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Sample records for high salt concentrations

  1. Ammonia Solubility in High Concentration Salt Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2000-02-01

    Solubility data for ammonia in water and various dilute solutions are abundant in the literature. However, there is a noticeable lack of ammonia solubility data for high salt, basic solutions of various mixtures of salts including those found in many of the Hanford Washington underground waste tanks. As a result, models based on solubility data for dilute salt solutions have been used to extrapolate to high salt solutions. These significant extrapolations need to be checked against actual laboratory data. Some indirect vapor measurements have been made. A more direct approach is to determine the ratio of solubility of ammonia in water to its solubility in high salt solutions. In various experiments, pairs of solutions, one of which is water and the other a high salt solution, are allowed to come to equilibrium with a common ammonia vapor pressure. The ratio of concentrations of ammonia in the two solutions is equal to the ratio of the respective ammonia solubilities (Henry's Law constants) at a given temperature. This information can then be used to refine the models that predict vapor space compositions of ammonia. Ammonia at Hanford is of concern because of its toxicity in the environment and its contribution to the flammability of vapor space gas mixtures in waste tanks.

  2. Plasma 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration of Dahl salt-sensitive rats decreases during high salt intake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Tewolde, Teclemicael K.; Forte, Camille; Wang, Min; Bayorh, Mohamed A.; Emmett, Nerimiah L.; White, Jolanda; Griffin, Keri

    2002-01-01

    Dahl salt-sensitive rats, but not salt-resistant rats, develop hypertension in response to high salt intake. We have previously shown an inverse relationship between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration and blood pressure of Dahl salt-sensitive rats during high salt intake. In this study, we report on the relationship between high salt intake and plasma 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25-(OH)(2)D) concentration of Dahl salt-sensitive and salt-resistant rats. Rats were fed a high salt diet (8%) and sacrificed at day 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentrations of salt-sensitive rats were reduced to 50% of that at baseline at day 2-when blood pressure and plasma 25-OHD concentration were unchanged, but 25-OHD content in the kidney was 81% of that at baseline. Plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentration was reduced further to 10% of that at baseline from day 7 to 14 of high salt intake, a reduction that was prevented in rats switched to a low salt (0.3%) diet at day 7. Exogenous 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (24,25-(OH)(2)D(3)), administered at a level that increased plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentration to five times normal, did not attenuate the salt-induced hypertension of salt-sensitive rats. Plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentration of salt-resistant rats was gradually reduced to 50% of that at baseline at day 14 and returned to baseline value at day 28 of high salt intake. We conclude that the decrease in plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentration in salt-sensitive rats during high salt intake is caused by decreased 25-OHD content in the kidney and also by another unidentified mechanism.

  3. Characterization of high-milk-protein powders upon rehydration under various salt concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hussain, R; Gaiani, C; Aberkane, L; Scher, J

    2011-01-01

    Rehydration of native micellar casein and native whey isolate protein powders was followed in different ionic environments. Solutions of NaCl and CaCl2 in the concentration range of 0 to 12% (wt%) were used as rehydration media. The rehydration profiles obtained were interpreted in terms of wetting, swelling, and dispersion stages by using a turbidity method. Two behaviors were observed depending on the salt concentration. For native micellar casein powder, a significant change was observed between 3 and 6% NaCl and between 0.75 and 1.5% CaCl2. The first behavior (low salt concentration) presents a typical rehydration profile: quick wetting, swelling, and long dispersion stage. The dispersion stage of the second behavior (high salt concentration) was significantly shortened, indicating a strong modification of the protein backbone. The rehydration of whey protein powder was less influenced by salts. At low salt concentrations, a typical profile for whey powders was observed: wetting with lump formation and no swelling followed by a quick dispersion. At high CaCl2 concentrations, no turbidity stabilization was observed, indicating a possible protein unfolding and denaturation. Additionally, the changes in secondary structures of the 2 proteins upon salt increase were followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confirmed the different profiles observed.

  4. Production of Isolated Giant Unilamellar Vesicles under High Salt Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Hannah; Spindler, Susann; Bonakdar, Navid; Wang, Chun; Sandoghdar, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    The cell membrane forms a dynamic and complex barrier between the living cell and its environment. However, its in vivo studies are difficult because it consists of a high variety of lipids and proteins and is continuously reorganized by the cell. Therefore, membrane model systems with precisely controlled composition are used to investigate fundamental interactions of membrane components under well-defined conditions. Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) offer a powerful model system for the cell membrane, but many previous studies have been performed in unphysiologically low ionic strength solutions which might lead to altered membrane properties, protein stability and lipid-protein interaction. In the present work, we give an overview of the existing methods for GUV production and present our efforts on forming single, free floating vesicles up to several tens of μm in diameter and at high yield in various buffer solutions with physiological ionic strength and pH. PMID:28243205

  5. Adaptation to high salt concentrations in halotolerant/halophilic fungi: a molecular perspective

    PubMed Central

    Plemenitaš, Ana; Lenassi, Metka; Konte, Tilen; Kejžar, Anja; Zajc, Janja; Gostinčar, Cene; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Molecular studies of salt tolerance of eukaryotic microorganisms have until recently been limited to the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a few other moderately halotolerant yeast. Discovery of the extremely halotolerant and adaptable fungus Hortaea werneckii and the obligate halophile Wallemia ichthyophaga introduced two new model organisms into studies on the mechanisms of salt tolerance in eukaryotes. H. werneckii is unique in its adaptability to fluctuations in salt concentrations, as it can grow without NaCl as well as in the presence of up to 5 M NaCl. On the other hand, W. ichthyophaga requires at least 1.5 M NaCl for growth, but also grows in up to 5 M NaCl. Our studies have revealed the novel and intricate molecular mechanisms used by these fungi to combat high salt concentrations, which differ in many aspects between the extremely halotolerant H. werneckii and the halophilic W. ichthyophaga. Specifically, the high osmolarity glycerol signaling pathway that is important for sensing and responding to increased salt concentrations is here compared between H. werneckii and W. ichthyophaga. In both of these fungi, the key signaling components are conserved, but there are structural and regulation differences between these pathways in H. werneckii and W. ichthyophaga. We also address differences that have been revealed from analysis of their newly sequenced genomes. The most striking characteristics associated with H. werneckii are the large genetic redundancy, the expansion of genes encoding metal cation transporters, and a relatively recent whole genome duplication. In contrast, the genome of W. ichthyophaga is very compact, as only 4884 protein-coding genes are predicted, which cover almost three quarters of the sequence. Importantly, there has been a significant increase in their hydrophobins, cell-wall proteins that have multiple cellular functions. PMID:24860557

  6. Interactions between adsorbed hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) vesicles at physiologically high pressures and salt concentrations.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Ronit; Schroeder, Avi; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Klein, Jacob

    2011-05-18

    Using a surface force balance, we measured normal and shear interactions as a function of surface separation between layers of hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) adsorbed from dispersion at physiologically high salt concentrations (0.15 M NaNO₃). Cryo-scanning electron microscopy shows that each surface is coated by a close-packed HSPC-SUV layer with an overlayer of liposomes on top. A clear attractive interaction between the liposome layers is seen upon approach and separation, followed by a steric repulsion upon further compression. The shear forces reveal low friction coefficients (μ = 0.008-0.0006) up to contact pressures of at least 6 MPa, comparable to those observed in the major joints. The spread in μ-values may be qualitatively accounted for by different local liposome structure at different contact points, suggesting that the intrinsic friction of the HSPC-SUV layers at this salt concentration is closer to the lower limit (μ = ~0.0006). This low friction is attributed to the hydration lubrication mechanism arising from rubbing of the hydrated phosphocholine-headgroup layers exposed at the outer surface of each liposome, and provides support for the conjecture that phospholipids may play a significant role in biological lubrication.

  7. Decondensation behavior of DNA chains induced by multivalent cations at high salt concentrations: Molecular dynamics simulations and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yang-Wei; Ran, Shi-Yong; He, Lin-Li; Wang, Xiang-Hong; Zhang, Lin-Xi

    2015-11-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations and atomic force microscopy (AFM), we study the decondensation process of DNA chains induced by multivalent cations at high salt concentrations in the presence of short cationic chains in solutions. The typical simulation conformations of DNA chains with varying salt concentrations for multivalent cations imply that the concentration of salt cations and the valence of multivalent cations have a strong influence on the process of DNA decondensation. The DNA chains are condensed in the absence of salt or at low salt concentrations, and the compacted conformations of DNA chains become loose when a number of cations and anions are added into the solution. It is explicitly demonstrated that cations can overcompensate the bare charge of the DNA chains and weaken the attraction interactions between the DNA chains and short cationic chains at high salt concentrations. The condensation-decondensation transitions of DNA are also experimentally observed in mixing spermidine with λ-phage DNA at different concentrations of NaCl/MgCl2 solutions. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31340026), the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant Nos. Z13F20019 and LQ12E01003), and the Science and Technology Project of Zhejiang Science and Technology Department, China (Grant No. 2014C31147).

  8. Structural evidence for solvent-stabilisation by aspartic acid as a mechanism for halophilic protein stability in high salt concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Samuel; Walsh, Danielle L; Rhys, Natasha H; Soper, Alan K; Dougan, Lorna

    2016-07-21

    Halophilic organisms have adapted to survive in high salt environments, where mesophilic organisms would perish. One of the biggest challenges faced by halophilic proteins is the ability to maintain both the structure and function at molar concentrations of salt. A distinct adaptation of halophilic proteins, compared to mesophilic homologues, is the abundance of aspartic acid on the protein surface. Mutagenesis and crystallographic studies of halophilic proteins suggest an important role for solvent interactions with the surface aspartic acid residues. This interaction, between the regions of the acidic protein surface and the solvent, is thought to maintain a hydration layer around the protein at molar salt concentrations thereby allowing halophilic proteins to retain their functional state. Here we present neutron diffraction data of the monomeric zwitterionic form of aspartic acid solutions at physiological pH in 0.25 M and 2.5 M concentration of potassium chloride, to mimic mesophilic and halophilic-like environmental conditions. We have used isotopic substitution in combination with empirical potential structure refinement to extract atomic-scale information from the data. Our study provides structural insights that support the hypothesis that carboxyl groups on acidic residues bind water more tightly under high salt conditions, in support of the residue-ion interaction model of halophilic protein stabilisation. Furthermore our data show that in the presence of high salt the self-association between the zwitterionic form of aspartic acid molecules is reduced, suggesting a possible mechanism through which protein aggregation is prevented.

  9. Modeling full-scale osmotic membrane bioreactor systems with high sludge retention and low salt concentration factor for wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Hyuk; Park, Beomseok; Shon, Ho Kyong; Kim, Suhan

    2015-08-01

    A full-scale model was developed to find optimal design parameters for osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) and reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid system for wastewater reclamation. The model simulates salt accumulation, draw solution dilution and water flux in OMBR with sludge concentrator for high retention and low salt concentration factor. The full-scale OMBR simulation results reveal that flat-sheet module with spacers exhibits slightly higher flux than hollow-fiber; forward osmosis (FO) membrane with high water permeability, low salt permeability, and low resistance to salt diffusion shows high water flux; an optimal water recovery around 50% ensures high flux and no adverse effect on microbial activity; and FO membrane cost decreases and RO energy consumption and product water concentration increases at higher DS flow rates and concentrations. The simulated FO water flux and RO energy consumption ranges from 3.03 to 13.76LMH and 0.35 to 1.39kWh/m(3), respectively.

  10. Geobacter sp. SD-1 with enhanced electrochemical activity in high-salt concentration solutions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dan; Call, Douglas; Wang, Aijie; Cheng, Shaoan; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-12-01

    An isolate, designated strain SD-1, was obtained from a biofilm dominated by Geobacter sulfurreducens in a microbial fuel cell. The electrochemical activity of strain SD-1 was compared with type strains, G. sulfurreducens PCA and Geobacter metallireducens GS-15, and a mixed culture in microbial electrolysis cells. SD-1 produced a maximum current density of 290 ± 29 A m−3 in a high-concentration phosphate buffer solution (PBS-H, 200 mM). This current density was significantly higher than that produced by the mixed culture (189 ± 44 A m−3) or the type strains (< 70 A m−3). In a highly saline water (SW; 50 mM PBS and 650 mM NaCl), current by SD-1 (158 ± 4 A m−3) was reduced by 28% compared with 50 mM PBS (220 ± 4 A m−3), but it was still higher than that of the mixed culture (147 ± 19 A m−3), and strains PCA and GS-15 did not produce any current. Electrochemical tests showed that the improved performance of SD-1 was due to its lower charge transfer resistance and more negative potentials produced at higher current densities. These results show that the electrochemical activity of SD-1 was significantly different than other Geobacter strains and mixed cultures in terms of its salt tolerance.

  11. Listeria monocytogenes mutants with altered growth phenotypes at refrigeration temperature and high salt concentrations.

    PubMed

    Burall, Laurel S; Laksanalamai, Pongpan; Datta, Atin R

    2012-02-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can survive and grow in refrigerated temperatures and high-salt environments. In an effort to better understand the associated mechanisms, a library of ∼ 5,200 transposon mutants of LS411, a food isolate from the Jalisco cheese outbreak, were screened for their ability to grow in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth at 5°C or in the presence of 7% NaCl and two mutants with altered growth profiles were identified. The LS522 mutant has a transposon insertion between secA2 and iap and showed a significant reduction in growth in BHI broth at 5°C and in the presence of 7% NaCl. Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed a substantial reduction in the expression of iap. Additionally, a hypothetical gene (met), containing a putative S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase domain, downstream of iap had downregulated expression. In-frame deletion mutants of iap and met were created in LS411. The LS560 (LS411 Δiap) mutant showed reduced growth at 5°C and in the presence of 7% salt, confirming its role in cold and salt growth attenuation. Surprisingly, the LS655 (LS411 Δmet) mutant showed slightly increased growth during refrigeration, though no alteration was seen in salt growth relative to the wild-type strain. The LS527 mutant, containing an insertion 36 bp upstream of the gbu operon, showed reduced expression of the gbu transcript by RT-qPCR and also showed growth reduction at 5°C and in the presence of 7% salt. This attenuation was severely exacerbated when the mutant was grown under the combined stresses. Analysis of the gbu operon deletion mutant showed decreased growth in 7% salt and refrigeration, supporting the previously characterized role for this gene in cold and salt adaptation. These studies indicate the potential for an intricate relationship between environmental stress regulation and virulence in L. monocytogenes.

  12. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Aluminosilicate Gels Prepared in High-Alkaline and Salt-Concentrated Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Li Q.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Parker, Kent E.; Hobbs, David T.; McCready, David E.

    2005-11-01

    Solid-state 29Si, 27Al, and 23Na MAS (magic angle spinning) NMR techniques in combination with x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) are used to characterize aluminosilicate gels as a function of composition, pH, and reaction times. These gels were prepared at 80 C using initial solutions with low Si/Al ratios, high alkaline and salt concentrations that are characteristic of nuclear tank wastes. XRD data show that cancrinite and sodalite are the main crystalline phases in the aluminosilicate gels produced. It is found that the pH and the salt content have significant effects on the nature of the aluminosilicate gels. Higher pH appears to increase the rate of crystallization, the degree of overall crystallinity and the percentage of cancrinite phases in aluminosilicate gels, whereas the high salt concentration promotes the formation of cancrinite and sodalite and prohibits the formation of other zeolites. Complementary to XRD, NMR is extremely useful for providing the information on the structure of amorphous intermediate gels with no long-range order.

  13. Experimental Investigations into U/TRU Recovery using a Liquid Cadmium Cathode and Salt Containing High Rare Earth Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Shelly X. Li; Steven D. Herrmann; Michael F. Simpson

    2009-09-01

    Experimental Investigations into U/TRU Recovery using a Liquid Cadmium Cathode and Salt Containing High Rare Earth Concentrations Shelly X. Li, Steven D. Herrmann, and Michael F. Simpson Pyroprocessing Technology Department Idaho National Laboratory P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 USA Abstract - A series of six bench-scale liquid cadmium cathode (LCC) tests was performed to obtain basic separation data with focus on the behavior of rare earth elements. The electrolyte used for the tests was a mixed salt from the Mk-IV and Mk-V electrorefiners, in which spent metal fuels from Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) had been processed. Rare earth (RE) chlorides, such as NdCl3, CeCl3, LaCl3, PrCl3, SmCl3, and YCl3, were spiked into the salt prior to the first test to create an extreme case for investigating rare earth contamination of the actinides collected by a LCC. For the first two LCC tests, an alloy with the nominal composition of 41U-30Pu-5Am-3Np-20Zr-1RE was loaded into the anode baskets as the feed material. The anode feed material for Runs 3 to 6 was spent ternary fuel (U-19Pu-10Zr). The Pu/U ratio in the salt varied from 0.6 to 1.3. Chemical and radiochemical analytical results confirmed that U and transuranics can be collected into the LCC as a group under the given run conditions. The RE contamination level in the LCC product was up to 6.7 wt% of the total metal collected. The detailed data for partitioning of actinides and REs in the salt and Cd phases are reported in the paper.

  14. Ammonium removal from high-salinity oilfield-produced water: assessing the microbial community dynamics at increasing salt concentrations.

    PubMed

    Quartaroli, Larissa; Silva, Lívia C Fidélis; Silva, Claudio Mudadu; Lima, Helena Santiago; de Paula, Sergio Oliveira; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia; de Cássia S da Silva, Marliane; Kasuya, Maria Catarina M; de Sousa, Maíra Paula; Torres, Ana Paula R; Souza, Rodrigo Suhett; Bassin, João Paulo; da Silva, Cynthia Canêdo

    2017-01-01

    Water generated during oil exploration is chemically complex and contains high concentrations of ammonium and, in some cases, high salinity. The most common way to remove ammonium from effluent is a biological process, which can be performed by different routes and different groups of microorganisms. However, the presence of salts in the effluents could be an inhibiting factor for biological processes, interfering directly with treatment. This study aimed to evaluate changes in the profile of a microbial community involved in the process of ammonium removal when subjected to a gradual increase of salt (NaCl), in which the complete inhibition of the ammonium removal process occurred at 125 g L(-1) NaCl. During the sludge acclimatization process, samples were collected and submitted to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and massive sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. As the salt concentration increased in the reactor, a change in the microbial community was observed by the DGGE band profiles. As a result, there was a reduction in the presence of bacterial populations, and an increase in archaeal populations was found. The sequencing data suggested that ammonium removal in the reactor was carried out by different metabolic routes by autotrophic nitrifying bacteria, such as Nitrosococcus, Nitrosomonas, Nitrosovibrio, Nitrospira, and Nitrococcus; ammonium-oxidizing archaea Candidatus nitrosoarchaeum; ANAMMOX microorganisms, such as Candidatus brocadia, Candidatus kuenenia, and Candidatus scalindua; and microorganisms with the potential to be heterotrophic nitrifying, such as Paracoccus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., Marinobacter sp., and Alcaligenes spp.

  15. Enhanced ethanol production by fermentation of Gelidium amansii hydrolysate using a detoxification process and yeasts acclimated to high-salt concentration.

    PubMed

    Ra, Chae Hun; Jung, Jang Hyun; Sunwoo, In Yung; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2015-06-01

    A total monosaccharide concentration of 59.0 g/L, representing 80.1 % conversion of 73.6 g/L total fermentable sugars from 160 g dw/L G. amansii slurry was obtained by thermal acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis. Subsequent adsorption treatment using 5 % activated carbon with an adsorption time of 2 min was used to prevent the inhibitory effect of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) >5 g/L in the medium. Ethanol production decreased with increasing salt concentration using C. tropicalis KCTC 7212 non-acclimated or acclimated to a high concentration of salt. Salt concentration of 90 psu was the maximum concentration for cell growth and ethanol production. The levels of ethanol production by C. tropicalis non-acclimated or acclimated to 90 psu high-salt concentration were 13.8 g/L with a yield (YEtOH) of 0.23, and 26.7 g/L with YEtOH of 0.45, respectively.

  16. Viscosity-Lowering Effect of Amino Acids and Salts on Highly Concentrated Solutions of Two IgG1 Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujing; Zhang, Ning; Hu, Tao; Dai, Weiguo; Feng, Xiuying; Zhang, Xinyi; Qian, Feng

    2015-12-07

    Monoclonal antibodies display complicated solution properties in highly concentrated (>100 mg/mL) formulations, such as high viscosity, high aggregation propensity, and low stability, among others, originating from protein-protein interactions within the colloidal protein solution. These properties severely hinder the successful development of high-concentration mAb solution for subcutaneous injection. We hereby investigated the effects of several small-molecule excipients with diverse biophysical-chemical properties on the viscosity, aggregation propensity, and stability on two model IgG1 (JM1 and JM2) mAb formulations. These excipients include nine amino acids or their salt forms (Ala, Pro, Val, Gly, Ser, HisHCl, LysHCl, ArgHCl, and NaGlu), four representative salts (NaCl, NaAc, Na2SO4, and NH4Cl), and two chaotropic reagents (urea and GdnHCl). With only salts or amino acids in their salt-forms, significant decrease in viscosity was observed for JM1 (by up to 30-40%) and JM2 (by up to 50-80%) formulations, suggesting charge-charge interaction between the mAbs dictates the high viscosity of these mAbs formulations. Most of these viscosity-lowering excipients did not induce substantial protein aggregation or changes in the secondary structure of the mAbs, as evidenced by HPLC-SEC, DSC, and FT-IR analysis, even in the absence of common protein stabilizers such as sugars and surfactants. Therefore, amino acids in their salt-forms and several common salts, such as ArgHCl, HisHCl, LysHCl, NaCl, Na2SO4, and NaAc, could potentially serve as viscosity-lowering excipients during high-concentration mAb formulation development.

  17. Influence of high concentrations of mineral salts on production process and NaCl accumulation by Salicornia europaea plants as a constituent of the LSS phototroph link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, N. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Kovaleva, N. P.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Tikhomirov, A. A.

    Use of halophytes (salt-tolerant vegetation), in a particular vegetable Salicornia europaea plants which are capable of utilizing NaCl in rather high concentrations, is one of possible means of NaCl incorporation into mass exchange of bioregenerative life support systems. In preliminary experiments it was shown that S. europaea plants, basically, could grow on urine pretreated with physicochemical processing and urease-enzyme decomposing of urea with the subsequent ammonia distillation. But at the same time inhibition of the growth process of the plants was observed. The purpose of the given work was to find out the influence of excessive quantities of some mineral elements contained in products of physicochemical processing of urine on the production process and NaCl accumulation by S. europaea plants. As the content of mineral salts in the human liquid wastes (urine) changed within certain limits, two variants of experimental solutions were examined. In the first variant, the concentration of mineral salts was equivalent to the minimum salt content in the urine and was: K - 1.5 g/l, P - 0.5 g/l, S - 0.5 g/l, Mg - 0.07 g/l, Ca - 0.2 g/l. In the second experimental variant, the content of mineral salts corresponded to the maximum salt content in urine and was the following: K - 3.0 g/l, P - 0.7 g/l, S - 1.2 g/l, Mg - 0.2 g/l, Ca - 0.97 g/l. As the control, the Tokarev nutrient solution containing nitrogen in the form of a urea, and the Knop nutrient solution with nitrogen in the nitrate form were used. N quantity in all four variants made up 177 mg/l. Air temperature was 24 °C, illumination was continuous. Light intensity was 690 μmol/m 2s of photosynthetically active radiation. NaCl concentration in solutions was 1%. Our researches showed that the dry aboveground biomass of an average plant of the first variant practically did not differ from the control and totaled 11 g. In the second variant, S. europaea productivity decreased and the dry aboveground biomass

  18. Influence of high concentrations of mineral salts on production process and NaCl accumulation by Salicornia europaea plants as a constituent of the LSS phototroph link.

    PubMed

    Tikhomirova, N A; Ushakova, S A; Kovaleva, N P; Gribovskaya, I V; Tikhomirov, A A

    2005-01-01

    Use of halophytes (salt-tolerant vegetation), in a particular vegetable Salicornia europaea plants which are capable of utilizing NaCl in rather high concentrations, is one of possible means of NaCl incorporation into mass exchange of bioregenerative life support systems. In preliminary experiments it was shown that S. europaea plants, basically, could grow on urine pretreated with physicochemical processing and urease-enzyme decomposing of urea with the subsequent ammonia distillation. But at the same time inhibition of the growth process of the plants was observed. The purpose of the given work was to find out the influence of excessive quantities of some mineral elements contained in products of physicochemical processing of urine on the production process and NaCl accumulation by S. europaea plants. As the content of mineral salts in the human liquid wastes (urine) changed within certain limits, two variants of experimental solutions were examined. In the first variant, the concentration of mineral salts was equivalent to the minimum salt content in the urine and was: K - 1.5 g/l, P - 0.5 g/l, S - 0.5 g/l, Mg - 0.07 g/l, Ca - 0.2 g/l. In the second experimental variant, the content of mineral salts corresponded to the maximum salt content in urine and was the following: K - 3.0 g/l, P - 0.7 g/l, S - 1.2 g/l, Mg - 0.2 g/l, Ca - 0.97 g/l. As the control, the Tokarev nutrient solution containing nitrogen in the form of a urea, and the Knop nutrient solution with nitrogen in the nitrate form were used. N quantity in all four variants made up 177 mg/l. Air temperature was 24 degrees C, illumination was continuous. Light intensity was 690 micromoles/m2s of photosynthetically active radiation. NaCl concentration in solutions was 1%. Our researches showed that the dry aboveground biomass of an average plant of the first variant practically did not differ from the control and totaled 11 g. In the second variant, S. europaea productivity decreased and the dry aboveground

  19. Rice potassium transporter OsHAK1 is essential for maintaining potassium-mediated growth and functions in salt tolerance over low and high potassium concentration ranges.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang; Hu, Qingdi; Luo, Le; Yang, Tianyuan; Zhang, Song; Hu, Yibing; Yu, Ling; Xu, Guohua

    2015-12-01

    Potassium (K) absorption and translocation in plants rely upon multiple K transporters for adapting varied K supply and saline conditions. Here, we report the expression patterns and physiological roles of OsHAK1, a member belonging to the KT/KUP/HAK gene family in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The expression of OsHAK1 is up-regulated by K deficiency or salt stress in various tissues, particularly in the root and shoot apical meristem, the epidermises and steles of root, and vascular bundles of shoot. Both oshak1 knockout mutants in comparison to their respective Dongjin or Manan wild types showed a dramatic reduction in K concentration and stunted root and shoot growth. Knockout of OsHAK1 reduced the K absorption rate of unit root surface area by ∼50-55 and ∼30%, and total K uptake by ∼80 and ∼65% at 0.05-0.1 and 1 mm K supply level, respectively. The root net high-affinity K uptake of oshak1 mutants was sensitive to salt stress but not to ammonium supply. Overexpression of OsHAK1 in rice increased K uptake and K/Na ratio. The positive relationship between K concentration and shoot biomass in the mutants suggests that OsHAK1 plays an essential role in K-mediated rice growth and salt tolerance over low and high K concentration ranges.

  20. Multiple phosphorylated forms of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm1 protein include an isoform induced in response to high salt concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, M H; Nadeau, E T; Grayhack, E J

    1997-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm1 protein is an essential multifunctional transcription factor which is highly homologous to human serum response factor. Mcm1 protein acts on a large number of distinctly regulated genes: haploid cell-type-specific genes, G2-cell-cycle-regulated genes, pheromone-induced genes, arginine metabolic genes, and genes important for cell wall and cell membrane function. We show here that Mcm1 protein is phosphorylated in vivo. Several (more than eight) isoforms of Mcm1 protein, resolved by isoelectric focusing, are present in vivo; two major phosphorylation sites lie in the N-terminal 17 amino acids immediately adjacent to the conserved MADS box DNA-binding domain. The implications of multiple species of Mcm1, particularly the notion that a unique Mcm1 isoform could be required for regulation of a specific set of Mcm1's target genes, are discussed. We also show here that Mcm1 plays an important role in the response to stress caused by NaCl. G. Yu, R. J. Deschenes, and J. S. Fassler (J. Biol. Chem. 270:8739-8743, 1995) showed that Mcm1 function is affected by mutations in the SLN1 gene, a signal transduction component implicated in the response to osmotic stress. We find that mcm1 mutations can confer either reduced or enhanced survival on high-salt medium; deletion of the N terminus or mutation in the primary phosphorylation site results in impaired growth on high-salt medium. Furthermore, Mcm1 protein is a target of a signal transduction system responsive to osmotic stress: a new isoform of Mcm1 is induced by NaCl or KCl; this result establishes that Mcm1 itself is regulated. PMID:9001236

  1. Positive effects of growth at suboptimal temperature and high salt concentration on long-term survival of Lactobacillus sakei.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Anika; Zagorec, Monique; Champomier-Vergès, Marie Christine

    2003-01-01

    Lactobacillus sakei is a lactic acid bacterium commonly found on fresh meat and represents the predominant flora of vacuum-packed meat. In the present article, we studied the behavior of L. sakei in a chemically defined medium under various growth conditions relative to temperature or NaCl concentration. Growth occurred at each temperature, but growth rate and final cell density decreased at low temperature and survival was enhanced. In the presence of NaCl, we also observed a longer doubling time and a lower final cell density together with an enhanced long-term survival. When both conditions were combined, the long-term survival was greatly increased to about 28 weeks. Differences in cell morphology were observed under electron microscopy when cells were grown at low temperature in the presence of salt. We speculate that these are due to modifications in membrane structure. These results show that L. sakei is able to adapt to these environmental conditions and that slow growth is clearly associated with enhanced long-term survival.

  2. Effect of temperature & salt concentration on salt tolerant nitrate-perchlorate reducing bacteria: Nitrate degradation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Shelir; Nguyen, Thi Hau; Roberts, Deborah J

    2015-10-15

    The sustainability of nitrate-contaminated water treatment using ion-exchange processes can be achieved by regenerating the exhausted resin several times. Our previous study shows that the use of multi-cycle bioregeneration of resin enclosed in membrane is an effective and innovative regeneration method. In this research, the effects of two independent factors (temperature and salt concentration) on the biological denitrification rate were studied. The results of this research along with the experimental results of the previous study on the effect of the same factors on nitrate desorption rate from the resin allow the optimization of the bioregeneration process. The results of nitrate denitrification rate study show that the biodegradation rate at different temperature and salt concentration is independent of the initial nitrate concentration. At each specific salt concentration, the nitrate removal rate increased with increasing temperature with the average value of 0.001110 ± 0.0000647 mg-nitrate/mg-VSS.h.°C. However, the effect of different salt concentrations was dependent on the temperature; there is a significant interaction between salt concentration and temperature; within each group of temperatures, the nitrate degradation rate decreased with increasing the salt concentration. The temperature affected the tolerance to salinity and culture was less tolerant to high concentration of salt at low temperature. Evidenced by the difference between the minimum and maximum nitrate degradation rate being greater at lower temperature. At 35 °C, a 32% reduction in the nitrate degradation rate was observed while at 12 °C this reduction was 69%. This is the first published study to examine the interaction of salt concentration and temperature during biological denitrification.

  3. Effects of Buffer Loading for Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry of a Noncovalent Protein Complex that Requires High Concentrations of Essential Salts

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Harry J.; Batchelor, Joseph D.; Wemmer, David E.; Williams, Evan R.

    2010-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful method for analyzing the active forms of macromolecular complexes of biomolecules. However, these solutions often contain high concentrations of salts and/or detergents that adversely effect ESI performance by making ion formation less reproducible, causing severe adduction or ion suppression. Many methods for separating complexes from nonvolatile additives are routinely used with ESI-MS, but these methods may not be appropriate for complexes that require such stabilizers for activity. Here, the effects of buffer loading using concentrations of ammonium acetate ranging from 0.22 to 1.41 M on the ESI mass spectra of a solution containing a domain truncation mutant of a σ54 activator from Aquifex aeolicus were studied. This 44.9 kDa protein requires the presence of millimolar concentrations of Mg2+, BeF3−, and ADP, (at ∼60 °C) to assemble into an active homo-hexamer. Addition of ammonium acetate can improve signal stability and reproducibility, and can significantly lower adduction and background signals. However, at higher concentrations, the relative ion abundance of the hexamer is diminished, while that of the constituent monomer is enhanced. These results are consistent with loss of enzymatic activity as measured by ATP hydrolysis and indicate that the high concentration of ammonium acetate interferes with assembly of the hexamer. This shows that buffer loading with ammonium acetate is effective for obtaining ESI signal for complexes that require high concentrations of essential salts, but can interfere with formation of, and/or destabilize complexes by disrupting crucial electrostatic interactions at high concentration. PMID:20226685

  4. Enhanced cycling performance of a Li metal anode in a dimethylsulfoxide-based electrolyte using highly concentrated lithium salt for a lithium-oxygen battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togasaki, Norihiro; Momma, Toshiyuki; Osaka, Tetsuya

    2016-03-01

    Stable charge-discharge cycling behavior for a lithium metal anode in a dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-based electrolyte is strongly desired of lithium-oxygen batteries, because the Li anode is rapidly exhausted as a result of side reactions during cycling in the DMSO solution. Herein, we report a novel electrolyte design for enhancing the cycling performance of Li anodes by using a highly concentrated DMSO-based electrolyte with a specific Li salt. Lithium nitrate (LiNO3), which forms an inorganic compound (Li2O) instead of a soluble product (Li2S) on a lithium surface, exhibits a >20% higher coulombic efficiency than lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide, and lithium perchlorate, regardless of the loading current density. Moreover, the stable cycling of Li anodes in DMSO-based electrolytes depends critically on the salt concentration. The highly concentrated electrolyte 4.0 M LiNO3/DMSO displays enhanced and stable cycling performance comparable to that of carbonate-based electrolytes, which had not previously been achieved. We suppose this enhancement is due to the absence of free DMSO solvent in the electrolyte and the promotion of the desolvation of Li ions on the solid electrolyte interphase surface, both being consequences of the unique structure of the electrolyte.

  5. Highly-resolved Modeling of Emissions and Concentrations of Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, and Fine Particulate Matter in Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Lin, J. C.; Mitchell, L.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate, high-resolution data on air pollutant emissions and concentrations are needed to understand human exposures and for both policy and pollutant management purposes. An important step in this process is also quantification of uncertainties. We present a spatially explicit and highly resolved emissions inventory for Salt Lake County, Utah, and trace gas concentration estimates for carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and fine particles (PM2.5) within Salt Lake City. We assess the validity of this approach by comparing measured concentrations against simulated values derived from combining the emissions inventory with an atmospheric model. The emissions inventory for the criteria pollutants was constructed using the 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI). The spatial and temporal allocation methods from the Emission Modeling Clearinghouse data set are used to downscale the NEI data from annual to hourly scales and from county-level to 500 m x 500 m resolution. Onroad mobile source emissions were estimated by combining a bottom-up emissions calculation approach for large roadway links with a top-down spatial allocation approach for other roadways. Vehicle activity data for road links were derived from automatic traffic responder data. The emissions inventory for CO2 was obtained from the Hestia emissions data product at an hourly, building, facility, and road link resolution. The AERMOD and CALPUFF dispersion models were used to transport emissions and estimate air pollutant concentrations at an hourly temporal and 500 m x 500 m spatial resolution. Modeled results were compared against measurements from a mobile lab equipped with trace gas measurement equipment traveling on pre-determined routes in the Salt Lake City area. The comparison between both approaches to concentration estimation highlights spatial locations and hours of high variability/uncertainty. Results presented here will inform understanding of variability and

  6. Spatiotemporal comparison of highly-resolved emissions and concentrations of carbon dioxide and criteria pollutants in Salt Lake City, Utah for health and policy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Lin, J. C.; Mitchell, L.; Gurney, K. R.; Patarasuk, R.; Fasoli, B.; Bares, R.; o'Keefe, D.; Song, T.; Huang, J.; Horel, J.; Crosman, E.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    This study addresses the need for robust highly-resolved emissions and concentration data required for planning purposes and policy development aimed at managing pollutant sources. Adverse health effects resulting from urban pollution exposure are dependent on proximity to emission sources and atmospheric mixing, necessitating models with high spatial and temporal resolution. As urban emission sources co-emit carbon dioxide (CO2) and criteria pollutants (CAPs), efforts to reduce specific pollutants would synergistically reduce others. We present emissions inventories and modeled concentrations for CO2 and CAPs: carbon monoxide (CO), lead (Pb), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), and sulfur oxides (SOx) for Salt Lake County, Utah. We compare the resulting concentrations against stationary and mobile measurement data and present a systematic quantification of uncertainties. The emissions inventory for CO2 is based on the Hestia emissions data inventory that resolves emissions at an hourly, building and road link resolution as well as hourly gridded emissions with a 0.002o x 0.002o spatial resolution. Two methods for deriving criteria pollutant emission inventories were compared. One was constructed using methods similar to Hestia but downscales total emissions based on the 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI). The other used Emission Modeling Clearinghouse spatial and temporal surrogates to downscale the NEI data from annual and county-level resolution to hourly and 0.002o x 0.002o grid cells. The gridded emissions from both criteria pollutant methods were compared against the Hestia CO2 gridded data to characterize spatial similarities and differences between them. Correlations were calculated at multiple scales of aggregation. The CALPUFF dispersion model was used to transport emissions and estimate air pollutant concentrations at an hourly 0.002o x 0.002o resolution. The resulting concentrations were spatially compared in the same manner

  7. Microbial Successions and Metabolite Changes during Fermentation of Salted Shrimp (Saeu-Jeot) with Different Salt Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Se Hee; Jung, Ji Young; Jeon, Che Ok

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of salt concentration on saeu-jeot (salted shrimp) fermentation, four sets of saeu-jeot samples with 20%, 24%, 28%, and 32% salt concentrations were prepared, and the pH, bacterial and archaeal abundances, bacterial communities, and metabolites were monitored during the entire fermentation period. Quantitative PCR showed that Bacteria were much more abundant than Archaea in all saeu-jeot samples, suggesting that bacterial populations play more important roles than archaeal populations even in highly salted samples. Community analysis indicated that Vibrio, Photobacterium, Psychrobacter, Pseudoalteromonas, and Enterovibrio were identified as the initially dominant genera, and the bacterial successions were significantly different depending on the salt concentration. During the early fermentation period, Salinivibrio predominated in the 20% salted samples, whereas Staphylococcus, Halomonas, and Salimicrobium predominated in the 24% salted samples; eventually, Halanaerobium predominated in the 20% and 24% salted samples. The initially dominant genera gradually decreased as the fermentation progressed in the 28% and 32% salted samples, and eventually Salimicrobium became predominant in the 28% salted samples. However, the initially dominant genera still remained until the end of fermentation in the 32% salted samples. Metabolite analysis showed that the amino acid profile and the initial glycerol increase were similar in all saeu-jeot samples regardless of the salt concentration. After 30–80 days of fermentation, the levels of acetate, butyrate, and methylamines in the 20% and 24% salted samples increased with the growth of Halanaerobium, even though the amino acid concentrations steadily increased until approximately 80–107 days of fermentation. This study suggests that a range of 24–28% salt concentration in saeu-jeot fermentation is appropriate for the production of safe and tasty saeu-jeot. PMID:24587230

  8. Microbial successions and metabolite changes during fermentation of salted shrimp (saeu-jeot) with different salt concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Se Hee; Jung, Ji Young; Jeon, Che Ok

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of salt concentration on saeu-jeot (salted shrimp) fermentation, four sets of saeu-jeot samples with 20%, 24%, 28%, and 32% salt concentrations were prepared, and the pH, bacterial and archaeal abundances, bacterial communities, and metabolites were monitored during the entire fermentation period. Quantitative PCR showed that Bacteria were much more abundant than Archaea in all saeu-jeot samples, suggesting that bacterial populations play more important roles than archaeal populations even in highly salted samples. Community analysis indicated that Vibrio, Photobacterium, Psychrobacter, Pseudoalteromonas, and Enterovibrio were identified as the initially dominant genera, and the bacterial successions were significantly different depending on the salt concentration. During the early fermentation period, Salinivibrio predominated in the 20% salted samples, whereas Staphylococcus, Halomonas, and Salimicrobium predominated in the 24% salted samples; eventually, Halanaerobium predominated in the 20% and 24% salted samples. The initially dominant genera gradually decreased as the fermentation progressed in the 28% and 32% salted samples, and eventually Salimicrobium became predominant in the 28% salted samples. However, the initially dominant genera still remained until the end of fermentation in the 32% salted samples. Metabolite analysis showed that the amino acid profile and the initial glycerol increase were similar in all saeu-jeot samples regardless of the salt concentration. After 30-80 days of fermentation, the levels of acetate, butyrate, and methylamines in the 20% and 24% salted samples increased with the growth of Halanaerobium, even though the amino acid concentrations steadily increased until approximately 80-107 days of fermentation. This study suggests that a range of 24-28% salt concentration in saeu-jeot fermentation is appropriate for the production of safe and tasty saeu-jeot.

  9. Sodium chloride crystallization from drying drops of albumin-salt solutions with different albumin concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakhno, T. A.

    2015-11-01

    The salt nature of crystalline structures resulting from drying albumin-salt solutions with a low (<1 wt %) and high (7 and 9 wt %) concentration of albumin and a NaCl concentration kept at a physiological level (0.9 wt %) is experimentally substantiated. Such a conclusion is drawn from the dynamics of phase transitions, morphological studies, and differences between the physicochemical properties of albumin and salt. Obtained data give a deeper insight into the albumin and salt distributions in drying liquids.

  10. Forces between hydrophobic solids in concentrated aqueous salt solution.

    PubMed

    Mastropietro, Dean J; Ducker, William A

    2012-03-09

    Much research has focused on the discovery and description of long-ranged forces between hydrophobic solids immersed in water. Here we show that the force between high contact-angle solids in concentrated salt solution (1 M KCl) agrees very well with van der Waals forces calculated from Lifshitz theory for separations greater than 5 nm. The hydrophobic solids are octadecyltrichlorosilane-coated glass, with an advancing contact angle of 108°. Thus, in 1 M salt solution, it is unnecessary to invoke the presence of a hydrophobic force at separations greater than 5 nm. Through measurement in salt solution, we avoid the necessity of accounting for large electrostatic forces that frequently occur in pure water and may obscure resolution of other forces.

  11. Two-dimensional metal-organic framework nanosheets as a matrix for laser desorption/ionization of small molecules and monitoring enzymatic reactions at high salt concentrations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Long; Chang, Yu-Jie; Fan, Ting; Gu, Zhi-Yuan

    2016-10-27

    Stable 2-D metal-organic framework nanosheets were utilized as a superior clean-background matrix for MALDI-TOF MS analysis of small biomolecules and pollutants in both positive and negative ion modes. The matrix could unusually afford up to 1000 mM of the salt concentrations in the monitoring of the enzymatic hydrolysis of neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

  12. Application of extraction chromatography to the separation of thorium and uranium dissolved in a solution of high salt concentration.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Asako; Kameo, Yutaka; Hoshi, Akiko; Haraga, Tomoko; Nakashima, Mikio

    2007-01-26

    Extraction chromatography with commercially available UTEVA resin (for uranium and tetravalent actinide) was applied for the separation of Th and U from control solutions prepared from a multi-element control solution and from sample solutions of solidified simulated waste. Thorium and U in control solutions with 1-5mol/dm(3) HNO(3) were extracted with UTEVA resin and recovered with a solution containing 0.1mol/dm(3) HNO(3) and 0.05mol/dm(3) oxalic acid to be separated from the other metallic elements. Extraction behavior of U in the sample solutions was similar to that in the control solutions, but extraction of Th was dependent on the concentration of HNO(3). Thorium was extracted from 5mol/dm(3) HNO(3) sample solutions but not from 1mol/dm(3) HNO(3) sample solutions. We conjecture that thorium fluoride formation interferes with extraction of Th. Addition of Al(NO(3))(3) and Fe(NO(3))(3), which have higher stability constant with fluoride ion than Th, does improve extractability of Th from 1mol/dm(3) HNO(3) sample solution.

  13. Simulation of osmotic pressure in concentrated aqueous salt solutions.

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.; Roux, B.; Univ. of Chicago

    2010-01-01

    Accurate force fields are critical for meaningful simulation studies of highly concentrated electrolytes. The ion models that are widely used in biomolecular simulations do not necessarily reproduce the correct behavior at finite concentrations. In principle, the osmotic pressure is a key thermodynamic property that could be used to test and refine force field parameters for concentrated solutions. Here we describe a novel, simple, and practical method to compute the osmotic pressure directly from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of concentrated aqueous solutions by introducing an idealized semipermeable membrane. Simple models for Na+, K+, and Cl- are tested and calibrated to accurately reproduce the experimental osmotic pressure at high salt concentration, up to the solubility limit of 4-5 M. The methodology is general and can be extended to any type of solute as well as nonadditive polarizable force fields.

  14. Nitrite toxicity of Litopenaeus vannamei in water containing low concentrations of sea salt or mixed salts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sowers, A.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.; Browdy, C.L.; Tomasso, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake, depuration and toxicity of environmental nitrite was characterized in Litopenaeus vannamei exposed in water containing low concentrations of artificial sea salt or mixed salts. In 2 g/L artificial sea salts, nitrite was concentrated in the hemolymph in a dose-dependent and rapid manner (steady-state in about 2 d). When exposed to nitrite in 2 g/L artificial sea salts for 4 d and then moved to a similar environment without added nitrite, complete depuration occurred within a day. Increasing salinity up to 10 g/L decreased uptake of environmental nitrite. Nitrite uptake in environments containing 2 g/L mixed salts (combination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chlorides) was similar to or lower than rates in 2 g/L artificial sea salt. Toxicity was inversely related to total dissolved salt and chloride concentrations and was highest in 2 g/L artificial sea salt (96-h medial lethal concentration = 8.4 mg/L nitrite-N). Animals that molted during the experiments did not appear to be more susceptible to nitrite than animals that did not molt. The shallow slope of the curve describing the relationship between toxicity and salinity suggests that management of nitrite toxicity in low-salinity shrimp ponds by addition of more salts may not be practical. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2004.

  15. Invasive Knotweeds are Highly Tolerant to Salt Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouifed, Soraya; Byczek, Coline; Laffray, Daniel; Piola, Florence

    2012-12-01

    Japanese knotweed s.l. are some of the most invasive plants in the world. Some genotypes are known to be tolerant to the saline concentrations found in salt marshes. Here we focus on tolerance to higher concentrations in order to assess whether the species are able to colonize and establish in highly stressful environments, or whether salt is an efficient management tool. In a first experiment, adult plants of Fallopia japonica, Fallopia × bohemica and Fallopia sachalinensis were grown under salt stress conditions by watering with saline concentrations of 6, 30, 120, or 300 g L-1 for three weeks to assess the response of the plants to a spill of salt. At the two highest concentrations, their leaves withered and fell. There were no effects on the aboveground parts at the lowest concentrations. Belowground dry weight and number of buds were reduced from 30 and 120 g L-1 of salt, respectively. In a second experiment, a single spraying of 120 g L-1 of salt was applied to individuals of F. × bohemica and their stems were clipped to assess the response to a potential control method. 60 % of the plants regenerated. Regeneration was delayed by the salt treatment and shoot growth slowed down. This study establishes the tolerance of three Fallopia taxa to strong salt stress, with no obvious differences between taxa. Their salt tolerance could be an advantage in their ability to colonize polluted environments and to survive to spills of salt.

  16. Iodine concentration in household salt in South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Jooste, P. L.; Weight, M. J.; Lombard, C. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the iodine concentration in household salt, the coverage of adequately iodized salt, the use of non-iodized agricultural and producers' salt, and the usefulness of salt as a carrier of iodine, and to relate these observations to socioeconomic status in South Africa. METHOD: The iodometric titration method was used to analyse 2043 household salt samples collected using a national, multistage, stratified, cluster survey. FINDINGS: The national mean and median iodine concentrations of household salt were 27 mg/kg (95% confidence interval (CI): 25-29 mg/kg) and 30 mg/kg (range = 0-155 mg/kg), respectively. There was considerable variation within and between geographical areas. Coverage of adequately iodized household salt, i.e. iodized at > 15 mg/kg, was 62.4% of households (95% CI: 58.8-66.0%) two years after the introduction of compulsory iodization at a level of 40-60 mg/kg. A total of 7.3% of households used non-iodized agricultural salt and salt obtained directly from producers. People at the lower end of the socioeconomic spectrum were more likely to suffer the consequences of using under-iodized salt because more of them used agricultural or coarse salt than did people in the higher socioeconomic categories. The iodine concentration in salt was lower in rural areas than in urban and periurban areas. CONCLUSIONS: The consequences of using under-iodized or non-iodized salt were most likely to be experienced in the country's three northern provinces, among people in the low socioeconomic categories, and in rural households. Since 95.4% of households in South Africa use salt regularly and 2.9% use it occasionally, the national iodization programme has the potential to meet the iodine requirements of the population. However, this can only be achieved if the primary reasons for the inadequate iodization of salt are eliminated and if special attention is given to vulnerable groups. PMID:11436475

  17. Bile salt-phospholipid aggregation at submicellar concentrations.

    PubMed

    Baskin, Rebekah; Frost, Laura D

    2008-04-01

    The aggregation behavior of the bile salts taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC) and sodium cholate (NaC), are followed at concentrations below critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) using the environment sensitive, fluorescent-labeled phospholipid, 2-(6-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)hexanoyl-1-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (NBD-C(6)-HPC). A buffer solution containing NBD-C(6)-HPC is titrated with increasing NaC or NaTDC and the fluorescence changes followed. Both bile salts induced fluorescence changes below their critical micelle concentration indicating the presence of a bile salt-phospholipid aggregate. A critical control experiment using 6-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino) hexanoic acid (NBD-X) shows that the bile salts are interacting with the longer, C16 hydrocarbon tail, not the NBD probe. The fluorescence curves were fitted to the Hill equation as a model for cooperative aggregation. The cooperativity model provides a minimum estimate for the number of bile salts to give maximal fluorescence. This number was calculated for NaC and NaTDC to have a minimum value of approximately 2. A small aggregation number supports the existence of primary micellar aggregates at submicellar concentrations for bile salt-phospholipid aqueous solutions.

  18. Electrochemical concentration measurements for multianalyte mixtures in simulated electrorefiner salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappleye, Devin Spencer

    The development of electroanalytical techniques in multianalyte molten salt mixtures, such as those found in used nuclear fuel electrorefiners, would enable in situ, real-time concentration measurements. Such measurements are beneficial for process monitoring, optimization and control, as well as for international safeguards and nuclear material accountancy. Electroanalytical work in molten salts has been limited to single-analyte mixtures with a few exceptions. This work builds upon the knowledge of molten salt electrochemistry by performing electrochemical measurements on molten eutectic LiCl-KCl salt mixture containing two analytes, developing techniques for quantitatively analyzing the measured signals even with an additional signal from another analyte, correlating signals to concentration and identifying improvements in experimental and analytical methodologies. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  19. Unexpected diversity of heterotrophic prokaryotes living at the highest salt concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oren, Aharon

    2002-11-01

    Halophilic Archaea (family Halobacteriaceae) were until recently the only heterotrophic microorganisms known to grow optimally at near-saturating salt concentrations. It now appears that Salinibacter ruber, an extremely halophilic bacterium related to the Flavobacterium-Cytophaga group, may occur in large numbers in saltern crystallizer ponds. The organism is red, and harbors a novel carotenoid pigment. There is a surprising similarity between the physiology of Salinibacter and the Halobacteriaceae. In both cases the cells contain molar concentrations of KCl, and organic compatible solutes contribute little to osmotic adaptation. The proteins of Salinibacter contain a large excess of acidic amino acids and are depleted in hydrophobic amino acids. Its cytoplasmic enzymes function at high salt. The discovery of Salinibacter and the elucidation of its properties show that similar modes of adaptation to life at high salt concentrations and low water adaptation to life at high salt concentrations and low water activities may have evolved indpenednetly in phylogenetically distant groups.

  20. Infrared spectroscopy of aqueous ionic salt solutions at low concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max, Jean-Joseph; Gessinger, Véronique; van Driessche, Caroline; Larouche, Pascal; Chapados, Camille

    2007-05-01

    The analysis by infrared spectroscopy of aqueous solutions of the binary inorganic salts NaI and NaCl and the ternary salts CaCl2 and BaCl2 at concentrations from 1000to2mM was carried out to complement a previous study done at higher concentrations on nine binary salts (alkali halides) and one ternary salt (MgCl2) [J.-J. Max and C. Chapados, J. Chem. Phys. 115, 2664 (2001)]. These salts are completely ionized in aqueous solutions, forming monoatomic species that do not absorb IR but that perturb the surrounding water, modifying its spectrum. The factor analysis of the spectra revealed that all these salt solutions were composed of two water types: pure water and salt solvated water. The authors obtained pure salt solvated water spectra for all the salts using an extrapolation technique. The water types obtained are constant for the binary and ternary salts down to 2mM. For the binary salts, we determine that 5.0 and 4.0 water molecules are solvated to the Na +-Cl- and Na+-I- ion pairs, respectively. These numbers are the same as that obtained at higher concentrations. For the new ternary salts, we find that 6.0 and 8.0 water molecules are solvated to Ca++-(Cl-)2 and Ba++-(Cl-)2 ion pairs, respectively. These numbers are higher than the four water molecules solvated to Mg++-(Cl-)2 ion pairs determined previously, but show a progression that follows their atomic numbers. These results constitute new experimental results on "simple" systems whose molecular organization is still a matter of debate. The IR method that probes the system at the molecular level is a method different than the macroscopic ones that give the activity coefficients. The IR gives direct observation at the molecular level of the strong ion-water interactions that are often neglected and its water structure not considered in macroscopic methods. The present results and their analysis together with those obtained by other methods will facilitate the determination of the organization of these

  1. Development of a robust ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction against high concentration of salt for preconcentration of trace metals in saline aqueous samples: application to the determination of Pb and Cd.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Seyed Reza; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2010-06-11

    A new ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method was developed for preconcentration and determination of compounds in aqueous samples containing very high salt concentrations. This method can solve the problems associated with the limited application of the conventional IL-based DLLME in these samples. This is believed to arise from dissolving of the ionic liquids in aqueous samples with high salt content. In this method, the robustness of microextraction system against high salt concentration (up to 40%, w/v) is increased by introducing a common ion of the ionic liquid into the sample solution. The proposed method was applied satisfactorily to the preconcentration of lead and cadmium in saline samples. After preconcentration, the settled IL-phase was dissolved in 100 microL ethanol and aspirated into the flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) using a home-made microsample introduction system. Several variables affecting the microextraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions and preconcentration of only 10 mL of sample, the enhancement factors of 273 and 311 and the detection limits of 0.6 microg L(-1) and 0.03 microg L(-1) were obtained for lead and cadmium, respectively. Validation of the method was performed by both an analysis of a certified reference material (CRM) and comparison of results with those obtained by ISO standard method.

  2. Flat high concentration devices

    SciTech Connect

    Minano, J.C.; Gonzalez, J.C.; Zanesco, I.

    1994-12-31

    During the last five years new concentrators achieving the theoretical maximum acceptance-angle-concentration product have appeared. In addition, some of these concentrators are very compact (concentrator depth/aperture diameter smaller than 1/3). The feasibility of these concentrators for photovoltaic applications is studied. It is concluded that these concentrators may be useful for high concentration cells (irradiance for maximum efficiency greater than 800 suns) if these cells have a small size (diameter smaller than 5 mm). The concentrators may provide for this case an acceptance angle of {approx} {+-}2.7 degrees with concentration factor around 1,000x and a concentrator depth 10 times the cell diameter. Instantaneous direct insolation and ambient temperature measurements of Madrid and a thermal model of the heat sink is used to calculate the annual electric energy output with which different concentration factors are compared. Concentration of 1,000x is close to the one giving the maximum annual electrical output.

  3. Acetate concentrations and oxidation in salt marsh sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Acetate concentrations and rates of acetate oxidation and sulfate reduction were measured in S. alterniflora sediments in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Pore water extracted from cores by squeezing or centrifugation contained in greater than 0.1 mM acetate and, in some instances, greater than 1.0 mM. Pore water sampled nondestructively contained much less acetate, often less than 0.01 mM. Acetate was associated with roots, and concentrations varied with changes in plant physiology. Acetate turnover was very low whether whole core or slurry incubations were used. Radiotracers injected directly into soils yielded rates of sulfate reduction and acetate oxidation not significantly different from core incubation techniques. Regardless of incubation method, acetate oxidation did not account for a substantial percentage of sulfate reduction. These results differ markedly from data for unvegetated coastal sediments where acetate levels are low, oxidation rate constants are high, and acetate oxication rates greatly exceed rates of sulfate reduction. The discrepancy between rates of acetate oxidation and sulfate reduction in these marsh soils may be due either to the utilization of substrates other than acetate by sulfate reducers or artifacts associated with measurements of organic utilization by rhizosphere bacteria. Care must be taken when interpreting data from salt marsh sediments since the release of material from roots during coring may affect the concentrations of certain compounds as well as influencing results obtained when sediment incubations are employed.

  4. Effect of salt concentration and mediators in salt bridge microbial fuel cell for electricity generation from synthetic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sevda, Surajbhan; Sreekrishnan, T R

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using agar salt bridges for proton transport in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC). It also tries to elucidate and effect of mediators on electricity production from wastewaters through experimentation using a simulated wastewater. In order to offset the very high cost of proton exchange membrane, salt bridges have been used in dual chamber MFCs. When the concentration of salt was varied in agar salt bridges from 1% to 10%, the volumetric power density changed from 1.71 to 84.99 mW/m(3) with a concomitant variation in power density from 0.32 to 16.02 mW/m(2). The maximum power density was observed at 5% salt concentration with 10% agar, which was accompanied by 88.41% COD reduction. In the case of methylene blue (0.01 mM) as the electron mediator, the voltage and current generation were 0.551 V and 0.47 mA, respectively. A maximum open circuit voltage of 0.718 V was seen at 0.08 mM methylene blue concentration, whereas maximum power densities of 17.59 mW/m(2) and 89.22 mW/m(3) were obtained. Different concentrations of neutral red were also tried out as mediators. A maximum open circuit voltage of 0.730 V was seen at 0.01 mM neutral red, corresponding to a power density of 12.02 mW/m(2) (volumetric power density of 60.97 mW/m(3)). Biofilm formation on the electrode surface was not observed in the presence of mediators, but was present in the absence of mediators. The results clearly demonstrated the feasibility to use agar salt bridge for proton transport and role of mediators in MFCs to generate electricity.

  5. Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Ramana G.

    2013-10-23

    The explicit UA program objective is to develop low melting point (LMP) molten salt thermal energy storage media with high thermal energy storage density for sensible heat storage systems. The novel Low Melting Point (LMP) molten salts are targeted to have the following characteristics: 1. Lower melting point (MP) compared to current salts (<222ºC) 2. Higher energy density compared to current salts (>300 MJ/m3) 3. Lower power generation cost compared to current salt In terms of lower power costs, the program target the DOE's Solar Energy Technologies Program year 2020 goal to create systems that have the potential to reduce the cost of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) to less than $15/kWh-th and achieve round trip efficiencies greater than 93%. The project has completed the experimental investigations to determine the thermo-physical, long term thermal stability properties of the LMP molten salts and also corrosion studies of stainless steel in the candidate LMP molten salts. Heat transfer and fluid dynamics modeling have been conducted to identify heat transfer geometry and relative costs for TES systems that would utilize the primary LMP molten salt candidates. The project also proposes heat transfer geometry with relevant modifications to suit the usage of our molten salts as thermal energy storage and heat transfer fluids. The essential properties of the down-selected novel LMP molten salts to be considered for thermal storage in solar energy applications were experimentally determined, including melting point, heat capacity, thermal stability, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, vapor pressure, and corrosion resistance of SS 316. The thermodynamic modeling was conducted to determine potential high temperature stable molten salt mixtures that have thermal stability up to 1000 °C. The thermo-physical properties of select potential high temperature stable (HMP) molten salt mixtures were also experimentally determined. All the salt mixtures align with the go

  6. Causes of seasonal and daily variations in aerosol sea-salt concentrations at a coastal Antarctic station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. S.; Wolff, E. W.

    Two years worth of daily aerosol data has been collected from Halley station, Antarctica, between February 1991 and February 1993. The seasonal cycle of sea-salt aerosol was found to peak during the winter months, with an annual mean of 162 ng m -3. Specific site characteristics are used to explain this relatively low value. The winter sea-salt source does not appear to be solely due to the presence of open water. Comparison of individual high salt concentration events in the data, with 3 hourly meteorological records, shows that sea-salt loadings are not linked to high wind speeds, but more moderate ones. The high sea-salt loadings are associated with a change in wind direction that opens up an area of water and then switches to bring sea-salt inland. It is hypothesised that the exposed areas of sea water, which are rapidly frozen in winter creating areas of local, freshly formed ice with a surface covering of concentrated brine, are the source of the winter sea-salt. Fractionation of the sea-salt component in individual high concentration events, is used to reinforce the theory that a surface skim of highly saline brine, on fresh ice, is the winter sea-salt source. The presence of frost flowers is thought to aid incorporation of sea-salt into the atmosphere. Implications for the interpretation of sea-salt data in ice cores are highlighted.

  7. High-temperature vacuum distillation separation of plutonium waste salts

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, E.

    1996-10-01

    In this task, high-temperature vacuum distillation separation is being developed for residue sodium chloride-potassium chloride salts resulting from past pyrochemical processing of plutonium. This process has the potential of providing clean separation of the salt and the actinides with minimal amounts of secondary waste generation. The process could produce chloride salt that could be discarded as low-level waste (LLW) or low actinide content transuranic (TRU) waste, and a concentrated actinide oxide powder that would meet long-term storage standards (DOE-DTD-3013-94) until a final disposition option for all surplus plutonium is chosen.

  8. Capillary Ion Concentration Polarization for Power-Free Salt Purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sungmin; Jung, Yeonsu; Cho, Inhee; Kim, Ho-Young; Kim, Sung Jae

    2014-11-01

    In this presentation, we experimentally and theoretically demonstrated the capillary based ion concentration polarization for power-free salt purification system. Traditional ion concentration polarization phenomenon has been studied for a decade for both fundamental nanoscale fluid dynamics and novel engineering applications such as desalination, preconcentration and energy harvesting devices. While the conventional system utilizes an external power source, the system based on capillary ion concentration polarization is capable of perm-selective ion transportation only by capillarity so that the same ion depletion zone can be formed without any external power sources. An ion concentration profile near the nanostructure was tracked using fluorescent probes and analyzed by solving the modified Nernst-Planck equation. As a result, the concentration in the vicinity of the nanostructure was at least 10 times lower than that of bulk electrolyte and thus, the liquid absorbed into the nanostructure had the low concentration. This mechanism can be used for the power free salt purification system which would be significantly useful in underdeveloped and remote area. This work was supported by Samsung Research Funding Center of Samsung Electronics under Project Number SRFC-MA1301-02.

  9. Potentiometric Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Multivalent Ion Concentrations in Molten Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Peter A. Zink; Jan-Fong Jue; Brenda E. Serrano; Guy L. Fredrickson; Ben F. Cowan; Steven D. Herrmann; Shelly X. Li

    2010-07-01

    Electrorefining of spent metallic nuclear fuel in high temperature molten salt systems is a core technology in pyroprocessing, which in turn plays a critical role in the development of advanced fuel cycle technologies. In electrorefining, spent nuclear fuel is treated electrochemically in order to effect separations between uranium, noble metals, and active metals, which include the transuranics. The accumulation of active metals in a lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt electrolyte occurs at the expense of the UCl3-oxidant concentration in the electrolyte, which must be periodically replenished. Our interests lie with the accumulation of active metals in the molten salt electrolyte. The real-time monitoring of actinide concentrations in the molten salt electrolyte is highly desirable for controlling electrochemical operations and assuring materials control and accountancy. However, real-time monitoring is not possible with current methods for sampling and chemical analysis. A new solid-state electrochemical sensor is being developed for real-time monitoring of actinide ion concentrations in a molten salt electrorefiner. The ultimate function of the sensor is to monitor plutonium concentrations during electrorefining operations, but in this work gadolinium was employed as a surrogate material for plutonium. In a parametric study, polycrystalline sodium beta double-prime alumina (Na-ß?-alumina) discs and tubes were subject to vapor-phase exchange with gadolinium ions (Gd3+) using a gadolinium chloride salt (GdCl3) as a precursor to produce gadolinium beta double-prime alumina (Gd-ß?-alumina) samples. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and microstructural analysis were performed on the ion-exchanged discs to determine the relationship between ion exchange and Gd3+ ion conductivity. The ion-exchanged tubes were configured as potentiometric sensors in order to monitor real-time Gd3+ ion concentrations in mixtures of gadolinium

  10. Role of salt concentration in blend polymer for energy storage conversion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arya, Anil; Sadiq, M.; Sharma, A. L.

    2016-05-01

    Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPE) are materials of considerable interest worldwide, which serves dual purpose of electrolyte and separator between electrode compartments in renewable energy conversion/storage devices such as; high energy density batteries, electrochromic display devices, and supercapacitors. Polymer blend electrolytes are prepared for various concentration of salt (Ö/Li) with the constant ratio (0.5 gm) of each PEO and PAN polymers (blend polymer) using solution casting technique. Solid polymeric ionic conductor as a separator is the ultimate substitute to eliminate the drawback related to liquid and gel polymer ionic conductors. In the present work, solid polymer electrolyte film consisting of PEO, PAN and LiPF6 are examined for various concentration of lithium salt by keeping PEO/PAN blend ratio as a constant with a view to optimize the dominant salt concentration which could give the maximum conductivity at ambient temperature.

  11. High concentration dust monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilienfeld, P.

    1981-06-01

    The development, design, fabrication, and testing of a portable, self-contained prototype monitoring instrument capable of detecting and measuring airborne coal dust levels as concentrations in the range of 20 to 500 g/cu m is described. The output of the high concentration dust monitor is essentially independent of particle size and composition, with a response time of 10 seconds. Direct concentration readout as well as internal memory or recording capabilities are incorporated in the device. The operation of the instrument is based on direct sensing of the mass concentration of airborne dust by air-path beta radiation attenuation. The monitor is battery operated and incorporates a microprocessor that controls periodic automatic zero referencing, executes the mass computations, records the data for subsequent playback, and performs internal diagnostic checks.

  12. Synchronized separation, concentration and determination of trace sulfadiazine and sulfamethazine in food and environment by using polyoxyethylene lauryl ether-salt aqueous two-phase system coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Cong, Biao; Tan, Zhenjiang; Yan, Yongsheng

    2016-11-01

    Polyoxyethylene lauryl ether (POELE10)-Na2C4H4O6 aqueous two-phase extraction system (ATPES) is a novel and green pretreatment technique to trace samples. ATPES coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used to analyze synchronously sulfadiazine (SDZ) and sulfamethazine (SMT) in animal by-products (i.e., egg and milk) and environmental water sample. It was found that the extraction efficiency (E%) and the enrichment factor (F) of SDZ and SMT were influenced by the types of salts, the concentration of salt, the concentration of POELE10 and the temperature. The orthogonal experimental design (OED) was adopted in the multi-factor experiment to determine the optimized conditions. The final optimal condition was as following: the concentration of POELE10 is 0.027gmL(-1), the concentration of Na2C4H4O6 is 0.180gmL(-1) and the temperature is 35°C. This POELE10-Na2C4H4O6 ATPS was applied to separate and enrich SDZ and SMT in real samples (i.e., water, egg and milk) under the optimal conditions, and it was found that the recovery of SDZ and SMT was 96.20-99.52% with RSD of 0.35-3.41%. The limit of detection (LOD) of this method for the SDZ and SMT in spiked samples was 2.52-3.64pgmL(-1), and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) of this method for the SDZ and SMT in spiked samples was 8.41-12.15pgmL(-1).

  13. Cloud-point temperatures for lysozyme in electrolyte solutions: effect of salt type, salt concentration and pH.

    PubMed

    Grigsby, J J; Blanch, H W; Prausnitz, J M

    2001-07-24

    Liquid-liquid phase-separation data were obtained for aqueous saline solutions of hen egg-white lysozyme at a fixed protein concentration (87 g/l). The cloud-point temperature (CPT) was measured as a function of salt type and salt concentration to 3 M, at pH 4.0 and 7.0. Salts used included those from mono and divalent cations and anions. For the monovalent cations studied, as salt concentration increases, the CPT increases. For divalent cations, as salt concentration rises, a maximum in the CPT is observed and attributed to ion binding to the protein surface and subsequent water structuring. Trends for sulfate salts were dramatically different from those for other salts because sulfate ion is strongly hydrated and excluded from the lysozyme surface. For anions at fixed salt concentration, the CPT decreases with rising anion kosmotropic character. Comparison of CPTs for pH 4.0 and 7.0 revealed two trends. At low ionic strength for a given salt, differences in CPT can be explained in terms of repulsive electrostatic interactions between protein molecules, while at higher ionic strength, differences can be attributed to hydration forces. A model is proposed for the correlation and prediction of the CPT as a function of salt type and salt concentration. NaCl was chosen as a reference salt, and CPT deviations from that of NaCl were attributed to hydration forces. The Random Phase Approximation, in conjunction with a square-well potential, was used to calculate the strength of protein-protein interactions as a function of solution conditions for all salts studied.

  14. Thin solar concentrator with high concentration ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jhe-Syuan; Liang, Chao-Wen

    2013-09-01

    Solar concentrators are often used in conjunction with III-V multi-junction solar cells for cost reduction and efficiency improvement purposes. High flux concentration ratio, high optical efficiency and high manufacture tolerance are the key features required for a successful solar concentrator design. This paper describes a novel solar concentrator that combines the concepts, and thus the advantages, of both the refractive type ad reflective type. The proposed concentrator design adopts the Etendue-cascading concept that allows the light beams from all the concentric annular entrance pupils to be collected and transferred to the solar cell with minimal loss. This concept enables the system to perform near its Etendue-Limit and have a high concentration ratio simultaneously. Thereby reducing the costs of solar cells and therefor achieves a better the per watts cost. The concentrator demonstrated has a thing aspect ratio of 0.19 with a zero back focal distance. The numerical aperture at the solar cell immersed inside the dielectric concentrator is as high as 1.33 achieving a unprecedented high optical concentration ratio design.

  15. Surface Potential of DPPC Monolayers on Concentrated Aqueous Salt Solutions.

    PubMed

    Casper, Clayton B; Verreault, Dominique; Adams, Ellen M; Hua, Wei; Allen, Heather C

    2016-03-03

    The presence and exchange of electrical charges on the surfaces of marine aerosols influence their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei and play a role in thundercloud electrification. Although interactions exist between surface-active inorganic ions and organic compounds, their role in surface charging of marine aerosols is not well understood. In this study, the surface potential of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayers, a zwitterionic phospholipid found in the sea surface microlayer, is measured on concentrated (0.3-2.0 M) chloride salt solutions containing marine-relevant cations (Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+)) to model and elucidate the electrical properties of organic-covered marine aerosols. Monovalent cations show only a weak effect on the surface potential of DPPC monolayers in the condensed phase compared to water. In contrast, Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) increase the surface potential, indicating different cation binding modes and affinities for the PC headgroup. Moreover, it is found that for divalent chloride salt solutions, the PC headgroup and interfacial water molecules make the largest dipolar contribution to the surface potential. This study shows that for equal charge concentrations, divalent cations impact surface potential of DPPC monolayers more strongly than monovalents likely through changes in the PC headgroup orientation induced by their complexation along with the lesser ordering of interfacial water molecules caused by phosphate group charge screening.

  16. Energy harvesting through charged nanochannels using external flows of different salt concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanda, Sourayon; Tsai, Peichun Amy

    2016-11-01

    Renewable electricity may be generated by mixing of two solutions of different salt concentrations through charged nanochannels or pores, by leveraging ion-selective effect of the nano-confinements. We numerically investigate such a continuous power generation system using reverse electrodialysis (RED) with external flows. In the simulation model, two reservoirs are connected using a nanochannel of constant surface charge density. Solutions of high and low concentrations flow through the two reservoirs at a constant velocity. We examine the effects of (salt) concentration gradients and nanochannel dimensions on the power generation. Moreover, the effect of external flow velocity on the process is analyzed. Our results show that the maximum surface charge density, open circuit voltage, channel resistance, and energy conversion efficiency of the process are significantly affected by the difference of the high and low concentrations and the nanochannel dimension ratio.

  17. Immunomodulatory effects of metal salts at sub-toxic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Steinborn, Carmen; Diegel, Christoph; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Gründemann, Carsten; Huber, Roman

    2016-10-07

    Because different metals are used in complementary medicine for the treatment of diseases related to a dysfunction of the immune system, this study aimed at determining the immunomodulatory potential of Pb(NO3 )2 , AuCl3 , Cu(NO3 )2 , HgCl2 , AgNO3 , SnCl2 , AsCl3 and SbCl3 at sub-toxic concentrations and at assessing possible toxic side effects of low-concentrated metal preparations. The influence of the metal salts on primary human mononuclear cells was analyzed by measuring cell viability using the water-soluble tetrazolium salt assay, apoptosis and necrosis induction by annexin V/propidium iodide staining and proliferation by carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester staining and flow cytometry. Effects on T-cell activation were assessed with CD69 and CD25 expression using flow cytometry whereas CD83, CD86 and CD14 expression was measured to evaluate the influence on dendritic cell maturation. Alterations of interleukin-2 and interferon-γ secretion were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and genotoxic effects were analyzed using the comet assay. At sub-toxic concentrations retardation of T-cell proliferation was caused by Pb(NO3 )2 , AuCl3 and Cu(NO3 )2 and inhibitory effects on interleukin-2 secretion were measured after incubation with Pb(NO3 )2 , AuCl3 , Cu(NO3 )2 , HgCl2 and AsCl3. Cu(NO3 )2 had immunosuppressive activity at dosages within the serum reference range for copper. All other metal salts showed effects at dosages above upper serum limits of normal. Therefore, only low-concentrated copper preparations are promising to have immunomodulatory potential. Toxic side effects of metal preparations used in complementary medicine are improbable because upper limits of metals set in the drinking water ordinance are either not exceeded or the duration of their application is limited. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. High Temperature Fluoride Salt Test Loop

    SciTech Connect

    Aaron, Adam M.; Cunningham, Richard Burns; Fugate, David L.; Holcomb, David Eugene; Kisner, Roger A.; Peretz, Fred J.; Robb, Kevin R.; Wilson, Dane F.; Yoder, Jr, Graydon L.

    2015-12-01

    Effective high-temperature thermal energy exchange and delivery at temperatures over 600°C has the potential of significant impact by reducing both the capital and operating cost of energy conversion and transport systems. It is one of the key technologies necessary for efficient hydrogen production and could potentially enhance efficiencies of high-temperature solar systems. Today, there are no standard commercially available high-performance heat transfer fluids above 600°C. High pressures associated with water and gaseous coolants (such as helium) at elevated temperatures impose limiting design conditions for the materials in most energy systems. Liquid salts offer high-temperature capabilities at low vapor pressures, good heat transport properties, and reasonable costs and are therefore leading candidate fluids for next-generation energy production. Liquid-fluoride-salt-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, referred to as Fluoride Salt Reactors (FHRs), are specifically designed to exploit the excellent heat transfer properties of liquid fluoride salts while maximizing their thermal efficiency and minimizing cost. The FHR s outstanding heat transfer properties, combined with its fully passive safety, make this reactor the most technologically desirable nuclear power reactor class for next-generation energy production. Multiple FHR designs are presently being considered. These range from the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) [1] design originally developed by UC-Berkeley to the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR) and the large scale FHR both being developed at ORNL [2]. The value of high-temperature, molten-salt-cooled reactors is also recognized internationally, and Czechoslovakia, France, India, and China all have salt-cooled reactor development under way. The liquid salt experiment presently being developed uses the PB-AHTR as its focus. One core design of the PB-AHTR features multiple 20 cm diameter, 3.2 m long fuel channels

  19. Novel graphite salts of high oxidizing potential

    SciTech Connect

    McCarron, E.M. III

    1980-08-01

    The intercalation of graphite by the third-transition-series metal hexafluorides has yielded the graphite salts, C/sub 8//sup +/OsF/sub 6//sup -/, C/sub 8//sup +/IrF/sub 6//sup -/ and C/sub 12//sup 2 +/PtF/sub 6//sup 2 -/. The fluoroplatinate salt represents the highest electron withdrawal from the graphite network yet achieved. Analogues to the Os and Ir salts have been obtained both by fluorination of Group V pentaflouride intercalates, C/sub 8/MF/sub 5/ (M = As, Sb), and by the interaction of the dioxygenyl salts with graphite (8C + O/sub 2/MF/sub 6/ ..-->.. C/sub 8/MF/sub 6/ + O/sub 2/+). Non-intercalating binary fluorides have been observed to intercalate in the presence of a fluorine-rich environment (e.g., 8C + PF/sub 5/ + 1/2 F/sub 2/ ..-->.. C/sub 8/PF/sub 6/). GeF/sub 4/, which also does not spontaneously intercalate graphite, has been observed to interact with graphite in the presence of 2 atmospheres of fluorine overpressure to give the fluoroplatinate salt analogue, C/sub 12//sup 2 +/GeF/sub 6//sup 2 -/. This material is in equilibrium with the pentafluorogermanate at ordinary pressures and temperatures. C/sub 12//sup 2 +/GeF/sub 6//sup 2 -/ ..-->.. C/sub 12//sup +/GeF/sub 5//sup -/ + 1/2 F/sub 2/. C/sub 12/GeF/sub 6/ must have an oxidizing potential close to that of fluorine itself. The graphite fluorometallate salts are both electronic and ionic (F/sup -/) conductors. For the C/sub 8//sup +/MF/sub 6//sup -/ salts, a maximum electronic conductivity an order of magnitude greater than the parent graphite has been observed for stage two. The high oxidizing potential, coupled with the fluoride ion transport capability of the graphite salts, has been exploited in the construction of solid-state galvanic cells. These cells use the graphite fluorometallate salts as electrode materials in combination with a superionic fluoride-ion-conducting solid electrolyte.

  20. Determining salt concentrations for equivalent water activity in reduced-sodium cheese by use of a model system.

    PubMed

    Grummer, J; Schoenfuss, T C

    2011-09-01

    The range of sodium chloride (salt)-to-moisture ratio is critical in producing high-quality cheese products. The salt-to-moisture ratio has numerous effects on cheese quality, including controlling water activity (a(w)). Therefore, when attempting to decrease the sodium content of natural cheese it is important to calculate the amount of replacement salts necessary to create the same a(w) as the full-sodium target (when using the same cheese making procedure). Most attempts to decrease sodium using replacement salts have used concentrations too low to create the equivalent a(w) due to the differences in the molecular weight of the replacers compared with salt. This could be because of the desire to minimize off-flavors inherent in the replacement salts, but it complicates the ability to conclude that the replacement salts are the cause of off-flavors such as bitter. The objective of this study was to develop a model system that could be used to measure a(w) directly, without manufacturing cheese, to allow cheese makers to determine the salt and salt replacer concentrations needed to achieve the equivalent a(w) for their existing full-sodium control formulas. All-purpose flour, salt, and salt replacers (potassium chloride, modified potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, and calcium chloride) were blended with butter and water at concentrations that approximated the solids, fat, and moisture contents of typical Cheddar cheese. Salt and salt replacers were applied to the model systems at concentrations predicted by Raoult's law. The a(w) of the model samples was measured on a water activity meter, and concentrations were adjusted using Raoult's law if they differed from those of the full-sodium model. Based on the results determined using the model system, stirred-curd pilot-scale batches of reduced- and full-sodium Cheddar cheese were manufactured in duplicate. Water activity, pH, and gross composition were measured and evaluated statistically by linear mixed model

  1. Direct Grout Stabilization of High Cesium Salt Waste: Salt Alternative Phase III Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    1998-12-07

    The direct grout alternative is a viable option for treatment/stabilization and disposal of salt waste containing Cs-137 concentrations of 1-3 Ci/gal. The composition of the direct grout salt solution is higher in sodium salts and contains up to a few hundred ppm Cs-137 more than the current reference salt solution. However it is still similar to the composition of the current reference salt solution. Consequently, the processing, setting, and leaching properties (including TCLP for Cr and Hg) of the direct grout and current saltstone waste forms are very similar. The significant difference between these waste solutions is that the high cesium salt solution will contain between 1 and 3 Curies of Cs-137 per gallon compared to a negligible amount in the current salt solution. This difference will require special engineering and shielding for a direct grout processing facility and disposal units to achieve acceptable radiation exposure conditions. The Cs-137 concentration in the direct grout salt solution will also affect the long-term curing temperature of the waste form since 4.84 Watts of energy are generated per 1000 Ci of Cs-137. The temperature rise of the direct grout during long-term curing has been calculated by A. Shaddy, SRTC.1 The effect of curing temperature on the strength, leaching and physical durability of the direct grout saltstone is described in this report. At the present time, long term curing at 90 degrees C appears to be unacceptable because of cracking which will affect the structural integrity as evaluated in the immersion test. (The experiments conducted in this feasibility study do not address the effect of cracking on leaching of contaminants other than Cr, Hg, and Cs.) No cracking of the direct grout or reference saltstone waste forms was observed for samples cured at 70 degrees C. At the present time the implications of waste form cracking at elevated curing temperatures has not been fully addressed. The direct grout falls within the

  2. Monitoring High Velocity Salt Tracer via 4D Electrical Resistivity Tomography - Possibility for Salt Tracer Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doro, K. O.; Cirpka, O. A.; Patzelt, A.; Leven, C.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogeological testing in a tomographic sequence as shown by the use of hydraulic tomography, allows an improvement of the spatial resolution of subsurface parameters. In this regard, recent studies show increasing interest in tracer tomography which involves sequential and spatially separated tracer injections and the measurement of their corresponding tracer breakthrough at different locations and depths. Such concentration measurements however require large experimental efforts and can be simplified by geophysical tracer monitoring techniques such as electrical resistivity. In this study, we present the use of 4-D, cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) for monitoring salt tracer experiments in high velocity flow fields. For our study, we utilized a set up that enables the conduction of salt tracer experiments with complete recovery within 84 hours over a transport distance of 16 m. This allows the repetition of the experiments with different injection depths for a tomographic salt tracer testing. For ERT monitoring, we designed modular borehole electrodes for repeated usage in a flexible manner. We also assess the use of a high speed resistivity data acquisition mode for field scale tracer monitoring ensuring high spatial and temporal resolution without sacrificing data accuracy. We applied our approach at the Lauswiesen test site, Tübingen, Germany. In our 10 m × 10 m tracer monitoring domain with 16 borehole electrodes, we acquired 4650 data points in less than 18 minutes for each monitoring cycle. Inversion results show that the tracer could be successfully imaged using this approach. The results show that repeated salt tracer tests can be efficiently monitored at a high resolution with ERT which gives the possibility for salt tracer tomography at field scale. Our results also provide a data base for extending current hydrogeophysical inversion approaches to field scale data.

  3. Interactions between high salt intake and the musculoskeletal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heer, Martina; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Buehlmeier, Judith; Baecker, Natalie

    Lowering mechanical load like in microgravity is the dominant stimulus leading to muscle and bone loss. However, high dietary salt (NaCl) intake is also considered as a risk factor for osteoporosis and thereby might exacerbate the microgravity induced bone loss. We have recently shown that a very high salt intake leads to an increased bone resorption most likely because of a low-grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub Dec 2007). A decrease in pH, however, is on the one hand mandatory to activate osteoclast activity, on the other hand it might affect protein metabolism and thereby muscle mass. In head-down bed rest (HDBR) studies physiological adaptation as seen in microgravity is mimicked. In a recent short-term HDBR study of 14 days, we combined high salt intake and low mechanical loading to test if low-grade metabolic acidosis induced by high NaCl intake is an additive stimulus for increased bone resorption and muscle protein loss. The results show that high NaCl intake combined with low mechanical load exaggerates the increase in calcium excretion as well as the rise in bone resorption marker C-telopeptide (both: p ¡ 0.001). Bone alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation marker, was not different according to NaCl intake (p = 0.74). Additionally, the slightly negative nitrogen balance in HDBR ( 0.34 ± 1.2 g/d) was exacerbated 3 fold by high NaCl intake ( 1.34 ± 1.0 g/d; p ¡ 0.001). These results were accompanied by reduced bicarbonate (p = 0.018) and base excess (p = 0.009) concentrations during high salt intake. In conclusion, HDBR and high salt intake cause -like in ambulatory test subjectsa low-grade metabolic acidosis. This may exacerbate bone resorption and nitrogen loss, which may then exaggerate disuse induced bone and muscle loss.

  4. AFM Studies of Salt Concentration Effects on the (110) Surface Structure of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc Lee; Gorti, Sridhar; Forsythe, Elizabeth; Konnert, John

    2002-01-01

    Previous high resolution AFM studies of the (110) surface of tetragonal chicken egg white lysozyme crystals had shown that only one of two possible molecular surfaces is present, those constituting the completed 43 helices. These suggested that the crystal growth process was by the solution-phase assembly of the growth units, which then attach to the surface. However, the best fit for the imaged surfaces, vs. those predicted based upon the bulk crystallographic coordinates, were obtained when the packing about the 43 helices was "tightened up", while maintaining the underlying crystallographic unit cell spacing. This results in a widening of the gap between adjacent helices, and the top- most layer(s) may no longer be in contact. We postulated that the tightened packing about the helices is a result of the high salt concentrations in the bulk solution, used to crystallize the protein, driving hydrophobic interactions. Once the crystal surface is sufficiently buried by subsequent growth layers the ratio of salt to protein molecules decreases and the helices relax to their bulk crystallographic coordinates. The crystal surface helix structure is thus a reflection of the solution structure, and the tightness of the packing about the 43 helices would be a function of the bulk salt concentration. AFM images of the (110) surface of tetragonal lysozyme crystals grown under low (2%) and high (5%) NaCl concentrations reveal differences in the packing about the 43 helices consistent with the above proposal.

  5. Effect of salt and surfactant concentration on the structure of polyacrylate gel/surfactant complexes.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Peter; Unga, Johan; Hansson, Per

    2007-09-20

    Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to elucidate the structure of crosslinked polyacrylate gel/dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide complexes equilibrated in solutions of varying concentrations of surfactant and sodium bromide (NaBr). Samples were swollen with no ordering (micelle free), or they were collapsed with either several distinct peaks (cubic Pm3n) or one broad correlation peak (disordered micellar). The main factor determining the structure of the collapsed complexes was found to be the NaBr concentration, with the cubic structure existing up to approximately 150 mM NaBr and above which only the disordered micellar structure was found. Increasing the salt concentration decreases the polyion mediated attractive forces holding the micelles together causing swelling of the gel. At sufficiently high salt concentration the micelle-micelle distance in the gel becomes too large for the cubic structure to be retained, and it melts into a disordered micellar structure. As most samples were above the critical micelle concentration, the bulk of the surfactant was in the form of micelles in the solution and the surfactant concentration thereby had only a minor influence on the structure. However, in the region around 150 mM NaBr, increasing the surfactant concentration, at constant NaBr concentration, was found to change the structure from disordered micellar to ordered cubic and back to disordered again.

  6. Effect of salt concentration on the stability of heterogeneous DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Amar; Singh, Navin

    2015-02-01

    We study the role of cations on the stability of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecules. It is known that the two strands of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) have negative charge due to phosphate group. Cations in the form of salt in the solution, act as shielding agents thereby reducing the repulsion between these strands. We study several heterogeneous DNA molecules. We calculate the phase diagrams for DNA molecules in thermal as well as in force ensembles using Peyrard-Bishop-Dauxois (PBD) model. The dissociation and the stacking energies are the two most important factors that play an important role in the DNA stability. With suitable modifications in the model parameters we investigate the role of cation concentration on the stability of different heterogeneous DNA molecules. The objective of this work is to understand how these cations modify the strength of different pairs or bases along the strand. The phase diagram for the force ensemble case (a dsDNA is pulled from an end) is compared with the experimental results.

  7. Conformational Variety of Polyanionic Peptides At Low Salt Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Marylène; Brack, André

    1997-12-01

    Cordially dedicated to Dr. Leslie Orgel on the occasion of his 70th birthday. Sequential oligo- and polypeptides based on glutamic acid and leucine residues have been synthesized. In pure water, they exhibit a random coil conformation. Addition of very small amounts of divalent metallic cations induces the formation of ordered structure in the peptides which remain in solution. Higher salt concentrations precipitate the peptides. Polypeptides with alternating glutamic acid and leucine residues undergo a coil to β-sheet transition in the presence of Ca^2+, Ba^2+, Mn^2+, Co^2+, Zn^2+ and Hg^2+. Addition of Cu^2+ or Fe^3+ induces the formation of an α-helix. Solid amorphous CdS generates water soluble β-sheets, as well. Sequential poly(Leu-Glu-Glu-Leu) adopts an α-helix in the presence of divalent cations. The sequence-dependent conformational diversity was extended to poly(Asp-Leu) and poly(Leu-Asp-Asp-Leu).

  8. Effect of Salt Concentration on the Structure of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Cryogels Obtained from Aqueous Salt Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretinnikov, O. N.; Sushko, N. I.; Zagorskaya, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The degree of polymer crystallinity and water content on the surfaces and in the bulk of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) cryogels prepared from aqueous salt solutions were determined as functions of KCl concentration using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. It was found that the degree of PVA crystallinity increased with increasing KCl concentration and was much greater in the cryogel bulk than on its surfaces. Addition of salt at a concentration of 1.3 M increased the degree of polymer crystallinity on the cryogel surfaces by 1.6-2.3 times whereas the crystallinity in the bulk increased by 3.3-4 times. The cryogel water contents on the surfaces and in the bulk were approximately equal and were practically independent of the salt concentration.

  9. Maintaining molten salt electrolyte concentration in aluminum-producing electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.; Bradford, Donald R

    2005-01-04

    A method of maintaining molten salt concentration in a low temperature electrolytic cell used for production of aluminum from alumina dissolved in a molten salt electrolyte contained in a cell free of frozen crust wherein volatile material is vented from the cell and contacted and captured on alumina being added to the cell. The captured volatile material is returned with alumina to cell to maintain the concentration of the molten salt.

  10. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. III. Computational vibrational spectroscopy of HDO in aqueous salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Lim, Sohee; Chon, Bonghwan; Cho, Minhaeng; Kim, Heejae; Kim, Seongheun

    2015-05-28

    The vibrational frequency, frequency fluctuation dynamics, and transition dipole moment of the O—D stretch mode of HDO molecule in aqueous solutions are strongly dependent on its local electrostatic environment and hydrogen-bond network structure. Therefore, the time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy the O—D stretch mode has been particularly used to investigate specific ion effects on water structure. Despite prolonged efforts to understand the interplay of O—D vibrational dynamics with local water hydrogen-bond network and ion aggregate structures in high salt solutions, still there exists a gap between theory and experiment due to a lack of quantitative model for accurately describing O—D stretch frequency in high salt solutions. To fill this gap, we have performed numerical simulations of Raman scattering and IR absorption spectra of the O—D stretch mode of HDO in highly concentrated NaCl and KSCN solutions and compared them with experimental results. Carrying out extensive quantum chemistry calculations on not only water clusters but also ion-water clusters, we first developed a distributed vibrational solvatochromic charge model for the O—D stretch mode in aqueous salt solutions. Furthermore, the non-Condon effect on the vibrational transition dipole moment of the O—D stretch mode was fully taken into consideration with the charge response kernel that is non-local polarizability density. From the fluctuating O—D stretch mode frequencies and transition dipole vectors obtained from the molecular dynamics simulations, the O—D stretch Raman scattering and IR absorption spectra of HDO in salt solutions could be calculated. The polarization effect on the transition dipole vector of the O—D stretch mode is shown to be important and the asymmetric line shapes of the O—D stretch Raman scattering and IR absorption spectra of HDO especially in highly concentrated NaCl and KSCN solutions are in quantitative agreement with experimental results. We

  11. Fermentation and microflora of plaa-som, a thai fermented fish product prepared with different salt concentrations.

    PubMed

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Madsen, Mette; Sophanodora, Pairat; Gram, Lone; Møller, Peter Lange

    2002-02-25

    Plaa-som is a Thai fermented fish product prepared from snakehead fish, salt, palm syrup and sometimes roasted rice. We studied the effects of different salt concentrations on decrease in pH and on microflora composition during fermentation. Two low-salt batches were prepared, containing 6% and 7% salt (w/w) as well as two high-salt batches, containing 9% and 11% salt. pH decreased rapidly from 6 to 4.5 in low-salt batches, whereas in high-salt batches, a slow or no decrease in pH was found. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts were isolated as the dominant microorganisms during fermentation. LAB counts increased to 10(8)-10(9) cfu g(-1) and yeast counts to 10(7)-5 x 10(7) cfu g(-1) in all batches, except in the 11% salt batch, where counts were 1-2 log lower. Phenotypic tests, ITS-PCR, carbohydrate fermentations and 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified LAB isolates as Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus alimentarius/farciminis, Weisella confusa, L. plantarum and Lactococcus garviae. The latter species was only isolated from high-salt batches. Phenotypic characteristics, ITS-PCR and carbohydrate assimilation identified 95% of the yeasts as Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. It is concluded that the fermentation of plaa-som is delayed by a salt-level of 9% due to an inhibition of LAB growth. The growth of Z. rouxii has no influence on the fermentation rate, but may contribute positively to the flavour development of the product.

  12. Domestic Material Content in Molten-Salt Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, Craig; Kurup, Parthiv; Akar, Sertac; Flores, Francisco

    2015-08-26

    This study lists material composition data for two concentrating solar power (CSP) plant designs: a molten-salt power tower and a hypothetical parabolic trough plant, both of which employ a molten salt for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and thermal storage media. The two designs have equivalent generating and thermal energy storage capacities. The material content of the saltHTF trough plant was approximately 25% lower than a comparably sized conventional oil-HTF parabolic trough plant. The significant reduction in oil, salt, metal, and insulation mass by switching to a salt-HTF design is expected to reduce the capital cost and LCOE for the parabolic trough system.

  13. Concentrated dual-salt electrolytes for improving the cycling stability of lithium metal anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pin, Liu; Qiang, Ma; Zheng, Fang; Jie, Ma; Yong-Sheng, Hu; Zhi-Bin, Zhou; Hong, Li; Xue-Jie, Huang; Li-Quan, Chen

    2016-07-01

    Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable Li batteries, due to its high theoretical specific capacity (3860 mAh/g), low density (0.534 g/cm3), and low negative electrochemical potential (-3.040 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode). In this work, the concentrated electrolytes with dual salts, composed of Li[N(SO2F)2] (LiFSI) and Li[N(SO2CF3)2] (LiTFSI) were studied. In this dual-salt system, the capacity retention can even be maintained at 95.7% after 100 cycles in Li|LiFePO4 cells. A Li|Li cell can be cycled at 0.5 mA/cm2 for more than 600 h, and a Li|Cu cell can be cycled at 0.5 mA/cm2 for more than 200 cycles with a high average Coulombi efficiency of 99%. These results show that the concentrated dual-salt electrolytes exhibit superior electrochemical performance and would be a promising candidate for application in rechargeable Li batteries. Project supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51222210, 51472268, 51421002, and 11234013) and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA09010300).

  14. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of various bismuth salts against Campylobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Vogt, K; Warrelmann, M; Hahn, H

    1989-09-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations of five bismuth salts (bismuth subcitrate, bismuth subgallate, bismuth subnitrate, bismuth subsalicylate and tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate, a water soluble compound of bismuth subcitrate) were assayed against 48 strains of Campylobacter pylori employing the agar dilution method. Tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate was most effective (MIC50 8 mg/l), the other bismuth salts exhibited somewhat lower inhibitory activities. It is concluded that bismuth salts are suitable agents for inhibiting growth of Campylobacter pylori.

  15. Vortex- and CO2 -gas-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction with salt addition for the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of furanic compounds in concentrated juices and dried fruits.

    PubMed

    Abu-Bakar, Nur-Bahiyah; Makahleh, Ahmad; Saad, Bahruddin

    2016-03-01

    A novel microextraction method based on vortex- and CO2 -assisted liquid-liquid microextraction with salt addition for the isolation of furanic compounds (5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde, 2-furaldehyde, 3-furaldehyde, 2-furoic and 3-furoic acids) was developed. Purging the sample with CO2 was applied after vortexing to enhance the phase separation and mass transfer of the analytes. The optimum extraction conditions were: extraction solvent (volume), propyl acetate (125 μL); sample pH, 2.4; vortexing time, 45 s; salt concentration, 25% w/v and purging time, 5 min. The analytes were separated using an ODS Hypersil C18 column (250×4.6 mm i.d, 5 μm) under gradient flow. The proposed method showed good linearities (r(2) >0.999), low detection limits (0.08-1.9 μg/L) and good recoveries (80.7-122%). The validated method was successfully applied for the determination of the furanic compounds in concentrated juice (mango, date, orange, pomegranate, roselle, mangosteen and soursop) and dried fruit (prune, date and apricot paste) samples.

  16. High-throughput protein precipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography: salt effects and thermodynamic interrelation.

    PubMed

    Nfor, Beckley K; Hylkema, Nienke N; Wiedhaup, Koenraad R; Verhaert, Peter D E M; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Ottens, Marcel

    2011-12-09

    Salt-induced protein precipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) are two widely used methods for protein purification. In this study, salt effects in protein precipitation and HIC were investigated for a broad combination of proteins, salts and HIC resins. Interrelation between the critical thermodynamic salting out parameters in both techniques was equally investigated. Protein precipitation data were obtained by a high-throughput technique employing 96-well microtitre plates and robotic liquid handling technology. For the same protein-salt combinations, isocratic HIC experiments were performed using two or three different commercially available stationary phases-Phenyl Sepharose low sub, Butyl Sepharose and Resource Phenyl. In general, similar salt effects and deviations from the lyotropic series were observed in both separation methods, for example, the reverse Hofmeister effect reported for lysozyme below its isoelectric point and at low salt concentrations. The salting out constant could be expressed in terms of the preferential interaction parameter in protein precipitation, showing that the former is, in effect, the net result of preferential interaction of a protein with water molecules and salt ions in its vicinity. However, no general quantitative interrelation was found between salting out parameters or the number of released water molecules in protein precipitation and HIC. In other words, protein solubility and HIC retention factor could not be quantitatively interrelated, although for some proteins, regular trends were observed across the different resins and salt types.

  17. Effects of Leuconostoc mesenteroides starter culture on fermentation of cabbage with reduced salt concentrations.

    PubMed

    Johanningsmeier, Suzanne; McFeeters, Roger F; Fleming, Henry P; Thompson, Roger L

    2007-06-01

    Sauerkraut fermentations rely upon selection of naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria by addition of 2.0% to 2.25% granulated sodium chloride (NaCl) to shredded cabbage. Excess brine generated is a waste product with high levels of organic material (BOD) and nonbiodegradable NaCl. The objective was to determine whether addition of Leuconostoc mesenteroides starter culture to reduced-salt cabbage fermentations would yield sauerkraut with reproducible and acceptable chemical composition and sensory qualities. Shredded cabbage was salted with 0.5%, 1.0%, or 2.0% NaCl (wt/wt) at 2 starter culture levels, none or L. mesenteroides strain LA 81, ATCC 8293 (10(6) CFU/g). Fermentation products were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography, and pH was measured during the initial stages of fermentation and after 10 mo storage at 18 degrees C. A trained descriptive sensory panel used category scales to rate the flavor and texture of selected sauerkrauts. A modified Kramer shear test was used to measure firmness. Cabbage fermented with L. mesenteroides consistently resulted in sauerkraut with firm texture and reduced off-flavors across all salt levels (P < 0.05). Conversely, sauerkraut quality was highly variable, with softening and off-flavors occurring as salt concentrations were decreased in natural fermentations (P < 0.05). Fermentations were rapid, with a more uniform decline in pH when starter culture was added. L. mesenteroides addition to cabbage fermentations ensured that texture and flavor quality were retained, while allowing 50% NaCl reduction. Application of this technology to commercial sauerkraut production could improve the uniformity of fermentations and substantially reduce generation of nonbiodegradable chloride waste.

  18. Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

    1999-04-01

    Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

  19. The osmolyte xylitol reduces the salt concentration of airway surface liquid and may enhance bacterial killing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabner, Joseph; Seiler, Michael P.; Launspach, Janice L.; Karp, Philip H.; Kearney, William R.; Look, Dwight C.; Smith, Jeffrey J.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2000-10-01

    The thin layer of airway surface liquid (ASL) contains antimicrobial substances that kill the small numbers of bacteria that are constantly being deposited in the lungs. An increase in ASL salt concentration inhibits the activity of airway antimicrobial factors and may partially explain the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF). We tested the hypothesis that an osmolyte with a low transepithelial permeability may lower the ASL salt concentration, thereby enhancing innate immunity. We found that the five-carbon sugar xylitol has a low transepithelial permeability, is poorly metabolized by several bacteria, and can lower the ASL salt concentration in both CF and non-CF airway epithelia in vitro. Furthermore, in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study, xylitol sprayed for 4 days into each nostril of normal volunteers significantly decreased the number of nasal coagulase-negative Staphylococcus compared with saline control. Xylitol may be of value in decreasing ASL salt concentration and enhancing the innate antimicrobial defense at the airway surface.

  20. DNA terminal base pairs have weaker hydrogen bonds especially for AT under low salt concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Izabela; Amarante, Tauanne D.; Weber, Gerald

    2015-11-01

    DNA base pairs are known to open more easily at the helix terminal, a process usually called end fraying, the details of which are still poorly understood. Here, we present a mesoscopic model calculation based on available experimental data where we consider separately the terminal base pairs of a DNA duplex. Our results show an important reduction of hydrogen bond strength for terminal cytosine-guanine (CG) base pairs which is uniform over the whole range of salt concentrations, while for AT base pairs, we obtain a nearly 1/3 reduction but only at low salt concentrations. At higher salt concentrations, terminal adenine-thymine (AT) pair has almost the same hydrogen bond strength than interior bases. The calculated terminal stacking interaction parameters display some peculiarly contrasting behavior. While there is mostly no perceptible difference to internal stacking, for some cases, we observe an unusually strong dependence with salt concentration which does not appear follow any pattern or trend.

  1. Oviposition preference and egg eclosion in different salt concentrations in the coastal malaria vector Anopheles aquasalis Curry.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Frances R; Díaz, Sandra; Gómez, Cruz J; Moreno, Milagros; Hernández, Gilma

    2006-03-01

    Anopheles aquasalis is the main malaria vector in Sucre State, Venezuela. The larvae of this species are saltwater tolerant. The effects of different concentrations of salt on oviposition preference and egg survival were studied under laboratory conditions. Choice experiments with salt concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% in bottled water were set up for individual adult females and the number of eggs laid in each salt concentration was noted. Egg survival, as inferred by the number of hatched larvae also was determined for each salt concentration. Females preferred to oviposit in freshwater and rejected water salt concentrations of 40%, but they were neither attracted nor repelled by water with 10-30% of salt. Eggs hatched more quickly in the lower salt concentrations, but egg survival was not affected by salt concentrations of up to 20%. Thus, female oviposition preference in An. aquasalis determines egg survival.

  2. Ion size effects on the electrokinetics of spherical particles in salt-free concentrated suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roa, Rafael; Carrique, Felix; Ruiz-Reina, Emilio

    2012-02-01

    In this work we study the influence of the counterion size on the electrophoretic mobility and on the dynamic mobility of a suspended spherical particle in a salt-free concentrated colloidal suspension. Salt-free suspensions contain charged particles and the added counterions that counterbalance their surface charge. A spherical cell model approach is used to take into account particle-particle electro-hydrodynamic interactions in concentrated suspensions. The finite size of the counterions is considered including an entropic contribution, related with the excluded volume of the ions, in the free energy of the suspension, giving rise to a modified counterion concentration profile. We are interested in studying the linear response of the system to an electric field, thus we solve the different electrokinetic equations by using a linear perturbation scheme. We find that the ionic size effect is quite important for moderate to high particles charges at a given particle volume fraction. In addition for such particle surface charges, both the electrophoretic mobility and the dynamic mobility suffer more important changes the larger the particle volume fraction for each ion size. The latter effects are more relevant the larger the ionic size.

  3. Specific cation effects on hemoglobin aggregation below and at physiological salt concentration.

    PubMed

    Medda, Luca; Carucci, Cristina; Parsons, Drew F; Ninham, Barry W; Monduzzi, Maura; Salis, Andrea

    2013-12-10

    Turbidity titrations are used to study the ion specific aggregation of hemoglobin (Hb) below and physiological salt concentration in the pH range 4.5-9.5. At a salt concentration 50 mM cations promote Hb aggregation according to the order Rb(+) > K(+) ~ Na(+) > Cs(+) > Li(+). The cation series changes if concentration is increased, becoming K(+) > Rb(+) > Na(+) > Li(+) > Cs(+) at 150 mM. We interpret the puzzling series by assuming that the kosmotropic Li(+) will bind to kosmotropic carboxylates groups-according to the law of matching water affinities (LMWA)-whereas the chaotropic Cs(+) will bind to uncharged protein patches due to its high polarizability. In fact, both mechanisms can be rationalized by invoking previously neglected ionic nonelectrostatic forces. This explains both adsorption to uncharged patches and the LMWA as a consequence of the simultaneous action of electrostatic and dispersion forces. The same interpretation applies to anions (with chaotropic anions binding to chaotropic amine groups). The implications extend beyond hemoglobin to other, still unexplained, ion specific effects in biological systems.

  4. Short term effects of increasing dietary salt concentrations on urine composition in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Paßlack, N; Burmeier, H; Brenten, T; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2014-09-01

    High dietary salt (NaCl) concentrations are assumed to be beneficial in preventing the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in cats, since increased water intake and urine volume have been observed subsequent to intake. In human beings, dietary NaCl restriction is recommended for the prevention of CaOx urolith formation, since high NaCl intake is associated with increased urinary Ca excretion. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of dietary NaCl in the formation of CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight cats received four diets that differed in Na and Cl concentrations (0.38-1.43% Na and 0.56-2.52% Cl dry matter, DM). Each feeding period consisted of a 21 day adaptation period, followed by a 7 day sampling period for urine collection. Higher dietary NaCl concentrations were associated with increased urine volume and renal Na excretion. Urinary Ca concentration was constant, but renal Ca excretion increased from 0.62 to 1.05 mg/kg bodyweight (BW)/day with higher dietary NaCl concentrations (P ≤ 0.05). Urinary oxalate (Ox), citrate, P and K concentrations decreased when NaCl intake was high (P ≤ 0.05), and urinary pH was low in all groups (6.33-6.45; P > 0.05). Relative supersaturation of CaOx in the urine was unaffected by dietary NaCl concentrations. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated several beneficial effects of high dietary NaCl intake over a relatively short time period. In particular, urinary Ca concentration remained unchanged because of increased urine volume. Decreased urinary Ox concentrations might help to prevent the formation of CaOx uroliths, but this should be verified in future studies in diseased or predisposed cats.

  5. High salt intake negatively impacts ovarian follicle development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Yeung, Cheung-Kwan; Zhang, Jing-Li; Hu, Xi-Wen; Ye, Yu-Xiang; Yang, Yong-Xia; Li, Jiang-Chao; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong; Wang, Li-Jing

    2015-07-01

    Many human disorders induce high salinity in tissues and organs, interfering with their normal physiological functions. Using a mouse model, we demonstrated that high salt intake caused infertility. Specifically, we established that high salinity dramatically affects ovarian follicle development and the extent of follicular atresia. However, it did not significantly influence the primordial follicles. TUNEL assays revealed that high salt intake inhibited follicle development by inducing the granulosa and theca cells that surround the oocytes to undergo apoptosis. Furthermore, immunohistological staining for the proliferation markers Ki67 and PH3 showed that high salt intake also repressed granulosa cell proliferation. In vitro testing of granulosa cells also confirmed that high salt significantly repressed cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. In summary, high salt consumption negatively impacts reproductive functions in female mice by interfering with ovarian folliculogenesis.

  6. Changes in biological and virulent characteristics of Helicobacter pylori exposed to high salt.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Jing, Jing-Jing; Gong, Yue-Hua; Xu, Qian; Zhang, Wen-Lu; Piao, Ying; Wang, Yan-Li; Yuan, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    The effect of high salt environments on biological characteristics of Helicobacter pylori is still unclear. In the present study, we therefore investigated biological characteristics of the bacterium exposed to high salt concentrations. H. pylori strain, L301, was cultured in media supplemented with different concentrations (3%, 15% and 30%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) under microaerophilic conditions for 48 h. Morphology was assessed by light microscopy, the ATP content was quantitated by single-tube fluorescent light-emission and the levels of CagA and UreB proteins were determined by Western blotting. After exposure to NaCl, H. pylori transformed from common spiral shape to U or even coccoid shapes. The ATP content was significantly higher in 30% NaCl group than in 15% and 3% NaCl group and the level of CagA protein increased with the salt concentration. The urease reaction was all strongly positive in H. pylori exposed to different salt concentrations. The level of 8-OHdG expression was significantly increased in GES-1 cells co-cultured with H. pylori exposed to high salt, compared with the level in uninfected cells. H. pylori survives under exposure to high salt concentrations up to 30%, exhibiting changes in mobility, morphology and CagA expression, associated with increased 8-OHdG in the gastric epithelial cells, indicative of DNA damage.

  7. Formation and stabilization of anionic metal complexes in concentrated aqueous quaternary ammonium salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Aronson, F.L.; Hwang, L.L.Y.; Ronca, N.; Solomon, N.A.; Steigman, J.

    1985-02-04

    Anionic complexes of transition metals were stabilized in aqueous solutions containing high concentrations of various short-chain quaternary ammonium salts. Compounds with longer paraffin chains were effective in much less concentrated solution. Complex ions were detected spectrophotometrically. FeCl/sub 4//sup -/, which is usually formed in concentrated HCl, was the predominant Fe(III) complex in 30 m choline chloride containing only 0.12 M HCl. A yellow transitory Tc(VII) chloro-addition intermediate, formed in the reduction of TcO/sub 4//sup -/ by concentrated HCl, was stabilized when the solution also contained 25 m choline chloride. Its spectrum, as well as the isolation of an already known Tc(VII) bipyridyl complex, is reported. Concentrated organic electrolytes also stabilized Tc(V) oxide halides against disproportionation and Tc(IV) hexahalides against hydrolysis. Halochromates of Cr(VI) were formed and stabilized in dilute acid containing quaternary ammonium salts. Their UV spectra showed the well-resolved vibronic fine structure associated with the symmetric chromium-to-oxygen charge-transfer band. It is known that these progressions are resolved in aprotic solvents, but not in aqueous acidic solution alone, and that the loss of fine structure in aqueous media is due to hydrogen bonding. The stabilization of anionic metal complexes and the resolution of vibronic structure in halochromates are probably consequences of water-structure-enforced ion paring. The present work suggests that the water molecules in immediate contact with the complex anions are more strongly hydrogen bonded to each other than to the complex. 21 references, 4 figures.

  8. High concentration plasma-reduced plateletapheresis concentrates.

    PubMed

    Perseghin, Paolo

    2011-06-01

    Single-donor hyperconcentrated plateletapheresis (dry-platelets) collection has been introduced in the 90's as a part of the newly developed multi-component collection strategy. This approach allowed to safely collect multiple components from a single apheresis donation, i.e. RBC, FFP and/or plateletpheresis units. Dry-platelets are usually resuspended in additive solution to maintain an adequate pH during the storage period until use. Some concern existed about possible higher degrees of platelet activation in dry-platelets units when compared to standard concentration (1.0-1.6 × 10(6)/μL platelets) units and its possible correlation with lower in vivo efficiency and/or survival of the former units. Several authors investigated this specific issue, and dry-platelets units proved to be equally effective than standard concentration plateletpheresis units in recipients. The use of dry-platelets units may reduce (i) the risk of passive infusion of naturally occurring ABO-related hemolytic antibodies when donor O platelets are given to group A, B, or AB recipient, (ii) the risk of TRALI when multiparous donors undergo plateletpheresis. Furthermore, dry-platelet collection may allow for an increased amount of FFP sent to industry. Finally, hyperconcentrated platelet units may be used for "niche" indications, such as intrauterine platelet transfusion or, in case of autologous dry-platelet collection, for further freezing for long term storage in selected patients within onco-hematological settings.

  9. Burner rig alkali salt corrosion of several high temperature alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    The hot corrosion of five alloys was studied in cyclic tests in a Mach 0.3 burner rig into whose combustion chamber various aqueous salt solutions were injected. Three nickel-based alloys, a cobalt-base alloy, and an iron-base alloy were studied at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C with various salt concentrations and compositions. The relative resistance of the alloys to hot corrosion attack was found to vary with temperature and both concentration and composition of the injected salt solution. Results indicate that the corrosion of these alloys is a function of both the presence of salt condensed as a liquid on the surface and of the composition of the gas phases present.

  10. Burner rig alkali salt corrosion of several high temperature alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D.; Lowell, C.

    1977-01-01

    The hot corrosion of five alloys was studied in cyclic tests in a Mach 0.3 burner rig into whose combustion chamber various aqueous salt solutions were injected. Three nickel-base alloys (IN-792, IN-738, and IN-100), a cobalt-base alloy (MM-509), and an iron-base alloy (304 stainless steel) were studied at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C with various salt concentrations and compositions. The relative resistance of the alloys to hot corrosion attack was found to vary with temperature and with both the concentration and composition of the injected salt solution. Results indicate that the corrosion of these alloys is a function of both the presence of salt condensed as a liquid on the surface and of the composition of the gas phases present.

  11. Structure and ionic conductivity of block copolymer electrolytes over a wide salt concentration range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintapalli, Mahati; Le, Thao; Venkatesan, Naveen; Thelen, Jacob; Rojas, Adriana; Balsara, Nitash

    Block copolymer electrolytes are promising materials for safe, long-lasting lithium batteries because of their favorable mechanical and ion transport properties. The morphology, phase behavior, and ionic conductivity of a block copolymer electrolyte, SEO mixed with LiTFSI was studied over a wide, previously unexplored salt concentration range using small angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry and ac impedance spectroscopy, respectively. SEO exhibits a maximum in ionic conductivity at twice the salt concentration that PEO, the homopolymer analog of the ion-containing block, does. This finding is contrary to prior studies that examined a more limited range of salt concentrations. In SEO, the phase behavior of the PEO block and LiTFSI closely resembles the phase behavior of homopolymer PEO and LiTFSI. The grain size of the block copolymer morphology was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration, and the ionic conductivity of SEO correlates with decreasing grain size. Structural effects impact the ionic conductivity-salt concentration relationship in block copolymer electrolytes. SEO: polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide); also PS-PEO LiTFSI: lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide

  12. Unusually high indoor radon concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennemoser, O.; Ambach, W.; Brunner, P.; Schneider, P.; Oberaigner, W.; Purtscheller, F.; Stingl, V.

    Measurements of indoor radon concentrations in the village Umhausen (2600 inhabitants, Ötztal valley, Tyrol, Austria) revealed unusually high indoor radon concentrations up to 274,000 Bq m -3. The medians measured on the basements were 3750 Bq m -3 in winter and 361 Bq m -3 in summer, those on the ground floors were 1180 Bq m -3 and 210 Bq m -3, respectively. Seventy-one per cent of the houses showed basement radon concentrations above the Austrian action level of 400 Bq m -3 in winter, 33% in summer. There are indications that the high radon concentrations are due to a giant rock slide about 8700 years ago. The unusually high radon concentrations in Umhausen coincide with a statistically significant increase in lung cancer mortality. For the period 1970-1991 the age and sex standardized mortality rate is 3.85 (95% confidence interval: 2.9 to 5.1). The control population is the total population of Tyrol (630,000 inhabitants).

  13. Trace metal concentrations in Spartina densiflora and associated soil from a Patagonian salt marsh.

    PubMed

    Idaszkin, Yanina L; Bouza, Pablo J; Marinho, Carmen H; Gil, Mónica N

    2014-12-15

    The objectives of this study were to (i) assess in situ trace metal concentrations in soil and in Spartina densiflora in a Patagonian salt marsh (Rawson, Chubut, Argentina) and (ii) investigate the relationship between trace metal concentrations in soils and in plants to improve our knowledge regarding the ability of S. densiflora to take up and accumulate trace metals from the soil within its native region. Our results indicate that the soil and S. densiflora exhibit low metal concentrations in the Rawson salt marsh. S. densiflora accumulates Zn in below- and above-ground plant structures and Cr in below-ground parts. These results suggest at the time of this study there is scarce human impact associated with metals in the Rawson salt marsh.

  14. Nonmonotonic variation with salt concentration of the second virial coefficient in protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Allahyarov, E; Löwen, H; Hansen, J P; Louis, A A

    2003-05-01

    The osmotic virial coefficient B2 of globular protein solutions is calculated as a function of added salt concentration at fixed pH by computer simulations of the "primitive model." The salt and counterions as well as a discrete charge pattern on the protein surface are explicitly incorporated. For parameters roughly corresponding to lysozyme, we find that B2 first decreases with added salt concentration up to a threshold concentration, then increases to a maximum, and then decreases again upon further raising the ionic strength. Our studies demonstrate that the existence of a discrete charge pattern on the protein surface profoundly influences the effective interactions and that linear and nonlinear Poisson Boltzmann theories fail for large ionic strength. The observed nonmonotonicity of B2 is compared with experiments. Implications for protein crystallization are discussed.

  15. Hydronium-dominated ion transport in carbon-dioxide-saturated electrolytes at low salt concentrations in nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kristian Lund; Kristensen, Jesper Toft; Crumrine, Andrew Michael; Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; Bruus, Henrik; Pennathur, Sumita

    2011-05-01

    Nanochannel ion transport is known to be governed by surface charge at low ionic concentrations. In this paper, we show that this surface charge is typically dominated by hydronium ions arising from dissolution of ambient atmospheric carbon dioxide. Taking the hydronium ions into account, we model the nanochannel conductance at low salt concentrations and identify a conductance minimum before saturation at a value independent of salt concentration in the dilute limit. Via the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, our model self-consistently couples chemical-equilibrium dissociation models of the silica wall and of the electrolyte bulk, parametrized by the dissociation reaction constants. Experimental data with aqueous KCl solutions in 165-nm-high silica nanochannels are described well by our model, both with and without extra hydronium from added HCl.

  16. The ecology of Dunaliella in high-salt environments.

    PubMed

    Oren, Aharon

    2014-12-01

    Halophilic representatives of the genus Dunaliella, notably D. salina and D. viridis, are found worldwide in salt lakes and saltern evaporation and crystallizer ponds at salt concentrations up to NaCl saturation. Thanks to the biotechnological exploitation of D. salina for β-carotene production we have a profound knowledge of the physiology and biochemistry of the alga. However, relatively little is known about the ecology of the members of the genus Dunaliella in hypersaline environments, in spite of the fact that Dunaliella is often the main or even the sole primary producer present, so that the entire ecosystem depends on carbon fixed by this alga. This review paper summarizes our knowledge about the occurrence and the activities of different Dunaliella species in natural salt lakes (Great Salt Lake, the Dead Sea and others), in saltern ponds and in other salty habitats where members of the genus have been found.

  17. Effect of salt stress on ion concentration, proline content, antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression in tomato cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Gharsallah, Charfeddine; Fakhfakh, Hatem; Grubb, Douglas; Gorsane, Faten

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a constraint limiting plant growth and productivity of crops throughout the world. Understanding the mechanism underlying plant response to salinity provides new insights into the improvement of salt tolerance-crops of importance. In the present study, we report on the responses of twenty cultivars of tomato. We have clustered genotypes into scale classes according to their response to increased NaCl levels. Three local tomato genotypes, representative of different saline scale classes, were selected for further investigation. During early (0 h, 6 h and 12 h) and later (7 days) stages of the response to salt treatment, ion concentrations (Na+, K+  and Ca2+), proline content, enzyme activities (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and guiacol peroxidase) were recorded. qPCR analysis of candidate genes WRKY (8, 31and 39), ERF (9, 16 and 80), LeNHX (1, 3 and 4) and HKT (class I) were performed. A high K+, Ca2 +and proline accumulation as well as a decrease of Na+  concentration-mediated salt tolerance. Concomitant with a pattern of high-antioxidant enzyme activities, tolerant genotypes also displayed differential patterns of gene expression during the response to salt stress. PMID:27543452

  18. Pancreatic functions in high salt fed female rats

    PubMed Central

    Lasheen, Noha N

    2015-01-01

    Salt consumption has been increased worldwide and the association of high salt diets with enhanced inflammation and target organ damage was reported. Little data were available about the effect of high salt diet on exocrine function of pancreas, while the relation between high salt intake and insulin sensitivity was controversial. This study was designed to investigate the effect of high salt diet on exocrine and endocrine pancreatic functions, and to elucidate the possible underlying mechanism(s). Twenty adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups; control group; fed standard rodent diet containing 0.3% NaCl, and high salt fed group; fed 8% NaCl for 8 weeks. On the day of sacrifice, rats were anesthized by i.p. pentobarbitone (40 μg/kg B.W.). Nasoanal length was measured and fasting blood glucose was determined from rat tail. Blood samples were obtained from abdominal aorta for determination of plasma sodium, potassium, amylase, lipase, aldosterone, insulin, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1), and interleukin 6 (IL6). Pancreata of both groups were histologically studied. Compared to control group, 8-week high salt fed group showed: significant elevation in body weight, body mass index, Lee index, plasma sodium, TGF-β1 and IL6, however, plasma aldosterone, amylase, lipase, and insulin levels were significantly decreased. A nonsignificant increase in plasma potassium and nonsignificant changes in fasting blood glucose and HOMA-IR were detected between groups. Pancreatic fibrosis was observed in test group. High salt diet for 8 weeks caused pancreatic fibrosis evidenced by decline of both exocrine and endocrine functions of pancreas in Wistar rats. PMID:26216433

  19. Advanced high efficiency concentrator cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, R. . Varian Research Center)

    1992-06-01

    This report describes research to develop the technology needed to demonstrate a monolithic, multijunction, two-terminal, concentrator solar cell with a terrestrial power conversion efficiency greater than 35%. Under three previous subcontracts, Varian developed many of the aspects of a technology needed to fabricate very high efficiency concentrator cells. The current project was aimed at exploiting the new understanding of high efficiency solar cells. Key results covered in this report are as follows. (1) A 1.93-eV AlGaAs/1.42-eV GaAs metal-interconnected cascade cell was manufactured with a one-sun efficiency at 27.6% at air mass 1.5 (AM1.5) global. (2) A 1.0eV InGaAs cell was fabricated on the reverse'' side of a low-doped GaAs substrate with a one-sun efficiency of 2.5% AM1.5 diffuse and a short-circuit current of 14.4 mA/cm{sup 2}. (3) Small-scale manufacturing of GaAs p/n concentrator cells was attempted and obtained an excellent yield of high-efficiency cells. (4) Grown-in tunnel junction cell interconnects that are transparent and thermally stable using C and Si dopants were developed. 10 refs.

  20. Precipitation of minerals by 22 species of moderately halophilic bacteria in artificial marine salts media: influence of salt concentration.

    PubMed

    Rivadeneyra, M A; Delgado, R; Párraga, J; Ramos-Cormenza, A; Delgado, G

    2006-01-01

    Precipitation of minerals was shown by 22 species of moderately halophilic bacteria in both solid and liquid artificial marine salts media at different concentration and different Mg2+-to-Ca2+ ratio. Precipitation of minerals was observed for all the bacteria used. When salt concentration increased, the quantity and the size of bioliths decreased, the time required for precipitation being increased. The precipitated minerals were calcite, magnesian calcite, aragonite, dolomite, monohydrocalcite, hydromagnesite and struvite in variable proportions, depending on the bacterial species, the salinity and the physical state of the medium; the Mg content of the magnesian calcite also varied according to the same parameters. The precipitated minerals do not correspond exactly to those which could be precipitated inorganically according to the saturation indices. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the formation of the bioliths is initiated by grouping of calcified cells and that the dominant final morphologies were spherulitic with fibrous radiated interiors. It was demonstrated that moderately halophilic bacteria play an active role in the precipitation of carbonates and we hypothesize about this process of biomineralization.

  1. High Salt Intake Promotes Urinary Loss of Vitamin D Metabolites by Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats in a Space Flight Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierry-Palmer, M.; Cephas, S.; Sayavongsa, P.; Clark, T.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism in the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat, a model of salt-induced hypertension, differs from that in the Dahl salt-resistant (R) rat. We have demonstrated that female S rats are more vulnerable than female R rats to decreases in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D) concentrations during hind limb unloading (a space flight model). We report here on the response of the vitamin D endocrine system of S and R rats to hind limb unloading during high salt intake. Dahl female rats (9.7-week-old) were tail-suspended (hind limb unloaded) for 28 days, while fed a diet containing twice the salt in standard rat chow (2 % sodium chloride). Control rats were fed the same diet, but were not hind limb unloaded. Vitamin D metabolites were analyzed by HPLC and radioimmunoassay kits from Diasorin.

  2. The role of salt concentration and magnesium binding in HIV-1 subtype-A and subtype-B kissing loop monomer structures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taejin; Shapiro, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    The subtype-B monomers of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) have experimentally been shown to dimerize at high salt concentration or in the presence of magnesium, while the dimerization of the subtype-A monomers requires magnesium binding at the G273 or G274 phosphate groups regardless of salt concentration. We used explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the conformational changes in subtype-A and -B monomers in different salt concentrations, and we found that our MD simulation results are consistent with those of experiments. At low salt concentration, hairpin loop structures of both subtypes were deformed and bases in the hairpin loop were turned inside. At high salt concentrations, the subtype-B monomer maintained the hairpin loop shape and most bases in the hairpin loop pointed out, while the subtype-A monomer showed a severe deformation. We also found that the flanking bases in the subtype-B stabilize the hairpin loop, while the flanking base G273 in the subtype-A caused a significant deformation. However, a bound magnesium ion at the G273 or G274 phosphate groups controlled the behavior of the G273 base and prevented the subtype-A monomer from deformation. We also applied restraints to both subtypes to examine the role of high salt concentration or magnesium binding. While restraints were applied, both subtypes at 0 M salt concentration maintained their shapes. However, when restraints were removed, they deformed significantly. Therefore, we suggest that the dimerization of both subtypes requires the proper conformation of the monomers which is induced by the appropriate salt strength and magnesium ion binding.

  3. Process evaluation of sea salt aerosol concentrations at remote marine locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struthers, H.; Ekman, A. M.; Nilsson, E. D.

    2011-12-01

    Sea salt, an important natural aerosol, is generated by bubbles bursting at the surface of the ocean. Sea salt aerosol contributes significantly to the global aerosol burden and radiative budget and are a significant source of cloud condensation nuclei in remote marine areas (Monahan et al., 1986). Consequently, changes in marine aerosol abundance is expected to impact on climate forcing. Estimates of the atmospheric burden of sea salt aerosol mass derived from chemical transport and global climate models vary greatly both in the global total and the spatial distribution (Texor et al. 2006). This large uncertainty in the sea salt aerosol distribution in turn contributes to the large uncertainty in the current estimates of anthropogenic aerosol climate forcing (IPCC, 2007). To correctly attribute anthropogenic climate change and to veraciously project future climate, natural aerosols including sea salt must be understood and accurately modelled. In addition, the physical processes that determine the sea salt aerosol concentration are susceptible to modification due to climate change (Carslaw et al., 2010) which means there is the potential for feedbacks within the climate/aerosol system. Given the large uncertainties in sea salt aerosol modelling, there is an urgent need to evaluate the process description of sea salt aerosols in global models. An extremely valuable source of data for model evaluation is the long term measurements of PM10 sea salt aerosol mass available from a number of remote marine observation sites around the globe (including the GAW network). Sea salt aerosol concentrations at remote marine locations depend strongly on the surface exchange (emission and deposition) as well as entrainment or detrainment to the free troposphere. This suggests that the key parameters to consider in any analysis include the sea surface water temperature, wind speed, precipitation rate and the atmospheric stability. In this study, the sea salt aerosol observations

  4. DC electrophoresis and viscosity of realistic salt-free concentrated suspensions: non-equilibrium dissociation-association processes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Reina, Emilio; Carrique, Félix; Lechuga, Luis

    2014-03-01

    Most of the suspensions usually found in industrial applications are concentrated, aqueous and in contact with the atmospheric CO2. The case of suspensions with a high concentration of added salt is relatively well understood and has been considered in many studies. In this work we are concerned with the case of concentrated suspensions that have no ions different than: (1) those stemming from the charged colloidal particles (the added counterions, that counterbalance their surface charge); (2) the H(+) and OH(-) ions from water dissociation, and (3) the ions generated by the atmospheric CO2 contamination. We call this kind of systems "realistic salt-free suspensions". We show some theoretical results about the electrophoretic mobility of a colloidal particle and the electroviscous effect of realistic salt-free concentrated suspensions. The theoretical framework is based on a cell model that accounts for particle-particle interactions in concentrated suspensions, which has been successfully applied to many different phenomena in concentrated suspensions. On the other hand, the water dissociation and CO2 contamination can be described following two different levels of approximation: (a) by local equilibrium mass-action equations, because it is supposed that the reactions are so fast that chemical equilibrium is attained everywhere in the suspension, or (b) by non-equilibrium dissociation-association kinetic equations, because it is considered that some reactions are not rapid enough to ensure local chemical equilibrium. Both approaches give rise to different results in the range from dilute to semidilute suspensions, causing possible discrepancies when comparing standard theories and experiments concerning transport properties of realistic salt-free suspensions.

  5. [Concentrations and distribution characteristics of PCDD/Fs in spent etching solution and its copper salt recycling products].

    PubMed

    Qing, Xian; Han, Jing-Lei; Wen, Yan-Shen

    2013-02-01

    Concentrations of 17 PCDD/Fs congeners in spent etching solution and its copper salt recycling products were determined by the high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS). The PCDD/F concentrations and corresponding WHO-TEQ (toxic equivalent quantity) values were in the range of 0-3 460 pg.L (mean= 616 pg.L-1) and 0-246 pg.L-1 (mean = 42.9 pg.L-1) , respectively, in the spent etching solution, and 1.08-24.6 ng.kg-1 (mean = 8.83 ng.kg-1) and 0.112-0.715 ng.kg-1 (mean = 0.338 ng.kg-1), respectively, in the copper salt products. The established purification treatment technique could remove most of the PCDD/Fs in the etching solution. Of the copper products, higher PCDD/F concentrations were detected in industrial products than in feed grade and plating grade products. Similar distribution characteristics were found for PCDD/ Fs in all copper salt products as the followings: 1. PCDFs were more abundant than PCDDs, 2. high chlorinated congeners were more abundant than low chlorinated congeners, except for 2,3,7,8-TCDF in the copper sulfate products.

  6. Concentration of Methylamine and Ethylamine Salts measured by a particle into liquid sampler and Ion Chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler (PILS) and ion chromatographs (ICs) were used to detect the concentration of methylamine salts associated with atmospheric particulate matter reactions in a smog chamber. The smog chamber is located at U.C. Riverside’s College of Engineering Center for Environmental Re...

  7. On-line Monitoring of Actinide Concentrations in Molten Salt Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis W. Johnson; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar; Shelly X. Li

    2006-11-01

    Pyroprocessing, a treatment method for spent nuclear fuel (SNF), is currently being studied at the Idaho National Laboratory. The key operation of pyroprocessing which takes place in an electrorefiner is the electrochemical separation of actinides from other constituents in spent fuel. Efficient operation of the electrorefiner requires online monitoring of actinide concentrations in the molten salt electrolyte. Square-wave voltammetry (SWV) and normal pulse voltammetry (NPV) are being investigated to assess their applicability to the measurement of actinide concentrations in the electrorefiner.

  8. High dietary salt intake exacerbates Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gaddy, Jennifer A; Radin, Jana N; Loh, John T; Zhang, Feng; Washington, M Kay; Peek, Richard M; Algood, Holly M Scott; Cover, Timothy L

    2013-06-01

    Persistent colonization of the human stomach with Helicobacter pylori is a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, and H. pylori-induced carcinogenesis is dependent on the actions of a bacterial oncoprotein known as CagA. Epidemiological studies have shown that high dietary salt intake is also a risk factor for gastric cancer. To investigate the effects of a high-salt diet, we infected Mongolian gerbils with a wild-type (WT) cagA(+) H. pylori strain or an isogenic cagA mutant strain and maintained the animals on a regular diet or a high-salt diet. At 4 months postinfection, gastric adenocarcinoma was detected in 100% of the WT-infected/high-salt-diet animals, 58% of WT-infected/regular-diet animals, and none of the animals infected with the cagA mutant strain (P < 0.0001). Among animals infected with the WT strain, those fed a high-salt diet had more severe gastric inflammation, higher gastric pH, increased parietal cell loss, increased gastric expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and decreased gastric expression of hepcidin and hydrogen potassium ATPase (H,K-ATPase) compared to those on a regular diet. Previous studies have detected upregulation of CagA synthesis in response to increased salt concentrations in the bacterial culture medium, and, concordant with the in vitro results, we detected increased cagA transcription in vivo in animals fed a high-salt diet compared to those on a regular diet. Animals infected with the cagA mutant strain had low levels of gastric inflammation and did not develop hypochlorhydria. These results indicate that a high-salt diet potentiates the carcinogenic effects of cagA(+) H. pylori strains.

  9. Non-Radiological Air Quality Modeling for the High-Level Waste Salt Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C.H.

    1999-11-29

    Dispersion modeling of non-radiological airborne emissions associated with the construction and operation of three alternatives for high-level waste salt disposition at the Savannah River Site has been completed. The results will be used by Department of Energy-Savannah River in the preparation of the salt disposition supplemental environmental impact statement. Estimated maximum ground-level concentrations of applicable regulated air pollutants of the site boundary and at the distance to a hypothetical, co-located onsite worker are summarized in tables. In all cases, model estimated ambient concentrations are less than regulatory standards.

  10. A study on the influencing factors of urinary iodine concentration and the relationship between iodised salt concentration and urinary iodine concentration.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yan; Ding, Gangqiang; Lou, Xiaoming; Mo, Zhe; Zhu, Wenming; Mao, Guangming; Zhou, Jinshui

    2015-01-14

    The aim of the present study was to explore the influencing factors of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and the relationship between iodised salt concentration and UIC in order to give suggestions for the surveillance of iodine nutrition status. For this purpose, a multi-stage cluster sampling technique was employed in the present cross-sectional study. Correlations between UIC and salt iodine concentration were evaluated by Spearmen's correlation analysis. Risk factors of having a lower UIC were identified by logistic regression analysis, and the equations of UIC and salt iodine concentration were fitted by curve regression analysis. The median UIC was found to be 162·0 (25th-75th percentile 98·2-248·6) μg/l. The UIC was correlated with salt iodine concentration (Spearman's ρ = 0·144, P< 0·05). The multiple logistic regression analysis found the following influencing factors for having a lower UIC: age (OR 0·98, 95% CI 0·98, 0·98, P< 0·05); sex (OR 0·81, 95% CI 0·71, 0·92, P< 0·05); education level (OR 0·87, 95% CI 0·83, 0·90, P< 0·05); status of occupation (OR 0·91, 95% CI 0·86, 0·96, P< 0·05); occupation (OR 1·03, 95% CI 1·00, 1·05, P< 0·05); pickled food (OR 1·24, 95% CI 1·08, 1·42, P< 0·05); salt iodine concentration (OR 1·03, 95% CI 1·02, 1·03, P< 0·05). The curve regression analysis found that UIC (y) and salt iodine concentration (x) could be expressed by the following equation: y= 1·5772x 1·4845. In conclusion, the median UIC of individuals in Zhejiang Province falls within optimal status as recommended by the WHO/UNICEF/International Council for Control of IDD. To maintain optimal iodine nutrition status, salt iodine concentration should be in the range of 16·4 to 34·3 mg/kg.

  11. Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Systems Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Schuller; Frank Little; Darren Malik; Matt Betts; Qian Shao; Jun Luo; Wan Zhong; Sandhya Shankar; Ashwin Padmanaban

    2012-03-30

    We demonstrated that adding nanoparticles to a molten salt would increase its utility as a thermal energy storage medium for a concentrating solar power system. Specifically, we demonstrated that we could increase the specific heat of nitrate and carbonate salts containing 1% or less of alumina nanoparticles. We fabricated the composite materials using both evaporative and air drying methods. We tested several thermophysical properties of the composite materials, including the specific heat, thermal conductivity, latent heat, and melting point. We also assessed the stability of the composite material with repeated thermal cycling and the effects of adding the nanoparticles on the corrosion of stainless steel by the composite salt. Our results indicate that stable, repeatable 25-50% improvements in specific heat are possible for these materials. We found that using these composite salts as the thermal energy storage material for a concentrating solar thermal power system can reduce the levelized cost of electricity by 10-20%. We conclude that these materials are worth further development and inclusion in future concentrating solar power systems.

  12. Non-tracking solar concentrator with a high concentration ratio

    DOEpatents

    Hinterberger, Henry

    1977-01-01

    A nontracking solar concentrator with a high concentration ratio is provided. The concentrator includes a plurality of energy absorbers which communicate with a main header by which absorbed heat is removed. Undesired heat flow of those absorbers not being heated by radiant energy at a particular instant is impeded, improving the efficiency of the concentrator.

  13. Phase behavior of concentrated hydroxypropyl methylcellulose solution in the presence of mono and divalent salt.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Nalinda; Rakesh, Leela; Zhao, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Thermo reversible sol-gel transitions of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) are critical for many pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food applications. This study examined the effects of salt (NaCl and CaCl₂) on the viscoelastic properties of concentrated low molecular weight HPMC solutions and found that the gelation temperature decreased linearly as a function of salt concentrations, independent of valency of cations and the mole concentration of anions. Thermal analysis showed that the depression of melting temperature can be fitted for both NaCl and CaCl₂ as a function of the total number of ions by a single linear curve, which was consistent with the melting point depression of pure water by NaCl and CaCl₂, but with a higher linear slope.

  14. Low salt concentrations activate AMP-activated protein kinase in mouse macula densa cells.

    PubMed

    Cook, Natasha; Fraser, Scott A; Katerelos, Marina; Katsis, Frosa; Gleich, Kurt; Mount, Peter F; Steinberg, Gregory R; Levidiotis, Vicki; Kemp, Bruce E; Power, David A

    2009-04-01

    The energy-sensing kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is associated with the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter NKCC2 in the kidney and phosphorylates it on a regulatory site in vitro. To identify a potential role for AMPK in salt sensing at the macula densa, we have used the murine macula densa cell line MMDD1. In this cell line, AMPK was rapidly activated by isosmolar low-salt conditions. In contrast to the known salt-sensing pathway in the macula densa, AMPK activation occurred in the presence of either low sodium or low chloride and was unaffected by inhibition of NKCC2 with bumetanide. Assays using recombinant AMPK demonstrated activation of an upstream kinase by isosmolar low salt. The specific calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase inhibitor STO-609 failed to suppress AMPK activation, suggesting that it was not part of the signal pathway. AMPK activation was associated with increased phosphorylation of the specific substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) at Ser(79), as well as increased NKCC2 phosphorylation at Ser(126). AMPK activation due to low salt concentrations was inhibited by an adenovirus construct encoding a kinase dead mutant of AMPK, leading to reduced ACC Ser(79) and NKCC2 Ser(126) phosphorylation. This work demonstrates that AMPK activation in macula densa-like cells occurs via isosmolar changes in sodium or chloride concentration, leading to phosphorylation of ACC and NKCC2. Phosphorylation of these substrates in vivo is predicted to increase intracellular chloride and so reduce the effect of salt restriction on tubuloglomerular feedback and renin secretion.

  15. Helicobacter pylori Adaptation In Vivo in Response to a High-Salt Diet

    PubMed Central

    Loh, John T.; Gaddy, Jennifer A.; Algood, Holly M. Scott; Gaudieri, Silvana; Mallal, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori exhibits a high level of intraspecies genetic diversity. In this study, we investigated whether the diversification of H. pylori is influenced by the composition of the diet. Specifically, we investigated the effect of a high-salt diet (a known risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma) on H. pylori diversification within a host. We analyzed H. pylori strains isolated from Mongolian gerbils fed either a high-salt diet or a regular diet for 4 months by proteomic and whole-genome sequencing methods. Compared to the input strain and output strains from animals fed a regular diet, the output strains from animals fed a high-salt diet produced higher levels of proteins involved in iron acquisition and oxidative-stress resistance. Several of these changes were attributable to a nonsynonymous mutation in fur (fur-R88H). Further experiments indicated that this mutation conferred increased resistance to high-salt conditions and oxidative stress. We propose a model in which a high-salt diet leads to high levels of gastric inflammation and associated oxidative stress in H. pylori-infected animals and that these conditions, along with the high intraluminal concentrations of sodium chloride, lead to selection of H. pylori strains that are most fit for growth in this environment. PMID:26438795

  16. Lithium-Salt-Containing High-Molecular-Weight Polystyrene-block-Polyethylene Oxide Block Copolymer Films.

    PubMed

    Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Rasool, Majid; Brunner, Simon; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-08-10

    Ionic conductivity in relation to the morphology of lithium-doped high-molecular-weight polystyrene-block-polyethylene oxide (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymer films was investigated as solid-state membranes for lithium-ion batteries. The tendency of the polyethylene (PEO) block to crystallize was highly suppressed by increasing both the salt-doping level and the temperature. The PEO crystallites completely vanished at a salt-doping ratio of Li/EO>0.08, at which the PEO segments were hindered from entering the crystalline unit of the PEO chain. A kinetically trapped lamella morphology of PS-b-PEO was observed, due to PEO crystallization. The increase in the lamella spacing with increasing salt concentration was attributed to the conformation of the PEO chain rather than the volume contribution of the salt or the previously reported increase in the effective interaction parameter. Upon loading the salt, the PEO chains changed from a compact/highly folded conformation to an amorphous/expanded-like conformation. The ionic conductivity was enhanced by amorphization of PEO and thereby the mobility of the PEO blocks increased upon increasing the salt-doping level.

  17. Effect of Low Salt Concentrations on Microbial Changes During Kimchi Fermentation Monitored by PCR-DGGE and Their Sensory Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Ahmadsah, Lenny S F; Min, Sung-Gi; Han, Seon-Kyeong; Hong, Yeun; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2015-12-28

    Various salt concentrations (1.0%, 1.3%, 1.6%, 1.9%, and 2.1% labeled as sample A, B, C, D, and E, respectively) were investigated for microbial diversity, identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) in salted kimchi cabbage, prepared under laboratory conditions. These samples were stored at 4°C for 5 weeks in proper aluminum-metalized pouch packaging with calcium hydroxide gas absorber. A culture-independent method known as polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was carried out to identify LAB distributions among various salt concentration samples that had identified 2 Weissella (W. confusa and W. soli), 1 Lactobacillus (Lb. sakei), and 3 Leuconostoc (Lc. mesenteroides, Lc. lactis, and Lc. gelidum) in the overall kimchi samples. The pH, titratable acidity, viable cell counts, and coliform counts were not affected by salt variations. In order to assess sensory acceptance, the conducted sensory evaluation using a 9-point hedonic scale had revealed that samples with 1.3% salt concentration (lower than the manufacturer's regular salt concentration) was more preferred, indicating that the use of 1.3% salt concentration was acceptable in normal kimchi fermentation for its quality and safety. Despite similarities in pH, titratable acidity, viable cell counts, coliform counts, and LAB distributions among the various salt concentrations of kimchi samples, the sample with 1.3% salt concentration was shown to be the most preferred, indicating that this salt concentration was suitable in kimchi production in order to reduce salt intake through kimchi consumptions.

  18. High-efficiency solar concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.; Dorman, J.

    1976-01-01

    A new type of solar concentrator is presented using liquid lenses and simple translational tracking mechanism. The concentrator achieves a 100:1 nominal concentration ratio and is compared in performance with a flat-plate collector having two sheets of glazing and non-selective coating. The results of the thermal analysis show that higher temperatures can be obtained with the concentrator than is possible with the non-concentrator flat-plate type. Furthermore, the thermal efficiency far exceeds that of the comparative flat-plate type for all operating conditions.

  19. High-efficiency solar concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.; Dorman, J.

    1980-01-01

    A new type of solar concentrator is presented using liquid lenses and simple translational tracking mechanism. The concentrator achieves a 100:1 nominal concentration ratio and is compared in performance with a flat-plate collector having two sheets of glazing and non-selective coating. The results of the thermal analysis show that higher temperatures can be obtained with the concentrator than is possible with the non-concentrator flat-plate type. Furthermore, the thermal efficiency far exceeds that of the comparative flat-plate type for all operating conditions.

  20. Direct Grout Stabilization of High Cesium Salt Waste: Cesium Leaching Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    1999-09-19

    'The direct grout alternative is a viable option for treatment/stabilization and disposal of salt waste containing Cs-137 concentrations of 1-3 Ci/gal. The significant difference between these waste solutions is that the high cesium salt solution will contain between 1 and 3 Curies of Cs-137 per gallon compared to a negligible amount in the current salt solution. This difference will require special engineering and shielding for a direct grout processing facility and disposal units to achieve acceptable radiation exposure conditions. The higher cesium concentrations in the direct grout also require that the cesium leaching be evaluated as a function of curing temperature. ANS 16.1 leaching results and distribution ratios (approximations of distribution coefficients) as a function of temperature are presented in this report.'

  1. Influence of total soluble salt concentration on growth and elemental concentration of winged bean seedlings, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L. ) DC

    SciTech Connect

    Csizinszky, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) (L.) DC) seedlings of the accession TPT-1, were grown in a greenhouse with graded, balanced total soluble salt (TSS) concentrations. After 45 days, plant height increased quadratically, with a maximum (149 cm) at 3000 ppm TSS. Seedlings were shortest at 1000 and 10,000 ppm TSS, 44.0 and 79.0 cm, respectively. Fresh weight of shoots increased quadratically with greatest weight, 29.03 g, at 5000 ppm TSS. Percent dry matter increased linearly with increasing TSS. Concentration of N, K and P increased quadratically with an increase in the TSS concentration in the growth medium. Concentration of Ca decreased quadratically with increasing TSS. Among the micronutrients, Fe and Mo concentration was quadratic, both elements were highest in the seedlings at 1000 and 10,000 ppm TSS rates. Concentrations of Mn and Zn increased linearly with increasing TSS. Winged bean seedlings at the 1000 to 3000 ppm TSS rates had spindly stems and a sparse, yellow foliage, typical for winged bean seedlings observed in the field during the first 4 to 5 weeks of growth. Seedlings at the 4000 and 5000 ppm TSS rates had sturdy stems and an abundant green foliage. At higher TSS concentrations, 5000 to 10,000 ppm TSS, seedlings had short intermodes and dark green foliage.

  2. Biaxial testing of canine annulus fibrosus tissue under changing salt concentrations.

    PubMed

    Huyghe, Jacques M

    2010-03-01

    The in vivo mechanics of the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc is one of biaxial rather than uniaxial loading. The material properties of the annulus are intimately linked to the osmolarity in the tissue. This paper presents biaxial relaxation experiments of canine annulus fibrosus tissue under stepwise changes of external salt concentration. The force tracings show that stresses are strongly dependent on time, salt concentration and orientation. The force tracing signature of a response to a change in strain, is one of a jump in stress that relaxes partly as the new strain is maintained. The force tracing signature of a stepwise change in salt concentration is a progressive monotonous change in stress towards a new equilibrium value. Although the number of samples does not allow any definitive quantitative conclusions, the trends may shed light on the complex interaction among the directionality of forces, strains and fiber orientation on one hand, and on the other hand, the osmolarity of the tissue. The dual response to a change in strain is understood as an immediate response before fluid flows in or out of the tissue, followed by a progressive readjustment of the fluid content in time because of the gradient in fluid chemical potential between the tissue and the surrounding solution.

  3. Poor early growth and high salt intake in Indian infants.

    PubMed

    Genovesi, Simonetta; Antolini, Laura; Orlando, Antonina; Brahmochary, Sujit; De Servi, Alessandra; Capelli, Silvia; Giussani, Marco; Nava, Elisa; Agostoni, Carlo; Gallieni, Maurizio

    2016-11-06

    The influence of feeding patterns on the growth of infants and how salt is included in the diet are unknown in the area of West Bengal, India. A cross-sectional study was carried on 517 infants (median age 6.5 months). Negative Z-scores were observed for all anthropometric parameters. About 72.7% of infants aged 0-6 months received exclusive breastfeeding. In the 6-12-month-old group (n = 235), 91.5% had salt added to foods. In a regression model adjusted for age, a low salt diet resulted a significant factor in increasing weight-for-length and BMI for age z-scores, with increments equal to 0.637 SD (p = 0.037) and 0.650 SD (p = 0.036), respectively. In West Bengal infants showing poor growth, breastfeeding was associated with better anthropometric indexes, but early in life salt is added to their diet. Early life low weight coupled with high salt intake may be a risk factor for arterial hypertension in Indian children.

  4. Non-monotonic swelling of surface grafted hydrogels induced by pH and/or salt concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Longo, Gabriel S.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica; Szleifer, I.

    2014-09-28

    We use a molecular theory to study the thermodynamics of a weak-polyacid hydrogel film that is chemically grafted to a solid surface. We investigate the response of the material to changes in the pH and salt concentration of the buffer solution. Our results show that the pH-triggered swelling of the hydrogel film has a non-monotonic dependence on the acidity of the bath solution. At most salt concentrations, the thickness of the hydrogel film presents a maximum when the pH of the solution is increased from acidic values. The quantitative details of such swelling behavior, which is not observed when the film is physically deposited on the surface, depend on the molecular architecture of the polymer network. This swelling-deswelling transition is the consequence of the complex interplay between the chemical free energy (acid-base equilibrium), the electrostatic repulsions between charged monomers, which are both modulated by the absorption of ions, and the ability of the polymer network to regulate charge and control its volume (molecular organization). In the absence of such competition, for example, for high salt concentrations, the film swells monotonically with increasing pH. A deswelling-swelling transition is similarly predicted as a function of the salt concentration at intermediate pH values. This reentrant behavior, which is due to the coupling between charge regulation and the two opposing effects triggered by salt concentration (screening electrostatic interactions and charging/discharging the acid groups), is similar to that found in end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers. Understanding how to control the response of the material to different stimuli, in terms of its molecular structure and local chemical composition, can help the targeted design of applications with extended functionality. We describe the response of the material to an applied pressure and an electric potential. We present profiles that outline the local chemical composition of the

  5. Non-monotonic swelling of surface grafted hydrogels induced by pH and/or salt concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Gabriel S.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica; Szleifer, I.

    2014-09-01

    We use a molecular theory to study the thermodynamics of a weak-polyacid hydrogel film that is chemically grafted to a solid surface. We investigate the response of the material to changes in the pH and salt concentration of the buffer solution. Our results show that the pH-triggered swelling of the hydrogel film has a non-monotonic dependence on the acidity of the bath solution. At most salt concentrations, the thickness of the hydrogel film presents a maximum when the pH of the solution is increased from acidic values. The quantitative details of such swelling behavior, which is not observed when the film is physically deposited on the surface, depend on the molecular architecture of the polymer network. This swelling-deswelling transition is the consequence of the complex interplay between the chemical free energy (acid-base equilibrium), the electrostatic repulsions between charged monomers, which are both modulated by the absorption of ions, and the ability of the polymer network to regulate charge and control its volume (molecular organization). In the absence of such competition, for example, for high salt concentrations, the film swells monotonically with increasing pH. A deswelling-swelling transition is similarly predicted as a function of the salt concentration at intermediate pH values. This reentrant behavior, which is due to the coupling between charge regulation and the two opposing effects triggered by salt concentration (screening electrostatic interactions and charging/discharging the acid groups), is similar to that found in end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers. Understanding how to control the response of the material to different stimuli, in terms of its molecular structure and local chemical composition, can help the targeted design of applications with extended functionality. We describe the response of the material to an applied pressure and an electric potential. We present profiles that outline the local chemical composition of the

  6. High Salt Diet Affects Renal Sodium Excretion and ERRα Expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Kidneys regulate the balance of water and sodium and therefore are related to blood pressure. It is unclear whether estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), an orphan nuclear receptor and transcription factor highly expressed in kidneys, affects the reabsorption of water and sodium. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the expressions of ERRα, Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) proteins affected the reabsorption of water and sodium in kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. SS.13BN rats, 98% homologous to the DS rats, were used as a normotensive control group. The 24 h urinary sodium excretion of the DS and SS.13BN rats increased after the 6-week high salt diet intervention, while sodium excretion was increased in DS rats with daidzein (agonist of ERRα) treatment. ERRα expression was decreased, while β- and γ-ENaC mRNA expressions were increased upon high sodium diet treatment in the DS rats. In the chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay, positive PCR signals were obtained in samples treated with anti-ERRα antibody. The transcriptional activity of ERRα was decreased upon high salt diet intervention. ERRα reduced the expressions of β- and γ-ENaC by binding to the ENaC promoter, thereby increased Na+ reabsorption. Therefore, ERRα might be one of the factors causing salt-sensitive hypertension.

  7. High Salt Diet Affects Renal Sodium Excretion and ERRα Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Kidneys regulate the balance of water and sodium and therefore are related to blood pressure. It is unclear whether estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), an orphan nuclear receptor and transcription factor highly expressed in kidneys, affects the reabsorption of water and sodium. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the expressions of ERRα, Na+/K+-ATPase and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) proteins affected the reabsorption of water and sodium in kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. SS.13BN rats, 98% homologous to the DS rats, were used as a normotensive control group. The 24 h urinary sodium excretion of the DS and SS.13BN rats increased after the 6-week high salt diet intervention, while sodium excretion was increased in DS rats with daidzein (agonist of ERRα) treatment. ERRα expression was decreased, while β- and γ-ENaC mRNA expressions were increased upon high sodium diet treatment in the DS rats. In the chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay, positive PCR signals were obtained in samples treated with anti-ERRα antibody. The transcriptional activity of ERRα was decreased upon high salt diet intervention. ERRα reduced the expressions of β- and γ-ENaC by binding to the ENaC promoter, thereby increased Na+ reabsorption. Therefore, ERRα might be one of the factors causing salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:27043552

  8. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions: ion network versus ion cluster.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seongheun; Kim, Heejae; Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2014-09-28

    The critical aggregation phenomena are ubiquitous in many self-assembling systems. Ions in high salt solutions could also spontaneously form larger ion aggregates, but their effects on hydrogen-bond structures in water have long been controversial. Here, carrying out molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies of high salt solutions and comparing the MD simulation results with infrared absorption and pump-probe spectroscopy of O-D stretch mode of HDO in highly concentrated salt solutions and (13)C-NMR chemical shift of S(13)CN(-) in KSCN solutions, we find evidence on the onset of ion aggregate and large-scale ion-ion network formation that concomitantly breaks water hydrogen-bond structure in certain salt solutions. Despite that these experimental results cannot provide direct evidence on the three-dimensional morphological structures of ion aggregates, they serve as reference data for verifying MD simulation methods. The MD results suggest that disrupted water hydrogen-bond network is intricately intertwined with ion-ion network. This further shows morphological variation of ion aggregate structures from ion cluster to ion network in high salt solutions that are interrelated to the onset of macroscopic aggregate formation and the water hydrogen-bond structure making and breaking processes induced by Hofmeister ions.

  9. Elevated sup 22 Na uptake in aortae of Dahl salt-sensitive rats with high salt diet

    SciTech Connect

    Vasdev, S.; Prabhakaran, V.; Sampson, C.A. )

    1990-01-01

    We examined the effects of high salt intake on blood pressure and vascular {sup 22}Na uptake in Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. At 6 weeks of age, one group of 6 DS rats was placed on a low (0.4%) salt diet and the second group of 6 DS rats was placed on a high (8.0%) salt diet for a period of 4 weeks. Blood pressure recordings were made weekly. At 10 weeks of age, the animals were sacrificed and aortic {sup 22}Na uptake was measured. Total and amiloride sensitive (Na(+)-H+ antiport) components of {sup 22}Na uptake were measured from which was calculated the amiloride insensitive component. Na+, K(+)-pumps were inhibited for these vascular {sup 22}Na uptake experiments with ouabain to prevent Na+ efflux. DS rats on the high salt diet demonstrated significantly (P less than 0.01) higher blood pressure when compared to DS rats on a low salt diet. Similarly, DS rats on a high salt diet demonstrated significantly (P less than 0.05) higher total, amiloride sensitive and amiloride insensitive vascular {sup 22}Na uptake as compared to DS rats on low salt diet. The parallel increase in vascular {sup 22}Na uptake and blood pressure suggests a possible, key role of Na+ influx in the mechanism of salt induced hypertension of DS rats.

  10. Theory Of Salt Effects On Protein Solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Yuba; Schmit, Jeremy

    Salt is one of the major factors that effects protein solubility. Often, at low salt concentration regime, protein solubility increases with the salt concentration(salting in) whereas at high salt concentration regime, solubility decreases with the increase in salt concentration(salting out). There are no quantitative theories to explain salting in and salting out. We have developed a model to describe the salting in and salting out. Our model accounts for the electrostatic Coulomb energy, salt entropy and non-electrostatic interaction between proteins. We analytically solve the linearized Poisson Boltzmann equation modelling the protein charge by a first order multipole expansion. In our model, protein charges are modulated by the anion binding. Consideration of only the zeroth order term in protein charge doesn't help to describe salting in phenomenon because of the repulsive interaction. To capture the salting in behaviour, it requires an attractive electrostatic interaction in low salt regime. Our work shows that at low salt concentration, dipole interaction is the cause for salting in and at high salt concentration a salt-dependent depletion interaction dominates and gives the salting out. Our theoretical result is consistent with the experimental result for Chymosin protein NIH Grant No R01GM107487.

  11. Is It Possible to Distinguish Between Dust and Salt Aerosol Over Waters with Unknown Chlorophyll Concentrations Using Spectral Remote Sensing?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R. C.; Kaufman, Y. J.

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol has uncertain impacts on the global climate system, as well as on atmospheric and bio-geo-chemical processes of regional and local scales. EOS-MODIS is one example of a satellite sensor designed to improve understanding of the aerosols' type, size and distribution at all temporal and spatial scales. Ocean scientists also plan to use data from EOS-MODIS to assess the temporal and spatial coverage of in-water chlorophyll. MODIS is the first sensor planned to observe the combined ocean-atmosphere system with a wide spectral range (from 410 to 2200 nm). Dust aerosol and salt aerosol have similar spectral signals for wavelengths longer than 550 nm, but because dust selectively absorbs blue light, they have divergent signals in the blue wavelength regions (412 to 490 nm). Chlorophyll also selectively absorbs blue radiation, so that varying chlorophyll concentrations produces a highly varying signal in the blue regions, but less variability in the green, and almost no signal in the red to mid-infrared regions. Thus, theoretically, it may be difficult to differentiate dust and salt in the presence of unknown chlorophyll in the ocean. This study attempts to address the cases in which aerosol and chlorophyll signals can and cannot be separated. For the aerosol spectra, we use the aerosol lookup table from the operational MODIS aerosol-over-ocean algorithm, and for chlorophyll spectra, we use the SeaBAM data set (created for SeaWiFS). We compare the signals using Principal Component Analysis and attempt to retrieve both chlorophyll and aerosol properties using a variant of the operational MODIS aerosol-over-ocean algorithm. Results show that for small optical depths, less than 0.5, it is not possible to differentiate between dust and salt and to determine the chlorophyll concentration at the same time. For larger aerosol optical depths, the chlorophyll signals are comparatively insignificant, and we can hope to distinguish between dust and salt.

  12. Superimpose signal processing method for micro-scale thermal imaging of solar salts at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morikawa, Junko; Zamengo, Massimiliano; Kato, Yukitaka

    2016-05-01

    The global interest in energy applications activates the advanced study about the molten salts in the usage of fluids in the power cycle, such as for transport and heat storage in solar power facilities. However, the basic properties of molten salts show a general scattering in characterization especially in thermal properties. It is suggested that new studies are required on the measurement of thermal properties of solar salts using recent technologies. In this study, micro-scale heat transfer and phase change in molten salts are presented using our originally developed device: the micro-bolometer Infrared focal plane arrays (IR FPA) measuring system is a portable type instrument, which is re-designed to measure the thermal phenomena in high temperature up to 700 °C or higher. The superimpose system is newly setup adjusted to the signal processing in high temperature to realize the quantitative thermal imaging, simultaneously. The portable type apparatus for a quantitative micro-scale thermography using a micro-bolometer has been proposed based on an achromatic lens design to capture a micro-scale image in the long-wave infrared, a video signal superimposing for the real time emissivity correction, and a pseudo acceleration of a timeframe. Combined with the superimpose technique, the micro-scale thermal imaging in high temperature is achieved and the molten flows of the solar salts, sodium nitrate, and potassium nitrate are successfully observed. The solar salt, the mixture of sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, shows a different shape of exothermic heat front morphology in the lower phase transition (solidification) temperature than the nitrates on cooling. The proposed measuring technique will be utilized to accelerate the screening step to determine the phase diagram and the eutectics of the multiple mixtures of candidate molten salts, which may be used as heat transport medium from the concentrated solar power to a processing plant for thermal energy

  13. Elevation of Fasting Ghrelin in Healthy Human Subjects Consuming a High-Salt Diet: A Novel Mechanism of Obesity?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Fenxia; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Chu, Chao; Wang, Yang; Wang, Dan; Guo, Tong-Shuai; Wang, Jun-Kui; Guan, Gong-Chang; Ren, Ke-Yu; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-05-26

    Overweight/obesity is a chronic disease that carries an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premature death. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between salt intake and obesity, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ghrelin, which regulates appetite, food intake, and fat deposition, becomes elevated when one consumes a high-salt diet, contributing to the progression of obesity. We, therefore, investigated fasting ghrelin concentrations during a high-salt diet. Thirty-eight non-obese and normotensive subjects (aged 25 to 50 years) were selected from a rural community in Northern China. They were sequentially maintained on a normal diet for three days at baseline, a low-salt diet for seven days (3 g/day, NaCl), then a high-salt diet for seven days (18 g/day). The concentration of plasma ghrelin was measured using an immunoenzyme method (ELISA). High-salt intake significantly increased fasting ghrelin levels, which were higher during the high-salt diet (320.7 ± 30.6 pg/mL) than during the low-salt diet (172.9 ± 8.9 pg/mL). The comparison of ghrelin levels between the different salt diets was statistically-significantly different (p < 0.01). A positive correlation between 24-h urinary sodium excretion and fasting ghrelin levels was demonstrated. Our data indicate that a high-salt diet elevates fasting ghrelin in healthy human subjects, which may be a novel underlying mechanism of obesity.

  14. Elevation of Fasting Ghrelin in Healthy Human Subjects Consuming a High-Salt Diet: A Novel Mechanism of Obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Fenxia; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Chu, Chao; Wang, Yang; Wang, Dan; Guo, Tong-Shuai; Wang, Jun-Kui; Guan, Gong-Chang; Ren, Ke-Yu; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Overweight/obesity is a chronic disease that carries an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premature death. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between salt intake and obesity, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ghrelin, which regulates appetite, food intake, and fat deposition, becomes elevated when one consumes a high-salt diet, contributing to the progression of obesity. We, therefore, investigated fasting ghrelin concentrations during a high-salt diet. Thirty-eight non-obese and normotensive subjects (aged 25 to 50 years) were selected from a rural community in Northern China. They were sequentially maintained on a normal diet for three days at baseline, a low-salt diet for seven days (3 g/day, NaCl), then a high-salt diet for seven days (18 g/day). The concentration of plasma ghrelin was measured using an immunoenzyme method (ELISA). High-salt intake significantly increased fasting ghrelin levels, which were higher during the high-salt diet (320.7 ± 30.6 pg/mL) than during the low-salt diet (172.9 ± 8.9 pg/mL). The comparison of ghrelin levels between the different salt diets was statistically-significantly different (p < 0.01). A positive correlation between 24-h urinary sodium excretion and fasting ghrelin levels was demonstrated. Our data indicate that a high-salt diet elevates fasting ghrelin in healthy human subjects, which may be a novel underlying mechanism of obesity. PMID:27240398

  15. A high-salt diet enhances leukocyte adhesion in association with kidney injury in young dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hidenori; Nakagawa, Suguru; Wu, Yaqiong; Kawabata, Yukari; Numabe, Atsushi; Yanagi, Yasuo; Tamaki, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Yoshio; Araie, Makoto

    2017-03-16

    Salt-sensitive hypertension is associated with severe organ damage. Generating oxygen radicals is an integral component of salt-induced kidney damage, and activated leukocytes are important in oxygen radical biosynthesis. We hypothesized that a high-salt diet causes the upregulation of immune-related mechanisms, thereby contributing to the susceptibility of Dahl salt-sensitive rats to hypertensive kidney damage. For verifying the hypothesis, we investigated leukocytes adhering to retinal vessels when Dahl salt-sensitive rats were challenged with a high-salt (8% NaCl) diet using acridine orange fluoroscopy and a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. The high-salt diet increased leukocyte adhesion after 3 days and was associated with a significant increase in mRNA biosynthesis of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) -related molecules in the kidney. Losartan treatment did not affect increased leukocyte adhesion during the early, pre-hypertensive phase of high salt loading; however, losartan attenuated the adhesion of leukocytes during the hypertensive stage. Moreover, the inhibition of leukocyte adhesion in the pre-hypertensive stage by anti-CD18 antibodies decreased tethering of leukocytes and was associated with the attenuation of functional and morphological kidney damage without affecting blood pressure elevation. In conclusion, a high-salt challenge rapidly increased leukocyte adhesion through the over-expression of ICAM-1. Increased leukocyte adhesion in the pre-hypertensive stage is responsible for subsequent kidney damage in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Immune system involvement may be a key component that initiates kidney damage in a genetic model of salt-induced hypertension.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 16 March 2017; doi:10.1038/hr.2017.31.

  16. Probing the Salt Concentration Dependent Nucelobase Distribution in a Single-Stranded DNA-Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrid with Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Soumadwip; Patel, Nisheet; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi

    2016-01-28

    The hybrids of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and single stranded DNA (ssDNA) are novel nanoscale materials having remarkable applications in nanotechnology. The absorption of nucleobases on the surface of a SWCNT depends strongly on the ionic strength of the medium. In this paper, using atomistic molecular dynamics we have shown that at low salt concentration ssDNA wraps on the surface of SWCNT through hydrophobic π-π stacking between the DNA bases and the sp(2)-hybridized carbon atoms of the carbon nanotube. At high salt concentration, however, the DNA molecule adopts a partially folded structure and the ssDNA-SWCNT wrapping gets weakened significantly due to the self-stacking of the DNA bases. Our study can find relevance in CNT mediated gene delivery processes where subsequent unwrapping of the gene from its carrier is anticipated across the cell membrane regulated by an existing salt concentration gradient.

  17. Hardening with salicylic acid induces concentration-dependent changes in abscisic acid biosynthesis of tomato under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Edit; Csiszár, Jolán; Gallé, Ágnes; Poór, Péter; Szepesi, Ágnes; Tari, Irma

    2015-07-01

    The role of salicylic acid (SA) in the control of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis is controversial although both plant growth regulators may accumulate in tissues under abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Hardening of tomato plants to salinity stress with 10(-4)M SA ("high SA") resulted in an up-regulation of ABA biosynthesis genes, zeaxanthin epoxidase (SlZEP1), 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (SlNCED1) and aldehyde oxidases (SlAO1 and SlAO2) in the roots and led to ABA accumulation both in root and leaf tissues. In plants pre-treated with lower concentration of SA (10(-7)M, "low SA"), the up-regulation of SlNCED1 in the roots promoted ABA accumulation in the root tissues but the hormone concentration remained at control level in the leaves. Salt stress induced by 100mM NaCl reduced the transcript abundance of ABA biosynthetic genes and inhibited SlAO activity in plants hardened with "high SA", but the tissues maintained root ABA level over the untreated control. The combined effect of "high SA" and ABA under salt stress led to partially recovered photosynthetic activity, reduced ethylene production in root apices, and restored root growth, which is one of the main features of salt tolerance. Unlike "high SA", hardening with "low SA" had no influence on ethylene production, and led to reduced elongation of roots in plants exposed to 100mM NaCl. The up-regulation of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases SlCCD1A and SlCCD1B by SA, which produce apocarotenoids, may open new pathways in SA sensing and signalling processes.

  18. Predicting Salt Permeability Coefficients in Highly Swollen, Highly Charged Ion Exchange Membranes.

    PubMed

    Kamcev, Jovan; Paul, Donald R; Manning, Gerald S; Freeman, Benny D

    2017-02-01

    This study presents a framework for predicting salt permeability coefficients in ion exchange membranes in contact with an aqueous salt solution. The model, based on the solution-diffusion mechanism, was tested using experimental salt permeability data for a series of commercial ion exchange membranes. Equilibrium salt partition coefficients were calculated using a thermodynamic framework (i.e., Donnan theory), incorporating Manning's counterion condensation theory to calculate ion activity coefficients in the membrane phase and the Pitzer model to calculate ion activity coefficients in the solution phase. The model predicted NaCl partition coefficients in a cation exchange membrane and two anion exchange membranes, as well as MgCl2 partition coefficients in a cation exchange membrane, remarkably well at higher external salt concentrations (>0.1 M) and reasonably well at lower external salt concentrations (<0.1 M) with no adjustable parameters. Membrane ion diffusion coefficients were calculated using a combination of the Mackie and Meares model, which assumes ion diffusion in water-swollen polymers is affected by a tortuosity factor, and a model developed by Manning to account for electrostatic effects. Agreement between experimental and predicted salt diffusion coefficients was good with no adjustable parameters. Calculated salt partition and diffusion coefficients were combined within the framework of the solution-diffusion model to predict salt permeability coefficients. Agreement between model and experimental data was remarkably good. Additionally, a simplified version of the model was used to elucidate connections between membrane structure (e.g., fixed charge group concentration) and salt transport properties.

  19. Potentials and problems of sustainable irrigation with water high in salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Gal, Alon

    2015-04-01

    Water scarcity and need to expand agricultural productivity have led to ever growing utilization of poor quality water for irrigation of crops. Almost in all cases, marginal or alternative water sources for irrigation contain relatively high concentrations of dissolved salts. When salts are present, irrigation water management, especially in the dry regions where water requirements are highest, must consider leaching in addition to crop evapotranspiration requirements. Leaching requirements for agronomic success are calculable and functions of climate, soil, and very critically, of crop sensitivity and the actual salinity of the irrigation water. The more sensitive the crop and more saline the water, the higher the agronomic cost and the greater the quantitative need for leaching. Israel is a forerunner in large-scale utilization of poor quality water for irrigation and can be used as a case study looking at long term repercussions of policy alternatively encouraging irrigation with recycled water or brackish groundwater. In cases studied in desert conditions of Israel, as much of half of the water applied to crops including bell peppers in greenhouses and date palms is actually used to leach salts from the root zone. The excess water used to leach salts and maintain agronomic and economic success when irrigating with water containing salts can become an environmental hazard, especially in dry areas where natural drainage is non-existent. The leachate often contains not only salts but also agrochemicals including nutrients, and natural contaminants can be picked up and transported as well. This leachate passes beyond the root zone and eventually reaches ground or surface water resources. This, together with evidence of ongoing increases in sodium content of fresh produce and increased SAR levels of soils, suggest that the current policy and practice in Israel of utilization of high amounts of low quality irrigation water is inherently non- sustainable. Current

  20. Precursor salt assisted syntheses of high-index faceted concave hexagon and nanorod-like polyoxometalates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Jaya; Ganguly, Mainak; Mondal, Chanchal; Negishi, Yuichi; Pal, Tarasankar

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes an effective method for a precursor salt assisted fabrication and reshaping of two different polyoxometalates [(NH4)2Cu(MoO4)2 (ACM) and Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2 (CMOH)] into five distinctive shapes through straightforward and indirect routes. Explicit regulation of the structural arrangements of ACM and CMOH has been studied in detail with altered precursor salt concentration employing our laboratory developed modified hydrothermal (MHT) method. Morphologically different ACM 3D architectures are evolved with higher molybdate concentration, whereas 1D growth of CMOH is observed with increased copper concentration. Interesting morphological transformation of the products has been accomplished employing one precursor salt at a time without using any other foreign reagent. It has been proven that large ACMs become labile in the presence of incoming Cu(ii) and NH4+ ions of the precursor salts. A new strategy for the conversion of faceted ACMs (hexagonal plate, circular plate and hollow flower) to exclusive CMOH nanorods through a Cu(ii) assisted reaction has been adopted. According to thermodynamic consideration, the synthesis of rare concave nanostructures with high index facet is still challenging due to their higher reactivity. In this study, concave hexagonal ACM with high index facet {hkl} has been successfully prepared for the first time from hexagonal ACM through simple etching with ammonium heptamolybdate (AHM), which is another precursor salt. Hexagonal ACM corrugates to a concave hexagon because of the higher reactivity of the {001} crystal plane than that of the {010} plane. It has been shown that high index facet exposed concave hexagonal ACM serves as a better catalyst for the photodegradation of dye than the other microstructures enclosed by low index facets.This paper describes an effective method for a precursor salt assisted fabrication and reshaping of two different polyoxometalates [(NH4)2Cu(MoO4)2 (ACM) and Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2 (CMOH)] into

  1. Heat Transfer and Latent Heat Storage in Inorganic Molten Salts for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, Anoop

    2013-08-14

    A key technological issue facing the success of future Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) plants is creating an economical Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system. Current TES systems use either sensible heat in fluids such as oil, or molten salts, or use thermal stratification in a dual-media consisting of a solid and a heat-transfer fluid. However, utilizing the heat of fusion in inorganic molten salt mixtures in addition to sensible heat , as in a Phase change material (PCM)-based TES, can significantly increase the energy density of storage requiring less salt and smaller containers. A major issue that is preventing the commercial use of PCM-based TES is that it is difficult to discharge the latent heat stored in the PCM melt. This is because when heat is extracted, the melt solidifies onto the heat exchanger surface decreasing the heat transfer. Even a few millimeters of thickness of solid material on heat transfer surface results in a large drop in heat transfer due to the low thermal conductivity of solid PCM. Thus, to maintain the desired heat rate, the heat exchange area must be large which increases cost. This project demonstrated that the heat transfer coefficient can be increase ten-fold by using forced convection by pumping a hyper-eutectic salt mixture over specially coated heat exchanger tubes. However,only 15% of the latent heat is used against a goal of 40% resulting in a projected cost savings of only 17% against a goal of 30%. Based on the failure mode effect analysis and experience with pumping salt at near freezing point significant care must be used during operation which can increase the operating costs. Therefore, we conclude the savings are marginal to justify using this concept for PCM-TES over a two-tank TES. The report documents the specialty coatings, the composition and morphology of hypereutectic salt mixtures and the results from the experiment conducted with the active heat exchanger along with the lessons learnt during

  2. Enhanced Salt Removal by Unipolar Ion Conduction in Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Rhokyun; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Bumjoo; Chen, Lan; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-05-01

    Chloride ion, the majority salt in nature, is ∼52% faster than sodium ion (DNa+ = 1.33, DCl‑ = 2.03[10‑9m2s‑1]). Yet, current electrochemical desalination technologies (e.g. electrodialysis) rely on bipolar ion conduction, removing one pair of the cation and the anion simultaneously. Here, we demonstrate that novel ion concentration polarization desalination can enhance salt removal under a given current by implementing unipolar ion conduction: conducting only cations (or anions) with the unipolar ion exchange membrane stack. Combining theoretical analysis, experiment, and numerical modeling, we elucidate that this enhanced salt removal can shift current utilization (ratio between desalted ions and ions conducted through electrodes) and corresponding energy efficiency by the factor ∼(D‑ ‑ D+)/(D‑ + D+). Specifically for desalting NaCl, this enhancement of unipolar cation conduction saves power consumption by ∼50% in overlimiting regime, compared with conventional electrodialysis. Recognizing and utilizing differences between unipolar and bipolar ion conductions have significant implications not only on electromembrane desalination, but also energy harvesting applications (e.g. reverse electrodialysis).

  3. Magnesium degradation influenced by buffering salts in concentrations typical of in vitro and in vivo models.

    PubMed

    Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Feyerabend, Frank; Mihailova, Boriana; Heidrich, Stefanie; Bismayer, Ulrich; Willumeit-Römer, Regine

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have considerable potential for orthopedic applications. During the degradation process the interface between material and tissue is continuously changing. Moreover, too fast or uncontrolled degradation is detrimental for the outcome in vivo. Therefore in vitro setups utilizing physiological conditions are promising for the material/degradation analysis prior to animal experiments. The aim of this study is to elucidate the influence of inorganic salts contributing to the blood buffering capacity on degradation. Extruded pure magnesium samples were immersed under cell culture conditions for 3 and 10 days. Hank's balanced salt solution without calcium and magnesium (HBSS) plus 10% of fetal bovine serum (FBS) was used as the basic immersion medium. Additionally, different inorganic salts were added with respect to concentration in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM, in vitro model) and human plasma (in vivo model) to form 12 different immersion media. Influences on the surrounding environment were observed by measuring pH and osmolality. The degradation interface was analyzed by electron-induced X-ray emission (EIXE) spectroscopy, including chemical-element mappings and electron microprobe analysis, as well as Fourier transform infrared reflection micro-spectroscopy (FTIR).

  4. Enhanced Salt Removal by Unipolar Ion Conduction in Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Rhokyun; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Bumjoo; Chen, Lan; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-01-01

    Chloride ion, the majority salt in nature, is ∼52% faster than sodium ion (DNa+ = 1.33, DCl− = 2.03[10−9m2s−1]). Yet, current electrochemical desalination technologies (e.g. electrodialysis) rely on bipolar ion conduction, removing one pair of the cation and the anion simultaneously. Here, we demonstrate that novel ion concentration polarization desalination can enhance salt removal under a given current by implementing unipolar ion conduction: conducting only cations (or anions) with the unipolar ion exchange membrane stack. Combining theoretical analysis, experiment, and numerical modeling, we elucidate that this enhanced salt removal can shift current utilization (ratio between desalted ions and ions conducted through electrodes) and corresponding energy efficiency by the factor ∼(D− − D+)/(D− + D+). Specifically for desalting NaCl, this enhancement of unipolar cation conduction saves power consumption by ∼50% in overlimiting regime, compared with conventional electrodialysis. Recognizing and utilizing differences between unipolar and bipolar ion conductions have significant implications not only on electromembrane desalination, but also energy harvesting applications (e.g. reverse electrodialysis). PMID:27158057

  5. Enhanced Salt Removal by Unipolar Ion Conduction in Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Rhokyun; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Bumjoo; Chen, Lan; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-05-09

    Chloride ion, the majority salt in nature, is ∼52% faster than sodium ion (DNa+ = 1.33, DCl- = 2.03[10(-9)m(2)s(-1)]). Yet, current electrochemical desalination technologies (e.g. electrodialysis) rely on bipolar ion conduction, removing one pair of the cation and the anion simultaneously. Here, we demonstrate that novel ion concentration polarization desalination can enhance salt removal under a given current by implementing unipolar ion conduction: conducting only cations (or anions) with the unipolar ion exchange membrane stack. Combining theoretical analysis, experiment, and numerical modeling, we elucidate that this enhanced salt removal can shift current utilization (ratio between desalted ions and ions conducted through electrodes) and corresponding energy efficiency by the factor ∼(D- - D+)/(D- + D+). Specifically for desalting NaCl, this enhancement of unipolar cation conduction saves power consumption by ∼50% in overlimiting regime, compared with conventional electrodialysis. Recognizing and utilizing differences between unipolar and bipolar ion conductions have significant implications not only on electromembrane desalination, but also energy harvesting applications (e.g. reverse electrodialysis).

  6. Sessile multidroplets and salt droplets under high tangential electric fields

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Guoxin; He, Feng; Liu, Xiang; Si, Lina; Guo, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the interaction behaviors between sessile droplets under imposed high voltages is very important in many practical situations, e.g., microfluidic devices and the degradation/aging problems of outdoor high-power applications. In the present work, the droplet coalescence, the discharge activity and the surface thermal distribution response between sessile multidroplets and chloride salt droplets under high tangential electric fields have been investigated with infrared thermography, high-speed photography and pulse current measurement. Obvious polarity effects on the discharge path direction and the temperature change in the droplets in the initial stage after discharge initiation were observed due to the anodic dissolution of metal ions from the electrode. In the case of sessile aligned multidroplets, the discharge path direction could affect the location of initial droplet coalescence. The smaller unmerged droplet would be drained into the merged large droplet as a result from the pressure difference inside the droplets rather than the asymmetric temperature change due to discharge. The discharge inception voltages and the temperature variations for two salt droplets closely correlated with the ionization degree of the salt, as well as the interfacial electrochemical reactions near the electrodes. Mechanisms of these observed phenomena were discussed. PMID:27121926

  7. Sessile multidroplets and salt droplets under high tangential electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Guoxin; He, Feng; Liu, Xiang; Si, Lina; Guo, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the interaction behaviors between sessile droplets under imposed high voltages is very important in many practical situations, e.g., microfluidic devices and the degradation/aging problems of outdoor high-power applications. In the present work, the droplet coalescence, the discharge activity and the surface thermal distribution response between sessile multidroplets and chloride salt droplets under high tangential electric fields have been investigated with infrared thermography, high-speed photography and pulse current measurement. Obvious polarity effects on the discharge path direction and the temperature change in the droplets in the initial stage after discharge initiation were observed due to the anodic dissolution of metal ions from the electrode. In the case of sessile aligned multidroplets, the discharge path direction could affect the location of initial droplet coalescence. The smaller unmerged droplet would be drained into the merged large droplet as a result from the pressure difference inside the droplets rather than the asymmetric temperature change due to discharge. The discharge inception voltages and the temperature variations for two salt droplets closely correlated with the ionization degree of the salt, as well as the interfacial electrochemical reactions near the electrodes. Mechanisms of these observed phenomena were discussed.

  8. Precursor salt assisted syntheses of high-index faceted concave hexagon and nanorod-like polyoxometalates.

    PubMed

    Pal, Jaya; Ganguly, Mainak; Mondal, Chanchal; Negishi, Yuichi; Pal, Tarasankar

    2015-01-14

    This paper describes an effective method for a precursor salt assisted fabrication and reshaping of two different polyoxometalates [(NH4)2Cu(MoO4)2 (ACM) and Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2 (CMOH)] into five distinctive shapes through straightforward and indirect routes. Explicit regulation of the structural arrangements of ACM and CMOH has been studied in detail with altered precursor salt concentration employing our laboratory developed modified hydrothermal (MHT) method. Morphologically different ACM 3D architectures are evolved with higher molybdate concentration, whereas 1D growth of CMOH is observed with increased copper concentration. Interesting morphological transformation of the products has been accomplished employing one precursor salt at a time without using any other foreign reagent. It has been proven that large ACMs become labile in the presence of incoming Cu(II) and NH4(+) ions of the precursor salts. A new strategy for the conversion of faceted ACMs (hexagonal plate, circular plate and hollow flower) to exclusive CMOH nanorods through a Cu(II) assisted reaction has been adopted. According to thermodynamic consideration, the synthesis of rare concave nanostructures with high index facet is still challenging due to their higher reactivity. In this study, concave hexagonal ACM with high index facet {hkl} has been successfully prepared for the first time from hexagonal ACM through simple etching with ammonium heptamolybdate (AHM), which is another precursor salt. Hexagonal ACM corrugates to a concave hexagon because of the higher reactivity of the {001} crystal plane than that of the {010} plane. It has been shown that high index facet exposed concave hexagonal ACM serves as a better catalyst for the photodegradation of dye than the other microstructures enclosed by low index facets.

  9. Effects of lithium salt concentration on graphited carbon microbead anodes in the piperidinium-based hybrid electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Kun; Li, Shu-Dan

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: “Lithium aggregates” usually cause a significant decrease in Li{sup +} mobility and transfer efficiency. Therefore, as important as the problem of SEI, the content of lithium salt and the interaction between Li{sup +} and ILs’ anions should be taken into consideration in the optimization of ILs-based electrolytes for Li-ion batteries. - Highlights: • “Lithium aggregates” in piperidinium-based electrolytes are evidenced by IR and NMR. • High LiPF{sub 6} content could decrease Li{sup +} mobility due to “ionic aggregates”. • Lithium salt concentration is an important factor affecting graphite performances. - Abstract: The variations in LiPF{sub 6} concentration lead to the very different electrochemical performances of carbon microbeads anodes in the piperidinium-based hybrid electrolytes. The “two peaks” behaviors of lithium plating observed in cyclic voltammetry tests, and some detailed changes in infrared spectra and nuclear magnetic resonance indicates that the formation of “ionic aggregates” related to lithium ions”. Therefore, the excessive lithium salts in the piperidinium-based hybrid electrolytes, usually cause a significant decrease in Li{sup +} mobility and transfer efficiency. The main behaviors are that, when LiPF{sub 6} concentrations increased from 0.2 to 1.2 mol kg{sup −1}, the apparent migration energies (E{sub a}) increase largely from 8.83 to 21.16 kJ mol{sup −1}, while the lithium transference numbers (t{sub Li{sup +}}) drop markedly from 0.538 to 0.292.

  10. Estimating Concentrations of Road-Salt Constituents in Highway-Runoff from Measurements of Specific Conductance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, Gregory E.; Smith, Kirk P.

    1999-01-01

    Discrete or composite samples of highway runoff may not adequately represent in-storm water-quality fluctuations because continuous records of water stage, specific conductance, pH, and temperature of the runoff indicate that these properties fluctuate substantially during a storm. Continuous records of water-quality properties can be used to maximize the information obtained about the stormwater runoff system being studied and can provide the context needed to interpret analyses of water samples. Concentrations of the road-salt constituents calcium, sodium, and chloride in highway runoff were estimated from theoretical and empirical relations between specific conductance and the concentrations of these ions. These relations were examined using the analysis of 233 highwayrunoff samples collected from August 1988 through March 1995 at four highway-drainage monitoring stations along State Route 25 in southeastern Massachusetts. Theoretically, the specific conductance of a water sample is the sum of the individual conductances attributed to each ionic species in solution-the product of the concentrations of each ion in milliequivalents per liter (meq/L) multiplied by the equivalent ionic conductance at infinite dilution-thereby establishing the principle of superposition. Superposition provides an estimate of actual specific conductance that is within measurement error throughout the conductance range of many natural waters, with errors of less than ?5 percent below 1,000 microsiemens per centimeter (?S/cm) and ?10 percent between 1,000 and 4,000 ?S/cm if all major ionic constituents are accounted for. A semi-empirical method (adjusted superposition) was used to adjust for concentration effects-superposition-method prediction errors at high and low concentrations-and to relate measured specific conductance to that calculated using superposition. The adjusted superposition method, which was developed to interpret the State Route 25 highway-runoff records, accounts for

  11. Impacts of upwind wildfire emissions on CO, CO2, and PM2.5 concentrations in Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallia, D. V.; Lin, J. C.; Urbanski, S.; Ehleringer, J.; Nehrkorn, T.

    2015-01-01

    burning is known to contribute large quantities of CO2, CO, and PM2.5 to the atmosphere. Biomass burning not only affects the area in the vicinity of fire but may also impact the air quality far downwind from the fire. The 2007 and 2012 western U.S. wildfire seasons were characterized by significant wildfire activity across much of the Intermountain West and California. In this study, we determined the locations of wildfire-derived emissions and their aggregate impacts on Salt Lake City, a major urban center downwind of the fires. To determine the influences of biomass burning emissions, we initiated an ensemble of stochastic back trajectories at the Salt Lake City receptor within the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model, driven by wind fields from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The trajectories were combined with a new, high-resolution biomass burning emissions inventory—the Wildfire Emissions Inventory. Initial results showed that the WRF-STILT model was able to replicate many periods of enhanced wildfire activity observed in the measurements. Most of the contributions for the 2007 and 2012 wildfire seasons originated from fires located in Utah and central Idaho. The model results suggested that during intense episodes of upwind wildfires in 2007 and 2012, fires contributed as much as 250 ppb of CO during a 3 h period and 15 µg/m3 of PM2.5 averaged over 24 h at Salt Lake City. Wildfires had a much smaller impact on CO2 concentrations in Salt Lake City, with contributions rarely exceeding 2 ppm enhancements.

  12. Reproductive parameters and oxidative stress status of male rats fed with low and high salt diet

    PubMed Central

    Iranloye, Bolanle O.; Oludare, Gabriel O.; Morakinyo, Ayodele O.; Esume, Naomi A.; Ekeh, Lucy C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deficiency of minerals and micronutrients has been reported to impair the process of spermatogenesis. Historically, salt has been used by women on their husbands to increase their libido, however, the role of salt diet on sperm parameters are yet to be ascertained. AIM: The present study was designed to determine the effect of low and high salt diet on sperm parameters, oxidative status and reproductive hormone levels of male rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 18 rats were divided into three groups: Group I: (control) received 0.3% salt diet, Group II: low salt (received 0.14% salt diet) and Group III: high salt (received 8% salt diet). All animals were treated for 6 weeks; after which epididymal sperm parameters; oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase) in the testes and epididymal tissues, as well as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels were determined. RESULTS: The results showed decreased sperm count in the low salt diet rats while increased sperm count was observed in the high salt diet treated rats. Both low salt and high salt diet fed rats exhibited increased abnormal sperm cells and increased epididymal oxidative stress when compared with their respective control. FSH and testosterone levels were increased in the high salt fed rats while LH level was decreased when compared with the control values. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that both low and high salt diet play a negative role in the fertility of male rats. PMID:24672168

  13. High-temperature molten salt solar thermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copeland, R. J.; Leach, J. W.; Stern, G.

    Conceptual designs of a solar thermal central receiver and a thermal storage subsystem were analyzed to estimate thermal losses and to assess the economics of high-temperature applications with molten salt transport fluids. Modifications to a receiver design being developed by the Martin Marietta Corporation were studied to investigate possible means for improving efficiency at high temperatures. Computations were made based on conceptual design of internally insulated high temperature storage tanks to estimate cost and performance. A study of a potential application of the system for thermochemical production of hydrogen indicates that thermal storage at 1100 C will be economically attractive.

  14. Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor Development Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Flanagan, George F; Mays, Gary T; Pointer, William David; Robb, Kevin R; Yoder Jr, Graydon L

    2014-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs) are an emerging reactor class with potentially advantageous performance characteristics and fully passive safety. This paper provides an overview of a technology development pathway for expeditious commercial deployment of first-generation FHRs. The paper describes the principal remaining FHR technology challenges and the development path needed to address the challenges. First-generation FHRs do not appear to require any technology breakthroughs, but will require significant technology development and demonstration. FHRs are currently entering early phase engineering development. As such, the development roadmap is not as technically detailed or specific as would be the case for a more mature reactor class. The higher cost of fuel and coolant; the lack of an approved licensing framework; the lack of qualified, salt-compatible structural materials; and the potential for tritium release into the environment are the most obvious issues that remain to be resolved.

  15. High-temperature molten salt thermal energy storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petri, R. J.; Claar, T. D.; Tison, R. R.; Marianowski, L. G.

    1980-01-01

    The results of comparative screening studies of candidate molten carbonate salts as phase change materials (PCM) for advanced solar thermal energy storage applications at 540 to 870 C (1004 to 1600 F) and steam Rankine electric generation at 400 to 540 C (752 to 1004 F) are presented. Alkali carbonates are attractive as latent heat storage materials because of their relatively high storage capacity and thermal conductivity, low corrosivity, moderate cost, and safe and simple handling requirements. Salts were tested in 0.1 kWhr lab scale modules and evaluated on the basis of discharge heat flux, solidification temperature range, thermal cycling stability, and compatibility with containment materials. The feasibility of using a distributed network of high conductivity material to increase the heat flux through the layer of solidified salt was evaluated. The thermal performance of an 8 kWhr thermal energy storage (TES) module containing LiKCO3 remained very stable throughout 5650 hours and 130 charge/discharge cycles at 480 to 535 C (896 to 995 F). A TES utilization concept of an electrical generation peaking subsystem composed of a multistage condensing steam turbine and a TES subsystem with a separate power conversion loop was defined. Conceptual designs for a 100 MW sub e TES peaking system providing steam at 316 C, 427 C, and 454 C (600 F, 800 F, and 850 F) at 3.79 million Pa (550 psia) were developed and evaluated. Areas requiring further investigation have also been identified.

  16. Effect of salt concentration on the conformation of TAR RNA and its association with aminoglycoside antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Amy L; Kassman, Joseph; Srour, Khalid J; Soto, Ana Maria

    2011-11-08

    RNA is an important biological target because it plays essential roles in many pathogenic and normal cellular processes. The design of inhibitors that target RNA involves optimization of noncovalent interactions, including van der Waals, hydrogen bond, and electrostatic interactions. Although sometimes regarded as nonspecific, electrostatic interactions are important in this optimization because the specific position of the phosphates may allow for specific charge-charge interactions with bound ligands. In this work, we have investigated the contribution of electrostatic interactions to the binding affinity of aminoglycoside antibiotics for TAR RNA. Because the charges in aminoglycoside antibiotics are provided by protonated amino groups, it is difficult to separate the contribution of hydrogen bonds and electrostatics to their binding specificity. Hence, we have investigated the dependence of the binding affinity on salt concentration, which should affect only the electrostatic contributions. Our results show that four aminoglycoside antibiotics (paromomycin, kanamycin-B, gentamycin, and tobramycin) bind TAR RNA with different affinities. Furthermore, the dependence of the binding affinity on salt concentration is different for kanamycin-B and paromomycin, with kanamycin-B showing a stronger dependence. Because all these antibiotics contain five positive charges, the results suggest that each antibiotic orients its charges in different ways when bound to TAR RNA. Our overall results support the idea that charge-charge interactions can contribute significantly to the specific binding of antibiotics to TAR RNA. Hence, the exact position of the charges should be considered in the design of any inhibitor of the interactions of TAR RNA.

  17. Development of high temperature transport technology for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in pyroprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Hansoo; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Jeong-Guk

    2013-07-01

    The development of high-temperature transport technologies for molten salt is a prerequisite and a key issue in the industrialization of pyro-reprocessing for advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The solution of a molten salt centrifugal pump was discarded because of the high corrosion power of a high temperature molten salt, so the suction pump solution was selected. An apparatus for salt transport experiments by suction was designed and tested using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The experimental results of lab-scale molten salt transport by suction showed a 99.5% transport rate (ratio of transported salt to total salt) under a vacuum range of 100 mtorr - 10 torr at 500 Celsius degrees. The suction system has been integrated to the PRIDE (pyroprocessing integrated inactive demonstration) facility that is a demonstrator using non-irradiated materials (natural uranium and surrogate materials). The performance of the suction pump for the transport of molten salts has been confirmed.

  18. Deconvoluting the effects of buffer salt concentration in hydrophilic interaction chromatography on a zwitterionic stationary phase.

    PubMed

    West, Caroline; Auroux, Emeline

    2016-08-26

    Quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRRs) furnish a detailed and reliable description of the role and extent of different molecular interactions that can be established between the analytes and the chromatographic system. Among QSRRs, the solvation parameter model using Abraham descriptors has gained acceptance as a general tool to explore the factors affecting retention in chromatographic systems. We have previously shown how a modified version of the solvation parameter model, with two extra terms to take account of interactions occurring with ionic and ionizable species (with positive and/or negative charges), could be applied to the characterization of hydrophilic interaction chromatographic (HILIC) systems. In the present study, we will show how this methodology can be used to evaluate the effects of increasing buffer salt concentration on retention and separation in a HILIC system. A commercial stationary phase possessing a sulfobetaine zwitterionic bonded ligand (Nucleodur HILIC) was used with a mobile phase composed of 80% acetonitrile and 20% pwwH4 ammonium acetate buffer, with aqueous buffer concentrations varying from 10 to 100mM, resulting in overall concentrations ranging from 2 to 20mM in the mobile phase. Retention factors were measured for a selection of 76 probe analytes. The chosen compounds are small molecules presenting a wide diversity of molecular structures and are relevant to biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. The QSRR models obtained allow for a rationalization of the interactions contributing to retention and separation in the HILIC system considered and shed some light on the effect of varying buffer salt concentration, namely the progressive transition from ion-exchange and electrostatic-repulsion mechanisms to hydrophilic partitioning.

  19. Dentin is dissolved by high concentrations of L-ascorbic acid 2-[3,4-dihydro-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-6-yl-hydrogen phosphate] potassium salt with or without hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Kozuka, Masahiro; Tsujimoto, Yasuhisa

    2004-06-01

    L-Ascorbic acid 2-[3,4-dihydro-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-6-yl-hydrogen phosphate] potassium salt (EPC-K(1)) is a conjugate of vitamin C and vitamin E that is water-soluble and stable at room temperature. EPC-K(1) has been developed as a hydroxyl radical (.OH) scavenger and antioxidant. In a previous tooth whitening experiment, it was accidentally found that tooth (dentin) blocks were dissolved by EPC-K(1) with H(2)O(2). In the current study, high concentrations of EPC-K(1) (2.5, 25 mM) with 3% H(2)O(2) dissolved and caused the collapse of dentin blocks. Similar concentrations of EPC-K(1) without 3% H(2)O(2), however, dissolved the dentin blocks without collapse over a 3-week period. In these cases, a.OH-like signal was detected using an ESR spin-trapping method. The volume of calcium in solution (including the dentin block) increased on the addition of EPC-K(1) in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the calcium : phosphorus ratio changed from 2 : 1 in sound dentin to 1 : 2 in the collapsed dentin block. High concentrations of EPC-K(1) are therefore considered to have calcium chelating and dentin dissolving activity. The dentin dissolving activity was enhanced when EPC-K(1) was used with H(2)O(2). EPC-K(1) had no protective effect when used in tooth whitening with H(2)O(2).

  20. A novel method of non-violent dissolution of sodium metal in a concentrated aqueous solution of Epsom salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmanan, A. R.; Prasad, M. V. R.; Ponraju, D.; Krishnan, H.

    2004-10-01

    A new technique of non-violent and fast dissolution of sodium metal in a concentrated aqueous solution of Epsom salt (MgSO4.7H2O) at room temperature (RT) has been developed. The dissolution process is mildly exothermic but could be carried out even in a glass beaker in air under swift stirring condition. The reaction products consist of mixed salts of MgSO4 and Na2SO4 as well as Mg(OH)2 which are only mildly alkaline and hence are non-corrosive and non-hazardous unlike NaOH. A 50 mL solution having Epsom salt concentration of 2 M was found to give the optimal composition for disposal of 1 g of sodium. Supersaturated (>2.7 M), as well as dilute (<1.1 M) solutions, however, cause violent reactions and hence should be avoided. Repeated sodium dissolution in Epsom solution produced a solid waste of 4.7 g per g of sodium dissolved which is comparable with the waste (4 g) produced in 8 M NaOH solution. A 1.4 M Epsom solution sprayed with a high-pressure jet cleaner at RT in air easily removed the sodium blocked inside a metal pipe made of mild steel. The above jet also dissolved peacefully residual sodium collected on the metal tray after a sodium fire experiment. No sodium fire or explosion was observed during this campaign. The Epsom solution spray effectively neutralized the minor quantity of sodium aerosol produced during this campaign. This novel technique would hence be quite useful for draining sodium from fast breeder reactor components and bulk processing of sodium as well as for sodium fire fighting.

  1. Thermodynamic instability in supersaturated lysozyme solutions: Effect of salt and role of concentration fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manno, Mauro; Xiao, Caide; Bulone, Donatella; Martorana, Vincenzo; San Biagio, Pier Luigi

    2003-07-01

    Experimental and theoretical work has suggested that protein crystal nucleation can be affected by the separation of two metastable liquid phases with different local concentrations, or more specifically by critical density fluctuations. We measure the amplitude and correlation length of local concentration fluctuations by light scattering for supersaturated solutions of hen egg-white lysozyme (at pH 4.5 and at different NaCl concentrations, up to 7% w/v). By extrapolating the critical divergent behavior of concentration fluctuation amplitude versus temperature, we determine the spinodal line, that is the limit of stability. Cloud-point measurements are used to determine liquid-liquid coexistence, consistent with previous work. In the present work, which is an extensive study of off-critical fluctuations in supersaturated protein solution, we observe a nonclassical scaling divergent behavior of the correlation length of concentration fluctuations, thus suggesting that off-critical fluctuations may have a role in crystallization kinetics. To appropriately fit the spinodal data, an entropic term must be added to the van der Waals or to the adhesive hard-sphere model. We interpret this contribution as due to the salt-induced modulation of protein hydration.

  2. Thermodynamic instability in supersaturated lysozyme solutions: effect of salt and role of concentration fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Manno, Mauro; Xiao, Caide; Bulone, Donatella; Martorana, Vincenzo; San Biagio, Pier Luigi

    2003-07-01

    Experimental and theoretical work has suggested that protein crystal nucleation can be affected by the separation of two metastable liquid phases with different local concentrations, or more specifically by critical density fluctuations. We measure the amplitude and correlation length of local concentration fluctuations by light scattering for supersaturated solutions of hen egg-white lysozyme (at pH 4.5 and at different NaCl concentrations, up to 7% w/v). By extrapolating the critical divergent behavior of concentration fluctuation amplitude versus temperature, we determine the spinodal line, that is the limit of stability. Cloud-point measurements are used to determine liquid-liquid coexistence, consistent with previous work. In the present work, which is an extensive study of off-critical fluctuations in supersaturated protein solution, we observe a nonclassical scaling divergent behavior of the correlation length of concentration fluctuations, thus suggesting that off-critical fluctuations may have a role in crystallization kinetics. To appropriately fit the spinodal data, an entropic term must be added to the van der Waals or to the adhesive hard-sphere model. We interpret this contribution as due to the salt-induced modulation of protein hydration.

  3. Design and development of a high-concentration photovoltaic concentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, R C

    1982-04-01

    The design and development of a high concentration photovoltaic concentrator module is discussed. The design concept described herein incorporates a curved groove domed Fresnel lens, a high concentration etched multiple vertical junction (EMVJ) solar cell and a passively cooled direct-bonded copper cell mount all packaged in a plastic module. Two seven inch diameter 1200x domed Fresnel lenses were fabricated using single point diamond turning technology. Testing at both GE and Sandia confirmed optical transmission efficiencies of over 83%. Samples of the latest available EMVJ cells were mounted and installed, with a domed Fresnel lens, into a prototype module. Subsequent testing demonstrated net lens-cell efficiencies of 10 to 13%. As a result of this program, salient conclusions have been formulated as to this technology.

  4. High-Salt Intake Suppressed MicroRNA-133a Expression in Dahl SS Rat Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tong-Shuai; Zhang, Jie; Mu, Jian-Jun; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Ren, Ke-Yu; Wang, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Salt-sensitive individuals show earlier and more serious cardiac damage than nonsalt-sensitive ones. Some studies have suggested that microRNA-133a could reduce cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. The current study aims to investigate the different functions of high-salt intake on salt-sensitive (SS) rats and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and the involvement of microRNA-133a in these roles. After high-salt intervention, the left ventricular mass (LVW) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) of the salt-sensitive high salt (SHS) group were obviously higher than those of the salt-sensitive low salt (SLS) group. However, the difference between the Sprague-Dawley high salt (DHS) group and the Sprague-Dawley low salt (DLS) group was not significant. Compared with SLS group, collagen I and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the heart of SHS group were significantly higher, whereas no statistical difference was observed between the DHS group and the DLS group. Compared with low-salt diet, microRNA-133a in the heart of both strains were significantly decreased, but that in the SHS group decreased more significantly. These results suggest that high salt intervention could down-regulate the expression of myocardial microRNA-133a, which may be one of the mechanisms involved in myocardial fibrosis in salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:24937684

  5. Concentrating Solar Power - Molten Salt Pump Development, Final Technical Report (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Michael McDowell; Alan Schwartz

    2010-03-31

    The purpose of this project is to develop a long shafted pump to operate at high temperatures for the purpose of producing energy with renewable resources. In Phase I of this three phase project we developed molten salt pump requirements, evaluated existing hardware designs for necessary modifications, developed a preliminary design of the pump concept, and developed refined cost estimates for Phase II and Phase III of the project. The decision has been made not to continue the project into Phases II and III. There is an ever increasing world-wide demand for sources of energy. With only a limited supply of fossil fuels, and with the costs to obtain and produce those fuels increasing, sources of renewable energy must be found. Currently, capturing the sun's energy is expensive compared to heritage fossil fuel energy production. However, there are government requirements on Industry to increase the amount of energy generated from renewable resources. The objective of this project is to design, build and test a long-shafted, molten salt pump. This is the type of pump necessary for a molten salt thermal storage system in a commercial-scale solar trough plant. This project is under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program, managed by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. To reduce the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and to meet the requirements of 'tomorrows' demand, technical innovations are needed. The DOE is committed to reducing the LCOE to 7-10 cents/kWh by 2015, and to 5-7 cents/kWh by 2020. To accomplish these goals, the performance envelope for commercial use of long-shafted molten salt pumps must be expanded. The intent of this project is to verify acceptable operation of pump components in the type of molten salt (thermal storage medium) used in commercial power plants today. Field testing will be necessary to verify the integrity of the pump design, and thus reduce the risk to industry. While the primary goal is to

  6. Incomplete ion dissociation underlies the weakened attraction between DNA helices at high spermidine concentrations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Rau, Donald C

    2005-09-01

    We have investigated the salt sensitivity of the hexagonal-to-cholesteric phase transition of spermidine-condensed DNA. This transition precedes the resolubilization of precipitated DNA that occurs at high spermidine concentration. The sensitivity of the critical spermidine concentration at the transition point to the anion species and the NaCl concentration indicates that ion pairing of this trivalent ion underlies this unusual transition. Osmotic pressure measurements of spermidine salt solutions are consistent with this interpretation. Spermidine salts are not fully dissociated at higher concentrations. The competition for DNA binding among the fully charged trivalent ion and the lesser charged complex species at higher concentrations significantly weakens attraction between DNA helices in the condensed state. This is contrary to the suggestion that the binding of spermidine at higher concentrations causes DNA overcharging and consequent electrostatic repulsion.

  7. Electroviscous effect of concentrated suspensions in salt-free media: water dissociation and CO2 influence.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Reina, Emilio; Carrique, Félix

    2010-05-15

    The electroviscous effect of realistic salt-free colloidal suspensions is analyzed theoretically. We study the influence on the electroviscous coefficient of the surface charge density and the particle volume fraction. By realistic salt-free colloidal suspensions we mean aqueous suspensions which have been deionized as far as possible without any electrolyte added during the preparation, in which the only ions present can be (i) the so-called added counterions, coming from the ionization of surface groups and thus counterbalancing the surface charge, (ii) the H(+) and OH(-) ions from water dissociation, and (iii) the ions produced by the atmospheric CO(2) contamination. Our model is elaborated in the framework of a classical mean-field theory, using the spherical cell model approach and the appropriate local equilibrium reactions. It is valid for arbitrary surface charge density and particle concentrations. We have also made a new interpretation of the electroviscous coefficient: the electroviscous coefficient p of the suspension is the ratio between the electrohydrodynamic and the pure hydrodynamic contributions to the specific viscosity of the suspension. The numerical results show that it is necessary to consider the water dissociation influence for volume fractions lower than approximately 10(-3), whereas the atmospheric contamination, if the suspensions are open to the atmosphere, is important in the region of volume fractions φ<0.03.

  8. Europium doped lanthanum zirconate nanoparticles with high concentration quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Alaparthi, Suresh B.; Lu, Long; Tian, Yue; Mao, Yuanbing

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Eu:La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanoparticles were prepared facilely by a kinetically modified molten salt method. • High color purity and concentration quenching were achieved in these La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu nanoparticles. • Concentration quenching mechanism was discussed for Eu{sup 3+} in these Eu:La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanoparticles. - Abstract: A series of Eu{sup 3+} doped lanthanum zirconate (La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) nanoparticles (NPs, 20 ± 5 nm in diameter) with cubic fluorite structure were facilely synthesized by a kinetically modified molten salt synthetic (MSS) process and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and photoluminescence spectra (PL). Under the excitation of 405 nm, intense red emission with high color purity can be observed in the Eu{sup 3+} doped La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} NPs. Moreover, the as-prepared Eu:La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} NPs possess high concentration quenching, which is as high as ∼32.5 mol% of europium dopants in the La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} host. The corresponding concentration quenching mechanism was discussed as well. Our results confirm that the kinetically modified MSS process is a promising approach for preparing rare earth (RE) ions doped A{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanoparticles with uniform RE doping and high concentration quenching.

  9. Effect of salt of various concentrations on liquid limit, and hydraulic conductivity of different soil-bentonite mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Anil Kumar; Ohtsubo, Masami; Li, Loretta Y.; Higashi, Takahiro; Park, Junboum

    2009-05-01

    Effect of the various concentrations of NaCl and CaCl2 on the four different soil-bentonite mixtures has been evaluated. The results show that the liquid limit of the mixtures decreases with an increase in the salt concentration. Liquid limit decreased significantly with an increase in CaCl2 concentration from 0 to 0.1 N. However, a further increase in the concentration did not produce any significant decrease in liquid limit. A quite opposite trend was observed for the NaCl solution. An increase in NaCl concentration from 0 to 0.1 N did not produce any major decrease in the liquid limit, but a further increase in concentration from 0.1 to 1 N decreased the liquid limit significantly. Consolidation tests were carried out on the mixtures to evaluate the effect of mineralogical composition of the bentonite on the hydraulic conductivity ( k) of the mixture in the presence of various salts concentrations. The k for any mixtures was found to be decreasing with decrease in the salt concentration. At relatively low concentration, Ca2+ had more effect on the k in comparison to the same concentration of Na+. However, at 1 N of NaCl and CaCl2 almost an equal value of k was observed. A comparison of the performance of four bentonites showed that the mixture with bentonite having highest exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) exhibited the lowest k when permeated with de-ionized (DI) water, however, k increased with an increase in the salt concentration. Similarly, mixture with a bentonite of lower ESP exhibited a higher k with DI water but with the increase in the salt concentration alteration in the k, compared to all other mixtures, was relatively less.

  10. The impact of high-salt exposure on cardiovascular development in the early chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Zhang, Nuan; Wei, Yi-Fan; Jin, Yi-Mei; Zhang, Shi-Yao; Cheng, Xin; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Zhao, Shu-Zhu; Chen, You-Peng; Chuai, Manli; Hocher, Berthold; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we show that high-salt exposure dramatically increases chick mortality during embryo development. As embryonic mortality at early stages mainly results from defects in cardiovascular development, we focused on heart formation and angiogenesis. We found that high-salt exposure enhanced the risk of abnormal heart tube looping and blood congestion in the heart chamber. In the presence of high salt, both ventricular cell proliferation and apoptosis increased. The high osmolarity induced by high salt in the ventricular cardiomyocytes resulted in incomplete differentiation, which might be due to reduced expression of Nkx2.5 and GATA4. Blood vessel density and diameter were suppressed by exposure to high salt in both the yolk sac membrane (YSM) and chorioallantoic membrane models. In addition, high-salt-induced suppression of angiogenesis occurred even at the vasculogenesis stage, as blood island formation was also inhibited by high-salt exposure. At the same time, cell proliferation was repressed and cell apoptosis was enhanced by high-salt exposure in YSM tissue. Moreover, the reduction in expression of HIF2 and FGF2 genes might cause high-salt-suppressed angiogenesis. Interestingly, we show that high-salt exposure causes excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the heart and YSM tissues, which could be partially rescued through the addition of antioxidants. In total, our study suggests that excess generation of ROS might play an important role in high-salt-induced defects in heart and angiogenesis.

  11. Infrared spectroscopy of aqueous ionic salt mixtures at low concentrations: Ion pairing in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max, Jean-Joseph; Chapados, Camille

    2007-09-01

    The analysis by infrared spectroscopy of aqueous mixtures of NaI and CsCl was made in order to obtain information at the molecular level of the mixing of these two salts taken as model systems of strong electrolytes in water. In previous papers [J.-J. Max and C. Chapados, J. Chem. Phys. 115, 2664 (2001) and J.-J. Max et al., ibid. 126, 184507 (2007)] it was reported that a pure salt in water forms pairs of monoions to which are attached a fixed number of water molecules, giving solvated water species. Due to their interaction with the ion pairs, the solvated water molecules are strongly perturbed, modifying the IR water spectrum being monitored. After taking the IR spectrum of pure water, a small volume of NaI 2M was added and the IR spectrum taken. Then a small volume of CsCl 2M was added and a new IR spectrum taken. This procedure was repeated to obtain a series of 38 spectra in the 0.05M-0.83M concentration range. Factor analysis made on the series revealed the presence of three types of water: pure water and two salt solvated waters. The number of solvated water molecules on the two salts taken together is ten. Since NaI and CsCl have, respectively, 3.5 and 3.0 solvated water molecules, it was concluded that a reaction occurred in the solutions forming NaCl and CsI that have, respectively, five water molecules each for a total of ten. The analysis of the spectra of the orthogonal factors supports this attribution. These results provide additional proof of ion pairing in water. Furthermore, comparing the band displacements and intensity variations observed on the solvated water species to that of pure water indicates that the dielectric milieu surrounding the ion pairs is not constant. These results do not support the classical view of Debye-Hückel that considers that the ions are independent and the dielectric milieu constant. The present results give some in situ information on the reaction that goes on in "simple" electrolyte systems whose reactivity and

  12. Infrared spectroscopy of aqueous ionic salt mixtures at low concentrations: ion pairing in water.

    PubMed

    Max, Jean-Joseph; Chapados, Camille

    2007-09-21

    The analysis by infrared spectroscopy of aqueous mixtures of NaI and CsCl was made in order to obtain information at the molecular level of the mixing of these two salts taken as model systems of strong electrolytes in water. In previous papers [J.-J. Max and C. Chapados, J. Chem. Phys. 115, 2664 (2001) and J.-J. Max et al., ibid. 126, 184507 (2007)] it was reported that a pure salt in water forms pairs of monoions to which are attached a fixed number of water molecules, giving solvated water species. Due to their interaction with the ion pairs, the solvated water molecules are strongly perturbed, modifying the IR water spectrum being monitored. After taking the IR spectrum of pure water, a small volume of NaI 2M was added and the IR spectrum taken. Then a small volume of CsCl 2M was added and a new IR spectrum taken. This procedure was repeated to obtain a series of 38 spectra in the 0.05M-0.83M concentration range. Factor analysis made on the series revealed the presence of three types of water: pure water and two salt solvated waters. The number of solvated water molecules on the two salts taken together is ten. Since NaI and CsCl have, respectively, 3.5 and 3.0 solvated water molecules, it was concluded that a reaction occurred in the solutions forming NaCl and CsI that have, respectively, five water molecules each for a total of ten. The analysis of the spectra of the orthogonal factors supports this attribution. These results provide additional proof of ion pairing in water. Furthermore, comparing the band displacements and intensity variations observed on the solvated water species to that of pure water indicates that the dielectric milieu surrounding the ion pairs is not constant. These results do not support the classical view of Debye-Huckel that considers that the ions are independent and the dielectric milieu constant. The present results give some in situ information on the reaction that goes on in "simple" electrolyte systems whose reactivity and

  13. Americans with High Blood Pressure Still Eating Too Much Salt

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Still Eating Too Much Salt Average sodium intake more than double the recommended daily limit ... did in 1999. Between 1999 and 2012, salt (sodium) consumption rose from about 2,900 milligrams a ...

  14. On the role of salt type and concentration on the stability behavior of a monoclonal antibody solution.

    PubMed

    Arosio, Paolo; Jaquet, Baptiste; Wu, Hua; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2012-07-01

    Protein-salt interactions regulate protein solubility and stability and in particular several protein related processes, such as salting-out and aggregation. Using an IgG2 monoclonal antibody as a model multi-domain therapeutic protein, we have investigated the salt effect on the reversible formation of protein clusters with small aggregation number. The oligomer formation has been quantified by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). It is found that the salt effect is strongly ion specific and pH dependent. In particular, at pH 3.0 only anions affect the aggregation propensity, while at pH 4.0 both anions and cations influence the aggregation rate. The ranking of the anion effect follows the Hofmeister series with the only exception of sulfate, while that of the cation effect does not. In addition, a maximum of the aggregation propensity as a function of salt concentration is observed (i.e., presence of re-stabilization). By correlating the aggregation kinetics to the experimental investigation of protein structure and surface energy, it is shown that changes in pH and salt concentration induce aggregation not only through charge screening and various solvation forces, but also through the formation of protein intermediates characterized by partially ordered structures and certain degrees of hydrophobicity. The complex interaction between the solvation forces and such protein secondary structures induced by salts explains the observed experimental results relative to re-stabilization at large salt concentrations, ion specificity and the peculiar behavior of the sulfate anion.

  15. The effect of sea ice loss on sea salt aerosol concentrations and the radiative balance in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struthers, H.; Ekman, A. M. L.; Glantz, P.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevåg, A.; Mårtensson, E. M.; Seland, Ø.; Nilsson, E. D.

    2011-04-01

    Understanding Arctic climate change requires knowledge of both the external and the local drivers of Arctic climate as well as local feedbacks within the system. An Arctic feedback mechanism relating changes in sea ice extent to an alteration of the emission of sea salt aerosol and the consequent change in radiative balance is examined. A set of idealized climate model simulations were performed to quantify the radiative effects of changes in sea salt aerosol emissions induced by prescribed changes in sea ice extent. The model was forced using sea ice concentrations consistent with present day conditions and projections of sea ice extent for 2100. Sea salt aerosol emissions increase in response to a decrease in sea ice, the model results showing an annual average increase in number emission over the polar cap (70-90° N) of 86 × 106 m-2 s-1 (mass emission increase of 23 μg m-2 s-1). This in turn leads to an increase in the natural aerosol optical depth of approximately 23%. In response to changes in aerosol optical depth, the natural component of the aerosol direct forcing over the Arctic polar cap is estimated to be between -0.2 and -0.4 W m-2 for the summer months, which results in a negative feedback on the system. The model predicts that the change in first indirect aerosol effect (cloud albedo effect) is approximately a factor of ten greater than the change in direct aerosol forcing although this result is highly uncertain due to the crude representation of Arctic clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions in the model. This study shows that both the natural aerosol direct and first indirect effects are strongly dependent on the surface albedo, highlighting the strong coupling between sea ice, aerosols, Arctic clouds and their radiative effects.

  16. Differential response of nucleus pulposus intervertebral disc cells to high salt, sorbitol, and urea.

    PubMed

    Mavrogonatou, Eleni; Kletsas, Dimitris

    2012-03-01

    Nucleus pulposus intervertebral disc cells are routinely confronted with high osmolality in their microenvironment and respond to this stress in vitro by regulating cell cycle progression and by activating a DNA repair machinery in order to counteract its genotoxic effect. In the present study, we attempted to identify the origin of this osmo-regulatory response, by using an ionic NaCl/KCl solution, the compatible osmolyte sorbitol, and the readily permeant urea. High salt and sorbitol were found to activate similar molecular pathways, including the p38 MAPK and the p53-p21(WAF1)-pRb axis, that were not stimulated by high urea. On the other hand, only high urea led to the phosphorylation of ERKs and JNKs. Furthermore, salt- and sorbitol-treated cells were able to phosphorylate histone H2A.X on Ser139, in contrast to cells exposed to urea, indicating a common mechanism for DNA repair, which was achieved by a p53-dependent activation of the G1 checkpoint by both solutes. DNA repair, as directly measured by a host cell reactivation assay, occurred under conditions of hyperosmolar salt and sorbitol, although to a lesser extent in sorbitol-treated cells than in cells exposed to high salinity. Taken as a whole, our findings suggest that the hyperosmolality-provoked DNA damage and the responses of nucleus pulposus cells induced by this genotoxic stress most probably originate from cell volume alterations mediated by hypertonicity and not from increased intracellular ionic concentration.

  17. The influence of salt concentration on the chemical, ripening and sensory characteristics of Iranian white cheese manufactured by UF-Treated milk.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Mostafa; Guzeler, Nuray; Hayaloglu, Ali A

    2015-08-01

    Iranian White cheese was manufactured from ultrafiltered cows' milk using different concentrations of salt consisting of 1, 2.5, 4% and salt free. Chemical composition, proteolysis, counts for lactic acid bacteria and sensory evaluation were examined during 90 d of ripening. It was found that the use of different salt concentrations significantly influenced all chemical composition, proteolysis, total number of lactic acid bacteria and sensory characteristics of the cheeses. Increasing the salt concentrations caused a proportional decrease in proteolysis determined by both urea-PAGE of caseins and RP-HPLC of peptides. With increased salt concentration, total number of lactic acid bacteria decreased. Cheeses with 1 and 2.5% salt were suitable and acceptable in odour and flavour that may be due to the proportional level of proteolysis products. In conclusion, reducing salt concentration from 4 to 2.5 and 1% had no ineligible effect on the quality and acceptability of the cheese.

  18. Effects of temperature, concentration, and uranium chloride mixture on zirconium electrochemical studies in LiClsbnd KCl eutectic salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Robert O.; Yoon, Dalsung; Phongikaroon, Supathorn

    2016-08-01

    Experimental studies were performed to provide measurement and analysis of zirconium (Zr) electrochemistry in LiClsbnd KCl eutectic salt at different temperatures and concentrations using cyclic voltammetry (CV). An additional experimental set with uranium chloride added into the system forming UCl3sbnd ZrCl4sbnd LiClsbnd KCl was performed to explore the general behavior of these two species together. Results of CV experiments with ZrCl4 show complicated cathodic and anodic peaks, which were identified along with the Zr reactions. The CV results reveal that diffusion coefficients (D) of ZrCl4 and ZrCl2 as the function of temperature can be expressed as DZr(IV) = 0.00046exp(-3716/T) and DZr(II) = 0.027exp(-5617/T), respectively. The standard rate constants and apparent standard potentials of ZrCl4 at different temperatures were calculated. Furthermore, the results from the mixture of UCl3 and ZrCl4 indicate that high concentrations of UCl3 hide the features of the smaller concentration of ZrCl4 while Zr peaks become prominent as the concentration of ZrCl4 increases.

  19. Nitrification of an industrial wastewater in a moving-bed biofilm reactor: effect of salt concentration.

    PubMed

    Vendramel, Simone; Dezotti, Marcia; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L

    2011-01-01

    Nitrification of wastewaters from chemical industries can pose some challenges due to the presence of inhibitory compounds. Some wastewaters, besides their organic complexity present variable levels of salt concentration. In order to investigate the effect of salt (NaCl) content on the nitrification of a conventional biologically treated industrial wastewater, a bench scale moving-bed biofilm reactor was operated on a sequencing batch mode. The wastewater presenting a chloride content of 0.05 g l(-1) was supplemented with NaCl up to 12 g Cl(-) l(-1). The reactor operation cycle was: filling (5 min), aeration (12 or 24h), settling (5 min) and drawing (5 min). Each experimental run was conducted for 3 to 6 months to address problems related to the inherent wastewater variability and process stabilization. A PLC system assured automatic operation and control of the pertinent process variables. Data obtained from selected batch experiments were adjusted by a kinetic model, which considered ammonia, nitrite and nitrate variations. The average performance results indicated that nitrification efficiency was not influenced by chloride content in the range of 0.05 to 6 g Cl(-) l(-1) and remained around 90%. When the chloride content was 12 g Cl(-) l(-1), a significant drop in the nitrification efficiency was observed, even operating with a reaction period of 24 h. Also, a negative effect of the wastewater organic matter content on nitrification efficiency was observed, which was probably caused by growth of heterotrophs in detriment of autotrophs and nitrification inhibition by residual chemicals.

  20. Photoactive bile salts with critical micellar concentration in the micromolar range.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Mendoza, Miguel; Marin, M Luisa; Miranda, Miguel A

    2016-05-14

    The aggregation behavior of bile salts is strongly dependent on the number of hydroxyl groups. Thus, cholic acid (CA), with three hydroxyls, starts forming aggregates at 15 mM, while deoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic or ursodeoxycholic acids, with two hydroxyls, start aggregating at 5-10 mM; for lithocholic acid, with only one hydroxyl group, aggregation is observed at lower concentration (2-3 mM). Here, the singular self-assembling properties of dansyl and naproxen derivatives of CA (3β-Dns-CA and 3β-NPX-CA, respectively) have been demonstrated on the basis of their photoactive properties. Thus, the emission spectra of 3β-Dns-CA registered at increasing concentrations (25-140 μM) showed a remarkable non-linear enhancement in the emission intensity accompanied by a hypsochromic shift of the maximum and up to a three-fold increase in the singlet lifetime. The inflection point at around 50-70 μM pointed to the formation of unprecedented assemblies at such low concentrations. In the case of 3β-NPX-CA, when the NPX relative triplet lifetime was plotted against concentration, a marked increase (up to two-fold) was observed at 40-70 μM, indicating the formation of new 3β-NPX-CA assemblies at ca. 50 μM. Additional evidence supporting the formation of new 3β-Dns-CA or 3β-NPX-CA assemblies at 40-70 μM was obtained from singlet excited state quenching experiments using iodide. Moreover, to address the potential formation of hybrid assemblies, 1 : 1 mixtures of 3β-Dns-CA and 3β-NPX-CA (2-60 μM, total concentration) were subjected to steady-state fluorescence experiments, and their behavior was compared to that of the pure photoactive derivatives. A lower increase in the emission was observed for 3β-NPX-CA in the mixture, while a huge increase was experienced by 3β-Dns-CA in the same concentration range (up to 60 μM total). A partial intermolecular energy transfer from NPX to Dns, consistent with their reported singlet energies, was revealed, pointing to the

  1. Molten Salts for High Temperature Reactors: University of Wisconsin Molten Salt Corrosion and Flow Loop Experiments -- Issues Identified and Path Forward

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Matt Ebner; Manohar Sohal; Phil Sharpe; Thermal Hydraulics Group

    2010-03-01

    Considerable amount of work is going on regarding the development of high temperature liquid salts technology to meet future process needs of Next Generation Nuclear Plant. This report identifies the important characteristics and concerns of high temperature molten salts (with lesson learned at University of Wisconsin-Madison, Molten Salt Program) and provides some possible recommendation for future work

  2. Highly concentrated foam formulation for blast mitigation

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.; Gao, Huizhen

    2010-12-14

    A highly concentrated foam formulation for blast suppression and dispersion mitigation for use in responding to a terrorism incident involving a radiological dispersion device. The foam formulation is more concentrated and more stable than the current blast suppression foam (AFC-380), which reduces the logistics burden on the user.

  3. Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco-Martin, Laura; Molins, Sergi; Trebotich, David; Birkholzer, Jens

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we present FY2015 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This is a combined milestone report related to milestone Salt R&D Milestone “Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures” (M3FT-15LB0818012) and the Salt Field Testing Milestone (M3FT-15LB0819022) to support the overall objectives of the salt field test planning.

  4. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods: Effects of zinc salt concentration, various solvents and alkaline mineralizers

    SciTech Connect

    Edalati, Khatereh; Shakiba, Atefeh; Vahdati-Khaki, Jalil; Zebarjad, Seyed Mojtaba

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • We synthesized ZnO nanorods by a simple hydrothermal process at 60 °C. • Effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent and alkaline mineralizer was studied. • Increasing concentration of zinc salt changed ZnO nucleation system. • NaOH yielded better results in the production of nanorods in both solvents. • Methanol performed better in the formation of nanorods using the two mineralizers. - Abstract: ZnO has been produced using various methods in the solid, gaseous, and liquid states, and the hydrothermal synthesis at low temperatures has been shown to be an environmentally-friendly one. The current work utilizes a low reaction temperature (60 °C) for the simple hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorod morphologies. Furthermore, the effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent type and alkaline mineralizer type on ZnO nanorods synthesis at a low reaction temperature by hydrothermal processing was studied. Obtained samples were analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Increasing the concentration of the starting zinc salt from 0.02 to 0.2 M changed ZnO nucleation system from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous state. The XRD results confirmed the production hexagonal ZnO nanostructures of with a crystallite size of 40.4 nm. Varying the experimental parameters (mineralizer and solvent) yielded ZnO nanorods with diameters ranging from 90–250 nm and lengths of 1–2 μm.

  5. High Iodine and Salt Intakes and Obesity do not Modify the Thyroid Function in Mexican Schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Villa, Lorena; García-Solís, Pablo; Solís-S, Juan Carlos; García-Gutiérrez, David Gustavo; Pérez-Mora, Valeria Alejandra; Robles-Osorio, Ludivina; Sampson-Zaldívar, Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    Mexico is considered as a nutritional transition country with a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, and recent studies have reported a high iodine intake in children. Both high iodine intake and obesity have been associated with thyroid dysfunction. Our aim was to assess iodine and salt intake and thyroid function in Mexican schoolchildren with normal weight and obesity. A cross-sectional study was performed during 2012-2013 in schoolchildren from Queretaro, Mexico. Six hundred seventy-eight schoolchildren were evaluated to obtain nutrition status, urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and thyroid volume (TVol). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 47.3 %, the median UIC was 428 μg/L and TVol was normal in all schoolchildren; however, obese girls had a higher TVol than normal weight at the age of 8, 10 and 12 years. A subsample of schoolchildren was divided in 6-8 and 9-12-year-old groups, in order to compare thyroid function (thyrotropin, free T4, and anti-thyroid antibodies); iodine and salt intake were estimated with 24-h urinary samples. No differences in thyroid function were observed in both age groups. In the 6-8-year-old group, obese schoolchildren had higher iodine intake than normal-weight children (415.5 vs. 269.1 μg/day, p < 0.05), but no differences in salt intake. In contrast, in the 9-12-year-old group, obese schoolchildren had higher salt intake than normal-weight children (6.2 vs. 3.8 g/day, p < 0.05), but no differences in iodine intake. Dietary patterns could explain the differences between both age groups. Further studies are needed to identify the main sources of iodine intake in Mexican populations.

  6. ZIF-8 Derived, Nitrogen-Doped Porous Electrodes of Carbon Polyhedron Particles for High-Performance Electrosorption of Salt Ions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nei-Ling; Dutta, Saikat; Salunkhe, Rahul R.; Ahamad, Tansir; Alshehri, Saad M.; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Hou, Chia-Hung; Wu, Kevin C.-W.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) ZIF-8 derived carbon polyhedrons with high nitrogen (N) content, (denoted as NC-800) are synthesized for their application as high-performance electrodes in electrosorption of salt ions. The results showed a high specific capacitance of 160.8 F·g−1 in 1 M NaCl at a scan rate of 5 mV·s−1. Notably, integration of 3-D mesopores and micropores in NC-800 achieves an excellent capacitive deionization (CDI) performance. The electrosorption of salt ions at the electrical double layer is enhanced by N-doping at the edges of a hexagonal lattice of NC-800. As evidenced, when the initial NaCl solution concentration is 1 mM, the resultant NC-800 exhibits a remarkable CDI potential with a promising salt electrosorption capacity of 8.52 mg·g−1. PMID:27404086

  7. ZIF-8 Derived, Nitrogen-Doped Porous Electrodes of Carbon Polyhedron Particles for High-Performance Electrosorption of Salt Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nei-Ling; Dutta, Saikat; Salunkhe, Rahul R.; Ahamad, Tansir; Alshehri, Saad M.; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Hou, Chia-Hung; Wu, Kevin C.-W.

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) ZIF-8 derived carbon polyhedrons with high nitrogen (N) content, (denoted as NC-800) are synthesized for their application as high-performance electrodes in electrosorption of salt ions. The results showed a high specific capacitance of 160.8 F·g‑1 in 1 M NaCl at a scan rate of 5 mV·s‑1. Notably, integration of 3-D mesopores and micropores in NC-800 achieves an excellent capacitive deionization (CDI) performance. The electrosorption of salt ions at the electrical double layer is enhanced by N-doping at the edges of a hexagonal lattice of NC-800. As evidenced, when the initial NaCl solution concentration is 1 mM, the resultant NC-800 exhibits a remarkable CDI potential with a promising salt electrosorption capacity of 8.52 mg·g‑1.

  8. Fluorescence quenching at high quencher concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peak, David; Werner, T. C.; Dennin, Richard M., Jr.; Baird, James K.

    1983-10-01

    Chemical reactions occurring in dense media at high reactant concentrations can be described by rate ``constants'' which are actually functions of concentration. We present a theoretical model in which this so-called rate constant ``renormalization'' occurs for the specific case of fluorescence quenching in solution. We show that both the quenching and the excitation rate constants can become concentration dependent. We fit our theory to several sets of experimental data—our own and some from the literature—and show that excellent agreement is obtained by varying a single free parameter, namely, the efficiency with which a fluorophore-quencher collision leads to a quench of the excited state.

  9. A new class of Solvent-in-Salt electrolyte for high-energy rechargeable metallic lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Suo, Liumin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Li, Hong; Armand, Michel; Chen, Liquan

    2013-01-01

    Liquid electrolyte plays a key role in commercial lithium-ion batteries to allow conduction of lithium-ion between cathode and anode. Traditionally, taking into account the ionic conductivity, viscosity and dissolubility of lithium salt, the salt concentration in liquid electrolytes is typically less than 1.2 mol l(-1). Here we show a new class of 'Solvent-in-Salt' electrolyte with ultrahigh salt concentration and high lithium-ion transference number (0.73), in which salt holds a dominant position in the lithium-ion transport system. It remarkably enhances cyclic and safety performance of next-generation high-energy rechargeable lithium batteries via an effective suppression of lithium dendrite growth and shape change in the metallic lithium anode. Moreover, when used in lithium-sulphur battery, the advantage of this electrolyte is further demonstrated that lithium polysulphide dissolution is inhibited, thus overcoming one of today's most challenging technological hurdles, the 'polysulphide shuttle phenomenon'. Consequently, a coulombic efficiency nearing 100% and long cycling stability are achieved.

  10. SiC Schottky Diode Detectors for Measurement of Actinide Concentrations from Alpha Activities in Molten Salt Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Windl, Wolfgang; Blue, Thomas

    2013-01-28

    In this project, we have designed a 4H-SiC Schottky diode detector device in order to monitor actinide concentrations in extreme environments, such as present in pyroprocessing of spent fuel. For the first time, we have demonstrated high temperature operation of such a device up to 500 °C in successfully detecting alpha particles. We have used Am-241 as an alpha source for our laboratory experiments. Along with the experiments, we have developed a multiscale model to study the phenomena controlling the device behavior and to be able to predict the device performance. Our multiscale model consists of ab initio modeling to understand defect energetics and their effect on electronic structure and carrier mobility in the material. Further, we have developed the basis for a damage evolution model incorporating the outputs from ab initio model in order to predict respective defect concentrations in the device material. Finally, a fully equipped TCAD-based device model has been developed to study the phenomena controlling the device behavior. Using this model, we have proven our concept that the detector is capable of performing alpha detection in a salt bath with the mixtures of actinides present in a pyroprocessing environment.

  11. Quantification and fatty acid profiles of sulfolipids in two halophytes and a glycophyte grown under different salt concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ramani, Balasubramanian; Zorn, Holger; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2004-01-01

    This study was aimed at understanding the role of sulfolipids in salt tolerance mechanisms of the halophytes Aster tripolium L., Compositae, and Sesuvium portulacastrum L., Aizoaceae, and of the glycophyte Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., Brassicaceae. In Aster and Sesuvium the sulfolipid contents increased significantly under salt stress conditions (517 mM or 864 mM). In Arabidopsis, changes in sulfolipid contents were not observed (NaCl up to 100 mM). The fatty acid profile of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) in Aster was modified with increasing NaCl concentrations. LC-MS analyses of sulfolipids from Aster and Sesuvium revealed the presence of 18:3/18:3 and 16:0/18:3 molecules. Obviously, the function of sulfolipids during salt stress differs between halophytic species and between halophytes and glycophytes where sulfolipid accumulation was not observed.

  12. Materials corrosion of high temperature alloys immersed in 600C binary nitrate salt.

    SciTech Connect

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Gill, David Dennis; LaFord, Marianne Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Thirteen high temperature alloys were immersion tested in a 60/40 binary nitrate salt. Samples were interval tested up to 3000 hours at 600ÀC with air as the ullage gas. Chemical analysis of the molten salt indicated lower nitrite concentrations present in the salt, as predicted by the equilibrium equation. Corrosion rates were generally low for all alloys. Corrosion products were identified using x-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analysis. Fe-Cr based alloys tended to form mixtures of sodium and iron oxides, while Fe-Ni/Cr alloys had similar corrosion products plus oxides of nickel and chromium. Nickel based alloys primarily formed NiO, with chromium oxides near the oxide/base alloy interface. In625 exhibited similar corrosion performance in relation to previous tests, lending confidence in comparisons between past and present experiments. HA230 exhibited internal oxidation that consisted of a nickel/chromium oxide. Alloys with significant aluminum alloying tended to exhibit superior performance, due formation of a thin alumina layer. Soluble corrosion products of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten were also formed and are thought to be a significant factor in alloy performance.

  13. Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts

    DOEpatents

    Lee, H.S.; Geng, L.; Skotheim, T.A.

    1996-07-23

    The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity. 2 figs.

  14. Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung-Sui; Geng, Lin; Skotheim, Terje A.

    1996-07-23

    The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity.

  15. [Impact of high salt stress on Apocynum venetum growth and ionic homeostasis].

    PubMed

    Ning, Jian-Feng; Zheng, Qing-Song; Yang, Shao-Hai; Zou, Xian-Zhong; Sun, Li-Li; Chen, Yong

    2010-02-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in a net room to study the growth responses and related mechanisms of Apocynum venetum treated with different concentrations (100-400 mmol x L(-1)) of NaCl for 30 days. The biomass accumulation, growth rate, root vigor, salt ion content and mineral ion uptake and distribution were measured. Compared with the control, treatment 100 mmol x L(-1) NaCl had lesser effects on the plant dry mass, but decreased the plant fresh mass and growth rate significantly. With increasing NaCl concentration in the medium, the plant dry mass, fresh mass, and growth rate all decreased significantly. The plant root vigor was obviously higher under 100 and 200 mmol x L(-1) NaCl stress, but decreased significantly under 300-400 mmol x L(-1) NaCl stress. With the increase of NaCl concentration in the medium, the Na+ content in A. venetum roots, stems and leaves increased gradually while the K+ content had a slow decrease, the Ca2+ and Mg2+ contents in leaves decreased obviously, and the Ca2+ content in stems and the Mg2+ content in roots increased in different degree. Under NaCl stress, the K+ /Na+, Ca2+/Na+, and Mg2+/Na+ ratios in roots, stems, and leaves decreased markedly, while the selective absorption and transportation of K+ and Ca2+ increased significantly. The stronger ability of salt exclusion and the higher selective absorption and transportation of K+ and Ca2+ were the key adaptive mechanisms of high salt-tolerance of A. venetum.

  16. Assessment of the iodine concentration in table salt at the production stage in South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Jooste, Pieter L.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the iodine content of iodized salt at the production stage, to assess the perceptions and knowledge of salt producers about the prevention and control of iodine deficiency, and to examine the internal quality control procedures used during iodization in South Africa. METHOD: Salt samples were collected for iodine analysis by titration from the 12 producers iodizing salt in South Africa. Information on the producers' knowledge of iodine deficiency disorders and on internal quality control was obtained by means of questionnaires. FINDINGS: The legal requirement of 40-60 ppm iodine was met in 30.9% of salt samples; 57.9% contained more than 30 ppm iodine; 34.8% contained under 20 ppm iodine. There were shortcomings in perceptions and knowledge about iodine deficiency disorders and in the internal quality control procedures of a substantial proportion of the producers. CONCLUSION: In order to encourage and support salt producers to achieve optimal iodization there should be an information, education and communication strategy aimed at improving knowledge of iodine deficiency disorders and at raising the standard of internal quality control procedures. External monitoring should continue. PMID:12973644

  17. Effects of the Nature and Concentration of Salt on the Interaction of the HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein with SL3 RNA§

    PubMed Central

    Athavale, Shreyas S.; Ouyang, Wei; McPike, Mark P.; Hudson, Bruce S.

    2010-01-01

    The mature nucleocapsid protein of HIV-1, NCp7, and the NC-domains in gag-precursors are attractive targets for anti-AIDS drug discovery. The stability of the 1:1 complex of NCp7 with a 20mer mimic of stem-loop 3 RNA (SL3, also called psi-RNA, in the packaging domain of genomic RNA) is strongly affected by changes in ionic strength. NC-domains recognize and specifically package genomic HIV-1 RNA, while electrostatic attractions and high concentrations of protein and RNA drive NCp7 to completely coat the RNA in the mature virion. The specific interactions from NCp7-binding to loop bases of SL3 produce 1:1 complexes in solutions that have [NaCl] at or above 0.2 M, while the electrostatic interactions can dominate at and below 0.15 M NaCl, leading to complexes that have mainly 1:2 RNA:protein. Persistent, non-equilibrium mixtures of 1:1 and protein-excess complexes can exist at these lower salt concentrations, where the distribution of complexes depends on the order of addition of RNA and protein. Adding salt causes rapid rearrangement of metastable multi-protein complexes to 1:1. The stability of complexes is also affected by the nature of the added salt, with 0.018 M MgCl2 and 0.200 M added NaCl producing the same Kd (21 ± 2 nM); acetate ion stabilizes the 1:1 complex by more than a factor of two compared to the same concentration of chloride ion. Maintaining a salt concentration of 0.2 M NaCl or 18 mM MgCl2 is sufficient for experiments to distinguish drug candidates that disrupt the specific SL3-NCp7 interactions in the 1:1 complex. PMID:20359247

  18. Effect of prolonged high salt intake on atrial natriuretic factor's kinetics in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Widimsky, J.; Debinski, W.; Kuchel, O.; Buu, N.T.; Du Souich, P. )

    1990-05-01

    Plasma atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) paradoxically decreases after 5 weeks (but not after 3 weeks) of 8% NaCl intake in normotensive rats. As this phenomenon remains unaccounted for by changes in ANF production, we studied the disappearance of ({sup 125}I)ANF(99-126) from the circulation as an alternative explanation of plasma ANF decline. Following 5 weeks (but not 3 weeks) of an 8% NaCl diet, plasma concentrations of ({sup 125}I)ANF were significantly decreased and metabolic clearance rate and volume of distribution were increased compared to control rats fed a 0.8% NaCl diet. By studying ({sup 125}I)ANF tissue uptake we noted significantly greater peptide uptake after 5 weeks (but not after 3 weeks) of high salt consumption in several tissues. We hypothesize that prolonged (at least 5 weeks) 8% NaCl ingestion increases the density and/or affinity of ANF binding sites. These changes may be responsible for the previously observed decline in plasma ANF concentrations after a prolonged high salt intake.

  19. Anomalous ion effects on rupture and lifetime of aqueous foam films from monovalent salt solutions up to saturation concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakashev, S. I.; Nguyen, P. T.; Tsekov, R.; Hampton, M. A.; Nguyen, A. V.

    2008-09-01

    We report the effects of ions on rupture and lifetime of aqueous foam films formed from sodium chloride (NaCl), lithium chloride (LiCl), sodium acetate (NaAc), and sodium chlorate (NaClO 3) using microinterferometry. In the case of NaCl and LiCl, the foam films prepared from the salt solutions below 0.1 M were unstable they thinned until rupturing. The film lifetime measured from the first interferogram (appearing at a film thickness on the order of 500 nm) until the film rupture was only a second or so. However, relatively long lasting and nondraining films prepared from salt solutions above 0.1 M were observed. The film lifetime was significantly longer by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, i.e., from 10 to 100 s. Importantly, both the film lifetime and the (average) thickness of the nondraining films increased with increasing salt concentration. This effect has not been observed with foam films stabilized by surfactants. The film lifetime and thickness also increased with increasing film radius. The films exhibited significant surface corrugations. The films with large radii often contained standing dimples. There was a critical film radius below which the films thinned until rupturing. In the cases of NaAc and NaClO 3, the films were unstable at all radii and salt concentrations they thinned until rupturing, ruling out the effect of solution viscosity on stabilizing the films.

  20. Archaeal Inorganic Pyrophosphatase Displays Robust Activity under High-Salt Conditions and in Organic Solvents.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Lana J; Hepowit, Nathaniel L; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A

    2015-11-06

    Soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases (PPAs) that hydrolyze inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) to orthophosphate (Pi) are commonly used to accelerate and detect biosynthetic reactions that generate PPi as a by-product. Current PPAs are inactivated by high salt concentrations and organic solvents, which limits the extent of their use. Here we report a class A type PPA of the haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii (HvPPA) that is thermostable and displays robust PPi-hydrolyzing activity under conditions of 25% (vol/vol) organic solvent and salt concentrations from 25 mM to 3 M. HvPPA was purified to homogeneity as a homohexamer by a rapid two-step method and was found to display non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a Vmax of 465 U · mg(-1) for PPi hydrolysis (optimal at 42°C and pH 8.5) and Hill coefficients that indicated cooperative binding to PPi and Mg(2+). Similarly to other class A type PPAs, HvPPA was inhibited by sodium fluoride; however, hierarchical clustering and three-dimensional (3D) homology modeling revealed HvPPA to be distinct in structure from characterized PPAs. In particular, HvPPA was highly negative in surface charge, which explained its extreme resistance to organic solvents. To demonstrate that HvPPA could drive thermodynamically unfavorable reactions to completion under conditions of reduced water activity, a novel coupled assay was developed; HvPPA hydrolyzed the PPi by-product generated in 2 M NaCl by UbaA (a "salt-loving" noncanonical E1 enzyme that adenylates ubiquitin-like proteins in the presence of ATP). Overall, we demonstrate HvPPA to be useful for hydrolyzing PPi under conditions of reduced water activity that are a hurdle to current PPA-based technologies.

  1. Archaeal Inorganic Pyrophosphatase Displays Robust Activity under High-Salt Conditions and in Organic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Lana J.; Hepowit, Nathaniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases (PPAs) that hydrolyze inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) to orthophosphate (Pi) are commonly used to accelerate and detect biosynthetic reactions that generate PPi as a by-product. Current PPAs are inactivated by high salt concentrations and organic solvents, which limits the extent of their use. Here we report a class A type PPA of the haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii (HvPPA) that is thermostable and displays robust PPi-hydrolyzing activity under conditions of 25% (vol/vol) organic solvent and salt concentrations from 25 mM to 3 M. HvPPA was purified to homogeneity as a homohexamer by a rapid two-step method and was found to display non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a Vmax of 465 U · mg−1 for PPi hydrolysis (optimal at 42°C and pH 8.5) and Hill coefficients that indicated cooperative binding to PPi and Mg2+. Similarly to other class A type PPAs, HvPPA was inhibited by sodium fluoride; however, hierarchical clustering and three-dimensional (3D) homology modeling revealed HvPPA to be distinct in structure from characterized PPAs. In particular, HvPPA was highly negative in surface charge, which explained its extreme resistance to organic solvents. To demonstrate that HvPPA could drive thermodynamically unfavorable reactions to completion under conditions of reduced water activity, a novel coupled assay was developed; HvPPA hydrolyzed the PPi by-product generated in 2 M NaCl by UbaA (a “salt-loving” noncanonical E1 enzyme that adenylates ubiquitin-like proteins in the presence of ATP). Overall, we demonstrate HvPPA to be useful for hydrolyzing PPi under conditions of reduced water activity that are a hurdle to current PPA-based technologies. PMID:26546423

  2. Altered potassium ATP channel signaling in mesenteric arteries of old high salt-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Whidden, Melissa A.; Basgut, Bilgen; Kirichenko, Nataliya; Erdos, Benedek; Tümer, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Both aging and the consumption of a high salt diet are associated with clear changes in the vascular system that can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease; however the mechanisms are not clearly understood. Therefore, we examined whether aging and the consumption of excess salt alters the function of potassium ATP-dependent channel signaling in mesenteric arteries [Methods] Young (7 months) and old (29 months) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats were fed a control or a high salt diet (8% NaCl) for 12 days and mesenteric arteries were utilized for vascular reactivity measurements. [Results] Acetylcholine-induced endothelium relaxation was significantly reduced in old arteries (81 ± 4%) when compared with young arteries (92 ± 2%). Pretreatment with the potassium-ATP channel blocker glibenclamide reduced relaxation to acetylcholine in young arteries but did not alter dilation in old arteries. On a high salt diet, endothelium dilation to acetylcholine was significantly reduced in old salt arteries (60 ± 3%) when compared with old control arteries (81 ± 4%). Glibenclamide reduced acetylcholine-induced dilation in young salt arteries but had no effect on old salt arteries. Dilation to cromakalim, a potassium-ATP channel opener, was reduced in old salt arteries when compared with old control arteries. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that aging impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric arteries. Furthermore, a high salt diet alters the function of potassium-ATP-dependent channel signaling in old isolated mesenteric arteries and affects the mediation of relaxation stimuli. PMID:27508155

  3. Effects of liquid VOC concentration and salt content on partitioning equilibrium of hydrophilic VOC at air-sweat interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wen-Hsi; Chu, Fu-Sui; Su, Tzy-I.

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) must initially be absorbed by sweat on the surface of skin for human VOC dermal exposure. The partitioning equilibrium at the air-sweat interface is given by p=Cg*/C, where pc is the partitioning coefficient, and Cg* is the gaseous concentration in equilibrium with the aqueous VOC concentration ( CL) at a constant water temperature ( Tw). A series of thermodynamic functions of Cg*(C,T) are presented, as well as the values of pc, and the heat of gaseous-liquid phase transfer (Δ Htr) for tested VOCs, including iso-propanol (IPA, CL=12-120 mg L -1) and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK, CL=10-80 mg L -1) to determine the effects of liquid VOC concentration and salt contents of sweat on pc of hydrophilic VOCs. Experimental data reveal that the pc values of IPA and MEK drop as the liquid VOC concentrations increasing from 10 to 120 mg L -1. However, sodium salt content in human sweat (sodium chloride and sodium lactate) induces the effect of salt, indicating the increase in pc. Notably, neither urea nor ammonia in human sweat increase pc. Artificial sweat, consisting of sodium chloride 0.47%, urea 0.05%, ammonia 0.004% and sodium lactate 0.6%, was used to evaluate the increase in the pc values of IPA and MEK. The liquid VOC concentration effect simultaneously develops together with the salt effect on the partition at the interface of air-sweat for hydrophilic VOC solutions. The pc values of IPA for artificial sweat decrease as much as 32.5% as CL increases from 12 to 120 mg L -1 at 300 K, and those of MEK drop by as much as 70.9% as CL increases from 10 to 80 mg L -1 at 300 K. This investigation provides a basis for elucidating the assessment of human dermal exposure to hydrophilic VOCs.

  4. High-dimensional entanglement concentration of twisted photon pairs High-dimensional entanglement concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L. X.; Wu, Q. P.

    2012-10-01

    Recently, Dada et al. reported on the experimental entanglement concentration and violation of generalized Bell inequalities with orbital angular momentum (OAM) [Nat. Phys. 7, 677 (2011)]. Here we demonstrate that the high-dimensional entanglement concentration can be performed in arbitrary OAM subspaces with selectivity. Instead of violating the generalized Bell inequalities, the working principle of present entanglement concentration is visualized by the biphoton OAM Klyshko picture, and its good performance is confirmed and quantified through the experimental Shannon dimensionalities after concentration.

  5. Highly Concentrated Catalytic Asymmetric Allylation of Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Wooten, Alfred J.; Kim, Jeung Gon; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    We report the catalytic asymmetric allylation of ketones under highly concentrated reaction conditions with a catalyst generated from titanium tetraisopropoxide and BINOL (1:2 ratio) in the presence of isopropanol. This catalyst promotes the addition of tetraallylstannane to a variety of ketones to produce tertiary homoallylic alcohols in excellent yield (80–99%) with high enantioselectivities (79–95%). The resulting homoallylic alcohols can also be epoxidized in situ using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) to afford cyclic epoxy alcohols in high yield (84–87%). PMID:17249767

  6. Highly concentrated catalytic asymmetric allylation of ketones.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Alfred J; Kim, Jeung Gon; Walsh, Patrick J

    2007-02-01

    [reaction: see text] We report the catalytic asymmetric allylation of ketones under highly concentrated reaction conditions with a catalyst generated from titanium tetraisopropoxide and BINOL (1:2 ratio) in the presence of isopropanol. This catalyst promotes the addition of tetraallylstannane to a variety of ketones to produce tertiary homoallylic alcohols in excellent yield (80-99%) with high enantioselectivities (79-95%). The resulting homoallylic alcohols can also be epoxidized in situ using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) to afford cyclic epoxy alcohols in high yield (84-87%).

  7. Effect of potassium salts in rats adapted to an acidogenic high-sulfur amino acid diet.

    PubMed

    Sabboh, Houda; Horcajada, Marie-Noëlle; Coxam, Véronique; Tressol, Jean-Claude; Besson, Catherine; Rémésy, Christian; Demigné, Christian

    2005-08-01

    Low-grade metabolic acidosis, consecutive to excessive catabolism of sulfur amino acids and a high dietary Na:K ratio, is a common feature of Western food habits. This metabolic alteration may exert various adverse physiological effects, especially on bone, muscle and kidneys. To assess the actual effects of various K salts, a model of the Westernised diet has been developed in rats: slight protein excess (20 % casein); cations provided as non-alkalinising salts; high Na:K ratio. This diet resulted in acidic urine (pH 5.5) together with a high rate of divalent cation excretion in urine, especially Mg. Compared with controls, K supplementation as KCl accentuated Ca excretion, whereas potassium bicarbonate or malate reduced Mg and Ca excretion and alkalinised urine pH (up to 8). In parallel, citraturia was strongly increased, together with 2-ketoglutarate excretion, by potassium bicarbonate or malate in the diet. Basal sulfate excretion, in the range of 1 mmol/d, was slightly enhanced in rats fed the potassium malate diet. The present model of low-grade metabolic acidosis indicates that potassium malate may be as effective as KHCO3 to counteract urine acidification, to limit divalent cation excretion and to ensure high citrate concentration in urine.

  8. TRPV1 activation prevents high-salt diet-induced nocturnal hypertension in mice.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xinzhong; Chen, Jing; Luo, Zhidan; He, Hongbo; Yu, Hao; Ma, Liqun; Ma, Shuangtao; Zhu, Tianqi; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2011-03-01

    High dietary salt-caused hypertension is associated with increasing reactive oxygen species generation and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), a specific receptor for capsaicin, is proposed to be involved in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension, as determined in acute or short-term experiments. However, it remains unknown whether activation of TRPV1 by dietary capsaicin could prevent the vascular oxidative stress and hypertension induced by a high-salt diet. Here, we report that consumption of a high-salt diet blunted endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric resistance arteries and elevated nocturnal blood pressure in mice. These effects were associated with increased superoxide anion generation and reduced NO levels in mesenteric vessels in mice on a high-salt diet. However, chronic administration of capsaicin reduced the high-salt diet-induced endothelial dysfunction and nocturnal hypertension in part by preventing the generation of superoxide anions and NO reduction of mesenteric arteries through vascular TRPV1 activation. Our findings provide new insights into the role of TRPV1 channels in the long-term regulation of blood pressure in response to high-salt intake. TRPV1 activation through chronic dietary capsaicin may represent a promising lifestyle intervention in populations with salt-sensitive hypertension.

  9. High salt reduces the activation of IL-4– and IL-13–stimulated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Binger, Katrina J.; Gebhardt, Matthias; Heinig, Matthias; Rintisch, Carola; Schroeder, Agnes; Neuhofer, Wolfgang; Hilgers, Karl; Manzel, Arndt; Schwartz, Christian; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Voelkl, Jakob; Schatz, Valentin; Linker, Ralf A.; Lang, Florian; Voehringer, David; Wright, Mark D.; Hubner, Norbert; Dechend, Ralf; Jantsch, Jonathan; Titze, Jens; Müller, Dominik N.

    2015-01-01

    A high intake of dietary salt (NaCl) has been implicated in the development of hypertension, chronic inflammation, and autoimmune diseases. We have recently shown that salt has a proinflammatory effect and boosts the activation of Th17 cells and the activation of classical, LPS-induced macrophages (M1). Here, we examined how the activation of alternative (M2) macrophages is affected by salt. In stark contrast to Th17 cells and M1 macrophages, high salt blunted the alternative activation of BM-derived mouse macrophages stimulated with IL-4 and IL-13, M(IL-4+IL-13) macrophages. Salt-induced reduction of M(IL-4+IL-13) activation was not associated with increased polarization toward a proinflammatory M1 phenotype. In vitro, high salt decreased the ability of M(IL-4+IL-13) macrophages to suppress effector T cell proliferation. Moreover, mice fed a high salt diet exhibited reduced M2 activation following chitin injection and delayed wound healing compared with control animals. We further identified a high salt–induced reduction in glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolic output, coupled with blunted AKT and mTOR signaling, which indicates a mechanism by which NaCl inhibits full M2 macrophage activation. Collectively, this study provides evidence that high salt reduces noninflammatory innate immune cell activation and may thus lead to an overall imbalance in immune homeostasis. PMID:26485286

  10. Effects of high salt diets and taurine on the development of hypertension in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Dawson, R; Liu, S; Jung, B; Messina, S; Eppler, B

    2000-01-01

    Taurine is present in high concentrations in mammalian tissues and has been implicated in cardiovascular control mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of taurine to attenuate salt-induced elevations in blood pressure and markers of damage to the kidney and cardiovascular system in stroke prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SPSHR). Male SPSHR (6 weeks old) were placed on high salt diets that contained 1% (w/w) NaCl added to their normal chow for 84 days and then were switched to 3% added NaCl for the remaining 63 days of the study. SPSHR was given 1.5% taurine in the drinking water (n = 8), a taurine free diet (n = 8) or normal chow (n = 8). A final control group (n = 6) was not given high salt diets. High salt diets caused an acceleration in the development of hypertension in all groups. Taurine supplementation reduced ventricular hypertrophy and decreased urinary excretion of protein and creatinine. The taurine free diet did not alter serum or urinary excretion of taurine, but did result in elevated urinary nitrogen excretion, increased serum cholesterol levels, and impaired performance in a spatial learning task. Alterations in dietary taurine intake did not alter urinary or serum electrolytes (Na+, K+), but taurine supplementation did attenuate a rise in serum calcium seen with the high salt diets. Urinary excretion (microg/24h) of epinephrine and dopamine was significantly reduced in SPSHR given 1% NaCl in the diet, but this effect was not seen in SPSHR on taurine free or supplemented diets. Taurine supplementation showed cardioprotective and renoprotective effects in SPSHR given high salt diets.

  11. DOE High Performance Concentrator PV Project

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.

    2005-08-01

    Much in demand are next-generation photovoltaic (PV) technologies that can be used economically to make a large-scale impact on world electricity production. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the High-Performance Photovoltaic (HiPerf PV) Project to substantially increase the viability of PV for cost-competitive applications so that PV can contribute significantly to both our energy supply and environment. To accomplish such results, the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) directs in-house and subcontracted research in high-performance polycrystalline thin-film and multijunction concentrator devices with the goal of enabling progress of high-efficiency technologies toward commercial-prototype products. We will describe the details of the subcontractor and in-house progress in exploring and accelerating pathways of III-V multijunction concentrator solar cells and systems toward their long-term goals. By 2020, we anticipate that this project will have demonstrated 33% system efficiency and a system price of $1.00/Wp for concentrator PV systems using III-V multijunction solar cells with efficiencies over 41%.

  12. Ternary cycle treatment of high saline wastewater from pesticide production using a salt-tolerant microorganism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiang; Du, Ya-guang; Qu, Yi; Du, Dong-yun

    2013-01-01

    The material of this study is provided by biological aerobic treatment of high saline wastewater from pesticide production. The microorganism used for biodegradation has been identified by gene-sequencing as a strain of Bacillus sp. SCUN. The best growth condition for the salt-tolerant microorganism has been studied by varying the pH, immobilized microorganism dosage and temperature conditions. The feasibility of pretreating wastewater in ethyl chloride production containing 4% NaCl has been discussed. It was found that under the pH range of 6.0-8.0, immobilized microorganism dosage of 1.5 g/L, temperature of 30 °C, and NaCl concentration of 0-3%, the microorganism achieves the best growth for biodegradation. After domestication, the strain can grow under 4% NaCl. This salt-tolerant microorganism is effective in the pretreated high saline wastewater. With a newly developed ternary cycle treatment, the chemical oxygen demand removal approaches 58.3%. The theoretical basis and a new method for biological treatments in biodegradation of high saline wastewater in ethyl chloride production are discussed.

  13. Electrical conductivity of aqueous salt-free concentrated suspensions. Effects of water dissociation and CO2 contamination.

    PubMed

    Carrique, Félix; Ruiz-Reina, Emilio

    2009-07-30

    In this paper we explore the effects of water dissociation and CO2 contamination on the electrical conductivity of salt-free concentrated suspensions in static electric fields. The conductivity model here presented is based on a new description of the equilibrium double layer for particles in "realistic" salt-free suspensions recently developed by the authors to account for the latter effects (Ruiz-Reina, E.; Carrique, F. J. Phys. Chem. B 2008, 112, 11960). It was shown that in most of the cases the neglecting of those effects would lead to a very poor description of common salt-free suspensions, especially, but not only, if the suspensions have been in contact with air. As shown in this paper, the presence of only water dissociation ions suffices to provoke very important changes in the standard salt-free predictions. A realistic aqueous salt-free suspension consists of an aqueous suspension without any electrolyte added during the preparation but including the following ionic species: (i) the "added counterions" stemming from the particle charging process that counterbalance their surface charge (with just this ionic species, the suspension can be considered as an ideal or pure salt-free one), (ii) the H+ and OH- ions from water dissociation, and (iii) the ions produced by the atmospheric CO2 contamination. The model is based on the classical Poisson-Boltzmann theory, the appropriate local chemical reactions, the standard electrokinetic equations, and the cell model approximation to account for electro-hydrodynamic particle-particle interactions. Thus, we have studied the electrical conductivity of such realistic salt-free suspensions for different particle volume fraction phi and surface charge density sigma, and compared it with results of pure salt-free conductivity predictions. The numerical results have shown that water dissociation ions and/or CO2 contamination has an extreme influence on the suspension conductivity values at low-moderate particle volume

  14. Assessment of Candidate Molten Salt Coolants for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.F.

    2006-03-24

    The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a novel reactor design that utilizes the graphite-matrix high-temperature fuel of helium-cooled reactors, but provides cooling with a high-temperature fluoride salt. For applications at temperatures greater than 900 C the AHTR is also referred to as a Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR). This report provides an assessment of candidate salts proposed as the primary coolant for the AHTR based upon a review of physical properties, nuclear properties, and chemical factors. The physical properties most relevant for coolant service were reviewed. Key chemical factors that influence material compatibility were also analyzed for the purpose of screening salt candidates. Some simple screening factors related to the nuclear properties of salts were also developed. The moderating ratio and neutron-absorption cross-section were compiled for each salt. The short-lived activation products, long-lived transmutation activity, and reactivity coefficients associated with various salt candidates were estimated using a computational model. Table A presents a summary of the properties of the candidate coolant salts. Certain factors in this table, such as melting point, vapor pressure, and nuclear properties, can be viewed as stand-alone parameters for screening candidates. Heat-transfer properties are considered as a group in Sect. 3 in order to evaluate the combined effects of various factors. In the course of this review, it became apparent that the state of the properties database was strong in some areas and weak in others. A qualitative map of the state of the database and predictive capabilities is given in Table B. It is apparent that the property of thermal conductivity has the greatest uncertainty and is the most difficult to measure. The database, with respect to heat capacity, can be improved with modern instruments and modest effort. In general, ''lighter'' (low-Z) salts tend to exhibit better heat

  15. Salt acclimation processes in wheat.

    PubMed

    Janda, Tibor; Darko, Éva; Shehata, Sami; Kovács, Viktória; Pál, Magda; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-04-01

    Young wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Mv Béres) were exposed to 0 or 25 mM NaCl for 11 days (salt acclimation). Thereafter the plants were irrigated with 500 mM NaCl for 5 days (salt stress). Irrigating the plants with a low concentration of NaCl successfully led to a reduction in chlorotic symptoms and in the impairment of the photosynthetic processes when the plants were exposed to subsequent high-dose salt treatment. After exposure to a high concentration of NaCl there was no difference in leaf Na content between the salt-acclimated and non-acclimated plants, indicating that salt acclimation did not significantly modify Na transport to the shoots. While the polyamine level was lower in salt-treated plants than in the control, salt acclimation led to increased osmotic potential in the leaves. Similarly, the activities of certain antioxidant enzymes, namely glutathione reductase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, were significantly higher in salt-acclimated plants. The results also suggest that while SOS1, SOS2 or NHX2 do not play a decisive role in the salt acclimation processes in young wheat plants; another stress-related gene, WALI6, may contribute to the success of the salt acclimation processes. The present study suggested that the responses of wheat plants to acclimation with low level of salt and to treatment with high doses of salt may be fundamentally different.

  16. Depressor effect of chymase inhibitor in mice with high salt-induced moderate hypertension.

    PubMed

    Devarajan, Sankar; Yahiro, Eiji; Uehara, Yoshinari; Habe, Shigehisa; Nishiyama, Akira; Miura, Shin-ichiro; Saku, Keijiro; Urata, Hidenori

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether long-term high salt intake in the drinking water induces hypertension in wild-type (WT) mice and whether a chymase inhibitor or other antihypertensive drugs could reverse the increase of blood pressure. Eight-week-old male WT mice were supplied with drinking water containing 2% salt for 12 wk (high-salt group) or high-salt drinking water plus an oral chymase inhibitor (TPC-806) at four different doses (25, 50, 75, or 100 mg/kg), captopril (75 mg/kg), losartan (100 mg/kg), hydrochlorothiazide (3 mg/kg), eplerenone (200 mg/kg), or amlodipine (6 mg/kg). Control groups were given normal water with or without the chymase inhibitor. Blood pressure and heart rate gradually showed a significant increase in the high-salt group, whereas a dose-dependent depressor effect of the chymase inhibitor was observed. There was also partial improvement of hypertension in the losartan- and eplerenone-treated groups but not in the captopril-, hydrochlorothiazide-, and amlodipine-treated groups. A high salt load significantly increased chymase-dependent ANG II-forming activity in the alimentary tract. In addition, the relative contribution of chymase to ANG II formation, but not actual average activity, showed a significant increase in skin and skeletal muscle, whereas angiotensin-converting enzyme-dependent ANG II-forming activity and its relative contribution were reduced by high salt intake. Plasma and urinary renin-angiotensin system components were significantly increased in the high-salt group but were significantly suppressed in the chymase inhibitor-treated group. In conclusion, 2% salt water drinking for 12 wk caused moderate hypertension and activated the renin-angiotensin system in WT mice. A chymase inhibitor suppressed both the elevation of blood pressure and heart rate, indicating a definite involvement of chymase in salt-sensitive hypertension.

  17. Genetic influence on brain catecholamines: high brain norepinephrine in salt-sensitive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, J; Friedman, R; Tassinari, L

    1980-01-01

    Rats genetically sensitive to salt-induced hypertension evinced higher levels of plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine than rats genetically resistant to hypertension. The hypertension-sensitive rats showed higher hypothalamic norepinephrine and lower epinephrine than resistant rats. In response to a high salt diet, brain stem norepinephrine increased in sensitive rats while resistant rats exhibited a decrease on the same diet.

  18. Novel, electrolyte solutions comprising fully inorganic salts with high anodic stability for rechargeable magnesium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Doe, RE; Han, R; Hwang, J; Gmitter, AJ; Shterenberg, I; Yoo, HD; Pour, N; Aurbach, D

    2014-01-01

    Herein the first inorganic magnesium salt solution capable of highly reversible magnesium electrodeposition is presented. Synthesized by acid-base reaction of MgCl2 and Lewis acidic compounds such as AlCl3, this salt class demonstrates upwards of 99% Coulombic efficiency, deposition overpotential of <200 mV, and anodic stability of 3.1 V.

  19. Oxygen isotope activities and concentrations in aqueous salt solutions at elevated temperatures: Consequences for isotope geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.

    1974-01-01

    Studies of the effect of dissolved salts on the oxygen isotope activity ratio of water have been extended to 275??C. Dehydrated salts were added to water of known isotope composition and the solutions were equilibrated with CO2 which was sampled for analysis. For comparison similar studies were made using pure water. Results on water nearly coincide with earlier calculations. Salt effects diminish with increasing temperature only for solutions of MgCl2 and LiCl. Other salt solutions show complex behavior due to the temperature-dependent formation of ion pairs of changing character. Equilibrium fractionations (103 ln ??) between 1 molal solutions and pure water at 25, 100, and 275??C are: NaCl 0.0, -1.5, +1.0; KCl 0.0, -1.0, +2.0; LiCl -1.0, -0.6, -0.5; CaCl2 -0.4, -1.8, +0.8; MgCl2 -1.1, -0.7, -0.3; MgSO4 -1.1, +0.1, -; NaF (0.8 m) 0.0, -1.5, -0.3; and NH4Cl (0.55 m) 0.0, -1.2, -1.3. These effects are significant in the isotope study of hot saline fluids responsible for ore deposition and of fluids found in certain geothermal systems. Minor modification of published isotope geothermometers may be required. ?? 1974.

  20. High-efficiency silicon concentrator cell commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, R.A.; Swanson, R.M.

    1993-05-01

    This report summarizes the first phase of a forty-one month program to develop a commercial, high-efficiency concentrator solar cell and facility for manufacturing it. The period covered is November 1, 1990 to December 31, 1991. This is a joint program between the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Sandia National Laboratories. (This report is also published by EPRI as EPRI report number TR-102035.) During the first year of the program, SunPower accomplished the following major objectives: (1) a new solar cell fabrication facility, which is called the Cell Pilot Line (CPL), (2) a baseline concentrator cell process has been developed, and (3) a cell testing facility has been completed. Initial cell efficiencies are about 23% for the baseline process. The long-range goal is to improve this efficiency to 27%.

  1. Thin photovoltaic modules at ultra high concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Higueras, Pedro; Ferrer-Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Shanks, Katie; Almonacid, Florencia; Férnández, Eduardo F.

    2015-09-01

    A new design concept of high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) module is studied both by ray-tracing simulation and by building a prototype. This set-up is based on the idea of concentrating sunlight from different optical units to a single commercial multi-junction solar cell, which is located in a different plane than that of the primary optics (e.g. Fresnel lenses). A two-optical-unit set-up, as a first approach, is built and measured with the solar simulator "Helios 3198". These results are compared to the measurement results of the single-unit of one Fresnel lens and the same solar cell. The feasibility of this new design has been confirmed theoretically and practically.

  2. High salt primes a specific activation state of macrophages, M(Na).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wu-Chang; Zheng, Xiao-Jun; Du, Lin-Juan; Sun, Jian-Yong; Shen, Zhu-Xia; Shi, Chaoji; Sun, Shuyang; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Qin, Mu; Liu, Xu; Tao, Jun; Jia, Lijun; Fan, Heng-Yu; Zhou, Bin; Yu, Ying; Ying, Hao; Hui, Lijian; Liu, Xiaolong; Yi, Xianghua; Liu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Lanjing; Duan, Sheng-Zhong

    2015-08-01

    High salt is positively associated with the risk of many diseases. However, little is known about the mechanisms. Here we showed that high salt increased proinflammatory molecules, while decreased anti-inflammatory and proendocytic molecules in both human and mouse macrophages. High salt also potentiated lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage activation and suppressed interleukin 4-induced macrophage activation. High salt induced the proinflammatory aspects by activating p38/cFos and/or Erk1/2/cFos pathways, while inhibited the anti-inflammatory and proendocytic aspects by Erk1/2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 pathway. Consistent with the in vitro results, high-salt diet increased proinflammatory gene expression of mouse alveolar macrophages. In mouse models of acute lung injury, high-salt diet aggravated lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary macrophage activation and inflammation in lungs. These results identify a novel macrophage activation state, M(Na), and high salt as a potential environmental risk factor for lung inflammation through the induction of M(Na).

  3. High-throughput salting-out-assisted homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile for determination of baicalin in rat plasma with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingting; Zhang, Lei; Tong, Ling; Liao, Qiongfeng

    2014-05-01

    Baicalin is the main indicator for qualitative and quantitative analysis of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and its prescription in vivo and in vitro. Owing to its insolubility and instability, the analysis of baicalin in biological samples is analytically challenging. Although there have been many pharmacokinetic or metabolism studies on baicalin, the current reported sample pretreatment methods are not the optimal choice with regard to absolute recovery and operation procedure. Here we report a high-throughput salting-out-assisted homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction method with acetonitrile and ammonium sulfate. Eight kinds of commonly used salts, preferred salt concentration and auxiliary solvents were investigated. The extraction efficiency in the presence of ammonium salt and auxiliary solvent (methanol) in comparison to that from the salt-free aqueous increased to above 90%. The performance of the developed pretreatment method was further evaluated through testing specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, extraction recovery and stability. In particular, the stability investigation results proved that the operation at low temperature would no longer necessary be for salting-out-assisted homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction compared with protein precipitation, and the pretreatment method would be valuable if the compounds were unstable within matrices.

  4. [Salt, renal function and high blood pressure--reflections on a current issue].

    PubMed

    Aurell, Mattias

    2002-11-21

    The role of salt intake for blood pressure control has been discussed for a long time. A brief review is given of some pertinent physiological facts to explain this relationship and evolutionary aspects of renal function are emphasized. Salt intake is very high in the modern society, often as high as 15 g sodium chloride per 24 hours while 3-6 g may be more than enough to maintain an adequate salt balance. If the kidneys cannot cope with this severe sodium overload, blood pressure will rise. Therefore, the kidneys' ability to excrete sodium is a key factor and the salt excretion capacity is the kidneys' major barostatic function. As barostats, the kidneys control the blood pressure by ultimately determining the sodium excretion. Reducing sodium intake is, however, difficult as more than 50% of the intake is contained in the food we buy such as bread, sausages, canned food, chips and fast-food. Food products should therefore be "salt declared", but information on this aspect is generally lacking. If the population's salt intake could be reduced by 50%, the prevalence of hypertension will be much reduced, perhaps also by as much as 50%. The cost to society for treating hypertension would be reduced accordingly. Salt intake is also an important aspect of the overweight problem among today's youth. Salt and overweight impose great health risks later in life. Preventive measures in this area must be given high priority in future health care work.

  5. Reverse micelles in organic solvents: a medium for the biotechnological use of extreme halophilic enzymes at low salt concentration

    PubMed Central

    Marhuenda-Egea, Frutos C.; Piera-Velázquez, Sonsoles; Cadenas, Chiquinquirá; Cadenas, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    Alkaline p-nitrophenylphosphate phosphatase (pNPPase) from the halophilic archaeobacterium Halobacterium salinarum (previously halobium) was solubilized at low salt concentration in reverse micelles of hexadecyltrimethylammoniumbromide in cyclohexane with 1-butanol as cosurfactant. The enzyme maintained its catalytic properties under these conditions. The thermodynamic “solvation–stabilization hypothesis” has been used to explain the bell-shaped dependence of pNPPase activity on the water content of reverse micelles, in terms of protein–solvent interactions. According to this model, the stability of the folded protein depends on a network of hydrated ions associated with acidic residues at the protein surface. At low salt concentration and low water content (the ratio of water concentration to surfactant concentration; w0), the network of hydrated ions within the reverse micelles may involve the cationic heads of the surfactant. The bell-shaped profile of the relationship between enzyme activity and w0 varied depending on the concentrations of NaCl and Mn2+. PMID:15803648

  6. High-Salt Diet Causes Osmotic Gradients and Hyperosmolality in Skin Without Affecting Interstitial Fluid and Lymph.

    PubMed

    Nikpey, Elham; Karlsen, Tine V; Rakova, Natalia; Titze, Jens M; Tenstad, Olav; Wiig, Helge

    2017-02-06

    The common notion is that the body Na(+) is maintained within narrow limits for fluid and blood pressure homeostasis. Several studies have, however, shown that considerable amounts of Na(+) can be retained or removed from the body without commensurate water loss and that the skin can serve as a major salt reservoir. Our own data from rats have suggested that the skin is hypertonic compared with plasma on salt storage and that this also applies to skin interstitial fluid. Even small electrolyte gradients between plasma and interstitial fluid would represent strong edema-generating forces. Because the water accumulation has been shown to be modest, we decided to reexamine with alternative methods in rats whether interstitial fluid is hypertonic during salt accumulation induced by high-salt diet (8% NaCl and 1% saline to drink) or deoxycorticosterone pellet implantation. These treatments resulted both in increased systemic blood pressure, skin salt, and water accumulation and in skin hyperosmolality. Interstitial fluid isolated from implanted wicks and lymph draining the skin was, however, isosmotic, and Na(+) concentration in fluid isolated by centrifugation and in lymph was not different from plasma. Interestingly, by eluting layers of the skin, we could show that there was an osmolality and urea gradient from epidermis to dermis. Collectively, our data suggest that fluid leaving the skin as lymph is isosmotic to plasma but also that the skin can differentially control its own electrolyte microenvironment by creating local gradients that may be functionally important.

  7. Bacterial Growth at the High Concentrations of Magnesium Sulfate Found in Martian Soils

    PubMed Central

    Crisler, J.D.; Newville, T.M.; Chen, F.; Clark, B.C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The martian surface environment exhibits extremes of salinity, temperature, desiccation, and radiation that would make it difficult for terrestrial microbes to survive. Recent evidence suggests that martian soils contain high concentrations of MgSO4 minerals. Through warming of the soils, meltwater derived from subterranean ice-rich regolith may exist for an extended period of time and thus allow the propagation of terrestrial microbes and create significant bioburden at the near surface of Mars. The current report demonstrates that halotolerant bacteria from the Great Salt Plains (GSP) of Oklahoma are capable of growing at high concentrations of MgSO4 in the form of 2 M solutions of epsomite. The epsotolerance of isolates in the GSP bacterial collection was determined, with 35% growing at 2 M MgSO4. There was a complex physiological response to mixtures of MgSO4 and NaCl coupled with other environmental stressors. Growth also was measured at 1 M concentrations of other magnesium and sulfate salts. The complex responses may be partially explained by the pattern of chaotropicity observed for high-salt solutions as measured by agar gelation temperature. Select isolates could grow at the high salt concentrations and low temperatures found on Mars. Survival during repetitive freeze-thaw or drying-rewetting cycles was used as other measures of potential success on the martian surface. Our results indicate that terrestrial microbes might survive under the high-salt, low-temperature, anaerobic conditions on Mars and present significant potential for forward contamination. Stringent planetary protection requirements are needed for future life-detection missions to Mars. Key Words: Analogue—Mars—Planetary protection—Salts—Life in extreme environments. Astrobiology 12, 98–106. PMID:22248384

  8. A Rich Morphological Diversity of Biosaline Drying Patterns Is Generated by Different Bacterial Species, Different Salts and Concentrations: Astrobiological Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Gómez, José María; Medina, Jesús; Rull, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Biosaline formations (BSFs) are complex self-organized biomineral patterns formed by "hibernating" bacteria as the biofilm that contains them dries out. They were initially described in drying biofilms of Escherichia coli cells + NaCl. Due to their intricate 3-D morphology and anhydrobiosis, these biomineralogical structures are of great interest in astrobiology. Here we report experimental data obtained with various alkali halide salts (NaF, NaCl, NaBr, LiCl, KCl, CsCl) on BSF formation with E. coli and Bacillus subtilis bacteria at two saline concentrations: 9 and 18 mg/mL. Our results indicate that, except for LiCl, which is inactive, all the salts assayed are active during BSF formation and capable of promoting the generation of distinctive drying patterns at each salt concentration. Remarkably, the BSFs produced by these two bacterial species produce characteristic architectural hallmarks as the BSF dries. The potential biogenicity of these biosaline drying patterns is studied, and the astrobiological implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. High Salt Diets, Bone Strength and Mineral Content of Mature Femur After Skeletal Unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Michael T. C.

    1998-01-01

    It is known that high salt diets increase urinary calcium (Ca) loss, but it is not known whether this effect weakens bone during space flight. The Bone Hormone Lab has studied the effect of high salt diets on Ca balance and whole body Ca in a space flight model (2,8). Neither the strength nor mineral content of the femurs from these studies has been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of high salt diets (HiNa) and skeletal unloading on femoral bone strength and bone mineral content (BMC) in mature rats.

  10. Design considerations for concentrating solar power tower systems employing molten salt.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Robert Charles; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Kolb, Gregory J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2010-09-01

    The Solar Two Project was a United States Department of Energy sponsored project operated from 1996 to 1999 to demonstrate the coupling of a solar power tower with a molten nitrate salt as a heat transfer media and for thermal storage. Over all, the Solar Two Project was very successful; however many operational challenges were encountered. In this work, the major problems encountered in operation of the Solar Two facility were evaluated and alternative technologies identified for use in a future solar power tower operating with a steam Rankine power cycle. Many of the major problems encountered can be addressed with new technologies that were not available a decade ago. These new technologies include better thermal insulation, analytical equipment, pumps and values specifically designed for molten nitrate salts, and gaskets resistant to thermal cycling and advanced equipment designs.

  11. Downregulation of vascular soluble guanylate cyclase induced by high salt intake in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Kagota, Satomi; Tamashiro, Akiko; Yamaguchi, Yu; Sugiura, Reiko; Kuno, Takayoshi; Nakamura, Kazuki; Kunitomo, Masaru

    2001-01-01

    Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP)-mediated mechanism plays an important role in vasodilatation and blood pressure regulation. We investigated the effects of high salt intake on the nitric oxide (NO) – cyclic GMP signal transduction pathway regulating relaxation in aortas of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).Four-week-old SHR and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) received a normal salt diet (0.3% NaCl) or a high salt diet (8% NaCl) for 4 weeks.In aortic rings from SHR, endothelium-dependent relaxations in response to acetylcholine (ACh), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and calcium ionophore A23187 were significantly impaired by the high salt intake. The endothelium-independent relaxations in response to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and nitroglycerin were also impaired, but that to 8-bromo-cyclic GMP remained unchanged. On the other hand, high salt diet had no significant effects on the relaxations of aortic rings from WKY.In aortas from SHR, the release of NO stimulated by ACh was significantly enhanced, whereas the production of cyclic GMP induced by either ACh or SNP was decreased by the high salt intake.Western blot analysis showed that the protein level of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) was slightly increased, whereas that of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) was dramatically reduced by the high salt intake.These results indicate that in SHR, excessive dietary salt can result in downregulation of sGC followed by decreased cyclic GMP production, which leads to impairment of vascular relaxation in responses to NO. It is notable that chronic high salt intake impairs the sGC/cyclic GMP pathway but not the eNOS/NO pathway. PMID:11606313

  12. High-concentration photovoltaic module design

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.L.; Stoddard, L.E.

    1986-08-01

    Over the past 3 years, Black and Veatch has been leading a team in the ongoing design of a high-concentration, high-performance photovoltaic (PV) module for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The current design consists of a deep-drawn aluminized steel housing containing 48 cell packages in a 4-row by 12-column matrix. Each cell package includes an anodized aluminum secondary optical element, a 27.5% efficient Stanford University/EPRI 500X concentration point contact silicon PV cell, an alumina substrate, and a copper heat spreader. Developmental efforts underway for a comolded glass/polymer Fresnel lens parquet indicate the potential for a substantial decrease in molding time and, thereby, cost, in comparison to more conventional compression molding of acrylic lenses. Further development is necessary to achieve comparable optical performance of the lens. Current activities have included the development of PVOPTICS, a Monte Carlo computer code particularly suited to the module optical design. The module is projected to produce 287 watts at an efficiency of 22%. The module cost, at large production rates, is estimated to be $275 ($0.96 per watt).

  13. Measurement of radon concentration for assessment of the radiological hazard in the Chakwal coalmines of the Salt Range, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Arif; Tufail, M

    2011-09-01

    Radon and its progeny are prevalent everywhere on the lithosphere especially in the mining environment. Coal exists in the Salt Range that passes through Pakistan. The aim of the present study was to measure radon concentration and assess the associated radiological hazard in the coalmines developed in that portion of the Salt Range which passes through the district of Chakwal in Pakistan. Among the various coalmines in the coalfield, five were selected for radon survey. A passive integrated technique consisting of SSNTDs (solid state nuclear track detectors) was employed for the measurement of radon concentration in these coalmines. Box type dosimeters containing CN-85 detectors were placed for three months at six locations in every selected coalmine. After removing the dosimeters, the CN-85 detectors were etched in alkaline solution to enlarge the alpha tracks in the detectors and counted under an optical microscope. The track densities were converted to radon concentration. The average concentration of radon in the coalmines varied in the range 50-114  Bq m(-3). Radon exhalation rates from the samples of coal and shale collected from the coalmines were determined to be respectively 934 (830-1010) and 1302 (1020-1580)  mBq m(-2) h(-1). The radiation dose and corresponding health risk for the mine workers were also estimated.

  14. Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-04-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  15. Photogenerated exciton dissociation in highly coupled lead salt nanocrystal assemblies.

    PubMed

    Choi, Joshua J; Luria, Justin; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Bartnik, Adam C; Sun, Liangfeng; Lim, Yee-Fun; Marohn, John A; Wise, Frank W; Hanrath, Tobias

    2010-05-12

    Internanocrystal coupling induced excitons dissociation in lead salt nanocrystal assemblies is investigated. By combining transient photoluminescence spectroscopy, grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, and time-resolved electric force microscopy, we show that excitons can dissociate, without the aid of an external bias or chemical potential gradient, via tunneling through a potential barrier when the coupling energy is comparable to the exciton binding energy. Our results have important implications for the design of nanocrystal-based optoelectronic devices.

  16. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. V. Graph entropy analyses of ion aggregate structure and water hydrogen bonding network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2016-05-01

    Dissolved ions in water tend to form polydisperse ion aggregates such as ion pairs, relatively compact ion clusters, and even spatially extended ion networks with increasing salt concentration. Combining molecular dynamics simulation and graph theoretical analysis methods, we recently studied morphological structures of ion aggregates with distinctively different characteristics. They can be distinguished from each other by calculating various spectral graph theoretical properties such as eigenvalues and eigenvectors of adjacency matrices of ion aggregates and water hydrogen-bonding networks, minimum path lengths, clustering coefficients, and degree distributions. Here, we focus on percolation and graph entropic properties of ion aggregates and water hydrogen-bonding networks in high salt solutions. Ion network-forming K+ and SCN- ions at high concentrations show a percolating behavior in their aqueous solutions, but ion cluster-forming ions in NaCl solutions do not show such a transition from isolated ion aggregates to percolating ion-water mixture morphology. Despite that the ion aggregate structures are strikingly different for either cluster- or network-forming ions in high salt solutions, it is interesting that the water structures remain insensitive to the electrostatic properties, such as charge densities and polydentate properties, of dissolved ions, and morphological structures of water H-bonding networks appear to be highly robust regardless of the nature and concentration of salt. We anticipate that the present graph entropy analysis results would be of use in understanding a variety of anomalous behaviors of interfacial water around biomolecules as well as electric conductivities of high electrolyte solutions.

  17. Diverse microbial species survive high ammonia concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Laura C.; Cockell, Charles S.; Summers, Stephen

    2012-04-01

    Planetary protection regulations are in place to control the contamination of planets and moons with terrestrial micro-organisms in order to avoid jeopardizing future scientific investigations relating to the search for life. One environmental chemical factor of relevance in extraterrestrial environments, specifically in the moons of the outer solar system, is ammonia (NH3). Ammonia is known to be highly toxic to micro-organisms and may disrupt proton motive force, interfere with cellular redox reactions or cause an increase of cell pH. To test the survival potential of terrestrial micro-organisms exposed to such cold, ammonia-rich environments, and to judge whether current planetary protection regulations are sufficient, soil samples were exposed to concentrations of NH3 from 5 to 35% (v/v) at -80°C and room temperature for periods up to 11 months. Following exposure to 35% NH3, diverse spore-forming taxa survived, including representatives of the Firmicutes (Bacillus, Sporosarcina, Viridibacillus, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Brevibacillus) and Actinobacteria (Streptomyces). Non-spore forming organisms also survived, including Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas) and Actinobacteria (Arthrobacter) that are known to have environmentally resistant resting states. Clostridium spp. were isolated from the exposed soil under anaerobic culture. High NH3 was shown to cause a reduction in viability of spores over time, but spore morphology was not visibly altered. In addition to its implications for planetary protection, these data show that a large number of bacteria, potentially including spore-forming pathogens, but also environmentally resistant non-spore-formers, can survive high ammonia concentrations.

  18. Influence of reaction period on a new packing SBBR process treating high-salt and phosphorus deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, J. X.; Zhou, M. J.; Yu, P. F.; Sun, M.; Ji, X. Q.; Zhang, J.

    2016-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of high-salt ballast wastewater treatment, Sequencing Biofilm Batch Reactor of new packing activated sludge process used to simulate an experimental study. When Chloride ion concentration is 20±2g/L, the impacts of reaction period and anoxic time (Ta) / aerobic time (To) on the effect of the treatment process and sludge activity were investigated. The results show the salt acclimation SBBR process can effectively remove organic contaminants; when the reaction period was 49h, the removal rates of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reached more than 91.0%, and the removal rate of NH+ 4 -N was 83.3%, the removal rate of Total Nitrogen (TN) was 67.7%, and the effluent concentration of COD, NH+ 4 -N and TN were respectively 45.7mg/L, 7.8mg/L and 18.6mg/L. At this time, TF reached 43.6pg/ml. With the Ta / To increase, the degree of denitrification increased and the nitrification rate reduced. When Ta/To 1:3, the optimal nitrogen removal appeared, ammonia removal efficiency was 83.8%, the effluent concentration was 7.8mg / L, TN removal rate was 67.7%, and the effluent concentration was 18.6mg / L, to reach effluent standards. Technical support was also provided to solve the problem of coastal salt waste low phosphorus wastewater.

  19. The resistance of high frequency inductive welded pipe to grooving corrosion in salt water

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, C.; Triess, E.; Herbsleb, G.

    1986-09-01

    When exposed to neutral, salt-containing waters, electric resistant welded pipe in carbon and low alloy steels with increased sulfur contents may suffer preferential corrosion attack in the weld area. Because of its appearance, this type of corrosion is called grooving corrosion. The susceptibility to grooving corrosion may be determined and quantitatively described by means of an accelerated potentiostatic exposure test. The importance of type, concentration, and temperature of the electrolytic solution; potential; test duration; and the sulfur content of the steel in the accelerated corrosion test and the susceptibility of steels to grooving corrosion are described. Line pipe in high frequency inductive (HFI) welded carbon and low alloy steels are resistant to grooving corrosion particularly because of their low sulfur content.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF SALT CONTENT AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF TERASI TO THE SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF SAMBAL TERASI, THE CHILI SAUCE ADDED WITH TERASI.

    PubMed

    Ambarita, N T Damanik; De Meulenaer, B

    2015-01-01

    The type of terasi (the Indonesian seafood fermented paste) and the ingredients used can give sambal terasi (ST), the chili sauce added with terasi, its identity and taste distinction. Inherit from its production, salt content differs the flavor(s) of product added with terasi. This research explored the role of terasi salt content, either from the origin of terasi or by salt adjustment, to the products acceptability and sensory characteristics perceived during subsequent sensorial evaluations. Six types of terasi were characterized based on the proximate and salt content, and prepared as STs with and without salt adjustment at several terasi concentrations. 118 panelists conducted sensory evaluations for overall acceptability at 12.5% terasi; at lower concentration specific tastes (sweet, bitter, salty, sour, umami, fishy and rebon) were characterized by 80 panelists. Results showed that the acceptance of ST is more due to its innate origin salt content and to the suitability saltiness perceived. The specific odor of terasi, combining with other taste(s), when prepared at higher terasi concentration as practiced in restaurant, home and commercial products showed masking effect(s). After saltiness adjusted, different types of terasi showed different taste characteristics. Preferred ST were different between higher and lower concentration. Better tastes characteristics and stronger spices taste were found at lower salt content (and terasi concentration).

  1. Using an aqueous two-phase polymer-salt system to rapidly concentrate viruses for improving the detection limit of the lateral-flow immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Jue, Erik; Yamanishi, Cameron D; Chiu, Ricky Y T; Wu, Benjamin M; Kamei, Daniel T

    2014-12-01

    The development of point-of-need (PON) diagnostics for viruses has the potential to prevent pandemics and protects against biological warfare threats. Here we discuss the approach of using aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) to concentrate biomolecules prior to the lateral-flow immunoassay (LFA) for improved viral detection. In this paper, we developed a rapid PON detection assay as an extension to our previous proof-of-concept studies which used a micellar ATPS. We present our investigation of a more rapid polymer-salt ATPS that can drastically improve the assay time, and show that the phase containing the concentrated biomolecule can be extracted prior to macroscopic phase separation equilibrium without affecting the measured biomolecule concentration in that phase. We could therefore significantly decrease the time of the diagnostic assay with an early extraction time of just 30 min. Using this rapid ATPS, the model virus bacteriophage M13 was concentrated between approximately 2 and 10-fold by altering the volume ratio between the two phases. As the extracted virus-rich phase contained a high salt concentration which destabilized the colloidal gold indicator used in LFA, we decorated the gold nanoprobes with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to provide steric stabilization, and used these nanoprobes to demonstrate a 10-fold improvement in the LFA detection limit. Lastly, a MATLAB script was used to quantify the LFA results with and without the pre-concentration step. This approach of combining a rapid ATPS with LFA has great potential for PON applications, especially as greater concentration-fold improvements can be achieved by further varying the volume ratio. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 2499-2507. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Liver Fibrosis Can Be Induced by High Salt Intake through Excess Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Yeung, Cheung-kwan; Wong, Wing-Yan; Zhang, Nuan; Wei, Yi-fan; Zhang, Jing-li; Yan, Yu; Wong, Ching-yee; Tang, Jun-jie; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wang, Li-jing; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-02-24

    High salt intake has been known to cause hypertension and other side effects. However, it is still unclear whether it also affects fibrosis in the mature or developing liver. This study demonstrates that high salt exposure in mice (4% NaCl in drinking water) and chick embryo (calculated final osmolality of the egg was 300 mosm/L) could lead to derangement of the hepatic cords and liver fibrosis using H&E, PAS, Masson, and Sirius red staining. Meanwhile, Desmin immunofluorescent staining of mouse and chick embryo livers indicated that hepatic stellate cells were activated after the high salt exposure. pHIS3 and BrdU immunohistological staining of mouse and chick embryo livers indicated that cell proliferation decreased; as well, TUNEL analyses indicated that cell apoptosis increased in the presence of high salt exposure. Next, dihydroethidium staining on the cultured chick hepatocytes indicated the excess ROS was generated following high salt exposure. Furthermore, AAPH (a known inducer of ROS production) treatment also induced the liver fibrosis in chick embryo. Positive Nrf2 and Keap1 immunohistological staining on mouse liver suggested that Nrf2/Keap1 signaling was involved in high salt induced ROS production. Finally, the CCK8 assay was used to determine whether or not the growth inhibitory effect induced by high salt exposure can be rescued by antioxidant vitamin C. Meanwhile, the RT-PCR result indicated that the Nrf2/Keap1 downsteam genes including HO-1, NQO-1, and SOD2 were involved in this process. In sum, these experiments suggest that high salt intake would lead to high risk of liver damage and fibrosis in both adults and developing embryos. The pathological mechanism may be the result from an imbalance between oxidative stress and the antioxidant system.

  3. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  4. Characterization of Laboratory Prepared Concrete Pastes Exposed to High Alkaline and High Sodium Salt Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C. A.

    2016-06-30

    The objective of this study was to identify potential chemical degradation mechanisms for the Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) concretes, which over the performance life of the structures may be exposed to highly alkaline sodium salt solutions containing sulfate, hydroxide, and other potentially corrosive chemicals in salt solution and saltstone flush water, drain water, leachate and / or pore solution. The samples analyzed in this study were cement pastes prepared in the SIMCO Technologies, Inc. concrete laboratory. They were based on the paste fractions of the concretes used to construct the Saltstone Disposal Units (SDUs). SDU 1 and 4 concrete pastes were represented by the PV1 test specimens. The paste in the SDU 2, 3, 5, and 6 concrete was represented by the PV2 test specimens. SIMCO Technologies, Inc. selected the chemicals and proportions in the aggressive solutions to approximate proportions in the saltstone pore solution [2, 3, 5, and 6]. These test specimens were cured for 56 days in curing chamber before being immersed in aggressive solutions. After exposure, the samples were frozen to prevent additional chemical transport and reaction. Selected archived (retrieved from the freezer) samples were sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for additional characterization using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Characterization results are summarized in this report. In addition, a correlation between the oxide composition of the pastes and their chemical durability in the alkaline salt solutions is provided.

  5. ET-1 increases reactive oxygen species following hypoxia and high salt diet in the mouse glomerulus

    PubMed Central

    Heimlich, J. Brett; Speed, Joshua S.; Bloom, Christopher J.; O'Connor, Paul M.; Pollock, Jennifer S.; Pollock, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim The current study was designed to determine whether ET-1 derived from endothelial cells contributes to oxidative stress in the glomerulus of mice subjected to a high salt diet and/or hypoxia. Methods C57BL6/J control mice or vascular endothelial cell ET-1 knockout (VEET KO) mice were subjected to three-hour exposure to hypoxia (8% O2) and or 2 weeks of high salt diet (4% NaCl) prior to metabolic cage assessment of renal function and isolation of glomeruli for determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Results In control mice, hypoxia significantly increased urinary protein excretion during the initial 24 hrs, but only in animals on a high salt diet. Hypoxia increased glomerular ET-1 mRNA expression in control, but not in vascular endothelial cell ET-1 knockout (VEET KO) mice. Under normoxic conditions, mice on a high salt diet had approximately 150% higher glomerular ET-1 mRNA expression compared to a normal salt diet (p<0.05). High salt diet administration significantly increased glomerular ROS production in flox control, but not in glomeruli isolated from VEET KO mice. In C57BL6/J mice, the ETA receptor selective antagonist, ABT-627, significantly attenuated the increase in glomerular ROS production produced by high salt diet. In addition, chronic infusion of C57BL6/J mice with a sub-pressor dose of ET-1 (osmotic pumps) significantly increased levels of glomerular ROS that were prevented by ETA antagonist treatment. Conclusion These data suggest that both hypoxia and a high salt diet increases glomerular ROS production via endothelial derived ET-1-ETA receptor activation and provide a potential mechanism for ET-1 induced nephropathy. PMID:25219340

  6. Prokaryotic Community Diversity Along an Increasing Salt Gradient in a Soda Ash Concentration Pond.

    PubMed

    Simachew, Addis; Lanzén, Anders; Gessesse, Amare; Øvreås, Lise

    2016-02-01

    The effect of salinity on prokaryotic community diversity in Abijata-Shalla Soda Ash Concentration Pond system was investigated by using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene 454 pyrosequencing. Surface water and brine samples from five sites spanning a salinity range of 3.4 % (Lake Abijata) to 32 % (SP230F, crystallizer pond) were analyzed. Overall, 33 prokaryotic phyla were detected, and the dominant prokaryotic phyla accounted for more than 95 % of the reads consisting of Planctomycetes, Bacteroidetes, candidate division TM7, Deinococcus-Thermus, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Euryarchaeota. Diversity indices indicated that operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness decreases drastically with increasing salinity in the pond system. A total of 471 OTUs were found at 3.4 % salinity whereas 49 OTUs were detected in pond SP211 (25 % salinity), and only 19 OTUs in the crystallization pond at 32 % salinity (SP230F). Along the salinity gradient, archaeal community gradually replaced bacterial community. Thus, archaeal community accounted for 0.4 % in Lake Abijata while 99.0 % in pond SP230F. This study demonstrates that salinity appears to be the key environmental parameter in structuring the prokaryotic communities of haloalkaline environments. Further, it confirmed that the prokaryotic diversity in Lake Abijata is high and it harbors taxa with low or no phylogenetic similarities to existing prokaryotic taxa and thus represents novel microorganisms.

  7. High Temperature Concentrated Solar Power Using Liquid Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Asegun

    One of the most attractive ways to try and reduce the cost of concentrated solar power (CSP) is to increase the system efficiency and the biggest loss in the system occurs in the conversion of heat to electricity via heat engine. Heat engines that utilize turbomachinery currently operate near their thermodynamic limitations and thus one of the only ways to improve heat engine efficiency is to increase the turbine inlet temperature. Significant effort is being devoted to the development of supercritical CO2 heat engines, but the most efficient heat engines are combined cycles, which reach efficiencies as high as 60%. However, such heat engines require turbine inlet temperatures ~1300-1500C, which is far beyond what is currently feasible with the state of the art molten salt infrastructure. In working towards the development of a system that can operate in the 1300-1500C temperature range, the most significant challenges lie in the materials and forming functional and reliable components out of new materials. One of the most attractive options from a cost and heat transfer perspective is to use liquid metals, such as tin and aluminum-silicon alloys along with a ceramic based infrastructure. This talk will overview ongoing efforts in the Atomistic Simulation and Energy (ASE) research group at Georgia Tech to develop prototype components such as an efficient high temperature cavity receiver, pumps and valves that can make a liquid metal based CSP infrastructure realizable.

  8. Influence of salt, smoke, and high pressure on growth of Listeria monocytogenes and spoilage microflora in cold-smoked dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus).

    PubMed

    Montero, P; Gómez-Estaca, J; Gómez-Guillén, M C

    2007-02-01

    The effects of different salting and smoking conditions on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cold-smoked dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) fillets were evaluated. High concentrations of phenol (72.47 ppm) and salt (3.25%) in muscle inhibited L. monocytogenes growth in smoked fish stored at 20 degrees C for 4 days. The antibacterial effect of high pressure in cold-smoked dolphinfish during long-term chilled (5 degrees C) storage was evaluated in fillets prepared according to two different sets of salting and smoking conditions. Combining the milder salting and smoking conditions (1.97% salt and 42 ppm phenol) with a high pressure treatment of 300 MPa at 20 degrees C for 15 min sufficed to exert a bacteriostatic effect on the total viable bacteria, total lactic acid bacteria, and L. monocytogenes. However, in fillets prepared using the more severe salting and smoking conditions (2.93% salt and 82 ppm phenol), pressurization kept L. monocytogenes counts under the detection limit throughout 100 days of storage. A similar effect was obtained by dosing the fillets with nisin. No luminescent bacteria, hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteria, or Enterobacteriaceae were found in any of the fillets produced using either of the two sets of processing conditions.

  9. Plasma and tissue levels of proangiotensin-12 and components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) following low- or high-salt feeding in rats.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Sayaka; Kato, Johji; Kuwasako, Kenji; Kitamura, Kazuo

    2010-05-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an essential regulator of the blood pressure and body fluid balance, but the processing cascade or role of the tissue RAS remains obscure. Proangiotensin-12 (proang-12), a novel angiotensin peptide recently discovered in rat tissues, is assumed to function as a factor of the tissue RAS. To investigate the tissue production of proang-12, we measured the circulating and tissue components of the RAS including proang-12 following low-, normal-, or high-salt feeding in rats. Twelve-week-old male Wistar rats were fed a low-salt 0.3% NaCl or high-salt 8% NaCl diet for 7 days and compared with those fed a normal-salt diet of 0.7% NaCl. Low-salt feeding elevated the plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration, resulting in significant increases in Ang I and Ang II levels in the plasma or kidney tissue, as compared with the normal- or high-salt group. Despite the increases in plasma renin activity, Ang I, and Ang II, the proang-12 levels in plasma and various tissues including the kidneys, small intestine, cardiac ventricles, and brain remained unchanged following low-salt feeding. These results suggest that peptide levels of proang-12 in rat plasma and tissues are regulated in a manner independent of the circulating RAS.

  10. Bone Density and High Salt Diets in a Space Flight Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, S. B.; Navidi, M.; Liang, M. T. C.; Wolinsky, I.

    1999-01-01

    High salt diets accelerate bone loss with aging in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis except when calcium supplementation is provided. We have observed that the decrease in mineral content of growing femurs in juvenile rats, exposed to a space flight model which unloads the hind limbs , is substantially less in animals fed excess salt. To determine whether excess dietary salt has the same effect on the skeleton of the mature animal whose response to unloading is increased resorption and bone loss rather than impaired growth, we carried out a metabolic study in mature rats with hindlimbs unloaded by tailsuspension.

  11. Effects of Buffer Salt Concentration on the Dominated Deposition Mechanism and Optical Characteristics of Chemically Deposited Cadmium Sulfide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakhaki, Z. Makhdoumi; Youzbashi, A.; Sangpour, P.; Kazemzadeh, A.; Naderi, N.; Bazargan, A. M.

    2016-02-01

    Effects of buffer salt concentration on the rate of deposition, dominated deposition mechanism and subsequently the structural, morphological, and optical properties of cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD) on glass substrate were investigated. The precursors were chosen to be cadmium chloride (CdCl2) as the cadmium source, thiourea (CS(NH2)2) as the sulfur source, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) as the buffer salt and ammonia as the complexing agent and the pH controller. The influence of the NH4NO3 concentration on the structure, morphology, film uniformity, stoichiometry and optical properties of CdS thin films was also studied by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscope, uv-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopes. The XRD studies revealed that all the deposited films exhibited a (002)h/(111)c preferred orientation. The crystallite size was increased from 20nm to 30nm by the increase of concentration of NH4NO3 from 0.5M to 2.5M. The morphology of CdS thin films were agglomerated spherical particles consisted of smaller particles. The surface of thin films deposited at the NH4NO3 concentration of 0.5M was compact and smooth. The increase of the concentration of NH4NO3 decreased the packing density of the films. The optical band gap was in the range of 2.25-2.4eV, which was decreased by the decrement of packing density. The PL spectra showed two peaks centered at 400nm and 500nm which are attributed to violet and band-to-band emissions, respectively.

  12. An Experimental Test Facility to Support Development of the Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Aaron, Adam M; Cunningham, Richard Burns; Fugate, David L; Holcomb, David Eugene; Kisner, Roger A; Peretz, Fred J; Robb, Kevin R; Wilgen, John B; Wilson, Dane F

    2014-01-01

    The need for high-temperature (greater than 600 C) energy exchange and delivery systems is significantly increasing as the world strives to improve energy efficiency and develop alternatives to petroleum-based fuels. Liquid fluoride salts are one of the few energy transport fluids that have the capability of operating at high temperatures in combination with low system pressures. The Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor design uses fluoride salt to remove core heat and interface with a power conversion system. Although a significant amount of experimentation has been performed with these salts, specific aspects of this reactor concept will require experimental confirmation during the development process. The experimental facility described here has been constructed to support the development of the Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactor concept. The facility is capable of operating at up to 700 C and incorporates a centrifugal pump to circulate FLiNaK salt through a removable test section. A unique inductive heating technique is used to apply heat to the test section, allowing heat transfer testing to be performed. An air-cooled heat exchanger removes added heat. Supporting loop infrastructure includes a pressure control system; trace heating system; and a complement of instrumentation to measure salt flow, temperatures, and pressures around the loop. The initial experiment is aimed at measuring fluoride salt heat transfer inside a heated pebble bed similar to that used for the core of the pebble bed advanced high-temperature reactor. This document describes the details of the loop design, auxiliary systems used to support the facility, the inductive heating system, and facility capabilities.

  13. Chitosan-mediated siRNA delivery in vitro: effect of polymer molecular weight, concentration and salt forms.

    PubMed

    Techaarpornkul, Sunee; Wongkupasert, Sirirat; Opanasopit, Praneet; Apirakaramwong, Auayporn; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Ruktanonchai, Uracha

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate chitosan/siRNA complexes formulated with various chitosan salts (CS) including chitosan aspartate (CS-Asp), chitosan glutamate (CS-Glu), chitosan acetate (CS-Ac), and chitosan hydrochloride (CS-HCl) for in vitro siRNA delivery into stable and constitutive enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing HeLa cells. The CS/siRNA complexes were characterized by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis and investigated for their transfection efficiency in stable and constitutive EGFP-expressing HeLa cells. The cytotoxicity of the complexes was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The formation of complexes CS/siRNA is mainly dependent on the weight ratio, whereas salt form and molecular weight has less effect. The particle sizes of the complete complexes were in the range of 270-373 nm except the complete complex of CS-Ac, with a slightly positive charge of less than 2 mV. The ability of CS to transfer functionally active siRNA into cell culture is mainly dependent on the weight ratio and molecular weight of CS whereas salt form of CS has less effect. The high gene-silencing efficiency was observed with low MW of CS (20 kDa) and high weight ratio of 32. Over 80% average cell viabilities were observed for CS/siRNA complexes in all weight ratios comparison to untreated cells. This study suggests CS salts have the potential to be used as safe siRNA delivery vectors.

  14. High temperature helical tubular receiver for concentrating solar power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Nazmul

    In the field of conventional cleaner power generation technology, concentrating solar power systems have introduced remarkable opportunity. In a solar power tower, solar energy concentrated by the heliostats at a single point produces very high temperature. Falling solid particles or heat transfer fluid passing through that high temperature region absorbs heat to generate electricity. Increasing the residence time will result in more heat gain and increase efficiency. A novel design of solar receiver for both fluid and solid particle is approached in this paper which can increase residence time resulting in higher temperature gain in one cycle compared to conventional receivers. The helical tubular solar receiver placed at the focused sunlight region meets the higher outlet temperature and efficiency. A vertical tubular receiver is modeled and analyzed for single phase flow with molten salt as heat transfer fluid and alloy625 as heat transfer material. The result is compared to a journal paper of similar numerical and experimental setup for validating our modeling. New types of helical tubular solar receivers are modeled and analyzed with heat transfer fluid turbulent flow in single phase, and granular particle and air plug flow in multiphase to observe the temperature rise in one cyclic operation. The Discrete Ordinate radiation model is used for numerical analysis with simulation software Ansys Fluent 15.0. The Eulerian granular multiphase model is used for multiphase flow. Applying the same modeling parameters and boundary conditions, the results of vertical and helical receivers are compared. With a helical receiver, higher temperature gain of heat transfer fluid is achieved in one cycle for both single phase and multiphase flow compared to the vertical receiver. Performance is also observed by varying dimension of helical receiver.

  15. The Effects of Different Concentrations of Lead Salts on a Variety of Crop Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, Liz; Gibbon, Jamie; Hofgartner, Jon; Mason, Craig; Willmetts, Helen

    2003-01-01

    An investigation is described that would be suitable for A-level or first year degree Biology or Environmental Science students. Crop plants were grown in different concentrations of lead chloride and lead nitrate. French beans, carrots and Brussels sprouts were all inhibited at concentrations over 0.01 mol dm[superscript -3] showing stunted root…

  16. Synthesis of high-molecular-weight polymer of methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate by radiation-induced polymerization at high pressure. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ishigaki, I.; Okada, T.; Sasuga, T.; Takehisa, M.; Machi, S.

    1981-02-01

    Polymer of the methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and its copolymer with acrylamide are used as cationic flocculants for the treatment of waste water containing organic suspensions. As reported, radiation-induced polymerization is one of the most convenient methods because of its temperature independence of initiation and extremely large G-value. In general, a flocculant with higher molecular weight has larger flocculation effects. The high-molecular-weight products were prepared in high monomer concentration and a low dose rate. This paper concerns the polymerization and copolymerization of methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate at high pressure, up to 7000 kg/cm/sup 2/, providing high-molecular-weight cationic flocculants.

  17. Ionic liquid-based electrolyte with binary lithium salts for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feng; Zhu, Qizhen; Chen, Renjie; Chen, Nan; Chen, Yan; Ye, Yusheng; Qian, Ji; Li, Li

    2015-11-01

    Rechargeable Li-S batteries have suffered several technical obstacles, such as rapid capacity fading and low coulombic efficiency. To overcome these problems, we design new electrolytes containing N-methoxyethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-imide (Pyr1,2O1TFSI) and tri(ethylene glycol)dimethyl ether (TEGDME) in mass ratio of 7:3. Moreover, Lithium difluoro(oxalate)borate (LiODFB) is introduced for the modification. Although the addition of LiODFB as additive lead to extremely high viscosity of electrolyte and inferior performance of the cells, the electrolyte containing lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI, 0.84 nm) and LiODFB (0.60 nm) mixture with a total molar concentration of 0.4 mol kg-1 as binary lithium salt shows excellent electrochemical performance. The Pyr1,2O1TFSI/TEGDME electrolyte with LiTFSI/LiODFB binary lithium salts in mole ratio of 6:4 is obtained after optimizing ratio. The Li-S cells containing this electrolyte system show excellent capacity and cycle performance, whose initial discharge capacity is 1264.4 mAh g-1, and retains 911.4 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles with the coulombic efficiency more than 95%. It can be attributed the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI)-forming ability of LiODFB which protect Li anode from suffering lithium dendrites and prevent the shuttle phenomenon. The novel electrolytes provide good cycling stability and high coulombic efficiency for the Li-S batteries, which is suggested as a promising electrolyte for Li-S batteries.

  18. Using Correlated Monte Carlo Sampling for Efficiently Solving the Linearized Poisson-Boltzmann Equation Over a Broad Range of Salt Concentration.

    PubMed

    Fenley, Marcia O; Mascagni, Michael; McClain, James; Silalahi, Alexander R J; Simonov, Nikolai A

    2010-01-01

    Dielectric continuum or implicit solvent models provide a significant reduction in computational cost when accounting for the salt-mediated electrostatic interactions of biomolecules immersed in an ionic environment. These models, in which the solvent and ions are replaced by a dielectric continuum, seek to capture the average statistical effects of the ionic solvent, while the solute is treated at the atomic level of detail. For decades, the solution of the three-dimensional Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE), which has become a standard implicit-solvent tool for assessing electrostatic effects in biomolecular systems, has been based on various deterministic numerical methods. Some deterministic PBE algorithms have drawbacks, which include a lack of properly assessing their accuracy, geometrical difficulties caused by discretization, and for some problems their cost in both memory and computation time. Our original stochastic method resolves some of these difficulties by solving the PBE using the Monte Carlo method (MCM). This new approach to the PBE is capable of efficiently solving complex, multi-domain and salt-dependent problems in biomolecular continuum electrostatics to high precision. Here we improve upon our novel stochastic approach by simultaneouly computating of electrostatic potential and solvation free energies at different ionic concentrations through correlated Monte Carlo (MC) sampling. By using carefully constructed correlated random walks in our algorithm, we can actually compute the solution to a standard system including the linearized PBE (LPBE) at all salt concentrations of interest, simultaneously. This approach not only accelerates our MCPBE algorithm, but seems to have cost and accuracy advantages over deterministic methods as well. We verify the effectiveness of this technique by applying it to two common electrostatic computations: the electrostatic potential and polar solvation free energy for calcium binding proteins that are compared

  19. New promising lithium malonatoborate salts for high voltage lithium ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Xiao -Guang; Wan, Shun; Guang, Hong Yu; ...

    2016-12-01

    Here, three new lithium salts, lithium difluoro-2-methyl-2-fluoromalonaoborate (LiDFMFMB), lithium difluoro-2-ethyl-2-fluoromalonaoborate (LiDFEFMB), and lithium difluoro-2-propyl-2-fluoro malonaoborate (LiDFPFMB), have been synthesized and evaluated for application in lithium ion batteries. These new salts are soluble in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:2 by wt.) and 1.0 M salt solutions can be easily prepared. The ionic conductivities of these new salts are close to those of LiBF4 and LiPF6. Cyclic voltammograms reveal that these new salt based electrolytes can passivate both natural graphite and high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) to form effective solid electrolyte interphases (SEIs). In addition,more » these new salts based electrolytes exhibit good cycling stability with high coulombic efficiencies in both LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells and full cells.« less

  20. New promising lithium malonatoborate salts for high voltage lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao -Guang; Wan, Shun; Guang, Hong Yu; Fang, Youxing; Reeves, Kimberly Shawn; Chi, Miaofang; Dai, Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Here, three new lithium salts, lithium difluoro-2-methyl-2-fluoromalonaoborate (LiDFMFMB), lithium difluoro-2-ethyl-2-fluoromalonaoborate (LiDFEFMB), and lithium difluoro-2-propyl-2-fluoro malonaoborate (LiDFPFMB), have been synthesized and evaluated for application in lithium ion batteries. These new salts are soluble in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:2 by wt.) and 1.0 M salt solutions can be easily prepared. The ionic conductivities of these new salts are close to those of LiBF4 and LiPF6. Cyclic voltammograms reveal that these new salt based electrolytes can passivate both natural graphite and high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) to form effective solid electrolyte interphases (SEIs). In addition, these new salts based electrolytes exhibit good cycling stability with high coulombic efficiencies in both LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells and full cells.

  1. Low molecular weight salts combined with fluorinated solvents for electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Lei, Norman; Guerrero-Zavala, Guillermo; Kwong, Kristie W.

    2015-11-10

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. An electrolyte includes at least one salt having a molecular weight less than about 250. Such salts allow forming electrolytes with higher salt concentrations and ensure high conductivity and ion transport in these electrolytes. The low molecular weight salt may have a concentration of at least about 0.5M and may be combined with one or more other salts, such as linear and cyclic imide salts and/or methide salts. The concentration of these additional salts may be less than that of the low molecular weight salt, in some embodiments, twice less. The additional salts may have a molecular weight greater than about 250. The electrolyte may also include one or more fluorinated solvents and may be capable of maintaining single phase solutions at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C.

  2. Molecular basis of high viscosity in concentrated antibody solutions: Strategies for high concentration drug product development

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, Dheeraj S.; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Satish K.; Goswami, Sumit; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Effective translation of breakthrough discoveries into innovative products in the clinic requires proactive mitigation or elimination of several drug development challenges. These challenges can vary depending upon the type of drug molecule. In the case of therapeutic antibody candidates, a commonly encountered challenge is high viscosity of the concentrated antibody solutions. Concentration-dependent viscosity behaviors of mAbs and other biologic entities may depend on pairwise and higher-order intermolecular interactions, non-native aggregation, and concentration-dependent fluctuations of various antibody regions. This article reviews our current understanding of molecular origins of viscosity behaviors of antibody solutions. We discuss general strategies and guidelines to select low viscosity candidates or optimize lead candidates for lower viscosity at early drug discovery stages. Moreover, strategies for formulation optimization and excipient design are also presented for candidates already in advanced product development stages. Potential future directions for research in this field are also explored. PMID:26736022

  3. Molecular basis of high viscosity in concentrated antibody solutions: Strategies for high concentration drug product development.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Dheeraj S; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Satish K; Goswami, Sumit; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    Effective translation of breakthrough discoveries into innovative products in the clinic requires proactive mitigation or elimination of several drug development challenges. These challenges can vary depending upon the type of drug molecule. In the case of therapeutic antibody candidates, a commonly encountered challenge is high viscosity of the concentrated antibody solutions. Concentration-dependent viscosity behaviors of mAbs and other biologic entities may depend on pairwise and higher-order intermolecular interactions, non-native aggregation, and concentration-dependent fluctuations of various antibody regions. This article reviews our current understanding of molecular origins of viscosity behaviors of antibody solutions. We discuss general strategies and guidelines to select low viscosity candidates or optimize lead candidates for lower viscosity at early drug discovery stages. Moreover, strategies for formulation optimization and excipient design are also presented for candidates already in advanced product development stages. Potential future directions for research in this field are also explored.

  4. Biological denitrification of high concentration nitrate waste

    DOEpatents

    Francis, Chester W.; Brinkley, Frank S.

    1977-01-01

    Biological denitrification of nitrate solutions at concentrations of greater than one kilogram nitrate per cubic meter is accomplished anaerobically in an upflow column having as a packing material a support for denitrifying bacteria.

  5. Horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongcai; Wu, Lin

    2015-07-10

    We present the design of a horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications. This solar concentrator consists of an array of telecentric primary concentrators, a horizontally staggered lightguide layer, and a vertically tapered lightguide layer. The primary concentrator is realized by two plano-aspheric lenses with lateral movement and maintains a high F-number over an angle range of ±23.5°. The results of the simulations show that the solar concentrator achieves a high concentration ratio of 500× with ±0.5° of acceptance angle by a single-axis tracker and dual lateral translation stages.

  6. Molecular biology of cyanobacterial salt acclimation.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    High and changing salt concentrations represent major abiotic factors limiting the growth of microorganisms. During their long evolution, cyanobacteria have adapted to aquatic habitats with various salt concentrations. High salt concentrations in the medium challenge the cell with reduced water availability and high contents of inorganic ions. The basic mechanism of salt acclimation involves the active extrusion of toxic inorganic ions and the accumulation of compatible solutes, including sucrose, trehalose, glucosylglycerol, and glycine betaine. The kinetics of these physiological processes has been exceptionally well studied in the model Synechocystis 6803, leading to the definition of five subsequent phases in reaching a new salt acclimation steady state. Recent '-omics' technologies using the advanced model Synechocystis 6803 have revealed a comprehensive picture of the dynamic process of salt acclimation involving the differential expression of hundreds of genes. However, the mechanisms involved in sensing specific salt stress signals are not well resolved. In the future, analysis of cyanobacterial salt acclimation will be directed toward defining the functions of the many unknown proteins upregulated in salt-stressed cells, identifying specific salt-sensing mechanisms, using salt-resistant strains of cyanobacteria for the production of bioenergy, and applying cyanobacterial stress genes to improve the salt tolerance of sensitive organisms.

  7. Effects of ammonioalkyl sulfonate internal salts on electrokinetic micropump performance and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic separations.

    PubMed

    Reichmuth, David S; Kirby, Brian J

    2003-09-26

    Ammonioalkyl sulfonate internal salts are explored owing to their potential for improving electrokinetic pumps used to perform miniaturized HPLC separations. The internal salts investigated can be added at high molarity since they are net-neutral, and furthermore show potential for increasing electroosmotic pumping owing to their large positive dielectric increment. Streaming potential measurements of buffered aqueous systems with varying concentrations of ammonioalkyl sulfonate internal salts have been used to measure these dielectric increments, which increase with the length of the alkyl linker. Due to their positive dielectric increments and their decremental effect on solution conductivity, all of the measured species are predicted to improve the pressure generation (up to 85%) and efficiency performance (up to 140%) of electrokinetic pumps when added at 1 M concentration. RP-HPLC separations with an ammonioalkyl sulfonate (TMAPS) have been performed and indicate that separation performance is essentially unaffected by these species. These results indicate the potential for a variety of ammonioalkyl sulfonates to be used to improve electrokinetic pump performance for miniaturized HPLC.

  8. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Chen, Baohong; Xiang, Feng; Zhou, Jinxiong; Wang, Hong; Suo, Zhigang

    2014-10-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  9. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Hong E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu; Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong; Suo, Zhigang E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu

    2014-10-13

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  10. High salt diet exacerbates vascular contraction in the absence of adenosine A2A receptor

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Isha; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Ledent, Catherine; Mustafa, S. Jamal; Falck, John R.; Nayeem, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    High salt (4%NaCl, HS) diet modulates adenosine-induced vascular response through adenosine A2A-receptor (A2AAR). Evidence suggests A2AAR stimulates cyp450-epoxygenases, leading to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) generation. The aim of this study was to understand the vascular reactivity to HS and underlying signaling mechanism in the presence or absence of A2AAR. Therefore, we hypothesized that HS enhances adenosine-induced relaxation through EETs in A2AAR+/+, but exaggerates contraction in A2AAR−/−. Organ-bath and Western-blot experiments were conducted in HS and normal salt (NS, 0.18% NaCl)-fed A2AAR+/+ and A2AAR−/− mice aortae. HS produced concentration-dependent relaxation to non-selective adenosine analog, NECA in A2AAR+/+, whereas contraction was observed in A2AAR−/− mice and this was attenuated by A1AR antagonist (DPCPX). CGS-21680 (selective A2AAR-agonist) enhanced relaxation in HS-A2AAR+/+ vs. NS-A2AAR+/+, that was blocked by EETs antagonist (14,15-EEZE). Compared to NS, HS significantly upregulated expression of vasodilators A2AAR and cyp2c29, while vasoconstrictors A1AR and cyp4a in A2AAR+/+ were downregulated. In A2AAR−/− mice, however, HS significantly downregulated the expression of cyp2c29, while A1AR and cyp4a were upregulated compared to A2AAR+/+ mice. Hence, our data suggest that in A2AAR+/+, HS enhances A2AAR-induced relaxation through increased cyp-expoxygenases-derived EETs and decreased A1AR levels, whereas in A2AAR−/−, HS exaggerates contraction through decreased cyp-epoxygenases and increased A1AR levels. PMID:24390173

  11. Protic Salt Polymer Membranes: High-Temperature Water-Free Proton-Conducting Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Gervasio, Dominic Francis

    2010-09-30

    This research on proton-containing (protic) salts directly addresses proton conduction at high and low temperatures. This research is unique, because no water is used for proton ionization nor conduction, so the properties of water do not limit proton fuel cells. A protic salt is all that is needed to give rise to ionized proton and to support proton mobility. A protic salt forms when proton transfers from an acid to a base. Protic salts were found to have proton conductivities that are as high as or higher than the best aqueous electrolytes at ambient pressures and comparable temperatures without or with water present. Proton conductivity of the protic salts occurs providing two conditions exist: i) the energy difference is about 0.8 eV between the protic-salt state versus the state in which the acid and base are separated and 2) the chemical constituents rotate freely. The physical state of these proton-conducting salts can be liquid, plastic crystal as well as solid organic and inorganic polymer membranes and their mixtures. Many acids and bases can be used to make a protic salt which allows tailoring of proton conductivity, as well as other properties that affect their use as electrolytes in fuel cells, such as, stability, adsorption on catalysts, environmental impact, etc. During this project, highly proton conducting (~ 0.1S/cm) protic salts were made that are stable under fuel-cell operating conditions and that gave highly efficient fuel cells. The high efficiency is attributed to an improved oxygen electroreduction process on Pt which was found to be virtually reversible in a number of liquid protic salts with low water activity (< 1% water). Solid flexible non-porous composite membranes, made from inorganic polymer (e.g., 10%indium 90%tin pyrophosphate, ITP) and organic polymer (e.g., polyvinyl pyridinium phosphate, PVPP), were found that give conductivity and fuel cell performances similar to phosphoric acid electrolyte with no need for hydration at

  12. Effects of salt concentrations of the aqueous peptide-amphiphile solutions on the sol-gel transitions, the gelation speed, and the gel characteristics.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Takahiro; Maeda, Tomoki; Hotta, Atsushi

    2014-10-02

    Hydrogels made of peptide amphiphiles (PA) have attracted a lot of interest in biomedical fields. Considering the applications of PA hydrogels, the control of the gelation speed and the gel characteristics is essential to predominantly determine the usefulness and practicability of the hydrogels. In this work, the effects of the salt concentrations using sodium dihydrogenorthophosphate (NaH2PO4) on the sol-gel transition behaviors, especially the gelation speed and the gel characteristics of the designed PA (C16-W3K) hydrogels in aqueous solution were discussed. It was found that the original solution state before rheological testing was independent of the salt concentration, which was confirmed by observing the self-assembly structures and the peptide secondary structures of PA through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD). The PA solutions with different salt concentrations, however, presented a profound difference in the gelation speed and the gel characteristics: the solution exhibited higher gelation speeds and higher mechanical properties at higher salt concentrations. Concurrently, the density, the length of wormlike micelles, and the conformational ratio of β-sheets to α-helices in the equilibrium PA solutions all increased with the increase in the salt concentrations.

  13. Blood and urine responses to ingesting fluids of various salt and glucose concentrations. [to combat orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary A.; Riddle, Jeanne; Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    To compensate for the reduced blood and fluid volumes that develop during weightlessness, the Space Shuttle crewmembers consume salt tablets and water equivalent to 1 l of normal saline, about 2 hrs before landing. This paper compares the effects on blood, urine, and cardiovascular variables of the ingestion of 1 l of normal (0.9 percent) saline with the effects of distilled water, 1 percent glucose, 0.74 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, 0.9 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, and 1.07 percent saline. It was found that the expansion of plasma volume and the concentration of urine were greater 4 hrs after ingestion of 1.07 percent saline solution than after ingestion of normal saline and that the solutions containig glucose did not enhance any variables as compared with normal saline.

  14. Novel application of nanozeolite for radioactive cesium removal from high-salt wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun-Young; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Park, Minsung; Kim, Jimin; Oh, Maengkyo; Lee, Eil-Hee; Chung, Dong-Yong; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2016-05-15

    Finding a striking peculiarity of nanomaterials and evaluating its feasibility for practical use are interesting topics of research. We investigated the application of nanozeolite's outstanding reactivity for a rapid and effective method for radioactive cesium removal in the wastewater generated from nuclear power plant accident, as a new concept. Extremely fast removal of cesium, even without stirring, was achieved by the nanozeolite at efficiencies never observed with bulk materials. The nanozeolite reached an adsorption equilibrium state within 1 min. Cesium adsorption by nanozeolite was demonstrated at reaction rates of orders of magnitude higher than that of larger zeolite phases. This observation was strongly supported by the positive correlation between the rate constant ratio (k2,bulk/k2,nano) and the initial Cs concentrations with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.99. A potential drawback of a nanoadsorbent is the difficulty of particle settling and separation because of its high dispersivity in solution. However, our results also demonstrated that the nanozeolite could be easily precipitated from the high-salt solution with ferric flocculant. The flocculation index reached a steady state within 10 min. A series of our experimental results met the goal of rapid processing in the case of emergency by applying the well-suited nanozeolite adsorption and flocculation.

  15. Solidification of high temperature molten salts for thermal energy storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffield, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The solidification of phase change materials for the high temperature thermal energy storage system of an advanced solar thermal power system has been examined theoretically. In light of the particular thermophysical properties of candidate phase change high temperature salts, such as the eutectic mixture of NaF - MgF2, the heat transfer characteristics of one-dimensional inward solidification for a cylindrical geometry have been studied. The Biot number for the solidified salt is shown to be the critical design parameter for constant extraction heat flux. A fin-on-fin design concept of heat transfer surface augmentation is proposed in an effort to minimize the effects of the salt's low thermal conductivity and large volume change upon fusing.

  16. Concentration-Induced Association in a Protein System Caused by a Highly Directional Patch Attraction.

    PubMed

    Li, Weimin; Persson, Björn A; Lund, Mikael; Bergenholtz, Johan; Zackrisson Oskolkova, Malin

    2016-09-01

    Self-association of the protein lactoferrin is studied in solution using small-angle X-ray scattering techniques. Effective static structure factors have been shown to exhibit either a monotonic or a nonmonotonic dependence on protein concentration in the small wavevector limit, depending on salt concentration. The behavior correlates with a nonmonotonic dependence of the second virial coefficient on salt concentration, such that a maximum appears in the structure factor at a low protein concentration when the second virial coefficient is negative and close to a minimum. The results are interpreted in terms of an integral equation theory with explicit dimers, formulated by Wertheim, which provides a consistent framework able to explain the behavior in terms of a monomer-dimer equilibrium that appears because of a highly directional patch attraction. Short attraction ranges preclude trimer formation, which explains why the protein system behaves as if it were subject to a concentration-dependent isotropic protein-protein attraction. Superimposing an isotropic interaction, comprising screened Coulomb repulsion and van der Waals attraction, on the patch attraction allows for a semiquantitative modeling of the complete transition pathway from monomers in the dilute limit to monomer-dimer systems at somewhat higher protein concentrations.

  17. Potential of Spartina maritima in restored salt marshes for phytoremediation of metals in a highly polluted estuary.

    PubMed

    Curado, G; Rubio-Casal, A E; Figueroa, E; Castillo, J M

    2014-01-01

    Sedimentary abiotic environment, and concentration and stock of nine metals were analyzed in vegetation and sediments to evaluate the phytoremediation capacity of restored Spartina maritima prairies in the highly polluted Odiel Marshes (SW Iberian Peninsula). Samples were collected in two 10 -m long rows parallel to the tidal line at two sediments depths (0-2 cm and 2-20 cm). Metal concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. Iron, aluminum, copper, and zinc were the most concentrated metals. Every metal, except nickel, showed higher concentration in the root zone than at the sediment surface, with values as high as ca. 70 g Fe kg(-1). The highest metal concentrations in S. maritima tissues were recorded in its roots (maximum for iron in Spartina roots: 4160.2 +/- 945.3 mg kg(-1)). Concentrations of aluminum and iron in leaves and roots were higher than in superficial sediments. Rhizosediments showed higher concentrations of every metal than plant tissues, except for nickel. Sediment metal stock in the first 20 cm deep was ca. 170.89 t ha(-1). Restored S. maritima prairies, with relative cover of 62 +/- 6%, accumulated ca. 22 kg metals ha(-1). Our results show S. maritima to be an useful biotool for phytoremediation projects in European salt marshes.

  18. Protective Effect of Salicornia europaea Extracts on High Salt Intake-Induced Vascular Dysfunction and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Panth, Nisha; Park, Sin-Hee; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Deuk-Hoi; Oak, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    High salt intake causes and aggravates arterial hypertension and vascular dysfunction. We investigated the effect of Salicornia europaea extracts (SE) on vascular function and blood pressure. SE constituents were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography, and SE’s effect on vascular function was evaluated in isolated porcine coronary arteries. SE’s vascular protective effect was also evaluated in vivo using normotensive and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs). SE mainly contained sodium chloride (55.6%), 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, p-coumaric acid, and trans-ferulic acid. High sodium (160 mmol/L) induced vascular dysfunction; however, SE containing the same quantity of sodium did not cause vascular dysfunction. Among the compounds in SE, trans-ferulic acid accounts for the vascular protective effect. Normotensive rats fed a high-salt diet showed significantly increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP), which decreased significantly in the SE-treated groups. In SHRs, high edible salt intake significantly increased SBP, DBP, and MAP, but SE intake was associated with a significantly lower MAP. Thus, SE did not induce vascular dysfunction, and trans-ferulic acid might be at least partly responsible for the vasoprotective effect of SE. Taken together, SE could be used as an alternative to purified salt to prevent and ameliorate hypertension. PMID:27455235

  19. High-temperature superconductivity: Electron mirages in an iron salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaanen, Jan

    2014-11-01

    The detection of unusual 'mirage' energy bands in photoemission spectra of single-atom layers of iron selenide reveals the probable cause of high-temperature superconductivity in these artificial structures. See Letter p.245

  20. Discovery of bile salt hydrolase inhibitors using an efficient high-throughput screening system.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katie; Zeng, Ximin; Lin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The global trend of restricting the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in animal production necessitates the need to develop valid alternatives to maintain productivity and sustainability of food animals. Previous studies suggest inhibition of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), an intestinal bacteria-produced enzyme that exerts negative impact on host fat digestion and utilization, is a promising approach to promote animal growth performance. To achieve the long term goal of developing novel alternatives to AGPs, in this study, a rapid and convenient high-throughput screening (HTS) system was developed and successfully used for identification of BSH inhibitors. With the aid of a high-purity BSH from a chicken Lactobacillus salivarius strain, we optimized various screening conditions (e.g. BSH concentration, reaction buffer pH, incubation temperature and length, substrate type and concentration) and establish a precipitation-based screening approach to identify BSH inhibitors using 96-well or 384-well microplates. A pilot HTS was performed using a small compound library comprised of 2,240 biologically active and structurally diverse compounds. Among the 107 hits, several promising and potent BSH inhibitors (e.g. riboflavin and phenethyl caffeate) were selected and validated by standard BSH activity assay. Interestingly, the HTS also identified a panel of antibiotics as BSH inhibitor; in particular, various tetracycline antibiotics and roxarsone, the widely used AGP, have been demonstrated to display potent inhibitory effect on BSH. Together, this study developed an efficient HTS system and identified several BSH inhibitors with potential as alternatives to AGP. In addition, the findings from this study also suggest a new mode of action of AGP for promoting animal growth.

  1. Discovery of Bile Salt Hydrolase Inhibitors Using an Efficient High-Throughput Screening System

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katie; Zeng, Ximin; Lin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The global trend of restricting the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in animal production necessitates the need to develop valid alternatives to maintain productivity and sustainability of food animals. Previous studies suggest inhibition of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), an intestinal bacteria-produced enzyme that exerts negative impact on host fat digestion and utilization, is a promising approach to promote animal growth performance. To achieve the long term goal of developing novel alternatives to AGPs, in this study, a rapid and convenient high-throughput screening (HTS) system was developed and successfully used for identification of BSH inhibitors. With the aid of a high-purity BSH from a chicken Lactobacillus salivarius strain, we optimized various screening conditions (e.g. BSH concentration, reaction buffer pH, incubation temperature and length, substrate type and concentration) and establish a precipitation-based screening approach to identify BSH inhibitors using 96-well or 384-well microplates. A pilot HTS was performed using a small compound library comprised of 2,240 biologically active and structurally diverse compounds. Among the 107 hits, several promising and potent BSH inhibitors (e.g. riboflavin and phenethyl caffeate) were selected and validated by standard BSH activity assay. Interestingly, the HTS also identified a panel of antibiotics as BSH inhibitor; in particular, various tetracycline antibiotics and roxarsone, the widely used AGP, have been demonstrated to display potent inhibitory effect on BSH. Together, this study developed an efficient HTS system and identified several BSH inhibitors with potential as alternatives to AGP. In addition, the findings from this study also suggest a new mode of action of AGP for promoting animal growth. PMID:24454844

  2. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. VI. Spectral graph analysis of chaotropic ion aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2016-11-01

    Carrying out molecular dynamics simulations and graph theoretical analyses of high salt solutions, and comparing numerically calculated vibrational spectroscopic properties of water with femtosecond IR pump-probe experimental data, we have recently found that ions in high salt solutions can form two morphologically different ion aggregate structures. In the cases of NaCl solutions, Na+ and Cl- tend to form compact cluster-like ion aggregate in high NaCl solutions. In contrast, K+ and SCN- form spatially extended network-like ion aggregates that also exhibit a percolating network behavior. Interestingly, a variety of graph theoretical properties of ion network in high KSCN solutions were found to be very similar to those of water H-bonding network. It was shown that spatially extended ion networks in high KSCN solutions are completely intertwined with water H-bonding networks, which might be the key to understand the high solubility of thiocyanate salts in water. Here, we further consider two salts that have been extensively studied experimentally by using femtosecond IR pump-probe technique, which are NaClO4 and NaBF4. Note that ClO4 - and BF4 - are well-known chaotropic ions that have been believed to behave as water structure breaker. To understand how such chaotropic ions affect water H-bonding structure, we carried out spectral graph analyses of molecular dynamics simulation data of these aqueous solutions. Graph spectra and degree distribution of ion aggregates formed in high NaBF4 and NaClO4 solutions show that these chaotropic anions also have a strong propensity to form ion networks. The fact that salts containing chaotropic ions like SCN-, BF4 - , and ClO4 - have very high solubility limits in water could then be related to our observation that these chaotropic anions with counter cations in high salt solutions are capable of forming intricate ion networks intertwined with water H-bonding networks. We anticipate that the present graph theoretical analysis

  3. Uranium isotopic composition and uranium concentration in special reference material SRM A (uranium in KCl/LiCl salt matrix)

    SciTech Connect

    Graczyk, D.G.; Essling, A.M.; Sabau, C.S.; Smith, F.P.; Bowers, D.L.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1997-07-01

    To help assure that analysis data of known quality will be produced in support of demonstration programs at the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West (Idaho Falls, ID), a special reference material has been prepared and characterized. Designated SRM A, the material consists of individual units of LiCl/KCl eutectic salt containing a nominal concentration of 2.5 wt. % enriched uranium. Analyses were performed at Argonne National Laboratory-East (Argonne, IL) to determine the uniformity of the material and to establish reference values for the uranium concentration and uranium isotopic composition. Ten units from a batch of approximately 190 units were analyzed by the mass spectrometric isotope dilution technique to determine their uranium concentration. These measurements provided a mean value of 2.5058 {+-} 0.0052 wt. % U, where the uncertainty includes estimated limits to both random and systematic errors that might have affected the measurements. Evidence was found of a small, apparently random, non-uniformity in uranium content of the individual SRM A units, which exhibits a standard deviation of 0.078% of the mean uranium concentration. Isotopic analysis of the uranium from three units, by means of thermal ionization mass spectrometry with a special, internal-standard procedure, indicated that the uranium isotopy is uniform among the pellets with a composition corresponding to 0.1115 {+-} 0.0006 wt. % {sup 234}U, 19.8336 {+-} 0.0059 wt. % {sup 235}U, 0.1337 {+-} 0.0006 wt. % {sup 236}U, and 79.9171 {+-} 0.0057 wt. % {sup 238}U.

  4. Thermoelastic properties of rock-salt NaCl at high pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M. L. M.; Shukla, G.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Rock-salt NaCl is an important mineral in our daily lives, in high pressure science/technology, and in the oil/gas industry. The latter has come to prominence since the discovery of deep water pre-salt structures containing great hydrocarbon reserves out of the SE coast of Brazil. The unique aspects of these regions, such as deep water (greater than 2 km below sea level) and deep hydrocarbon reserves (more than 5 km deep) are challenging for oil/gas explorations. Oil/gas field imaging algorithms require good velocity models for seismic wave-propagation within the salt layer. Despite its importance, there is still insufficient information on the elasticity of and sound velocities in NaCl at relevant P,T conditions. Here we report such properties in rock-salt NaCl at relevant P,T conditions as obtained by first principles (DFT) quasiharmonic calculations. We compare intermediate and final results with available experimental data on thermodynamics and thermoelastic properties and combine them for optimum accuracy. These results should be useful for and facilitate imaging pre-salt hydrocarbon reserves. Research supported by CAPES from Brazil, NSF/DMR, and NSF/EAR.

  5. Enhanced Cycling Stability of Rechargeable Li-O2 Batteries Using High Concentration Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Wu; Yan, Pengfei; Sun, Xiuliang; Bowden, Mark E.; Read, Jeffrey; Qian, Jiangfeng; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2016-01-26

    The electrolyte stability against reactive reduced-oxygen species is crucial for the development of rechargeable Li-O2 batteries. In this work, we systematically investigated the effect of lithium salt concentration in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME)-based electrolytes on the cycling stability of Li-O2 batteries. Cells with high concentration electrolyte illustrate largely enhanced cycling stability under both the full discharge/charge (2.0-4.5 V vs. Li/Li+) and the capacity limited (at 1,000 mAh g-1) conditions. These cells also exhibit much less reaction-residual on the charged air electrode surface, and much less corrosion to the Li metal anode. The density functional theory calculations are conducted on the molecular orbital energies of the electrolyte components and the Gibbs activation barriers for superoxide radical anion to attack DME solvent and Li+-(DME)n solvates. In a highly concentrated electrolyte, all DME molecules have been coordinated with salt and the C-H bond scission of a DME molecule becomes more difficult. Therefore, the decomposition of highly concentrated electrolyte in a Li-O2 battery can be mitigated and both air-cathodes and Li-metal anodes exhibits much better reversibility. As a results, the cyclability of Li-O2 can be largely improved.

  6. High-temperature molten salt thermal energy storage systems for solar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petri, R. J.; Claar, T. D.

    1980-01-01

    Alkali and alkaline earth carbonate latent-heat storage salts, metallic containment materials, and thermal conductivity enhancement materials were investigated to satisfy the high temperature (704 to 871 C) thermal energy storage requirements of advanced solar-thermal power generation concepts are described. Properties of the following six salts selected for compatibility studies are given: three pure carbonates, K2CO3, Li2CO3 and Na2CO3; two eutectic mixtures, BaCO3/Na2CO3 and K2CO3/NaCO3, and one off-eutectic mixture of Na2CO3/K2CO3.

  7. High-temperature molten salt thermal energy storage systems for solar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, R. J.; Claar, T. D.

    1980-03-01

    Alkali and alkaline earth carbonate latent-heat storage salts, metallic containment materials, and thermal conductivity enhancement materials were investigated to satisfy the high temperature (704 to 871 C) thermal energy storage requirements of advanced solar-thermal power generation concepts are described. Properties of the following six salts selected for compatibility studies are given: three pure carbonates, K2CO3, Li2CO3 and Na2CO3; two eutectic mixtures, BaCO3/Na2CO3 and K2CO3/NaCO3, and one off-eutectic mixture of Na2CO3/K2CO3.

  8. Graphene Oxide Nanofiltration Membranes Stabilized by Cationic Porphyrin for High Salt Rejection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Ling; Lin, Fu-Wen; Du, Yong; Zhang, Xi; Wu, Jian; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2016-05-25

    Swelling has great influences on the structure stability and separation performance of graphene oxide laminate membranes (GOLMs) for water desalination and purification. Herein, we report cross-linked GOLMs from GO assembled with cationic tetrakis(1-methyl-pyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin (TMPyP) by a vacuum-assisted strategy. The concave nonoxide regions (G regions) of GO are used as cross-linking sites for the first time to precisely control the channel size for water permeation and salt ion retention. Channels around 1 nm are constructed by modulating the assembly ratio of TMPyP/GO, and these cross-linked GOLMs show high salt rejection.

  9. Effect of concentration, homogenization and stabilizing salts on heat stability and rheological properties of cow skim milk ultrafiltered retentate.

    PubMed

    Meena, Ganga Sahay; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Borad, Sanket; Panjagari, Narender Raju

    2016-11-01

    Ultrafiltration (UF) of skimmed milk altered the composition of UF retentate and decreased the heat stability. Heat stability further reduced upon its subsequent homogenization or diafiltration. Poor heat stability of UF retentate restricts its processing at elevated temperatures. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of protein concentration, homogenization and addition of stabilizing salts on the heat stability and rheological properties of UF retentates. Changes in the heat stability of fivefold homogenized UF retentate (5× HUFR) was studied in the pH range of 6.1-7.0. Disodium phosphate and trisodium citrate significantly increased the heat coagulation time (HCT) from 1.45 min (pH 6.41) to 120 min (at pH 6.5, 6.6, 7.0) and 80 min (pH 6.6), respectively. Significant reduction in ζ-potential of UF retentates was observed with an increase in calcium and reduction in pH during UF process. Rheological behaviour of retentates above threefold concentration exhibited Herschel-Bulkley behavior with linear increase in flow behavior index (n). Changes in the viscosity of the homogenized retentates were measured at the respective pH of maximum heat stability as a function of temperature (20-80 °C). Promising approaches that might improve the heat stability, solubility and other functional properties of protein rich powders have been discussed in this article.

  10. Corrosion of high temperature alloys in solar salt at 400, 500, and 680ÀC.

    SciTech Connect

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Gill, David Dennis; LaFord, Marianne Elizabeth

    2013-09-01

    Corrosion tests at 400, 500, and 680ÀC were performed using four high temperature alloys; 347SS, 321SS In625, and HA230. Molten salt chemistry was monitored over time through analysis of nitrite, carbonate, and dissolved metals. Metallography was performed on alloys at 500 and 680ÀC, due to the relatively thin oxide scale observed at 400ÀC. At 500ÀC, corrosion of iron based alloys took the form of chromium depletion and iron oxides, while nickel based alloys also had chromium depletion and formation of NiO. Chromium was detected in relatively low concentrations at this temperature. At 680ÀC, significant surface corrosion occurred with metal losses greater than 450microns/year after 1025hours of exposure. Iron based alloys formed complex iron, sodium, and chromium oxides. Some data suggests grain boundary chromium depletion of 321SS. Nickel alloys formed NiO and metallic nickel corrosion morphologies, with HA230 displaying significant internal oxidation in the form of chromia. Nickel alloys both exhibited worse corrosion than iron based alloys likely due to preferential dissolution of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten.

  11. [Screening of epoxy-degrading halophiles and their application in high-salt wastewater treatment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Xu, Zhen; Peng, Shu-Chuan; Xia, Ming-Shan; Yue, Zheng-Bo; Chen, Tian-Hn

    2013-04-01

    In this study, two halophilic bacteria were isolated from activated sludge in the epoxy wastewater treatment system. The strains were identified, and the growth and degradation characteristics were investigated. Strain J1 and J2 was identified respectively by morphological observation and 16S rDNA sequence alignment analysis. It was found that both strains belong to the Bacillus genus (Bacillus sp.) and branch Bacillus (Virgibacillus sp.). The optimized growth condition of strain J1 and J2 in the high salt CM culture medium was as follows: solution temperature 30 degrees C, pH 7.0 and 5-50 g x L(-1) of NaCl. Furthermore, the best degradation condition of the organic epoxy wastewater was: temperature 30 degrees C, pH 7.0 and NaCl concentration 30 g x L(-1). When the volume ratio of bacterial suspension mixture of J1 and J2 was 2:1 and the inoculum size of the composite strains was 10%, the highest COD removal efficiency was achieved in the epoxy wastewater treatment.

  12. Acidification trends in south Swedish forest soils 1986-2008 - slow recovery and high sensitivity to sea-salt episodes.

    PubMed

    Akselsson, Cecilia; Hultberg, Hans; Karlsson, Per Erik; Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla; Hellsten, Sofie

    2013-02-01

    Soil water chemistry in forest soils over 20 years was studied at nine sites in southern Sweden. The aim was to investigate the recovery from acidification and the influence of strong sea salt episodes that occur in the region. All sites but one showed signs of recovery from acidification along with the reduced sulphur deposition, but the recovery progress was slow and the soil water was in most cases still highly acidic at the end of the period. In several cases the recovery was delayed by episodes of sea salt deposition, leading to transient acidification. The less marked decrease of sulphur concentrations in soil water than of sulphur deposition, highlighted the importance of sulphur adsorption/desorption in the acidification and recovery process. Nitrogen retention capacity was exceeded on one site, leading to nitrate leaching and extremely low pH. Storm fellings on two sites in the end of the period led to effects similar to those of regeneration fellings. It was concluded that the soils in the region are in an early stage of recovery. The future progress of recovery strongly depends on future nitrogen retention of forest soils and the frequency of sea salt episodes.

  13. Effect of various salts on the stability of lansoprazole, omeprazole, and pantoprazole as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ekpe, A; Jacobsen, T

    1999-09-01

    A fast and reproducible reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay method has been developed for the simultaneous quantitation of omeprazole, lansoprazole, and pantoprazole. The three compounds were monitored at 280 nm using Zorbax Eclipse XDB C8 (5 microns, 150 cm x 4.6 mm i.d.) and a mobile phase consisting of 700:300 phosphate buffer:acetonitrile with the pH adjusted to 7.0 with phosphoric acid. The method was used to study the effect of pH and various salts on the stability of the three compounds. The pH rate profile curve showed that pantoprazole was the most stable compound and lansoprazole the least stable. The stabilities of the compounds in salt solutions were found to be in the following order: phosphate buffer < trisodium citrate < citrate buffer < or = acetate buffer < citric acid < or = monosodium citrate < or = calcium carbonate < sodium bicarbonate < sodium chloride < water. The rate of degradation had a direct relationship with the H+ and salt concentration.

  14. Highland High School Vocational Television; a Salt Lake Schools Exemplary Vocational Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, LaMar C.

    The Highland High School (Salt Lake City, Utah) vocational television production program was designed to provide students with marketable skills in color television studio operation. Among the skills covered in the program were camera set-up and operation, video engineering, production switching, directing, television lighting, audio engineering,…

  15. Esterification and Transesterification of greases to fatty acid methyl esters with highly active diphenylamine salts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diphenylamine sulfate (DPAS) and diphenylamine hydrochloride (DPACl) salts were found to be highly active catalysts for esterification and transesterification of inexpensive greases to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). In the presence of catalytic amounts of DPAS or DPACl and excess methanol, the fr...

  16. Esterification and transesterification of greases to fatty acid methyl esters with highly active diphanylammonium salts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have conducted an investigation designed to identify alternate catalysts for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to be used as biodiesel. Diphenylammonium sulfate (DPAS) and diphenylammonium chloride (DPA-HCl) salts were found to be highly active homogeneous catalysts for the simu...

  17. Tungsten carbide production from ore concentrates by molten salt-natural gas sparging treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Carnahan, T.G.; Kazonich, G.; Raddatz, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a bench-scale study to delineate the important parameters in a three-step process to produce commercial-quality tungsten carbide (WC) directly from tungsten minerals. In the process, tungsten concentrates of wolframite or wolframite and scheelite are decomposed at 1,050{sup 0}C in a molten mixture of NcCl and Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} that forms two immiscible phases. Tungsten, as sodium tungstate, reports to the halide phase and is separated from the gangue constituents, which report to the silicate phase. After decanting to separate the two phases, natural gas is sparged into the molten halide phase a 1,070{sup 0}C. Submicrometer crystals of WC are initially produced. These crystals grow into thin triangular-shaped plates up to 100 {mu}m on a side or into popcorn-shaped conglomerates. Sparged WC was examined for its suitability for use in sintered carbide products. In physical evaluations, sparged WC ground to an average particle size of 1.52 {mu}m and compacted with 10 pct Co binder into standard 6-by 22-mm test bars had a density of 14.35 and a Rockwell A hardness of 89.6. This compared favorably with 14.39 and 89.7 respectively, for test bars made from a standard commercial 1.52-{mu}m WC powder. Test bars made from Bureau of Mines WC had no C'' porosity or eta phase.

  18. High-Temperature Salt Pump Review and Guidelines - Phase I Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, Kevin R.; Jain, Prashant K.; Hazelwood, Thomas J.

    2016-05-01

    Fluoride salt cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) concepts include pumps for forced circulation of the primary and secondary coolants. As part of a cooperative research and development agreement between the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a research project was initiated to aid in the development of pumps for high-temperature salts. The objectives of the task included characterization of the behavior of an existing ORNL LSTL pump; design and test a modified impeller and volute for improved pump characteristics; and finally, provide lessons learned, recommendations, and guidelines for salt pump development and design. The pump included on the liquid salt test loop (LSTL) at ORNL served as a case study. This report summarizes the progress to date. The report is organized as follows. First, there is a review, focused on pumps, of the significant amount of work on salts at ORNL during the 1950s 1970s. The existing pump on the LSTL is then described. Plans for hot and cold testing of the pump are then discussed, including the design for a cold shakedown test stand and the required LSTL modifications for hot testing. Initial hydraulic and vibration modeling of the LSTL pump is documented. Later, test data from the LSTL will be used to validate the modeling approaches, which could then be used for future pump design efforts. Some initial insights and test data from the pump are then provided. Finally, some preliminary design goals and requirements for a future LSTL pump are provided as examples of salt pump design considerations.

  19. Up-regulation of neutrophil activating protein in Helicobacter pylori under high-salt stress: structural and phylogenetic comparison with bacterial iron-binding ferritins.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jiahn-Haur; Sun, Yu-Huan; Hsu, Chun-Hua; Lin, Yu-Ching; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Kuo, Chao-Jen; Huang, Chun-Hao; Chiou, Shyh-Horng

    2013-06-01

    It is generally accepted that most gastrointestinal diseases are probably caused by the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). In this study we have focused on the comparison of protein expression profiles of H. pylori grown under normal and high-salt conditions by a proteomics approach. We have identified about 190 proteins whose expression levels changed after growth at high salt concentration. Among these proteins, neutrophil-activating protein (NapA) was found to be consistently up-regulated under osmotic stress brought by high salts. We have investigated the effect of high salt on secondary and tertiary structures of NapA by circular dichroism spectroscopy followed by analytical ultracentrifugation to monitor the change of quaternary structure of recombinant NapA with increasing salt concentration. The loss of iron-binding activity of NapA coupled with noticeable energetic variation in protein association of NapA as revealed by isothermal titration calorimetry was found under high salt condition. The phylogenetic tree analysis based on sequence comparison of 16 protein sequences encompassing NapA proteins and ferritin of H. pylori and other prokaryotic organisms pointed to the fact that all H. pylori NapA proteins of human origin are more homologous to NapA of Helicobacter genus than to other bacterial NapA. Based on computer modeling, NapA proteins from H. pylori of human isolates are found more similar to ferritin from H. pylori than to NapA from other species of bacteria. Taken together, these results suggested that divergent evolution of NapA and ferritin possessing dissimilar and diverse sequences follows a path distinct from that of convergent evolution of NapA and ferritin with similar dual functionality of iron-binding and ferroxidase activities.

  20. Highly Soluble Alkoxide Magnesium Salts for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chen; Guo, Bingkun; Jiang, Deen; Custelcean, Radu; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    A unique class of air-stable and non-pyrophoric magnesium electrolytes has been developed based on alkoxide magnesium compounds. The crystals obtained from this class of electrolytes exhibit a unique structure of tri-magnesium cluster, [Mg3Cl3(OR)2(THF)6]+ [(THF)MgCl3] . High reversible capacities and good rate capabilities were obtained in Mg-Mo6S8 batteries using these new electrolytes at both 20 and 50 oC.

  1. Effects of salt concentration and pH on structural and functional properties of Lactobacillus acidophilus: FT-IR spectroscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Akanksha; Shah, Nagendra P

    2014-03-03

    The effects of sodium chloride concentration and varying pH levels on the structural and functional properties of Lactobacillus acidophilus were investigated. Reconstituted skim milk was inoculated with Lb. acidophilus at varying salt concentrations (0, 1, 2, 5 and 10% NaCl) and pH levels (4.0, 5.0 and 6.0) and ACE-inhibitory activity and proteolytic activity were determined and the viable cell count was enumerated after 24h of fermentation at 37 °C. The degree of proteolysis exhibited an increase with higher salt concentration at pH 5.0 and 6.0. ACE-inhibitory activity was found to be the highest at pH 5.0 at all salt concentrations. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results demonstrated significant changes occurring beyond 2% NaCl particularly at low pH (4.0). The findings revealed that significant changes occurred in amide I and amide III regions when Lb. acidophilus was subjected to varying salt concentrations.

  2. Determination of activity coefficient of lanthanum chloride in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt as a function of cesium chloride and lanthanum chloride concentrations using electromotive force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagri, Prashant; Simpson, Michael F.

    2016-12-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of lanthanides in molten salt systems is of significant scientific interest for the spent fuel reprocessing of Generation IV reactors. In this study, the apparent standard reduction potential (apparent potential) and activity coefficient of LaCl3 were determined in a molten salt solution of eutectic LiCl-KCl as a function of concentration of LaCl3. The effect of adding up to 1.40 mol % CsCl was also investigated. These properties were determined by measuring the open circuit potential of the La-La(III) redox couple in a high temperature molten salt electrochemical cell. Both the apparent potential and activity coefficient exhibited a strong dependence on concentration. A low concentration (0.69 mol %) of CsCl had no significant effect on the measured properties, while a higher concentration (1.40 mol %) of CsCl caused an increase (become more positive) in the apparent potential and activity coefficient at the higher range of LaCl3 concentrations.

  3. Hypertension induced by high salt intake in absence of volume retention in reduced renal mass rats.

    PubMed

    Cowley, A W; Skelton, M M; Papanek, P E; Greene, A S

    1994-11-01

    Reduction of renal mass (RRM) combined with a high-salt diet results in volume retention, a rise of cardiac output, and hypertension. The present studies were designed to determine whether prevention of volume retention would alter the rise of mean arterial pressure (MAP) in RRM rats given high salt. Rats were studied in a modified metabolic cage to permit continuous determination of total body weight (TBW). In group 1, NaCl was increased from 1 to 14.5 meq/day and delivered isotonically. In group 2, NaCl was increased while TBW was servo-controlled to a constant level. Group 3 was also servo-controlled, but rats received an intravenous infusion of an arginine vasopressin V1 antagonist throughout the study. MAP in group 1 rose 24 mmHg by day 4 of high salt with a parallel increase of TBW of 26 g. In group 2, MAP rose 48 mmHg by day 4 of high salt, while TBW was controlled to within 0.6% of control body weight. With inhibition of vasopressin V1 receptors (group 3), MAP rose 39 mmHg. Nearly equivalent amounts of NaCl were retained in all groups, which was associated with no change of plasma Na in group 1 but an increase of nearly 7 meq/ml in groups 2 and 3. Hematocrit fell nearly 9% in groups 2 and 3 compared with a 4% reduction in group 1. The results suggest that under conditions where net retention cannot occur, high salt intake increases MAP by an osmotically driven fluid transfer from cells, which results in an even greater expansion of blood volume.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Decadal-scale changes in dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater used for public supply, Salt Lake Valley, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan; Spangler, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Basin-fill aquifers are a major source of good-quality water for public supply in many areas of the southwestern United States and have undergone increasing development as populations have grown over time. During 2005, the basin-fill aquifer in Salt Lake Valley, Utah, provided approximately 75,000 acre-feet, or about 29 percent of the total amount of water used by a population of 967,000. Groundwater in the unconsolidated basin-fill deposits that make up the aquifer occurs under unconfined and confined conditions. Water in the shallow unconfined part of the groundwater system is susceptible to near-surface contamination and generally is not used as a source of drinking water. Groundwater for public supply is withdrawn from the deeper unconfined and confined parts of the system, termed the principal aquifer, because yields generally are greater and water quality is better (including lower dissolved-solids concentrations) than in the shallower parts of the system. Much of the water in the principal aquifer is derived from recharge in the adjacent Wasatch Range (mountain-block recharge). In many areas, the principal aquifer is separated from the overlying shallow aquifer by confining layers of less permeable, fine-grained sediment that inhibit the downward movement of water and any potential contaminants from the surface. Nonetheless, under certain hydrologic conditions, human-related activities can increase dissolved-solids concentrations in the principal aquifer and result in groundwater becoming unsuitable for consumption without treatment or mixing with water having lower dissolved-solids concentrations. Dissolved-solids concentrations in areas of the principal aquifer used for public supply typically are less than 500 milligrams per liter (mg/L), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) secondary (nonenforceable) drinking-water standard. However, substantial increases in dissolved-solids concentrations in the principal aquifer have been documented in some

  5. The formation of thermohaline staircases for large salt concentration differences in double diffusive convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yantao; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-11-01

    In the upper layers of the tropical and subtropical ocean, step-like mean profiles for both temperature and salinity are often observed, a phenomenon referred to as thermohaline staircase. It consists of alternatively stacked mixing layers, and finger layers with sharp gradients in both mean temperature and salinity. It is believed that thermohaline staircases are caused by double diffusive convection (DDC), i.e. the convection flow with fluid density affected by two different scalars. Here we conducted direct numerical simulations of DDC bounded by two parallel plates and aimed to realise the multi-layer state similar to the oceanic thermohaline staircase. We applied an unstable salinity difference and a stable temperature difference across the two plates. We gradually increased the salinity Rayleigh number RaS , i.e. the strength of salinity difference, and fixed the relative strength of temperature difference. When RaS is high enough the flow undergoes a transition from a single finger layer to a triple layer state, where one mixing layer emerges between two finger layers. Such triple layer state is stable up to the turbulent diffusive time scale. The finger-layer height is larger for higher RaS . The dependences of the scalar fluxes on RaS were also investigated. Supported by Dutch FOM Foundation and NWO rpogramme MCEC; Computing resources from SURFSara and PRACE project 2015133124.

  6. High-temperature molten salt thermal energy storage systems for solar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petri, R. J.; Claar, T. D.; Ong, E.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental results of compatibility screening studies of 100 salt/containment/thermal conductivity enhancement (TCE) combinations for the high temperature solar thermal application range of 704 deg to 871 C (1300 to 1600 F) are presented. Nine candidate containment/HX alloy materials and two TCE materials were tested with six candidate solar thermal alkali and alkaline earth carbonate storage salts (both reagent and technical grade of each). Compatibility tests were conducted with salt encapsulated in approx. 6.0 inch x 1 inch welded containers of test material from 300 to 3000 hours. Compatibility evaluations were end application oriented, considering the potential 30 year lifetime requirement of solar thermal power plant components. Analyses were based on depth and nature of salt side corrosion of materials, containment alloy thermal aging effects, weld integrity in salt environment, air side containment oxidation, and chemical and physical analyses of the salt. A need for more reliable, and in some cases first time determined thermophysical and transport property data was also identified for molten carbonates in the 704 to 871 C temperature range. In particular, accurate melting point (mp) measurements were performed for Li2CO3 and Na2CO3 while melting point, heat of fusion, and specific heat determinations were conducted on 81.3 weight percent Na2CO3-18.7 weight percent K2CO3 and 52.2 weight percent BaCO3-47.8 weight percent Na2CO3 to support future TES system design and ultimate scale up of solar thermal energy storage (TES) subsystems.

  7. High-temperature molten salt thermal energy storage systems for solar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, R. J.; Claar, T. D.; Ong, E.

    1983-07-01

    Experimental results of compatibility screening studies of 100 salt/containment/thermal conductivity enhancement (TCE) combinations for the high temperature solar thermal application range of 704 deg to 871 C (1300 to 1600 F) are presented. Nine candidate containment/HX alloy materials and two TCE materials were tested with six candidate solar thermal alkali and alkaline earth carbonate storage salts (both reagent and technical grade of each). Compatibility tests were conducted with salt encapsulated in approx. 6.0 inch x 1 inch welded containers of test material from 300 to 3000 hours. Compatibility evaluations were end application oriented, considering the potential 30 year lifetime requirement of solar thermal power plant components. Analyses were based on depth and nature of salt side corrosion of materials, containment alloy thermal aging effects, weld integrity in salt environment, air side containment oxidation, and chemical and physical analyses of the salt. A need for more reliable, and in some cases first time determined thermophysical and transport property data was also identified for molten carbonates in the 704 to 871 C temperature range. In particular, accurate melting point (mp) measurements were performed for Li2CO3 and Na2CO3 while melting point, heat of fusion, and specific heat determinations were conducted on 81.3 weight percent Na2CO3-18.7 weight percent K2CO3 and 52.2 weight percent BaCO3-47.8 weight percent Na2CO3 to support future TES system design and ultimate scale up of solar thermal energy storage (TES) subsystems.

  8. ICP-MS nebulizer performance for analysis of SRS high salt simulated radioactive waste tank solutions ({number_sign}3053)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, V.D.

    1997-11-01

    High Level Radioactive Waste Tanks at the Savannah River Site are high in salt content. The cross-flow nebulizer provided the most stable signal for all salt matrices with the smallest signal loss/suppression due to this matrix. The DIN exhibited a serious lack of tolerance for TDS; possibly due to physical de-tuning of the nebulizer efficiency.

  9. Conformational transitions of duplex and triplex nucleic acid helices: thermodynamic analysis of effects of salt concentration on stability using preferential interaction coefficients.

    PubMed Central

    Bond, J. P.; Anderson, C. F.; Record, M. T.

    1994-01-01

    For order-disorder transitions of double- and triple-stranded nucleic acid helices, the midpoint temperatures Tm depend strongly on a +/-, the mean ionic activity of uniunivalent salt. Experimental determinations of dTm/d ln a +/- and of the enthalpy change (delta H(o)) accompanying the transition in excess salt permit evaluation of delta gamma, the stoichiometrically weighted combination of preferential interaction coefficients, each of which reflects thermodynamic effects of interactions of salt ions with a reactant or product of the conformational transition (formula; see text) Here delta H(o) is defined per mole of nucleotide by analogy to delta gamma. Application of Eq. 1 to experimental values of delta H(o) and Tm yields values of delta gamma for the denaturation of B-DNA over the range of NaCl concentrations 0.01-0.20 M (Privalov et al. (1969), Biopolymers 8,559) and for each of four order-disorder transitions of poly rA.(poly rU)n, n = 1, 2 over the range of NaCl concentrations 0.01-1.0 M (Krakauer and Sturtevant (1968), Biopolymers 6, 491). For denaturation of duplexes and triplexes, delta gamma is negative and not significantly dependent on a +/-, but delta gamma is positive and dependent on a +/- for the disproportionation transition of poly rA.poly rU duplexes. Quantitative interpretations of these trends and magnitudes of delta gamma in terms of coulombic and excluded volume effects are obtained by fitting separately each of the two sets of thermodynamic data using Eq. 1 with delta gamma PB evaluated from the cylindrically symmetric Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation for a standard model of salt-polyelectrolyte solutions. The only structural parameters required by this model are: b, the mean axial distance between the projections of adjacent polyion charges onto the cylindrical axis; and a, the mean distance of closest approach between a salt ion center and the cylindrical axis. Fixing bMS and aMS for the multi-stranded (ordered) conformations, we

  10. In Situ Raman Spectroscopic Studies on Concentration of Electrolyte Salt in Lithium-Ion Batteries by Using Ultrafine Multifiber Probes.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Toshiro; Nakagawa, Hiroe; Tsubouchi, Shigetaka; Domi, Yasuhiro; Doi, Takayuki; Abe, Takeshi; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2017-03-09

    Lithium-ion batteries have attracted considerable attention due to their high power density. The change in concentration of salt in the electrolyte solution in lithium-ion batteries during operation causes serious degradation of battery performance. Herein, a new method of in situ Raman spectroscopy with ultrafine multifiber probes was developed to simultaneously study the concentrations of ions at several different positions in the electrolyte solution in deep narrow spaces between the electrodes in batteries. The total amount of ions in the electrolyte solution clearly changed during operation due to the low permeability of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) at the anode for Li(+) permeation. The permeability, which is a key factor to achieve high battery performance, was improved (enhanced) by adding film-forming additives to the electrolyte solution to modify the properties of the SEI. The results provide important information for understanding and predicting phenomena occurring in a battery and for designing a superior battery. The present method is useful for analysis in deep narrow spaces in other electrochemical devices, such as capacitors.

  11. High salt diet exacerbates vascular contraction in the absence of adenosine A₂A receptor.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Isha; Zeldin, Darryl C; Ledent, Catherine; Mustafa, Jamal S; Falck, John R; Nayeem, Mohammed A

    2014-05-01

    High salt (4% NaCl, HS) diet modulates adenosine-induced vascular response through adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)AR). Evidence suggests that A(2A)AR stimulates cyp450-epoxygenases, leading to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) generation. The aim of this study was to understand the vascular reactivity to HS and underlying signaling mechanism in the presence or absence of A(2A)AR. Therefore, we hypothesized that HS enhances adenosine-induced relaxation through EETs in A(2A)AR⁺/⁺, but exaggerates contraction in A(2A)AR⁻/⁻. Organ bath and Western blot experiments were conducted in HS and normal salt (NS, 0.18% NaCl)-fed A(2A)AR⁺/⁺ and A(2A)AR⁻/⁻ mice aorta. HS produced concentration-dependent relaxation to non-selective adenosine analog, NECA in A(2A)AR⁺/⁺, whereas contraction was observed in A(2A)AR⁻/⁻ mice and this was attenuated by A₁AR antagonist (DPCPX). CGS 21680 (selective A(2A)AR agonist) enhanced relaxation in HS-A(2A)AR⁺/⁺ versus NS-A(2A)AR⁺/⁺, which was blocked by EETs antagonist (14,15-EEZE). Compared with NS, HS significantly upregulated the expression of vasodilators A(2A)AR and cyp2c29, whereas vasoconstrictors A₁AR and cyp4a in A(2A)AR⁺/⁺ were downregulated. In A(2A)AR⁻/⁻ mice, however, HS significantly downregulated the expression of cyp2c29, whereas A₁AR and cyp4a were upregulated compared with A(2A)AR⁺/⁺ mice. Hence, our data suggest that in A(2A)AR⁺/⁺, HS enhances A(2A)AR-induced relaxation through increased cyp-expoxygenases-derived EETs and decreased A₁AR levels, whereas in A(2A)AR⁻/⁻, HS exaggerates contraction through decreased cyp-epoxygenases and increased A₁AR levels.

  12. Preparation and Thermal Properties of High-Purified Molten Nitrate Salt Materials with Heat Transfer and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongtao; Zhao, Youjing; Li, Jingli; Shi, Lijie; Wang, Min

    2015-12-01

    This paper focuses on thermal stability of molten salts, operating temperature range and latent heat of molten salts at a high temperature. In this experiment, multi-component molten salts (purified Solar Salt) composed of purified NaNO3 and purified KNO3 were prepared by statical mixing method. Compared with unpurified Solar Salt, purified Solar Salt had a higher thermal stability. The optimal temperature would be increased from 500°C to 550°C, and the upper limitation temperature increases from 577.5°C to 593.7°C. Meanwhile, thermal stability and thermal cycling analysis showed the purified Solar Salt had a lower melting point and the deterioration time of molten salts was reduced. The melting point of purified Solar Salt decreases sharply to 223.8°C and the latent heat increases from 74.39 J/g to 80.79 J/g. Besides, the XRD and chemical analysis test indicated that the degree of degradation reduced and the thermal storage efficiency of purified Solar Salt was improved.

  13. Salinity and Bacterial Diversity: To What Extent Does the Concentration of Salt Affect the Bacterial Community in a Saline Soil?

    PubMed Central

    Canfora, Loredana; Bacci, Giovanni; Pinzari, Flavia; Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Dazzi, Carmelo; Benedetti, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the evaluation of soil characteristics was coupled with a pyrosequencing analysis of the V2-V3 16S rRNA gene region in order to investigate the bacterial community structure and diversity in the A horizon of a natural saline soil located in Sicily (Italy). The main aim of the research was to assess the organisation and diversity of microbial taxa using a spatial scale that revealed physical and chemical heterogeneity of the habitat under investigation. The results provided information on the type of distribution of different bacterial groups as a function of spatial gradients of soil salinity and pH. The analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA showed differences in bacterial composition and diversity due to a variable salt concentration in the soil. The bacterial community showed a statistically significant spatial variability. Some bacterial phyla appeared spread in the whole area, whatever the salinity gradient. It emerged therefore that a patchy saline soil can not contain just a single microbial community selected to withstand extreme osmotic phenomena, but many communities that can be variously correlated to one or more environmental parameters. Sequences have been deposited to the SRA database and can be accessed on ID Project PRJNA241061. PMID:25188357

  14. The Effects of Rearing Density, Salt Concentration, and Incubation Temperature on Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes) Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Rosemore, Bethany J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Environmental stressors are often present when an aquatic species, such as the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) fish, are developing. This study examined the effects of some of these environmental stressors (variation in rearing density, salinity, and incubation temperature) on medaka embryo development. The hypotheses are if rearing density is increased, then hatching success will also be improved, while having no effect on embryo development; if the salt concentration is increased to 20 parts per thousand (ppt), then the rate of development will also be increased; if temperature is increased to 32°C, then the rate of development will also be increased. To determine the effects of variations in rearing density (1, 2, 3, and 4 eggs per well), the time of hatch was observed and noted. When testing variations in temperature (24°, 28°, and 32°C) and salinity (0.3, 10, 15, and 20 ppt), the onset of heartbeat and onset of retina pigmentation were observed. The original hypotheses were not all supported: as rearing density increased, success of hatch decreased; as salinity increased, only the rate of development for heartbeat increased; as temperature increased, the rate of development for both onset of the heartbeat and retina pigmentation also increased. PMID:23244689

  15. The economics of salt cake recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Graziano, D.; Hryn, J.N.; Daniels, E.J.

    1996-03-01

    The Process Evaluation Section at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a major program aimed at developing cost-effective technologies for salt cake recycling. This paper addresses the economic feasibility of technologies for the recovery of aluminum, salt, and residue-oxide fractions from salt cake. Four processes were assessed for salt recovery from salt cake: (1) base case: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, with evaporation to crystallize salts; (2) high-temperature case: leaching in water at 250{degree}C, with flash crystallization to precipitate salts; (3) solventlantisolvent case: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, concentrating by evaporation, and reacting with acetone to precipitate salts; and (4) electrodialysis: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, with concentration and recovery of salts by electrodialysis. All test cases for salt recovery had a negative present value, given current pricing structure and 20% return on investment. Although manufacturing costs (variable plus fixed) could reasonably be recovered in the sales price of the salt product, capital costs cannot. The economics for the recycling processes are improved, however, if the residueoxide can be sold instead of landfilled. For example, the base case process would be profitable at a wet oxide value of $220/metric ton. The economics of alternative scenarios were also considered, including aluminum recovery with landfilling of salts and oxides.

  16. Heat resistance and salt hypersensitivity in Lactococcus lactis due to spontaneous mutation of llmg_1816 (gdpP) induced by high-temperature growth.

    PubMed

    Smith, William M; Pham, Thi Huong; Lei, Lin; Dou, Junchao; Soomro, Aijaz H; Beatson, Scott A; Dykes, Gary A; Turner, Mark S

    2012-11-01

    During construction of several gene deletion mutants in Lactococcus lactis MG1363 which involved a high-temperature (37.5°C) incubation step, additional spontaneous mutations were observed which resulted in stable heat resistance and in some cases salt-hypersensitive phenotypes. Whole-genome sequencing of one strain which was both heat resistant and salt hypersensitive, followed by PCR and sequencing of four other mutants which shared these phenotypes, revealed independent mutations in llmg_1816 in all cases. This gene encodes a membrane-bound stress signaling protein of the GdpP family, members of which exhibit cyclic dimeric AMP (c-di-AMP)-specific phosphodiesterase activity. Mutations were predicted to lead to single amino acid substitutions or protein truncations. An independent llmg_1816 mutant (Δ1816), created using a suicide vector, also displayed heat resistance and salt hypersensitivity phenotypes which could be restored to wild-type levels following plasmid excision. L. lactis Δ1816 also displayed improved growth in response to sublethal concentrations of penicillin G. High-temperature incubation of a wild-type industrial L. lactis strain also resulted in spontaneous mutation of llmg_1816 and heat-resistant and salt-hypersensitive phenotypes, suggesting that this is not a strain-specific phenomenon and that it is independent of a plasmid integration event. Acidification of milk by the llmg_1816-altered strain was inhibited by lower salt concentrations than the parent strain. This study demonstrates that spontaneous mutations can occur during high-temperature growth of L. lactis and that inactivation of llmg_1816 leads to temperature resistance and salt hypersensitivity.

  17. The Effect of Exogenous Spermidine Concentration on Polyamine Metabolism and Salt Tolerance in Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud) Subjected to Short-Term Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shucheng; Jin, Han; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress, particularly short-term salt stress, is among the most serious abiotic factors limiting plant survival and growth in China. It has been established that exogenous spermidine (Spd) stimulates plant tolerance to salt stress. The present study utilized two zoysiagrass cultivars commonly grown in China that exhibit either sensitive (cv. Z081) or tolerant (cv. Z057) adaptation capacity to salt stress. The two cultivars were subjected to 200 mM salt stress and treated with different exogenous Spd concentrations for 8 days. Polyamine [diamine putrescine (Put), tetraamine spermine (Spm), and Spd], H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and polyamine metabolic (ADC, ODC, SAMDC, PAO, and DAO) and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) enzyme activities were measured. The results showed that salt stress induced increases in Spd and Spm contents and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC), and diamine oxidase (DAO) activities in both cultivars. Exogenous Spd application did not alter polyamine contents via regulation of polyamine-degrading enzymes, and an increase in polyamine biosynthetic enzyme levels was observed during the experiment. Increasing the concentration of exogenous Spd resulted in a tendency of the Spd and Spm contents and ODC, SAMDC, DAO, and antioxidant enzyme activities to first increase and then decrease in both cultivars. H2O2 and MDA levels significantly decreased in both cultivars treated with Spd. Additionally, in both cultivars, positive correlations between polyamine biosynthetic enzymes (ADC, SAMDC), DAO, and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT), but negative correlations with H2O2 and MDA levels, and the Spd + Spm content were observed with an increase in the concentration of exogenous Spd. PMID:27582752

  18. Excess Thermodynamic Properties of Concentrated Aqueous Solutions at High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Guszkiewicz, M.S.

    2001-06-07

    Measurements of the vapor pressure of the solvent in wide ranges of concentration and temperature provide information on solute solvation and ion pairing--the two phenomena most often invoked for description of dilute solutions. Even in moderately concentrated solutions, as interionic distances become comparable to ionic diameters, these simple concepts gradually lose their meaning and solutions behave like molten salts. The usefulness of experimental vapor pressure results increases rapidly with their accuracy, since derived properties, such as solution enthalpies and heat capacities, can be calculated. Very accurate results can be obtained by the isopiestic method, but primary vapor pressure data for standard solutions are needed. In order to obtain vapor pressures at conditions where accurate isopiestic standards are not available and to establish more accurate standards, the ORNL isopiestic apparatus was modified for simultaneous direct vapor pressure measurements and isopiestic comparisons. There are no comprehensive solution theories derived from molecular level models and able to predict thermodynamic properties of various electrolytes as the composition changes from dilute solutions to molten salts in a wide range of temperatures. Empirical and semi-empirical models are useful for representation of experimental results, interpretation of measurements of other properties such as conductance., solubility or liquid-vapor partitioning of solutes, and for verification of theoretical predictions. Vapor pressures for aqueous CaCl{sub 2}, CaBr{sub 2}, LiCl, LiBr, LiI, NaI were measured at temperatures between 380 and 523 K in the concentration range extended to water activities below 0.2 (over 30 mol/kg for LiCl). General equations based on the modified Pitzer ion-interaction model were used to obtain enthalpy and heat capacity surfaces, which are compared with direct calorimetric measurements.

  19. Screening of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) Accessions for High Salt Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Rafii, M. Y.; Abdul Hamid, Azizah

    2014-01-01

    Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an herbaceous leafy vegetable crop, comparatively more salt-tolerant than any other vegetables with high antioxidants, minerals, and vitamins. Salt-tolerant crop variety development is of importance due to inadequate cultivable land and escalating salinity together with population pressure. In this view a total of 25 purslane accessions were initially selected from 45 collected purslane accessions based on better growth performance and subjected to 5 different salinity levels, that is, 0.0, 10.0, 20.0, 30.0, and 40.0 dS m−1 NaCl. Plant height, number of leaves, number of flowers, and dry matter contents in salt treated purslane accessions were significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) and the enormity of reduction increased with increasing salinity stress. Based on dry matter yield reduction, among all 25 purslane accessions 2 accessions were graded as tolerant (Ac7 and Ac9), 6 accessions were moderately tolerant (Ac3, Ac5, Ac6, Ac10, Ac11, and Ac12), 5 accessions were moderately susceptible (Ac1, Ac2, Ac4, Ac8, and Ac13), and the remaining 12 accessions were susceptible to salinity stress and discarded from further study. The selected 13 purslane accessions could assist in the identification of superior genes for salt tolerance in purslane for improving its productivity and sustainable agricultural production. PMID:25003141

  20. Modeling Coupled THMC Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco Martin, Laura; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-14

    In this report, we present FY2014 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. LBNL’s work on the modeling of coupled THMC processes in salt was initiated in FY2012, focusing on exploring and demonstrating the capabilities of an existing LBNL modeling tool (TOUGH-FLAC) for simulating temperature-driven coupled flow and geomechanical processes in salt. This work includes development related to, and implementation of, essential capabilities, as well as testing the model against relevant information and published experimental data related to the fate and transport of water. we provide more details on the FY2014 work, first presenting updated tools and improvements made to the TOUGH-FLAC simulator, and the use of this updated tool in a new model simulation of long-term THM behavior within a generic repository in a salt formation. This is followed by the description of current benchmarking and validations efforts, including the TSDE experiment. We then present the current status in the development of constitutive relationships and the dual-continuum model for brine migration. We conclude with an outlook for FY2015, which will be much focused on model validation against field experiments and on the use of the model for the design studies related to a proposed heater experiment.

  1. EDTA enhances high-throughput two-dimensional bioprinting by inhibiting salt scaling and cell aggregation at the nozzle surface.

    PubMed

    Parzel, Cheryl A; Pepper, Matthew E; Burg, Timothy; Groff, Richard E; Burg, Karen J L

    2009-06-01

    Tissue-engineering strategies may be employed in the development of in vitro breast tissue models for use in testing regimens of drug therapies and vaccines. The physical and chemical interactions that occur among cells and extracellular matrix components can also be elucidated with these models to gain an understanding of the progression of transformed epithelial cells into tumours and the ultimate metastases of tumour cells. The modified inkjet printer may be a useful tool for creating three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models, because it offers an inexpensive and high-throughput solution to microfabrication, and because the printer can be easily manipulated to produce varying tissue attributes. We hypothesized, however, that when ink is replaced with a biologically based fluid (i.e. a 'bio-ink'), specifically a serum-free cell culture medium, printer nozzle failure can result from salt scale build-up as fluid evaporates on the printhead surface. In this study, ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) was used as a culture medium additive to prevent salt scaling and cell aggregation during the bioprinting process. The results showed that EDTA, at a concentration typically found in commercially available trypsin solutions (0.53 mM), prevented nozzle failure when a serum-free culture medium was printed from a nozzle at 1000 drops/s. Furthermore, increasing concentrations of EDTA appeared to mildly decrease aggregation of 4T07 cells. Cell viability studies were performed to demonstrate that addition of EDTA did not result in significant cell death. In conclusion, it is recommended that EDTA be incorporated into bio-ink solutions containing salts that could lead to nozzle failure.

  2. Transcriptome changes in foxtail millet genotypes at high salinity: identification and characterization of a PHGPX gene specifically upregulated by NaCl in a salt-tolerant line.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasulu, Nese; Miranda, Manoela; Prakash, Harischandra Sripathy; Wobus, Ulrich; Weschke, Winfriede

    2004-04-01

    Using a macro array filter with 711 cDNA inserts representing 620 unigenes selected from a barley EST collection, we identified transcripts differentially expressed in salt (NaCl)-treated tolerant (cv. Prasad) and sensitive (cv. Lepakshi) seedlings of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). Transcripts of hydrogen peroxide scavenging enzymes such as phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase 1 (CAT1) in addition to some genes of cellular metabolism were found to be especially up-regulated at high salinity in the tolerant line. To analyse this process at the protein level we examined protein expression patterns under various stress conditions. A 25 kD protein with a pI of 4.8 was found to be induced prominently under high salt concentrations (250 mmol/L). This salt-induced 25 kD protein has been purified and identified by peptide sequencing as PHGPX protein. The increase of the PHGPX protein level under salt stress in the tolerant line parallels the PHGPX mRNA results of array analysis but was more pronounced. We cloned and characterized the foxtail millet PHGPX cDNA, which shows 85% and 95% homology at the DNA and protein level, respectively, to one stress-induced member of the small barley PHGPX gene family encoding non-selenium glutathione peroxidases. As shown by Southern blot analysis, a small family of PHGPX genes exists in foxtail millet, too. The specific expression pattern of the PHGPX gene in salt-induced tolerant millet seedlings suggests that its product plays an important role in the defense reaction against salt-induced oxidative damage and that the characterized glutathione peroxidase is one of the components conferring resistance against salt to the tolerant foxtail millet cultivar.

  3. Experience of applying the results of investigations into controlling lines of the salt ratio between the salt and pure sections of high-pressure drum boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    Layouts of the connection of the salt ratio lines (SRLs) existing in domestic boiler building are analyzed and the main causes of their low operational efficiency are shown. The results of investigation of hydraulics and the salt mode of an internal boiler layout with the SRL of the TPE-208 boiler are presented. Recommendations on designing the SRL in internal boiler layouts of high-pressure drum boilers, which make it possible to increase the reliability of boilers and to decrease the annual consumption of phosphates, are developed.

  4. Refractive Secondary Solar Concentrator Demonstrated High-Temperature Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2002-01-01

    Space applications that utilize solar thermal energy--such as electric power conversion systems, thermal propulsion systems, and furnaces--require highly efficient solar concentration systems. The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing the refractive secondary concentrator, which uses refraction and total internal reflection to efficiently concentrate and direct solar energy. When used in combination with advanced lightweight primary concentrators, such as inflatable thin films, the refractive secondary concentrator enables very high system concentration ratios and very high temperatures. Last year, Glenn successfully demonstrated a secondary concentrator throughput efficiency of 87 percent, with a projected efficiency of 93 percent using an antireflective coating. Building on this achievement, Glenn recently successfully demonstrated high-temperature operation of the secondary concentrator when it was used to heat a rhenium receiver to 2330 F. The high-temperature demonstration of the concentrator was conducted in Glenn's 68-ft long Tank 6 thermal vacuum facility equipped with a solar simulator. The facility has a rigid panel primary concentrator that was used to concentrate the light from the solar simulator onto the refractive secondary concentrator. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center provided a rhenium cavity, part of a solar thermal propulsion engine, to serve as the high-temperature receiver. The prototype refractive secondary concentrator, measuring 3.5 in. in diameter and 11.2 in. long, is made of single-crystal sapphire. A water-cooled splash shield absorbs spillage light outside of the 3.5-in. concentrator aperture. Multilayer foil insulation composed of tungsten, molybdenum, and niobium is used to minimize heat loss from the hightemperature receiver. A liquid-cooled canister calorimeter is used to measure the heat loss through the multilayer foil insulation.

  5. High-Salt Enhances the Inflammatory Response by Retina Pigment Epithelium Cells following Lipopolysaccharide Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dike; Wang, Chaokui; Cao, Shuang; Ye, Zi; Deng, Bolin; Kijlstra, Aize; Yang, Peizeng

    2015-01-01

    High-salt has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of high-salt on the production of inflammatory mediators by ARPE-19 cells and the possible mechanisms involved. ARPE-19 cells were cultured with LPS in DMEM to which extra NaCl had been added (20 mM and 40 mM). NaCl had no influence on the apoptosis and proliferation of ARPE-19. Addition of 40 mM NaCl significantly induced IL-6 and MCP-1 production but had no effect on IL-8 secretion. High mannitol, as an osmotic stress control, did not affect the secretion of inflammatory mediators by ARPE-19 cells indicating that the effect was not mediated by osmolarity. Coculture of ARPE-19 cells with NaCl resulted in significant increases in the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, Akt, and NF-κB and an upregulation of the transcription factors NFAT5 and SGK1. High-salt significantly promotes IL-6 and MCP-1 production by ARPE-19 cells and is associated with activation of the p38 MAPK, Akt, and NF-κB pathway and NFAT-SGK1 pathways. PMID:26783382

  6. [Effect of high sodium chloride concentrations on the pigment content and free-radical processes in corn seedlings leaves].

    PubMed

    Vasylyk, Iu V; Lushchak, V I

    2011-01-01

    The effect of sodium chloride on general morphometrical parameters of seedlings, and biochemical parameters in the leaves of corn seedlings was studied. Exposure to 100 and 200 mM NaCl slowed down the growth of stem and roots, whereas 100 and 200 mM NaCl during 24 h enhanced the concentration of chlorophylls, carotenoids, anthocyans, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The decrease in protein carbonyl groups was found at 24-hour exposure to 200 mM salt. The treatment during 24, 48 and 72 h to 200 mM salt increased the level of total and high molecular mass thiols, whereas low molecular mass thiol content was by 20-25% higher at 48 h exposure to all used salt concentrations. The activity of guaiacol peroxidase was higher only at 24 h exposure to 100 and 200 mM salt, and catalase--at 50 mM during 48 h. At 72-hour exposure, catalase activity was by 27 and 41% higher in seedlings, exposed to 50 and 200 mM NaCl, respectively. Therefore, it is concluded the plant exposure to 50-200 mM salt initially developed oxidative stress, inducing adaptive response--an increase in antioxidant potential and efficiency of systems of energy production. That results in plant adaptation to unfavourable conditions.

  7. Intercultural Education at High Schools in Greater Salt Lake City, Utah: An Ethnographic Inquiry. Urban Education Reports Series Number Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Frank Andrews

    Intercultural education in the Greater Salt Lake City (Utah) metropolitan area seems to have minimal effect on high school students' behavior or attitudes. This study was planned in order to better understand the nature and dynamics of intercultural instruction in Salt Lake City. Information was analyzed from the following sources: (1) interviews…

  8. Purification and characterization of high salt-soluble vicilin from mung bean (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, S P; Biswas, B B

    1990-01-01

    We report a method for the purification of vicilin from mung bean (Vigna radiata) mainly on the basis of solubility of mung bean vicilin even in high salt. Mung bean vicilin remains in solution even after 90% relative saturation of ammonium sulphate. The resulting supernatant after dialysis was subjected to gel filtration (Sephadex G-150) to remove other contaminant polypeptides, and finally the protein was purified by DEAE cellulose chromatography. This purified fraction exhibited 3 bands on SDS-PAGE compared with vicilin from other legumes which exhibite more than 3 bands generally. The results raise the possibility that the presence of the two small polypeptides in vicilin preparations is the breakdown product of the major larger one of mol.wt. 52 K and that vicilin may be a tetramer of four subunits of Mr 52000. That the high salt-soluble protein containing 52 K subunit is vicilin has been determined by several criteria.

  9. Independent Assessment of the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Alternatives Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    J. T. Case; M. L. Renfro

    1998-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Independent Project Evaluation (IPE) Team assessment of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering (SE) Team's deliberations, evaluations, and selections. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company concluded in early 1998 that production goals and safety requirements for processing SRS HLW salt to remove Cs-137 could not be met in the existing In-Tank Precipitation Facility as currently configured for precipitation of cesium tetraphenylborate. The SE Team was chartered to evaluate and recommend an alternative(s) for processing the existing HLW salt to remove Cs-137. To replace the In-Tank Precipitation process, the Savannah River Site HLW Salt Disposition SE Team downselected (October 1998) 140 candidate separation technologies to two alternatives: Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate (TPB) Precipitation (primary alternative) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Nonelutable Ion Exchange (backup alternative). The IPE Team, commissioned by the Department of Energy, concurs that both alternatives are technically feasible and should meet all salt disposition requirements. But the IPE Team judges that the SE Team's qualitative criteria and judgments used in their downselection to a primary and a backup alternative do not clearly discriminate between the two alternatives. To properly choose between Small-Tank TPB and CST Ion Exchange for the primary alternative, the IPE Team suggests the following path forward: Complete all essential R and D activities for both alternatives and formulate an appropriate set of quantitative decision criteria that will be rigorously applied at the end of the R and D activities. Concurrent conceptual design activities should be limited to common elements of the alternatives.

  10. Protein glycosylation as an adaptive response in Archaea: growth at different salt concentrations leads to alterations in Haloferax volcanii S-layer glycoprotein N-glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ziqiang; Naparstek, Shai; Calo, Doron; Eichler, Jerry

    2012-03-01

    To cope with life in hypersaline environments, halophilic archaeal proteins are enriched in acidic amino acids. This strategy does not, however, offer a response to transient changes in salinity, as would post-translational modifications. To test this hypothesis, N-glycosylation of the Haloferax volcanii S-layer glycoprotein was compared in cells grown in high (3.4 M NaCl) and low (1.75 M NaCl) salt, as was the glycan bound to dolichol phosphate, the lipid upon which the N-linked glycan is assembled. In high salt, S-layer glycoprotein Asn-13 and Asn-83 are modified by a pentasaccharide, while dolichol phosphate is modified by a tetrasaccharide comprising the first four pentasaccharide residues. When the same targets were considered from cells grown in low salt, substantially less pentasaccharide was detected. At the same time, cells grown at low salinity contain dolichol phosphate modified by a distinct tetrasaccharide absent in cells grown at high salinity. The same tetrasaccharide modified S-layer glycoprotein Asn-498 in cells grown in low salt, whereas no glycan decorated this residue in cells grown in the high-salt medium. Thus, in response to changes in environmental salinity, Hfx. volcanii not only modulates the N-linked glycans decorating the S-layer glycoprotein but also the sites of such post-translational modification.

  11. Preconceptual design of a fluoride high temperature salt-cooled engineering demonstration reactor: Motivation and overview

    DOE PAGES

    Qualls, A. Louis; Betzler, Benjamin R.; Brown, Nicholas R.; ...

    2016-12-21

    Engineering demonstration reactors are nuclear reactors built to establish proof of concept for technology options that have never been built. Examples of engineering demonstration reactors include Peach Bottom 1 for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) and Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) for sodium-cooled fast reactors. Historically, engineering demonstrations have played a vital role in advancing the technology readiness level of reactor technologies. Our paper details a preconceptual design for a fluoride salt-cooled engineering demonstration reactor. The fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) demonstration reactor (DR) is a concept for a salt-cooled reactor with 100 megawatts of thermal output (MWt). It would usemore » tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel within prismatic graphite blocks. FLiBe (2 7LiF-BeF2) is the reference primary coolant. The FHR DR is designed to be small, simple, and affordable. Development of the FHR DR is a necessary intermediate step to enable near-term commercial FHRs. The design philosophy of the FHR DR was focused on safety, near-term deployment, and flexibility. Lower risk technologies are purposely included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated as an engineering demonstration with minimal risk and cost. These technologies include TRISO particle fuel, replaceable core structures, and consistent structural material selection for core structures and the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell primary-to-intermediate heat exchangers. Important capabilities to be demonstrated by building and operating the FHR DR include fabrication and operation of high temperature reactors; heat exchanger performance (including passive decay heat removal); pump performance; and reactivity control; salt chemistry control to maximize vessel life; tritium management; core design methodologies; salt procurement, handling, maintenance and ultimate

  12. Preconceptual design of a fluoride high temperature salt-cooled engineering demonstration reactor: Motivation and overview

    SciTech Connect

    Qualls, A. Louis; Betzler, Benjamin R.; Brown, Nicholas R.; Carbajo, Juan J.; Greenwood, M. Scott; Hale, Richard; Harrison, Thomas J.; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Robb, Kevin R.; Terrell, Jerry; Wysocki, Aaron J.; Gehin, Jess C.; Worrall, Andrew

    2016-12-21

    Engineering demonstration reactors are nuclear reactors built to establish proof of concept for technology options that have never been built. Examples of engineering demonstration reactors include Peach Bottom 1 for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) and Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) for sodium-cooled fast reactors. Historically, engineering demonstrations have played a vital role in advancing the technology readiness level of reactor technologies. Our paper details a preconceptual design for a fluoride salt-cooled engineering demonstration reactor. The fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) demonstration reactor (DR) is a concept for a salt-cooled reactor with 100 megawatts of thermal output (MWt). It would use tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel within prismatic graphite blocks. FLiBe (2 7LiF-BeF2) is the reference primary coolant. The FHR DR is designed to be small, simple, and affordable. Development of the FHR DR is a necessary intermediate step to enable near-term commercial FHRs. The design philosophy of the FHR DR was focused on safety, near-term deployment, and flexibility. Lower risk technologies are purposely included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated as an engineering demonstration with minimal risk and cost. These technologies include TRISO particle fuel, replaceable core structures, and consistent structural material selection for core structures and the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell primary-to-intermediate heat exchangers. Important capabilities to be demonstrated by building and operating the FHR DR include fabrication and operation of high temperature reactors; heat exchanger performance (including passive decay heat removal); pump performance; and reactivity control; salt chemistry control to maximize vessel life; tritium management; core design methodologies; salt procurement, handling, maintenance and ultimate disposal. It

  13. Considerations of Alloy N for Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Weiju; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F; Holcomb, David Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs) are a promising new class of thermal-spectrum nuclear reactors. The reactor structural materials must possess high-temperature strength and chemical compatibility with the liquid fluoride salt as well as with a power cycle fluid such as supercritical water while remaining resistant to residual air within the containment. Alloy N was developed for use with liquid fluoride salts and it possesses adequate strength and chemical compatibility up to about 700 C. A distinctive property of FHRs is that their maximum allowable coolant temperature is restricted by their structural alloy maximum service temperature. As the reactor thermal efficiency directly increases with the maximum coolant temperature, higher temperature resistant alloys are strongly desired. This paper reviews the current status of Alloy N and its relevance to FHRs including its design principles, development history, high temperature strength, environmental resistance, metallurgical stability, component manufacturability, ASME codification status, and reactor service requirements. The review will identify issues and provide guidance for improving the alloy properties or implementing engineering solutions.

  14. Structural insights into the adaptation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) from Haloferax volcanii to a high-salt environment

    SciTech Connect

    Morgunova, Ekaterina; Gray, Fiona C.; MacNeill, Stuart A.; Ladenstein, Rudolf

    2009-10-01

    The crystal structure of PCNA from the halophilic archaeon H. volcanii reveals specific features of the charge distribution on the protein surface that reflect adaptation to a high-salt environment and suggests a different type of interaction with DNA in halophilic PCNAs. The sliding clamp proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays vital roles in many aspects of DNA replication and repair in eukaryotic cells and in archaea. Realising the full potential of archaea as a model for PCNA function requires a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches. In order to provide a platform for subsequent reverse genetic analysis, PCNA from the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii was subjected to crystallographic analysis. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the protein was purified by affinity chromatography and crystallized by the vapour-diffusion technique. The structure was determined by molecular replacement and refined at 3.5 Å resolution to a final R factor of 23.7% (R{sub free} = 25%). PCNA from H. volcanii was found to be homotrimeric and to resemble other homotrimeric PCNA clamps but with several differences that appear to be associated with adaptation of the protein to the high intracellular salt concentrations found in H. volcanii cells.

  15. The Rice High-Affinity Potassium Transporter1;1 Is Involved in Salt Tolerance and Regulated by an MYB-Type Transcription Factor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Jing, Wen; Xiao, Longyun; Jin, Yakang; Shen, Like; Zhang, Wenhua

    2015-07-01

    Sodium transporters play key roles in plant tolerance to salt stress. Here, we report that a member of the High-Affinity K(+) Transporter (HKT) family, OsHKT1;1, in rice (Oryza sativa 'Nipponbare') plays an important role in reducing Na(+) accumulation in shoots to cope with salt stress. The oshkt1;1 mutant plants displayed hypersensitivity to salt stress. They contained less Na(+) in the phloem sap and accumulated more Na(+) in the shoots compared with the wild type. OsHKT1;1 was expressed mainly in the phloem of leaf blades and up-regulated in response to salt stress. Using a yeast one-hybrid approach, a novel MYB coiled-coil type transcription factor, OsMYBc, was found to bind to the OsHKT1;1 promoter. In vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation and in vitro electrophoresis mobility shift assays demonstrated that OsMYBc binds to AAANATNC(C/T) fragments within the OsHKT1;1 promoter. Mutation of the OsMYBc-binding nucleotides resulted in a decrease in promoter activity of OsHKT1;1. Knockout of OsMYBc resulted in a reduction in NaCl-induced expression of OsHKT1;1 and salt sensitivity. Taken together, these results suggest that OsHKT1;1 has a role in controlling Na(+) concentration and preventing sodium toxicity in leaf blades and is regulated by the OsMYBc transcription factor.

  16. Internal deformation in layered Zechstein-III K-Mg salts. Structures formed by complex deformation and high contrasts in viscosity observed in drill cores.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raith, Alexander; Urai, Janos L.

    2016-04-01

    During the evaporation of a massive salt body, alternations of interrupted and full evaporation sequences can form a complex layering of different lithologies. Viscosity contrasts of up to five orders of magnitude between these different lithologies are possible in this environment. During the late stage of an evaporation cycle potassium and magnesium (K-Mg) salts are precipitated. These K-Mg salts are of economic interest but also a known drilling hazard due to their very low viscosity. How up to 200m thick layers of these evaporites affect salt deformation at different scales is not well known. A better understanding of salt tectonics with extreme mechanical stratification is needed for better exploration and production of potassium-magnesium salts and to predict the internal structure of potential nuclear waste repositories in salt. To gain a better understanding of the internal deformation of these layers we analyzed K-Mg salt rich drill cores out of the Zechstein III-1b subunit from the Veendam Pillow 10 km southeast of Groningen, near the city Veendam in the NE Netherlands. The study area has a complex geological history with multiple tectonic phases of extension and compression forming internal deformation in the pillow but also conserving most of the original layering. Beside halite the most common minerals in the ZIII-1b are carnallite, kieserite, anhydrite and bischofite alternating in thin layers of simple composition. Seismic interpretation revealed that the internal structure of the Veendam Pillow shows areas, in which the K-Mg salt rich ZIII 1b layer is much thicker than elsewhere, as a result of salt deformation. The internal structure of the ZIII-1b on the other hand, remains unknown. The core analysis shows a strong strain concentration in the weaker Bischofite (MgCl2*6H20) and Carnallite (KMgCl3*6H20) rich layers producing tectonic breccias and highly strained layers completely overprinting the original layering. Layers formed by alternating beds

  17. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... sodium if you have heart disease. Fluid retention (edema): Avoid using phosphate salts that contain sodium if ... heart failure, or other conditions that can cause edema. High levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia): ...

  18. Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor Technology Development and Demonstration Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Flanagan, George F; Mays, Gary T; Pointer, William David; Robb, Kevin R; Yoder Jr, Graydon L

    2013-11-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactors (FHRs) are an emerging reactor class with potentially advantageous performance characteristics, and fully passive safety. This roadmap describes the principal remaining FHR technology challenges and the development path needed to address the challenges. This roadmap also provides an integrated overview of the current status of the broad set of technologies necessary to design, evaluate, license, construct, operate, and maintain FHRs. First-generation FHRs will not require any technology breakthroughs, but do require significant concept development, system integration, and technology maturation. FHRs are currently entering early phase engineering development. As such, this roadmap is not as technically detailed or specific as would be the case for a more mature reactor class. The higher cost of fuel and coolant, the lack of an approved licensing framework, the lack of qualified, salt-compatible structural materials, and the potential for tritium release into the environment are the most obvious issues that remain to be resolved.

  19. The transcriptome of NaCl-treated Limonium bicolor leaves reveals the genes controlling salt secretion of salt gland.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fang; Lyu, Ming-Ju Amy; Leng, Bing-Ying; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Wang, Bao-Shan

    2016-06-01

    Limonium bicolor, a typical recretohalophyte that lives in saline environments, excretes excessive salt to the environment through epidermal salt glands to avoid salt stress. The aim of this study was to screen for L. bicolor genes involved in salt secretion by high-throughput RNA sequencing. We established the experimental procedure of salt secretion using detached mature leaves, in which the optimal salt concentration was determined as 200 mM NaCl. The detached salt secretion system combined with Illumina deep sequencing were applied. In total, 27,311 genes were annotated using an L. bicolor database, and 2040 of these genes were differentially expressed, of which 744 were up-regulated and 1260 were down-regulated with the NaCl versus the control treatment. A gene ontology enrichment analysis indicated that genes related to ion transport, vesicles, reactive oxygen species scavenging, the abscisic acid-dependent signaling pathway and transcription factors were found to be highly expressed under NaCl treatment. We found that 102 of these genes were likely to be involved in salt secretion, which was confirmed using salt-secretion mutants. The present study identifies the candidate genes in the L. bicolor salt gland that are highly associated with salt secretion. In addition, a salt-transporting pathway is presented to explain how Na(+) is excreted by the salt gland in L. bicolor. These findings will shed light on the molecular mechanism of salt secretion from the salt glands of plants.

  20. Hair and toenail arsenic concentrations of residents living in areas with high environmental arsenic concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Hinwood, Andrea L; Sim, Malcolm R; Jolley, Damien; de Klerk, Nick; Bastone, Elisa B; Gerostamoulos, Jim; Drummer, Olaf H

    2003-01-01

    Surface soil and groundwater in Australia have been found to contain high concentrations of arsenic. The relative importance of long-term human exposure to these sources has not been established. Several studies have investigated long-term exposure to environmental arsenic concentrations using hair and toenails as the measure of exposure. Few have compared the difference in these measures of environmental sources of exposure. In this study we aimed to investigate risk factors for elevated hair and toenail arsenic concentrations in populations exposed to a range of environmental arsenic concentrations in both drinking water and soil as well as in a control population with low arsenic concentrations in both drinking water and soil. In this study, we recruited 153 participants from areas with elevated arsenic concentrations in drinking water and residential soil, as well as a control population with no anticipated arsenic exposures. The median drinking water arsenic concentrations in the exposed population were 43.8 micro g/L (range, 16.0-73 micro g/L) and median soil arsenic concentrations were 92.0 mg/kg (range, 9.1-9,900 mg/kg). In the control group, the median drinking water arsenic concentration was below the limit of detection, and the median soil arsenic concentration was 3.3 mg/kg. Participants were categorized based on household drinking water and residential soil arsenic concentrations. The geometric mean hair arsenic concentrations were 5.52 mg/kg for the drinking water exposure group and 3.31 mg/kg for the soil exposure group. The geometric mean toenail arsenic concentrations were 21.7 mg/kg for the drinking water exposure group and 32.1 mg/kg for the high-soil exposure group. Toenail arsenic concentrations were more strongly correlated with both drinking water and soil arsenic concentrations; however, there is a strong likelihood of significant external contamination. Measures of residential exposure were better predictors of hair and toenail arsenic

  1. Titanium Implant Impairment and Surrounding Muscle Cell Death Following High-Salt Diet: An In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Lecocq, Mathieu; Felix, Marie-Solenne; Linares, Jean-Marc; Chaves-Jacob, Julien; Decherchi, Patrick; Dousset, Erick

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study High-salt consumption has been widely described as a risk factor for cardiovascular, renal and bone functions. In the present study, the extent to which high-salt diet could influence Ti6Al4V implant surface characteristic, its adhesion to rat tibial crest, and could modify muscle cell viability of two surrounding muscles, was investigated in vivo. These parameters have also been assessed following a NMES (neuro-myoelectrostimulation) program similar to that currently used in human care following arthroplasty. Results After a three-week diet, a harmful effect on titanium implant surface and muscle cell viability was noted. This is probably due to salt corrosive effect on metal and then release of toxic substance around biologic tissue. Moreover, if the use of NMES with high-salt diet induced muscles damages, the latter were higher when implant was added. Unexpectedly, higher implant-to-bone adhesion was found for implanted animals receiving salt supplementation. Conclusion Our in vivo study highlights the potential dangerous effect of high-salt diet in arthroplasty based on titanium prosthesis. This effect appears to be more important when high-salt diet is combined with NMES. PMID:26761710

  2. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    DOE PAGES

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; ...

    2014-06-01

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selectionmore » and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.« less

  3. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-06-01

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selection and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.

  4. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I

    2014-06-01

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selection and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.

  5. Effects of benidipine hydrochloride on autonomic nervous activity in hypertensive patients with high- and low-salt diets.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Masahiro; Nakaya, Yutaka; Uemura, Eiko; Sawa, Yuko; Iga, Akiko; Kageyama, Norihito; Nakayama, Toru; Kusunoki, Kanji; Kawano, Tomohito; Katoh, Kansei; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Nishikado, Akiyoshi; Saito, Ken; Ito, Susumu

    2003-01-01

    The effects of benidipine hydrochloride (CAS 91559-74-5, Coniel) on autonomic nervous activity in hypertensive patients with high- and low-salt diets were investigated. Six patients having a urinary sodium excretion of 80 mEq/day or less (low salt group) and 6 patients having a urinary sodium excretion of 200 mEq/day or more (high salt group) were orally given benidipine hydrochloride (4 mg). Before and four weeks after the treatment with benidipine, 24-h circadian variation in blood pressure and 24-h Holter electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded. The low frequency power spectrum of heart rate (LF power; 0.04-0.15 Hz), high frequency power spectrum of heart rate (HF power; 0.15-0.40 Hz), and the ratio of LF to HF (LF/HF) were calculated, and these parameters were averaged every hour in every subject. HF power was significantly lower and LF/HF ratio was significantly higher in the high-salt group than in the low-salt group before the treatment. However, the benidipine treatment significantly increased the HF power in both groups, particularly in the high-salt group, and significantly decreased the LF/HF ratio in both groups. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the antihypertensive effect of benidipine between the high- and low-salt intake groups. These results suggest that benidipine favourably influences blood pressure and autonomic nervous activity in hypertensive patients with a high-salt intake. It is concluded that benidipine may be useful for improving the development of salt-induced hypertension and its accompanying haemodynamic responses.

  6. Preliminary requirements for a Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Test Reactor (FHTR)

    SciTech Connect

    Massie, M.; Forsberg, C.; Forget, B.; Hu, L. W.

    2012-07-01

    A Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Test Reactor (FHTR) design is being developed at MIT to provide the first demonstration and test of a salt-cooled reactor using high-temperature fuel. The first step is to define the requirements. The top level requirements are (1) provide the confidence that a larger demonstration reactor is warranted and (2) develop the necessary data for a larger-scale reactor. Because requirements will drive the design of the FHTR, a significant effort is being undertaken to define requirements and understand the tradeoffs that will be required for a practical design. The preliminary requirements include specifications for design parameters and necessary tests of major reactor systems. Testing requirements include demonstration of components, systems, and procedures for refueling, instrumentation, salt temperature control to avoid coolant freezing, salt chemistry and volume control, tritium monitoring and control, and in-service inspection. Safety tests include thermal hydraulics, neutronics - including intrinsic core shutdown mechanisms such as Doppler feedback - and decay heat removal systems. Materials and coolant testing includes fuels (including mechanical wear and fatigue) and system corrosion behavior. Preliminary analysis indicates a thermal power output below 30 MW, an initial core using pebble-bed or prismatic-block fuel, peak outlet temperatures of at least 700 deg. C, and use of FLi{sup 7}Be ({sup 7}LiF-BeF{sub 2}) coolant. The option to change-out the reactor core, fuel type, and major components is being investigated. While the FHTR will be used for materials testing, its primary mission is as a reactor system performance test to enable the design and licensing of a FHR demonstration power reactor. (authors)

  7. Core Design Characteristics of the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High Temperature Demonstration Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Nicholas R; Qualls, A L; Betzler, Benjamin R; Carbajo, Juan J; Greenwood, Michael Scott; Hale, Richard Edward; Harrison, Thomas J; Powers, Jeffrey J; Robb, Kevin R

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactors (FHRs) are a promising reactor technology option with significant knowledge gaps to implementation. One potential approach to address those technology gaps is via a small-scale demonstration reactor with the goal of increasing the technology readiness level (TRL) of the overall system for the longer term. The objective of this paper is to outline a notional concept for such a system, and to address how the proposed concept would advance the TRL of FHR concepts. Development of the proposed FHR Demonstration Reactor (DR) will enable commercial FHR deployment through disruptive and rapid technology development and demonstration. The FHR DR will close remaining gaps to commercial viability. Lower risk technologies are included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. Important capabilities that will be demonstrated by building and operating the FHR DR include core design methodologies; fabrication and operation of high temperature reactors; salt procurement, handling, maintenance, and ultimate disposal; salt chemistry control to maximize vessel life; tritium management; heat exchanger performance; pump performance; and reactivity control. The FHR DR is considered part of a broader set of FHR technology development and demonstration efforts, some of which are already underway. Nonreactor test efforts (e.g., heated salt loops or loops using simulant fluids) can demonstrate many technologies necessary for commercial deployment of FHRs. The FHR DR, however, fulfills a crucial role in FHR technology development by advancing the technical maturity and readiness level of the system as a whole.

  8. Effects of non-equilibrium association-dissociation processes in the dynamic electrophoretic mobility and dielectric response of realistic salt-free concentrated suspensions.

    PubMed

    Carrique, Félix; Ruiz-Reina, Emilio; Lechuga, Luis; Arroyo, Francisco J; Delgado, Ángel V

    2013-12-01

    Electrokinetic investigations in nanoparticle suspensions in aqueous media are most often performed assuming that the liquid medium is a strong electrolyte solution with specified concentration. The role of the ions produced by the process of charging the surfaces of the particles is often neglected or, at most, the concentrations of such ions are estimated in some way and added to the concentrations of the ions in the externally prepared solution. The situation here considered is quite different: no electrolyte is dissolved in the medium, and ideally only the counterions stemming from the particle charging are assumed to be in solution. This is the case of so-called salt-free systems. With the aim of making a model for such kind of dispersions as close to real situations as possible, it was previously found to consider the unavoidable presence of H(+) and OH(-) coming from water dissociation, as well as the (almost unavoidable) ions stemming from the dissolution of atmospheric CO2. In this work, we extend such approach by considering that the chemical reactions involved in dissociation and recombination of the (weak) electrolytes in solution must not necessarily be in equilibrium conditions (equal rates of forward and backward reactions). To that aim, we calculate the frequency spectra of the electric permittivity and dynamic electrophoretic mobility of salt-free suspensions considering realistic non-equilibrium conditions, using literature values for the rate constants of the reactions. Four species are linked by such reactions, namely H(+) (from water, from the--assumed acidic--groups on the particle surfaces, and from CO2 dissolution), OH(-) (from water), HCO3(-) and H2CO3 (again from CO2). A cell model is used for the calculations, which are extended to arbitrary values of the surface charge, the particle size, and particle volume fraction, in a wide range of the field frequency ω. Both approaches predict a high frequency relaxation of the counterion

  9. High Performance Concentrating Photovoltaic Module Designs Employing Reflective Lens Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasylyev, Sergey V.; Vasylyev, Viktor P.

    2011-12-01

    The present study is aimed at advancing the optical component as well as optimizing the design of concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) modules in order to increase the conversion efficiency and improve the utility of CPV while obtaining the prescribed concentration ratio. In this work, we turn to non-traditional concentrating optics, namely Reflective Lenses™ (RL), first introduced in early 2000s. The optical configuration of RLs is unique since it combines the very low F/D number (hence resulting in a very low profile of the unit) of mirrors with a rear-focus of lenses and uses only a single-stage reflection. A liner-focus version of RLs, the Slat-Array Concentrator (SAC), is a capable alternative to the parabolic troughs for mid-concentration CPV. A point-focus version called the Ring-Array Concentrator (RAC) is deemed suitable for high concentration photovoltaics.

  10. Evaluation of high-concentration photovoltaic power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Stolte, W.J. ); Whisnant, R.A. ); McGowin, C.R. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual design, and estimated cost and performance of two high-concentration, 50 MW photovoltaic power plants. Both designs are based on a similar advanced back-contact silicon concentrator cell. The first design uses Fresnel lens/glass silo modules mounted on two-axis tracking arrays. The second design has all of the cells mounted on a central receiver on top of a single tower, with heliostats concentrating sunlight onto the receiver.

  11. Multijunction Photovoltaic Technologies for High-Performance Concentrators: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.

    2006-05-01

    Multijunction solar cells provide high-performance technology pathways leading to potentially low-cost electricity generated from concentrated sunlight. The National Center for Photovoltaics at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has funded different III-V multijunction solar cell technologies and various solar concentration approaches. Within this group of projects, III-V solar cell efficiencies of 41% are close at hand and will likely be reported in these conference proceedings. Companies with well-developed solar concentrator structures foresee installed system costs of $3/watt--half of today's costs--within the next 2 to 5 years as these high-efficiency photovoltaic technologies are incorporated into their concentrator photovoltaic systems. These technology improvements are timely as new large-scale multi-megawatt markets, appropriate for high performance PV concentrators, open around the world.

  12. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J.; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-08-01

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes.

  13. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J.; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes. PMID:27545955

  14. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-08-22

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes.

  15. Osmotically unresponsive water fraction on proteins: non-ideal osmotic pressure of bovine serum albumin as a function of pH and salt concentration.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Gary D; Kanal, Kalpana M; Cameron, Ivan L

    2006-01-01

    How much does protein-associated water differ in colligative properties (freezing point, boiling point, vapor pressure and osmotic behavior) from pure bulk water? This question was approached by studying the globular protein bovine serum albumin (BSA), using changes in pH and salt concentration to alter its native structural conformation and state of aggregation. BSA osmotic pressure was investigated experimentally and analyzed using the molecular model of Fullerton et al. [Biochem Cell Biol 1992;70(12):1325]. Analysis yielded both the extent of osmotically unresponsive water (OUW) and the effective molecular weight values of the membrane-impermeable BSA solute. Manipulation of BSA conformation and aggregation by membrane-penetrating cosolutes show that alterations in pH and salt concentration change the amount of bulk water that escapes into BSA from a minimum of 1.4 to a maximum of 11.7 g water per g dry mass BSA.

  16. Investigation of concentration-dependence of thermodynamic properties of lanthanum, yttrium, scandium and terbium in eutectic LiCl-KCl molten salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yafei; Zhou, Wentao; Zhang, Jinsuo

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamic properties of rare earth metals in LiCl-KCl molten salt electrolyte are crucial to the development of electrochemical separation for the treatment of used nuclear fuels. In the present study, activity coefficient, apparent potential, and diffusion coefficient of lanthanum, yttrium, scandium, and terbium in the molten salt (58 at% LiCl and 42 at% KCl) were calculated by the method of molecular dynamics simulation up to a concentration around 3 at% at temperatures of 723 K and 773 K. It was found that the activity coefficient and the apparent potential increase with the species concentration while diffusion coefficient shows a trend of increase followed by decrease. The calculated results were validated by available measurement data of dilution cases. This research extends the range of data to a wide component and would provide further insight to the pyroprocessing design and safeguards.

  17. Highly accurate boronimeter assay of concentrated boric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, R.M. )

    1992-01-01

    The Random-Walk Boronimeter has successfully been used as an on-line indicator of boric acid concentration in an operating commercial pressurized water reactor. The principle has been adapted for measurement of discrete samples to high accuracy and to concentrations up to 6000 ppm natural boron in light water. Boric acid concentration in an aqueous solution is a necessary measurement in many nuclear power plants, particularly those that use boric acid dissolved in the reactor coolant as a reactivity control system. Other nuclear plants use a high-concentration boric acid solution as a backup shutdown system. Such a shutdown system depends on rapid injection of the solution and frequent surveillance of the fluid to ensure the presence of the neutron absorber. The two methods typically used to measure boric acid are the chemical and the physical methods. The chemical method uses titration to determine the ionic concentration of the BO[sub 3] ions and infers the boron concentration. The physical method uses the attenuation of neutrons by the solution and infers the boron concentration from the neutron absorption properties. This paper describes the Random-Walk Boronimeter configured to measure discrete samples to high accuracy and high concentration.

  18. High temperature thermoelectric properties of rock-salt structure PbS

    DOE PAGES

    Parker, David S.; Singh, David J.

    2013-12-18

    We present an analysis of the high temperature transport properties of rock-salt structure PbS, a sister compound to the better studied lead chalcogenides PbSe and PbTe. In this study, we find thermopower magnitudes exceeding 200 V/K in a wide doping range for temperatures of 800 K and above. Based on these calculations, and an analysis of recent experimental work we find that this material has a potential for high thermoelectric performance. Also, we find favorable mechanical properties, based on an analysis of published data.

  19. Molecular dynamics on a model for nascent high-density lipoprotein: role of salt bridges.

    PubMed Central

    Sheldahl, C; Harvey, S C

    1999-01-01

    The results of an all-atom molecular dynamics simulation on a discoidal complex made of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and a synthetic alpha-helical 18-mer peptide with an apolipoprotein-like charge distribution are presented. The system consists of 12 acetyl-18A-amide (Ac-18A-NH2) (. J. Biol. Chem. 260:10248-10255) molecules and 20 molecules of POPC in a bilayer, 10 in each leaflet, solvated in a sphere of water for a total of 28,522 atoms. The peptide molecules are oriented with their long axes normal to the bilayer (the "picket fence" orientation). This system is analogous to complexes formed in nascent high-density lipoprotein and to Ac-18A-NH2/phospholipid complexes observed experimentally. The simulation extended over 700 ps, with the last 493 ps used for analysis. The symmetry of this system allows for averaging over different helices to improve sampling, while maintaining explicit all-atom representation of all peptides. The complex is stable on the simulated time scale. Several possible salt bridges between and within helices were studied. A few salt bridge formations and disruptions were observed. Salt bridges provide specificity in interhelical interactions. PMID:10049304

  20. Activation of Renal (Pro)Renin Receptor Contributes to High Fructose-Induced Salt Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuanming; Lu, Aihua; Lu, Xiaohan; Zhang, Linlin; Fang, Hui; Zhou, Li; Yang, Tianxin

    2017-02-01

    A high-fructose diet is shown to induce salt-sensitive hypertension, but the underlying mechanism largely remains unknown. The major goal of the present study was to test the role of renal (pro)renin receptor (PRR) in this model. In Sprague-Dawley rats, high-fructose intake increased renal expression of full-length PRR, which were attenuated by allopurinol. High-fructose intake also upregulated renal mRNA and protein expression of sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 and Na/K/2Cl cotransporter, as well as in vivo Na/K/2Cl cotransporter activity, all of which were nearly completely blocked by a PRR decoy inhibitor PRO20 or allopurinol treatment. Parallel changes were observed for indices of intrarenal renin-angiotensin-system including renal and urinary renin and angiotensin II levels. Radiotelemetry demonstrated that high-fructose or a high-salt diet alone did not affect mean arterial pressure, but the combination of the 2 maneuvers induced a ≈10-mm Hg increase of mean arterial pressure, which was blunted by PRO20 or allopurinol treatment. In cultured human kidney 2 cells, both fructose and uric acid increased protein expression of soluble PRR in a time- and dose-dependent manner; fructose-induced PRR upregulation was inhibited by allopurinol. Taken together, our data suggest that fructose via uric acid stimulates renal expression of PRR/soluble PRR that stimulate sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 and Na/K/2Cl cotransporter expression and intrarenal renin-angiotensin system to induce salt-sensitive hypertension.

  1. 9-Fold Fresnel Köhler concentrator for increased uniform irradiance on high concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes-Lopes, João; Benítez, Pablo; Zamora, Pablo; Miñano, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    Non-uniform irradiance patterns created by Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV) concentrators over Multi-Junction Cells (MJC) can originate significant power losses, especially when there are different spectral irradiance distributions over the different MJC junctions. This fact has an increased importance considering the recent advances in 4 and 5 junction cells. The spectral irradiance distributions are especially affected with thermal effects on Silicone-on-Glass (SoG) CPV systems. This work presents a new CPV optical design, the 9-fold Fresnel Köhler concentrator, prepared to overcome these effects at high concentrations while maintaining a large acceptance angle, paving the way for a future generation of high efficiency CPV systems of 4 and 5 junction cells.

  2. Molecular and physiological dissection of enhanced seed germination using short-term low-concentration salt seed priming in tomato.

    PubMed

    Nakaune, Makoto; Hanada, Atsushi; Yin, Yong-Gen; Matsukura, Chiaki; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    Seed germination is the initial step of plant development. Seed priming with salt promotes seed germination in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.); however, the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the enhancement of seed germination by priming remain to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the following in seeds both during and after priming treatment: the endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) concentrations; the expression of genes encoding ABA catabolic and GA biosynthesis enzymes, including 8'-hydroxylase (CYP707A), copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS), GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox) and GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox); and endosperm cap weakening enzymes, including expansin (EXP), class I β-1,3-glucanase (GulB), endo-β-mannanase (MAN) and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XTH). Tomato seeds were soaked for 24 h at 25 °C in the dark in 300 mM NaCl (NaCl-priming) or distilled water (hydro-priming). For both priming treatments, the ABA content in the seeds increased during treatment but rapidly decreased after sowing. Both during and after the priming treatments, the ABA levels in the hydro-primed seeds and NaCl-primed seeds were not significantly different. The expression levels of SlGA20ox1, SlGA3ox1 and SlGA3ox2 were significantly enhanced in the NaCl-primed seeds compared to the hydro-primed seeds. The GA(4) content was quantifiable after both types of priming, indicating that GA(4) is the major bioactive GA molecule involved in tomato seed germination. The GA(4) content was significantly higher in the NaCl-primed seeds than in the hydro-primed seeds 12 h after sowing and thereafter. Additionally, the peak expression levels of SlEXP4, SlGulB, SlMAN2 and SlXTH4 occurred earlier and were significantly higher in the NaCl-primed seeds than in the hydro-primed seeds. These results suggest that the observed effect of NaCl-priming on tomato seed germination is caused by an increase of the GA(4) content via GA biosynthetic gene activation and a

  3. Cold, pH and salt tolerant Penicillium spp. inhabit the high altitude soils in Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Dhakar, Kusum; Sharma, Avinash; Pandey, Anita

    2014-04-01

    Twenty five fungal cultures (Penicillium spp.), isolated from soil samples from the high altitudes in the Indian Himalayan region, have been characterized following polyphasic approach. Colony morphology performed on five different media gave varying results; potato dextrose agar being the best for the vegetative growth and sporulation as well. Microscopic observations revealed 18 isolates to be biverticillate and 7 monoverticillate. Based on the phenotypic characters (colony morphology and microscopy), all the isolates were designated to the genus Penicillium. Exposure to low temperature resulted in enhanced sporulation in 23 isolates, while it ceased in case of two. The fungal isolates produced watery exudates in varying amount that in many cases increased at low temperature. All the isolates could grow between 4 and 37 °C, (optimum 24 °C), hence considered psychrotolerant. While all the isolates could tolerate pH from 2 to 14 (optimum 5-9), 7 isolates tolerated pH 1.5 as well. While all the fungal isolates tolerated salt concentration above 10 %; 10 isolates showed tolerance above 20 %. Based on ITS region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) analysis the fungal isolates belonged to 25 different species of Penicillium (showing similarity between 95 and 100 %). Characters like tolerance for low temperature, wide range of pH, and high salt concentration, and enhancement in sporulation and production of secondary metabolites such as watery exudates at low temperature can be attributed to the ecological resilience possessed by these fungi for survival under low temperature environment of mountain ecosystem.

  4. Reduction of salt in pork sausages by the addition of carrot fibre or potato starch and high pressure treatment.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Alberto; Søltoft-Jensen, Jakob; Knudsen, Jes Christian; Christensen, Mette; Orlien, Vibeke

    2012-12-01

    The combined effect of high pressure processing (HPP) (400, 600 and 800 MPa) and carrot fibre (CF) and potato starch (PS) on low salt (1.2%) pork sausages was investigated and compared with high (1.8%) salt sausages. Sausages had a marked increase in whitening with increasing content of fibre or starch, pressure level, and process temperature. The degree of redness was mainly affected by pressure level and heat treatment. An important finding regarding salt reduction was that the use of starch or fibre had more impact on textural properties than the level of salt since Young's modulus and strain at fracture were mainly affected by formulation and HPP. Water binding capacity of low salt sausages was improved to the same level as high salt sausages with HPP and addition of CF or PS particularly by the addition of PS which produced sausages with better sensory properties than CF. The sensory analysis showed that this approach is promising for producing low salt sausages.

  5. Oxidative stress causes hypertension and activation of nuclear factor-κB after high-fructose and salt treatments

    PubMed Central

    Dornas, Waleska C.; Cardoso, Leonardo M.; Silva, Maísa; Machado, Natália L. S.; Chianca-Jr., Deoclécio A.; Alzamora, Andréia C.; Lima, Wanderson G.; Lagente, Vincent; Silva, Marcelo E.

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence that diets rich in salt or simple sugars as fructose are associated with abnormalities in blood pressure regulation. However, the mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of salt- and fructose-induced kidney damage and/or consequent hypertension yet remain largely unexplored. Here, we tested the role of oxidative state as an essential factor along with high salt and fructose treatment in causing hypertension. Fischer male rats were supplemented with a high-fructose diet (20% in water) for 20 weeks and maintained on high-salt diet (8%) associate in the last 10 weeks. Fructose-fed rats exhibited a salt-dependent hypertension accompanied by decrease in renal superoxide dismutase activity, which is the first footprint of antioxidant inactivation by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Metabolic changes and the hypertensive effect of the combined fructose-salt diet (20 weeks) were markedly reversed by a superoxide scavenger, Tempol (10 mg/kg, gavage); moreover, Tempol (50 mM) potentially reduced ROS production and abolished nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells incubated with L-fructose (30 mM) and NaCl (500 mosmol/kg added). Taken together, our data suggested a possible role of oxygen radicals and ROS-induced activation of NF-κB in the fructose- and salt-induced hypertension associated with the progression of the renal disease.

  6. Thermal modeling of a secondary concentrator integrated with an open direct-absorption molten-salt volumetric receiver in a beam-down tower system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahlou, Radia; Armstrong, Peter; Grange, Benjamin; Almheiri, Saif; Calvet, Nicolas; Slocum, Alexander; Shamim, Tariq

    2016-05-01

    An upward-facing three-dimensional secondary concentrator, herein termed Final Optical Element (FOE), is designed to be used in a beam-down tower in combination with an open volumetric direct-absorption molten-salt receiver tank acting simultaneously as a thermal energy storage system. It allows reducing thermal losses from the open receiver by decreasing its aperture area while keeping minimal spillage losses. The FOE is exposed to high solar fluxes, a part of which is absorbed by its reflector material, leading to material degradation by overheating. Consequently, the FOE may require active cooling. A thermal model of the FOE under passive cooling mechanism is proposed as a first step to evaluate its sensitivity to some design parameters. Then, it will be used to evaluate the requirements for the active cooling system. The model provides insights on the FOE thermal behavior and highlights the effectiveness of a design modification on passive cooling enhancement. First prototype tests under reduced flux and with no active cooling will be used for model adjustment.

  7. Factors impeding enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis at high solid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hardt, N A; Janssen, A E M; Boom, R M; van der Goot, A J

    2014-07-01

    Enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis at high solid concentrations is advantageous from an environmental and economic point of view. However, increased wheat gluten concentrations result in a concentration effect with a decreased hydrolysis rate at constant enzyme-to-substrate ratios and a decreased maximum attainable degree of hydrolysis (DH%). We here identified the underlying factors causing the concentration effect. Wheat gluten was hydrolyzed at solid concentrations from 4.4% to 70%. The decreased hydrolysis rate was present at all solid concentrations and at any time of the reaction. Mass transfer limitations, enzyme inhibition and water activity were shown to not cause this hydrolysis rate limitation up to 50% solids. However, the hydrolysis rate limitation can be, at least partly, explained by a second-order enzyme inactivation process. Furthermore, mass transfer impeded the hydrolysis above 60% solids. Addition of enzyme after 24 h at high solid concentrations scarcely increased the DH%, suggesting that the maximum attainable DH% decreases at high solid concentrations. Reduced enzyme activities caused by low water activities can explain this DH% limitation. Finally, a possible influence of the plastein reaction on the DH% limitation is discussed.

  8. Applications of nonimaging optics for very high solar concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    O`Gallagher, J.; Winston, R.

    1997-12-31

    Using the principles and techniques of nonimaging optics, solar concentrations that approach the theoretical maximum can be achieved. This has applications in solar energy collection wherever concentration is desired. In this paper, we survey recent progress in attaining and using high and ultrahigh solar fluxes. We review a number of potential applications for highly concentrated solar energy and the current status of the associated technology. By making possible new and unique applications for intense solar flux, these techniques have opened a whole new frontier for research and development of potentially economic uses of solar energy.

  9. Response of three shrub willow varieties (Salix spp.) to storm water treatments with different concentrations of salts.

    PubMed

    Mirck, Jaconette; Volk, Timothy A

    2010-05-01

    The effect of recycling storm water with high chloride concentrations on shrub willow growth was examined in a ten-week greenhouse study. Three willow varieties Salix miyabeana (SX64), Salix purpurea (9882-34), and Salix sachalinensisxSalix miyabeana (9870-40) were grown in organically-amended Solvay waste, and irrigated with five storm water concentrations containing 163, 325, 813, 1625, and 8125mgCl(-)L(-1) and a tap water control. Stomatal conductance values responded most rapidly to stress (after 4.5weeks), but height and leaf length measurements, which revealed signs of stress after 6 and 7weeks, might be more practical stress indicators for large-scale plantations. Even though variety 9870-40 was most sensitive with increasing concentrations of Solvay storm water, this variety had the greatest ET values during the ten-week trial. Storm water with concentrations up to 1625mgCl(-)L(-1) had no short-term effects on biomass accumulation and evapotranspiration.

  10. Role of different salts on cloud-point extraction of isoprocarb and promecarb insecticides followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Santalad, Apichai; Burakham, Rodjana; Srijaranai, Somkiat; Srijaranai, Supalax; Deming, Richard L

    2012-07-01

    The influence of salt additive on cloud point extraction (CPE) of isoprocarb and promecarb insecticides is described. Types of salt (Na(2)CO(3), CaCl(2), MgSO(4), Na(2)SO(4), NaHCO(3) and NaCl) and concentrations were studied. The extracted target compounds were analyzed using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Among the salts studied, Na(2)CO(3) was found to be the most effective salt for salting out of both insecticides, resulting in high extraction efficiency (>95%) and high enrichment factor of up to 18 compared to extraction without preconcentration. The optimum CPE conditions were 1.5% (w/v) Triton X-114, 3.0% (w/v) Na(2)CO(3), and 20-min equilibration at 45°C. Under the selected conditions, the linear range of 0.05 to 3.0 mg/L was found for both analytes. The limits of detection for isoprocarb and promecarb were 10 and 20 µg/L, respectively. High intra-day (n = 9) and inter-day (n = 3 × 4 days) precisions with relative standard deviations <1% and <8% were obtained for retention time and peak area, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the residue analysis of target compounds in beverages (i.e., fruit juice, vegetable juice and wine samples), which provided high recoveries (>80%, on average) for spiked samples at three levels (0.05, 0.10 and 0.50 mg/L).

  11. Salt-Tectonics Plays Major Role in Contributing High Seawater Salinity in Arabian/persian Gulf: a Constant Constrain on Seawater Desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaigham, N. A.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Nayyar, Z. A.; Mahar, G. A.; Siddique, A.

    2012-12-01

    Literature research indicates that Arabian/Persian Gulf is the second smallest and saltiest marine body in the world. In general, it is believed that anomalously high salinity of the Gulf is due to low precipitation, high rate of evaporation and limited freshwater pouring from rivers of Iraq and Iran. But present research study has identified that the geotectonic setup and the associated resulting active salt-tectonic processes are mainly causing constant enhancement of salinity in Arabian/Persian Gulf. The results indicate presence of numerous penetrations of salt domes, plugs and other diapiric structures almost all over the bottom and surrounding coastline areas, particularly coastal-belt of Iran, Strait of Hormuz and coastal areas of Qatar and UAE, which are the main inherent contributors for high salinity in seawater of the Gulf. Other factors, like, low precipitation, high evaporation, poor freshwater pouring of Iraq and Iran rivers and discharging back of highly concentrated brines, etc., are further augmenting Gulf's high-salinity. From the assessed salinity environment, it is inferred that present level of salinity will be 'higher to highest' in future affecting considerably the desalination activities in time to come. As the level of seawater salinity plays an important role for the efficient and cost effective seawater desalination activities, the present priorities should be reevaluated for efficient and sustainable water from desalination of highly salted-water of Arabian/Persian Gulf.

  12. Combined effect of concentrations of algal food (Chlorella vulgaris) and salt (sodium chloride) on the population growth of Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus patulus (Rotifera).

    PubMed

    Peredo-Alvarez, Víctor M; Sarma, S S; Nandini, S

    2003-06-01

    Salinity is an important variable influencing the density and diversity of rotifers. Studies on salt tolerance of rotifers have so far concentrated on euryhaline species while very little information is available on non-euryhaline taxa. In the present work, we have evaluated the combined effects of Chlorella vulgaris and sodium chloride on the population growth of two freshwater rotifers B. calyciflorus and B. patulus. A 24 hr acute tolerance test using NaCl revealed that B. calyciflorus was more resistant (LC50 = 3.75 +/- 0.04 g l-1) than B. patulus (2.14 +/- 0.09 g l-1). The maximal population density (mean +/- standard error) for B. calyciflorus in the control at 4.5 x 10(6) cells ml-1 (algal level) was 80 +/- 5 ind. ml-1, which was nearly a fifth of the one for B. patulus (397 +/- 7 ind. ml-1) under comparable conditions. Data on population growth revealed that regardless of salt concentration, the density of B. calyciflorus increased with increasing food levels, while for B. patulus, this trend was evident only in the controls. Regardless of salt concentration and algal food level, the day of maximal population density was lower (4 +/- 0.5 days) for B. calyciflorus than for B. patulus (11 +/- 1 day). The highest rates of population increase (r values) for B. calyciflorus and B. patulus were 0.429 +/- 0.012 and 0.367 +/- 0.004, respectively, recorded at 4.5 x 10(6) cells ml-1 of Chlorella in the controls. The protective role of algae in reducing the effect of salt stress was more evident in B. calyciflorus than B. patulus.

  13. Vortex Diode Analysis and Testing for Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Elkassabgi, Yousri M.; De Leon, Gerardo I.; Fetterly, Caitlin N.; Ramos, Jorge A.; Cunningham, Richard Burns

    2012-02-01

    Fluidic diodes are presently being considered for use in several fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor designs. A fluidic diode is a passive device that acts as a leaky check valve. These devices are installed in emergency heat removal systems that are designed to passively remove reactor decay heat using natural circulation. The direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS) uses DRACS salt-to-salt heat exchangers (DHXs) that operate in a path parallel to the core flow. Because of this geometry, under normal operating conditions some flow bypasses the core and flows through the DHX. A flow diode, operating in reverse direction, is-used to minimize this flow when the primary coolant pumps are in operation, while allowing forward flow through the DHX under natural circulation conditions. The DRACSs reject the core decay heat to the environment under loss-of-flow accident conditions and as such are a reactor safety feature. Fluidic diodes have not previously been used in an operating reactor system, and therefore their characteristics must be quantified to ensure successful operation. This report parametrically examines multiple design parameters of a vortex-type fluidic diode to determine the size of diode needed to reject a particular amount of decay heat. Additional calculations were performed to size a scaled diode that could be tested in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Liquid Salt Flow Loop. These parametric studies have shown that a 152.4 mm diode could be used as a test article in that facility. A design for this diode is developed, and changes to the loop that will be necessary to test the diode are discussed. Initial testing of a scaled flow diode has been carried out in a water loop. The 150 mm diode design discussed above was modified to improve performance, and the final design tested was a 171.45 mm diameter vortex diode. The results of this testing indicate that diodicities of about 20 can be obtained for diodes of this size. Experimental

  14. High Black Carbon (BC) Concentrations along Indian National Highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract:Black carbon (BC), the optically absorbing component of carbonaceous aerosol, has direct influence on radiation budget and global warming. Vehicular pollution is one of the main sources for poor air quality and also atmospheric pollution. The number of diesel vehicles has increased on the Indian National Highways during day and night; these vehicles are used for the transport of goods from one city to another city and also used for public transport. A smoke plume from the vehicles is a common feature on the highways. We have made measurements of BC mass concentrations along the Indian National Highways using a potable Aethalometer installed in a moving car. We have carried out measurements along Varanasi to Kanpur (NH-2), Varanasi to Durgapur (NH-2), Varanasi to Singrauli (SH-5A) and Varanasi to Ghazipur (NH-29). We have found high concentration of BC along highways, the average BC mass concentrations vary in the range 20 - 40 µg/m3 and found high BC mass concentrations up to 600 μg/m3. Along the highways high BC concentrations were characteristics of the presence of industrial area, power plants, brick kilns and slow or standing vehicles. The effect of increasing BC concentrations along the National Highways and its impact on the vegetation and human health will be presented. Key Words: Black Carbon; Aethalometer; mass concentration; Indian National Highways.

  15. Maternal high fat and/or salt consumption induces sex-specific inflammatory and nutrient transport in the rat placenta.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Clare M; Vickers, Mark H; Harrison, Claudia J; Segovia, Stephanie A; Gray, Clint

    2015-05-01

    Maternal high fat and salt consumption are associated with developmental programming of disease in adult offspring. Inadequacies in placental nutrient transport may explain these 'programmed effects'. Diet-induced inflammation may have detrimental effects on placental function leading to alteration of key nutrient transporters. We examined the effects of maternal high fat and/or salt diets on markers of placental nutrient transport and inflammation. Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to (1) control (CD; 1% Salt 10% kcal from fat); (2) high salt (SD; 4% salt, 10% kcal from fat); (3) high fat (HF; 1% Salt 45% kcal from fat) or (4) high fat high salt (HFSD; 4% salt, 45% kcal from fat) 21 days prior to and throughout gestation. At embryonic day 18, dams were killed by isoflurane anesthesia followed by decapitation; placenta/fetuses were weighed, sexed, and collected for molecular analysis. Maternal SD, HF, and HFSD consumption decreased weight of placenta derived from male offspring; however, weight of placenta derived from female offspring was only reduced with maternal HF diet. This was associated with increased expression of LPL, SNAT2, GLUT1, and GLUT4 in placenta derived from male offspring suggesting increased fetal exposure to free fatty acids and glucose. Maternal SD, HF, and HFSD diet consumption increased expression of proinflammatory mediators IL-1β, TNFα, and CD68 in male placenta. Our results suggest that a proinflammatory placental profile results in detrimental alterations in nutrient transport which may contribute to the developmental origins of cardio-metabolic disturbances in offspring throughout life.

  16. High Frequency Monitoring of the Quantity and Quality of Dissolved Organic Matter Flux Between Salt Marshes and Plum Island Sound, MA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Raymond, P.

    2012-12-01

    Salt marshes are highly productive continental margin ecosystems, due to abundant solar radiation, water, and nutrients provided by tidal water. The unique bi-directional water movement introduced by tidal effect has a major impact on the formation and productivity of salt marsh and the material exchange between salt marsh and adjacent estuary. As a major term in carbon, energy, and nutrient budget for aquatic ecosystem, dissolved organic matter (DOM) has broad impact on food webs, carbon cycle, and nutrient retention/release. The frequency and period of DOM measurement is greatly increased by the use of reagent-free, low-cost, and reliable measurement with fluorescent and UV sensors measuring the chromophoric fraction of total DOM. Although fluorescent sensors can only measure concentration, UV absorbance in a wide spectral range (200nm-380nm) could potentially provide information on DOM composition. With the help of accurate direct real time water flux measurement and lab analysis of lability, DON, and 3D excitation emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMs), a database of DOM quantity and quality exchanged between several comparative salt marshes and Plum Island Sound, MA could be established to study the dynamics of DOM behavior in the salt marsh-estuary system. Understanding DOM source and fate is very important for evaluating the role of salt marsh in the carbon cycle and food web in coastal and global scale because coastal carbon cycling represents up to 21% of the ocean's primary production (Jahnke 2008). In addition, the approaches outlined in this proposal have broad applicability to study DOM quantity and quality in the material exchange theme between systems.

  17. High-speed VLSI concentrators for terabit intelligent optical backplanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supmonchai, Boonchuay; Szymanski, Ted H.

    1998-05-01

    Self-routing `concentrators' are fundamental building blocks of optical switching systems. An N-to-M concentrator can process and extract data packets from N optical channels and forward the packets to M electrical channels, where typically N M. Terabit Optical Backplanes which exploit free-space optical data links, with bandwidths approaching 1 - 10 Terabits per second will require extremely fast self- routing concentrators which can make routing decisions within a few nanoseconds. In this paper, a VLSI analysis of a new circuit called the `Daisy Chain' concentrator is presented. This concentrator has a regular topology suitable for very efficient VLSI layout, which leads to very high clock rates. The analyses are performed using 0.8 micrometers standard cell CMOS technology with the Synopsys CAD tool. The results shows that the proposed concentrator uses substantially less VLSI area from 20 - 50% less in the control logic and up to 150% less on the switching logic than the previous best known concentrator circuit. It also performs significantly faster, ranging from 20 - 40% faster in the control logic and 150 - 300% faster in the switching logic. Using 0.8 micrometers CMOS technology, the proposed concentrator can be used in smart pixel arrays for optical backplanes with clock rates in the range of 500 Mhz. Using faster CMOS or ECL logic, the concentrator can support clock rates in the several Gigahertz range.

  18. High level nuclear waste repository in salt: Sealing systems status and planning report: Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    1985-09-01

    This report documents the initial conceptual design studies for a repository sealing system for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The first step in the initial design studies was to review the current design level, termed schematic designs. This review identified practicality of construction and development of a design methodology as two key issues for the conceptual design. These two issues were then investigated during the initial design studies for seal system materials, seal placement, backfill emplacement, and a testing and monitoring plan. The results of these studies have been used to develop a program plan for completion of the sealing system conceptual design. 60 refs., 26 figs., 18 tabs.

  19. Exploring high charge of phosphate as new draw solute in a forward osmosis-membrane distillation hybrid system for concentrating high-nutrient sludge.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nguyen Cong; Nguyen, Hau Thi; Ho, Su-Thing; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Ray, Saikat Sinha; Hsu, Hung-Te

    2016-07-01

    For the first time, a high charge of phosphate was used as the draw solute in a forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD) hybrid system for concentrating high-nutrient sludge. A high water flux (12.5L/m(2)h) and a low reverse salt flux (0.84g/m(2)) were simultaneously achieved at pH9 by using 0.1M Na3PO4 as the draw solute and deionized water as the feed solution in the FO process. The specific reverse salt flux of 0.1M Na3PO4 (Js/Jw=0.07g/L) was considerably less than that of 0.1M NaCl (Js/Jw=0.37g/L) because the complexion between Na(+) and HPO4(2-) at pH9 led to the reduction of free Na(+) ions, which subsequently reduced the reverse salt diffusion substantially. Moreover, for a feed solution with an initial sludge concentration of 3500mg/L, the sludge concentration could be concentrated to 19,800 and 22,000mg/L in the pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) and FO membrane orientations, respectively, after 15h of operation. Four types of MD membranes were selected for draw solution recovery; of these, a polytetrafluoroethylene membrane with a pore size of 0.45μm was the most effective in achieving a high water flux (10.28L/m(2)h) and high salt rejection (approximately 100%) in a diluted Na3PO4 draw solution.

  20. High concentration low wattage solar arrays and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Robert; O'Gallagher, Joseph; Winston, Roland

    1997-02-01

    Midway Labs currently produces a 335x concentrator module that has reached as high as 19% active area efficiency in production. The current production module uses the single crystal silicon back contact SunPower cell. The National Renewable Energy Lab has developed a multi junction cell using GalnP/GaAs technologies. The high efficiency (>30%) and high cell voltage offer an opportunity for Midway Labs to develop a tracking concentrator module that will provide 24 volts in the 140 to 160 watt range. This voltage and wattage range is applicable to a range of small scale water pumping applications that make up the bulk of water pumping solar panel sales.

  1. Influence of pH, temperature, and concentration on stabilization of aqueous hornet silk solution and fabrication of salt-free materials.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Tsunenori

    2015-01-01

    We found that an aqueous solution of silk from cocoons produced by hornet larvae (hornet silk) can be obtained when the solution is adjusted to basic conditions of pH > 9.2. It is known that native hornet cocoons can be dissolved in concentrated aqueous solution of salts, such as lithium bromide (LiBr) and calcium chloride (CaCl2). Upon the removal of these salts from solution by dialysis, solidification, gelation, or sedimentation of hornet silk is known to occur. In the present study, under basic conditions, however, no such solidification occurred, even after salt removal. In this study, ammonia was used for alkalization of solution because it is volatilized during the casting process and pure hornet silk materials can be obtained after drying. The effects of the concentrations of hornet silk and ammonia, as well as dialysis temperature, on preventing gelation during dialysis were investigated. Dialysis conditions that limit the degradation of hornet silk by hydrolysis in alkali solution were identified. Moreover, casting conditions to prepare flexible and transparent hornet silk film from aqueous ammonia solution were optimized. Molecular structural analysis of hornet silk in aqueous ammonia solution and cast film indicated the formation of α-helix conformations.

  2. High concentration honey chitosan electrospun nanofibers: biocompatibility and antibacterial effects.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Wessam A; Azzazy, Hassan M E

    2015-05-20

    Honey nanofibers represent an attractive formulation with unique medicinal and wound healing advantages. Nanofibers with honey concentrations of <10% were prepared, however, there is a need to prepare nanofibers with higher honey concentrations to increase the antibacterial and wound healing effects. In this work, chitosan and honey (H) were cospun with polyvinyl alcohol (P) allowing the fabrication of nanofibers with high honey concentrations up to 40% and high chitosan concentrations up to 5.5% of the total weight of the fibers using biocompatible solvents (1% acetic acid). The fabricated nanofibers were further chemically crosslinked, by exposure to glutaraldehyde vapor, and physically crosslinked by heating and freezing/thawing. The new HP-chitosan nanofibers showed pronounced antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus but weak antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. The developed HP-chitosan nanofibers revealed no cytotoxicity effects on cultured fibroblasts. In conclusion, biocompatible, antimicrobial crosslinked honey/polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan nanofibers were developed which hold potential as effective wound dressing.

  3. Direct Analysis of Triterpenes from High-Salt Fermented Cucumbers Using Infrared Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Electrospray Ionization (IR-MALDESI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekelöf, Måns; McMurtrie, Erin K.; Nazari, Milad; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D.; Muddiman, David C.

    2017-02-01

    High-salt samples present a challenge to mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, particularly when electrospray ionization (ESI) is used, requiring extensive sample preparation steps such as desalting, extraction, and purification. In this study, infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) coupled to a Q Exactive Plus mass spectrometer was used to directly analyze 50-μm thick slices of cucumber fermented and stored in 1 M sodium chloride brine. From the several hundred unique substances observed, three triterpenoid lipids produced by cucumbers, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and lupeol, were putatively identified based on exact mass and selected for structural analysis. The spatial distribution of the lipids were imaged, and the putative assignments were confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry performed directly on the same cucumber, demonstrating the capacity of the technique to deliver confident identifications from highly complex samples in molar concentrations of salt without the need for sample preparation.

  4. Direct Analysis of Triterpenes from High-Salt Fermented Cucumbers Using Infrared Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Electrospray Ionization (IR-MALDESI).

    PubMed

    Ekelöf, Måns; McMurtrie, Erin K; Nazari, Milad; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Muddiman, David C

    2017-02-01

    High-salt samples present a challenge to mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, particularly when electrospray ionization (ESI) is used, requiring extensive sample preparation steps such as desalting, extraction, and purification. In this study, infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) coupled to a Q Exactive Plus mass spectrometer was used to directly analyze 50-μm thick slices of cucumber fermented and stored in 1 M sodium chloride brine. From the several hundred unique substances observed, three triterpenoid lipids produced by cucumbers, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and lupeol, were putatively identified based on exact mass and selected for structural analysis. The spatial distribution of the lipids were imaged, and the putative assignments were confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry performed directly on the same cucumber, demonstrating the capacity of the technique to deliver confident identifications from highly complex samples in molar concentrations of salt without the need for sample preparation. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  5. Performance assessment instrument to assess the senior high students' psychomotor for the salt hydrolysis material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahadi, Firman, Harry; Yulina, Erlis

    2016-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a performance assessment instrument for assessing the competence of psychomotor high school students on salt hydrolysis concepts. The design used in this study was the Research & Development which consists of three phases: development, testing and application of instruments. Subjects in this study were high school students in class XI science, which amounts to 93 students. In the development phase, seven validators validated 17 tasks instrument. In the test phase, we divided 19 students into three-part different times to conduct performance test in salt hydrolysis lab work and observed by six raters. The first, the second, and the third groups recpectively consist of five, six, and eight students. In the application phase, two raters observed the performance of 74 students in the salt hydrolysis lab work in several times. The results showed that 16 of 17 tasks of performance assessment instrument developed can be stated to be valid with CVR value of 1,00 and 0,714. While, the rest was not valid with CVR value was 0.429, below the critical value (0.622). In the test phase, reliability value of instrument obtained were 0,951 for the five-student group, 0,806 for the six-student group and 0,743 for the eight-student group. From the interviews, teachers strongly agree with the performance instrument developed. They stated that the instrument was feasible to use for maximum number of students were six in a single observation.

  6. Lack of Thromboxane Synthase Prevents Hypertension and Fetal Growth Restriction after High Salt Treatment during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pai, Chen-Hsueh; Yen, Ching-Tzu; Chen, Chie-Pein; Yu, I-Shing; Lin, Shu-Wha; Lin, Shu-Rung

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a potentially fatal pregnancy-related hypertensive disorder characterized by poor placenta development that can cause fetal growth restriction. PE-associated pathologies, including thrombosis, hypertension, and impaired placental development, may result from imbalances between thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and prostacyclin. Low-dose aspirin, which selectively inhibits TXA2 production, is used to prevent high-risk PE. However, the role of TXA2 in aspirin-mediated protective effects in women with PE is not understood fully. In this study, we examined the role of prostanoids in PE using human samples and an induced PE mouse model. We demonstrated that the administration of salted drinking water (2.7% NaCl) to wild-type mice resulted in elevated placental TXA2 synthase (TXAS) and plasma TXA2, but not prostacyclin, levels, which was also found in our clinical PE placenta samples. The high salt-treated wild-type pregnant mice had shown unchanged maternal body weight, hypertension (MAP increase 15 mmHg), and decreased pup weight (~50%) and size (~24%), but these adverse effects were ameliorated in TXAS knockout (KO) mice. Moreover, increased expression of interleukin-1β and downstream phosphorylated-p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase were concordant with apoptosis induction in the placentas of salt water-treated wild-type mice. These alterations were not observed in TXAS KO mice. Together, our data suggest that TXA2 depletion has anti-PE effects due to the prevention of hypertension and placental damage through downregulation of the interleukin-1β pathway.

  7. Chemical and biological properties of extracellular slime produced by Staphylococcus aureus grown in high-carbohydrate, high-salt medium.

    PubMed Central

    Brock, J H; Reiter, B

    1976-01-01

    Slime material produced by three strains of Staphylococcus aureus grown in the high-carbohydrate, high-salt modified 110 medium contained ribitol teichoic acid and, in two of the three strains, a basic protein reacting with antisera to S. aureus whole cells and cell walls. The basic protein differed chemically and serologically from cell wall mucopeptide and protein A. Substances resembling the capsular antigen of the Smith diffuse strain of S. aureus were not detected, nor were any other uronic acid-containing components. When cell walls, slime material, and teichoic acid were injected intradermally into cows, only cell walls produced a skin reaction. Images PMID:1270128

  8. Bound Ribosomes of Pea Chloroplast Thylakoid Membranes: Location and Release in Vitro by High Salt, Puromycin, and RNase 1

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Taibo; Burke, John; Autz, George; Jagendorf, André T.

    1981-01-01

    The mode of attachment of 70S ribosomes to thylakoid membranes from pea leaves was studied by determining the proportion of the bound RNA which was released by various incubation conditions. The results supported a model in which several classes of bound ribosomes could be distinguished: (a) very tightly bound, not released by any conditions yet tested (20% of the total); (b) monomeric ribosomes attached by electrostatic interaction with the membranes (30 to 40% of the total) and released by high salt; and (c) polysomes, with some of the ribosomes attached by a combination of electrostatic interactions and insertion of the nascent polypeptide chain into the membrane. These required a combination of puromycin and high salt for release. Other (“hanging”) ribosomes of the polysomes were inferred to be attached through mRNA but not actually attached to the membranes directly; they could be released by RNase under low salt conditions, as well as by puromycin plus high salt. To obtain these results, chloroplasts had to be prepared in media containing 0.2 molar Tris at pH 8.5. Using Tricine buffers at pH 7.5 yielded thylakoid membranes whose ribosomes were removed almost completely by high salt alone; these showed no response to puromycin. However, pH 7.5 had to be used in all cases for ribosome dissociation in high salt media, as the ribosome structure appeared to be degraded by high salt at pH 8.5, and release then occurred without the need for puromycin. The kinetics of ribosome release by high salt showed a rapid initial phase with a half-life of 20 seconds. The extent of release by high salt was very dependent on the temperature of the incubation. Plotting the data according to the Arrhenius interpretation shows a significant break at about 15 C, with apparent activation energy of 20 kilocalories per mole below that temperature and 5 kilocalories per mole above that temperature. This result suggests that membrane fluidity might be an important factor permitting

  9. Salt content of school meals and comparison of perception related to sodium intake in elementary, middle, and high schools.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sohyun; Park, Seoyun; Kim, Jin Nam; Han, Sung Nim; Jeong, Soo Bin; Kim, Hye-Kyeong

    2013-02-01

    Excessive sodium intake leading to hypertension, stroke, and stomach cancer is mainly caused by excess use of salt in cooking. This study was performed to estimate the salt content in school meals and to compare differences in perceptions related to sodium intake between students and staffs working for school meal service. We collected 382 dishes for food from 24 schools (9 elementary, 7 middle, 8 high schools) in Gyeonggi-do and salt content was calculated from salinity and weight of individual food. The average salt content from elementary, middle, and high school meals were 2.44 g, 3.96 g, and 5.87 g, respectively. The amount of salt provided from the school lunch alone was over 80% of the recommended daily salt intake by WHO. Noodles, stews, sauces, and soups were major sources of salt intake at dish group level, while the most salty dishes were sauces, kimchies, and stir-fried foods. Dietary knowledge and attitude related to sodium intake and consumption frequency of the salty dishes were surveyed with questionnaire in 798 students and 256 staffs working for school meal service. Compared with the staffs, the students perceived school meals salty and the proportions of students who thought school meals were salty increased with going up from elementary to high schools (P < 0.001). Among the students, middle and high school students showed significant propensity for the preference to one-dish meal, processed foods, eating much broth and dipping sauce or seasoning compared with the elementary students, although they had higher nutrition knowledge scores. These results proposed that monitoring salt content of school meals and consideration on the contents and education methods in school are needed to lower sodium intake.

  10. Proteomic analysis of halotolerant proteins under high and low salt stress in Dunaliella salina using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yan-Long; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Chong; Gao, Li-Jie; Wang, Xi-Cheng; Qiu, Le-Le; Wu, Jun-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dunaliella salina, a single-celled marine alga with extreme salt tolerance, is an important model organism for studying fundamental extremophile survival mechanisms and their potential practical applications. In this study, two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) was used to investigate the expression of halotolerant proteins under high (3 M NaCl) and low (0.75 M NaCl) salt concentrations. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) and bioinformatics were used to identify and characterize the differences among proteins. 2D-DIGE analysis revealed 141 protein spots that were significantly differentially expressed between the two salinities. Twenty-four differentially expressed protein spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS, including proteins in the following important categories: molecular chaperones, proteins involved in photosynthesis, proteins involved in respiration and proteins involved in amino acid synthesis. Expression levels of these proteins changed in response to the stress conditions, which suggests that they may be involved in the maintenance of intracellular osmotic pressure, cellular stress responses, physiological changes in metabolism, continuation of photosynthetic activity and other aspects of salt stress. The findings of this study enhance our understanding of the function and mechanisms of various proteins in salt stress. PMID:27192131

  11. Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Demonstration Reactor Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Qualls, A. L.; Brown, Nicholas R.; Betzler, Benjamin R.; Carbajo, Juan; Hale, Richard Edward; Harrison, Thomas J.; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Robb, Kevin R.; Terrell, Jerry W.; Wysocki, Aaron J.

    2016-02-01

    The fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) demonstration reactor (DR) is a concept for a salt-cooled reactor with 100 megawatts of thermal output (MWt). It would use tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel within prismatic graphite blocks. FLiBe (2 LiF-BeF2) is the reference primary coolant. The FHR DR is designed to be small, simple, and affordable. Development of the FHR DR is a necessary intermediate step to enable near-term commercial FHRs. Lower risk technologies are purposely included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include TRISO particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell primary-to-intermediate heat exchangers. Several preconceptual and conceptual design efforts that have been conducted on FHR concepts bear a significant influence on the FHR DR design. Specific designs include the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) advanced high-temperature reactor (AHTR) with 3400/1500 MWt/megawatts of electric output (MWe), as well as a 125 MWt small modular AHTR (SmAHTR) from ORNL. Other important examples are the Mk1 pebble bed FHR (PB-FHR) concept from the University of California, Berkeley (UCB), and an FHR test reactor design developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The MIT FHR test reactor is based on a prismatic fuel platform and is directly relevant to the present FHR DR design effort. These FHR concepts are based on reasonable assumptions for credible commercial prototypes. The FHR DR concept also directly benefits from the operating experience of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), as well as the detailed design efforts for a large molten salt reactor concept and its breeder variant, the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor. The FHR DR technology is most representative of the 3400 MWt AHTR

  12. Freeform solar concentrator with a highly asymmetric acceptance cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheelwright, Brian; Angel, J. Roger P.; Coughenour, Blake; Hammer, Kimberly

    2014-10-01

    A solar concentrator with a highly asymmetric acceptance cone is investigated. Concentrating photovoltaic systems require dual-axis sun tracking to maintain nominal concentration throughout the day. In addition to collecting direct rays from the solar disk, which subtends ~0.53 degrees, concentrating optics must allow for in-field tracking errors due to mechanical misalignment of the module, wind loading, and control loop biases. The angular range over which the concentrator maintains <90% of on-axis throughput is defined as the optical acceptance angle. Concentrators with substantial rotational symmetry likewise exhibit rotationally symmetric acceptance angles. In the field, this is sometimes a poor match with azimuth-elevation trackers, which have inherently asymmetric tracking performance. Pedestal-mounted trackers with low torsional stiffness about the vertical axis have better elevation tracking than azimuthal tracking. Conversely, trackers which rotate on large-footprint circular tracks are often limited by elevation tracking performance. We show that a line-focus concentrator, composed of a parabolic trough primary reflector and freeform refractive secondary, can be tailored to have a highly asymmetric acceptance angle. The design is suitable for a tracker with excellent tracking accuracy in the elevation direction, and poor accuracy in the azimuthal direction. In the 1000X design given, when trough optical errors (2mrad rms slope deviation) are accounted for, the azimuthal acceptance angle is +/- 1.65°, while the elevation acceptance angle is only +/-0.29°. This acceptance angle does not include the angular width of the sun, which consumes nearly all of the elevation tolerance at this concentration level. By decreasing the average concentration, the elevation acceptance angle can be increased. This is well-suited for a pedestal alt-azimuth tracker with a low cost slew bearing (without anti-backlash features).

  13. Sterile Filtration of Highly Concentrated Protein Formulations: Impact of Protein Concentration, Formulation Composition, and Filter Material.

    PubMed

    Allmendinger, Andrea; Mueller, Robert; Huwyler, Joerg; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Fischer, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Differences in filtration behavior of concentrated protein formulations were observed during aseptic drug product manufacturing of biologics dependent on formulation composition. The present study investigates filtration forces of monoclonal antibody formulations in a small-scale set-up using polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethersulfone (PES) filters. Different factors like formulation composition and protein concentration related to differences in viscosity, as well as different filtration rates were evaluated. The present study showed that filtration behavior was influenced by the presence or absence of a surfactant in the formulation, which defines the interaction between filter membrane and surface active formulation components. This can lead to a change in filter resistance (PES filter) independent on the buffer system used. Filtration behavior was additionally defined by rheological non-Newtonian flow behavior. The data showed that high shear rates resulting from small pore sizes and filtration pressure up to 1.0 bar led to shear-thinning behavior for highly concentrated protein formulations. Differences in non-Newtonian behavior were attributed to ionic strength related to differences in repulsive and attractive interactions. The present study showed that the interplay of formulation composition, filter material, and filtration rate can explain differences in filtration behavior/filtration flux observed for highly concentrated protein formulations thus guiding filter selection.

  14. Expected environments for a defense high-level waste repository in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Rickertsen, L.D.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1981-03-01

    Expected environments for a defense high-level waste (DHLW) repository in salt have been predicted analogously to previous analyses for spent fuel (SF) and reprocessed commercial high-level wastes (CHLW). Environments predicted include near-field and far-field temperatures, fluid, pressure, and nuclear radiation fields. Some sensitivity studies have also been performed. The main results of the calculations reported here include the following: (1) rock temperatures, canister wall temperatures, and waste temperatures do not exceed 86, 94, and 101/sup 0/C, respectively; (2) the maximum brine inflow rate to an emplacement hole is 0.015 L/yr, occurring in the first 30 yr after emplacement. The total accumulation of brine migrating to the emplacement hole after 1000 yr is < 0.5 L; (3) gas pressures encountered by the waste package do not exceed 0.36 MPa prior to mine closure. After this time, it is conceivable that stress on the canister could approach the lithostatic rock stresses; (4) maximum dose rates in the salt are < 1400 rads/h.

  15. Localized corrosion of high performance metal alloys in an acid/salt environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, L. G.; Ontiveros, C.

    1991-01-01

    Various vacuum jacketed cryogenic supply lines at the Space Shuttle launch site at Kennedy Space Center use convoluted flexible expansion joints. The atmosphere at the launch site has a very high salt content, and during a launch, fuel combustion products include hydrochloric acid. This extremely corrosive environment has caused pitting corrosion failure in the thin walled 304L stainless steel flex hoses. A search was done to find a more corrosion resistant replacement material. The study focussed on 19 metal alloys. Tests which were performed include electrochemical corrosion testing, accelerated corrosion testing in a salt fog chamber, and long term exposure at a beach corrosion testing site. Based on the results of these tests, several nickel based alloys were found to have very high resistance to this corrosive environment. Also, there was excellent agreement between the electrochemical tests and the actual beach exposure tests. This suggests that electrochemical testing may be useful for narrowing the field of potential candidate alloys before subjecting samples to long term beach exposure.

  16. Corrosion of Ferritic Steels in High Temperature Molten Salt Coolants for Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J; El-Dasher, B; de Caro, M S; Ferreira, J

    2008-11-25

    Corrosion of ferritic steels in high temperature molten fluoride salts may limit the life of advanced reactors, including some hybrid systems that are now under consideration. In some cases, the steel may be protected through galvanic coupling with other less noble materials with special neutronic properties such a beryllium. This paper reports the development of a model for predicting corrosion rates for various ferritic steels, with and without oxide dispersion strengthening, in FLiBe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) and FLiNaK (Li-Na-K-F) coolants at temperatures up to 800 C. Mixed potential theory is used to account for the protection of steel by beryllium, Tafel kinetics are used to predict rates of dissolution as a function of temperature and potential, and the thinning of the mass-transfer boundary layer with increasing Reynolds number is accounted for with dimensionless correlations. The model also accounts for the deceleration of corrosion as the coolants become saturated with dissolved chromium and iron. This paper also reports electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of steels at their corrosion potentials in high-temperature molten salt environments, with the complex impedance spectra interpreted in terms of the interfacial charge transfer resistance and capacitance, as well as the electrolyte conductivity. Such in situ measurement techniques provide valuable insight into the degradation of materials under realistic conditions.

  17. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study of cesium adsorption onto nanocrystalline mordenite from high-salt solution.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun-Young; Park, Minsung; Kim, Jimin; Oh, Maengkyo; Lee, Eil-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Chung, Dong-Yong; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of cesium adsorption by nanocrystalline mordenite were investigated under cesium contamination with high-salt solution, simulating the case of an operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities or an accident during the processes. The adsorption rate constants were determined using a pseudo second-order kinetic model. The kinetic results strongly demonstrated that the cesium adsorption rate of nano mordenite is extremely fast, even in a high-salt solution, and much faster than that of micro mordenite. In the equilibrium study, the Langmuir isotherm model fit the cesium adsorption data of nano mordenite better than the Freundlich model, which suggests that cesium adsorption onto nano mordenite is a monolayer homogeneous adsorption process. The obtained thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption involved a very stable chemical reaction. In particular, the combination of rapid particle dispersion and rapid cesium adsorption of the nano mordenite in the solution resulted in a rapid and effective process for cesium removal without stirring, which may offer great advantages for low energy consumption and simple operation.

  18. Hydrazine 5,5'-bitetrazole-1,1'-diolate: a promising high density energetic salt with good properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Xu, Cai-Xia; Yin, Xin; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2016-12-21

    The development of new environmentally friendly energetic compounds with reasonable detonation performance and safety is a long-term target in energetic materials research. A new energetic eco-friendly salt of hydrazine 5,5'-bitetrazole-1,1'-diolate (HA·BTO) is developed based on the reaction of 1H,1'H-5,5'-bitetrazole-1,1'-diolate (BTO) with hydrazine hydrochloride (HA·HCl), and fully characterized. The monocrystal of the title salt is obtained and the structure is determined by powder X-ray diffraction and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Results show that the salt belongs to the triclinic space group P1[combining macron] with a relatively high density of 1.912 g cm(-3) under 298 K. The properties of the salt are discussed in detail. The thermal decomposition behaviors of the salt are tested, indicating that the salt has good thermal stability with a decomposition temperature above 200 °C. The enthalpy of formation for the salt is dependent on the combustion heat date measured by oxygen bomb calorimetry with a result of 425.6 kJ mol(-1), which is the same level as TKX-50, and four times higher than that of RDX. The detonation pressure (P) and detonation velocity (D) of the salt are calculated as 8931 m s(-1) and 36.1 GPa, which are higher than those of RDX. In addition, the impact and friction sensitivities are tested through a relevant standard method with a result of 28 J and 120 N, which are better than those of TKX-50. We can draw the conclusion that the salt could provide a promising future in use as a kind of insensitive explosive alternative. The discovery also contributes significantly to the expansion and application of the chemistry of 1H,1'H-5,5'-bitetrazole-1,1'-diolate, as well as N-heterocyclic compounds.

  19. Transgenic cyclooxygenase-2 expression and high salt enhanced susceptibility to chemical-induced gastric cancer development in mice.

    PubMed

    Leung, Wai K; Wu, Kai-chun; Wong, Christine Y P; Cheng, Alfred S L; Ching, Arthur K K; Chan, Anthony W H; Chong, Wilson W S; Go, Minnie Y Y; Yu, Jun; To, Ka-Fai; Wang, Xin; Chui, Y L; Fan, D M; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2008-08-01

    Cyclooxoygenase (COX)-2 overexpression is involved in gastric carcinogenesis. While high-salt intake is a known risk factor for gastric cancer development, we determined the effects of high salt on gastric chemical carcinogenesis in COX-2 transgenic (TG) mice. COX-2 TG mice were developed in C57/BL6 strain using the full-length human cox-2 complementary DNA construct. Six-week-old COX-2 TG and wild-type (WT) littermates were randomly allocated to receive alternate week of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU, 240 p.p.m.) in drinking water or control for 10 weeks. Two groups of mice were further treated with 10% NaCl during the initial 10 weeks. All mice were killed at the end of week 50. Both forced COX-2 overexpression and high-salt intake significantly increased the frequency of gastric cancer development in mice as compared with WT littermates treated with MNU alone. However, no additive effect was observed on the combination of high salt and COX-2 expression. We further showed that MNU and high-salt treatment increased chronic inflammatory infiltrates and induced prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in the non-cancerous stomach. Whereas high-salt treatment markedly increased the expression of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, interleukin (IL)-1 beta and IL-6) in the gastric mucosa, COX-2 overexpression significantly altered the cell kinetics in the MNU-induced gastric cancer model. In conclusion, both high salt and COX-2 overexpression promote chemical-induced gastric carcinogenesis, possibly related to chronic inflammation, induction of PGE(2), disruption of cell kinetics and induction of inflammatory cytokines.

  20. Expected environments in high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel repositories in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Claiborne, H.C.; Rickertsen, L.D., Graham, R.F.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the expected environments associated with high-level waste (HLW) and spent fuel (SF) repositories in salt formations. These environments include the thermal, fluid, pressure, brine chemistry, and radiation fields predicted for the repository conceptual designs. In this study, it is assumed that the repository will be a room and pillar mine in a rock-salt formation, with the disposal horizon located approx. 2000 ft (610 m) below the surface of the earth. Canistered waste packages containing HLW in a solid matrix or SF elements are emplaced in vertical holes in the floor of the rooms. The emplacement holes are backfilled with crushed salt or other material and sealed at some later time. Sensitivity studies are presented to show the effect of changing the areal heat load, the canister heat load, the barrier material and thickness, ventilation of the storage room, and adding a second row to the emplacement configuration. The calculated thermal environment is used as input for brine migration calculations. The vapor and gas pressure will gradually attain the lithostatic pressure in a sealed repository. In the unlikely event that an emplacement hole will become sealed in relatively early years, the vapor space pressure was calculated for three scenarios (i.e., no hole closure - no backfill, no hole closure - backfill, and hole closure - no backfill). It was assumed that the gas in the system consisted of air and water vapor in equilibrium with brine. A computer code (REPRESS) was developed assuming that these changes occur slowly (equilibrium conditions). The brine chemical environment is outlined in terms of brine chemistry, corrosion, and compositions. The nuclear radiation environment emphasized in this report is the stored energy that can be released as a result of radiation damage or crystal dislocations within crystal lattices.

  1. Calculation of injection forces for highly concentrated protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ingo; Schmidt, Astrid; Bryant, Andrew; Besheer, Ahmed

    2015-09-30

    Protein solutions often manifest a high viscosity at high solution concentrations, thus impairing injectability. Accordingly, accurate prediction of the injection force based on solution viscosity can greatly support protein formulation and device development. In this study, the shear-dependent viscosity of three concentrated protein solutions is reported, and calculated injection forces obtained by two different mathematical models are compared against measured values. The results show that accurate determination of the needle dimensions and the shear-thinning behavior of the protein solutions is vital for injection force prediction. Additionally, one model delivered more accurate results, particularly for solutions with prominent shear-thinning behavior.

  2. Influence of two doses of irbesartan on non-dipper circadian blood pressure rhythm in salt-sensitive black hypertensives under high salt diet.

    PubMed

    Polónia, Jorge; Diogo, Domingos; Caupers, Paula; Damasceno, Albertino

    2003-07-01

    The authors examined whether the blockage of angiotensin II receptors by irbesartan (IRB) can reverse the "non-dipper" circadian rhythm of blood pressure (BP) to a "dipper" pattern in black salt-sensitive hypertensive patients submitted to a high-sodium loading. Twelve black salt-sensitive hypertensive patients (seven men; age, 35-58 years) on a high-sodium diet (300 mmol Na+ per day) were followed for 8 weeks. A placebo was given during the first 2 weeks, followed by 2 weeks on IRB 150 mg/d, 2 weeks on placebo, and 2 weeks on IRB 300 mg/d. On the last day of placebo, IRB 150 mg/d, and IRB 300 mg/d treatments, 24-hour BP and urinary 24-hour excretion of Na+ and potassium were measured. On placebo, ambulatory mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 112 mm Hg+/-2 (24 h), 112 mm Hg+/-2 (daytime), and 111 mm Hg+/-2 (nighttime), showing a clear circadian non-dipper profile. Versus placebo, IRB 150 mg/d reduced MAP by 4.2 mm Hg+/-1.1 (24 h), 2.6 mm Hg+/-0.8 (daytime) and 6.0 mm Hg+/-1.3 (nighttime; P<0.05 vs. placebo) and IRB 300 mg/d reduced MAP by 7.8 mm Hg+/-1.4 (24 h), 3.9 mm Hg+/-1.1 (daytime), and 11.8 mm Hg+/-2.1 mm Hg (all P<0.02 vs. placebo); nighttime/daytime MAP decrease was 0.7+/-0.8% on placebo, 3.5+/-2.1% on IRB 150 mg/d, and 7.0+/-1.2% on IRB 300 mg/d (P<0.02 for trend). Compared with placebo, IRB significantly increased serum potassium and plasma renin activity and reduced fractional excretion of potassium and plasma aldosterone levels in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight and urinary sodium excretion did not change throughout the study. It was concluded that the angiotensin receptor blocker IRB can reverse the BP non-dipper profile in salt-sensitive hypertensive patients on a high-salt diet, restoring nocturnal BP decline by a predominantly dose-dependent reduction of nighttime BP. Although the increment of potassium balance and reduction of aldosterone may account for this effect, it occurs independently of increased natriuresis. It is speculated that

  3. HIF Prolyl-Hydoxylase-2 Senses High Salt Intake to Increase Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Levels in the Renal Medulla

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengchao; Zhu, Qing; Xia, Min; Li, Pin-Lan; Hinton, Shante J.; Li, Ningjun

    2010-01-01

    High salt induces the expression of transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and its target genes in the renal medulla, which is an important renal adaptive mechanism to high salt intake. HIF prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing proteins (PHDs) have been identified as major enzymes to promote the degradation of HIF-1α. PHD2 is the predominant isoform of PHDs in the kidney and primarily expressed in the renal medulla. The present study tested the hypothesis that PHD2 responds to high salt and mediates high salt-induced increase in HIF-1α levels in the renal medulla. In normotensive rats, high salt intake (4% NaCl, 10 days) significantly inhibited PHD2 expressions and enzyme activities in the renal medulla. Renal medullary overexpression of PHD2 transgene significantly decreased HIF-1α levels. PHD2 transgene also blocked high salt-induced activation of HIF-1α target genes heme oxygenase-1 and nitric oxide synthase-2 in the renal medulla. In Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats, however, high salt intake did not inhibit the expression and activities of PHD2 in the renal medulla. Correspondingly, renal medullary HIF-1α levels were not up-regulated by high salt intake in these rats. After transfection of PHD2 shRNA, HIF-1α and its target genes were significantly up-regulated by high salt intake in Dahl S rats. Overexpression of PHD2 transgene in the renal medulla impaired renal sodium excretion after salt loading. These data suggest that high salt intake inhibits PHD2 in the renal medulla, thereby upregulating the HIF-1α expression. The lack of PHD-mediated response to high salt may represent a pathogenic mechanism producing salt sensitive hypertension. PMID:20308610

  4. High estrogen concentrations in receiving river discharge from a concentrated livestock feedlot.

    PubMed

    Chen, Te-San; Chen, Ting-Chien; Yeh, Kuei-Jyum C; Chao, How-Ran; Liaw, Ean-Tun; Hsieh, Chi-Ying; Chen, Kuan-Chung; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Yeh, Yi-Lung

    2010-07-15

    Environmental estrogenic chemicals interrupt endocrine systems and generate reproductive abnormalities in wildlife, especially natural and synthetic estrogenic steroid hormones such as 17beta-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), estriol (E3), 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2), and diethylstilbestrol (DES). Concentrated animal feedlot operations (CAFOs) are of particular concern since large amounts of naturally excreted estrogens are discharged into aquatic environments. This study investigated E2, E1, E3, EE2, and DES with high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass (HPLC-MS/MS) analyses along Wulo Creek in southern Taiwan, near a concentrated livestock feedlot containing 1,030,000 broiler chickens, 934,000 laying hens, 85,000 pigs, and 1500 cattle. Sampling was performed from December 2008 to May 2009, in which 54 samples were collected. Experimental results indicate that concentrations of EE2 were lower than the limit of detection (LOD), and concentrations of DES were only detected twice. Concentrations ranged from 7.4 to 1267 ng/L for E1, from not detected (ND) to 313.6 ng/L for E2, and from ND to 210 ng/L for E3. E1 had the highest average mass fraction (72.2 + or - 3.6%), which was significantly higher than E3 (16.2 + or - 1.7%) and E2 (11.5 + or - 2.6%). Additionally, the mean E2 equivalent quotient (EEQ) ranged from 17.3 to 137.9 ng-E2/L. Despite having a markedly lower concentration than E1, E2 more significantly contributed (52.4 + or - 6.0%) EEQ than E1 (19.7 + or - 3.5%). Moreover, the concentrations of E2, E1, and E3 upstream were significantly higher than concentrations downstream, suggesting a high attenuation effect and fast degradation in the study water. Most concentrations in winter season were higher than those of spring season due to the low dilution effect and low microbial activity in the winter season. Based on the results of this study, we recommend further treatment of the wastewater discharge from the feedlot.

  5. Atmospheric conditions during high ragweed pollen concentrations in Zagreb, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prtenjak, Maja Telišman; Srnec, Lidija; Peternel, Renata; Madžarević, Valentina; Hrga, Ivana; Stjepanović, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    We examined the atmospheric conditions favourable to the occurrence of maximum concentrations of ragweed pollen with an extremely high risk of producing allergy. Over the 2002-2009 period, daily pollen data collected in Zagreb were used to identify two periods of high pollen concentration (> 600 grains/m3) for our analysis: period A (3-4 September 2002) and period B (6-7 September 2003). Synoptic conditions in both periods were very similar: Croatia was under the influence of a lower sector high pressure system moving slowly eastward over Eastern Europe. During the 2002-2009 period, this type of weather pattern (on ~ 70% of days), in conjunction with almost non-gradient surface pressure conditions in the area (on ~ 30% of days) characterised days when the daily pollen concentrations were higher than 400 grains/m3. Numerical experiments using a mesoscale model at fine resolution showed successful multi-day simulations reproducing the local topographic influence on wind flow and in reasonable agreement with available observations. According to the model, the relatively weak synoptic flow (predominantly from the eastern direction) allowed local thermal circulations to develop over Zagreb during both high pollen episodes. Two-hour pollen concentrations and 48-h back-trajectories indicated that regional-range transport of pollen grains from the central Pannonian Plain was the cause of the high pollen concentrations during period A. During period B, the north-westward regional-range transport in Zagreb was supplemented significantly by pronounced horizontal recirculation of pollen grains. This recirculation happened within the diurnal local circulation over the city, causing a late-evening increase in pollen concentration.

  6. THERMAL DESTRUCTION OF HIGHLY CHLORINATED MIXED WASTES WITHOUT GENERATING CORROSIVE OFF-GASES USING MOLTEN SALT OXIDATION (1,2)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.; Feizollahi, F.

    2002-02-25

    A pilot-scale MSO (Molten Salt Oxidation) system was used to process 45-gallons of a halogenated mixed waste that is difficult to treat with other thermal systems. The mixed waste was a halogenated solvent that consisted mostly of methylchloroform. The 80 weight percent of waste consisting of highly corrosive chlorine was captured in the first process vessel as sodium chloride. The sodium chloride leached chrome from that process vessel and the solidified salt exhibited the toxicity characteristic for chrome as measured by TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) testing. The operating ranges for parameters such as salt bed temperature, off-gas temperature, and feed rate that enable sustained operation were identified. At feed rates below the sustainable limit, both processing capacity and maintenance requirements increased with feed rate. Design and operational modifications to increase the sustainable feed rate limit and reduce maintenance requirements reduced both salt carryover and volumetric gas flows.

  7. Atomically detailed simulations of concentrated protein solutions: the effects of salt, pH, point mutations, and protein concentration in simulations of 1000-molecule systems.

    PubMed

    McGuffee, Sean R; Elcock, Adrian H

    2006-09-20

    An ability to accurately simulate the dynamic behavior of concentrated macromolecular solutions would be of considerable utility in studies of a wide range of biological systems. With this goal in mind, a Brownian dynamics (BD) simulation method is reported here that allows systems to be modeled that comprise in excess of 1000 protein molecules, all of which are treated in atomic detail. Intermolecular forces are described in the method using an energy function that incorporates electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions and that is calibrated to reproduce experimental thermodynamic information with a single adjustable parameter. Using the method, BD simulations have been performed over a wide range of pH and ionic strengths for three proteins: hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL), chymotrypsinogen, and T4 lysozyme. The simulations reproduce experimental trends in second virial coefficients (B(22)) and translational diffusion coefficients, correctly capture changes in B(22) values due to single amino acid substitutions, and reveal a new explanation for the difficulties reported previously in the literature in reproducing B(22) values for protein solutions of very low ionic strength. In addition, a strong correlation is found between a residue's probability of being involved in a protein-protein contact in the simulations and its probability of being involved in an experimental crystal contact. Finally, exploratory simulations of HEWL indicate that the simulation model also gives a promising description of behavior at very high protein concentrations (approximately 250 g/L), suggesting that it may provide a suitable computational framework for modeling the complex behavior exhibited by macromolecules in cellular conditions.

  8. Water purification using organic salts

    DOEpatents

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  9. Domain organization of DNase from Thioalkalivibrio sp. provides insights into retention of activity in high salt environments

    PubMed Central

    Alzbutas, Gediminas; Kaniusaite, Milda; Grybauskas, Algirdas; Lagunavicius, Arunas

    2015-01-01

    Our study indicates that DNA binding domains are common in many halophilic or halotolerant bacterial DNases and they are potential activators of enzymatic activity at high ionic strength. Usually, proteins adapt to high ionic strength by increasing the number of negatively charged residues on the surface. However, in DNases such adaptation would hinder the binding to negatively charged DNA, a step critical for catalysis. In our study we demonstrate how evolution has solved this dilemma by engaging the DNA binding domain. We propose a mechanism, which enables the enzyme activity at salt concentrations as high as 4 M of sodium chloride, based on collected experimental data and domain structure analysis of a secreted bacterial DNase from the extremely halotolerant bacterium Thioalkalivibrio sp. K90mix. The enzyme harbors two domains: an N-terminal domain, that exhibits DNase activity, and a C-terminal domain, comprising a duplicate DNA binding helix-hairpin-helix motif. Here we present experimental data demonstrating that the C-terminal domain is responsible for the enzyme's resistance to high ionic strength. PMID:26191053

  10. "Water-in-salt" electrolytes enable the use of cost-effective aluminum current collectors for aqueous high-voltage batteries.

    PubMed

    Kühnel, R-S; Reber, D; Remhof, A; Figi, R; Bleiner, D; Battaglia, C

    2016-08-16

    The extended electrochemical stability window offered by highly concentrated electrolytes allows the operation of aqueous batteries at voltages significantly above the thermodynamic stability limit of water, at which the stability of the current collector potentially limits the cell voltage. Here we report the observation of suppressed anodic dissolution of aluminum in "water-in-salt" electrolytes enabling roll-to-roll electrode fabrication for high-voltage aqueous lithium-ion batteries on cost-effective light-weight aluminum current collectors using established lithium-ion battery technology.

  11. Modeling of the T S D E Heater Test to Investigate Crushed Salt Reconsolidation and Rock Salt Creep for the Underground Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Martin, L.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Wolters, R.; Lux, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Rock salt is a potential medium for the underground disposal of nuclear waste because it has several assets, in particular its water and gas tightness in the undisturbed state, its ability to heal induced fractures and its high thermal conductivity as compared to other shallow-crustal rocks. In addition, the run-of-mine, granular salt, may be used to backfill the mined open spaces. We present simulation results associated with coupled thermal, hydraulic and mechanical processes in the TSDE (Thermal Simulation for Drift Emplacement) experiment, conducted in the Asse salt mine in Germany [1]. During this unique test, conceived to simulate reference repository conditions for spent nuclear fuel, a significant amount of data (temperature, stress changes and displacements, among others) was measured at 20 cross-sections, distributed in two drifts in which a total of six electrical heaters were emplaced. The drifts were subsequently backfilled with crushed salt. This test has been modeled in three-dimensions, using two sequential simulators for flow (mass and heat) and geomechanics, TOUGH-FLAC and FLAC-TOUGH [2]. These simulators have recently been updated to accommodate large strains and time-dependent rheology. The numerical predictions obtained by the two simulators are compared within the framework of an international benchmark exercise, and also with experimental data. Subsequently, a re-calibration of some parameters has been performed. Modeling coupled processes in saliniferous media for nuclear waste disposal is a novel approach, and in this study it has led to the determination of some creep parameters that are very difficult to assess at the laboratory-scale because they require extremely low strain rates. Moreover, the results from the benchmark are very satisfactory and validate the capabilities of the two simulators used to study coupled thermal, mechanical and hydraulic (multi-component, multi-phase) processes relative to the underground disposal of high

  12. Salt Complexation in Block Copolymer Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Kim,S.; Misner, M.; Yang, L.; Gang, O.; Ocko, B.; Russell, T.

    2006-01-01

    Ion complexation within cylinder-forming block copolymer thin films was found to affect the ordering process of the copolymer films during solvent annealing, significantly enhancing the long-range positional order. Small amounts of alkali halide or metal salts were added to PS-b-PEO, on the order of a few ions per chain, where the salt complexed with the PEO block. The orientation of the cylindrical microdomains strongly depended on the salt concentration and the ability of the ions to complex with PEO. The process shows large flexibility in the choice of salt used, including gold or cobalt salts, whereby well-organized patterns of nanoparticles can be generated inside the copolymer microdomains. By further increasing the amount of added salts, the copolymer remained highly ordered at large degrees of swelling and demonstrated long-range positional correlations of the microdomains in the swollen state, which holds promise as a route to addressable media.

  13. High concentrations of Na+ and Cl- ions in soil solution have simultaneous detrimental effects on growth of faba bean under salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K

    2010-10-01

    Despite the fact that most plants accumulate both sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) ions to high concentration in their shoot tissues when grown in saline soils, most research on salt tolerance in annual plants has focused on the toxic effects of Na(+) accumulation. There have also been some recent concerns about the ability of hydroponic systems to predict the responses of plants to salinity in soil. To address these two issues, an experiment was conducted to compare the responses to Na(+) and to Cl(-) separately in comparison with the response to NaCl in a soil-based system using two varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba), that differed in salinity tolerance. The variety Nura is a salt-sensitive variety that accumulates Na(+) and Cl(-) to high concentrations while the line 1487/7 is salt tolerant which accumulates lower concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-). Soils were prepared which were treated with Na(+) or Cl(-) by using a combination of different Na(+) salts and Cl(-) salts, respectively, or with NaCl. While this method produced Na(+)-dominant and Cl(-)-dominant soils, it unavoidably led to changes in the availability of other anions and cations, but tissue analysis of the plants did not indicate any nutritional deficiencies or toxicities other than those targeted by the salt treatments. The growth, water use, ionic composition, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Both high Na(+) and high Cl(-) reduced growth of faba bean but plants were more sensitive to Cl(-) than to Na(+). The reductions in growth and photosynthesis were greater under NaCl stress and the effect was mainly additive. An important difference to previous hydroponic studies was that increasing the concentrations of NaCl in the soil increased the concentration of Cl(-) more than the concentration of Na(+). The data showed that salinity caused by high concentrations of NaCl can reduce growth by the accumulation of high concentrations of both Na(+) and Cl(-) simultaneously, but

  14. High temperature reaction between sea salt deposit and (U,Zr)O2 simulated corium debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masahide; Nishi, Tsuyoshi

    2013-11-01

    In order to clarify the possible impacts of seawater injection on the chemical and physical state of the corium debris formed in the severe accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants, the high temperature reaction between sea salt deposit and (U,Zr)O2 simulated corium debris (sim-debris) was examined in the temperature range from 1088 to 1668 K. A dense layer of calcium and sodium uranate formed on the surface of a sim-debris pellet at 1275 K under airflow, with the thickness of over 50 μm. When the oxygen partial pressure is low, calcium is likely to dissolve into the cubic sim-debris phase to form solid solution (Ca,U,Zr)O2+x. The diffusion depth was 5-6 μm from the surface, subjected to 1275 K for 12 h. The crystalline MgO remains affixed on the surface as the main residue of salt components. A part of it can also dissolve into the sim-debris.

  15. An Analysis of Testing Requirements for Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactor Components

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Cetiner, Sacit M; Flanagan, George F; Peretz, Fred J; Yoder Jr, Graydon L

    2009-11-01

    This report provides guidance on the component testing necessary during the next phase of fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactor (FHR) development. In particular, the report identifies and describes the reactor component performance and reliability requirements, provides an overview of what information is necessary to provide assurance that components will adequately achieve the requirements, and then provides guidance on how the required performance information can efficiently be obtained. The report includes a system description of a representative test scale FHR reactor. The reactor parameters presented in this report should only be considered as placeholder values until an FHR test scale reactor design is completed. The report focus is bounded at the interface between and the reactor primary coolant salt and the fuel and the gas supply and return to the Brayton cycle power conversion system. The analysis is limited to component level testing and does not address system level testing issues. Further, the report is oriented as a bottom-up testing requirements analysis as opposed to a having a top-down facility description focus.

  16. Toward the design of high voltage magnesium-lithium hybrid batteries using dual-salt electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yingwen; Choi, Daiwon; Han, Kee Sung; Mueller, Karl T; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Sprenkle, Vincent L; Liu, Jun; Li, Guosheng

    2016-04-07

    We report a design of high voltage magnesium-lithium (Mg-Li) hybrid batteries through rational control of the electrolyte chemistry, electrode materials and cell architecture. Prototype devices with a structure of Mg-Li/LiFePO4 (LFP) and Mg-Li/LiMn2O4 (LMO) have been investigated. A Mg-Li/LFP cell using a dual-salt electrolyte 0.2 M [Mg2Cl2(DME)4][AlCl4]2 and 1.0 M LiTFSI exhibits voltages higher than 2.5 V (vs. Mg) and a high specific energy density of 246 W h kg(-1) under conditions that are amenable for practical applications. The successful demonstrations reported here could be a significant step forward for practical hybrid batteries.

  17. Process for producing high-concentration slurry of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaoji, K.; Itoh, H.; Kamao, M.; Takao, Sh.; Tatsumi, Sh.

    1985-02-19

    High concentrated coal-water slurry is produced by coarsely crushing coal, thereafter pulverizing the coarsely crushed coal, together with water and a slurry dispersant, according to necessity, in a wet-type ball mill, and feeding back one portion of the finely pulverized coal slurry thus obtained into the inlet of the wet-type ball mill.

  18. Waste to Energy Potential - A High Concentration Anaerobic Bioreactor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-23

    output • Uses the organic portion of solid waste (such as food waste , paper products, and agricultural waste ) to fuel an anaerobic digestion ...Sustainability Symposium & Exhibition Anaerobic Digestion • What does it do? • Offers sustainability by addressing renewable energy, waste ... Waste to Energy Potential – A High Concentration Anaerobic Bioreactor Presenter: Scott Murphy & Rebecca Robbennolt ARCADIS/Malcolm Pirnie Date

  19. Salt and cocrystals of sildenafil with dicarboxylic acids: solubility and pharmacokinetic advantage of the glutarate salt.

    PubMed

    Sanphui, Palash; Tothadi, Srinu; Ganguly, Somnath; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2013-12-02

    Sildenafil is a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Because of poor aqueous solubility of the drug, the citrate salt, with improved solubility and pharmacokinetics, has been marketed. However, the citrate salt requires an hour to reach its peak plasma concentration. Thus, to improve solubility and bioavailability characteristics, cocrystals and salts of the drug have been prepared by treating aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with sildenafil; the N-methylated piperazine of the drug molecule interacts with the carboxyl group of the acid to form a heterosynthon. Salts are formed with oxalic and fumaric acid; salt monoanions are formed with succinic and glutaric acid. Sildenafil forms cocrystals with longer chain dicarboxylic acids such as adipic, pimelic, suberic, and sebacic acids. Auxiliary stabilization via C-H···O interactions is also present in these cocrystals and salts. Solubility experiments of sildenafil cocrystal/salts were carried out in 0.1N HCl aqueous medium and compared with the solubility of the citrate salt. The glutarate salt and pimelic acid cocrystal dissolve faster than the citrate salt in a two hour dissolution experiment. The glutarate salt exhibits improved solubility (3.2-fold) compared to the citrate salt in water. Solubilities of the binary salts follow an inverse correlation with their melting points, while the solubilities of the cocrystals follow solubilities of the coformer. Pharmacokinetic studies on rats showed that the glutarate salt exhibits doubled plasma AUC values in a single dose within an hour compared to the citrate salt. The high solubility of glutaric acid, in part originating from the strained conformation of the molecule and its high permeability, may be the reason for higher plasma levels of the drug.

  20. Physical Chemistry and Evolution of Salt Tolerance in Halobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanyi, Janos K.

    1980-06-01

    The cellular constituents of extremely halophilic bacteria not only tolerate high salt concentration, but in many cases require it for optical functioning. The characteristics affected by salt include enzyme activity, stability, allosteric regulation, conformation and subunit association. The salt effects are of two major kinds: electrostatic shielding of negative charges by cations at low salt concentration, and hydrophobic stabilization by salting-out type salts at high salt concentration. The composition of halobacterial proteins shows an excess of acidic amino acids and a deficiency of nonpolar amino acids, which accounts for these effects. Since the cohesive forces are weaker and the repulsing forces are stronger in these proteins, preventing aggregation in salt, these structures are no longer suited for functioning in the absence of high salt concentrations. Unlike these nonspecific effects, ribosomes in halobacteria show marked preference for potassium over sodium ions. To ensure the proper intracellular ionic composition, powerful ion transport systems have evolved in the halobacteria, resulting in the extrusion of sodium ions and their replacement by potassium. It is likely that such membrane transport system for ionic movements is a necessary requisite for salt tolerance.

  1. Physical chemistry and evolution of salt tolerance in halobacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, J. K.

    1980-01-01

    The cellular constituents of extremely halophilic bacteria not only tolerate high salt concentration, but in many cases require it for optical functioning. The characteristics affected by salt include enzyme activity, stability, allosteric regulation, conformation and subunit association. The salt effects are of two major kinds: electrostatic shielding of negative charges by cations at low salt concentration, and hydrophobic stabilization by salting-out type salts at high salt concentration. The composition of halobacterial proteins shows an excess of acidic amino acids and a deficiency of nonpolar amino acids, which accounts for these effects. Since the cohesive forces are weaker and the repulsing forces are stronger in these proteins, preventing aggregation in salt, these structures are no longer suited for functioning in the absence of high salt concentrations. Unlike these nonspecific effects, ribosomes in halobacteria show marked preference for potassium over sodium ions. To ensure the proper intracellular ionic composition, powerful ion transport systems have evolved in the halobacteria, resulting in the extrusion of sodium ions and their replacement by potassium. It is likely that such membrane transport system for ionic movements is a necessary requisite for salt tolerance.

  2. A novel process for recovery of iron, titanium, and vanadium from titanomagnetite concentrates: NaOH molten salt roasting and water leaching processes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Desheng; Zhao, Longsheng; Liu, Yahui; Qi, Tao; Wang, Jianchong; Wang, Lina

    2013-01-15

    A novel process for recovering iron, titanium, and vanadium from titanomagnetite concentrates has been developed. In the present paper, the treatment of rich titanium-vanadium slag by NaOH molten salt roasting and water leaching processes is investigated. In the NaOH molten salt roasting process, the metallic iron is oxidized into ferriferous oxide, MgTi(2)O(5) is converted to NaCl-type structure of Na(2)TiO(3), and M(3)O(5) (M=Ti, Mg, Fe) is converted to α-NaFeO(2)-type structure of NaMO(2), respectively. Roasting temperature and NaOH-slag mass ratio played a considerable role in the conversion of titanium in the rich titanium-vanadium slag during the NaOH molten salt roasting process. Roasting at 500 °C for 60 min and a 1:1 NaOH-slag mass ratio produces 96.3% titanium conversion. In the water leaching process, the Na(+) was exchanged with H(+), Na(2)TiO(3) is converted to undefined structure of H(2)TiO(3), and NaMO(2) is converted to α-NaFeO(2)-type structure of HMO(2). Under the optimal conditions, 87.3% of the sodium, 42.3% of the silicon, 43.2% of the aluminum, 22.8% of the manganese, and 96.6% of the vanadium are leached out.

  3. Effect analysis of mineral salt concentrations on nosiheptide production by Streptomyces actuosus Z-10 using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Liu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Pei; Zhou, Pei; Shi, Xunlong

    2014-09-26

    The objective of this study was to develop an optimal combination of mineral salts in the fermentation medium for nosiheptide (Nsh) production using statistical methodologies. A Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was used to evaluate the impacts of eight mineral salts on Nsh production. The results showed that among the no-significant factors, CaCO3, and K2HPO4·3H2O had positive effects, whereas FeSO4·7H2O, CuSO4·5H2O, and ZnSO4·7H2O had negative effects on Nsh production. The other three significant factors (Na2SO4, MnSO4·H2O, and MgSO4·7H2O) were further optimized by using a five-level three-factor central composite design (CCD). Experimental data were fitted to a quadratic polynomial model, which provided an effective way to determine the interactive effect of metal salts on Nsh production. The optimal values were determined to be 2.63, 0.21, and 3.37 g/L, respectively. The model also ensured a good fitting of scale-up Nsh batch fermentation with a maximum production of 1501 mg/L, representing a 1.56-fold increase compared to the original standard condition. All these results revealed that statistical optimization methodology had the potential to achieve comprehensive optimization in Nsh fermentation behaviors, which indicates a possibility to establish economical large-scale production of Nsh.

  4. Serum IgE concentration and other immune manifestations of treatment with gold salts are linked to the MHC and IL4 regions in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kermarrec, N.; Blanpied, C.; Druet, P.

    1996-01-01

    A subset of patients with rheumatoid arthritis occasionally develops skin reactions and glomerulonephritis and exhibits an increase in serum IgE concentration when treated with gold salts. Brown-Norway (BN) rats injected with aurothiopropanolsulfonate (ATPS) also manifest an autoimmune glomerulonephritis and increased serum IgE concentration, whereas Lewis (LEW) rats are resistant to complications. Here, we show linkage between responses to ATPS in a (BN x LEW) F2 cohort and the major histocompatibility complex (RT1) on rat chromosome 20 and between markers in the region of IL4 and other candidate genes on rat chromosome 10. Recently, human serum IgE concentration has been reported to be linked to the IL-4 region. Taken together, these findings raise the possibility that homologous genes could be implicated in ATPS manifestations in the rat and in the regulation of IgE levels in the human. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Appropriate salt concentration of nanodiamond colloids for electrostatic self-assembly seeding of monosized individual diamond nanoparticles on silicon dioxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Taro; Zuerbig, Verena; Gao, Fang; Hoffmann, René; Nebel, Christoph E; Ambacher, Oliver; Lebedev, Vadim

    2015-05-19

    Monosized (∼4 nm) diamond nanoparticles arranged on substrate surfaces are exciting candidates for single-photon sources and nucleation sites for ultrathin nanocrystalline diamond film growth. The most commonly used technique to obtain substrate-supported diamond nanoparticles is electrostatic self-assembly seeding using nanodiamond colloidal suspensions. Currently, monodisperse nanodiamond colloids, which have a narrow distribution of particle sizes centering on the core particle size (∼4 nm), are available for the seeding technique on different substrate materials such as Si, SiO2, Cu, and AlN. However, the self-assembled nanoparticles tend to form small (typically a few tens of nanometers or even larger) aggregates on all of those substrate materials. In this study, this major weakness of self-assembled diamond nanoparticles was solved by modifying the salt concentration of nanodiamond colloidal suspensions. Several salt concentrations of colloidal suspensions were prepared using potassium chloride as an inserted electrolyte and were examined with respect to seeding on SiO2 surfaces. The colloidal suspensions and the seeded surfaces were characterized by dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy, respectively. Also, the interaction energies between diamond nanoparticles in each of the examined colloidal suspensions were compared on the basis of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. From these investigations, it became clear that the appropriate salt concentration suppresses the formation of small aggregates during the seeding process owing to the modified electrostatic repulsive interaction between nanoparticles. Finally, monosized (<10 nm) individual diamond nanoparticles arranged on SiO2 surfaces have been successfully obtained.

  6. Stability High Salt Content Waste Using Sol Gel Process. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference Number 0236

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Mixed waste sludges, soils, and homogeneous solids containing high levels of salt ( ~ greater than 15% by weight ) have proven to be difficult to stabilize due to the soluble nature of the salts. The current stabilization technique for high salt waste, grouting with Portland cement, is limited to low waste loadings. The presence of salts interfere with the hydration and curing of the cement, cause waste form deteriorating mineral expansions, or result in an undesirable separate phase altogether. Improved technologies for the stabilization of salt waste must be able to accommodate higher salt loadings, while maintaining structural integrity, chemical durability, and leach resistance. In a joint collaboration supported by the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Arizona Materials Laboratory (AML) at the University of Arizona have developed a sol-gel (wet-chemical) based, low-temperature-processing route for the stabilization of salt-containing mixed wastes. By blending and reacting liquid precursors at room temperature with salt waste, strong, impermeable “polyceram” matrices have been formed that encapsulate the environmentally hazardous waste components. As depicted by Figure 1, polycerams are hybrid organic/inorganic materials with unique properties derived from the chemical combination of polymer (organic) and ceramic (inorganic) components. For this application, the stabilizing polyceram matrices contain polybutadiene-based polymer components and silicon dioxide (SiO2) as the inorganic component. Polybutadiene (PBD) is a strong, tough, waterresistant plastic and its use in the polyceram promotes these same characteristics in the waste form. The PBD polymer component is modified to increase its reactivity with the SiO2 precursor during sol-gel processing. When combined, the polymer and SiO2 precursors react, gel, solidify, and encapsulate the

  7. On the concentration structure of high-concentration constant-volume fluid mud gravity currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. R.; Testik, F. Y.

    2013-01-01

    An exhaustive laboratory experimental campaign was undertaken in order to elucidate the concentration structure of two-dimensional constant-volume non-Newtonian fluid mud gravity currents. Two sets of experiments were conducted in a lock-exchange tank. The first set of experiments involved measuring the vertical concentration profiles using a siphoning technique; the second set involved auxiliary visual observations. The first set of experiments consisted of 32 experimental runs for four different experimental conditions, with an array of siphoned samples being withdrawn throughout the head and body of the gravity current. From these samples, vertical concentration profiles occurring in constant-volume fluid mud gravity currents were classified and the underlying physical processes that led to the occurrence of observed profiles were discussed. Furthermore, the functional form of the vertical concentration profiles within the head of relatively low-initial-concentration gravity currents was proposed. The relatively high-initial-concentration gravity currents revealed the presence of a lutocline in the current head and body, the presence of which was observed for constant-flux release gravity currents. To our knowledge, this is the first measurement of a lutocline in constant-volume gravity currents. Abrupt transitions, a phenomenon in which the bulk of the suspended sediment in the propagating gravity current drops out, were observed through the concentration profiles and through 15 auxiliary visual experimental runs. It was found that abrupt transitions were caused by the presence of a lutocline. The entrainment of ambient water resulting in the dilution of the gravity current at different concentration contours has been quantified. In a previous work by the authors of this study, it was shown that the initial reduced gravity is directly proportional to the growth rate of the visual area of the two-dimensional current. The analysis of our experimental observations

  8. Salt controls feeding decisions in a blood-sucking insect.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Gina; Pereira, Marcos H; Barrozo, Romina B

    2017-04-01

    Salts are necessary for maintaining homeostatic conditions within the body of all living organisms. Like with all essential nutrients, deficient or excessive ingestion of salts can result in adverse health effects. The taste system is a primary sensory modality that helps animals to make adequate feeding decisions in terms of salt consumption. In this work we show that sodium and potassium chloride salts modulate the feeding behavior of Rhodnius prolixus in a concentration-dependent manner. Feeding is only triggered by an optimal concentration of any of these salts (0.1-0.15M) and in presence of the phagostimulant ATP. Conversely, feeding solutions that do not contain salts or have a high-salt concentration (>0.3M) are not ingested by insects. Notably, we show that feeding decisions of insects cannot be explained as an osmotic effect, because they still feed over hyperosmotic solutions bearing the optimal salt concentration. Insects perceive optimal-salt, no-salt and high-salt solutions as different gustatory information, as revealed the electromyogram recordings of the cibarial pump. Moreover, because insects do a continuous gustatory monitoring of the incoming food during feeding, sudden changes beyond the optimal sodium concentration decrease and even inhibit feeding. The administration of amiloride, a sodium channel blocker, noticeably reduces the ingestion of the optimal sodium solution but not of the optimal potassium solution. Salt detection seems to occur at least through two salt receptors, one amiloride-sensitive and another amiloride-insensitive. Our results confirm the importance of the gustatory system in R. prolixus, showing the relevant role that salts play on their feeding decisions.

  9. [Toxic effects of high concentrations of ammonia on Euglena gracilis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Shi, Xiao-Rong; Cui, Yi-Bin; Li, Mei

    2013-11-01

    Ammonia is among the common contaminants in aquatic environments. The present study aimed at evaluation of the toxicity of ammonia at high concentration by detecting its effects on the growth, pigment contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and DNA damage (comet assay) of a unicellular microalga, Euglena gracilis. Ammonia restrained the growth of E. gracilis, while at higher concentrations, ammonia showed notable inhibition effect, the growth at 2 000 mg x L(-1) was restrained to 55.7% compared with that of the control; The contents of photosynthetic pigments and protein went up with increasing ammonia dosage and decreased when the ammonia concentration was above 1000 mg x L(-1); In addition, there was an obvious increase in SOD and POD activities, at higher concentration (2 000 mg x L(-1)), activities of SOD and POD increased by 30.7% and 49.4% compared with those of the control, indicating that ammonia could promote activities of antioxidant enzymes in E. gracilis; The degree of DNA damage observed in the comet assay increased with increasing ammonia concentration, which suggested that high dose of ammonia may have potential mutagenicity on E. gracilis.

  10. High-salt brines compromise autoinducer-mediated bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus plantarum survival in Spanish-style green olive fermentations.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Guerrero, Belén; Lucena-Padrós, Helena; Maldonado-Barragán, Antonio; Ruiz-Barba, José Luis

    2013-02-01

    The effect of NaCl on plantaricin production by five Lactobacillus plantarum strains was investigated. Plantaricin production in these strains was found to be regulated by three-component regulatory systems ruled by two different autoinducer peptides (AIPs), either PLNC8IF or Plantaricin A. Bacteriocin activity exhibited by these strains came to a halt in liquid medium containing NaCl concentrations of or above 2%. In contrast, bacteriocin activity was still observed when the producing strains were growing on solid medium containing up to 4% NaCl. Bacteriocin activity in liquid medium containing up to 2% NaCl could be restored by coculturing the producing strains with a selected plantaricin-production inducing strain of Lactococcus lactis. Growth of these bacteriocinogenic L. plantarum strains was monitored in traditional Spanish-style green olive fermentations. Survival of these strains could not be enhanced when provided with a range of plantaricin-production inducing mechanisms previously described, such as constitutive AIP production or coinoculation with a specific bacteriocin-production inducing strain of L. lactis. Our results suggest that it is advisable the use of constitutive bacteriocin producers, or at least non-AIP-dependant ones, as starters for olive fermentations due to the intrinsic physical characteristics of this food fermentation, especially the high salt concentration of the brines currently used.

  11. High site fidelity and low site connectivity in temperate salt marsh fish populations: a stable isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Green, Benjamin C; Smith, David J; Grey, Jonathan; Underwood, Graham J C

    2012-01-01

    Adult and juvenile fish utilise salt marshes for food and shelter at high tide, moving into adjacent sublittoral regions during low tide. Understanding whether there are high levels of site fidelity for different species of coastal fish has important implications for habitat conservation and the design of marine protected areas. We hypothesised that common salt marsh fish species would demonstrate a high site fidelity, resulting in minimal inter-marsh connectivity. Carbon ((13)C) and nitrogen ((15)N) stable isotope ratios of larvae and juveniles of five common salt marsh fish (Atherina presbyter, Chelon labrosus, Clupea harengus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Pomatoschistus microps), seven types of primary producer and seven secondary consumer food sources were sampled in five salt marshes within two estuary complexes along the coast of south-east England. Significant differences in (13)C and (15)N signatures between salt marshes indicated distinct sub-populations utilising the area of estuary around each salt marsh, and limited connectivity, even within the same estuary complex. (15)N ratios were responsible for the majority of inter-marsh differences for each species and showed similar site-specific patterns in ratios in primary producers, secondary consumers and fish. Fish diets (derived from isotope mixing models) varied between species but were mostly consistent between marsh sites, indicating that dietary shifts were not the source of variability of the inter-marsh isotopic signatures within species. These results demonstrate that for some common coastal fish species, high levels of site fidelity result in individual salt marshes operating as discrete habitats for fish assemblages.

  12. Unusually high indoor radon concentrations from a giant rock slide.

    PubMed

    Ennemoser, O; Ambach, W; Brunner, P; Schneider, P; Oberaigner, W; Purtscheller, F; Stingl, V; Keller, G

    1994-07-18

    In a village in western Tyrol, Austria (Umhausen, approximately 2600 inhabitants) unusually high indoor radon concentrations were measured. The medians were found to be 3750 Bq/m3 (basements) and 1160 Bq/m3 (ground floors) in winter, and 361 Bq/m3 (basements) and 210 Bq/m3 (ground floors) in summer. Maximum radon concentrations of up to 274,000 Bq/m3 were registered. The unusually high radon concentrations are due to the geology of the locality. The part of Umhausen with the highest radon concentrations is built on an alluvial fan of a giant rock slide (granitic gneiss). Measurements of the radon exhalation rate from soil showed a median of 0.4 Bq/m2/s, measurements of the radium content of rock samples yielded a median of 125 Bq/kg. The material of the rock slide is heavily fractured so that an elevated emanating power and an increased diffusion coefficient for radon in soil must be assumed. Given a diffusion coefficient of 8 x 10(-6) m2/s and an emanating power of 0.3, the median exhalation rate of 0.4 Bq/m2/s is obtained at a radium concentration of 125 Bq/kg. The rock slide is therefore considered to be the main source of radon. The abnormally high radon concentrations in Umhausen coincide with a statistically significant increase in lung cancer mortality (age and sex standardized mortality rate = 3.9, 95% C.I.: 2.9-5.1); the control population is the population of the entire Tyrol (630,000 inhabitants).

  13. Manufacture of concentrated, lipid-based oxygen microbubble emulsions by high shear homogenization and serial concentration.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Lindsay M; Polizzotti, Brian D; McGowan, Frances X; Kheir, John N

    2014-05-26

    Gas-filled microbubbles have been developed as ultrasound contrast and drug delivery agents. Microbubbles can be produced by processing surfactants using sonication, mechanical agitation, microfluidic devices, or homogenization. Recently, lipid-based oxygen microbubbles (LOMs) have been designed to deliver oxygen intravenously during medical emergencies, reversing life-threatening hypoxemia, and preventing subsequent organ injury, cardiac arrest, and death. We present methods for scaled-up production of highly oxygenated microbubbles using a closed-loop high-shear homogenizer. The process can produce 2 L of concentrated LOMs (90% by volume) in 90 min. Resulting bubbles have a mean diameter of ~2 μm, and a rheologic profile consistent with that of blood when diluted to 60 volume %. This technique produces LOMs in high capacity and with high oxygen purity, suggesting that this technique may be useful for translational research labs.

  14. Structure and rheology of highly concentrated emulsions: a modern look

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkin, A. Ya; Kulichikhin, V. G.

    2015-08-01

    The review concerns modern physicochemical, chemical and physical approaches to research into structural features that determine the rheological properties of highly concentrated emulsions. The structures and properties of various systems (suspensions, emulsions as well as transient forms including micellar colloidal solutions) are considered. The formation of highly concentrated emulsions is treated as the concentration glass transition leading to suppression of the molecular and supermolecular mobility and, subsequently, to the existence of a solid-like state of the systems in question. The emphasis is placed on analysis of visco-plasticity which manifests itself in the possibility for emulsions (unlike suspensions) to undergo irreversible deformation (to flow) at stresses exceeding some threshold (critical value) called the yield stress. The thixotropic nature of the transition through the yield stress, governed by the kinetics of the breakup/recovery of the inherent structure is considered in detail. It has been shown that structure formation in highly concentrated emulsions can extend to a macroscopic level and result in the onset of heterogeneity of a flow in the form of shear bands. The bibliography includes 202 references.

  15. Characterization of the response of in vitro cultured Myrtus communis L. plants to high concentrations of NaCl.

    PubMed

    Di Cori, P; Lucioli, S; Frattarelli, A; Nota, P; Tel-Or, E; Benyamini, E; Gottlieb, H; Caboni, E; Forni, C

    2013-12-01

    Effect of salt stress was examined in in vitro shoot cultures of Myrtus communis L. a species of the Mediterranean maquis. To determine the effects of high salt concentrations on myrtle plantlets and contribute toward understanding the mechanisms adopted from this species to counteract soil salinity, in vitro rooted shoots were transferred to a liquid culture medium containing 0, 125 or 250 mM NaCl for 30 days. After 15 and 30 days of in vitro culture, shoot and root growth, chlorosis and necrosis extension, chlorophylls, carotenoids, proline, arginine, cysteine and total sugars content, as well as guaiacol peroxidase (G-POD, EC 1.11.1.7) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) activities were determined. In treated plants shoot and root growth, as well as chlorophyll content, significantly decreased, while carotenoids content was not affected by the NaCl treatment. Among osmolytes, proline did not significantly increase, arginine and cysteine decreased, while total sugars were found to be higher in the treated plants than in the control. Enhancement of G-POD and APX activities was positively related to increasing salt concentrations in the culture media, regardless of the exposure time. Salt-treated plants did not show significant changes in lipid peroxidation or DNA fragmentation after 30 days salt treatment, regardless of the NaCl concentrations applied. The results represent a contribution towards understanding the mechanisms adopted by this species to high salinity.

  16. Review of silicon solar cells for high concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, R. J.

    1982-06-01

    The factors that limit the performance of high concentration silicon solar cells are reviewed. The design of a conventional high concentration cell is discussed, together with the present state of the art. Unconventional cell designs that have been proposed to overcome the limitations of the conventional design are reviewed and compared. The current status of unconventional cells is reviewed. Among the unconventional cells discussed are the interdigitated back-contact cell, the double-sided cell, the polka dot cell, and the V-groove cell. It is noted that all the designs for unconventional cells require long diffusion lengths for high efficiency operation, even though the demands in this respect are less for those cells with the optical path longer than the diffusion path.

  17. The current status of fluoride salt cooled high temperature reactor (FHR) technology and its overlap with HIF target chamber concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarlat, Raluca O.; Peterson, Per F.

    2014-01-01

    The fluoride salt cooled high temperature reactor (FHR) is a class of fission reactor designs that use liquid fluoride salt coolant, TRISO coated particle fuel, and graphite moderator. Heavy ion fusion (HIF) can likewise make use of liquid fluoride salts, to create thick or thin liquid layers to protect structures in the target chamber from ablation by target X-rays and damage from fusion neutron irradiation. This presentation summarizes ongoing work in support of design development and safety analysis of FHR systems. Development work for fluoride salt systems with application to both FHR and HIF includes thermal-hydraulic modeling and experimentation, salt chemistry control, tritium management, salt corrosion of metallic alloys, and development of major components (e.g., pumps, heat exchangers) and gas-Brayton cycle power conversion systems. In support of FHR development, a thermal-hydraulic experimental test bay for separate effects (SETs) and integral effect tests (IETs) was built at UC Berkeley, and a second IET facility is under design. The experiments investigate heat transfer and fluid dynamics and they make use of oils as simulant fluids at reduced scale, temperature, and power of the prototypical salt-cooled system. With direct application to HIF, vortex tube flow was investigated in scaled experiments with mineral oil. Liquid jets response to impulse loading was likewise studied using water as a simulant fluid. A set of four workshops engaging industry and national laboratory experts were completed in 2012, with the goal of developing a technology pathway to the design and licensing of a commercial FHR. The pathway will include experimental and modeling efforts at universities and national laboratories, requirements for a component test facility for reliability testing of fluoride salt equipment at prototypical conditions, requirements for an FHR test reactor, and development of a pre-conceptual design for a commercial reactor.

  18. Highly Stable Operation of Lithium Metal Batteries Enabled by the Formation of a Transient High Concentration Electrolyte Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Mei, Donghai; Engelhard, Mark H.; Cartmell, Samuel S.; Polzin, Bryant; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2016-02-08

    Lithium (Li) metal has been extensively investigated as an anode for rechargeable battery applications due to its ultrahigh specific capacity and the lowest redox potential. However, significant challenges including dendrite growth and low Coulombic efficiency are still hindering the practical applications of rechargeable Li metal batteries. Here, we demonstrate that long-term cycling of Li metal batteries can be realized by the formation of a transient high concentration electrolyte layer near the surface of Li metal anode during high rate discharge process. The highly concentrated Li+ ions in this transient layer will immediately solvate with the available solvent molecules and facilitate the formation of a stable and flexible SEI layer composed of a poly(ethylene carbonate) framework integrated with other organic/inorganic lithium salts. This SEI layer largely suppresses the corrosion of Li metal anode by free organic solvents and enables the long-term operation of Li metal batteries. The fundamental findings in this work provide a new direction for the development and operation of Li metal batteries that could be operated at high current densities for a wide range of applications.

  19. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction with the aid of experimental design for determination of benzimidazole fungicides in high salinity samples by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yingying; Li, Jinhua; Yang, Fangfang; Zhang, Weiwei; Li, Weiran; Liao, Chunyang; Chen, Lingxin

    2013-03-15

    A novel method for the simultaneous separation and determination of four benzimidazole fungicides (i.e., carbendazim, fuberidazole, thiophanate-methyl and thiophanate) in high salinity samples was developed by using salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) via water-miscible acetonitrile as the extractant coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography. Box-Behnken design and response surface were employed to assist the optimization of SALLE conditions, including volume of salting-out solvent, the pH of sample solution and salting-out solvent as variable factors. The optimal salting-out parameters were obtained as follows: 2 mL of acetonitrile was added to 2 mL of sample solution with pH=4 and then 2 mL salting-out solvent containing 5 mol L(-1) sodium chloride at a pH of 7 was added to the solution for extraction. This procedure afforded a convenient and cost-saving operation with good cleanup ability for the benzimidazole fungicides, such as good linear relationships (R>0.996) between peak area and concentration from 2.5 ng mL(-1) to 500 ng mL(-1), low limits of detection between 0.14 ng mL(-1) and 0.38 ng mL(-1) and the intra-day precisions of retention time below 1.0%. The method recoveries obtained at fortified three concentrations for three seawater samples ranged from 60.4% to 99.1%. The simple, rapid and eco-benign SALLE based method proved potentially applicable for trace benzimidazole fungicides analysis in high salinity samples.

  20. High Actin Concentrations in Brain Dendritic Spines and Postsynaptic Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matus, Andrew; Ackermann, Marcel; Pehling, Gundula; Randolph Byers, H.; Fujiwara, Keigi

    1982-12-01

    Antibodies against actin were used to corroborate the presence of actin as a major component protein of isolated brain postsynaptic densities. The same antibodies also were used as an immunohistochemical stain to study the distribution of actin in sections of intact brain tissue. This showed two major sites where actin is concentrated: smooth muscle cells around blood vessels and postsynaptic sites. In the postsynaptic area the highest concentration of actin occurs in postsynaptic densities and there also is intense staining in the surrounding cytoplasm, especially within dendritic spines. Antiactin staining was much weaker in other parts of neurons and in glial cells. The high concentration of actin in dendritic spines may be related to shape changes that these structures have been found to undergo in response to prolonged afferent stimulation.

  1. Decomposition of high concentration SF6 using an electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Youn-Suk; Lee, Sung-Joo; Choi, Chang Yong; Park, Jun-Hyeong; Kim, Tak-Hyun; Jung, In-Ha

    2016-07-01

    In this study, high concentration SF6 (2-10%) was decomposed using an electron beam irradiation. Various influential factors were investigated to improve the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of SF6. The initial concentrations of SF6, absorbed doses, SF6/H2 ratios and retention times were the main factors of concern. As a result, the DRE increased as the adsorbed dose and retention time increased. The DRE of SF6 also increased up to 20% approximately when H2 was added to the reaction mixture. On the other hand, the DRE of SF6 decreased as initial concentrations of SF6 increased. Finally, the main by-product formed from SF6 decomposition by the electron beam was HF.

  2. The ecology of New England high salt marshes: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, S.W. . Graduate School of Oceanography)

    1982-03-01

    The high salt marshes of New England have evolved in response to sea-level rises through accretion of sediments entrapped by marsh vegetation. Early theories of marsh development are traced and are reconciled in Redfield's synthesis accounting for marsh growth by aggradation over sand and mud flats as well as by accretion on existing marsh surfaces. The shape and appearance of high marshes result from unique, complex interactions of local topography and bathymetry, sea-level rise, tides, sediment supply and vegetation. These factors, particularly the major influences of tides and short-term changes in sea-level, are incorporated in short-term processes that define and mold the ecology of the high marsh. Short- and long-term mechanisms have produced approximate zonation of vegetation in the high marsh. High marshes are contrasted to Spartina-dominated low marsh in terms of plant and animal species and the relative importance of the dynamics of production, export, decomposition, and accumulation of materials in the sediments. High marshes have been subjected to man's activities since earliest English settlement. This history of New Englanders' impact on this community is traced from their use of marshes as hay fields to depositories of pollutants. Habitat management considerations today include mosquito control and sewage sludge treatment. 154 refs., 29 figs., 14 tabs.

  3. Athletic Activity and Hormone Concentrations in High School Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wojtys, Edward M.; Jannausch, Mary L.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Physical activity may affect the concentrations of circulating endogenous hormones in female athletes. Understanding the relationship between athletic and physical activity and circulating female hormone concentrations is critical. Objective: To test the hypotheses that (1) the estradiol-progesterone profile of high school adolescent girls participating in training, conditioning, and competition would differ from that of physically inactive, age-matched adolescent girls throughout a 3-month period; and (2) athletic training and conditioning would alter body composition (muscle, bone), leading to an increasingly greater lean–body-mass to fat–body-mass ratio with accompanying hormonal changes. Design: Cohort study. Settings: Laboratory and participants' homes. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 106 adolescent girls, ages 14–18 years, who had experienced at least 3 menstrual cycles in their lifetime. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants were prospectively monitored throughout a 13-week period, with weekly physical activity assessments and 15 urine samples for estrogen, luteinizing hormone, creatinine, and progesterone concentrations. Each girl underwent body-composition measurements before and after the study period. Results: Seventy-four of the 98 girls (76%) who completed the study classified themselves as athletes. Body mass index, body mass, and fat measures remained stable, and 17 teenagers had no complete menstrual cycle during the observation period. Mean concentrations of log(estrogen/creatinine) were slightly greater in nonathletes who had cycles of <24 or >35 days. Mean log(progesterone/creatinine) concentrations in nonathletes were less in the first half and greater in the second half of the cycle, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: A moderate level of athletic or physical activity did not influence urine concentrations of estrogen, progesterone, or luteinizing hormones. However, none of the

  4. Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) for Power and Process Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, Charles; Hu, Lin-wen; Peterson, Per; Sridharan, Kumar

    2015-01-21

    In 2011 the U.S. Department of Energy through its Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP) awarded a 3- year integrated research project (IRP) to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and its partners at the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) and the University of Wisconsin at Madison (UW). The IRP included Westinghouse Electric Company and an advisory panel chaired by Regis Matzie that provided advice as the project progressed. The first sentence of the proposal stated the goals: The objective of this Integrated Research Project (IRP) is to develop a path forward to a commercially viable salt-cooled solid-fuel high-temperature reactor with superior economic, safety, waste, nonproliferation, and physical security characteristics compared to light-water reactors. This report summarizes major results of this research.

  5. Intense THz radiation produced in organic salt crystals for high-field applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicario, C.; Ruchert, C.; Hauri, C. P.

    2013-03-01

    Organic stilbazolium salt crystals pumped by intense, ultrashort mid-infrared laser have been investigated for efficient THz generation by optical rectification. In this paper we present our latest results in view of the generation of single-cycle and high-field THz transient in the THz gap (0.1-10 THz). The organic rectifiers like DAST, OH1 and DSTMS combine extremely large optical susceptibility with excellent velocity matching between the infrared pump and the THz radiation. Our simple collinear conversion scheme provides THz beams with excellent focusing properties and single cycle electric field larger than 1.5 MV/cm and magnetic field strength beyond 0.5 Tesla. The source can potentially cover the full THz gap at field strength which is barely provided by other THz sources. The THz pulse is carrier-envelope phase stable and the polarity of the field can be easily inverted.

  6. Assessment of the Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Purifying Coolant and Heat Transfer Salts in the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

    2010-09-28

    This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor.

  7. Acute toxicity of high concentrations of carbon dioxide in rats.

    PubMed

    Muijser, H; van Triel, J J; Duistermaat, E; Bos, P M J

    2014-07-01

    Subterranean storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been proposed to diminish atmospheric increases of this greenhouse gas. To contribute to risk assessment of accidental release associated with handling, transport and storage, rats were exposed to high concentrations (targets 40, 43 and 50 volume %) of CO2. The oxygen concentrations dropped as a result, but were not supplemented. For each concentration, pairs of animals were exposed for different exposure durations to derive an exposure concentration-duration relation in which mortality is described as a function of C(n)×t (probit relation). A very high "n" value for the probit function could be derived from the data obtained at 40% and 43% CO2, which indicates that for exposure durations longer than 30 min the LC50 decreases hardly with increasing exposure duration. Below 30 min the LC50 seemed to increase with decreasing exposure durations. The variability in the data of 43% and 50% CO2, however, did not allow to derive a meaningful value of "n".

  8. Copper uptake by Eichhornia crassipes exposed at high level concentrations.

    PubMed

    Melignani, Eliana; de Cabo, Laura Isabel; Faggi, Ana María

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the growth of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and its ability to accumulate Cu from polluted water with high Cu concentrations and a mixture of other contaminants under short-term exposure, in order to use this species for the remediation of highly contaminated sites. Two hydroponic experiments were performed under greenhouse conditions for 7 days. One of them consisted of growing water hyacinth in Hoagland solution supplemented with 15 or 25 mg Cu/L and a control. The other one contained water hyacinth growing in polluted river water supplemented with 15 mg Cu/L and a control. Cu was accumulated principally in roots. The maximum Cu concentration was 23,387.2 mg/kg dw in the treatment of 25 mg Cu/L in Hoagland solution. Cu translocation from roots to leaves was low. The mixture of 15 mg Cu/L with polluted water did not appear to have toxic effects on the water hyacinth. This plant showed a remarkable uptake capacity under elevated Cu concentrations in a mixture of pollutants similar to pure industrial effluents in a short time of exposure. This result has not been reported before, to our knowledge. This species is suitable for phytoremediation of waters subject to discharge of mixed industrial effluents containing elevated Cu concentrations (≥15 mg Cu/L), as well as nutrient-rich domestic wastewaters.

  9. Effects of Salt Concentrations and Nitrogen and Phosphorus Starvations on Neutral Lipid Contents in the Green Microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ming-Hua; Qv, Xiao-Ying; Chen, Hui; Wang, Qiang; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2017-04-10

    Dunaliella tertiolecta, a halotolerant alga, can accumulate large amounts of neutral lipid, which makes it a potential biodiesel feedstock. In this study, neutral lipids of D. tertiolecta induced by different salinities or N or P starvation were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), flow cytometry (FCM), and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). High salinities or N or P starvation resulted in a decrease in cell growth and chlorophyll contents of D. tertiolecta. Neutral lipid contents increased markedly after 3-7 days of N starvation or at low NaCl concentrations (0.5-2.0 M). N starvation had a more dramatic effect on the neutral lipid contents of D. tertiolecta than P starvation. Four putative ME isozymes in different conditions can be detected by using isozyme electrophoresis. Two alternative acetyl-CoA producers, ACL and ACS genes, were up-regulated under low salinities and N starvation. It was suggested that low salinities and N starvation are considered efficient ways to stimulate lipid accumulation in D. tertiolecta.

  10. Pebble Fuel Handling and Reactivity Control for Salt-Cooled High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Per; Greenspan, Ehud

    2015-02-09

    This report documents the work completed on the X-PREX facility under NEUP Project 11- 3172. This project seeks to demonstrate the viability of pebble fuel handling and reactivity control for fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs). The research results also improve the understanding of pebble motion in helium-cooled reactors, as well as the general, fundamental understanding of low-velocity granular flows. Successful use of pebble fuels in with salt coolants would bring major benefits for high-temperature reactor technology. Pebble fuels enable on-line refueling and operation with low excess reactivity, and thus simpler reactivity control and improved fuel utilization. If fixed fuel designs are used, the power density of salt- cooled reactors is limited to 10 MW/m3 to obtain adequate duration between refueling, but pebble fuels allow power densities in the range of 20 to 30 MW/m3. This can be compared to the typical modular helium reactor power density of 5 MW/m3. Pebble fuels also permit radial zoning in annular cores and use of thorium or graphite pebble blankets to reduce neutron fluences to outer radial reflectors and increase total power production. Combined with high power conversion efficiency, compact low-pressure primary and containment systems, and unique safety characteristics including very large thermal margins (>500°C) to fuel damage during transients and accidents, salt-cooled pebble fuel cores offer the potential to meet the major goals of the Advanced Reactor Concepts Development program to provide electricity at lower cost than light water reactors with improved safety and system performance.This report presents the facility description, experimental results, and supporting simulation methods of the new X-Ray Pebble Recirculation Experiment (X-PREX), which is now operational and being used to collect data on the behavior of slow dense granular flows relevant to pebble bed reactor core designs. The X

  11. High-efficiency GaAs concentrator space cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werthen, J. G.; Virshup, G. F.; Macmillan, H. F.; Ford, C. W.; Hamaker, H. C.

    1987-01-01

    High efficiency Al sub x Ga sub 1-x As/GaAs heteroface solar concentrator cells have been developed for space applications. The cells, which were grown using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), have been fabricated in both the p-n and n-p configurations. Magnesium and zinc are used as the p-type dopants, and Se is used as the n-type dopant. The space cells, which are designed for use in a Cassegrainian concentrator operating at 100 suns, AMO, have a circular illuminated area 4 mm in diameter on a 5 mm by 5 mm cell. These cells have exhibited flash-tested efficiencies as high as 23.6 percent at 28 C and 21.6 percent at 80 C.

  12. "Ionic liquids-in-salt"--a promising electrolyte concept for high-temperature lithium batteries?

    PubMed

    Marczewski, Maciej J; Stanje, Bernhard; Hanzu, Ilie; Wilkening, Martin; Johansson, Patrik

    2014-06-28

    A novel electrolyte concept for lithium-ion batteries, termed "ionic liquid-in-salt", is introduced. Our feasibility study on (1 - x)EMIMTFSI:(x)LiTFSI, 0.66 ≤ x ≤ 0.97, showed that at elevated temperatures the various dual liquid and solid phase regions are characterized by a wide thermal stability window, high ionic conductivities and appreciable mechanical integrity. The highest conductivity values are obtained for the compositions x = 0.70 and x = 0.75 (σ ≈ 6 × 10(-3) S cm(-1)) and are related to the final melting of the materials. Overall, high conductivities are observed for 0.70 < x < 0.90 while low ones are found for x > 0.90. Raman and NMR spectroscopies reveal the presence of highly mobile Li-containing species, partly identified as [Li(TFSI)2](-), albeit rather unexpected for these high x values, which might explain the high ionic conductivities observed. To prove the general value of our concept in more detail, some first results on BMIMTFSI and PY13TFSI based systems are also presented.

  13. Radiocarbon-insights into temporal variations in the sources and concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the Los Angeles and Salt Lake City Metropolitan Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czimczik, Claudia; Mouteva, Gergana; Simon, Fahrni; Guaciara, Santos; James, Randerson

    2014-05-01

    Increased fossil fuel consumption and biomass burning are contributing to significantly larger emissions of black carbon (BC) aerosols to the atmosphere. Together with organic carbon (OC), BC is a major constituent of fine particulate matter in urban air, contributes to haze and has been linked to a broad array of adverse health effects. Black carbon's high light absorption capacity and role in key (in-)direct climate feedbacks also lead to a range of impacts in the Earth system (e.g. warming, accelerated snow melt, changes in cloud formation). Recent work suggests that regulating BC emissions can play an important role in improving regional air quality and reducing future climate warming. However, BC's atmospheric transport pathways, lifetime and magnitudes of emissions by sector and region, particularly emissions from large urban centers, remain poorly constrained by measurements. Contributions of fossil and modern sources to the carbonaceous aerosol pool (corresponding mainly to traffic/industrial and biomass-burning/biogenic sources, respectively) can be quantified unambiguously by measuring the aerosol radiocarbon (14C) content. However, accurate 14C-based source apportionment requires the physical isolation of BC and OC, and minimal sample contamination with extraneous carbon or from OC charring. Compound class-specific 14C analysis of BC remains challenging due to very small sample sizes (5-15 ug C). Therefore, most studies to date have only analyzed the 14C content of the total organic carbonaceous aerosol fraction. Here, we present time-series 14C data of BC and OC from the Los Angeles (LA) metropolitan area in California - one of two megacities in the United States - and from Salt Lake City (SLC), UT. In the LA area, we analyzed 48h-PM10 samples near the LA port throughout 2007 and 2008 (with the exception of summer). We also collected monthly-PM2.5 samples at the University of California - Irvine, with shorter sampling periods during regional wildfire

  14. Salting-out assisted liquid/liquid extraction with acetonitrile: a new high throughput sample preparation technique for good laboratory practice bioanalysis using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Wu, Huaiqin; Kim, Elaine; El-Shourbagy, Tawakol A

    2009-04-01

    Acetonitrile, an organic solvent miscible with aqueous phase, has seen thousands of publications in the literature as an efficient deproteinization reagent. The use of acetonitrile for liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), however, has seen very limited application due to its miscibility with aqueous phase. The interest in LLE with acetonitrile has been pursued and reported in the literature by significantly lowering the temperature of the mixture or increasing the salt concentration in the mixture of acetonitrile and aqueous phase, resulting in the separation of the acetonitrile phase from aqueous phase, as observed in conventional LLE. However, very limited application of these methods has been reported. The throughput was limited. In this report, we report a new sample preparation technique, salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile, for high-throughput good laboratory practice sample analysis using LCMS, Two compounds from an approved drug, Kaletra, were used to demonstrate the extractability of drugs from human plasma matrix. Magnesium sulfate was used as the salting-out reagent. Extracts were diluted and then injected into a reversed phase LC-MS/MS system directly. One 96-well plate was extracted with this new approach to evaluate multiple parameters of a good laboratory practice analytical method. Results indicate that the method is rapid, reliable and suitable for regulated bioanalysis. With minimal modification, this approach has been used for high-throughput good laboratory practice analysis of a number of compounds under development at Abbott.

  15. Particle sedimentation monitoring in high-concentration slurries