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Sample records for high response injection

  1. A harmonic injection SPWM method for the high-responsive PMSM control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wang; Shuanghui, Hao; Minghui, Hao; Baoyu, Song

    2016-01-01

    In a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) control system, usually, the phase voltage instruction is limited independently to prevent a three-phase pulse width modulation (PWM) wave from overflowing. This method decreases the efficiency of the bus voltage and causes voltage vector direction errors. To solve these problems, we propose a harmonic injection sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (SPWM). This method uses harmonic injected sinusoidal PWM to improve the utilisation ratio of the bus voltage, and consequently improve system performance. In this paper, we analyse the problem in terms of potential difference. The simulation results show that the proposed method can increase the utilisation ratio of the bus voltage up to 15.4%, and the voltage vector mode obtained with the proposed algorithm is larger than that obtained with the conventional one. The method with harmonic injection consequently improves current response, without affecting voltage vector accuracy. The experiment results validate the proposed method.

  2. Diesel fuel injection pump with electromagnetic fuel spilling valve having pilot valve providing high responsiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, F.; Ito, Y.; Miyagi, H.

    1986-04-01

    A fuel injection system for a diesel engine is described having a plurality of cylinders coupled to a crankshaft, the fuel injection system consisting of: a housing with a cylindrical bore formed therein; an input shaft mounted coaxially with the bore and rotatable in a predetermined phase relation with the crankshaft of the engine; a plunger slidably mounted in the bore, one end of the plunger defining with the bore a high pressure chamber, and another end of the plunger being rotationally engaged with the input shaft but being free to move axially with respect to the input shaft; means for axially reciprocating the plunger in the bore according to the rotational position of the plunger; means for communicating the high pressure chamber selectively with respective cylinders of the engine according to the rotational position of the plunger substantially only when the plunger is moving in a delivery stroke, axially in a direction to reduce the size of the high pressure chamber; a valve body having an internal chamber communicating with the high pressure chamber, with a vent passage leading from the internal chamber for venting the high pressure chamber; a valve element located in the internal chamber and having an orifice, one side of the orifice communicating with the high pressure chamber; and an electromagnetically operated pilot valve which is selectively electromagnetically driven when electrical energy is supplied thereto so as to close a normally open passage which vents a space on the other side of the orifice remote from the high pressure chamber.

  3. High-pressure injection injuries.

    PubMed

    Neal, N C; Burke, F D

    1991-11-01

    A retrospective review of the 11 patients attending the Hand Unit at the Derbyshire Royal Infirmary over the last 5 years with high-pressure injection injuries is presented. The machines and materials that cause these injuries are outlined and the methods of treatment and rehabilitation are described in detail. The study demonstrates the morbidity of high-pressure injection injuries, particularly those inflicted by paint spray guns, and highlights a frequent delay between injury and decompression of the injured part. We wish to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis, referral, exploration and rehabilitation to ensure an optimal outcome, and to point out that failure to refer early is becoming an increasing focus of negligence claims.

  4. Quasi-Static and High Strain Rate Compressive Response of Injection-Molded Cenosphere/HDPE Syntactic Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharath Kumar, B. R.; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Luong, Dung D.; Gupta, Nikhil

    2016-07-01

    High strain rate compressive properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix syntactic foams containing cenosphere filler are investigated. Thermoplastic matrix syntactic foams have not been studied extensively for high strain rate deformation response despite interest in them for lightweight underwater vehicle structures and consumer products. Quasi-static compression tests are conducted at 10-4 s-1, 10-3 s-1 and 10-2 s-1 strain rates. Further, a split-Hopkinson pressure bar is utilized for characterizing syntactic foams for high strain rate compression. The compressive strength of syntactic foams is higher than that of HDPE resin at the same strain rate. Yield strength shows an increasing trend with strain rate. The average yield strength values at high strain rates are almost twice the values obtained at 10-4 s-1 for HDPE resin and syntactic foams. Theoretical models are used to estimate the effectiveness of cenospheres in reinforcing syntactic foams.

  5. Resin injection in clays with high plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowamooz, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    Regarding the injection process of polyurethane resins in clays with high plasticity, this paper presents the experimental results of the pressuremeter and cone penetration tests before and after injection. A very important increase in pressure limit or in soil resistance can be observed for all the studied depths close to the injection points. An analytical analysis for cylindrical pore cavity expansion in cohesive frictional soils obeying the Mohr-Coulomb criterion was then used to reproduce the pressuremeter tests before and after injection. The model parameters were calibrated by maintaining constant the elasticity parameters as well as the friction angel before and after injection. A significant increase in cohesion was observed because of soil densification after resin expansion. The estimated undrained cohesions, derived from the parameters of the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, were also compared with the cone penetration tests. Globally, the model predictions show the efficiency of resin injection in clay soils with high plasticity.

  6. High injection vs low injection behaviour of solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luque, A.; Araujo, G.L.; Calleja, M.J.

    1984-05-01

    An unitary model similar to the Ebers Moll one is presented to describe the behaviour of BSF cells working under either high or low injection. The model is applied to bifacial cells. The influence of the base resistivity on the front to back illumination short-circuit current is explained, as well as the cross-over presented by the I-V curve under front and back illuminations.

  7. Arctic stratospheric sulphur injections: radiative forcings and cloud responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, U.; Gasparini, B.; Miriam, K.; Kravitz, B.; Rasch, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Observations and climate projections show a high sensitivity of the Arctic climate to the increase in greenhouse gas emissions, known as the polar amplification. This study evaluates the options of counteracting the rising polar temperatures by stratospheric sulphur injections in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes.10 Mt of sulphur dioxide are emitted in a point emission source setup centred at the 100 hPa pressure level over Svalbard island (80°N,15°E). We perform simulations with the general circulation models ECHAM5, ECHAM6, and GISS ModelE. We study pulsed emission simulations that differ among themselves by the injection starting date (March-September), injection length (1, 30, or 90 day emission period), and the vertical resolution of the model (for ECHAM6). We find injections in April to be the most efficient in terms of the shortwave radiative forcing at the top-of-the atmosphere over the Arctic region. The distribution of sulphate aerosol spreads out beyond the injection region, with a significant share reaching the Southern Hemisphere. Results from ModelE show high latitude injections could counteract the spring and summer temperature increase due to higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Preliminary results with a more realistic description of clouds in ECHAM-HAM reveal a complex pattern of responses, most notably: a decrease in Northern Hemisphere cirrus clouds strengthening the effect of stratospheric aerosols in ECHAM5 a decrease in low-level clouds over the Arctic increasing the incoming solar radiation and causing a net positive radiative balance cirrus clouds are resilient to stratospheric sulphur injections in the absence of sulphate warming

  8. High-pressure fuel injection system for diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshi, Y.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a high-pressure fuel injection system for a diesel engine. This system consists of: (a) main pumps for injecting fuel each located at one of cylinders of the engine and formed with a fuel injecting port, a discharge valve located in a path connecting the first injected fuel space with the fuel injecting port. The discharge valve is opened when the fuel to be injected reaches a predetermined pressure level. A first injection timing fuel space fluidly connected with the first injected fuel space through a movable shuttle is filled with injection timing fuel, and a plunger varies the volume of the first injection timing fuel space; (b) a metering and distributing pump formed with injection fuel outputs and injection timing fuel outlets corresponding in number to the cylinders of the engine for discharging fuel in timed relation to the rotation of the engine; (c) fuel metering valves for metering fuel flowing into the second injected fuel space and second injection timing fuel space respectively; (d) pipes for fluidly connecting the first injected fuel space and first injection timing fuel space of the main pump for injecting fuel with the injected fuel outlets and injection timing fuel outlets of the metering and distributing pump respectively; and (e) a rocker arm mechanism for driving the plunger of the main pump for injecting fuel in timed relation to the rotation of the engine.

  9. Transient High-Pressure Fuel Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrahbashi, Dorrin

    Break-up and atomization of liquid fuel jet during transient injection process has a significant effect on the Diesel engine combustion efficiency and pollution. The mechanisms responsible for liquid jet instability and break-up at high pressure, during the transient start-up and steady mass flux periods, has been investigated using Navier-Stokes and level-set computations. Via post-processing, the role of vorticity dynamics is examined and shown to reveal crucial new insights. An unsteady, axisymmetric full-jet case is solved. Then, a less computationally intensive case is studied with a segment of the jet core undergoing temporal instability; agreement with the full-jet calculation is satisfactory justifying the segment analysis for three-dimensional computation. The results for surface-shape development are in agreement with experimental observations and other three-dimensional computations; the initial, axisymmetric waves at the jet surface created by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability distort to cone shapes; next, three-dimensional character develops through an azimuthal instability that leads to the creation of streamwise vorticity, lobe shapes on the cones, and formation of liquid ligaments which extend from lobes on the cones. The cause of this azimuthal instability has been widely described as a Rayleigh-Taylor instability. However, additional and sometimes more important causes are identified here. Counter-rotating, streamwise vortices within and around the ligaments show a relationship in the instability behavior for jets flowing into like-density fluid; thus, density difference cannot explain fully the three-dimensional instability as previously suggested. Furthermore, the formation of ligaments that eventually break into droplets and the formation of streamwise vorticity are caused by the same vortical dynamics. Waviness is identified on the ligaments which should result in droplet formation. The nonlinear development of the shorter azimuthal waves and

  10. High pressure injection injuries: an overview.

    PubMed

    Fialkov, J A; Freiberg, A

    1991-01-01

    Injuries resulting from the use of high pressure injectors and spray guns are relatively rare; however, the potential tissue damage caused by the injury as well as the extent of the injury itself may go unrecognized by the primary physician. The purpose of this paper is to inform the emergency physician of the nature and standard management of this type of injury. A basic understanding of the pathophysiology of the high pressure injection injury (HPII) is essential in avoiding the mistakes in management that have been reported in the literature. The emergency management of the HPII includes: evaluation and immobilization, tetanus and antimicrobial prophylaxis, supportive and resuscitative measures, analgesia, and minimizing the time to definitive surgical treatment.

  11. Discharge characteristics of a high speed fuel injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Robertson

    1925-01-01

    Discussed here are some discharge characteristics of a fuel injection system intended primarily for high speed service. The system consisted of a cam actuated fuel pump, a spring loaded automatic injection valve, and a connecting tube.

  12. Microbial Response to Carbon Dioxide Injection in a Shallow Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rook, A.; Faehndrich, D.; O'Mullan, G.; Mailloux, B.; Matter, J.; Stute, M.; Goldberg, D.

    2007-12-01

    Extensive research is underway to investigate the geophysical and geochemical dynamics of subsurface carbon sequestration, but there has been only theoretical consideration of the microbial response. Microbial dynamics are capable of altering the range and rates of geochemical reactions in the subsurface. The goal of this field experiment is to link geochemical changes due to CO2 injection to alterations in the microbial community and to provide an initial characterization of the microbial response. A seven week push-pull experiment was conducted at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Test Well. 200L of groundwater was extracted, bubbled with carbon dioxide, augmented with a bromide tracer, and injected to 230m depth below ground surface. The hydraulically isolated injection zone marked the contact area between dolerite sill and sedimentary rock. Samples were taken on a weekly basis. Geochemically, a drop in pH from 9.4 to 4.5 at injection was coupled with a release of Fe2+ from the formation. As neutralization and mixing caused pH to return toward background levels, Fe2+ concentrations decreased. The aquifer remained anoxic throughout the experiment. DNA was successfully extracted and the gene encoding 16S ribosomal RNA was amplified from all samples with the exception of the injection fluid. Sequencing from clone libraries and tRFLP analyses were used to characterize microbial dynamics during the seven week study. Whereas the number of microbial groups detected remained relatively constant over the course of the experiment, changes were observed in both the dominant microbes phylogenetic identity and relative abundance. Methane concentrations increased from background levels (below 50 nM) to 4.2 nM after injection, but initial attempts to amplify archaeal and methanogen-specific genes were unsuccessful, bringing into question the presence of a significant methanogenic population. These results confirm that there is a microbial response to carbon dioxide

  13. Injectable, porous, and cell-responsive gelatin cryogels

    PubMed Central

    Koshy, Sandeep T.; Ferrante, Thomas C.; Lewin, Sarah A.; Mooney, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of biomaterials-based therapies can be hindered by complications associated with surgical implant, motivating the development of materials systems that allow minimally invasive introduction into the host. In this study, we created cell-adhesive and degradable gelatin scaffolds that could be injected through a conventional needle while maintaining a predefined geometry and architecture. These scaffolds supported attachment, proliferation, and survival of cells in vitro and could be degraded by recombinant matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9. Prefabricated gelatin cryogels rapidly reassumed their original shape when injected subcutaneously into mice and elicited only a minor host response following injection. Controlled release of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor from gelatin cryogels resulted in complete infiltration of the scaffold by immune cells and promoted matrix metalloproteinase production leading to cell-mediated degradation of the cryogel matrix. These findings suggest that gelatin cryogels could serve as a cell-responsive platform for biomaterial-based therapy. PMID:24345735

  14. Injectable, porous, and cell-responsive gelatin cryogels.

    PubMed

    Koshy, Sandeep T; Ferrante, Thomas C; Lewin, Sarah A; Mooney, David J

    2014-03-01

    The performance of biomaterials-based therapies can be hindered by complications associated with surgical implant, motivating the development of materials systems that allow minimally invasive introduction into the host. In this study, we created cell-adhesive and degradable gelatin scaffolds that could be injected through a conventional needle while maintaining a predefined geometry and architecture. These scaffolds supported attachment, proliferation, and survival of cells in vitro and could be degraded by recombinant matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9. Prefabricated gelatin cryogels rapidly resumed their original shape when injected subcutaneously into mice and elicited only a minor host response following injection. Controlled release of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor from gelatin cryogels resulted in complete infiltration of the scaffold by immune cells and promoted matrix metalloproteinase production leading to cell-mediated degradation of the cryogel matrix. These findings suggest that gelatin cryogels could serve as a cell-responsive platform for biomaterial-based therapy.

  15. A high-altitude barium radial injection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T. J.; Deehr, C. S.; Romick, G. J.; Olson, J. V.; Roederer, J. G.; Sydora, R.

    1980-01-01

    A rocket launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, carried a new type of high-explosive barium shaped charge to 571 km, where detonation injected a thin disk of barium vapor with high velocity nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. The TV images of the injection are spectacular, revealing three major regimes of expanding plasma which showed early instabilities in the neutral gas. The most unusual effect of the injection is a peculiar rayed barium-ion structure lying in the injection plane and centered on a 5 km 'black hole' surrounding the injection point. Preliminary electrostatic computer simulations show a similar rayed development.

  16. Lateral hip pain: does imaging predict response to localized injection?

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter; Kannangara, Siri; Bruce, Warwick J M; Michael, Dean; Van der Wall, H

    2007-04-01

    Lateral hip pain is a common complaint in patients with a history of lower back pain from spinal disease. These patients often are diagnosed and treated for trochanteric bursitis because of localized pain and tenderness in the lateral hip. We presumed numerous scintigraphic features could provide diagnostic criteria for diagnosing gluteus medius tendinitis and trochanteric bursitis. A study was designed to assess the scintigraphic criteria for diagnosis of trochanteric bursitis and to evaluate the relationship of trochanteric bursitis to gluteus medius tendinitis and lumbar degenerative disease in predicting relapse after injection. We evaluated 97 patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome to find a correlation between trochanteric bursitis, gluteus medius tendinitis, and spinal degenerative disease using scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging. We also evaluated predictors for responding to trochanteric injection of local anesthetic/glucocorticoid injection. We found a correlation between lumbar degenerative disease, gluteus medius tendinopathy, and trochanteric bursitis. Of these, 30 of 48 patients (63%) responded to injection of local anesthetic and glucocorticoids. The major predictor of relapse of pain after injection in 18 patients was the presence of moderate to severe lumbar degenerative disease seen on scintigraphic imaging. We propose a mechanistic model of the greater trochanteric pain syndrome to explain the interrelationship and response to therapy. Scintigraphy can provide sensitive and specific diagnoses of gluteus medius tendinitis and trochanteric bursitis.

  17. Calculation of injection forces for highly concentrated protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ingo; Schmidt, Astrid; Bryant, Andrew; Besheer, Ahmed

    2015-09-30

    Protein solutions often manifest a high viscosity at high solution concentrations, thus impairing injectability. Accordingly, accurate prediction of the injection force based on solution viscosity can greatly support protein formulation and device development. In this study, the shear-dependent viscosity of three concentrated protein solutions is reported, and calculated injection forces obtained by two different mathematical models are compared against measured values. The results show that accurate determination of the needle dimensions and the shear-thinning behavior of the protein solutions is vital for injection force prediction. Additionally, one model delivered more accurate results, particularly for solutions with prominent shear-thinning behavior.

  18. High fidelity simulation of transcritical injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soteriou, Marios; Gao, Hui; Li, Xiaoyi; Davis, Dustin

    2012-11-01

    Transcritical injection of a multi-component fluid occurs in many practical applications such as diesel and rocket engines. In this type of injection a liquid fuel at a supercritical pressure but subcritical temperature, is introduced into an environment where conditions are supercritical. The convoluted physics of the transition from the subcritical to the supercritical state is linked to thermodynamic property variations and poses challenges to numerical simulation. For example, the temporary presence of surface tension implies that both the subcritical liquid-vapor interface and the transition boundary to supercritical fluid need to be captured. In this work, numerical simulation of a binary system of a subcritical liquid injecting into a supercritical, quiescent gaseous environment is performed. A coupled level set and volume of fluid method is adopted to capture the liquid-vapor interface, across which the continuity of mass and energy fluxes is preserved. The fluid state over the range of subcritical liquid to supercritical fluid is determined by incorporating the Peng-Robinson equation of state. To efficiently account for the sharp changes in properties near the liquid-vapor interface and the transition boundary to supercritical fluid, an adaptive mesh refinement technique is employed. Analysis of results focuses on the impact of vanishing surface tension as conditions transition from sub-critical to supercritical.

  19. Modulation response of an injection locked quantum-dash Fabry Perot laser at 1550nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochet, M.; Naderi, N. A.; Grillot, F.; Terry, N.; Kovanis, V.; Lester, L. F.

    2009-02-01

    The microwave domain modulation response of an injection-locked laser system is analyzed in the context of a Quantum Dash Fabry-Perot laser. This work demonstrates the applicability of a newly-derived modulation response function by using it to least-squares fit data collected on an injection-locked system with a Quantum-Dash Fabry-Perot semiconductor slave laser. The maximum injection strength, linewidth enhancement factor, coupled phase between the master and slave, and field enhancement factor characterizing the deviation of the locked slave laser from its freerunning value are extracted by least-squares fitting the collected data with the function. The extracted values are then compared with theoretically expected values under the given detuning conditions. The correlation between the frequency of the resonance peak of the modulation response at the positive frequency detuning edge and a pole in the modulation response function under this detuning condition is illustrated. The calculation of the injection strength based on the experimental operating conditions is verified by applying the modulation response function to the experimental data. With the modulation response function, injection-locked behaviors can be accurately simulated in the microwave domain and used to predict operating conditions ideal for high-performance RF links.

  20. Characterization of a high-pressure diesel fuel injection system as a control technology option to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, J. J.; Dezelick, R. A.; Barrows, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Test results from a high pressure electronically controlled fuel injection system are compared with a commercial mechanical injection system on a single cylinder, diesel test engine using an inlet boost pressure of 2.6:1. The electronic fuel injection system achieved high pressure by means of a fluid intensifier with peak injection pressures of 47 to 69 MPa. Reduced exhaust emissions were demonstrated with an increasing rate of injection followed by a fast cutoff of injection. The reduction in emissions is more responsive to the rate of injection and injection timing than to high peak injection pressure.

  1. The vascular response observation by the monitoring of the photosensitizer, oxygen, and blood flow during the high intensity pulsed excitation photodynamic therapy 1h after water-soluble photosensitizer intravenous injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakomori, S.; Matsuo, H.; Arai, T.

    2008-02-01

    We investigated the correlation between the therapeutic effect by early irradiation Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) and vascular response. The early irradiation PDT has been proposed by our group. This PDT protocol is that pulse laser irradiates to tumors 1 h after intravenous injection of water-soluble photosensitizer. The intact layer appeared over the well treated layer, when the early irradiation PDT was performed at rat prostate subcutaneous tumors with high intensity pulse laser (over 1 MW/cm2 in peak intensity) and Talaporfin sodium. In order to clarify the phenomenon mechanism, we monitored blood volume, surface temperature, photosensitizer amount, and oxygen saturation during the PDT. The rat prostate subcutaneous tumor was irradiated with excimer dye laser light at 1 h after the intravenous injection. The photosensitizer dose wa 2.0 mg/kg, and the pulse energy density was 2.5 mJ/cm2 (low intensity) or 10 mJ/cm2 (high intensity). Under the low intensity pulsed PDT, the fluorescence amount was decreasing gently during the irradiation, and the blood volume and oxygen saturation started decreasing just after the irradiation. Under the hgh intensity pulsed PDT, the fluorescence amount was decreaased rapidly for 20 s after the irradiation started. The blood volume and oxygen saturation were temporally decreased during the irradiation, and recovered at 48 hrs after the irradiation. According to these results, under the low intensity pulsed PDT, the blood vessel located near the surface started closing just after the irradiation. On the other hand, under the high intensity pulsed PDT the blood vessel was closing for 20 s after the irradiation started, moreover, the blood flow recovered at 48 hrs after the irradiation. We concluded that the vascular response depended on the pulse energy density, and then the therapeutic effect was attributed to the difference of the vascular response. In other words, the surface intact layer could be considered to be induced the

  2. Veterinary high pressure injection injuries with inoculations for larger animals.

    PubMed

    Couzens, G; Burke, F D

    1995-08-01

    Equipment used in the mass vaccination of farm stock is a source of high pressure injection injury. We present four cases due to chicken vaccine, and one due to pig vaccine. Unlike injuries caused by paint or oil guns the vaccination delivers a fixed volume. Although the vaccine is in a mineral oil carrier it appears to elicit little inflammatory reaction in a small dose. The outcome is related to the volume injected. In chicken vaccine the dose is small enough to allow conservative or minimally invasive management. The large volume in pig vaccine requires treatment as for conventional high pressure injection injuries.

  3. High-pressure injection injury of the finger

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    The high-pressure injection injuries are unusual injuries and the extent of tissue damage is often under estimated. They represent potentially disabling forms of trauma and have disastrous effects on tissues if not treated promptly. We present a case of high pressure injection injury to the finger from lubricant oil. The patient presented late with necrosis of volar tissue of left index finger. The patient was aggressively managed in stages, with delayed flap cover, with satisfactory functional and aesthetic outcome. PMID:23325982

  4. High-pressure paint gun injection injury to the palm.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Sonia; Gould, Stephen; Gupta, Salil

    2013-08-01

    High-pressure injection injuries often have a misleadingly benign presentation. However, it is important to recognize the potential surgical urgency and long-term sequelae associated with these injuries. We present a case of paint gun injection to the palm and review the literature on high-pressure paint injection injuries. The 3 factors most important for the fate of the limb are material type, injection pressure, and injury site. The immediate use of antibiotics and tetanus prophylaxis, with or without steroids, is indicated. Urgent debridement in the operating room is imperative and can decompress the neurovascular structures and flexor tendon sheath by removing the irritating agents. Reported overall amputation rates have been as high as 30%.

  5. High pressure injection injuries: a serious occupational hazard.

    PubMed

    Mrvos, R; Dean, B S; Krenzelok, E P

    1987-01-01

    High pressure injection equipment such as airless paint sprayers, high pressure grease guns, and fuel injection apparatus constitute a serious safety hazard resulting in significant morbidity. These devices are capable of delivering contaminants such as paint, solvents, and grease at pressures ranging from 600-12,000 psi. This allows the substance to penetrate through a minute skin wound and to spread widely through fascial planes and tendon sheaths and to produce significant vascular compression and systemic toxicity. High pressure injection injuries frequently result in amputation. Fifty-five suspected high pressure injection injury cases were evaluated. Twenty were determined to be actual injection injuries from equipment producing pressures in the range of 1,500-12,000 psi. The injected contaminants included latex paint, mineral spirits, and concrete sealer. Fourteen injuries involved digits. Digital amputation was necessary in three patients. Hospital admissions averaged 6.5 days. Successful management of these cases involves awareness of the impending problem and rapid referral of the patient to an emergency department and to a competent orthopedic or plastic surgeon.

  6. Transient High-Pressure Fuel Injection Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-21

    the dense ambient air cause a deceleration. The classical " mushroom " cap for the developing jet is shredded and non-existent at high Reynolds...decelerates along the gas chamber. However, for higher Reynolds numbers the mushroom -shaped cap deforms drastically within a few microseconds after the ... the orifice, drag forces due to the dense ambient air cause a deceleration. The classical ” mushroom ” cap for the developing jet is shredded

  7. High performance channel injection sealant invention abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Basiulis, D. I.; Salisbury, D. P. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High performance channel sealant is based on NASA patented cyano and diamidoximine-terminated perfluoroalkylene ether prepolymers that are thermally condensed and cross linked. The sealant contains asbestos and, in its preferred embodiments, Lithofrax, to lower its thermal expansion coefficient and a phenolic metal deactivator. Extensive evaluation shows the sealant is extremely resistant to thermal degradation with an onset point of 280 C. The materials have a volatile content of 0.18%, excellent flexibility, and adherence properties, and fuel resistance. No corrosibility to aluminum or titanium was observed.

  8. Variable seismic response to fluid injection in central Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keranen, K. M.; Hogan, C.; Savage, H. M.; Abers, G. A.; van der Elst, N.

    2013-12-01

    Seismicity in Oklahoma since 2009 has been concentrated in the central portion of the state, in the areas of Jones, Prague, and Luther. These three regions account for ~75% of earthquakes in the 2009-2013 Oklahoma Geological Survey catalog. A swarm in the Jones region began in late 2008, with a maximum magnitude of 4.0, and activity continuing to the present. After relocation, the initially diffuse earthquakes in the Jones swarm delineate multiple subparallel faults. The Wilzetta fault zone ruptured in the Prague region in 2010 and again in 2011, with magnitudes up to Mw5.7, and the Luther region experienced two earthquakes of M4.4 and M4.2, with related aftershocks, in 2013. The earthquakes near Prague have previously been linked to wastewater disposal; here we show that the earthquakes near Jones and Luther may also be induced by deep disposal based on the upsurge in seismicity in central Oklahoma coupled with local relationships to pumping and reservoir structure. The timing of each sequence with respect to injection and the distribution of seismic activity differs, highlighting the variability in seismic response to fluid injection related to local permeability structure.

  9. Magnetized plasma flow injection into tokamak and high-beta compact torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Komoriya, Yuuki; Tazawa, Hiroyasu; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Steinhauer, Loren; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Onchi, Takumi; Hirose, Akira

    2010-11-01

    As an application of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), magnetic helicity injection via injection of a highly elongated compact torus (magnetized plasma flow: MPF) has been conducted on both tokamak and field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. The injected plasmoid has significant amounts of helicity and particle contents and has been proposed as a fueling and a current drive method for various torus systems. In the FRC, MPF is expected to generate partially spherical tokamak like FRC equilibrium by injecting a significant amount of magnetic helicity. As a circumstantial evidence of the modified equilibrium, suppressed rotational instability with toroidal mode number n = 2. MPF injection experiments have also been applied to the STOR-M tokamak as a start-up and current drive method. Differences in the responses of targets especially relation with beta value and the self-organization feature will be studied.

  10. Premixed direct injection nozzle for highly reactive fuels

    DOEpatents

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho; Zuo, Baifang

    2013-09-24

    A fuel/air mixing tube for use in a fuel/air mixing tube bundle is provided. The fuel/air mixing tube includes an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis between an inlet end and an exit end, the outer tube wall having a thickness extending between an inner tube surface having a inner diameter and an outer tube surface having an outer tube diameter. The tube further includes at least one fuel injection hole having a fuel injection hole diameter extending through the outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  11. Near-surface groundwater responses to injection of geothermal wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, S.C.

    1984-06-01

    This report assesses the feasibility of injection as an alternative for geothermal wastewater disposal and analyzes hydrologic controls governing the upward migration of injected fluids. Injection experiences at several geothermal developments are presented including the following: Raft River Valley, Salton Sea, East Mesa, Otake, Hatchobaru, and Ahuachapan geothermal fields.

  12. High-resolution seismic studies applied to injected geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.T.; Kasameyer, P.

    1985-01-01

    The application of high-resolution microseismicity studies to the problem of monitoring injected fluids is one component of the Geothermal Injection Monitoring Project at LLNL. The evaluation of microseismicity includes the development of field techniques, and the acquisition and processing of events during the initial development of a geothermal field. To achieve a specific detection threshold and location precision, design criteria are presented for seismic networks. An analysis of a small swarm near Mammoth Lakes, California, demonstrates these relationships and the usefulness of high-resolution seismic studies. A small network is currently monitoring the Mammoth-Pacific geothermal power plant at Casa Diablo as it begins production.

  13. High-pressure injection injuries to the hand.

    PubMed

    Hayes, C W; Pan, H C

    1982-12-01

    Analysis of 14 cases of high-pressure injection injury to the hand revealed that the mechanism of injury, the nature of the injected substance, the site of injection, delay in treatment, and treatment specifics all influence prognosis. Injuries from paint or spray guns appear to be the most devastating; injuries to digits are worse than those to the hand. Paint, thinners, and solvents cause great impairment. Delay in treatment likely compromises the outcome; steroids may be effective in some cases in reducing eventual impairment. Early recognition of the gravity of these wounds is important and early decompression, tetanus prophylaxis, antibiotics, and judicious steroid usage are advocated. Significant impairment results from many high-pressure injuries despite seemingly adequate treatment.

  14. Modeling and experimental results of low-background extrinsic double-injection IR detector response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaletaev, N. B.; Filachev, A. M.; Ponomarenko, V. P.; Stafeev, V. I.

    2006-05-01

    Bias-dependent response of an extrinsic double-injection IR detector under irradiation from extrinsic and intrinsic responsivity spectral ranges was obtained analytically and through numerical modeling. The model includes the transient response and generation-recombination noise as well. It is shown that a great increase in current responsivity (by orders of magnitude) without essential change in detectivity can take place in the range of extrinsic responsivity for detectors on semiconductor materials with long-lifetime minority charge carriers if double-injection photodiodes are made on them instead photoconductive detectors. Field dependence of the lifetimes and mobilities of charge carriers essentially influences detector characteristics especially in the voltage range where the drift length of majority carriers is greater than the distance between the contacts. The model developed is in good agreement with experimental data obtained for n-Si:Cd, p-Ge:Au, and Ge:Hg diodes, as well as for diamond detectors of radiations. A BLIP-detection responsivity of about 2000 A/W (for a wavelength of 10 micrometers) for Ge:Hg diodes has been reached in a frequency range of 500 Hz under a background of 6 x 10 11 cm -2s -1 at a temperature of 20 K. Possibilities of optimization of detector performance are discussed. Extrinsic double-injection photodiodes and other detectors of radiations with internal gain based on double injection are reasonable to use in the systems liable to strong disturbance action, in particular to vibrations, because high responsivity can ensure higher resistance to interference.

  15. High-pressure injection injuries of the hand.

    PubMed

    Flotre, M

    1992-05-01

    Various types of high-pressure equipment, including airless paint sprayers, hydraulic apparatus and grease guns, are used in industry, in farming and in the home. Injection injuries from this equipment usually involve the hand and may initially appear benign. However, these injuries must be treated quickly and aggressively to prevent significant long-term disability.

  16. Brazilian response to the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic among injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Fábio; Doneda, Denise; Gandolfi, Denise; Nemes, Maria Inês Battistella; Andrade, Tarcísio; Bueno, Regina; Piconez e Trigueiros, Daniela

    2003-12-15

    The Brazilian response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic is being observed all over the world because of its success. Understanding the role of injection drug users (IDUs) in the epidemic and the political response thereto is a key factor in the control of the epidemic in Brazil. This paper summarizes some of the most important analyses of the Brazilian response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic among and from IDUs. Key elements of the response include the support of the Brazilian Universal Public Health System, the provision of universal access to highly active antiretroviral therapy, and the creation of harm reduction projects that are politically and financially supported by the federal government. The response among and from IDUs is a key element in overall control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The response to the epidemic among and from IDUs has been headed in the correct direction since its beginning and is now being intensively expanded.

  17. Availability of high-pressure safety injection system in PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.H.; Fresco, A.; Papazoglou, I.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the impact of typical variations in configuration of the design of the High Pressure Injection (HPSI) System on system unavailability. The HPSI systems in seventeen nuclear power plants were reviewed for variations in design, systems operation, testing and maintenance policies, and possible sources for common cause failures. The power plants reviewed include PWRs with two, three and four loop Reactor Coolant Systems and cover all three PWR vendors. As a result of this effort, the following five representative configurations (along with some variations) were identified and their unavailability to initiate injection was estimated.

  18. Effect of cavitation in high-pressure direct injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboulhasanzadeh, Bahman; Johnsen, Eric

    2015-11-01

    As we move toward higher pressures for Gasoline Direct Injection and Diesel Direct Injection, cavitation has become an important issue. To better understand the effect of cavitation on the nozzle flow and primary atomization, we use a high-order accurate Discontinuous Galerkin approach using multi-GPU parallelism to simulate the compressible flow inside and outside the nozzle. Phase change is included using the six-equations model. We investigate the effect of nozzle geometry on cavitation inside the injector and on primary atomization outside the nozzle.

  19. Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, XianLu Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

    2014-02-15

    A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H− ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 μA/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H− ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H− ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H− beam with emittance of 0.3π mm mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 μA was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

  20. Thermo-responsive hydrogels for intravitreal injection and biomolecule release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drapala, Pawel

    In this dissertation, we develop an injectable polymer system to enable localized and prolonged release of therapeutic biomolecules for improved treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). Thermo-responsive hydrogels derived from N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and cross-linked with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) poly(L-Lactic acid) (PLLA) copolymer were synthesized via free-radical polymerization. These materials were investigated for (a) phase change behavior, (b) in-vitro degradation, (c) capacity for controlled drug delivery, and (d) biocompatibility. The volume-phase transition temperature (VPTT) of the PNIPAAm- co-PEG-b-PLLA hydrogels was adjusted using hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties so that it is ca. 33°C. These hydrogels did not initially show evidence of degradation at 37°C due to physical cross-links of collapsed PNIPAAm. Only after addition of glutathione chain transfer agents (CTA)s to the precursor did the collapsed hydrogels become fully soluble at 37°C. CTAs significantly affected the release kinetics of biomolecules; addition of 1.0 mg/mL glutathione to 3 mM cross-linker accelerated hydrogel degradation, resulting in 100% release in less than 2 days. This work also explored the effect of PEGylation in order to tether biomolecules to the polymer matrix. It was demonstrated that non-site-specific PEGylation can postpone the burst release of solutes (up to 10 days in hydrogels with 0.5 mg/mL glutathione). Cell viability assays showed that at least two 20-minute buffer extraction steps were needed to remove cytotoxic elements from the hydrogels. Clinically-used therapeutic biomolecules LucentisRTM and AvastinRTM were demonstrated to be both stable and bioactive after release form PNIPAAm-co-PEG-b-PLLA hydrogels. The thermo-responsive hydrogels presented here offer a promising platform for the localized delivery of proteins such as recombinant antibodies.

  1. Highly Efficient Domain Walls Injection in Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy Nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. F.; Gan, W. L.; Kwon, J.; Luo, F. L.; Lim, G. J.; Wang, J. B.; Lew, W. S.

    2016-04-01

    Electrical injection of magnetic domain walls in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy nanowire is crucial for data bit writing in domain wall-based magnetic memory and logic devices. Conventionally, the current pulse required to nucleate a domain wall is approximately ~1012 A/m2. Here, we demonstrate an energy efficient structure to inject domain walls. Under an applied electric potential, our proposed Π-shaped stripline generates a highly concentrated current distribution. This creates a highly localized magnetic field that quickly initiates the nucleation of a magnetic domain. The formation and motion of the resulting domain walls can then be electrically detected by means of Ta Hall bars across the nanowire. Our measurements show that the Π-shaped stripline can deterministically write a magnetic data bit in 15 ns even with a relatively low current density of 5.34 × 1011 A/m2. Micromagnetic simulations reveal the evolution of the domain nucleation - first, by the formation of a pair of magnetic bubbles, then followed by their rapid expansion into a single domain. Finally, we also demonstrate experimentally that our injection geometry can perform bit writing using only about 30% of the electrical energy as compared to a conventional injection line.

  2. Highly Efficient Domain Walls Injection in Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy Nanowire

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S. F.; Gan, W. L.; Kwon, J.; Luo, F. L.; Lim, G. J.; Wang, J. B.; Lew, W. S.

    2016-01-01

    Electrical injection of magnetic domain walls in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy nanowire is crucial for data bit writing in domain wall-based magnetic memory and logic devices. Conventionally, the current pulse required to nucleate a domain wall is approximately ~1012 A/m2. Here, we demonstrate an energy efficient structure to inject domain walls. Under an applied electric potential, our proposed Π-shaped stripline generates a highly concentrated current distribution. This creates a highly localized magnetic field that quickly initiates the nucleation of a magnetic domain. The formation and motion of the resulting domain walls can then be electrically detected by means of Ta Hall bars across the nanowire. Our measurements show that the Π-shaped stripline can deterministically write a magnetic data bit in 15 ns even with a relatively low current density of 5.34 × 1011 A/m2. Micromagnetic simulations reveal the evolution of the domain nucleation – first, by the formation of a pair of magnetic bubbles, then followed by their rapid expansion into a single domain. Finally, we also demonstrate experimentally that our injection geometry can perform bit writing using only about 30% of the electrical energy as compared to a conventional injection line. PMID:27098108

  3. Highly Efficient Domain Walls Injection in Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy Nanowire.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S F; Gan, W L; Kwon, J; Luo, F L; Lim, G J; Wang, J B; Lew, W S

    2016-04-21

    Electrical injection of magnetic domain walls in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy nanowire is crucial for data bit writing in domain wall-based magnetic memory and logic devices. Conventionally, the current pulse required to nucleate a domain wall is approximately ~10(12) A/m(2). Here, we demonstrate an energy efficient structure to inject domain walls. Under an applied electric potential, our proposed Π-shaped stripline generates a highly concentrated current distribution. This creates a highly localized magnetic field that quickly initiates the nucleation of a magnetic domain. The formation and motion of the resulting domain walls can then be electrically detected by means of Ta Hall bars across the nanowire. Our measurements show that the Π-shaped stripline can deterministically write a magnetic data bit in 15 ns even with a relatively low current density of 5.34 × 10(11) A/m(2). Micromagnetic simulations reveal the evolution of the domain nucleation - first, by the formation of a pair of magnetic bubbles, then followed by their rapid expansion into a single domain. Finally, we also demonstrate experimentally that our injection geometry can perform bit writing using only about 30% of the electrical energy as compared to a conventional injection line.

  4. High pressure common rail injection system modeling and control.

    PubMed

    Wang, H P; Zheng, D; Tian, Y

    2016-07-01

    In this paper modeling and common-rail pressure control of high pressure common rail injection system (HPCRIS) is presented. The proposed mathematical model of high pressure common rail injection system which contains three sub-systems: high pressure pump sub-model, common rail sub-model and injector sub-model is a relative complicated nonlinear system. The mathematical model is validated by the software Matlab and a virtual detailed simulation environment. For the considered HPCRIS, an effective model free controller which is called Extended State Observer - based intelligent Proportional Integral (ESO-based iPI) controller is designed. And this proposed method is composed mainly of the referred ESO observer, and a time delay estimation based iPI controller. Finally, to demonstrate the performances of the proposed controller, the proposed ESO-based iPI controller is compared with a conventional PID controller and ADRC.

  5. High-Resolution Simulations of Coal Injection in A Gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen; Gel, Aytekin; Syamlal, M; Guenther, Chris; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2010-01-01

    This study demonstrates an approach to effectively combine high- and low-resolution simulations for design studies of industrial coal gasifier. The flow-field data from a 10 million cell full-scale simulation of a commercial-scale gasifier were used to construct a reduced configuration to economically study the coal injection in detail. High-resolution numerical simulations of the coal injection were performed using the open-source code MFIX running on a high performance computing system. Effects of grid resolution and numerical discretization scheme on the predicted behavior of coal injection and gasification kinetics were analyzed. Pronounced differences were predicted in the devolatilization and steam gasification rates because of different discretization schemes, implying that a high-order numerical scheme is required to predict well the unsteady gasification process on an adequately resolved grid. Computational costs for simulations of varying resolutions are presented to illustrate the trade-off between the accuracy of solution and the time-to-solution, an important consideration when engineering simulations are used for the design of commercial-scale units.

  6. Injectable, Biomolecule-Responsive Polypeptide Hydrogels for Cell Encapsulation and Facile Cell Recovery through Triggered Degradation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qinghua; He, Chaoliang; Zhang, Zhen; Ren, Kaixuan; Chen, Xuesi

    2016-11-16

    Injectable hydrogels have been widely investigated in biomedical applications, and increasing demand has been proposed to achieve dynamic regulation of physiological properties of hydrogels. Herein, a new type of injectable and biomolecule-responsive hydrogel based on poly(l-glutamic acid) (PLG) grafted with disulfide bond-modified phloretic acid (denoted as PLG-g-CPA) was developed. The hydrogels formed in situ via enzymatic cross-linking under physiological conditions in the presence of horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide. The physiochemical properties of the hydrogels, including gelation time and the rheological property, were measured. Particularly, the triggered degradation of the hydrogel in response to a reductive biomolecule, glutathione (GSH), was investigated in detail. The mechanical strength and inner porous structure of the hydrogel were influenced by the addition of GSH. The polypeptide hydrogel was used as a three-dimensional (3D) platform for cell encapsulation, which could release the cells through triggered disruption of the hydrogel in response to the addition of GSH. The cells released from the hydrogel were found to maintain high viability. Moreover, after subcutaneous injection into rats, the PLG-g-CPA hydrogels with disulfide-containing cross-links exhibited a markedly faster degradation behavior in vivo compared to that of the PLG hydrogels without disulfide cross-links, implying an interesting accelerated degradation process of the disulfide-containing polypeptide hydrogels in the physiological environment in vivo. Overall, the injectable and biomolecule-responsive polypeptide hydrogels may serve as a potential platform for 3D cell culture and easy cell collection.

  7. Electron injection dynamics in high-potential porphyrin photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Milot, Rebecca L; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A

    2015-05-19

    promising sensitizers because their high reduction potentials are compatible with the energy requirements of water oxidation. TRTS of free-base and metalated pentafluorophenyl porphyrins reveal inefficient electron injection into TiO2 nanoparticles but more efficient electron injection into SnO2 nanoparticles. With SnO2, injection time scales depend strongly on the identity of the central substituent and are affected by competition with excited-state deactivation processes. Heavy or paramagnetic metal ions increase the electron injection time scale by roughly one order of magnitude relative to free-base or Zn(2+) porphyrins due to the possibility of electron injection from longer-lived, lower-lying triplet states. Furthermore, electron injection efficiency loosely correlates with DSSC performance. The carboxylate anchoring group is commonly used to bind DSSC sensitizers to metal oxide surfaces but typically is not stable under the aqueous and oxidative conditions required for water oxidation. Electron injection efficiency of several water-stable alternatives, including phosphonic acid, hydroxamic acid, acetylacetone, and boronic acid, were evaluated using TRTS, and hydroxamate was found to perform as well as the carboxylate. The next challenge is incorporating a water oxidation catalyst into the design. An early example, in which an Ir-based precatalyst is cosensitized with a fluorinated porphyrin, reveals decreased electron injection efficiency despite an increase in photocurrent. Future research will seek to better understand and address these difficulties.

  8. High frequency fishbones excited by near perpendicular neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Deng

    2006-07-15

    The high frequency fishbone instability observed in experiments with near perpendicular neutral beam injection is interpreted as the ideal internal kink mode destabilized by circulating energetic ions. The mode frequency is close to the transit frequency of circulating ions. The beta value of the circulating ions is required to peak on the magnetic axis and the average value within the q=1 magnetic surface must exceed a critical value for the mode to grow up.

  9. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

  10. Efficient muscle regeneration after highly haemorrhagic Bothrops alternatus venom injection.

    PubMed

    Garcia Denegri, María Emilia; Teibler, Gladys P; Maruñak, Silvana L; Hernández, David R; Acosta, Ofelia C; Leiva, Laura C

    2016-11-01

    Bothrops alternatus snake venom is particularly characterized for inducing a prominent haemorrhage and affecting hemostasis as a consequence of 43.1% of metallo-proteinases and less than 10% of PLA2 (almost all non-myotoxic phospholipases) in its venomics. In addition, myonecrosis is the major local effect in viper envenoming which might lead to permanent sequela. Then, the rebuilding of the microvasculature at the local injured site acquires significance since represents one of the pivotal stages for subsequent skeletal muscle regeneration either at morphological or functional aspects. Due to the significance played by vasculature in this process, it is important to study by histology and immunohistochemical techniques, the muscular damage and the sequence of skeletal muscle reconstruction (degree of damage, reconstitution of muscle fibres and capillaries). In this work, we injected intramuscularly 50 or 100 μg per mouse of B. alternatus venom in gastrocnemius muscles. We provided a complete description and characterization of the different stages of myogenesis after mild (50 µg) and severe (100 µg) local injury induced by B. alternatus venom toxins. The regeneration was evaluated 24 h, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days after receiving venom injection. Finally, both doses induced an extended necrosis at the site of injection where, when critical steps in the regenerative process are taking place, an efficient tissue rebuilding is achieved. B. alternatus venom is characterized by the high percentage of exclusively class P-III metalloproteinases, and by the lack of class P-I metalloproteinases in its venom composition. This could explain the effectiveness of muscle regeneration after venom injection despite the severity of the initial phase of envenoming.

  11. Financial Responsibilities for Underground Injection Well Owners or Operators

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides information on UIC financial responsibility requirements, qualifying financial instrumentsRoles and responsibilities for operators and UIC Directors UIC Director’s and review procedures for financial responsibility instruments.

  12. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-02-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  13. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998-2012

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  14. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-01-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 25 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  15. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 25 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  16. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  17. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998–2012

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  18. Effects of Intravenous Injection of Porphyromonas gingivalis on Rabbit Inflammatory Immune Response and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Gengbing; Chen, Shuai; Lei, Lang; You, Xiaoqing; Huang, Min; Luo, Lan; Li, Yanfen; Zhao, Xin; Yan, Fuhua

    2015-01-01

    The effects of intravenous injection of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) on rabbit inflammatory immune response and atherosclerosis were evaluated by establishing a microamount Pg bacteremia model combined with high-fat diet. Twenty-four New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into Groups A-D (n = 6). After 14 weeks, levels of inflammatory factors (C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)) in peripheral blood were detected by ELISA. The aorta was subjected to HE staining. Local aortic expressions of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2), TLR-4, TNF-α, CRP, IL-6, matrix metallopeptidase-9, and MCP-1 were detected by real-time PCR, and those of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) proteins were detected by Western blot. Intravenous injection of Pg to the bloodstream alone induced atherosclerotic changes and significantly increased systemic and local aortic expressions of inflammatory factors, NF-κB p65, phospho-p38-MAPK, and JNK, especially in Group D. Injection of microamount Pg induced inflammatory immune response and accelerated atherosclerosis, in which the NF-κB p65, p38-MAPK, and JNK signaling pathways played important roles. Intravenous injection of Pg is not the same as Pg from human periodontitis entering the blood stream. Therefore, our results cannot be extrapolated to human periodontitis. PMID:26063970

  19. Applications of high-speed dust injection to magnetic fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui; Li, Yangfang

    2012-08-08

    It is now an established fact that a significant amount of dust is produced in magnetic fusion devices due to plasma-wall interactions. Dust inventory must be controlled, in particular for the next-generation steady-state fusion machines like ITER, as it can pose significant safety hazards and degrade performance. Safety concerns are due to tritium retention, dust radioactivity, toxicity, and flammability. Performance concerns include high-Z impurities carried by dust to the fusion core that can reduce plasma temperature and may even induce sudden termination of the plasma. We have recognized that dust transport, dust-plasma interactions in magnetic fusion devices can be effectively studied experimentally by injection of dust with known properties into fusion plasmas. Other applications of injected dust include diagnosis of fusion plasmas and edge localized mode (ELM)'s pacing. In diagnostic applications, dust can be regarded as a source of transient neutrals before complete ionization. ELM's pacing is a promising scheme to prevent disruptions and type I ELM's that can cause catastrophic damage to fusion machines. Different implementation schemes are available depending on applications of dust injection. One of the simplest dust injection schemes is through gravitational acceleration of dust in vacuum. Experiments at Los Alamos and Princeton will be described, both of which use piezoelectric shakers to deliver dust to plasma. In Princeton experiments, spherical particles (40 micron) have been dropped in a systematic and reproducible manner using a computer-controlled piezoelectric bending actuator operating at an acoustic (0,2) resonance. The circular actuator was constructed with a 2.5 mm diameter central hole. At resonance ({approx} 2 kHz) an applied sinusoidal voltage has been used to control the flux of particles exiting the hole. A simple screw throttle located {approx}1mm above the hole has been used to set the magnitude of the flux achieved for a given

  20. The application of high frequency seismic monitoring methods for the mapping of fluid injections

    SciTech Connect

    Majer, E.L.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes experimental work using seismic methods for monitoring the path of fluid injections. The most obvious application is the high pressure fluid injections for the purpose of hydrofracturing. Other applications are the injection of grout into shallow subsurface structures and the disposal of fluids in the geothermal and toxic waste industries. In this paper hydrofracture monitoring and grout injections will be discussed.

  1. Determination of injection molding process windows for optical lenses using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kuo-Ming; Wang, He-Yi

    2014-08-20

    This study focuses on injection molding process window determination for obtaining optimal imaging optical properties, astigmatism, coma, and spherical aberration using plastic lenses. The Taguchi experimental method was first used to identify the optimized combination of parameters and significant factors affecting the imaging optical properties of the lens. Full factorial experiments were then implemented based on the significant factors to build the response surface models. The injection molding process windows for lenses with optimized optical properties were determined based on the surface models, and confirmation experiments were performed to verify their validity. The results indicated that the significant factors affecting the optical properties of lenses are mold temperature, melt temperature, and cooling time. According to experimental data for the significant factors, the oblique ovals for different optical properties on the injection molding process windows based on melt temperature and cooling time can be obtained using the curve fitting approach. The confirmation experiments revealed that the average errors for astigmatism, coma, and spherical aberration are 3.44%, 5.62%, and 5.69%, respectively. The results indicated that the process windows proposed are highly reliable.

  2. HIV instruction, HIV knowledge, and drug injection among high school students in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Holtzman, D; Anderson, J E; Kann, L; Arday, S L; Truman, B I; Kolbe, L J

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The prevalence of HIV-related behaviors and determinants of these behaviors among adolescents in the United States have not been well studied. METHODS. To determine the prevalence of HIV-related drug behaviors and to assess the effects of HIV-related school-based instruction and HIV knowledge on these behaviors, data were analyzed from a 39-item, self-administered questionnaire completed by a probability sample of all students in grades 9 through 12 in the United States. RESULTS. Usable responses were obtained from 8098 students. Of these, 2.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3-3.2) and 1.7% (95% CI = 1.3-2.1) reported injecting illicit drugs ever and during the past year, respectively. Corresponding prevalences of needle sharing were 0.8% (95% CI = 0.5-1.1) and 0.5% (95% CI = 0.3-0.7). Regression analysis revealed that students with higher knowledge scores were less likely and males more likely to have ever injected drugs. HIV knowledge was similarly associated with other outcome measures of drug-injection behavior. Although HIV instruction did not directly influence drug-injection behavior independently of demographic characteristics, it was positively associated with HIV knowledge. CONCLUSIONS. While these results do not establish a causal relationship, they suggest that HIV knowledge and school-based instruction may play a role in maintaining low levels of drug-injection behavior among high school students. PMID:1746656

  3. Injection of highly supersaturated oxygen solutions without nucleation.

    PubMed

    Creech, J; Divino, V; Patterson, W; Zalesky, P J; Brennen, C E

    2002-12-01

    It is possible to inject highly supersaturated aqueous solutions of gas through a small capillary into an aqueous environment without the formation of significant gas bubbles. Such a technique has considerable potential therapeutic value in the treatment, for example, of heart attacks and strokes. The present paper is the second in a series (see Brereton et al. [1]) investigating the basic phenomenon behind this surprising effect. Recent experiments clearly demonstrate that the nucleation, when it does occur, results from heterogeneous nucleation on the interior surface of the distal end of the capillary. This paper describes the effects of the treatment of this interior surface on the nucleation processes and the results of high speed video observations of the phenomena. A heterogeneous nucleation model is presented which is in accord with the experimental observations.

  4. Ketamine Injection among High Risk Youth: Preliminary Findings from New York City

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Clatts, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    Ketamine, a synthetic drug commonly consumed by high risk youth, produces a range of experiences, including sedation, dissociation, and hallucinations. While ketamine is more typically sniffed, we describe a small sample of young ketamine injectors (n=25) in New York City and highlight risks associated with this emerging type of injection drug use. Our findings indicate that the injection practices, injection groups, and use norms surrounding ketamine often differ from other injection drug use: intramuscular injections were more common than intravenous injections; injection groups were often large; multiple injections within a single episode were common; bottles rather than cookers were shared; and the drug was often obtained for free. Our findings suggest that the drug injection practices exercised by ketamine injectors place them at risk for bloodborne pathogens, such as HIV, HBV, and HCV. We conclude that ketamine injectors represent an emerging, though often hidden, population of injection drug users, particularly among high risk, street-involved youth. PMID:17440604

  5. Low Viscosity Highly Concentrated Injectable Nonaqueous Suspensions of Lysozyme Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Maria A.; Engstrom, Joshua D.; Ludher, Baltej S.; Johnston, Keith P.

    2011-01-01

    Subcutaneous injection of concentrated protein and peptide solutions, in the range of 100–400 mg/mL, is often not possible with a 25- to 27-gauge needle, as the viscosity can be well above 50 cP. Apparent viscosities below this limit are reported for suspensions of milled lysozyme microparticles up to nearly 400 mg/mL in benzyl benzoate or benzyl benzoate mixtures with safflower oils through a syringe with a 25- to 27-gauge needle at room temperature. These apparent viscosities were confirmed using a cone-and-plate rheometer. The intrinsic viscosity regressed from the Kreiger–Dougherty model was only slightly above the Einstein value of 2.5, indicating the increase in viscosity relative to that of the solvent was caused primarily by the excluded volume. Thus, the increases in viscosity from electrical double layer interactions (electroviscous effects), solvation of the particles, or deviations of the particle shape from a spherical geometry were minimal, and much smaller than typically observed for proteins dissolved in aqueous solutions. The small electroviscous effects are expected given the negligible zeta potential and thin double layers in the low dielectric constant organic solvent. The suspensions were resuspendable after a year, with essentially constant particle size after two months as measured by static light scattering. The lower apparent viscosities for highly concentrated protein suspensions relative to protein solutions, coupled with these favorable characteristics upon resuspension, may offer novel opportunities for subcutaneous injection of therapeutic proteins. PMID:19803503

  6. Seismogenic response to fluid injection operations in Oklahoma and California: Implications for crustal stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, T.; Aminzadeh, F.

    2015-12-01

    The seismogenic response to induced pressure changes provides insight into the proximity to failure of faults close to injection sites. Here, we examine possible seismicity rate changes in response to wastewater disposal and enhanced oil recovery operations in hydrocarbon basins in California and Oklahoma. We test whether a statistically significant rate increase exists within these areas and determine the corresponding timing and location based on nonparametric modeling of background seismicity rates. Annual injection volumes increased monotonically since ~2001 in California and ~1998 in Oklahoma. While OK experienced a recent surge in seismic activity which exceeded the 95% confidence limit of a stationary Poisson process in ~2010, seismicity in CA showed no increase in background rates between 1980 and 2014. A systematic analysis of frequency-magnitude-distributions (FMDs) of likely induced earthquakes in OK indicates that FMDs are depleted in large-magnitude events. Seismicity in CA hydrocarbon basins, on the other hand, shows Gutenberg-Richter type FMDs and b~1. Moreover, the earthquakes and injection operations occur preferably in distinct areas in CA whereas in OK earthquakes occur closer to injection wells than expected from a random uniform process. To test whether injection operations may be responsible for the strongly different seismicity characteristics in CA and OK, we compare overall well density, wellhead pressures, peak and cumulative rates as well as injection depths. We find that average injection rates, pressures and volumes are comparable between CA and OK and that injection occurs on average 0.5 km deeper in CA than in OK. Thus, the here tested operational parameters can not easily explain the vastly different seismogenic response to injection operations in CA and OK, and may only be of secondary importance for the resulting earthquake activity. The potential to induce earthquakes by fluid injection operations is likely controlled by the

  7. Using brine extraction to isolate the pressure responses from CO2 injection operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandilla, K.; Court, B.; Celia, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Many potential carbon dioxide (CO2) injection sites are in large sedimentary basins, and it seems reasonable to expect that multiple operators will be injecting into the same formation. While the supercritical CO2 plumes are not expected to intersect, the pressure responses will most likely overlap. This will lead to overlapping Areas-of-Review (AoR), leading to complications for both the operators and the regulators. Also, existing injection operations will be impacted by new operations that come online at a later time, and as such existing AoRs will need to be updated to account for the pressure interference. One option to avoid pressure interference is to locate injection operations far from one other. However, this would greatly reduce the overall storage efficiency of the injection formation and increase the regulatory burden by requiring a basin-wide planning process. Active pressure management through brine production is one option to limit the spatial extent of the pressure responses, thereby avoiding pressure interference while also allowing for a greater spatial density of injection operations. For example, each injection operation could be surrounded by a ring of brine production wells, not dissimilar to an enhanced oil recovery operation, thereby limiting the far field impact of the CO2 injection. In this presentation we use a hypothetical model based on a section of the Illinois Basin to show the effectiveness of brine extraction in isolating the pressure responses of multiple injection operations. The model domain contains several injection wells, with the different injection operations brought on-line in a time-staggered fashion. The impact of factors such as brine extraction rates and extraction well spacing on the AoRs is investigated. A vertically integrated approach is used to numerically solve the two-phase flow problem, which greatly reduces the computational cost of the simulations. The results of this study show that brine extraction can be

  8. Unexpectedly high injection drug use, HIV and hepatitis C prevalence among female sex workers in the Republic of Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lisa Grazina; Corceal, Sewraz

    2013-02-01

    Female sex workers (FSW) often have a disproportionately high prevalence of HIV infection and they, along with their clients, are considered a core group contributing to the transmission of HIV in many countries. In 2010, females who reported having vaginal/anal/oral sex in the last 6 months with a male in exchange for money or gifts, aged ≥15 years, and living in Mauritius were recruited into a survey using respondent driven sampling. Consenting females (n = 299) completed a behavioral questionnaire and provided venous blood for HIV, HCV and HBV testing. HIV seroprevalence among FSW was 28.9 % and 43.8 % were infected with HCV; among HIV seropositive FSW, 88.2 % were also infected with HCV. Almost 40 % of FSW reported injecting drugs sometime in their lives and 30.5 % of all FSW reported doing so in the previous 3 months. Among those who ever injected drugs, 82.5 % did so in the past 3 months and among those 60 % reported injecting drugs at least once a day. Among FSW who ever injected drugs, 17.5 % reported sharing a needle at last injection. Regression analyses found injection drug use behaviors to be positively associated with HIV seroprevalence. These findings indicate that FSW, especially those who inject drugs, are at high risk for HIV and HCV infection and transmission and illustrates the need for gender responsive HIV and injection drug use prevention and treatment models that respond to the unique situations that affect this population.

  9. Serum and colostrum antibody responses induced by jet-injection of sheep with DNA encoding a Cryptosporidium parvum antigen.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, M; Kerr, D; Fayer, R; Wall, R

    1995-12-01

    In an effort to generate high titer colostrum for immunotherapy of cryptosporidiosis, a study was conducted to test the efficacy of immunizing sheep with recombinant plasmid DNA (pCMV-CP15/60) encoding epitopes of 15 and 60 kDa surface antigens of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites. The plasmid DNA was used to immunize preparturient ewes at three dose levels by jet-injection into either hind limb muscle (IM) or mammary tissue (IMAM). Regardless of route of injection, a dose-dependent anti-CP15/60 immunoglobulin response was observed in sera and colostrum from sheep immunized with pCMV-CP15/60 plasmid DNA. High titer antibody responses were observed in one of three animals per group receiving an IM injection of 100 or 1000 micrograms pCMV-CP15/60. IMAM immunization with 100 or 1000 micrograms pCMV-CP15/60 plasmid DNA elicited higher titer colostrum responses and more consistent serum responses compared to IM injections. A negligible serum and colostrum anti-CP15/60 response was observed in ewes injected IM with 10 micrograms pCMV-CP15/60 or 1000 micrograms control plasmid DNA. Immunoblotting of native C. parvum sporozoite/oocyst protein with hyperimmune serum and colostrum corroborated the increased titers against CP15/60 antigen. Serum and colostrum antibodies from pCMV-CP15/60-immunized sheep were eluted from native CP15 protein and bound a surface antigen of C. parvum sporozoites as indicated by indirect immunofluorescence staining.

  10. Humoral immune response of mice injected with tocopherol after exposure to X-radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, R.M.; Petrella, M.

    1987-01-01

    Serum haemagglutination (HA) titers have been determined for irradiated and non-irradiated mice responding to injection of two different concentrations of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) 24 to 48 hours after irradiation and immediate intraperitoneal injection of 2.5 mg DL alpha-tocopherol, the emulsifying vehicle, or saline. Mice maintained on tocopherol-deficient diets for 8 weeks post-weaning and those on regular diets exhibited increased IgG titers during peak response when injected with vitamin E. This partially alleviated the radiation-depression of the primary immune response induced by the smaller SRBC injection. This stimulatory effect was most significant in mice maintained on vitamin E-deficient diets. The HA titers of irradiated and non-irradiated mice maintained on normal rations were determined following a 10-fold increase in the SRBC inoculation. Antibody titer was greater following injection of the higher concentration of SRBC but post-irradiation injection of tocopherol immediately or 24 hours after irradiation did not enhance immune response. At the higher SRBC concentration maximum observed HA titers decreased with increasing dose of radiation; however, tocopherol had no significant dose-reducing effect. Tocopherol toxicity as manifested by depressed HA titers was observed occasionally in non-irradiated mice challenged with the higher concentration of SRBC.

  11. “Vivo para consumirla y la consumo para vivir” [“I live to inject and inject to live”]: High-Risk Injection Behaviors in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Fraga, Wendy Davila; Case, Patricia; Firestone, Michelle; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Perez, Saida Gracia; Magis, Carlos; Fraga, Miguel Angel

    2007-01-01

    Injection drug use is a growing problem on the US–Mexico border, where Tijuana is situated. We studied the context of injection drug use among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana to help guide future research and interventions. Guided in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 male and 10 female current IDUs in Tijuana. Topics included types of drug used, injection settings, access to sterile needles, and environmental influences. Interviews were taped, transcribed verbatim, and translated. Content analysis was conducted to identify themes. Of the 20 IDUs, median age and age at first injection were 30 and 18. Most reported injecting at least daily: heroin (“carga,” “chiva,” “negra”), methamphetamine (“crico,” “cri-cri”), or both drugs combined. In sharp contrast to Western US cities, almost all regularly attended shooting galleries (“yongos” or “picaderos”) because of the difficulties obtaining syringes and police oppression. Almost all shared needles/paraphernalia [“cuete” (syringe), “cacharros” (cookers), cotton from sweaters/socks (filters)]. Some reported obtaining syringes from the United States. Key themes included (1) pharmacies refusing to sell or charging higher prices to IDUs, (2) ample availability of used/rented syringes from “picaderos” (e.g., charging approximately 5 pesos or “10 drops” of drug), and (3) poor HIV/AIDS knowledge, such as beliefs that exposing syringes to air “kills germs.” This qualitative study suggests that IDUs in Tijuana are at high risk of HIV and other blood-borne infections. Interventions are urgently needed to expand access to sterile injection equipment and offset the potential for a widespread HIV epidemic. PMID:16107441

  12. Highly sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of pyrogallol compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanwal, Shamsa; Fu, Xiaohong; Su, Xingguang

    2009-12-01

    A highly sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescent method for the direct determination of pyrogallol compounds has been developed. Proposed method is based on the enhanced effect of pyrogallol compounds on the chemiluminescence signals of KMnO 4-H 2O 2 system in slightly alkaline medium. Three important pyrogallol compounds, pyrogallic acid, gallic acid and tannic acid, have been detected by this method, and the possible mechanism of the CL reaction is also discussed. The proposed method is simple, convenient, rapid (60 samples h -1), and sensitive, has a linear range of 8 × 10 -10 mol L -1 to 1 × 10 -5 mol L -1, for pyrogallic acid, with a detection limit of 6 × 10 -11 mol L -1, 4 × 10 -8 mol L -1 to 5 × 10 -3 mol L -1 for gallic acid with a detection limit of 9 × 10 -10 mol L -1, and 8 × 10 -8 mol L -1 to 5 × 10 -2 mol L -1 for tannic acid, with a detection limit of 2 × 10 -9 mol L -1, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 15) was 0.8, 1.1 and 1.3% for 5 × 10 -6 mol L -1 pyrogallic acid, gallic acid and tannic acid, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of pyrogallol compounds in tea and coffee samples.

  13. Achieving a stable time response in polymeric radiation sensors under charge injection by X-rays.

    PubMed

    Intaniwet, Akarin; Mills, Christopher A; Sellin, Paul J; Shkunov, Maxim; Keddie, Joseph L

    2010-06-01

    Existing inorganic materials for radiation sensors suffer from several drawbacks, including their inability to cover large curved areas, lack of tissue-equivalence, toxicity, and mechanical inflexibility. As an alternative to inorganics, poly(triarylamine) (PTAA) diodes have been evaluated for their suitability for detecting radiation via the direct creation of X-ray induced photocurrents. A single layer of PTAA is deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates, with top electrodes selected from Al, Au, Ni, and Pd. The choice of metal electrode has a pronounced effect on the performance of the device; there is a direct correlation between the diode rectification factor and the metal-PTAA barrier height. A diode with an Al contact shows the highest quality of rectifying junction, and it produces a high X-ray photocurrent (several nA) that is stable during continuous exposure to 50 kV Mo Kalpha X-radiation over long time scales, combined with a high signal-to-noise ratio with fast response times of less than 0.25 s. Diodes with a low band gap, 'Ohmic' contact, such as ITO/PTAA/Au, show a slow transient response. This result can be explained by the build-up of space charge at the metal-PTAA interface, caused by a high level of charge injection due to X-ray-induced carriers. These data provide new insights into the optimum selection of metals for Schottky contacts on organic materials, with wider applications in light sensors and photovoltaic devices.

  14. Microbial community response to the CO2 injection and storage in the saline aquifer, Ketzin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, Daria; Zettlitzer, Michael; Vieth, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    The concept of CO2 capture and storage in the deep underground is currently receiving great attention as a consequence of the effects of global warming due to the accumulation of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere. The EU funded CO2SINK project is aimed as a pilot storage of CO2 in a saline aquifer located near Ketzin, Germany. One of the main aims of the project is to develop efficient monitoring procedures for assessing the processes that are triggered in the reservoir by CO2 injection. This study reveals analyses of the composition and activity of the microbial community of a saline CO2 storage aquifer and its response to CO2 injection. The availability of CO2 has an influence on the metabolism of both heterotrophic microorganisms, which are involved in carbon cycle, and lithoautotrophic microorganisms, which are able to use CO2 as the sole carbon source and electron acceptor. Injection of CO2 in the supercritical state (temperature above 31.1 °C, pressure above 72.9 atm) may induce metabolic shifts in the microbial communities. Furthermore, bacterial population and activity can be strongly influenced by changes in pH value, pressure, temperature, salinity and other abiotic factors, which will be all influenced by CO2 injection into the deep subsurface. Analyses of the composition of microbial communities and its changes should contribute to an evaluation of the effectiveness and reliability of the long-term CO2 storage technique. The interactions between microorganisms and the minerals of both the reservoir and the cap rock may cause major changes to the structure and chemical composition of the rock formations, which would influence the permeability within the reservoir. In addition, precipitation and corrosion may occur around the well affecting the casing and the casing cement. By using Fluorescence in situ Hybridisation (FISH) and molecular fingerprinting such as Polymerase-Chain-Reaction Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and Denaturing

  15. Analysis of the response of the Raft River monitor wells to the 1979 injection tests

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, S.G.; Callan, D.M.

    1980-09-01

    The geothermal resource for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Raft River Geothermal 5 MWe Power Project is located in a closed ground water basin in southcentral Idaho. Chemical analyses indicate the existence of natural communication along fractures between the geothermal reservoir and the shallower aquifers developed for irrigation. Much of the ground water that is presently used for irrigation is of poor quality. Injection of geothermal fluids at intermediate depths may increase communication between the reservoir and the aquifer, resulting in further degradation of shallow ground water quality over time. Seven monitor wells, ranging in depth from 150 m to 400 m, were drilled to evaluate the potential for this degradation. Monitoring of these wells during two 21-day injection tests at the Raft River Geothermal Injection Well-6 (RRGI-6) indicates two types of response in the shallow aquifer system. First, the water level in Monitor Well-4 (MW-4) increased an average of 0.4 m/week during injection, indicating direct fracture connection between the injection zone and the aquifer penetrated by MW-4. Second, water levels in MW-5, MW-6, and MW-7 showed a step function decrease which coincided with the period of the injection tests. Analyses indicate that this response may be caused by elastic deformation in the aquifer matrix.

  16. Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to intraperitoneal injection of bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junjie; Zou, Wenzheng; Yan, Qingpi

    2008-08-01

    Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila was studied to 60 individuals in two groups. Each bullfrog in bacterium-injected group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.2 ml bacterial suspension at a density of 5.2 × 106 CFU/ml, while each one in control group injected i.p. with 0.2 ml sterile saline solution (0.85%, w/v). Three bullfrogs in both groups were sampled at 0, 1, 3, 7, 11, 15 and 20 days post-injection (dpi) for the evaluation of non-specific immune parameters. It was observed that intraperitoneal injection of A. hydrophila significantly increased the number of leucocytes and that of NBT-positive cells in peripheral blood. Significant increases in serum bactericidal activity and serum acid phosphatase activity were also observed in the bacterium-injected frogs when compared with those in the control group. However, a significant reduction was detected in vitro in phagocytosis activity of peripheral blood phagocytes. No significant difference in changes in the number of peripheral erythrocytes, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity was detected between the two groups. It is suggested that bullfrogs may produce a series of non-specific immune reactions in response to the A. hydrophila infection.

  17. Transient response of the calcium homeostatic system of the conscious pig to bolus calcium injections.

    PubMed

    Járos, G G; Maier, H; Podzuweit, T; von Gülich, M; Schindler, J G

    1982-07-01

    Calcium injection in the pig elicits a fast transient response which reinstates the calcium concentration to within normal limits between 30 and 40 min after injection. Although the fate of the calcium that disappeared is not known, the present experiments eliminate the kidneys and the bone remodeling cells as the main short-term regulators. The fast response is independent of parathyroid hormone but is greatly dependent of calcitonin. Further experiments are being performed to discover the nature and site of the regulating mechanisms.

  18. Diesel Combustion and Emission Using High Boost and High Injection Pressure in a Single Cylinder Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyagi, Yuzo; Kunishima, Eiji; Asaumi, Yasuo; Aihara, Yoshiaki; Odaka, Matsuo; Goto, Yuichi

    Heavy-duty diesel engines have adopted numerous technologies for clean emissions and low fuel consumption. Some are direct fuel injection combined with high injection pressure and adequate in-cylinder air motion, turbo-intercooler systems, and strong steel pistons. Using these technologies, diesel engines have achieved an extremely low CO2 emission as a prime mover. However, heavy-duty diesel engines with even lower NOx and PM emission levels are anticipated. This study achieved high-boost and lean diesel combustion using a single cylinder engine that provides good engine performance and clean exhaust emission. The experiment was done under conditions of intake air quantity up to five times that of a naturally aspirated (NA) engine and 200MPa injection pressure. The adopted pressure booster is an external supercharger that can control intake air temperature. In this engine, the maximum cylinder pressure was increased and new technologies were adopted, including a monotherm piston for endurance of Pmax =30MPa. Moreover, every engine part is newly designed. As the boost pressure increases, the rate of heat release resembles the injection rate and becomes sharper. The combustion and brake thermal efficiency are improved. This high boost and lean diesel combustion creates little smoke; ISCO and ISTHC without the ISNOx increase. It also yields good thermal efficiency.

  19. Materials for High-Pressure Fuel Injection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.; Shyam, A.; Hubbard, C.; Howe, J.; Trejo, R.; Yang, N.; Pollard, M.

    2011-09-30

    The high-level goal of this multi-year effort was to facilitate the Advanced Combustion Engine goal of 20% improvement (compared to 2009 baseline) of commercial engine efficiency by 2015. A sub-goal is to increase the reliability of diesel fuel injectors by investigating modelbased scenarios that cannot be achieved by empirical, trial and error methodologies alone. During this three-year project, ORNL developed the methodology to evaluate origins and to record the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks emanating from holes that were electrodischarge machined (EDM), the method used to form spray holes in fuel injector tips. Both x-ray and neutron-based methods for measuring residual stress at four different research facilities were evaluated to determine which, if any, was most applicable to the fuel injector tip geometry. Owing to the shape and small volumes of material involved in the sack area, residual stress data could only be obtained in the walls of the nozzle a few millimeters back from the tip, and there was a hint of only a small compressive stress. This result was consistent with prior studies by Caterpillar. Residual stress studies were suspended after the second year, reserving the possibility of pursuing this in the future, if and when methodology suitable for injector sacks becomes available. The smooth specimen fatigue behavior of current fuel injector steel materials was evaluated and displayed a dual mode initiation behavior. At high stresses, cracks started at machining flaws in the surface; however, below a critical threshold stress of approximately 800 MPa, cracks initiated in the bulk microstructure, below the surface. This suggests that for the next generation for high-pressure fuel injector nozzles, it becomes increasingly important to control the machining and finishing processes, especially if the stress in the tip approaches or exceeds that threshold level. Fatigue tests were also conducted using EDM notches in the gage sections

  20. Model for Charge Injection with Electron Beams into Highly Disordered Insulating Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennison, John; Sim, Alec; Wilson, Greg

    2015-03-01

    The Walden-Wintle model for charge injection and transport through highly disordered insulating materials has been extended to include charge injection with a charged particle beam. The original model is applicable to charge injection in a dielectric material from a pair of electrodes in a parallel-plate geometry. It provides a versatile approach to predict the time-dependent current at a rear grounded electrode and the incident surface voltage, as the injection current density evolves over time with the development of a space charge barrier near the injection electrode. The Walden-Wintle model has been applied to many standard cases including Fowler-Nordheim injection, Schottky injection, space charge limited injection, and various tunneling mechanisms. The present model modifies the approach to include electrode-less charge injection via a charged particle beam, along with concomitant effects for the injection current, surface voltage, and electron emission as a charge is built up in the insulator. The approach is equally valid for near-surface injection and for bulk injection of both non-penetrating and penetrating radiation. The results are based on our dynamic emission model for electron emission yields dependent on accumulating charge in both the positive and negative charging regimes. Supported through funds from NASA GSFC and a Senior Fellowship from the National Research Council and AFRL

  1. High-throughput injection with microfluidics using picoinjectors

    PubMed Central

    Abate, Adam R.; Hung, Tony; Agresti, Jeremy J.; Weitz, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Adding reagents to drops is one of the most important functions in droplet-based microfluidic systems; however, a robust technique to accomplish this does not exist. Here, we introduce the picoinjector, a robust device to add controlled volumes of reagent using electro-microfluidics at kilohertz rates. It can also perform multiple injections for serial and combinatorial additions. PMID:20962271

  2. Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

    2012-10-23

    A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

  3. Taking into account both preparation and injection in high-performance liquid chromatography linearity studies

    PubMed

    Vial; Jardy

    2000-05-01

    As mentioned in International Conference on Harmonisation publications, linearity is a principal parameter in method validation. The most popular statistical tool used is linear least-squares regression. Contrary to what is still very often practiced, the correlation coefficient can in no way be considered as an indicator of the fit quality. There is in fact a test called the "lack-of-fit test" that enables one to answer the question, "Is the linear model adapted to the calibration curve?". However, this test can give erroneous conclusions when, at each level, several sources of variation for the response are influent. It often occurs in high-performance liquid chromatography, as shown in a following example, where the calibration curve is obtained from repeated injections of repeated dilutions of a parent solution. The lack-of-fit test rejected linearity, although it was at least questionable. In fact, the reason for a discrepancy of this kind lies in the presence of a double source of variation: injection and dilution. It is possible to overcome the problem by mixing a nested ANOVA with the standard least-square linear regression. As shown in an example, implementing this methodology for data processing allows one not only to carry out an unbiased lack-of-fit test but also give estimates of the dispersion introduced respectively by the preparation and the injection.

  4. The role of dorsomedial hypotalamus ionotropic glutamate receptors in the hypertensive and tachycardic responses evoked by Tityustoxin intracerebroventricular injection.

    PubMed

    Silva, F C; Guidine, Patrícia Alves Maia; Machado, Natalia Lima; Xavier, Carlos Henrique; de Menezes, R C; Moraes-Santos, Tasso; Moraes, Márcio Flávio; Chianca, Deoclécio Alves

    2015-03-01

    The scorpion envenoming syndrome is an important worldwide public health problem due to its high incidence and potential severity of symptoms. Some studies address the high sensitivity of the central nervous system to this toxin action. It is known that cardiorespiratory manifestations involve the activation of the autonomic nervous system. However, the origin of this modulation remains unclear. Considering the important participation of the dorsomedial hypotalamus (DMH) in the cardiovascular responses during emergencial situations, the aim of this work is to investigate the involvement of the DMH on cardiovascular responses induced by intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of Tityustoxin (TsTX, a α-type toxin extracted from the Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom). Urethane-anaesthetized male Wistar rats (n=30) were treated with PBS, muscimol or ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists, bilaterally in DMH and later, with an icv injection of TsTX, or treated only with PBS in both regions. TsTX evoked a marked increase in mean arterial pressure and heart rate in all control rats. Interestingly, injection of muscimol, a GABAA receptor agonist, did not change the pressor and tachycardic responses evoked by TsTX. Remarkably, the injection ionotropic glutamate receptors antagonists in DMH abolished the pressor and the tachycardic response evoked by TsTX. Our data suggest that the central circuit recruited by TsTX, whose activation results in an array of physiological and behavioral alterations, depend on the activation of DMH ionotropic glutamate receptors. Moreover, our data provide new insights on the central mechanisms involved in the development of symptoms in the severe scorpion envenomation syndrome.

  5. Characterization of a folate-induced hypermotility response after bilateral injection into the rat nucleus accumbens

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, R.L. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to pharmacologically characterize the mechanism responsible for a folate-induced stimulation of locomotor activity in rats after bilateral injection into the nucleus accumbens region of the brain. Folic acid (FA) and 5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid (FTHF) produced this hypermotility response after intra-accumbens injection, while other reduced folic acid derivatives dihydrofolic acid, tetrahydrofolic acid, and 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid were ineffective. Studies were designed to determine the role of catecholamines in the nucleus accumbens in the folate-induced hypermotility response. The findings suggest that the folate-induced response is dependent on intact neuronal dopamine stores, and is mediated by stimulation of dopamine receptors of the nucleus accumbens. However the folates do not appear to enhance dopaminergic neutransmission. Thus, FA and FTHF were inefficient at 1 mM concentrations in stimulating /sup 3/H-dopamine release from /sup 3/H-dopamine preloaded nucleus accumbens slices or dopamine from endogenous stores. Pteroic acid, the chemical precursor of folic acid which lacks the glutamate moiety, was ineffective in producing a stimulation of locomotor activity after intra-accumbens injection. Since glutamate is an excitatory amino acid (EAA), compounds characterized as EAA receptor antagonists were utilized to determine if the folate-induced hypermotility response is mediated by activation of EAA receptors in the nucleus accumbens. These results suggest that activation of quisqualate receptors of the nucleus accumbens may mediate the folate-induced hypermotility response.

  6. Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  7. A thermally responsive injectable hydrogel incorporating methacrylate-polylactide for hydrolytic lability

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zuwei; Nelson, Devin M.; Hong, Yi; Wagner, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Injectable thermoresponsive hydrogels are of interest for a variety of biomedical applications, including regional tissue mechanical support as well as drug and cell delivery. Within this class of materials there is a need to provide options for gels with stronger mechanical properties as well as variable degradation profiles. To address this need, the hydrolytically labile monomer, methacrylate-polylactide (MAPLA), with an average 2.8 lactic acid units, was synthesized and copolymerized with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) to obtain bioabsorbable thermally responsive hydrogels. Poly(NIPAAm-co-HEMA-co-MAPLA) with three monomer feed ratios (84/10/6, 82/10/8 and 80/10/10) was synthesized and characterized with NMR, FTIR and GPC. The copolymers were soluble in saline at reduced temperature (<10°C), forming clear solutions that increased in viscosity with the MAPLA feed ratio. The copolymers underwent sol-gel transition at lower critical solution temperatures of 12.4, 14.0 and 16.2°C respectively and solidified immediately upon being placed in a 37°C water bath. The warmed hydrogels gradually excluded water to reach final water contents of ~45%. The hydrogels as formed were mechanically strong, with tensile strengths as high as 100 kPa and shear moduli of 60 kPa. All three hydrogels were completely degraded (solubilized) in PBS over a 6–8 month period at 37°C, with a higher MAPLA feed ratio resulting in a faster degradation period. Culture of primary vascular smooth muscle cells with degradation solutions demonstrated a lack of cytotoxicity. The synthesized hydrogels provide new options for biomaterial injection therapy where increased mechanical strength and relatively slow resorption rates would be attractive. PMID:20575552

  8. Robotic injection of zebrafish embryos for high-throughput screening in disease models.

    PubMed

    Spaink, Herman P; Cui, Chao; Wiweger, Malgorzata I; Jansen, Hans J; Veneman, Wouter J; Marín-Juez, Rubén; de Sonneville, Jan; Ordas, Anita; Torraca, Vincenzo; van der Ent, Wietske; Leenders, William P; Meijer, Annemarie H; Snaar-Jagalska, B Ewa; Dirks, Ron P

    2013-08-15

    The increasing use of zebrafish larvae for biomedical research applications is resulting in versatile models for a variety of human diseases. These models exploit the optical transparency of zebrafish larvae and the availability of a large genetic tool box. Here we present detailed protocols for the robotic injection of zebrafish embryos at very high accuracy with a speed of up to 2000 embryos per hour. These protocols are benchmarked for several applications: (1) the injection of DNA for obtaining transgenic animals, (2) the injection of antisense morpholinos that can be used for gene knock-down, (3) the injection of microbes for studying infectious disease, and (4) the injection of human cancer cells as a model for tumor progression. We show examples of how the injected embryos can be screened at high-throughput level using fluorescence analysis. Our methods open up new avenues for the use of zebrafish larvae for large compound screens in the search for new medicines.

  9. Intratumoral injection of Clostridium novyi-NT spores induces antitumor responses

    PubMed Central

    Rusk, Anthony W.; Tung, David; Miller, Maria; Roix, Jeffrey; Khanna, Kristen V.; Murthy, Ravi; Benjamin, Robert S.; Helgason, Thorunn; Szvalb, Ariel D.; Bird, Justin E.; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Zhang, Halle H.; Qiao, Yuan; Karim, Baktiar; McDaniel, Jennifer; Elpiner, Amanda; Sahora, Alexandra; Lachowicz, Joshua; Phillips, Brenda; Turner, Avenelle; Klein, Mary K.; Post, Gerald; Diaz, Luis A.; Riggins, Gregory J.; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Bettegowda, Chetan; Huso, David L.; Varterasian, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Species of Clostridium bacteria are notable for their ability to lyse tumor cells growing in hypoxic environments. We show that an attenuated strain of Clostridium novyi (C. novyi-NT) induces a microscopically precise, tumor-localized response in a rat orthotopic brain tumor model after intratumoral injection. It is well known, however, that experimental models often do not reliably predict the responses of human patients to therapeutic agents. We therefore used naturally occurring canine tumors as a translational bridge to human trials. Canine tumors are more like those of humans because they occur in animals with heterogeneous genetic backgrounds, are of host origin, and are due to spontaneous rather than engineered mutations. We found that intratumoral injection of C. novyi-NT spores was well tolerated in companion dogs bearing spontaneous solid tumors, with the most common toxicities being the expected symptoms associated with bacterial infections. Objective responses were observed in 6 of 16 dogs (37.5%), with three complete and three partial responses. On the basis of these encouraging results, we treated a human patient who had an advanced leiomyosarcoma with an intratumoral injection of C. novyi-NT spores. This treatment reduced the tumor within and surrounding the bone. Together, these results show that C. novyi-NT can precisely eradicate neoplastic tissues and suggest that further clinical trials of this agent in selected patients are warranted. PMID:25122639

  10. Intratumoral injection of Clostridium novyi-NT spores induces antitumor responses.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Nicholas J; Zhang, Linping; Janku, Filip; Collins, Amanda; Bai, Ren-Yuan; Staedtke, Verena; Rusk, Anthony W; Tung, David; Miller, Maria; Roix, Jeffrey; Khanna, Kristen V; Murthy, Ravi; Benjamin, Robert S; Helgason, Thorunn; Szvalb, Ariel D; Bird, Justin E; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Zhang, Halle H; Qiao, Yuan; Karim, Baktiar; McDaniel, Jennifer; Elpiner, Amanda; Sahora, Alexandra; Lachowicz, Joshua; Phillips, Brenda; Turner, Avenelle; Klein, Mary K; Post, Gerald; Diaz, Luis A; Riggins, Gregory J; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Vogelstein, Bert; Bettegowda, Chetan; Huso, David L; Varterasian, Mary; Saha, Saurabh; Zhou, Shibin

    2014-08-13

    Species of Clostridium bacteria are notable for their ability to lyse tumor cells growing in hypoxic environments. We show that an attenuated strain of Clostridium novyi (C. novyi-NT) induces a microscopically precise, tumor-localized response in a rat orthotopic brain tumor model after intratumoral injection. It is well known, however, that experimental models often do not reliably predict the responses of human patients to therapeutic agents. We therefore used naturally occurring canine tumors as a translational bridge to human trials. Canine tumors are more like those of humans because they occur in animals with heterogeneous genetic backgrounds, are of host origin, and are due to spontaneous rather than engineered mutations. We found that intratumoral injection of C. novyi-NT spores was well tolerated in companion dogs bearing spontaneous solid tumors, with the most common toxicities being the expected symptoms associated with bacterial infections. Objective responses were observed in 6 of 16 dogs (37.5%), with three complete and three partial responses. On the basis of these encouraging results, we treated a human patient who had an advanced leiomyosarcoma with an intratumoral injection of C. novyi-NT spores. This treatment reduced the tumor within and surrounding the bone. Together, these results show that C. novyi-NT can precisely eradicate neoplastic tissues and suggest that further clinical trials of this agent in selected patients are warranted.

  11. Optimization and modeling studies for obtaining high injection efficiency at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, L.; APS Operations Division

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the optics of the Advanced Photon Source storage ring has evolved to a lower equilibrium emittance (2.5 nm-rad) at the cost of stronger sextupoles and stronger nonlinearities, which have reduced the injection efficiency from the virtual 100% of the high emittance mode. Over the years we have developed a series of optimizations, measurements, and modeling studies of the injection process, which allows us to obtain or maintain low injection losses. The above will be described along with the injection configuration.

  12. Application of railgun principle to high-velocity hydrogen pellet injection for magnetic fusion reactor fueling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Zhang, J.

    1992-01-01

    Three separate papers are included which report research progress during this period: (1) A new railgun configuration with perforated sidewalls, (2) development of a fuseless small-bore railgun for injection of high-speed hydrogen pellets into magnetically confined plasmas, and (3) controls and diagnostics on a fuseless railgun for solid hydrogen pellet injection.

  13. Longer latency of sensory response to intravenous odor injection predicts olfactory neural disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kikuta, Shu; Matsumoto, Yu; Kuboki, Akihito; Nakayama, Tsuguhisa; Asaka, Daiya; Otori, Nobuyoshi; Kojima, Hiromi; Sakamoto, Takashi; Akinori, Kashio; Kanaya, Kaori; Ueha, Rumi; Kagoya, Ryoji; Nishijima, Hironobu; Toma-Hirano, Makiko; Kikkawa, Yayoi; Kondo, Kenji; Tsunoda, Koichi; Miyaji, Tempei; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori; Mori, Kensaku; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    A near loss of smell may result from conductive and/or neural olfactory disorders. However, an olfactory test to selectively detect neural disorders has not been established. We investigated whether onset latency of sensory response to intravenous odor injection can detect neural disorders in humans and mice. We showed that longer preoperative onset latency of odor recognition to intravenous odor in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis predicted worse recovery of olfactory symptoms following sinus surgery. The onset latency of the olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) response to intravenous odor using synaptopHluorin signals from OSN axon terminals was delayed in mice with reduced numbers of OSNs (neural disorder) but not with increased mucus or blocked orthonasal pathways (conductive disorders). Moreover, the increase in onset latency correlated with the decrease in mature OSN numbers. Longer onset latency to intravenous odor injection is a useful biomarker for presence and severity of olfactory disorders with neural etiology. PMID:27734933

  14. A repeated injection of polyethyleneglycol-conjugated recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase elicits immune response in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chilukuri, Nageswararao Sun Wei; Parikh, Kalpana; Naik, Ramachandra S.; Tang Lin; Doctor, Bhupendra P.; Saxena, Ashima

    2008-09-15

    Human serum butyrylcholinesterase (Hu BChE) serves as an efficacious bioscavenger of highly toxic organophosphorus (OP) compounds. Since there is a concern that the supply of native Hu BChE may be limited, monomeric and tetrameric forms of recombinant Hu BChE (rHu BChE) were evaluated as replacements and found that they lacked sufficient stability in vivo. However, their in vivo stability could be significantly prolonged by conjugation with polyethyleneglycol-20K (PEG) suggesting that monomeric and tetrameric PEG-rHu BChE could function as bioscavengers. Here, the immunogenicity of PEG-rHu BChE was evaluated in mice following two injections given four weeks apart. In addition to pharmacokinetic parameters, such as mean residence time, maximal concentration, time to reach the maximal concentration, elimination half-life and area under the plasma concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity, the presence of circulating anti-rHu BChE antibodies was also determined. Although the pharmacokinetic parameters were significantly improved for the first injection of monomeric and tetrameric PEG-rHu BChEs, they were much lower for the second injection. Anti-rHu BChE antibodies were detected in the blood of mice following the first and second enzyme injections and their levels were approximately higher by 5-fold and 2-fold in mice injected with monomeric and tetrameric PEG-rHu BChEs as compared to mice injected with unconjugated enzymes. The findings that the rapid clearance of a repeat injection of PEG-rHu BChEs in mice which coincides with the presence of circulating anti-rHu BChE antibodies suggest that PEG conjugation prolonged the circulatory stability of rHu BChE but failed to eliminate its immunogenicity in mice.

  15. High-efficiency microchip laser with self-injection seeding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sha; Wang, Yan-biao; Yang, Xian-heng; Feng, Guo-ying; Zhou, Shou-huan

    2015-12-10

    In this paper, we use a small bandwidth 808 nm cw Ti:sapphire laser as a pump source to pump a picosecond microchip laser. Different focal length pump focus lenses have been tested to improve laser efficiency. A maximum slope efficiency of around 20% is obtained by a 30 mm focal length lens. The pump threshold is only 13 mW. In order to reduce the timing jitter, we explored the self-injection seeding method by adding a seeding cavity to the microchip laser. A reduction factor in the timing jitter of up to a factor of 23 relative to the unseeded laser is obtained. From the experiments, we also found that higher seeding pulse energy will help to reduce the jitter more.

  16. Factors influencing adverse skin responses in rats receiving repeated subcutaneous injections and potential impact on neurobehavior

    PubMed Central

    Levoe, S. Nikki; Flannery, Brenna M.; Brignolo, Laurie; Imai, Denise M.; Koehne, Amanda; Austin, Adam T.; Bruun, Donald A.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated subcutaneous (s.c.) injection is a common route of administration in chronic studies of neuroactive compounds. However, in a pilot study we noted a significant incidence of skin abnormalities in adult male Long-Evans rats receiving daily s.c. injections of peanut oil (1.0 ml/kg) in the subscapular region for 21 d. Histopathological analyses of the lesions were consistent with a foreign body reaction. Subsequent studies were conducted to determine factors that influenced the incidence or severity of skin abnormalities, and whether these adverse skin reactions influenced a specific neurobehavioral outcome. Rats injected daily for 21 d with food grade peanut oil had an earlier onset and greater incidence of skin abnormalities relative to rats receiving an equal volume (1.0 ml/kg/d) of reagent grade peanut oil or triglyceride of coconut oil. Skin abnormalities in animals injected daily with peanut oil were increased in animals housed on corncob versus paper bedding. Comparison of animals obtained from different barrier facilities exposed to the same injection paradigm (reagent grade peanut oil, 1.0 ml/kg/d s.c.) revealed significant differences in the severity of skin abnormalities. However, animals from different barrier facilities did not perform differently in a Pavlovian fear conditioning task. Collectively, these data suggest that environmental factors influence the incidence and severity of skin abnormalities following repeated s.c. injections, but that these adverse skin responses do not significantly influence performance in at least one test of learning and memory. PMID:25705100

  17. Cardiovascular activity in blood-injection-injury phobia during exposure: evidence for diphasic response patterns?

    PubMed

    Ritz, Thomas; Meuret, Alicia E; Simon, Erica

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to feared stimuli in blood-injection-injury (BII)-phobia is thought to elicit a diphasic response pattern, with an initial fight-flight-like cardiovascular activation followed by a marked deactivation and possible fainting (vasovagal syncope). However, studies have remained equivocal on the importance of such patterns. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence and clinical relevance of diphasic responses using criteria that require a true diphasic response to exceed cardiovascular activation of an emotional episode of a negative valence and to exceed deactivation of an emotionally neutral episode. Sixty BII-phobia participants and 20 healthy controls were exposed to surgery, anger and neutral films while measuring heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory pattern, and end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (as indicator of hyperventilation). Diphasic response patterns were observed in up to 20% of BII-phobia participants and 26.6% of healthy controls for individual cardiovascular parameters. BII-phobia participants with diphasic patterns across multiple parameters showed more fear of injections and blood draws, reported the strongest physical symptoms during the surgery film, and showed the strongest tendency to hyperventilate. Thus, although only a minority of individuals with BII phobia shows diphasic responses, their occurrence indicates significant distress. Respiratory training may add to the treatment of BII phobia patients that show diphasic response patterns.

  18. Intravitreal bevacizumab injections for diabetic macular edema – predictors of response: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Lavnish; Bar, Asaf; Tomkins-Netzer, Oren; Yaganti, Satish; Morarji, Jiten; Vouzounis, Panayiotis; Seguin-Greenstein, Sophie; Taylor, Simon R; Lightman, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Background Outcomes of intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor injections are variable among patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). The aim of this study was to determine the ocular and systemic predictors of DME response to intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB). Methods Retrospective review over 2 years of 78 eyes from 54 patients. An anatomical response to IVB was defined as a 20% reduction in central macula thickness after the first course (three injections) of IVB. Results Twenty-eight percent of patients had an anatomical response after the first course of IVB. Systemic hypertension (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 12.1, 0.7–21) was a statistically significant predictor (P=0.025) of a good response to IVB, whereas previous macular laser was a statistically significant (P=0.0005) predictor of a poor response (0.07, 0.01–0.32). Sixty-eight percent of eyes underwent subsequent treatment for DME after the first course of IVB. The visual acuity gain at 24 months in hypertensive (0.7±3.6 letters) and nonhypertensive (5.2±3.7 letters) patients was not significantly different (P=0.41). Conclusion Hypertension and previous macular laser were positive and negative predictors of response to IVB, respectively. However, long-term visual acuity changes were not significantly different between eyes with and without systemic hypertension. PMID:27799737

  19. Using high temperature baghouses to enhance desulfurization following economizer sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect

    Li, G.; Keener, T.C.

    1995-12-31

    In order to explore the potential of using high temperature baghouses to enhance SO{sub 2} removal following upstream sorbent injection, an integrated two-stage reactor system has been built. It consists of an injection stage and a filtration stage. Distinct from one-stage fixed-bed reactors, sorbent particles in this system are initially converted under controlled injection conditions before entering the filtration reactor chamber. By the aid of the system, several unique features regarding the gas-solid reactions in the baghouse after economizer zone sorbent injection have been revealed. Results have shown that the appropriate usage of a high temperature baghouse may substantially enhance the performance of the process. The further SO{sub 2} removal in the baghouse is comprehensively affected by both the conditions in the injection zone and those in the baghouse.

  20. Radioguided occult lesion localization: better delineation of the injection site with a high-resolution collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissler, B.; De Freitas, D.; Cachin, F.; Mestas, D.; Lebouedec, G.; Maublant, J.

    2004-07-01

    Aim: Radioguided Occult Lesion Localization (ROLL) is a method for guiding the excision of occult breast lesions. A radiotracer is injected preoperatively in the tumor. The surgeon can locate the lesion with a gamma probe. It has been recommended that the tissue is resected where the activity falls rapidly. But this cut-off level can fluctuate depending on the user. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of two different types of collimation. Materials and methods: To simulate the detection of a radioactive "lesion", 0.2 ml of a solution of 99mTc labeled colloids (4 MBq) were deposited at 3 cm depth in a chunk of cow muscle. Detection was performed with a gamma probe (GammaSup, Clerad, F) equipped either with a regular or with an additional high-resolution collimator. The response curve was drawn moving laterally the probe on the chunk of cow by 5 mm steps. Edges of resection were determined with different cut-off levels (from 5 to 50% of maximum counts by 5% steps). Results: Without additional collimator, the mean distance between injection point and resection edge was 18 mm, standard deviation 7.8 mm with a range between 11 and 18 mm. With additional collimator, the mean distance decreased to 10 mm (-44%), standard deviation 4.2 mm (-46%) with a range between 6 and 10 mm. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that the additional collimator provides more precise and reproductive delineation of the injection site. It should be optimal for the ROLL technique.

  1. Injectable thermo-responsive hydrogel composed of xanthan gum and methylcellulose double networks with shear-thinning property.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijia; Yao, Ping

    2015-11-05

    Injectable hydrogel precursor solution was prepared by physical blend of xanthan gum (XG) and methylcellulose (MC) in aqueous solution. Due to the formation of XG network composed of XG double helical strand structure, XG/MC blend was a high viscous solution with good shear-thinning property at room temperature. When the temperature was changed from 23 to 37 °C, thermo-responsive MC network formed, which caused XG/MC blend solution to gelate. The gelation time and storage modulus of the blend can be tuned by XG and/or MC concentrations. Both in vitro and in vivo investigations revealed that the blend solution immediately recovered its high viscosity and rapidly formed hydrogel at body temperature after injection using a syringe. In vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability of the hydrogel were validated by implantation of the hydrogel in rats. In vitro investigation demonstrated that XG/MC blend is a promising injectable hydrogel material for long-term drug delivery.

  2. Nonequilibrium superconducting states with temporal periodic structures under high quasiparticle injection

    SciTech Connect

    CHEN Shi-gang; CHEN Xiao-lan; WANG You-qin

    1984-07-01

    Based on the Scalapino-Huberman ..mu..* model, the possibility of temporally oscillating structures appearing in a superconducting film under high quasiparticle injection is discussed. The range of parameters in which these structures may occur is also given.

  3. Monitoring regional effects of high pressure injection of wastewater in a limestone aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faulkner, Glen L.; Pascale, Charles A.

    1975-01-01

    More than 10 billion gallons (38 × 106 m3) of acid industrial liquid waste has been injected in about 11 years under high pressure into a saline-water-filled part of a limestone aquifer of low transmissivity between 1,400 and 1,700 feet (430 and 520 m) below land surface near Pensacola, Florida. A similar waste disposal system is planned for the same zone at a site about 8.5 miles (13.7 km) to the east. The injection zone is the lower limestone of the Floridan aquifer. The lower limestone is overlain by a confining layer of plastic clay about 220 feet (67 m) thick at the active injection site and underlain by another confining layer of shale and clay. The upper confining layer is overlain by the upper limestone of the Floridan aquifer.The active injection system consists of two injection wells about a quarter of a mile (0.4 km) apart and three monitor wells. Two of the monitor wells (deep monitors) are used to observe hydraulic and geochemical effects of waste injection in the injection zone at locations about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) south and 1.9 miles (3.1 km) north of the center of the injection site. The third well (shallow monitor), used to observe any effects in the upper limestone, is about 100 feet (30 m) from one of the injection wells. Since 1972 the injection zone has also been monitored at a test well at the planned new injection site. Three more monitor wells in the injection zone were activated in early 1974 at sites 17 miles (27 km) northeast, 22 miles (35 km) east and 33 miles (53 km) northeast of the injection site. The six deep monitors provide a system for evaluating the regional effects of injecting wastes. No change in pressure or water quality due to injection was, by mid-1974, evident in the upper limestone at the injection site, but static pressures in the lower limestone at the site had increased 8 fold since injection began in 1963. Chemical analyses indicated probable arrival of the diluted waste at the south monitor well in 1973. By mid-1974

  4. Immune response of Pseudosciaena crocea to the injection of Vibrio alginolyticus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qingpi; Zhang, Junjie; Zou, Wenzheng; Chen, Qiang; Zhuang, Zhixia; Wang, Xiaoru

    2009-02-01

    For the investigation of anti-infection immune response of Pseudosciaena crocea, 160 healthy fish samples were categorized into infected and control groups. Each individual fish in the infected group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.2 ml bacterial suspension of Vibrio alginolyticus in density of 2×107 CFU/ml, while each individual in the control group was injected i.p. with 0.2 ml sterile saline solution (0.85%). It was observed that the artificial injection of V. alginolyticus significantly increased the number of erythrocytes, leucocytes, lymphocytes in peripheral blood as well as peripheral serum antibacterial activity and antibody titer of large yellow croaker, and significantly reduced the number of peripheral blood granulocytes as compared with those in the control group. No significant difference in acid phosphytase and superoxide dismutase activity of serum was detected between the two groups. It is suggested that non-specific immune factors including leucocytes and anti-bacteria substance in peripheral blood played important role at the initial stage of infection, and specific immune factors such as antibody then played important role in response to anti-infection at the latter stage.

  5. Fractal-like charge injection kinetics in transformer oil stressed by high-voltage pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zahn, M.

    2014-04-01

    Kerr electro-optic measurements are taken to study the transient electrode charge injection in high voltage pulsed transformer oil. It is found that the injection current densities from two stainless-steel parallel-plate electrodes with distinct surface roughness display fractal-like kinetics, i.e., power-law time dependence. Our measurement data agree with numerical simulation results of the time-dependent drift-diffusion model with the experimentally determined injection current boundary conditions. The fractal-like kinetics implies that the electric double layer processes contributing to injection are diffusion-limited. Physical mechanisms based on formative steps of adsorption-reaction-desorption reveal possible connections between geometrical characteristics of electrode surfaces and fractal-like kinetics of charge injection.

  6. Dynamic response of micropipettes during piezo-assisted intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karzar-Jeddi, Mehdi; Olgac, Nejat; Fan, Tai-Hsi

    2011-10-01

    In the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) process, a piezoelectric actuator is commonly used to assist the piercing of cell membrane. The longitudinal pulses that are performed by the piezo actuator, however, cause undesired lateral vibrations at the drawn tip of the injection micropipette. This mechanism is not well understood, despite its critical role in piezo-assisted cellular microinjection. We provide an analytical model to characterize the micropipette tip vibrations under assumed base excitation arising from the piezoelectric pulses. The resulting dynamic response is determined by using the Duhamel integral method. This study quantifies the effect of fluid damping, embedded mercury, and the apparent cell membrane elasticity. We found that, in practice, a small mercury droplet filled in pipette essentially creates higher shear forces at the membrane-pipette interface. The increased shear due to underdamped eigenmodes is conceived to assist the piercing of the cell membrane.

  7. A CFD Model for High Pressure Liquid Poison Injection for CANDU-6 Shutdown System No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bo Wook Rhee; Chang Jun Jeong; Hye Jeong Yun; Dong Soon Jang

    2002-07-01

    In CANDU reactor one of the two reactor shutdown systems is the liquid poison injection system which injects the highly pressurized liquid neutron poison into the moderator tank via small holes on the nozzle pipes. To ensure the safe shutdown of a reactor it is necessary for the poison curtains generated by jets provide quick, and enough negative reactivity to the reactor during the early stage of the accident. In order to produce the neutron cross section necessary to perform this work, the poison concentration distribution during the transient is necessary. In this study, a set of models for analyzing the transient poison concentration induced by this high pressure poison injection jet activated upon the reactor trip in a CANDU-6 reactor moderator tank has been developed and used to generate the poison concentration distribution of the poison curtains induced by the high pressure jets injected into the vacant region between the pressure tube banks. The poison injection rate through the jet holes drilled on the nozzle pipes is obtained by a 1-D transient hydrodynamic code called, ALITRIG, and this injection rate is used to provide the inlet boundary condition to a 3-D CFD model of the moderator tank based on CFX4.3, a CFD code, to simulate the formation of the poison jet curtain inside the moderator tank. For validation, an attempt was made to validate this model against a poison injection experiment performed at BARC. As conclusion this set of models is judged to be appropriate. (authors)

  8. A regional evaluation of injections of high levels of vitamin A on reproductive performance of sows.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, M D; Brendemuhl, J H; Chiba, L I; Darroch, C S; Dove, C R; Estienne, M J; Harper, A F

    2008-02-01

    A regional study involving 443 litters from 182 sows was conducted at 5 cooperating experiment stations to determine the effects of an i.m. injection of vitamin A at weaning and breeding on subsequent litter size of sows. Sows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments given at weaning and again at breeding: 1) a placebo i.m. injection (2 mL of corn oil), 2) i.m. injection with 250,000 IU of vitamin A (1 mL of vitamin A palmitate in oil), and 3) i.m. injection with 500,000 IU of vitamin A (2 mL of vitamin A palmitate in oil). Corn-soybean meal diets in gestation were formulated to contain 13% CP and 0.60% total Lys. Lactation diets were formulated to contain 17% CP and 0.90% Lys. A common vitamin-mineral premix that supplied 11,000 IU of vitamin A/kg of diet (as-fed) was used by all stations. As expected, station effects were noted for many response measures. Analysis of the data also revealed both treatment x station and treatment x parity interactions for litter size responses. The treatment x parity interactions were stronger than the treatment x station effects, and when the litter size response was separated into early parity sows (parity 1 and 2) and late-parity sows (parity 3 to 6), the treatment x station interactions were no longer present in either subgroup. For sows of parity 1 and 2, litter sizes were increased linearly (P

  9. Elastic stress transfer as a diffusive process due to aseismic fault slip in response to fluid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viesca, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface fluid injection is often followed by observations of an enlarging cloud of microseismicity. The cloud's diffusive growth is thought to be a direct response to the diffusion of elevated pore fluid pressure reaching pre-stressed faults, triggering small instabilities; the observed high rates of this growth are interpreted to reflect a relatively high permeability of a fractured subsurface [e.g., Shapiro, GJI 1997]. We investigate an alternative mechanism for growing a microseismic cloud: the elastic transfer of stress due to slow, aseismic slip on a subset of the pre-existing faults in this damaged subsurface. We show that the growth of the slipping region of the fault may be self-similar in a diffusive manner. While this slip is driven by fluid injection, we show that, for critically stressed faults, the apparent diffusion of this slow slip may quickly exceed the poroelastically driven diffusion of the elevated pore fluid pressure. Under these conditions, microseismicity can be first triggered by the off-fault stress perturbation due to the expanding region of slip on principal faults. This provides an alternative interpretation of diffusive growth rates in terms of the subsurface stress state rather than an enhanced hydraulic diffusivity. That such aseismic slip may occur, outpace fluid diffusion, and in turn trigger microseismic events, is also suggested by on- and near-fault observations in past and recently reported fluid injection experiments [e.g., Cornet et al., PAGEOPH 1997; Guglielmi et al., Science 2015]. The model of injection-induced slip assumes elastic off-fault behavior and a fault strength determined by the product of a constant friction coefficient and the local effective normal stress. The sliding region is enlarged by the pore pressure increase resolved on the fault plane. Remarkably, the rate of self-similar expansion may be determined by a single parameter reflecting both the initial stress state and the magnitude of the pore pressure

  10. Eicosanoids mediate Galleria mellonella immune response to hemocoel injection of entomopathogenic nematode cuticles.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yunhong; Wu, Gongqing; Lv, Junliang; Li, Mei

    2016-02-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are symbiotically associated with bacteria and widely used in biological control of insect pests. The interference of symbiotic bacteria with insect host immune responses is fairly well documented. However, knowledge of mechanisms regulating parasite–host interactions still remains fragmentary. In this study, we used nematode (Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) cuticles and Galleria mellonella larvae as parasite–host model, focused on the changes of innate immune parameters of the host in the early phase of nematode cuticle infection and investigated the role of eicosanoid biosynthesis pathway in the process. The results showed that injection of either S. carpocapsae or H. bacteriophora cuticles into the larval hemocoel both resulted in significant decreases in the key innate immune parameters (e.g., hemocyte density, microaggregation, phagocytosis and encapsulation abilities of hemocyte, and phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities of the cell-free hemolymph). Our study indicated that the parasite cuticles could actively suppress the innate immune response of the G. mellonella host. We also found that treating G. mellonella larvae with dexamethasone and indomethacin induced similar depression in the key innate immune parameters to the nematode cuticles. However, these effects were reversed when dexamethasone, indomethacin, or nematode cuticles were injected together with arachidonic acid. Additionally, we found that palmitic acid did not reverse the influence of the dexamethasone, indomethacin, or nematode cuticles on the innate immune responses. Therefore, we inferred from our results that both S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora cuticles inhibited eicosanoid biosynthesis to induce host immunodepression.

  11. Substance Abuse Treatment, HIV/AIDS, and the Continuum of Response for People Who Inject Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kresina, Thomas F.; Lubran, Robert; Clark, H. Westley; Cheever, Laura W.

    2012-01-01

    The continuum of response (CoR) to HIV/AIDS is a framework for implementation of HIV prevention, care, and treatment programs based on a national strategic plan for HIV/AIDS services. The CoR for people who inject drugs (PWID) is an important extension of the developed CoR to HIV/AIDS. The CoR-PWID employs stakeholders who together plan, develop, pilot, and provide a full range of services that address the various prevention, care/support, and treatment needs of people, families, and communities infected or affected by HIV/AIDS and injection drug use. The CoR-PWID comprises a broad range of services that include but are not limited to the World Health Organization priority interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care in the health sector and the package of essential interventions for the prevention, treatment, and care of HIV for people who inject drugs. Implementation of these well-defined, essential prevention, care/support, and treatment services, in addition to locally defined needed services, in a coordinated fashion is important to clients, their families, and communities. The CoR-PWID is, therefore, a necessary framework essential for service development for countries that address HIV/AIDS in populations of PWID. PMID:23243517

  12. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acids on cellular immune response of piglets after cyclosporin A injection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y X; Zhu, K Y; Liu, Y L; Jiang, D F

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the cellular immune response of piglets after cyclosporin A (CsA) treatment. The experimental study had a 2×2 factorial design, and the main factors consisted of diets (0% or 2% CLA) and immunosuppression treatments (CsA or saline injection). CsA injection significantly increased feed : gain (F : G) of piglets (P<0.05); however, dietary CLA significantly decreased F : G of piglets (P<0.05). Dietary CLA partly ameliorated the deterioration of the feed conversion rate caused by CsA treatment (P<0.01). CsA treatment significantly decreased the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the thymus (P<0.01). Dietary CLA increased the percentages of CD4+ CD8+ double-positive and CD8+ single-positive T lymphocytes in the thymus (P<0.05), and had the trend to inhibit the decrease of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the thymus after CsA injection (P=0.07). CsA treatment significantly depleted the peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes (P<0.01). Dietary CLA significantly increased the number of peripheral blood CD8+ T lymphocytes and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production (P<0.05), and inhibited the decreases of peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes counts (P<0.01) as well as IL-2 production (P<0.05) after CsA treatment. Dietary CLA partly rescued the decrease of lymphocyte proliferation after CsA injection (P<0.05). In summary, dietary CLA effectively ameliorated CsA-induced cellular immunosuppression in piglets.

  13. Construction of a Direct Water-Injected Two-Stroke Engine for Phased Direct Fuel Injection-High Pressure Charging Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somsel, James P.

    1998-01-01

    The development of a water injected Orbital Combustion Process (OCP) engine was conducted to assess the viability of using the powerplant for high altitude NASA aircraft and General Aviation (GA) applications. An OCP direct fuel injected, 1.2 liter, three cylinder, two-stroke engine has been enhanced to independently inject water directly into the combustion chamber. The engine currently demonstrates low brake specific fuel consumption capability and an excellent power to weight ratio. With direct water injection, significant improvements can be made to engine power, to knock limits/ignition advance timing, and to engine NO(x) emissions. The principal aim of the testing was to validate a cyclic model developed by the Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. The work is a continuation of Ames' investigations into a Phased Direct Fuel Injection Engine with High Pressure Charging (PDFI-ITPC).

  14. The injection of a highly focused microjet into a soft target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Nanami; Kawamoto, Sennosuke; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2016-11-01

    Needle-free drug injection systems have been developed in order to supersede traditional syringe injection system with needles. However, in spite of its great potential, these systems are not commonly used. One of the main reasons is to use diffusive jets, which results in severe deceleration of the jets and causes insufficient penetration. Recently, a highly focused microjet generated by irradiating a laser pulse to a point inside a liquid filled in a capillary tube is gathering attention as a method to solve these problems. Although the microjet injection phenomena into a model material of the skin have been studied, the effect of the distance R (R is a distance between a gas-liquid interface and a target) on injection phenomena have not been researched. The distance R is not a parameter which controls the jet generation. However, considering the practical use of the needle-free injection, it is necessary to know appropriate value of the distance R. In this study, we change the distance R in a range of 0.3 mm to 5 mm to investigate its influence on the injection depth Di. As a target, we used 5 wt% gelatin. We show relationship between injection depth Di and distance R and rationalize it in this presentation. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP26709007.

  15. Injection coupling with high amplitude transverse modes: Experimentation and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mery, Yoann; Ducruix, Sébastien; Scouflaire, Philippe; Candel, Sébastien

    2009-06-01

    High frequency combustion instabilities have technical importance in the design of liquid rocket engines. These phenomena involve a strong coupling between transverse acoustic modes and combustion. They are currently being investigated by combining experimentation and numerical simulations. On the experimental level, the coupling is examined in a model scale system featuring a multiple injector combustor (MIC) comprising five coaxial injectors fed with liquid oxygen and gaseous methane. This system is equipped with a novel VHAM actuator (Very High Amplitude Modulator) which comprises two nozzles and a rotating toothed wheel blocking the nozzles in an alternate fashion. This device was designed to obtain the highest possible levels of transverse oscillation in the MIC. After a brief review of the VHAM, this article reports cold flow experiments using this modulator. Velocity maps obtained under resonant conditions using the VHAM are examined at different instants during a cycle of oscillation. Experimental data are compared with numerical pressure and velocity fields obtained from an acoustic solver. The good agreement observed in the nozzle vicinity indicates that numerical simulations can be used to analyze the complex flow field generated by the VHAM. To cite this article: Y. Mery et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  16. Evaluation of injection methods for fast, high peak capacity separations with low thermal mass gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Brian D; Mannion, Brandyn C; To, Khang; Hoac, Trinh; Synovec, Robert E

    2015-05-01

    Low thermal mass gas chromatography (LTM-GC) was evaluated for rapid, high peak capacity separations with three injection methods: liquid, headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME), and direct vapor. An Agilent LTM equipped with a short microbore capillary column was operated at a column heating rate of 250 °C/min to produce a 60s separation. Two sets of experiments were conducted in parallel to characterize the instrumental platform. First, the three injection methods were performed in conjunction with in-house built high-speed cryo-focusing injection (HSCFI) to cryogenically trap and re-inject the analytes onto the LTM-GC column in a narrower band. Next, the three injection methods were performed natively with LTM-GC. Using HSCFI, the peak capacity of a separation of 50 nl of a 73 component liquid test mixture was 270, which was 23% higher than without HSCFI. Similar peak capacity gains were obtained when using the HSCFI with HS-SPME (25%), and even greater with vapor injection (56%). For the 100 μl vapor sample injected without HSCFI, the preconcentration factor, defined as the ratio of the maximum concentration of the detected analyte peak relative to the analyte concentration injected with the syringe, was determined to be 11 for the earliest eluting peak (most volatile analyte). In contrast, the preconcentration factor for the earliest eluting peak using HSCFI was 103. Therefore, LTM-GC is demonstrated to natively provide in situ analyte trapping, although not to as great an extent as with HSCFI. We also report the use of LTM-GC applied with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) detection for rapid, high peak capacity separations from SPME sampled banana peel headspace.

  17. Injectable, high-density collagen gels for annulus fibrosus repair: An in vitro rat tail model.

    PubMed

    Borde, Brandon; Grunert, Peter; Härtl, Roger; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2015-08-01

    A herniated intervertebral disc often causes back pain when disc tissue is displaced through a damaged annulus fibrosus. Currently, the only methods available for annulus fibrosus repair involve mechanical closure of defect, which does little to address biological healing in the damaged tissue. Collagen hydrogels are injectable and have been used to repair annulus defects in vivo. In this study, high-density collagen hydrogels at 5, 10, and 15 mg/mL were used to repair defects made to intact rat caudal intervertebral discs in vitro. A group of gels at 15 mg/mL were also cross-linked with riboflavin at 0.03 mM, 0.07 mM, or 0.10 mM. These cross-linked, high-density collagen gels maintained their presence in the defect under loading and contributed positively to the mechanical response of damaged discs. Discs exhibited increases to 95% of undamaged effective equilibrium and instantaneous moduli as well as up to fourfold decreases in effective hydraulic permeability from the damaged discs. These data suggest that high-density collagen gels may be effective at restoring mechanical function of injured discs as well as potential vehicles for the delivery of biological agents such as cells or growth factors that may aid in the repair of the annulus fibrosus.

  18. Injectable, High Density Collagen Gels for Annulus Fibrosus Repair: An In Vitro Rat Tail Model

    PubMed Central

    Borde, Brandon; Grunert, Peter; Härtl, Roger; Bonassar, Lawrence J.

    2014-01-01

    A herniated intervertebral disc often causes back pain when disc tissue is displaced through a damaged annulus fibrosus. Currently the only methods available for annulus fibrosus repair involve mechanical closure of defect, which does little to address biological healing in the damaged tissue. Collagen hydrogels are injectable and have been used to repair annulus defects in vivo. In this study, high-density collagen hydrogels at 5, 10 and 15 mg/ml were used to repair defects made to intact rat caudal intervertebral discs in vitro. A group of gels at 15 mg/ml were also crosslinked with riboflavin at 0.03 mM, 0.07 mM or 0.10 mM . These crosslinked, high-density collagen gels maintained presence in the defect under loading and contributed positively to the mechanical response of damaged discs. Discs exhibited increases to 95% of undamaged effective equilibrium and instantaneous moduli as well as up to four fold decreases in effective hydraulic permeability from the damaged discs. These data suggest that high density collagen gels may be effective at restoring mechanical function of injured discs as well as potential vehicles for delivery of biological agents such as cells or growth factors that may aid in the repair of the annulus fibrosus. PMID:25504661

  19. Impurity levels and power loading in the PDX tokamak with high power neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Fonck, R.J.; Bell, M.; Bol, K.

    1982-10-01

    The PDX tokamak provides an experimental facility for the direct comparison of various impurity control techniques under reactor-like conditions. Four neutral beam lines can inject up to 6 MW for 300 ms. Carbon rail limiter discharges have been used to test the effectiveness of perpendicular injection, but non-disruptive full power operation for > 100 ms is difficult without extensive conditioning. Initial tests of a toroidal bumper limiter indicate reduced power loading and roughly similar impurity levels compared to the carbon rail limiter discharges. Poloidal divertor discharges with up to 5 MW of injected power are cleaner than similar circular discharges, and the power is deposited in a remote divertor chamber. High density divertor operation indicates a reduction of impurity flow velocity in the divertor and enhanced recycling in the divertor region during neutral injection.

  20. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2002-12-31

    This report outlines progress in the first quarter of the third year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. In this report we present an application of compositional streamline simulation in modeling enhanced condensate recovery via gas injection. These processes are inherently compositional and detailed compositional fluid descriptions must be use to represent the flow behavior accurately. Compositional streamline simulation results are compared to those of conventional finite-difference (FD) simulation for evaluation of gas injection schemes in condensate reservoirs. We present and compare streamline and FD results for two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) examples, to show that the compositional streamline method is a way to obtain efficiently estimates of reasonable accuracy for condensate recovery by gas injection.

  1. Geomechanical Modeling of Fault Responses and the Potential for Notable Seismic Events during Underground CO2 Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutqvist, J.; Cappa, F.; Mazzoldi, A.; Rinaldi, A.

    2012-12-01

    The importance of geomechanics associated with large-scale geologic carbon storage (GCS) operations is now widely recognized. There are concerns related to the potential for triggering notable (felt) seismic events and how such events could impact the long-term integrity of a CO2 repository (as well as how it could impact the public perception of GCS). In this context, we review a number of modeling studies and field observations related to the potential for injection-induced fault reactivations and seismic events. We present recent model simulations of CO2 injection and fault reactivation, including both aseismic and seismic fault responses. The model simulations were conducted using a slip weakening fault model enabling sudden (seismic) fault rupture, and some of the numerical analyses were extended to fully dynamic modeling of seismic source, wave propagation, and ground motion. The model simulations illustrated what it will take to create a magnitude 3 or 4 earthquake that would not result in any significant damage at the groundsurface, but could raise concerns in the local community and could also affect the deep containment of the stored CO2. The analyses show that the local in situ stress field, fault orientation, fault strength, and injection induced overpressure are critical factors in determining the likelihood and magnitude of such an event. We like to clarify though that in our modeling we had to apply very high injection pressure to be able to intentionally induce any fault reactivation. Consequently, our model simulations represent extreme cases, which in a real GCS operation could be avoided by estimating maximum sustainable injection pressure and carefully controlling the injection pressure. In fact, no notable seismic event has been reported from any of the current CO2 storage projects, although some unfelt microseismic activities have been detected by geophones. On the other hand, potential future commercial GCS operations from large power plants

  2. More than just someone to inject drugs with: injecting within primary injection partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Meghan D.; Bates, Anna; Andrew, Erin; Hahn, Judith; Page, Kimberly; Maher, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies have shown intimate injection partners engage in higher rates of syringe and injecting equipment sharing. We examined the drug use context and development of injection drug use behaviors within intimate injection partnerships. Methods In-depth interviews (n=18) were conducted with both members of nine injecting partnerships in Sydney, Australia. Content analysis identified key domains related to the reasons for injecting with a primary injection partner and development of drug injection patterns. Main Findings Most partnerships (n=5) were also sexual; three were blood-relatives and one a friend dyad. The main drug injected was heroin (66%) with high rates of recent sharing behaviors (88%) reported within dyads. Injecting within a primary injection partnership provided perceived protection against overdose events, helped reduce stress, increased control over when, where, and how drugs were used, and promoted the development of an injecting pattern where responsibilities could be shared. Unique to injecting within primary injection partnerships was the social connection and companionship resulted in a feeling of fulfillment while also blinding one from recognizing risky behavior. Conclusions Findings illuminated the tension between protection and risks within primary injection partnerships. Primary injection partnerships provide a potential platform to expand risk reduction strategies. PMID:26460140

  3. MICROSCALE FLOW INJECTION AND MICROBORE HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATORGRAPHY COUPLED WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY VIA A HIGH-EFFICIENCY NEBULIZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A high-effeciency nebulizer has been used for coupling microscale flow injection and microbore high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The microscale flow injection system was configured to minimize band broadening between...

  4. Plasma Response to Supersonic Molecular Beam Injection in J-TEXT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jinshui; Yang, Zhoujun; Zhuang, Ge; Hu, Qiming; Feng, Xiande; Liu, Minghai

    2014-01-01

    Recently, hydrogen fueling experiments with supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) system have been performed in the J-TEXT tokamak. To evaluate the effects of the injection amount of SMBI on plasma behaviors, moderate and intensive SMBs have been separately injected and compared with each other in Ohmic discharges. With moderate SMBs, electron density increases about twice as before, the size of magnetic island slightly decreases, and the edge toroidal rotation speed in a counter-current direction, measured by a high resolution spectrometer (Carbon V ion, 227.09 nm, r/a = 0.7-0.8), is accelerated from 8 km/s to 12 km/s. The state of higher electron density with moderate SMBI can be maintained for a long period, which indicates that plasma confinement is improved. However, with intensive SMBs, the accompanied magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activities are triggered, and the electron density increases moderately. The edge toroidal velocity is decreased, in certain cases even reversed in the co-current direction. The statistical result of experimental data for moderate and intensive SMBs suggests a preferred fueling amount (less than 3.2×1019) to improve the SMBI fueling efficiency in experiments.

  5. Botulinum toxin injection for hypercontractile or spastic esophageal motility disorders: may high-resolution manometry help to select cases?

    PubMed

    Marjoux, S; Brochard, C; Roman, S; Gincul, R; Pagenault, M; Ponchon, T; Ropert, A; Mion, F

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic injections of botulinum toxin in the cardia or distal esophagus have been advocated to treat achalasia and spastic esophageal motility disorders. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate whether manometric diagnosis using the Chicago classification in high-resolution manometry (HRM) would be predictive of the clinical response. Charts of patients with spastic and hypertensive motility disorders diagnosed with HRM and treated with botulinum toxin were retrospectively reviewed at two centers. HRM recordings were systematically reanalyzed, and a patient's phone survey was conducted. Forty-five patients treated between 2008 and 2013 were included. Most patients had achalasia type 3 (22 cases). Other diagnoses were jackhammer esophagus (8 cases), distal esophageal spasm (7 cases), esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction (5 cases), nutcracker esophagus (1 case), and 2 unclassified cases. Botulinum toxin injections were performed into the cardia only in 9 cases, into the wall of the distal esophagus in 19 cases, and in both locations (cardia and distal esophagus) in 17 cases. No complication occurred in 31 cases. Chest pain was noticed for less than 7 days in 13 cases. One death related to mediastinitis occurred 3 weeks after botulinum toxin injection. Efficacy was assessed in 42 patients: 71% were significantly improved 2 months after botulinum toxin, and 57% remained satisfied for more than 6 months. No clear difference was observed in terms of response according to manometric diagnosis; however, type 3 achalasia previously dilated and with normal integrated relaxation pressure (4s-integrated relaxation pressure < 15 mmHg) had the worst outcome: none of these patients responded to the endoscopic injection of botulinum toxin. Endoscopic injections of botulinum toxin may be effective in some patients with spastic or hypercontractile esophageal motility disorders. The manometric Chicago classification diagnosis does not seem to predict the results

  6. High-pressure injection injury of the finger - a case presentation

    PubMed Central

    ŞTEFĂNESCU, RALUCA LAURA; BORDEIANU, ION

    2013-01-01

    High-pressure injection injuries are uncommon traumas characterized by a great discrepancy between a deceptively small entrance site and the extensive and underestimated subcutaneous tissue injury and destruction. Without early and correct treatment these lesions lead to disability and local extensive destruction. This paper presents a case of high-pressure injection injury to the metacarpal-phalangeal articulation of the finger from industrial paint; the extent of the injury was underestimated at presentation and improperly treated. This case required surgical staged management, with a total time of medical leave of three months. PMID:26527921

  7. Communication: Evidence of hydrated electrons injected by a metallic electrode in a high voltage system.

    PubMed

    Perles, Carlos Eduardo; Volpe, Pedro Luiz Onófrio

    2010-12-28

    In this work it a strong evidence of the hydrated electrons production was shown in a film of condensed water, by directing the injection of electrons in localized and/or delocalized water electronic states using a system of high voltage made in laboratory. The results show that the water layers on the silica particles are electrically charged by injection of electrons from a metal electrode when silica is placed in high electric field. This charging process also appears to depend on the thickness of these water layers and of the spatial arrangement required by the silica surface.

  8. A bio-injectable algin-aminocaproic acid thixogel with tri-stimuli responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Chejara, Dharmesh R; Mabrouk, Mostafa; Badhe, Ravindra V; Mulla, Jameel A S; Kumar, Pradeep; Choonara, Yahya E; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2016-01-01

    In this article a novel bio-injectable algin-aminocaproic acid (Alg-ACA) tri-stimuli responsive thixogel system is reported. The designed soft thixotrophic hydrogel (thixogel) was characterized using various analytical techniques such as FT-IR, NMR, SEM, AFM and DSC. The soft thixogel system was further investigated for stress responsiveness using different rheological studies which confirmed the thixotropic nature of the gel [Thixotropic area (Ar) of Alg-ACA (1:0.5), Alg-ACA (1:1) and Alg-ACA (1:2), were 23.5%, 43.1%, and 27.59%, respectively, which were higher than that of Na-Alg (2.08%)]. The thixogel also demonstrated temperature and ultrasonication responsiveness. This tri-stimuli responsive soft thixogel system was rendered flowable (fluid) on applying the described physical stimuli and recovered its "rigid" gel structure upon removal of the applied stimuli. This approach of synthesizing a thixogels may be applicable to a broad variety of other natural polymers and has the potential for use in biomedical applications.

  9. Effects of lidocaine injections into the lateral parabrachial nucleus on dipsogenic and pressor response to central angiotensin 2 in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menani, Jose Vanderlei; Beltz, Terry G.

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of bilateral injections of the local anesthetic, lidocaine, into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) on the dipsogenic and pressor responses induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of angiotensin 2 (ANG 2). Centrally injected ANG 2 (50 ng/1 microliter) induced water intake ( IO.2 +/- 0.8 ml/h) and pressor responses (22 +/- 1 mmHg). Prior bilateral injection of 10% lidocaine (200 nl) into the LPBN increased the water intake (14.2 +/- 1.4 ml/h), but did not change the pressor response (17 +/- 1 mmHg) to i.c.v. ANG 2. Lidocaine alone injected into the LPBN also induced a pressor response (23 +/- 3 mmHg). These results showing that bilateral LPBN injection of lidocaine increase water intake induced bv i.c.v. ANG 2 are consistent with electrolytic and neurotoxic lesion studies and suggest that the LPBN is associated with inhibitory mechanisms controlling water intake induced by ANG 2. These results also provide evidence that it is feasible to reversibly anesthetize this brain area to facilitate fluid-related ingestive behavior.

  10. Mathematical modeling as a tool to assess microbial community responses to CO2 injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilcaez, J.

    2014-12-01

    The issue of subsurface microbial community responses to the injection of CO2 has great importance not only from a risk assessment point of view but also from the perspective of CO2 recycling to CH4. In this sense, the objective of this study is to develop mathematical models to make a quantitative description of the responses of subsurface indigenous microbial communities to the injection of CO2. For this end, TOUGHREACTV1.2 reactive transport simulator with its module ECO2N is used as the modeling framework. The targeted microbial community is composed of fermentative bacteria (Organic matter → Acetate & H2), acetotrophic methanogens (Acetate → Methane & CO2), acetotrophic Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) (Acetate → H2S & CO2), hydrogenotrophic methanogens (H2 & CO2 → CH4), and hydrogenotrophic SRB (H2 → H2S). Due to the multiple hydrogeological, geochemical and microbiological factors intervening in both the response of subsurface microbial communities to the injection of CO2 and the chemical and physical fate of CO2 itself, at this stage simulations have been performed in batch mode. That means numerical simulations aimed to track changes in CO2 saturation levels, pH, and concentrations of mineral and aqueous phase species over time at selected initial conditions. Numerical simulation results indicate that the activity of microbes associated with methanogenic processes in geological storage sites of CO2 is governed by the level of CO2 saturation in the pore space as well as by the presence of pH buffering minerals such as calcite. With calcite in the mineral phase attenuating drops in pH below inhibitory levels, for instance it is shown that acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic SRB outcompete acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens for acetate and H2, respectively. During the initial stages of the reaction when the pH level is lowest, the higher tolerance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens to acidic pH levels is reflected by a preferential formation of

  11. Immune responses of BALB/c mice to subcutaneously injected multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jie; Yang, Man; Jia, Fumin; Xu, Zhen; Kong, Hua; Xu, Haiyan

    2011-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been shown to have the ability to transport therapeutic and detective reagents into cells. However, the rapid advances in new carbon nanotube-based materials and technologies have raised concerns about their safety. Such concerns require a fundamental understanding of the toxicological properties of carbon nanotubes. In particular, the use of carbon nanotubes as drug or probe delivery platforms may depend on the prevention of stimulatory side-effects to the immune system. In this study, we investigated the immunological properties of oxidized water dispersible multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in healthy BALB/c mice. We injected the MWCNTs subcutaneously, and the immune responses of the mice were monitored over time. We show that the MWCNTs induce complement activation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines early after injection of the mice, and that the levels of complement and cytokines return to normal levels over time. With the exception of the lymph nodes, there was no obvious accumulation of MWCNTs observed in the liver, spleen, kidney, or heart. In addition, we did not observe injury in the organs or lymph nodes. Our results indicate that local, subcutaneous administration of MWCNTs induces obvious short-term immunological reactions, which can be eliminated over time.

  12. High HIV burden among people who inject drugs in 15 Indian cities

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Gregory M.; Solomon, Sunil S.; Srikrishnan, Aylur K.; Agrawal, Alok; Iqbal, Syed; Laeyendecker, Oliver; McFall, Allison M.; Kumar, Muniratnam S.; Ogburn, Elizabeth; Celentano, David D.; Solomon, Suniti; Mehta, Shruti H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Injecting drug use has historically been the principal driver of the HIV epidemic in the Northeast states of India. However, recent data indicate growing numbers of people who inject drugs (PWID) in North and Central Indian cities. Methods We conducted face-to-face surveys among PWID in 7 Northeast and 8 North/Central Indian cities using respondent-driven sampling. We used a rapid HIV testing protocol to identify seropositive individuals and multi-assay algorithm to identify those with recent infection. We used multi-level regression models that incorporated sampling weights and had random intercepts for site to assess risk factors for prevalent and incident (recent) HIV infection. Results We surveyed 14,481 PWID from 15 Indian cities between January and December 2013. Participants reported high rates of needle/syringe sharing. The median (site range) estimated HIV prevalence and incidence were 18.1% (5.9, 44.9) and 2.9 per 100 person-years (0, 12.4), respectively. HIV prevalence was higher in Northeast sites while HIV incidence was higher in North/Central sites. The odds of prevalent HIV were over 3-fold higher in women than men. Other factors associated with HIV prevalence or incidence included duration since first injection, injection of pharmaceutical drugs, and needle/syringe sharing. Conclusions The burden of HIV infection is high among PWID in India, and may be increasing in cities where injecting drug use is emerging. Women who inject drugs were at substantially higher risk for HIV than men, a situation that may be mediated by dual injection-related and sexual risks. PMID:25715105

  13. Specific inflammatory response of Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria) after bacterial injection causes tissue reaction and enzymatic activity alteration.

    PubMed

    Trapani, M R; Parisi, M G; Parrinello, D; Sanfratello, M A; Benenati, G; Palla, F; Cammarata, M

    2016-03-01

    The evolution of multicellular organisms was marked by adaptations to protect against pathogens. The mechanisms for discriminating the ''self'' from ''non-self" have evolved into a long history of cellular and molecular strategies, from damage repair to the co-evolution of host-pathogen interactions. We investigated the inflammatory response in Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) following injection of substances that varied in type and dimension, and observed clear, strong and specific reactions, especially after injection of Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus. Moreover, we analyzed enzymatic activity of protease, phosphatase and esterase, showing how the injection of different bacterial strains alters the expression of these enzymes and suggesting a correlation between the appearance of the inflammatory reaction and the modification of enzymatic activities. Our study shows for the first time, a specific reaction and enzymatic responses following injection of bacteria in a cnidarian.

  14. Uncertainty quantification for the impact of injection rate fluctuation on the geomechanical response of geological carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Jie; Chu, Yanjun; Xu, Zhijie; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Fang, Yilin

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the geomechanical effects of injection rate fluctuations for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). Initially, we present analytical solutions for the effects of injection rate fluctuations on CO2 fluid pressure spatial distribution and temporal evolution for a typical injection scenario. Numerical calculations are performed using a finite element method to investigate the effects of injection rate fluctuations on geomechanical deformation, stresses, and potential failure of the aquifer and caprock layers. The numerical method was first validated by the fluid pressure distribution’s good agreement with the analytical solution. It was shown that for any Gaussian fluctuations of injection rate Q with given mean Q and variance ε_Q, the coefficients of variance for fluid pressure (ϵ_p=ε_p ), deformation (ϵ_u=ε_u ), and stresses (ϵ_σ=ε_σ ) increase linearly with the coefficient of variance for injection rate (ϵ_Q=ε_Q ). The proportional constants are identified, and the fluctuations have the most pronounced effect on the geomechanical stresses, and, therefore, on the potential failure of the aquifer and caprock layers. Instead of expensive computational simulation, this study provides an efficient tool to estimate the geomechanical response variance to injection rate fluctuation. A failure analysis was presented based on the numerical results, where probability of failure was estimated for fluctuating injection rates with different mean and variance during the entire injection period. It was found that with increasing injection rate fluctuation, the failure probability increases significantly. Therefore, the risk associated with injection rate fluctuations should be carefully evaluated.

  15. Injection molding simulation with variothermal mold temperature control of highly filled polyphenylene sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkholz, A.; Tschiersky, M.; Wortberg, J.

    2015-05-01

    For the installation of a fuel cell stack to convert chemical energy into electricity it is common to apply bipolar plates to separate and distribute reaction gases and cooling agents. For reducing manufacturing costs of bipolar plates a fully automated injection molding process is examined. The high performance thermoplastic matrix material, polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), defies against the chemical setting and the operation temperature up to 200 °C. To adjust also high electrical and thermal conductivity, PPS is highly filled with various carbon fillers up to an amount of 65 percentage by volume. In the first step two different structural plates (one-sided) with three different gate heights and molds are designed according to the characteristics of a bipolar plate. To cope with the approach that this plate should be producible on standard injection molding machines with variothermal mold temperature control, injection molding simulation is used. Additionally, the simulation should allow to formulate a quality prediction model, which is transferrable to bipolar plates. Obviously, the basis for a precise simulation output is an accurate description of the material properties and behavior of the highly filled compound. This, the design of the structural plate and mold and the optimization via simulation is presented, as well. The influence of the injection molding process parameters, e.g. injection time, cycle times, packing pressure, mold temperature, and melt temperature on the form filling have been simulated to determine optimal process conditions. With the aid of the simulation and the variothermal mold temperature control it was possible to reduce the required melt temperature below the decomposition temperature of PPS. Thereby, hazardous decomposition products as hydrogen sulfide are obviated. Thus, the health of the processor, the longevity of the injection molding machine as well as the material and product properties can be protected.

  16. Effect of Age and Frequency of Injections on Immune Response to Hepatitis B Vaccination in Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thanh Q.; Grimes, Carolyn Z.; Lai, Dejian; Troisi, Catherine L.; Hwang, Lu-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Despite the high immunogenicity of the hepatitis B vaccine, evidence suggests that immunological response in drug users is impaired compared to the general population. A sample of not-in-treatment adult drug users from two communities in Houston, Texas, USA, susceptible to hepatitis B virus (HBV), was sampled via outreach workers and referral methodology. Participants were randomized to either the standard multi-dose hepatitis B vaccine schedule (0, 1, 6 month) or to an accelerated (0, 1, 2 month) schedule. The participants were followed for one year. Antibody levels were measured at 2, 6 and 12 months after enrollment in order to determine the immune responses. At 12 months, cumulative adequate protective response was achieved in 65% of the HBV susceptible subgroup using both the standard and accelerated schedules. The standard group had a higher mean antibody titer (184.6 vs 57.6 mIU/mL). But at six months, seroconversion at the adequate protective response was reached by a higher proportion of participants and the mean antibody titer was also higher in the accelerated schedule group (104.8 vs. 64.3 mIU/mL). Multivariate analyses indicated a 63% increased risk of non-response for participants 40 years or older (p=0.046). Injecting drugs more than once a day was also highly associated with the risk of non-response (p=0.016). Conclusions from this research will guide the development of future vaccination programs that anticipate other prevalent chronic conditions, susceptibilities, and risk-taking behaviors of hard-to-reach populations. PMID:22075088

  17. Minimal injection site pain and high patient satisfaction during treatment with long-acting risperidone.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Jarboe, Kathleen; Bossie, Cynthia A; Zhu, Young; Mehnert, Angelika; Lasser, Robert

    2005-07-01

    Long-acting injectable antipsychotic formulations of conventional antipsychotics were developed to address the problem of partial adherence among patients with schizophrenia. Injection site pain, other skin reactions and patient satisfaction with treatment were assessed in two large, multicentre studies of long-acting injectable risperidone (Risperdal CONSTA, Janssen Pharmaceutica Products, Titusville, New Jersey, USA), the first available long-acting atypical antipsychotic agent. Patients rated injection site pain using a 100-mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and investigators rated injection site pain, redness, swelling and induration. Patient satisfaction with treatment was assessed with the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI). VAS pain ratings were low at all visits across all doses in both studies, and decreased from first to final injection. In the 12-week, double-blind study, mean +/- SD VAS scores at the first and final injections were 15.6 +/- 20.7 and 12.5 +/- 18.3 for placebo-treated patients, and 11.8 +/- 14.4 (first) and 10.0 +/- 12.4 (final) for 25 mg; 16.3+/-21.9 (first) and 13.6 +/- 21.7 (final) for 50 mg; and 16.0 +/- 17.9 (first) and 9.6 +/- 16.0 (final, P<0.01) for 75 mg of long-acting risperidone. Mean VAS scores in the 50-week, open-label study at the first and final injection were: 17.9 +/- 22.2 (first) and 9.5 +/- 16.7 (final, P<0.0001) for 25 mg; 18.1 +/- 19.7 (first) and 10.4 +/- 14.8 (final, P<0.0001) for 50 mg; and 18.5 +/- 21.6 (first) and 13.6 +/- 19.9 (final, P = 0.0001) for 75 mg of long-acting risperidone. Overall, there was no or minimal injection site pain and skin reactions were rare. Mean DAI ratings were available for the 50-week study and indicated high patient satisfaction throughout the trial (baseline = 7.30; endpoint = 7.70; P<0.0001 versus baseline). These findings may positively affect patient and clinician attitudes towards long-term therapy with long-acting injectable risperidone.

  18. Flow-induced birefringence: the hidden PSF killer in high performance injection-molded plastic optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidley, Matthew D.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz; Kester, Robert; Descour, Michael R.

    2006-02-01

    A 7-mm OD, NA = 1 water immersion injection-molded plastic endoscope objective has been fabricated for a laser scanning fiber confocal reflectance microscope (FCRM) system specifically designed for in vivo detection of cervical and oral pre-cancers. Injection-molded optics was selected for the ability to incorporate aspheric surfaces into the optical design and its high volume capabilities. Our goal is high performance disposable endoscope probes. This objective has been built and tested as a stand-alone optical system, a Strehl ratio greater than 0.6 has been obtained. One of the limiting factors of optical performance is believed to be flow-induced birefringence. We have investigated different configurations for birefringence visualization and believe the circular polariscope is most useful for inspection of injection-molded plastic optics. In an effort to decrease birefringence effects, two experiments were conducted. They included: (1) annealing of the optics after fabrication and (2) modifying the injection molding prameters (packing pressures, injection rates, and hold time). While the second technique showed improvement, the annealing process could not improve quality without physically warping the lenses. Therefore, to effectively reduce flow-induced birefringence, molding conditions have to be carefully selected. These parameters are strongly connected to the physical part geometry. Both optical design and fabrication technology have to be considered together to deliver low birefringence while maintaining the required manufacturing tolerances. In this paper we present some of our current results that illustrate how flow-induced birefringence can degrade high performance injection-molded plastic optical systems.

  19. Properties of high density polyethylene – Paulownia wood flour composites via injection molding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Paulownia wood (PW) flour is evaluated as a bio-based fiber reinforcement. Composites of high density polyethylene (HDPE), 25% by weight of PW, and either 0% or 5% by weight of maleated polyethylene (MAPE) were produced by twin screw compounding followed by injection molding. Molded test composite...

  20. Variably spaced superlattice energy filter, a new device design concept for high-energy electron injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, C. J.; Brennan, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    A new variably spaced superlattice energy filter is proposed which provides high-energy injection of electrons into a bulk semiconductor layer based on resonant tunneling between adjacent quantum well levels which are brought into alignment by an applied bias. Applications of this concept to a variety of optoelectronic devices and to thin-film electroluminescent devices and photodetectors are discussed.

  1. Physics based simulation of seismicity induced in the vicinity of a high-pressure fluid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCloskey, J.; NicBhloscaidh, M.; Murphy, S.; O'Brien, G. S.; Bean, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    High-pressure fluid injection into subsurface is known, in some cases, to induce earthquakes in the surrounding volume. The increasing importance of ';fracking' as a potential source of hydrocarbons has made the seismic hazard from this effect an important issue the adjudication of planning applications and it is likely that poor understanding of the process will be used as justification of refusal of planning in Ireland and the UK. Here we attempt to understand some of the physical controls on the size and frequency of induced earthquakes using a physics-based simulation of the process and examine resulting earthquake catalogues The driver for seismicity in our simulations is identical to that used in the paper by Murphy et al. in this session. Fluid injection is simulated using pore fluid movement throughout a permeable layer from a high-pressure point source using a lattice Boltzmann scheme. Diffusivities and frictional parameters can be defined independently at individual nodes/cells allowing us to reproduce 3-D geological structures. Active faults in the model follow a fractal size distribution and exhibit characteristic event size, resulting in a power-law frequency-size distribution. The fluid injection is not hydraulically connected to the fault (i.e. fluid does not come into physical contact with the fault); however stress perturbations from the injection drive the seismicity model. The duration and pressure-time function of the fluid injection can be adjusted to model any given injection scenario and the rate of induced seismicity is controlled by the local structures and ambient stress field as well as by the stress perturbations resulting from the fluid injection. Results from the rate and state fault models of Murphy et al. are incorporated to include the effect of fault strengthening in seismically quite areas. Initial results show similarities with observed induced seismic catalogues. Seismicity is only induced where the active faults have not been

  2. Digital high-pressure injection injury: the importance of early recognition and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sarwar, Umran; Javed, Muhammad; Rahman, Shakeel; Wright, Thomas C

    2014-01-01

    High-pressure injection (HPI) injuries are an uncommon mechanism of trauma. The clinical effects of the HPI injury depend upon a number of variables including the pressures involved, chemical toxicity, quantity of material injected and its temperature. Evidence within the literature has shown that delay in identifying and treating such injuries can lead to devastating consequences. We describe one such case of a HPI injury involving engine oil to a digit. In addition, we review the clinical course, pathophysiology and management of such injuries. PMID:24554684

  3. Investigation of caprock integrity during high-volume injection into the Utsira formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasda, S. E.; Wangen, M.; Bjørnarå, T. I.

    2015-12-01

    The Utsira formation is a large offshore saline aquifer in the North Sea that is considered a likely candidate for storage of CO2 emissions. Currently, the Utsira is host to the longest operating CO2 storage project, the Sleipner project, which has injected 1 Mt CO2/y since 1996. The entire Utsira formation has an estimated storage capacity of 15 Gt, which is equal to 300 Sleipner-sized projects in simultaneous operation for the next 50 years. Injectivity into the Utsira is exceptionally good, and no pressurization has been observed at Sleipner. The formation is over 100-m thick and comprised of unconsolidated sand with high porosity and permeability (30-40% and 1-3 Darcy). The Nordland shale has been characterized as a high-quality seal that is regionally thick, extensive and absent of significant faults. Significant scale-up of CO2 injection into the Utsira is required to increase storage of regional CO2 emissions well beyond what is currently stored today. Full utilization of the Utsira storage capacity would result in injection rates >100 Mt/y, significantly larger than Sleipner. Despite the lack of pressure effects at Sleipner, higher injection rates will likely lead to pressure build-up in the Utsira. Relatively little is known about the magnitude of pressure build-up and resulting impact on caprock integrity with high-volume injection. The problem is complex, involving multiphase flow and mechanical deformation of the storage reservoir and the surrounding formations, and covers large spatial scales, ranging several hundred kilometers in lateral extent. There are significant challenges in applying fully coupled hydromechanical simulators to problems of this scale. The computational effort required to solve a resolved is significant, and efforts to reduce the complexity of the model are needed. In this study, simplified modeling approaches are investigated. A reduced order multiphase flow model coupled with a geomechanical model results in greater efficiency

  4. Performance of a High-Speed Compression-Ignition Engine Using Multiple Orifice Fuel Injection Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Foster, H H

    1930-01-01

    This report presents test results obtained at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics during an investigation to determine the relative performance of a single-cylinder, high-speed, compression-ignition engine when using fuel injection valve nozzles with different numbers, sizes, and directions of round orifices. A spring-loaded, automatic injection valve was used, centrally located at the top of a vertical disk-type combustion chamber formed between horizontally opposed inlet and exhaust valves of a 5 inch by 7 inch engine.

  5. Pre- and post-injection flow characterization in a heavy-duty diesel engine using high-speed PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegers, R. P. C.; Luijten, C. C. M.; Dam, N. J.; de Goey, L. P. H.

    2012-09-01

    High-speed particle image velocimetry (HS-PIV) using hollow microspheres has been applied to characterize the flow in a heavy-duty diesel engine during and after fuel injection. The injection timings were varied in the range representing those used in premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) regimes, and multiple injections have been applied to investigate their influence on the flow inside the combustion chamber. By injecting into pure nitrogen, combustion is avoided and the flow can be studied long after injection. The results show a sudden change of air motion at the start of injection as a result of the air entrainment at the core of the spray. Furthermore, as expected, spray injection causes a considerable increase in the cycle-to-cycle fluctuations of the flow pattern, the more so for longer injection durations.

  6. Development of High Efficiency and Low Emission Low Temperature Combustion Diesel Engine with Direct EGR Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, R. J.; Kumaran, P.; Yusoff, M. Z.

    2016-03-01

    Focus on energy and environmental sustainability policy has put automotive research & development directed to developing high efficiency and low pollutant power train. Diffused flame controlled diesel combustion has reach its limitation and has driven R&D to explore other modes of combustions. Known effective mode of combustion to reduce emission are Low temperature combustion (LTC) and homogeneous charge combustion ignition by suppressing Nitrogen Oxide(NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) formation. The key control to meet this requirement are chemical composition and distribution of fuel and gas during a combustion process. Most research to accomplish this goal is done by manipulating injected mass flow rate and varying indirect EGR through intake manifold. This research paper shows viable alternative direct combustion control via co-axial direct EGR injection with fuel injection process. A simulation study with OpenFOAM is conducted by varying EGR injection velocity and direct EGR injector diameter performed with under two conditions with non-combustion and combustion. n-heptane (C7H16) is used as surrogate fuel together with 57 species 290 semi-detailed chemical kinetic model developed by Chalmers University is used for combustion simulation. Simulation result indicates viability of co-axial EGR injection as a method for low temperature combustion control.

  7. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2002-03-31

    This report outlines progress in the second quarter of the second year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. A three-dimensional streamline simulator, developed at Stanford University, has been modified in order to use analytical one-dimensional dispersion-free solutions to multicomponent gas injection processes. The use of analytical one-dimensional solutions in combination with streamline simulation is demonstrated to speedup compositional simulations of miscible gas injection processes by orders of magnitude compared to a conventional finite difference simulator. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional examples are reported to demonstrate the potential of this technology. Finally, the assumptions of the approach and possible extensions to include the effects of gravity are discussed.

  8. Gas ionization induced by a high speed plasma injection in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasaki, S.; Kawashima, N.; Kuriki, K.; Yanagisawa, M.; Obayashi, T.; Roberts, W. T.; Reasoner, D. L.; Taylor, W. W. L.

    1986-01-01

    Gas ionization induced by a fast plasma injection has been observed with the Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) Experiment on Spacelab-1. When an impulsive high-density plasma was injected from the orbiter, waves near the lower-hybrid frequency were enhanced, and the surrounding gas drifting with the orbiter was ionized for several tens of milliseconds after the plasma injection. The long-duration gas ionization was observed only when the plasma flux incoming to the orbiter cargo bay and the orbital velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field were relatively large. This effect has been explained by the concept of critical velocity ionization (CVI) for the gas drifting with the orbiter, although the gas velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field was less than the Alfven critical velocity.

  9. Analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to achieve high Mach numbers and high thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henneberry, Hugh M.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to enhance performance by increasing Mach number capability and by increasing thrust is described. The liquids are injected, either separately or together, into the subsonic diffuser ahead of the engine compressor. A turbojet engine and a mixed-flow turbofan engine (MFTF) are examined, and in pursuit of maximum thrust, both engines are fitted with afterburners. The results indicate that water injection alone can extend the performance envelope of both engine types by one and one-half Mach numbers at which point water-air ratios reach 17 or 18 percent and liquid specific impulse is reduced to some 390 to 470 seconds, a level about equal to the impulse of a high energy rocket engine. The envelope can be further extended, but only with increasing sacrifices in liquid specific impulse. Oxygen-airflow ratios as high as 15 percent were investigated for increasing thrust. Using 15 percent oxygen in combination with water injection at high supersonic Mach numbers resulted in thrust augmentation as high as 76 percent without any significant decrease in liquid specific impulse. The stoichiometric afterburner exit temperature increased with increasing oxygen flow, reaching 4822 deg R in the turbojet engine at a Mach number of 3.5. At the transonic Mach number of 0.95 where no water injection is needed, an oxygen-air ratio of 15 percent increased thrust by some 55 percent in both engines, along with a decrease in liquid specific impulse of 62 percent. Afterburner temperature was approximately 4700 deg R at this high thrust condition. Water and/or oxygen injection are simple and straightforward strategies to improve engine performance and they will add little to engine weight. However, if large Mach number and thrust increases are required, liquid flows become significant, so that operation at these conditions will necessarily be of short duration.

  10. Early local and systemic innate immune responses in the teleost gilthead seabream after intraperitoneal injection of whole yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Alberto; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Salinas, Irene; Meseguer, José; Esteban, M Angeles

    2007-03-01

    The early cellular innate immune responses of the teleost gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) against whole yeast cells were studied. Fish received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and leukocyte mobilization, degranulation, peroxidase content, respiratory burst, phagocytic and cytotoxic activities were assayed in both head-kidney leukocytes (HKLs) and peritoneal exudate leukocytes (PELs). The total number of PELs significantly increased from 4 h post-injection until the end of the experiment (3 days). Interestingly, flow cytometric analysis revealed variations in the proportion of cell-types in the PE. Thus, PE acidophilic granulocytes increased to a significant extent 4 h post-injection and were restored thereafter. Moreover, PE monocyte-macrophages started to increase from 24 h, the enhancement being statistically significant after 48 and 72 h. Degranulation was greater in PELs throughout the assay. The peroxidase content of the leukocytes was affected differently in HKLs and PELs. The respiratory burst activity was not affected in HKLs but significantly increased in PELs from 4 to 48 h post-injection with yeast cells. On the other hand, HKL phagocytosis had decreased 72 h post-injection with yeast cells while it increased after 4 and 24 h post-injection in the PELs. Conversely, the cytotoxic activity was significantly enhanced in HKLs from 24 to 72 h post-injection but slightly decreased in PELs. Finally, our data demonstrate that seabream injected with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae show leukocyte mobilization and cellular innate immune response activation at the site of invasion and also in the head-kidney. The implications of the leukocyte-types and the immune responses observed, as well as analogies with other particulated antigens, will be discussed as possible models for investigating the effect of potential pathogens.

  11. Observation of a Distinct Transition in Transport Response to Injection Stress in the Floridan Aquifer System, Southeastern Florida, U.S.A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. N.; Cunningham, K. J.; Foster, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department (MDWASD) injects effluent approximately one km below land surface into the Boulder Zone (BZ) at the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant (NDWWTP). The BZ is highly conductive and composed of fractured dolomite. MDWASD monitors upward effluent migration 450 m below land surface in the Avon Park Permeable Zone (APPZ). The BZ and APPZ---units within the Floridan aquifer system---are separated by a series of inter-bedded aquifers and leaky confining units with hydraulic conductivities that are orders of magnitude smaller than the BZ. MDWASD injected effluent at the NDWWTP during two distinct periods: (1) July 1997 to September 1999, and (2) August 2004 to January 2011. No effluent was injected between October 1999 and July 2004. A few months after the July 1997 injection, MDWASD observed effluent constituents in the APPZ (Figure 1). Some confinement bypass feature permits effluent constituents to be transported from the BZ to the APPZ. Bypass features may include poorly-cased wells, or natural conduits such as fractures, faults, or karst collapse systems. It is possible to describe confinement bypass features with conductance KA/L, where K is hydraulic conductivity, A is cross-sectional area, and L is length. MDWASD observed a distinct transition in the transport response to injection stress of total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration in the APPZ. The conductance required to describe early system response (1997-1999) is one order-of-magnitude larger than the conductance required to describe late system response (2004-2011). Hypotheses to explain transient conductance include clogging of bypass features by some geochemical or biological process that results from the mixing of effluent with groundwater; dissolution or precipitation; or changes in bypass-feature geometry forced by cyclical changes in aquifer-fluid pressure associated with injection. Hypotheses may be tested with geochemical analyses, tracer tests, hydraulic

  12. Effect of Fuel Injection and Mixing Characteristics on Pulse-Combustor Performance at High-Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yungster, Shaye; Paxson, Daniel E.; Perkins, Hugh D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent calculations of pulse-combustors operating at high-pressure conditions produced pressure gains significantly lower than those observed experimentally and computationally at atmospheric conditions. The factors limiting the pressure-gain at high-pressure conditions are identified, and the effects of fuel injection and air mixing characteristics on performance are investigated. New pulse-combustor configurations were developed, and the results show that by suitable changes to the combustor geometry, fuel injection scheme and valve dynamics the performance of the pulse-combustor operating at high-pressure conditions can be increased to levels comparable to those observed at atmospheric conditions. In addition, the new configurations can significantly reduce the levels of NOx emissions. One particular configuration resulted in extremely low levels of NO, producing an emission index much less than one, although at a lower pressure-gain. Calculations at representative cruise conditions demonstrated that pulse-combustors can achieve a high level of performance at such conditions.

  13. PTV analysis of the entrained air into the diesel spray at high-pressure injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Naoki; Yamashita, Hayato; Mashida, Makoto

    2014-08-01

    In order to clarify the effect of high-pressure injection on soot reduction in terms of the air entrainment into spray, the air flow surrounding the spray and set-off length indicating the distance from the nozzle tip to the flame region in diffusion diesel combustion were investigated using 300MPa injection of a multi-hole injector. The measurement of the air entrainment flow was carried out at non-evaporating condition using consecutive PTV (particle tracking velocimetry) method with a high-speed camera and a high-frequency pulse YAG laser. The set-off length was measured at highpressure and high-temperature using the combustion bomb of constant volume and optical system of shadow graph method. And the amount of air entrainment into spray until reaching set-off length in diffusion combustion was studied as a factor of soot formation.

  14. Early response predicts subsequent response to olanzapine long-acting injection in a randomized, double-blind clinical trial of treatment for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In patients with schizophrenia, early non-response to oral antipsychotic therapy robustly predicts subsequent non-response to continued treatment with the same medication. This study assessed whether early response predicted later response when using a long-acting injection (LAI) antipsychotic. Methods Data were taken from an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of olanzapine LAI in acutely ill patients with schizophrenia (n = 233). Early response was defined as ≥30% improvement from baseline to Week 4 in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS0-6) Total score. Subsequent response was defined as ≥40% baseline-to-endpoint improvement in PANSS0-6 Total score. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and predictive accuracy were calculated. Clinical and functional outcomes were compared between Early Responders and Early Non-responders. Results Early response/non-response to olanzapine LAI predicted later response/non-response with high sensitivity (85%), specificity (72%), PPV (78%), NPV (80%), and overall accuracy (79%). Compared to Early Non-responders, Early Responders had significantly greater improvement in PANSS0-6 Total scores at all time points and greater baseline-to-endpoint improvement in PANSS subscale scores, Quality of Life Scale scores, and Short Form-36 Health Survey scores (all p ≤ .01). Among Early Non-responders, 20% demonstrated response by Week 8. Patients who lacked early improvement (at Week 4) in Negative Symptoms and Disorganized Thoughts were more likely to continue being non-responders at Week 8. Conclusions Among acutely ill patients with schizophrenia, early response predicted subsequent response to olanzapine LAI. Early Responders experienced significantly better clinical and functional outcomes than Early Non-responders. Findings are consistent with previous research on oral antipsychotics. Clinical Trials Registry F1D-MC-HGJZ: Comparison of

  15. High HCV seroprevalence and HIV drug use risk behaviors among injection drug users in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Irene; ul-Hasan, Salman; Galai, Noya; Thomas, David L; Zafar, Tariq; Ahmed, Mohammad A; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2006-01-01

    Introduction HIV and HCV risk behaviors among injection drug users (IDUs) in two urban areas in Pakistan were identified. Methods From May to June 2003, 351 IDUs recruited in harm-reduction drop-in centers operated by a national non-governmental organization in Lahore (Punjab province) and Quetta (Balochistan province) completed an interviewer-administered survey and were tested for HIV and HCV. Multivariable logistic regression identified correlates of seropositivity, stratifying by site. All study participants provided written, informed consent. Results All but two were male; median age was 35 and <50% had any formal education. None were HIV-positive; HCV seroprevalence was 88%. HIV awareness was relatively high, but HCV awareness was low (19%). Injection behaviors and percutaneous exposures such as drawing blood into a syringe while injecting ('jerking'), longer duration of injection, and receiving a street barber shave were significantly associated with HCV seropositivity. Discussion Despite no HIV cases, overall HCV prevalence was very high, signaling the potential for a future HIV epidemic among IDUs across Pakistan. Programs to increase needle exchange, drug treatment and HIV and HCV awareness should be implemented immediately. PMID:16914042

  16. Process influences and correction possibilities for high precision injection molded freeform optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Lars; Risse, Stefan; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Modern injection molding processes offer a cost-efficient method for manufacturing high precision plastic optics for high volume applications. Besides form deviation of molded freeform optics, internal material stress is a relevant influencing factor for the functionality of a freeform optics in an optical system. This paper illustrates dominant influence parameters of an injection molding process relating to form deviation and internal material stress based on a freeform demonstrator geometry. Furthermore, a deterministic and efficient way for 3D mold correcting of systematic, asymmetrical shrinkage errors is shown to reach micrometer range shape accuracy at diameters up to 40 mm. In a second case, a stress-optimized parameter combination using unusual molding conditions was 3D corrected to reach high precision and low stress freeform polymer optics.

  17. Internal Mammary Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy With Modified Injection Technique: High Visualization Rate and Accurate Staging.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peng-Fei; Cong, Bin-Bin; Zhao, Rong-Rong; Yang, Guo-Ren; Liu, Yan-Bing; Chen, Peng; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    Although the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer incorporated the internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) concept, there has been little change in surgical practice patterns because of the low visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes (IMSLN) with the traditional radiotracer injection technique. In this study, various injection techniques were evaluated in term of the IMSLN visualization rate, and the impact of IM-SLNB on the diagnostic and prognostic value were analyzed.Clinically, axillary lymph nodes (ALN) negative patients (n = 407) were divided into group A (traditional peritumoral intraparenchymal injection) and group B (modified periareolar intraparenchymal injection). Group B was then separated into group B1 (low volume) and group B2 (high volume) according to the injection volume. Clinically, ALN-positive patients (n = 63) were managed as group B2. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed for patients with IMSLN visualized.The IMSLN visualization rate was significantly higher in group B than that in group A (71.1% versus 15.5%, P < 0.001), whereas the axillary sentinel lymph nodes were reliably identified in both groups (98.9% versus 98.3%, P = 0.712). With high injection volume, group B2 was found to have higher IMSLN visualization rate than group B1 (75.1% versus 45.8%, P < 0.001). The IMSLN metastasis rate was only 8.1% (12/149) in clinically ALN-negative patients with successful IM-SLNB, and adjuvant treatment was altered in a small proportion. The IMSLN visualization rate was 69.8% (44/63) in clinically ALN-positive patients with the IMSLN metastasis rate up to 20.5% (9/44), and individual radiotherapy strategy could be guided with the IM-SLNB results.The modified injection technique (periareolar intraparenchymal, high volume, and ultrasound guidance) significantly improved the IMSLN visualization rate, making the routine IM-SLNB possible in daily practice. Internal mammary

  18. High pressure electronic common-rail fuel injection system for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Marin, T.M.

    1991-07-30

    This patent describes an electromagnetically actuated fuel pump for a diesel engine fuel injection. It comprises a body adapted to receive fuel from a source; a rotatable camshaft supported in the body so as to be rotatable about an axis, and having a pair of cam lobes including a first cam lobe and a second cam lobe adapted to rotate in an annular path about the axis of rotation of the camshaft; at least one pair of reciprocating pumping elements mounted in the body perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the camshaft, each of the pumping elements including an elongated plunger having an axial passage including a first end and a second end; and means for fluidly connecting the pumping elements to fuel injection means for passing fuel under pressure thereto in response to rotation of the camshaft.

  19. INDUCED SEISMICITY. High-rate injection is associated with the increase in U.S. mid-continent seismicity.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, M; Ge, S; Godt, J W; Bekins, B A; Rubinstein, J L

    2015-06-19

    An unprecedented increase in earthquakes in the U.S. mid-continent began in 2009. Many of these earthquakes have been documented as induced by wastewater injection. We examine the relationship between wastewater injection and U.S. mid-continent seismicity using a newly assembled injection well database for the central and eastern United States. We find that the entire increase in earthquake rate is associated with fluid injection wells. High-rate injection wells (>300,000 barrels per month) are much more likely to be associated with earthquakes than lower-rate wells. At the scale of our study, a well's cumulative injected volume, monthly wellhead pressure, depth, and proximity to crystalline basement do not strongly correlate with earthquake association. Managing injection rates may be a useful tool to minimize the likelihood of induced earthquakes.

  20. High-rate injection is associated with the increase in U.S. mid-continent seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weingarten, Matthew; Ge, Shemin; Godt, Jonathan W.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Rubinstein, Justin L.

    2015-01-01

    An unprecedented increase in earthquakes in the U.S. mid-continent began in 2009. Many of these earthquakes have been documented as induced by wastewater injection. We examine the relationship between wastewater injection and U.S. mid-continent seismicity using a newly assembled injection well database for the central and eastern United States. We find that the entire increase in earthquake rate is associated with fluid injection wells. High-rate injection wells (>300,000 barrels per month) are much more likely to be associated with earthquakes than lower-rate wells. At the scale of our study, a well’s cumulative injected volume, monthly wellhead pressure, depth, and proximity to crystalline basement do not strongly correlate with earthquake association. Managing injection rates may be a useful tool to minimize the likelihood of induced earthquakes.

  1. High-rate injection is associated with the increase in U.S. mid-continent seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingarten, M.; Ge, S.; Godt, J. W.; Bekins, B. A.; Rubinstein, J. L.

    2015-06-01

    An unprecedented increase in earthquakes in the U.S. mid-continent began in 2009. Many of these earthquakes have been documented as induced by wastewater injection. We examine the relationship between wastewater injection and U.S. mid-continent seismicity using a newly assembled injection well database for the central and eastern United States. We find that the entire increase in earthquake rate is associated with fluid injection wells. High-rate injection wells (>300,000 barrels per month) are much more likely to be associated with earthquakes than lower-rate wells. At the scale of our study, a well’s cumulative injected volume, monthly wellhead pressure, depth, and proximity to crystalline basement do not strongly correlate with earthquake association. Managing injection rates may be a useful tool to minimize the likelihood of induced earthquakes.

  2. Pneumatic Microvalve-Based Hydrodynamic Sample Injection for High-Throughput, Quantitative Zone Electrophoresis in Capillaries

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Wang, Chenchen; Rausch, Sarah J.; Lee, Cheng S.; Tang, Keqi

    2014-07-01

    A hybrid microchip/capillary CE system was developed to allow unbiased and lossless sample loading and high throughput repeated injections. This new hybrid CE system consists of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip sample injector featuring a pneumatic microvalve that separates a sample introduction channel from a short sample loading channel and a fused silica capillary separation column that connects seamlessly to the sample loading channel. The sample introduction channel is pressurized such that when the pneumatic microvalve opens briefly, a variable-volume sample plug is introduced into the loading channel. A high voltage for CE separation is continuously applied across the loading channel and the fused silica capillary separation column. Analytes are rapidly separated in the fused silica capillary with high resolution. High sensitivity MS detection after CE separation is accomplished via a sheathless CE/ESI-MS interface. The performance evaluation of the complete CE/ESI-MS platform demonstrated that reproducible sample injection with well controlled sample plug volumes could be achieved by using the PDMS microchip injector. The absence of band broadening from microchip to capillary indicated a minimum dead volume at the junction. The capabilities of the new CE/ESI-MS platform in performing high throughput and quantitative sample analyses were demonstrated by the repeated sample injection without interrupting an ongoing separation and a good linear dependence of the total analyte ion abundance on the sample plug volume using a mixture of peptide standards. The separation efficiency of the new platform was also evaluated systematically at different sample injection times, flow rates and CE separation voltages.

  3. High SO{sub 2} removal duct injection: A low-cost FGD alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    Sorbent Technologies Corporation, of the United States, is currently developing and demonstrating a new waste free, retrofitable, high-SO{sub 2} removal duct-injection process. Up to 85 percent SO{sub 2} removal is achieved by simply injecting a new dry lime-based sorbent into the flue-gas duct, collecting the sorbent downstream in a particulate collector, and then recycling the sorbent. By avoiding large, expensive components, the process can have low capital costs, making it especially appropriate for smaller, older, less-utilized plants. The key to the new technology is the use of sorbent supports. Supported sorbents are produced by coating hydrated lime onto inexpensive mineral supports, such as exfoliated vermiculite or perlite. Consequently, there are no liquid, sludge, or solid wastes with the new technology. Once saturated with SO{sub 2}, the spent sorbent can be easily pelletized into a valuable soil-conditioning agricultural by-product, for the sustainable development that the future requires. This paper describes Sorbent Technologies` pilot demonstration of supported sorbent injection at the Ohio Edison Company`s R.E. Burger station. The Burger effort is also the first demonstration of the Electric Power Research Institute`s new {open_quotes}COHPAC{close_quotes} baghouse technology in a sorbent-injection desulfurization application.

  4. Injection locking of a high power ultraviolet laser diode for laser cooling of ytterbium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hosoya, Toshiyuki; Miranda, Martin; Inoue, Ryotaro; Kozuma, Mikio

    2015-07-15

    We developed a high-power laser system at a wavelength of 399 nm for laser cooling of ytterbium atoms with ultraviolet laser diodes. The system is composed of an external cavity laser diode providing frequency stabilized output at a power of 40 mW and another laser diode for amplifying the laser power up to 220 mW by injection locking. The systematic method for optimization of our injection locking can also be applied to high power light sources at any other wavelengths. Our system does not depend on complex nonlinear frequency-doubling and can be made compact, which will be useful for providing light sources for laser cooling experiments including transportable optical lattice clocks.

  5. Hyperfine structure measurement of 87Rb atoms injected into superfluid helium as highly energetic ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamura, Kei; Furukawa, Takeshi; Yang, Xiaofei; Fujita, Tomomi; Wakui, Takashi; Mitsuya, Yousuke; Hayasaka, Miki; Ichikawa, Yuichi; Hatakeyama, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Tohru; Odashima, Hitoshi; Ueno, Hideki; Matsuo, Yukari; Orochi Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    We have developed a new nuclear laser spectroscopy technique that is called OROCHI (Optical RI-atoms Observation in Condensed Helium as Ioncatcher). In OROCHI, highly energetic ion beam is injected into superfluid helium (He II) and is trapped as atoms. Hyperfine structure (HFS) and Zeeman splitting of trapped atoms is measured using laser-microwave (MW)/radiofrequency (RF) double resonance method. We deduce nuclear moments and spin values from the measured splittings, respectively So far, we measured Zeeman splitting of 84-87Rb atoms To evaluate the validity of the OROCHI method, it is necessary to investigate the following two points not only for Zeeman but also for HFS splitings. (i) What is the accuracy in frequency in our measurement? (ii) How high beam intensity is necessary to observe resonance spectra? For this purpose we conducted online experiment using 87Rb beam and measured the HFS splitting of injected 87Rb atoms in He II.

  6. Boronic acid-modified alginate enables direct formation of injectable, self-healing and multistimuli-responsive hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Pettignano, Asja; Grijalvo, Santiago; Häring, Marleen; Eritja, Ramon; Tanchoux, Nathalie; Quignard, Françoise; Díaz Díaz, David

    2017-03-16

    One-step functionalization of alginate with boronic acid groups allowed spontaneous formation of biocompatible hydrogels under basic conditions without additional complementary molecules or crosslinking agents. The dynamic nature of boronate ester bonds formed with vicinal diols present on alginate pyranose rings provided remarkable self-healing, injectable and multi-stimuli responsive properties to the material.

  7. Effect of in ovo injection with selenium on immune and antioxidant responses during experimental necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenium (Se) is an essential component of several major metabolic pathways in the antioxidant enzymes activity and modulating immune system. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo injection of selenium (Se) on modulating the immune system and antioxidant responses in chickens...

  8. MICROBIAL RESPONSES TO IN SITU CHEMICAL OXIDATION, SIX-PHASE HEATING, AND STEAM INJECTION REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The evaluation of microbial responses to three in situ source removal remedial technologies including permanganate-based in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), six-phase heating (SPH), and steam injection (SI) was performed at Cape Canaveral Air Station in Florida. The investigatio...

  9. Pneumatic microvalve-based hydrodynamic sample injection for high-throughput, quantitative zone electrophoresis in capillaries.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan T; Wang, Chenchen; Rausch, Sarah J; Lee, Cheng S; Tang, Keqi

    2014-07-01

    A hybrid microchip/capillary electrophoresis (CE) system was developed to allow unbiased and lossless sample loading and high-throughput repeated injections. This new hybrid CE system consists of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchip sample injector featuring a pneumatic microvalve that separates a sample introduction channel from a short sample loading channel, and a fused-silica capillary separation column that connects seamlessly to the sample loading channel. The sample introduction channel is pressurized such that when the pneumatic microvalve opens briefly, a variable-volume sample plug is introduced into the loading channel. A high voltage for CE separation is continuously applied across the loading channel and the fused-silica capillary separation column. Analytes are rapidly separated in the fused-silica capillary, and following separation, high-sensitivity MS detection is accomplished via a sheathless CE/ESI-MS interface. The performance evaluation of the complete CE/ESI-MS platform demonstrated that reproducible sample injection with well controlled sample plug volumes could be achieved by using the PDMS microchip injector. The absence of band broadening from microchip to capillary indicated a minimum dead volume at the junction. The capabilities of the new CE/ESI-MS platform in performing high-throughput and quantitative sample analyses were demonstrated by the repeated sample injection without interrupting an ongoing separation and a linear dependence of the total analyte ion abundance on the sample plug volume using a mixture of peptide standards. The separation efficiency of the new platform was also evaluated systematically at different sample injection times, flow rates, and CE separation voltages.

  10. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2001-06-30

    This report outlines progress in the third 3 quarter of the first year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs.'' A simple theoretical formulation of vertical flow with capillary/gravity equilibrium is described. Also reported are results of experimental measurements for the same systems. The results reported indicate that displacement behavior is strongly affected by the interfacial tension of phases that form on the tie line that extends through the initial oil composition.

  11. Morphine Attenuates Testosterone Response to Central Injection of Kisspeptin in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Fariba; Khazali, Homayoun; Janahmadi, Mahyar

    2014-01-01

    Background Kisspeptin and naloxone stimulate the reproductive axis while morphine inhibits its function. We have investigated the effect of central injection of kisspeptin-10 on mean plasma testosterone concentration in morphine or naloxone pretreated rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 60 male Wistar rats that were divid- ed into 12 groups (n=5 per group) received saline, kisspeptin (1 nmol, ICV), naloxone (2 mg/kg, subcutaneously), morphine (5 or 10 mg/kg, sc) or co-administrations of kisspeptin, morphine and naloxone at 09:00 - 09:30. In the co-administrated groups, kisspeptin was injected 15 minutes following morphine or naloxone injections. Blood samples were collected 60 minutes following injections via the tail vein. Plasma testosterone concentration was measured by a rat testosterone ELISA kit. Results Central injection of kisspeptin or subcutaneous injection of naloxone significantly increased the mean plasma testosterone concentration compared to saline while subcutaneous injections of different doses of morphine (5 or 10 mg/kg) significantly decreased testosterone compared to saline. The results revealed that morphine significantly attenuated the testosterone increase after kisspeptin injection compared to kisspeptin while a stimulatory additive effect was observed in the kisspeptin/naloxone group compared to either naloxone or kisspeptin. Conclusion Morphine and kisspeptin systems may interact with each other to control the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. PMID:25083187

  12. Clostridial antibody response from injection-site lesions in beef cattle, long-term response to single or multiple doses, and response in newborn beef calves.

    PubMed

    Troxel, T R; Gadberry, M S; Wallace, W T; Kreider, D L; Shockey, J D; Colburn, E A; Widel, P; Nicholson, I

    2001-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare clostridial antibody response of beef heifers that do and do not develop injection-site lesions, evaluate long-term antibody response of a single- and multiple-dose toxoid, and evaluate the ability of a clostridial toxoid to elicit an active antibody response in newborn calves. In Exp. 1, 37 weaned heifers were vaccinated (d 0) with a clostridial vaccine (Alpha-7, 2 mL, s.c.). Serum samples were collected on d 0, 28, 56, 84, and 112 to determine clostridial antibody titers. On d 28, heifers were visually inspected and palpated for injection-site lesions. The percentage of heifers that developed lesions was 64.9%. Lesioned heifers had elevated antibody titers for Clostridium chauvoei (CC) on d 28 (P < 0.08) and 84 (P < 0.07) compared with non-lesioned heifers. Clostridium sordellii (CS) and perfringens type D (CPD) antibody titers were greater in lesioned heifers than in non-lesioned heifers on d 28 and 56. In Exp. 2, long-term antibody response of Alpha-7 (A7) and Ultrabac 7 (UB7) was investigated in stocker heifers. The A7 heifers (n = 15) received one 2-mL vaccination (d 0), and the UB7 heifers (n = 15) received a 5-mL vaccination on d 0 and 28. Blood samples were collected on d 0, 28, 56, 84, 112, 140, and 180. Clostridium chauvoei, CPD, and Cl. novyi (CN) antibody titers from the A7 heifers were greater than those from the UB7 heifers on d 28. Due to the second UB7 injection, CC, CS, CN, and Cl. perfringens type C (CPC) antibody titers were greater in UB7 heifers than in A7 heifers on d 56. By d 112, titers were not different, and by d 140 all antibody titers were below detectable levels. In Exp. 3, 58 pregnant, mature, crossbred cows were vaccinated with A7 before calving. At birth, calves were carefully observed to ensure consumption of colostrum. Calves were blocked according to parturition date, and calves in each block were randomly allocated to receive A7 (s.c. at 3 +/- 3 d of age) or remain unvaccinated controls

  13. Improvement of the high-speed logD assay using an injection marker for the water plug aspiration/injection method.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Ikuko; Hirano, Atsushi; Yamashita, Taro; Fukami, Takehiro

    2009-04-10

    An improved method for the high-speed assay for logD (HSLogD) employing an injection marker is described. The critical process of HSLogD is automated sampling of the water phase, which prevents contamination from the octanol phase. However, deployment of HSLogD sometimes produces incorrect and inaccurate values compared with data from closely related methods due to low solubility of compounds or instrument problems. Therefore, careful manual inspection of data is needed to confirm the results obtained by this method. To solve this problem, compounds were screened for suitability as injection markers and 2-(4-methoxyphenoxy)-4,8-dimethylquinoline was the most suitable compound examined. Introduction of the injection marker into the process successfully eliminated the need for the tedious and time-consuming manual inspection process.

  14. Tailpipe emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles at both low and high ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rencheng; Hu, Jingnan; Bao, Xiaofeng; He, Liqiang; Lai, Yitu; Zu, Lei; Li, Yufei; Su, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Vehicle emissions are greatly influenced by various factors that are related to engine technology and driving conditions. Only the fuel injection method and ambient temperature are investigated in this research. Regulated gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions from two advanced gasoline-fueled vehicles, one with direct fuel injection (GDI) and the other with port fuel injection (PFI), are tested with conventional gasoline and ethanol-blended gasoline (E10) at both -7 °C and 30 °C. The total particle number (PN) concentrations and size distributions are monitored with an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI(+)). The solid PN concentrations are measured with a condensation particle counter (CPC) after removing volatile matters through the particle measurement program (PMP) system. The results indicate that decreasing the ambient temperature from 30 °C to -7 °C significantly increases the fuel consumption and all measured emissions except for NOx. The GDI vehicle exhibits lower fuel consumption than the PFI vehicle but emits more total hydrocarbons (THC), PM mass and solid PN emissions at 30 °C. The adaptability of GDI technology appears to be better than that of PFI technology at low ambient temperature. For example, the CO, THC and PM mass emission factors of the PFI vehicle are higher than those of the GDI vehicle and the solid PN emission factors are comparable in the cold-start tests at -7 °C. Specifically, during start-up the particulate matter emissions of the PFI are much higher than the GDI. In most cases, the geometric mean diameter (GMD) of the accumulation mode particles is 58-86 nm for both vehicles, and the GMD of the nucleation mode particles is 10-20 nm. The results suggest that the gaseous and particulate emissions from the PFI vehicle should not be neglected compared to those from the GDI vehicle especially in a cold environment.

  15. High accuracy injection circuit for the calibration of a large pixel sensor matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quartieri, E.; Comotti, D.; Manghisoni, M.

    2013-08-01

    Semiconductor pixel detectors, for particle tracking and vertexing in high energy physics experiments as well as for X-ray imaging, in particular for synchrotron light sources and XFELs, require a large area sensor matrix. This work will discuss the design and the characterization of a high-linearity, low dispersion injection circuit to be used for pixel-level calibration of detector readout electronics in a large pixel sensor matrix. The circuit provides a useful tool for the characterization of the readout electronics of the pixel cell unit for both monolithic active pixel sensors and hybrid pixel detectors. In the latter case, the circuit allows for precise analogue test of the readout channel already at the chip level, when no sensor is connected. Moreover, it provides a simple means for calibration of readout electronics once the detector has been connected to the chip. Two injection techniques can be provided by the circuit: one for a charge sensitive amplification and the other for a transresistance readout channel. The aim of the paper is to describe the architecture and the design guidelines of the calibration circuit, which has been implemented in a 130 nm CMOS technology. Moreover, experimental results of the proposed injection circuit will be presented in terms of linearity and dispersion.

  16. High beta studies on ISX-B with neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Bates, S.C.; Bush, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    Injection of H/sup 0/ into D/sup +/ plasmas with beam power P/sub b/ of up to 1.7 MW has produced rms betas of approx. 4%, volume-averaged betas of approx. 3%, and central betas of approx. 10% in the ISX-B tokamak. Although theoretical calculations indicate that the observed equilibria may be unstable to ballooning modes, no catastrophic loss of confinement has been observed, and beta continues to increase with injection power. In these beam-dominated high-beta discharges the electron and ion energy confinement times are still similar to those obtained with ohmic heating: ion energy confinement is neoclassical within a factor of approx. 2, and electron energy confinement follows the usual Alcator scaling. In high-power injection discharges the character of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) behavior changes, the particle confinement time decreases, and the inward impurity transport appears to be inhibited. These effects, however, may not be linked directly to beta.

  17. Analytical description of the injection ratio of self-biased bipolar transistors under the very high injection conditions of ESD events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendron, A.; Renaud, P.; Bafleur, M.; Nolhier, N.

    2008-05-01

    This paper proposes a 1D-analytical description of the injection ratio of a self-biased bipolar transistor under very high current injection conditions. Starting from an expression of the current gain based on the stored charge into the emitter and base regions, we derive a new analytical expression of the current injection ratio. This analytical description demonstrates the presence of an asymptotic limit for the injection ratio at very high current densities, as the ratio of electron/hole mobilities in the case of an NPN transistor and to the ratio of hole/electron saturation velocities for a PNP. Moreover, for the first time, a base narrowing effect is demonstrated and explained in the case of a self-biased PNP, in contrast with the base widening effect (Kirk effect [Kirk CT, A theory of transistor cutoff frequency (fT) falloff at high current densities, IRE Trans Electr Dev 1961: p. 164-73]) reported for lower current density. These results are validated by numerical simulation and show a good agreement with experimental characterizations of transistors especially designed to operate under extreme condition such as electrostatic discharge (ESD) events.

  18. Determination of hexazinone in groundwater by direct-injection high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Perkins, L B; Bushway, R J; Katz, L E

    1999-01-01

    Hexazinone has been detected at levels ranging from 0.2 to 50 micrograms/L in many groundwater samples from eastern Maine over the past decade. A rapid and inexpensive direct-injection high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed to monitor contamination levels of the herbicide. The method is sensitive (limit of quantitation = 0.33 microgram/L) and is linear to 33.0 micrograms/L (R2 = 0.9995). Direct injection results from 50 field samples compared well (R2 = 0.98) with an HPLC method using solid-phase extraction for concentration and cleanup. The technique is very reproducible (coefficients of variation of 0-8.4% within day and 3.0-13.2% between day) and eliminates loss of analyte because of fewer steps in the procedure.

  19. Abnormal hemodynamic response to forepaw stimulation in rat brain after cocaine injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Park, Kicheon; Choi, Jeonghun; Pan, Yingtian; Du, Congwu

    2015-03-01

    Simultaneous measurement of hemodynamics is of great importance to evaluate the brain functional changes induced by brain diseases such as drug addiction. Previously, we developed a multimodal-imaging platform (OFI) which combined laser speckle contrast imaging with multi-wavelength imaging to simultaneously characterize the changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygenated- and deoxygenated- hemoglobin (HbO and HbR) from animal brain. Recently, we upgraded our OFI system that enables detection of hemodynamic changes in response to forepaw electrical stimulation to study potential brain activity changes elicited by cocaine. The improvement includes 1) high sensitivity to detect the cortical response to single forepaw electrical stimulation; 2) high temporal resolution (i.e., 16Hz/channel) to resolve dynamic variations in drug-delivery study; 3) high spatial resolution to separate the stimulation-evoked hemodynamic changes in vascular compartments from those in tissue. The system was validated by imaging the hemodynamic responses to the forepaw-stimulations in the somatosensory cortex of cocaine-treated rats. The stimulations and acquisitions were conducted every 2min over 40min, i.e., from 10min before (baseline) to 30min after cocaine challenge. Our results show that the HbO response decreased first (at ~4min) followed by the decrease of HbR response (at ~6min) after cocaine, and both did not fully recovered for over 30min. Interestingly, while CBF decreased at 4min, it partially recovered at 18min after cocaine administration. The results indicate the heterogeneity of cocaine's effects on vasculature and tissue metabolism, demonstrating the unique capability of optical imaging for brain functional studies.

  20. Search for auroral belt E-parallel fields with high-velocity barium ion injections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, J. P.; Ledley, B. G.; Miller, M. L.; Marionni, P. A.; Pongratz, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    In April 1984, four high-velocity shaped-charge Ba(+) injections were conducted from two sounding rockets at 770-975 km over northern Alaska under conditions of active auroral and magnetic disturbance. Spatial ionization (brightness) profiles of high-velocity Ba(+) clouds from photometric scans following each release were found to be consistent with the 28-sec theoretical time constant for Ba photoionization determined by Carlsten (1975). These observations therefore revealed no evidence of anomalous fast ionization predicted by the Alfven critical velocity hypothesis.

  1. Achieving a long-lived high-beta plasma state by energetic beam injection.

    PubMed

    Guo, H Y; Binderbauer, M W; Tajima, T; Milroy, R D; Steinhauer, L C; Yang, X; Garate, E G; Gota, H; Korepanov, S; Necas, A; Roche, T; Smirnov, A; Trask, E

    2015-04-23

    Developing a stable plasma state with high-beta (ratio of plasma to magnetic pressures) is of critical importance for an economic magnetic fusion reactor. At the forefront of this endeavour is the field-reversed configuration. Here we demonstrate the kinetic stabilizing effect of fast ions on a disruptive magneto-hydrodynamic instability, known as a tilt mode, which poses a central obstacle to further field-reversed configuration development, by energetic beam injection. This technique, combined with the synergistic effect of active plasma boundary control, enables a fully stable ultra-high-beta (approaching 100%) plasma with a long lifetime.

  2. High prevalence of blood-borne virus infections and high-risk behaviour among injecting drug users in Tallinn, Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Uusküla, Anneli; McNutt, Louise Anne; Dehovitz, Jack; Fischer, Krista; Heimer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Summary The HIV epidemic in Estonia is rapidly expanding, and injection drug users (IDUs) are the major risk group contributing to the expansion. A convenience sample of 159 IDUs visiting syringe-exchange programmes (SEPs) was selected to quantify the association of HIV-risk behaviours and blood-borne infections. A high prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B core antibody (HBVcore), hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) and hepatitis C virus antibodies (56, 85.1, 21.3, and 96.2%, respectively) was associated with high-risk injections, unsafe sexual behaviour and alcohol abuse. These findings emphasize the importance of evidence-based secondary prevention among the HIV-infected, especially given the uncertain sustainability of antiretroviral and substance abuse treatments. PMID:17326862

  3. Murine precision-cut lung slices exhibit acute responses following exposure to gasoline direct injection engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Maikawa, Caitlin L; Zimmerman, Naomi; Rais, Khaled; Shah, Mittal; Hawley, Brie; Pant, Pallavi; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria; Volckens, John; Evans, Greg; Wallace, James S; Godri Pollitt, Krystal J

    2016-10-15

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are increasingly prevalent in the global vehicle fleet. Particulate matter emissions from GDI engines are elevated compared to conventional gasoline engines. The pulmonary effects of these higher particulate emissions are unclear. This study investigated the pulmonary responses induced by GDI engine exhaust using an ex vivo model. The physiochemical properties of GDI engine exhaust were assessed. Precision cut lung slices were prepared using Balb/c mice to evaluate the pulmonary response induced by one-hour exposure to engine-out exhaust from a laboratory GDI engine operated at conditions equivalent to vehicle highway cruise conditions. Lung slices were exposed at an air-liquid interface using an electrostatic aerosol in vitro exposure system. Particulate and gaseous exhaust was fractionated to contrast mRNA production related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism and oxidative stress. Exposure to GDI engine exhaust upregulated genes involved in PAH metabolism, including Cyp1a1 (2.71, SE=0.22), and Cyp1b1 (3.24, SE=0.12) compared to HEPA filtered air (p<0.05). GDI engine exhaust further increased Cyp1b1 expression compared to filtered GDI engine exhaust (i.e., gas fraction only), suggesting this response was associated with the particulate fraction. Exhaust particulate was dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. Hmox1, an oxidative stress marker, exhibited increased expression after exposure to GDI (1.63, SE=0.03) and filtered GDI (1.55, SE=0.04) engine exhaust compared to HEPA filtered air (p<0.05), likely attributable to a combination of the gas and particulate fractions. Exposure to GDI engine exhaust contributes to upregulation of genes related to the metabolism of PAHs and oxidative stress.

  4. Client-Level Coverage of Needle and Syringe Program and High-Risk Injection Behaviors: A Case Study of People Who Inject Drugs in Kermanshah, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Mehdi; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Noroozi, Alireza; Mehrabi, Yadoallah; Hajebi, Ahmad; Zamani, Saman; Sharifi, Hamid; Higgs, Peter; Soori, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background Needle-syringe programs (NSP) have been running in Iran since 2002. However, the coverage of such program among the NSP clients at the individual level was not studies yet. This study aimed to determine the client coverage of NSP and its correlation with high injection-related risk behaviors. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Kermanshah province, Iran, in 2014. 230 people who inject drugs (PWID) recruited from two drop-in centers (DICs) from April to September 2014, participated in a face-to-face interview to provide information related individual coverage of NSP, demographic characteristics, and injecting behaviors 30 days prior to the interview. Findings Overall, the average of syringe coverage was 158% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 65.7-205.5], while 56% (95% CI = 40-97) have individual converge less than 100%. Needle/syringe sharing was significantly higher among individual with low NSP coverage [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.3-6.2]. About 85% participants with coverage of less than 100% reported reuse of syringe within the last 30 days (AOR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.4-7.7). Conclusion PWID are different regarding their NSP individual-level converges. There are certain clusters of PWID, who do not receive sufficient number of syringes. Given that insufficient individual syringe coverage level is highly associated with injection risk behaviors, reasons for such low converge need to be assessed and addressed carefully. PMID:26885353

  5. High dead-space syringe use among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rafful, Claudia; Zule, William; González-Zúñiga, Patricia E.; Werb, Dan; Elena Medina-Mora, María; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background High dead-space syringes (HDSS) are believed to confer an elevated risk of acquiring HIV and other blood-borne infections. Objectives We identified prevalence and correlates of HDSS use among injection drug users (IDU) in Tijuana, Mexico, where syringe purchase and possession is legal without a prescription. Methods Beginning in 2011, IDU who reported being 18 years or older, who injected drugs within the last month were recruited into a prospective study. At baseline and semi-annually, 557 IDU underwent HIV-testing and interviewer-administered surveys. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of using HDSS. Results Of 557 IDU, 40% had ever used HDSS, mostly because no other syringe type was available (72%), or because they were easier to get (20%). Controlling for sex and age at first injection, use of HDSS was associated with cocaine as the first drug injected (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]:2.68; Confidence Interval 95% [CI]:1.15-6.22), having been stopped or arrested by police (AOR:1.84; 95% CI:1.11-3.07), being deported from the US (AOR:1.64; 95%CI:1.06-2.53), and believing it is illegal to carry syringes (AOR:1.78; 95%CI:1.01-3.15). Conclusion Use of HDSS is surprisingly common among IDU in Tijuana. Efforts are needed to expand coverage of low-dead space syringes through existing syringe exchange programs. Education is required to increase awareness of the harms associated with HDSS, and to inform IDU that syringe possession is legal across Mexico. PMID:25695145

  6. High pressure jet injection of viscous solutions for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD): first clinical experience

    PubMed Central

    Pioche, Mathieu; Lépilliez, Vincent; Déprez, Pierre; Giovannini, Marc; Caillol, Fabrice; Piessevaux, Hubert; Rivory, Jérôme; Guillaud, Olivier; Ciocîrlan, Mihai; Salmon, Damien; Lienhart, Isabelle; Lafon, Cyril; Saurin, Jean-Christophe; Ponchon, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long lasting elevation is a key factor during endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and can be obtained by water jet injection of saline solution or by viscous macromolecular solutions. In a previous animal study, we assessed the Nestis Enki II system to combine jet injection and viscous solutions. In the present work, we used this combination in humans in different sites of the digestive tract. Methods: We retrospectively report all of the consecutive ESD procedures performed with jet injection of viscous solutions in four centers. Information was collected about the lesion, the procedure, the histological result, and the outcomes for the patient. Results: In total, 45 resections were completed by six operators: five experts and one beginner with only one previous experience in human ESD. Lesions were located in the esophagus (10), the stomach (11), the duodenum (1), the colon (1) and the rectum (22). Average maximal lesion diameter was 4.8 cm (SD 2.4, range 2 – 11 cm), average lesion surface area was 19.8 cm2 (SD 17.7, range 2.2 – 72 cm2), and average duration of procedure was 79.9 min (SD 50.3 min, range 19 – 225 min). ESD could be conducted while the endoscope was retroflexed at its maximum in 26 cases. Four adverse events were observed: two diminutive perforations and two delayed bleeding occurrences treated conservatively. The R0 resection rate was 91.1 %. The catheter was obstructed in six occurrences of bleeding. Conclusion: Endoscopic submucosal dissection using high pressure injection of viscous macromolecular solutions is safe and effective in different parts of the digestive tract. It does not impede working with the endoscope in the maximal retroflexed position. PMID:26356488

  7. HIGH PREVALENCE OF ASSISTED INJECTION AMONG STREET-INVOLVED YOUTH IN A CANADIAN SETTING

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tessa; Kerr, Thomas; Small, Will; Dong, Huiru; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan; DeBeck, Kora

    2015-01-01

    Many people who inject illicit drugs receive manual assistance when injecting, and this practice has been linked to increased risk of HIV infection and other harms. Little is known, however, about this practice among youth. This study uses a multivariate generalized estimating equation to identify factors associated with receiving assistance with injecting among a cohort of street-involved youth aged 14–26 in Vancouver, Canada. A total of 253 participants reported injecting drugs during the study period, and 49% (n = 125) of these youth reported receiving assistance with injecting in the past six months. In multivariate analysis, younger age, female gender, binge drug use, heroin injecting, cocaine injecting, crystal methamphetamine injecting, and syringe sharing were positively and independently associated with assisted injection (all p < 0.05). These findings underscore the need for expanding substance abuse treatment alongside HIV prevention and health promotion interventions to empower youth to enact safer injection practices. PMID:26040989

  8. In vivo responses of mouse superficial dorsal horn neurones to both current injection and peripheral cutaneous stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Graham, B A; Brichta, A M; Callister, R J

    2004-01-01

    In the superficial dorsal horn (SDH) processing of noxious and innocuous stimuli is critically dependent on the input–output relationship of its component neurones. Such relationships are routinely examined by assessing neuronal responses to somatic current injection or activation of synaptic inputs. A more complete understanding of input–output relationships would be achieved by comparing, in the same neurone, how the two forms of activation contribute to neuronal output. Therefore, we examined how SDH neurones transform depolarizing current injections and synaptic excitation via peripheral cutaneous stimuli (brush and pinch of the hindpaw) into trains of action potentials, in an in vivo preparation of the adult mouse spinal cord. Under whole-cell current clamp recording conditions four action potential discharge patterns were observed during depolarizing current injection: tonic firing neurones (21/93) discharged spikes throughout the step; initial bursting neurones (35/93) discharged several spikes at step onset; single spiking neurones (16/93) discharged one or two spikes at step onset; and delayed firing neurones (21/93) discharged spikes delayed from the step onset. Four characteristic profiles were observed in response to application of noxious (pinch) and innocuous (brush) cutaneous stimuli: nociceptive neurones (20/37) responded maximally to pinch stimulation; light touch neurones (9/37) responded maximally to brush stimulation; subthreshold neurones (4/37) exhibited depolarizing responses without firing action potentials; and hyperpolarizing neurones (4/37) exhibited a sustained pinch-induced hyperpolarization. Comparisons of current-evoked discharge patterns with peripherally evoked responses indicate SDH neurones expressing each of the four discharge patterns could receive, and therefore participate in the processing of information concerning, either noxious or innocuous stimuli. These data suggest that a neurone's response to current injection does

  9. Stable overload conditions of high-temperature superconductors at alternating current injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovskii, V. R.

    2015-01-01

    The stability of alternating current injected into a high-temperature superconductor or into a current-carrying element on its basis is studied under weak cooling. The stability conditions of the current varying with time by a sinusoidal law are studied versus its frequency. It is shown that before unstable states set in, the peak values of the electric field intensity, current, and temperature in the superconductor are higher than the values determining a thermal electrodynamic stability boundary of the current permanently flowing through the superconductor—the so-called thermal quench current. It is found that ultimate stable alternating currents cause high stable thermal losses in superconductors; these losses being not considered in the modern theory of losses. Such stable conditions can be referred to as overload conditions. Analysis shows that there are characteristic times determining the time intervals within which alternating current is stable under overload conditions. Main thermoelectrodynamic mechanisms behind the existence of these intervals are formulated. They explain why the superconductor stable overheating and induced electric field reach high values before the injected alternating current becomes unstable. The existence of overload conditions considerably extends the application area of high-temperature superconductors.

  10. The influence of electron temperature on cosmic ray injection in high Mach number magnetosonic shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, H.; Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R. O.

    2001-08-01

    Electron pre-acceleration from thermal to mildly relativistic energies in high Mach number shocks (the injection problem) is an outstanding issue in understanding synchrotron radiation from supernova remnants. At high Alfv´enic Mach numbers, collisionless perpendicular shocks reflect a fraction of the upstream ions. This gives rise to two-stream instabilities which in turn can accelerate ions, see eg (M. E. Dieckmann et al., Astron. Astrophys. 356, 377 (2000)). However in astrophysical plasmas the value of β - the ratio of kinetic to magnetic pressure - is not well known. We have used a particle in cell simulation code to investigate the influence of β on the shock structure and on the electron acceleration. Previous simulations at low values of β (N. Shimada and M. Hoshino, Astrophys. J. 543, L67 (2000)) showed that the phase space distributions of electrons and ions became highly structured: characteristic holes appear in the electron phase space and the shock dynamics exhibit reformation processes. However, we find that all these features disappear at higher β due to the high initial thermal velocity of the electrons. It follows that the electron cosmic ray injection mechanism depends strongly on β, that is, the electron temperature and magnetic field strength upstream.

  11. Thermal Control Method for High-Current Wire Bundles by Injecting a Thermally Conductive Filler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez-Ruiz, Juan; Rowles, Russell; Greer, Greg

    2011-01-01

    A procedure was developed to inject thermal filler material (a paste-like substance) inside the power wire bundle coming from solar arrays. This substance fills in voids between wires, which enhances the heat path and reduces wire temperature. This leads to a reduced amount of heat generated. This technique is especially helpful for current and future generation high-power spacecraft (1 kW or more), because the heat generated by the power wires is significant enough to cause unacceptable overheating to critical components that are in close contact with the bundle.

  12. Sub-Poissonian shot noise of a high internal gain injection photon detector.

    PubMed

    Memis, Omer Gokalp; Katsnelson, Alex; Kong, Soon-Cheol; Mohseni, Hooman; Yan, Minjun; Zhang, Shuang; Hossain, Tim; Jin, Niu; Adesida, Ilesanmi

    2008-08-18

    The noise performance of an infrared injection photon detector with very high internal gain was investigated at a wavelength of 1.55 mum. The devices showed sub-Poissonian shot noise with Fano factors around 0.55 at 0.7 V at room temperature. Optical to electrical conversion factors of 3000 electrons per absorbed photon were recorded at 0.7 V. The change in noise-equivalent power with respect to bias voltage was evaluated. The optical to electrical conversion factor and Fano factor were measured under increasing illumination and compared to theoretical expectations.

  13. Prompt injections of highly relativistic electrons induced by interplanetary shocks: A statistical study of Van Allen Probes observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Q.; Kanekal, S. G.; Jian, L. K.; Li, X.; Jones, A.; Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A.; Spence, H. E.

    2016-12-01

    We conduct a statistical study on the sudden response of outer radiation belt electrons due to interplanetary (IP) shocks during the Van Allen Probes era, i.e., 2012 to 2015. Data from the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope instrument on board Van Allen Probes are used to investigate the highly relativistic electron response (E > 1.8 MeV) within the first few minutes after shock impact. We investigate the relationship of IP shock parameters, such as Mach number, with the highly relativistic electron response, including spectral properties and radial location of the shock-induced injection. We find that the driving solar wind structure of the shock does not affect occurrence for enhancement events, 25% of IP shocks are associated with prompt energization, and 14% are associated with MeV electron depletion. Parameters that represent IP shock strength are found to correlate best with highest levels of energization, suggesting that shock strength may play a key role in the severity of the enhancements. However, not every shock results in an enhancement, indicating that magnetospheric preconditioning may be required.

  14. Arginine and lysine reduce the high viscosity of serum albumin solutions for pharmaceutical injection.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Naoto; Takai, Eisuke; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2014-05-01

    Therapeutic protein solutions for subcutaneous injection must be very highly concentrated, which increases their viscosity through protein-protein interactions. However, maintaining a solution viscosity below 50 cP is important for the preparation and injection of therapeutic protein solutions. In this study, we examined the effect of various amino acids on the solution viscosity of very highly concentrated bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) at a physiological pH. Among the amino acids tested, l-arginine hydrochloride (ArgHCl) and l-lysine hydrochloride (LysHCl) (50-200 mM) successfully reduced the viscosity of both BSA and HSA solutions; guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl), NaCl, and other sodium salts were equally as effective, indicating the electrostatic shielding effect of these additives. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that BSA is in its native state even in the presence of ArgHCl, LysHCl, and NaCl at high protein concentrations. These results indicate that weakened protein-protein interactions play a key role in reducing solution viscosity. ArgHCl and LysHCl, which are also non-toxic compounds, will be used as additives to reduce the solution viscosity of concentrated therapeutic proteins.

  15. Instability Analysis of a Low-Density Gas Jet Injected into a High-Density Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Anthony Layiwola

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of buoyancy on the absolute instability of low-density gas jets injected into high-density gas mediums. Most of the existing analyses of low-density gas jets injected into a high-density ambient have been carried out neglecting effects of gravity. In order to investigate the influence of gravity on the near-injector development of the flow, a linear temporal stability analysis and a spatio-temporal stability analysis of a low-density round jet injected into a high-density ambient gas were performed. The flow was assumed to be isothermal and locally parallel; viscous and diffusive effects were ignored. The variables were represented as the sum of the mean value and a normal-mode small disturbance. An ordinary differential equation governing the amplitude of the pressure disturbance was derived. The velocity and density profiles in the shear layer, and the Froude number (signifying the effects of gravity) were the three important parameters in this equation. Together with the boundary conditions, an eigenvalue problem was formulated. Assuming that the velocity and density profiles in the shear layer to be represented by hyperbolic tangent functions, the eigenvalue problem was solved for various values of Froude number. The temporal growth rates and the phase velocity of the disturbances were obtained. It was found that the presence of variable density within the shear layer resulted in an increase in the temporal amplification rate of the disturbances and an increase in the range of unstable frequencies, accompanied by a reduction in the phase velocities of the disturbances. Also, the temporal growth rates of the disturbances were increased as the Froude number was reduced (i.e. gravitational effects increased), indicating the destabilizing role played by gravity. The spatio-temporal stability analysis was performed to determine the nature of the absolute instability of the jet. The roles of the density ratio

  16. A Study of Micro Injection Molding for High-Aspect-Ratio Optical Fiber Ferrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zheng-Guan.; Tseng, Shi-Chang; Wang, James; Su, Yi-Chung

    2004-06-01

    This study focused on manufacture of high-aspect-ratio optical fiber ferrules by micro thermoplastic injection molding technique. In the past, the optical fiber connectors were produced by ceramic powder injection molding and subsequent precision grinding process. In this work, plastic micro injection molding technique was attempted to manufacture net-shaped products at once. Each ferrule has a micro through hole in the center. The hole's diameter is 125±1μm, and its length is 9mm. During micro molding, how to keep the micro core pin at the center becomes a critical issue. In this work, a guiding slide system is introduced to hold the micro pin continuously. And the slide movement was controlled by a spring behind it. Such a guiding system can help reduce mis-alignment of the micro core pin and increase its life time. Taguchi's design of experiment was used to evaluate the effects of processing parameters on final properties. Experimental results reveal that the higher the spring force, the larger the product weight and the lower the shrinkage. In order to obtain better uniformity of diameters at different locations, diameters at three locations were measured. Measured data showed the shrinkage of diameter in the middle is greater than those at two ends. It is because the two ends cooled faster than the center region. This can be improved by applying higher mold temperature or appropriate holding pressure or holding time. The new design concept can be applied in molding micro tubes, especially for the high aspect ratio cases.

  17. The effect of local corticosteroid injection on F-wave conduction velocity and sympathetic skin response in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Orhan; Aygül, Recep; Kotan, Dilcan; Ozdemir, Gökhan; Odabaş, Faruk Omer; Kaya, M Dursun; Ulvi, Hızır

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of steroid injection for the treatment of the carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), with F-wave parameters and sympathetic skin response (SSR). Seventeen hands of 10 women patients were treated with local steroid injection with 2-month follow-up. All patients underwent single injection into the carpal tunnel. Response to injection was measured nerve conduction studies (NCSs), median nerve F waves, and SSR before and after treatment. To determine the normal values, 42 hands of 21 healthy women were also studied. There was a significant improvement of sensory and motor nerve conduction values when compared to baseline values (P < 0.01). At the end of follow-up period, the median sensory distal latency and the sensory latency differences between the median and the ulnar nerve were improved 35 and 65%, respectively. The maximum, mean F-wave amplitudes and chronodispersion showed a slight improvement with respect to baseline values and controls, but statistical significance was not achieved after treatment. Although no statistically significant improvements were observed in SSR parameters, slightly decreased amplitudes and increased habituation of SSR were noted at the end of the treatment. The present study shows that the local steroid injection results in improvement in NCSs values, but the F-wave parameters were not effectual in short-term outcome of CTS treatment. These findings suggest that the sensory latency differences between the median and the ulnar wrist-to-digit 4 are better parameters in the median nerve recovery after treatment than the median sensory distal latency. Furthermore, the SSR does not seem to be a sensitive method in follow-up of CTS treatment.

  18. The adrenocortical response of greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) to capture, ACTH injection, and confinement, as measured in fecal samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jankowski, M.D.; Wittwer, D.J.; Heisey, D.M.; Franson, J. Christian; Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2009-01-01

    Investigators of wildlife populations often utilize demographic indicators to understand the relationship between habitat characteristics and population viability. Assessments of corticosterone may enable earlier detection of populations at risk of decline because physiological adjustments to habitat disturbance occur before reproductive diminutions. Noninvasive methods to accomplish these assesments are important in species of concern, such as the greater sage grouse (GRSG). Therefore, we validated a radioimmunoassay that measures immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites (ICM) in fecal samples and used it to characterize the adrenocortical response of 15 GRSG exposed to capture, intravenous injection of 50 IU/kg adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) or saline, and 22 h of confinement. Those animals injected with ACTH exhibited a more sustained (P = 0.0139) and less variable (P = 0.0012) response than those injected with saline, indicating different levels of adrenocortical activity. We also found that potential field-collection protocols of fecal samples did not alter ICM concentrations: samples held at 4??C for up to 16 h contained similar levels of ICM as those frozen (-20??C) immediately. This study demonstrates a multiphasic adrenocortical response that varied with the level of stimulation and indicates that the assay used to measure this phenomenon is applicable for studies of wild GRSG. ?? 2009 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  19. Public health the leading force of the Indonesian response to the HIV/AIDS crisis among people who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Fabio; Winarso, Inang; Atmosukarto, Ingrid I; Eka, Bambang; Nevendorff, Laura; Rahmah, Amala; Handoyo, Patri; Anastasia, Priscillia; Angela, Rosi

    2007-01-01

    Issue Indonesia has an explosive HIV/AIDS epidemic starting from the beginning of this century, and it is in process to build its response. Reported AIDS cases doubled from 2003 – 2004, and approximately 54% of these cases are in people who inject drugs. Setting Indonesia is the 4th largest country in population in the world, a predominantly Muslim country with strong views on drug users and people living with HIV/AIDS. Globally speaking, Indonesia has one of the most explosive epidemics in recent years. The project IHPCP (Indonesia HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care Project) is a joint support project (primarily AusAID-based) that works in partnership with the Government of Indonesia. IHPCP has been a key player of in the country's response, particularly pioneering NSP; stimulating and supporting methadone programs, and being key in promoting ARV for people who currently inject drugs. The project works via both the public health system and NGOs. Outcomes It is still early to measure the impact of current interventions; however, this paper describes the current status of Indonesia's response to the HIV/AIDS crisis among people who inject drugs, and analyses future challenges of the epidemic in Indonesia. PMID:17306033

  20. Light propagation in the micro-size capillary injected by high temperature liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-jun; Li, Edward; Xiao, Hai

    2016-11-01

    The high temperature liquid is injected into the micro-size capillary and its light propagation behavior is investigated. We focus on two different liquid pumping methods. The first method can pump the high temperature liquid tin into the micro-size capillary by using a high pressure difference system. After pumping, a single mode fiber (SMF) connected with the optical carrier based microwave interferometry (OCMI) system is used to measure different liquid tin levels in the micro-size capillary. The second method can pump the room temperature engine oil into the capillary by using a syringe pump. This method can avoid the air bubbles when the liquids are pumped into the capillary.

  1. Under pressure: progressively enlarging facial mass following high-pressure paint injection injury.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Jameel; Walker, Abigail; Hunter, Ben

    2016-01-19

    High-pressure paint injection injuries are relatively rare industrial accidents and almost exclusively occur on the non-dominant hand. A rarely documented complication of these injuries is the formation of a foreign body granuloma. We report a case of a 33-year-old man presenting with extensive facial scarring and progressive right paranasal swelling 7 years after a high-pressure paint injury. After imaging investigations, an excision of the mass and revision of scarring was performed. Access to the mass was gained indirectly through existing scarring over the nose to ensure an aesthetic result. Histological analysis revealed a florid granulomatous foreign body reaction to retained paint. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a facial high-pressure paint injury with consequent formation of a foreign body granuloma.

  2. Wall-slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds: Effect of flow channel geometry and roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Sanetrnik, Daniel; Paravanova, Gordana

    2014-05-15

    The paper deals with the rheological behavior of highly filled compounds proceeded via powder injection molding (PIM) and applied in many sectors of industry (automotive, medicine, electronic or military). Online rheometer equipped with slit dies varying in surface roughness and dimensions was applied to investigate the wall-slip as a rheological phenomenon, which can be considered as a parameter indicating the separation of compound components (polymer binder and metallic powder) during high shear rates when injection molded.

  3. Electron Temperature and Density in Local Helicity Injection and High betat Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlossberg, David J.

    Tokamak startup in a spherical torus (ST) and an ST-based fusion nuclear science facility can greatly benefit from using non-inductive methods. The Pegasus Toroidal Experiment has developed a non-inductive startup technique using local helicity injection (LHI). Electron temperature, T e(r), and density, ne( r), profiles during LHI are unknown. These profiles are critical for understanding both the physics of the injection and relaxation mechanisms, as well as for extrapolating this technique to larger devices. A new Thomson scattering system has been designed, installed, and used to characterize Te(r, t) and ne(r, t) during LHI. The diagnostic leverages new technology in image intensified CCD cameras, high-efficiency diffraction gratings, and reliable Nd:YAG lasers. Custom systems for stray light mitigation, fast shuttering, and precision timing have been developed and implemented. The overall system provides a low-maintenance, economic, and effective means to explore novel physics regimes in Pegasus. Electron temperature and density profiles during LHI have been measured for the first time. Results indicate Te(r) peaked in the core of plasmas, and sustained while plasmas are coupled to injection drive. Electron densities also peak near the core of the tokamak, up to local values of n e ˜ 1.5 x 1019 m -3. A comparison of Te( r, t) has been made between discharges with dominant drive voltage from induction versus helicity injection. In both cases Te ( r, t) profiles remain peaked, with values for Te ,max > 150 eV in dominantly helicity-driven plasmas using high-field side LHI. Sustained values of betat ˜ 100% have been demonstrated in a tokamak for the first time. Plasmas are created and driven entirely non-solenoidally, and exhibit MHD stability. Measured temperature and density profiles are used to constrain magnetic equilibrium reconstructions, which calculate 80% < betat < 100% throughout a toroidal field ramp-down. For a continued decrease in the toroidal

  4. Host responses in human skin after conventional intradermal injection or microneedle administration of virus-like-particle influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Pearton, Marc; Pirri, Daniela; Kang, Sang-Moo; Compans, Richard W; Birchall, James C

    2013-10-01

    Miniaturized microneedle devices are being developed for painlessly targeting vaccines to the immune cell populations in skin. As skin immunization studies are generally restricted to animal models however, where skin architecture and immunity is greatly different to human, surprisingly little is known about the local human response to intradermal (ID) vaccines. Here surgically excised human skin is used to explore for the first time the complex molecular and cellular host responses to a candidate influenza vaccine comprising nanoparticulate virus-like-particles (VLPs), administered via conventional hypodermic injection or reduced scale microneedles. Responses at the molecular level are determined by microarray analysis (47,296 discrete transcripts) and validated by quantitative PCR (96 genes). Cellular response is probed through monitoring migration of dendritic cells in viable skin tissue. Gene expression mapping, ontological analysis, and qPCR reveal up-regulation of a host of genes responsible for key immunomodulatory processes and host viral response, including cell recruitment, activation, migration, and T cell interaction following both ID and microneedle injection of VLPs; the response from the microneedles being more subtle. Significant morphological and migratory changes to skin dendritic cells are also apparent following microneedle VLP delivery. This is the first study displaying the global, multifaceted immunological events that occur at the site of vaccine deposition in human skin and will subsequently influence the degree and nature of innate and adaptive immune responses. An increased understanding of the detailed similarities and differences in response against antigen administered via different delivery modalities will inform the development of improved vaccines and vaccine delivery systems.

  5. High prevalence of abscesses and self-treatment among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pollini, Robin A.; Gallardo, Manuel; Hasan, Samreen; Minuto, Joshua; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Zúñiga, María Luisa; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Soft tissue infections are common among injection drug users (IDUs), but information on correlates and treatment in this highly marginalized population is lacking. Methods Six hundred twenty-three community-recruited IDUs in Tijuana, Mexico, completed a detailed interview on abscess history and treatment. Univariate and multiple logistic regressions were used to identify factors independently associated with having an abscess in the prior 6 months. Results Overall, 46% had ever had an abscess and 20% had had an abscess in the past 6 months. Only 12% had sought medical care for their most recent abscess; 60% treated the abscess themselves. The most common self-treatment method was to apply heated (24%) or unheated (23%) Aloe vera leaf. Other methods included draining the wound with a syringe (19%) or knife (11%). Factors independently associated with recent abscess were having income from sex work (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.08–10.00), smoking methamphetamine (aOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.05–2.62), seeking someone to help with injection (aOR 2.06, 95% CI 1.18–3.61), and reporting that police affected where they used drugs (aOR 2.14, 95% CI 1.15–3.96). Conclusions Abscesses are common among IDUs in this setting, but appropriate treatment is rare. Interventions to reduce barriers to medical care in this population are needed. Research on the effectiveness of Aloe vera application in this setting is also needed, as are interventions to provide IDU sex workers, methamphetamine smokers, and those who assist with injection with the information and equipment necessary to reduce abscess risk. PMID:20381396

  6. A semiconductor injection-switched high-pressure sub-10-picosecond carbon dioxide laser amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Michael Kon Yew

    A multiatmospheric-pressure-broadened CO2 laser amplifier was constructed to amplify sub-10-picosecond pulses generated with semiconductor switching. High-intensity, mid-infrared, amplified pulses have many applications: especially in fields such as non-linear optics, laser-plasma interaction, and laser particle acceleration. The injected pulses are produced by exciting GaAs (or an engineered, fast-recombination time semiconductor) with an ultrafast visible laser pulse to induce transient free carriers with sufficient density to reflect a co-incident hybrid-CO2 laser pulse. The short pulse is injected directly into the regenerative amplifier cavity from an intra-cavity semiconductor switch. The CO2-gas-mix amplifier is operated at 1.24 MPa which is sufficient to collisionally broaden the individual rotational spectral lines so that they merge to produce a gain spectrum wide enough to support pulses less than 10 ps long. After sufficient amplification, the pulse is switched out with another semiconductor switch pumped with a synchronized visible-laser pulse. This system is demonstrated and analysed spectrally and temporally. The pulse-train spectral analysis is done for a GaAs-GaAs double-switch arrangement using a standard spectrometer and two HgCdTe detectors; one of which is used for a reference signal. An infrared autocorrelator was designed and constructed to temporally analyse the pulse trains emerging from the amplifier. Interpretation of the results was aided by the development of a computer model for short-pulse amplification which incorporated saturation effects, rotational- and vibrational-mode energy redistribution between pulse round trips, and the gain enhancement due to one sequence band. The results show that a sub-10-picosecond pulse is injected into the cavity and that it is amplified with some trailing pulses at 18 ps intervals generated by coherent effects. The energy level reached, estimated through modelling, was >100 mJ/cm2.

  7. High prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Garfein, R. S.; Lozada, R.; Liu, L.; Laniado-Laborin, R.; Rodwell, T. C.; Deiss, R.; Alvelais, J.; Catanzaro, A.; Chiles, P. G.; Strathdee, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary BACKGROUND We studied prevalence and correlates of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico, where tuberculosis (TB) is endemic. METHODS IDUs aged ⩾18 years were recruited via respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and underwent standardized interviews, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing and LTBI screening using QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube, a whole-blood interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). LTBI prevalence was estimated and correlates were identified using RDS-weighted logistic regression. RESULTS Of 1020 IDUs, 681 (67%) tested IGRA-positive and 44 (4%) tested HIV-positive. Mean age was 37 years, 88% were male and 98% were Mexican-born. IGRA positivity was associated with recruitment nearest the US border (aOR 1.64, 95%CI 1.09–2.48), increasing years of injection (aOR 1.20/5 years, 95%CI 1.07–1.34), and years lived in Tijuana (aOR 1.10/5 years, 95%CI 1.03–1.18). Speaking some English (aOR 0.38, 95%CI 0.25–0.57) and injecting most often at home in the past 6 months (aOR 0.68, 95%CI 0.45–0.99) were inversely associated with IGRA positivity. DISCUSSION Increased LTBI prevalence among IDUs in Tijuana appears to be associated with greater drug involvement. Given the high risk for HIV infection among Tijuana’s IDUs, interventions are urgently needed to prevent HIV infection and treat LTBI among IDUs before these epidemics collide. PMID:19383197

  8. Identification of the Allergenic Ingredients in Reduning Injection by Ultrafiltration and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Li, Cun-yu; Zheng, Yun-feng; Li, Hong-yang; Xiao, Wei; Peng, Guo-ping

    2016-01-01

    Reduning injection is a traditional Chinese medicine injection which has multiple functions such as clearing heat, dispelling wind, and detoxification. Although Reduning injection was widely utilized, reports of its allergenicity emerged one after another. However, there is little research on its allergenic substances. The aim of this study is to evaluate the sensitization of Reduning injection and explore the underlying cause of the anaphylactic reaction. The main ingredients in Reduning injection were analyzed before and after ultrafiltration. Ultrafiltrate Reduning injection, unfiltered Reduning injection, egg albumin, Tween-80, and nine effective components in Reduning injection were utilized to sensitize guinea pigs. The serum 5-hydroxytryptamine level was used to assess the sensitization effect of Reduning injection. We found a significant decrease in Tween-80 content comparing to other components in the injection after ultrafiltration. Unfiltered Reduning injection, Tween-80, chlorogenic acid, and cryptochlorogenin acid caused remarkable anaphylactoid reaction on guinea pigs while ultrafiltration Reduning resulted in a significantly lower degree of sensitization. Our results suggest that ultrafiltration could significantly reduce the sensitization of Reduning injection, which is likely due to the decrease of Tween-80. We also conjectured that the form of chlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenin acid within the complex solution mixture may also affect the sensitizing effect. PMID:27144180

  9. Identification of the Allergenic Ingredients in Reduning Injection by Ultrafiltration and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Li, Cun-yu; Zheng, Yun-feng; Li, Hong-yang; Xiao, Wei; Peng, Guo-ping

    2016-01-01

    Reduning injection is a traditional Chinese medicine injection which has multiple functions such as clearing heat, dispelling wind, and detoxification. Although Reduning injection was widely utilized, reports of its allergenicity emerged one after another. However, there is little research on its allergenic substances. The aim of this study is to evaluate the sensitization of Reduning injection and explore the underlying cause of the anaphylactic reaction. The main ingredients in Reduning injection were analyzed before and after ultrafiltration. Ultrafiltrate Reduning injection, unfiltered Reduning injection, egg albumin, Tween-80, and nine effective components in Reduning injection were utilized to sensitize guinea pigs. The serum 5-hydroxytryptamine level was used to assess the sensitization effect of Reduning injection. We found a significant decrease in Tween-80 content comparing to other components in the injection after ultrafiltration. Unfiltered Reduning injection, Tween-80, chlorogenic acid, and cryptochlorogenin acid caused remarkable anaphylactoid reaction on guinea pigs while ultrafiltration Reduning resulted in a significantly lower degree of sensitization. Our results suggest that ultrafiltration could significantly reduce the sensitization of Reduning injection, which is likely due to the decrease of Tween-80. We also conjectured that the form of chlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenin acid within the complex solution mixture may also affect the sensitizing effect.

  10. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2002-06-30

    This report outlines progress in the third quarter of the second year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. High order finite difference schemes for one-dimensional, two-phase, multicomponent displacements are investigated. Numerical tests are run using a three component fluid description for a case when the interaction between phase behavior and flow is strong. Some currently used total variation diminishing (TVD) methods produce unstable results. A third order essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) method captures the effects of phase behavior for this test case. Possible modifications to ensure stability are discussed along with plans to incorporate higher order schemes into the 3DSL streamline simulator.

  11. “A novel highly stable and injectable hydrogel based on a conformationally restricted ultrashort peptide”

    PubMed Central

    Thota, Chaitanya Kumar; Yadav, Nitin; Chauhan, Virander Singh

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructures including hydrogels based on peptides containing non protein amino acids are being considered as platform for drug delivery because of their inherent biocompatibility and additional proteolytic stability. Here we describe instantaneous self-assembly of a conformationally restricted dipeptide, LeuΔPhe, containing an α,β-dehydrophenylalanine residue into a highly stable and mechanically strong hydrogel, under mild physiological aqueous conditions. The gel successfully entrapped several hydrophobic and hydrophilic drug molecules and released them in a controlled manner. LeuΔPhe was highly biocompatible and easily injectable. Administration of an antineoplastic drug entrapped in the gel in tumor bearing mice significantly controlled growth of tumors. These characteristics make LeuΔPhe an attractive candidate for further development as a delivery platform for various biomedical applications. PMID:27507432

  12. High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion-Energy (HYLIFE) reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blink, J.A.; Hogam, W.J.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, E.R.; Pitts, J.H.

    1985-12-23

    The High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) concept to convent inertial confinement fusion energy into electric power has undergone intensive research and refinement at LLNL since 1978. This paper reports on the final HYLIFE design, focusing on five major areas: the HYLIFE reaction chamber (which includes neutronics, liquid-metal jet-array hydrocynamics, and structural design), supporting systems, primary steam system and balance of plant, safety and environmental protection, and costs. An annotated bibliography of reports applicable to HYLIFE is also provided. We conclude that HYLIFE is a particularly viable concept for the safe, clean production of electrical energy. The liquid-metal jet array, HYLIFE's key design feature, protects the surrounding structural components from x-rays, fusion fuel-pellet debris, neutron damage and activation, and high temperatures and stresses, allowing the structure to last for the plant's entire 30-year lifetime without being replaced. 127 refs., 18 figs.

  13. Simulation of Orientation in Injection Molding of High Aspect Ratio Particle Thermoplastic Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vélez-García, Gregorio M.; Ortman, Kevin C.; Eberle, Aaron P. R.; Wapperom, Peter; Baird, Donald G.

    2008-07-01

    A 2D coupled Hele-Shaw flow approximation for predicting the flow-induced orientation of high aspect ratio particles in injection molded composite parts is presented. For a highly concentrated short glass fiber PBT suspension, the impact of inter-particle interactions and the orientation at the gate is investigated for a center-gated disk using material parameters determined from rheometry. Experimental orientation is determined from confocal laser micrographs using the methods of ellipses. The constitutive equations are discretized using discontinuous Galerkin Finite Elements. Model predictions are significantly improved by using a localized orientation measured experimentally at the gate region instead of random or averaged gapwise measured orientation assumed in previous studies. The predicted profile in different radial positions can be related to the layered structure along the gapwise direction. Model modifications including interactions have lower impact than the initial conditions.

  14. Injection of Fully-Defined Signal Mixtures: A Novel High-Throughput Tool to Study Neuronal Encoding and Computations

    PubMed Central

    Ilin, Vladimir; Stevenson, Ian H.; Volgushev, Maxim

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of how neurons transform fluctuations of membrane potential, reflecting input activity, into spike responses, which communicate the ultimate results of single-neuron computation, is one of the central challenges for cellular and computational neuroscience. To study this transformation under controlled conditions, previous work has used a signal immersed in noise paradigm where neurons are injected with a current consisting of fluctuating noise that mimics on-going synaptic activity and a systematic signal whose transmission is studied. One limitation of this established paradigm is that it is designed to examine the encoding of only one signal under a specific, repeated condition. As a result, characterizing how encoding depends on neuronal properties, signal parameters, and the interaction of multiple inputs is cumbersome. Here we introduce a novel fully-defined signal mixture paradigm, which allows us to overcome these problems. In this paradigm, current for injection is synthetized as a sum of artificial postsynaptic currents (PSCs) resulting from the activity of a large population of model presynaptic neurons. PSCs from any presynaptic neuron(s) can be now considered as “signal”, while the sum of all other inputs is considered as “noise”. This allows us to study the encoding of a large number of different signals in a single experiment, thus dramatically increasing the throughput of data acquisition. Using this novel paradigm, we characterize the detection of excitatory and inhibitory PSCs from neuronal spike responses over a wide range of amplitudes and firing-rates. We show, that for moderately-sized neuronal populations the detectability of individual inputs is higher for excitatory than for inhibitory inputs during the 2–5 ms following PSC onset, but becomes comparable after 7–8 ms. This transient imbalance of sensitivity in favor of excitation may enhance propagation of balanced signals through neuronal networks. Finally, we

  15. Injection of fully-defined signal mixtures: a novel high-throughput tool to study neuronal encoding and computations.

    PubMed

    Ilin, Vladimir; Stevenson, Ian H; Volgushev, Maxim

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of how neurons transform fluctuations of membrane potential, reflecting input activity, into spike responses, which communicate the ultimate results of single-neuron computation, is one of the central challenges for cellular and computational neuroscience. To study this transformation under controlled conditions, previous work has used a signal immersed in noise paradigm where neurons are injected with a current consisting of fluctuating noise that mimics on-going synaptic activity and a systematic signal whose transmission is studied. One limitation of this established paradigm is that it is designed to examine the encoding of only one signal under a specific, repeated condition. As a result, characterizing how encoding depends on neuronal properties, signal parameters, and the interaction of multiple inputs is cumbersome. Here we introduce a novel fully-defined signal mixture paradigm, which allows us to overcome these problems. In this paradigm, current for injection is synthetized as a sum of artificial postsynaptic currents (PSCs) resulting from the activity of a large population of model presynaptic neurons. PSCs from any presynaptic neuron(s) can be now considered as "signal", while the sum of all other inputs is considered as "noise". This allows us to study the encoding of a large number of different signals in a single experiment, thus dramatically increasing the throughput of data acquisition. Using this novel paradigm, we characterize the detection of excitatory and inhibitory PSCs from neuronal spike responses over a wide range of amplitudes and firing-rates. We show, that for moderately-sized neuronal populations the detectability of individual inputs is higher for excitatory than for inhibitory inputs during the 2-5 ms following PSC onset, but becomes comparable after 7-8 ms. This transient imbalance of sensitivity in favor of excitation may enhance propagation of balanced signals through neuronal networks. Finally, we discuss several

  16. Increased iron deposition in rat liver fibrosis induced by a high-dose injection of dimethylnitrosamine.

    PubMed

    Guo, Limei; Enzan, Hideaki; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Miyazaki, Eriko; Jin, Yulan; Toi, Makoto; Kuroda, Naoto; Hiroi, Makoto

    2006-12-01

    Using a developed rat model of hepatic necrosis and subsequent fibrosis induced by a high-dose intraperitoneal injection of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), we studied iron deposition and expression of transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) during the development of persistent liver fibrosis. Rats were sacrificed at several timepoints from 6 h to 10 months post-injection and the livers were examined for iron content and distribution, and for expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, ED-1, TGF-beta(1), and collagen (alpha(2))I. Morphologic evidence of acute submassive hemorrhagic necrosis peaked at 36 h; on day 3 the residual parenchyma contained activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and necrotic areas contained numerous macrophages; and on day 5, necrotic tissues and erythrocytes had been phagocytosed and macrophages contained abundant iron deposits. From days 7 to 10, iron-laden macrophages and activated HSCs (myofibroblasts) populated the fibrous septa in parallel. From week 2 to month 10, closely arranged macrophages and myofibroblasts were found in central-to-central bridging fibrotic tissue. TGF-beta(1) was strongly detected in both macrophages and HSCs during development of liver fibrosis. Our data suggest that increased iron deposition may be involved in the initiation and perpetuation of rat liver fibrosis. Iron-laden macrophages may influence HSCs through the action of TGF-beta(1) in DMN-induced liver fibrosis.

  17. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2001-03-31

    This report outlines progress in the second 3 months of the first year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs.'' The development of an automatic technique for analytical solution of one-dimensional gas flow problems with volume change on mixing is described. The aim of this work is to develop a set of ultra-fast compositional simulation tools that can be used to make field-scale predictions of the performance of gas injection processes. To achieve the necessary accuracy, these tools must satisfy the fundamental physics and chemistry of the displacement from the pore to the reservoir scales. Thus this project focuses on four main research areas: (1) determination of the most appropriate methods of mapping multicomponent solutions to streamlines and streamtubes in 3D; (2) development of techniques for automatic generation of analytical solutions for one-dimensional flow along a streamline; (3) experimental investigations to improve the representation of physical mechanisms that govern displacement efficiency along a streamline; and (4) theoretical and experimental investigations to establish the limitations of the streamline/streamtube approach. In this report they briefly review the status of the research effort in each area. They then give a more in depth discussion of their development of techniques for analytic solutions along a streamline including volume change on mixing for arbitrary numbers of components.

  18. Is high-rate injection causing the increase in U.S. mid-continent seismicity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingarten, M.; Ge, S.

    2014-12-01

    An unprecedented increase in earthquakes in the central and eastern US (CEUS) began in 2009. Many of these earthquakes have been documented as likely induced by wastewater injection. To better understand the likelihood of an induced seismic event from a given injection well, we compare the location and timing of earthquakes and injection operational parameters across the CEUS. We compiled a database of more than 187,000 injection wells in the CEUS, both active and inactive. In combination with the Advanced National Seismic System's (ANSS) comprehensive earthquake catalog from 1973 to mid-2014, we use spatial and temporal filtering methods to discriminate injection wells that may be associated with earthquakes from those that are not. Our goal was to understand whether or not well operational parameters such as injection rate, cumulative injected volume, injection pressure and injection depth affect the likelihood that a well is spatiotemporally associated with an earthquake. We found more than 14,000 injection wells (~8% of all wells) that may be associated with earthquakes in the CEUS. Our spatiotemporal filter succeeded in capturing every suspected case of induced seismicity that we are aware of. We also found that the likelihood of an injection well being associated with an earthquake increased with increasing injection rate and cumulative injected volume. This phenomenon was observed over a wide range of geologic and hydrogeologic provinces in states such as Oklahoma, Colorado, New Mexico and Arkansas. Operational parameters such as injection pressure and injection depth do not show a clear trend towards an increased likelihood of spatiotemporal association with an earthquake. In all, the cumulative number of CEUS earthquakes potentially associated with injection has risen sharply from 112 out of 545 in year 2000 (~19%) to more than 732 out of 1325 by May 2014 (~55%). This increase in earthquakes spatiotemporally associated with wells accounts for the vast

  19. Modelling of Seismic and Resistivity Responses during the Injection of CO2 in Sandstone Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Muhamad Nizarul Idhafi Bin; Almanna Lubis, Luluan; Nur Arif Zanuri, Muhammad; Ghosh, Deva P.; Irawan, Sonny; Regassa Jufar, Shiferaw

    2016-07-01

    Enhanced oil recovery plays vital role in production phase in a producing oil field. Initially, in many cases hydrocarbon will naturally flow to the well as respect to the reservoir pressure. But over time, hydrocarbon flow to the well will decrease as the pressure decrease and require recovery method so called enhanced oil recovery (EOR) to recover the hydrocarbon flow. Generally, EOR works by injecting substances, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) to form a pressure difference to establish a constant productive flow of hydrocarbon to production well. Monitoring CO2 performance is crucial in ensuring the right trajectory and pressure differences are established to make sure the technique works in recovering hydrocarbon flow. In this paper, we work on computer simulation method in monitoring CO2 performance by seismic and resistivity model, enabling geoscientists and reservoir engineers to monitor production behaviour as respect to CO2 injection.

  20. Intrathecal injection of codeine, buprenorphine, tilidine, tramadol and nefopam depresses the tail-flick response in rats.

    PubMed

    Bernatzky, G; Jurna, I

    1986-01-14

    The effect of intrathecal (i.t.) injection of the analgesic agents, codeine, buprenorphine, tilidine and one of its metabolites, nortilidine, tramadol and nefopam, was determined in the tail-flick test performed on rats. ED50 values were derived from the dose-response lines. The relative potency ranking established from the ED50 values is buprenorphine (0.4 nM) greater than nortilidine (29 nM) = tramadol (26 nM) = nefopam (34 nM) greater than codeine (42 nM) greater than tilidine (118 nM). An i.t. injection of the opiate antagonist, naloxone (5 micrograms), prevented the antinociceptive effect of all analgesic agents administered at the highest dose tested. It is concluded that these analgesic agents, like morphine, exert their effect at least in part through a spinal site of action.

  1. [The morphological response of the pineal gland of old animals on course of melatonin injections].

    PubMed

    Gubina-Vakulik, G I; Bondarenko, L A; Gevorkian, A R

    2009-01-01

    On the old (18-20 months) male rats of Wistar population the influence of the 10 days evening melatonin injections in physiological rang doses on morphological state pineal gland, was studied. It has been shown, that the course of melatonin injections to old rats brings appearance of histological pattern of pineal gland activation: increasing of area of pinealocytes nuclear and density of nuclear and cytoplasm with stein by hallocyanine on total nucleic acid that means stimulation to material both indole, and peptide nature production. Using of melatonin in dose 0.05 mg/kg mass of the body is sparing for pinealocytes of the old rats and slows the apoptosis processes on background of polyploidization. Using of melatonin in dose 0,5 mg/kg mass of the body causes cell's overstrain and induces the forced apoptosis. It's possible to suppose that the geroprotective effect of the evening injections of melatonin is increased due to stimulation of the biosynthesis of neuropeptides in pineal gland.

  2. The osteogenic response of mesenchymal stem cells to an injectable PLGA bone regeneration system.

    PubMed

    Curran, Judith M; Fawcett, Sandra; Hamilton, Lloyd; Rhodes, Nicholas P; Rahman, Cheryl V; Alexander, Morgan; Shakesheff, Kevin; Hunt, John A

    2013-12-01

    The enrichment of substrates/surfaces with selected functional groups, methyl (-CH3), allyl amine (-NH2), allyl alcohol (-OH) and acrylic acid (-COOH), can be used to trigger mesenchymal stem (MSC) cell differentiation into specified lineages, minimising the need for exogenous biological supplementation. We present the successful translation of this research phenomenon to an injectable two phase injectable PLGA system, utilising plasma techniques, for the repair of bone defects. Modified microspheres were characterised using water contact angel (WCA), X-ray Photon Spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When cultured in contact with MSCs in vitro, the ability of the modified particles, within the 2 phase system, to induce differentiation was characterised using quantitative assays for cell viability and histological analysis for key markers of differentiation throughout the entirety of the three dimensional scaffold. Biological analysis proved that selected modified microspheres have the ability to induce MSC osteogenic (-NH2 modified scaffolds) and chondrogenic (-OH modified scaffolds) differentiation throughout the entirety of the formed scaffold. Therefore optimised plasma modification of microspheres is an effective tool for the production of injectable systems for the repair of bone and cartilage defects.

  3. Fluid injection induced seismicity reveals a NE dipping fault in the southeastern sector of the High Agri Valley (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabile, T. A.; Giocoli, A.; Perrone, A.; Piscitelli, S.; Lapenna, V.

    2014-08-01

    On 2 June 2006 the wastewater produced during the oil and gas field exploitation in High Agri Valley (southern Italy) started to be managed by disposal through pumping the fluids back into the subsurface at the Costa Molina 2 (CM2) injection well, located in the southeastern sector of the valley. The onset of microearthquakes (Ml ≤ 2) after 4 days at about 1.3 km SW of CM2 well suggests fluid injection induced seismicity by the diffusion of pore pressure. Moreover, the space-time evolution of 196 high-resolution relocated events reveals a previously unmapped NE dipping fault. We investigate the physical processes related to the fluid injection induced seismicity and delineate the previously unmapped fault by jointly analyzing seismicity data, geological observations, fluid injection data, the stratigraphic log of the CM2 well, and the electrical resistivity tomography survey carried out in the study area.

  4. Coherent control of injection currents in high-quality films of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Bas, D. A.; Vargas-Velez, K.; Babakiray, S.; Johnson, T. A.; Borisov, P.; Stanescu, T. D.; Lederman, D.; Bristow, A. D.

    2015-01-26

    Films of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} are grown by molecular beam epitaxy with in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction. The films are shown to be high-quality by X-ray reflectivity and diffraction and atomic-force microscopy. Quantum interference control of photocurrents is observed by excitation with harmonically related pulses and detected by terahertz radiation. The injection current obeys the expected excitation irradiance dependence, showing linear dependence on the fundamental pulse irradiance and square-root irradiance dependence of the frequency-doubled optical pulses. The injection current also follows a sinusoidal relative-phase dependence between the two excitation pulses. These results confirm the third-order nonlinear optical origins of the coherently controlled injection current. Experiments are compared to a tight-binding band structure to illustrate the possible optical transitions that occur in creating the injection current.

  5. Physiological adaptive indicators in fasted neonate broiler chicks in response to calcium gluconate injection.

    PubMed

    Khosravinia, H

    2016-06-01

    Four hundred and eighty mixed-sex broiler chicks aged 3 h after hatching were allotted according to a completely random design in a 6 × 2 × 2 factorial schedule into two groups of 12 replications of 20 chicks each. The main experimental factors were fasting for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h after chick placement and calcium gluconate (Ca-glu) injection (0 and 0.6 ml). Live body weight (BW) of chicks decreased linearly (Y = 43.36-0.109BW0 h , r(2)  = 0.876) as neonatal fasting extended. Injection of 0.6 ml Ca-glu at 3 h post-hatching did not affect weight loss of chicks. Yolk residuals (YR) utilized linearly (Y = 5.75-0.062YR, r(2)  = 0.956) by 0.062 g/h in neonate fasted chicks up to 48 h, showing no effect of Ca-glu injection. Neonatal fasting periods longer than 12 h increased liver weight (p < 0.05). The mean absolute and proportional (% of BW0 h ) breast and leg weight were reduced linearly as neonatal fasting extended (p < 0.05). Serum glucose concentration increased up to 6 h and then reduced linearly to 150 mg/dl after 48-h fasting. The Ca-glu treatment influenced serum glucose level for a short period up to 6 h of fasting. Serum Ca concentration sharply increased up to threefolds in the birds received Ca-glu injection resulting in acute hypercalcemia, then decreased to the initial level after 24-h feed withdrawal (p < 0.05). The mean serum level for creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, HDL, albumins and total proteins significantly increased during the fasting periods of 6 to 48 h and significantly elevated in the birds receiving 0.6-ml Ca-glu injection compared with the non-treated chicks (p < 0.05). It was concluded that subcutaneous administration of 0.6 ml Ca-glu in the chick's neck did not suitably support the increased metabolic demands for glucose and calcium in feed-deprived neonate chicks.

  6. Systemic or Intra-Amygdala Injection of a Benzodiazepine (Midazolam) Impairs Extinction but Spares Re-Extinction of Conditioned Fear Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Genevra; Harris, Justin A.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2009-01-01

    Rats were subjected to one or two cycles of fear conditioning and extinction, injected with a benzodiazepine, midazolam, before the first or second extinction, and tested for long-term inhibition of fear responses (freezing). In Experiment 1, inhibition of context-conditioned fear was spared when midazolam was injected before the second…

  7. Injection locking of a low cost high power laser diode at 461 nm.

    PubMed

    Pagett, C J H; Moriya, P H; Celistrino Teixeira, R; Shiozaki, R F; Hemmerling, M; Courteille, Ph W

    2016-05-01

    Stable laser sources at 461 nm are important for optical cooling of strontium atoms. In most existing experiments, this wavelength is obtained by frequency doubling infrared lasers, since blue laser diodes either have low power or large emission bandwidths. Here, we show that injecting less than 10 mW of monomode laser radiation into a blue multimode 500 mW high power laser diode is capable of slaving at least 50% of the power to the desired frequency. We verify the emission bandwidth reduction by saturation spectroscopy on a strontium gas cell and by direct beating of the slave with the master laser. We also demonstrate that the laser can efficiently be used within the Zeeman slower for optical cooling of a strontium atomic beam.

  8. Injection locking of a low cost high power laser diode at 461 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagett, C. J. H.; Moriya, P. H.; Celistrino Teixeira, R.; Shiozaki, R. F.; Hemmerling, M.; Courteille, Ph. W.

    2016-05-01

    Stable laser sources at 461 nm are important for optical cooling of strontium atoms. In most existing experiments, this wavelength is obtained by frequency doubling infrared lasers, since blue laser diodes either have low power or large emission bandwidths. Here, we show that injecting less than 10 mW of monomode laser radiation into a blue multimode 500 mW high power laser diode is capable of slaving at least 50% of the power to the desired frequency. We verify the emission bandwidth reduction by saturation spectroscopy on a strontium gas cell and by direct beating of the slave with the master laser. We also demonstrate that the laser can efficiently be used within the Zeeman slower for optical cooling of a strontium atomic beam.

  9. A high carrier injection terahertz quantum cascade laser based on indirectly pumped scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Razavipour, S. G. Xu, C.; Wasilewski, Z. R.; Ban, D.; Dupont, E.; Laframboise, S. R.; Chan, C. W. I.; Hu, Q.

    2014-01-27

    A Terahertz quantum cascade laser with a rather high injection coupling strength based on an indirectly pumped scheme is designed and experimentally implemented. To effectively suppress leakage current, the chosen quantum cascade module of the device is based on a five-well GaAs/Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}As structure. The device lases up to 151 K with a lasing frequency of 2.67 THz. This study shows that the effect of higher energy states in carrier transport and the long-range tunnel coupling between states that belong to non-neighbouring modules have to be considered in quantum design of structures with a narrow injector barrier. Moreover, the effect of interface roughness scattering between the lasing states on threshold current is crucial.

  10. Can repeat injection provide clinical benefit in patients with cervical disc herniation and stenosis when the first epidural injection results only in partial response?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Epidural steroid injection (ESI) is known to be an effective treatment for neck or radicular pain due to herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) and spinal stenosis (SS). Although repeat ESI has generally been indicated to provide more pain relief in partial responders after single ESI, there has been little evidence supporting the usefulness of this procedure. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine whether repeat ESI at a prescribed interval of 2 to 3 weeks after the first injection would provide greater clinical benefit in patients with partial pain reduction than intermittent ESI performed only when pain was aggravated. One hundred eighty-four patients who underwent transforaminal ESI (TFESI) for treatment of axial neck and radicular arm pain due to HIVD or SS and could be followed up for 1 year were enrolled. We divided the patients into 2 groups. Group A (N = 108) comprised partial responders (numeric rating scale (NRS) ≥ 3 after the first injection) who underwent repeat injection at a prescribed interval of 2 to 3 weeks after the first injection. Group B (N = 76) comprised partial responders who did not receive repeat injection at the prescribed interval, but received intermittent injections only for aggravation of pain. Various clinical data were assessed, including total number of injections during 1 year, NRS duration of <3 during 1 year (NRS < 3 duration), and time interval until pain was increased to require additional injections after repeat injection in Group A, or after first injection in Group B (time to reinjection). Groups A and B were compared in terms of total population, HIVD, and SS. In the whole population, HIVD subgroup, and SS subgroup, patients in Group A required significantly fewer injections to obtain satisfactory pain relief during the 1-year follow-up period. Group A showed a significantly longer time to reinjection and longer NRS < 3 than Group B did. Repeat TFESI conducted at 2- to 3-week

  11. Hypothalamic differences in expression of genes involved in monoamine synthesis and signaling pathways after insulin injection in chickens from lines selected for high and low body weight.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Kim, Sungwon; Settlage, Robert; McMahon, Wyatt; Sumners, Lindsay H; Siegel, Paul B; Dorshorst, Benjamin J; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2015-04-01

    Long-term selection for juvenile body weight from a common founder population resulted in two divergent chicken lines (low-weight selected line (LWS), high-weight selected line (HWS)) that display distinct food intake and blood glucose responses to exogenous neuropeptides and insulin. The objective of this study was to elucidate putative targets affecting food intake and energy homeostasis by sequencing hypothalamic RNA from LWS and HWS chickens after insulin injection. Ninety-day-old female LWS and HWS chickens were injected with either vehicle or insulin and hypothalamus collected at 1 h postinjection. Through RNA sequencing, a total of 361 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. There was greater expression of genes, mainly tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (DDC), and vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), involved in serotonin and dopamine biosynthesis and signaling in LWS than in HWS vehicle-injected chickens. In contrast, after insulin injection, these genes were more highly expressed in HWS than in LWS. We identified 90 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) existing only in the HWS and 121 SNPs specific to LWS and 5119 SNPs close to fixation (with absolute frequency difference ≥0.9). Four were located in genes encoding enzymes associated with serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways, such as DDC, TH, and solute carrier family 18, member 2 (VMAT). These data implicate differences in biogenic amines such as serotonin and dopamine in hypothalamic physiology between the chicken lines, and these differences might be associated with polymorphisms during long-term selection. Changes in serotonergic and dopaminergic signaling pathways in response to insulin injection suggest a role in whole-body energy homeostasis.

  12. Influence of high-conductivity buffer composition on field-enhanced sample injection coupled to sweeping in CE.

    PubMed

    Anres, Philippe; Delaunay, Nathalie; Vial, Jérôme; Thormann, Wolfgang; Gareil, Pierre

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this work was to clarify the mechanism taking place in field-enhanced sample injection coupled to sweeping and micellar EKC (FESI-Sweep-MEKC), with the utilization of two acidic high-conductivity buffers (HCBs), phosphoric acid or sodium phosphate buffer, in view of maximizing sensitivity enhancements. Using cationic model compounds in acidic media, a chemometric approach and simulations with SIMUL5 were implemented. Experimental design first enabled to identify the significant factors and their potential interactions. Simulation demonstrates the formation of moving boundaries during sample injection, which originate at the initial sample/HCB and HCB/buffer discontinuities and gradually change the compositions of HCB and BGE. With sodium phosphate buffer, the HCB conductivity increased during the injection, leading to a more efficient preconcentration by staking (about 1.6 times) than with phosphoric acid alone, for which conductivity decreased during injection. For the same injection time at constant voltage, however, a lower amount of analytes was injected with sodium phosphate buffer than with phosphoric acid. Consequently sensitivity enhancements were lower for the whole FESI-Sweep-MEKC process. This is why, in order to maximize sensitivity enhancements, it is proposed to work with sodium phosphate buffer as HCB and to use constant current during sample injection.

  13. Reservoir characterization based on tracer response and rank analysis of production and injection rates

    SciTech Connect

    Refunjol, B.T.; Lake, L.W.

    1997-08-01

    Quantification of the spatial distribution of properties is important for many reservoir-engineering applications. But, before applying any reservoir-characterization technique, the type of problem to be tackled and the information available should be analyzed. This is important because difficulties arise in reservoirs where production records are the only information for analysis. This paper presents the results of a practical technique to determine preferential flow trends in a reservoir. The technique is a combination of reservoir geology, tracer data, and Spearman rank correlation coefficient analysis. The Spearman analysis, in particular, will prove to be important because it appears to be insightful and uses injection/production data that are prevalent in circumstances where other data are nonexistent. The technique is applied to the North Buck Draw field, Campbell County, Wyoming. This work provides guidelines to assess information about reservoir continuity in interwell regions from widely available measurements of production and injection rates at existing wells. The information gained from the application of this technique can contribute to both the daily reservoir management and the future design, control, and interpretation of subsequent projects in the reservoir, without the need for additional data.

  14. Modified lymphocyte response to mitogens after intraperitoneal injection of glycopeptidolipid antigens from Mycobacterium avium complex.

    PubMed Central

    Brownback, P E; Barrow, W W

    1988-01-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of glycopeptidolipid (GPL) antigens from Mycobacterium avium complex serovar 4 resulted in the decreased ability of murine splenic lymphocytes to respond to nonspecific-mitogen-induced blastogenesis when exposed to concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin, and lipopolysaccharide. Adherent cell depletion and cell mixing experiments with T lymphocytes indicated that macrophages were not a major contributor to the immunosuppression observed in this study. Enumeration of splenic lymphocytes by means of flow-cytometry with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of GPL antigens resulted in a significant decrease in Thy-1+ and Lyt-1+ cells but no change in the numbers of Lyt-2+ cells. Treatment with GPL antigens in vitro affected the ability of splenic mononuclear cells to respond optimally for concanavalin A-induced blastogenesis at 40 micrograms of GPL per 4 X 10(5) cells per 0.2 ml and lipopolysaccharide-induced blastogenesis at concentrations ranging from 5 to 40 micrograms of GPL per 4 X 10(5) cells per 0.2 ml. However, in vitro treatment with GPL antigens did not affect phytohemagglutinin-induced blastogenesis at concentrations ranging from 5 to 40 micrograms of GPL per 4 X 10(5) cells per 0.2 ml. These findings suggest that GPL antigens or their metabolites affect lymphocyte function and may be important cofactors in the overall pathogenesis of M. avium complex infections. PMID:3258582

  15. Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa) Crude Venom Injection Elicits Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Response in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bruschetta, Giuseppe; Impellizzeri, Daniela; Morabito, Rossana; Marino, Angela; Ahmad, Akbar; Spanò, Nunziacarla; La Spada, Giuseppa; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Esposito, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Cnidarian toxins represent a rich source of biologically active compounds. Since they may act via oxidative stress events, the aim of the present study was to verify whether crude venom, extracted from the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca, elicits inflammation and oxidative stress processes, known to be mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production, in rats. In a first set of experiments, the animals were injected with crude venom (at three different doses 6, 30 and 60 µg/kg, suspended in saline solution, i.v.) to test the mortality and possible blood pressure changes. In a second set of experiments, to confirm that Pelagia noctiluca crude venom enhances ROS formation and may contribute to the pathophysiology of inflammation, crude venom-injected animals (30 µg/kg) were also treated with tempol, a powerful antioxidant (100 mg/kg i.p., 30 and 60 min after crude venom). Administration of tempol after crude venom challenge, caused a significant reduction of each parameter related to inflammation. The potential effect of Pelagia noctiluca crude venom in the systemic inflammation process has been here demonstrated, adding novel information about its biological activity. PMID:24727391

  16. Bacteria in the injection water differently impacts the bacterial communities of production wells in high-temperature petroleum reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hongyan; Xiong, Shunzi; Gao, Guangjun; Song, Yongting; Cao, Gongze; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Water flooding is widely used for oil recovery. However, how the introduction of bacteria via water flooding affects the subsurface ecosystem remains unknown. In the present study, the distinct bacterial communities of an injection well and six adjacent production wells were revealed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. All sequences of the variable region 3 of the 16S rRNA gene retrieved from pyrosequencing were divided into 543 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97% similarity. Approximately 13.5% of the total sequences could not be assigned to any recognized phylum. The Unifrac distance analysis showed significant differences in the bacterial community structures between the production well and injection water samples. However, highly similar bacterial structures were shown for samples obtained from the same oil-bearing strata. More than 69% of the OTUs detected in the injection water sample were absent or detected in low abundance in the production wells. However, the abundance of two OTUs reached as high as 17.5 and 26.9% in two samples of production water, although the OTUs greatly varied among all samples. Combined with the differentiated water flow rate measured through ion tracing, we speculated that the transportation of injected bacteria was impacted through the varied permeability from the injection well to each of the production wells. Whether the injected bacteria predominate the production well bacterial community might depend both on the permeability of the strata and the reservoir conditions. PMID:26052321

  17. Effects of local high-frequency perturbation on a turbulent boundary layer by synthetic jet injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hao; Huang, Qian-Min; Liu, Pei-qing; Qu, Qiu-Lin

    2015-08-01

    An experimental study is performed to investigate the local high-frequency perturbation effects of a synthetic jet injection on a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. Parameters of the synthetic jet are designed to force a high-frequency perturbation from a thin spanwise slot in the wall. In the test locations downstream of the slot, it is found that skin-friction is reduced by the perturbation, which is languishingly evolved downstream of the slot with corresponding influence on the near-wall regeneration mechanism of turbulent structures. The downstream slot region is divided into two regions due to the influence strength of the movement of spanwise vortices generated by the high-frequency perturbation. Interestingly, the variable interval time average technique is found to be disturbed by the existence of the spanwise vortices’ motion, especially in the region close to the slot. Similar results are obtained from the analysis of the probability density functions of the velocity fluctuation time derivatives, which is another indirect technique for detecting the enhancement or attenuation of streamwise vortices. However, both methods have shown consistent results with the skin-friction reduction mechanism in the far-away slot region. The main purpose of this paper is to remind researchers to be aware of the probable influence of spanwise vortices’ motion in wall-bounded turbulence control.

  18. High-throughput nanoliter sample introduction microfluidic chip-based flow injection analysis system with gravity-driven flows.

    PubMed

    Du, Wen-Bin; Fang, Qun; He, Qiao-Hong; Fang, Zhao-Lun

    2005-03-01

    In this work, a simple, robust, and automated microfluidic chip-based FIA system with gravity-driven flows and liquid-core waveguide (LCW) spectrometric detection was developed. The high-throughput sample introduction system was composed of a capillary sampling probe and an array of horizontally positioned microsample vials with a slot fabricated on the bottom of each vial. FI sample loading and injection were performed by linearly moving the array of vials filled alternately with 50-microL samples and carrier, allowing the probe inlet to enter the solutions in the vials through the slots sequentially and the sample and carrier solution to be introduced into the chip driven by gravity. The performance of the system was demonstrated using the complexation of o-phenanthroline with Fe(II) as a model reaction. A 20-mm-long Teflon AF 2400 capillary (50-microm i.d., 375-microm o.d.) was connected to the chip to function as a LCW detection flow cell with a cell volume of 40 nL and effective path length of 1.7 cm. Linear absorbance response was obtained in the range of 1.0-100 microM Fe(II) (r2=0.9967), and a good reproducibility of 0.6% RSD (n=18) was achieved. The sensitivity was comparable with that obtained using conventional FIA systems, which typically consume 10,000-fold more sample. The highest sampling throughput of 1000 h-1 was obtained by using injection times of 0.08 and 3.4 s for sample and carrier solution, respectively, with a sample consumption of only 0.6 nL for each cycle.

  19. Comparison of a needle-free high-pressure injection system with needle-tipped injection of intracavernosal alprostadil for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Harding, L M; Adeniyi, A; Everson, R; Barker, S; Ralph, D J; Baranowski, A P

    2002-12-01

    Patients identified from hospital records as using alprostadil injections for erectile dysfunction were invited to take part in this open crossover study. On alternate weeks eight patients were given intracavernosal needle injections and transdermal needle-free injection of alprostadil in a randomized order. Efficacy of injection and associated pain were assessed and compared for the two methods. Pain produced during injection was significantly greater with the needle-free system than with the needle-tipped injection whilst efficacy was significantly less. Bruising was reported in all except one patient following needle-free injection only. Patient ratings of the needle-free injector were significantly lower than ratings for needle-tipped alprostadil delivery and when asked to express a preference, every patient chose the needle-tipped injection over the needle-free device.

  20. Nonlinear response of magnetic islands to localized electron cyclotron current injection

    SciTech Connect

    Borgogno, D.; Comisso, L.; Grasso, D.; Lazzaro, E.

    2014-06-15

    The magnetic island evolution under the action of a current generated externally by electron cyclotron wave beams is studied using a reduced resistive magnetohydrodynamics plasma model. The use of a two-dimensional reconnection model shows novel features of the actual nonlinear evolution as compared to the zero-dimensional model of the generalized Rutherford equation. When the radio frequency control is applied to a small magnetic island, the complete annihilation of the island width is followed by a spatial phase shift of the island, referred as “flip” instability. On the other hand, a current-drive injection in a large nonlinear island can be accompanied by the occurrence of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. These effects need to be taken into account in designing tearing mode control systems based on radio frequency current-drive.

  1. The response of the ionosphere to the injection of chemically reactive vapors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    As a gas released in the ionosphere expands, it is rapidly cooled. When the vapor becomes sufficiently tenuous, it is reheated by collisions with the ambient atmosphere and its flow is then governed by diffusive expansion. As the injected gas becomes well mixed with the plasma, a hole is created by chemical processes. In the case of diatomic hydrogen release, depression of the electron concentrations is governed by the charge exchange reaction between oxygen ions and hydrogen, producing positive hydroxyl ions. Hydroxyl ions rapidly react with the electron gas to produce excited oxygen and hydrogen atoms. Enhanced airglow emissions result from the transition of the excited atoms to lower energy states. The electron temperature in the depleted region rises sharply causing a thermal expansion of the plasma and a further reduction in the local plasma concentration.

  2. Aminoguanidine treatment ameliorates inflammatory responses and memory impairment induced by amyloid-beta 25-35 injection in rats.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Alfonso; Rojas, Karla; Espinosa, Blanca; Chávez, Raúl; Zenteno, Edgar; Limón, Daniel; Guevara, Jorge

    2014-06-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by accumulation of the amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) in neuritic plaques. Its neurotoxic mechanisms are associated with inflammatory responses and nitrosative stress generation that promote expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and increased nitric oxide causing neuronal death and memory impairment. Studies suggest that treatment with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agents decreases the risk of developing AD. Aminoguanidine (AG) is an iNOS inhibitor with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects of systemic administration of AG (100 mg/kg/day for 4 days) on spatial memory and inflammatory responses induced by an injection of Aβ(25-35) [100 μM] into the temporal cortex (TCx) of rats. A significant improvement of spatial memory was evident in the Aβ(25-35)-treated group at day 30 post-injection subjected to AG treatment; this effect was correlated with decreases in reactive gliosis, IL-1β, TNF-α, and nitrite levels, as well as a reduction in neurodegeneration in the TCx and hippocampus (Hp). These results suggest that AG treatment inhibited glia activation and cytokine release, which may help to counteract neurodegenerative events induced by the toxicity of Aβ.

  3. Prediction of the Elastic-Plastic Stress/Strain Response for Injection-Molded Long-Fiber Thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Bapanapalli, Satish K.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Phelps, Jay; Tucker III, Charles L.

    2009-01-26

    This paper proposes a model to predict the elastic-plastic response of injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs). The model accounts for elastic fibers embedded in a thermoplastic resin that exhibits the elastic-plastic behavior obeying the Ramberg-Osgood relation and J-2 deformation theory of plasticity. It also accounts for fiber length and orientation distributions in the composite formed by the injection-molding process. Fiber orientation was predicted using the anisotropic rotary diffusion model recently developed by Phelps and Tucker for LFTs. An incremental procedure using the Eshelby’s equivalent inclusion method and the Mori-Tanaka model is proposed to compute the overall stress increment resulting from an overall strain increment for an aligned fiber composite that contains the same fiber volume fraction and length distribution as the actual composite. The incremental response of the later is then obtained from the solution for the aligned fiber composite that is averaged over all possible fiber orientations using the orientation averaging method. Failure during incremental loading is predicted using the Van Hattum-Bernado model. The elastic-plastic and strength prediction model for LFTs was validated against the experimental stress-strain results obtained for long glass fiber/polypropylene specimens.

  4. INJECTION ACCELERATION AND EXTRACTION OF HIGH INTENSITY PROTON BEAM FOR THE NEUTRINO FACILITY PROJECT AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas, N; Barton, D; Ganetis, G; Jain, A; Lee, Y; Marneris, I; Meng, W; Raparia, D; Roser, T; Ruggiero, A; Tuozzolo, J; Wanderer, P; Weng, W

    2003-05-12

    The proposed ''neutrino-production'' project [1.2] to be built at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) requires that the neutrino-production target be bombarded by a high intensity proton beam-pulse of {approx} 90 x 10{sup 12} protons of 28 GeV in energy and at a rate of 2.5 Hz, resulting in a 1 MW power of proton beam deposited on the target for the production of the neutrinos. In this paper we investigate the possibility of producing this high intensity proton beam, using as the main accelerator the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The following aspects of the project are reported in this paper: (a) The beam injection into the AGS synchrotron of 1.2 GeV H{sup -} beam produced by a super-conducting LINAC[3]; (b) The effect of the eddy currents induced on the vacuum chamber of the circulating beam during the ''ramping'' of the main magnets of the AGS; (c) The method of the beam extraction from the AGS and the optics of the 28 GeV beam extracted from the AGS.

  5. Thermo-responsive chitosan-graft-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) injectable hydrogel for cultivation of chondrocytes and meniscus cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jyh-Ping; Cheng, Tai-Hong

    2006-12-08

    A thermo-responsive comb-like polymer with chitosan as the backbone and pendant poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) groups has been synthesized by grafting PNIPAM-COOH with a single carboxy end group onto chitosan through amide bond linkages. The copolymer exhibits reversible temperature-responsive soluble-insoluble characteristics with the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) being at around 30 degrees C. Results from SEM observations confirm a porous 3D hydrogel structure with interconnected pores ranging from 10 to 40 microm at physiological temperature. A preliminary in vitro cell culture study has demonstrated the usefulness of this hydrogel as an injectable cell-carrier material for entrapping chondrocytes and meniscus cells. The hydrogel not only preserves the viability and phenotypic morphology of the entrapped cells but also stimulates the initial cell-cell interactions.

  6. Diminished acute phase response and increased hepatic inflammation of aged rats in response to intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Christian R; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Pérez, Claudio; Leiva-Salcedo, Elías; Riquelme, Denise M; Ordenes, Gamaliel; Oshima, Kiyoko; Aravena, Mauricio; Pérez, Viviana I; Nishimura, Sumiyo; Sabaj, Valeria; Walter, Robin; Sierra, Felipe

    2008-12-01

    Aging is associated with a deterioration of the acute phase response to inflammatory challenges. However, the nature of these defects remains poorly defined. We analyzed the hepatic inflammatory response after intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) given to Fisher 344 rats aged 6, 15, and 22-23 months. Induction of the acute phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, and T-kininogen was reduced and/or retarded with aging. Initial induction of interleukin-6 in aged rats was normal, but the later response was increased relative to younger counterparts. An exacerbated hepatic injury was observed in aged rats receiving LPS, as evidenced by the presence of multiple microabscesses in portal tracts, confluent necrosis, higher neutrophil accumulation, and elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, relative to younger animals. Our results suggest that aged rats displayed a reduced expression of APPs and increased hepatic injury in response to the inflammatory insult.

  7. Evaluation of a direct injection nebulizer interface for flow injection analysis and high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, K.E.

    1986-06-01

    A direct injection nebulizer (DIN) was designed, developed, and evaluated to determine its potential utilization as an effective interface for flow injection analysis (FIA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection. The analytical figures of merit for the DIN when used as an interface for FIA-ICP-AES were found to be comparable to or better than those obtained with conventional pneumatic nebulization in terms of limits of detection (LODs), reproducibility, linearity, and interelement effects. Stable plasma operation was maintained for the DIN sample introduction of a variety of pure organic solvents, including acetonitrile, methanol, methylisobutylketone, and pyridine. The HPLC-DIN-ICP-AES facility was specifically applied for the speciation of inorganic and organometallic species contained in synthetic mixtures, vanilla extracts, and a variety of energy-related materials, such as shale oil process water, coal extracts, shale oil, crude oil, and an SRC II. Suggestions for future research are also considered. 227 refs., 44 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Comprehensive growth performance, immune function, plasma biochemistry, gene expressions and cell death morphology responses to a daily corticosterone injection course in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Atta, Abdel-Rahman M. M.; Mashaly, Magdi M.; Abass, Ahmed O.

    2017-01-01

    The massive meat production of broiler chickens make them continuously exposed to potential stressors that stimulate releasing of stress-related hormones like corticosterone (CORT) which is responsible for specific pathways in biological mechanisms and physiological activities. Therefore, this research was conducted to evaluate a wide range of responses related to broiler performance, immune function, plasma biochemistry, related gene expressions and cell death morphology during and after a 7-day course of CORT injection. A total number of 200 one-day-old commercial Cobb broiler chicks were used in this study. From 21 to 28 d of age, broilers were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups with 5 replicates of 20 birds each; the first group received a daily intramuscular injection of 5 mg/kg BW corticosterone dissolved in 0.5 ml ethanol:saline solution (CORT group), while the second group received a daily intramuscular injection of 0.5 ml ethanol:saline only (CONT group). Growth performance, including body weight (BW), daily weight gain (DG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FC), were calculated at 0, 3 and 7 d after the start of the CORT injections. At the same times, blood samples were collected in each group for hematological (TWBC’s and H/L ratio), T- and B-lymphocytes proliferation and plasma biochemical assays (total protein, TP; free triiodothyronine hormone, fT3; aspartate amino transaminase, AST; and alanine amino transaminase, ALT). The liver, thymus, bursa of Fabricius and spleen were dissected and weighed, and the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 gene (IGF-1) in liver and cell-death-program gene (caspase-9) in bursa were analyzed for each group and time; while the apoptotic/necrotic cells were morphologically detected in the spleen. From 28 to 35 d of age, broilers were kept for recovery period without CORT injection and the same sampling and parameters were repeated at the end (at 14 d after initiation of the CORT injection). In

  9. The effect of experimental epilepsy induced by injection of tetanus toxin into the amygdala of the rat on eating behaviour and response to novelty.

    PubMed

    Mellanby, J; Oliva, M; Peniket, A; Nicholls, B

    1999-04-01

    A minute dose of tetanus toxin injected into the amygdala of rats produced an apparently reversible epileptiform syndrome similar to that previously described after injection of the toxin into the hippocampus. During the active epilepsy the toxin-injected rats occasionally exhibited 'paroxysmal eating' and also sometimes ran round in circles attempting to bite their own tails. When presented with a novel but palatable food (chocolate buttons or harvest crunch) the toxin-injected rats showed less neophobia than their controls--they ate sooner and ate more. This was found both during the active epilepsy and several weeks later when they had recovered. A similar effect of amygdala injections was found in a second experiment, in which the effect was compared with that of toxin injection in the hippocampus. These rats were tested also on the playground maze on their approach response to a neutral novel object (in a familiar environment in the context of seven familiar objects). The amygdala rats did not show any increase in their novelty response; thus their reduction in neophobia was specific to an appetitive behaviour. In contrast, the hippocampally-injected rats did not exhibit a novelty response in the playground maze, but showed normal neophobia to a new food.

  10. Characteristics of heat exchange in the region of injection into a supersonic high-temperature flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakirov, F. G.; Shaykhutdinov, Z. G.

    1985-04-01

    An experimental investigation of the local heat transfer coefficient distribution during gas injection into the supersonic-flow portion of a Laval nozzle is discussed. The controlling dimensionless parameters of the investigated process are presented in terms of a generalized relation for the maximum value of the heat transfer coefficient in the nozzle cross section behind the injection hole. Data on the heat transfer coefficient variation along the nozzle length as a function of gas injection rate are also presented, along with the heat transfer coefficient distribution over a cross section of the nozzle.

  11. Stability Analysis of High-Speed Boundary-Layer Flow with Gas Injection (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    to improve the injector performance • Shaping of injector – Conical shapes – Cylindrical shape • Suction-blowing of zero mass injection • Conclusions...16Distribution A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Injector of conical shape 5-deg half-angle sharp cone with the injector having the slope...pressure for conical injectors (injection rate 13.5 g/s) =1 =3 Baseline (=0) Injection region 18Distribution A: Approved for Public Release

  12. Global Evolution of the Earth's Magnetosphere in Response to a Sudden Ring Current Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    No, Jincheol; Choe, Gwangson; Park, Geunseok

    2014-05-01

    The dynamical evolution of the Earth's magnetosphere loaded with a transiently enhanced ring current is investigated by global magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Two cases with different values of the primitive ring current are considered. In one case, the initial ring current is strong enough to create a magnetic island in the magnetosphere. The magnetic island readily reconnects with the earth-connected ambient field and is destroyed as the system approaches a steady equilibrium. In the other case, the initial ring current is not so strong, and the initial magnetic field configuration bears no magnetic island, but features a wake of bent field lines, which is smoothed out through the relaxing evolution of the magnetosphere. The relaxation time of the magnetosphere is found to be about five to six minutes, over which the ring current is reduced to about a quarter of its initial value. Before reaching a steady state, the magnetosphere is found to undergo an overshooting expansion and a subsequent contraction. Fast and slow magnetosonic waves are identified to play an important role in the relaxation toward equilibrium. Our study suggests that a sudden injection of the ring current can generate an appreciable global pulsation of the magnetosphere.

  13. Reduction of edge localized mode intensity on DIII-D by on-demand triggering with high frequency pellet injection and implications for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, L. R.; Commaux, N.; Jernigan, T. C.; Meitner, S. J.; Combs, S. K.; Isler, R. C.; Unterberg, E. A.; Brooks, N. H.; Evans, T. E.; Leonard, A. W.; Osborne, T. H.; Parks, P. B.; Snyder, P. B.; Strait, E. J.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Moyer, R. A.; Loarte, A.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Futatani, S.

    2013-08-15

    The injection of small deuterium pellets at high repetition rates up to 12× the natural edge localized mode (ELM) frequency has been used to trigger high-frequency ELMs in otherwise low natural ELM frequency H-mode deuterium discharges in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon and L. G. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)]. The resulting pellet-triggered ELMs result in up to 12× lower energy and particle fluxes to the divertor than the natural ELMs. The plasma global energy confinement and density are not strongly affected by the pellet perturbations. The plasma core impurity density is strongly reduced with the application of the pellets. These experiments were performed with pellets injected from the low field side pellet in plasmas designed to match the ITER baseline configuration in shape and normalized β operation with input heating power just above the H-mode power threshold. Nonlinear MHD simulations of the injected pellets show that destabilization of ballooning modes by a local pressure perturbation is responsible for the pellet ELM triggering. This strongly reduced ELM intensity shows promise for exploitation in ITER to control ELM size while maintaining high plasma purity and performance.

  14. Reduction of Edge Localized Mode Intensity on DIII-D by On-demand triggering with High Frequency Pellet Injection and Implications for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, Larry R; Commaux, Nicolas JC; Jernigan, T. C.; Meitner, Steven J; Combs, Stephen Kirk; Isler, Ralph C; Unterberg, Ezekial A; Brooks, N. H.; Evans, T. E.; Leonard, A. W.; Osborne, T. H.; Parks, P. B.; Snyder, P. B.; Strait, E. J.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Moyer, R. A.; Loarte, A.; Huijsmans, G. T.A.; Futantani, S.

    2013-01-01

    The injection of small deuterium pellets at high repetition rates up to 12 the natural edge localized mode (ELM) frequency has been used to trigger high-frequency ELMs in otherwise low natural ELM frequency H-mode deuterium discharges in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon and L. G. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)]. The resulting pellet-triggered ELMs result in up to 12 lower energy and particle fluxes to the divertor than the natural ELMs. The plasma global energy confinement and density are not strongly affected by the pellet perturbations. The plasma core impurity density is strongly reduced with the application of the pellets. These experiments were performed with pellets injected from the low field side pellet in plasmas designed to match the ITER baseline configuration in shape and normalized operation with input heating power just above the H-mode power threshold. Nonlinear MHD simulations of the injected pellets show that destabilization of ballooning modes by a local pressure perturbation is responsible for the pellet ELM triggering. This strongly reduced ELM intensity shows promise for exploitation in ITER to control ELM size while maintaining high plasma purity and performance.

  15. High volume image-guided Injections for patellar tendinopathy: a combined retrospective and prospective case series

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Sarah; Chan, Otto; King, John; Perry, David; Crisp, Tom; Maffulli, Nicola; Morrissey, Dylan

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: the aim was to quantify the effect of a novel high volume-image guided injection (HVIGI) technique for recalcitrant patellar tendinopathy (PT). Methods: twenty patients (8 prospective; 12 retrospective) with ultrasonographically confirmed proximal PT were recruited. A HVIGI under ultra-sound guidance of 10 ml 0.5% Bupivacaine, 25 mg Hydrocortisone and 30 ml normal saline at the interface of the patellar tendon and Hoffa’s fat pad was administered. A standardised eccentric loading rehabilitation protocol was prescribed. Results: the VISA-P score improved from 45.0 to 64.0 (p<0.01) for all subjects, likely to be clinically significant. There was no statistically significant difference between the increase in the retrospective group of 19.9 (± 23.5) and the prospective of 16.4 (± 11.3) p = 0.7262.5% of prospective subjects agreed that they had significantly improved, with 37.5% returning to sport within 12 weeks. Conclusions: HVIGI should be considered in the management of recalcitrant PT. Randomised controlled trials are warranted. PMID:25332938

  16. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2003-03-31

    This report outlines progress in the second quarter of the third year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. This report presents results of an investigation of the effects of variation in interfacial tension (IFT) on three-phase relative permeability. We report experimental results that demonstrate the effect of low IFT between two of three phases on the three-phase relative permeabilities. In order to create three-phase systems, in which IFT can be controlled systematically, we employed analog liquids composing of hexadecane, n-butanol, isopropanol, and water. Phase composition, phase density and viscosity, and IFT of three-phase system were measured and are reported here. We present three-phase relative permeabilities determined from recovery and pressure drop data using the Johnson-Bossler-Naumann (JBN) method. The phase saturations were obtained from recovery data by the Welge method. The experimental results indicate that the wetting phase relative permeability was not affected by IFT variation whereas the other two-phase relative permeabilities were clearly affected. As IFT decreases the ''oil'' and ''gas'' phases become more mobile at the same phase saturations.

  17. Risk-based inspection priorities for PWR high-pressure injection system components

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, T.V.; Simonen, F.A.; Phan, H.K. )

    1993-01-01

    Under U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsorship, Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a risk-based method that can be used to establish in-service inspection priorities for nuclear power plant components. The overall goal of this effort was to develop technical bases for improvements of inspection plans and to provide recommendations for revisions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. XI. The developed method used results of probabilistic risk assessment in combination with the failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) technique to establish in-service inspection priorities for systems and components. The Surry nuclear power station, unit 1 (Surry-1) was selected for study. Inspection priorities for several pressure boundary systems at Surry-1 were determined in the early phase of the project. To complete the study, the remaining safety systems, plus balance of plant, have been analyzed; one of these is the high-pressure injection (HPI) system. This paper presents the results of inspection priorities for the HPI system.

  18. Designing, Packaging, and Delivery of High Titer CRISPR Retro and Lentiviruses via Stereotaxic Injection

    PubMed Central

    Fricano-Kugler, Catherine J.; Williams, Michael R.; Salinaro, Julia R.; Li, Meijie; Luikart, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Replication defective lentiviruses or retroviruses are capable of stably integrating transgenes into the genome of an infected host cell. This technique has been widely used to encode fluorescent proteins, opto- or chemo-genetic controllers of cell activity, or heterologous expression of human genes in model organisms. These viruses have also successfully been used to deliver recombinases to relevant target sites in transgenic animals, or even deliver small hairpin or micro RNAs in order to manipulate gene expression. While these techniques have been fruitful, they rely on transgenic animals (recombinases) or frequently lack high efficacy and specificity (shRNA/miRNA). In contrast, the CRISPR/Cas system uses an exogenous Cas nuclease which targets specific sites in an organism's genome via an exogenous guide RNA in order to induce double stranded breaks in DNA. These breaks are then repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), producing insertion and deletion (indel) mutations that can result in deleterious missense or nonsense mutations. This manuscript provides detailed methods for the design, production, injection, and validation of single lenti/retro virus particles that can stably transduce neurons to express a fluorescent reporter, Cas9, and sgRNAs to knockout genes in a model organism. PMID:27285851

  19. HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

    2003-12-10

    The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration will being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the U.S.

  20. Development of a Kingdon ion trap system for trapping externally injected highly charged ions.

    PubMed

    Numadate, Naoki; Okada, Kunihiro; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Tanuma, Hajime

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a Kingdon ion trap system for the purpose of the laboratory observation of the x-ray forbidden transitions of highly charged ions (HCIs). Externally injected Ar(q+) (q = 5-7) with kinetic energies of 6q keV were successfully trapped in the ion trap. The energy distribution of trapped ions is discussed in detail on the basis of numerical simulations. The combination of the Kingdon ion trap and the time-of-flight mass spectrometer enabled us to measure precise trapping lifetimes of HCIs. As a performance test of the instrument, we measured trapping lifetimes of Ar(q+) (q = 5-7) under a constant number density of H2 and determined the charge-transfer cross sections of Ar(q+)(q = 5, 6)-H2 collision systems at binary collision energies of a few eV. It was confirmed that the present cross section data are consistent with previous data and the values estimated by some scaling formula.

  1. Highly efficient, solution processed electrofluorescent small molecule white organic light-emitting diodes with a hybrid electron injection layer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhixiong; Zhong, Zhiming; Xue, Shanfeng; Zhou, Yan; Meng, Yanhong; Hu, Zhanhao; Ai, Na; Wang, Jianbin; Wang, Lei; Peng, Junbiao; Ma, Yuguang; Pei, Jian; Wang, Jian; Cao, Yong

    2014-06-11

    Highly efficient, solution-processed, and all fluorescent white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) based on fluorescent small molecules have been achieved by incorporating a low-conductivity hole injection layer and an inorganic-organic hybrid electron injection layer. The light-emission layer is created by doping a fluorescent π-conjugated blue dendrimer host (the zeroth generation dendrimer, G0) with a yellow-emitting fluorescent dopant oligo(paraphenylenevinylene) derivative CN-DPASDB with a doping ratio of 100:0.15 (G0:CN-DPASDB) by weight. To suppress excessive holes, the high-conductivity hole injection layer (PEDOT:PSS AI 4083) is replaced by the low-conductivity PEDOT:PSS CH 8000. To facilitate the electron injection, a hybrid electron injection layer is introduced by doping a methanol/water-soluble conjugated polymer poly[(9,9-bis(30-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] (PFNR2) with solution-processed cesium fluoride (CsF). The device achieves a maximum luminous efficiency of 17.0 cd A(-1) and a peak power efficiency of 15.6 lm W(-1) at (0.32, 0.37) with a color rendering index of 64.

  2. Premorbid functioning and treatment response in recent-onset schizophrenia: prospective study with risperidone long-acting injectable.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Napryeyenko, Oleksandr; Burba, Benjaminas; Martinez, Guadalupe; Neznanov, Nikolay G; Fischel, Tsvi; Baylé, Franck J; Cavallaro, Roberto; Smeraldi, Enrico; Schreiner, Andreas

    2011-02-01

    Premorbid functioning may be associated with treatment response, but this is confounded by a lack of prospective longitudinal data and controls for medication compliance. This study tested the hypothesis that good premorbid functioning will be associated with better antipsychotic treatment response after controlling for drug adherence by using a long-acting injectable antipsychotic. This was a 6-month, open label, multicenter, phase IV trial in recent-onset schizophrenia treated with flexible doses of risperidone long-acting injectable (25-50 mg every 14 days). Premorbid functioning was assessed with the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS)-Structured Interview; efficacy was evaluated with clinician-rated Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression scale of Severity of Illness, Clinical Global Impression scale of Change, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, and trial participant completed SF-36. Analyses controlled for baseline scores and demographics. With the use of a priori PAS scoring criteria, the participants' premorbid functioning was categorized as stable-good (n = 142), stable-poor (n = 116), and deteriorating (n = 36). At baseline, the stable-good group had the best functioning on most efficacy measures. All groups showed significant improvement on efficacy measures with treatment. Improvement was significantly higher for the stable-good group. The PAS global assessment of highest level of functioning scale (excellent, n = 75; good, n = 117; fair, n = 78; and poor, n = 31) showed a strong association with baseline functioning and improvement and had a significant linear association with meeting Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group symptom criteria at baseline (P = 0.003) and attained and sustained remission for 3 months during study (47.7%, 49.3%, 29.6%, and 22.2%; P = 0.006). Good premorbid functioning corresponds with better treatment response in recent-onset psychosis as captured on both clinician and patient-reported measures.

  3. Memory consolidation and reconsolidation of an inhibitory avoidance response in mice: effects of i.c.v. injections of hemicholinium-3.

    PubMed

    Boccia, M M; Acosta, G B; Blake, M G; Baratti, C M

    2004-01-01

    The immediate post-training i.c.v. administration of hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) (1 microg), a specific inhibitor of the high-affinity choline uptake (HACU) in brain cholinergic neurons, impaired retention test performance of a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance response in adult male CF-1 mice. The effect was observed in mice that received a footshock (0.8 mA, 50 Hz, 1 s) on the learning trial, and not only 48 h after training, but also 7 days after it. After the completion of the retention test at each of the training-test interval that were studied, the HACU in the hippocampus of HC-3-treated mice was not significantly different from that of saline-injected (1 microl) control groups. Mice that were over-reinforced (1.2 mA, 50 Hz, 1 s) on the learning trial, exhibited a high retention performance 48 h after training. The immediate i.c.v. injection of HC-3 (1 microg) after the retention test, that is, after memory reactivation, significantly impaired retention performance over 4 consecutive days, whereas the saline-injected control group shown a slight, but significant performance decrease only at the last retention test. Retention performance was unchanged in HC-3-treated mice not undergoing memory reactivation session. These results, taken together, indicate that HC-3, not only impaired consolidation, but also reconsolidation of an inhibitory avoidance task in mice, suggesting a critical participation of central cholinergic mechanisms in both memory processes.

  4. Advanced Production Surface Preparation Technology Development for Ultra-High Pressure Diesel Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, Marion B.

    2012-04-30

    In 2007, An Ultra High Injection Pressure (UHIP) fueling method has been demonstrated by Caterpillar Fuel Systems - Product Development, demonstrating ability to deliver U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 4 Final diesel engine emission performance with greatly reduced emissions handling components on the engine, such as without NOx reduction after-treatment and with only a through-flow 50% effective diesel particulate trap (DPT). They have shown this capability using multiple multi-cylinder engine tests of an Ultra High Pressure Common Rail (UHPCR) fuel system with higher than traditional levels of CEGR and an advanced injector nozzle design. The system delivered better atomization of the fuel, for more complete burn, to greatly reduce diesel particulates, while CEGR or high efficiency NOx reduction after-treatment handles the NOx. With the reduced back pressure of a traditional DPT, and with the more complete fuel burn, the system reduced levels of fuel consumption by 2.4% for similar delivery of torque and horsepower over the best Tier 4 Interim levels of fuel consumption in the diesel power industry. The challenge is to manufacture the components in high-volume production that can withstand the required higher pressure injection. Production processes must be developed to increase the toughness of the injector steel to withstand the UHIP pulsations and generate near perfect form and finish in the sub-millimeter size geometries within the injector. This project resulted in two developments in 2011. The first development was a process and a machine specification by which a high target of compressive residual stress (CRS) can be consistently imparted to key surfaces of the fuel system to increase the toughness of the steel, and a demonstration of the feasibility of further refinement of the process for use in volume production. The second development was the demonstration of the feasibility of a process for imparting near perfect, durable geometry to

  5. High Resolution RANS NLH Study of Stage 67 Tip Injection Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Matheson, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Numerical prediction of the Stage 67 transonic fan stage employing wall jet tip injection flow control and study of the physical mechanisms leading to stall suppression and stability enhancement afforded by endwall recirculation/injection is the focus of this paper. Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes computations were used to perform detailed analysis of the Stage 67 configuration experimentally tested at NASA s Glenn Research Center in 2004. Time varying prediction of the stage plus recirculation and injection flowpath were performed utilizing the Nonlinear Harmonic approach. Significantly higher grid resolution per passage was achieved than what has been generally employed in prior reported numerical studies of spike stall phenomena in transonic compressors. This paper focuses on characterizing the physics of spike stall embryonic stage phenomena and the impact of tip injection, resulting in experimentally and numerically demonstrated stall suppression

  6. High-throughput chemical residue analysis by fast extraction and dilution flow injection mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nanita, Sergio C

    2011-01-21

    Fast extraction and dilution flow injection mass spectrometry (FED-FI-MS) is presented as a technique to increase throughput in quantitative multiresidue screening in complex matrices, while meeting current analytical method quality requirements.

  7. Lithium wall conditioning by high frequency pellet injection in RFX-mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innocente, P.; Mansfield, D. K.; Roquemore, A. L.; Agostini, M.; Barison, S.; Canton, A.; Carraro, L.; Cavazzana, R.; De Masi, G.; Fassina, A.; Fiameni, S.; Grando, L.; Rais, B.; Rossetto, F.; Scarin, P.

    2015-08-01

    In the RFX-mod reversed field pinch experiment, lithium wall conditioning has been tested with multiple scopes: to improve density control, to reduce impurities and to increase energy and particle confinement time. Large single lithium pellet injection, lithium capillary-pore system and lithium evaporation has been used for lithiumization. The last two methods, which presently provide the best results in tokamak devices, have limited applicability in the RFX-mod device due to the magnetic field characteristics and geometrical constraints. On the other side, the first mentioned technique did not allow injecting large amount of lithium. To improve the deposition, recently in RFX-mod small lithium multi-pellets injection has been tested. In this paper we compare lithium multi-pellets injection to the other techniques. Multi-pellets gave more uniform Li deposition than evaporator, but provided similar effects on plasma parameters, showing that further optimizations are required.

  8. Effect of Adjuvants on Response to Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Injected Intraperitoneally. Platelet-Derived Immunoregulatory Activity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    forming cell (PFC) response in the spleen is observed [ Katz et al., J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 72:125, 1984]. This suppression has been interpFeteas due to the...University Dr. Phyllis R. Struass Department of Biology Dr. Hillel B. Levine Northeastern University Naval Biosciences Laboratory 360 Huntington Avenue

  9. Ileal MUC2 gene expression and microbial population, but not growth performance and immune response, are influenced by in ovo injection of probiotics in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Majidi-Mosleh, A; Sadeghi, A A; Mousavi, S N; Chamani, M; Zarei, A

    2017-02-01

    1. The objective of present study was to evaluate the effects of intra-amniotic injection of different probiotic strains (Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium and Pediococcus acidilactici) on the intestinal MUC2 gene expression, microbial population, growth performance and immune response in broiler chicken. 2. In a completely randomised design, different probiotic strains were injected into the amniotic fluid of the 480 live embryos (d 18 of incubation), with 4 treatments and 5 replicates. Ileal MUC2 gene expression, microbial profile, growth performance and immune response were determined. 3. Injection of probiotic strains, especially B. subtilis, had significant effect on expression of the MUC2 on d 21 of incubation and d 3 post-hatch, but not on d 19 of incubation. 4. Injection of the probiotic strains decreased significantly the Escherichia coli population and increased the lactic acid bacteria population during the first week post-hatch. 5. Inoculation of probiotics had no significant effect on antibody titres against Newcastle disease virus, antibody titres against sheep red blood cell and cell-mediated immune response of chickens compared to control. 6. In ovo injection of the probiotic strains had no significant effect on growth performance of broiler chickens. 7. It was concluded that injection of probiotic bacteria especially B. subtilis into the amniotic fluid has a beneficial effect on ileal MUC2 gene expression and bacteria population during the first week post-hatch, but has no effect on growth performance and immune response in broiler chickens.

  10. Injectable Citrate-Based Mussel-Inspired Tissue Bioadhesives With High Wet Strength for Sutureless Wound Closure

    PubMed Central

    Mehdizadeh, M. Reza; Weng, Hong; Gyawali, Dipendra; Tang, Liping; Yang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The existing surgical adhesives are not ideal for wet tissue adhesion required in many surgeries such as those for internal organs. Developing surgical adhesives with strong wet tissue adhesion, controlled degradability and mechanical properties, and excellent biocompatibility has been a significant challenge. Herein, learning from nature, we report a one-step synthesis of a family of injectable citrate-based mussel-inspired bioadhesives (iCMBAs) for surgical use. Within the formulations investigated, iCMBAs showed 2.5–8.0 folds stronger wet tissue adhesion strength over the clinically used fibrin glue, demonstrated controlled degradability and tissue-like elastomeric mechanical properties, and exhibited excellent cyto/tissue-compatibility both in vitro and in vivo. iCMBAs were able to stop bleeding instantly and suturelessly, and close wounds (2 cm long × 0.5 cm deep) created on the back of Sprague-Dawley rats, which is impossible when using existing gold standard, fibrin glue, due to its weak wet tissue adhesion strength. Equally important, the new bioadhesives facilitate wound healing, and are completely degraded and absorbed without eliciting significant inflammatory response. Our results support that iCMBA technology is highly translational and could have broad impact on surgeries where surgical tissue adhesives, sealants, and hemostatic agents are used. PMID:22902057

  11. Generation of high quality electron beams via ionization injection in a plasma wakefield accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vafaei-Najafabadi, Navid; Joshi, Chan; E217 SLAC Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    Ionization injection in a beam driven plasma wakefield accelerator has been used to generate electron beams with over 30 GeV of energy in a 130 cm of lithium plasma. The experiments were performed using the 3 nC, 20.35 GeV electron beam at the FACET facility of the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory as the driver of the wakefield. The ionization of helium atoms in the up ramp of a lithium plasma were injected into the wake and over the length of acceleration maintained an emittance on the order of 30 mm-mrad, which was an order of magnitude smaller than the drive beam, albeit with an energy spread of 10-20%. The process of ionization injection occurs due to an increase in the electric field of the drive beam as it pinches through its betatron oscillations. Thus, this energy spread is attributed to the injection region encompassing multiple betatron oscillations. In this poster, we will present evidence through OSIRIS simulations of producing an injected beam with percent level energy spread and low emittance by designing the plasma parameters appropriately, such that the ionization injection occurs over a very limited distance of one betatron cycle. Work at UCLA was supported by the NSF Grant Number PHY-1415386 and DOE Grant Number DE-SC0010064. Work at SLAC was supported by DOE contract number DE-AC02-76SF00515. Simulations used the Hoffman cluster at UCLA.

  12. High-pressure injection of dissolved oxygen for hydrocarbon remediation in a fractured dolostone aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, K. D.; Molson, J. W.; Barker, J. F.; Thomson, N. R.; Donaldson, C. R.

    2010-10-01

    A field experiment was completed at a fractured dolomite aquifer in southwestern Ontario, Canada, to assess the delivery of supersaturated dissolved oxygen (supersaturated with respect to ambient conditions) for enhanced bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater. The injection lasted for 1.5 h using iTi's gPro® oxygen injection technology at pressures of up to 450 kPa and at concentrations of up to 34 mg O 2/L. A three-dimensional numerical model for advective-dispersive transport of dissolved oxygen within a discretely-fractured porous medium was calibrated to the observed field conditions under a conservative (no-consumption) scenario. The simulation demonstrated that oxygen rapidly filled the local intersecting fractures as well as the porous matrix surrounding the injection well. Following injection, the local fractures were rapidly flushed by the natural groundwater flow system but slow back-diffusion ensured a relatively longer residence time in the matrix. A sensitivity analysis showed significant changes in behaviour with varying fracture apertures and hydraulic gradients. Applying the calibrated model to a 7-day continuous injection scenario showed oxygen residence times (at the 3 mg/L limit), within a radius of 2-4 m from the injection well, of up to 100 days. This study has demonstrated that supersaturated dissolved oxygen can be effectively delivered to this type of a fractured and porous bedrock system at concentrations and residence times potentially sufficient for enhanced aerobic biodegradation.

  13. High-throughput pesticide residue quantitative analysis achieved by tandem mass spectrometry with automated flow injection.

    PubMed

    Nanita, Sergio C; Pentz, Anne M; Bramble, Frederick Q

    2009-04-15

    The use of automated flow injection with MS/MS detection for fast quantitation of agrochemicals in food and water samples was demonstrated in this study. Active ingredients from the sulfonylurea herbicide and carbamate insecticide classes were selected as model systems. Samples were prepared using typical procedures from residue methods, placed in an autosampler, and injected directly into a triple quadrupole instrument without chromatographic separation. The technique allows data acquisition in 15 s per injection, with samples being injected every 65 s, representing a significant improvement from the 15-30 min needed in typical HPLC/MS/MS methods. The availability of HPLC systems is an advantage since they can be used in flow-injection mode (bypassing the column compartment). Adequate accuracy, linearity, and precision (R(2) > 0.99 and RSD < 20%) were obtained using external standards prepared in each control matrix. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) achieved for all analytes was 0.01 mg/kg in food samples and 0.1 ng/mL in water; while limits of detection (LOD) were estimated to be about 0.003 mg/kg and 0.03 ng/mL in food and water, respectively. The advantages and limitations of flow injection MS/MS for ultratrace-level quantitative analysis in complex matrixes are discussed.

  14. High-pressure injection of dissolved oxygen for hydrocarbon remediation in a fractured dolostone aquifer.

    PubMed

    Greer, K D; Molson, J W; Barker, J F; Thomson, N R; Donaldson, C R

    2010-10-21

    A field experiment was completed at a fractured dolomite aquifer in southwestern Ontario, Canada, to assess the delivery of supersaturated dissolved oxygen (supersaturated with respect to ambient conditions) for enhanced bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater. The injection lasted for 1.5h using iTi's gPro® oxygen injection technology at pressures of up to 450 kPa and at concentrations of up to 34 mg O₂/L. A three-dimensional numerical model for advective-dispersive transport of dissolved oxygen within a discretely-fractured porous medium was calibrated to the observed field conditions under a conservative (no-consumption) scenario. The simulation demonstrated that oxygen rapidly filled the local intersecting fractures as well as the porous matrix surrounding the injection well. Following injection, the local fractures were rapidly flushed by the natural groundwater flow system but slow back-diffusion ensured a relatively longer residence time in the matrix. A sensitivity analysis showed significant changes in behaviour with varying fracture apertures and hydraulic gradients. Applying the calibrated model to a 7-day continuous injection scenario showed oxygen residence times (at the 3mg/L limit), within a radius of 2-4m from the injection well, of up to 100 days. This study has demonstrated that supersaturated dissolved oxygen can be effectively delivered to this type of a fractured and porous bedrock system at concentrations and residence times potentially sufficient for enhanced aerobic biodegradation.

  15. Direct injection isocratic high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of mitomycin C in plasma.

    PubMed

    Song, D; Au, J L

    1996-02-09

    A direct injection high-performance liquid chromatography method is described for the determination of mitomycin C (MMC) in human plasma. The stationary phase consisted of hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups covalently bound to silicone-coated silica beads (CAPCELL PAK MF Ph-1, 150x4.6 mm I.D., 5 microns). A mobile phase using 100% water gave a better separation of MMC from endogenous interferences as compared to a mobile phase with 12.5% acetonitrile and 2.5 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.9). Using water as the eluent (1 ml/min) and UV detection at 365 nm, MMC was found to elute at 5.0 min with a peak width of 0.3 min, whereas endogenous interferences eluted before 3 min. Total assay time per sample was 6 min. Internal standard was not required because the recovery of MMC was nearly complete, about 90% from 20 to 5000 ng/ml. The standard curve was linear from 20 to 5000 ng/ml in plasma, and the intra-and inter-day variation was between 3 to 6%. The lower detection limit was 5 ng/ml with a 25 microliters sample, which represents a two- to four-fold improvement over the 10 ng/ml detection limit by previous methods using liquid-liquid extraction and comparable sample size. The simplicity of this method, i.e., no sample extraction, no internal standard, 100% aqueous mobile phase, isocratic elution and short analysis time (6 min/sample), makes it suitable for large scale routine sample analysis, whereas its small sample volume requirement and high sensitivity are useful for pharmacokinetic studies in small animals where limited sample is available.

  16. Integration of High-Charge-Injection-Capacity Electrodes onto Polymer Softening Neural Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Arreaga-Salas, David E; Avendaño-Bolívar, Adrian; Simon, Dustin; Reit, Radu; Garcia-Sandoval, Aldo; Rennaker, Robert L; Voit, Walter

    2015-12-09

    Softening neural interfaces are implanted stiff to enable precise insertion, and they soften in physiological conditions to minimize modulus mismatch with tissue. In this work, a high-charge-injection-capacity iridium electrode fabrication process is detailed. For the first time, this process enables integration of iridium electrodes onto softening substrates using photolithography to define all features in the device. Importantly, no electroplated layers are utilized, leading to a highly scalable method for consistent device fabrication. The iridium electrode is metallically bonded to the gold conductor layer, which is covalently bonded to the softening substrate via sulfur-based click chemistry. The resulting shape-memory polymer neural interfaces can deliver more than 2 billion symmetric biphasic pulses (100 μs/phase), with a charge of 200 μC/cm(2) and geometric surface area (GSA) of 300 μm(2). A transfer-by-polymerization method is used in combination with standard semiconductor processing techniques to fabricate functional neural probes onto a thiol-ene-based, thin film substrate. Electrical stability is tested under simulated physiological conditions in an accelerated electrical aging paradigm with periodic measurement of electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and charge storage capacity (CSC) at various intervals. Electrochemical characterization and both optical and scanning electron microscopy suggest significant breakdown of the 600 nm-thick parylene-C insulation, although no delamination of the conductors or of the final electrode interface was observed. Minor cracking at the edges of the thin film iridium electrodes was occasionally observed. The resulting devices will provide electrical recording and stimulation of the nervous system to better understand neural wiring and timing, to target treatments for debilitating diseases, and to give neuroscientists spatially selective and specific tools to interact with the body. This approach has uses for

  17. Emerging flow injection mass spectrometry methods for high-throughput quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Nanita, Sergio C; Kaldon, Laura G

    2016-01-01

    Where does flow injection analysis mass spectrometry (FIA-MS) stand relative to ambient mass spectrometry (MS) and chromatography-MS? Improvements in FIA-MS methods have resulted in fast-expanding uses of this technique. Key advantages of FIA-MS over chromatography-MS are fast analysis (typical run time <60 s) and method simplicity, and FIA-MS offers high-throughput without compromising sensitivity, precision and accuracy as much as ambient MS techniques. Consequently, FIA-MS is increasingly becoming recognized as a suitable technique for applications where quantitative screening of chemicals needs to be performed rapidly and reliably. The FIA-MS methods discussed herein have demonstrated quantitation of diverse analytes, including pharmaceuticals, pesticides, environmental contaminants, and endogenous compounds, at levels ranging from parts-per-billion (ppb) to parts-per-million (ppm) in very complex matrices (such as blood, urine, and a variety of foods of plant and animal origin), allowing successful applications of the technique in clinical diagnostics, metabolomics, environmental sciences, toxicology, and detection of adulterated/counterfeited goods. The recent boom in applications of FIA-MS for high-throughput quantitative analysis has been driven in part by (1) the continuous improvements in sensitivity and selectivity of MS instrumentation, (2) the introduction of novel sample preparation procedures compatible with standalone mass spectrometric analysis such as salting out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) with volatile solutes and NH4(+) QuEChERS, and (3) the need to improve efficiency of laboratories to satisfy increasing analytical demand while lowering operational cost. The advantages and drawbacks of quantitative analysis by FIA-MS are discussed in comparison to chromatography-MS and ambient MS (e.g., DESI, LAESI, DART). Generally, FIA-MS sits 'in the middle' between ambient MS and chromatography-MS, offering a balance between analytical

  18. ANALYSIS OF LOW-LEVEL PESTICIDES FROM HIGH-ELEVATION LAKE WATERS BY LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GCMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the method development for the determination of ultra-low level pesticides from high-elevation lake waters by large-volume injection programmable temperature vaporizer (LVI-PTV) GC/MS. This analytical method is developed as a subtask of a larger study, backgr...

  19. Pegaptanib Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you have or have ever had diabetes, high blood pressure, a heart attack, or a stroke.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while using pegaptanib injection, ...

  20. Ramucirumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had high blood pressure, a wound that has not healed, or liver disease.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. Ramucirumab injection may harm your unborn baby. You ...

  1. Study of iron structure stability in high temperature molten lead-bismuth eutectic with oxygen injection using molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Arkundato, Artoto; Su'ud, Zaki; Sudarko; Shafii, Mohammad Ali; Celino, Massimo

    2014-09-30

    Corrosion of structural materials in high temperature molten lead-bismuth eutectic is a major problem for design of PbBi cooled reactor. One technique to inhibit corrosion process is to inject oxygen into coolant. In this paper we study and focus on a way of inhibiting the corrosion of iron using molecular dynamics method. For the simulation results we concluded that effective corrosion inhibition of iron may be achieved by injection 0.0532 wt% to 0.1156 wt% oxygen into liquid lead-bismuth. At this oxygen concentration the structure of iron material will be maintained at about 70% in bcc crystal structure during interaction with liquid metal.

  2. Interindividual variability of arterial impulse response to intravenous injection of nonionic contrast agent (Iohexol) in DCE-CT study

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S. M.; Haider, M. A.; Milosevic, M.; Yeung, I. W. T.

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: It is known that the arterial input function (AIF) in dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-CT differs among patients even for fixed contrast injection protocols. Therefore, a study has been performed to investigate the interindividual variability of the AIF with respect to patient factors (such as weight, height, and age). In addition, it has been demonstrated that the relations from the interindividual variability investigation can be further used for the estimation of AIF for a patient without the requirement of measurement. Methods: DCE-CT data for a cohort of 34 patients with cervical carcinoma were used for the investigation of interindividual variability of the AIF. To dissociate the effect of different durations of contrast injection, the arterial impulse response (AIR) to intravenous contrast injection was calculated and examined for its correlations with these patient factors. An empirical functional form was proposed to model the AIR with temporal intensity of a first pass of contrast agent followed by recirculation and quasiequilibrium state of contrast concentration. Specific features (onset time, peak time, and amplitudes) of the AIR were tested for correlations with the patient factors. Linear regression was applied to cases that show significant strong correlation between the AIR amplitudes and patient factors. The results were then used to predict the AIR for any given patient based on the patient factors. It was shown that using the predicted AIR, the AIF of the patient can be estimated without the requirement of measurement given the injection protocol is known. The method of AIF estimation was tested in DCE-CT data from another group of 14 patients. The efficacy of individually estimated AIF on pharmacokinetic analysis was assessed against the use of measured AIF and population-averaged AIF as the latter is another possible strategy for AIF generation if AIF measurement is not available. Results: It was found that the amplitudes of AIR

  3. MICROBIAL RESPONSES TO CHEMICAL OXIDATION, SIX-PHASE HEATING, AND STEAM INJECTION TREATMENT IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) is present at high concentrations in ground water at many sites where gasoline has been spilled from underground storage tanks. In addition, TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) is also present at high concentrations in many of the same ground waters. ...

  4. High-Reynolds-number turbulent-boundary-layer wall pressure fluctuations with skin-friction reduction by air injection.

    PubMed

    Winkel, Eric S; Elbing, Brian R; Ceccio, Steven L; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David R

    2008-05-01

    The hydrodynamic pressure fluctuations that occur on the solid surface beneath a turbulent boundary layer are a common source of flow noise. This paper reports multipoint surface pressure fluctuation measurements in water beneath a high-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary layer with wall injection of air to reduce skin-friction drag. The experiments were conducted in the U.S. Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9-m-long, 3.05-m-wide hydrodynamically smooth flat plate at freestream speeds up to 20 ms and downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers exceeding 200 x 10(6). Air was injected from one of two spanwise slots through flush-mounted porous stainless steel frits (approximately 40 microm mean pore diameter) at volume flow rates from 17.8 to 142.5 l/s per meter span. The two injectors were located 1.32 and 9.78 m from the model's leading edge and spanned the center 87% of the test model. Surface pressure measurements were made with 16 flush-mounted transducers in an "L-shaped" array located 10.7 m from the plate's leading edge. When compared to no-injection conditions, the observed wall-pressure variance was reduced by as much as 87% with air injection. In addition, air injection altered the inferred convection speed of pressure fluctuation sources and the streamwise coherence of pressure fluctuations.

  5. Ultra-high injection of natural gas to increase blast furnace production: A white paper. Topical report, November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Stevens, G.; Clark, R.K.

    1994-11-01

    Analysis of the possibility and the economic justification of improvements in blast furnace productivity through the use of natural gas injection at high rates are presented. The paper describes the effects of blast enrichment accompanied by natural gas fuel injection on the thermal profile and hydrodynamic parameters in a blast furnace. This technique promises significant increases in productivity with no loss of flexibility or operational stability. The hydrogen content of the supplemental fuel plays a key role in determining both the coke replacement rate and the extent to which the furnace thermal profile is altered. Obtaining the maximum benefits from blast enrichment and supplemental fuel injection will require the development of new techniques to set aim values. For a given production rate, efficient utilization of hydrogen in the blast furnace stack is more cost-effective than the reduction of iron ore by an external process to produce reduced iron feeds.

  6. High quality electron beam acceleration by ionization injection in laser wakefields with mid-infrared dual-color lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ming; Luo, Ji; Chen, Min; Mori, Warren B.; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Hidding, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    For the laser wakefield acceleration, suppression of beam energy spread while keeping sufficient charge is one of the key challenges. In order to achieve this, we propose bichromatic laser ionization injection with combined laser wavelengths of 2.4 μ m and 0.8 μ m for wakefield excitation and triggering electron injection via field ionization, respectively. A laser pulse at 2.4 μ m wavelength enables one to drive an intense acceleration structure with a relatively low laser power. To further reduce the requirement of laser power, we also propose to use carbon dioxide as the working gas medium, where carbon acts as the injection element. Our three dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that electron beams at the GeV energy level with both low energy spreads (around 1%) and high charges (several tens of picocoulomb) can be obtained by the use of this scheme with laser peak power totaling sub-100 TW.

  7. Plant Responses to High Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Vian, Alain; Davies, Eric; Gendraud, Michel; Bonnet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    High frequency nonionizing electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF) that are increasingly present in the environment constitute a genuine environmental stimulus able to evoke specific responses in plants that share many similarities with those observed after a stressful treatment. Plants constitute an outstanding model to study such interactions since their architecture (high surface area to volume ratio) optimizes their interaction with the environment. In the present review, after identifying the main exposure devices (transverse and gigahertz electromagnetic cells, wave guide, and mode stirred reverberating chamber) and general physics laws that govern EMF interactions with plants, we illustrate some of the observed responses after exposure to HF-EMF at the cellular, molecular, and whole plant scale. Indeed, numerous metabolic activities (reactive oxygen species metabolism, α- and β-amylase, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, chlorophyll content, terpene emission, etc.) are modified, gene expression altered (calmodulin, calcium-dependent protein kinase, and proteinase inhibitor), and growth reduced (stem elongation and dry weight) after low power (i.e., nonthermal) HF-EMF exposure. These changes occur not only in the tissues directly exposed but also systemically in distant tissues. While the long-term impact of these metabolic changes remains largely unknown, we propose to consider nonionizing HF-EMF radiation as a noninjurious, genuine environmental factor that readily evokes changes in plant metabolism. PMID:26981524

  8. The Determination of Several Spray Characteristics of a High-Speed Oil Engine Injection System with an Oscilloscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Chester W; Moore, Charles S

    1928-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the injection lag, duration of injection, and spray start and cut-off characteristics of a fuel injection system operated on an engine and injecting fuel into the atmosphere.

  9. High resolution 3D MRI of mouse mammary glands with intra-ductal injection of contrast media.

    PubMed

    Markiewicz, Erica; Fan, Xiaobing; Mustafi, Devkumar; Zamora, Marta; Roman, Brian B; Jansen, Sanaz A; Macleod, Kay; Conzen, Suzanne D; Karczmar, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use high resolution three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study mouse mammary gland ductal architecture based on intra-ductal injection of contrast agents. Female FVB/N mice age 12-20 weeks (n=12), were used in this study. A 34G, 45° tip Hamilton needle with a 25μL Hamilton syringe was inserted into the tip of the nipple. Approximately 20-25μL of a Gadodiamide/Trypan blue/saline solution was injected slowly over one minute into the nipple and duct. To prevent washout of contrast media from ducts due to perfusion, and maximize the conspicuity of ducts on MRI, mice were sacrificed one minute after injection. High resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired on a 9.4T Bruker scanner after sacrifice to eliminate motion artifacts and reduce contrast media leakage from ducts. Trypan blue staining was well distributed throughout the ductal tree. MRI showed the mammary gland ductal structure clearly. In spoiled gradient echo T1-weighted images, the signal-to-noise ratio of regions identified as enhancing mammary ducts following contrast injection was significantly higher than that of muscle (p<0.02) and significantly higher than that of contralateral mammary ducts that were not injected with contrast media (p<0.0001). The methods described here could be adapted for injection of specialized contrast agents to measure metabolism or target receptors in normal ducts and ducts with in situ cancers.

  10. Effects of in ovo injection with selenium on immune and antioxidant responses during experimental necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Lillehoj, H S; Jang, S I; Jeong, M S; Xu, S Z; Kim, J B; Park, H J; Kim, H R; Lillehoj, E P; Bravo, D M

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo injection of Se on modulating the immune system and antioxidant responses in broiler chickens with experimental necrotic enteritis. Broiler eggs were injected at 18 d of embryo age with either 100 μL of PBS alone or sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) in PBS, providing 0 (SS0), 10 (SS10), or 20 (SS20) μg of Se/egg. At 14 d posthatch, PBS-treated and uninfected chickens were kept as the control group, whereas the remaining chickens were orally infected with 1.0 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima (SS0, SS10, SS20). At 18 d posthatch, E. maxima-infected chickens were orally infected with 1.0 × 10(9) cfu of Clostridium perfringens. Infected control SS0 group showed significantly decreased BW compared with the uninfected control. However, SS20 group showed significantly increased BW compared with the infected control SS0 group, whereas the BW were similar among uninfected control and infected SS10 and SS20 groups. The SS10 group showed significantly lower intestinal lesions compared with the SS0 group, and oocyst production was decreased in both SS10 and SS20 groups. Serum malondialdehyde level and catalase activity were also decreased in both SS10 and SS20 groups, whereas the superoxide dismutase level was significantly lower in the SS10 group compared with the SS0 group. The SS20 group showed significantly higher levels of transcripts for IL-1β and IL-6 in intestine, and SS10 and SS20 groups had higher levels of transcripts for IL-8 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and decreased glutathione peroxidase 7 mRNA levels compared with the SS0 group. The SS10 and SS20 groups also showed increased serum antibody levels to C. perfringens α-toxin and NetB toxin compared with the SS0 group. These collective results suggest that the injection of Se into the amniotic cavity of developing eggs may be beneficial for enhancing immune and antioxidant responses in the hatched chickens exposed to the

  11. High-resolution quantitative metabolome analysis of urine by automated flow injection NMR.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Laeticia; Godejohann, Markus; Martin, François-Pierre J; Collino, Sebastiano; Bürkle, Alexander; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Bernhardt, Jürgen; Toussaint, Olivier; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Gonos, Efstathios S; Sikora, Ewa; Grune, Tilman; Breusing, Nicolle; Franceschi, Claudio; Hervonen, Antti; Spraul, Manfred; Moco, Sofia

    2013-06-18

    Metabolism is essential to understand human health. To characterize human metabolism, a high-resolution read-out of the metabolic status under various physiological conditions, either in health or disease, is needed. Metabolomics offers an unprecedented approach for generating system-specific biochemical definitions of a human phenotype through the capture of a variety of metabolites in a single measurement. The emergence of large cohorts in clinical studies increases the demand of technologies able to analyze a large number of measurements, in an automated fashion, in the most robust way. NMR is an established metabolomics tool for obtaining metabolic phenotypes. Here, we describe the analysis of NMR-based urinary profiles for metabolic studies, challenged to a large human study (3007 samples). This method includes the acquisition of nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy one-dimensional and J-resolved two-dimensional (J-Res-2D) (1)H NMR spectra obtained on a 600 MHz spectrometer, equipped with a 120 μL flow probe, coupled to a flow-injection analysis system, in full automation under the control of a sampler manager. Samples were acquired at a throughput of ~20 (or 40 when J-Res-2D is included) min/sample. The associated technical analysis error over the full series of analysis is 12%, which demonstrates the robustness of the method. With the aim to describe an overall metabolomics workflow, the quantification of 36 metabolites, mainly related to central carbon metabolism and gut microbial host cometabolism, was obtained, as well as multivariate data analysis of the full spectral profiles. The metabolic read-outs generated using our analytical workflow can therefore be considered for further pathway modeling and/or biological interpretation.

  12. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2003-09-30

    This report outlines progress in the first quarter of the extension of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. This report presents experimental results that demonstrate combined scaling effects of viscous, capillary, and gravity crossflow mechanisms that apply to the situations in which streamline models are used. We designed and ran a series of experiments to investigate combined effects of capillary, viscous, and gravity forces on displacement efficiency in layered systems. Analog liquids (isooctane, isopropanol, and water) were employed to control scaling parameters by changing interfacial tension (IFT), flow rate, and density difference. The porous medium was a two-dimensional (2-D) 2-layered glass bead model with a permeability ratio of about 1:4. In order to analyze the combined effect of only capillary and viscous forces, gravity effects were eliminated by changing the orientation of the glass bead model. We employed a commercial simulator, Eclipse100 to calculate displacement behavior for comparison with the experimental data. Experimental results with minimized gravity effects show that the IFT and flow rate determine how capillary and viscous forces affect behavior of displacement. The limiting behavior for scaling groups for two-phase displacement was verified by experimental results. Analysis of the 2-D images indicates that displacements having a capillary-viscous equilibrium give the best sweep efficiency. Experimental results with gravity effects, but with low IFT fluid systems show that slow displacements produce larger area affected by crossflow. This, in turn, enhances sweep efficiency. The simulation results represent the experimental data well, except for the situations where capillary forces dominate the displacement.

  13. High-Resolution Quantitative Metabolome Analysis of Urine by Automated Flow Injection NMR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Metabolism is essential to understand human health. To characterize human metabolism, a high-resolution read-out of the metabolic status under various physiological conditions, either in health or disease, is needed. Metabolomics offers an unprecedented approach for generating system-specific biochemical definitions of a human phenotype through the capture of a variety of metabolites in a single measurement. The emergence of large cohorts in clinical studies increases the demand of technologies able to analyze a large number of measurements, in an automated fashion, in the most robust way. NMR is an established metabolomics tool for obtaining metabolic phenotypes. Here, we describe the analysis of NMR-based urinary profiles for metabolic studies, challenged to a large human study (3007 samples). This method includes the acquisition of nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy one-dimensional and J-resolved two-dimensional (J-Res-2D) 1H NMR spectra obtained on a 600 MHz spectrometer, equipped with a 120 μL flow probe, coupled to a flow-injection analysis system, in full automation under the control of a sampler manager. Samples were acquired at a throughput of ∼20 (or 40 when J-Res-2D is included) min/sample. The associated technical analysis error over the full series of analysis is 12%, which demonstrates the robustness of the method. With the aim to describe an overall metabolomics workflow, the quantification of 36 metabolites, mainly related to central carbon metabolism and gut microbial host cometabolism, was obtained, as well as multivariate data analysis of the full spectral profiles. The metabolic read-outs generated using our analytical workflow can therefore be considered for further pathway modeling and/or biological interpretation. PMID:23718684

  14. Underground Injection Control (UIC)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provide information on: individual injection well classes; regulations specific to each well class; technical guidance; compliance assistance; federal, state, and tribal/territory roles and responsibilities.

  15. Quantitative Imaging of Turbulent Mixing Dynamics in High-Pressure Fuel Injection to Enable Predictive Simulations of Engine Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Jonathan H.; Pickett, Lyle M.; Bisson, Scott E.; Patterson, Brian D.; Ruggles, Adam J.; Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Huang, Erxiong; Cicone, Dave J.; Sphicas, Panos

    2015-09-01

    In this LDRD project, we developed a capability for quantitative high - speed imaging measurements of high - pressure fuel injection dynamics to advance understanding of turbulent mixing in transcritical flows, ignition, and flame stabilization mechanisms, and to provide e ssential validation data for developing predictive tools for engine combustion simulations. Advanced, fuel - efficient engine technologies rely on fuel injection into a high - pressure, high - temperature environment for mixture preparation and com bustion. Howe ver, the dynamics of fuel injection are not well understood and pose significant experimental and modeling challenges. To address the need for quantitative high - speed measurements, we developed a Nd:YAG laser that provides a 5ms burst of pulses at 100 kHz o n a robust mobile platform . Using this laser, we demonstrated s patially and temporally resolved Rayleigh scattering imaging and particle image velocimetry measurements of turbulent mixing in high - pressure gas - phase flows and vaporizing sprays . Quantitativ e interpretation of high - pressure measurements was advanced by reducing and correcting interferences and imaging artifacts.

  16. Electrical spin injection and detection in high mobility 2DEG systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciorga, M.

    2016-11-01

    In this review paper we present the current status of research related to the topic of electrical spin injection and detection in two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) systems, formed typically at the interface between two III-V semiconductor compounds. We discuss both theoretical aspects of spin injection in case of ballistic transport as well as give an overview of available reports on spin injection experiments performed on 2DEG structures. In the experimental part we focus particularly on our recent work on all-semiconductor structures with a 2DEG confined at an inverted GaAs/(Al,Ga)As interface and with a ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As employed as a source of spin-polarized electrons.

  17. Glucose administration does not modulate prolactin response to exercise, TRH or haloperidol injection.

    PubMed

    Vigas, M; Jezová, D

    1994-01-01

    Glucose was found to exert an In vitro regulatory effect on prolactin secretion. Its role in the modulation of stimulated secretion of prolactin in man is, however, not clear. To evaluate the effect of hyperglycaemia on prolactin release, three stimulatory tests with different mechanisms of stimulation were employed. Healthy male subjects served as volunteers during submaximal exercise, TRH test (0.2 mg i.v.) and administration of haloperidol (2 mg i.v.). Glucose (100 g in 400 ml) or an equal volume of water was given 30 min before the tests. Blood for glucose and prolactin analysis was taken via an indwelling catheter. The plasma prolactin concentration increased in response to each of the stimuli applied. However, the prolactin increase during hyperglycaemia did not differ from values obtained in tests performed in normoglycaemia after water administration. These results indicate that prolactin release in healthy man is not modulated by hyperglycaemia.

  18. Effect of High Injection Pressure of Algae and Jatropha Derived Biodiesel on Ignition Delay and Combustion Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nurdin; Khalid, Amir; Manshoor, Bukhari; Jaat, Norrizam; Zaman, Izzuddin; Sunar, Norshuhaila

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the investigation of the effect of high injection pressure on the ignition delay period and emission characteristics. Few experiments were conducted in a rapid compression machine (RCM). Four types of fuels were tested inside a RCM which are standard diesel (SD), Algae biodiesel (A2), Palm Oil biodiesel (B5, B10, and B15) and Jatropha biodiesel (J5, J10, J15). The experiments were conducted at high injection pressure of 130 MPa. The ambient temperature of constant volume chamber at the time of fuel injection was set at 850 K. The results indicate that the combined factors of specific of ambient temperature and higher injection pressure produces shorter ignition delay time. B5 has the shortest ignition delay with 1.5 ms. Biodiesel has the shorter ignition delay which is prolonged with increasing biodiesel content in the blends. In terms of emissions, Carbon dioxide (CO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and smoke emissions decreased with all biodiesel-diesel blends. However, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission of the biodiesel was relatively higher than those of the diesel under all test conditions. In addition, the increase of blends in terms of biodiesel ratio was found to be significant in enhancing the combustion process.

  19. High frequency pacing of edge localized modes by injection of lithium granules in DIII-D H-mode discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolon, A.; Maingi, R.; Mansfield, D. K.; Nagy, A.; Roquemore, A. L.; Baylor, L. R.; Commaux, N.; Jackson, G. L.; Gilson, E. P.; Lunsford, R.; Parks, P. B.; Chrystal, C.; Grierson, B. A.; Groebner, R.; Haskey, S. R.; Makowski, M. J.; Lasnier, C. J.; Nazikian, R.; Osborne, T.; Shiraki, D.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    A newly installed Lithium Granule Injector (LGI) was used to pace edge localized modes (ELM) in DIII-D. ELM pacing efficiency was studied injecting lithium granules of nominal diameter 0.3-0.9 mm, speed of 50-120 m s-1 and average injection rates up to 100 Hz for 0.9 mm granules and up to 700 Hz for 0.3 mm granules. The efficiency of ELM triggering was found to depend strongly on size of the injected granules, with triggering efficiency close to 100% obtained with 0.9 mm diameter granules, lower with smaller sizes, and weakly depending on granule velocity. Robust ELM pacing was demonstrated in ITER-like plasmas for the entire shot length, at ELM frequencies 3-5 times larger than the ‘natural’ ELM frequency observed in reference discharges. Within the range of ELM frequencies obtained, the peak ELM heat flux at the outer strike point was reduced with increasing pacing frequency. The peak heat flux reduction at the inner strike point appears to saturate at high pacing frequency. Lithium was found in the plasma core, with a concurrent reduction of metallic impurities and carbon. Overall, high frequency ELM pacing using the lithium granule injection appears to be compatible with both H-mode energy confinement and attractive H-mode pedestal characteristics, but further assessment is needed to determine whether the projected heat flux reduction required for ITER can be met.

  20. High frequency pacing of edge localized modes by injection of lithium granules in DIII-D H-mode discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Bortolon, A.; Maingi, R.; Mansfield, D. K.; Nagy, A.; Roquemore, A. L.; Baylor, L. R.; Commaux, N.; Jackson, G. L.; Gilson, E. P.; Lunsford, R.; Parks, P. B.; Chrystal, C.; Grierson, B. A.; Groebner, R.; Haskey, S. R.; Makowski, M. J.; Lasnier, C. J.; Nazikian, R.; Osborne, T.; Shiraki, D.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2016-04-08

    A newly installed Lithium Granule Injector (LGI) was used to pace edge localized modes (ELM) in DIII-D. ELM pacing efficiency was studied injecting lithium granules of nominal diameter 0.3–0.9mm, speed of 50–120 m s-1 and average injection rates up to 100 Hz for 0.9mm granules and up to 700 Hz for 0.3mm granules. The efficiency of ELM triggering was found to depend strongly on size of the injected granules, with triggering efficiency close to 100% obtained with 0.9mm diameter granules, lower with smaller sizes, and weakly depending on granule velocity. Robust ELM pacing was demonstrated in ITER-like plasmas for the entire shot length, at ELM frequencies 3–5 times larger than the ‘natural’ ELM frequency observed in reference discharges. Within the range of ELM frequencies obtained, the peak ELM heat flux at the outer strike point was reduced with increasing pacing frequency. The peak heat flux reduction at the inner strike point appears to saturate at high pacing frequency. Lithium was found in the plasma core, with a concurrent reduction of metallic impurities and carbon. Altogether, high frequency ELM pacing using the lithium granule injection appears to be compatible with both H-mode energy confinement and attractive H-mode pedestal characteristics, but further assessment is need

  1. High frequency pacing of edge localized modes by injection of lithium granules in DIII-D H-mode discharges

    DOE PAGES

    Bortolon, A.; Maingi, R.; Mansfield, D. K.; ...

    2016-04-08

    A newly installed Lithium Granule Injector (LGI) was used to pace edge localized modes (ELM) in DIII-D. ELM pacing efficiency was studied injecting lithium granules of nominal diameter 0.3–0.9mm, speed of 50–120 m s-1 and average injection rates up to 100 Hz for 0.9mm granules and up to 700 Hz for 0.3mm granules. The efficiency of ELM triggering was found to depend strongly on size of the injected granules, with triggering efficiency close to 100% obtained with 0.9mm diameter granules, lower with smaller sizes, and weakly depending on granule velocity. Robust ELM pacing was demonstrated in ITER-like plasmas for themore » entire shot length, at ELM frequencies 3–5 times larger than the ‘natural’ ELM frequency observed in reference discharges. Within the range of ELM frequencies obtained, the peak ELM heat flux at the outer strike point was reduced with increasing pacing frequency. The peak heat flux reduction at the inner strike point appears to saturate at high pacing frequency. Lithium was found in the plasma core, with a concurrent reduction of metallic impurities and carbon. Altogether, high frequency ELM pacing using the lithium granule injection appears to be compatible with both H-mode energy confinement and attractive H-mode pedestal characteristics, but further assessment is need« less

  2. Predictors of response to intra-articular steroid injections in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee joint.

    PubMed

    Fatimah, Nibah; Salim, Babur; Raja, Ejaz-Ul-Haq; Nasim, Amjad

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the factors associated with response to intra-articular steroid injection (IASI) in patients with knee joint osteoarthritis. One hundred seventy-four female patients, age ranging from 30 to 80 years, diagnosed to have osteoarthritis of the knee joint, were given IASI. Response to IASI was assessed by using WOMAC and VAS at 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 3 months. At 3 months, the subjects were categorized as responders, partial responders and non-responders to treatment by IASI. Various factors were narrowed down to see their effect on response, namely age, BMI, smoking habits, comorbidities, presence of clinical effusion, radiographic score, local knee tenderness, range of movement and socioeconomic status. One hundred twenty-four patients completed the study. 16.1 % showed 50 % or more improvement in WOMAC score at 3 months post IASI therapy, whereas 38.7 % of OA patients had more than 50 % improvement in VAS score. Out of all factors, range of movement, local knee tenderness and radiographic score of the affected joint are the three parameters which can predict the improvement in WOMAC score after 3 months of IASI therapy (P = 0.013, P = 0.045 and P = 0.000, respectively). Age of the patient can predict improvement in VAS at 3 months post IASI (P = 0.027). We conclude that age, range of movement, local knee tenderness and radiographic score of the affected joint can predict response to IASI after 3 months of IASI therapy.

  3. Angiotensin II AT1 receptors mediate neuronal sensitization and sustained blood pressure response induced by a single injection of amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Marchese, N A; Paz, M C; Caeiro, X; Dadam, F M; Baiardi, G; Perez, M F; Bregonzio, C

    2017-01-06

    A single exposure to amphetamine induces neurochemical sensitization in striatal areas. The neuropeptide angiotensin II, through AT1 receptors (AT1-R) activation, is involved in these responses. However, amphetamine-induced alterations can be extended to extra-striatal areas involved in blood pressure control and their physiological outcomes. Our aim for the present study was to analyze the possible role for AT1-R in these events using a two-injection protocol and to further characterize the proposed AT1-R antagonism protocol. Central effect of orally administered AT1-R blocker (Candesartan, 3mg/kg p.o.×5days) in male Wistar rats was analyzed by spontaneous activity of neurons within locus coeruleus. In another group of animals pretreated with the AT1-R blocker or vehicle, sensitization was achieved by a single administration of amphetamine (5mg/kg i.p. - day 6) followed by a 3-week period off drug. On day 27, after receiving an amphetamine challenge (0.5mg/kg i.p.), we evaluated: (1) the sensitized c-Fos expression in locus coeruleus (LC), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), caudal ventrolateral medulla (A1) and central amygdala (CeAmy); and (2) the blood pressure response. AT1-R blockade decreased LC neurons' spontaneous firing rate. Moreover, sensitized c-Fos immunoreactivity in TH+neurons was found in LC and NTS; and both responses were blunted by the AT1-R blocker pretreatment. Meanwhile, no differences were found neither in CeAmy nor A1. Sensitized blood pressure response was observed as sustained changes in mean arterial pressure and was effectively prevented by AT1-R blockade. Our results extend AT1-R role in amphetamine-induced sensitization over noradrenergic nuclei and their cardiovascular output.

  4. Analysis of high gradient magnetic field effects on distribution of nanoparticles injected into pulsatile blood stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza Habibi, Mohammad; Ghassemi, Majid; Hossien Hamedi, Mohammad

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are widely used in a wide range of applications including data storage materials, pharmaceutical industries as magnetic separation tools, anti-cancer drug carriers and micro valve applications. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effect of a non-uniform magnetic field on bio-fluid (blood) with magnetic nanoparticles. The effect of particles as well as mass fraction on flow field and volume concentration is investigated. The governing non-linear differential equations, concentration and Navier-stokes are coupled with the magnetic field. To solve these equations, a finite volume based code is developed and utilized. A real pulsatile velocity is utilized as inlet boundary condition. This velocity is extracted from an actual experimental data. Three percent nanoparticles volume concentration, as drug carrier, is steadily injected in an unsteady, pulsatile and non-Newtonian flow. A power law model is considered for the blood viscosity. The results show that during the systole section of the heartbeat when the blood velocity increases, the magnetic nanoparticles near the magnetic source are washed away. This is due to the sudden increase of the hydrodynamic force, which overcomes the magnetic force. The probability of vein blockage increases when the blood velocity reduces during the diastole time. As nanoparticles velocity injection decreases (longer injection time) the wall shear stress (especially near the injection area) decreases and the retention time of the magnetic nanoparticles in the blood flow increases.

  5. Different cleavage site for high molecular weight kininogen in vivo following intravenous injection of dextran sulfate in the rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggins, R.C.

    1986-04-01

    Purified radiolabeled rabbit Hageman factor, prekallikrein, and high molecular weight kininogen were used to examine Hageman factor system molecular dynamics after the intravenous injection of heparin-like dextran sulfate polymer in the rabbit. Hageman factor system proteins rapidly disappeared from the circulation following dextran sulfate injection, as measured by radial immunodiffusion, by kaolin-releasable kinin formation, and by measuring circulating levels of radiolabeled Hageman factor, prekallikrein, and high molecular weight kininogen. /sup 125/I-Hageman factor was distributed mainly to lung, liver, and spleen following dextran sulfate injection. Proteolysis of circulating /sup 125/I-Hageman factor occurred at a site within a disulfide loop into fragments of 50,000 and 30,000 molecular weight. Proteolysis of /sup 125/I-prekallikrein also occurred with visualization of a 50,000 molecular weight fragment. Although extensive proteolysis of /sup 131/I-high molecular weight kininogen was observed, the cleavage fragments were not the same as those generated during contact activation in vitro. The major fragment of high molecular weight kininogen observed in vivo was at 80,000 molecular weight, in contrast to the 65,000 molecular weight fragment generated by kallikrein in vitro. These results indicate that high molecular weight kininogen can undergo proteolysis in vivo into fragments not known to be associated with kinin release.

  6. P-doping and efficient carrier injection induced by graphene oxide for high performing WSe2 rectification devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Muhammad Atif; Rathi, Servin; Lee, Inyeal; Li, Lijun; Lim, Dongsuk; Kang, Moonshik; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we fabricated multi-layer WSe2 rectifying diodes using graphene oxide (GO) as p-doping material on one side of the contacting electrodes. This GO layer can reduce the contact resistance by forming a tunneling barrier for efficient hole injection, while it increases the contact resistance for the injection of electrons. Results of Raman shift spectra and the opto-electric response of the device confirmed the p-doping effect caused by the GO layer and the formation of a barrier, respectively. We observed a gate tunable rectification effect with a forward/reverse current ratio of 104 and low reverse bias current of 10-10 A. Applying a GO layer in the fabrication of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides based devices is a very useful method in the applications in future nanotechnologies.

  7. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2004-05-01

    This final technical report describes and summarizes results of a research effort to investigate physical mechanisms that control the performance of gas injection processes in heterogeneous reservoirs and to represent those physical effects in an efficient way in simulations of gas injection processes. The research effort included four main lines of research: (1) Efficient compositional streamline methods for 3D flow; (2) Analytical methods for one-dimensional displacements; (3) Physics of multiphase flow; and (4) Limitations of streamline methods. In the first area, results are reported that show how the streamline simulation approach can be applied to simulation of gas injection processes that include significant effects of transfer of components between phases. In the second area, the one-dimensional theory of multicomponent gas injection processes is extended to include the effects of volume change as components change phase. In addition an automatic algorithm for solving such problems is described. In the third area, results on an extensive experimental investigation of three-phase flow are reported. The experimental results demonstrate the impact on displacement performance of the low interfacial tensions between the gas and oil phases that can arise in multicontact miscible or near-miscible displacement processes. In the fourth area, the limitations of the streamline approach were explored. Results of an experimental investigation of the scaling of the interplay of viscous, capillary, and gravity forces are described. In addition results of a computational investigation of the limitations of the streamline approach are reported. The results presented in this report establish that it is possible to use the compositional streamline approach in many reservoir settings to predict performance of gas injection processes. When that approach can be used, it requires substantially less (often orders of magnitude) computation time than conventional finite difference

  8. Responses of supraoptic neurones in the intact and deafferented rat hypothalamus to injections of hypertonic sodium chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Dyball, R E; Prilusky, J

    1981-01-01

    1. Recordings were made from a total of fifty-three neurones in the supraoptic nuclei of four groups of rats: intact rats, animals in which the hypothalamus had been partly denervated by anteriorly or posteriorly placed semicircular cuts, and rats with a totally deafferented hypothalamus. 2. When first encountered, cells from intact animals fired at a mean rate of 5.08 +/- 0.78 spikes/sec, those from posteriorly isolated hypothalami at 3.93 +/- 0.63 spikes/sec, those from the anteriorly isolated hypothalami at 2.05 +/- 0.83 spikes/sec, and those from totally isolated hypothalami at 0.99 +/- 0.46 spikes/sec. 3. When stimulated osmotically by an intraperitoneal injection of ml. 1.5 M-NaCl, eight out of eight cells in intact rats showed a significant increase in firing rate between 20 and 30 min after the injection. Six out of nine cells in posteriorly isolated hypothalami showed significant but smaller responses. No increase in firing rate could be detected in seven cells from totally isolated hypothalami or from eight cells in hypothalami partly isolated by anterior cuts. 4. The results imply that under the conditions of these experiments by the spontaneous activity of the supraoptic nucleus in intact animals was maintained by an extrahypothalamic excitatory input, that partial hypothalamic isolation reduced its intensity, possibly by unmasking an inhibitory input, and that total isolation reduced it to an even greater extent. Osmotic activation of supraoptic cells was only possible when the anterior connexions of the hypothalamus were intact. Thus the cerebral osmo-receptors for vasopressin release may be situated outside the supraoptic nuclei. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7264977

  9. Combination of External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT) With Intratumoral Injection of Dendritic Cells as Neo-Adjuvant Treatment of High-Risk Soft Tissue Sarcoma Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Steven E.; Iclozan, Cristina; Bui, Marilyn M.; Cotter, Matthew J.; Ramakrishnan, Rupal; Ahmed, Jamil; Noyes, David R.; Cheong, David; Gonzalez, Ricardo J.; Heysek, Randy V.; Berman, Claudia; Lenox, Brianna C.; Janssen, William; Zager, Jonathan S.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Letson, G. Douglas; Antonia, Scott J.; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine the effect of combination of intratumoral administration of dendritic cells (DC) and fractionated external beam radiation (EBRT) on tumor-specific immune responses in patients with soft-tissue sarcoma (STS). Methods and Material: Seventeen patients with large (>5 cm) high-grade STS were enrolled in the study. They were treated in the neoadjuvant setting with 5,040 cGy of EBRT, split into 28 fractions and delivered 5 days per week, combined with intratumoral injection of 10{sup 7} DCs followed by complete resection. DCs were injected on the second, third, and fourth Friday of the treatment cycle. Clinical evaluation and immunological assessments were performed. Results: The treatment was well tolerated. No patient had tumor-specific immune responses before combined EBRT/DC therapy; 9 patients (52.9%) developed tumor-specific immune responses, which lasted from 11 to 42 weeks. Twelve of 17 patients (70.6%) were progression free after 1 year. Treatment caused a dramatic accumulation of T cells in the tumor. The presence of CD4{sup +} T cells in the tumor positively correlated with tumor-specific immune responses that developed following combined therapy. Accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells but not regulatory T cells negatively correlated with the development of tumor-specific immune responses. Experiments with {sup 111}In labeled DCs demonstrated that these antigen presenting cells need at least 48 h to start migrating from tumor site. Conclusions: Combination of intratumoral DC administration with EBRT was safe and resulted in induction of antitumor immune responses. This suggests that this therapy is promising and needs further testing in clinical trials design to assess clinical efficacy.

  10. Seismic response of the fractured and faulted granite of Soultz-sous-Forêts (France) to 5 km deep massive water injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorbath, Louis; Cuenot, Nicolas; Genter, Albert; Frogneux, Michel

    2009-05-01

    The European Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS, formerly Hot Dry Rock, HDR) programme of Soultz-sous-Forêts is organized around three wells drilled to a depth of about 5000 m. Hydraulic stimulations were performed in the wells in 2000 (GPK2 well), 2003 (GPK3 well) and 2004 and 2005 (GPK4 well). The stimulation of GPK2 induced more than 700 seismic events with a magnitude greater than 1.0. The seismicity depicts a dense, homogeneous cloud, without any apparent structure. Medium-size earthquakes represent more than 80 per cent of the cumulative seismic moment. The b-value of the Gutenberg and Richter law is larger than 1.2. The injectivity has been increased by a factor 20. These characteristics indicate that the stimulation reactivated a 3-D dense network of fractures. The stimulation of GPK3 induced only about 250 events with a magnitude greater than 1.0 but with a greater proportion of large events, up to 2.9. The hypocentres form clear structures identified as large faults, the b-value is about 0.9 and the large events (M > 2.0) account for the greater part of the cumulative seismic moment. The injectivity of the well, which was already high before the stimulation, remained unchanged. The stimulation of GPK4 was achieved in two stages. This stimulation produced even less induced events, making the interpretation difficult. The differences between the seismic response of GPK2 and GPK3 are due to the presence of large faults cut by GPK3 or in its close vicinity and reached by the injected water. Once a seismic event occurs on a fault, a sequence of earthquakes is triggered and the seismicity behaves, for a large part, independent of the injected flow rate. The stimulations also show some evidence that creeping could be a major source of deformation, if not the main one. The future EGS programme will have to drill wells in zones free of large faults to avoid poor hydraulic performance and inconvenience to the population.

  11. Design and baseline findings of a large-scale rapid response to an HIV outbreak in people who inject drugs in Athens, Greece: the ARISTOTLE programme

    PubMed Central

    Hatzakis, Angelos; Sypsa, Vana; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Tsiara, Chrissa; Micha, Katerina; Panopoulos, Anastasios; Malliori, Meni; Psichogiou, Mina; Pharris, Anastasia; Wiessing, Lucas; van de Laar, Marita; Donoghoe, Martin; Heckathorn, Douglas D.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Des Jarlais, Don C.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To (i) describe an intervention implemented in response to the HIV-1 outbreak among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in Greece (ARISTOTLE programme), (ii) assess its success in identifying and testing this population and (iii) describe socio-demographic characteristics, risk behaviours and access to treatment/prevention, estimate HIV prevalence and identify risk factors, as assessed at the first participation of PWIDs. Design A ‘seek, test, treat, retain’ intervention employing five rounds of respondent-driven sampling. Setting Athens, Greece (2012–13). Participants A total of 3320 individuals who had injected drugs in the past 12 months. Intervention ARISTOTLE is an intervention that involves reaching out to high-risk, hard-to-reach PWIDs (‘seek’), engaging them in HIV testing and providing information and materials to prevent HIV (‘test’) and initiating and maintaining anti-retroviral and opioid substitution treatment for those testing positive (‘treat’ and ‘retain’). Measurements Blood samples were collected for HIV testing and personal interviews were conducted. Findings ARISTOTLE recruited 3320 PWIDs during the course of 13.5 months. More than half (54%) participated in multiple rounds, resulting in 7113 visits. HIV prevalence was 15.1%. At their first contact with the programme, 12.5% were on opioid substitution treatment programmes and the median number of free syringes they had received in the preceding month was 0. In the multivariable analysis, apart from injection-related variables, homelessness was a risk factor for HIV infection in male PWIDs [odds ratio (OR) yes versus no=1.89, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.41, 2.52]while, in female PWIDS, the number of sexual partners (OR for >5 versus one partner in the past year=4.12, 95% CI=1.93, 8.77) and history of imprisonment (OR yes versus no=2.76, 95% CI=1.43, 5.31) were associated with HIV. Conclusions In Athens, Greece, the ARISTOTLE intervention for identifying HIV

  12. Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery by Sequential Injection of Light Hydrocarbon and Nitrate in Low- And High-Pressure Bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Gassara, Fatma; Suri, Navreet; Stanislav, Paul; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2015-10-20

    Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) often involves injection of aqueous molasses and nitrate to stimulate resident or introduced bacteria. Use of light oil components like toluene, as electron donor for nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB), offers advantages but at 1-2 mM toluene is limiting in many heavy oils. Because addition of toluene to the oil increased reduction of nitrate by NRB, we propose an MEOR technology, in which water amended with light hydrocarbon below the solubility limit (5.6 mM for toluene) is injected to improve the nitrate reduction capacity of the oil along the water flow path, followed by injection of nitrate, other nutrients (e.g., phosphate) and a consortium of NRB, if necessary. Hydrocarbon- and nitrate-mediated MEOR was tested in low- and high-pressure, water-wet sandpack bioreactors with 0.5 pore volumes of residual oil in place (ROIP). Compared to control bioreactors, those with 11-12 mM of toluene in the oil (gained by direct addition or by aqueous injection) and 80 mM of nitrate in the aqueous phase produced 16.5 ± 4.4% of additional ROIP (N = 10). Because toluene is a cheap commodity chemical, HN-MEOR has the potential to be a cost-effective method for additional oil production even in the current low oil price environment.

  13. An injectable, calcium responsive composite hydrogel for the treatment of acute spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    McKay, Christopher A; Pomrenke, Rebecca D; McLane, Joshua S; Schaub, Nicholas J; DeSimone, Elise K; Ligon, Lee A; Gilbert, Ryan J

    2014-02-12

    Immediately following spinal cord injury, further injury can occur through several secondary injury cascades. As a consequence of cell lysis, an increase in extracellular Ca(2+) results in additional neuronal loss by inducing apoptosis. Thus, hydrogels that reduce extracellular Ca(2+) concentration may reduce secondary injury severity. The goal of this study was to develop composite hydrogels consisting of alginate, chitosan, and genipin that interact with extracellular Ca(2+) to enable in situ gelation while maintaining an elastic modulus similar to native spinal cord (∼1000 Pa). It was hypothesized that incorporation of genipin and chitosan would regulate hydrogel electrostatic characteristics and influence hydrogel porosity, degradation, and astrocyte behavior. Hydrogel composition was varied to create hydrogels with statistically similar mechanical properties (∼1000 Pa) that demonstrated tunable charge characteristics (6-fold range in free amine concentration) and degradation rate (complete degradation between 7 and 28 days; some blends persist after 28 days). Hydrogels demonstrate high sensitivity to Ca(2+) concentration, as a 1 mM change during fabrication induced a significant change in elastic modulus. Additionally, hydrogels incubated in a Ca(2+)-containing solution exhibited an increased linear viscoelastic limit (LVE) and an increased elastic modulus above the LVE limit in a time dependent manner. An extension of the LVE limit implies a change in hydrogel cross-linking structure. Attachment assays demonstrated that addition of chitosan/genipin to alginate hydrogels induced up to a 4-fold increase in the number of attached astrocytes and facilitated astrocyte clustering on the hydrogel surface in a composition dependent manner. Furthermore, Western blots demonstrated tunable glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) expression in astrocytes cultured on hydrogel blends, with some hydrogel compositions demonstrating no significant increase in GFAP expression

  14. An Injectable, Calcium Responsive Composite Hydrogel for the Treatment of Acute Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Immediately following spinal cord injury, further injury can occur through several secondary injury cascades. As a consequence of cell lysis, an increase in extracellular Ca2+ results in additional neuronal loss by inducing apoptosis. Thus, hydrogels that reduce extracellular Ca2+ concentration may reduce secondary injury severity. The goal of this study was to develop composite hydrogels consisting of alginate, chitosan, and genipin that interact with extracellular Ca2+ to enable in situ gelation while maintaining an elastic modulus similar to native spinal cord (∼1000 Pa). It was hypothesized that incorporation of genipin and chitosan would regulate hydrogel electrostatic characteristics and influence hydrogel porosity, degradation, and astrocyte behavior. Hydrogel composition was varied to create hydrogels with statistically similar mechanical properties (∼1000 Pa) that demonstrated tunable charge characteristics (6-fold range in free amine concentration) and degradation rate (complete degradation between 7 and 28 days; some blends persist after 28 days). Hydrogels demonstrate high sensitivity to Ca2+ concentration, as a 1 mM change during fabrication induced a significant change in elastic modulus. Additionally, hydrogels incubated in a Ca2+-containing solution exhibited an increased linear viscoelastic limit (LVE) and an increased elastic modulus above the LVE limit in a time dependent manner. An extension of the LVE limit implies a change in hydrogel cross-linking structure. Attachment assays demonstrated that addition of chitosan/genipin to alginate hydrogels induced up to a 4-fold increase in the number of attached astrocytes and facilitated astrocyte clustering on the hydrogel surface in a composition dependent manner. Furthermore, Western blots demonstrated tunable glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) expression in astrocytes cultured on hydrogel blends, with some hydrogel compositions demonstrating no significant increase in GFAP expression compared

  15. High β produced by neutral beam injection in the START (Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak) spherical tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, Alan

    1997-05-01

    The world's first high-power auxiliary heating experiments in a tight aspect ratio (or spherical) tokamak have been performed on the Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokomak (START) device [Sykes et al., Nucl. Fusion 32, 694 (1992)] at Culham Laboratory, using the 40 keV, 0.5 MW Neutral Beam Injector loaned by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Injection has been mainly of hydrogen into hydrogen or deuterium target plasmas, with a one-day campaign to explore D→D operation. In each case injection provides a combination of higher density operation and effective heating of both ions and electrons. The highest β values achieved to date in START are volume average βT˜11.5% and central beta βO˜50%. Already high, these values are expected to increase further with the use of higher beam power.

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2008-10-15

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

  17. Reader Response Theory in the High School English Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Karen Yvonne

    A study examined the theory concerning reader response and the rationale and practice of reader response in the high school English curriculum. Formal experimental studies existed that explored reader response practices in the high school setting, but no formal studies existed on the questioning practices of potential reader response teachers. A…

  18. Stability Analysis of High-Speed Boundary-Layer Flow with Gas Injection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    the boundary layer [1,2]. Non-equilibrium effects such as molecular vibration and dissociation can damp acoustic disturbances [3,4]. Carbon dioxide ...potential beneficial application of adding carbon dioxide into boundary-layer flows in order to delay transition onset. Experimentally, this is...will occur immediately following the injection of cold carbon dioxide . The test cases with air and nitrogen as the test gas suggested the momentum

  19. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas A. Hewett; Franklin M. Orr Jr.

    2000-12-31

    Gas injection in oil reservoirs offers huge potential for improved oil recovery. However, successful design of a gas injection process requires a detailed understanding of a variety of different significant processes, including the phase behavior of multicomponent mixtures and the approach to multi-contact miscibility in the reservoir, the flow of oil, water and gas underground, and the interaction of phase behavior reservoir heterogeneity and gravity on overall performance at the field scale. This project attempts to tackle all these issues using a combination of theoretical, numerical and laboratory studies of gas injection. The aim of this work is to develop a set of ultra-fast compositional simulation tools that can be used to make field-scale predictions of the performance of gas injection processes. To achieve the necessary accuracy, these tools must satisfy the fundamental physics and chemistry of the displacement from the pore to the reservoir scales. Thus this project focuses on four main research areas: (1) determination of the most appropriate methods of mapping multicomponent solutions to streamlines and streamtubes in 3D; (2) development of techniques for automatic generation of analytical solutions for one-dimensional flow along a streamline; (3) experimental investigations to improve the representation of physical mechanisms that govern displacement efficiency along a streamline; and (4) Theoretical and experimental investigations to establish the limitations of the streamline/streamtube approach. In this report they briefly review the status of the research effort in each area. They then give a more in depth discussion of the development of a CT scanning technique which can measure compositions in a two-phase, three-component system in-situ.

  20. Injection and Propagation of Multiple Relativistic Electron Beams into Preformed Plasma Channels for High-Power X-Ray Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    and a surface - flashover prepulse switch were added to the focused-beam diodes. These changes have improved the pinch stability of the focused beam... plasma channel-front expansion velocities from the exploding wire as inferred from the experi- mental data are 0.8 mm per microsecond for the 760 Torr...27.3 INJECTION AND PROPAGATION OF ~1ULTIPLE RELATIVISTIC ELECTRON BEAMS INTO PREFORMED PLASMA CHANNELS FOR HIGH-POWER X-RAY PRODUCTION F. J

  1. Injectable and porous PLGA microspheres that form highly porous scaffolds at body temperature.

    PubMed

    Qutachi, Omar; Vetsch, Jolanda R; Gill, Daniel; Cox, Helen; Scurr, David J; Hofmann, Sandra; Müller, Ralph; Quirk, Robin A; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Rahman, Cheryl V

    2014-12-01

    Injectable scaffolds are of interest in the field of regenerative medicine because of their minimally invasive mode of delivery. For tissue repair applications, it is essential that such scaffolds have the mechanical properties, porosity and pore diameter to support the formation of new tissue. In the current study, porous poly(dl-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were fabricated with an average size of 84±24μm for use as injectable cell carriers. Treatment with ethanolic sodium hydroxide for 2min was observed to increase surface porosity without causing the microsphere structure to disintegrate. This surface treatment also enabled the microspheres to fuse together at 37°C to form scaffold structures. The average compressive strength of the scaffolds after 24h at 37°C was 0.9±0.1MPa, and the average Young's modulus was 9.4±1.2MPa. Scaffold porosity levels were 81.6% on average, with a mean pore diameter of 54±38μm. This study demonstrates a method for fabricating porous PLGA microspheres that form solid porous scaffolds at body temperature, creating an injectable system capable of supporting NIH-3T3 cell attachment and proliferation in vitro.

  2. Ineffectiveness of AIDS education and HIV antibody testing in reducing high-risk behaviors among injection drug users.

    PubMed Central

    Calsyn, D A; Saxon, A J; Freeman, G; Whittaker, S

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of education in reducing high-risk human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission behaviors was examined in 313 injection drug users. Involvement in high-risk behaviors was assessed via structured interview at study entry and 4 months following the intervention. Subjects were randomly assigned to (1) AIDS education, (2) AIDS education with optional HIV antibody testing, or (3) a wait list. The sample as a whole decreased its involvement in high-risk behaviors, but there were no significant differences as a function of experimental group assignment. PMID:1546776

  3. Cabazitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used along with prednisone to treat prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive organ) that has ... cabazitaxel injection is usually used in men with prostate cancer. If used by pregnant women, cabazitaxel injection can ...

  4. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... fondaparinux injection.Talk to your doctor about the risk of using fondaparinux injection. ... Fondaparinux injection is used to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT; a blood ... Xa inhibitors. It works by decreasing the clotting ability of the blood.

  5. Morphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Morphine injection is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Morphine is in a class of medications called opiate ( ... Morphine injection comes as a solution (liquid) to inject intramuscularly (into a muscle) or intravenously (into a ...

  6. Dexamethasone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Dexamethasone injection is used to treat severe allergic reactions. It is used in the management of certain types of ... gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Dexamethasone injection is also used for diagnostic testing. Dexamethasone injection ...

  7. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Romidepsin injection is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL; a group of cancers of the immune system ... one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications ...

  8. Ondansetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Zofran® Injection ... Ondansetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and surgery. Ondansetron is in a ... medications: or any of the ingredients in ondansetron injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ...

  9. Performance comparison of several response surface surrogate models and ensemble methods for water injection optimization under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaei, Masoud; Pan, Indranil

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we defined a relatively complex reservoir engineering optimization problem of maximizing the net present value of the hydrocarbon production in a water flooding process by controlling the water injection rates in multiple control periods. We assessed the performance of a number of response surface surrogate models and their ensembles which are combined by Dempster-Shafer theory and Weighted Averaged Surrogates as found in contemporary literature works. Most of these ensemble methods are based on the philosophy that multiple weak learners can be leveraged to obtain one strong learner which is better than the individual weak ones. Even though these techniques have been shown to work well for test bench functions, we found them not offering a considerable improvement compared to an individually used cubic radial basis function surrogate model. Our simulations on two and three dimensional cases, with varying number of optimization variables suggest that cubic radial basis functions-based surrogate model is reliable, outperforms Kriging surrogates and multivariate adaptive regression splines, and if it does not outperform, it is rarely outperformed by the ensemble surrogate models.

  10. Intra-Amygdala ZIP Injections Impair the Memory of Learned Active Avoidance Responses and Attenuate Conditioned Taste-Aversion Acquisition in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of protein kinase Mzeta (PKM[zeta]) inhibition in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) upon the retention of a nonspatial learned active avoidance response and conditioned taste-aversion (CTA) acquisition in rats. ZIP (10 nmol/[mu]L) injected into the BLA 24 h after training impaired retention of a learned…

  11. Serological response to administration of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in beef and dairy heifers, using needle-free and standard needle-based injection systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare immunologic responses of heifers vaccinated with 10**10 colony-forming units (CFU) of Brucella abortus strain RB51 (SRB51) by standard needle-and-syringe system or a needle-free injection system. Heifers were randomly assigned to control and vaccination gro...

  12. Controlled injection of a liquid into ultra-high vacuum: Submonolayers of adenosine triphosphate deposited on Cu(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobrado, J. M.; Martín-Gago, J. A.

    2016-10-01

    We have combined a fast-valve device with vacuum technology for implementing a new method that allows introducing liquid solutions in an ultra-high vacuum chamber in the form of very small droplets. This technical development allows the easy deposition of (bio) organic molecules or small nanoparticles on a surface in a fully in-situ process, avoiding possible contamination due to the handle of the material. Moreover, our experimental set-up is suitable for any liquid and does not require any voltage application as in electrospray. We can easily change the operating regime from liquid droplet injection to the formation of a highly dispersive jet of micro-droplets by exclusively adjusting external parameters. Due to the nature of the injection process, the operational protocol makes possible the deposition of delicate molecular species that cannot be thermally sublimated. In particular, we have used this system to study the deposition of adenosine triphosphate on Cu(110). The structure of the layer was analyzed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and the evolution of the signal from the deposited molecule with the number of injections indicates that the molecular coverage can be controlled with submonolayer precision.

  13. Preliminary design of a RFQ direct injection scheme for the IsoDAR high intensity H₂⁺ cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Winklehner, D; Hamm, R; Alonso, J; Conrad, J M; Axani, S

    2016-02-01

    IsoDAR (Isotope Decay-At-Rest) is a novel experiment designed to measure neutrino oscillations through ν̄(e) disappearance, thus providing a definitive search for sterile neutrinos. In order to generate the necessary anti-neutrino flux, a high intensity primary proton beam is needed. In IsoDAR, H2(+) is accelerated and is stripped into protons just before the target, to overcome space charge issues at injection. As part of the design, we have refined an old proposal to use a RFQ to axially inject bunched H2(+) ions into the driver cyclotron. This method has several advantages over a classical low energy beam transport (LEBT) design: (1) The bunching efficiency is higher than for the previously considered two-gap buncher and thus the overall injection efficiency is higher. This relaxes the constraints on the H2(+) current required from the ion source. (2) The overall length of the LEBT can be reduced. (3) The RFQ can also accelerate the ions. This enables the ion source platform high voltage to be reduced from 70 kV to 15 kV, making underground installation easier. We are presenting the preliminary RFQ design parameters and first beam dynamics simulations from the ion source to the spiral inflector entrance.

  14. High-Dose Vitamin C Injection to Cancer Patients May Promote Thrombosis Through Procoagulant Activation of Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keunyoung; Bae, Ok-Nam; Koh, Sung-Hee; Kang, Seojin; Lim, Kyung-Min; Noh, Ji-Yoon; Shin, Sue; Kim, Inho; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2015-10-01

    Potential risk of high-dose vitamin C consumption is often ignored. Recently, gram-dose vitamin C is being intravenously injected for the treatment of cancer, which can expose circulating blood cells to extremely high concentrations of vitamin C. As well as platelets, red blood cells (RBCs) can actively participate in thrombosis through procoagulant activation. Here, we examined the procoagulant and prothrombotic risks associated with the intravenous injection of gram-dose vitamin C. Vitamin C (0.5-5 mM) increased procoagulant activity of freshly isolated human RBCs via the externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) to outer cellular membrane and the formation of PS-bearing microvesicles. PS exposure was induced by the dysregulation of key enzymes for the maintenance of membrane phospholipid asymmetry, which was from vitamin C-induced oxidative stress, and resultant disruption of calcium and thiol homeostasis. Indeed, the intravenous injection of vitamin C (0.5-1.0 g/kg) in rats in vivo significantly increased thrombosis. Notably, the prothrombotic effects of vitamin C were more prominent in RBCs isolated from cancer patients, who are at increased risks of thrombotic events. Vitamin C-induced procoagulant and prothrombotic activation of RBCs, and increased thrombosis in vivo. RBCs from cancer patients exhibited increased sensitivity to the prothrombotic effects of vitamin C, reflecting that intravenous gram-dose vitamin C therapy needs to be carefully revisited.

  15. Associations of Body Mass Index with Sexual Risk-Taking and Injection Drug Use among US High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, Richard; Robin, Leah; Kann, Laura; Galuska, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if body mass index (BMI) is associated with behaviors that may increase risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among US high school students. We analyzed nationally representative data from the 2005–2011 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) to examine associations of BMI categories with sexual risk behaviors and injection drug use among sexually active high school students, using sex-stratified logistic regression models. Controlling for race/ethnicity and grade, among female and male students, both underweight (BMI < 5th percentile) and obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) were associated with decreased odds of being currently sexually active (i.e., having had sexual intercourse during the past 3 months). However, among sexually active female students, obese females were more likely than normal weight females to have had 4 or more sex partners (odds ratio, OR = 1.59), not used a condom at last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.30), and injected illegal drugs (OR = 1.98). Among sexually active male students, overweight (85th percentile ≤ BMI < 95th percentile) was associated with not using a condom at last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.19) and obesity was associated with injection drug use (OR = 1.42). Among sexually active students, overweight and obesity may be indicators of increased risk for HIV and other STDs. PMID:25105024

  16. Highly polarized emission from electrical spin injection into an InGaAs quantum well with free carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C. H.; Jonker, B. T.; Kioseoglou, G.; Petrou, A.; Korkusinski, M.; Hawrylak, P.

    2013-11-18

    We report on a highly polarized emission from InGaAs/GaAs-quantum well light-emitting diodes in which we inject spin-polarized electrons from an Fe/Schottky contact. The emission spectra consist of the e{sub 1}h{sub 1} free exciton (FX) and a feature 12 meV below FX attributed to band-to-band (BB) recombination. The FX exhibits a maximum circular polarization of 22%, with a magnetic-field dependence characteristic of spin injection from Fe. The BB emission on the other hand exhibits a polarization that is strongly bias and temperature dependent, with intriguing magnetic-field dependence: The polarization exhibits a maximum of 78% at 2.5 T and 2 K, then decreases linearly with field and reaches −78% at 7 T, attributed to magnetic-field dependent spin relaxation in the presence of excess electrons.

  17. Generating high-brightness electron beams via ionization injection by transverse colliding lasers in a plasma-wakefield accelerator.

    PubMed

    Li, F; Hua, J F; Xu, X L; Zhang, C J; Yan, L X; Du, Y C; Huang, W H; Chen, H B; Tang, C X; Lu, W; Joshi, C; Mori, W B; Gu, Y Q

    2013-07-05

    The production of ultrabright electron bunches using ionization injection triggered by two transversely colliding laser pulses inside a beam-driven plasma wake is examined via three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The relatively low intensity lasers are polarized along the wake axis and overlap with the wake for a very short time. The result is that the residual momentum of the ionized electrons in the transverse plane of the wake is reduced, and the injection is localized along the propagation axis of the wake. This minimizes both the initial thermal emittance and the emittance growth due to transverse phase mixing. Simulations show that ultrashort (~8 fs) high-current (0.4 kA) electron bunches with a normalized emittance of 8.5 and 6 nm in the two planes, respectively, and a brightness of 1.7×10(19) A rad(-2) m(-2) can be obtained for realistic parameters.

  18. Linewidth enhancement factor and dynamical response of an injection-locked quantum-dot Fabry-Perot laser at 1310nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochet, M.; Naderi, N. A.; Terry, N.; Kovanis, V.; Lester, L. F.

    2010-02-01

    This work investigates the linewidth enhancement factor (alpha-factor) and stability of an optically-injected InAs/InGaAs quantum-dot Fabry-Perot laser. Using the injection-locking technique, the above threshold alpha-factor is measured to be as low as 0.6 at 1.3X the threshold current. The below threshold alpha-factor is also measured using the Hakki-Paoli technique. The measured alpha-factor values are used to simulate the dynamic response (stable locking, period-one, period-doubling, or chaos) in the context of single-mode rate equations under zero-detuning injection conditions for external injected power ratios ranging from -11dB to +15dB and slave current bias levels of 1.3X, 2X, and 2.6X threshold. Legacy literature has shown that optically-injected diode lasers typically follow the period-doubling route into a chaotic region as the injection level is increased. Simulations show that at 2X the threshold current, a small region of period-one operation will be observed followed by stable-locking as the injection ratio is increased. This predominantly stable behavior is driven largely by the low alpha-factor. Experimental results support this prediction, where under zero-detuning conditions, only unlocked and stable-locking operation is observed. Experimentally, periodone operation was not observed at a slave laser bias current of 2X threshold, as it was predicted to occur below an external power ratio of -20 dB, a level which was not attainable in this work. Such findings suggest that a quantum-dot device can be employed in an optically-injected configuration for photonic tunable-clock applications.

  19. Effects of acetic acid injection and operating conditions on NO emission in a vortexing fluidized bed combustor using response surface methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Fuping Qian; Chiensong Chyang; Weishen Yen

    2009-07-15

    The effects of acetic acid injection and operating conditions on NO emission were investigated in a pilot scale vortexing fluidized bed combustor (VFBC), an integration of circular freeboard and a rectangular combustion chamber. Operating conditions, such as the stoichiometric oxygen in the combustion chamber, the bed temperature and the injecting location of acetic acid, were determined by means of response surface methodology (RSM), which enables the examination of parameters with a moderate number of experiments. In RSM, NO emission concentration after acetic acid injection and NO removal percentage at the exit of the VFBC are used as the objective function. The results show that the bed temperature has a more important effect on the NO emission than the injecting location of acetic acid and the stoichiometric oxygen in the combustion chamber. Meanwhile, the injecting location of acetic acid and the stoichiometric oxygen in the combustion chamber have a more important effect on the NO removal percentage than the bed temperature. NO emission can be decreased by injecting the acetic acid into the combustion chamber, and NO emission decreases with the height of the acetic acid injecting location above the distributor. On the other hand, NO removal percentage increases with the height of the acetic acid injecting location, and NO emission increases with the stoichiometric oxygen in the combustion chamber and the bed temperature. NO removal percentage increases with the stoichiometric oxygen, and increases first, then decreases with the bed temperature. Also, a higher NO removal percentage could be obtained at 850{sup o}C. 26 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Next Generation Hole Injection/Transport Nano-Composites for High Efficiency OLED Development

    SciTech Connect

    King Wang

    2009-07-31

    The objective of this program is to use a novel nano-composite material system for the OLED anode coating/hole transport layer. The novel anode coating is intended to significantly increase not only hole injection/transport efficiency, but the device energy efficiency as well. Another goal of the Core Technologies Program is the optimization and scale-up of air-stable and cross-linkable novel HTL nano-composite materials synthesis and the development of low-cost, large-scale mist deposition processes for polymer OLED fabrication. This proposed technology holds the promise to substantially improve OLED energy efficiency and lifetime.

  1. Parallel hydrogen injection into constant-area, high-enthalpy, supersonic airflow

    SciTech Connect

    Stalker, R.J.; Morgan, R.G.

    1982-10-01

    Although the mixing and burning of hydrogen injected into the combustion chamber are essential to the operation of a scramjet, experimental investigations of this process have been limited to speeds of less than 2.2 km/sec. The present experiment is an attempt to extend this limit to flight speeds of about 5 km/sec, whose corresponding stagnation enthalpies range up to MJ/kg. Mach-Zehnder interferograms were taken with a light source of 583 nm and 5 sec duration, while surface pressures were obtained with PCB quartz pressure transducers.

  2. Premature Progesterone Rise Positively Correlates with Clinical Pregnancy Rate in In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) Patients with good Ovarian Response.

    PubMed

    Cui, Na; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Yueming; Jiang, Lei; Yang, Aimin; Hao, Guimin

    2017-03-28

    Infertility affects millions of couples worldwide resulting in distress and depression. In the past several decades, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) have been developed with high efficiency and success rate. The possible effects of gonadotropin administration on follicular metabolism have been discussed but the outcomes remain controversial. The aim of this study was to identify whether serum progesterone on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration and the ratio of serum progesterone and the number of oocyte retrieved (P/O) had a predictive role for the outcomes of IVF/ICSI. Eight hundred and twenty-five patients were enrolled between January 2012 and December 2012. A positive correlation between progesterone and IVF/ICSI outcomes were found in patients with good ovarian response using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. We found that when progesterone level was higher than 1.04 ng/ml in good ovarian responses, the implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate were both reduced compared to the rates in patients exhibiting lower progesterone level (progesterone≤1.04 ng/ml). Moreover, the rise of serum progesterone on the day of hCG was negatively correlated with luteinizing hormone (LH) level. This study used 1.04 ng/ml as a definition of progesterone elevation and an adverse effect of serum progesterone rise was observed on clinical pregnancy rate.

  3. A comparison of the growth responses following intramuscular GHRH plasmid administration versus daily growth hormone injections in young pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of daily porcine growth hormone (GH) injections versus plasmid-driven porcine GH-releasing hormone (pGHRH) production to promote growth was assessed. Ten-day-old piglets were injected intramuscularly with 0.1, 1, or 3 mg pGHRH, or a control plasmid followed by electroporation. Plasmid c...

  4. The fluid mechanics of a high aspect ratio slot with an impressed pressure gradient and secondary injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobanik, John Bertram

    1993-01-01

    A high aspect ratio slot flow (which emulates the gas leakage path in a gas turbine engine outer turbine air seal) is studied by use of a high aspect ratio slot using water as the working fluid. The cross section of the geometry is similar to a 'T', the slot being the vertical stroke and the main flow being the cross bar. A pressure gradient in the axial direction is created by blocking the main flow at a discreet location with an orifice plate (or blade tip simulator), located above the slot. Seven individually metered secondary flow injectors are located periodically along the bottom of the wall of the slot. Two slot widths, 1/8 and 1/4 inch, were investigated for length to width aspect ratios of 384 and 192 and height to width aspect ratios 33.2 and 16.6 respectively. Orifice plate pressure drops sufficient to give Reynolds numbers based upon half width of the slot, without secondary injection turned on, of 2350 and 4700 in the 1/8 inch slot and 4700 and 9400 in the 1/4 inch slot were run. Various secondary injection scenarios were added to the flow, the cases most studied being the no-injection and the all injectors flowing equal mass rates. Total injection rates for all seven injectors of 3.78 and 7.56 slot volumes per second were run. Laser velocimetry data and flow visualization pictures using fluorescein dye in the secondary flow are compared with computational results form the TEACH 3-D computer code. Major features and trends of the flow are captured by the computational model. Recommendations for further improvement of the numerical accuracy involves modification of the TEACH 3-D code to allow the 'slip condition' on all confining boundaries of the flow, or using a code which permits the 'slip condition' on all boundaries as a built-in option.

  5. Polarization Issues with High Power Injection and Low Power Emission in Fusion Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, T. P.; Felici, F.; Udintsev, V. S.

    2009-11-26

    All tokamak experiments using ECCD require setting of the beam elliptical polarization for proper coupling to the plasma. This is done either in the matching optics unit (MOU) at the output of the gyrotron, or in a couple of miter bends of the transmission line. Similarly, oblique ECE receivers require selection of the correct elliptical polarization to provide localized measurements. For the TCV tokamak at the CRPP, gyrotron and oblique-ECE polarizers are characterized during either high- or low- power testing of equipment: for the gyrotrons the behaviour is determined at a single frequency, but for the oblique-ECE the broadband response is needed. These characteristics are included in the calibration database and used during subsequent analysis of the power coupling to, or from, the sources (gyrotron, plasma, or low power transmitting antenna). A more detailed characterization has been carried out (at low power) with the MOU for the EU, 170 GHz, 2 MW, gyrotron prototype for ITER. This paper discusses the methodology and results of these measurements, as well as a review of nearly a decade's worth of experimental data from the 6 gyrotron, 3 MW, 82.6 GHz TCV system. In particular, the consistency between the calibrations and the subsequent data from tokamak experiments is analysed.

  6. Brain transcription factor gene expression, neurotransmitter levels, and novelty response behaviors: alterations during rat amphetamine withdrawal and following chronic injection stress.

    PubMed

    Persico, A M; Schindler, C W; Zaczek, R; Brannock, M T; Uhl, G R

    1995-03-01

    Transcription factors are known to act as gene expression regulators, possibly linking extracellular stimuli to long-term modifications at the neuronal level. Such modifications may potentially underlie chronic psychostimulant- and stress-induced behavioral alterations. This study illustrates how a 2 week, twice daily 7.5 mg/kg d-amphetamine or saline regimen alters rat brain regional expression of transcription factor genes, including c-fos, fos-B, jun-B, c-jun, and zif 268, and seeks potential correlations between those changes and alterations in neurotransmitter levels and behavioral novelty responses. Amphetamine withdrawal-induced decreases in transcription factor mRNA levels, assessed using Northern blot analysis, appear most prominent in prefrontal cortex, begin approximately 12 h after the last injection, and largely recover to control levels by 54 h. Prefrontal cortical and striatal dopamine content, assessed using HPLC, decrease and recover over a similar time course. Behavioral "stereotypy time" manifest by animals exposed to a novel environment, a measure sensitive to psychostimulant withdrawal, also decreases beginning 12 h after the last injection, is still significantly reduced at 54 h, and recovers at 72 h. Chronic saline injections are followed by a consistent decrease in transcription factor gene expression, observed 6 h after the last injection, followed by a "rebound" increase at 12 h. These changes are accompanied by dramatic, mostly biphasic alterations in prefrontal cortical biogenic amines and by a short-lived increase in striatal dopamine turnover. At the same time, rats display much longer-lasting decreases in locomotor responses when exposed to a novel environment, with recovery occurring only 54 h after the last injection. The delayed recovery of behavioral responses to novelty is consistent with potential involvement of changes in transcription factor-mediated gene expression in neurochemical mechanisms underlying psychostimulant

  7. Diesel engine fuel injection system with a rate-of-injection control arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, S.; Igashira, T.; Sakakibara, Y.; Izawa, A.; Sekiguchi, K.

    1988-03-15

    A fuel injection system for a diesel engine is described comprising: (a) a fuel injection pump for delivering a controlled quantity of high pressure fuel cyclically at a timing synchronized with the operation of the engine; (b) a fuel injection nozzle hydraulically connected to the injection pump for receiving high pressure fuel therefrom and injecting the fuel into an engine cylinder; (c) means for controlling a rate of injection of the system in response to operating conditions of the engine; and (d) passage means for providing, during each delivery stroke of the pump plunger, fluid communication between the pumping chamber and the variable volume chamber only for a predetermined initial phase of the delivery stroke. The variable volume chamber is hydraulically isolated from the pumping chamber during subsequent phases of the delivery stroke.

  8. Observing Exoplanets with High-dispersion Coronagraphy. II. Demonstration of an Active Single-mode Fiber Injection Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawet, D.; Ruane, G.; Xuan, W.; Echeverri, D.; Klimovich, N.; Randolph, M.; Fucik, J.; Wallace, J. K.; Wang, J.; Vasisht, G.; Dekany, R.; Mennesson, B.; Choquet, E.; Delorme, J.-R.; Serabyn, E.

    2017-04-01

    High-dispersion coronagraphy (HDC) optimally combines high-contrast imaging techniques such as adaptive optics/wavefront control plus coronagraphy to high spectral resolution spectroscopy. HDC is a critical pathway toward fully characterizing exoplanet atmospheres across a broad range of masses from giant gaseous planets down to Earth-like planets. In addition to determining the molecular composition of exoplanet atmospheres, HDC also enables Doppler mapping of atmosphere inhomogeneities (temperature, clouds, wind), as well as precise measurements of exoplanet rotational velocities. Here, we demonstrate an innovative concept for injecting the directly imaged planet light into a single-mode fiber, linking a high-contrast adaptively corrected coronagraph to a high-resolution spectrograph (diffraction-limited or not). Our laboratory demonstration includes three key milestones: close-to-theoretical injection efficiency, accurate pointing and tracking, and on-fiber coherent modulation and speckle nulling of spurious starlight signal coupling into the fiber. Using the extreme modal selectivity of single-mode fibers, we also demonstrated speckle suppression gains that outperform conventional image-based speckle nulling by at least two orders of magnitude.

  9. Application of railgun principle to high-velocity hydrogen pellet injection for magnetic fusion reactor fueling. Progress report, August 16, 1991--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Zhang, J.

    1992-12-01

    Three separate papers are included which report research progress during this period: (1) A new railgun configuration with perforated sidewalls, (2) development of a fuseless small-bore railgun for injection of high-speed hydrogen pellets into magnetically confined plasmas, and (3) controls and diagnostics on a fuseless railgun for solid hydrogen pellet injection.

  10. Ibandronate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Boniva® Injection ... Ibandronate injection is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and break ... Ibandronate injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be injected into a vein by a doctor or nurse in ...

  11. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Leuprolide injection comes as a long-acting suspension (Lupron) that is injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) by a doctor or nurse in a medical ... Depot-4 month, Lupron Depot-6 Month). Leuprolide injection also comes as a long-acting suspension (Eligard) that is injected subcutaneously (just under ...

  12. Within-Prison Drug Injection among HIV-infected Male Prisoners in Indonesia: A Highly Constrained Choice

    PubMed Central

    Culbert, Gabriel J.; Waluyo, Agung; Iriyanti, Mariska; Muchransyah, Azalia P.; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Indonesia, incarceration of people who inject drugs (PWID) and access to drugs in prison potentiate within-prison drug injection (WP-DI), a preventable and extremely high-risk behavior that may contribute substantially to HIV transmission in prison and communities to which prisoners are released. Aims This mixed method study examined the prevalence, correlates, and social context of WP-DI among HIV-infected male prisoners in Indonesia. Methods 102 randomly selected HIV-infected male prisoners completed semi-structured voice-recorded interviews about drug use changes after arrest, drug use cues within prison, and impact of WP-DI on HIV and addiction treatment. Logistic regression identified multivariate correlates of WP-DI and thematic analysis of interview transcripts used grounded-theory. Results Over half (56%) of participants reported previous WP-DI. Of those, 93% shared injection equipment in prison, and 78.6% estimated sharing needles with ≥10 other prisoners. Multivariate analyses independently correlated WP-DI with being incarcerated for drug offenses (AOR=3.29, 95%CI=1.30–8.31, p=0.011) and daily drug injection before arrest (AOR=5.23, 95%CI=1.42–19.25, p=0.013). Drug availability and proximity to drug users while incarcerated were associated with frequent drug craving and escalating drug use risk behaviors after arrest. Energetic heroin marketing and stigmatizing attitudes toward methadone contribute to WP-DI and impede addiction and HIV treatment. Conclusions Frequent WP-DI and needle sharing among these HIV-infected Indonesian prison inmates indicate the need for structural interventions that reduce overcrowding, drug supply, and needle sharing, and improve detection and treatment of substance use disorders upon incarceration to minimize WP-DI and associated harm. PMID:25659895

  13. The effects of SDZ NKT 343, a potent NK1 receptor antagonist, on cutaneous responses of primate spinothalamic tract neurones sensitized by intradermal capsaicin injection.

    PubMed

    Rees, H; Sluka, K A; Urban, L; Walpole, C J; Willis, W D

    1998-08-01

    Substance P, acting through neurokinin I receptors, is involved in the processing of nociceptive information in the spinal cord. Sensitization of spinothalamic tract neurons occurs to low-intensity stimuli following capsaicin injection. The current study tested the effects of the novel neurokinin I receptor antagonist, SDZ NKT 343, on the sensitization of spinothalamic tract cells by capsaicin in monkeys. Spinothalamic tract cells from the lumbar enlargement with receptive fields in the hindpaw were isolated and recorded before and after intradermal injection of capsaicin. The background activity and responses to brushing, pressing and pinching the skin were assessed. Thirty minutes after capsaicin injection there was an increase in background activity and responses to brush and pressure applied to the receptive field. Infusion of SDZ NKT 343 (for 30-45 min) significantly reversed the increased response to brushing without affecting the increased background activity or the increased response to pressure. Thus, blockade of neurokinin 1 receptors reduces the sensitized responses to innocuous mechanical stimuli but not to noxious mechanical stimuli.

  14. High Energy, Short Pulse Fiber Injection Lasers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J W; Messerly, M J; Phan, H H; Crane, J K; Beach, R J; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2008-09-10

    A short pulse fiber injection laser for the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This system produces 100 {micro}J pulses with 5 nm of bandwidth centered at 1053 nm. The pulses are stretched to 2.5 ns and have been recompressed to sub-ps pulse widths. A key feature of the system is that the pre-pulse power contrast ratio exceeds 80 dB. The system can also precisely adjust the final recompressed pulse width and timing and has been designed for reliable, hands free operation. The key challenges in constructing this system were control of the signal to noise ratio, dispersion management and managing the impact of self phase modulation on the chirped pulse.

  15. Relativistic performance analysis of a high current density magnetron injection gun

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, L. R.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.; Chiu, C. C.; Chu, K. R.

    2009-09-15

    Electron beam quality is essential to the performance of millimeter-wave gyroamplifiers, particularly the gyrotron traveling-wave tube amplifier, which is extremely sensitive to the electron velocity spread and emission uniformity. As one moves up in power and frequency, the quality of the electron beam becomes even more critical. One aspect of the electron beam formation technology which has received relatively little attention has been the performance analysis of the electron beam itself. In this study, a 100 kV, 8 A magnetron injection gun with a calculated perpendicular-to-parallel velocity ratio of 1.4 and axial velocity spread of 3.5% has been designed, tested, and analyzed. It is shown that the equipment precision and a fully relativistic data analysis model afford sufficient resolution to allow a verification of the theoretical predictions as well as a quantitative inference to the surface roughness of the cathode used.

  16. On the Mechanisms Responsible for Selection of Hepatic Veins as Target for Thrombosis Following Injection of Endotoxin in Hyperlipemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Latour, Jean-Gilles; Léger, Claudette; Renaud, Serge; Simard, Pierre

    1974-01-01

    The feeding of a butter-rich diet, to sensitize rats for studying the phenomenon of hepatic vein thrombosis, is shown to produce severe liver steatosis leading to a sinusoidal barrage and portal hypertension. The portal pressure in these animals was 210 ± 4 mm of saline, as compared to 113 ± 3 mm in the normal rat. Blood circulation studies using carbon suspensions revealed production of a vascular stasis in the hepatic veins after 60 to 90 minutes, when endotoxin (Salmonella typhosa, 0.3 mg/kg) is introduced into the blood circulation to initiate hepatic vein thrombosis. Similar results were observed after 15 minutes with ellagic acid (1 mg/kg/min). The stasis was found in connection with an additional intrahepatic resistance to blood flow as evidenced by a rise in portal pressure and by a reduction in liver perfusion in relation with development of systemic hypotension. In contrast with this, endotoxin initiated only slight and transient changes in the normal rat. Thrombosis immediately followed production of stasis in the hepatic vein, whether the phenomenon was initiated by endotoxin or ellagic acid. Furthermore, inhibition of the vascular stasis of α-adrenergic blockade (phenoxybenzamine, 3 mg/kg) was accompanied by prevention of hepatic vein thrombosis. It is concluded that stasis in the hepatic veins resulting from a mechanical obstruction of the circulation by steatosis and by an additional reduction in blood flow initiated by endotoxin, is responsible for selection of hepatic veins as targets for thrombosis following injection of endotoxin in hyperlipemic rats. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3 PMID:4843382

  17. The Influence of Electron Temperature and Magnetic Field Strength on Cosmic-Ray Injection in High Mach Number Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, H.; Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R. O.

    2002-05-01

    Electron preacceleration from thermal to mildly relativistic energies in high Mach number shocks (the injection problem) is an outstanding issue in understanding synchrotron radiation from supernova remnants. At high Alfvénic Mach numbers, collisionless perpendicular shocks reflect a fraction of the upstream ions. This gives rise to two-stream instabilities, which in turn can accelerate ions. However, in astrophysical plasmas, the value of β-the ratio of kinetic pressure to magnetic pressure-is not well known. We have used a particle in cell simulation code to investigate the influence of β on the shock structure and on the electron acceleration (assuming thermodynamic equilibrium in the undisturbed plasma, β=βi=βe). Previous simulations at low values of β showed that the phase space distributions of electrons and ions became highly structured: characteristic holes appear in the electron phase space, and the shock dynamics exhibit reformation processes. However, we find that all these features disappear at higher β due to the high initial thermal velocity of the electrons. It follows that the electron cosmic-ray injection mechanism depends strongly on β, that is, on the electron temperature normalized to the magnetic field upstream.

  18. Aerosolized measles and measles-rubella vaccines induce better measles antibody booster responses than injected vaccines: randomized trials in Mexican schoolchildren.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, John V.; Fernandez de Castro, Jorge; Valdespino-Gomez, Jose Luis; Garcia-Garcia, Ma de Lourdes; Islas-Romero, Rocio; Echaniz-Aviles, Gabriela; Jimenez-Corona, Aida; Sepulveda-Amor, Jaime

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare antibody responses and side-effects of aerosolized and injected measles vaccines after revaccination of children enrolling in elementary schools. METHODS: Vaccines for measles (Edmonston-Zagreb) or measles-rubella (Edmonston-Zagreb with RA27/3) were given by aerosol or injection to four groups of children. An additional group received Schwarz measles vaccine by injection. These five groups received vaccines in usual standard titre doses. A sixth group received only 1000 plaque-forming units of Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine by aerosol. The groups were randomized by school. Concentrations of neutralizing antibodies were determined in blood specimens taken at baseline and four months after vaccination from randomized subgroups (n = 28-31) of children in each group. FINDINGS: After baseline antibody titres were controlled for, the frequencies of fourfold or greater increases in neutralizing antibodies did not differ significantly between the three groups that received vaccine by aerosol (range 52%-64%), but they were significantly higher than those for the three groups that received injected vaccine (range 4%-23%). Mean increases in titres and post-vaccination geometric mean titres paralleled these findings. Fewer side-effects were noted after aerosol than injection administration of vaccine. CONCLUSION: Immunogenicity of measles vaccine when administered by aerosol is superior to that when the vaccine is given by injection. This advantage persists with aerosolized doses less than or equal to one-fifth of usual injected doses. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of measles vaccination by aerosol should be further evaluated in mass campaigns. PMID:12471401

  19. Linear Stability Analysis of Gravitational Effects on a Low-Density Gas Jet Injected into a High-Density Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Anthony L.; Parthasarathy, Ramkumar N.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of buoyancy on the absolute instability of low-density gas jets injected into high-density gas mediums. Most of the existing analyses of low-density gas jets injected into a high-density ambient have been carried out neglecting effects of gravity. In order to investigate the influence of gravity on the near-injector development of the flow, a spatio-temporal stability analysis of a low-density round jet injected into a high-density ambient gas was performed. The flow was assumed to be isothermal and locally parallel; viscous and diffusive effects were ignored. The variables were represented as the sum of the mean value and a normal-mode small disturbance. An ordinary differential equation governing the amplitude of the pressure disturbance was derived. The velocity and density profiles in the shear layer, and the Froude number (signifying the effects of gravity) were the three important parameters in this equation. Together with the boundary conditions, an eigenvalue problem was formulated. Assuming that the velocity and density profiles in the shear layer to be represented by hyperbolic tangent functions, the eigenvalue problem was solved for various values of Froude number. The Briggs-Bers criterion was combined with the spatio-temporal stability analysis to determine the nature of the absolute instability of the jet whether absolutely or convectively unstable. The roles of the density ratio, Froude number, Schmidt number, and the lateral shift between the density and velocity profiles on the absolute instability of the jet were determined. Comparisons of the results with previous experimental studies show good agreement when the effects of these variables are combined together. Thus, the combination of these variables determines how absolutely unstable the jet will be.

  20. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel

    2006-02-01

    The field operator, Goldrus Producing Company, has been unable to secure funding needed to continue the field demonstration phase of the project. Accordingly, we have temporarily halted all project activities until necessary funding is obtained. Goldrus felt confident that funds could be acquired by third quarter 2005 at which time it would have been necessary to request a project extension to complete the originally designed study. A project extension was granted but it appears Goldrus will have difficulty securing funds. We Bureau of Economic Geology are investigating a new approach on how to fulfill our initial objectives of promoting high-pressure air injection of Ellenburger reservoirs.

  1. Structure and Dynamics of Fuel Jets Injected into a High-Temperature Subsonic Crossflow: High-Data-Rate Laser Diagnostic Investigation under Steady and Oscillatory Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Robert; Anderson, William

    2015-01-23

    An investigation of subsonic transverse jet injection into a subsonic vitiated crossflow is discussed. The reacting jet in crossflow (RJIC) system investigated as a means of secondary injection of fuel in a staged combustion system. The measurements were performed in test rigs featuring (a) a steady, swirling crossflow and (b) a crossflow with low swirl but significant oscillation in the pressure field and in the axial velocity. The rigs are referred to as the steady state rig and the instability rig. Rapid mixing and chemical reaction in the near field of the jet injection is desirable in this application. Temporally resolved velocity measurements within the wake of the reactive jets using 2D-PIV and OH-PLIF at a repetition rate of 5 kHz were performed on the RJIC flow field in a steady state water-cooled test rig. The reactive jets were injected through an extended nozzle into the crossflow which is located in the downstream of a low swirl burner (LSB) that produced the swirled, vitiated crossflow. Both H2/N2 and natural gas (NG)/air jets were investigated. OH-PLIF measurements along the jet trajectory show that the auto-ignition starts on the leeward side within the wake region of the jet flame. The measurements show that jet flame is stabilized in the wake of the jet and wake vortices play a significant role in this process. PIV and OH–PLIF measurements were performed at five measurement planes along the cross- section of the jet. The time resolved measurements provided significant information on the evolution of complex flow structures and highly transient features like, local extinction, re-ignition, vortex-flame interaction prevalent in a turbulent reacting flow. Nanosecond-laser-based, single-laser-shot coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements of temperature and H2 concentraiton were also performed. The structure and dynamics of a reacting transverse jet injected into a vitiated oscillatory crossflow presents a unique opportunity for

  2. Heat transfer processes during low or high enthalpy fluid injection into naturally fractured reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Fernando Ascencio Cendejas; Jesus Rivera Rodriguez

    1994-01-20

    Disposal of hot separated brine by means of reinjection within the limits of the geothermal reservoir is, at present, a problem that remains to be solved. Possible thermal, as well as chemical contamination of the resources present key questions that have to be appropiately answered before a reinjection project is actually implemented in the field. This paper focusses on the basic heat-transfer process that takes place when a relatively cold brine is injected back into the naturally fractured hot geothermal reservoir after steam has been separated at the surface. The mathematical description of this process considers that rock matrix blocks behaves as uniformly distributed heat sources, meanwhile heat transfer between matrix blocks and the fluid contained in the fractures takes place under pseudo-steady state conditions with the main temperature drop occurring in the rock-matrix blocks interphase. Analytical solutions describing the thermal front speed of propagation are presented. Discussion on the effect of several variables affecting the thermal front speed of propagation is included, stressing the importance that a proper “in-situ” determination of the effective heat transfer area at the rock-fluid interphase has on the whole process. Solutions are also presented as a type-curve that can be practically used to estimate useful parameters involved in heat transfer phenomena during cold fluid reinjection in naturally fractured geothermal systems.

  3. Determination of the solid angle and response function of a hemispherical spectrograph with injection lens for Auger electrons emitted from long lived projectile states

    SciTech Connect

    Doukas, S.; Madesis, I.; Dimitriou, A.; Zouros, T. J. M.; Laoutaris, A.; Benis, E. P.

    2015-04-15

    We present SIMION 8.1 Monte Carlo type simulations of the response function and detection solid angle for long lived Auger states (lifetime τ ∼ 10{sup −9} − 10{sup −5} s) recorded by a hemispherical spectrograph with injection lens and position sensitive detector used for high resolution Auger spectroscopy of ion beams. Also included in these simulations for the first time are kinematic effects particular to Auger emission from fast moving projectile ions such as line broadening and solid angle limitations allowing for a more accurate and realistic line shape modeling. Our results are found to be in excellent agreement with measured electron line shapes of both long lived 1s2s2p{sup 4}P and prompt Auger projectile states formed by electron capture in collisions of 25.3 MeV F{sup 7+} with H{sub 2} and 12.0 MeV C{sup 4+} with Ne recorded at 0{sup ∘} to the beam direction. These results are important for the accurate evaluation of the 1s2s2p {sup 4}P/{sup 2}P ratio of K-Auger cross sections whose observed non-statistical production by electron capture into He-like ions, recently a field of interesting interpretations, awaits further resolution.

  4. Luminescence of the disturbed upper atmosphere in the visible and infrared spectral ranges in the conditions of injection of a high-velocity plasma jet: II. Theoretical interpretation of the luminescence in the visible spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, S. I.; Smirnova, N. V.; Loseva, T. V.; Lyakhov, A. N.; Kosarev, I. B.

    2008-12-01

    A theoretical interpretation is given to the experimental data on the luminescence in the visible spectral region of the disturbed upper atmosphere in the conditions of injection of a high-velocity aluminum plasma jet (the “Fluxus” experiment). Mathematical models of optical effects are presented. It is demonstrated that the results of the calculations and the experimental data agree satisfactorily. The principal physical and chemical processes responsible for the observed luminescence are determined.

  5. Flexible and reliable high power injection locked laser for double exposure and double patterning ArF immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, Masaya; Umeda, Hiroshi; Tsushima, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Hidenori; Tanaka, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Shinich; Onose, Takashi; Nogawa, Hiroyuki; Kawasuji, Yasufumi; Matsunaga, Takashi; Fujimoto, Junichi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2010-04-01

    ArF immersion technology is spotlighted as the enabling technology for the 45nm node and beyond. Recently, double exposure technology is also considered as a possible candidate for the 32nm node and beyond. We have already released an injection lock ArF excimer laser, the GT61A (60W/6kHz/10mJ/0.30pm) with ultra line-narrowed spectrum and stabilized spectrum performance for immersion lithography tools with N.A.>1.3, and we have been monitoring the field reliability data of our lasers used in the ArF immersion segment since Q4 2006. In this report we show field reliability data of our GigaTwin series - twin chamber ArF laser products. GigaTwin series have high reliability. The availability that exceeds 99.5% proves the reliability of the GigaTwin series. We have developed tunable and high power injection-lock ArF excimer laser for double patterning, GT62A (Max90W/6000Hz/Tunable power with 10-15mJ/0.30pm (E95)) based on the GigaTwin platform. A number of innovative and unique technologies are implemented on GT62A. - Support the latest illumination optical system - Support E95 stability and adjustability - Reduce total cost (Cost of Consumables, Cost of Downtime and Cost of Energy & Environment)

  6. Flow-injection electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of crude cell extracts for high-throughput bacterial identification.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Seetharaman; Kell, Douglas B; Goodacre, Royston

    2002-02-01

    Flow-injection electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (FI-ESI-MS) of unfractionated cell-free extracts obtained from bacterial cells suspended in a solvent mixture was investigated as a rapid analytical method for reproducible, high-throughput bacterial identification. Five bacterial strains (two Escherichia coli, two Bacillus spp. and one Brevibacillus laterosporus) were studied in this investigation. Axenically grown bacterial cells were suspended in an acidic organic solvent and the cell-free extract was sequentially injected into a solvent flow stream that was sprayed into the ionization chamber of the ESI-MS. The spectra produced contained reproducible information, which was useful for discriminating between the bacteria. Tandem mass spectrometry was used to characterize further the peaks, and at least three classes of macromolecules, namely phospholipids, glycolipids, and proteins, were found to contribute most to the spectral information. Bacterial extracts stored under different conditions gave very similar mass spectra for each of the five bacterial strains, indicating that the extracts were stable even at room temperature for up to 24 h, with no loss of information content, which has obvious implications for automated high-throughput analysis. An analysis of the components of the extracting solvent mixture and their effects on the spectral information showed that acetonitrile contributes most significantly to the extraction process and hence to the information content of the spectra.

  7. High {beta} produced by neutral beam injection in the START (Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak) spherical tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Sykes, A.

    1997-05-01

    The world{close_quote}s first high-power auxiliary heating experiments in a tight aspect ratio (or spherical) tokamak have been performed on the Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokomak (START) device [Sykes {ital et al.}, Nucl. Fusion {bold 32}, 694 (1992)] at Culham Laboratory, using the 40 keV, 0.5 MW Neutral Beam Injector loaned by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Injection has been mainly of hydrogen into hydrogen or deuterium target plasmas, with a one-day campaign to explore D{r_arrow}D operation. In each case injection provides a combination of higher density operation and effective heating of both ions and electrons. The highest {beta} values achieved to date in START are volume average {beta}{sub T}{approximately}11.5{percent} and central beta {beta}{sub O}{approximately}50{percent}. Already high, these values are expected to increase further with the use of higher beam power. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Fabrication of injectable high strength hydrogel based on 4-arm star PEG for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianqi; Zhang, Fengjie; Tsang, Wing Pui; Wan, Chao; Wu, Chi

    2017-03-01

    Hydrogels prepared from poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) are widely applied in tissue engineering, especially those derived from a combination of functional multi-arm star PEG and linear crosslinker, with an expectation to form a structurally ideal network. However, the poor mechanical strength still renders their further applications. Here we examined the relationship between the dynamics of the pre-gel solution and the mechanical property of the resultant hydrogel in a system consisting of 4-arm star PEG functionalized with vinyl sulfone and short dithiol crosslinker. A method to prepare mechanically strong hydrogel for cartilage tissue engineering is proposed. It is found that when gelation takes place at the overlap concentration, at which a slow relaxation mode just appears in dynamic light scattering (DLS), the resultant hydrogel has a local maximum compressive strength ∼20 MPa, while still keeps ultralow mass concentration and Young's modulus. Chondrocyte-laden hydrogel constructed under this condition was transplanted into the subcutaneous pocket and an osteochondral defect model in SCID mice. The in vivo results show that chondrocytes can proliferate and maintain their phenotypes in the hydrogel, with the production of abundant extracellular matrix (ECM) components, formation of typical chondrocyte lacunae structure and increase in Young's modulus over 12 weeks, as indicated by histological, immunohistochemistry, gene expression analyses and mechanical test. Moreover, newly formed hyaline cartilage was observed to be integrated with the host articular cartilage tissue in the defects injected with chondrocytes/hydrogel constructs. The results suggest that this hydrogel is a promising candidate scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

  9. Luteinizing hormone release and androgen production of avian hybrids in response to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone injection.

    PubMed

    Mathis, G F; Burke, W H; McDougald, L R

    1983-04-01

    The levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and androgens were measured in sterile avian hybrids. Guinea fowl-chicken and peafowl-guinea fowl hybrids were bled before and after injection with LH- releasing hormone (LHRH). The preinjection LH levels for the guinea fowl-chicken hybrids were below or at the very lower limit of the assay sensitivity and the peafowl-guinea fowl hybrids averaged 1.3 ng/ml. Within 10 min after LHRH injection, LH had increased dramatically in both hybrids and then began to slowly decline. Androgen levels in the guinea fowl-chicken hybrids increased from 16.2 pg/ml to 95.2 pg/ml and continued to increase, reaching 287 pg/ml at the last bleeding 60 min after injection.

  10. Collective Cognitive Responsibility in the High School Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webel, Corey

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation consists of two articles which discuss the establishment of collective cognitive responsibility in high school mathematics classrooms. I use collective cognitive responsibility as a framework for interpreting the extent to which students see themselves as responsible for building knowledge as a community. I adapted this framework…

  11. A metabolomic strategy to screen the prototype components and metabolites of Qingkailing injection in rat urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingxing; Zhang, Li; Liu, Haiyu; Qin, Lingling; Zhang, Zhixin; Bai, Xu; Gao, Xiaoyan

    2014-10-01

    Xenobiotic metabolome identification of Chinese herbal formula in biological systems is a very challenging task. Qingkailing injection is a typical Chinese herbal injection, which is wildly used clinically in China. However, the holistic metabolic fate of the ingredient from Qingkailing injection remains unclear. In this work, a metabolomic strategy for comprehensively elucidating Qingkailing injection derived prototype components and metabolites in rat urine conducted by hybrid linear ion trap high-resolution mass spectrometry was developed. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid linear ion trap high-resolution mass spectrometry was developed to obtain the urine profiling between the control group and Qingkailing injection treated group. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminate analysis was applied to distinguish the exogenous and the endogenous. In the S-plot, 37 xenobiotics derived from Qingkailing injection were found in urine, including 18 prototype compounds and 19 metabolites. The characterization of the prototype components and metabolites in rat's urine provided essential data for further pharmacological studies of Qingkailing injection. Our results indicated that the metabolomic approach was an effective tool to discover, screen, and analyze the multiple prototype components and their metabolites from complicated traditional Chinese preparations in vivo.

  12. Intraplantar injection of anandamide inhibits mechanically-evoked responses of spinal neurones via activation of CB2 receptors in anaesthetised rats.

    PubMed

    Sokal, D M; Elmes, S J R; Kendall, D A; Chapman, V

    2003-09-01

    Anti-nociceptive effects of the endocannabinoid anandamide are well established. Anandamide has, however, also been shown to activate pro-nociceptive vanilloid 1 (VR1) receptors present on primary afferent nociceptors. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of intraplantar injection of anandamide on dorsal spinal neuronal responses in control rats and rats with hindpaw carrageenan-induced inflammation. Effects of intraplantar administration of anandamide (50 microg in 50 microl) on peripheral mechanically-evoked responses of spinal neurones were studied in halothane-anaesthetised rats in vivo. Responses of spinal neurones to mechanical punctate stimulation (von Frey filaments, 8-80 g) of the peripheral receptive field were similar in non-inflamed rats and rats with hindpaw carrageenan-induced inflammation. Intraplantar injection of anandamide, but not vehicle, significantly (P<0.05) inhibited innocuous and noxious mechanically-evoked responses of spinal neurones in rats with hindpaw inflammation, but not in non-inflamed rats. Co-administration of the cannabinoid (2) (CB(2)) receptor antagonist, SR144528 (10 microg in 50 microl), but not the cannabinoid (1) (CB(1)) receptor antagonist, SR141716A (10 microg in 50 microl), significantly blocked inhibitory effects of anandamide on peripheral evoked neuronal responses in rats with hindpaw inflammation. This study demonstrates inhibitory effects of exogenous anandamide on mechanically-evoked responses under inflammatory conditions in vivo, which are mediated by peripheral CB(2) receptors.

  13. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... body and causes pain, swelling, and damage) including: rheumatoid arthritis (condition in which the body attacks its own ... doctor.If golimumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it may also be injected intravenously (into a ...

  14. Adalimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes pain, swelling, and damage) including the following: rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... If you are using adalimumab injection to treat rheumatoid arthritis, your doctor may tell you to inject the ...

  15. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... aripiprazole injection and aripiprazole extended-release injection developed gambling problems or other intense urges or behaviors that ... even if you do not realize that your gambling or any other intense urges or unusual behaviors ...

  16. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... mix and inject it.Teduglutide comes as a kit containing vials of teduglutide powder for injection, prefilled syringes containing diluent (liquid to be mixed with teduglutide powder), needles to attach to the diluent syringe, dosing syringes ...

  17. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  18. Cyclosporine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used with other medications to prevent transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by the ... people who have received kidney, liver, and heart transplants. Cyclosporine injection should only be used to treat ...

  19. Colistimethate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Colistimethate injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work ...

  20. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  1. Estrogen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... If you are using estrogen injection to treat hot flushes, your symptoms should improve within 1 to ...

  2. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of birth control but does not prevent the spread of human ... you have been using a different method of birth control and are switching to medroxyprogesterone injection, your doctor ...

  3. Etanercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... areas causing pain and joint damage), chronic plaque psoriasis (a skin disease in which red, scaly patches ... etanercept injection is used to treat chronic plaque psoriasis, it may be injected twice a week during ...

  4. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Levoleucovorin injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of cancer. Levoleucovorin injection is also used to treat people ...

  5. Leucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Leucovorin injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall; cancer chemotherapy medication) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of cancer. Leucovorin injection is used to ...

  6. Teniposide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in men. You should not become pregnant or breast-feed while you are receiving teniposide injection. If you or your partner become pregnant while receiving teniposide injection, call your doctor. Teniposide may harm the fetus.

  7. Ipilimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while receiving ipilimumab injection, call your doctor. Ipilimumab injection may cause your baby to be born too early or to die before birth.

  8. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pralatrexate injection is used to treat peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL; a form of cancer that begins in a ... come back after treatment with other medications. Pralatrexate injection has not been shown to help people who ...

  9. Cyanocobalamin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cyanocobalamin injection is used to treat and prevent a lack of vitamin B12 that may be caused by any ... organs) and permanent damage to the nerves. Cyanocobalamin injection also may be given as a test to ...

  10. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Paclitaxel injection manufactured with human albumin is used to treat breast cancer that has not improved or that has come back after treatment with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to ...

  11. Diphenhydramine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Diphenhydramine injection is used to treat allergic reactions, especially for people who are unable to take diphenhydramine by mouth. ... is used also to treat motion sickness. Diphenhydramine injection is also used alone or along with other ...

  12. Peramivir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Peramivir injection is used to treat some types of influenza infection ('flu') in people who have had symptoms of ... flu for no longer than 2 days. Peramivir injection is in a class of medications called neuraminidase ...

  13. Cefotetan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cefotetan injection is used to treat infections of the lungs, skin, bones, joints, stomach area, blood, female reproductive organs, and urinary tract. Cefotetan injection is also used before surgery to prevent infections. ...

  14. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Mipomersen injection is used to decrease levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood in people who ... that removes LDL from the blood), but mipomersen injection should not be used along with this treatment. ...

  15. Romiplostim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Romiplostim injection is used to increase the number of platelets (cells that help the blood to clot) in order ... low number of platelets in the blood). Romiplostim injection should only be used in people who cannot ...

  16. Hydrocortisone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocortisone injection is used to treat symptoms of low corticosteroid levels (lack of certain substances that are usually produced ... also used to treat severe allergic reactions. Hydrocortisone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis ( ...

  17. Palivizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Palivizumab injection is used to help prevent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; common virus that can cause serious lung infections) ... or have certain heart or lung diseases. Palivizumab injection is not used to treat the symptoms of ...

  18. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large amounts of alcohol to avoid drinking again. Naltrexone injection is also used along with counseling and social ...

  19. Tesamorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Tesamorelin injection is used to decrease the amount of extra fat in the stomach area in adults with human ... fat in certain areas of the body). Tesamorelin injection is not used to help with weight loss. ...

  20. Testosterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and testosterone pellet (Testopel) are forms of testosterone injection used to treat symptoms of low testosterone in ... are low before you begin to use testosterone injection. Testosterone enanthate (Delatestryl) and testosterone pellet (Testopel) are ...

  1. Tigecycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Tigecycline injection used to treat certain serious infections including community acquired pneumonia (a lung infection that developed in a ... area between the chest and the waist). Tigecycline injection should not be used to treat pneumonia that ...

  2. Eculizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Eculizumab injection is used to treat paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH: a type of anemia in which too many red ... oxygen to all parts of the body). Eculizumab injection is also used to treat atypical hemolytic uremic ...

  3. Pembrolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pembrolizumab injection is used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that cannot be treated with surgery or ... spread to other parts of the body. Pembrolizumab injection is also used to treat a certain type ...

  4. Methylprednisolone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic reactions. Methylprednisolone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis (a disease in which the ... laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are using methylprednisolone injection.If you ...

  5. Obinutuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Obinutuzumab injection is used with chlorambucil (Leukeran) to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Obinutuzumab injection is in a class of medications called ...

  6. Time Course Analysis of the Effects of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A on Pain and Vasomotor Responses Evoked by Glutamate Injection into Human Temporalis Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt da Silva, Larissa; Kulas, Dolarose; Karshenas, Ali; Cairns, Brian E.; Bach, Flemming W.; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Gazerani, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    The effect of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNTA) on glutamate-evoked temporalis muscle pain and vasomotor responses was investigated in healthy men and women over a 60 day time course. Subjects participated in a pre-BoNTA session where their responses to injection of glutamate (1 M, 0.2 mL) and saline (0.2 mL) into the temporalis muscles were assessed. On Day 1, BoNTA (5 U) was injected into one temporalis muscle and saline into the contralateral temporalis muscle, in a randomized order. Subjects then received intramuscular injections of glutamate (1 M, 0.2 mL) into the left and right temporalis muscles at 3 h and subsequently 7, 30 and 60 days post-injection of BoNTA. Pain intensity, pain area, and neurogenic inflammation (skin temperature and skin blood perfusion) were recorded. Prior to BoNTA treatment, glutamate evoked significantly greater pain and vasomotor reactions (P < 0.001) than saline. BoNTA significantly reduced glutamate-evoked pain intensity (P < 0.05), pain area (P < 0.01), skin blood perfusion (P < 0.05), and skin temperature (P < 0.001). The inhibitory effect of BoNTA was present at 3 h after injection, peaked after 7 days and returned to baseline by 60 days. Findings from the present study demonstrated a rapid action of BoNTA on glutamate-evoked pain and neurogenic inflammation, which is in line with animal studies. PMID:24517906

  7. High-Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Two Nickel-Based Superalloys Produced by Metal Injection Molding for Aero Engine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Benedikt; Völkl, Rainer; Glatzel, Uwe

    2014-09-01

    For different high-temperature applications like aero engines or turbochargers, metal injection molding (MIM) of superalloys is an interesting processing alternative. For operation at high temperatures, oxidation behavior of superalloys produced by MIM needs to match the standard of cast or forged material. The oxidation behavior of nickel-based superalloys Inconel 713 and MAR-M247 in the temperature interval from 1073 K to 1373 K (800 °C to 1100 °C) is investigated and compared to cast material. Weight gain is measured discontinuously at different oxidation temperatures and times. Analysis of oxidized samples is done via SEM and EDX-measurements. MIM samples exhibit homogeneous oxide layers with a thickness up to 4 µm. After processing by MIM, Inconel 713 exhibits lower weight gain and thinner oxide layers than MAR-M247.

  8. Busulfan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Busulfex® Injection ... Busulfan injection is used to treat a certain type of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML; a type of cancer of ... of 16 doses) before bone marrow transplant.Busulfan injection may cause seizures during therapy with the medication. ...

  9. Modeling of concrete response at high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, P.; Marchertas, A.

    1984-01-01

    A rate-type creep law is implemented into the computer code TEMP-STRESS for high temperature concrete analysis. The disposition of temperature, pore pressure and moisture for the particular structure in question is provided as input for the thermo-mechanical code. The loss of moisture from concrete also induces material shrinkage which is accounted for in the analytical model. Examples are given to illustrate the numerical results.

  10. Analgesic and motor effects of a high-volume intercoccygeal epidural injection of 0.125% or 0.0625% bupivacaine in adult cows.

    PubMed

    Rioja, Eva; Rubio-Martínez, Luis M; Monteith, Gabrielle; Kerr, Carolyn L

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the analgesic and motor effects of a high-volume intercoccygeal epidural injection of bupivacaine at 2 concentrations in cows. A prospective, randomized, blinded, crossover trial was conducted on 6 adult cows. An indwelling epidural catheter was placed in the first intercoccygeal space and advanced 10 cm cranially. All the cows received 3 treatments with a washout period of 48 h: saline (control), 0.125% bupivacaine (high dose), or 0.0625% bupivacaine (low dose), at a final volume of 0.15 mL per kilogram of body weight, infused manually into the epidural space over a period of 15 min. The anal and tail tone and motor deficits of the pelvic limbs were evaluated in 5 of the cows with use of a numerical rating scale and a visual analogue scale (VAS). Sensory block was assessed in 4 of the cows by the response to needle pricks in different regions with the use of a VAS. Measurements were obtained before and at different time points after injection, up to 360 min. Analysis of variance for repeated measures and post-hoc Tukey's and Dunnett's tests were used. Differences were considered significant when the P-value was ≤ 0.05. One cow became recumbent 6 h after injection. Anal and tail tones were significantly decreased and motor deficits of the pelvic limbs were significantly increased after bupivacaine treatment compared with control treatment. The overall mean VASpain scores ± standard deviation were 66 ± 8 after control treatment, 52 ± 5 after low-dose bupivacaine treatment, and 43 ± 5 after high-dose bupivacaine treatment. The pain scores were significantly lower in caudal regions up to the saphenous nerve after high-dose bupivacaine treatment compared with control treatment and significantly lower in the anus, vulva, and tail after low-dose bupivacaine treatment compared with control treatment. Thus, analgesia with moderate motor deficits of the pelvic limbs may be obtained with 0.125% bupivacaine administered

  11. High Speed Buffered Injection Readout for Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, B.; Shaw, T.; Eastwood, M.; Green, R. O.

    1998-01-01

    Design and operation of a high speed, low noise, wide dynamic range linear infrared multiplexer array for readout of infrared detectors with large detector capacitance is presented. Image lag related to abrupt transitions of signal currents is analyzed.

  12. High throughput ultrasoft x-ray polychromator for embedded impurity pellet injection studies

    SciTech Connect

    Stutman, D.; Finkenthal, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Tritz, K.; Tamura, N.; Kalinina, D.; Matsubara, A.; Sato, K.; Sudo, S.

    2005-01-01

    A prototype ultrasoft x-ray polychromator has been developed for local particle transport measurements in magnetic fusion devices using the H{sub {alpha}} charge exchange emission from low-Z impurity pellets. High throughput together with few cm radial resolution in the plasma are achieved using a toroidally aligned grid collimator, while a few A spectral bandpass together with strong background rejection are obtained using planar multilayer mirrors and foil filters. As high sensitivity detectors we use a new type of compact, efficient and high-gain multichannel plates. The prototype instrument has been evaluated in the laboratory and tested on the Large Helical Device in Japan. In addition to transport studies, this type of device is of interest for next step experiments, where high beam energy and strong attenuation will make visible charge exchange recombination spectroscopy difficult.

  13. Injectable intratumoral depot of thermally responsive polypeptide-radionuclide conjugates delays tumor progression in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenge; MacKay, J. Andrew; Dreher, Matthew R.; Chen, Mingnan; McDaniel, Jonathan R.; Simnick, Andrew J.; Callahan, Daniel J.; Zalutsky, Michael R.; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated a biodegradable drug delivery system for local cancer radiotherapy consisting of a thermally sensitive elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) conjugated to a therapeutic radionuclide. Two ELPs (49 kD) were synthesized using genetic engineering to test the hypothesis that injectable biopolymeric depots can retain radionuclides locally and reduce the growth of tumors. A thermally sensitive polypeptide, ELP1, was designed to spontaneously undergo a soluble-insoluble phase transition (forming viscous microparticles) between room temperature and body temperature upon intratumoral injection, while ELP2 was designed to remain soluble upon injection and to serve as a negative control for the effect of aggregate assembly. After intratumoral administration of radionuclide conjugates of ELPs into implanted tumor xenografts in nude mice, their retention within the tumor, spatio-temporal distribution, and therapeutic effect were quantified. The residence time of the radionuclide-ELP1 in the tumor was significantly longer than the thermally insensitive ELP2 conjugate. In addition, the thermal transition of ELP1 significantly protected the conjugated radionuclide from dehalogenation, whereas the conjugated radionuclide on ELP2 was quickly eliminated from the tumor and cleaved from the biopolymer. These attributes of the thermally sensitive ELP1 depot improved the antitumor efficacy of iodine-131 compared to the soluble ELP2 control. This novel injectable and biodegradable depot has the potential to control advanced-stage cancers by reducing the bulk of inoperable tumors, enabling surgical removal of de-bulked tumors, and preserving healthy tissues. PMID:20117157

  14. Oral mucosal blood flow, plasma epinephrine and haemodynamic responses after injection of lidocaine with epinephrine during midazolam sedation and isoflurane anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Homma, Y; Ichinohe, T; Kaneko, Y

    1999-04-01

    We have investigated the relationship between oral mucosal blood flow and plasma epinephrine concentration, and the effects of conscious sedation vs general anaesthesia on haemodynamic responses after submucosal epinephrine injection in 14 subjects. The same seven patients were studied both as controls and after sedation. For sedation, midazolam i.v. was used. Another seven patients underwent orthognathic surgery with isoflurane anaesthesia. All subjects received a submucosal injection of epinephrine 0.8 microgram kg-1, given as 2% lidocaine hydrochloride with epinephrine 12.5 micrograms ml-1. Baseline mucosal blood flow and peak increase in plasma epinephrine concentration in the general anaesthesia and sedation groups were approximately 2.0 and 1.5 times, respectively, higher than those in the control group. Mean plasma epinephrine concentration reached a maximum 3 min after administration of epinephrine in all groups. Overall, there was a significant correlation (r = 0.65) between baseline mucosal blood flow and the maximum increase in plasma epinephrine concentration. There were no differences in haemodynamic changes except for heart rate, between the three groups. These results suggest that plasma epinephrine concentration after submucosal injection depends on the initial mucosal blood flow in the injected area. Haemodynamic changes, except heart rate, in the sedation and general anaesthesia groups were similar despite different changes in maximum plasma epinephrine concentration.

  15. Plasma gradient controlled injection and postacceleration of high quality electron bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Geddes, C. G. R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Nakamura, K.; Schroeder, C. B.; Toth, Cs.; Esarey, E.; Plateau, G. R.; Bruhwiler, D. L.; Cary, J. R.; Leemans, W. P.

    2009-01-22

    Plasma density gradient control of wake phase velocity and trapping threshold in a laser wakefield accelerator produced electron bunches with absolute longitudinal and transverse momentum spreads more than ten times lower than in previous experiments (0.17 and 0.02 MeV/c FWHM, respectively) and with central momenta of 0.76{+-}0.02 MeV/c, stable over a week of operation. Simulations validated against diagnostics show that use of such bunches as a wakefield accelerator injector can produce stable beams with 0.2 MeV/c-class momentum spread at high energies. Preservation of bunch momentum spread requires high simulation momentum accuracy, and related self-trapped simulations showed that high order particle weight effectively suppresses simulation momentum errors allowing design of low emittance stages.

  16. Simplifying and expanding analytical capabilities for various classes of doping agents by means of direct urine injection high performance liquid chromatography high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Görgens, Christian; Guddat, Sven; Thomas, Andreas; Wachsmuth, Philipp; Orlovius, Anne-Katrin; Sigmund, Gerd; Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2016-11-30

    So far, in sports drug testing compounds of different classes are processed and measured using different screening procedures. The constantly increasing number of samples in doping analysis, as well as the large number of substances with doping related, pharmacological effects require the development of even more powerful assays than those already employed in sports drug testing, indispensably with reduced sample preparation procedures. The analysis of native urine samples after direct injection provides a promising analytical approach, which thereby possesses a broad applicability to many different compounds and their metabolites, without a time-consuming sample preparation. In this study, a novel multi-target approach based on liquid chromatography and high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry is presented to screen for more than 200 analytes of various classes of doping agents far below the required detection limits in sports drug testing. Here, classic groups of drugs as diuretics, stimulants, β2-agonists, narcotics and anabolic androgenic steroids as well as various newer target compounds like hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizers, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), plasma volume expanders and other doping related compounds, listed in the 2016 WADA prohibited list were implemented. As a main achievement, growth hormone releasing peptides could be implemented, which chemically belong to the group of small peptides (<2kDa) and are commonly determined by laborious and time-consuming stand-alone assays. The assay was fully validated for qualitative purposes considering the parameters specificity, robustness (rRT: <2%), intra- (CV: 1.7-18.4 %) and inter-day precision (CV: 2.3-18.3%) at three concentration levels, linearity (R(2)>0.99), limit of detection (0.1-25ng/mL; 3'OH-stanozolol glucuronide: 50pg/mL; dextran/HES: 10μg/mL) and matrix effects.

  17. Different locomotor sensitization responses to repeated cocaine injections are associated with differential phosphorylation of GluA1 in the dorsomedial striatum of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myonghwan; Kim, Wonju; Baik, Ja-Hyun; Yoon, Bong-June

    2013-11-15

    Behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants reflects neural adaptation, which might share a common mechanism with drug addiction. Outbred male rats show different locomotor sensitization responses to cocaine, and cocaine also produces varied addictive progress in humans. We investigated whether differences in the induction of sensitization would affect the long-term persistence of sensitized locomotor activity, and we sought to determine the molecular basis for the variability in sensitization. Male Sprague-Dawley rats that showed sensitized locomotor responses over 5 consecutive daily cocaine injections (SENS) had significantly lower initial locomotor responses to the 1st cocaine exposure than did rats that did not show locomotor sensitization (NONS). Furthermore, rats that underwent 1 month of cocaine withdrawal after 5 repeated cocaine injections also exhibited sensitized or non-sensitized locomotor responses to a challenge injection of cocaine (SENS-C or NONS-C, respectively). This variability was also related to the initial responsiveness to cocaine. We examined the level of phosphorylation of the GluA1 subunit of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropioniate receptor (AMPAR) in the dorsal striatum and found that there were significant differences between the sensitized rats and the non-sensitized rats. pGluA1-Ser831 was increased in the SENS rats during the induction of locomotor sensitization, and pGluA1-Ser845 was increased in the SENS-C rats during the expression of locomotor sensitization. These phosphorylation changes were observed in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) of adult rats but not in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) of adults. Our findings suggest that differential phosphorylation of AMPAR might be an important mechanism that contributes to the development of locomotor sensitization to cocaine in adult rats.

  18. Widespread subcutaneous emphysema and barotrauma resulting from high pressure gas injection.

    PubMed

    Smith, Barnaby; Brown, Troy

    2012-09-21

    Widespread subcutaneous emphysema is an unusual emergency presentation. We present a case of accidental high pressure insufflation, the pathophysiology and subsequent medical management in the acute setting. Such presentations are rare but dramatic and can have important life-threatening consequences that require immediate treatment.

  19. EVALUATION OF FGD DRY INJECTION SORBENTS AND ADDITIVES - VOLUME 1 - DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH REACTIVITY SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses recent work addressing lime enhancement by slurrying with siliceous materials and testing in a laboratory packed-bed reactor, as part of EPA's efforts to develop low cost, retrofit flue gas cleaning technology, including the development of highly reactive sor...

  20. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SEMICONDUCTOR INJECTION LASERS SELCO-87: High-frequency impedance and spontaneous carrier lifetime in narrow-stripe semiconductor injection lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoernlein, W.

    1988-11-01

    Measurements were made of the complex reflection coefficient of hf (10-400 MHz) signals from semiconductor injection lasers supplied with a direct bias current ranging from several milliamperes up to the threshold value or higher. The hf impedance was calculated. The parameters of the equivalent electrical circuit made it possible to predict the modulation characteristics. The impedance corresponding to currents below the lasing threshold was used to find the differential carrier lifetime from the RC constant of the p-n junction of a laser diode. A description of the apparatus is supplemented by an account of the method used in calculation of the electrical parameters and carrier lifetimes. The first results obtained using this apparatus and method are reported.

  1. Dynamic Response of High Temperature Uranium Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Zaretsky, E.; Herrmann, B.; Shvarts, D.

    2006-07-28

    Unalloyed uranium and uranium-0.78 wt%Ti alloy were studied in planar impact experiments with initial sample temperature ranging from 27 to 860 degree sign C. The velocity of the free surface of the samples was monitored by VISAR. It was found that the dynamic compressive strength of both the materials undergoes two-fold increase in the narrow temperature interval corresponding to the domain of beta-phase of uranium. The increase is followed by abrupt, factor of 3-4, strength drop when the initial state of the tested material is gamma-uranium. Such strength behavior explains the uranium susceptibility to adiabatic shear banding. The spall strength of both the alloys is characterized by similar temperature variations. The strength mechanism (phonon viscosity) acting in gamma-phase of pure uranium seems inherited from its alpha-structure while the strength of beta-uranium is controlled by high resistance to shearing characteristic for material having the structure of intermetallic sigma-phase.

  2. [Optimization of vacuum belt drying process of Gardeniae Fructus in Reduning injection by Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dao-sheng; Shi, Wei; Han, Lei; Sun, Ke; Chen, Guang-bo; Wu Jian-xiong; Xu, Gui-hong; Bi, Yu-an; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-06-01

    To optimize the belt drying process conditions optimization of Gardeniae Fructus extract from Reduning injection by Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology, on the basis of single factor experiment, a three-factor and three-level Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to optimize the drying technology of Gardeniae Fructus extract from Reduning injection. With drying temperature, drying time, feeding speed as independent variables and the content of geniposide as dependent variable, the experimental data were fitted to a second order polynomial equation, establishing the mathematical relationship between the content of geniposide and respective variables. With the experimental data analyzed by Design-Expert 8. 0. 6, the optimal drying parameter was as follows: the drying temperature was 98.5 degrees C , the drying time was 89 min, the feeding speed was 99.8 r x min(-1). Three verification experiments were taked under this technology and the measured average content of geniposide was 564. 108 mg x g(-1), which was close to the model prediction: 563. 307 mg x g(-1). According to the verification test, the Gardeniae Fructus belt drying process is steady and feasible. So single factor experiments combined with response surface method (RSM) could be used to optimize the drying technology of Reduning injection Gardenia extract.

  3. Behavioral effects of intraventricular injections of low doses of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate in rats: studies with low and high rate operant schedules.

    PubMed

    Arizzi, Maria N; Correa, Merce; Betz, Adrienne J; Wisniecki, Anna; Salamone, John D

    2003-12-17

    Although ethanol is typically classed as a sedative-hypnotic, low doses of ethanol have been shown to stimulate locomotor activity in mice. However, in rats the typical response to peripheral administration of ethanol is a dose-dependent suppression of motor activity and operant responding. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of intraventricular (ICV) infusions of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate on operant performance in rats. ICV injections of ethanol, acetaldehyde, or acetate were given to rats previously trained on either a differential-reinforcement-of-low-rates-of-responding (DRL) 30-s schedule, which generates low rates of responding, or a fixed ratio 5 (FR5) schedule, which generates relatively high rates. Ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate all produced a rate-increasing effect in rats on the DRL 30-s schedule at moderate doses (2.8 and 1.4 micromol, respectively). Acetate also produced a rate-decreasing effect on the DRL 30-s schedule at a larger dose (8.8 micromol). Performance on the FR5 schedule was unaltered by ethanol and acetaldehyde, even at doses as high as 17.6 micromol. However, acetate produced a rate-decreasing effect on the FR5 schedule at doses of 4.4, 5.6, and 8.8 micromol. Central administration of low doses of ethanol and its metabolites can increase operant responding on some schedules in rats. Acetate is the substance that is most potent for producing rate-suppressing effects. These results indicate that the major metabolites of ethanol are pharmacologically active when injected into the brain, and suggest that acetate may mediate some of the rate-suppressing effects of ethanol, such as sedation, ataxia or motor slowing.

  4. Blunted GABA-mediated inhibition within the dorsomedial hypothalamus potentiates the cardiovascular response to emotional stress in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Abreu, A R; de Abreu, A R; Santos, L T; de Souza, A A; da Silva, L G; Chianca, D A; de Menezes, R C

    2014-03-14

    Rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) present an exaggerated endocrine response to stress conditions, which, like obesity, show a high correlation with cardiovascular diseases. Meanwhile the GABAergic neurotransmission within the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) is involved in the regulation of the physiological responses during emotional stress. Here we evaluated the influence of obesity, induced by a HFD, on the cardiovascular responses induced by air jet stress in rats, and the role of the GABAergic tonus within the DMH in these changes. Our results showed that consumption of a HFD (45% w/w fat) for 9 weeks induced obesity and increases in baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Moreover, obesity potentiated stress responsiveness, evidenced by the greater changes in MAP and HR induced by stress in obese rats. The injection of muscimol into the DMH reduced the maximal increases in HR and MAP induced by stress in both groups; however, the reduction in the maximal increases in MAP in the HFD group was less pronounced. Moreover, the injection of muscimol into the DMH of obese rats was less effective in reducing the stress-induced tachycardia, since the HR attained the same levels at the end of the stress paradigm as after the vehicle injection. Injection of bicuculline into DMH induced increases in MAP and HR in both groups. Nevertheless, obesity shortened the tachycardic response to bicuculline injection. These data show that obesity potentiates the cardiovascular response to stress in rats due to an inefficient GABAA-mediated inhibition within the DMH.

  5. Determination of nifuroxazide in biological fluids by automated high-performance liquid chromatography with large-volume injection.

    PubMed

    Guinebault, P R; Broquaire, M; Braithwaite, R A

    1981-01-16

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the measurement of nifuroxazide in plasma is described. The technique is based on the single extraction of the drug from buffered plasma with chloroform, using nifuratel as internal standard. The chromatographic system consisted of a 15 cm x 4.6 mm I.D. stainless-steel column packed with Spherisorb ODS, 5 micrometer, and the mobile phase was acetonitrile-orthophosphoric acid (pH 2.5) (30:70). The method was able to measure accurately plasma nifuroxazide concentrations down to 2 ng . ml-1 using 2 ml of sample with no interference from endogenous compounds. The coefficients of variation of the method at 200 and 2 ng . ml-1 were 3% and 15%, respectively, and the calibration graph was linear in this range. The use of automatic injection makes the method suitable for the routine analysis of large numbers of samples.

  6. New progress in electron-injection detectors for NIR imagers with low noise and high frame rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Mohsen; Park, Min-Su; Wheaton, Skylar; Tan, Chee Leong; Fathipour, Vala; Guyon, Olivier; Ulmer, Melville P.; Mohseni, Hooman

    2016-07-01

    This article reports the progress on the development of a novel detector with the promise of addressing the needs of extreme AO (ExAO) in the near-IR band (NIR), 0.9-1.7 μm. The camera is based on the electron injection mechanism which resembles how the human eye processes light. The camera design allows high sensitivity operation at TEC reachable temperatures for ExAO at 1-4 kHz frame rates, and at the same time the concept produces sufficient gain to overcome the read noise of the device. Here we present the overall design, test results on Gen-1 (outdated but operable) camera, along with early results of our next generation of detectors.

  7. High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) System Risk-Based Inspection Guide for Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.; DiBiasio, A.; Gunther, W.

    1993-09-01

    The High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system has been examined from a risk perspective. A System Risk-Based Inspection Guide (S-RIG) has been developed as an aid to HPCI system inspections at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1, 2 and 3. The role of. the HPCI system in mitigating accidents is discussed in this S-RIG, along with insights on identified risk-based failure modes which could prevent proper operation of the system. The S-RIG provides a review of industry-wide operating experience, including plant-specific illustrative examples to augment the PRA and operational considerations in identifying a catalogue of basic PRA failure modes for the HPCI system. It is designed to be used as a reference for routine inspections, self-initiated safety system functional inspections (SSFIs), and the evaluation of risk significance of component failures at the nuclear power plant.

  8. Development of an automated high-temperature valveless injection system for online gas chromatography

    DOE PAGES

    Kreisberg, N. M.; Worton, D. R.; Zhao, Y.; ...

    2014-12-12

    A reliable method of sample introduction is presented for online gas chromatography with a special application to in situ field portable atmospheric sampling instruments. A traditional multi-port valve is replaced with a valveless sample introduction interface that offers the advantage of long-term reliability and stable sample transfer efficiency. An engineering design model is presented and tested that allows customizing this pressure-switching-based device for other applications. Flow model accuracy is within measurement accuracy (1%) when parameters are tuned for an ambient-pressure detector and 15% accurate when applied to a vacuum-based detector. Laboratory comparisons made between the two methods of sample introductionmore » using a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (TAG) show that the new interface has approximately 3 times greater reproducibility maintained over the equivalent of a week of continuous sampling. Field performance results for two versions of the valveless interface used in the in situ instrument demonstrate typically less than 2% week-1 response trending and a zero failure rate during field deployments ranging up to 4 weeks of continuous sampling. Extension of the valveless interface to dual collection cells is presented with less than 3% cell-to-cell carryover.« less

  9. A first order theory of the p/+/-n-n/+/ edge-illuminated silicon solar cell at very high injection levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goradia, C.; Sater, B. L.

    1977-01-01

    A first order theory of the edge-illuminated p(+)-n-n(+) silicon solar cell under very high injection levels has been derived. The very high injection level illuminated J-V characteristic is derived for any general base width to diffusion length (W/L) ratio and it includes the minority carrier reflection by the n-n(+) high-low junction. The beneficial effects of the high-low junction are shown to be significant until extremely high injection levels are reached. The theoretical dependencies of Jsc and Voc on temperature, incident intensity, and base resistivity are derived and discussed in detail. Some experimental results are given and these are discussed in relation to the theory.

  10. A comparison of the growth responses following intramuscular GHRH plasmid administration versus daily growth hormone injections in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amir S; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra; Shypailo, Roman J; Ellis, Kenneth I; Mersmann, Harry; Fiorotto, Marta L

    2010-02-01

    The efficacy of daily porcine growth hormone (GH) injections versus plasmid-driven porcine GH-releasing hormone (pGHRH) production to promote growth was assessed. Ten-day-old piglets were injected intramuscularly with 0.1, 1, or 3 mg pGHRH, or a control plasmid followed by electroporation. Plasmid constructs were driven by a synthetic muscle-specific promoter. A fifth group received daily injections of GH [0.15 mg/(kg.day)]. Control and pGHRH-treated pigs were pair-fed to GH-treated pigs. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Weight gains of GH- and pGHRH-treated pigs were greater than of controls (P < 0.001) due to greater lean mass accretion; fat accretion was similar across all treatments. Weight gain of pGHRH- and GH-treated pigs was similar for 6 weeks, but over the final 10 days, only pigs administered the highest plasmid dose maintained higher growth rates. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels were two- to threefold higher in GH- and pGHRH-treated pigs than in controls after 4 weeks (P = 0.05), but subsequently decreased to control levels in the pGHRH-treated group. Organ weights were greater in GH- than pGHRH-treated and control piglets (P < 0.02). These results demonstrate that pGHRH transfer is effective for promoting growth and avoids the need for the frequent injections necessitated with peptide hormone use.

  11. Reflection measurement of waveguide-injected high-power microwave antennas.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chengwei; Peng, Shengren; Shu, Ting; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Xuelong

    2015-12-01

    A method for reflection measurements of High-power Microwave (HPM) antennas excited with overmoded waveguides is proposed and studied systemically. In theory, principle of the method is proposed and the data processing formulas are developed. In simulations, a horn antenna excited by a TE11 mode exciter is examined and its reflection is calculated by CST Microwave Studio and by the method proposed in this article, respectively. In experiments, reflection measurements of two HPM antennas are conducted, and the measured results are well consistent with the theoretical expectations.

  12. Analgesic Effect of Intra-Articular Injection of Temperature-Responsive Hydrogel Containing Bupivacaine on Osteoarthritic Pain in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taemin; Seol, Dong Rim; Hahm, Suk-Chan; Ko, Cheolwoong; Kim, Eun-Hye; Chun, Keyoungjin; Kim, Junesun; Lim, Tae-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the analgesic effects of slow-releasing bupivacaine from hydrogel on chronic arthritic pain in rats. Osteoarthritis (OA) was induced by monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) injection into the right knee joint. Hydrogel (HG: 20, 30, and 50 μL) and temperature-sensitive hydrogel containing bupivacaine (T-gel: 20, 30, and 50 μL) were injected intra-articularly 14 days after MIA injection. Behavioral tests were conducted. The rats showed a significant decrease in weight load and paw withdrawal threshold (PWT). Intra-articular 0.5% bupivacaine (10 and 20 μL) significantly reversed MIA-induced decreased PWT, with no effect on weight load. In normal rats, hydrogel did not produce significant changes in PWT but at 30 and 50 μL slightly decreased weight bearing; T-gel did not cause any changes in both the weight load and PWT. In OA rats, T-gel at 20 μL had a significant analgesic effect for 2 days, even though T-gel at 50 μL further reduced the weight load, demonstrating that intra-articular T-gel (20 μL) has long-lasting analgesic effects in OA rats. Thus, T-gel designed to deliver analgesics into the joint cavity could be an effective therapeutic tool in the clinical setting. PMID:26881207

  13. Single-Vector, Single-Injection Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vaccines Against High-Containment Viruses.

    PubMed

    Whitt, Michael A; Geisbert, Thomas W; Mire, Chad E

    2016-01-01

    There are many avenues for making an effective vaccine against viruses. Depending on the virus these can include one of the following: inactivation of whole virions; attenuation of viruses; recombinant viral proteins; non-replication-competent virus particles; or surrogate virus vector systems such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). VSV is a prototypic enveloped animal virus that has been used for over four decades to study virus replication, entry, and assembly due to its ability to replicate to high titers in a wide variety of mammalian and insect cells. The use of reverse genetics to recover infectious and single-cycle replicating VSV from plasmid DNA transfected in cell culture began a revolution in the study of recombinant VSV (rVSV). This platform can be manipulated to study the viral genetic sequences and proteins important in the virus life cycle. Additionally, foreign genes can be inserted between naturally occurring or generated start/stop signals and polyadenylation sites within the VSV genome. VSV has a tolerance for foreign gene expression which has led to numerous rVSVs reported in the literature. Of particular interest are the very effective single-dose rVSV vaccine vectors against high-containment viruses such as filoviruses, henipaviruses, and arenaviruses. Herein we describe the methods for selecting foreign antigenic genes, selecting the location within the VSV genome for insertion, generation of rVSV using reverse genetics, and proper vaccine study designs.

  14. The IsoDAR high intensity H2+ transport and injection tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, J.; Axani, S.; Calabretta, L.; Campo, D.; Celona, L.; Conrad, J. M.; Day, A.; Castro, G.; Labrecque, F.; Winklehner, D.

    2015-10-01

    This technical report reviews the tests performed at the Best Cyclotron Systems, Inc. facility in regards to developing a cost effective ion source, beam line transport system, and acceleration system capable of high H2+ current output for the IsoDAR (Isotope Decay At Rest) experiment. We begin by outlining the requirements for the IsoDAR experiment then provide overviews of the Versatile Ion Source (VIS), Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) system, spiral inflector, and cyclotron. The experimental measurements are then discussed and the results are compared with a thorough set of simulation studies. Of particular importance we note that the VIS proved to be a reliable ion source capable of generating a large amount of H2+ current. The results suggest that with further upgrades, the VIS could potentially be a suitable candidate for IsoDAR. The conclusion outlines the key results from our tests and introduces the forthcoming work this technical report has motivated.

  15. Numerical simulation study of silica and calcite dissolution around a geothermal well by injecting high pH solutions with chelating agent.

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu; Rose, Peter; Fayer, Scott; Pruess, Karsten

    2009-02-01

    Dissolution of silica, silicate, and calcite minerals in the presence of a chelating agent (NTA) at a high pH has been successfully performed in the laboratory using a high-temperature flow reactor. The mineral dissolution and porosity enhancement in the laboratory experiment has been reproduced by reactive transport simulation using TOUGHREACT. The chemical stimulation method has been applied by numerical modeling to a field geothermal injection well system, to investigate its effectiveness. Parameters from the quartz monzodiorite unit at the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) site at Desert Peak (Nevada) were used. Results indicate that the injection of a high pH chelating solution results in dissolution of both calcite and plagioclase minerals, and avoids precipitation of calcite at high temperature conditions. Consequently reservoir porosity and permeability can be enhanced especially near the injection well.

  16. Low cost booster and high performance orbit injection propulsion extended abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackheim, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    Space transportation is currently a major element of cost for communications satellite systems. For every dollar spent in manufacturing the satellite, somewhere between 1 and 3 dollars must be spent to launch the satellite into its initial operational orbit. This also makes the weight of the satellite a very critical cost factor because it is important to maximize the useful payload that is placed into orbit to maximize the return on the original investment. It seems apparent then, that tremendous economic advantage for satellite communications systems can be gained from improvements in two key highly leveraged propulsion areas. The first and most important economic improvement can be achieved by significantly lowering the cost of today's launch vehicles. The second gain that would greatly benefit the communications satellite business position is to increase both the useful (payload) weight placed into the orbit and the revenue generating lifetime of the satellite on-orbit. The point of this paper is to first explain that these two goals can best be achieved by cost reduction and performance increasing advancements in rocket propulsion for both the launch vehicle and for the satellite on-board apogee insertion and on-orbit velocity control systems.

  17. Two Sudden and Unexpected Deaths of Patients with Schizophrenia Associated with Intramuscular Injections of Antipsychotics and Practice Guidelines to Limit the Use of High Doses of Intramuscular Antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Brenzel, Allen

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous haloperidol has been associated with torsades de pointes (TdP). These two sudden deaths were probable adverse drug reactions (ADRs) following intramuscular (IM) antipsychotics. The autopsies described lack of heart pathology and were highly compatible with the possibility of TdP in the absence of risk factors other than the accumulation of antipsychotics with a high serum peak after the last injection, leading to death within hours. The first case was a 27-year-old African-American male with schizophrenia but no medical issues. His death was probably caused by repeated IM haloperidol injections of 10 mg (totaling 35 mg in 2 days). The second case involves a 42-year-old African-American female with metabolic syndrome. Her probable cause of death was the last ziprasidone IM injection of 20 mg in addition to (1) three extra haloperidol doses (2 hours before the ziprasidone injection, 5 mg oral haloperidol; approximately 21 hours earlier, 5 mg oral haloperidol; and 2 days prior, one 10 mg IM haloperidol injection), (2) 10 mg/day of scheduled oral haloperidol for 6 days before death, and (3) a long-acting paliperidone injection of 156 mg 18 days before death. The study of haloperidol glucuronidation and its impairment in some African-Americans is urgently recommended. PMID:27597919

  18. The Fundamental Principles of High-speed Semi-diesel Engines. Part I: a General Discussion of the Subject of Fuel Injection in Diesel Engines and Detailed Descriptions of Many Types of Injection Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchner,

    1926-01-01

    Three questions relating to the technical progress in the utilization of heavy oils are discussed. The first question considers solid injection in high-speed automobile engines, the second concerns the development of the hot-bulb engine, and the third question relates to the need for a more thorough investigation of the processes on which the formatation of combustible, rapidly-burning mixtures depend.

  19. High voltage surface potential measurements in ambient conditions: Application to organic thin-film transistor injection and transport characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Tournadre, Grégoire; Reisdorffer, Frédéric; Rödel, Reinhold; Simonetti, Olivier; Klauk, Hagen; Giraudet, Louis

    2016-03-01

    A scanning surface potential measurement technique suited for thin-film devices operating under high voltages is reported. A commercial atomic force microscope has been customized to enable a feedback-controlled and secure surface potential measurement based on phase-shift detection under ambient conditions. Measurements of the local potential profile along the channel of bottom-gate organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) are shown to be useful to disentangle the contributions from the channel and contacts to the device performance. Intrinsic contact current-voltage characteristics have been measured on bottom-gate, top-contact (staggered) TFTs based on the small-molecule semiconductor dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DNTT) and on bottom-gate, bottom-contact (coplanar) TFTs based on the semiconducting polymer polytriarylamine (PTAA). Injection has been found to be linear in the staggered DNTT TFTs and nonlinear in the coplanar PTAA TFTs. In both types of TFT, the injection efficiency has been found to improve with increasing gate bias in the accumulation regime. Contact resistances as low as 130 Ω cm have been measured in the DNTT TFTs. A method that eliminates the influence of bias-stress-induced threshold-voltage shifts when measuring the local charge-carrier mobility in the channel is also introduced, and intrinsic channel mobilities of 1.5 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 1.1 × 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1 have been determined for DNTT and PTAA. In both semiconductors, the mobility has been found to be constant with respect to the gate bias. Despite its simplicity, the Kelvin probe force microscopy method reported here provides robust and accurate surface potential measurements on thin-film devices under operation and thus paves the way towards more extensive studies of particular interest in emerging fields of solid-state electronics.

  20. MHD Modelling of Coronal Loops: Injection of High-Speed Chromospheric Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petralia, A.; Reale, F.; Orlando, S.; Klimchuk, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Observations reveal a correspondence between chromospheric type II spicules and bright upward-moving fronts in the corona observed in the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) band. However, theoretical considerations suggest that these flows are probably not the main source of heating in coronal magnetic loops. Aims. We investigate the propagation of high-speed chromospheric flows into coronal magnetic flux tubes and the possible production of emission in the EUV band. Methods. We simulated the propagation of a dense 104 K chromospheric jet upward along a coronal loop by means of a 2D cylindrical MHD model that includes gravity, radiative losses, thermal conduction, and magnetic induction. The jet propagates in a complete atmosphere including the chromosphere and a tenuous cool (approximately 0.8 MK) corona, linked through a steep transition region. In our reference model, the jet initial speed is 70 km per second, its initial density is 10(exp 11) per cubic centimeter, and the ambient uniform magnetic field is 10 G. We also explored other values of jet speed and density in 1D and different magnetic field values in 2D, as well as the jet propagation in a hotter (approximately 1.5 MK) background loop. Results. While the initial speed of the jet does not allow it to reach the loop apex, a hot shock-front develops ahead of it and travels to the other extreme of the loop. The shock front compresses the coronal plasma and heats it to about 10(exp 6) K. As a result, a bright moving front becomes visible in the 171 Angstrom channel of the SDO/AIA mission. This result generally applies to all the other explored cases, except for the propagation in the hotter loop. Conclusions. For a cool, low-density initial coronal loop, the post-shock plasma ahead of upward chromospheric flows might explain at least part of the observed correspondence between type II spicules and EUV emission excess.

  1. 4-D High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Monitoring of Miscible CO2 Injected into a Carbonate Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Richard D. Miller; Abdelmoneam E. Raef; Alan P. Byrnes; William E. Harrison

    2007-06-30

    The objective of this research project was to acquire, process, and interpret multiple high-resolution 3-D compressional wave and 2-D, 2-C shear wave seismic data in the hopes of observing changes in fluid characteristics in an oil field before, during, and after the miscible carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood that began around December 1, 2003, as part of the DOE-sponsored Class Revisit Project (DOE No.DE-AC26-00BC15124). Unique and key to this imaging activity is the high-resolution nature of the seismic data, minimal deployment design, and the temporal sampling throughout the flood. The 900-m-deep test reservoir is located in central Kansas oomoldic limestones of the Lansing-Kansas City Group, deposited on a shallow marine shelf in Pennsylvanian time. After 30 months of seismic monitoring, one baseline and eight monitor surveys clearly detected changes that appear consistent with movement of CO{sub 2} as modeled with fluid simulators and observed in production data. Attribute analysis was a very useful tool in enhancing changes in seismic character present, but difficult to interpret on time amplitude slices. Lessons learned from and tools/techniques developed during this project will allow high-resolution seismic imaging to be routinely applied to many CO{sub 2} injection programs in a large percentage of shallow carbonate oil fields in the midcontinent.

  2. Multidimensional high-performance liquid chromatography on Pinkerton ISRP and RP18 columns: direct serum injection to quantify creatinine.

    PubMed

    Puhlmann, A; Dülffer, T; Kobold, U

    1992-10-02

    A two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of creatinine with direct serum injection without sample pretreatment has been developed. The column-switching technique allowed a switch from columns packed with internal surface reversed-phase (ISRP) material to columns of almost any other material, even if the eluents necessary in a particular case do not appear to be directly compatible. A Pinkerton ISRP column, which stands out because of its very good stability when loaded with undiluted serum samples, was used as precolumn. The creatinine-containing fraction was switched to a reversed-phase Shandon RP18 column and was focused there by alteration of the eluent from pH 6.5 to phosphoric acid-ion-pair reagent. The separation occurs via a pH gradient, with ultraviolet detection at 234 nm. This method stands out particularly for its good long-term stability, simple sample handling without pretreatment, high selectivity, a broad linearity (0.3-30 mg/dl creatinine), good reproducibility (inter-assay coefficient of variation less than 3%) and high recovery (97-100%) relative to values obtained with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  3. High Prevalence of HIV-1 Intersubtype B′/C Recombinants among Injecting Drug Users in Dehong, China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiaoxu; An, Minghui; Zhao, Bin; Duan, Song; Yang, Shaomin; Xu, Junjie; Zhang, Min; McGoogan, Jennifer M.; Takebe, Yutaka; Shang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the distribution of HIV-1 genotypes among injecting drug users (IDUs) from Dehong, Yunnan province. Materials and Methods Blood samples from a total of 95 HIV-positive IDUs were retrospectively analyzed. Samples were collected between 2005 and 2009 from four cities in Dehong prefecture, western Yunnan province, the geographical origin of the HIV epidemic in China. HIV-1 gag, partial pol, vpr-env fragment, half-genome, or near-full-length sequences were analyzed to determine the HIV-1 genotypes of each subject. Results were compared with findings from past studies of IDUs in Dehong and in neighboring Myanmar. Results We observed a high prevalence of B′/C recombinants (82.4%) among IDUs in Dehong, the structural profiles of which do not match those previously reported in Dehong or in Myanmar. Furthermore, statistically significant differences in geographical and temporal distributions of HIV-1 genotypes were characterized by a predominance of HIV-1 B′/C recombinant forms among older subjects(p = 0.034), subjects from Longchuan district (p = 0.022), and subjects diagnosed between 2000 and 2004 (p = 0.004). Conclusions The increasing prevalence of multiple, new B′/C recombinant forms suggest that HIV-1 intersubtype recombination is substantial and ongoing in western Yunnan. This reflects the high-risk behavior of IDUs in this region and argues the need for stronger monitoring and prevention measures in Dehong and other high-prevalence areas around China. PMID:23741489

  4. Totally implantable venous power ports of the forearm and the chest: initial clinical experience with port devices approved for high-pressure injections

    PubMed Central

    Goltz, J P; Noack, C; Petritsch, B; Kirchner, J; Hahn, D; Kickuth, R

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the technical success, clinical outcome and safety of percutaneously placed totally implantable venous power ports (TIVPPs) approved for high-pressure injections, and to analyse their value for arterial phase CT scans. Methods Retrospectively, we identified 204 patients who underwent TIVPP implantation in the forearm (n=152) or chest (n=52) between November 2009 and May 2011. Implantation via an upper arm (forearm port, FP) or subclavian vein (chest port, CP) was performed under sonographic and fluoroscopic guidance. Complications were evaluated following the standards of the Society of Interventional Radiology. Power injections via TIVPPs were analysed, focusing on adequate functioning and catheter's tip location after injection. Feasibility of automatic bolus triggering, peak injection pressure and arterial phase aortic enhancement were evaluated and compared with 50 patients who had had power injections via classic peripheral cannulas. Results Technical success was 100%. Procedure-related complications were not observed. Catheter-related thrombosis was diagnosed in 15 of 152 FPs (9.9%, 0.02/100 catheter days) and in 1 of 52 CPs (1.9%, 0.002/100 catheter days) (p<0.05). Infectious complications were diagnosed in 9 of 152 FPs (5.9%, 0.014/100 catheter days) and in 2 of 52 CPs (3.8%, 0.003/100 catheter days) (p>0.05). Arterial bolus triggering succeeded in all attempts; the mean injection pressure was 213.8 psi. Aortic enhancement did not significantly differ between injections via cannulas and TIVPPs (p>0.05). Conclusions TIVPPs can be implanted with high technical success rates, and are associated with low rates of complications if implanted with sonographic and fluoroscopic guidance. Power injections via TIVPPs are safe and result in satisfying arterial contrast. Conventional ports should be replaced by TIVPPs. PMID:22674705

  5. Deficient cutaneous response to PHA-P in healthy puppies from a kennel with a high prevalence of demodicosis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, B N; Markham, R J; Hazlett, C

    1979-01-01

    Intradermal injection of phytohemagglutinin was used to evaluate the integrity of cell-mediated immunological reactions in Doberman puppies thought to be predisposed to demodicosis. Results indicate a statistically significant deficiency of cutaneous delayed response in these dogs when compared with age matched Beagles, adult Dobermans or random control dogs of various ages and breeding. The high prevalence of demodicosis in the kennel of origin may have been due to the observed deficiency of cutaneous immune function. PMID:548162

  6. Effect of a single injection of cabergoline at dry off on udder characteristics in high-yielding dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bertulat, S; Isaka, N; de Prado, A; Lopez, A; Hetreau, T; Heuwieser, W

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, relationships between high milk yield at dry off, higher prevalence for new intramammary infections, and stress were evaluated. Considering increasing milk yield, dry off methods need to be refined to ensure udder health and animal welfare, especially in high-yielding dairy cows. The present work evaluated the effect of a single cabergoline injection (Velactis, Ceva Santé Animale, Libourne, France) at dry off on udder pressure, milk leakage, and signs of udder pain after dry off. A total of 234 high-yielding (≥16 kg of milk/d) dairy cows was enrolled 7 d before and followed up until 14 d after dry off. Cows were dried off without preparation (i.e., no feed change or intermittent milking before dry off) and treated with a single i.m. injection of 5.6 mg of cabergoline (n = 115) or placebo (n = 119) after last milking. Udder characteristics were measured 4 d before (i.e., before and after milking) and 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, and 14 d after dry off. Udder pressure was evaluated utilizing a hand-held dynamometer. Milk leakage and signs of udder pain were noted as binary variables. Whereas udder pressure baseline values after last milking did not differ between treatment groups (0.541 ± 0.15 kg), cabergoline significantly reduced udder pressure in primiparous but not in multiparous cows after dry off. Differences between cabergoline- and placebo-treated primiparous cows could be evaluated until 3 d after dry off. The first day after dry off, udder pressure in placebo- and cabergoline-treated cows increased by 115% and 42.3%, respectively. Whereas pressure values in placebo cows were highest on the first day after dry off (1.16 ± 0.61 kg) and slowly decreased afterward, udder pressure in cows treated with cabergoline had a slower increase and peak only 2 d after dry off (0.94 ± 0.44 kg). Furthermore, cabergoline caused a reduction of milk leakage, a known factor for new intramammary infections. Only 11.3% of cows treated with cabergoline showed milk

  7. Pathophysiology of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus disease in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri): early changes in blood and aspects of the immune Response after Injection of IHN Virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, Donald F.; Smith, Lynnwood

    1974-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were injected with infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus and various hematological and blood chemical changes were monitored over 9 days. The packed cell volume, hemoglobin, red blood cell count, and plasma bicarbonate were significantly depressed by day 4. Plasma chloride, calcium, phosphorus, total protein, and blood cell types did not change during the 9 days. Furthermore, plasma  LDH isozyme was significantly increased by the fourth day, and fish infected with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, Vibrio anguillarum, Aeromonas salmonicida, and redmouth bacterium did not show specific LDH isozyme alterations. Acid-base alterations occurred at 10 C but not at 18 C. The acid-base imbalance and elevation of the  LDH isozyme were consistently associated with the early development of the disease.The immune response after injection of IHN virus was determined and protection from disease was tested by passive immunization. Actively immunized fish developed IHN-neutralizing antibodies within 54 days after injection of virus, and the antibodies were protective when juvenile fish were passively immunized and experimentally challenged with IHN virus.

  8. A unique drug distribution process for radium Ra 223 dichloride injection and its implication for product quality, patient privacy, and delineation of professional responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Dansereau, Raymond N

    2014-11-01

    On May 15, 2013, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals announced that it had received marketing approval for the therapeutic radioactive medication radium Ra 223 dichloride injection (Xofigo; Ra 223). The product acquisition and distribution process for hospital-based nuclear pharmacies and nuclear medicine services is unlike any other. The product is distributed as a low-risk compounded sterile preparation through a single compounding nuclear pharmacy located in Denver, Colorado, pursuant to a prescription. This model for drug distribution and delivery to the user institution has implications for product quality, patient privacy, and delineation of professional responsibilities.

  9. Aging, Tolerance to High Altitude, and Cardiorespiratory Response to Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Richalet, Jean-Paul; Lhuissier, François J

    2015-06-01

    Richalet, Jean-Paul, and François J. Lhuissier. Aging, tolerance to high altitude, and cardiorespiratory response to hypoxia. High Alt Med Biol. 16:117-124, 2015.--It is generally accepted that aging is rather protective, at least at moderate altitude. Some anecdotal reports even mention successful ascent of peaks over 8000 m and even Everest by elderly people. However, very few studies have explored the influence of aging on tolerance to high altitude and prevalence of acute high altitude related diseases, taking into account all confounding factors such as speed of ascent, altitude reached, sex, training status, and chemo-responsiveness. Changes in physiological responses to hypoxia with aging were assessed through a cross-sectional 20-year study including 4675 subjects (2789 men, 1886 women; 14-85 yrs old) and a longitudinal study including 30 subjects explored at a mean 10.4-year interval. In men, ventilatory response to hypoxia increased, while desaturation was less pronounced with aging. Cardiac response to hypoxia was blunted with aging in both genders. Similar results were found in the longitudinal study, with a decrease in cardiac and an increase in ventilatory response to hypoxia with aging. These adaptive responses were less pronounced or absent in post-menopausal untrained women. In conclusion, in normal healthy and active subjects, aging has no deleterious effect on cardiac and ventilatory responses to hypoxia, at least up to the eighth decade. Aging is not a contraindication for high altitude, as far as no pathological condition interferes and physical fitness is compatible with the intensity of the expected physical demand of one's individual. Physiological evaluation through hypoxic exercise testing before going to high altitude is helpful to detect risk factors of severe high altitude-related diseases.

  10. Evaluating high resolution climate model predictability and skill in response to the Mount Pinatubo eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddis, A. L.; Evans, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    A central goal of climate research is to determine the perceptible effect of climate change on humans; in other words, the regional and decadal scale effects of carbon dioxide forcing. Identifying the most pronounced and long-lasting responses of climate variables to forcing is important for decadal prediction since forcing terms are one of the sources of predictability on those time scales. Volcanic eruptions provide a powerful, transient forcing on the global climate system by injecting tons of sulfur compounds into the stratosphere that react to form sulfate aerosols. The Community Earth System Model is used to explore predictability in response to the Mount Pinatubo eruption. In this study, the Mount Pinatubo eruption is simulated at very high resolution (T341) using the Community Earth System Model. The predictability of responses to the eruption are calculated and compared with previous studies of the same model at lower resolution for two configurations. All three configurations are compared with observations to evaluate model skill. The Northern Hemisphere winter warming response to the eruption improves in spatial distribution and strength at higher resolution. Stratospheric humidity increases predictably in all model configurations, with spatial analysis showing the that response is centered over the tropical tropopause. The polar night jet response to the eruption is not well replicated for any configuration.

  11. Individual monitoring of immune responses in rainbow trout after cohabitation and intraperitoneal injection challenge with Yersinia ruckeri.

    PubMed

    M Monte, Milena; Urquhart, Katy; Secombes, Christopher J; Collet, Bertrand

    2016-08-01

    Yersinia ruckeri, the causative agent of enteric red mouth disease (ERM), is a widely studied pathogen in disease models using rainbow trout. This infection model, mostly based on intraperitoneally injection or bath immersion challenges, has an impact on both components (innate and adaptive) of the fish immune system. Although there has been much attention in studying its host-pathogen interactions, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of a cohabitation challenge. To tackle this we used a newly established non-lethal sampling method (by withdrawing a small amount of blood) in rainbow trout which allowed the individual immune monitoring before (non-infected) and after infection with Yersinia ruckeri either by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection or by cohabitation (cohab). A range of key immune genes were monitored during the infection by real-time PCR, and results were compared between the two infection routes. Results indicated that inflammatory (IL-1β1 and IL-8) cytokines and certain antimicrobial peptides (cathelicidins) revealed a different pattern of expression between the two infected groups (i.p. vs cohab), in comparison to adaptive immune cytokines (IL-22, IFN-γ and IL-4/13A) and β-defensins. This suggests a different involvement of distinct immune markers according to the infection model, and the importance of using a cohabitation challenge as a more natural disease model that likely simulates what would occur in the environment.

  12. The geomicrobiology of CO2 geosequestration: a focused review on prokaryotic community responses to field-scale CO2 injection

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Andre; Moreau, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Our primary research paper (Mu et al., 2014) demonstrated selective changes to a deep subsurface prokaryotic community as a result of CO2 stress. Analyzing geochemical and microbial 16S rRNA gene profiles, we evaluated how in situ prokaryotic communities responded to increased CO2 and the presence of trace organic compounds, and related temporal shifts in phylogeny to changes in metabolic potential. In this focused review, we extend upon our previous discussion to present analysis of taxonomic unit co-occurrence profiles from the same field experiment, to attempt to describe dynamic community behavior within the deep subsurface. Understanding the physiology of the subsurface microbial biosphere, including how key functional groups integrate into the community, will be critical to determining the fate of injected CO2. For example, community-wide network analyses may provide insights to whether microbes cooperatively produce biofilm biomass, and/or biomineralize the CO2, and hence, induce changes to formation porosity or changes in electron flow. Furthermore, we discuss potential impacts to the feasibility of subsurface CO2 storage of selectively enriching for particular metabolic functions (e.g., methanogenesis) as a result of CO2 injection. PMID:25914677

  13. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  14. Highly enhanced photoluminescence of AgInS2/ZnS quantum dots by hot-injection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Shenghua; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Ying; Shan, Xiaohui; Yan, Zhengyu; Shen, Weiyang

    2015-01-01

    Highly photoluminescent and air-stable AgInS2 quantum dots (AIS QDs) were synthesized by a hot-injection route in N2 atmosphere and dark environment. The as-synthesized AIS QDs were further capped with ZnS shell by one-pot method in order to enhance the photoluminescence (PL) intensity. The photo-electronic property and the morphology of AIS QDs and AIS/ZnS QDs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV), PL spectroscopy and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). The results indicated that the narrow and symmetrical PL spectra of AIS QDs was time-dependent, and the emission wavelength of AIS QDs could be tunable within 436-610 nm by altering the initial Ag/In ratios. After being capped with ZnS shell, the AIS QDs showed excellent optical characteristics, including PL QYs up to 15%. The TEM results indicated that the spherical AIS/ZnS QDs were nearly monodispersed and homogeneous with an average particle size of 8 nm. The heavy metal free and high luminous AIS/ZnS QDs have great potential in biological application.

  15. Design and 3D simulation of a two-cavity wide-gap relativistic klystron amplifier with high power injection

    SciTech Connect

    Bai Xianchen; Yang Jianhua; Zhang Jiande

    2012-08-15

    By using an electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) code, an S-band two-cavity wide-gap klystron amplifier (WKA) loaded with washers/rods structure is designed and investigated for high power injection application. Influences of the washers/rods structure on the high frequency characteristics and the basic operation of the amplifier are presented. Generally, the rod structure has great impacts on the space-charge potential depression and the resonant frequency of the cavities. Nevertheless, if only the resonant frequency is tuned to the desired operation frequency, effects of the rod size on the basic operation of the amplifier are expected to be very weak. The 3-dimension (3-D) PIC simulation results show an output power of 0.98 GW corresponding to an efficiency of 33% for the WKA, with a 594 keV, 5 kA electron beam guided by an external magnetic field of 1.5 Tesla. Moreover, if a conductive plane is placed near the output gap, such as the electron collector, the beam potential energy can be further released, and the RF power can be increased to about 1.07 GW with the conversion efficiency of about 36%.

  16. Highly efficient gene knockout by injection of TALEN mRNAs into oocytes and host transfer in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Keisuke; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2015-01-16

    Zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and the CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated proteins) system are potentially powerful tools for producing tailor-made knockout animals. However, their mutagenic activity is not high enough to induce mutations at all loci of a target gene throughout an entire tadpole. In this study, we present a highly efficient method for introducing gene modifications at almost all target sequences in randomly selected embryos. The gene modification activity of TALEN is enhanced by adopting the host-transfer technique. In our method, the efficiency is further improved by injecting TALEN mRNAs fused to the 3'UTR of the Xenopus DEADSouth gene into oocytes, which are then transferred into a host female frog, where they are ovulated and fertilized. The addition of the 3'UTR of the DEADSouth gene promotes mRNA translation in the oocytes and increases the expression of TALEN proteins to near-maximal levels three hours post fertilization (hpf). In contrast, TALEN mRNAs without this 3'UTR are translated infrequently in oocytes. Our data suggest that genomic DNA is more sensitive to TALEN proteins from fertilization to the midblastula (MBT) stage. Our method works by increasing the levels of TALEN proteins during the pre-MBT stages.

  17. High-quality electron beams from beam-driven plasma accelerators by wakefield-induced ionization injection.

    PubMed

    Martinez de la Ossa, A; Grebenyuk, J; Mehrling, T; Schaper, L; Osterhoff, J

    2013-12-13

    We propose a new and simple strategy for controlled ionization-induced trapping of electrons in a beam-driven plasma accelerator. The presented method directly exploits electric wakefields to ionize electrons from a dopant gas and capture them into a well-defined volume of the accelerating and focusing wake phase, leading to high-quality witness bunches. This injection principle is explained by example of three-dimensional particle-in-cell calculations using the code OSIRIS. In these simulations a high-current-density electron-beam driver excites plasma waves in the blowout regime inside a fully ionized hydrogen plasma of density 5×10(17)cm-3. Within an embedded 100  μm long plasma column contaminated with neutral helium gas, the wakefields trigger ionization, trapping of a defined fraction of the released electrons, and subsequent acceleration. The hereby generated electron beam features a 1.5 kA peak current, 1.5  μm transverse normalized emittance, an uncorrelated energy spread of 0.3% on a GeV-energy scale, and few femtosecond bunch length.

  18. BiVO4 photoanodes for water splitting with high injection efficiency, deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Haibo; Freudenberg, Norman; Nie, Man; van de Krol, Roel; Ellmer, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Photoactive bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) thin films were deposited by reactive co-magnetron sputtering from metallic Bi and V targets. The effects of the V-to-Bi ratio, molybdenum doping and post-annealing on the crystallographic and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of the BiVO4 films were investigated. Phase-pure monoclinic BiVO4 films, which are more photoactive than the tetragonal BiVO4 phase, were obtained under slightly vanadium-rich conditions. After annealing of the Mo-doped BiVO4 films, the photocurrent increased 2.6 times compared to undoped films. After optimization of the BiVO4 film thickness, the photocurrent densities (without a catalyst or a blocking layer or a hole scavenger) exceeded 1.2 mA/cm2 at a potential of 1.23 VRHE under solar AM1.5 irradiation. The surprisingly high injection efficiency of holes into the electrolyte is attributed to the highly porous film morphology. This co-magnetron sputtering preparation route for photoactive BiVO4 films opens new possibilities for the fabrication of large-scale devices for water splitting.

  19. A methodology for achieving high-speed rates for artificial conductance injection in electrically excitable biological cells.

    PubMed

    Butera, R J; Wilson, C G; Delnegro, C A; Smith, J C

    2001-12-01

    We present a novel approach to implementing the dynamic-clamp protocol (Sharp et al., 1993), commonly used in neurophysiology and cardiac electrophysiology experiments. Our approach is based on real-time extensions to the Linux operating system. Conventional PC-based approaches have typically utilized single-cycle computational rates of 10 kHz or slower. In thispaper, we demonstrate reliable cycle-to-cycle rates as fast as 50 kHz. Our system, which we call model reference current injection (MRCI); pronounced merci is also capable of episodic logging of internal state variables and interactive manipulation of model parameters. The limiting factor in achieving high speeds was not processor speed or model complexity, but cycle jitter inherent in the CPU/motherboard performance. We demonstrate these high speeds and flexibility with two examples: 1) adding action-potential ionic currents to a mammalian neuron under whole-cell patch-clamp and 2) altering a cell's intrinsic dynamics via MRCI while simultaneously coupling it via artificial synapses to an internal computational model cell. These higher rates greatly extend the applicability of this technique to the study of fast electrophysiological currents such fast a currents and fast excitatory/inhibitory synapses.

  20. Differential responses of circadian Per2 expression rhythms in discrete brain areas to daily injection of methamphetamine and restricted feeding in rats.

    PubMed

    Natsubori, Akiyo; Honma, Ken-ichi; Honma, Sato

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral rhythms induced by methamphetamine (MAP) and daily restricted feeding (RF) in rats are independent of the circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and have been regarded to share a common oscillatory mechanism. In the present study, in order to examine the responses of brain oscillatory systems to MAP and RF, circadian rhythms in clock gene, Period2, expression were measured in several brain areas in rats. Transgenic rats carrying a bioluminescence reporter of Period2-dLuciferase were subjected to either daily injection of MAP or RF of 2 h at a fixed time of day for 14 days. As a result, spontaneous movement and wheel-running activity were greatly enhanced following MAP injection and prior to daily meal under RF. Circadian Per2 rhythms were measured in the cultured brain tissues containing one of the following structures: the olfactory bulb; caudate-putamen; parietal cortex; substantia nigra; and SCN. Except for the SCN, the circadian Per2 rhythms in the brain tissues were significantly phase-delayed by 1.9 h on average in MAP-injected rats as compared with the saline-controls. On the other hand, the circadian rhythms outside the SCN were significantly phase-advanced by 6.3 h on average in rats under RF as compared with those under ad libitum feeding. These findings indicate that the circadian rhythms in specific brain areas of the central dopaminergic system respond differentially to MAP injection and RF, suggesting that different oscillatory mechanisms in the brain underlie the MAP-induced behavior and pre-feeding activity under RF.

  1. Fuel injection control apparatus for use to engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Kano, H.; Ohmori, T.

    1987-06-30

    A fuel injection control apparatus is described for use in an engine comprising: a compression plunger driven in response to fuel injection timing which corresponds to the rotation of an engine; a compression pump chamber which is filled with fuel and whose volume is compressed when the compression plunger is driven; an injection plunger driven by fuel which is pushed out of the compression pump chamber by the operation of the compression plunger; an injection pump chamber defined by the injection plunger; means for filling the injection pump chamber with fuel whose amount has been determined in accordance with the conditions of the operation of the engine; a timing plunger slidable between a stop position and a full position, the amount of fuel the filling means provides to the injection pump chamber cooperating with the injection plunger to mechanically set the timing plunger at the full position corresponding to the amount of fuel to be injected. The timing plunger contacts the face on which the fuel pressure in the compression pump chamber acts at the full position when the compression plunger is not driven, the fuel in the compression pump chamber moves the timing plunger as fuel is pushed out of the compression pump chamber. The fuel pressure in the compression pump chamber acts on the injection plunger when the timing plunger is moved to the stop position; and fuel injection means, responsive to the operation of the compression plunger, for moving the timing plunger from the full position to the stop position, then raising the pressure of the compression pump chamber to drive the injection plunger. In this high pressure state it delivers the fuel in the injection pump chamber and injects it into an engine cylinder.

  2. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olson; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla

    2004-06-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and the Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data were to be generated during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The demonstration phase has been delayed by Goldrus because of funding problems. Since the first of the year, Goldrus has been active in searching for partners to help finance the project. To this end it has commissioned several small consulting studies to technically support its effort to secure a partner. After financial support is obtained, the demonstration phase of the project will proceed. Since just after the beginning of the year, BEG has curtailed project activities and spending of DOE funds except for the continued support of one engineering student. This student has now completed his work and has written a thesis describing his research (titled ''Stimulating enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in west Texas light oil reservoir''). We plan to recommence our work on the project as soon as the operator obtains necessary funding to carry out the demonstration phase of the project. In order to complete all activities specified in the proposal, it will be necessary to request

  3. Structural changes and biological responsiveness of an injectable and mouldable monetite bone graft generated by a facile synthetic method

    PubMed Central

    Cama, G.; Gharibi, B.; Knowles, J. C.; Romeed, S.; DiSilvio, L.; Deb, S.

    2014-01-01

    Brushite (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate) and monetite (dicalcium phosphate anhydrous) are of considerable interest in bone augmentation owing to their metastable nature in physiological fluids. The anhydrous form of brushite, namely monetite, has a finer microstructure with higher surface area, strength and bioresorbability, which does not transform to the poorly resorbable hydroxyapatite, thus making it a viable alternative for use as a scaffold for engineering of bone tissue. We recently reported the formation of monetite cements by a simple processing route without the need of hydrothermal treatment by using a high concentration of sodium chloride in the reaction mix of β-tricalcium phosphate and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate. In this paper, we report the biological responsiveness of monetite formed by this method. The in vitro behaviour of monetite after interaction and ageing both in an acellular and cellular environment showed that the crystalline phase of monetite was retained over three weeks as evidenced from X-ray diffraction measurements. The crystal size and morphology also remained unaltered after ageing in different media. Human osteoblast cells seeded on monetite showed the ability of the cells to proliferate and express genes associated with osteoblast maturation and mineralization. Furthermore, the results showed that monetite could stimulate osteoblasts to undergo osteogenesis and accelerate osteoblast maturation earlier than cells cultured on hydroxyapatite scaffolds of similar porosity. Osteoblasts cultured on monetite cement also showed higher expression of osteocalcin, which is an indicator of the maturation stages of osteoblastogenesis and is associated with matrix mineralization and bone forming activity of osteoblasts. Thus, this new method of fabricating porous monetite can be safely used for generating three-dimensional bone graft constructs. PMID:25297314

  4. INFLUENCE OF PERCEIVED SECONDARY STIGMA AND FAMILY ON THE RESPONSE TO HIV INFECTION AMONG INJECTION DRUG USERS IN VIETNAM

    PubMed Central

    Salter, Megan L.; Go, Vivian F.; Le Minh, Nguyen; Gregowski, Amy; Ha, Tran Viet; Rudolph, Abby; Latkin, Carl; Celentano, David D.; Quan, Vu Minh

    2011-01-01

    The full impact of secondary stigma (stigma directed at family) on an HIV-positive individual is unknown. This qualitative research explores perceptions of secondary stigma in the Vietnamese context and its influence on the ways in which an injection drug user (IDU) copes with HIV infection. Data on experiences learning one’s HIV status, disclosure decisions, family reactions, and stigma from family and community were collected through in-depth interviews with 25 HIV-positive IDUs recruited through a health center in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam. Participants felt despair when learning they were HIV-positive and expressed concerns focused on the emotional burden and the consequences of HIV stigma that extended to family. Many participants engaged in self-isolating behaviors to prevent transmission and minimize secondary stigma. Data illustrated the strong value given to family in Vietnam and underscored the importance of secondary stigma in the coping process including gaining social support and engaging in risk reduction. PMID:21204631

  5. Nanostructure controlled sustained delivery of human growth hormone using injectable, biodegradable, pH/temperature responsive nanobiohybrid hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Narendra K.; Nguyen, Quang Vinh; Kim, Bong Sup; Lee, Doo Sung

    2015-02-01

    The clinical efficacy of a therapeutic protein, the human growth hormone (hGH), is limited by its short plasma half-life and premature degradation. To overcome this limitation, we proposed a new protein delivery system by the self-assembly and intercalation of a negatively charged hGH onto a positively charged 2D-layered double hydroxide nanoparticle (LDH). The LDH-hGH ionic complex, with an average particle size of approximately 100 nm, retards hGH diffusion. Nanobiohybrid hydrogels (PAEU/LDH-hGH) were prepared by dispersing the LDH-hGH complex into a cationic pH- and temperature-sensitive injectable PAEU copolymer hydrogel to enhance sustained hGH release by dual ionic interactions. Biodegradable copolymer hydrogels comprising poly(β-amino ester urethane) and triblock poly(ε-caprolactone-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly-(ε-caprolactone-lactide) (PCLA-PEG-PCLA) were synthesized and characterized. hGH was self-assembled and intercalated onto layered LDH nanoparticles through an anion exchange technique. X-ray diffraction and zeta potential results showed that the LDH-hGH complex was prepared successfully and that the PAEU/LDH-hGH nanobiohybrid hydrogel had a disordered intercalated nanostructure. The biocompatibility of the nanobiohybrid hydrogel was confirmed by an in vitro cytotoxicity test. The in vivo degradation of pure PAEU and its nanobiohybrid hydrogels was investigated and it showed a controlled degradation of the PAEU/LDH nanobiohybrids compared with the pristine PAEU copolymer hydrogel. The LDH-hGH loaded injectable hydrogels suppressed the initial burst release of hGH and extended the release period for 13 days in vitro and 5 days in vivo. The developed nanohybrid hydrogel has the potential for application as a protein carrier to improve patient compliance.The clinical efficacy of a therapeutic protein, the human growth hormone (hGH), is limited by its short plasma half-life and premature degradation. To overcome this limitation, we proposed a new

  6. Transient response of thyroidectomized pigs to bolus calcium injections and the effect of salmon calcitonin and parathyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Jaros, G G; Van Hoorn-Hickman, R; Maier, H; Newman, E

    1983-04-01

    The intravenous injection of calcium gluconate (0.11 mM/kg body weight) into conscious thyroidectomized pigs elicits a 30% rise in both ionized and total calcium concentrations of plasma, which return to basal levels within 180 min. The administration of calcitonin (2.5-10 MRC U/kg body weight) reduces this time to 30 to 40 min which is similar to the time obtained in thyroid intact animals. These results suggest that calcitonin may be involved in the fast calcium removal processes and thus in the short-term regulating system of calcium homeostasis. Neither parathyroidectomy nor the administration of parathyroid hormone affected the time for recovery in thyroidectomized pigs, suggesting that the short-term regulation is independent on the parathyroid gland and its hormone.

  7. High-throughput quantitation of nefazodone and its metabolites in human plasma by high flow direct-injection LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yan; Huang, Mike-Qingtao; Xia, Yuan-Qing; Jemal, Mohammed

    2007-04-11

    A rapid, selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method coupled with high flow direct-injection on-line extraction has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of nefazodone and its three active metabolites, hydroxynefazodone, triazole-dione (BMS-180492) and m-chlorophyenylpiperazine (mCPP) in human plasma. The method utilized d7-nefazodone, d7-hydroxynefazodone, d4-BMS-180492 and d4-mCPP as internal standards (IS). The plasma samples were injected into the LC-MS/MS system after simply adding the internal standard solution and centrifuging. The required extraction and chromatographic separation of the analytes were achieved on an Oasis HLB column (on-line extraction column, 1 mm x 50 mm, 30 microm) and a conventional Luna C8 column (analytical column, 4.6 mm x 50 mm, 5 microm). Detection was by positive ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The total analysis run time for each sample was 2 min, which included the time needed for on-line extraction, chromatographic separation and LC-MS/MS analysis. The assay was validated for each analyte and the concentrations ranged from 2.0 to 500 ng/ml for nefazodone, hydroxynefazodone and mCPP and from 4.0 to 1000 ng/ml for BMS-180492, respectively. The assay was used for the high-throughput sample analysis of thousands of pharmacokinetic study samples and was proven to be rapid, accurate, precise, sensitive, specific and rugged.

  8. Determination and temperature effects of lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride, epinephrine, methylparaben, 2,6-dimethylaniline, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in USP lidocaine injection by ion-pair reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.J.

    1981-05-01

    USP Lidocaine injection was assayed using ion-pair high pressure liquid chromatography with an octylsilane (RP-8) reversed-phase column packing and a mobile phase consisting of D-10-camphorsulfonic acid/methanol/acetic acid/water. The effect of temperature was investigated to determine the optimum temperature for separating the drug components and their degradation products. Lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride, epinephrine, methylparaben, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were separated at 50 degrees C. 2,6-Dimethylaniline was separated from lidocaine at 15 degrees C. An aliquot of the sample was injected directly into the liquid chromatograph, and after separation the compounds were quantitated by their spectrophotometric response at 254 nm (lidocaine) or 280 nm (lidocaine plus epinephrine).

  9. Determination and temperature effects of lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride, epinephrine, methylparaben, 2,6-dimethylaniline, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in USP lidocaine injection by ion-pair reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Smith, D J

    1981-05-01

    USP Lidocaine injection was assayed using ion-pair high pressure liquid chromatography with an octylsilane (RP-8) reversed-phase column packing and a mobile phase consisting of D-10-camphorsulfonic acid/methanol/acetic acid/water. The effect of temperature was investigated to determine the optimum temperature for separating the drug components and their degradation products. Lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride, epinephrine, methylparaben, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were separated at 50 degrees C. 2,6-Dimethylaniline was separated from lidocaine at 15 degrees C. An aliquot of the sample was injected directly into the liquid chromatograph, and after separation the compounds were quantitated by their spectrophotometric response at 254 nm (lidocaine) or 280 nm (lidocaine plus epinephrine).

  10. Effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide injection on white blood cell counts, hematological variables, and serum glucose, insulin, and cortisol concentrations in ewes fed low- or high-protein diets.

    PubMed

    Yates, D T; Löest, C A; Ross, T T; Hallford, D M; Carter, B H; Limesand, S W

    2011-12-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide endotoxins (LPS) elicit inflammatory responses reflective of acute bacterial infection. We determined if feeding ewes high-CP (15.5%) or low-CP (8.5%) diets for 10 d altered inflammatory responses to an intravenous bolus of 0 (control), 0.75 (L75), or 1.50 (L150) μg of LPS/kg of BW in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments (n = 5/treatment). Rectal temperatures, heart and respiratory rates, blood leukocyte concentrations, and serum cortisol, insulin, and glucose concentrations were measured for 24 h after an LPS bolus (bolus = 0 h). In general, rectal temperatures were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in control ewes fed high CP, but LPS increased (P ≤ 0.05) rectal temperatures in a dose-dependent manner at most times between 2 and 24 h after the bolus. Peak rectal temperatures in L75 and L150 occurred 4 h after the bolus. A monophasic, dose-independent increase (P ≤ 0.023) in serum cortisol occurred from 0.5 to 24 h after the bolus, with peak cortisol at 4 h. Serum insulin was increased (P ≤ 0.016) by LPS in a dose-dependent manner from 4 to 24 h after the bolus. Insulin did not differ between control ewes fed high- and low-CP diets but was greater (P < 0.001) in L75 ewes fed low CP compared with high CP and in L150 ewes fed high CP compared with low CP. Increased insulin was not preceded by increased serum glucose. Total white blood cell concentrations were not affected (P ≥ 0.135) by LPS, but the neutrophil and monocyte fractions of white blood cells were increased (P ≤ 0.047) by LPS at 12 and 24 h and at 24 h after the bolus, respectively, and the lymphocyte fraction was increased (P = 0.037) at 2 h and decreased (P ≤ 0.006) at 12 and 24 h after the bolus. Red blood cell and hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrit (%) were increased (P ≤ 0.022) by LPS at 2 and 4 h after the bolus. Rectal temperatures and serum glucose were greater (P ≤ 0.033) in ewes fed a high-CP diet before LPS injection, but these effects were lost at

  11. Ecology and high-durability injection locked laser with flexible power for double-patterning ArF immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Hiroshi; Tsushima, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Hidenori; Tanaka, Satoshi; Yoshino, Masaya; Matsumoto, Shinich; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kurosu, Akihiko; Kawasuji, Yasufumi; Matsunaga, Takashi; Fujimoto, Junichi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2011-04-01

    ArF immersion technology has been used widely in volume production for 45nm node. For 32nm node and beyond, double patterning technology with ArF immersion lithography is considered to be the main stream solution until EUV is ready. Our target is to reduce CoO(Cost of ownership) and we aim to develop for ecology and high durability laser. We will introduce the latest performance data of the laser built for ArF immersion lithography under the EcoPhoton concept. Eco-photon concept: -CoC (Cost of Consumable) -CoD (Cost of Downtime) -CoE(Cost of Energy & Environment) We have developed flexible and high power injection-lock ArF excimer laser for double patterning, GT62A-1SxE (Max90W/6000Hz/Flexible power with 10-15mJ/0.30pm (E95)) based on the GigaTwin platform5). A number of innovative and unique technologies are implemented on GT62A-1SxE. In addition, GT62A-1SxE is the laser matching the enhancement technology of advanced illumination systems. For example, in order to provide illumination power optimum for resist sensitivity, it has extendable power from 60W to 90W. We have confirmed durability under these concept with the regulated operation condition with flexible power 60-90W. We show the high durability data of GT62A-1SxE with Eco-Photon concept. In addition to the results the field reliability and availability of our Giga Twin series (GT6XA). We also show technologies which made these performances and its actual data. A number of innovative and unique technologies are implemented on GT62A.

  12. Response surface methodology for the optimisation of flow-injection analysis with in situ solvent extraction and fluorimetric assay of tricyclic antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Acedo-Valenzuela, María-Isabel; Galeano-Díaz, Teresa; Mora-Díez, Nielene; Silva-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2005-05-15

    A semiautomatic extraction-fluorimetric method for the determination of tricyclic antidepressant drugs (TCAs) based in the formation of ion pairs with 9,10-dimethoxyanthracene-2-sulphonate (DMAS) has been developed. The aqueous solutions of the TCAs (imipramine, desipramine, amitriptyline, nortriptyline, clomipramine or doxepine) are injected into a carrier composed by DMAS in an acid medium and the ion pair formed is extracted into dichloromethane where the fluorescence is measured. An experimental design (Central Composite Design) together with the Response Surface Methodology has been used to find the optimal instrumental FIA and chemical variables. We have considered as the response function the product of the peak height by the sampling frequency. The calibration curves were linear over the working range (0.25-3.00mgL(-1)). The limits of detection were lower than 0.30mgL(-1). The method has been satisfactorily applied to the determination of imipramine, amitriptyline, clomipramine and doxepin in pharmaceutical preparations.

  13. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

    2003-06-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plant that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration are being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the US.

  14. Oral kanglaite injection (KLTI) attenuates the lung cancer-promoting effect of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhenzhen; Zheng, Yaqiu; Geng, Shengnan; Meng, Mingjing; Du, Zhenhua; Lin, Haihong; Duan, Yongjian; Du, Gangjun

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer and cancer-related mortality, however, its role in lung cancer progression remains controversial. This study aimed to assess whether high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity promotes lung cancer progression and whether the promotion can be decreased by Kanglaite injection (KLTI). In vivo, HFD-induced overweight or obesity increases the lung carcinoma incidence and multiplicity in a urethane-induced lung carcinogenic model and cancer-related mortality in a LLC allograft model by increasing oxidative stress and cellular signaling molecules including JAK, STAT3, Akt, mTOR, NF-κB and cyclin D1. These changes resulted in increases in vascular disruption and the lung water content, thereby promoting lung epithelial proliferation and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during carcinogenesis. Chronic KLTI treatment substantially prevented the weight gain resulting from HFD consumption, thereby reversing the metabolic dysfunction-related physiological changes and reducing susceptibility to lung carcinogenesis. In vitro, KLTI significantly suppressed the proliferation and induced apoptosis and differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells and attenuated endothelial cell permeability in HUVECs. Our study indicates that there is a potential relationship between obesity and lung cancer. This is the first study to show that obesity can directly accelerate carcinogen-induced lung cancer progression and that KLTI can decrease the lung cancer-promoting effect of HFD-induced obesity. PMID:27528218

  15. Storage stability and antibacterial activity of eugenol nanoliposomes prepared by an ethanol injection-dynamic high-pressure microfluidization method.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shengfeng; Zou, Liqiang; Liu, Wei; Gan, Lu; Liu, Weilin; Liang, Ruihong; Liu, Chengmei; Niu, Jing; Cao, Yanlin; Liu, Zhen; Chen, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Eugenol is a major phenolic component with diverse biological activities. However, it is difficult to formulate into an aqueous solution due to poor water solubility, and this limits its application. In the present study, eugenol nanoliposomes (EN) were prepared by combining the ethanol injection method with the dynamic high-pressure microfluidization method. Good physicochemical characterizations of EN were obtained. The successful encapsulation of eugenol in nanoliposomes was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A good storage stability of EN was confirmed by its low variation of average particle diameter and encapsulation efficiency after 8 weeks of storage. No oil drops were found in EN after 8 weeks of storage at 4°C and at room temperature, which suggested that the poor water solubility of eugenol was overcome by nanoliposome encapsulation. Compared with that of eugenol solution, a relatively good sustained release property was observed in EN. The antibacterial activity of EN against four common foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes) was evaluated in both Luria broth and milk medium.

  16. EPOCH code simulation of a non-thermal distribution driven by neutral beam injection in a high-beta plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necas, A.; Tajima, T.; Nicks, S.; Magee, R.; Clary, R.; Roche, T.; Tri Alpha Energy Team

    2016-10-01

    In Tri Alpha Energy's C-2U experiment, advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas were sustained via tangential neutral beam injection. The dominant fast ion population made a dramatic impact on the overall plasma performance. To explain an experimentally observed anomalous neutron signal (100x thermonuclear), we use EPOCH PIC code to simulate possible beam driven non-destructive instabilities that transfer energy from fast ions to the plasma, causing phase space bunching. We propose that the hydrogen beam ion population drives collective modes in the deuterium target plasma, giving rise to the instability and increased fusion rate. The instability changes character from electrostatic in the low beta edge to fully electromagnetic in the core, with an associated reduction in growth rates. The DD reactivity enhancement is calculated using a two-body correlation function and compared to the experimentally observed neutron yield. The high-energy tails in the distributions of the plasma deuterons and beam protons are observed via a mass-resolving Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) diagnostic. This observation is qualitatively consistent with EPOCH simulation of the beam-plasma instability.

  17. High-speed fuel tracer fluorescence and OH radical chemiluminescence imaging in a spark-ignition direct-injection engine.

    PubMed

    Smith, James D; Sick, Volker

    2005-11-01

    An innovative technique has been demonstrated to achieve crank-angle-resolved planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of fuel followed by OH* chemiluminescence imaging in a firing direct-injected spark-ignition engine. This study used two standard KrF excimer lasers to excite toluene for tracking fuel distribution. The intensified camera system was operated at single crank-angle resolution at 2000 revolutions per minute (RPM) for 500 consecutive cycles. Through this work, it has been demonstrated that toluene and OH* can be imaged through the same optical setup while similar signal levels are obtained from both species, even at these high rates. The technique is useful for studying correlations between fuel distribution and subsequent ignition and flame propagation without the limitations of phase-averaging imaging approaches. This technique is illustrated for the effect of exhaust gas recirculation on combustion and will be useful for studies of misfire causes. Finally, a few general observations are presented as to the effect of preignition fuel distribution on subsequent combustion.

  18. Spin currents injected electrically and thermally from highly spin polarized Co{sub 2}MnSi

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, Alexander; Reeve, Robert M.; Kronenberg, Alexander; Jourdan, Martin; Kläui, Mathias; Hu, Shaojie; Kimura, Takashi

    2015-08-24

    We demonstrate the injection and detection of electrically and thermally generated spin currents probed in Co{sub 2}MnSi/Cu lateral spin valves. Devices with different electrode separations are patterned to measure the non-local signal as a function of the electrode spacing and we determine a relatively high effective spin polarization α of Co{sub 2}MnSi to be 0.63 and the spin diffusion length of Cu to be 500 nm at room temperature. The electrically generated non-local signal is measured as a function of temperature and a maximum signal is observed for a temperature of 80 K. The thermally generated non-local signal is measured as a function of current density and temperature in a second harmonic measurement detection scheme. We find different temperature dependences for the electrically and thermally generated non-local signals, which allows us to conclude that the temperature dependence of the signals is not just dominated by the transport in the Cu wire, but there is a crucial contribution from the different generation mechanisms, which has been largely disregarded till date.

  19. Thermoplastic polyurethanes for the manufacturing of highly dosed oral sustained release matrices via hot melt extrusion and injection molding.

    PubMed

    Claeys, Bart; Vervaeck, Anouk; Hillewaere, Xander K D; Possemiers, Sam; Hansen, Laurent; De Beer, Thomas; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUR) as matrix excipients for the production of oral solid dosage forms via hot melt extrusion (HME) in combination with injection molding (IM). We demonstrated that TPURs enable the production of solid dispersions - crystalline API in a crystalline carrier - at an extrusion temperature below the drug melting temperature (Tm) with a drug content up to 65% (wt.%). The release of metoprolol tartrate was controlled over 24h, whereas a complete release of diprophylline was only possible in combination with a drug release modifier: polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000) or Tween 80. No burst release nor a change in tablet size and geometry was detected for any of the formulations after dissolution testing. The total matrix porosity increased gradually upon drug release. Oral administration of TPUR did not affect the GI ecosystem (pH, bacterial count, short chain fatty acids), monitored via the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME). The high drug load (65 wt.%) in combination with (in vitro and in vivo) controlled release capacity of the formulations, is noteworthy in the field of formulations produced via HME/IM.

  20. High-speed fuel tracer fluorescence and OH radical chemiluminescence imaging in a spark-ignition direct-injection engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James D.; Sick, Volker

    2005-11-01

    An innovative technique has been demonstrated to achieve crank-angle-resolved planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of fuel followed by OH* chemiluminescence imaging in a firing direct-injected spark-ignition engine. This study used two standard KrF excimer lasers to excite toluene for tracking fuel distribution. The intensified camera system was operated at single crank-angle resolution at 2000 revolutions per minute (RPM) for 500 consecutive cycles. Through this work, it has been demonstrated that toluene and OH* can be imaged through the same optical setup while similar signal levels are obtained from both species, even at these high rates. The technique is useful for studying correlations between fuel distribution and subsequent ignition and flame propagation without the limitations of phase-averaging imaging approaches. This technique is illustrated for the effect of exhaust gas recirculation on combustion and will be useful for studies of misfire causes. Finally, a few general observations are presented as to the effect of preignition fuel distribution on subsequent combustion.

  1. High HIV Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors Among Female Sexual Partners of Male Injection Drug Users (MWID) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nadol, Patrick; Tran, Hoang; Hammett, Theodore; Phan, Son; Nguyen, Duong; Kaldor, John; Law, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    Injection drug use is a major factor in acquiring and transmitting HIV in Vietnam. This analysis aims to present estimates of HIV infection and factors associated with HIV infection among female sex partners (FSP) of MWID in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2011 and 2013 among males who inject drugs (MWID) who then referred their FSP for a behavioral and biologic survey. In total, 445 MWID and FSPs were enrolled. HIV prevalence among MWID was 50 and 35 % among FSPs. Among FSPs, 60.3 % reported ever using illegal drugs and among those, 72.7 % reported ever injecting illicit drugs. Among FSP, injection drug for >1 year [adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR), 95 % CI 2.94, 1.19-7.26), p value = <0.001] and having a male partner infected with HIV [(aOR 3.35: 1.97-5.69), p value = <0.001] were associated with HIV infection. The prevalence of HIV infection is high among FSP of MWID in HCMC and is highly associated with the injection drug use behavior of the FSP. Harm-reduction intervention programs that focus on the MWID-FSP couple or directly on the FSPs are required.

  2. Effect of a multielement trace mineral injection before transit stress on inflammatory response, growth performance, and carcass characteristics of beef steers.

    PubMed

    Genther-Schroeder, O N; Hansen, S L

    2015-04-01

    Weaned calves (n = 98; 256 ± 11.5 kg) were used to evaluate the impact of improving trace mineral (TM) status using a multielement TM injection 28 d before transit on markers of inflammatory and stress responses in response to transit and postshipping growth performance. On d 0 of a 28-d preconditioning program, calves received subcutaneous TM injection (MM; n = 48) containing 15, 10, 5, and 60 mg/mL of Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn, respectively, or physiological saline injection (SAL; n = 48). On d 28, steers were weighed, half of the steers from each treatment were transported for a 20-h transit stress period (SHIP; n = 24 per injection treatment), and half of the steers were returned to their pens for 20 h of feed and water restriction without transit (NOSHIP; n = 24 per injection treatment). The SHIP steers were unloaded on d 29 and all steers (SHIP and NOSHIP) were immediately weighed and sorted into new pens (n = 4 steers per pen) for the growing period. At the start of finishing (d 113), steers received a second MM or SAL, resulting in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial (n = 12 steers per treatment combination). Samples of blood were collected on d 28, 29, and 34 and liver on d 22 and 40. The initial MM increased liver Cu, Se, and Zn concentrations of cattle (P ≤ 0.02) but did not affect ADG during preconditioning (P = 0.89) or BW shrink as a result of transit (P ≥ 0.52). Plasma Fe concentrations were decreased after the transit stress period in SHIP calves (P ≤ 0.05) relative to NOSHIP calves but recovered 5 d after transit, and serum IL-8 concentrations were greater in SAL-SHIP steers than MM-SHIP steers (P = 0.04). Altering TM status through MM caused steers to have lesser ADG (P = 0.03) during the 14-d period after transit (d 29 through 43) but did not affect growth during the growing period (d 5 through 112; P ≥ 0.40). Minimal effects on finishing performance and carcass characteristics were noted, but there was a 3-way interaction (P ≤ 0.02) in which SAL

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