high redshifts

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Abir; Sethi, Shiv K.; Mondal, Rajesh; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Das, Subinoy; Marsh, David J.E. E-mail: rm@phy.iitkgp.ernet.in E-mail: sethi@rri.res.in E-mail: david.marsh@kcl.ac.uk

    2016-04-01

    The particle nature of dark matter remains a mystery. In this paper, we consider two dark matter models—Late Forming Dark Matter (LFDM) and Ultra-Light Axion (ULA) models—where the matter power spectra show novel effects on small scales. The high redshift universe offers a powerful probe of their parameters. In particular, we study two cosmological observables: the neutral hydrogen (HI) redshifted 21-cm signal from the epoch of reionization, and the evolution of the collapsed fraction of HI in the redshift range 2 < z < 5. We model the theoretical predictions of the models using CDM-like N-body simulations with modified initial conditions, and generate reionization fields using an excursion set model. The N-body approximation is valid on the length and halo mass scales studied. We show that LFDM and ULA models predict an increase in the HI power spectrum from the epoch of reionization by a factor between 2–10 for a range of scales 0.1 < k < 4 Mpc{sup −1}. Assuming a fiducial model where a neutral hydrogen fraction x-bar {sub HI} = 0.5 must be achieved by z = 8, the reionization process allows us to put approximate bounds on the redshift of dark matter formation z{sub f} > 4 × 10{sup 5} (for LFDM) and the axion mass m{sub a} > 2.6 × 10{sup −23} eV (for ULA). The comparison of the collapsed mass fraction inferred from damped Lyman-α observations to the theoretical predictions of our models lead to the weaker bounds: z{sub f} > 2 × 10{sup 5} and m{sub a} > 10{sup −23} eV. These bounds are consistent with other constraints in the literature using different observables; we briefly discuss how these bounds compare with possible constraints from the observation of luminosity function of galaxies at high redshifts. In the case of ULAs, these constraints are also consistent with a solution to the cusp-core problem of CDM.

  14. High Resolution Echelle Spectroscopy of Low Redshift Intervening O VI Absorbers with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripp, T. M.; Bowen, D. V.; Jenkins, E. B.; Savage, B. D.

    1999-12-01

    We present high resolution FUV echelle spectroscopy of several low z intervening O VI absorbers (z < 0.3) in the spectra of H1821+643 and PG0953+415. The data were obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph at a resolution of 45,000 (7 km/s FWHM). We also present selected new measurements of galaxy redshifts in the 10' field centered on H1821+643. The observations provide several clues about the nature of these absorbers: (1) In the case of the strong O VI system at z = 0.2250 in the spectrum of H1821+643, we detect multicomponent Si II and Si III absorption as well as O VI and several Lyman series lines of H I. Multiple components are evident in the O VI profiles, but the components have different velocities than the Si III and Si II lines. Furthermore, the Si II and Si III lines are quite narrow, and the O VI lines are broader and spread over a larger velocity range. This evidence strongly indicates that this is a multiphase absorber. (2) We also detect `high velocity' O VI in the z = 0.2250 system. High velocity H I is also seen in the Lyα profile, but substantially offset in velocity from the O VI. This high velocity O VI may be analogous to the highly ionized high velocity clouds seen near the Milky Way. (3) We also present systems at other redshifts including very weak O VI absorption lines accompanied by weak and narrow H I absorption. (4) In all cases, several galaxies are close to the sight lines at the redshift of the O VI systems. We examine whether the O VI absorption can be attributed to the ISM of a single galaxy or the intragroup medium.

  15. MILLIMETER OBSERVATIONS OF A SAMPLE OF HIGH-REDSHIFT OBSCURED QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Sansigre, Alejo; Karim, Alexander; Schinnerer, Eva E-mail: karim@mpia.d

    2009-11-20

    quasars must have higher cool-dust masses and are therefore often found at an earlier evolutionary phase than those of unobscured quasars. For one source at z = 2.767, we detect the CO(3-2) transition, with S{sub CO}DELTAnu = 630 +- 50 mJy km s{sup -1}, corresponding to L{sub CO(3-2)} = 3.2 x10{sup 7} L{sub sun}, or a brightness-temperature luminosity of L'{sub CO(3-2)} = 2.4 x 10{sup 10} K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}. For another source at z = 4.17, the lack of detection of the CO(4-3) line suggests the line to have a brightness-temperature luminosity L'{sub CO(4-3)} < 1 x 10{sup 10} K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}. Under the assumption that in these objects the high-J transitions are thermalized, we can estimate the molecular gas contents to be M{sub H{sub 2}}=1.9x10{sup 10} M {sub sun} and <8 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}, respectively. The estimated gas depletion timescales are tau{sub g} = 4 Myr and <16 Myr, and low gas-to-dust mass ratios of M{sub g}/M {sub d} = 19 and <20 are inferred. These values are at the low end but consistent with those of other high-redshift galaxies.

  16. Development of the 2nd generation z(Redshift) and early universe spectrometer & the study of far-IR fine structure emission in high-z galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl

    The 2nd generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2), is a long-slit echelle-grating spectrometer (R~1000) for observations at submillimeter wavelengths from 200 to 850 microm. Its design is optimized for the detection of redshifted far-infrared spectral lines from galaxies in the early universe. Combining exquisite sensitivity, broad wavelength coverage, and large (˜2.5%) instantaneous bandwidth, ZEUS-2 is uniquely suited for studying galaxies between z˜0.2 and 5---spanning the peaks in both the star formation rate and number of AGN in the universe. ZEUS-2 saw first light at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) in the Spring of 2012 and was commissioned on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) in November 2012. Here we detail the design and performance of ZEUS-2, first however we discuss important science results that are examples of the science enabled by ZEUS-2. Using the first generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-1) we made the first high-z detections of the [NII] 122 microm and [OIII] 88 microm lines. We detect these lines from starburst galaxies between z ˜2.5 and 4 demonstrating the utility of these lines for characterizing the properties of early galaxies. Specifically we are able to determine the most massive star still on the main sequence, the number of those stars and a lower limit on the mass of ionized gas in the source. Next we present ZEUS-2's first science result. Using ZEUS-2 on APEX we have detected the [CII] 158 microm line from the z = 1.78 galaxy H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 with a line flux of (6.44 +/- 0.42) ˜ 10-18 W m-2. Combined with its far-infrared luminosity and a new Herschel-PACS detection of the [OI] 63 microm line we are able to conclude that H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 is a high redshift analogue of a local ultra-luminous infrared galaxy, i.e. it is likely the site of a compact starburst due to a major merger. This detection, combined with the ZEUS-1 observations of the [NII

  17. High-energy properties of the high-redshift flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 2149-306

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ammando, F.; Orienti, M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the γ-ray and X-ray properties of the flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 2149-306 at redshift z = 2.345. A strong γ-ray flare from this source was detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope satellite in 2013 January, reaching on January 20 a daily peak flux of (301 ± 36) × 10-8 ph cm-2 s-1 in the 0.1-100 GeV energy range. This flux corresponds to an apparent isotropic luminosity of (1.5 ± 0.2) × 1050 erg s-1, comparable to the highest values observed by a blazar so far. During the flare the increase of flux was accompanied by a significant change of the spectral properties. Moreover significant flux variations on a 6-h time-scale were observed, compatible with the light crossing time of the event horizon of the central black hole. The broad-band X-ray spectra of PKS 2149-306 observed by Swift-XRT and NuSTAR are well described by a broken power-law model, with a very hard spectrum (Γ1 ˜ 1) below the break energy, at E break = 2.5-3.0 keV, and Γ2 ˜ 1.4-1.5 above the break energy. The steepening of the spectrum below ˜3 keV may indicate that the soft X-ray emission is produced by the low-energy relativistic electrons. This is in agreement with the small variability amplitude and the lack of spectral changes in that part of the X-ray spectrum observed between the two NuSTAR and Swift joint observations. As for the other high-redshift FSRQ detected by both Fermi-LAT and Swift-BAT, the photon index of PKS 2149-306 in hard X-ray is 1.6 or lower and the average γ-ray luminosity higher than 2 × 1048 erg s-1.

  18. Formation of High-Redshift (z>6) Quasars Driven by Nuclear Starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakatu, Nozomu; Wada, Keiichi

    2009-11-01

    Based on the physical model of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth via gas accretion in a circumnuclear disk (CND) proposed by Kawakatu & Wada, we describe the formation of high-z (z>6) quasars (QSOs) whose BH masses are M BH>109 M sun. We derive the necessary conditions to form QSOs at z>6 by only gas accretion: (1) a large mass supply with M sup>1010 M sunfrom host galaxies to CNDs, because the final BH mass is only 1%-10% of the total supplied mass from QSO hosts. (2) High star formation efficiency for a rapid BH growth which is comparable to high-z starburst galaxies such as submillimeter galaxies. We also find that if the BH growth is limited by the Eddington accretion, the final BH mass is greatly suppressed when the period of mass supply from hosts, t sup, is shorter than the Eddington timescale. Thus, the super-Eddington growth is required for the QSO formation while t sup, which is determined by the efficiency of angular momentum transfer, is shorter than ~108 yr. The evolution of the QSO luminosity depends on the redshift z i at which accretion onto a seed BH is initiated. In other words, the brighter QSOs at z>6 favor the late growth of SMBHs (i.e., z i ≈ 10) rather than early growth (i.e., z i ≈ 30). For z i ≈ 10, t sup sime 108 yr is shorter than that of the star formation in the CND. Thus, the gas in the CND can accrete onto a BH more efficiently, compared with the case for z i ≈ 30 (or t sup ≈ 109 yr). Moreover, we predict the observable properties and the evolution of QSOs at z>6. In a QSO phase, there should exist a stellar rich massive CND, whose gas mass is about 10% of the dynamical mass inside ~0.1-1 kpc. On the other hand, in a phase where the BH grows (i.e., a proto-QSO phase), the proto-QSO has a gas-rich massive CND whose gas mass is comparable to the dynamical mass. Compared with the observed properties of the distant QSO SDSS J1148+5251 observed at z = 6.42, we predict that SDSS J1148+5251 corresponds to the scenario of the

  19. A Highly Doppler Blueshifted Fe-K Emission Line in the High-Redshift QSO PKS 2149-306.

    PubMed

    Yaqoob; George; Nandra; Turner; Zobair; Serlemitsos

    1999-11-01

    We report the results from an ASCA observation of the high-luminosity, radio-loud quasar PKS 2149-306 (redshift 2.345), covering the approximately 1.7-30 keV band in the quasar frame. We find the source to have a luminosity approximately 6x1047 ergs s-1 in the 2-10 keV band (quasar frame). We detect an emission line centered at approximately 17 keV in the quasar frame. Line emission at this energy has not been observed in any other active galaxy or quasar to date. We present evidence rejecting the possibility that this line is the result of instrumental artifacts or a serendipitous source. The most likely explanation is blueshifted Fe-K emission (the equivalent width is EW approximately 300+/-200 eV, quasar frame). Bulk velocities of the order of 0.75c are implied by the data. We show that Fe-K line photons originating in an accretion disk and Compton scattering off a leptonic jet aligned along the disk axis can account for the emission line. Curiously, if the emission-line feature recently discovered in another quasar (PKS 0637-752, z=0.654) at 1.6 keV in the quasar frame is due to blueshifted O vii emission, the Doppler blueshifting factor in both quasars is similar ( approximately 2.7-2.8).

  20. Evolution of Interstellar Medium, Star Formation, and Accretion at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoville, N.; Lee, N.; Vanden Bout, P.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Sanders, D.; Darvish, B.; Bongiorno, A.; Casey, C. M.; Murchikova, L.; Koda, J.; Capak, P.; Vlahakis, Catherine; Ilbert, O.; Sheth, K.; Morokuma-Matsui, K.; Ivison, R. J.; Aussel, H.; Laigle, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Armus, L.; Pope, A.; Toft, S.; Masters, D.

    2017-03-01

    ALMA observations of the long wavelength dust continuum are used to estimate the interstellar medium (ISM) masses in a sample of 708 galaxies at z = 0.3 to 4.5 in the COSMOS field. The galaxy sample has known far-infrared luminosities and, hence, star formation rates (SFRs) and stellar masses ({M}* ) from the optical–infrared spectrum fitting. The galaxies sample SFRs from the main sequence (MS) to 50 times above the MS. The derived ISM masses are used to determine the dependence of gas mass on redshift, {M}* , and specific SFR (sSFR) relative to the MS. The ISM masses increase approximately with the 0.63 power of the rate of increase in SFRs with redshift and the 0.32 power of the sSFR/sSFRMS. The SF efficiencies also increase as the 0.36 power of the SFR redshift evolution and the 0.7 power of the elevation above the MS; thus the increased activities at early epochs are driven by both increased ISM masses and SF efficiency. Using the derived ISM mass function, we estimate the accretion rates of gas required to maintain continuity of the MS evolution (> 100 {M}ȯ yr‑1 at z > 2.5). Simple power-law dependencies are similarly derived for the gas accretion rates. We argue that the overall evolution of galaxies is driven by the rates of gas accretion. The cosmic evolution of total ISM mass is estimated and linked to the evolution of SF and active galactic nucleus activity at early epochs.

  1. Deep imaging of high redshift QSO fields below the Lyman limit. II - Number counts and colors of field galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steidel, Charles C.; Hamilton, Donald

    1993-01-01

    We present an analysis of the number counts and colors of faint galaxies to about 26.5 mag in the fields of two high Galactic latitude, very-high-redshift QSOs. We concentrate on the general properties of the field galaxies at faint magnitudes. In particular, we readdress the faint galaxy number counts and colors as a function of apparent magnitude and we reexamine the possible contribution of very-high-redshift galaxies to the faint samples. We find that the number counts to R = 26 are well fitted by the relation log N(m) = 0.31R + C. The G-band counts for the same galaxies are consistent with the same slope fainter than G about 23.5, but exhibit a much steeper slope at brighter magnitudes. At R = 25.5, the differential number counts have reached about 1.2 x 10 exp 5/sq deg; the same surface density of galaxies is reached at G = 26.5. We confirm the existence of a gradual 'blueing' trend of the field galaxies toward fainter apparent magnitude; however, the blueing trend appears to extend only as faint as G about 24, fainter than which both the (G-R) and (U sub n-G) colors appear to level off. The mean colors of faint galaxies are considerably redder than flat spectrum. There are essentially no objects to R = 26 which have spectral energy distributions which are bluer than flat spectrum. The potential contribution of very-high-redshift galaxies may have been underestimated in previous analyses; the current data are consistent with the same population of relatively luminous galaxies at z about 3 as exist at z about 0.7.

  2. Pressure distribution of the high-redshift cluster of galaxies CL J1226.9+3332 with NIKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, R.; Comis, B.; Macías-Pérez, J.-F.; Adane, A.; Ade, P.; André, P.; Beelen, A.; Belier, B.; Benoît, A.; Bideaud, A.; Billot, N.; Blanquer, G.; Bourrion, O.; Calvo, M.; Catalano, A.; Coiffard, G.; Cruciani, A.; D'Addabbo, A.; Désert, F.-X.; Doyle, S.; Goupy, J.; Kramer, C.; Leclercq, S.; Martino, J.; Mauskopf, P.; Mayet, F.; Monfardini, A.; Pajot, F.; Pascale, E.; Perotto, L.; Pointecouteau, E.; Ponthieu, N.; Revéret, V.; Ritacco, A.; Rodriguez, L.; Savini, G.; Schuster, K.; Sievers, A.; Tucker, C.; Zylka, R.

    2015-04-01

    The thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect is expected to provide a low scatter mass proxy for galaxy clusters since it is directly proportional to the cluster thermal energy. The tSZ observations have proven to be a powerful tool for detecting and studying them, but high angular resolution observations are now needed to push their investigation to a higher redshift. In this paper, we report high angular (<20 arcsec) resolution tSZ observations of the high-redshift cluster CL J1226.9+3332 (z = 0.89). It was imaged at 150 and 260 GHz using the NIKA camera at the IRAM 30-m telescope. The 150 GHz map shows that CL J1226.9+3332 is morphologically relaxed on large scales with evidence of a disturbed core, while the 260 GHz channel is used mostly to identify point source contamination. NIKA data are combined with those of Planck and X-ray from Chandra to infer the cluster's radial pressure, density, temperature, and entropy distributions. The total mass profile of the cluster is derived, and we find M500 = 5.96+1.02-0.79 × 1014M⊙ within the radius R500 = 930+50-43 kpc, at a 68% confidence level. (R500 is the radius within which the average density is 500 times the critical density at the cluster's redshift.) NIKA is the prototype camera of NIKA2, a KIDs (kinetic inductance detectors) based instrument to be installed at the end of 2015. This work is, therefore, part of a pilot study aiming at optimizing tSZ NIKA2 large programs. The FITS file of the published maps is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/576/A12

  3. Unveiling the nature of dark matter with high redshift 21 cm line experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Evoli, C.; Mesinger, A.; Ferrara, A. E-mail: andrei.mesinger@sns.it

    2014-11-01

    Observations of the redshifted 21 cm line from neutral hydrogen will open a new window on the early Universe. By influencing the thermal and ionization history of the intergalactic medium (IGM), annihilating dark matter (DM) can leave a detectable imprint in the 21 cm signal. Building on the publicly available 21cmFAST code, we compute the 21 cm signal for a 10 GeV WIMP DM candidate. The most pronounced role of DM annihilations is in heating the IGM earlier and more uniformly than astrophysical sources of X-rays. This leaves several unambiguous, qualitative signatures in the redshift evolution of the large-scale (k ≅ 0.1 Mpc{sup -1}) 21 cm power amplitude: (i) the local maximum (peak) associated with IGM heating can be lower than the other maxima; (ii) the heating peak can occur while the IGM is in emission against the cosmic microwave background (CMB); (iii) there can be a dramatic drop in power (a global minimum) corresponding to the epoch when the IGM temperature is comparable to the CMB temperature. These signatures are robust to astrophysical uncertainties, and will be easily detectable with second generation interferometers. We also briefly show that decaying warm dark matter has a negligible role in heating the IGM.

  4. Galaxies at redshifts 5 to 6 with systematically low dust content and high [C II] emission.

    PubMed

    Capak, P L; Carilli, C; Jones, G; Casey, C M; Riechers, D; Sheth, K; Carollo, C M; Ilbert, O; Karim, A; LeFevre, O; Lilly, S; Scoville, N; Smolcic, V; Yan, L

    2015-06-25

    The rest-frame ultraviolet properties of galaxies during the first three billion years of cosmic time (redshift z > 4) indicate a rapid evolution in the dust obscuration of such galaxies. This evolution implies a change in the average properties of the interstellar medium, but the measurements are systematically uncertain owing to untested assumptions and the inability to detect heavily obscured regions of the galaxies. Previous attempts to measure the interstellar medium directly in normal galaxies at these redshifts have failed for a number of reasons, with two notable exceptions. Here we report measurements of the forbidden C ii emission (that is, [C II]) from gas, and the far-infrared emission from dust, in nine typical star-forming galaxies about one billion years after the Big Bang (z ≈ 5-6). We find that these galaxies have thermal emission that is less than 1/12 that of similar systems about two billion years later, and enhanced [C II] emission relative to the far-infrared continuum, confirming a strong evolution in the properties of the interstellar medium in the early Universe. The gas is distributed over scales of one to eight kiloparsecs, and shows diverse dynamics within the sample. These results are consistent with early galaxies having significantly less dust than typical galaxies seen at z < 3 and being comparable in dust content to local low-metallicity systems.

  5. The Distribution of Metals in the High Redshift Circumgalactic Medium Around Milky Way Progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Vliet, Jacob; Churchill, C. W.; Klimek, E. S.; Trujillo, S.; Ceverino, D.; Klypin, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to understand the connection between star formation, feedback, and the circumgalactic medium (CGM), we examine mock quasar spectra through the CGM (within ~200 kpc) of simulated non-group Milky Way progenitors at redshifts 2.5 and 4. The galaxies were simulated in the cosmological setting using Eulerian Gasdynamics plus N-body Adaptive Refinement Tree (ART) code with a resolution of 35-70 pc with two different star formation rates. The first simulations use a Miller-Scalo IMF and did not account for radiation pressure. The second simulations use a Chabrier IMF with a star formation efficiency one third of the first simulations, as well as description of radiation pressure. We measure the absorption lines of several ions including CIV, OVI, SiIV, and Ly beta and compare the covering fraction, equivalent width distribution and the velocity distribution at both redshifts and both star formation recipes. We also compare these to the observational results of the Keck-Baryon Structure Survey (Steidel et al., 2010) for z=2-3 star-forming galaxies.

  6. PROBING HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXY FORMATION AT THE HIGHEST LUMINOSITIES: NEW INSIGHTS FROM DEIMOS SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Dey, Arjun; Cooper, Michael C.; Reddy, Naveen; Jannuzi, Buell T.

    2013-07-01

    We present Keck DEIMOS spectroscopic observations of the most UV-luminous star-forming galaxies at redshifts 3.2 < z < 4.6. Our sample, selected in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey, contains galaxies with luminosities of L* {approx}< L{sub UV} {approx}< 7 L* and is one of the largest samples to date of the most UV-luminous galaxies at these redshifts. Our spectroscopic data confirm 41 candidates as star-forming galaxies at 3.2 < z < 4.6 and validate the relatively clean selection of the photometric candidates with a contamination rate of 11%-28%. We find that the fraction of Ly{alpha} emitting galaxies increases with decreasing UV luminosity. None of the 12 galaxies with M{sub UV} < -22 (i.e., L{sub UV} > 3 L*) exhibit strong Ly{alpha} emission. We find strong evidence of large-scale outflows, transporting the neutral/ionized gas in the interstellar medium away from the galaxy. Galaxies exhibiting both interstellar absorption and Ly{alpha} emission lines show a significant offset between the two features, with a relative velocity of 200-1150 km s{sup -1}. We find tentative evidence that this measure of the outflow velocity increases with UV luminosity and/or stellar mass. The luminosity- and mass-dependent outflow strengths suggest that the efficiency of feedback and enrichment of the surrounding medium depend on these galaxy parameters. We also stack the individual spectra to construct composite spectra of the absorption-line-only and Ly{alpha}-emitting subsets of the UV luminous galaxies at z {approx_equal} 3.7. The composite spectra are very similar to those of lower-redshift and lower-luminosity Lyman break galaxy (LBG) samples, but with some subtle differences. Analyses of the composite spectra suggest that the UV luminous LBGs at z {approx_equal} 3.7 may have a higher covering fraction of absorbing gas, and may be older (or have had more prolonged star formation histories) than their lower-redshift and lower-luminosity counterparts. In

  7. Investigating the Gas Kinematics of High-Redshift Active Galactic Nuclei with Double-Peaked Narrow Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Robert S.; Stern, D.; Lacy, C. H. S.; Kennefick, J.; Kennefick, D.; Seigar, M.

    2012-05-01

    Pairs of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are a natural consequence of galaxy mergers, and these systems are observable when both SMBHs are accreting as active galactic nuclei (AGN). Observational evidence for these AGN pairs (dual AGN) has dramatically increased recently through a combination of spectroscopic selection of candidates from double-peaked optical emission lines and follow-up morphological data. The primary motivation for compiling a sample of dual AGN is for their use in tracing galaxy mergers and in constraining the link between galaxy mergers and AGN enhancement. Therefore, this phenomenon should be investigated at higher redshifts when galaxy mergers were more frequent. Motivated by our detailed analysis of a candidate dual AGN at a relatively high redshift (z=1.175), we have compiled a sample of analogous sources at z>0.80 identified from double-peaked UV emission lines in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The double-peaked profile can be mimicked by gas-kinematics around a single AGN, including large-scale outflows, which are known to affect the velocity profiles of high-ionization UV emission lines. Through emission line diagnostics, we have taken advantage of access to rest-frame UV emission lines in SDSS quasar spectra, allowing us to investigate the kinematics of the ionized gas. In particular, for each of these sources we have put constraints on the likelihood of a correlation between peak velocity-offset and ionization potential. Such tests will aid in determining which double-peaked emission line sources are most likely the result of an outflow and which are strong dual AGN candidates. This study will both increase the sample size of candidate dual AGN for follow-up observations and extend the sample to higher redshifts.

  8. Building a better understanding of the massive high-redshift BOSS CMASS galaxies as tools for cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favole, Ginevra; McBride, Cameron K.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Prada, Francisco; Swanson, Molly E.; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-10-01

    We explore the massive bluer star-forming population of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) III/BOSS CMASS DR11 galaxies at z > 0.55 to quantify their differences, in terms of redshift-space distortions and large-scale bias, with respect to the luminous red galaxy sample. We perform a qualitative analysis to understand the significance of these differences and whether we can model and reproduce them in mock catalogues. Specifically, we measure galaxy clustering in CMASS on small and intermediate scales (0.1 ≲ r ≲ 50 h-1 Mpc) by computing the two-point correlation function - both projected and redshift-space - of these galaxies, and a new statistic, Σ(π), able to separate the coherent and dispersed redshift-space distortion contributions and the large-scale bias. We interpret our clustering measurements by adopting a Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) scheme that maps them on to high-resolution N-body cosmological simulations to produce suitable mock galaxy catalogues. The traditional HOD prescription can be applied to the red and the blue samples, independently, but this approach is unphysical since it allows the same mock galaxies to be either red or blue. To overcome this ambiguity, we modify the standard formulation and infer the red and the blue models by splitting the full mock catalogue into two complementary and non-overlapping submocks. This separation is performed by constraining the HOD with the observed CMASS red and blue galaxy fractions and produces reliable and accurate models.

  9. A cooling flow in a high-redshift, X-ray-selected cluster of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Nesci, R.; Perola, G.C.; Gioia, I.M.; Maccacaro, T.; Morris, S.L.; Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA; CNR, Istituto di Radioastronomia, Bologna; Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories, Pasadena, CA )

    1989-09-01

    The X-ray cluster of galaxies IE 0839.9 + 2938 was serendipitously discovered with the Einstein Observatory. CCD imaging at R and V wavelengths show that the color of the dominant elliptical galaxy of this cluster is significantly bluer than the colors of the next brightest cluster galaxies. Strong emission lines, typical of cD galaxies with cooling flows, are present in the spectrum of the dominant galaxy, from which a redshift of 0.193 is derived. The emitting line region is spatially resolved with an extension of about 13 kpc. All the collected data suggest that this cluster is one of the most distant cooling flow clusters known to date. 28 refs.

  10. Star formation trends in high-redshift galaxy surveys: the elephant or the tail?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringer, Martin; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.; Stark, Daniel P.

    2011-07-01

    Star formation rate and accumulated stellar mass are two fundamental physical quantities that describe the evolutionary state of a forming galaxy. Two recent attempts to determine the relationship between these quantities, by interpreting a sample of star-forming galaxies at redshift of z˜ 4, have led to opposite conclusions. Using a model galaxy population, we investigate possible causes for this discrepancy and conclude that minor errors in the conversion from observables to physical quantities can lead to a major misrepresentation when applied without awareness of sample selection. We also investigate, in a general way, the physical origin of the correlation between star formation rate and stellar mass within the hierarchical galaxy formation theory.

  11. Probing the High-Redshift Universe Using Fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave and Infrared Backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smidt, Joseph Michael

    Background (CIB) continues to be one of the best probes of physics at the early stages of the universe. If the CMB were a purely Gaussian field, all statistical information would be contained in the power spectrum or two-point correlation function. However, non-Gaussianities ensure that new physics may be extracted from higher n-point correlation functions including the bispectrum and trispectrum of the CMB. In this thesis discuss new estimators we have formulated to probe primordial non-Gaussianity in the bispectrum and trispectrum of CMB data and the constraints we have made using WMAP data while discussing implications for inflationary models. I discuss how these same methods may be used to probe CMB Lensing. Finally, I discuss how upcoming measurements of near and far-infrared CIB fluctuations may be used to constrain the redshift of reionization and clustering of various populations of galaxies. Some preliminary results involving CANDELS, Spitzer SDWFS, CIBER and Herschel datasets is presented.

  12. The mass-metallicity relation of absorption selected high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Lise; Møller, P.; Rhodin, Henrik; Krogager, Jens-Kristian; Fynbo, Johan P. U.

    2017-03-01

    Strong absorption lines in quasar spectra primarily probe low-mass galaxies and detecting these in emission has previously been difficult. Dedicated surveys for the host galaxies of damped Lyman-α (DLA) systems have often resulted in non-detections and upper limits. Targeting the most metal-rich absorbers has proven to be a viable method, because these galaxies are brighter. By combining DLA metallicities and deriving host galaxy stellar masses, we find that metal-rich DLAs (with >10% solar metallicity) and their host galaxies follow the same redshift-dependent scaling relation between stellar mass and metallicity as luminosity-selected galaxies. We derive a prediction for an absorber galaxy mass that depends on the DLA metallicity.

  13. PKS 2123-463: A Confirmed Gamma-ray Blazar at High Redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DAmmando, F.; Rau, A.; Schady, P.; Finke, J.; Orienti, M.; Greiner, J.; Kann, D. A.; Ojha, R.; Foley, A. R.; Stevens, J.; Blanchard, J. M.; Edwards, P. G.; Kadler, M.; Lovell, J. E. J.

    2012-01-01

    The flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) PKS 2123-463 was associated in the First Fermi-LAT source catalog with the gamma-ray source 1FGL J2126.1-4603, but when considering the full first two years of Fermi observations, no gamma-ray source at a position consistent with this FSRQ was detected, and thus PKS 2123-463 was not reported in the Second Fermi-LAT source catalog. On 2011 December 14 a gamma-ray source positionally consistent with PKS 2123-463 was detected in flaring activity by Fermi-LAT. This activity triggered radio-to-X-ray observations by the Swift, GROND, ATCA, Ceduna, and KAT-7 observatories. Results of the localization of the gamma-ray source over 41 months of Fermi-LAT operation are reported here in conjunction with the results of the analysis of radio, optical, UV and X-ray data collected soon after the gamma-ray flare. The strict spatial association with the lower energy counterpart together with a simultaneous increase of the activity in optical, UV, X-ray and gamma-ray bands led to a firm identification of the gamma-ray source with PKS 2123-463. A new photometric redshift has been estimated as z = 1.46 +/- 0.05 using GROND and Swift/UVOT observations, in rough agreement with the disputed spectroscopic redshift of z = 1.67. We fit the broadband spectral energy distribution with a synchrotron/external Compton model. We find that a thermal disk component is necessary to explain the optical/UV emis- sion detected by Swift/UVOT. This disk has a luminosity of 1.8x1046 erg s-1, and a fit to the disk emission assuming a Schwarzschild (i.e., nonrotating) black hole gives a mass of 2 x 109 M(solar mass). This is the first black hole mass estimate for this source.

  14. Cosmic Evolution of Accretion Power and Fusion Power: AGN and Starbursts at High Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold Malkan, Matthew

    2009-05-01

    Extragalactic astronomers have been working for decades on obtaining robust measures of the luminosities galaxies produce from stars, and from active galactic nuclei. Our ultimate goal is deriving the cosmic evolution of all radiation produced by fusion and by black hole accretion. The combined effects of dust reddening and redshift make it impossible to achieve this with optical observations alone. Fortunately, infrared thermal continuum and forbidden line emission--from warm dust grains and ionized gas, respectively--can now be measured with excellent sensitivity. However, when measuring entire galaxies, these dust and gas emissions are powered by both active galactic nuclei and starbursts, which may be hard to separate spatially. We must use the fact that the patterns of IR energy output from AGN and SBs differ, with AGN making more ionized gas and hotter dust grains. Low-resolution spectroscopy, or even narrow-band filters can sort out the line emission from both processes when they are mixed in the same galaxy. The hope is that these spectroscopic determinations of star formation rate, and mass accretion rate in relatively small samples of bright galaxies will allow a calibration of broadband continuum measures. The dust continuum emission will then be measured in enormous samples of galaxies spanning their full range of masses, metallicities, environments and redshifts. Along the way, we should learn the astrophysical basis of black hole/galaxy "co-evolution." I will summarize some of the first specific infrared steps of this ambitious agenda, taken with IRAS and ISO to 2MASS, Akari and Spitzer and other telescopes. Time permitting, some of the exciting upcoming observational prospects will be advertised.

  15. PROSPECTS FOR MEASURING THE MASS OF BLACK HOLES AT HIGH REDSHIFTS WITH RESOLVED KINEMATICS USING GRAVITATIONAL LENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Hezaveh, Yashar D.

    2014-08-20

    Application of the most robust method of measuring black hole masses, spatially resolved kinematics of gas and stars, is presently limited to nearby galaxies. The Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) and 30m class telescopes (the Thirty Meter Telescope, the Giant Magellan Telescope, and the European Extremely Large Telescope) with milli-arcsecond resolution are expected to extend such measurements to larger distances. Here, we study the possibility of exploiting the angular magnification provided by strong gravitational lensing to measure black hole masses at high redshifts (z ∼ 1-6), using resolved gas kinematics with these instruments. We show that in ∼15% and ∼20% of strongly lensed galaxies, the inner 25 and 50 pc could be resolved, allowing the mass of ≳ 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} black holes to be dynamically measured with ALMA, if moderately bright molecular gas is present at these small radii. Given the large number of strong lenses discovered in current millimeter surveys and future optical surveys, this fraction could constitute a statistically significant population for studying the evolution of the M-σ relation at high redshifts.

  16. NOMADS : Physical Origins And Conditions Of Line-emitting Gas From High-redshift (1 < z < 3) Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Shelley; Ma, C.; Larkin, J.; Graham, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present results from NOMADS (Near-infrared OSIRIS Metallicity, AGN, and Dynamics Survey) of spatially resolved rest-frame optical emission lines (e.g., Hβ, [O III], Hα, and [N II]) for nine star forming galaxies at a redshift range of 1 < z < 3. These results are part of an on-going survey to study the chemical abundances, dynamics, and role of weak active galactic nuclei (AGN) in galaxies that have been used previously in metallicity studies at high-redshift. Using 0.1" spatial scale with the integral field spectrograph OSIRIS coupled to the Keck Adaptive Optics system we can identify, localize, and quantify any contribution from AGN activity in these measurements and map two-dimensional chemical abundances on sub-kiloparsec scales. We present metallicity gradients and kinematics for several high-z galaxies and place constraints on the formation mechanisms of these young, star forming galaxies. In addition, we find that a few of these systems do harbor weak non-thermal activity and we will discuss the role of AGN in galaxy formation. We acknowledge funding support from NASA STScI HF-51265.01.

  17. Constraints on cold dark matter theories from observations of massive x-ray-luminous clusters of galaxies at high redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luppino, G. A.; Gioia, I. M.

    1995-01-01

    During the course of a gravitational lensing survey of distant, X-ray selected Einstein Observatory Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS) clusters of galaxies, we have studied six X-ray-luminous (L(sub x) greater than 5 x 10(exp 44)(h(sub 50)(exp -2))ergs/sec) clusters at redshifts exceeding z = 0.5. All of these clusters are apparently massive. In addition to their high X-ray luminosity, two of the clusters at z approximately 0.6 exhibit gravitationally lensed arcs. Furthermore, the highest redshift cluster in our sample, MS 1054-0321 at z = 0.826, is both extremely X-ray luminous (L(sub 0.3-3.5keV)=9.3 x 10(exp 44)(h(sub 50)(exp -2))ergs/sec) and exceedingly rich with an optical richness comparable to an Abell Richness Class 4 cluster. In this Letter, we discuss the cosmological implications of the very existence of these clusters for hierarchical structure formation theories such as standard Omega = 1 CDM (cold dark matter), hybrid Omega = 1 C + HDM (hot dark matter), and flat, low-density Lambda + CDM models.

  18. Simulated observations of high-redshift galaxies with the HARMONI spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrew, Sarah; Zieleniewski, Simon; Houghton, Ryan C. W.; Thatte, Niranjan; Devriendt, Julien; Tecza, Matthias; Clarke, Fraser; O'Brien, Kieran; Häußler, Boris

    2016-08-01

    We show the results of a study into the performance of the E-ELT integral field spectrograph HARMONI for observations of galaxies at 2 < z < 4. Using the instrument simulation pipeline HSIM, we performed mock observations of galaxies in this redshift range using two different methods: (i) passive galaxies modeled with simple analytical spatial profiles and star formation histories; and (ii) a single z = 3 galaxy extracted from a high-resolution cosmological simulation, with a more complex and physically representative morphology and star formation history. We describe the software tools developed to convert the simulation data into a spectral cube containing the spatial and spectral properties of the galaxy's light. From the mock observations we estimate how well the intrinsic properties of the galaxy can be recovered using commonly used analysis tools. The HSIM pipeline also allows us to study observational biases and their likely impact on the data. We discuss the implications of the project for the future science with HARMONI in the critical redshift regime for mass assembly in galaxies.

  19. Observations of High-Redshift X-Ray Selected Clusters with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muchovej, Stephen; Carlstrom, John E.; Cartwright, John; Greer, Christopher; Hawkins, David; Hennessey, Ryan; Joy, Marshall; Lamb, James; Leitch, Erik M.; Loh, Michael; Miller, Amber D.; Mroczkowski, Tony; Pryke, Clem; Reddall, Ben; Runyan, Marcus; Sharp, Matthew; Woody, David

    2006-01-01

    We report measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in three high redshift (0.89 less than or equal to z less than or equal to 1.03), X-ray selected galaxy clusters. The observations were obtained at 30 GHz during the commissioning period of a new, eight-element interferometer - the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array (SZA) - built for dedicated SZ effect observations. The SZA observations are sensitive to angular scales larger than those subtended by the virial radii of the clusters. Assuming isothermality and hydrostatic equilibrium for the intracluster medium, and gas-mass fractions consistent with those for clusters at moderate redshift, we calculate electron temperatures, gas masses, and total cluster masses from the SZ data. The SZ-derived masses, integrated approximately to the virial radii, are 1.9 (sup +0.5)(sub -0.4) x 10(exp 14) solar mass for Cl J1415.1+3612, 3.4 (sup +0.6)(sub -0.5) x 10(exp 14) solar mass for Cl J1429.0+4241 and 7.2 (sup +1.3)(sub -0.9) x 10(exp 14) solar mass for Cl J1226.9+3332. The SZ-derived quantities are in good agreement with the cluster properties derived from X-ray measurements.

  20. A physical model for the evolving ultraviolet luminosity function of high redshift galaxies and their contribution to the cosmic reionization

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Zhen-Yi; Lapi, Andrea; Bressan, Alessandro; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Danese, Luigi; Negrello, Mattia

    2014-04-10

    We present a physical model for the evolution of the ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function of high-redshift galaxies, taking into account in a self-consistent way their chemical evolution and the associated evolution of dust extinction. Dust extinction is found to increase fast with halo mass. A strong correlation between dust attenuation and halo/stellar mass for UV selected high-z galaxies is thus predicted. The model yields good fits of the UV and Lyman-α (Lyα) line luminosity functions at all redshifts at which they have been measured. The weak observed evolution of both luminosity functions between z = 2 and z = 6 is explained as the combined effect of the negative evolution of the halo mass function; of the increase with redshift of the star formation efficiency due to the faster gas cooling; and of dust extinction, differential with halo mass. The slope of the faint end of the UV luminosity function is found to steepen with increasing redshift, implying that low luminosity galaxies increasingly dominate the contribution to the UV background at higher and higher redshifts. The observed range of the UV luminosities at high z implies a minimum halo mass capable of hosting active star formation M {sub crit} ≲ 10{sup 9.8} M {sub ☉}, which is consistent with the constraints from hydrodynamical simulations. From fits of Lyα line luminosity functions, plus data on the luminosity dependence of extinction, and from the measured ratios of non-ionizing UV to Lyman-continuum flux density for samples of z ≅ 3 Lyman break galaxies and Lyα emitters, we derive a simple relationship between the escape fraction of ionizing photons and the star formation rate. It implies that the escape fraction is larger for low-mass galaxies, which are almost dust-free and have lower gas column densities. Galaxies already represented in the UV luminosity function (M {sub UV} ≲ –18) can keep the universe fully ionized up to z ≅ 6. This is consistent with (uncertain) data

  1. A Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope search for associated H I 21 cm absorption in high-redshift flat-spectrum sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aditya, J. N. H. S.; Kanekar, Nissim; Kurapati, Sushma

    2016-02-01

    We report results from a Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope search for `associated' redshifted H I 21 cm absorption from 24 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), at 1.1 < z < 3.6, selected from the Caltech-Jodrell Bank Flat-spectrum (CJF) sample. 22 out of 23 sources with usable data showed no evidence of absorption, with typical 3σ optical depth detection limits of ≈0.01 at a velocity resolution of ≈30 km s-1. A single tentative absorption detection was obtained at z ≈ 3.530 towards TXS 0604+728. If confirmed, this would be the highest redshift at which H I 21 cm absorption has ever been detected. Including 29 CJF sources with searches for redshifted H I 21 cm absorption in the literature, mostly at z < 1, we construct a sample of 52 uniformly selected flat-spectrum sources. A Peto-Prentice two-sample test for censored data finds (at ≈3σ significance) that the strength of H I 21 cm absorption is weaker in the high-z sample than in the low-z sample; this is the first statistically significant evidence for redshift evolution in the strength of H I 21 cm absorption in a uniformly selected AGN sample. However, the two-sample test also finds that the H I 21 cm absorption strength is higher in AGNs with low ultraviolet or radio luminosities, at ≈3.4σ significance. The fact that the higher luminosity AGNs of the sample typically lie at high redshifts implies that it is currently not possible to break the degeneracy between AGN luminosity and redshift evolution as the primary cause of the low H I 21 cm opacities in high-redshift, high-luminosity AGNs.

  2. PKS 2123-463: A Confirmed Gamma-ray Blazar at High Redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Ammando, F.; Rau, A.; Schady, P.; Finke, J.; Orienti, M.; Greiner, J.; Kann, D. A.; Ojha, R.; Foley, A. R.; Stevens, J.; Blanchard, J. M.; Edwards, P. G.; Kadler, M.; Lovell, J. E.

    2013-01-01

    The flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) PKS 2123-463 was associated in the first Fermi- Large Area Telescope (LAT) source catalogue with the gamma-ray source 1FGL J2126.1-4603, but when considering the full first two years of Fermi observations, no gamma-ray source at a position consistent with this FSRQ was detected, and thus PKS 2123-463 was not reported in the second Fermi-LAT source catalogue. On 2011 December 14 a gamma-ray source positionally consistent with PKS 2123-463 was detected in flaring activity by Fermi-LAT. This activity triggered radio-to-X-ray observations by the Swift,Gamma-ray Optical/Near-Infrared Detector (GROND), Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), Ceduna and Seven Dishes Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7) observatories. Results of the localization of the gamma-ray source over 41 months of Fermi-LAT operation are reported here in conjunction with the results of the analysis of radio, optical, ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray data collected soon after the gamma-ray flare. The strict spatial association with the lower energy counterpart together with a simultaneous increase of the activity in optical, UV, X-ray and gamma-ray bands led to a firm identification of the gamma-ray source with PKS 2123-463. A new photometric redshift has been estimated as z = 1.46 plus or minus 0.05 using GROND and Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) observations, in rough agreement with the disputed spectroscopic redshift of z = 1.67.We fit the broad-band spectral energy distribution with a synchrotron/external Compton model. We find that a thermal disc component is necessary to explain the optical/UV emission detected by Swift/UVOT. This disc has a luminosity of approximately 1.8 x 10(exp 46) erg s(exp -1), and a fit to the disc emission assuming a Schwarzschild (i.e. non-rotating) black hole gives a mass of approximately 2 x 10(exp 9) solar mass. This is the first black hole mass estimate for this source.

  3. Comparing Local Starbursts to High-Redshift Galaxies: A Search for Lyman-Break Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petty, Sara M.; de Mello, Duila F.; Gallagher III, John S.; Gardner, Jonathan; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Mountain, C. Matt; Smith, Linda J.

    2008-01-01

    We compare the restframe far-ultraviolet (FUV) morphologies of 8 nearby interacting and starburst galaxies (Arp 269, M 82, Mrk 08, NGC 0520, NGC 1068, NGC 3079, NGC 3310, NGC 7673) with 54 galaxies at z approx.1.5 and 46 galaxies at z approx.4 in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) images taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. We calculate the Gini coefficient (G), the second order moment of 20% of the brightest pixels (M20), and the S ersic index (n). We find that 20% (11/54) of z approx.1.5 and 37% (17/46) of z approx.4 galaxies are bulge-like, using G and M20. We also find approx.70% of the z approx.1.5 and z approx.4 galaxies have exponential disks with n > 0.8. The 2D profile combined with the nonparametric methods provides more detail, concerning the nature of disturbed systems, such as merger and post-merger types. We also provide qualitative descriptions of each galaxy system and at each redshift. We conclude that Mrk 08, NGC 3079, and NGC 7673 have similar morphologies as the starburst FUV restframe galaxies and Lyman-break galaxies at z approx.1.5 and 4, and determine that they are Lyman-break analogs.

  4. INTERPRETING THE GLOBAL 21 cm SIGNAL FROM HIGH REDSHIFTS. I. MODEL-INDEPENDENT CONSTRAINTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mirocha, Jordan; Harker, Geraint J. A.; Burns, Jack O.

    2013-11-10

    The sky-averaged (global) 21 cm signal is a powerful probe of the intergalactic medium (IGM) prior to the completion of reionization. However, so far it has been unclear whether it will provide more than crude estimates of when the universe's first stars and black holes formed, even in the best case scenario in which the signal is accurately extracted from the foregrounds. In contrast to previous work, which has focused on predicting the 21 cm signatures of the first luminous objects, we investigate an arbitrary realization of the signal and attempt to translate its features to the physical properties of the IGM. Within a simplified global framework, the 21 cm signal yields quantitative constraints on the Lyα background intensity, net heat deposition, ionized fraction, and their time derivatives without invoking models for the astrophysical sources themselves. The 21 cm absorption signal is most easily interpreted, setting strong limits on the heating rate density of the universe with a measurement of its redshift alone, independent of the ionization history or details of the Lyα background evolution. In a companion paper, we extend these results, focusing on the confidence with which one can infer source emissivities from IGM properties.

  5. How robust are the size measurements of high-redshift compact galaxies?

    SciTech Connect

    Davari, Roozbeh; Ho, Luis C.; Peng, Chien Y.; Huang, Song

    2014-05-20

    Massive quiescent galaxies at z ≈ 2 are apparently much more compact than galaxies of comparable mass today. How robust are these size measurements? We perform comprehensive simulations to determine possible biases and uncertainties in fitting single-component light distributions to real galaxies. In particular, we examine the robustness of the measurements of the luminosity, size, and other structural parameters. We devise simulations with increasing realism to systematically disentangle effects due to the technique (specifically using GALFIT) and the intrinsic structures of the galaxies. By accurately capturing the detailed substructures of nearby elliptical galaxies and then rescaling their sizes and signal-to-noise to mimic galaxies at different redshifts, we confirm that the massive quiescent galaxies at z ≈ 2 are significantly more compact intrinsically than their local counterparts. Their observed compactness is not a result of missing faint outer light due to systematic errors in modeling. In fact, we find that fitting multi-component galaxies with a single Sérsic profile, the procedure most commonly adopted in the literature, biases the inferred sizes higher by up to 10%-20%, which accentuates the amount of size evolution required. If the sky estimation has been done robustly and the model for the point-spread function is fairly accurate, GALFIT can retrieve the properties of single-component galaxies over a wide range of signal-to-noise ratios without introducing any systematic errors.

  6. Dust Attenuation in UV-selected Starbursts at High Redshift and Their Local Counterparts: Implications for the Cosmic Star Formation Rate Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overzier, Roderik A.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Wang, Jing; Armus, Lee; Buat, Veronique; Howell, Justin; Meurer, Gerhardt; Seibert, Mark; Siana, Brian; Basu-Zych, Antara; Charlot, Stéphane; Gonçalves, Thiago S.; Martin, D. Christopher; Neill, James D.; Rich, R. Michael; Salim, Samir; Schiminovich, David

    2011-01-01

    We present a new analysis of the dust obscuration in starburst galaxies at low and high redshifts. This study is motivated by our unique sample of the most extreme UV-selected starburst galaxies in the nearby universe (z < 0.3), found to be good analogs of high-redshift Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) in most of their physical properties. We find that the dust properties of the Lyman break analogs (LBAs) are consistent with the relation derived previously by Meurer et al. (M99) that is commonly used to dust-correct star formation rate (SFR) measurements at a very wide range of redshifts. We directly compare our results with high-redshift samples (LBGs, "BzK," and submillimeter galaxies at z ~ 2-3) having IR data either from Spitzer or Herschel. The attenuation in typical LBGs at z ~ 2-3 and LBAs is very similar. Because LBAs are much better analogs to LBGs compared to previous local star-forming samples, including M99, the practice of dust-correcting the SFRs of high-redshift galaxies based on the local calibration is now placed on a much more solid ground. We illustrate the importance of this result by showing how the locally calibrated relation between UV measurements and extinction is used to estimate the integrated, dust-corrected SFR density at z ~= 2-6.

  7. Supermassive black hole formation at high redshifts via direct collapse in a cosmological context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jun-Hwan; Shlosman, Isaac; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2015-07-01

    We study the early stage of the formation of seed supermassive black holes via direct collapse in dark matter (DM) haloes, in the cosmological context. We perform high-resolution zoom-in simulations of such collapse at high z. Using the adaptive mesh refinement code ENZO, we resolve the formation and growth of a DM halo, until its virial temperature reaches ˜104 K, atomic cooling turns on, and collapse ensues. We demonstrate that direct collapse proceeds in two stages, although they are not well separated. The first stage is triggered by the onset of atomic cooling, and leads to rapidly increasing accretion rate with radius, from dot{M}˜ 0.1 M_{⊙} yr^{-1} at the halo virial radius to few M⊙ yr-1, around the scale radius Rs ˜ 30 pc of the NFW DM density profile. The second stage of the collapse commences when the gas density takes precedence over the DM density. This is associated with the gas decoupling from the DM gravitational potential. The ensuing collapse approximates that of an isothermal sphere with dot{M}{(r)}˜ const. We confirm that the gas loses its angular momentum through non-axisymmetric perturbations and gravitational torques, to overcome the centrifugal barrier. During the course of the collapse, this angular momentum transfer process happens on nearly all spatial scales, and the angular momentum vector of the gas varies with position and time. Collapsing gas also exhibits supersonic turbulent motions which suppress gas fragmentation, and are characterized by density PDF consisting of a lognormal part and a high-density power-law tail.

  8. UNDERSTANDING PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES THROUGH C I FINE STRUCTURE LINES: DATA AND METHODOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson, Regina A.; Wolfe, Arthur M.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2010-10-10

    We probe the physical conditions in high-redshift galaxies, specifically, the damped Ly{alpha} systems (DLAs) using neutral carbon (C I) fine structure lines and molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}). We report five new detections of C I and analyze the C I in an additional two DLAs with previously published data. We also present one new detection of H{sub 2} in a DLA. We present a new method of analysis that simultaneously constrains both the volume density and the temperature of the gas, as opposed to previous studies that a priori assumed a gas temperature. We use only the column density of C I measured in the fine structure states and the assumption of ionization equilibrium in order to constrain the physical conditions in the gas. We present a sample of 11 C I velocity components in six DLAs and compare their properties to those derived by the global C II* technique. The resulting median values for this sample are (n(H I)) = 69 cm{sup -3}, (T) = 50 K, and (log(P/k)) = 3.86 cm{sup -3} K, with standard deviations, {sigma}{sub n(H{sub i})} = 134 cm{sup -3}, {sigma}{sub T} = 52 K, and {sigma}{sub log(P/k)} = 3.68 cm{sup -3} K. This can be compared with the integrated median values for the same DLAs: (n(H I)) = 2.8 cm{sup -3}, (T) = 139 K, and (log(P/k)) = 2.57 cm{sup -3} K, with standard deviations {sigma}{sub n(H{sub i})} = 3.0 cm{sup -3}, {sigma}{sub T} = 43 K, and {sigma}{sub log(P/k)} = 0.22 cm{sup -3} K. Interestingly, the pressures measured in these high-redshift C I clouds are similar to those found in the Milky Way. We conclude that the C I gas is tracing a higher-density, higher-pressure region, possibly indicative of post-shock gas or a photodissociation region on the edge of a molecular cloud. We speculate that these clouds may be direct probes of the precursor sites of star formation in normal galaxies at high redshift.

  9. Fluctuations in the high-redshift Lyman-Werner background: close halo pairs as the origin of supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, Mark; Haiman, Zoltán; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2008-12-01

    The earliest generation of stars and black holes must have established an early `Lyman-Werner' background (LWB) at high redshift, prior to the epoch of reionization. Because of the long mean free path of photons with energies hν < 13.6eV, the LWB was nearly uniform. However, some variation in the LWB is expected due to the discrete nature of the sources, and their highly clustered spatial distribution. In this paper, we compute the probability distribution function (PDF) of the LW flux that irradiates dark matter (DM) haloes collapsing at high redshift (z ~ 10). Our model accounts for (i) the clustering of DM haloes, (ii) Poisson fluctuations in the number of corresponding star-forming galaxies and (iii) scatter in the LW luminosity produced by haloes of a given mass (calibrated using local observations). We find that >99 per cent of the DM haloes are illuminated by an LW flux within a factor of 2 of the global mean value. However, a small fraction, ~10-8 to 10-6, of DM haloes with virial temperatures Tvir >~ 104 K have a close luminous neighbour within <~10 kpc, and are exposed to an LW flux exceeding the global mean by a factor of >20, or to J21,LW > 103 (in units of 10-21 erg s-1 Hz-1 sr-1 cm-2). This large LW flux can photodissociate H2 molecules in the gas collapsing due to atomic cooling in these haloes, and prevent its further cooling and fragmentation. Such close halo pairs therefore provide possible sites in which primordial gas clouds collapse directly into massive black holes (MBH ~ 104-6Msolar), and subsequently grow into supermassive (MBH >~ 109Msolar) black holes by z ~ 6.

  10. THERMAL AND RADIATIVE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK HAVE A LIMITED IMPACT ON STAR FORMATION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, Orianne; Juneau, Stéphanie; Bournaud, Frédéric; Gabor, Jared M.

    2015-02-10

    The effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on their host galaxies depend on the coupling between the injected energy and the interstellar medium (ISM). Here, we model and quantify the impact of long-range AGN ionizing radiation—in addition to the often considered small-scale energy deposition—on the physical state of the multi-phase ISM of the host galaxy and on its total star formation rate (SFR). We formulate an AGN spectral energy distribution matched with observations, which we use with the radiative transfer (RT) code Cloudy to compute AGN ionization in a simulated high-redshift disk galaxy. We use a high-resolution (∼6 pc) simulation including standard thermal AGN feedback and calculate RT in post-processing. Surprisingly, while these models produce significant AGN-driven outflows, we find that AGN ionizing radiation and heating reduce the SFR by a few percent at most for a quasar luminosity (L {sub bol} = 10{sup 46.5} erg s{sup –1}). Although the circumgalactic gaseous halo can be kept almost entirely ionized by the AGN, most star-forming clouds (n ≳ 10{sup 2} {sup –} {sup 3} cm{sup –3}) and even the reservoirs of cool atomic gas (n ∼ 0.3-10 cm{sup –3})—which are the sites of future star formation (SF; 100-200 Myr), are generally too dense to be significantly affected. Our analysis ignores any absorption from a putative torus, making our results upper limits on the effects of ionizing radiation. Therefore, while the AGN-driven outflows can remove substantial amounts of gas in the long term, the impact of AGN feedback on the SF efficiency in the interstellar gas in high-redshift galaxies is marginal, even when long-range radiative effects are accounted for.

  11. How AGN and SN Feedback Affect Mass Transport and Black Hole Growth in High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Joaquin; Escala, Andrés; Volonteri, Marta; Dubois, Yohan

    2017-02-01

    Using cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, we study the effect of supernova (SN) and active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback on the mass transport (MT) of gas onto galactic nuclei and the black hole (BH) growth down to redshift z∼ 6. We study the BH growth in relation to the MT processes associated with gravity and pressure torques and how they are modified by feedback. Cosmological gas funneled through cold flows reaches the galactic outer region close to freefall. Then torques associated with pressure triggered by gas turbulent motions produced in the circumgalactic medium by shocks and explosions from SNe are the main source of MT beyond the central ∼100 pc. Due to high concentrations of mass in the central galactic region, gravitational torques tend to be more important at high redshift. The combined effect of almost freefalling material and both gravity and pressure torques produces a mass accretion rate of order ∼ 1 {M}ȯ yr‑1 at approximately parsec scales. In the absence of SN feedback, AGN feedback alone does not affect significantly either star formation or BH growth until the BH reaches a sufficiently high mass of ∼ {10}6 {M}ȯ to self-regulate. SN feedback alone, instead, decreases both stellar and BH growth. Finally, SN and AGN feedback in tandem efficiently quench the BH growth, while star formation remains at the levels set by SN feedback alone, due to the small final BH mass, ∼few times {10}5 {M}ȯ . SNe create a more rarefied and hot environment where energy injection from the central AGN can accelerate the gas further.

  12. Physical conditions of the interstellar medium of high-redshift, strongly lensed submillimetre galaxies from the Herschel-ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtchanov, I.; Virdee, J.; Ivison, R. J.; Swinyard, B.; van der Werf, P.; Rigopoulou, D.; da Cunha, E.; Lupu, R.; Benford, D. J.; Riechers, D.; Smail, Ian; Jarvis, M.; Pearson, C.; Gomez, H.; Hopwood, R.; Altieri, B.; Birkinshaw, M.; Coia, D.; Conversi, L.; Cooray, A.; de Zotti, G.; Dunne, L.; Frayer, D.; Leeuw, L.; Marston, A.; Negrello, M.; Portal, M. Sanchez; Scott, D.; Thompson, M. A.; Vaccari, M.; Baes, M.; Clements, D.; Michałowski, M. J.; Dannerbauer, H.; Serjeant, S.; Auld, R.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Dariush, A.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Fritz, J.; Ibar, E.; Maddox, S.; Pascale, E.; Pohlen, M.; Rigby, E.; Rodighiero, G.; Smith, D. J. B.; Temi, P.; Carpenter, J.; Bolatto, A.; Gurwell, M.; Vieira, J. D.

    2011-08-01

    We present Herschel-Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and radio follow-up observations of two Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS)-detected strongly lensed distant galaxies. In one of the targeted galaxies H-ATLAS J090311.6+003906 (SDP.81), we detect [O III] 88 μm and [C II] 158 μm lines at a signal-to-noise ratio of ˜5. We do not have any positive line identification in the other fainter target H-ATLAS J091305.0-005343 (SDP.130). Currently, SDP.81 is the faintest submillimetre galaxy with positive line detections with the FTS, with continuum flux just below 200 mJy in the 200-600 μm wavelength range. The derived redshift of SDP.81 from the two detections is z = 3.043 ± 0.012, in agreement with ground-based CO measurements. This is the first detection by Herschel of the [O III] 88 μm line in a galaxy at redshift higher than 0.05. Comparing the observed lines and line ratios with a grid of photodissociation region (PDR) models with different physical conditions, we derive the PDR cloud density n ≈ 2000 cm-3 and the far-ultraviolet ionizing radiation field G0≈ 200 (in units of the Habing field - the local Galactic interstellar radiation field of 1.6 × 10-6 W m-2). Using the CO-derived molecular mass and the PDR properties, we estimate the effective radius of the emitting region to be 500-700 pc. These characteristics are typical for star-forming, high-redshift galaxies. The radio observations indicate that SDP.81 deviates significantly from the local far-infrared/radio (FIR/radio) correlation, which hints that some fraction of the radio emission is coming from an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The constraints on the source size from millimetre-wave observations put a very conservative upper limit of the possible AGN contribution to less than 33 per cent. These indications, together with the high [O III]/FIR ratio and the upper limit of [O I] 63 μm/[C II] 158 μm, suggest that

  13. The Red Sequence of High-Redshift Clusters: A Comparison with Cosmological Galaxy Formation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menci, N.; Rosati, P.; Gobat, R.; Strazzullo, V.; Rettura, A.; Mei, S.; Demarco, R.

    2008-10-01

    We compare the results from a state-of-the-art semianalytic model of galaxy formation with spectrophotometric observations of distant galaxy clusters observed in the range 0.8 <= z<= 1.3. We investigate the properties of their red sequence (RS) galaxies and compare them with those of the field at the same redshift. In our model we find that (1) a well-defined, narrow RS is obtained already by z ≈ 1.2; this is found to be more populated than the field RS, analogously to what is observed and predicted at z = 0; (2) the predicted U-V rest-frame colors and scatter of the cluster RS at z = 1.2 have average values of 1 and 0.15, respectively, with a cluster-to-cluster variance of ≈0.2 and ≈0.06, respectively. The scatter of the RS of cluster galaxies is ≈5 times smaller than the corresponding field value; (3) when the RS galaxies are considered, the mass growth histories of field and cluster galaxies at z ≈ 1.2 are similar, with 90% of the stellar mass of RS galaxies at z = 1.2 already formed at cosmic times t = 2.5 Gyr, and 50% at t = 1 Gyr; and (4) the predicted distribution of stellar ages of RS galaxies at z = 1.2 peaks at 3.7 Gyr for both cluster and field populations; however, for the latter the distribution is significantly skewed toward lower ages. When compared with observations, the above findings show an overall consistency, although the average value ΔU - V ≈ 0.07 of the observed cluster RS scatter at z ≈ 1.2 is smaller than the corresponding model central value. We discuss the physical origin and the significance of the above results in the framework of cosmological galaxy formation.

  14. Dark Matter annihilations in halos and high-redshift sources of reionization of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Vivian; Serpico, Pasquale D.; Lesgourgues, Julien

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that annihilations in the homogeneous fluid of dark matter (DM) can leave imprints in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy power spectrum. However, the relevance of DM annihilations in halos for cosmological observables is still subject to debate, with previous works reaching different conclusions on this point. Also, all previous studies used a single type of parameterization for the astrophysical reionization, and included no astrophysical source for the heating of the intergalactic medium. In this work, we revisit these problems. When standard approaches are adopted, we find that the ionization fraction does exhibit a very particular (and potentially constraining) pattern, but the currently measurable τreio is left almost unchanged: in agreement with most of the previous literature, for plausible halo models we find that the modification of the signal with respect to the one coming from annihilations in the smooth background is tiny, below cosmic variance within currently allowed parameter space. However, if different and probably more realistic treatments of the astrophysical sources of reionization and heating are adopted, a more pronounced effect of the DM annihilation in halos is possible. We thus conclude that within currently adopted baseline models the impact of the virialised DM structures cannot be uncovered by CMB power spectra measurements, but a larger impact is possible if peculiar models are invoked for the redshift evolution of the DM annihilation signal or different assumptions are made for the astrophysical contributions. A better understanding (both theoretical and observational) of the reionization and temperature history of the universe, notably via the 21 cm signal, seems the most promising way for using halo formation as a tool in DM searches, improving over the sensitivity of current cosmological probes.

  15. The Luminous Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission Features: Applications to High Redshift Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, Heath; Papovich, Casey

    2015-08-01

    We provide a new robust star-formation rate (SFR) calibration using the luminosity from polycyclic aromatic hydrogen (PAH) molecules. The PAH features emit strongly in the mid-infrared (mid-IR; 3-19μm), mitigating dust extinction, and they are very luminous, containing 5-10% of the total IR luminosity in galaxies. We derive the calibration of the PAH luminosity as a SFR indicator using a sample of 105 star-forming galaxies covering a range of total IR luminosity, LIR = L(8-1000μm) = 109 - 1012 L⊙ and redshift 0 < z < 0.6. The PAH luminosity correlates linearly with the SFR as measured by the dust-corrected Hα luminosity (using the sum of the Hα and rest-frame 24μm luminosity from Kennicutt et al. 2009), with tight scatter of ~0.15 dex, comparable to the scatter in the dust-corrected Hα SFRs and Paα SFRs. We show this relation is sensitive to galaxy metallicity, where the PAH luminosity of galaxies with Z < 0.7 Z⊙ departs from the linear SFR relationship but in a behaved manor. We derive for this a correction to galaxies below solar metallicity. As a case study for observations with JWST, we apply the PAH SFR calibration to a sample of lensed galaxies at 1 < z < 3 with Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) data, and we demonstrate the utility of PAHs to derive SFRs as accurate as those available from any other indicator. This new SFR indicator will be useful for probing the peak of the SFR density of the universe (1 < z < 3) and for studying the coevolution of star-formation and supermassive blackhole accretion contemporaneously in a galaxy.

  16. TRACING THE EVOLUTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES USING STELLAR ABUNDANCES

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, Brian D.; O’Shea, Brian W.; Beers, Timothy C.; Tumlinson, Jason

    2016-03-20

    This paper presents the first results from a model for chemical evolution that can be applied to N-body cosmological simulations and quantitatively compared to measured stellar abundances from large astronomical surveys. This model convolves the chemical yield sets from a range of stellar nucleosynthesis calculations (including asymptotic giant branch stars, Type Ia and II supernovae, and stellar wind models) with a user-specified stellar initial mass function (IMF) and metallicity to calculate the time-dependent chemical evolution model for a “simple stellar population” (SSP) of uniform metallicity and formation time. These SSP models are combined with a semianalytic model for galaxy formation and evolution that uses merger trees from N-body cosmological simulations to track several α- and iron-peak elements for the stellar and multiphase interstellar medium components of several thousand galaxies in the early (z ≥ 6) universe. The simulated galaxy population is then quantitatively compared to two complementary data sets of abundances in the Milky Way stellar halo and is capable of reproducing many of the observed abundance trends. The observed abundance ratio distributions are best reproduced with a Chabrier IMF, a chemically enriched star formation efficiency of 0.2, and a redshift of reionization of 7. Many abundances are qualitatively well matched by our model, but our model consistently overpredicts the carbon-enhanced fraction of stars at low metallicities, likely owing to incomplete coverage of Population III stellar yields and supernova models and the lack of dust as a component of our model.

  17. Dark Matter annihilations in halos and high-redshift sources of reionization of the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Poulin, Vivian; Serpico, Pasquale D.; Lesgourgues, Julien E-mail: Pasquale.Serpico@lapth.cnrs.fr

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that annihilations in the homogeneous fluid of dark matter (DM) can leave imprints in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy power spectrum. However, the relevance of DM annihilations in halos for cosmological observables is still subject to debate, with previous works reaching different conclusions on this point. Also, all previous studies used a single type of parameterization for the astrophysical reionization, and included no astrophysical source for the heating of the intergalactic medium. In this work, we revisit these problems. When standard approaches are adopted, we find that the ionization fraction does exhibit a very particular (and potentially constraining) pattern, but the currently measurable τ{sub reio} is left almost unchanged: in agreement with most of the previous literature, for plausible halo models we find that the modification of the signal with respect to the one coming from annihilations in the smooth background is tiny, below cosmic variance within currently allowed parameter space. However, if different and probably more realistic treatments of the astrophysical sources of reionization and heating are adopted, a more pronounced effect of the DM annihilation in halos is possible. We thus conclude that within currently adopted baseline models the impact of the virialised DM structures cannot be uncovered by CMB power spectra measurements, but a larger impact is possible if peculiar models are invoked for the redshift evolution of the DM annihilation signal or different assumptions are made for the astrophysical contributions. A better understanding (both theoretical and observational) of the reionization and temperature history of the universe, notably via the 21 cm signal, seems the most promising way for using halo formation as a tool in DM searches, improving over the sensitivity of current cosmological probes.

  18. THE IMPACT OF BARYON PHYSICS ON THE STRUCTURE OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zemp, Marcel; Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2012-03-20

    We study the detailed structure of galaxies at redshifts z {>=} 2 using cosmological simulations with improved modeling of the interstellar medium and star formation. The simulations follow the formation and dissociation of molecular hydrogen and include star formation only in cold molecular gas. The molecular gas is more concentrated toward the center of galaxies than the atomic gas, and as a consequence, the resulting stellar distribution is very compact. For halos with total mass above 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }, the median half-mass radius of the stellar disks is 0.8 kpc at z Almost-Equal-To 3. The vertical structure of the molecular disk is much thinner than that of the atomic neutral gas. Relative to the non-radiative run, the inner regions of the dark matter halo change shape from prolate to mildly oblate and align with the stellar disk. However, we do not find evidence for a significant fast-rotating 'dark disk' of dark matter around the stellar disk. The outer halo regions retain the orientation acquired during accretion and mergers and are significantly misaligned with the inner regions. The radial profile of the dark matter halo contracts in response to baryon dissipation, establishing an approximately isothermal profile throughout most of the halo. This effect can be accurately described by a modified model of halo contraction. The angular momentum of a fixed amount of inner dark matter is approximately conserved over time, while in the dissipationless case most of it is transferred outward during mergers. The conservation of the dark matter angular momentum provides supporting evidence for the validity of the halo contraction model in a hierarchical galaxy formation process.

  19. A Search for Stellar Dust Production in Leo P, a Nearby Analog of High Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Martha; McDonald, Iain; McQuinn, Kristen; Skillman, Evan; Sonneborn, George; Srinivasan, Sundar; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Zijlstra, Albert; Sloan, Greg

    2016-08-01

    The origin of dust in the early Universe is a matter of debate. One of the main potential dust contributors are Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars, and several studies have been devoted to investigating whether and how AGB dust production changes in metal-poor environments. Of particular interest are the most massive AGB stars (8-10 Msun), which can in principle enter the dust-producing phase <50 Myr after they form. However, these stars cannot produce their own condensable material (unlike carbon AGB stars), so the efficiency of dust production decreases with metallicity. Evidence for dust production in massive AGB stars more metal-poor than the Magellanic Clouds is scarce due both to the rarity of chemically-unevolved, star-forming systems reachable in the infrared and to the short lifetimes of these stars. The recently discovered galaxy Leo P provides an irresistible opportunity to search for these massive AGB stars: Leo P is a gas-rich, star-forming galaxy, it is nearby enough for resolved star photometry with Spitzer, and its interstellar medium is 0.4 dex more metal-poor than any other accessible star-forming galaxy. Models predict ~3 massive AGB stars may be present in Leo P, and optical HST observations reveal 7 candidates. We propose to use Spitzer to determine whether these stars are dusty, providing valuable constraints to the dust contribution from AGB stars up to at least redshift 3.2, or 11.7 Gyr ago, when massive spheroidals and Galactic globular clusters were still forming. This is a gain of 2.8 Gyr compared to other accessible galaxies. We also request 1 orbit of joint HST time to confirm whether the AGB candidates in Leo P are indeed massive AGB stars belonging to the galaxy. These observations will provide information crucial for potential JWST followup spectroscopy.

  20. Errata: A Wide-Field Multicolor Survey for High-Redshift Quasars, Z >= 2.2. III. The Luminosity Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Stephen J.; Hewett, Paul C.; Osmer, Patrick S.

    1995-01-01

    In the paper "A Wide-Field Multicolor Survey for High-Redshift Quasars, z >= 2.2. III. The Luminosity Function" by Stephen. Warren, Paul C. Hewett and Patrick S. Osmer (ApJ, 421,412 [1994]), two equations should be corrected: On page 419, column one, line 11, the expression following the words "the error,, should have an opening parenthesis just before the integral sign, to read: [{SIGMA} 1/({integral} ρ(z)dV_a_)^2^]^1/2^. On page 421, equation (15) is missing the asterisk (*) in the M_c_^*^ term just prior to (β + 1); that is, the exponent in the second term the denominator should read: 0.4(M_c_ - M_c_^*^)(β + 1). The authors wish to draw these errors to the attention of any readers who will be using the expression and equation.

  1. Cluster Mass Calibration at High Redshift: HST Weak Lensing Analysis of 13 Distant Galaxy Clusters from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Schrabback, T.; et al.

    2016-11-11

    We present an HST/ACS weak gravitational lensing analysis of 13 massive high-redshift (z_median=0.88) galaxy clusters discovered in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey. This study is part of a larger campaign that aims to robustly calibrate mass-observable scaling relations over a wide range in redshift to enable improved cosmological constraints from the SPT cluster sample. We introduce new strategies to ensure that systematics in the lensing analysis do not degrade constraints on cluster scaling relations significantly. First, we efficiently remove cluster members from the source sample by selecting very blue galaxies in V-I colour. Our estimate of the source redshift distribution is based on CANDELS data, where we carefully mimic the source selection criteria of the cluster fields. We apply a statistical correction for systematic photometric redshift errors as derived from Hubble Ultra Deep Field data and verified through spatial cross-correlations. We account for the impact of lensing magnification on the source redshift distribution, finding that this is particularly relevant for shallower surveys. Finally, we account for biases in the mass modelling caused by miscentring and uncertainties in the mass-concentration relation using simulations. In combination with temperature estimates from Chandra we constrain the normalisation of the mass-temperature scaling relation ln(E(z) M_500c/10^14 M_sun)=A+1.5 ln(kT/7.2keV) to A=1.81^{+0.24}_{-0.14}(stat.) +/- 0.09(sys.), consistent with self-similar redshift evolution when compared to lower redshift samples. Additionally, the lensing data constrain the average concentration of the clusters to c_200c=5.6^{+3.7}_{-1.8}.

  2. Evolution of the dust-to-metals ratio in high-redshift galaxies probed by GRB-DLAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, P.; Schady, P.; Bolmer, J.; Krühler, T.; Yates, R. M.; Greiner, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Several issues regarding the nature of dust at high redshift remain unresolved: its composition, its production and growth mechanisms, and its effect on background sources. Aims: We provide a more accurate relation between dust depletion levels and dust-to-metals ratio (DTM), and to use the DTM to investigate the origin and evolution of dust in the high-redshift Universe via gamma-ray burst damped Lyman-alpha absorbers (GRB-DLAs). Methods: We use absorption-line measured metal column densities for a total of 19 GRB-DLAs, including five new GRB afterglow spectra from VLT/X-Shooter. We use the latest linear models to calculate the dust depletion strength factor in each DLA. Using these values we calculate total dust and metal column densities to determine a DTM. We explore the evolution of DTM with metallicity, and compare it to previous trends in DTM measured with different methods. Results: We find significant dust depletion in 16 of our 19 GRB-DLAs, yet 18 of the 19 have a DTM significantly lower than the Milky Way. We find that DTM is positively correlated with metallicity, which supports a dominant ISM grain-growth mode of dust formation. We find a substantial discrepancy between the dust content measured from depletion and that derived from the total V-band extinction, AV, measured by fitting the afterglow SED. We advise against using a measurement from one method to estimate that from the other until the discrepancy can be resolved. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, Program IDs: 088.A-0051(B), 089.A-0067(B), 091.C-0934, 094.A-0134(A).

  3. Approximate Bayesian Computation for astronomical model analysis: a case study in galaxy demographics and morphological transformation at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, E.; Pettitt, A. N.

    2012-09-01

    'Approximate Bayesian Computation' (ABC) represents a powerful methodology for the analysis of complex stochastic systems for which the likelihood of the observed data under an arbitrary set of input parameters may be entirely intractable - the latter condition rendering useless the standard machinery of tractable likelihood-based, Bayesian statistical inference [e.g. conventional Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation]. In this paper, we demonstrate the potential of ABC for astronomical model analysis by application to a case study in the morphological transformation of high-redshift galaxies. To this end, we develop, first, a stochastic model for the competing processes of merging and secular evolution in the early Universe, and secondly, through an ABC-based comparison against the observed demographics of massive (Mgal > 1011 M⊙) galaxies (at 1.5 < z < 3) in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalatic Legacy Survey (CANDELS)/Extended Groth Strip (EGS) data set we derive posterior probability densities for the key parameters of this model. The 'Sequential Monte Carlo' implementation of ABC exhibited herein, featuring both a self-generating target sequence and self-refining MCMC kernel, is amongst the most efficient of contemporary approaches to this important statistical algorithm. We highlight as well through our chosen case study the value of careful summary statistic selection, and demonstrate two modern strategies for assessment and optimization in this regard. Ultimately, our ABC analysis of the high-redshift morphological mix returns tight constraints on the evolving merger rate in the early Universe and favours major merging (with disc survival or rapid reformation) over secular evolution as the mechanism most responsible for building up the first generation of bulges in early-type discs.

  4. Strongly time-variable ultraviolet metal-line emission from the circum-galactic medium of high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sravan, Niharika; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; van de Voort, Freeke; Kereš, Dušan; Muratov, Alexander L.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Feldmann, Robert; Quataert, Eliot; Murray, Norman

    2016-11-01

    We use cosmological simulations from the Feedback In Realistic Environments project, which implement a comprehensive set of stellar feedback processes, to study ultraviolet (UV) metal-line emission from the circum-galactic medium of high-redshift (z = 2-4) galaxies. Our simulations cover the halo mass range Mh ˜ 2 × 1011-8.5 × 1012 M⊙ at z = 2, representative of Lyman break galaxies. Of the transitions we analyse, the low-ionization C III (977 Å) and Si III (1207 Å) emission lines are the most luminous, with C IV (1548 Å) and Si IV (1394 Å) also showing interesting spatially extended structures. The more massive haloes are on average more UV-luminous. The UV metal-line emission from galactic haloes in our simulations arises primarily from collisionally ionized gas and is strongly time variable, with peak-to-trough variations of up to ˜2 dex. The peaks of UV metal-line luminosity correspond closely to massive and energetic mass outflow events, which follow bursts of star formation and inject sufficient energy into galactic haloes to power the metal-line emission. The strong time variability implies that even some relatively low-mass haloes may be detectable. Conversely, flux-limited samples will be biased towards haloes whose central galaxy has recently experienced a strong burst of star formation. Spatially extended UV metal-line emission around high-redshift galaxies should be detectable by current and upcoming integral field spectrographs such as the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer on the Very Large Telescope and Keck Cosmic Web Imager.

  5. Precise Strong Lensing Mass Modeling of Four Hubble Frontier Field Clusters and a Sample of Magnified High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamata, Ryota; Oguri, Masamune; Ishigaki, Masafumi; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Ouchi, Masami

    2016-03-01

    We conduct precise strong lensing mass modeling of four Hubble Frontier Field (HFF) clusters, Abell 2744, MACS J0416.1-2403, MACS J0717.5+3745, and MACS J1149.6+2223, for which HFF imaging observations are completed. We construct a refined sample of more than 100 multiple images for each cluster by taking advantage of the full-depth HFF images, and conduct mass modeling using the glafic software, which assumes simply parametrized mass distributions. Our mass modeling also exploits a magnification constraint from the lensed SN Ia HFF14Tom for Abell 2744 and positional constraints from the multiple images S1-S4 of the lensed supernova SN Refsdal for MACS J1149.6+2223. We find that our best-fitting mass models reproduce the observed image positions with rms errors of ˜0.″4, which are smaller than rms errors in previous mass modeling that adopted similar numbers of multiple images. Our model predicts a new image of SN Refsdal with a relative time delay and magnification that are fully consistent with a recent detection of reappearance. We then construct catalogs of z ˜ 6-9 dropout galaxies behind the four clusters and estimate magnification factors for these dropout galaxies with our best-fitting mass models. The dropout sample from the four cluster fields contains ˜120 galaxies at z ≳ 6, about 20 of which are predicted to be magnified by a factor of more than 10. Some of the high-redshift galaxies detected in the HFF have lensing-corrected magnitudes of MUV ˜ -15 to -14. Our analysis demonstrates that the HFF data indeed offer an ideal opportunity to study faint high-redshift galaxies. All lensing maps produced from our mass modeling will be made available on the Space Telescope Science Institute website (https://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/frontier/lensmodels/).

  6. The Connection between Stellar Populations and the Baryon Cycle and Ionizing Escape Fractions of Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Naveen; Steidel, Charles

    2016-08-01

    We propose Spitzer IRAC 3.6 micron observations to cover the three remaining fields of a large spectroscopic survey of galaxies, AGN, and QSOs in the same cosmic volumes at z~2-3. The IRAC data will be used to probe the stellar populations in these galaxies and to understand how galaxy properties (e.g., stellar masses, ages, reddening, star-formation rates) depend on the flow of baryons into and out of galaxies, as well as identify those properties of galaxies that are conducive to the escape of ionizing radiation at high redshift. The dense spectroscopic sampling of the targeted fields have provided unique insights into metal enrichment as a function of galactocentric radius and the statistical correlation between galaxies and metals in the inter-galactic medium. Our goal is to quantify how the distribution of metals in the circum-galactic and inter-galactic media (CGM/IGM) depend on the stellar masses, ages, and star formation rates of galaxies. Moreover, in an effort to clarify the role of galaxies in reionizing the Universe (and keeping it ionized), we wish to understand the types of stellar populations (e.g., stellar masses, ages) that influence the propensity of galaxies to leak ionizing radiation. Our preliminary observations suggest that bluer galaxies with lower star-formation rates have larger escape fractions, but the results are tentative without the inclusion of the IRAC data proposed here. A modest investment of just 13.1 hours (including overhead), divided among the three fields will cover a total of approximately 200 spectroscopically-confirmed z~2-3 galaxies that span two orders of magnitude in bolometric luminosity and stellar mass. The proposed IRAC imaging will allow us to fully leverage the existing spectroscopic samples that form the backbone of our survey of the baryon cycle and escaping ionizing radiation at high redshift.

  7. Properties of z ~ 3-6 Lyman break galaxies. II. Impact of nebular emission at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros, S.; Schaerer, D.; Stark, D. P.

    2014-03-01

    Context. To gain insight on the mass assembly and place constraints on the star formation history (SFH) of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), it is important to accurately determine their properties. Aims: We estimate how nebular emission and different SFHs affect parameter estimation of LBGs. Methods: We present a homogeneous, detailed analysis of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of ~1700 LBGs from the GOODS-MUSIC catalogue with deep multi-wavelength photometry from the U band to 8 μm to determine stellar mass, age, dust attenuation, and star formation rate. Using our SED fitting tool, which takes into account nebular emission, we explore a wide parameter space. We also explore a set of different star formation histories. Results: Nebular emission is found to significantly affect the determination of the physical parameters for the majority of z ~ 3-6 LBGs. We identify two populations of galaxies by determining the importance of the contribution of emission lines to broadband fluxes. We find that ~65% of LBGs show detectable signs of emission lines, whereas ~35% show weak or no emission lines. This distribution is found over the entire redshift range. We interpret these groups as actively star-forming and more quiescent LBGs, respectively. We find that it is necessary to considerer SED fits with very young ages (<50 Myr) to reproduce some colours affected by strong emission lines. Other arguments favouring episodic star formation and relatively short star formation timescales are also discussed. Considering nebular emission generally leads to a younger age, lower stellar mass, higher dust attenuation, higher star formation rate, and a large scatter in the SFR-M⋆ relation. Our analysis yields a trend of increasing specific star formation rate with redshift, as predicted by recent galaxy evolution models. Conclusions: The physical parameters of approximately two thirds of high redshift galaxies are significantly modified when we account for nebular emission. The

  8. THE ORIGIN OF [O II] IN POST-STARBURST AND RED-SEQUENCE GALAXIES IN HIGH-REDSHIFT CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Lemaux, B. C.; Lubin, L. M.; Kocevski, D.; Shapley, A.; Gal, R. R.; Squires, G. K.

    2010-06-20

    We present the first results from a near-IR spectroscopic campaign of the Cl1604 supercluster at z {approx} 0.9 and the cluster RX J1821.6+6827 at z {approx} 0.82 to investigate the nature of [O II] {lambda}3727 emission in cluster galaxies at high redshift. Of the 401 members in Cl1604 and RX J1821+6827 confirmed using the Keck II/DEIMOS spectrograph, 131 galaxies have detectable [O II] emission with no other signs of current star formation activity, as well as strong absorption features indicative of a well-established older stellar population. The combination of these features suggests that the primary source of [O II] emission in these galaxies is not a result of star formation processes, but rather due to the presence of a low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) or Seyfert component. Using the NIRSPEC spectrograph on the Keck II 10 m telescope, 19 such galaxies were targeted, as well as 6 additional [O II]-emitting cluster members that exhibited signs of ongoing star formation activity. Nearly half ({approx}47%) of the 19 [O II]-emitting, absorption-line-dominated galaxies exhibit [O II] to H{alpha} equivalent width (EW) ratios higher than unity, the typical observed value for star-forming galaxies, with an EW distribution similar to that observed for LINERs at low redshift. A majority ({approx}68%) of these 19 galaxies are classified as LINER/Seyfert based primarily on the emission-line ratio of [N II] {lambda}6584 and H{alpha}. The fraction of LINER/Seyferts increases to {approx}85% for red [O II]-emitting, absorption-line-dominated galaxies. The LINER/Seyfert galaxies in our Cl1604 sample exhibit average L([O II])/L(H{alpha}) ratios that are significantly higher than that observed in populations of star-forming galaxies, suggesting that [O II] is a poor indicator of star formation in a significant fraction of high-redshift cluster members. From the prevalence of [O II]-emitting, absorption-line-dominated galaxies in both systems and the fraction

  9. The Luminous Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission Features: Applications to High Redshift Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, Heath V.

    2016-01-01

    For decades, significant work has been applied to calibrating emission from the ultra-violet, nebular emission lines, far-infrared, X-ray and radio as tracers of the star-formation rate (SFR) in distant galaxies. Understanding the exact rate of star-formation and how it evolves with time and galaxy mass has deep implications for how galaxies form. The co-evolution of star-formation and supermassive black hole (SMBH) accretion is one of the key problems in galaxy formation theory. But, many of these SFR indicators are influenced by SMBH accretion in galaxies and result in unreliable SFRs. Utilizing the luminous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features, I provide a new robust SFR calibration using the luminosity emitted from the PAHs at 6.2μm, 7.7μm and 11.3μm to solve this. The PAH features emit strongly in the mid-infrared (mid-IR; 5-25μm) mitigating dust extinction, containing on average 5-10% of the total IR luminosity in galaxies. I use a sample of 105 star-forming galaxies covering a range of total IR luminosity, LIR = L(8-1000μm) = 109 - 1012 L⊙ and redshift 0 < z < 0.4, with mid-IR spectroscopy from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), and data covering other SFR indicators (Hα emission and rest-frame 24μm continuum emission). The PAH luminosity correlates linearly with the SFR as measured by the Hα luminosity (corrected for attenuation using the mono-chromatic rest-frame 24μm emission), with a tight scatter of <0.15 dex. The scatter is comparable to that between SFRs derived from the Paα and dust-corrected Hα emission lines. We present a case study in advance of JWST, which will be capable of measuring SFRs (from 8μm rest-frame photometry, i.e. PAHs) in distant galaxies (z ≤ 2) with JWST/MIRI to SFRs as low as ~10 M⊙yr-1, because the PAH features are so bright. We use Spitzer/IRS observations of PAH features in lensed star-forming galaxies at 1 < z < 3 to demonstrate the utility of the PAHs to derive SFRs that agree with

  10. THE CANADA-FRANCE HIGH-z QUASAR SURVEY: NINE NEW QUASARS AND THE LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AT REDSHIFT 6

    SciTech Connect

    Willott, Chris J.; Crampton, David; Hutchings, John B.; Schade, David; Delorme, Philippe; Reyle, Celine; Albert, Loic; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Omont, Alain; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; McLure, Ross J.

    2010-03-15

    We present discovery imaging and spectroscopy for nine new z {approx} 6 quasars found in the Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey (CFHQS) bringing the total number of CFHQS quasars to 19. By combining the CFHQS with the more luminous Sloan Digital Sky Survey sample, we are able to derive the quasar luminosity function from a sample of 40 quasars at redshifts 5.74 < z < 6.42. Our binned luminosity function shows a slightly lower normalization and flatter slope than found in previous work. The binned data also suggest a break in the luminosity function at M {sub 1450} {approx} -25. A double power-law maximum likelihood fit to the data is consistent with the binned results. The luminosity function is strongly constrained (1{sigma} uncertainty <0.1 dex) over the range -27.5 < M {sub 1450} < -24.7. The best-fit parameters are {phi}(M*{sub 1450}) = 1.14 x 10{sup -8} Mpc{sup -3} mag{sup -1}, break magnitude M*{sub 1450} = -25.13, and bright end slope {beta} = -2.81. However, the covariance between {beta} and M*{sub 1450} prevents strong constraints being placed on either parameter. For a break magnitude in the range -26 < M*{sub 1450} < -24, we find -3.8 < {beta} < -2.3 at 95% confidence. We calculate the z = 6 quasar intergalactic ionizing flux and show it is between 20 and 100 times lower than that necessary for reionization. Finally, we use the luminosity function to predict how many higher redshift quasars may be discovered in future near-IR imaging surveys.

  11. Properties of High Equivalent Width Lyman-α Emitting Galaxies at Redshifts Between 2.5 and 3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Brian J.; Bonfield, D.; Grady, C.; Lindler, D.; Mufson, S.; Woodgate, B.

    2012-01-01

    Lyman-α emitting galaxies (LAEs) have been studied for the last decade, yet there are few observations of high equivalent width (EW) objects. The emission mechanisms that drive high EW LAEs, though studied for the last decade, still are not well understood. Since only small numbers have been discovered, it is unknown whether these high EW LAEs make up a population that is undergoing a peculiar stage of galactic evolution, or simply just a more vigorous version of star formation coupled with a clumpy ISM. We have developed a broadband selection technique to effectively increase the number of known LAEs, to build a bigger sample of high EW LAEs. While these high EW LAEs are less numerous than typical LAEs, we are able to probe much larger volumes than blind narrowband or spectroscopic searches. Using photometry from the Deep 2 and 3 fields from the CFHT-Legacy Survey, we have spectroscopically confirmed 63 LAEs with redshifts between 2.5 and 3.5 using the WIYN/Hydra multi-object spectrograph. These LAEs exhibit narrow Lyman-α emission, and show no other line emission to our spectroscopic flux limits. Using UV continuum fitting techniques in conjunction with our spectroscopic data, we have calculated equivalent widths, star formation rates, internal reddening, and escape fractions for our program galaxies. Of the 63 LAEs that we discovered, 29 show EWs that are in excess of 100 Å in the rest frame.

  12. HIGH-REDSHIFT DUST OBSCURED GALAXIES: A MORPHOLOGY-SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION CONNECTION REVEALED BY KECK ADAPTIVE OPTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Melbourne, J.; Matthews, K.; Soifer, B. T. E-mail: bts@submm.caltech.edu

    2009-06-15

    A simple optical to mid-IR color selection, R - [24]>14, i.e., f {sub {nu}}(24 {mu}m)/f {sub {nu}}(R) {approx}> 1000, identifies highly dust obscured galaxies (DOGs) with typical redshifts of z {approx} 2 {+-} 0.5. Extreme mid-IR luminosities (L {sub IR} > 10{sup 12-14}) suggest that DOGs are powered by a combination of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star formation, possibly driven by mergers. In an effort to compare their photometric properties with their rest-frame optical morphologies, we obtained high-spatial resolution (0.''05-0.''1) Keck Adaptive Optics K'-band images of 15 DOGs. The images reveal a wide range of morphologies, including small exponential disks (eight of 15), small ellipticals (four of 15), and unresolved sources (two of 15). One particularly diffuse source could not be classified because of low signal-to-noise ratio. We find a statistically significant correlation between galaxy concentration and mid-IR luminosity, with the most luminous DOGs exhibiting higher concentration and smaller physical size. DOGs with high concentration also tend to have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) suggestive of AGN activity. Thus, central AGN light may be biasing the morphologies of the more luminous DOGs to higher concentration. Conversely, more diffuse DOGs tend to show an SED shape suggestive of star formation. Two of 15 in the sample show multiple resolved components with separations of {approx}1 kpc, circumstantial evidence for ongoing mergers.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Gas Halos in High Redshift Galaxies: Observations vs Λ-CDM Simluations with Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, Christopher W.; Klypin, A.; Ceverino, D.; Kacprzak, G. G.

    2007-12-01

    Analysis of mock quasar spectra of metal absorption lines in the proximity of formed galaxies in cosmological simulation is a highly promising approach for interpreting the efficiency with which gas is converted into stars in galaxies, the mechanisms of gas inflow in the context of the cosmic web, and the star-gas feedback processes in galaxies. We are undertaking a wholesale approach to use powerful Λ-CDM simulations to interpret high-quality absorption line data (HIRES/UVES) and high-quality galaxy imaging data (HST) for inferring the interplay between galaxies and metal enriched gas in the vicinity of galaxies (few hundred kpc). The simulations are performed using the Eulerian Gasdynamics plus N-body Adaptive Refinement Tree (ART) code, which has gas cell resolutions of 20-50 pc. Physical processes implemented in the code include radiative cooling, star formation, metal enrichment and thermal feedback due to type II and type Ia supernovae. We quantitatively compare the observed and simulated spatial and kinematic distribution of HI, MgII, CIV, and OVI absorption lines over a range of impact parameters as a function of redshift, and discuss key insights for interpreting the underlying temperature, density, and ionization structure of the halo/cosmic-web interface, and the influence of galaxies on its chemical enrichment. Disparities between the simulations and the statistical cross sections and velocity spreads of the absorption line data in turn provide powerful constraints on the galaxy feedback recipes, which we quantitatively examine.

  14. High temperature materials characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    A lab facility for measuring elastic moduli up to 1700 C was constructed and delivered. It was shown that the ultrasonic method can be used to determine elastic constants of materials from room temperature to their melting points. The ease in coupling high frequency acoustic energy is still a difficult task. Even now, new coupling materials and higher power ultrasonic pulsers are being suggested. The surface was only scratched in terms of showing the full capabilities of either technique used, especially since there is such a large learning curve in developing proper methodologies to take measurements into the high temperature region. The laser acoustic system does not seem to have sufficient precision at this time to replace the normal buffer rod methodology.

  15. Ly-alpha emission from disk absorption systems at high redshift - Star formation in young galaxy disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Harding E.; Cohen, Ross D.; Burns, Joseph E.; Moore, David J.; Uchida, Barbara A.

    1989-01-01

    Narrow-band imaging observations are reported which were made in an attempt to detect Ly-alpha emission from high-redshift candidate galaxy disk systems discovered as high column density absorbers of background QSOs. For four systems with z = 2.3-2.8, no emission is detected to a limit of about 10 to the -16th ergs/sq cm/s, corresponding to luminosity limits of about 10 exp 42-43 ergs/s for the material producing the absorption. The inferred Ly-alpha luminosities lie one to two orders of magnitude below estimates of the Ly-alpha luminosities for active star-forming epochs of many prescriptions for galaxy formation and also considerably below measured Ly-alpha luminosities for other candidate young galaxies detected in radio surveys. A limiting star-formation rate in these systems of about 2-7 solar masses/yr is set; the limit may be about 10 times larger with small but observationally allowable amounts of dust.

  16. HerMES: a search for high-redshift dusty galaxies in the HerMES Large Mode Survey - catalogue, number counts and early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asboth, V.; Conley, A.; Sayers, J.; Béthermin, M.; Chapman, S. C.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; Farrah, D.; Glenn, J.; Golwala, S. R.; Halpern, M.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Maloney, P. R.; Marques-Chaves, R.; Martinez-Navajas, P. I.; Oliver, S. J.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Riechers, D. A.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Scott, Douglas; Siegel, S. R.; Vieira, J. D.; Viero, M.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.; Wheeler, J.

    2016-10-01

    Selecting sources with rising flux densities towards longer wavelengths from Herschel/Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) maps is an efficient way to produce a catalogue rich in high-redshift (z > 4) dusty star-forming galaxies. The effectiveness of this approach has already been confirmed by spectroscopic follow-up observations, but the previously available catalogues made this way are limited by small survey areas. Here we apply a map-based search method to 274 deg2 of the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) Large Mode Survey and create a catalogue of 477 objects with SPIRE flux densities S500 > S350 > S250 and a 5σ cut-off S500 > 52 mJy. From this catalogue we determine that the total number of these `red' sources is at least an order of magnitude higher than predicted by galaxy evolution models. These results are in agreement with previous findings in smaller HerMES fields; however, due to our significantly larger sample size we are also able to investigate the shape of the red source counts for the first time. We have obtained spectroscopic redshift measurements for two of our sources using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. The redshifts z = 5.1 and 3.8 confirm that with our selection method we can indeed find high-redshift dusty star-forming galaxies.

  17. Investigating the properties of gamma ray bursts and gravitational wave standard sirens as high redshift distance indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speirits, Fiona Claire

    In a discipline commonly faulted for ad hoc assumptions and models with very little discriminating observational evidence, cosmologists are continually trying, and in many cases succeeding, to improve both the data and models. However, the desire to support currently favoured models often dominates research and may lead to a systematic bias being introduced in favour of a model before a strong body of supporting evidence has been accumulated. This is perhaps most evident in literature supporting the viability of Gamma Ray Bursts as cosmological distance indicators, where aside from subjective data-selection, the basic statistical methods are at best questionable and at worst incorrect. To this end, we construct a simple cosmology-independent illustration of the effect that the application of these methods has on parameter estimation and discuss the correct method to apply to current data. We also investigate the constraints potential future Gamma Ray Burst data may place on alternatives to the status quo Concordance Model in the shape of Conformal Gravity and Unified Dark Matter through a widely applicable and transferable Bayesian model comparison technique and the development of a representative mock data set. Finally, we investigate gravitational wave standard sirens as an alternative high-redshift distance indicator. We first illustrate their strong diagnostic potential through a Bayesian model comparison between the standard Unified Dark Matter model and a variant in which the dark component is redshift dependent. By drawing mock data from a known cosmological model, thus fixing the expected values of the model parameters, we find that while 182 Type 1a Supernovae are readily confused between constant and evolving models, just 2 standard sirens are able to successfully identify the correct model. Having established standard sirens as an effective tool in cosmological model comparison, we then address the potential confusion of models with dynamical dark energy

  18. The Second-generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer. I. First-light Observation of a Highly Lensed Local-ulirg Analog at High-z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Parshley, Stephen; Nikola, Thomas; Stacey, Gordon J.; Schoenwald, Justin; Higdon, James L.; Higdon, Sarah J. U.; Verma, Aprajita; Riechers, Dominik; Hailey-Dunsheath, Steven; Menten, Karl M.; Güsten, Rolf; Weiß, Axel; Irwin, Kent; Cho, Hsiao M.; Niemack, Michael; Halpern, Mark; Amiri, Mandana; Hasselfield, Matthew; Wiebe, D. V.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2014-01-01

    We recently commissioned our new spectrometer, the second-generation z(Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2) on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope. ZEUS-2 is a submillimeter grating spectrometer optimized for detecting the faint and broad lines from distant galaxies that are redshifted into the telluric windows from 200 to 850 μm. It uses a focal plane array of transition-edge sensed bolometers, the first use of these arrays for astrophysical spectroscopy. ZEUS-2 promises to be an important tool for studying galaxies in the years to come because of its synergy with Atacama Large Millimeter Array and its capabilities in the short submillimeter windows that are unique in the post-Herschel era. Here, we report on our first detection of the [C II] 158 μm line with ZEUS-2. We detect the line at z ~ 1.8 from H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 with a line flux of (6.44 ± 0.42) × 10-18 W m-2. Combined with its far-IR luminosity and a new Herschel-PACS detection of the [O I] 63 μm line, we model the line emission as coming from a photo-dissociation region with far-ultraviolet radiation field, G ~ 2 × 104 G 0, gas density, n ~ 1 × 103 cm-3 and size between ~0.4 and 1 kpc. On the basis of this model, we conclude that H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 is a high-redshift analog of a local ultra-luminous IR galaxy; i.e., it is likely the site of a compact starburst caused by a major merger. Further identification of these merging systems is important for constraining galaxy formation and evolution models.

  19. Star formation and obscuration in AGN: A sub-mm study of high-redshift mid-IR selected type-2 QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violino, Giulio; Stevens, Jason; Coppin, Kristen; Geach, James

    2016-08-01

    The AGN unification model describes unobscured and obscured AGN (AGN1 and AGN2) as identical sources, with their different observed properties explained solely by orientation effects; as a result, it predicts no difference in the host galaxies. As an alternative, a second scenario has been proposed in which type-2 AGN represent an earlier stage in the life of AGN characterized by dust-enshrouded host galaxies which contribute to the obscuration and higher star formation activity, at least at earlier epochs. To test this scenario we employ Herschel data at three different wavelengths (250, 350, 500 um) to study the far-IR-to-submm properties of a sample of mid-IR selected type 2 QSOs at high redshift (1.5

  20. The bispectrum of galaxies from high-redshift galaxy surveys: Primordial non-Gaussianity and non-linear galaxy bias

    SciTech Connect

    Sefusatti, Emiliano; Komatsu, Eiichiro; /Texas U., Astron. Dept.

    2007-05-01

    The greatest challenge in the interpretation of galaxy clustering data from any surveys is galaxy bias. Using a simple Fisher matrix analysis, we show that the bispectrum provides an excellent determination of linear and non-linear bias parameters of intermediate and high-z galaxies, when all measurable triangle configurations down to mildly non-linear scales, where perturbation theory is still valid, are included. The bispectrum is also a powerful probe of primordial non-Gaussianity. The planned galaxy surveys at z {approx}> 2 should yield constraints on non-Gaussian parameters, f{sub NL}{sup loc.} and f{sub NL}{sup eq.}, that are comparable to, or even better than, those from CMB experiments. We study how these constraints improve with volume, redshift range, as well as the number density of galaxies. Finally we show that a halo occupation distribution may be used to improve these constraints further by lifting degeneracies between gravity, bias, and primordial non-Gaussianity.

  1. A cosmic web filament revealed in Lyman-α emission around a luminous high-redshift quasar.

    PubMed

    Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Arrigoni-Battaia, Fabrizio; Prochaska, J Xavier; Hennawi, Joseph F; Madau, Piero

    2014-02-06

    Simulations of structure formation in the Universe predict that galaxies are embedded in a 'cosmic web', where most baryons reside as rarefied and highly ionized gas. This material has been studied for decades in absorption against background sources, but the sparseness of these inherently one-dimensional probes preclude direct constraints on the three-dimensional morphology of the underlying web. Here we report observations of a cosmic web filament in Lyman-α emission, discovered during a survey for cosmic gas fluorescently illuminated by bright quasars at redshift z ≈ 2.3. With a linear projected size of approximately 460 physical kiloparsecs, the Lyman-α emission surrounding the radio-quiet quasar UM 287 extends well beyond the virial radius of any plausible associated dark-matter halo and therefore traces intergalactic gas. The estimated cold gas mass of the filament from the observed emission-about 10(12.0 ± 0.5)/C(1/2) solar masses, where C is the gas clumping factor-is more than ten times larger than what is typically found in cosmological simulations, suggesting that a population of intergalactic gas clumps with subkiloparsec sizes may be missing in current numerical models.

  2. THE THICK DISKS OF SPIRAL GALAXIES AS RELICS FROM GAS-RICH, TURBULENT, CLUMPY DISKS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Bournaud, Frederic; Martig, Marie; Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2009-12-10

    The formation of thick stellar disks in spiral galaxies is studied. Simulations of gas-rich young galaxies show formation of internal clumps by gravitational instabilities, clump coalescence into a bulge, and disk thickening by strong stellar scattering. The bulge and thick disks of modern galaxies may form this way. Simulations of minor mergers make thick disks too, but there is an important difference. Thick disks made by internal processes have a constant scale height with galactocentric radius, but thick disks made by mergers flare. The difference arises because in the first case, perpendicular forcing and disk-gravity resistance are both proportional to the disk column density, so the resulting scale height is independent of this density. In the case of mergers, perpendicular forcing is independent of the column density and the low-density regions get thicker; the resulting flaring is inconsistent with observations. Late-stage gas accretion and thin-disk growth are shown to preserve the constant scale heights of thick disks formed by internal evolution. These results reinforce the idea that disk galaxies accrete most of their mass smoothly and acquire their structure by internal processes, in particular through turbulent and clumpy phases at high redshift.

  3. Models of stellar population at high redshift, as constrainedby PN yields and luminosity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraston, C.

    The stellar phase of Thermally-Pulsating Asymptotic giant branch is the last major evolutionary stage of intermediate-mass stars which afterwards evolve into planetary nebulae. The TP-AGB phase is affected by mass-loss and instabilities which notoriously make its theoretical modelling uncertain. This review focuses on the effects such modelling has on stellar population models for galaxies, with particular focus on the high-z Universe where galaxies are young and contain a large number of short-living TP-AGB stars. I shall present the models, discuss how different prescriptions for the treatment of the TP-AGB affect the theoretical integrated spectral energy distribution and how these compare to galaxy data, and discuss implications for the PN nebulae luminosity function stemming from the various assumptions. Finally I shall discuss the inclusion of hot evolved stars on stellar population models and how they compare to data for old galaxies at our present time.

  4. Simulated stellar kinematics studies of high-redshift galaxies with the HARMONI Integral Field Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrew, S.; Zieleniewski, S.; Houghton, R. C. W.; Thatte, N.; Devriendt, J.; Tecza, M.; Clarke, F.; O'Brien, K.; Häußler, B.

    2016-05-01

    We present a study into the capabilities of integrated and spatially resolved integral field spectroscopy of galaxies at z = 2-4 with the future HARMONI spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) using the simulation pipeline, HSIM. We focus particularly on the instrument's capabilities in stellar absorption line integral field spectroscopy, which will allow us to study the stellar kinematics and stellar population characteristics. Such measurements for star-forming and passive galaxies around the peak star formation era will provide a critical insight into the star formation, quenching and mass assembly history of high-z, and thus present-day galaxies. First, we perform a signal-to-noise study for passive galaxies at a range of stellar masses for z = 2-4, assuming different light profiles; for this population, we estimate that integrated stellar absorption line spectroscopy with HARMONI will be limited to galaxies with M* ≳ 1010.7 M⊙. Secondly, we use HSIM to perform a mock observation of a typical star-forming 1010 M⊙ galaxy at z = 3 generated from the high-resolution cosmological simulation NUTFB. We demonstrate that the input stellar kinematics of the simulated galaxy can be accurately recovered from the integrated spectrum in a 15-h observation, using common analysis tools. Whilst spatially resolved spectroscopy is likely to remain out of reach for this particular galaxy, we estimate HARMONI's performance limits in this regime from our findings. This study demonstrates how instrument simulators such as HSIM can be used to quantify instrument performance and study observational biases on kinematics retrieval; and shows the potential of making observational predictions from cosmological simulation output data.

  5. Heating the intergalactic medium by X-rays from population III binaries in high-redshift galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Ahn, Kyungjin; Wise, John H.; O'Shea, Brian W. E-mail: mlnorman@ucsd.edu E-mail: jwise@gatech.edu

    2014-08-20

    Due to their long mean free path, X-rays are expected to have an important impact on cosmic reionization by heating and ionizing the intergalactic medium (IGM) on large scales, especially after simulations have suggested that Population III (Pop III) stars may form in pairs at redshifts as high as 20-30. We use the Pop III distribution and evolution from a self-consistent cosmological radiation hydrodynamic simulation of the formation of the first galaxies and a simple Pop III X-ray binary model to estimate their X-ray output in a high-density region larger than 100 comoving (Mpc){sup 3}. We then combine three different methods—ray tracing, a one-zone model, and X-ray background modeling—to investigate the X-ray propagation, intensity distribution, and long-term effects on the IGM thermal and ionization state. The efficiency and morphology of photoheating and photoionization are dependent on the photon energies. The sub-kiloelectronvolt X-rays only impact the IGM near the sources, while the kiloelectronvolt photons contribute significantly to the X-ray background and heat and ionize the IGM smoothly. The X-rays just below 1 keV are most efficient in heating and ionizing the IGM. We find that the IGM might be heated to over 100 K by z = 10 and the high-density source region might reach 10{sup 4} K, limited by atomic hydrogen cooling. This may be important for predicting the 21 cm neutral hydrogen signals. On the other hand, the free electrons from X-ray ionizations are not enough to contribute significantly to the optical depth of the cosmic microwave background to the Thomson scattering.

  6. Heating the Intergalactic Medium by X-Rays from Population III Binaries in High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hao; Ahn, Kyungjin; Wise, John H.; Norman, Michael L.; O'Shea, Brian W.

    2014-08-01

    Due to their long mean free path, X-rays are expected to have an important impact on cosmic reionization by heating and ionizing the intergalactic medium (IGM) on large scales, especially after simulations have suggested that Population III (Pop III) stars may form in pairs at redshifts as high as 20-30. We use the Pop III distribution and evolution from a self-consistent cosmological radiation hydrodynamic simulation of the formation of the first galaxies and a simple Pop III X-ray binary model to estimate their X-ray output in a high-density region larger than 100 comoving (Mpc)3. We then combine three different methods—ray tracing, a one-zone model, and X-ray background modeling—to investigate the X-ray propagation, intensity distribution, and long-term effects on the IGM thermal and ionization state. The efficiency and morphology of photoheating and photoionization are dependent on the photon energies. The sub-kiloelectronvolt X-rays only impact the IGM near the sources, while the kiloelectronvolt photons contribute significantly to the X-ray background and heat and ionize the IGM smoothly. The X-rays just below 1 keV are most efficient in heating and ionizing the IGM. We find that the IGM might be heated to over 100 K by z = 10 and the high-density source region might reach 104 K, limited by atomic hydrogen cooling. This may be important for predicting the 21 cm neutral hydrogen signals. On the other hand, the free electrons from X-ray ionizations are not enough to contribute significantly to the optical depth of the cosmic microwave background to the Thomson scattering.

  7. INTERSTELLAR SILICATE DUST IN THE z = 0.89 ABSORBER TOWARD PKS 1830-211: CRYSTALLINE SILICATES AT HIGH REDSHIFT?

    SciTech Connect

    Aller, Monique C.; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; Som, Debopam; York, Donald G.; Welty, Daniel E.; Vladilo, Giovanni

    2012-03-20

    We present evidence of a >10{sigma} detection of the 10 {mu}m silicate dust absorption feature in the spectrum of the gravitationally lensed quasar PKS 1830-211, produced by a foreground absorption system at redshift 0.886. We have examined more than 100 optical depth templates, derived from both observations of Galactic and extragalactic sources and laboratory measurements, in order to constrain the chemical structure of the silicate dust. We find that the best fit to the observed absorption profile is produced by laboratory crystalline olivine, with a corresponding peak optical depth of {tau}{sub 10} = 0.27 {+-} 0.05. The fit is slightly improved upon by including small contributions from additional materials, such as silica, enstatite, or serpentine, which suggests that the dust composition may consist of a blend of crystalline silicates. Combining templates for amorphous and crystalline silicates, we find that the fraction of crystalline silicates needs to be at least 95%. Given the rarity of extragalactic sources with such a high degree of silicate crystallinity, we also explore the possibility that the observed spectral features are produced by amorphous silicates in combination with other molecular or atomic transitions, or by foreground source contamination. While we cannot rule out these latter possibilities, they lead to much poorer profile fits than for the crystalline olivine templates. If the presence of crystalline interstellar silicates in this distant galaxy is real, it would be highly unusual, given that the Milky Way interstellar matter contains essentially only amorphous silicates. It is possible that the z = 0.886 absorber toward PKS 1830-211, well known for its high molecular content, has a unique star-forming environment that enables crystalline silicates to form and prevail.

  8. Cosmic reionization on computers. Ultraviolet continuum slopes and dust opacities in high redshift galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Khakhaleva-Li, Zimu; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2016-03-30

    In this study, we compare the properties of stellar populations of model galaxies from the Cosmic Reionization On Computers (CROC) project with the exiting UV and IR data. Since CROC simulations do not follow cosmic dust directly, we adopt two variants of the dust-follows-metals ansatz to populate model galaxies with dust. Using the dust radiative transfer code Hyperion, we compute synthetic stellar spectra, UV continuum slopes, and IR fluxes for simulated galaxies. We find that the simulation results generally match observational measurements, but, perhaps, not in full detail. The differences seem to indicate that our adopted dust-follows-metals ansatzes are not fully sufficient. While the discrepancies with the exiting data are marginal, the future JWST data will be of much higher precision, rendering highly significant any tentative difference between theory and observations. It is, therefore, likely, that in order to fully utilize the precision of JWST observations, fully dynamical modeling of dust formation, evolution, and destruction may be required.

  9. Cosmic reionization on computers. Ultraviolet continuum slopes and dust opacities in high redshift galaxies

    DOE PAGES

    Khakhaleva-Li, Zimu; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2016-03-30

    In this study, we compare the properties of stellar populations of model galaxies from the Cosmic Reionization On Computers (CROC) project with the exiting UV and IR data. Since CROC simulations do not follow cosmic dust directly, we adopt two variants of the dust-follows-metals ansatz to populate model galaxies with dust. Using the dust radiative transfer code Hyperion, we compute synthetic stellar spectra, UV continuum slopes, and IR fluxes for simulated galaxies. We find that the simulation results generally match observational measurements, but, perhaps, not in full detail. The differences seem to indicate that our adopted dust-follows-metals ansatzes are notmore » fully sufficient. While the discrepancies with the exiting data are marginal, the future JWST data will be of much higher precision, rendering highly significant any tentative difference between theory and observations. It is, therefore, likely, that in order to fully utilize the precision of JWST observations, fully dynamical modeling of dust formation, evolution, and destruction may be required.« less

  10. COSMIC REIONIZATION ON COMPUTERS. ULTRAVIOLET CONTINUUM SLOPES AND DUST OPACITIES IN HIGH REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Khakhaleva-Li, Zimu; Gnedin, Nickolay Y. E-mail: gnedin@fnal.gov

    2016-04-01

    We compare the properties of stellar populations of model galaxies from the Cosmic Reionization On Computers (CROC) project with the exiting ultraviolet (UV) and IR data. Since CROC simulations do not follow cosmic dust directly, we adopt two variants of the dust-follows-metals ansatz to populate model galaxies with dust. Using the dust radiative transfer code Hyperion, we compute synthetic stellar spectra, UV continuum slopes, and IR fluxes for simulated galaxies. We find that the simulation results generally match observational measurements, but, perhaps, not in full detail. The differences seem to indicate that our adopted dust-follows-metals ansatzes are not fully sufficient. While the discrepancies with the exiting data are marginal, the future James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) data will be of much higher precision, rendering highly significant any tentative difference between theory and observations. It is, therefore, likely, that in order to fully utilize the precision of JWST observations, fully dynamical modeling of dust formation, evolution, and destruction may be required.

  11. Precision Photometric Redshifts for Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capak, Peter

    The growth of structure as measured by weak lensing has been identified as one of the most sensitive probes of dark energy and dark matter, and is one of the three key dark energy experiments proposed for WFIRST. However, the weak lensing measurement depends strongly on robust photometric redshifts, and is highly sensitive to systematic biases in these redshift estimates. Several methods have been proposed to remove systematic biases based on spectroscopic samples and spatial clustering, but none has been demonstrated to perform at the level required for WFIRST. Making the problem more challenging, at least two independent methods must be developed: one to correct the systematic errors, and another to verify the correction and quantify residual error. Here we propose to develop an informed calibration of the color-redshift relation that will minimize the number of spectroscopic redshifts needed for machine learning algorithms and produce accurate Bayesian priors for template fitting algorithms. The proposed method uses our current knowledge of galaxies and galaxy evolution from existing deep surveys to parameterize where in the WFIRST color space the photometric redshifts are well understood, and where they are not. First, we will develop a method to map from the WFIRST N-dimensional color space to redshift. This will determine which regions of color space map to redshift in a well-behaved way, and which have a more complex behavior. We will make use of the fact that higher-dimensional data (narrower band passes, more sensitive data, and larger spectral coverage) are available in select areas of the sky to determine how much uncertainty exists in WFIRST color regions. Finally, we will develop a statistical method to determine how many spectroscopic redshifts are needed in each cell of WFIRST color space to accurately map from color to redshift, and which color space cells should be excised from the weak lensing analysis due to redshift degeneracy. In addition to

  12. Kiloparsec-scale Dust Disks in High-redshift Luminous Submillimeter Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, J. A.; Swinbank, A. M.; Simpson, J. M.; Smail, I.; Walter, F.; Alexander, D. M.; Bertoldi, F.; Biggs, A. D.; Brandt, W. N.; Chapman, S. C.; Chen, C. C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Cox, P.; Dannerbauer, H.; Edge, A. C.; Greve, T. R.; Ivison, R. J.; Karim, A.; Knudsen, K. K.; Menten, K. M.; Rix, H.-W.; Schinnerer, E.; Wardlow, J. L.; Weiss, A.; van der Werf, P.

    2016-12-01

    We present high-resolution (0.″16) 870 μm Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) imaging of 16 luminous ({L}{IR}˜ 4× {10}12 {L}⊙ ) submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) from the ALESS survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South. This dust imaging traces the dust-obscured star formation in these z˜ 2.5 galaxies on ˜1.3 kpc scales. The emission has a median effective radius of R e = 0.″24 ± 0.″02, corresponding to a typical physical size of {R}e= 1.8 ± 0.2 kpc. We derive a median Sérsic index of n = 0.9 ± 0.2, implying that the dust emission is remarkably disk-like at the current resolution and sensitivity. We use different weighting schemes with the visibilities to search for clumps on 0.″12 (˜1.0 kpc) scales, but we find no significant evidence for clumping in the majority of cases. Indeed, we demonstrate using simulations that the observed morphologies are generally consistent with smooth exponential disks, suggesting that caution should be exercised when identifying candidate clumps in even moderate signal-to-noise ratio interferometric data. We compare our maps to comparable-resolution Hubble Space Telescope {H}160-band images, finding that the stellar morphologies appear significantly more extended and disturbed, and suggesting that major mergers may be responsible for driving the formation of the compact dust disks we observe. The stark contrast between the obscured and unobscured morphologies may also have implications for SED fitting routines that assume the dust is co-located with the optical/near-IR continuum emission. Finally, we discuss the potential of the current bursts of star formation to transform the observed galaxy sizes and light profiles, showing that the z˜ 0 descendants of these SMGs are expected to have stellar masses, effective radii, and gas surface densities consistent with the most compact massive ({M}* ˜ 1-2 × 1011 {M}⊙ ) early-type galaxies observed locally.

  13. High-redshift supernova rates measured with the gravitational telescope A 1689

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrushevska, T.; Amanullah, R.; Goobar, A.; Fabbro, S.; Johansson, J.; Kjellsson, T.; Lidman, C.; Paech, K.; Richard, J.; Dahle, H.; Ferretti, R.; Kneib, J. P.; Limousin, M.; Nordin, J.; Stanishev, V.

    2016-10-01

    >10-12 SNe L,B-1 yr-1), where the error bars indicate 1σ confidence intervals, statistical and systematic, respectively. The cluster rate normalized by the stellar mass is 0.10+0.13-0.096±0.02 in SNuM h2 (SNuM ≡10-12SNe M-1⊙ yr-1). Furthermore, we explore the optimal future survey for improving the core-collapse supernova rate measurements at z ≳ 2 using gravitational telescopes, and for detections with multiply lensed images, and we find that the planned WFIRST space mission has excellent prospects. Conclusions: Massive clusters can be used as gravitational telescopes to significantly expand the survey range of supernova searches, with important implications for the study of the high-z transient Universe. Based on observations made with European Southern Observatory (ESO) telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under programme ID 082.A-0431; 0.83.A-0398, 091.A-0108 and ID 093.A-0278, PI: A. Goobar.The deep average image (FITS file) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/594/A54

  14. The Star Formation History of BCGs to z = 1.8 from the SpARCS/SWIRE Survey: Evidence for Significant In Situ Star Formation at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Tracy M. A.; Muzzin, Adam; Noble, Allison; Bonaventura, Nina; Geach, James; Hezevah, Yashar; Lidman, Chris; Wilson, Gillian; Yee, H. K. C.; Surace, Jason; Shupe, David

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of an MIPS-24 μm study of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) of 535 high-redshift galaxy clusters. The clusters are drawn from the Spitzer Adaptation of the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey, which effectively provides a sample selected on total stellar mass, over 0.2 < z < 1.8 within the Spitzer Wide-Area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) Survey fields. Twenty percent, or 106 clusters, have spectroscopically confirmed redshifts, and the rest have redshifts estimated from the color of their red sequence. A comparison with the public SWIRE images detects 125 individual BCGs at 24 μm ≳ 100 μJy, or 23%. The luminosity-limited detection rate of BCGs in similar richness clusters (Ngal > 12) increases rapidly with redshift. Above z ∼ 1, an average of ∼20% of the sample have 24 μm inferred infrared luminosities of LIR > 1012 L⊙, while the fraction below z ∼ 1 exhibiting such luminosities is <1%. The Spitzer-IRAC colors indicate the bulk of the 24 μm detected population is predominantly powered by star formation, with only 7/125 galaxies lying within the color region inhabited by active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Simple arguments limit the star formation activity to several hundred million years and this may therefore be indicative of the timescale for AGN feedback to halt the star formation. Below redshift z ∼ 1, there is not enough star formation to significantly contribute to the overall stellar mass of the BCG population, and therefore BCG growth is likely dominated by dry mergers. Above z ∼ 1, however, the inferred star formation would double the stellar mass of the BCGs and is comparable to the mass assembly predicted by simulations through dry mergers. We cannot yet constrain the process driving the star formation for the overall sample, though a single object studied in detail is consistent with a gas-rich merger.

  15. The Argo simulation - I. Quenching of massive galaxies at high redshift as a result of cosmological starvation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldmann, Robert; Mayer, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Observations show a prevalence of high-redshift galaxies with large stellar masses and predominantly passive stellar populations. A variety of processes have been suggested that could reduce the star formation in such galaxies to observed levels, including quasar mode feedback, virial shock heating, or galactic winds driven by stellar feedback. However, the main quenching mechanisms have yet to be identified. Here we study the origin of star formation quenching using Argo, a cosmological, hydrodynamical zoom-in simulation that follows the evolution of a massive galaxy at z ≥ 2. This simulation adopts the same subgrid recipes of the Eris simulations, which have been shown to form realistic disc galaxies, and, in one version, adopts also a mass and spatial resolution identical to Eris. The resulting galaxy has properties consistent with those of observed, massive (M* ˜ 1011 M⊙) galaxies at z ˜ 2 and with abundance matching predictions. Our models do not include active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback indicating that supermassive black holes likely play a subordinate role in determining masses and sizes of massive galaxies at high-z. The specific star formation rate (sSFR) of the simulated galaxy matches the observed M*-sSFR relation at early times. This period of smooth stellar mass growth comes to a sudden halt at z = 3.5 when the sSFR drops by almost an order of magnitude within a few hundred Myr. The suppression is initiated by a levelling off and a subsequent reduction of the cool gas accretion rate on to the galaxy, and not by feedback processes. This `cosmological starvation' occurs as the parent dark matter halo switches from a fast collapsing mode to a slow accretion mode. Additional mechanisms, such as perhaps radio mode feedback from an AGN, are needed to quench any residual star formation of the galaxy and to maintain a low sSFR until the present time.

  16. GOODS-HERSCHEL: SEPARATING HIGH-REDSHIFT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STAR-FORMING GALAXIES USING INFRARED COLOR DIAGNOSTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Daddi, Emmanuele; Elbaz, David; Pannella, Maurilio; Aussel, Herve; Dasyra, Kalliopi; Leiton, Roger; Scott, Douglas; Magnelli, Benjamin; Popesso, Paola; Altieri, Bruno; Coia, Daniela; Valtchanov, Ivan; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Dickinson, Mark; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Magdis, Georgios

    2013-02-15

    We have compiled a large sample of 151 high-redshift (z = 0.5-4) galaxies selected at 24 {mu}m (S {sub 24} > 100 {mu}Jy) in the GOODS-N and ECDFS fields for which we have deep Spitzer IRS spectroscopy, allowing us to decompose the mid-infrared spectrum into contributions from star formation and activity in the galactic nuclei. In addition, we have a wealth of photometric data from Spitzer IRAC/MIPS and Herschel PACS/SPIRE. We explore how effective different infrared color combinations are at separating our mid-IR spectroscopically determined active galactic nuclei from our star-forming galaxies. We look in depth at existing IRAC color diagnostics, and we explore new color-color diagnostics combining mid-IR, far-IR, and near-IR photometry, since these combinations provide the most detail about the shape of a source's IR spectrum. An added benefit of using a color that combines far-IR and mid-IR photometry is that it is indicative of the power source driving the IR luminosity. For our data set, the optimal color selections are S {sub 250}/S {sub 24} versus S {sub 8}/S {sub 3.6} and S {sub 100}/S {sub 24} versus S {sub 8}/S {sub 3.6}; both diagnostics have {approx}10% contamination rate in the regions occupied primarily by star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei, respectively. Based on the low contamination rate, these two new IR color-color diagnostics are ideal for estimating both the mid-IR power source of a galaxy when spectroscopy is unavailable and the dominant power source contributing to the IR luminosity. In the absence of far-IR data, we present color diagnostics using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-IR bands which can efficiently select out high-z (z {approx} 2) star-forming galaxies.

  17. Dark-ages Reionization and Galaxy formation simulation - I. The dynamical lives of high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, Gregory B.; Angel, Paul W.; Mutch, Simon J.; Power, Chris; Duffy, Alan R.; Geil, Paul M.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, Stuart B.

    2016-07-01

    We present the Dark-ages Reionization and Galaxy formation Observables from Numerical Simulations (DRAGONS) programme and Tiamat, the collisionless N-body simulation programme upon which DRAGONS is built. The primary trait distinguishing Tiamat from other large simulation programme is its density of outputs at high redshift (100 from z = 35 to z = 5; roughly one every 10 Myr) enabling the construction of very accurate merger trees at an epoch when galaxy formation is rapid and mergers extremely frequent. We find that the friends-of-friends halo mass function agrees well with the prediction of Watson et al. at high masses, but deviates at low masses, perhaps due to our use of a different halo finder or perhaps indicating a break from `universal' behaviour. We then analyse the dynamical evolution of galaxies during the Epoch of Reionization finding that only a small fraction (˜20 per cent) of galactic haloes are relaxed. We illustrate this using standard relaxation metrics to establish two dynamical recovery time-scales: (i) haloes need ˜1.5 dynamical times following formation, and (ii) ˜2 dynamical times following a major (3:1) or minor (10:1) merger to be relaxed. This is remarkably consistent across a wide mass range. Lastly, we use a phase-space halo finder to illustrate that major mergers drive long-lived massive phase-space structures which take many dynamical times to dissipate. This can yield significant differences in the inferred mass build-up of galactic haloes and we suggest that care must be taken to ensure a physically meaningful match between the galaxy formation physics of semi-analytic models and the halo finders supplying their input.

  18. The detection of FIR emission from high-redshift star-forming galaxies in the ECDF-S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, L. J. M.; Bremer, M. N.; Stanway, E. R.; Lehnert, M. D.

    2013-08-01

    fact the most actively star-forming systems. All of our z ˜ 3 samples fall on the `main sequence' of star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 3 and our detected sub-samples are likely to represent the high obscuration end of the LBGs population at their epoch. We compare the FIR properties of our sub-samples with various other galaxy populations, finding that our stellar mass selected sample shows some similar FIR characteristics to Submillimeter Galaxies (SMGs) at the same epoch and therefore potentially represents the low FIR luminosity end of the high-redshift FIR luminosity function.

  19. LMT imaging of the Extended Groth Strip: a search for the high-redshift tail of the sub-mm galaxy population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretxaga, Itziar

    2015-08-01

    The combination of short and long-wavelength deep (sub-)mm surveys can effectively be used to identify high-redshift sub-millimeter galaxies (z>4). Having star formation rates in excess of 500 Msun/yr, these bright (sub-)mm sources have been identified with the progenitors of massive elliptical galaxies undergoing rapid growth. With this purpose in mind, we are surveying a 20 sq. arcmin field within the Extended Groth Strip with the 1.1mm AzTEC camera mounted at the Large Millimeter Telescope that overlaps with the deep 450/850um SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey and the CANDELS deep NIR imaging. The improved beamsize of the LMT (8”) over previous surveys aids the identification of the most prominent optical/IR counterparts. We discuss the high-redshift candidates found.

  20. Absorption-line Spectroscopy of Gravitationally Lensed Galaxies: Further Constraints on the Escape Fraction of Ionizing Photons at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leethochawalit, Nicha; Jones, Tucker A.; Ellis, Richard S.; Stark, Daniel P.; Zitrin, Adi

    2016-11-01

    The fraction of ionizing photons escaping from high-redshift star-forming galaxies is a key obstacle in evaluating whether galaxies were the primary agents of cosmic reionization. We previously proposed using the covering fraction of low-ionization gas, measured via deep absorption-line spectroscopy, as a proxy. We now present a significant update, sampling seven gravitationally lensed sources at 4 < z < 5. We show that the absorbing gas in our sources is spatially inhomogeneous, with a median covering fraction of 66%. Correcting for reddening according to a dust-in-cloud model, this implies an estimated absolute escape fraction of ≃19% ± 6%. With possible biases and uncertainties, collectively we find that the average escape fraction could be reduced to no less than 11%, excluding the effect of spatial variations. For one of our lensed sources, we have sufficient signal-to-noise ratio to demonstrate the presence of such spatial variations and scatter in its dependence on the Lyα equivalent width, consistent with recent simulations. If this source is typical, our lower limit to the escape fraction could be reduced by a further factor ≃2. Across our sample, we find a modest anticorrelation between the inferred escape fraction and the local star formation rate, consistent with a time delay between a burst and leaking Lyman continuum photons. Our analysis demonstrates considerable variations in the escape fraction, consistent with being governed by the small-scale behavior of star-forming regions, whose activities fluctuate over short timescales. This supports the suggestion that the escape fraction may increase toward the reionization era when star formation becomes more energetic and burst-like.

  1. THE XMM CLUSTER SURVEY: THE BUILD-UP OF STELLAR MASS IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Stott, J. P.; Collins, C. A.; Hilton, M.; Capozzi, D.; Sahlen, M.; Lloyd-Davies, E.; Hosmer, M.; Liddle, A. R.; Mehrtens, N.; Romer, A. K.; Miller, C. J.; Stanford, S. A.; Viana, P. T. P.; Davidson, M.; Hoyle, B.; Kay, S. T.; Nichol, R. C.

    2010-07-20

    We present deep J- and K{sub s} -band photometry of 20 high redshift galaxy clusters between z = 0.8 and1.5, 19 of which are observed with the MOIRCS instrument on the Subaru telescope. By using near-infrared light as a proxy for stellar mass we find the surprising result that the average stellar mass of Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) has remained constant at {approx}9 x 10{sup 11} M {sub sun} since z {approx} 1.5. We investigate the effect on this result of differing star formation histories generated by three well-known and independent stellar population codes and find it to be robust for reasonable, physically motivated choices of age and metallicity. By performing Monte Carlo simulations we find that the result is unaffected by any correlation between BCG mass and cluster mass in either the observed or model clusters. The large stellar masses imply that the assemblage of these galaxies took place at the same time as the initial burst of star formation. This result leads us to conclude that dry merging has had little effect on the average stellar mass of BCGs over the last 9-10 Gyr in stark contrast to the predictions of semi-analytic models, based on the hierarchical merging of dark matter halos, which predict a more protracted mass build-up over a Hubble time. However, we discuss that there is potential for reconciliation between observation and theory if there is a significant growth of material in the intracluster light over the same period.

  2. THE MOST METAL-POOR DAMPED Lyα SYSTEMS: AN INSIGHT INTO DWARF GALAXIES AT HIGH-REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Pettini, Max; Jorgenson, Regina A.

    2015-02-10

    In this paper we analyze the kinematics, chemistry, and physical properties of a sample of the most metal-poor damped Lyα systems (DLAs), to uncover their links to modern-day galaxies. We present evidence that the DLA population as a whole exhibits a ''knee'' in the relative abundances of the α-capture and Fe-peak elements when the metallicity is [Fe/H] ≅ –2.0, assuming that Zn traces the buildup of Fe-peak elements. In this respect, the chemical evolution of DLAs is clearly different from that experienced by Milky Way halo stars, but resembles that of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group. We also find a close correspondence between the kinematics of Local Group dwarf galaxies and of high-redshift metal-poor DLAs, which further strengthens this connection. On the basis of such similarities, we propose that the most metal-poor DLAs provide us with a unique opportunity to directly study the dwarf galaxy population more than ten billion years in the past, at a time when many dwarf galaxies were forming the bulk of their stars. To this end, we have measured some of the key physical properties of the DLA gas, including their neutral gas mass, size, kinetic temperature, density, and turbulence. We find that metal-poor DLAs contain a warm neutral medium with T {sub gas} ≅ 9600 K predominantly held up by thermal pressure. Furthermore, all of the DLAs in our sample exhibit a subsonic turbulent Mach number, implying that the gas distribution is largely smooth. These results are among the first empirical descriptions of the environments where the first few generations of stars may have formed in the universe.

  3. Mid-UV Imaging of Nearby Early to Mid-Type Galaxies as Templates for High Redshift Galaxy Classifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarenza, C. A. T.; Windhorst, R. A.; Taylor, V. A.; Odewahn, S. C.; Conselice, C. J.; MacKenty, J.; de Jong, R. S.; de Grijs, R.; Eskridge, P. B.; Frogel, J. A.; Gallagher, J. S.; Kobulnicky, H.; Hibbard, J. E.; Matthews, L. D.; O'Connell, R. W.

    2000-12-01

    Current samples of high redshift galaxies are primarily observed in their restframe mid-UV. They often resemble nearby late type galaxies, but are they really physically similar classes of objects? To explore this question we did a systematic imaging survey with the HST/WFPC2 of 37 nearby galaxies in two mid-UV bands. Our sample is carefully selected for size and surface brightness over a wide range of Hubble types and inclinations. All objects (will) have ground based UBVRIJ(H)K images, and 15 have far UV UIT images. The mid-UV is the missing keystone. With it we can examine the distribution of star formation and its history, dust, the SED's of star forming regions, and differentiate between age and metallicity. Our first results from this Cycle 9 project are: (1) Early type galaxies can show significant changes from the mid-UV to the red. Some are quite dim in the UV, reflecting their old stellar population. Others become point sources in the mid-UV (LINER's, Seyferts). This raises the question to what extent the apparently strong cosmological evolution of weak AGN in early type galaxies is due to ``morphological K-correction.'' (2) Mid type spirals and star forming galaxies can appear as later or different types in the mid-UV. Dust lanes are well traceable comparing F300W to F814W. We see a considerable range in scale and surface brightness of individual star-forming regions. We acknowledge NASA ADP grant NAG-6740, ASU NASA Space Grants, and NASA grants GO-8645.01-99A and AR-8765.01-99A from STScI. Based on observations with the VATT: the Alice P. Lennon Telescope and the Thomas J. Bannan Astrophysics Facility.

  4. IMPROVED PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS WITH SURFACE LUMINOSITY PRIORS

    SciTech Connect

    Xia Lifang; Cohen, Seth; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Grogin, Norman; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Pirzkal, Nor; Xu Chun

    2009-07-15

    We apply Bayesian statistics with prior probabilities of galaxy surface luminosity (SL) to improve photometric redshifts. We apply the method to a sample of 1266 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the GOODS North and South fields at 0.1 {approx}< z {approx}< 2.0. We start with spectrophotometric redshifts (SPZs) based on Probing Evolution and Reionization Spectroscopically grism spectra, which cover a wavelength range of 6000-9000 A, combined with (U)BViz(JHK) broadband photometry in the GOODS fields. The accuracy of SPZ redshifts is estimated to be {sigma}({delta}(z)) = 0.035 with an systematic offset of -0.026, where {delta}(z) = {delta}z/(1 + z), for galaxies in redshift range of 0.5 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.25. The addition of the SL prior probability helps break the degeneracy of SPZ redshifts between low redshift 4000 A break galaxies and high-redshift Lyman break galaxies which are mostly catastrophic outliers. For the 1138 galaxies at z {approx}< 1.6, the fraction of galaxies with redshift deviation {delta}(z)>0.2 is reduced from 15.0% to 10.4%, while the rms scatter of the fractional redshift error does not change much.

  5. The high-redshift gamma-ray burst GRB 140515A. A comprehensive X-ray and optical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melandri, A.; Bernardini, M. G.; D'Avanzo, P.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Nappo, F.; Nava, L.; Japelj, J.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Oates, S.; Campana, S.; Covino, S.; D'Elia, V.; Ghirlanda, G.; Gafton, E.; Ghisellini, G.; Gnedin, N.; Goldoni, P.; Gorosabel, J.; Libbrecht, T.; Malesani, D.; Salvaterra, R.; Thöne, C. C.; Vergani, S. D.; Xu, D.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2015-09-01

    High-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) offer several advantages when studying the distant Universe, providing unique information about the structure and properties of the galaxies in which they exploded. Spectroscopic identification with large ground-based telescopes has improved our knowledge of this kind of distant events. We present the multi-wavelength analysis of the high-zSwift GRB GRB 140515A (z = 6.327). The best estimate of the neutral hydrogen fraction of the intergalactic medium towards the burst is xHI ≤ 0.002. The spectral absorption lines detected for this event are the weakest lines ever observed in GRB afterglows, suggesting that GRB 140515A exploded in a very low-density environment. Its circum-burst medium is characterised by an average extinction (AV ~ 0.1) that seems to be typical of z ≥ 6 events. The observed multi-band light curves are explained either with a very hard injected spectrum (p = 1.7) or with a multi-component emission (p = 2.1). In the second case a long-lasting central engine activity is needed in order to explain the late time X-ray emission. The possible origin of GRB 140515A in a Pop III (or in a Pop II star with a local environment enriched by Pop III) massive star is unlikely. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, ESO, the VLT/Kueyen telescope, Paranal, Chile (proposal code: 093.A-0069), on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (programme 49-008), and on observations made with the Italian 3.6-m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), operated by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Instituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (programme A26TAC_63).Appendix A is available in electronic form at

  6. Planck intermediate results. XXVII. High-redshift infrared galaxy overdensity candidates and lensed sources discovered by Planck and confirmed by Herschel-SPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Altieri, B.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Beelen, A.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Canameras, R.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Danese, L.; Dassas, K.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Falgarone, E.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frye, B.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Guéry, D.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Floc'h, E.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacKenzie, T.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martinache, C.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Omont, A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Pasian, F.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roudier, G.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Valtchanov, I.; Van Tent, B.; Vieira, J. D.; Vielva, P.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Welikala, N.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2015-10-01

    We have used the Planck all-sky submillimetre and millimetre maps to search for rare sources distinguished by extreme brightness, a few hundred millijanskies, and their potential for being situated at high redshift. These "cold" Planck sources, selected using the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) directly from the maps and from the Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS), all satisfy the criterion of having their rest-frame far-infrared peak redshifted to the frequency range 353-857 GHz. This colour-selection favours galaxies in the redshift range z = 2-4, which we consider as cold peaks in the cosmic infrared background. With a 4.´5 beam at the four highest frequencies, our sample is expected to include overdensities of galaxies in groups or clusters, lensed galaxies, and chance line-of-sight projections. We perform a dedicated Herschel-SPIRE follow-up of 234 such Planck targets, finding a significant excess of red 350 and 500μm sources, in comparison to reference SPIRE fields. About 94% of the SPIRE sources in the Planck fields are consistent with being overdensities of galaxies peaking at 350μm, with 3% peaking at 500μm, and none peaking at 250μm. About 3% are candidate lensed systems, all 12 of which have secure spectroscopic confirmations, placing them at redshifts z> 2.2. Only four targets are Galactic cirrus, yielding a success rate in our search strategy for identifying extragalactic sources within the Planck beam of better than 98%. The galaxy overdensities are detected with high significance, half of the sample showing statistical significance above 10σ. The SPIRE photometric redshifts of galaxies in overdensities suggest a peak at z ≃ 2, assuming a single common dust temperature for the sources of Td = 35 K. Under this assumption, we derive an infrared (IR) luminosity for each SPIRE source of about 4 × 1012L⊙, yielding star formation rates of typically 700 M⊙ yr-1. If the observed overdensities are actual gravitationally-bound structures

  7. A multi-wavelength imaging study of a large sample of galaxies at z˜2: Implications for star formation and dust properties at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivaei, Irene; Reddy, N.

    2014-01-01

    From a unique sample of 262 UV-selected galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts at z˜2 and rest-UV through Spitzer/IRAC near-IR photometry, we investigate their star-formation rates and dust attenuation based on multiple diagnostics. The sample includes galaxies at redshifts 2.08≤z≤2.51, where H-alpha falls in the K-band, and where the H-alpha flux can be estimated by comparing the K-band photometry to stellar population model fits to the UV- to near-IR photometry. This technique has the advantage of being immune to uncertain corrections for slit loss that can affect spectroscopic measurements of H-alpha. Comparing the H-alpha SFRs with those from the UV shows a general agreement between the two tracers if we assume that the nebular lines are attenuated by the same amount as the stellar continuum. We use the H-alpha, UV, and Spitzer/MIPS 24 micron data (where available) to examine the bolometric SFRs and recipes for dust corrections at high redshift.

  8. VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS): IGM transmission towards galaxies with 2.5 < z < 5.5 and the colour selection of high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R.; Le Fèvre, O.; Le Brun, V.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Lemaux, B. C.; Maccagni, D.; Pentericci, L.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Amorin, R.; Bardelli, S.; Cassarà, L.; Castellano, M.; Cimatti, A.; Cucciati, O.; Durkalec, A.; Fontana, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Ilbert, O.; Paltani, S.; Pforr, J.; Ribeiro, B.; Schaerer, D.; Scodeggio, M.; Sommariva, V.; Talia, M.; Tresse, L.; Vanzella, E.; Vergani, D.; Capak, P.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; Cuby, J. G.; de la Torre, S.; Dunlop, J.; Fotopoulou, S.; Koekemoer, A.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Mellier, Y.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Wang, P. W.

    2017-01-01

    The observed UV rest-frame spectra of distant galaxies are the result of their intrinsic emission combined with absorption along the line of sight produced by the inter-galactic medium (IGM). Here we analyse the evolution of the mean IGM transmission Tr(Lyα) and its dispersion along the line of sight for 2127 galaxies with 2.5 < z < 5.5 in the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS). We fitted model spectra combined with a range of IGM transmission to the galaxy spectra using the spectral fitting algorithm GOSSIP+. We used these fits to derive the mean IGM transmission towards each galaxy for several redshift slices from z = 2.5 to z = 5.5. We found that the mean IGM transmission defined as Tr(Lyα) = e- τ (with τ as the HI optical depth) is 79%, 69%, 59%, 55%, and 46% at redshifts 2.75, 3.22, 3.70, 4.23, and 4.77, respectively. We compared these results to measurements obtained from quasar lines of sight and found that the IGM transmission towards galaxies is in excellent agreement with quasar values up to redshift z 4. We found tentative evidence for a higher IGM transmission at z ≥ 4 compared to results from QSOs, but a degeneracy between dust extinction and IGM prevents us from firmly concluding whether the internal dust extinction for star-forming galaxies at z > 4 takes a mean value significantly in excess of E(B-V) > 0.15. Most importantly, we found a large dispersion of IGM transmission along the lines of sight towards distant galaxies with 68% of the distribution within 10 to 17% of the median value in δz = 0.5 bins, similar to what is found on the lines of sight towards QSOs. We demonstrate that taking this broad range of IGM transmission into account is important when selecting high-redshift galaxies based on their colour properties (e.g. LBG or photometric redshiftselection) because failing to do so causes a significant incompleteness in selecting high-redshift galaxy populations. We finally discuss the observed IGM properties and speculate that the broad

  9. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF BCGs TO z = 1.8 FROM THE SpARCS/SWIRE SURVEY: EVIDENCE FOR SIGNIFICANT IN SITU STAR FORMATION AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Tracy M. A.; Bonaventura, Nina; Muzzin, Adam; Noble, Allison; Yee, H. K. C.; Geach, James; Hezevah, Yashar; Lidman, Chris; Wilson, Gillian; Surace, Jason

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of an MIPS-24 μm study of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) of 535 high-redshift galaxy clusters. The clusters are drawn from the Spitzer Adaptation of the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey, which effectively provides a sample selected on total stellar mass, over 0.2 < z < 1.8 within the Spitzer Wide-Area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) Survey fields. Twenty percent, or 106 clusters, have spectroscopically confirmed redshifts, and the rest have redshifts estimated from the color of their red sequence. A comparison with the public SWIRE images detects 125 individual BCGs at 24 μm ≳ 100 μJy, or 23%. The luminosity-limited detection rate of BCGs in similar richness clusters (N{sub gal} > 12) increases rapidly with redshift. Above z ∼ 1, an average of ∼20% of the sample have 24 μm inferred infrared luminosities of L{sub IR} > 10{sup 12} L{sub ⊙}, while the fraction below z ∼ 1 exhibiting such luminosities is <1%. The Spitzer-IRAC colors indicate the bulk of the 24 μm detected population is predominantly powered by star formation, with only 7/125 galaxies lying within the color region inhabited by active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Simple arguments limit the star formation activity to several hundred million years and this may therefore be indicative of the timescale for AGN feedback to halt the star formation. Below redshift z ∼ 1, there is not enough star formation to significantly contribute to the overall stellar mass of the BCG population, and therefore BCG growth is likely dominated by dry mergers. Above z ∼ 1, however, the inferred star formation would double the stellar mass of the BCGs and is comparable to the mass assembly predicted by simulations through dry mergers. We cannot yet constrain the process driving the star formation for the overall sample, though a single object studied in detail is consistent with a gas-rich merger.

  10. The KMOS AGN Survey at High redshift (KASHz): the prevalence and drivers of ionized outflows in the host galaxies of X-ray AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, C. M.; Alexander, D. M.; Mullaney, J. R.; Stott, J. P.; Swinbank, A. M.; Arumugam, V.; Bauer, F. E.; Bower, R. G.; Bunker, A. J.; Sharples, R. M.

    2016-02-01

    We present the first results from the KMOS (K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph) AGN (active galactic nuclei) Survey at High redshift (KASHz), a VLT/KMOS integral-field spectroscopic (IFS) survey of z ≳ 0.6 AGN. We present galaxy-integrated spectra of 89 X-ray AGN (L2-10 keV = 1042-1045 erg s-1), for which we observed [O III] (z ≈ 1.1-1.7) or Hα emission (z ≈ 0.6-1.1). The targets have X-ray luminosities representative of the parent AGN population and we explore the emission-line luminosities as a function of X-ray luminosity. For the [O III] targets, ≈50 per cent have ionized gas velocities indicative of gas that is dominated by outflows and/or highly turbulent material (i.e. overall line widths ≳600 km s-1). The most luminous half (i.e. LX > 6 × 1043 erg s-1) have a ≳2 times higher incidence of such velocities. On the basis of our results, we find no evidence that X-ray obscured AGN are more likely to host extreme kinematics than unobscured AGN. Our KASHz sample has a distribution of gas velocities that is consistent with a luminosity-matched sample of z < 0.4 AGN. This implies little evolution in the prevalence of ionized outflows, for a fixed AGN luminosity, despite an order-of-magnitude decrease in average star formation rates over this redshift range. Furthermore, we compare our Hα targets to a redshift-matched sample of star-forming galaxies and despite a similar distribution of Hα luminosities and likely star formation rates, we find extreme ionized gas velocities are up to ≈10 times more prevalent in the AGN-host galaxies. Our results reveal a high prevalence of extreme ionized gas velocities in high-luminosity X-ray AGN and imply that the most powerful ionized outflows in high-redshift galaxies are driven by AGN activity.

  11. Constraining the population of radio-loud active galactic nuclei at high redshift with the power spectrum of the 21 cm Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Dillon, Joshua S.; Mesinger, Andrei; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.

    2014-06-01

    The 21 cm forest, the absorption by the intergalactic medium (IGM) towards a high redshift radio-loud source, is a probe of the thermal state of the IGM. To date, the literature has focused on line-of-sight spectral studies of a single quasar known to have a large redshift. We instead examine many sources in a wide field of view, and show that the imprint from the 21 cm forest absorption of these sources is detectible in the power spectrum. The properties of the power spectrum can reveal information on the population of the earliest radio loud sources that may have existed during the pre-reionization epoch at z>10.Using semi-numerical simulations of the IGM and a semi-empirical source population, we show that the 21 cm forest dominates, in a distinctive region of Fourier space, the brightness temperature power spectrum that many contemporary experiments aim to measure. In particular, the forest dominates the diffuse emission on smaller spatial scales along the line of sight. Exploiting this separation, one may constrain the IGM thermal history, such as heating by the first X-ray sources, on large spatial scales and the absorption of radio loud active galactic nuclei on small ones.Using realistic simulations of noise and foregrounds, we show that planned instruments on the scale of the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) with a collecting area of one tenth of a square kilometer can detect the 21cm forest in this small spatial scale region with high signal to noise. We develop an analytic toy model for the signal and explore its detectability over a large range of thermal histories and potential high redshift source scenarios.

  12. The Discovery of a High-Redshift Quasar without Emission Lines from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Commissioning Data.

    PubMed

    Fan; Strauss; Gunn; Lupton; Carilli; Rupen; Schmidt; Moustakas; Davis; Annis; Bahcall; Brinkmann; Brunner; Csabai; Doi; Fukugita; Heckman; Hennessy; Hindsley; Ivezic; Knapp; Lamb; Munn; Pauls; Pier; Rockosi; Schneider; Szalay; Tucker; York

    1999-12-01

    We report observations of a luminous unresolved object at redshift z=4.62, with a featureless optical spectrum redward of the Lyalpha forest region, discovered from Sloan Digital Sky Survey commissioning data. The redshift is determined by the onset of the Lyalpha forest at lambda approximately 6800 Å and a Lyman limit system at lambda=5120 Å. A strong Lyalpha absorption system with weak metal absorption lines at z=4.58 is also identified in the spectrum. The object has a continuum absolute magnitude of -26.6 at 1450 Å in the rest frame (h0=0.5, q0=0.5) and therefore cannot be an ordinary galaxy. It shows no radio emission (the 3 sigma upper limit of its flux at 6 cm is 60 µJy), indicating a radio-to-optical flux ratio at least as small as that of the radio-weakest BL Lacertae objects known. It is also not linearly polarized to a 3 sigma upper limit of 4% in the observed I band. Therefore, it is either the most distant BL Lac object known to date, with very weak radio emission, or a new type of unbeamed quasar, whose broad emission line region is very weak or absent.

  13. The Hyperluminous Infrared Quasar 3C 318 and Its Implications for Interpreting Sub-MM Detections of High-Redshift Radio Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willott, Chris J.; Rawlings, Steve; Jarvis, Matt J.

    1999-01-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the compact steep-spectrum radio source 3C 318 which shows it to be a quasar at redshift z = 1.574 (the z = 0.752 value previously reported is incorrect). 3C 318 is an IRAS, ISO and SCUBA source so its new redshift makes it the most intrinsically luminous far-infrared (FIR) source in the 3C catalogue (there is no evidence of strong gravitational lensing effects). Its bolometric luminosity greatly exceeds the 10(exp 13) solar luminosity level above which an object is said to be hyperluminous. Its spectral energy distribution (SED) requires that the quasar heats the dust responsible for the FIR flux, as is believed to be the case in other hyperluminous galaxies, and contributes (at the greater than 10% level) to the heating of the CIA dust responsible for the sub-mm emission. We cannot determine whether a starburst makes an important contribution to the heating of the coolest dust, so evidence for a high star-formation rate is circumstantial being based on the high dust, and hence gas, C-1 mass required by its sub-mm detection. We show that the current sub-mm and FIR data available for the highest-redshift radio galaxies are consistent with SEDs similar to that of 3C 318. This indicates that at least some of this population may be detected in the sub-mm because of dust heated by the quasar nucleus, and that interpreting sub-mm detection as evidence for very high (approx. less than 1000 solar mass/yr) star-formation rates may not always be valid. We show that the 3C318 quasar is slightly reddened (A(sub v) approx. = 0.5), the most likely cause of which is SMC-type dust in the host galaxy. If very distant radio galaxies are reddened in a similar way then we show that only slightly greater amounts of dust could obscure the quasars in these sources. We speculate that the low fraction of quasars amongst the very high redshift (z approx. greater than 3) objects in low-frequency radio-selected samples is the result of

  14. Properties of the redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tifft, William G.; Cocke, W. J.

    1990-01-01

    Central to any analysis of dynamical systems, or large scale motion, is the interpretation of redshifts of galaxies as classical Doppler velocity shifts. This is a testable assumption and for many years evidence has accumulated that is inconsistent with the assumption. Here, the authors review recent evidence suggesting systematic radial dependence and temporal variation of redshifts.

  15. HIGH-REDSHIFT COOL-CORE GALAXY CLUSTERS DETECTED VIA THE SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT IN THE SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Semler, D. R.; Suhada, R.; Bazin, G.; Bocquet, S.; Desai, S.; Aird, K. A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M.; Bautz, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Brodwin, M.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; and others

    2012-12-20

    We report the first investigation of cool-core properties of galaxy clusters selected via their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. We use 13 galaxy clusters uniformly selected from 178 deg{sup 2} observed with the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and followed up by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. They form an approximately mass-limited sample (>3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun} h {sup -1}{sub 70}) spanning redshifts 0.3 < z < 1.1. Using previously published X-ray-selected cluster samples, we compare two proxies of cool-core strength: surface brightness concentration (c{sub SB}) and cuspiness ({alpha}). We find that c{sub SB} is better constrained. We measure c{sub SB} for the SPT sample and find several new z > 0.5 cool-core clusters, including two strong cool cores. This rules out the hypothesis that there are no z > 0.5 clusters that qualify as strong cool cores at the 5.4{sigma} level. The fraction of strong cool-core clusters in the SPT sample in this redshift regime is between 7% and 56% (95% confidence). Although the SPT selection function is significantly different from the X-ray samples, the high-z c{sub SB} distribution for the SPT sample is statistically consistent with that of X-ray-selected samples at both low and high redshifts. The cool-core strength is inversely correlated with the offset between the brightest cluster galaxy and the X-ray centroid, providing evidence that the dynamical state affects the cool-core strength of the cluster. Larger SZ-selected samples will be crucial in understanding the evolution of cluster cool cores over cosmic time.

  16. CuBANz: Photometric redshift estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samui, Saumyadip; Pal, Shanoli Samui

    2016-09-01

    CuBANz is a photometric redshift estimator code for high redshift galaxies that uses the back propagation neural network along with clustering of the training set, making it very efficient. The training set is divided into several self learning clusters with galaxies having similar photometric properties and spectroscopic redshifts within a given span. The clustering algorithm uses the color information (i.e. u-g, g-r etc.) rather than the apparent magnitudes at various photometric bands, as the photometric redshift is more sensitive to the flux differences between different bands rather than the actual values. The clustering method enables accurate determination of the redshifts. CuBANz considers uncertainty in the photometric measurements as well as uncertainty in the neural network training. The code is written in C.

  17. Photometric Redshifts in the IRAC Shallow Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Brodwin, M; Brown, M; Ashby, M; Bian, C; Brand, K; Dey, A; Eisenhardt, P; Eisenstein, D; Gonzalez, A; Huang, J; Kochanek, C; McKenzie, E; Pahre, M; Smith, H; Soifer, B; Stanford, S; Stern, D; Elston, R

    2006-06-13

    Accurate photometric redshifts are calculated for nearly 200,000 galaxies to a 4.5 micron flux limit of {approx} 13 {micro}Jy in the 8.5 deg{sup 2} Spitzer/IRAC Shallow survey. Using a hybrid photometric redshift algorithm incorporating both neural-net and template-fitting techniques, calibrated with over 15,000 spectroscopic redshifts, a redshift accuracy of {sigma} = 0.06 (1+z) is achieved for 95% of galaxies at 0 < z < 1.5. The accuracy is {sigma} = 0.12 (1 + z) for 95% of AGN at 0 < z < 3. Redshift probability functions, central to several ongoing studies of the galaxy population, are computed for the full sample. We demonstrate that these functions accurately represent the true redshift probability density, allowing the calculation of valid confidence intervals for all objects. These probability functions have already been used to successfully identify a population of Spitzer-selected high redshift (z > 1) galaxy clusters. We present one such spectroscopically confirmed cluster at = 1.24, ISCS J1434.2+3426. Finally, we present a measurement of the 4.5 {micro}m-selected galaxy redshift distribution.

  18. Herschel-ATLAS Galaxy Counts and High-redshift Luminosity Functions: The Formation of Massive Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapi, A.; González-Nuevo, J.; Fan, L.; Bressan, A.; De Zotti, G.; Danese, L.; Negrello, M.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; Maddox, S.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Bonfield, D. G.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Dariush, A.; Dye, S.; Fritz, J.; Herranz, D.; Hopwood, R.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R.; Jarvis, M. J.; Kaviraj, S.; López-Caniego, M.; Massardi, M.; Michałowski, M. J.; Pascale, E.; Pohlen, M.; Rigby, E.; Rodighiero, G.; Serjeant, S.; Smith, D. J. B.; Temi, P.; Wardlow, J.; van der Werf, P.

    2011-11-01

    Exploiting the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey Science Demonstration Phase survey data, we have determined the luminosity functions (LFs) at rest-frame wavelengths of 100 and 250 μm and at several redshifts z >~ 1, for bright submillimeter galaxies with star formation rates (SFRs) >~ 100 M ⊙ yr-1. We find that the evolution of the comoving LF is strong up to z ≈ 2.5, and slows down at higher redshifts. From the LFs and the information on halo masses inferred from clustering analysis, we derived an average relation between SFR and halo mass (and its scatter). We also infer that the timescale of the main episode of dust-enshrouded star formation in massive halos (M H >~ 3 × 1012 M ⊙) amounts to ~7 × 108 yr. Given the SFRs, which are in the range of 102-103 M ⊙ yr-1, this timescale implies final stellar masses of the order of 1011-1012 M ⊙. The corresponding stellar mass function matches the observed mass function of passively evolving galaxies at z >~ 1. The comparison of the statistics for submillimeter and UV-selected galaxies suggests that the dust-free, UV bright phase is >~ 102 times shorter than the submillimeter bright phase, implying that the dust must form soon after the onset of star formation. Using a single reference spectral energy distribution (SED; the one of the z ≈ 2.3 galaxy SMM J2135-0102), our simple physical model is able to reproduce not only the LFs at different redshifts >1 but also the counts at wavelengths ranging from 250 μm to ≈1 mm. Owing to the steepness of the counts and their relatively broad frequency range, this result suggests that the dispersion of submillimeter SEDs of z > 1 galaxies around the reference one is rather small. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  19. X-Ray Background at High Redshifts from Pop III Remnants: Results from Pop III Star Formation Rates in the Renaissance Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hao; Ahn, Kyungjin; Norman, Michael L.; Wise, John H.; O'Shea, Brian W.

    2016-11-01

    Due to their long mean free paths, X-rays are expected to have global impacts on the properties of the intergalactic medium (IGM) by their large-scale heating and ionizing processes. At high redshifts, X-rays from Population (Pop) III binaries might have important effects on cosmic reionization and the Lyα forest. As a continuation of our previous work on Pop III binary X-rays, we use the Pop III distribution and evolution from the Renaissance Simulations, a suite of self-consistent cosmological radiation hydrodynamics simulations of the formation of the first galaxies, to calculate the X-ray luminosity density and background over the redshift range 20≥slant z≥slant 7.6. As we find that Pop III star formation continues at a low, nearly constant rate to the end of reionization, X-rays are being continuously produced at significant rates compared to other possible X-ray sources, such as AGNs and normal X-ray binaries during the same period of time. We estimate that Pop III binaries produce approximately 6 eV of energy in the X-rays per hydrogen atom. We calculate the X-ray background for different monochromatic photon energies. KeV X-rays redshift and accumulate to produce a strong X-ray background spectrum extending to roughly 500 eV. The X-ray background is strong enough to heat the IGM to ˜1000 K and to ionize a few percent of the neutral hydrogen. These effects are important for an understanding of the neutral hydrogen hyperfine transition 21 cm line signatures, the Lyα forest, and the Thomson optical depth to the CMB.

  20. Gravitationally Lensed CO and Dust at High Redshift: New LMT/GTM Images and Spectra of Sub-Millimeter Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenthal, J. D.; Harrington, K.; Berman, D.; Yun, M.; Cybulski, R.; Wilson, G. W.; Aretxaga, I.; Chavez, M.; de La Luz, V.; Erickson, N.; Ferrusca, D.; Gallup, A.; Hughes, D.; Montaña, A.; Narayanan, G.; Sánchez-Argüelles, D.; Schloerb, F. P.; Souccar, K.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.; Zeballos, M.; Zavala, J. A.

    2017-03-01

    We have assembled a new sample of some of the most FIR-luminous galaxies in the Universe and have imaged them in 1.1 mm dust emission and measured their redshifts 1 < z < 4 via CO emission lines using the 32-m Large Millimeter Telescope / Gran Telescopio Milimétrico (LMT/GTM). Our sample of 31 submm galaxies (SMGs), culled from the Planck and Herschel all-sky surveys, includes 14 of the 21 most luminous galaxies known, with LFIR > 1014 L ⊙ and SFR > 104M⊙/yr. These extreme inferred luminosities - and multiple / extended 1.1 mm images - imply that most or all are strongly gravitationally lensed, with typical magnification μ ~ 10 × . The gravitational lensing provides two significant benefits: (1) it boosts the S/N, and (2) it allows investigation of star formation and gas processes on sub-kpc scales.

  1. First systematic search for oxygen-line blobs at high redshift: Uncovering AGN feedback and star formation quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Yuma, Suraphong; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki; Momose, Rieko; Drake, Alyssa B.; Simpson, Chris; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Akiyama, Masayuki; Mori, Masao; Umemura, Masayuki

    2013-12-10

    We present the first systematic search for extended metal-line [O II] λλ3726, 3729 nebulae, or [O II] blobs (O IIBs), at z = 1.2 using deep narrowband imaging with a survey volume of 1.9 × 10{sup 5} Mpc{sup 3} on the 0.62 deg{sup 2} sky of Subaru-XMM Deep Survey (SXDS) field. We discover a giant O IIB, called 'O IIB 1', with a spatial extent over ∼75 kpc at a spectroscopic redshift of z = 1.18, and also identify a total of 12 O IIBs with a size of >30 kpc. Our optical spectrum of O IIB 1 presents [Ne V] λ3426 line at the 6σ level, indicating that this object harbors an obscured type-2 active galactic nucleus (AGN). The presence of gas outflows in this object is suggested by two marginal detections of Fe II λ2587 absorption and Fe II* λ2613 emission lines both of which are blueshifted at as large as 500-600 km s{sup –1}, indicating that the heating source of O IIB 1 is AGN or associated shock excitation rather than supernovae produced by starbursts. The number density of O IIB 1-type giant blobs is estimated to be ∼5 × 10{sup –6} Mpc{sup –3} at z ∼ 1.2, which is comparable with that of AGNs driving outflow at a similar redshift, suggesting that giant O IIBs are produced only by AGN activity. On the other hand, the number density of small O IIBs, 6 × 10{sup –5} Mpc{sup –3}, compared to that of z ∼ 1 galaxies in the blue cloud in the same M{sub B} range, may imply that 3% of star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1 are quenching star formation through outflows involving extended [O II] emission.

  2. The Role of Environment in Shaping Galaxy Evolution at High Redshift: Insights from the SpARCS Cluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Gillian

    2015-08-01

    Between z = 2 and z = 1, the main progenitors of present-day massive clusters undergo rapid collapse, and cluster members transform from active star-forming to quiescent galaxies. The SpARCS survey is one of the largest surveys designed to detect clusters of galaxies at z> 1, and has discovered hundreds of Spitzer IR-selected clusters.I will present results from GCLASS, a 25-night Gemini/GMOS spectroscopic follow-up survey of ten of the most massive SpARCS clusters at z~1, and explain what we are learning about quenching and stellar mass assembly of galaxies in these, the densest of environments, relative to the field population. I will explain how predictions and observations of the stellar mass growth of Brightest Cluster Galaxies, previously controversially divergent, are now coming into agreement, and discuss the evidence for the relative importance of mergers versus in-situ star formation in driving this stellar mass growth as a function of redshift.I will also present a sample of newly-confirmed clusters at z~2 for which we have HST spectroscopy and imaging, and have been targeting with Keck/MOSFIRE. I will conclude by discussing GOGREEN and DEEPDRILL, two new large surveys approved by Gemini & Spitzer, designed to study the effects of environment at lower stellar mass and at higher redshift, respectively. Collectively, these powerful new surveys are beginning to allow us to place constraints on the location and timescale of quenching and, in concert with both hydro-simulations and semi-analytic models, identify the complex role of environment in shaping galaxy evolution over cosmic time.

  3. A Novel Approach to Constrain the Escape Fraction and Dust Content at High Redshift Using the Cosmic Infrared Background Fractional Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Elizabeth R.; Dole, Herve; Iliev, Ilian T.

    2013-02-01

    The Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) provides an opportunity to constrain many properties of the high-redshift (z > 6) stellar population as a whole. This background, specifically from 1 to 200 μm, should contain information about the era of reionization and the stars that are responsible for these ionizing photons. In this paper, we look at the fractional anisotropy (δI/I) of this high-redshift population, where δI is the ratio of the magnitude of the fluctuations and I is the mean intensity. We show that this can be used to constrain the escape fraction of the population as a whole, because the magnitude of the fluctuations of the CIB depends on the escape fraction, while the mean intensity does not. This results in lower values of the escape fraction producing higher values of the fractional anisotropy. This difference is predicted to be larger at longer wavelength bands (above 10 μm), albeit it is also much harder to observe in that range. We show that the fractional anisotropy can also be used to separate a dusty from a dust-free population. Finally, we discuss the constraints provided by current observations on the CIB fractional anisotropy.

  4. High-precision Photometric Redshifts from Spitzer/IRAC: Extreme [3.6] - [4.5] Colors Identify Galaxies in the Redshift Range z ˜ 6.6 - 6.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Renske; Bouwens, Rychard J.; Franx, Marijn; Oesch, Pascal A.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Labbé, Ivo; Holwerda, Benne; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Huang, J.-S.

    2015-03-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of studying galaxies in the z≳ 7 universe is the infrequent confirmation of their redshifts through spectroscopy, a phenomenon thought to occur from the increasing opacity of the intergalactic medium to Lyα photons at z\\gt 6.5. The resulting redshift uncertainties inhibit the efficient search for [C ii] in z˜ 7 galaxies with sub-millimeter instruments such as ALMA, given their limited scan speed for faint lines. One means by which to improve the precision of the inferred redshifts is to exploit the potential impact of strong nebular emission lines on the colors of z ˜ 4 - 8 galaxies as observed by Spitzer/IRAC. At z˜ 6.8, galaxies exhibit IRAC colors as blue as [3.6]-[4.5]˜ -1, likely due to the contribution of [O iii]+Hβ to the 3.6 μm flux combined with the absence of line contamination in the 4.5 μm band. In this paper we explore the use of extremely blue [3.6]-[4.5] colors to identify galaxies in the narrow redshift window z ˜ 6.6 - 6.9. When combined with an I-dropout criterion, we demonstrate that we can plausibly select a relatively clean sample of z˜ 6.8 galaxies. Through a systematic application of this selection technique to our catalogs from all five CANDELS fields, we identify 20 probable z ˜ 6.6 - 6.9 galaxies. We estimate that our criteria select the ˜50% strongest line emitters at z˜ 6.8 and from the IRAC colors we estimate a typical [O iii]+Hβ rest-frame equivalent width of 1085 Å for this sample. The small redshift uncertainties on our sample make it particularly well suited for follow-up studies with facilities such as ALMA.

  5. The kinematic component of the cosmological redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chodorowski, Michał J.

    2011-05-01

    It is widely believed that the cosmological redshift is not a Doppler shift. However, Bunn & Hogg have recently pointed out that to solve this problem properly, one has to transport parallelly the velocity four-vector of a distant galaxy to the observer's position. Performing such a transport along the null geodesic of photons arriving from the galaxy, they found that the cosmological redshift is purely kinematic. Here we argue that one should rather transport the velocity four-vector along the geodesic connecting the points of intersection of the world-lines of the galaxy and the observer with the hypersurface of constant cosmic time. We find that the resulting relation between the transported velocity and the redshift of arriving photons is not given by a relativistic Doppler formula. Instead, for small redshifts it coincides with the well-known non-relativistic decomposition of the redshift into a Doppler (kinematic) component and a gravitational one. We perform such a decomposition for arbitrary large redshifts and derive a formula for the kinematic component of the cosmological redshift, valid for any Friedman-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology. In particular, in a universe with Ωm= 0.24 and ΩΛ= 0.76, a quasar at a redshift 6, at the time of emission of photons reaching us today had the recession velocity v= 0.997c. This can be contrasted with v= 0.96c, had the redshift been entirely kinematic. Thus, for recession velocities of such high-redshift sources, the effect of deceleration of the early Universe clearly prevails over the effect of its relatively recent acceleration. Last but not the least, we show that the so-called proper recession velocities of galaxies, commonly used in cosmology, are in fact radial components of the galaxies' four-velocity vectors. As such, they can indeed attain superluminal values, but should not be regarded as real velocities.