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Sample records for high seas oil

  1. Oil pollution abatement: onshore, offshore, on the high seas

    SciTech Connect

    Shaheen, E.I.; Al- Rashid, N.

    1984-08-01

    Overview of typical sources of oil pollution is presented in this study. Arabian Gulf oil spills and other major oil spill accidents; persistent oils on seawater, their properties and physical changes; sorbents, dispersion with detergents, treating agents in typical processes, booms, skimming, recovery of oil; and the clean-up of oil contaminated beaches are considered.

  2. Laboratory measurements of high-frequency, acoustic broadband backscattering from sea ice and crude oil.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Christopher; Lavery, Andone C; Maksym, Ted; Wilkinson, Jeremy P

    2015-01-01

    Recent decreases in summer sea ice cover are spurring interest in hydrocarbon extraction and shipping in Arctic waters, increasing the risk of an oil spill in ice covered waters. With advances in unmanned vehicle operation, there is an interest in identifying techniques for remote, underwater detection of oil spills from below. High-frequency (200-565 kHz), broadband acoustic scattering data demonstrate that oil can be detected and quantified under laboratory grown sea ice and may be of use in natural settings. A simple scattering model based on the reflection coefficients from the interfaces agrees well with the data. PMID:25618096

  3. Satellite Observations: Oil Spills Impact on Phytoplankton in Bohai Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Li; Tang, Danling; Wang, Sufen; Pan, Gang

    2014-11-01

    This study discussed ecological responses to the Penglai oil spills in the Bohai Sea, occurring on June 4, 2011, using MODIS Chlorophyll-a data. After time intervals of 20 days, 12 months and 14 months, phytoplankton blooms appeared at three locations in the surrounding and distant regions of the oil spills in the Bohai Sea. A bloom with high Chlorophyll-a (13.66 mg m-3) spread over an area of 800 km2 on June 18-25, 2011, about 56 km northeast from the location of the oil spills. A pronounced increase in the monthly Chlorophyll-a concentration (6.40 mg m-3) indicating phytoplankton bloom was observed in the Bohai Sea in June 2012. Phytoplankton blooms depend on the amount and composition of oil, toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons, micro-organisms, and sea ice. The oil spills impact phytoplankton for a long duration, which impacts the marine ecosystem.

  4. Enrichment of Fusobacteria in Sea Surface Oil Slicks from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Tony; Berry, David; Teske, Andreas; Aitken, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill led to rapid microbial community shifts in the Gulf of Mexico, including the formation of unprecedented quantities of marine oil snow (MOS) and of a massive subsurface oil plume. The major taxa that bloomed in sea surface oil slicks during the spill included Cycloclasticus, and to a lesser extent Halomonas, Alteromonas, and Pseudoalteromonas—organisms that grow and degrade oil hydrocarbons aerobically. Here, we show that sea surface oil slicks at DWH contained obligate and facultative anaerobic taxa, including members of the obligate anaerobic phylum Fusobacteria that are commonly found in marine sediment environments. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Fusobacteria were strongly selected for when sea surface oil slicks were allowed to develop anaerobically. These organisms have been found in oil-contaminated sediments in the Gulf of Mexico, in deep marine oil reservoirs, and other oil-contaminated sites, suggesting they have putative hydrocarbon-degrading qualities. The occurrence and strong selection for Fusobacteria in a lab-based incubation of a sea surface oil slick sample collected during the spill suggests that these organisms may have become enriched in anaerobic zones of suspended particulates, such as MOS. Whilst the formation and rapid sinking of MOS is recognised as an important mechanism by which a proportion of the Macondo oil had been transported to the sea floor, its role in potentially transporting microorganisms, including oil-degraders, from the upper reaches of the water column to the seafloor should be considered. The presence of Fusobacteria on the sea surface—a highly oxygenated environment—is intriguing, and may be explained by the vertical upsurge of oil that provided a carrier to transport these organisms from anaerobic/micro-aerophilic zones in the oil plume or seabed to the upper reaches of the water column. We also propose that the formation of rapidly-sinking MOS may have re

  5. Enrichment of Fusobacteria in Sea Surface Oil Slicks from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Tony; Berry, David; Teske, Andreas; Aitken, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill led to rapid microbial community shifts in the Gulf of Mexico, including the formation of unprecedented quantities of marine oil snow (MOS) and of a massive subsurface oil plume. The major taxa that bloomed in sea surface oil slicks during the spill included Cycloclasticus, and to a lesser extent Halomonas, Alteromonas, and Pseudoalteromonas-organisms that grow and degrade oil hydrocarbons aerobically. Here, we show that sea surface oil slicks at DWH contained obligate and facultative anaerobic taxa, including members of the obligate anaerobic phylum Fusobacteria that are commonly found in marine sediment environments. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Fusobacteria were strongly selected for when sea surface oil slicks were allowed to develop anaerobically. These organisms have been found in oil-contaminated sediments in the Gulf of Mexico, in deep marine oil reservoirs, and other oil-contaminated sites, suggesting they have putative hydrocarbon-degrading qualities. The occurrence and strong selection for Fusobacteria in a lab-based incubation of a sea surface oil slick sample collected during the spill suggests that these organisms may have become enriched in anaerobic zones of suspended particulates, such as MOS. Whilst the formation and rapid sinking of MOS is recognised as an important mechanism by which a proportion of the Macondo oil had been transported to the sea floor, its role in potentially transporting microorganisms, including oil-degraders, from the upper reaches of the water column to the seafloor should be considered. The presence of Fusobacteria on the sea surface-a highly oxygenated environment-is intriguing, and may be explained by the vertical upsurge of oil that provided a carrier to transport these organisms from anaerobic/micro-aerophilic zones in the oil plume or seabed to the upper reaches of the water column. We also propose that the formation of rapidly-sinking MOS may have re-transported these

  6. Enrichment of Fusobacteria in Sea Surface Oil Slicks from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Tony; Berry, David; Teske, Andreas; Aitken, Michael D

    2016-07-27

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill led to rapid microbial community shifts in the Gulf of Mexico, including the formation of unprecedented quantities of marine oil snow (MOS) and of a massive subsurface oil plume. The major taxa that bloomed in sea surface oil slicks during the spill included Cycloclasticus, and to a lesser extent Halomonas, Alteromonas, and Pseudoalteromonas-organisms that grow and degrade oil hydrocarbons aerobically. Here, we show that sea surface oil slicks at DWH contained obligate and facultative anaerobic taxa, including members of the obligate anaerobic phylum Fusobacteria that are commonly found in marine sediment environments. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Fusobacteria were strongly selected for when sea surface oil slicks were allowed to develop anaerobically. These organisms have been found in oil-contaminated sediments in the Gulf of Mexico, in deep marine oil reservoirs, and other oil-contaminated sites, suggesting they have putative hydrocarbon-degrading qualities. The occurrence and strong selection for Fusobacteria in a lab-based incubation of a sea surface oil slick sample collected during the spill suggests that these organisms may have become enriched in anaerobic zones of suspended particulates, such as MOS. Whilst the formation and rapid sinking of MOS is recognised as an important mechanism by which a proportion of the Macondo oil had been transported to the sea floor, its role in potentially transporting microorganisms, including oil-degraders, from the upper reaches of the water column to the seafloor should be considered. The presence of Fusobacteria on the sea surface-a highly oxygenated environment-is intriguing, and may be explained by the vertical upsurge of oil that provided a carrier to transport these organisms from anaerobic/micro-aerophilic zones in the oil plume or seabed to the upper reaches of the water column. We also propose that the formation of rapidly-sinking MOS may have re-transported these

  7. Enrichment of Fusobacteria in Sea Surface Oil Slicks from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Tony; Berry, David; Teske, Andreas; Aitken, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill led to rapid microbial community shifts in the Gulf of Mexico, including the formation of unprecedented quantities of marine oil snow (MOS) and of a massive subsurface oil plume. The major taxa that bloomed in sea surface oil slicks during the spill included Cycloclasticus, and to a lesser extent Halomonas, Alteromonas, and Pseudoalteromonas—organisms that grow and degrade oil hydrocarbons aerobically. Here, we show that sea surface oil slicks at DWH contained obligate and facultative anaerobic taxa, including members of the obligate anaerobic phylum Fusobacteria that are commonly found in marine sediment environments. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Fusobacteria were strongly selected for when sea surface oil slicks were allowed to develop anaerobically. These organisms have been found in oil-contaminated sediments in the Gulf of Mexico, in deep marine oil reservoirs, and other oil-contaminated sites, suggesting they have putative hydrocarbon-degrading qualities. The occurrence and strong selection for Fusobacteria in a lab-based incubation of a sea surface oil slick sample collected during the spill suggests that these organisms may have become enriched in anaerobic zones of suspended particulates, such as MOS. Whilst the formation and rapid sinking of MOS is recognised as an important mechanism by which a proportion of the Macondo oil had been transported to the sea floor, its role in potentially transporting microorganisms, including oil-degraders, from the upper reaches of the water column to the seafloor should be considered. The presence of Fusobacteria on the sea surface—a highly oxygenated environment—is intriguing, and may be explained by the vertical upsurge of oil that provided a carrier to transport these organisms from anaerobic/micro-aerophilic zones in the oil plume or seabed to the upper reaches of the water column. We also propose that the formation of rapidly-sinking MOS may have re

  8. Challenging Oil Bioremediation at Deep-Sea Hydrostatic Pressure.

    PubMed

    Scoma, Alberto; Yakimov, Michail M; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon accident has brought oil contamination of deep-sea environments to worldwide attention. The risk for new deep-sea spills is not expected to decrease in the future, as political pressure mounts to access deep-water fossil reserves, and poorly tested technologies are used to access oil. This also applies to the response to oil-contamination events, with bioremediation the only (bio)technology presently available to combat deep-sea spills. Many questions about the fate of petroleum-hydrocarbons within deep-sea environments remain unanswered, as well as the main constraints limiting bioremediation under increased hydrostatic pressures and low temperatures. The microbial pathways fueling oil bioassimilation are unclear, and the mild upregulation observed for beta-oxidation-related genes in both water and sediments contrasts with the high amount of alkanes present in the spilled oil. The fate of solid alkanes (tar), hydrocarbon degradation rates and the reason why the most predominant hydrocarbonoclastic genera were not enriched at deep-sea despite being present at hydrocarbon seeps at the Gulf of Mexico have been largely overlooked. This mini-review aims at highlighting the missing information in the field, proposing a holistic approach where in situ and ex situ studies are integrated to reveal the principal mechanisms accounting for deep-sea oil bioremediation.

  9. Challenging Oil Bioremediation at Deep-Sea Hydrostatic Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Scoma, Alberto; Yakimov, Michail M.; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon accident has brought oil contamination of deep-sea environments to worldwide attention. The risk for new deep-sea spills is not expected to decrease in the future, as political pressure mounts to access deep-water fossil reserves, and poorly tested technologies are used to access oil. This also applies to the response to oil-contamination events, with bioremediation the only (bio)technology presently available to combat deep-sea spills. Many questions about the fate of petroleum-hydrocarbons within deep-sea environments remain unanswered, as well as the main constraints limiting bioremediation under increased hydrostatic pressures and low temperatures. The microbial pathways fueling oil bioassimilation are unclear, and the mild upregulation observed for beta-oxidation-related genes in both water and sediments contrasts with the high amount of alkanes present in the spilled oil. The fate of solid alkanes (tar), hydrocarbon degradation rates and the reason why the most predominant hydrocarbonoclastic genera were not enriched at deep-sea despite being present at hydrocarbon seeps at the Gulf of Mexico have been largely overlooked. This mini-review aims at highlighting the missing information in the field, proposing a holistic approach where in situ and ex situ studies are integrated to reveal the principal mechanisms accounting for deep-sea oil bioremediation. PMID:27536290

  10. Challenging Oil Bioremediation at Deep-Sea Hydrostatic Pressure.

    PubMed

    Scoma, Alberto; Yakimov, Michail M; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon accident has brought oil contamination of deep-sea environments to worldwide attention. The risk for new deep-sea spills is not expected to decrease in the future, as political pressure mounts to access deep-water fossil reserves, and poorly tested technologies are used to access oil. This also applies to the response to oil-contamination events, with bioremediation the only (bio)technology presently available to combat deep-sea spills. Many questions about the fate of petroleum-hydrocarbons within deep-sea environments remain unanswered, as well as the main constraints limiting bioremediation under increased hydrostatic pressures and low temperatures. The microbial pathways fueling oil bioassimilation are unclear, and the mild upregulation observed for beta-oxidation-related genes in both water and sediments contrasts with the high amount of alkanes present in the spilled oil. The fate of solid alkanes (tar), hydrocarbon degradation rates and the reason why the most predominant hydrocarbonoclastic genera were not enriched at deep-sea despite being present at hydrocarbon seeps at the Gulf of Mexico have been largely overlooked. This mini-review aims at highlighting the missing information in the field, proposing a holistic approach where in situ and ex situ studies are integrated to reveal the principal mechanisms accounting for deep-sea oil bioremediation. PMID:27536290

  11. Sea otter oil-spill mitigation study

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.W.; Thomas, J.; Williams, T.M.; Kastelein, R.; Cornell, L.

    1986-05-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the effectiveness of existing capture, transport, cleaning, and rehabilitation methods and develop new methods to reduce the impact of an accidental oil spill to California sea otters, resulting from the present conditions or from future Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas development in State or Federal waters. In addition, the study investigated whether or not a systematic difference in thermal conductivity existed between the pelts of Alaska and California Sea otters. This was done to assure that conclusions drawn from the oiling experiments carried out at Hubbs Marine Research Institute, Tetra Tech, Inc. contributed to the overall study by preparing a literature review and report on the fate and effects of oil dispersants and chemically dispersed oil.

  12. SAR Polarimetry for Oil at Sea Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliaccio, M.; Nunziata, F.

    2013-03-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) oil slick observation is a topic of great applicative relevance which has been physically recast by a set of new polarimetric approaches that, exploiting the departure from Bragg scattering, allow observing oil at sea in a very robust and effective way. In this study, these polarimetric approaches are reviewed and their performances are discussed with respect to some thought experiments undertaken on quad-pol full-resolution L- and C-band SAR data.

  13. Reserve growth in oil fields of the North Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Gautier, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of petroleum resources of the North Sea, as well as other areas of the world, requires a viable means to forecast the amount of growth of reserve estimates (reserve growth) for discovered fields and to predict the potential fully developed sizes of undiscovered fields. This study investigates the utility of North Sea oil field data to construct reserve-growth models. Oil fields of the North Sea provide an excellent dataset in which to examine the mechanisms, characteristics, rates and quantities of reserve growth because of the high level of capital investments, implementation of sophisticated technologies and careful data collection. Additionally, these field data are well reported and available publicly. Increases in successive annual estimat es of recoverable crude oil volumes indicate that oil fields in the North Sea, collectively and in each country, experience reserve growth. Specific patterns of reserve growth are observed among countries and primary producing reservoir-rock types. Since 1985, Norwegian oil fields had the greatest volume increase; Danish oil fields increased by the greatest percentage relative to 1985 estimates; and British oil fields experienced an increase in recoverable oil estimates for the first ten years since 1985, followed by a slight reduction. Fields producing primarily from clastic reservoirs account for the majority of the estimated recoverable oil and, therefore, these fields had the largest volumetric increase. Fields producing primarily from chalk (limestone) reservoirs increased by a greater percentage relative to 1985 estimates than did fields producing primarily from clastic reservoirs. Additionally, the largest oil fields had the greatest volumetric increases. Although different reserve-growth patterns are observed among oil fields located in different countries, the small number of fields in Denmark precludes construction of reserve-growth models for that country. However, differences in reserve

  14. Sea otter oil spill avoidance study

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.W.; Williams, T.M.; Awbrey, F.

    1988-04-01

    To determine whether acoustic, visual, or olfactory stimuli could be used to move sea otters out of an area in the event of an oil spill, the authors recorded the responses of sea otters to a variety of stimuli during captive studies in Alaska. These findings are similar to those of previous attempts to control the movements of sea otters and other marine mammals and birds. An alternative to herding is to capture otters in the vicinity of the spill and temporarily hold them in captivity. This approach is only practical if the number of otters in jeopardy is small (less than 60) and there is enough time to capture them. Based on the results of the study and previous attempts by the California Department of Fish and Game to herd sea otters, the authors do not think acoustic, visual, and olfactory stimuli are effective deterrents. In the absence of effective methods to keep sea otters out of an oil spill, the emphasis must remain on spill prevention, containment, and cleanup.

  15. Histopathologic lesions in sea otters exposed to crude oil.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, T P; Harris, R K; Moeller, R B; Pletcher, J M; Haebler, R J; Ballachey, B E

    1993-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that appeared to be contaminated with oil, that were in danger of becoming contaminated, or that were behaving abnormally were captured and taken to rehabilitation centers. Exposure to oil was assessed by visual examination when otters arrived at the centers. Degree of oil exposure was graded according to the following criteria: oil covering greater than 60% of the body--heavily contaminated; oil covering 30-60% of the body--moderately contaminated; oil covering less than 30% of the body or light sheen on fur--lightly contaminated. If there was no oil visible, otters were considered uncontaminated. Tissues from 51 oil-contaminated sea otters (14 males, 37 females) and from six uncontaminated sea otters (three males, three females) that died in rehabilitation centers were examined histologically. Among oil-contaminated sea otters, 19/46 had interstitial pulmonary emphysema, 13/40 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage, 11/47 had centrilobular hepatic necrosis, 14/47 had periportal to diffuse hepatic lipidosis, and 10/42 had renal tubular lipidosis. Of the uncontaminated sea otters, 1/6 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage and 1/6 had diffuse hepatic lipidosis. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from five sea otters (three males, two females) found dead with external oil present 15 to 16 days after the spill. Periportal hepatic lipidosis and renal tubular lipidosis were found in 3/5, and interstitial pulmonary emphysema was found in 1/5. Tissues from six apparently normal sea otters (four males, two females) collected from an area not affected by an oil spill were examined histologically, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that interstitial pulmonary emphysema, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis of sea otters were associated with exposure to crude oil. Gastric erosion and hemorrhage may have been associated with stress

  16. Histopathologic lesions in sea otters exposed to crude oil.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, T P; Harris, R K; Moeller, R B; Pletcher, J M; Haebler, R J; Ballachey, B E

    1993-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that appeared to be contaminated with oil, that were in danger of becoming contaminated, or that were behaving abnormally were captured and taken to rehabilitation centers. Exposure to oil was assessed by visual examination when otters arrived at the centers. Degree of oil exposure was graded according to the following criteria: oil covering greater than 60% of the body--heavily contaminated; oil covering 30-60% of the body--moderately contaminated; oil covering less than 30% of the body or light sheen on fur--lightly contaminated. If there was no oil visible, otters were considered uncontaminated. Tissues from 51 oil-contaminated sea otters (14 males, 37 females) and from six uncontaminated sea otters (three males, three females) that died in rehabilitation centers were examined histologically. Among oil-contaminated sea otters, 19/46 had interstitial pulmonary emphysema, 13/40 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage, 11/47 had centrilobular hepatic necrosis, 14/47 had periportal to diffuse hepatic lipidosis, and 10/42 had renal tubular lipidosis. Of the uncontaminated sea otters, 1/6 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage and 1/6 had diffuse hepatic lipidosis. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from five sea otters (three males, two females) found dead with external oil present 15 to 16 days after the spill. Periportal hepatic lipidosis and renal tubular lipidosis were found in 3/5, and interstitial pulmonary emphysema was found in 1/5. Tissues from six apparently normal sea otters (four males, two females) collected from an area not affected by an oil spill were examined histologically, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that interstitial pulmonary emphysema, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis of sea otters were associated with exposure to crude oil. Gastric erosion and hemorrhage may have been associated with stress

  17. Big oil's top explorer takes to the high seas. [Shell Oil drills 100 mi off NJ coast in 6500 ft of water

    SciTech Connect

    Nulty, P.

    1984-01-23

    The lower 48 states are the most pawed-over, poked-into oil and gas producing region on earth. Yet in deep water beyond the continental shelves of both coasts lie vast tracts of essentially untouched acreage. However, in December 1983, Shell Oil completed a well in 6500 feet of water 100 miles off Cape May, New Jersey in an area called Wilmington Canyon. The well was in water 800 feet deeper than any attempted before, and more than six times the depth of the deepest producing well. It was dry, but competitors aren't laughing. The drilling program, costing $500 million calls for four more wells this year in waters up to 7500 feet deep. While representing an enormous gamble for Shell, one of the last great exploration frontiers will be open for business if any of the wells proves out. In the event of success, however, very formidable problems must be overcome to produce the oil or gas.

  18. Histopathologic lesions in sea otters exposed to crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Moeller, R.B.; Pletcher, J.M.; Haebler, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    On 24 March 1989, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska. In the months following the spill, over 1,000 sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from oil spill-affected areas are known to have died. The purpose of the study is to identify and describe histopathologic lesions associated with crude oil exposure in sea otters and to discuss possible pathogeneses of the lesions. Materials available included tissues from oil-contaminated and uncontaminated otters that died in rehabilitation centers following the oil spill and tissues from otters that were found dead in the oil spill-affected area with external oil present. Tissues from apparently normal sea otters from an area not contaminated by crude oil, were also examined.

  19. Discrimination of fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Dowall, J.

    1969-01-01

    Fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water can be discriminated by their different spreading characteristics and by their reflectivities and color variations over a range of wavelengths. Reflectivities of oil and oil films are determined using a duel beam reflectance apparatus.

  20. Polarimetric SAR Models for Oil Fields Monitoring in China Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buono, A.; Nunziata, F.; Li, X.; Wei, Y.; Ding, X.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, physical-based models for polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) oil fields monitoring are proposed. They all share a physical rationale relying on the different scattering mechanisms that characterize a free sea surface, an oil slick-covered sea surface, and a metallic target. In fact, sea surface scattering is well modeled by a Bragg-like behaviour, while a strong departure from Bragg scattering is in place when dealing with oil slicks and targets. Furthermore, the proposed polarimetric models aim at addressing simultaneously target and oil slick detection, providing useful extra information with respect to single-pol SAR data in order to approach oil discrimination and classification. Experiments undertaken over East and South China Sea from actual C-band RadarSAT-2 full-pol SAR data witness the soundness of the proposed rationale.

  1. A high-resolution real-time forecasting system for predicting the fate of oil spills in the Strait of Bonifacio (western Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Cucco, A; Sinerchia, M; Ribotti, A; Olita, A; Fazioli, L; Perilli, A; Sorgente, B; Borghini, M; Schroeder, K; Sorgente, R

    2012-06-01

    The Strait of Bonifacio is a long and narrow area between Corsica and Sardinia. To manage environmental emergencies related to the spill of oil from vessels, an innovative forecasting system was developed. This tool is capable of operationally predicting the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the coastal area of the Bonifacio Strait, either from an instantaneous or continuous spill and either in forward or backward mode. Experimental datasets, including ADCP water current measurements and the trajectories of drifter buoys released in the area, were used to evaluate the accuracy of this system. A comparison between the simulation results and experimental data revealed that both the water circulation and the surface transport processes are accurately reproduced by the model. The overall accuracy of the system in reproducing the transport of an oil spill at sea was estimated for both forward and backward prediction mode and in relation to different forecasting time lags.

  2. Impacts of the Jessica oil spill on sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) populations.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Sandie

    2003-01-01

    Following the Jessica oil spill, a total of 79 oiled Galápagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) were recorded around the islands of San Cristóbal, Santa Fé, Isabela and Floreana. Almost half of these animals required washing and other treatment. One sea lion death and a high incidence of conjunctivitis and burns were detected during the period of the oil spill. Sea lion populations exhibited a tendency for decline in the first months following the spill at all three colonies monitored close to the grounding site on San Cristóbal. By comparison, declines of similar magnitude occurred at only one of six sea lion colonies monitored on islands more distant from the spill. However, no significant decreases in population numbers were detected for any colony in the year following the spill. Galápagos sea lion populations were partially recovering from the much more catastrophic impact of the 1997/98 El Niño.

  3. Declines in oil-rates of stranded birds in the North Sea highlight spatial patterns in reductions of chronic oil pollution.

    PubMed

    Camphuysen, Kees C J

    2010-08-01

    Strandings of oiled seabirds are used to signal the problem of chronic oil pollution. Species-specific oil rates reflect the risk for marine birds to become oiled at sea. High oil rates were characteristic for seabirds common in areas with frequent oil spills; low oil rates for birds wintering away from the busiest shipping lanes. Declining trends in oil-rates were found, reflecting a reduction in the amount of oil intentionally discharged over the past 50years. Spatial patterns in the risk to become oiled could be identified, when the winter distribution patterns of the affected birds were incorporated in the analysis. Declines in oil rates were most pronounced in coastal birds. These trends were consistent with tendencies to police nearshore waters more effectively than offshore waters. While levels of chronic oil pollution are much reduced, future emphasis should be to reduce chronic oiling more effectively in offshore waters.

  4. Oil spreading in the deep sea and search for methods of discovering oil pollution under the sea surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, Vadim K.; Lyskov, Vladimir G.

    1994-10-01

    This report deals with the problem of estimation of the damages to the environment caused by the crude oil (or oil products) spills from underwater sources. The peculiarities of the oil movement caused by flotation and turbulence in the deep sea were considered on the basis of assumption that the oil dispersed on the separate drops. It is shown that the oil which is coming to the surface is divided into separate clusters in accordance with the sizes of the drops. Mathematical expressions were obtained that permitted us to evaluate the sizes of oil drops and clusters as well as oil concentration depending on time. The analysis of experimental data confirmed the theoretical results while using the diesel oil. Its drops had sizes from 0.10 to 1.34 mm. The diesel oil concentration in clusters corresponds to theoretical predictions.

  5. Changes in sea urchins and kelp following a reduction in sea otter density as a result of the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, T.A.; Bodkin, J.L.; Jewett, S.C.; Monson, D.H.; Jung, D.

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between sea otters Enhydra lutris, sea urchins Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and kelp were investigated following the reduction in sea otter density in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. At northern Knight Island, a heavily oiled portion of the sound, sea otter abundance was reduced by a minimum of 50% by the oil spill, and from 1995 through 1998 remained at an estimated 66% lower than in 1973. Where sea otter densities were reduced, there were proportionally more large sea urchins. However, except in some widely scattered aggregations, both density and biomass of sea urchins were similar in an area of reduced sea otter density compared with an area where sea otters remained about 10 times more abundant. Furthermore, there was no change in kelp abundance in the area of reduced sea otter density. This is in contrast to greatly increased biomass of sea urchins and greatly reduced kelp density observed following an approximate 90% decline in sea otter abundance in the western Aleutian Islands. The variation in community response to a reduction in sea otters may be related to the magnitude of the reduction and the non-linear response by sea urchins to changes in predator abundance. The number of surviving sea otters may have been high enough to suppress sea urchin populations in Prince William Sound, but not in the Aleutians. Alternatively, differences in response may have been due to differences in the frequency or magnitude of sea urchin recruitment. Densities of small sea urchins were much higher in the Aleutian system even prior to the reduction in sea otters, suggesting a higher rate of recruitment.

  6. Responses of benthic foraminifera to the 2011 oil spill in the Bohai Sea, PR China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yan Li; Li, Tie Gang; Bi, Hongsheng; Cui, Wen Lin; Song, Wen Peng; Li, Ji Ye; Li, Cheng Chun

    2015-07-15

    The 2011 oil spill in the Bohai Sea was the largest spill event in China. Nine sediment cores were taken near the spill site and environmental factors including Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs), oils, sulfides, organic carbon were measured 6 months later. Benthic foraminifera were separated into >150 μm (large) and 63-150 μm (small) size fractions for 2-cm depth interval of each sediment core. Statistical analyses suggested that the species composition of living foraminifera was impacted by oils, PAHs and sulfides. Large foraminifera were more sensitive to the oils than the small. Abnormal specimens were positively correlated with oils or PAHs. Small forms, however, tended to have high reproduction and mortality. Pollution-resistant and opportunistic taxa were identified to calculate a Foraminiferal Index of Environmental Impacts (FIEI). The FIEI increased from low to high oil-polluted station and from deep layer to surface sediment reflects the impact of oil pollution in this area. PMID:26002093

  7. Vegetable oils affect the composition of lipoproteins in sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Caballero, Maria José; Torstensen, Bente E; Robaina, Lidia; Montero, Daniel; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2006-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of the dietary fatty acid profile on the lipoprotein composition in sea bream fed different vegetable oils. Six experimental diets were formulated combining fish oil with three vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, linseed) in order to obtain 60-80 % (w/w) fish-oil replacement. VLDL, LDL and HDL in plasma samples were obtained by sequential centrifugal flotation. The lipid class, protein content and fatty acid composition of each lipoprotein fraction were analysed. HDL was the predominant lipoprotein in sea bream plasma containing the highest proportion of protein (34 %) and phosphatidylcholine. LDL presented a high content of cholesterol, whereas triacylglycerol comprised a larger proportion of VLDL. The lipid class of the lipoprotein fractions was affected by the dietary vegetable oils. Thus, a high dietary inclusion of soyabean and linseed oil (80 %) increased the cholesterol in HDL and LDL in comparison to fish oil. Similarly, the triacylglycerol concentration of VLDL was increased in fish fed 80 % soyabean and linseed oils owing to the low n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid content of these diets. Lipoprotein fatty acid composition easily responded to dietary fatty acid composition. VLDL was the fraction more affected by dietary fatty acid, followed by LDL and HDL. The n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid content increased in the order VLDL less than LDL and less than HDL, regardless of dietary vegetable oils.

  8. Hybrid-Polarity SAR Architecture for Sea Oil Slick Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buono, A.; Nunziata, F.; Li, X.; Wei, Y.; Ding, X.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, Compact Polarimetry (CP) architectures are exploited for oil slicks at sea observation purposes. In particular, Hybrid-Polarity (HP) architecture, which consists of transmitting a circularly-polarized field while receiving coherently according to a linear h-v base, is investigated. Basic concepts of wave polarimetry are used to define HP features for oil slicks monitoring. Experiments are undertaken on HP measurements emulated from actual C-band Full-Polarimetric (FP) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. HP features performance in terms of oil slick detection and discrimination (from look-alikes and between different kinds of oil) is shown to be very close to the FP one.

  9. Modeling oil weathering and transport in sea ice.

    PubMed

    Afenyo, Mawuli; Khan, Faisal; Veitch, Brian; Yang, Ming

    2016-06-15

    This paper presents a model of oil weathering and transport in sea ice. It contains a model formulation and scenario simulation to test the proposed model. The model formulation is based on state-of-the-art models for individual weathering and transport processes. The approach incorporates the dependency of weathering and transport processes on each other, as well as their simultaneous occurrence after an oil spill in sea ice. The model is calibrated with available experimental data. The experimental data and model prediction show close agreement. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the most sensitive parameters in the model. The model is useful for contingency planning of a potential oil spill in sea ice. It is suitable for coupling with a level IV fugacity model, to estimate the concentration and persistence of hydrocarbons in air, ice, water and sediments for risk assessment purposes.

  10. Modeling oil weathering and transport in sea ice.

    PubMed

    Afenyo, Mawuli; Khan, Faisal; Veitch, Brian; Yang, Ming

    2016-06-15

    This paper presents a model of oil weathering and transport in sea ice. It contains a model formulation and scenario simulation to test the proposed model. The model formulation is based on state-of-the-art models for individual weathering and transport processes. The approach incorporates the dependency of weathering and transport processes on each other, as well as their simultaneous occurrence after an oil spill in sea ice. The model is calibrated with available experimental data. The experimental data and model prediction show close agreement. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the most sensitive parameters in the model. The model is useful for contingency planning of a potential oil spill in sea ice. It is suitable for coupling with a level IV fugacity model, to estimate the concentration and persistence of hydrocarbons in air, ice, water and sediments for risk assessment purposes. PMID:27130467

  11. Enhanced bioremediation of oil spills in the sea.

    PubMed

    Ron, Eliora Z; Rosenberg, Eugene

    2014-06-01

    Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are ubiquitous in the sea, including hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria that utilize hydrocarbons almost exclusively as carbon and energy sources. However, the rates at which they naturally degrade petroleum following an oil spill appear to be too slow to prevent oil from reaching the shore and causing environmental damage, as has been documented in the Exxon Valdez and Gulf of Mexico disasters. Unfortunately, there is, at present, no experimentally demonstrated methodology for accelerating the degradation of hydrocarbons in the sea. The rate-limiting factor for petroleum degradation in the sea is availability of nitrogen and phosphorus. Oleophilic fertilizers, such as Inipol EAP 22 and urea-formaldehyde polymers, have stimulated hydrocarbon degradation on shorelines but are less effective in open systems. We suggest uric acid as a potentially useful fertilizer enhancing bioremediation at sea.

  12. Enhanced bioremediation of oil spills in the sea.

    PubMed

    Ron, Eliora Z; Rosenberg, Eugene

    2014-06-01

    Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are ubiquitous in the sea, including hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria that utilize hydrocarbons almost exclusively as carbon and energy sources. However, the rates at which they naturally degrade petroleum following an oil spill appear to be too slow to prevent oil from reaching the shore and causing environmental damage, as has been documented in the Exxon Valdez and Gulf of Mexico disasters. Unfortunately, there is, at present, no experimentally demonstrated methodology for accelerating the degradation of hydrocarbons in the sea. The rate-limiting factor for petroleum degradation in the sea is availability of nitrogen and phosphorus. Oleophilic fertilizers, such as Inipol EAP 22 and urea-formaldehyde polymers, have stimulated hydrocarbon degradation on shorelines but are less effective in open systems. We suggest uric acid as a potentially useful fertilizer enhancing bioremediation at sea. PMID:24657912

  13. Macondo oil in deep-sea sediments: Part 1 - sub-sea weathering of oil deposited on the seafloor.

    PubMed

    Stout, Scott A; Payne, James R

    2016-10-15

    Chemical analysis of sediment cores collected up to 8km from the Macondo well in 2010/2011 demonstrates the extent of weathering of the Macondo oil deposited in deep-sea sediments following the Deepwater Horizon disaster. On average, dissolution and biodegradation of the oil on the seafloor increased with distance from the well indicating that weathering occurred rapidly and overwhelmingly during the oil's transport as dispersed oil droplets within the deep-sea plume. Beyond about 5km from the well, the oil deposited on the seafloor had lost most mass below C25, was relatively enriched in n-C25+ n-alkanes and C3- and C4-alkylated benz[a]anthracenes/chrysenes, the latter owing to 95% depletion of total PAHs. Biodegradation of C28 and C29 tricyclic terpanes, C34 and C35 17α(H),21β(H)-homohopanes, C27 13β(H),17α(H)-dia and C27 14β(H),17β(H)-steranes and dissolution of C26 to C28 triaromatic steroids occurred. The results provide a means to distinguish Macondo oil in deep-sea sediments from naturally-occurring seep oils and pervasive ambient background hydrocarbons.

  14. Macondo oil in deep-sea sediments: Part 1 - sub-sea weathering of oil deposited on the seafloor.

    PubMed

    Stout, Scott A; Payne, James R

    2016-10-15

    Chemical analysis of sediment cores collected up to 8km from the Macondo well in 2010/2011 demonstrates the extent of weathering of the Macondo oil deposited in deep-sea sediments following the Deepwater Horizon disaster. On average, dissolution and biodegradation of the oil on the seafloor increased with distance from the well indicating that weathering occurred rapidly and overwhelmingly during the oil's transport as dispersed oil droplets within the deep-sea plume. Beyond about 5km from the well, the oil deposited on the seafloor had lost most mass below C25, was relatively enriched in n-C25+ n-alkanes and C3- and C4-alkylated benz[a]anthracenes/chrysenes, the latter owing to 95% depletion of total PAHs. Biodegradation of C28 and C29 tricyclic terpanes, C34 and C35 17α(H),21β(H)-homohopanes, C27 13β(H),17α(H)-dia and C27 14β(H),17β(H)-steranes and dissolution of C26 to C28 triaromatic steroids occurred. The results provide a means to distinguish Macondo oil in deep-sea sediments from naturally-occurring seep oils and pervasive ambient background hydrocarbons. PMID:27488960

  15. Suppression of breakers of stormy seas by oil films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, C. S.; Zhang, X.

    2013-12-01

    In the late 19th century the USN Hydrographic Office encouraged spreading of oil on the sea to reduce damage by storm waves breaking on ships. Many accounts by ship masters of effective use of oil were recorded by the USNHO. They leave little doubt that small amounts of vegetable or animal oil, if allowed to form a slick to windward, do in fact inhibit large, storm generated breakers that would otherwise damage the ships of that day. The USNHO reports contain little quantitative information. There is no information on storm wave heights and only one statement of estimated wind speed, but they do inform us that release of refined petroleum products was much less effective than vegetable or animal oils. This fact indicates that the ability of the latter to form monolayers is important. Hydrocarbons do not form monolayers on water. A release rate as low as 2 liters per hour of vegetable oil was successful. We have found only one reference to the time required for the oil film to take effect (roughly estimated at 20 minutes). There have been very few related modern studies, and no scientific measurements of wind and seas when oil is released on stormy seas. The suppression of capillary-gravity waves by oil films is understood but a quantitative understanding of why the formation of large breakers can be stopped is wanting. We report here numerical estimates that show how suppression of wave growth in the equilibrium range of wavelengths (20 - 80 m in storm conditions, see example in figure below) over a distance of one or two kilometers would be capable of preventing large breakers at the leeward edge of an oil slicked area. There is no known mechanism by which the growth of such long waves would be annulled by an oil film. Proper understanding of the process will supply useful information on the importance of very short waves in controlling air flow over the sea and on the influence of breaking seas on wave growth and wind stress. Breaking seas in a gale

  16. Microbial gene functions enriched in the Deepwater Horizon deep-sea oil plume

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Z.; Deng, Y.; Nostrand, J.D. Van; He, Z.; Voordeckers, J.; Zhou, A.; Lee, Y.-J.; Mason, O.U.; Dubinsky, E.; Chavarria, K.; Tom, L.; Fortney, J.; Lamendella, R.; Jansson, J.K.; D?haeseleer, P.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2011-06-15

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the deepest and largest offshore spill in U.S. history and its impacts on marine ecosystems are largely unknown. Here, we showed that the microbial community functional composition and structure were dramatically altered in a deep-sea oil plume resulting from the spill. A variety of metabolic genes involved in both aerobic and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation were highly enriched in the plume compared to outside the plume, indicating a great potential for intrinsic bioremediation or natural attenuation in the deep-sea. Various other microbial functional genes relevant to carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and iron cycling, metal resistance, and bacteriophage replication were also enriched in the plume. Together, these results suggest that the indigenous marine microbial communities could play a significant role in biodegradation of oil spills in deep-sea environments.

  17. Microbial gene functions enriched in the Deepwater Horizon deep-sea oil plume

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhenmei; Deng, Ye; Van Nostrand, Joy D; He, Zhili; Voordeckers, James; Zhou, Aifen; Lee, Yong-Jin; Mason, Olivia U; Dubinsky, Eric A; Chavarria, Krystle L; Tom, Lauren M; Fortney, Julian L; Lamendella, Regina; Jansson, Janet K; D'haeseleer, Patrik; Hazen, Terry C; Zhou, Jizhong

    2012-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the deepest and largest offshore spill in the United State history and its impacts on marine ecosystems are largely unknown. Here, we showed that the microbial community functional composition and structure were dramatically altered in a deep-sea oil plume resulting from the spill. A variety of metabolic genes involved in both aerobic and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation were highly enriched in the plume compared with outside the plume, indicating a great potential for intrinsic bioremediation or natural attenuation in the deep sea. Various other microbial functional genes that are relevant to carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and iron cycling, metal resistance and bacteriophage replication were also enriched in the plume. Together, these results suggest that the indigenous marine microbial communities could have a significant role in biodegradation of oil spills in deep-sea environments. PMID:21814288

  18. Persistence of spilled oil along the Beaufort Sea coast

    SciTech Connect

    Nummedal, D.

    1980-04-01

    The research project for which this is the final report was initiated in 1977 with the following three major objectives: Assess the retention potential for spilled oil within the coastal environments of Alaska's Beaufort Sea; Characterize the morphology and sediments of the Beaufort coast; Determine, as precisely as possible, the annual longshore sediment transport rate.

  19. Commercial production of the oil absorbent Sea Sweep

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, T.B.; Mobeck, W.L.

    1993-12-31

    A new absorbent has been developed for oil spills. It attracts oil and chemicals and floats on water indefinitely. It is mpm-leaching and can save land and beaches from environmental disasters and can be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner or recycled. The new absorbent is called {open_quotes}Sea Sweep{close_quotes}; extensive research has been done on it under an EPA Small Business Innovation Research grant, Phase I and Phase II. Sea Sweep has been tested for toxicity to the environment. Less than 2 mg/l total organic carbon was found in water in contact with oil saturated Sea Sweep after 30 minutes. No toxicity was measured to any of the marine or freshwater tested species at any test concentrations. Sea Sweep is made from {open_quotes}pin chips,{close_quotes} a waste wood product, using a patented thermolytic process in which the wood is heated to about 300{degrees}C. It is a coarse, free-flowing granular material absorbing from 2.6 to 6.6 g/g of oils and chemicals. While originally designed for marine oil spills, it is also very effective for oil and chemical spills on land or water. Sea Sweep has now reached the stage of limited commercialization. A small (5 tons/day) plant has been built in northern Colorado at a wood recycling plant and it has been operated since January 1993. The plant features an afterburner that destroys the blue haze resulting from pyrolysis of the sawdust so that production is environmentally acceptable. Sea Sweep is marketed in 5, 10 and 25 lb plastic bags and 500 lb drop bags. It is also sold in socks, booms pillows and bilge rats. The company will recycle non-toxic materials for the customer using methods developed under the SBIR grant. Sea Sweep has been features in a number of articles, on television, and in national and international trade shows. The international marketing of Sea Sweep is administered from the corporate offices in Denver. Domestic marketing is administered from the regional office in Chicago.

  20. i4OilSpill, an operational marine oil spill forecasting model for Bohai Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fangjie; Yao, Fuxin; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Guansuo; Chen, Ge

    2016-10-01

    Oil spill models can effectively simulate the trajectories and fate of oil slicks, which is an essential element in contingency planning and effective response strategies prepared for oil spill accidents. However, when applied to offshore areas such as the Bohai Sea, the trajectories and fate of oil slicks would be affected by time-varying factors in a regional scale, which are assumed to be constant in most of the present models. In fact, these factors in offshore regions show much more variation over time than in the deep sea, due to offshore bathymetric and climatic characteristics. In this paper, the challenge of parameterizing these offshore factors is tackled. The remote sensing data of the region are used to analyze the modification of wind-induced drift factors, and a well-suited solution is established in parameter correction mechanism for oil spill models. The novelty of the algorithm is the self-adaptive modification mechanism of the drift factors derived from the remote sensing data for the targeted sea region, in respect to empirical constants in the present models. Considering this situation, a new regional oil spill model (i4OilSpill) for the Bohai Sea is developed, which can simulate oil transformation and fate processes by Eulerian-Lagrangian methodology. The forecasting accuracy of the proposed model is proven by the validation results in the comparison between model simulation and subsequent satellite observations on the Penglai 19-3 oil spill accident. The performance of the model parameter correction mechanism is evaluated by comparing with the real spilled oil position extracted from ASAR images.

  1. Sea otter population status and the process of recovery from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Ballachey, B.E.; Dean, T.A.; Fukuyama, A.K.; Jewett, S.C.; McDonald, L.; Monson, D.H.; O'Clair, C. E.; VanBlaricom, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    Sea otter Enhydra lutris populations were severely affected by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in western Prince William Sound, AK, and had not fully recovered by 2000. Here we present results of population surveys and incorporate findings from related studies to identify current population status and factors affecting recovery. Between 1993 and 2000, the number of sea otters in the spill-area of Prince William Sound increased by about 600 to nearly 2700. However, at Knight Island, where oil exposure and sea otter mortality in 1989 was most severe, no increase has been observed. Sea otter reproduction was not impaired, and the age and sex composition of captured otters are consistent with both intrinsic reproduction and immigration contributing to recovery. However, low resighting rates of marked otters at Knight Island compared to an unoiled reference area, and high proportions of young otters in beach cast carcasses through 1998, suggest that the lack of recovery was caused by relatively poor survival or emigration of potential recruits. Significantly higher levels of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A), a biomarker of hydrocarbons, were found in sea otters at Knight Island from 1996 to 1998 compared to unoiled Montague Island, implicating oil effects in the lack of recovery at Knight Island. Delayed recovery does not appear to be directly related to food limitation. Although food availability was relatively low at both oiled and unoiled areas, we detected significant increases in sea otter abundance only at Montague Island, a finding inconsistent with food as a principal limiting factor. Persistent oil in habitats and prey provides a source of continued oil exposure and, combined with relatively low prey densities, suggests a potential interaction between oil and food. However, sea otters foraged more successfully at Knight Island and young females were in better condition than those at Montague Island. We conclude that progress toward recovery of sea otters in Prince

  2. Sea otter population status and the process of recovery from the 1989 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Ballachey, B.E.; Dean, T.A.; Fukuyama, A.K.; Jewett, S.C.; McDonald, L.; Monson, D.H.; O'Clair, C. E.; VanBlaricom, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    Sea otter Enhydra lutris populations were severely affected by the 1989 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill in western Prince William Sound, AK, and had not fully recovered by 2000. Here we present results of population surveys and incorporate findings from related studies to identify current population status and factors affecting recovery. Between 1993 and 2000, the number of sea otters in the spill-area of Prince William Sound increased by about 600 to nearly 2700. However, at Knight Island, where oil exposure and sea otter mortality in 1989 was most severe, no increase has been observed. Sea otter reproduction was not impaired, and the age and sex composition of captured otters are consistent with both intrinsic reproduction and immigration contributing to recovery. However, low resighting rates of marked otters at Knight Island compared to an unoiled reference area, and high proportions of young otters in beach cast carcasses through 1998, suggest that the lack of recovery was caused by relatively poor survival or emigration of potential recruits. Significantly higher levels of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A), a biomarker of hydrocarbons, were found in sea otters at Knight Island from 1996 to 1998 compared to unoiled Montague Island, implicating oil effects in the lack of recovery at Knight Island. Delayed recovery does not appear to be directly related to food limitation. Although food availability was relatively low at both oiled and unoiled areas, we detected significant increases in sea otter abundance only at Montague Island, a finding inconsistent with food as a principal limiting factor. Persistent oil in habitats and prey provides a source of continued oil exposure and, combined with relatively low prey densities, suggests a potential interaction between oil and food. However, sea otters foraged more successfully at Knight Island and young females were in better condition than those at Montague Island. We conclude that progress toward recovery of sea otters in Prince

  3. Bering Sea summary report: Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities in the Bering Sea and their onshore impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Deis, J.; Pierson, R.; Kurz, F.

    1983-09-01

    Two federal offshore oil-and-gas lease sales have been held in the Bering Sea Subregion. Lease Sale 57, Norton Basin, was held on March 15, 1983. Lease Sale 70, St. George Basin, was held on April 12, 1983. The sale offered 479 tracts, of which 97 received bids. The Department of the Interior has indicated that it will accept 96 of the 97 high bids; however, to date, leases have not been awarded. The Department of the Interior was enjoined from issuing leases by the US District Court of Alaska because of possible impacts from postlease preliminary seismic activities on gray and right whales. In accordance with the Court's ruling, leases cannot be issued until the completion of a supplemental environmental impact statement, which is anticipated to occur in November 1983. Six lease offerings in the Bering Sea Subregion are scheduled through 1987. Six deep stratigraphic test wells are the only wells drilled to date in the Bering Sea Subregion. To date, oil companies have not submitted exploration plans for the Norton Basin Planning Area. Exploration in Norton Basin could begin in the summer of 1984, at the earliest. Exploration plans cannot be submitted for the St. George Basin Planning Area until the leases are awarded. At this time, various onshore areas are being considered as possible support bases for offshore oil-and-gas exploration. At this stage, before exploratory drilling has occurred and in the absence of a commercial discovery, plans for transporting petroleum from the Bering Sea to markets in the United States are unclear. The current estimates of risked resources for lands leased in Lease Sale 57, Norton Basin, are 33 million barrels of oil and 110 billion cubic feet of gas. Lease Sale 70, St. George Basin, estimates of risked resources for leased lands are 27 million barrels of oil and 310 billion cubic feet of gas. 55 references, 10 figures, 3 tables.

  4. Modeling oil spills in the Med-Sea as a mean of early response in cases of oil leakages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zodiatis, George; De Dominicis, Michela; Perivoliotis, Leonidas; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Lardner, Robin; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni; Soloviev, Dmitry; Tintore, Joaquin; Sotillo, Marcos; Drago, Aldo; Stylianou, Stavros; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Alves, Tiago; Kokinou, Eleni

    2016-04-01

    Modeling oil spills in the Med-Sea as a mean of early response in cases of oil leakages G. Zodiatis1, M. De Dominicis2, L. Perivoliotis3, H. Radhakrishnan1, R. W. Lardner1, N. Pinardi2, G. Coppini4, D. Soloviev1, J. Tintore5, M. Sotillo6 A. Drago7, S. Stylianou1, A. Nikolaidis1, T. Alves8, E. Kokinou9 and MEDESS4MS partners 1Oceanography Centre, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus 2Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna, Italy 3Hellenic Center for Marine Research, Athens, Greece 4Centro Euro- Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici, Italy 5SOCIB, IMEDEA, Palma de Majorca, Spain 6Puertos del Estado, Madrid, Spain 7IOI, University of Malta, La Valetta, Malta 83D Seismic Lab, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom 9Dept. of Environmental and Natural Resources, Technological Educational Institute Crete, Chania, Greece The risk from oil spill pollution in the Mediterranean is high due to the heavy traffic of merchant vessels for transporting oil and to the increasing coastal and offshore platforms related to the hydrocarbon exploration. This is especially true in the Levantine Basin following the recent widening of the Suez canal and the increase of the offshore deep wells for the exploitation of oil and gas. In order to select the optimal response measurements to assist the response agencies, oil spill models are used to provide predictions of the drift and weathering of the oil slicks. The establishment of the operational ocean forecasting systems at regional level, within the Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Service and in association with the national downscaled ones, provided the background for the implementation of a multi model integrated oil spill prediction system for the entire Mediterranean to support the maritime safety in near real time. This implementation was carried out in the frame of the medess4ms.eu project, which is dedicated to the response agencies of the riparian countries and to

  5. Sea cleaning and oil recovery vessel termed ''scor-vessel''

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, H.G.

    1981-12-29

    The invention as described in this application is the culmination of work in response to a current need to recover oil, resulting from the multiple oil spills occuring on the seas and harbors, rivers and lakes, in the united states. The irreversible damage to fish and wildlife is widely evident and the cost to mankind is immeasureable. Therefore, I have applied tried and proven known principles and technology, to invent a new process to recover contaminating liquids from the surface of waters used for marine navigation and transportation by ingesting and storing those liquids in a tanker type vessel.

  6. From Space to Seafloor - Investigating Oil and Gas Seepage in the Eastern Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körber, J.; Sahling, H.; Pape, T.; Heygster, G.; Bohrmann, G.

    2011-12-01

    Emissions of gases from the seafloor are of interest due to their relevance for the global climate, their potential as energy source, and impact on geochemical and biogeochemical cycles. Gas seepage has previously been reported to occur along the continental margin, on the shelf, and at some locations in the central deep Black Sea. These discoveries led to the assumption that seepage of light hydrocarbons from the seafloor is one of the major sources feeding the high methane concentrations of the Black Sea water body. It is commonly accepted that the proportion of pure bubble-forming methane released from deep-sea seeps reaching the hydrosphere/atmosphere interface is negligible since it is nearly entirely dissolved during its ascent through the water column or it is replaced by other gases diffusing from the water column into the bubbles. However, there is first evidence from recent studies at seeps showing intimate seepage of oil and gas that oil coatings around gas bubbles might protect the methane from complete dissolution. A set of Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) satellite images has been analysed in order to detect oil slicks as sea surface expressions of natural seepage in the deep eastern Black Sea off Georgia. Eight oil seep sites located between 450 and 1200 m water depth have been identified. Intensive hydroacoustic seafloor and water column investigations during two ship expeditions in 2010 and 2011 in combination with shallow sediment sampling and evaluation of hydroacoustic data from earlier cruises confirmed seepage of oil and gas. Ratios of thermogenic and biogenic gas vary significantly between the oil and gas seeps (e.g. Pechori Mound) and pure gas seeps (e.g. Batumi seep). Oil seeps seem to be related to ridge structures and underlying shale diapirs originating from the hydrocarbon rich Oligocene-Miocene Maikop formation. High resolution mapping of the Colkheti Seep (1125 mbsl), one of the most prominent oil seeps off Georgia, using an

  7. Analysis of scattering mechanisms over sea oil slicks based on eigenvalues of simplified coherence matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Zhao, Chaofang; Zeng, Kan; Wang, Yunhua

    2015-01-01

    Analytical forms of eigenvalues are given based on the coherence matrix simplified under the hypothesis of reflection symmetry, and three parameters PS, PD, and PM representing the individual contribution of single, double, and multiple scattering mechanisms to the total backscattering are defined. The single scattering is confirmed as a direct description of the Bragg scattering while the double and multiple scatterings are supposed to be classified as non-Bragg scattering. Experiments using quad-polarization single look complex C-band RADARSAT-2 SAR images indicate that the oil slick mainly dampens the Bragg scattering, due to the reduction of single scattering over oil-covered sea surfaces. The decrease of PS results in the corresponding increase of PD and PM, and the values of PS over clean sea surfaces are higher than those of oil slicks on the PS image. Therefore, PS can be selected to discriminate oil slicks from clean sea surfaces. By comparing the two imagery experiments, we also note that the relative contribution of Bragg scattering to the backscattering over oil-covered surfaces is highly dependent on the local wind field.

  8. New techniques on oil spill modelling applied in the Eastern Mediterranean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zodiatis, George; Kokinou, Eleni; Alves, Tiago; Lardner, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Small or large oil spills resulting from accidents on oil and gas platforms or due to the maritime traffic comprise a major environmental threat for all marine and coastal systems, and they are responsible for huge economic losses concerning the human infrastructures and the tourism. This work aims at presenting the integration of oil-spill model, bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, geomorphological and geological data to assess the impact of oil spills in maritime regions such as bays, as well as in the open sea, carried out in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea within the frame of NEREIDs, MEDESS-4MS and RAOP-Med EU projects. The MEDSLIK oil spill predictions are successfully combined with bathymetric analyses, the shoreline susceptibility and hazard mapping to predict the oil slick trajectories and the extend of the coastal areas affected. Based on MEDSLIK results, oil spill spreading and dispersion scenarios are produced both for non-mitigated and mitigated oil spills. MEDSLIK model considers three response combating methods of floating oil spills: a) mechanical recovery using skimmers or similar mechanisms; b) destruction by fire, c) use of dispersants or other bio-chemical means and deployment of booms. Shoreline susceptibility map can be compiled for the study areas based on the Environmental Susceptibility Index. The ESI classification considers a range of values between 1 and 9, with level 1 (ESI 1) representing areas of low susceptibility, impermeable to oil spilt during accidents, such as linear shorelines with rocky cliffs. In contrast, ESI 9 shores are highly vulnerable, and often coincide with natural reserves and special protected areas. Additionally, hazard maps of the maritime and coastal areas, possibly exposed to the danger on an oil spill, evaluate and categorize the hazard in levels from low to very high. This is important because a) Prior to an oil spill accident, hazard and shoreline susceptibility maps are made available to design

  9. Combining molecular fingerprints with multidimensional scaling analyses to identify the source of spilled oil from highly similar suspected oils.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peiyu; Chen, Changshu; Ye, Jianjun; Shen, Wenjie; Xiong, Xiaofei; Hu, Ping; Fang, Hongda; Huang, Chuguang; Sun, Yongge

    2015-04-15

    Oil fingerprints have been a powerful tool widely used for determining the source of spilled oil. In most cases, this tool works well. However, it is usually difficult to identify the source if the oil spill accident occurs during offshore petroleum exploration due to the highly similar physiochemical characteristics of suspected oils from the same drilling platform. In this report, a case study from the waters of the South China Sea is presented, and multidimensional scaling analysis (MDS) is introduced to demonstrate how oil fingerprints can be combined with mathematical methods to identify the source of spilled oil from highly similar suspected sources. The results suggest that the MDS calculation based on oil fingerprints and subsequently integrated with specific biomarkers in spilled oils is the most effective method with a great potential for determining the source in terms of highly similar suspected oils.

  10. Combining molecular fingerprints with multidimensional scaling analyses to identify the source of spilled oil from highly similar suspected oils.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peiyu; Chen, Changshu; Ye, Jianjun; Shen, Wenjie; Xiong, Xiaofei; Hu, Ping; Fang, Hongda; Huang, Chuguang; Sun, Yongge

    2015-04-15

    Oil fingerprints have been a powerful tool widely used for determining the source of spilled oil. In most cases, this tool works well. However, it is usually difficult to identify the source if the oil spill accident occurs during offshore petroleum exploration due to the highly similar physiochemical characteristics of suspected oils from the same drilling platform. In this report, a case study from the waters of the South China Sea is presented, and multidimensional scaling analysis (MDS) is introduced to demonstrate how oil fingerprints can be combined with mathematical methods to identify the source of spilled oil from highly similar suspected sources. The results suggest that the MDS calculation based on oil fingerprints and subsequently integrated with specific biomarkers in spilled oils is the most effective method with a great potential for determining the source in terms of highly similar suspected oils. PMID:25765488

  11. Are sea otters being exposed to subsurface intertidal oil residues from the Exxon Valdez oil spill?

    PubMed

    Boehm, P D; Page, D S; Neff, J M; Brown, J S

    2011-03-01

    Twenty years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill, scattered patches of subsurface oil residues (SSOR) can still be found in intertidal sediments at a small number of shoreline locations in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Some scientists hypothesize that sea otters continue to be exposed to SSOR by direct contact when otters dig pits in search of clams. This hypothesis is examined through site-specific examinations where SSOR and otter-dug pits co-occur. Surveys documented the exact sediment characteristics and locations on the shore at the only three subdivisions where both SSOR and otter pits were found after 2000. Shoreline characteristics and tidal heights where SSOR have persisted are not suitable habitat for sea otters to dig pits during foraging. There is clear separation between areas containing SSOR and otter foraging pits. The evidence allows us to reject the hypothesis that sea otters encounter and are being exposed by direct contact to SSOR.

  12. Are sea otters being exposed to subsurface intertidal oil residues from the Exxon Valdez oil spill?

    PubMed

    Boehm, P D; Page, D S; Neff, J M; Brown, J S

    2011-03-01

    Twenty years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill, scattered patches of subsurface oil residues (SSOR) can still be found in intertidal sediments at a small number of shoreline locations in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Some scientists hypothesize that sea otters continue to be exposed to SSOR by direct contact when otters dig pits in search of clams. This hypothesis is examined through site-specific examinations where SSOR and otter-dug pits co-occur. Surveys documented the exact sediment characteristics and locations on the shore at the only three subdivisions where both SSOR and otter pits were found after 2000. Shoreline characteristics and tidal heights where SSOR have persisted are not suitable habitat for sea otters to dig pits during foraging. There is clear separation between areas containing SSOR and otter foraging pits. The evidence allows us to reject the hypothesis that sea otters encounter and are being exposed by direct contact to SSOR. PMID:21185036

  13. Oil spill hazard from dispersal of oil along shipping lanes in the Southern Adriatic and Northern Ionian Seas.

    PubMed

    Liubartseva, S; De Dominicis, M; Oddo, P; Coppini, G; Pinardi, N; Greggio, N

    2015-01-15

    An assessment of hazard stemming from operational oil ship discharges in the Southern Adriatic and Northern Ionian (SANI) Seas is presented. The methodology integrates ship traffic data, the fate and transport oil spill model MEDSLIK-II, coupled with the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) ocean currents, sea surface temperature analyses and ECMWF surface winds. Monthly and climatological hazard maps were calculated for February 2009 through April 2013. Monthly hazard distributions of oil show that the zones of highest sea surface hazard are located in the southwestern Adriatic Sea and eastern Ionian Sea. Distinctive "hot spots" appear in front of the Taranto Port and the sea area between Corfu Island and the Greek coastlines. Beached oil hazard maps indicate the highest values in the Taranto Port area, on the eastern Greek coastline, as well as in the Bari Port area and near Brindisi Port area.

  14. Oil spill hazard from dispersal of oil along shipping lanes in the Southern Adriatic and Northern Ionian Seas.

    PubMed

    Liubartseva, S; De Dominicis, M; Oddo, P; Coppini, G; Pinardi, N; Greggio, N

    2015-01-15

    An assessment of hazard stemming from operational oil ship discharges in the Southern Adriatic and Northern Ionian (SANI) Seas is presented. The methodology integrates ship traffic data, the fate and transport oil spill model MEDSLIK-II, coupled with the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) ocean currents, sea surface temperature analyses and ECMWF surface winds. Monthly and climatological hazard maps were calculated for February 2009 through April 2013. Monthly hazard distributions of oil show that the zones of highest sea surface hazard are located in the southwestern Adriatic Sea and eastern Ionian Sea. Distinctive "hot spots" appear in front of the Taranto Port and the sea area between Corfu Island and the Greek coastlines. Beached oil hazard maps indicate the highest values in the Taranto Port area, on the eastern Greek coastline, as well as in the Bari Port area and near Brindisi Port area. PMID:25455790

  15. Oil contamination of fish in the North Sea. Determination of levels and identification of sources

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsen, S.; Restucci, R.; Klungsoyr, J.

    1996-12-31

    Two fish species, cod and haddock have been sampled from five different regions in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea, the Haltenbanken and the Barents Sea, Three of the five sampling areas were located in regions with no local oil or gas production, while the remaining two areas represented regions with high density of oil and gas production fields. A total of 25 specimen of each of the two fish species were collected, and liver (all samples) and muscle (10 samples from each group) were analyzed for the content of total hydrocarbons (THC), selected aromatic compounds (NPD and PAH) and bicyclic aliphatic decalines. The present paper outlines the results of liver samples analyses from four of the sampled regions, & northern North Sea region and the three reference regions Egersundbanken, Haltenbanken and the Barents Sea. In general, no significant difference was observed between the hydrocarbon levels within the sampled regions. The only observed exception was a moderate, but significant increase in decaline levels in haddock liver from the Northern North Sea region. The qualitative interpretation of the results showed that the sources of hydrocarbon contamination varied within the total sampling area. This observation indicates that the local discharge sources in areas with high petroleum production activity are the sources of hydrocarbons in fish from such areas. However, it was not possible to identify single discharges as a contamination source from the present results.

  16. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-04-22

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft[sup 2]/[degrees]F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000[degrees]F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  17. Origins and features of oil slicks in the Bohai Sea detected from satellite SAR images.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Cao, Conghua; Huang, Juan; Song, Yan; Liu, Guiyan; Wu, Lingjuan; Wan, Zhenwen

    2016-05-15

    Oil slicks were detected using satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images in 2011. We investigated potential origins and regional and seasonal features of oil slick in the Bohai Sea. Distance between oil slicks and potential origins (ships, seaports, and oil exploitation platforms) and the angle at which oil slicks move relative to potential driving forces were evaluated. Most oil slicks were detected along main ship routes rather than around seaports and oil exploitation platforms. Few oil slicks were detected within 20km of seaports. Directions of oil slicks movement were much more strongly correlated with directions of ship routes than with directions of winds and currents. These findings support the premise that oil slicks in the Bohai Sea most likely originate from illegal disposal of oil-polluted wastes from ships. Seasonal variation of oil slicks followed an annual cycle, with a peak in August and a trough in December.

  18. Origins and features of oil slicks in the Bohai Sea detected from satellite SAR images.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Cao, Conghua; Huang, Juan; Song, Yan; Liu, Guiyan; Wu, Lingjuan; Wan, Zhenwen

    2016-05-15

    Oil slicks were detected using satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images in 2011. We investigated potential origins and regional and seasonal features of oil slick in the Bohai Sea. Distance between oil slicks and potential origins (ships, seaports, and oil exploitation platforms) and the angle at which oil slicks move relative to potential driving forces were evaluated. Most oil slicks were detected along main ship routes rather than around seaports and oil exploitation platforms. Few oil slicks were detected within 20km of seaports. Directions of oil slicks movement were much more strongly correlated with directions of ship routes than with directions of winds and currents. These findings support the premise that oil slicks in the Bohai Sea most likely originate from illegal disposal of oil-polluted wastes from ships. Seasonal variation of oil slicks followed an annual cycle, with a peak in August and a trough in December. PMID:26988390

  19. Oil contamination of raptors migrating along the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Clark, W S; Gorney, E

    1987-01-01

    There are few accounts of oil contamination of raptors, and it has not been considered a threat for them. However, we and our colleagues found oil-based asphalt on 55 individuals of 9 species out of 1052 raptors (5.2%) captured and examined in the spring of 1985 and 1986 during our raptor migration study at Elat, Israel. Some were extensively contaminated and probably succumbed to the effects of ingested asphalt. The birds most likely picked up the contamination while drinking water from pools with surface oil. Examples of the contamination will be described. Over 1.2 million raptors were counted passing Elat during the spring of 1985. If 5% of these were contaminated, that would be over 60,000 birds, and this does not consider the raptors that migrate along the Red Sea and do not pass near Elat, nor those that pass Elat unseen by the counters. Thus asphalt contamination could be a major problem for raptors migrating along the Red Sea.

  20. Norway eclipses U. K. in North Sea oil flow

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-02

    This paper reports that despite new internal rankings, the North Sea has maintained its position as the world's fourth largest oil producing province behind the Middle East, the Soviet Union, and the U.S. Average production remains 3.7-4 million b/d. During 1991, however, sources of production within the total have shifted significantly. Britain no longer tops the North Sea production table. Early this year, major offshore shutdowns required for installation of mandatory safety equipment slashed production. At the same time, Norwegian output remained just below 1.95 million b/d, exceeding flow from neighboring U.K. waters for the first time since the mid- 1970s.

  1. CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery from the Residual Zone - A Sustainable Vision for North Sea Oil Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Jamie; Haszeldine, Stuart; Wilkinson, Mark; Johnson, Gareth

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a 'new vision for North Sea oil production' where previously unattainable residual oil can be produced with the injection of CO2 that has been captured at power stations or other large industrial emitters. Not only could this process produce incremental oil from a maturing basin, reducing imports, it also has the capability to store large volumes of CO2 which can offset the emissions of additional carbon produced. Around the world oil production from mature basins is in decline and production from UK oil fields peaked in 1998. Other basins around the world have a similar story. Although in the UK a number of tax regimes, such as 'brown field allowances' and 'new field allowances' have been put in place to re-encourage investment, it is recognised that the majority of large discoveries have already been made. However, as a nation our demand for oil remains high and in the last decade imports of crude oil have been steadily increasing. The UK is dependent on crude oil for transport and feedstock for chemical and plastics production. Combined with the necessity to provide energy security, there is a demand to re-assess the potential for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR) in the UK offshore. Residual oil zones (ROZ) exist where one of a number of natural conditions beyond normal capillary forces have caused the geometry of a field's oil column to be altered after filling [1]. When this re-structuring happens the primary interest to the hydrocarbon industry has in the past been in where the mobile oil has migrated to. However it is now considered that significant oil resource may exist in the residual zone play where the main oil column has been displaced. Saturations within this play are predominantly close to residual saturation (Sr) and would be similar to that of a water-flooded field [2]. Evidence from a number of hydrocarbon fairways shows that, under certain circumstances, these residual zones in US fields are comparable in thickness to the

  2. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  3. Assessing pollution-related effects of oil spills from ships in the Chinese Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Guo, Mingxian; Wang, Yebao; Yu, Xiang; Guo, Jie; Tang, Cheng; Hu, Xiaoke; Wang, Chuanyuan; Li, Baoquan

    2016-09-15

    An analysis of the effects of potential oil spills will provide data in support of decisions related to improving the response to oil spills and its emergency management. We selected the Chinese Bohai Sea, especially the Bohai Strait, as our investigation region to provide an assessment of the effects of pollution from ship-related oil spills on adjacent coastal zones. Ship-related accidents are one of the major factors causing potential oil spills in this area. A three dimensional oil transport and transformation model was developed using the Estuary, Coastal, and Ocean Model. This proposed model was run 90 times and each run lasted for 15days to simulate the spread and weathering processes of oil for each of four potential spill sites, which represented potential sites of ship collisions along heavy traffic lanes in the Bohai Sea. Ten neighboring coastal areas were also considered as target zones that potentially could receive pollutants once oil spilled in the study areas. The statistical simulations showed that spills in winter were much worse than those in summer; they resulted in very negative effects on several specific target zones coded Z7, Z8, Z9, and Z10 in this paper. In addition, sites S3 (near the Penglai city) and S4 (near the Yantai city) were the two most at-risk sites with a significantly high probability of pollution if spills occurred nearby during winter. The results thus provided practical guidelines for local oil spill prevention, as well as an emergency preparedness and response program.

  4. Assessing pollution-related effects of oil spills from ships in the Chinese Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Guo, Mingxian; Wang, Yebao; Yu, Xiang; Guo, Jie; Tang, Cheng; Hu, Xiaoke; Wang, Chuanyuan; Li, Baoquan

    2016-09-15

    An analysis of the effects of potential oil spills will provide data in support of decisions related to improving the response to oil spills and its emergency management. We selected the Chinese Bohai Sea, especially the Bohai Strait, as our investigation region to provide an assessment of the effects of pollution from ship-related oil spills on adjacent coastal zones. Ship-related accidents are one of the major factors causing potential oil spills in this area. A three dimensional oil transport and transformation model was developed using the Estuary, Coastal, and Ocean Model. This proposed model was run 90 times and each run lasted for 15days to simulate the spread and weathering processes of oil for each of four potential spill sites, which represented potential sites of ship collisions along heavy traffic lanes in the Bohai Sea. Ten neighboring coastal areas were also considered as target zones that potentially could receive pollutants once oil spilled in the study areas. The statistical simulations showed that spills in winter were much worse than those in summer; they resulted in very negative effects on several specific target zones coded Z7, Z8, Z9, and Z10 in this paper. In addition, sites S3 (near the Penglai city) and S4 (near the Yantai city) were the two most at-risk sites with a significantly high probability of pollution if spills occurred nearby during winter. The results thus provided practical guidelines for local oil spill prevention, as well as an emergency preparedness and response program. PMID:27357917

  5. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.D.

    1992-07-18

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a larger continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heatup rate, oxidation of the residue and cool-down prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The second quarter agenda consisted of (a) kiln modifications; (b) sample preparation; and (c) Heat Transfer calibration runs (part of proposal task number 3 -- to be completed by the end of month 7).

  6. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

  7. Oil and gas bearing in Norwegian Sea basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabanbark, A.

    2013-07-01

    The Norwegian passive continental margin is represented by an extensive gentle shelf and continental slope. On the continental slope, there are the isolated Vøring, Møre and Ras basins, the Halten Terrace is situated to the east of them at the shelf, then the Nordland submarine ridge and the Trondelag Platform at the seaboard. There are Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments in its sections. Two complex structures are clearly distinguished in the sedimentary section: the lower stage (up to the Upper Cretaceous), reflecting the rifting structure of the basins, broken by a system of dislocations to a series of horsts, grabens, and separated blocks; and the upper stage, poorly dislocated, like a mantle covering the lower stage, with erosion and sharp unconformity. The Halten Terrace is the principal oil and gas production basin. At present, there are more than 50 oil, gas, and condensate fields in it. The following particularities have been discovered: than the field lays in the deepwater, than the age of the hydrocarbon pay is younger. It is also interesting that all gas fields are situated in the Vøring and Møre basins and western part of the Halten Terrace; the oil and gas fields, mainly at the center of the Halten Terrace; but pure oil fields, in the north of the terrace. In conformity with discovering the particularities, it is possible to say that the prospects of oil and gas bearing in the Norwegian Sea are primarilyt related to the Halten Terrace and the Vøring and Møre basins, especially the territories situated at the boundary of the two basins, where it is possible to discover large hydrocarbon accumulations like the Ormen-Lange field, because the Paleocene-Upper Cretaceous productive turbidite thick at the boundary of these basins is on the continental slope, which is considered promising a priori.

  8. Biomarkers reveal sea turtles remained in oiled areas following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vander Zanden, Hannah B.; Bolten, Alan B.; Tucker, Anton D.; Hart, Kristen M.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Reich, Kimberly J.; Addison, David S.; Mansfield, Katherine L.; Phillips, Katrina F.; Pajuelo, Mariela; Bjorndal, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of large-scale disasters, such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, are problematic because while measurements of post-disturbance conditions are common, measurements of pre-disturbance baselines are only rarely available. Without adequate observations of pre-disaster organismal and environmental conditions, it is impossible to assess the impact of such catastrophes on animal populations and ecological communities. Here, we use long-term biological tissue records to provide pre-disaster data for a vulnerable marine organism. Keratin samples from the carapace of loggerhead sea turtles record the foraging history for up to 18 years, allowing us to evaluate the effect of the oil spill on sea turtle foraging patterns. Samples were collected from 76 satellite-tracked adult loggerheads in 2011 and 2012, approximately one to two years after the spill. Of the 10 individuals that foraged in areas exposed to surface oil, none demonstrated significant changes in foraging patterns post spill. The observed long-term fidelity to foraging sites indicates that loggerheads in the northern Gulf of Mexico likely remained in established foraging sites, regardless of the introduction of oil and chemical dispersants. More research is needed to address potential long-term health consequences to turtles in this region. Mobile marine organisms present challenges for researchers to monitor effects of environmental disasters, both spatially and temporally. We demonstrate that biological tissues can reveal long-term histories of animal behavior and provide critical pre-disaster baselines following an anthropogenic disturbance or natural disaster.

  9. Deep-sea oil plume enriches psychrophilic oil-degrading bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.C.; Dubinsky, E.A.; DeSantis, T.Z.; Andersen, G.L.; Piceno, Y.M.; Singh, N.; Jansson, J.K.; Probst, A.; Borglin, S.E.; Fortney, J.L.; Stringfellow, W.T.; Bill, M.; Conrad, M.S.; Tom, L.M.; Chavarria, K.L.; Alusi, T.R.; Lamendella, R.; Joyner, D.C.; Spier, C.; Auer, M.; Zemla, M.L.; Chakraborty, R.; Sonnenthal, E.L.; D'haeseleer, P.; Holman, H.-Y. N.; Osman, S.; Lu, Z.; Van Nostrand, J.D.; Deng, Y.; Zhou, J.; Mason, O.U.

    2010-09-01

    The biological effects and expected fate of the vast amount of oil in the Gulf of Mexico from the Deepwater Horizon blowout are unknown owing to the depth and magnitude of this event. Here, we report that the dispersed hydrocarbon plume stimulated deep-sea indigenous {gamma}-Proteobacteria that are closely related to known petroleum degraders. Hydrocarbon-degrading genes coincided with the concentration of various oil contaminants. Changes in hydrocarbon composition with distance from the source and incubation experiments with environmental isolates demonstrated faster-than-expected hydrocarbon biodegradation rates at 5 C. Based on these results, the potential exists for intrinsic bioremediation of the oil plume in the deep-water column without substantial oxygen drawdown.

  10. Evaluating bacterial community structures in oil collected from the sea surface and sediment in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Jiqing

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial community structures were evaluated in oil samples using culture-independent pyrosequencing, including oil mousses collected on sea surface and salt marshes during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and oil deposited in sediments adjacent to the wellhead 1 year after the spill. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that Erythrobacter, Rhodovulum, Stappia, and Thalassospira of Alphaproteobacteria were the prevailing groups in the oil mousses, which may relate to high temperatures and strong irradiance in surface Gulf waters. In the mousse collected from the leaves of Spartina alterniflora, Vibrio of Gammaproteobacteria represented 57% of the total operational taxonomic units, suggesting that this indigenous genus is particularly responsive to the oil contamination in salt marshes. The bacterial communities in oil-contaminated sediments were highly diversified. The relatively high abundance of the Methylococcus, Methylobacter, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Chlorofexi bacteria resembles those found in certain cold-seep sediments with gas hydrates. Bacterial communities in the overlying water of the oil-contaminated sediment were dominated by Ralstonia of Betaproteobacteria, which can degrade small aromatics, and Saccharophagus degradans of Gammaproteobacteria, a cellulose degrader, suggesting that overlying water was affected by the oil-contaminated sediments, possibly due to the dissolution of small aromatics and biosurfactants produced during biodegradation. Overall, these results provided key information needed to evaluate oil degradation in the region and develop future bioremediation strategies. PMID:23568850

  11. Evaluating bacterial community structures in oil collected from the sea surface and sediment in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Jiqing

    2013-06-01

    Bacterial community structures were evaluated in oil samples using culture-independent pyrosequencing, including oil mousses collected on sea surface and salt marshes during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and oil deposited in sediments adjacent to the wellhead 1 year after the spill. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that Erythrobacter, Rhodovulum, Stappia, and Thalassospira of Alphaproteobacteria were the prevailing groups in the oil mousses, which may relate to high temperatures and strong irradiance in surface Gulf waters. In the mousse collected from the leaves of Spartina alterniflora, Vibrio of Gammaproteobacteria represented 57% of the total operational taxonomic units, suggesting that this indigenous genus is particularly responsive to the oil contamination in salt marshes. The bacterial communities in oil-contaminated sediments were highly diversified. The relatively high abundance of the Methylococcus, Methylobacter, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Chlorofexi bacteria resembles those found in certain cold-seep sediments with gas hydrates. Bacterial communities in the overlying water of the oil-contaminated sediment were dominated by Ralstonia of Betaproteobacteria, which can degrade small aromatics, and Saccharophagus degradans of Gammaproteobacteria, a cellulose degrader, suggesting that overlying water was affected by the oil-contaminated sediments, possibly due to the dissolution of small aromatics and biosurfactants produced during biodegradation. Overall, these results provided key information needed to evaluate oil degradation in the region and develop future bioremediation strategies. PMID:23568850

  12. Improved oil recovery using bacteria isolated from North Sea petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, R.A.; Lappin-Scott, H.

    1995-12-31

    During secondary oil recovery, water is injected into the formation to sweep out the residual oil. The injected water, however, follows the path of least resistance through the high-permeability zones, leaving oil in the low-permeability zones. Selective plugging of these their zones would divert the waterflood to the residual oil and thus increase the life of the well. Bacteria have been suggested as an alternative plugging agent to the current method of polymer injection. Starved bacteria can penetrate deeply into rock formations where they attach to the rock surfaces, and given the right nutrients can grow and produce exo-polymer, reducing the permeability of these zones. The application of microbial enhanced oil recovery has only been applied to shallow, cool, onshore fields to date. This study has focused on the ability of bacteria to enhance oil recovery offshore in the North Sea, where the environment can be considered extreme. A screen of produced water from oil reservoirs (and other extreme subterranean environments) was undertaken, and two bacteria were chosen for further work. These two isolates were able to grow and survive in the presence of saline formation waters at a range of temperatures above 50{degrees}C as facultative anaerobes. When a solution of isolates was passed through sandpacks and nutrients were added, significant reductions in permeabilities were achieved. This was confirmed in Clashach sandstone at 255 bar, when a reduction of 88% in permeability was obtained. Both isolates can survive nutrient starvation, which may improve penetration through the reservoir. Thus, the isolates show potential for field trials in the North Sea as plugging agents.

  13. Unpolarized emissivity of thin oil films over anisotropic Gaussian seas in infrared window regions.

    PubMed

    Pinel, Nicolas; Bourlier, Christophe; Sergievskaya, Irina

    2010-04-10

    In this paper, we derive the unpolarized infrared (IR) emissivity of thin oil films over anisotropic Gaussian seas from a refined physical surface spectrum model of damping due to oil. Since the electromagnetic wavelength is much smaller than the surface mean curvature radius and than the surface root mean square height, the Kirchhoff-tangent plane approximation, reduced to the geometric optics approximation, can be used. The surface can then be replaced by its local infinite tangent plane at each point of each rough surface. The multiple reflections at each interface are ignored (i.e., for both the upper air/oil interface and the lower oil/sea interface of the contaminated sea). Nevertheless, the multiple reflections between the upper and the lower interfaces of the oil film are taken into account, by assuming a locally flat and planar thin oil film, which forms a local Fabry-Perot interferometer. This means that the Fresnel reflection coefficient of a single interface can be substituted for the equivalent Fresnel reflection coefficient of the air/oil/sea film, calculated by considering an infinite number of reflections inside the layer. Comparisons of the emissivity between a clean sea and a contaminated sea are presented, with respect to emission angle, wind speed, wind direction, oil film thickness, oil type, and wavelength. Thus, oil detection, characterization, and quantization are investigated in the IR window regions.

  14. Potential oil spill risk from shipping and the implications for management in the Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Singh, Asha; Asmath, Hamish; Chee, Candice Leung; Darsan, Junior

    2015-04-15

    The semi enclosed Caribbean Sea is ranked as having one of the most intense maritime traffic in the world. These maritime activities have led to significant oil pollution. Simultaneously, this sea supports many critical habitats functioning as a Large Marine Ecosystem (LME). While the impacts of oil pollution are recognised, a number of management challenges remain. This study applies spatial modelling to identify critical areas potentially at risk from oil spills in the form of a potential oil spill risk (POSR) model. The model indicates that approximately 83% of the sea could be potentially impacted by oil spills due to shipping. The results from this study collectively support a management framework for minimising ship generated oil pollution in the Caribbean Sea. Among the recommended components are a common policy, surveillance and monitoring controls, standards, monitoring programmes, data collection and greater rates of convention ratifications. PMID:25752533

  15. Potential oil spill risk from shipping and the implications for management in the Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Singh, Asha; Asmath, Hamish; Chee, Candice Leung; Darsan, Junior

    2015-04-15

    The semi enclosed Caribbean Sea is ranked as having one of the most intense maritime traffic in the world. These maritime activities have led to significant oil pollution. Simultaneously, this sea supports many critical habitats functioning as a Large Marine Ecosystem (LME). While the impacts of oil pollution are recognised, a number of management challenges remain. This study applies spatial modelling to identify critical areas potentially at risk from oil spills in the form of a potential oil spill risk (POSR) model. The model indicates that approximately 83% of the sea could be potentially impacted by oil spills due to shipping. The results from this study collectively support a management framework for minimising ship generated oil pollution in the Caribbean Sea. Among the recommended components are a common policy, surveillance and monitoring controls, standards, monitoring programmes, data collection and greater rates of convention ratifications.

  16. Mississippi River and Sea Surface Height Effects on Oil Slick Migration

    PubMed Central

    Falcini, Frederico; Jerolmack, Douglas J.; Buongiorno Nardelli, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Millions of barrels of oil escaped into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) after the 20 April, 2010 explosion of Deepwater Horizon (DH). Ocean circulation models were used to forecast oil slick migration in the GoM, however such models do not explicitly treat the effects of secondary eddy-slopes or Mississippi River (MR) hydrodynamics. Here we report oil front migration that appears to be driven by sea surface level (SSL) slopes, and identify a previously unreported effect of the MR plume: under conditions of relatively high river discharge and weak winds, a freshwater mound can form around the MR Delta. We performed temporal oil slick position and altimeter analysis, employing both interpolated altimetry data and along-track measurements for coastal applications. The observed freshwater mound appears to have pushed the DH oil slick seaward from the Delta coastline. We provide a physical mechanism for this novel effect of the MR, using a two-layer pressure-driven flow model. Results show how SSL variations can drive a cross-slope migration of surface oil slicks that may reach velocities of order km/day, and confirm a lag time of order 5–10 days between mound formation and slick migration, as observed form the satellite analysis. Incorporating these effects into more complex ocean models will improve forecasts of slick migration for future spills. More generally, large SSL variations at the MR mouth may also affect the dispersal of freshwater, nutrients and sediment associated with the MR plume. PMID:22558317

  17. Mississippi River and sea surface height effects on oil slick migration.

    PubMed

    Falcini, Frederico; Jerolmack, Douglas J; Nardelli, Bruno Buongiorno

    2012-01-01

    Millions of barrels of oil escaped into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) after the 20 April, 2010 explosion of Deepwater Horizon (DH). Ocean circulation models were used to forecast oil slick migration in the GoM, however such models do not explicitly treat the effects of secondary eddy-slopes or Mississippi River (MR) hydrodynamics. Here we report oil front migration that appears to be driven by sea surface level (SSL) slopes, and identify a previously unreported effect of the MR plume: under conditions of relatively high river discharge and weak winds, a freshwater mound can form around the MR Delta. We performed temporal oil slick position and altimeter analysis, employing both interpolated altimetry data and along-track measurements for coastal applications. The observed freshwater mound appears to have pushed the DH oil slick seaward from the Delta coastline. We provide a physical mechanism for this novel effect of the MR, using a two-layer pressure-driven flow model. Results show how SSL variations can drive a cross-slope migration of surface oil slicks that may reach velocities of order km/day, and confirm a lag time of order 5-10 days between mound formation and slick migration, as observed form the satellite analysis. Incorporating these effects into more complex ocean models will improve forecasts of slick migration for future spills. More generally, large SSL variations at the MR mouth may also affect the dispersal of freshwater, nutrients and sediment associated with the MR plume. PMID:22558317

  18. Lumber spill in central California waters: implications for oil spills and sea otters

    SciTech Connect

    VanBlaricom, G.R.; Jameson, R.J.

    1982-03-19

    A large quantity of lumber was spilled in the ocean off central California during the winter of 1978, and it spread through most of the range of the threatened California sea otter population within 4 weeks. The movement rates of lumber were similar to those of oil slicks observed elsewhere. These observations indicate that a major oil spill could expose significant numbers of California sea otters to oil contamination.

  19. Sensitivity of the deep-sea amphipod Eurythenes gryllus to chemically dispersed oil.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Gro Harlaug; Coquillé, Nathalie; Le Floch, Stephane; Geraudie, Perrine; Dussauze, Matthieu; Lemaire, Philippe; Camus, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    In the context of an oil spill accident and the following oil spill response, much attention is given to the use of dispersants. Dispersants are used to disperse an oil slick from the sea surface into the water column generating a cloud of dispersed oil droplets. The main consequence is an increasing of the sea water-oil interface which induces an increase of the oil biodegradation. Hence, the use of dispersants can be effective in preventing oiling of sensitive coastal environments. Also, in case of an oil blowout from the seabed, subsea injection of dispersants may offer some benefits compared to containment and recovery of the oil or in situ burning operation at the sea surface. However, biological effects of dispersed oil are poorly understood for deep-sea species. Most effects studies on dispersed oil and also other oil-related compounds have been focusing on more shallow water species. This is the first approach to assess the sensitivity of a macro-benthic deep-sea organism to dispersed oil. This paper describes a toxicity test which was performed on the macro-benthic deep-sea amphipod (Eurythenes gryllus) to determine the concentration causing lethality to 50% of test individuals (LC50) after an exposure to dispersed Brut Arabian Light (BAL) oil. The LC50 (24 h) was 101 and 24 mg L(-1) after 72 h and 12 mg L(-1) at 96 h. Based on EPA scale of toxicity categories to aquatic organisms, an LC50 (96 h) of 12 mg L(-1) indicates that the dispersed oil was slightly to moderately toxic to E. gryllus. As an attempt to compare our results to others, a literature study was performed. Due to limited amount of data available for dispersed oil and amphipods, information on other crustacean species and other oil-related compounds was also collected. Only one study on dispersed oil and amphipods was found, the LC50 value in this study was similar to the LC50 value of E. gryllus in our study. Since toxicity data are important input to risk assessment and net environmental

  20. Sensitivity of the deep-sea amphipod Eurythenes gryllus to chemically dispersed oil.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Gro Harlaug; Coquillé, Nathalie; Le Floch, Stephane; Geraudie, Perrine; Dussauze, Matthieu; Lemaire, Philippe; Camus, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    In the context of an oil spill accident and the following oil spill response, much attention is given to the use of dispersants. Dispersants are used to disperse an oil slick from the sea surface into the water column generating a cloud of dispersed oil droplets. The main consequence is an increasing of the sea water-oil interface which induces an increase of the oil biodegradation. Hence, the use of dispersants can be effective in preventing oiling of sensitive coastal environments. Also, in case of an oil blowout from the seabed, subsea injection of dispersants may offer some benefits compared to containment and recovery of the oil or in situ burning operation at the sea surface. However, biological effects of dispersed oil are poorly understood for deep-sea species. Most effects studies on dispersed oil and also other oil-related compounds have been focusing on more shallow water species. This is the first approach to assess the sensitivity of a macro-benthic deep-sea organism to dispersed oil. This paper describes a toxicity test which was performed on the macro-benthic deep-sea amphipod (Eurythenes gryllus) to determine the concentration causing lethality to 50% of test individuals (LC50) after an exposure to dispersed Brut Arabian Light (BAL) oil. The LC50 (24 h) was 101 and 24 mg L(-1) after 72 h and 12 mg L(-1) at 96 h. Based on EPA scale of toxicity categories to aquatic organisms, an LC50 (96 h) of 12 mg L(-1) indicates that the dispersed oil was slightly to moderately toxic to E. gryllus. As an attempt to compare our results to others, a literature study was performed. Due to limited amount of data available for dispersed oil and amphipods, information on other crustacean species and other oil-related compounds was also collected. Only one study on dispersed oil and amphipods was found, the LC50 value in this study was similar to the LC50 value of E. gryllus in our study. Since toxicity data are important input to risk assessment and net environmental

  1. Modelling of oil spills in confined maritime basins: The case for early response in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Alves, Tiago M; Kokinou, Eleni; Zodiatis, George; Lardner, Robin; Panagiotakis, Costas; Radhakrishnan, Hari

    2015-11-01

    Oil spill models are combined with bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data to model a series of oil spill accidents in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. A total of 104 oil spill simulations, computed for 11 different locations in the Levantine Basin, show that oil slicks will reach the coast of Cyprus in four (4) to seven (7) days in summer conditions. Oil slick trajectories are controlled by prevailing winds and current eddies. Based on these results, we support the use of chemical dispersants in the very few hours after large accidental oil spills. As a corollary, we show shoreline susceptibility to vary depending on: a) differences in coastline morphology and exposure to wave action, b) the existence of uplifted wave-cut platforms, coastal lagoons and pools, and c) the presence of tourist and protected environmental areas. Mitigation work should take into account the relatively high susceptibility of parts of the Eastern Mediterranean. PMID:26253313

  2. Modelling of oil spills in confined maritime basins: The case for early response in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Alves, Tiago M; Kokinou, Eleni; Zodiatis, George; Lardner, Robin; Panagiotakis, Costas; Radhakrishnan, Hari

    2015-11-01

    Oil spill models are combined with bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data to model a series of oil spill accidents in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. A total of 104 oil spill simulations, computed for 11 different locations in the Levantine Basin, show that oil slicks will reach the coast of Cyprus in four (4) to seven (7) days in summer conditions. Oil slick trajectories are controlled by prevailing winds and current eddies. Based on these results, we support the use of chemical dispersants in the very few hours after large accidental oil spills. As a corollary, we show shoreline susceptibility to vary depending on: a) differences in coastline morphology and exposure to wave action, b) the existence of uplifted wave-cut platforms, coastal lagoons and pools, and c) the presence of tourist and protected environmental areas. Mitigation work should take into account the relatively high susceptibility of parts of the Eastern Mediterranean.

  3. Analysis of the reflectance spectra of oil emulsion spilled on the sea surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicot, Guillaume; Lennon, Marc; Miegebielle, Veronique; Dubucq, Dominique

    2014-10-01

    Airborne remote sensing appears useful for monitoring oil spill accident or detecting illegal oil discharges. In that context, hyperspectral imagery in the SWIR range shows a high potential to describe oil spills. Indeed reflectance spectra of an oil emulsion layer show a wide variety of shapes according to its thickness or emulsion rate. Although based on laboratory measurements, it seems that these two parameters are insufficient to completely describe them. It appears that the way emulsion is performed leads to different reflectance spectra. Hence this paper will present a model which tends to simulate reflectance spectra of an oil emulsion layer over the sea water. To derive an analytical expression, some approximations and assumptions will be done. The result of this model shows high similarities with laboratory measurements and seems able to simulate most of the shapes of reflectance spectra. It also shows that a key parameter to define the shape of the reflectance spectra is the statistical distribution of water bubbles size in the emulsion. The description of this distribution function, if measurable, should be integrated into the methodology of elaboration of spectral libraries in the future.

  4. Sea otter (Enhydra lutris) perspective: Mechanisms of impact and potential recovery of nearshore vertebrate predators following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part A. Sea otter population status and the process of recovery from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Ballachey, B.E.; Dean, T.A.; Fukuyama, A.K.; Jewett, S.C.; McDonald, L.; Monson, D.H.; O'Clair, C. E.; VanBlaricom, G.R.; Holland-Bartels, L. E.

    2002-01-01

    Sea otter (Enhydra lutris populations were severely affects by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in western Prince William Sound, AK, and had not fully recovered by 2000. Here we present results of population surveys and incorporate findings from related studies to identify current population status and factors affecting recovery. Between 1993 and 2000, the number of sea otters in the spill-area of Prince William Sound increased by about 600 to nearly 2700. However, at Knight Island, where oil exposure and sea otter mortality in 1989 approached 0.90, no increase has been observed. Sea otter reproduction was not impaired and the age and sex structure of animals captured are consistent with both intrinsic reproduction and immigration contributing to recovery. However, low resighting rates of marked animals at Knight Island compared to an unoiled reference area, and a high proportion of young animals in beach cast carcasses through 1998, suggest that the lack of recovery was caused by relatively poor survival or emigration of potential recruits. Significantly higher levels of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A), a biomarker of hydrocarbons, were found in sea otters at Knight Island, in 1996-98 compared to unoiled Montague Island, implicating oil effects in the lack of recovery at Knight Island. Delayed recovery does not appear to be directly related to food limitation. Although food availability was relatively low at both oiled and unoiled areas, we detected significant increases in sea otter abundance only at Montague Island, as finding inconsistent with food as a principal limiting factor. Persistent oil in habitats and prey provides a source of continued oil exposure and, combined with relatively low prey densities, suggests a potential interaction between oil and food. However, sea otters foraged more successfully at Knight Island and young females were in better condition than those at Montague Island. We conclude that progress toward recovery of sea otters in Prince William

  5. Future high sea levels in south Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Blomgren, S.H.; Hanson, H.

    1997-12-31

    An estimation of future mean high water levels in Oeresund and the southwest Baltic Sea is presented together with a discussion of probable consequences for Falsterbo Peninsula, a trumpet-shaped sandy formation of some 25 km{sup 2} size situated in the very southwest corner of Sweden. A literature review coupled with sea-level measurements and observations made in the area every four hours since October 1945 are given and comprise the base for the present analysis.

  6. 33 CFR 2.32 - High seas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nations. (d) Under customary international law as reflected in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and without prejudice to high seas freedoms that may be exercised within exclusive... chapter and 46 CFR part 7. (c) For the purposes of 14 U.S.C. 89(a), 14 U.S.C. 86, 33 U.S.C. 409, and 33...

  7. 33 CFR 2.32 - High seas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nations. (d) Under customary international law as reflected in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and without prejudice to high seas freedoms that may be exercised within exclusive... chapter and 46 CFR part 7. (c) For the purposes of 14 U.S.C. 89(a), 14 U.S.C. 86, 33 U.S.C. 409, and 33...

  8. 33 CFR 2.32 - High seas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nations. (d) Under customary international law as reflected in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and without prejudice to high seas freedoms that may be exercised within exclusive... chapter and 46 CFR part 7. (c) For the purposes of 14 U.S.C. 89(a), 14 U.S.C. 86, 33 U.S.C. 409, and 33...

  9. 33 CFR 2.32 - High seas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nations. (d) Under customary international law as reflected in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and without prejudice to high seas freedoms that may be exercised within exclusive... chapter and 46 CFR part 7. (c) For the purposes of 14 U.S.C. 89(a), 14 U.S.C. 86, 33 U.S.C. 409, and 33...

  10. Free amino acid pool of a sea anemone: exposure and recovery after an oil spill. [Sea Anemones

    SciTech Connect

    Kasschau, M.R.; Howard, C.L.

    1984-07-01

    A number of laboratory studies on marine invertebrates have shown changes in free amino acid (FAA) pools in response to various pollutants. During a nineteen-month field study to determine the effects of natural environmental parameters on the FAA pools to the Gulf Coast sea anemone, Bunodosoma cavernata, an oil tanker collision occurred about 8 miles off Galveston Island. The initial spill from the tanker Burma Agate occurred on November 1, 1979 with large leakages continuing for several weeks. There was no visible sign of oil on the first collection date 13 days after the spill, but 11 days later the anemones were covered with an oil sheen. As a result of this natural exposure to the oil, the authors decided to monitor the sea anemones for changes in the FAA pool during the oil exposure and recovery period.

  11. Aliphatic hydrocarbon levels in turbot and salmon farmed close to the site of the Aegean Sea oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez Pineiro, M.E.; Gonzalez-Barros, S.T.C.; Lozano, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    After the Andros Patria oil spill, the most serious oil tanker accident to occur off the coast of Galicia (N.W. Spain) was the running aground and subsequent conflagration of the Aegean Sea supertanker outside the northern Spanish port of La Coruna (December 3rd 1992). Approximately 60,000 tonnes of Brent oil were spilled into the Atlantic Ocean in the cited coastal region. Subsequently, an impropitious combination of a high tide and a change in wind direction caused the resulting slick to rapidly spread into the port. Measures aimed at cleaning up affected areas and evacuating the ca. 11,215 tonnes of oil remaining in the supertanker were immediately implemented. However, within just a few days the resulting contamination had killed some 15000 turbot juveniles and larvae, which are cultivated in fish farms close to the accident site. The environmental impact of major oil spillages has been widely studied. Several scientists have suggested that, in terms of the negative effects on the seawater quality and productive capacity of the affected maritime regions, the magnitudes of the Aegean Sea and Amoco Cadiz accidents are comparable. This paper reports variations over time of aliphatic hydrocarbon levels in turbot and Atlantic salmon sampled from fish farms close to the site of the Aegean Sea oil spill. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Toxicity of spill-treating agents and oil to sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Rial, Diego; Vázquez, José A; Murado, Miguel A

    2014-02-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the joint toxicity of a Maya crude oil and four spill-treating agents (STAs) (CytoSol, Finasol OSR51, Agma OSD569 and OD4000). The acute toxicity of the binary mixtures of the water accommodated fractions (WAFs) obtained independently for the oil and each STA was assessed. The toxicity of the chemically enhanced WAF (CEWAF) of oil and Finasol OSR51 at several dispersant to oil ratios (1:2, 1:10 and 1:100) was also evaluated. The toxicity (EC50) obtained for the WAFs of the STAs was: CytoSol (15.1 mL/L)oil and the higher toxicity of the WAFs of Finasol OSR51, which suggested the high sensitivity of the sea urchin embryo toward the dispersant.

  13. Satellite-derived sea surface height and sea surface wind data fusion for spilled oil tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozai, K.

    Data fusion is defined as a framework with the purpose of obtaining information of 'greater quality'. Within the framework tools are expressed for the alliance of data originating from different sources. The exact definition of 'greater quality' is stated in this context as more reliable prediction for the trajectory of spilled oil from two different microwave sensor data, namely ERS-2 altimeter and ADEOS/NSCAT scatterometer data. An example is presented in the case of trajectory of bow section and associated oil upwelling from the sunken tanker Nakhodka occurred from January to June in 1997 in Japan Sea. Spill distance is defined as a horizontal distance from the oil upwelling point to the location of sunken Nakhodka and a spill direction is defined as an angle made by the geographic north and the line corresponding to the spill distance. Geostrophic current vectors are derived from ERS-2 altimeter and wind-induced current vectors are derived from ADEOS/NSCAT scatterometer data. These two different satellite-derived vectors are 'fused' together in the surface current model to estimate and evaluate the trajectory of bow section and associated oil upwelling from the sunken tanker Nakhodka. Result of comparison between the estimated and the observed trajectory of bow section indicates that the estimated trajectory is agreed well with the observed one in the first half of drift period, while in the latter half of drift period the estimated trajectory is not agreed well with the observed one, which may be attributable to changes of wind directions within 24 hours from the satellite overpasses. Moreover the comparison between spill vector and 'fused' surface current vector shows the good correspondence in terms of direction when in situ wind accelerates the surface current vector, while the comparison between the twos shows the bad correspondence when the temporal changes of wind vector occurs.

  14. Airborne Measurements of Emissions from Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Activities in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Roiger, A.; Raut, J.; Rose, M.; Weinzierl, B.; Reiter, A.; Thomas, J. L.; Marelle, L.; Law, K.; Schlager, H.

    2013-12-01

    A rapid decline of Arctic sea ice is expected to promote hydrocarbon extraction in the Arctic, which in turn will increase emissions of atmospheric pollutants. To investigate impacts of different pollution sources on the Arctic atmosphere, an aircraft campaign based in northern Norway was conducted in July 2012, as a part of the EU ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change Economy and Society) project. One of the flights focused on measuring emissions from various oil/gas exploration and production facilities ~110 km south of the Arctic Circle in the Norwegian Sea. Fresh and aged (from 5 minutes to 2.5 hours old) exhaust plumes from oil/gas production platforms, drilling rigs and tankers were probed with extensive aerosol and trace gas instrumentations. It was found that different types of facilities emit plumes with distinct chemical compositions. For example, tanker plumes were characterized by high SO2 concentration and high fraction of non-volatile particles while plumes from oil/gas production platforms showed significant increase in the nucleation mode particle concentration. Drilling rigs were found to be high black carbon emitters. In addition to the fresh plumes, relatively aged plumes (1.5 - 2.5 hours old) from a facility under development were measured. Even in these aged plumes, total particle concentrations were more than 6 times higher than the background concentration. Therefore, emissions from oil and gas activities are expected to have a significant impact on local air quality and atmospheric composition. With the aid of FLEXPART-WRF (a Lagrangian dispersion model) simulations, the results of this study will be used to validate and improve current emission inventories. In the future, these improved emission inventories can be used in regional and global chemical transport models to more accurately predict future Arctic air pollution.

  15. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Red Sea Basin Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 5 billion barrels of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and 112 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in the Red Sea Basin Province using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  16. Potential for sea otter exposure to remnants of buried oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Paul D; Page, David S; Neff, Jerry M; Johnson, Charles B

    2007-10-01

    A study was conducted in 2005 and 2006 to examine the hypothesis that sea otters (Enhydra lutris) continue to be exposed to residues of subsurface oil (SSO) while foraging on shorelines in the northern Knight Island (NKI) area of Prince William Sound, Alaska more than 17 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Forty-three shoreline segments, whose oiling history has been documented by prior surveys, were surveyed. These included all shoreline segments reported by a 2003 NOAA random site survey to contain SSO residues in NKI. Sites were surveyed for the presence and location of otter foraging pits. Only one of 29 SSO sites surveyed was identified as an otter foraging site. Most buried SSO residues are confined to tide elevations above +0.8 m above mean lower low water (MLLW), above the range of intertidal clam habitat. More than 99% of documented intertidal otter pits at all sites surveyed are in the lower intertidal zone (-0.2 to +0.8 m above MLLW), the zone of highest clam abundance. The spatial separation of the otter pits from the locations of SSO residues, both with regard to tidal elevation and lateral separation on the study sites, coupled with the lack of evidence of intertidal otter foraging at SSO sites indicates a low likelihood of exposure of foraging otters to SSO on the shores of the NKI area. PMID:17969707

  17. Potential for sea otter exposure to remnants of buried oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Paul D; Page, David S; Neff, Jerry M; Johnson, Charles B

    2007-10-01

    A study was conducted in 2005 and 2006 to examine the hypothesis that sea otters (Enhydra lutris) continue to be exposed to residues of subsurface oil (SSO) while foraging on shorelines in the northern Knight Island (NKI) area of Prince William Sound, Alaska more than 17 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Forty-three shoreline segments, whose oiling history has been documented by prior surveys, were surveyed. These included all shoreline segments reported by a 2003 NOAA random site survey to contain SSO residues in NKI. Sites were surveyed for the presence and location of otter foraging pits. Only one of 29 SSO sites surveyed was identified as an otter foraging site. Most buried SSO residues are confined to tide elevations above +0.8 m above mean lower low water (MLLW), above the range of intertidal clam habitat. More than 99% of documented intertidal otter pits at all sites surveyed are in the lower intertidal zone (-0.2 to +0.8 m above MLLW), the zone of highest clam abundance. The spatial separation of the otter pits from the locations of SSO residues, both with regard to tidal elevation and lateral separation on the study sites, coupled with the lack of evidence of intertidal otter foraging at SSO sites indicates a low likelihood of exposure of foraging otters to SSO on the shores of the NKI area.

  18. High levels of vegetable oils in plant protein-rich diets fed to gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata L.): growth performance, muscle fatty acid profiles and histological alterations of target tissues.

    PubMed

    Benedito-Palos, Laura; Navarro, Juan C; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Bell, J Gordon; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2008-11-01

    The feasibility of fish oil (FO) replacement by vegetable oils (VO) was investigated in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) in a growth trial conducted for the duration of 8 months. Four isolipidic and isoproteic diets rich in plant proteins were supplemented with L-lysine (0.55 %) and soya lecithin (1 %). Added oil was either FO (control) or a blend of VO, replacing 33 % (33VO diet), 66 % (66VO diet) and 100 % (VO diet) of FO. No detrimental effects on growth performance were found with the partial FO replacement, but feed intake and growth rates were reduced by about 10 % in fish fed the VO diet. The replacement strategy did not damage the intestinal epithelium, and massive accumulation of lipid droplets was not found within enterocytes. All fish showed fatty livers, but signs of lipoid liver disease were only found in fish fed the VO diet. Muscle fatty acid profiles of total lipids reflected the diet composition with a selective incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids in polar lipids. The robustness of the phospholipid fatty acid profile when essential fatty acid requirements were theoretically covered by the diet was evidenced by multivariate principal components analysis in fish fed control, 33VO and 66VO diets.

  19. A geochemical investigation of crude oils from Eastern Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiamo, Fu; Cunmin, Pei; Guoying, Sheng; Dehan, Liu; Sizhong, Chen

    A thorough petroleum exploration of the Pearl River Mouth Basin (PRMB), South China Sea, began in 1983. At present, several oilfields have been found in the PRMB, mainly distributed in Dongsha Massif, Huizhou and Xijiang Depressions as well as Huilu Lowhigh, and one of them has been developed recently. The crude oils found in the basin can be classified into two types. One is normal waxy type, and the other is cyclic type, which may be caused by minor biodegration and is restricted to the Liuhua District of Dongsha Massif. However, on the basis of geochemical characteristics, all the crude oils are thermally mature, indicating that they are derived from source rocks which have entered the main oil generation period but their maturity is not high enough to reach the overmature stage. Moreover, in the biomarker distribution, the oils also share many similarities. Almost all the oils contain abundant C 30 4-methylsteranes with 24-ethyl side chain, ubiquitous oleanane and lower concentration of gammacerane, and possess high ratios of Ni/V, pristane to phytane and C 30 hopane over total C 29 steranes as well as high paraffin wax and low sulphur content, indicating that they originated from terrestrial organic matter deposited in lacustrine and marsh coal-forming environments. However, some characteristics resemble Brazilian offshore oils of salinewater lacustrine environment. The oils found in the PRMB can also be classified into three main genetic types based on the relative values of pristane over phytane ratio, C 29 sterane preference and the composition of the carbon isotope. Type I oils occurred in the Huizhou and the Xijiang Depressions and their adjacent Dongsha Massif. It has higher ratios of pristane to phytane (1.80-5.54 and 3.21 on the average scale) and heavier carbon isotopic composition, indicating that their source rocks contain much more abundant terrestrial higher plant input. Type II, encountered in Huilu Lowhigh and its bounding area of Dongsha Massif

  20. The detection and prediction for oil spill on the sea based on the infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xu; Liu, Lei; Huang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Detection for oil pollution is an important part of the marine environment protection in maritime security. In order to realize all-weather, rapid and accurate oil spill area detection, infrared images of oil spill on the sea is processed on account of infrared thermal imaging's visual capacity in darkness and frog. The detection for oil spill is realized and the location as well as the area of oil spill is calculated. The prediction integrated model of oil spill spreading is established and the prediction simulation for oil spill area is realized by changing the oil varieties, environmental factors and time, etc. The results show that this simulation is accurate, fast, intuitive and simple. It has certain significance for realizing the early warning of oil spill area detection automatically, intelligently and quickly.

  1. Macondo oil in deep-sea sediments: Part 2 - Distribution and distinction from background and natural oil seeps.

    PubMed

    Stout, Scott A; Payne, James R; Ricker, Robert W; Baker, Gregory; Lewis, Christopher

    2016-10-15

    Following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the spilled Macondo oil was severely weathered during its transport within the deep-sea plume as discrete particles, which were subsequently deposited on the seafloor. The Macondo oil deposited in deep-sea sediments was distinguished from ambient (background) hydrocarbons and naturally-seeped and genetically-similar oils in the Mississippi Canyon region using a forensic method based upon a systematic, multi-year study of 724 deep-sea sediment cores collected in late 2010 and 2011. The method relied upon: (1) chemical fingerprinting of the distinct features of the wax-rich, severely-weathered Macondo oil; (2) hydrocarbon concentrations, considering a core's proximity to the Macondo well or to known or apparent natural oil seeps, and also vertically within a core; and (3) results from proximal cores and flocculent material from core supernatants and slurp gun filters. The results presented herein establish the geographic extent of "fingerprintable" Macondo oil recognized on the seafloor in 2010/2011.

  2. Macondo oil in deep-sea sediments: Part 2 - Distribution and distinction from background and natural oil seeps.

    PubMed

    Stout, Scott A; Payne, James R; Ricker, Robert W; Baker, Gregory; Lewis, Christopher

    2016-10-15

    Following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the spilled Macondo oil was severely weathered during its transport within the deep-sea plume as discrete particles, which were subsequently deposited on the seafloor. The Macondo oil deposited in deep-sea sediments was distinguished from ambient (background) hydrocarbons and naturally-seeped and genetically-similar oils in the Mississippi Canyon region using a forensic method based upon a systematic, multi-year study of 724 deep-sea sediment cores collected in late 2010 and 2011. The method relied upon: (1) chemical fingerprinting of the distinct features of the wax-rich, severely-weathered Macondo oil; (2) hydrocarbon concentrations, considering a core's proximity to the Macondo well or to known or apparent natural oil seeps, and also vertically within a core; and (3) results from proximal cores and flocculent material from core supernatants and slurp gun filters. The results presented herein establish the geographic extent of "fingerprintable" Macondo oil recognized on the seafloor in 2010/2011. PMID:27509822

  3. Tissue-specific robustness of fatty acid signatures in cultured gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) fed practical diets with a combined high replacement of fish meal and fish oil.

    PubMed

    Benedito-Palos, L; Navarro, J C; Kaushik, S; Pérez-Sánchez, J

    2010-05-01

    The present study aimed to determine the tissue-specific robustness of fatty acid (FA) signatures of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) by analyzing the changes in lipid class and FA composition of skeletal muscle, brain, liver, and mesenteric adipose tissue. Triplicate groups of fish were fed to visual satiety over a 14-mo production cycle with 2 practical plant protein-based diets formulated with either fish oil or a blend of vegetable oils (66% of fish oil replacement) to contain 53% CP and 21% crude fat on a DM basis. Growth rates (P = 0.22) and tissue lipid class composition were not altered by the dietary treatment (P = 0.34 and 0.52 for neutral lipids and phospholipids, respectively). The FA signatures of neutral lipids reflected the composition of the diet, although the output of principal components analysis revealed a divergent FA profile for liver compared with skeletal muscle, brain, and mesenteric adipose tissue. Because the theoretical EFA needs were met by the 2 diets, the FA composition of phospholipids remained almost unaltered in all tissues. Interestingly, however, the brain showed the greatest robustness and regulatory capacity to preserve the phenotype of fish fed fish oil-based diets. The FA signatures of total lipids are a combinatory result of neutral and polar lipids, and the most relevant fat storage tissues (mesenteric adipose tissue and skeletal muscle) were more easily influenced by dietary FA composition. The present study provides new insights into fish tissue FA composition and reinforces the use of FA signatures as useful criteria in determining whether EFA requirements for a wide range of physiological processes, including those of neural tissues, can be met with practical fish feeds.

  4. Oil spill hazard assessment using a reverse trajectory method for the Egadi marine protected area (Central Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Ciappa, Achille; Costabile, Salvatore

    2014-07-15

    The Egadi Marine Protected Area (MPA) on the western side of the Sicily Channel (Central Mediterranean) is exposed to a high risk of oil pollution from the tanker routes connecting the eastern and western basins of the Mediterranean Sea. Areas where an oil spill would do most damage, and thus where surveillance should be concentrated, are identified in this study by Lagrangian tracers tracked backwards in time from points along the MPA perimeter using data spanning six years from 2006 to 2011. Results indicate that the areas where oil surveillance would be most beneficial are segments of the tanker routes south of Sicily (highly frequented) and north of Sicily (scarcely frequented), both extending about 150 miles from November to March and 100 miles in the other months. The third route, close to the Tunisian shore, is the most frequented by oil tankers but the threat period is limited to November and December. PMID:24934441

  5. Chukchi Sea coastal studies: Coastal geomorphology, environmental sensitivity, and persistence of spilled oil. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Robilliard, G.A.; Harper, J.R.; Isaacs, J.; Foget, C.

    1985-03-01

    This report: Describes the physical and biological characteristics of the northern Chukchi Sea coastline, emphasizing shore characteristics that influence the effect of oil spills or that are likely to be affected by oil spills; Describes and maps the level of oil persistence along the shoreline; Describes and maps the vulnerability and sensitivity of selected coastal biological resources to spilled oil; Describes and maps the sensitivity of selected human uses of the shoreline to spilled oil; Describes the cleanup techniques and equipment available for use in arctic conditions and recommends appropriate shoreline countermeasures.

  6. Recent glacial events in the Norwegian North Sea - implications towards a better understanding of charging/leakage of oil fields and its impact oil exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddart, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Recent drilling and appraisal on the Southern Utsira High, Norwegian North Sea, has proved several large oil/gas discoveries, including the giant Johan Sverdrup, Edvard Grieg, Draupne, Ragnarrock and Apollo oil fields, making this a prolific petroleum area. The Southern Utsira High contains a variety of hydrocarbon density fluids found at several stratigraphic levels illustrating the compartmentalized nature of accumulations and charge history. The Southern Utsira High has been in a position to receive an oil/gas charge for a considerable period of time, with the basin towards the west most likely generating petroleum from early Eocene (50M Mabp) to its maximum present day burial depth. However, reservoir temperatures on the Southern Utsira High are just above the threshold for biodegradation (80°C). The Southern Utsira High oils are non-biodegraded suggesting that the majority of the oil charged relatively late - ca.3 million years ago to present day. The effects of the glaciation on the filling history of the Southern Utsira High are currently being assessed. It is clear that several erosional surfaces in the Pliocene can be identified, as well as glacial channels and moraine deposits, indicating that significant deposition and erosion occurred in the last five million years. Importantly, the effects of glacial rebound mean that the Southern Utsira High more than likely underwent tilting and possible leakage, not just once, but several times in the last 1 million years. The effects of tilting/leakage of geological areas on oil migration have been recognized by several authors. However, the detailed integration of geological mapping and geochemical evidence has not previously been published. The implications of a detailed assessment of tilting of a ''high' through time are; 1) opening up areas where oil migration is thought to be high risk or impossible; 2) identify possible paleo-oil columns aiding the de-risking of discovery appraisal strategies. The evidence

  7. Environmental influences of oil and gas development in the Arctic Slope and Beaufort Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, J.W.; Bartonek, J.C.; Klein, D.R.; Spencer, D.

    1971-01-01

    This report describes the environmental characteristics and renewable resources of the Arctic Slope and the Beaufort Sea in relation to oil and gas development. Problems associated with industrial activities are identified, and recommendations for avoiding or minimizing environmental and resource damage are advanced. It is noted that the simplicity of the ecosystems, the slow rate of organic processes, and the presence of permafrost create unique problems in connection with pollution, waste disposal, restoration of vegetation, and all activities which disturb the vegetated surface. In the Beaufort Sea, the shallowness of the continental shelf and the presence of pack ice represent serious physical obstacles to oil development and transportation and heighten the probability of potentially harmful accidents. The risk of serious environmental and resource damage in the Arctic will be greatly lessened by the imposition of high operational and safety standards. There is need for strengthening legal authority to promulgate essential regulations. As an interim substitute, close and effective cooperation between Government and industry must be developed. Both Government and industry have an obligation to support research aimed at providing an adequate understanding of numerous environmental and technical questions.

  8. Emission measurements from a crude oil tanker at sea.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Harshit; Welch, William A; Miller, J Wayne; Cockert, David R

    2008-10-01

    This work presents an all-inclusive set of regulated and nonregulated emission factors for the main propulsion engine (ME), auxiliary engine (AE) and an auxiliary boiler on a Suezmax class tanker while operating at sea. The data include criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulate matter), a greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide), the principal speciated hydrocarbons needed for human health risk assessments, and a detailed analysis of the PM into its primary constituents (ions, elements, organic, and elemental carbon). Measurements followed ISO 8178-1 methods with modifications described in the paper. The vessel burned two fuels: a heavy fuel oil in the ME and boiler and a distillate fuel in the AE. The weighted NO(x) emissions for the ME and AE are 19.87 +/- 0.95 and 13.57 +/- 0.31 g/kWh, respectively. The weighted PM mass emissions factor is 1.60 +/- 0.08 g/kWh for the ME and 0.141 +/- 0.005 g/kWh for the AE, with the sulfate content of the PM being the root cause for the difference. For the ME, sulfate with associated water is about 75% of total PM mass, and the organic carbon ranges from 15 to 25% of the PM mass. A deeper analysis showed that the conversion of fuel sulfur to sulfate in the ME ranged from 1.4to 5%. This article also provides emission factors for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy alkanes, carbonyls, light hydrocarbon species, metals, and ions for the ME, AE, and the boiler.

  9. Effects of North Sea oil and alkylphenols on biomarker responses in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Sturve, Joachim; Hasselberg, Linda; Fälth, Herman; Celander, Malin; Förlin, Lars

    2006-06-01

    A consequence of oil drilling at sea is the release of produced water contaminated with e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkylphenols. In the present study, juvenile Atlantic cod were exposed to North Sea oil, nonylphenol and a combination of the North Sea oil and an alkylphenol mixture in a flow-through system. A suite of hepatic biomarkers were analysed. Exposure to North Sea oil resulted in strong induction of CYP1A protein levels and EROD activities. Exposure to nonylphenol, on the other hand, resulted in decreased CYP1A levels and EROD activities. Thus, nonylphenol appears to down-regulate CYP1A expression in Atlantic cod. Combined exposure to North Sea oil with an alkylphenol mixture resulted in lower EROD induction, compared to that in fish exposed to North Sea oil alone. This difference was not statistically significant, but still we believe that the alkylphenols have inhibited CYP1A activities in the fish which may have compromised CYP1A mediated metabolism of other xenobiotics, including PAH. CYP3A protein levels were lower, compared to controls, in fish exposed to nonylphenol and the combination of North Sea oil and alkylphenol mixture. In contrast, the oil alone had no effect on CYP3A protein content. North Sea oil exposure, alone or in combination with alkylphenols, caused oxidative stress observed as elevated levels of GSSG content and GR and CAT activities. Interestingly, exposure to nonylphenol resulted in a marked depletion of total glutathione levels. This apparent depletion may be a consequence of increased conjugation of glutathione to nonylphenol followed by excretion. An increase in conjugation enzyme GST activity was observed in the nonylphenol exposed group, although the difference was not significant. No sign of oxidative damage, measured as lipid peroxidation, was observed in any of the exposures experiments. This study suggests that North Sea oil may lead to oxidative stress and altered CYP1A and CYP3A expression

  10. In-situ burning - one method of effective oil spill response in the South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Boben, M.E.; Yanting, Yue

    1996-12-31

    Phillips Petroleum International Corporation Asia (PPICA) is the operator of the twin Xijiang Oilfields in the South China Sea. The very special characteristics of the Xijiang crude demanded that innovative means of cleanup be employed in the event of a major oil spill. The Xijiang crude has a very high wax content and high pour point. The crude must be heated to flow. In the event of a major oil spill, clean up would require non-traditional means of response. During the laboratory analysis it was discovered that if a specific thickness of crude could be contained on the surface of the water that it could be ignited and burned. The potential effectiveness of the burn was ascertained to be 95-98%. A decision was made in 1992 during the design engineering phase to utilize in-situ burning as the primary means of response in the event of a major oil spill. During April 1995 the first ever demonstration of in-situ burning was conducted in Shekou, Sheizhen, People`s Republic of China by Phillips Petroleum International Corporation Asia. This exercise clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of in-situ burning on the Xijiang crude.

  11. Biological marker characteristics of oils and asphalts from carbonate source rocks in a rapidly subsiding graben, Dead Sea, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rullkötter, Jürgen; Spiro, Baruch; Nissenbaum, Arie

    1985-06-01

    A detailed GC/MS study of biological marker compounds in the saturated and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of oils and asphalts from the Dead Sea area, Israel, provided decisive information to the solution of a long-lasting controversy by showing that the asphalts are products of early generation in an immature stage from the same type of carbonate source rock which generated more mature oils. The asphalts are not biodegraded residues of the oils. Oils from six different wells, and asphalts from wells, outcrops, and a floating block from the Dead Sea all have very similar sterane and triterpane patterns. They all lack rearranged steranes (diasteranes) indicating a carbonate source matrix and compare reasonably well with a sample of Upper Cretaceous bituminous chalk from Nebi Musa. The main difference between the oils and the asphalts is a significantly higher triaromatic to mono- plus triaromatic steroid hydrocarbon ratio in the former. This is explained as a result of rapid subsidence and heating of their source rock close to the deep parts of the Dead Sea graben. The oils thus were generated in the more deeply buried source rock blocks under the graben fill, whereas the asphalts either originate from an immature source rock section closer to the graben rims or represent an earlier phase of generation and expulsion. This study also provides general information on the evolution of biological markers in carbonate source rocks. Low-activation-energy processes, like isomerisation of steranes, appear to occur much faster at low temperatures than in shales. The high sulfur content and less cross-linking of the biogenic organic matter into a complex kerogen structure are suggested to be responsible for this. Care should be taken when using only sterane isomerisation to assess the maturity of hydrocarbons from carbonate rocks and of carbonate-derived oils.

  12. Best available techniques (BATs) for oil spill response in the Mediterranean Sea: calm sea and presence of economic activities.

    PubMed

    Guidi, Giambattista; Sliskovic, Merica; Violante, Anna Carmela; Vukic, Luka

    2016-01-01

    An oil spill is the accidental or intentional discharge of petroleum products into the environment due to human activities. Although oil spills are actually just a little percent of the total world oil pollution problem, they represent the most visible form of it. The impact on the ecosystems can be severe as well as the impact on economic activities. Oil spill cleanup is a very difficult and expensive activity, and many techniques are available for it. In previous works, a methodology based on different kinds of criteria in order to come to the most satisfactory technique was proposed and the relative importance of each impact criterion on the basis of the Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was also evaluated. After a review of the best available techniques (BATs) available for oil spill response, this work suggests criteria for BATs' selection when oil spills occur in the Mediterranean Sea under well-defined circumstances: calm sea and presence of economic activities in the affected area. A group of experts with different specializations evaluated the alternative BATs by means of AHP method taking into account their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  13. Satellite observations and modeling of oil spill trajectories in the Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing; Li, Xiaofeng; Wei, Yongliang; Tang, Zeyan; Cheng, Yongcun; Pichel, William G

    2013-06-15

    On June 4 and 17, 2011, separate oil spill accidents occurred at two oil platforms in the Bohai Sea, China. The oil spills were subsequently observed on different types of satellite images including SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar), Chinese HJ-1-B CCD and NASA MODIS. To illustrate the fate of the oil spills, we performed two numerical simulations to simulate the trajectories of the oil spills with the GNOME (General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment) model. For the first time, we drive the GNOME with currents obtained from an operational ocean model (NCOM, Navy Coastal Ocean Model) and surface winds from operational scatterometer measurements (ASCAT, the Advanced Scatterometer). Both data sets are freely and openly available. The initial oil spill location inputs to the model are based on the detected oil spill locations from the SAR images acquired on June 11 and 14. Three oil slicks are tracked simultaneously and our results show good agreement between model simulations and subsequent satellite observations in the semi-enclosed shallow sea. Moreover, GNOME simulation shows that the number of 'splots', which denotes the extent of spilled oil, is a vital factor for GNOME running stability when the number is less than 500. Therefore, oil spill area information obtained from satellite sensors, especially SAR, is an important factor for setting up the initial model conditions. PMID:23618498

  14. Satellite observations and modeling of oil spill trajectories in the Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing; Li, Xiaofeng; Wei, Yongliang; Tang, Zeyan; Cheng, Yongcun; Pichel, William G

    2013-06-15

    On June 4 and 17, 2011, separate oil spill accidents occurred at two oil platforms in the Bohai Sea, China. The oil spills were subsequently observed on different types of satellite images including SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar), Chinese HJ-1-B CCD and NASA MODIS. To illustrate the fate of the oil spills, we performed two numerical simulations to simulate the trajectories of the oil spills with the GNOME (General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment) model. For the first time, we drive the GNOME with currents obtained from an operational ocean model (NCOM, Navy Coastal Ocean Model) and surface winds from operational scatterometer measurements (ASCAT, the Advanced Scatterometer). Both data sets are freely and openly available. The initial oil spill location inputs to the model are based on the detected oil spill locations from the SAR images acquired on June 11 and 14. Three oil slicks are tracked simultaneously and our results show good agreement between model simulations and subsequent satellite observations in the semi-enclosed shallow sea. Moreover, GNOME simulation shows that the number of 'splots', which denotes the extent of spilled oil, is a vital factor for GNOME running stability when the number is less than 500. Therefore, oil spill area information obtained from satellite sensors, especially SAR, is an important factor for setting up the initial model conditions.

  15. Oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity and reusability for oil spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Wu, Daxiong; Fang, Linlin; Qin, Yanmin; Wu, Wenjuan; Mao, Changming; Zhu, Haitao

    2014-07-15

    A sorbent for oil spill cleanup was prepared through a novel strategy by treating polyurethane sponges with silica sol and gasoline successively. The oil sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity, reusability and sorption mechanism of prepared sorbent were studied. The results showed that the prepared sorbent exhibited high sorption capacity and excellent oil/water selectivity. 1g of the prepared sorbent could adsorb more than 100 g of motor oil, while it only picks up less than 0.1 g of water from an oil-water interface under both static and dynamic conditions. More than 70% of the sorption capacity remained after 15 successive sorption-squeezing cycles, which suggests an extraordinary high reusability. The prepared sorbent is a better alternative of the commercial polypropylene sorbent which are being used nowadays.

  16. Oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity and reusability for oil spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Wu, Daxiong; Fang, Linlin; Qin, Yanmin; Wu, Wenjuan; Mao, Changming; Zhu, Haitao

    2014-07-15

    A sorbent for oil spill cleanup was prepared through a novel strategy by treating polyurethane sponges with silica sol and gasoline successively. The oil sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity, reusability and sorption mechanism of prepared sorbent were studied. The results showed that the prepared sorbent exhibited high sorption capacity and excellent oil/water selectivity. 1g of the prepared sorbent could adsorb more than 100 g of motor oil, while it only picks up less than 0.1 g of water from an oil-water interface under both static and dynamic conditions. More than 70% of the sorption capacity remained after 15 successive sorption-squeezing cycles, which suggests an extraordinary high reusability. The prepared sorbent is a better alternative of the commercial polypropylene sorbent which are being used nowadays. PMID:24856092

  17. [THE USE OF OZONATED SEA BUCKTHORN OIL IN THE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF TOBACCO DEPENDENCE PERIODONTITIS IN THE EXPERIMENT].

    PubMed

    Zubachyk, V; Ilchyshyn, M

    2014-12-01

    Therapeutic and prophylactic properties ozonated of sea buckthorn oil in the experiment on the model of generalized periodontitis in Wistar rats induced by action of extracted products of incomplete combustion of tobacco smoke was investigated. It is proved that the proposed method of ozone therapy in combination with fitooil prevents and corrects metabolic disturbances in the periodontal tissues, caused a by high therapeutic effect of the drug. PMID:26638475

  18. [THE USE OF OZONATED SEA BUCKTHORN OIL IN THE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF TOBACCO DEPENDENCE PERIODONTITIS IN THE EXPERIMENT].

    PubMed

    Zubachyk, V; Ilchyshyn, M

    2014-12-01

    Therapeutic and prophylactic properties ozonated of sea buckthorn oil in the experiment on the model of generalized periodontitis in Wistar rats induced by action of extracted products of incomplete combustion of tobacco smoke was investigated. It is proved that the proposed method of ozone therapy in combination with fitooil prevents and corrects metabolic disturbances in the periodontal tissues, caused a by high therapeutic effect of the drug.

  19. The oil spill model OILTRANS and its application to the Celtic Sea.

    PubMed

    Berry, Alan; Dabrowski, Tomasz; Lyons, Kieran

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes details of an oil spill model, OILTRANS, developed by the authors. The model is an off-line particle-transport model coupled to the most up to date operational met-ocean model forecasts. Formulations for the dominant oil fate processes of spreading, advection, diffusion, evaporation, emulsification and dispersion have been encoded, providing the model with the ability to accurately predict the horizontal movement of surface oil slick, the vertical entrainment of oil into the water column and the mass balance of spilled oil. The application of the OILTRANS model to an accidental release during a ship-to-ship fuel transfer in the Celtic Sea in February 2009 is presented to validate the system. Comparisons with aerial observations of the oil slick at the time of the incident, and subsequent model simulations, indicate that the OILTRANS model is capable of accurately predicting the transport and fate of the oil slick.

  20. Replacement of dietary fish oil by vegetable oils affects humoral immunity and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines genes in gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata.

    PubMed

    Montero, D; Mathlouthi, F; Tort, L; Afonso, J M; Torrecillas, S; Fernández-Vaquero, A; Negrin, D; Izquierdo, M S

    2010-12-01

    Commercial gilthead sea bream feeds are highly energetic, fish oil traditionally being the main lipid source. But the decreased fish oil production together with the increased prices of this oil encourages its substitution by vegetable oils, imposing new nutritional habits to aquaculture species. Partial replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils in diets for marine species allows good feed utilization and growth but may affect fish health, since imbalances in dietary fatty acids may alter fish immunological status. The effect of dietary oils on different aspects of fish immune system has been reported for some species, but very little is known about the effect of dietary oils on immune-related genes expression in fish. Thus, the objective of this study was to elucidate the role of dietary oils on the expression of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and Interleukine 1β (IL-1β) on intestine and head kidney after exposure to the bacterial pathogen Photobacterium damselae sp. piscicida. For that purpose, 5 iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic diets (45% crude protein, 22% crude lipid content) were formulated. Anchovy oil was the only lipid source used in the control diet (FO), but in the other diets, fish oil was totally (100%) or partially (70%) substituted by linseed (rich in n-3 fatty acids) or soybean (rich in n-6 fatty acids) (100L, 100S, 70L, 70S). Fish were fed experimental diets during 80 days and after this period were exposed to an experimental intestinal infection with the pathogen. Serum and tissue samples were obtained at pre-infection and after 1, 3 and 7 days of infection. RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized by reverse transcription from intestine and head kidney and the level expression of TNF-α and IL-1β were assayed by using quantitative real time PCR. The expression level of genes analysed was represented as relative value, using the comparative Ct method (2(-ΔΔCt)). Serum anti-bacterial activity was measured as

  1. Residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in tissues of sea turtles exposed to the IXTOC I oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.J.; Belisle, A.A.; Sileo, L.

    1983-01-01

    Sea turtles found dead when the Ixtoc I oil spill reached Texas waters were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for residues of petroleum hydrocarbons. Two of the three turtles were in poor flesh, but had no apparent oil-caused lesions. There was evidence of oil in all tissues examined and indications that the exposure had been chronic. Comparisons with results of studies done on birds indicate consumption of 50,000 ppm or more of oil in the diet. Some possible mechanisms of mortality are suggested.

  2. Residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in tissues of sea turtles exposed to the Ixtoc I oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.J.; Belisle, A.A.; Sileo, L.

    1983-04-01

    Sea turtles found dead when the Ixtoc I oil spill reached Texas waters were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for residues of petroleum hydrocarbons. Two of three turtles were in poor flesh, but had no apparent oil-caused lesions. There was evidence of oil in all tissues examined and indications that the exposure had been chronic. Comparisons with results of studies done on birds indicate consumption of 50,000 ppm or more of oil in the diet. Some possible mechanisms of mortality are suggested.

  3. Screening emissions of high oleic vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This article describes tests of a high oleic safflower oil for use as a fuel in diesel engines. Test included looking at the following: costs with reformulated diesel fuels or other benefits; reduction of particulate emissions by at least 14 percent; reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions; use without causing engine deposits and other problems. Results are given on emissions of high oleic vegetable oils, and commercial opportunities are discussed briefly.

  4. NOx Emissions from Oil and Gas Production in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. D.; Foulds, A.; Purvis, R.; Vaughan, A. R.; Carslaw, D.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    North Sea oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons, comprising liquid petroleum and natural gas, produced from petroleum reservoirs beneath the North Sea. As of January 2015, the North Sea is the world's most active offshore drilling region with 173 rigs drilling. During the summer of 2015, a series of survey flights took place on the UKs FAAM BAe 146 research aircraft with the primary aim to assess background methane (and other hydrocarbons) levels in the drilling areas of the North Sea. Also measured were Nitrogen Oxides (NO and NO2), which are emitted from almost all combustion processes and are a key air pollutant, both directly and as a precursor to ozone (O3). The oil and gas platforms in the North Sea are often manned and require significant power generation and support vessels for their continued operation, processes that potentially emit significant amounts of NOx into an otherwise relative clean environment. During these flights we were able to measure the NO­­­x (and any subsequently produced O3) emitted from specific rigs, as well as the NOx levels in the wider North Sea oil and gas production region (see figure for example). NOx mixing ratios of <10 ppbv were frequently observed in plumes, with significant perturbation to the wider North Sea background levels. NOx emissions from the rigs are point sources within the UKs National Atmospheric Emission Inventory (NAEI) and the measurements taken in plumes from individual rigs are used to assess the accuracy of these estimates.

  5. Sea buckthorn seed oil protects against the oxidative stress produced by thermally oxidized lipids.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Alam; Ullah, Sana

    2015-11-01

    Thermally oxidized vegetable ghee was fed to the rabbits for 14 days with specific doses of sea buckthorn seed oil (SO). The ghee and SO were characterized for quality parameters and fatty acid composition using GC-MS. Rabbits serum lipid profile, hematology and histology were investigated. Major fatty acids were palmitic acid (44%) and oleic acid (46%) in ghee, while SO contains oleic acid (56.4%) and linoleic acid (18.7%). Results showed that oxidized vegetable ghee increases the serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterols, triglycerides and decrease the serum glucose. Oxidized ghee produced toxic effects in the liver and hematological parameters. Sea buckthorn oil supplementation significantly lowered the serum LDL-cholesterols, triglycerides and increased serum glucose and body weight of the animals. Sea buckthorn oil was found to reduce the toxic effects and degenerative changes in the liver and thus provides protection against the thermally oxidized lipids induced oxidative stress. PMID:25976784

  6. Sea buckthorn seed oil protects against the oxidative stress produced by thermally oxidized lipids.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Alam; Ullah, Sana

    2015-11-01

    Thermally oxidized vegetable ghee was fed to the rabbits for 14 days with specific doses of sea buckthorn seed oil (SO). The ghee and SO were characterized for quality parameters and fatty acid composition using GC-MS. Rabbits serum lipid profile, hematology and histology were investigated. Major fatty acids were palmitic acid (44%) and oleic acid (46%) in ghee, while SO contains oleic acid (56.4%) and linoleic acid (18.7%). Results showed that oxidized vegetable ghee increases the serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterols, triglycerides and decrease the serum glucose. Oxidized ghee produced toxic effects in the liver and hematological parameters. Sea buckthorn oil supplementation significantly lowered the serum LDL-cholesterols, triglycerides and increased serum glucose and body weight of the animals. Sea buckthorn oil was found to reduce the toxic effects and degenerative changes in the liver and thus provides protection against the thermally oxidized lipids induced oxidative stress.

  7. Biodegradation of diesel oil by an Arabian Sea sediment culture isolated from the vicinity of an oil field.

    PubMed

    Mukherji, Suparna; Jagadevan, Sheeja; Mohapatra, Gita; Vijay, Avinash

    2004-12-01

    Laboratory scale batch studies were performed to test the diesel oil biodegradation ability of ES1 cultures isolated from Arabian Sea sediments obtained from the vicinity of an oil field. This culture could utilize diesel as the sole source of carbon and energy. Under aerobic conditions, 39% loss of diesel oil was observed over 8 days where 80% of the loss was due to aliphatic constituents. Under anoxic nitrate reducing conditions the rate and extent of degradation was significantly lower, i.e., 18% over 50 days. Salt acclimatized cultures could tolerate salinities up to 3.5% and demonstrated optimal performance at a salinity of 0.5%. The optimum N/P ratio for these cultures was found to be in the range of 2:1-5:1. Addition of two trace elemental substance formulations exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on culture growth. This culture has good potential for decontamination of oil-contaminated marine and subsurface environments.

  8. The primary biodegradation of dispersed crude oil in the sea.

    PubMed

    Prince, Roger C; McFarlin, Kelly M; Butler, Josh D; Febbo, Eric J; Wang, Frank C Y; Nedwed, Tim J

    2013-01-01

    Dispersants are important tools for stimulating the biodegradation of large oil spills. They are essentially a bioremediation tool - aiming to stimulate the natural process of aerobic oil biodegradation by dispersing oil into micron-sized droplets that become so dilute in the water column that the natural levels of biologically available nitrogen, phosphorus and oxygen are sufficient for microbial growth. Many studies demonstrate the efficacy of dispersants in getting oil off the water surface. Here we show that biodegradation of dispersed oil is prompt and extensive when oil is present at the ppm levels expected from a successful application of dispersants - more than 80% of the hydrocarbons of lightly weathered Alaska North Slope crude oil were degraded in 60 d at 8 °C in unamended New Jersey (USA) seawater when the oil was present at 2.5 ppm by volume. The apparent halftime of the biodegradation of the hydrocarbons was 13.8 d in the absence of dispersant, and 11 d in the presence of Corexit 9500 - similar to rates extrapolated from the field in the Deepwater Horizon response. PMID:22967931

  9. Offshore Oil: Environmental Impacts on Land and Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Pamela L.

    1974-01-01

    Presents a counter position to that provided in SE 512 127 in which the author emphasizes that there are too many problems yet to be solved (related to offshore oil development) to proceed with full-scale development of offshore oil drilling. (PEB)

  10. Review of Deep-Sea Ecology and Monitoring as They Relate to Deep-Sea Oil and Gas Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Kropp, Roy K.

    2004-01-30

    This review summarizes available information concerning deep-sea benthic ecology and how that information might be used to monitor and eventually reduce the potential impacts resulting from oil and gas production activities. The paper provides a brief overview of deep-sea ecology and benthic faunal groups and summarizes some of the physical and biological features that may be important in evaluating potential impacts. In addition, presented is a synopsis of issues related to the design of a sampling program and a discussion of analytical considerations related to the uncertain knowledge of deep faunas. Also included is an overview of some of the variety of sampling techniques and equipment available to study the deep sea. The review concludes with management considerations and recommendations.

  11. Effects of oil pollution on the development of sex cells in sea urchins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashchenko, M. A.

    1980-03-01

    The sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus is highly sensitive to oil pollution. Experiments were performed in winter, spring and summer over periods of 15 to 45 days. Experimental urchins were kept in water with hydrocarbon concentrations of 10 to 30 mg l-1, and control urchins in pure sea water. Thermal stimulation by Evdokimov's method was applied to obtain mature sexual products during winter and spring tests. Summer investigations were conducted at temperatures of 17 to 18 °C. The gonads were studied histologically and morphometrically, and the sexual cells obtained were analyzed at the embryological level. No histological and morphometrical differences were recorded between sexual cells of controls and experimentals. However, marked hydrocarbon effects were observed in the embryonic development of artificially fertilized cells from experimental urchins. Control embryos developed normally. Embryogenesis of artificially fertilized gametes from control females and experimental males, and vice versa, was found to be distinctly abnormal. Many abnormalities were identified at the first cleavage stage, as well as in blastula, gastrula and pluteus. Fertilization of experimental eggs with experimental sperm resulted in serious disturbances of embryos, followed by the development of non-viable larvae. On the whole, embryogenesis of sexual cells from experimental urchins was characterized by prominent delay, asynchronism and presence of abnormal non-viable larvae. Consequently, long-term effects of sublethal hydrocarbon concentrations resulted in the formation of defective sex cells and high larval mortality.

  12. Enhancement of Hydrodynamic Processes in Oil Pipelines Considering Rheologically Complex High-Viscosity Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konakhina, I. A.; Khusnutdinova, E. M.; Khamidullina, G. R.; Khamidullina, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model of flow-related hydrodynamic processes for rheologically complex high-viscosity bitumen oil and oil-water suspensions and presents methods to improve the design and performance of oil pipelines.

  13. DHIs validation for Amauligak oil field, Canadian Beaufort Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Enacheschu, M.E.; Demers, J.H.L.

    1989-03-01

    The giant Amauligak field is a three-way fault bounded block situated in the eastern area of the Beaufort Sea known as the growth fault sector. The Amauligak structure was triggered by a major synsedimentary fault trending northeast-southwest. Interbedded sands and shales of the Oligocene Kugmallit Sequence (Pullen delta front) form the core of the structure. A strong amplitude anomaly was recognized on older seismic data in the crestal area of the structure at the top of the Kugmallit Sequence-Pullen unconformity level. Recent (1986) exploration three-dimensional data reveal diverse DHIs including: bright spots, phase change, shadow zone and flat spot, all associated with a large gas cap. Interpretation of seismic data and interactive seismic modeling suggest that a combination of structural, stratigraphic, and hydrodynamic factors are responsible for the aspect and distribution of DHIs at the Amauligak field. Although the gas/liquid contact is seismically mappable over the field, the nature of the downdip liquid remained unknown. To overcome this ambiguity, highly deviated wells were drilled to investigate the reservoir above and below the edge of the amplitude anomaly.

  14. Modeled Effects of Encapsulated Crude Oil on Light Transmission Through Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carns, R.; Light, B.

    2015-12-01

    As part of ongoing research to further advance a range of oil spill response technologies in the Arctic, nine oil and gas companies established the Arctic Oil Spill Response Technology Joint Industry Programme (JIP) in 2012. One research theme is designed to expand the industry's remote-sensing and monitoring capabilities. A suite of sensors was tested on a saltwater ice sheet grown in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) Ice Engineering Research Facility test basin while oil was injected under the ice at different points in the ice growth. The ice continued to grow after the oil injection, allowing the oil to become encapsulated so testing could occur with various thicknesses of ice below the oil. Measurements of apparent optical properties were taken before and after the injection of oil and during various stages of ice growth. We have used a Monte Carlo model of radiative transfer for sea ice [Light et al., 2003] to explore light transmission through sea ice containing encapsulated oil. This model uses a cylindrical domain, making it well-suited for determining how large a pool of oil encapsulated in a given thickness of ice must be before it is detectable from beneath the ice cover. We use this model in combination with the optical observations to predict the amount of light transmitted and reflected from sea ice of various thicknesses containing oil. We also examine the effects of a scattering layer on the ice surface, as would commonly be present in the Arctic, either in the form of snow or the surface scattering layer that develops on melting ice. We evaluate the feasibility of distinguishing between different types of oil based on the spectral signature of light transmitted through the ice. Further model sensitivity studies yield insight about the effects of the distribution of the oil within the ice cover. Light, B., G. A. Maykut, and T. C. Grenfell (2003), A two-dimensional Monte Carlo model of

  15. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, Mark A.; Miles, A. Keith; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill.

  16. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Ricca, Mark A; Keith Miles, A; Ballachey, Brenda E; Bodkin, James L; Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A

    2010-06-01

    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill. PMID:20132952

  17. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Ricca, Mark A; Keith Miles, A; Ballachey, Brenda E; Bodkin, James L; Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A

    2010-06-01

    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill.

  18. Histopathologic lesions associated with crude oil exposure in sea otters. Marine mammal study 6-10. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resources damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Moeller, R.B.; Pletcher, J.M.; Haebler, R.J.

    1996-06-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that appeared oiled, were in danger of becoming oiled, or were behaving abnormally were captured and taken to rehabilitation centers. Oil exposure was assessed by visual examination on arrival at the centers. Tissues from 51 oiled sea otters and from 6 unoiled sea otters that died in rehabilitation centers were examined histologically. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from 5 sea otters found dead with external oil present shortly after the spill. Necropsies were performed on 214 sea otters that had been collected and frozen in the period following the oil spill. Tissues from 6 apparently normal sea otters collected from an area not affected by the oil spill were examined histologically, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that pulmonary interstitial emphysema, gastric erosion and hemorrhage, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis were associated with exposure to crude oil in sea otters.

  19. Twenty years of Belgian North Sea aerial surveillance: a quantitative analysis of results confirms effectiveness of international oil pollution legislation.

    PubMed

    Lagring, Ruth; Degraer, Steven; de Montpellier, Géraldine; Jacques, Thierry; Van Roy, Ward; Schallier, Ronny

    2012-03-01

    Over the years many policy measures have been taken to prevent illegal oil discharges from ships, like the MARPOL 73/78 Convention (1983) and the Bonn Agreement (1969/1983). However, the number of discharges remained high, leading to chronic oiling of seabirds and sensitive coastlines, therefore further measures were taken. The aim of this study is to quantify the effectiveness of two key legislative regulations: the IMO-designation of the North Sea as MARPOL Special Area which took effect in 1999, and the adoption of the EU Directive on Port Reception Facilities in 2000. Under study is the heavily navigated Belgian Surveillance Area, monitored since 1991, characterised by shallow waters with ecologically important sandbanks. The aerial surveillance data from 1991 to 2010 show a stepwise decrease in ship-source oil pollution. Three time periods can be distinguished with two turning points coinciding with the actual implementation of these key legislative measures, confirming their effectiveness.

  20. Atmospheric fate of oil matter adsorbed on sea salt particles under UV light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitilingom, M.; Avij, P.; Huang, H.; Valsaraj, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The presence of liquid petroleum hydrocarbons at the sea water surface is an important source of marine pollution. An oil spill in sea-water will most likely occur due to an involuntary accident from tankers, offshore platforms, etc. However, a large amount of oil is also deliberately spilled in sea-water during the clean-out process of tank vessels (e.g. for the Mediterranean Sea, 490,000 tons/yr). Moreover, the pollution caused by an oil spill does not only affect the aquatic environment but also is of concern for the atmospheric environment. A portion of the oil matter present at the sea-water surface is transported into the atmosphere viaevaporation and adsorption at the surface of sea spray particles. Few studies are related to the presence of oil matter in airborne particles resulting from their adsorption on sea salt aerosols. We observed that the non-volatile oil matter was adsorbed at the surface of sea-salt crystals (av. size of 1.1 μm). Due to their small size, these particles can have a significant residence time in the atmosphere. The hydrocarbon matter adsorbed at the surface of these particles can also be transformed by catalyzers present in the atmosphere (i.e. UV, OH, O3, ...). In this work, we focused on the photo-oxidation rates of the C16 to C30alkanes present in these particles. We utilized a bubble column reactor, which produced an abundance of small sized bubbles. These bubbles generated droplets upon bursting at the air-salt water interface. These droplets were then further dried up and lifted to the top of the column where they were collected as particles. These particles were incubated in a controlled reactor in either dark conditions or under UV-visible light. The difference of alkane content analyzed by GC-MS between the particles exposed to UV or the particles not exposed to UV indicated that up to 20% in mass was lost after 20 min of light exposure. The degradation kinetics varied for each range of alkanes (C16-20, C21-25, C26

  1. CO2 miscible displacement enhanced oil recovery in Dutch North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Alkemade, P.J.C.

    1995-12-31

    In the Dutch sector of the North Sea several relatively small oil deposits are present. Their locations are spread and only few oil fields are being produced. An attempt is made to investigate the feasibility of EOR application i.e. CO2 miscible displacement by a commonly available pressurized CO2 supply system. This feasibility study is based on an utilizes as much as possible past and present data bout existing oil fields, CO2 availability, compression and distribution pipelines to be installed and injection methods at existing production facilities.

  2. High resolution modelling of the decreasing Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, K. S.; Rasmussen, T. A. S.; Blüthgen, J.; Ribergaard, M. H.

    2012-04-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover has been rapidly decreasing and thinning over the last decade, with minimum ice extent in 2007 and almost as low extent in 2011. This study investigates two aspects of the decreasing ice cover; first the large scale thinning and changing dynamics of the polar sea ice, and secondly oceanic oil drift in ice affected conditions. Both investigations are made with the coupled ocean - sea ice model HYCOM-CICE at 10 km resolution, which is also used operationally at DMI and allows detailed studies of sea ice build-up, drift and melt. To investigate the sea ice decrease of the last decade, we have performed a reanalysis simulation of the years 1990-2011, forced with ERA Interim atmospheric data. Thus, the simulation includes both the period before the recent sea ice decrease and the full period of decrease up till today. We will present our model results of the thinning and changing dynamics and discuss how they relate to satellite observations. The relation to the upper ocean heat content is also investigated. The decreasing sea ice has opened up for increased ship traffic and oil exploration in the polar oceans. To avoid damage on the pristine Arctic ecosystem, this requires careful environmental assessments. Here, one important tool is to investigate how a possible oil spill will drift and disperse. Through an ensemble of simulations, we will demonstrate the drift of imaginary spills off the Greenlandic coast for both a release at the surface and the in the deep ocean, and it will be discussed how sea ice affects the drift.

  3. Detection and Discrimination of the Thick Oil Patches on the Sea Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubucq, Dominique; Sicot, Guillaume; Lennon, Marc; Miegebielle, Véronique

    2016-06-01

    Detection of natural or accidental oil slick at sea surface is important both for exploration purposes and for environment protection. Radar imagery, either satellite or airborne is the prime tool to detect those slicks. Radar is widely used by the national agencies to monitor their maritime areas for accidental pollutions or boat discharges. Radar images can detect oil slick even in the presence of clouds. However the sea surface back scattered energy is rather insensitive to oil thickness. On the contrary several studies tend to prove that optical data may be used to estimate the oil thickness. These data may be in the form of hyperspectral data or thermal infrared data. The objective of this study is to show that SWIR satellite data which are more widely available than hyperspectral data, better resolved than thermal data and available at a very limited cost, can be used to detect and qualitatively assess the thickness of oil slicks. This is important to assess volumes of naturally release oil in the oceans and in case of a crisis to send intervention teams where oil is thickest.

  4. Rospo Mare (Adriatic Sea) - An oil-bearing paleokarst in the Mediterranean region

    SciTech Connect

    Soudet, H.; Sorriaux, P.; Michaud, F. )

    1990-05-01

    The oil-bearing paleokarst at Rospo Mare is located in the Adriatic Sea, 20 km off the Italian coast. The reservoir lies at a depth of 1,300 m and consists of a paleokarst of Oligocene to Miocene age that developed within Cretaceous limestones, now covered by 1,200 m of Miocene-Pliocene clastics. The oil column is about 140 m. The karstic nature of the reservoir was identified through vertical cored drill holes, which allowed us to analyze the various solution features and the sedimentary infill (speleothems, terra rossa, marine clays), as well as their vertical distribution. Observations concerning the upper part of the reservoir were compared to a paleokarst of the same age, outcropping widely onshore, in quarries located nearby. Erosion morphology at the top of the karst is highly irregular, including especially paleovalleys as well as many pit-shaped sink holes. Detailed knowledge of that morphology through geophysics helped optimizing the development of the field through horizontal drilling.

  5. Modeling underwater transport of oil spilled from deepwater area in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haibo; An, Wei; You, Yunxiang; Lei, Fanghui; Zhao, Yupeng; Li, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    Based on a Lagrangian integral technique and Lagrangian particle-tracking technique, a numerical model was developed to simulate the underwater transport of oil from a deepwater spill. This model comprises two submodels: a plume dynamics model and an advection-diffusion model. The former is used to simulate the stages dominated by the initial jet momentum and plume buoyancy of the spilled oil, while the latter is used to simulate the stage dominated by the ambient current and turbulence. The model validity was verified through comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data from several laboratory flume experiments and a field experiment. To demonstrate the capability of the model further, it was applied to the simulation of a hypothetical oil spill occurring at the seabed of a deepwater oil/gas field in the South China Sea. The results of the simulation would be useful for contingency planning with regard to the emergency response to an underwater oil spill.

  6. Some factors affecting the oil-spill risk to sea otters in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tinney, R.T.

    1984-10-01

    Sea otters in California, with their limited range and numbers, are exposed to the threat of oil spills from a number of sources including offshore oil and gas development, transportation of crude oil and refined products, and the bunker fuel of vessels transiting the otter range. This report explores some of the direct and indirect ways otters may be affected by oil spills, including hypothermia, pneumonia, toxic effects, and destruction of preferred prey. The report also examines the possibility of mitigating the effects of oil spills through spill containment and cleanup, otter capture, cleaning and rehabilitation, and otter relocation. The report concludes with a description of the amount of shoreline affected by some major spills in various parts of the world.

  7. The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Ecogenomics of the Deep-Sea Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    The explosion on April 20, 2010 at the BP-leased Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico off the coast of Louisiana, resulted in oil and gas rising to the surface and the oil coming ashore in many parts of the Gulf, it also resulted in the dispersment of an immense oil plume 4,000 feet below the surface of the water. Despite spanning more than 600 feet in the water column and extending more than 10 miles from the wellhead, the dispersed oil plume was gone within weeks after the wellhead was capped - degraded and diluted to undetectable levels. Furthermore, this degradation took place without significant oxygen depletion. Ecogenomics enabled discovery of new and unclassified species of oil-eating bacteria that apparently lives in the deep Gulf where oil seeps are common. Using 16s microarrays, functional gene arrays, clone libraries, lipid analysis and a variety of hydrocarbon and micronutrient analyses we were able to characterize the oil degraders. Metagenomic sequence data was obtained for the deep-water samples using the Illumina platform. In addition, single cells were sorted and sequenced for the some of the most dominant bacteria that were represented in the oil plume; namely uncultivated representatives of Colwellia and Oceanospirillum. In addition, we performed laboratory microcosm experiments using uncontaminated water collected from The Gulf at the depth of the oil plume to which we added oil and COREXIT. These samples were characterized by 454 pyrotag. The results provide information about the key players and processes involved in degradation of oil, with and without COREXIT, in different impacted environments in The Gulf of Mexico. We are also extending these studies to explore dozens of deep sediment samples that were also collected after the oil spill around the wellhead. This data suggests that a great potential for intrinsic bioremediation of oil plumes exists in the deep-sea and other environs in the Gulf of Mexico.

  8. Model simulation of the drift and spread of the Aegean Sea oil spill near La Coruna

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, P.

    1994-12-31

    On the 3 December 1992 the Greek oil tanker Aegean Sea ran aground at Torre de Hercules near the entrance to the Ria de Coruna and La Coruna harbor, Spain. The 291 m tanker of 114,036-dwt carrying 79,096 tons of Brent type crude oil, broke up and exploded. Practically all of the oil was released into the sea. Over 200 km of shore was affected. A two-dimensional depth-integrated model on a .25 ft. x .25 ft. grid was implemented with the capability of predicting wind driven movements in the area of La Coruna. It is driven by meteorological analysis from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMRWF) global numerical weather prediction model.

  9. The weathering of oil after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: insights from the chemical composition of the oil from the sea surface, salt marshes and sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Jiqing; Zhu, Qingzhi; Wu, Wei

    2012-09-01

    The oil released during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill may have both short- and long-time impacts on the northern Gulf of Mexico ecosystems. An understanding of how the composition and concentration of the oil are altered by weathering, including chemical, physical and biological processes, is needed to evaluate the oil toxicity and impact on the ecosystem in the northern Gulf of Mexico. This study examined petroleum hydrocarbons in oil mousse collected from the sea surface and salt marshes, and in oil deposited in sediments adjacent to the wellhead after the DWH oil spill. Oil mousses were collected at two stations (OSS and CT, located 130 and 85 km away from the wellhead, respectively) in May 2010, and two sediment samples from stations SG and SC, within 6 km of the wellhead, in May 2011. We also collected oil mousse from salt marshes at Marsh Point (MP), Mississippi, 186 km away from the wellhead in July 2010. In these samples, n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylated PAHs, BTEX (collective name of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and p-, m-, and o-xylenes), C3-benzenes and trace metals were measured to examine how the oil was altered chemically. The chemical analysis indicates that the oil mousses underwent different degrees of weathering with the pattern of OSS < CT < MP. This pattern is consistent with the projected oil mousse movement from the accident site to salt marshes. Also, the contents of trace metals Al, V, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, As and Pb in the oil mousse generally increased along the way to the salt marshes, indicating that these trace metals were perhaps aggregated into the oil mousse during the transport. Petroleum hydrocarbon data reveal that the oil deposited in sediments underwent only light to moderate degradation one year after the DWH oil spill, as supported by the presence of short-chained n-alkanes (C10-C 15), BTEX and C 3-benzenes. The weathering of oil in sediment may result from biological degradation and

  10. Oil Detection In and Under Sea Ice Using Ground-Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbronn, L.; Bradford, J.; Liberty, L.; Dickins, D.; Brandvik, P. J.

    2007-12-01

    Marine oil spills can occur in the Arctic due to pipeline breaks or leaks and spills from storage or production facilities. Depending on the time of year and scenario, a portion or all of the spill may become trapped under and/or encapsulated within the sea ice sheet. The current methods for locating spilled oil include visually inspecting drilled ice cores or sending divers under the ice. Speed is a key issue in oil clean-up. A non-invasive method of detecting oil quickly and reliably would greatly facilitate the clean-up and lessen the impact on the environment. First-year ice thicknesses of 0.5-2.0 m, typical of the Arctic region, can be well-resolved using radar. Oil film thicknesses can range from a few mm to 20 cm depending on the ice-water interface topography. For typical conditions a frequency of 500 MHz gives a 1/4 wavelength limit of 7 cm; therefore a typical spill scenario is a thin-bed problem for ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Interference due to thin-beds may cause amplitude, phase and frequency anomalies in the reflected wavelet. In April 2006, SINTEF conducted a contained oil-spill under natural Arctic sea ice conditions in a fjord on Svalbard. Using data collected during that experiment from a 500 MHz antenna and complex trace analysis we computed the instantaneous frequency, instantaneous phase and the envelope function and found significant differences in the data before and after the oil was inserted. These results demonstrated the potential of GPR to be a practical system for oil in ice detection under certain conditions. As a follow-on to the 2006 project, we have undertaken a detailed modeling effort to estimate GPR response to specific variables, such as ice and oil thicknesses, ice salinity and temperature.

  11. 33 CFR 2.32 - High seas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nations, as well as those waters that are seaward of territorial seas of the United States and other nations. (d) Under customary international law as reflected in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the... economic zones pursuant to article 58 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, and...

  12. Extraction of oil slicks on the sea surface from optical satellite images by using an anomaly detection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chi-Farn; Chang, Li-Yu

    2010-12-01

    Many methods for the detection of oil pollution on the sea surface from remotely sensed images have been developed in recent years. However, because of the diverse physical properties of oil on the sea surface in the visible wavelengths, such images are easily affected by the surrounding environment. This is a common difficulty encountered when optical satellite images are used as data sources for observing oil slicks on the sea surface. However, provided the spectral interference generated by the surrounding environment can be regarded as noise and properly modeled, the spectral anomalies caused by an oil slick on normal sea water may be observed after the suppression of this noise. In this study, sea surface oil slicks are extracted by detecting spectral anomalies in multispectral optical satellite images. First, assuming that the sea water and oil slick comprise the dominant background and target anomaly, respectively, an RX algorithm is used to enhance the oil slick anomaly. The oil slick can be distinguished from the sea water background after modeling and suppression of inherent noise. Next, a Gaussian mixture model is used to characterize the statistical distributions of the background and anomaly, respectively. The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm is used to obtain the parameters needed for the Gaussian mixture model. Finally, according to the Bayesian decision rule of minimum error, an optimized threshold can be obtained to extract the oil slick areas from the source image. Furthermore, with the obtained Gaussian distributions and optimized threshold, a theoretical false alarm level can be established to evaluate the quality of the extracted oil slicks. Experimental results show that the proposed method can not only successfully detect oil slicks from multispectral optical satellite images, but also provide a quantitative accuracy evaluation of the detected image.

  13. Snow on the Seafloor? Methods to Detect Carbohydrates in Deep-sea Sediments Impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, S. A.; Freeman, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    A significant portion of the oil released from the Macondo well after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DwH) explosion reached the seafloor (1,2). The transfer of buoyant hydrocarbons from the sea surface and subsurface plumes to depths >1500 m, however, is not well understood. A prominent role for sinking marine snow--small, composite particles composed largely of extracellular polymeric substances exuded by algae and bacteria--has been proposed. Snow particles, rich in carbohydrates, may have sorbed and physically entrained oil from the water column as they sank. Several lines of evidence support this scenario: abundant snow was observed 3-4 weeks after the oil spill (3); oil and dispersants can induce marine snow formation (4); and flocculent material covering deep-sea corals near the DwH site contained biomarkers consistent with Macondo oil (5). To investigate whether the chemically complex marine oil snow leaves a direct sedimentary record, we analyzed carbohydrates at high resolution (2 mm intervals) in sediment cores collected at 4 sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico in 2013 using a modified phenol-sulfuric acid spectrophotometric method. We detected a sharp subsurface peak in carbohydrate concentrations near the Macondo well; we interpret this peak as post-DwH marine snow. Coeval carbohydrate, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and hopane profiles suggest a clear link between marine snow and Macondo oil components, as documented in a 3-year time-series at one site, and enable preliminary conclusions about the delivery and fate of marine snow components in sediments. We also characterized carbohydrates near the wellhead using fluorescent lectin-binding analyses developed for applications in cell biology. Particle morphologies include collapse structures suggestive of a water column origin. Finally, we explore the extent to which polysaccharide residues detected with selective lectins can be used to determine the provenance of marine snow (e.g., bacterial v. algal

  14. Close the High Seas to Fishing?

    PubMed Central

    White, Crow; Costello, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The world's oceans are governed as a system of over 150 sovereign exclusive economic zones (EEZs, ∼42% of the ocean) and one large high seas (HS) commons (∼58% of ocean) with essentially open access. Many high-valued fish species such as tuna, billfish, and shark migrate around these large oceanic regions, which as a consequence of competition across EEZs and a global race-to-fish on the HS, have been over-exploited and now return far less than their economic potential. We address this global challenge by analyzing with a spatial bioeconomic model the effects of completely closing the HS to fishing. This policy both induces cooperation among countries in the exploitation of migratory stocks and provides a refuge sufficiently large to recover and maintain these stocks at levels close to those that would maximize fisheries returns. We find that completely closing the HS to fishing would simultaneously give rise to large gains in fisheries profit (>100%), fisheries yields (>30%), and fish stock conservation (>150%). We also find that changing EEZ size may benefit some fisheries; nonetheless, a complete closure of the HS still returns larger fishery and conservation outcomes than does a HS open to fishing. PMID:24667759

  15. Close the high seas to fishing?

    PubMed

    White, Crow; Costello, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    The world's oceans are governed as a system of over 150 sovereign exclusive economic zones (EEZs, ∼42% of the ocean) and one large high seas (HS) commons (∼58% of ocean) with essentially open access. Many high-valued fish species such as tuna, billfish, and shark migrate around these large oceanic regions, which as a consequence of competition across EEZs and a global race-to-fish on the HS, have been over-exploited and now return far less than their economic potential. We address this global challenge by analyzing with a spatial bioeconomic model the effects of completely closing the HS to fishing. This policy both induces cooperation among countries in the exploitation of migratory stocks and provides a refuge sufficiently large to recover and maintain these stocks at levels close to those that would maximize fisheries returns. We find that completely closing the HS to fishing would simultaneously give rise to large gains in fisheries profit (>100%), fisheries yields (>30%), and fish stock conservation (>150%). We also find that changing EEZ size may benefit some fisheries; nonetheless, a complete closure of the HS still returns larger fishery and conservation outcomes than does a HS open to fishing. PMID:24667759

  16. Responses of microbial communities in Arctic sea ice after contamination by crude petroleum oil.

    PubMed

    Brakstad, Odd Gunnar; Nonstad, Ingunn; Faksness, Liv-Guri; Brandvik, Per Johan

    2008-04-01

    Microbial communities associated with Arctic fjord ice polluted with petroleum oils were investigated in this study. A winter field experiment was conducted in the Van Mijen Fjord (Svalbard) from February to June 2004, in which the ice was contaminated with a North Sea paraffinic oil. Holes were drilled in the ice and oil samples frozen into the ice at the start of the experiment. Samples, including cores of both oil-contaminated and clean ice, were collected from the field site 33, 74, and 112 days after oil application. The sampled cores were separated into three sections and processed for microbiological and chemical analyses. In the oil-contaminated cores, enumerations of total prokaryotic cells by fluorescence microscopy and colony-forming units (CFU) counts of heterotrophic prokaryotes both showed stimulation of microbial growth, while concentrations of oil-degrading prokaryotes remained at similar levels in contaminated and clean ice. Analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed that bacterial communities in oil-contaminated ice generated fewer bands than communities in clean ice, although banding patterns changed both in contaminated and clean ice during the experimental period. Microbial communities in unpolluted ice and in cores contaminated with the paraffinic oil were examined by cloning and sequence analysis. In the contaminated cores, the communities became predominated by Gammaproteobacteria related to the genera Colwellia, Marinomonas, and Glaciecola, while clean ice included more heterogeneous populations. Chemical analysis of the oil-contaminated ice cores with determinations of n-C17/Pristane and naphthalene/phenanthrene ratios indicated slow oil biodegradation in the ice, primarily in the deeper parts of the ice with low hydrocarbon concentrations.

  17. Biodegradation of Deep-Sea Oil Spill at the Gulf of Mexico: an Estimate of Half Life Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilcaez, J.; Li, L.; Hubbard, S. S.; Hazen, T.

    2010-12-01

    The deep-sea oil spill has generated an anthropogenic disaster with severe urgency. One big question being raised is how fast the spilled oil can be biodegraded in the seawater with native bacteria. The rate of biodegradation depends on many factors, including, for example, the concentration of oil and oil degrading microbes. In the oil leakage event at the Gulf of Mexico, because of the large amount of oil spill and the addition of chemical dispersants, oil can exist either in the form of oil droplets that are separated from water phase, or as dissolved oil. This work aims to estimate the time scale of oil biodegradation for both of these forms. In the former case, the size distribution of oil droplets can be critical because it determines the amount of contact area between bacteria and oil. It has been observed that oil droplets biodegradation occurs when microbes adheres to the oil-water interface. Here we formulated a model that incorporates effects of the oil droplets size distribution and microbial activity in the water-oil interface into a shrinking-core model. The growth of microbes and the corresponding rates of biodegradation were represented by the Monod’s equation. The model was calibrated using experimental results of previous studies on dispersed oil biodegradation. Our results show that biodegradation rates of oil droplets depend largely on oil droplet size distribution and on the biodegradation rate constant. For the oil and microbes’ concentration levels reported for the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, the half life time of the spilled oil is within one week, which is consistent with experimental findings using field seawater samples collected from the Gulf of Mexico. However, it takes much longer to biodegrade the remaining 50%. Depending on the oil droplets size distribution, the remaining 50% can last for months. This does not happen with dissolved oil biodegradation which, according to our results, is readily biodegraded at rates 2-3 times faster

  18. Sea otter abundance, distribution, and pup production in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.B.; Garshelis, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    The authors investigated effects of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill on the abundance, distribution, and pup production of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in prince William Sound (PWS) by comparing counts made during 1990 and 1991 with counts made by researchers 5--12 years before the spill. The authors observed no evidence of avoidance or attraction to spill-affected shorelines 1--2 years after the spill. Despite a substantial loss of sea otters immediately following the spill, the authors counted fewer otters than prespill investigators at only one of three heavily oiled islands, and from 1990 to 1991 the counts at this one site increased to a level equivalent to the latest (1985) prespill count. The authors followed the methods of prespill investigators and found close agreement between the counts of otters and those of two other concurrent investigations using the same survey technique. This agreement among counts, and the involvement in counts made prespill, suggested that inter-observer variability could not explain the unexpected high counts at oiled sites. 52 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Microbial responses to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: from coastal wetlands to the deep sea.

    PubMed

    King, G M; Kostka, J E; Hazen, T C; Sobecky, P A

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the northern Gulf of Mexico represents the largest marine accidental oil spill in history. It is distinguished from past spills in that it occurred at the greatest depth (1,500 m), the amount of hydrocarbon gas (mostly methane) lost was equivalent to the mass of crude oil released, and dispersants were used for the first time in the deep sea in an attempt to remediate the spill. The spill is also unique in that it has been characterized with an unprecedented level of resolution using next-generation sequencing technologies, especially for the ubiquitous hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities that appeared largely to consume the gases and to degrade a significant fraction of the petroleum. Results have shown an unexpectedly rapid response of deep-sea Gammaproteobacteria to oil and gas and documented a distinct succession correlated with the control of the oil flow and well shut-in. Similar successional events, also involving Gammaproteobacteria, have been observed in nearshore systems as well. PMID:25251273

  20. Microbial Responses to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: From Coastal Wetlands to the Deep Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, G. M.; Kostka, J. E.; Hazen, T. C.; Sobecky, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the northern Gulf of Mexico represents the largest marine accidental oil spill in history. It is distinguished from past spills in that it occurred at the greatest depth (1,500 m), the amount of hydrocarbon gas (mostly methane) lost was equivalent to the mass of crude oil released, and dispersants were used for the first time in the deep sea in an attempt to remediate the spill. The spill is also unique in that it has been characterized with an unprecedented level of resolution using next-generation sequencing technologies, especially for the ubiquitous hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities that appeared largely to consume the gases and to degrade a significant fraction of the petroleum. Results have shown an unexpectedly rapid response of deep-sea Gammaproteobacteria to oil and gas and documented a distinct succession correlated with the control of the oil flow and well shut-in. Similar successional events, also involving Gammaproteobacteria, have been observed in nearshore systems as well.

  1. Microbial responses to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: from coastal wetlands to the deep sea.

    PubMed

    King, G M; Kostka, J E; Hazen, T C; Sobecky, P A

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the northern Gulf of Mexico represents the largest marine accidental oil spill in history. It is distinguished from past spills in that it occurred at the greatest depth (1,500 m), the amount of hydrocarbon gas (mostly methane) lost was equivalent to the mass of crude oil released, and dispersants were used for the first time in the deep sea in an attempt to remediate the spill. The spill is also unique in that it has been characterized with an unprecedented level of resolution using next-generation sequencing technologies, especially for the ubiquitous hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities that appeared largely to consume the gases and to degrade a significant fraction of the petroleum. Results have shown an unexpectedly rapid response of deep-sea Gammaproteobacteria to oil and gas and documented a distinct succession correlated with the control of the oil flow and well shut-in. Similar successional events, also involving Gammaproteobacteria, have been observed in nearshore systems as well.

  2. Fate of a tritiated Ekofisk crude oil in a controlled ecosystem experiment with North Sea plankton

    SciTech Connect

    Laake, M.; Tjessem, K.; Rein, K.

    1984-09-01

    Flexible plastic enclosures were employed with the main intent of determining the fate of an Ekofisk crude oil exposed to North Sea spring conditions. By use of a tritium-labeled Ekofisk crude oil, a dynamic model was developed that allowed calculation of vertical mass fluxes with depth based on actual concentration profiles and measured sedimentation rates. It has been concluded that adsorption and subsequent sedimentation of plankton and organic detritus may cause a rapid sinking of petroleum hydrocarbons. Microbial mineralization seemed to be insignificant on a short-term scale.

  3. Effects and risk evaluation of oil spillage in the sea areas of Changxing Island.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Zhao, Wenkui; Zhang, Jiquan

    2014-08-01

    This paper evaluated the oil spillage risk in the waters near the island of Changxing in Dalian (China) based on the established risk assessment index. Four wind regimes (windless, northerly wind, westerly wind and southerly wind) were selected as weather conditions for the dynamic prediction of oil drift. If an oil spill occurs near the Koumen (a place near the island of Changxing), the forecast and evaluation are conducted based on a three-dimensional mathematical model of oil spillage, and the results obtained show the scope of the affected area when winds from various directions are applied. The oil spillage would, under various conditions, flow into the northern and western sea area of Changxing Island Bay, namely the Dalian harbor seal National Nature Reserve, and create adverse effects on the marine ecological environment. The rationality of combining the established oil spillage risk comprehensive index system with model prediction is further confirmed. Finally, preventive measures and quick fixes are presented in the case of accidental oil spillages. The most effective method to reduce environment risk is to adopt reasonable preventive measures and quick fixes. PMID:25153473

  4. Effects and Risk Evaluation of Oil Spillage in the Sea Areas of Changxing Island

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Zhao, Wenkui; Zhang, Jiquan

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluated the oil spillage risk in the waters near the island of Changxing in Dalian (China) based on the established risk assessment index. Four wind regimes (windless, northerly wind, westerly wind and southerly wind) were selected as weather conditions for the dynamic prediction of oil drift. If an oil spill occurs near the Koumen (a place near the island of Changxing), the forecast and evaluation are conducted based on a three-dimensional mathematical model of oil spillage, and the results obtained show the scope of the affected area when winds from various directions are applied. The oil spillage would, under various conditions, flow into the northern and western sea area of Changxing Island Bay, namely the Dalian harbor seal National Nature Reserve, and create adverse effects on the marine ecological environment. The rationality of combining the established oil spillage risk comprehensive index system with model prediction is further confirmed. Finally, preventive measures and quick fixes are presented in the case of accidental oil spillages. The most effective method to reduce environment risk is to adopt reasonable preventive measures and quick fixes. PMID:25153473

  5. Sea sand disruption method (SSDM) as a valuable tool for isolating essential oil components from conifers.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Czapczyńska, Natalia B

    2011-11-01

    Essential oils are one of nature's most precious gifts with surprisingly potent and outstanding properties. Coniferous oils, for instance, are nowadays being used extensively to treat or prevent many types of infections, modify immune responses, soothe inflammations, stabilize moods, and to help ease all forms of non-acute pain. Given the broad spectrum of usage of coniferous essential oils, a fast, safe, simple, and efficient sample-preparation method is needed in the estimation procedure of essential oil components in fresh plant material. Generally, the time- and energy-consuming steam distillation (SD) is applied for this purpose. This paper will compare SD, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), and the sea sand disruption method (SSDM) as isolation techniques to obtain aroma components from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), spruce (Picea abies), and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). According to the obtained data, SSDM is the most efficient sample preparation method in determining the essential oil composition of conifers. Moreover, SSDM requires small organic solvent amounts and a short extraction time, which makes it an advantageous alternative procedure for the routine analysis of coniferous oils. The superiority of SSDM over MSPD efficiency is ascertained, as there are no chemical interactions between the plant cell components and the sand. This fact confirms the reliability and efficacy of SSDM for the analysis of volatile oil components. PMID:22083917

  6. Crude oil as a stranding cause among loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Canary Islands, Spain (1998-2011).

    PubMed

    Camacho, María; Calabuig, Pascual; Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Orós, Jorge

    2013-07-01

    We report the number of strandings caused by crude oil among loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Canary Islands between 1998 and 2011 and analyze the impact of the designation of the Canary Islands as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA) in 2005. Among 1,679 stranded loggerhead turtles, 52 turtles stranded due to crude oil (3.1%). The survival rate of the turtles stranded by crude oil was 88%. All turtles that died because of crude oil stranding had signs of ingestion of crude oil and lesions, included esophageal impaction, necrotizing gastroenteritis, necrotizing hepatitis, and tubulonephrosis. The number of strandings caused by crude oil after 2005 was significantly lower than it was before 2006. We show that the designation of the Canary Islands as a PSSA in 2005 by the International Maritime Organization was associated with a reduction of sea turtle strandings caused by crude oil.

  7. Applicability of highly branched isoprenoids as a sea ice proxy in the Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Jae Il; Belt, Simon T.; Gal, Jong-Ku; Smik, Lukas; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2016-04-01

    Sea ice is an integral component of the polar climate system, constraining the effect of changing surface albedo, ocean-atmosphere heat exchanges, the formation of deep and intermediate waters that participate in driving the meridional overturning circulation and thus global climate. In recent years, a mono-unsaturated highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) alkene which is biosynthesised by certain sea ice diatoms during the spring bloom and, upon ice melt, deposited into underlying sediments, has been uniquely observed in Arctic sea ice and in Arctic sediments. Hence, the term IP25 (ice proxy with 25 carbon atoms) was proposed to distinguish this compound from other HBI isomers and has become an established proxy for the reconstruction of Arctic sea ice. In contrast, a monounsaturated HBI alkene, i.e. IP25, has not been observed in sea ice or sediments from the Antarctic. Hence, the application of diene and triene HBI concentrations and the resulting diene/triene (D/T) ratio was alternatively introduced as sea ice/open water indicators in the Southern Ocean. However, there is still lack of data covering the wide areas around the Antarctic, especially from the Ross Sea. Hence, we investigated surface sediment samples from the Ross Sea (n=14) collected during the R/V ARAON cruise in 2015 as well as from the Antarctic Peninsula (n=17) collected during several R/V ARAON cruises between 2001 and 2013. We will present our preliminary results and will discuss the applicability of the HBI in the Ross Sea.

  8. Exposure of sea otters and harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, to shoreline oil residues 20 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Neff, Jerry M; Page, David S; Boehm, Paul D

    2011-03-01

    We assessed whether sea otters and harlequin ducks in an area of western Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA (PWS), oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from oil residues 20 years after the spill. Spilled oil has persisted in PWS for two decades as surface oil residues (SOR) and subsurface oil residues (SSOR) on the shore. The rare SOR are located primarily on the upper shore as inert, nonhazardous asphaltic deposits, and SSOR are confined to widely scattered locations as small patches under a boulder/cobble veneer, primarily on the middle and upper shore, in forms and locations that preclude physical contact by wildlife and diminish bioavailability. Sea otters and harlequin ducks consume benthic invertebrates that they collect by diving to the bottom in the intertidal and subtidal zones. Sea otters also dig intertidal and subtidal pits in search of clams. The three plausible exposure pathways are through the water, in oil-contaminated prey, or by direct contact with SSOR during foraging. Concentrations of PAH in near-shore water off oiled shores in 2002 to 2005 were at background levels (<0.05 ng/L). Median concentrations of PAH in five intertidal prey species on oiled shores in 2002 to 2008 range from 4.0 to 34 ng/g dry weight, indistinguishable from background concentrations. Subsurface oil residues are restricted to locations on the shore and substrate types, where large clams do not occur and where sea otters do not dig foraging pits. Therefore, that sea otters and harlequin ducks continue to be exposed to environmentally significant amounts of PAH from EVOS 20 years after the spill is not plausible.

  9. Exposure of sea otters and harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, to shoreline oil residues 20 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Neff, Jerry M; Page, David S; Boehm, Paul D

    2011-03-01

    We assessed whether sea otters and harlequin ducks in an area of western Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA (PWS), oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from oil residues 20 years after the spill. Spilled oil has persisted in PWS for two decades as surface oil residues (SOR) and subsurface oil residues (SSOR) on the shore. The rare SOR are located primarily on the upper shore as inert, nonhazardous asphaltic deposits, and SSOR are confined to widely scattered locations as small patches under a boulder/cobble veneer, primarily on the middle and upper shore, in forms and locations that preclude physical contact by wildlife and diminish bioavailability. Sea otters and harlequin ducks consume benthic invertebrates that they collect by diving to the bottom in the intertidal and subtidal zones. Sea otters also dig intertidal and subtidal pits in search of clams. The three plausible exposure pathways are through the water, in oil-contaminated prey, or by direct contact with SSOR during foraging. Concentrations of PAH in near-shore water off oiled shores in 2002 to 2005 were at background levels (<0.05 ng/L). Median concentrations of PAH in five intertidal prey species on oiled shores in 2002 to 2008 range from 4.0 to 34 ng/g dry weight, indistinguishable from background concentrations. Subsurface oil residues are restricted to locations on the shore and substrate types, where large clams do not occur and where sea otters do not dig foraging pits. Therefore, that sea otters and harlequin ducks continue to be exposed to environmentally significant amounts of PAH from EVOS 20 years after the spill is not plausible. PMID:21298711

  10. Age distributions of sea otters found dead in Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-15. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Monson, D.H.; Ballachey, B.

    1995-06-01

    Age distribution of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead on beaches in western Prince William Sound Alaska, from 1976 to 1984, were compared to those of sea otters found dead from 1989 to 1993, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The age distribution of sea otters recovered in western Prince William Sound prior to the spill was bimodal and composed of primarily young and old animals. The high proportion of prime-age otters recovered immediately following the spill indicates significant losses occurred within a segment of the population which normally experiences very low mortality. The high proportion of prime-age otters recovered in 1990-1991 may be evidence of a prolonged, spill-related effect on the western Prince William Sound sea otter population.

  11. Synthesis of nearshore recovery following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill: sea otter liver pathology and survival in Western Prince William Sound, 2001 – 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballachey, Brenda E.; Monson, D.H.; Kloecker, K.A.; Esslinger, G.G.; Mohr, F.C.; Lipscomb , T.P.; Murray, M.J.; Howlin, S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined livers and liver biopsies collected from captured sea otters in WPWS, 2001–2008, to determine whether indicators of liver health correlated with history of oil contamination from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Sea otters captured in oiled areas had a significantly higher proportion of livers with gross pathological change, based on visual inspection at the time of capture, than those from unoiled areas. Of the 10 histopathology variables scored on liver biopsies, only two (vacuolar change and pigment) differed between animals from oiled and unoiled areas, and neither correlated with gross pathology scores. Vacuolar change indicates physiological disturbance, which is consistent with potential effects from oil exposure but also could be influenced by a number of other factors. We concluded that, as of 2008, some differences in liver health were evident between sea otters from oiled and unoiled areas; these differences were consistent with, but not specific to, effects that might be expected with sublethal exposure to lingering Exxon Valdez oil. We also quantified variation in survival of radiomarked sea otters within oiled areas of WPWS in relation to age, sex, body condition, selected blood serum chemistry variables, and histological scores indicative of liver health. Of the variables considered, only the serum enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the ratio of serum proteins albumin and globulin (A/G) were correlated with survival, with higher levels of AST and lower levels of A/G associated with increased likelihood of mortality. High AST and low A/G both may be indicative of liver disease. Taken together, results reported here suggest that liver health of sea otters in oiled areas was slightly poorer than those from unoiled areas and, ifurther, that this may have translated to poorer survival through 2008, nearly 2 decades after the spill. More recently collected information indicated that mortality patterns and abundance had returned to

  12. Application of a step-by-step fingerprinting identification method on a spilled oil accident in the Bohai Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peiyan; Gao, Zhenhui; Cao, Lixin; Wang, Xinping; Zhou, Qing; Zhao, Yuhui; Li, Guangmei

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, oil spill accidents occur frequently in the marine area of China. Finding out the spilled oil source is a key step in the relevant investigation. In this paper, a step-by-step fingerprinting identification method was used in a spilled oil accident in the Bohai Sea in 2002. Advanced chemical fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques were used to characterize the chemical composition and determine the possible sources of two spilled oil samples. The original gas chromatography -flame ionization detection (GC-FID) chromatogram of saturated hydrocarbons was compared. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) chromatograms of aromatic hydrocarbons terpane and sterane, n-alkane and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed. The correlation analysis on diagnostic ratios was performed with Student's t-test. It is found that the oil fingerprinting of the spilled oil (designated as sz1) from the polluted sand beach was identical with the suspected oil (designated as ky1) from a nearby crude oil refinery factory. They both showed the fingerprinting character of mixed oil. The oil fingerprinting of the spilled oil (designated as ms1) collected from the port was significantly different from oil ky1 and oil sz1 and was with a lubricating oil fingerprint character. The identification result not only gave support for the spilled oil investigation, but also served as an example for studying spilled oil accidents.

  13. Quality changes of sea bass slices wrapped with gelatin film incorporated with lemongrass essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mehraj; Benjakul, Soottawat; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash

    2012-04-16

    Microbiological, chemical and physical changes of sea bass slices wrapped with gelatin film incorporated with 25% (w/w) lemongrass essential oil (LEO) during storage of 12 days at 4 °C were investigated. Sea bass slices wrapped with LEO film had the retarded growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), psychrophilic bacteria and spoilage microorganisms including H₂S-producing bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae throughout storage of 12 days in comparison with the control and those wrapped with gelatin film without LEO (G film) (P<0.05). Lowered changes of colour, K value, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB) and TBARS value were also found in LEO film wrapped samples, compared with those wrapped with G film and control, respectively. Therefore, the incorporation of LEO into gelatin film could enhance the antimicrobial and antioxidative properties of the film, thereby maintaining the qualities and extending the shelf-life of the sea bass slices stored at refrigerated temperature.

  14. Long-term effects of the ‘Exxon Valdez’ oil spill: sea otter foraging in the intertidal as a pathway of exposure to lingering oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, James L.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Coletti, Heather A.; Esslinger, George G.; Kloecker, Kimberly A.; Rice, Stanley D.; Reed, John A.; Monson, Daniel H.

    2012-01-01

    The protracted recovery of some bird and mammal populations in western Prince William Sound (WPWS), Alaska, and the persistence of spilled ‘Exxon Valdez’ oil in intertidal sediments, suggests a pathway of exposure to consumers that occupy nearshore habitats. To evaluate the hypothesis that sea otter (Enhydra lutris) foraging allows access to lingering oil, we contrast spatial relations between foraging behavior and documented oil distribution. We recovered archival time-depth recorders implanted in 19 sea otters in WPWS, where lingering oil and de­layed ecosystem recovery are well documented. Sea otter foraging dives ranged from +2.7 to −92 m below sea level (MLLW), with intertidal accounting for 5 to 38% of all foraging. On average, female sea otters made 16050 intertidal dives per year and 18% of these dives were at depths above the +0.80 m tidal elevation. Males made 4100 intertidal dives per year and 26% of intertidal foraging took place at depths above the +0.80 m tidal elevation. Estimated annual oil encounter rates ranged from 2 to 24 times yr−1 for females, and 2 to 4 times yr−1 for males. Exposure rates increased in spring when intertidal foraging doubled and females were with small pups. In summer 2008, we found sea otter foraging pits on 13.5 of 24.8 km of intertidal shoreline surveyed. Most pits (82%) were within 0.5 m of the zero tidal elevation and 15% were above 0.5 m, the level above which most (65%) lingering oil remains. In August 2008, we detected oil above background concentrations in 18 of 41 (44%) pits excavated by sea otters on beaches with prior evidence of oiling, with total PAH concentrations up to 56000 ng g−1 dry weight. Our estimates of intertidal foraging, the widespread presence of foraging pits in the intertidal, and the presence of oil in and near sea otter foraging pits documents a pathway of exposure from lingering intertidal oil to sea otters ­foraging in WPWS.

  15. Long-term effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill: sea otter foraging in the intertidal as a pathway of exposure to lingering oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, James L.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Coletti, Heather A.; Esslinger, George; Kloecker, Kim; Rice, Stanley D.; Reed, John; Monson, Daniel H.

    2012-01-01

    The protracted recovery of some bird and mammal populations in western Prince William Sound (WPWS), Alaska, and the persistence of spilled 'Exxon Valdez' oil in intertidal sediments, suggests a pathway of exposure to consumers that occupy nearshore habitats. To evaluate the hypothesis that sea otter (Enhydra lutris) foraging allows access to lingering oil, we contrast spatial relations between foraging behavior and documented oil distribution. We recovered archival time-depth recorders implanted in 19 sea otters in WPWS, where lingering oil and delayed ecosystem recovery are well documented. Sea otter foraging dives ranged from +2.7 to -92 m below sea level (MLLW), with intertidal accounting for 5 to 38% of all foraging. On average, female sea otters made 16050 intertidal dives per year and 18% of these dives were at depths above the +0.80 m tidal elevation. Males made 4100 intertidal dives per year and 26% of intertidal foraging took place at depths above the +0.80 m tidal elevation. Estimated annual oil encounter rates ranged from 2 to 24 times yr-1 for females, and 2 to 4 times yr-1 for males. Exposure rates increased in spring when intertidal foraging doubled and females were with small pups. In summer 2008, we found sea otter foraging pits on 13.5 of 24.8 km of intertidal shoreline surveyed. Most pits (82%) were within 0.5 m of the zero tidal elevation and 15% were above 0.5 m, the level above which most (65%) lingering oil remains. In August 2008, we detected oil above background concentrations in 18 of 41 (44%) pits excavated by sea otters on beaches with prior evidence of oiling, with total PAH concentrations up to 56000 ng g−1 dry weight. Our estimates of intertidal foraging, the widespread presence of foraging pits in the intertidal, and the presence of oil in and near sea otter foraging pits documents a pathway of exposure from lingering intertidal oil to sea otters foraging in WPWS.

  16. 75 FR 63504 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ..., Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management... information identified by BOEMRE in the 193 FEIS was essential or relevant under 40 CFR 1502.22; and (3... whether missing information identified by BOEMRE in the FEIS for Chukchi Sea Lease Sale 193 was...

  17. Prediction of wax buildup in 24 inch cold, deep sea oil loading line

    SciTech Connect

    Asperger, R.G.; Sattler, R.E.; Tolonen, W.J.; Pitchford, A.C.

    1981-10-01

    When designing pipelines for cold environments, it is important to know how to predict potential problems due to wax deposition on the pipeline's inner surface. The goal of this work was to determine the rate of wax buildup and the maximum, equlibrium wax thickness for a North Sea field loading line. The experimental techniques and results used to evaluate the waxing potential of the crude oil (B) are described. Also, the theoretic model which was used for predicting the maximum wax deposit thickness in the crude oil (B) loading pipeline at controlled temperatures of 40 F (4.4 C) and 100 F (38 C), is illustrated. Included is a recommendation of a procedure for using hot oil at the end of a tanker loading period in order to dewax the crude oil (B) line. This technique would give maximum heating of the pipeline and should be followed by shutting the hot oil into the pipeline at the end of the loading cycle which will provide a hot oil soaking to help soften existing wax. 14 references.

  18. Modeling of oil spill beaching along the coast of the Bohai Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qing; Cheng, Yongcun; Liu, Bingqing; Wei, Yongliang

    2015-12-01

    On June 4 and 17, 2011, two separate oil spill accidents occurred at platforms B and C of the Penglai 19-3 oilfield located in the Bohai Sea, China. Based on the initial oil spill locations detected from the first available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image acquired on June 11, 2011, we performed a numerical experiment to simulate the potential oil spill beaching area with the General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment (GNOME) model. The model was driven by ocean surface currents from an operational ocean model (Navy Coastal Ocean Model) and surface winds from operational scatterometer measurements (the Advanced Scatterometer). Under the forcing of wind and ocean currents, some of the oil spills reached land along the coast of Qinhuangdao within 12 days. The results also demonstrate that the ocean currents are likely to carry the remaining oil spills along the Bohai coast towards the northeast. The predicted oil spill beaching area was verified by reported in-situ measurements and former studies based on MODIS observations.

  19. Sand remobilization enhanced complexity to mounded geometry, Early Tertiary deep water sand reservoirs, Balder Oil Field North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Bergslien, D.; Rye-Larsen, M.; Jenssen, A.I. )

    1996-01-01

    Sand remobilization played a major role in generating the high relief mounded geometries that trap oil in the early Tertiary reservoirs at Balder Field in Norwegian North Sea blocks 25/10 and 25/11. The thick massive submarine-fan sandstones were shed from the East Shetland Platform and deposited from high density turbidity currents. These thick massive sandstones lie in the distal portions of the fan system on the northwestern margin of the Utsira High. An intricate interaction between deposition and soft sediment deformation processes generated the complex cluster of thick mounded sand geometries comprising the Balder oil field. Slumping, sliding and sand remobilization with associated sand injections into overlying shales were the dominant deformation processes that mainly occurred during the early Eocene. The field is comprised of three reservoirs, the Paleocene Heimdal and Hermod Formations and the Early Eocene Balder Formation. The sandstones, which have excellent reservoir properties, share a common pressure system and oil-water contact. This is probably related to the soft-sediment deformation and associated sand injections establishing cross-stratal communication.

  20. Sand remobilization enhanced complexity to mounded geometry, Early Tertiary deep water sand reservoirs, Balder Oil Field North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Bergslien, D.; Rye-Larsen, M.; Jenssen, A.I.

    1996-12-31

    Sand remobilization played a major role in generating the high relief mounded geometries that trap oil in the early Tertiary reservoirs at Balder Field in Norwegian North Sea blocks 25/10 and 25/11. The thick massive submarine-fan sandstones were shed from the East Shetland Platform and deposited from high density turbidity currents. These thick massive sandstones lie in the distal portions of the fan system on the northwestern margin of the Utsira High. An intricate interaction between deposition and soft sediment deformation processes generated the complex cluster of thick mounded sand geometries comprising the Balder oil field. Slumping, sliding and sand remobilization with associated sand injections into overlying shales were the dominant deformation processes that mainly occurred during the early Eocene. The field is comprised of three reservoirs, the Paleocene Heimdal and Hermod Formations and the Early Eocene Balder Formation. The sandstones, which have excellent reservoir properties, share a common pressure system and oil-water contact. This is probably related to the soft-sediment deformation and associated sand injections establishing cross-stratal communication.

  1. Hydrogeological conditions of heavy high-viscous oil distribution in northeast Ural-Povolzhye (Udmurtia, Perm, and Kirov Region)

    SciTech Connect

    Kouznetsova, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    The major question while investigating the origin of subsurface oilfield waters is the development of regional and local hydrogeological oil exploration indices. For determination of the influence of subsurface water on oil pools it is necessary to study paleohydrogeological interrelations and regularities, and the interaction of sub-surface waters and oils. While considering these problems, paleohydrogeological cycles, which include crustal elevation and sea level regression are identified. Nine or ten paleohydrogeological cycles are marked in the Udmurtia, Permian, and Kirov territories, depending on regional paleotectonical history. Mesozoic-Cainozoic tectonic movements are the important cause of generation of heavy high-viscous oil pools.

  2. Quantifying long-term risks to sea otters from the 1989 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill: reply to Harwell & Gentile (2013)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Monson, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Recovery of sea otter populations in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, has been delayed for more than 2 decades following the 1989 ‘Exxon Valdez’ oil spill. Harwell & Gentile (2013; Mar Ecol Prog Ser 488:291–296) question our conclusions in Bodkin et al. (2012; Mar Ecol Prog Ser 447:273-287) regarding adverse effects that oil lingering in the environment may have on sea otters. They agree that exposure may continue, but disagree that it constitutes a significant risk to sea otters. In Bodkin et al. (2012), we suggested that subtle effects of chronic exposure were the most reasonable explanation for delayed recovery of the sea otter population in areas of western PWS, where shorelines were most heavily oiled. Here, we provide additional information on the ecology of sea otters that clarifies why the toxicological effects of oral ingestion of oil do not reflect all effects of chronic exposure. The full range of energetic, behavioral, and toxicological concerns must be considered to appraise how chronic exposure to residual oil may constrain recovery of sea otter populations.

  3. High resolution Holocene sea ice records from Herald Canyon, Chukchi Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Christof; Jakobsson, Martin; O'Regan, Matt; Rattray, Jayne; Barrientos, Natalia; Muchitiello, Francesco; Smittenburg, Rienk; Cronin, Tom; Coxall, Helen; Semiletov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    Arctic Ocean sea ice plays a critical role in the Earth's climate system because of the positive ice-albedo feedback mechanisms as well as its control on ocean-atmospheric heat exchange and potential influence on the thermohaline circulation. Key to improving our understanding of Arctic sea ice cover and its reaction to external forcing is the reconstruction of past variability through paleo-records such as marine sediment cores. Although the observed recent sea ice loss seems to be the strongest of the last millennia, it is still uncertain whether the shift from perennial to seasonal ice cover expected for the near future was unprecedented during the current interglacial. High resolution sea ice reconstructions from the Arctic Ocean are rare, and specifically records from the Russian Arctic are underrepresented. In this study, we present results from marine sediment cores from the Herald Canyon in the East Siberian Sea. The area is one of the major conduits of Pacific water entering the Arctic Ocean basin from the Bering Strait and is thus an ideal place to study past variability of the inflow of these nutrient rich waters. Radiocarbon dating of mollusks indicates very high sedimentation rates at the coring sites which allowed for analyses at centennial resolution up to decadal resolution in the late Holocene. Core samples were analyzed for the biomarker IP25, which is produced by diatoms living in sea ice and is used as a proxy of past seasonal sea ice concentrations. Preliminary results indicate the presence of seasonal sea ice during the entire Late Holocene and show a significant increase of sea ice concentrations during the last millennia.

  4. High resolution Holocene sea ice records from Herald Canyon, East Siberian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, C.; Rattray, J.; Jakobsson, M.; Barrientos, N.; Muschitiello, F.; Smittenberg, R.; O'Regan, M.; Coxall, H.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic Ocean sea ice plays a critical role in the Earth's climate system because of the positive ice-albedo feedback mechanisms as well as its control on ocean-atmospheric heat exchange and potential influence on the thermohaline circulation. Key to improving our understanding of Arctic sea ice cover and its reaction to external forcing is the reconstruction of past variability through paleo-records such as marine sediment cores. Although the observed recent sea ice loss seems to be the strongest of the last millennia, it is still uncertain whether the shift from perennial to seasonal ice cover expected for the near future was unprecedented during the current interglacial. High resolution sea ice reconstructions from the Arctic Ocean are rare, and specifically records from the Russian Arctic are underrepresented. In this study, we present results from marine sediment cores from the Herald Canyon in the East Siberian Sea. The area is one of the major conduits of Pacific water entering the Arctic Ocean basin from the Bering Strait and is thus an ideal place to study past variability of the inflow of these nutrient rich waters. Radiocarbon dating of mollusks indicates very high sedimentation rates at the coring sites which allowed for analyses at centennial resolution up to decadal resolution in the late Holocene. Core samples were analyzed for the biomarker IP25, which is produced by diatoms living in sea ice and is used as a proxy of past seasonal sea ice concentrations. Preliminary results indicate the presence of seasonal sea ice during the entire Late Holocene and show a significant increase of sea ice concentrations during the last millennia.

  5. 15 CFR 970.503 - Freedom of the high seas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance/Transfer/Terms... mineral resources of the deep seabed is a freedom of the high seas. In the exercise of this right,...

  6. 15 CFR 970.503 - Freedom of the high seas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance/Transfer/Terms... mineral resources of the deep seabed is a freedom of the high seas. In the exercise of this right,...

  7. 15 CFR 970.503 - Freedom of the high seas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance/Transfer/Terms... mineral resources of the deep seabed is a freedom of the high seas. In the exercise of this right,...

  8. 15 CFR 970.503 - Freedom of the high seas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance/Transfer/Terms... mineral resources of the deep seabed is a freedom of the high seas. In the exercise of this right,...

  9. Probing the intrinsically oil-wet surfaces of pores in North Sea chalk at subpore resolution

    PubMed Central

    Hassenkam, T.; Skovbjerg, L. L.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2009-01-01

    Pore surface properties control oil recovery. This is especially true for chalk reservoirs, where pores are particularly small. Wettability, the tendency for a surface to cover itself with fluid, is traditionally defined by the angle a droplet makes with a surface, but this macroscopic definition is meaningless when the particles are smaller than even the smallest droplet. Understanding surface wetting, at the pore scale, will provide clues for more effective oil recovery. We used a special mode of atomic force microscopy and a hydrophobic tip to collect matrices of 10,000 force curves over 5- × 5-μm2 areas on internal pore surfaces and constructed maps of topography, adhesion, and elasticity. We investigated chalk samples from a water-bearing formation in the Danish North Sea oil fields that had never seen oil. Wettability and elasticity were inhomogeneous over scales of 10s of nanometers, smaller than individual chalk particles. Some areas were soft and hydrophobic, whereas others showed no correlation between hardness and adhesion. We conclude that the macroscopic parameter, “wetting,” averages the nanoscopic behavior along fluid pathways, and “mixed-wet” samples have patches with vastly different properties. Development of reservoir hydrophobicity has been attributed to infiltrating oil, but these new results prove that wettability and elasticity are inherent properties of chalk. Their variability, even on single particles, must result from material originally present during sedimentation or material sorbed from the pore fluid some time later. PMID:19321418

  10. Oil spill modeling in the southeastern Mediterranean Sea in support of accelerated offshore oil and gas exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Steve

    2015-12-01

    Since the discovery of major reserves in the Israeli exclusive economic zone (EEZ) 6 years ago, exploration and drilling for natural gas and oil have proceeded at an accelerated pace. As part of the licensing procedure for drilling, an environmental impact assessment and an emergency response plan must be presented to the authorities, which include several prespecified oil spill simulations. In this study, the MEDSLIK oil spill model has been applied for this purpose. The model accounts for time-dependent advection, dispersion, and physiochemical weathering of the surface slick. It is driven by currents produced by high-resolution dynamic downscaling of ocean reanalysis data and winds extracted from global atmospheric analyses. Worst case scenarios based on 30-day well blowouts under four sets of environmental conditions were simulated for wells located at 140, 70, and 20 km off the coast of central Israel. For the well furthest from the coast, the amount of oil remaining in the surface slick always exceeds the amount deposited on the coast. For the mid-distance well, the cases were evenly split. For the well closest to the coast, coastal deposition always exceeds the oil remaining in the slick. Additional simulations with the wind switched off helped highlight the importance of the wind in evaporation of the oil and in transporting the slick toward the southeastern coast.

  11. High risk groups in oil shale workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, L.B.; Perry, B.W.; Marine, W.M.; Savitz, D.A.

    1984-04-01

    The workforce risks of a hypothetical one million barrels-per-day oil shale industry were estimated. The risks for the different workforce segments were compared and high risk groups were identified. Accidents and injuries were statistically described by rates for fatalities, for accidents with days lost from work, and for accidents with no days lost from work. Workforce diseases analyzed were cancers, silicosia, pneumoconiosis, chronic bronchitis, chronic airway obstruction, and high frequency hearing loss. A comparison of the workforce groups under different risk measures (occurrence, fatality, and life-loss expectancy) was performed. The miners represented the group with the largest fatality and the most serious accident rate, although the estimated rates were below the average industry-wide underground mining experience. Lung disease from inhalation exposure of about the nuisance dust threshold limit value presents a significant risk for future concerns. If future environmental dust exposure is at the 100 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ alpha-quartz level, safety improvements in the mining sector are of prime importance to reduce the oil shale worker's life-loss expectancy. 11 references, 1 figure, 11 tables.

  12. The solution of the problem of oil spill risk control in the Baltic Sea taking into account the processes of oil propagation and degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aseev, Nikita; Agoshkov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    The report is devoted to the one approach to the problem of oil spill risk control of protected areas in the Baltic Sea (Aseev et al., 2014). By the problem of risk control is meant a problem of determination of optimal resources quantity which are necessary for decreasing the risk to some acceptable value. It is supposed that only moment of accident is a random variable. Mass of oil slick is chosen as a function of control. For the realization of the random variable the quadratic 'functional of cost' is introduced. It comprises cleaning costs and deviation of damage of oil pollution from its acceptable value. The problem of minimization of this functional is solved based on the methods of optimal control and the theory of adjoint equations (Agoshkov, 2003, Agoshkov et al., 2012). The solution of this problem is explicitly found. In order to solve the realistic problem of oil spill risk control in the Baltic Sea the 2d model of oil spill propagation on the sea surface based on the Seatrack Web model (Liungman, Mattson, 2011) is developed. The model takes into account such processes as oil transportation by sea currents and wind, turbulent diffusion, spreading, evaporation from sea surface, dispersion and formation of emulsion 'water-in-oil'. The model allows to calculate basic oil slick parameters: localization, mass, volume, thickness, density of oil, water content and viscosity of emulsion. The results of several numerical experiments in the Baltic Sea using the model and the methodology of oil spill risk control are presented. Along with moment of accident other parameters of oil spill and environment could be chosen as a random variables. The methodology of solution of oil spill risk control problem will remain the same but the computational complexity will increase. Conversion of the function of control to quantity of resources with a glance to methods of pollution removal should be processed. As a result, the developed 2d model of oil spill propagation

  13. The discrimination between crude-oil spills and monomolecular sea slicks by an airborne lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huehnerfuss, H.; Garrett, W. D.; Hoge, F. E.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne lidar measurements were performed over a deployed monomolecular oleyl alcohol surface film ('slick'), the physicochemical characteristics of which are known to be similar to biogenic organic compounds secreted by plankton and fish, and adjacent 'clean' sea surfaces in the North Sea. In the presence of the slick, the suppression of the Raman backscatter at 381 nm and of two spectral bands indicative of water column fluorescent organic material at 414 and 482 nm were observed. This effect is explained by two possible mechanisms giving rise to a modification of the transmission or coupling of the laser beam into the water column: (1) the damping of capillary and short gravity water waves by the oleyl alcohol slick, and (2) the modification of the uppermost water layer by the oleyl alcohol film. The results obtained in the presence of a slick are compared with data measured over a Murban crude-oil spill with the same lidar system off the coast of the U.S.A. The consequences of the lidar-monomolecular film experiments with regard to the remote detection of crude-oil spills and oil-thickness measurements with an airborne laser fluorosensing system will be discussed.

  14. High-Temperature Natural Antioxidant Improves Soy Oil for Frying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the frying stability of soybean oil (SBO) treated with a natural citric acid-based antioxidant, EPT-OILShield able to withstand high temperatures and to establish the oxidative stability of food fried in the treated oil. Soybean oil with 0.05% and 0.5%...

  15. Generalist hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities in the oil-polluted water column of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; Sanni, Gbemisola O; Silas-Olu, Daniel I; van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Timmis, Kenneth N; Brussaard, Corina P D; McGenity, Terry J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of light crude oil on bacterial communities during an experimental oil spill in the North Sea and in mesocosms (simulating a heavy, enclosed oil spill), and to isolate and characterize hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from the water column. No oil-induced changes in bacterial community (3 m below the sea surface) were observed 32 h after the experimental spill at sea. In contrast, there was a decrease in the dominant SAR11 phylotype and an increase in Pseudoalteromonas spp. in the oiled mesocosms (investigated by 16S rRNA gene analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), as a consequence of the longer incubation, closer proximity of the samples to oil, and the lack of replenishment with seawater. A total of 216 strains were isolated from hydrocarbon enrichment cultures, predominantly belonging to the genus Pseudoaltero monas; most strains grew on PAHs, branched and straight-chain alkanes, as well as many other carbon sources. No obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria were isolated or detected, highlighting the potential importance of cosmopolitan marine generalists like Pseudoalteromonas spp. in degrading hydrocarbons in the water column beneath an oil slick, and revealing the susceptibility to oil pollution of SAR11, the most abundant bacterial clade in the surface ocean.

  16. First day of an oil spill on the open sea: early mass transfers of hydrocarbons to air and water.

    PubMed

    Gros, Jonas; Nabi, Deedar; Würz, Birgit; Wick, Lukas Y; Brussaard, Corina P D; Huisman, Johannes; van der Meer, Jan R; Reddy, Christopher M; Arey, J Samuel

    2014-08-19

    During the first hours after release of petroleum at sea, crude oil hydrocarbons partition rapidly into air and water. However, limited information is available about very early evaporation and dissolution processes. We report on the composition of the oil slick during the first day after a permitted, unrestrained 4.3 m(3) oil release conducted on the North Sea. Rapid mass transfers of volatile and soluble hydrocarbons were observed, with >50% of ≤C17 hydrocarbons disappearing within 25 h from this oil slick of <10 km(2) area and <10 μm thickness. For oil sheen, >50% losses of ≤C16 hydrocarbons were observed after 1 h. We developed a mass transfer model to describe the evolution of oil slick chemical composition and water column hydrocarbon concentrations. The model was parametrized based on environmental conditions and hydrocarbon partitioning properties estimated from comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) retention data. The model correctly predicted the observed fractionation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the oil slick resulting from evaporation and dissolution. This is the first report on the broad-spectrum compositional changes in oil during the first day of a spill at the sea surface. Expected outcomes under other environmental conditions are discussed, as well as comparisons to other models.

  17. Generalist hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities in the oil-polluted water column of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; Sanni, Gbemisola O; Silas-Olu, Daniel I; van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Timmis, Kenneth N; Brussaard, Corina P D; McGenity, Terry J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of light crude oil on bacterial communities during an experimental oil spill in the North Sea and in mesocosms (simulating a heavy, enclosed oil spill), and to isolate and characterize hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from the water column. No oil-induced changes in bacterial community (3 m below the sea surface) were observed 32 h after the experimental spill at sea. In contrast, there was a decrease in the dominant SAR11 phylotype and an increase in Pseudoalteromonas spp. in the oiled mesocosms (investigated by 16S rRNA gene analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), as a consequence of the longer incubation, closer proximity of the samples to oil, and the lack of replenishment with seawater. A total of 216 strains were isolated from hydrocarbon enrichment cultures, predominantly belonging to the genus Pseudoaltero monas; most strains grew on PAHs, branched and straight-chain alkanes, as well as many other carbon sources. No obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria were isolated or detected, highlighting the potential importance of cosmopolitan marine generalists like Pseudoalteromonas spp. in degrading hydrocarbons in the water column beneath an oil slick, and revealing the susceptibility to oil pollution of SAR11, the most abundant bacterial clade in the surface ocean. PMID:25251384

  18. Generalist hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities in the oil-polluted water column of the North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; Sanni, Gbemisola O; Silas-Olu, Daniel I; van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Timmis, Kenneth N; Brussaard, Corina P D; McGenity, Terry J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of light crude oil on bacterial communities during an experimental oil spill in the North Sea and in mesocosms (simulating a heavy, enclosed oil spill), and to isolate and characterize hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from the water column. No oil-induced changes in bacterial community (3 m below the sea surface) were observed 32 h after the experimental spill at sea. In contrast, there was a decrease in the dominant SAR11 phylotype and an increase in Pseudoalteromonas spp. in the oiled mesocosms (investigated by 16S rRNA gene analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), as a consequence of the longer incubation, closer proximity of the samples to oil, and the lack of replenishment with seawater. A total of 216 strains were isolated from hydrocarbon enrichment cultures, predominantly belonging to the genus Pseudoaltero monas; most strains grew on PAHs, branched and straight-chain alkanes, as well as many other carbon sources. No obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria were isolated or detected, highlighting the potential importance of cosmopolitan marine generalists like Pseudoalteromonas spp. in degrading hydrocarbons in the water column beneath an oil slick, and revealing the susceptibility to oil pollution of SAR11, the most abundant bacterial clade in the surface ocean. PMID:25251384

  19. Novel insight into the role of heterotrophic dinoflagellates in the fate of crude oil in the sea.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L; Buskey, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    Although planktonic protozoans are likely to interact with dispersed crude oil after a spill, protozoan-mediated processes affecting crude oil pollution in the sea are still not well known. Here, we present the first evidence of ingestion and defecation of physically or chemically dispersed crude oil droplets (1-86 μm in diameter) by heterotrophic dinoflagellates, major components of marine planktonic food webs. At a crude oil concentration commonly found after an oil spill (1 μL L(-1)), the heterotrophic dinoflagellates Noctiluca scintillans and Gyrodinium spirale grew and ingested ~0.37 μg-oil μg-C(dino)(-1) d(-1), which could represent ~17% to 100% of dispersed oil in surface waters when heterotrophic dinoflagellates are abundant or bloom. Egestion of faecal pellets containing crude oil by heterotrophic dinoflagellates could contribute to the sinking and flux of toxic petroleum hydrocarbons in coastal waters. Our study indicates that crude oil ingestion by heterotrophic dinoflagellates is a noteworthy route by which petroleum enters marine food webs and a previously overlooked biological process influencing the fate of crude oil in the sea after spills.

  20. Novel insight into the role of heterotrophic dinoflagellates in the fate of crude oil in the sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L.; Buskey, Edward J.

    2014-12-01

    Although planktonic protozoans are likely to interact with dispersed crude oil after a spill, protozoan-mediated processes affecting crude oil pollution in the sea are still not well known. Here, we present the first evidence of ingestion and defecation of physically or chemically dispersed crude oil droplets (1-86 μm in diameter) by heterotrophic dinoflagellates, major components of marine planktonic food webs. At a crude oil concentration commonly found after an oil spill (1 μL L-1), the heterotrophic dinoflagellates Noctiluca scintillans and Gyrodinium spirale grew and ingested ~0.37 μg-oil μg-Cdino-1 d-1, which could represent ~17% to 100% of dispersed oil in surface waters when heterotrophic dinoflagellates are abundant or bloom. Egestion of faecal pellets containing crude oil by heterotrophic dinoflagellates could contribute to the sinking and flux of toxic petroleum hydrocarbons in coastal waters. Our study indicates that crude oil ingestion by heterotrophic dinoflagellates is a noteworthy route by which petroleum enters marine food webs and a previously overlooked biological process influencing the fate of crude oil in the sea after spills.

  1. The impact of different vertical diffusion schemes in a three-dimensional oil spill model in the Bohai Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Zhu, Jiang; Wang, Hui

    2013-11-01

    Vertical transport is critical to the movement of oil spills in seawater. Breaking waves play an important role by developing a well-defined mixing layer in the upper part of the water column. A three-dimensional (3-D) Lagrangian random walk oil spill model was used here to study the influence of sea surface waves on the vertical turbulence movement of oil particles. Three vertical diffusion schemes were utilized in the model to compare their impact on oil dispersion and transportation. The first scheme calculated the vertical eddy viscosity semi-empirically. In the second scheme, the vertical diffusion coefficient was obtained directly from an Eulerian hydrodynamic model (Princeton Ocean Model, POM2k) while considering wave-caused turbulence. The third scheme was formulated by solving the Langevin equation. The trajectories, percentages of oil particles intruding into water, and the vertical distribution structures of oil particles were analyzed for a series of numerical experiments with different wind magnitudes. The results showed that the different vertical diffusion schemes could generate different horizontal trajectories and spatial distributions of oil spills on the sea surface. The vertical diffusion schemes caused different water-intruding and resurfacing oil particle behaviors, leading to different horizontal transport of oil particles at the surface and subsurface of the ocean. The vertical diffusion schemes were also applied to a realistic oil spill simulation, and these results were compared to satellite observations. All three schemes yielded acceptable results, and those of the third scheme most closely simulated the observed data.

  2. Novel insight into the role of heterotrophic dinoflagellates in the fate of crude oil in the sea.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L; Buskey, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    Although planktonic protozoans are likely to interact with dispersed crude oil after a spill, protozoan-mediated processes affecting crude oil pollution in the sea are still not well known. Here, we present the first evidence of ingestion and defecation of physically or chemically dispersed crude oil droplets (1-86 μm in diameter) by heterotrophic dinoflagellates, major components of marine planktonic food webs. At a crude oil concentration commonly found after an oil spill (1 μL L(-1)), the heterotrophic dinoflagellates Noctiluca scintillans and Gyrodinium spirale grew and ingested ~0.37 μg-oil μg-C(dino)(-1) d(-1), which could represent ~17% to 100% of dispersed oil in surface waters when heterotrophic dinoflagellates are abundant or bloom. Egestion of faecal pellets containing crude oil by heterotrophic dinoflagellates could contribute to the sinking and flux of toxic petroleum hydrocarbons in coastal waters. Our study indicates that crude oil ingestion by heterotrophic dinoflagellates is a noteworthy route by which petroleum enters marine food webs and a previously overlooked biological process influencing the fate of crude oil in the sea after spills. PMID:25523528

  3. Novel insight into the role of heterotrophic dinoflagellates in the fate of crude oil in the sea

    PubMed Central

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L.; Buskey, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Although planktonic protozoans are likely to interact with dispersed crude oil after a spill, protozoan-mediated processes affecting crude oil pollution in the sea are still not well known. Here, we present the first evidence of ingestion and defecation of physically or chemically dispersed crude oil droplets (1–86 μm in diameter) by heterotrophic dinoflagellates, major components of marine planktonic food webs. At a crude oil concentration commonly found after an oil spill (1 μL L−1), the heterotrophic dinoflagellates Noctiluca scintillans and Gyrodinium spirale grew and ingested ~0.37 μg-oil μg-Cdino−1 d−1, which could represent ~17% to 100% of dispersed oil in surface waters when heterotrophic dinoflagellates are abundant or bloom. Egestion of faecal pellets containing crude oil by heterotrophic dinoflagellates could contribute to the sinking and flux of toxic petroleum hydrocarbons in coastal waters. Our study indicates that crude oil ingestion by heterotrophic dinoflagellates is a noteworthy route by which petroleum enters marine food webs and a previously overlooked biological process influencing the fate of crude oil in the sea after spills. PMID:25523528

  4. A Quantitative Ecological Risk Assessment of the Toxicological Risks from Exxon Valdez Subsurface Oil Residues to Sea Otters at Northern Knight Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Harwell, Mark A.; Gentile, John H.; Johnson, Charles B.; Garshelis, David L.; Parker, Keith R.

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive, quantitative risk assessment is presented of the toxicological risks from buried Exxon Valdez subsurface oil residues (SSOR) to a subpopulation of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) at Northern Knight Island (NKI) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, as it has been asserted that this subpopulation of sea otters may be experiencing adverse effects from the SSOR. The central questions in this study are: could the risk to NKI sea otters from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in SSOR, as characterized in 2001–2003, result in individual health effects, and, if so, could that exposure cause subpopulation-level effects? We follow the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) risk paradigm by: (a) identifying potential routes of exposure to PAHs from SSOR; (b) developing a quantitative simulation model of exposures using the best available scientific information; (c) developing scenarios based on calculated probabilities of sea otter exposures to SSOR; (d) simulating exposures for 500,000 modeled sea otters and extracting the 99.9% quantile most highly exposed individuals; and (e) comparing projected exposures to chronic toxicity reference values. Results indicate that, even under conservative assumptions in the model, maximum-exposed sea otters would not receive a dose of PAHs sufficient to cause any health effects; consequently, no plausible toxicological risk exists from SSOR to the sea otter subpopulation at NKI. PMID:20862194

  5. A Quantitative Ecological Risk Assessment of the Toxicological Risks from Exxon Valdez Subsurface Oil Residues to Sea Otters at Northern Knight Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Harwell, Mark A; Gentile, John H; Johnson, Charles B; Garshelis, David L; Parker, Keith R

    2010-07-01

    A comprehensive, quantitative risk assessment is presented of the toxicological risks from buried Exxon Valdez subsurface oil residues (SSOR) to a subpopulation of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) at Northern Knight Island (NKI) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, as it has been asserted that this subpopulation of sea otters may be experiencing adverse effects from the SSOR. The central questions in this study are: could the risk to NKI sea otters from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in SSOR, as characterized in 2001-2003, result in individual health effects, and, if so, could that exposure cause subpopulation-level effects? We follow the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) risk paradigm by: (a) identifying potential routes of exposure to PAHs from SSOR; (b) developing a quantitative simulation model of exposures using the best available scientific information; (c) developing scenarios based on calculated probabilities of sea otter exposures to SSOR; (d) simulating exposures for 500,000 modeled sea otters and extracting the 99.9% quantile most highly exposed individuals; and (e) comparing projected exposures to chronic toxicity reference values. Results indicate that, even under conservative assumptions in the model, maximum-exposed sea otters would not receive a dose of PAHs sufficient to cause any health effects; consequently, no plausible toxicological risk exists from SSOR to the sea otter subpopulation at NKI. PMID:20862194

  6. Offshore oil & gas markets heating up: Gulf of Mexico rising from `Dead Sea` image; healthy Gulf, North Sea markets combine for big impact

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.R.

    1995-09-01

    Only three years ago, Gulf of Mexico drilling activity was so moribund that it was termed the Dead Sea. But the market has changed so there is now effectively 100 percent utilization in several important categories of offshore rigs, and almost every type of offshore rig is now getting higher use and better rates. What makes these changes so profound is that few industry participants saw this tightness developing, and almost no one predicted that it would occur so soon. Even the largest offshore contractors were pleasantly surprised as they watched their key drilling markets tighten so uickly after many years of vast oversupply. Today, while neither the Gulf of Mexico nor the North Sea could be described as booming, they are not falling apart either. The combination of both markets merely being normal at the same time has made a big impact on the worldwide supply and demand for offshore drilling. The need for steady and increasing offshore oil and gas production has never been so high. The technology now in place is allowing the development of offshore areas deemed almost impossible less than a decade ago. Also, the vast excess supply of offshore equipment is gone for many forms of drilling, and the need for steadily higher dayrates is real and will merely increase over time.

  7. Assessing Risks to Sea Otters and the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: New Scenarios, Attributable Risk, and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Harwell, Mark A; Gentile, John H

    2014-06-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred more than two decades ago, and the Prince William Sound ecosystem has essentially recovered. Nevertheless, discussion continues on whether or not localized effects persist on sea otters (Enhydra lutris) at northern Knight Island (NKI) and, if so, what are the associated attributable risks. A recent study estimated new rates of sea otter encounters with subsurface oil residues (SSOR) from the oil spill. We previously demonstrated that a potential pathway existed for exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and conducted a quantitative ecological risk assessment using an individual-based model that simulated this and other plausible exposure pathways. Here we quantitatively update the potential for this exposure pathway to constitute an ongoing risk to sea otters using the new estimates of SSOR encounters. Our conservative model predicted that the assimilated doses of PAHs to the 1-in-1000th most-exposed sea otters would remain 1-2 orders of magnitude below the chronic effects thresholds. We re-examine the baseline estimates, post-spill surveys, recovery status, and attributable risks for this subpopulation. We conclude that the new estimated frequencies of encountering SSOR do not constitute a plausible risk for sea otters at NKI and these sea otters have fully recovered from the oil spill.

  8. Assessing Risks to Sea Otters and the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: New Scenarios, Attributable Risk, and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Harwell, Mark A.; Gentile, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred more than two decades ago, and the Prince William Sound ecosystem has essentially recovered. Nevertheless, discussion continues on whether or not localized effects persist on sea otters (Enhydra lutris) at northern Knight Island (NKI) and, if so, what are the associated attributable risks. A recent study estimated new rates of sea otter encounters with subsurface oil residues (SSOR) from the oil spill. We previously demonstrated that a potential pathway existed for exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and conducted a quantitative ecological risk assessment using an individual-based model that simulated this and other plausible exposure pathways. Here we quantitatively update the potential for this exposure pathway to constitute an ongoing risk to sea otters using the new estimates of SSOR encounters. Our conservative model predicted that the assimilated doses of PAHs to the 1-in-1000th most-exposed sea otters would remain 1–2 orders of magnitude below the chronic effects thresholds. We re-examine the baseline estimates, post-spill surveys, recovery status, and attributable risks for this subpopulation. We conclude that the new estimated frequencies of encountering SSOR do not constitute a plausible risk for sea otters at NKI and these sea otters have fully recovered from the oil spill. PMID:24587690

  9. Assessing Risks to Sea Otters and the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: New Scenarios, Attributable Risk, and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Harwell, Mark A; Gentile, John H

    2014-06-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred more than two decades ago, and the Prince William Sound ecosystem has essentially recovered. Nevertheless, discussion continues on whether or not localized effects persist on sea otters (Enhydra lutris) at northern Knight Island (NKI) and, if so, what are the associated attributable risks. A recent study estimated new rates of sea otter encounters with subsurface oil residues (SSOR) from the oil spill. We previously demonstrated that a potential pathway existed for exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and conducted a quantitative ecological risk assessment using an individual-based model that simulated this and other plausible exposure pathways. Here we quantitatively update the potential for this exposure pathway to constitute an ongoing risk to sea otters using the new estimates of SSOR encounters. Our conservative model predicted that the assimilated doses of PAHs to the 1-in-1000th most-exposed sea otters would remain 1-2 orders of magnitude below the chronic effects thresholds. We re-examine the baseline estimates, post-spill surveys, recovery status, and attributable risks for this subpopulation. We conclude that the new estimated frequencies of encountering SSOR do not constitute a plausible risk for sea otters at NKI and these sea otters have fully recovered from the oil spill. PMID:24587690

  10. Presence of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in near-surface sediments of an oil spill area in Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuanglin; Zhang, Shengyin; Dong, Heping; Zhao, Qingfang; Cao, Chunhui

    2015-11-15

    In order to determine the source of organic matter and the fingerprint of the oil components, 50 samples collected from the near-surface sediments of the oil spill area in Bohai Sea, China, were analyzed for grain size, total organic carbon, aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The concentrations of C15-35 n-alkanes and 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) priority pollutant PAHs were found in the ranges of 0.88-3.48μg g(-1) and 9.97-490.13ng/g, respectively. The terrestrial organic matters characterized by C27-C35 n-alkanes and PAHs, resulting from the combustion of higher plants, are dominantly contributed from the transportation of these plants by rivers. Marine organic matters produced from plankton and aquatic plants were represented by C17-C26 n-alkanes in AHs. Crude oil, characterized by C17-C21 n-alkanes, unresolved complex mixture (UCM) with a mean response factor of C19 n-alkanes, low levels of perylene, and a high InP/(InP+BghiP) ratio, seeped into the oceans from deep hydrocarbon reservoirs, as a result of geological faults.

  11. Presence of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in near-surface sediments of an oil spill area in Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuanglin; Zhang, Shengyin; Dong, Heping; Zhao, Qingfang; Cao, Chunhui

    2015-11-15

    In order to determine the source of organic matter and the fingerprint of the oil components, 50 samples collected from the near-surface sediments of the oil spill area in Bohai Sea, China, were analyzed for grain size, total organic carbon, aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The concentrations of C15-35 n-alkanes and 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) priority pollutant PAHs were found in the ranges of 0.88-3.48μg g(-1) and 9.97-490.13ng/g, respectively. The terrestrial organic matters characterized by C27-C35 n-alkanes and PAHs, resulting from the combustion of higher plants, are dominantly contributed from the transportation of these plants by rivers. Marine organic matters produced from plankton and aquatic plants were represented by C17-C26 n-alkanes in AHs. Crude oil, characterized by C17-C21 n-alkanes, unresolved complex mixture (UCM) with a mean response factor of C19 n-alkanes, low levels of perylene, and a high InP/(InP+BghiP) ratio, seeped into the oceans from deep hydrocarbon reservoirs, as a result of geological faults. PMID:26375779

  12. A low-cost decision support network for electrocardiograph transmission from oil rigs in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Webster, Karyn; Fraser, Susan; Mair, Fiona; Ferguson, James

    2008-01-01

    A telemedicine service consisting of electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation and advice on the management of chest pain offshore was offered to oil rig installations in the North Sea. A total of 14 subscribing oil rigs were supplied with thrombolytic drugs and rig paramedics were trained in their delivery. Electrocardiographs could be recorded using a standard ECG machine and then digitized using a scanner for transmission as an email attachment. Several oil companies invested in ECG equipment which allowed direct recording of the patient's ECG in electronic form for transmission by email. Uptake of the telemedicine service was very rapid. The majority of rig medics found the system very easy to use. During a 36-month study period from August 2004, 47 cases of chest pain were dealt with by telemedicine. Of these 47 cases, only six patients (13%) were airlifted to shore. The 41 remaining ECGs did not to have acute changes requiring immediate evacuation. The use of email for ECG transmission proved to be highly effective in managing chest pain offshore.

  13. Influence of oil aromaticity on N sub 2 -flooding in North Sea fields; Preliminary thermodynamic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    de Leeuw, V.V.; Bekkering, P.E.; Runde, H.; de Loos, T.W.; de Swaan Avons, J. )

    1990-01-01

    A synthetic oil has been defined, typical for crudes found in the North Sea. It consists of 65 mole % methane, 15 mole % n-butane and 20 mole % n-tetradecane. Aromaticity has been varied by replacing n-tetradecane by n-octyl-benzene. Minimum miscibility pressures (MMP's) and vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) of these synthetic oils have been calculated for adding nitrogen. The Peng-Robinson equation of state has been used in conjunction with binary interaction parameters, either experimentally determined or from independent correlations. It appeared that aromaticity hardly influences MMP's but that it has a significant impact on the mutual miscibility of equilibrium phases at 373.15 K and 400 bar. The MMP-calculation shows to be very sensitive to the (methane + n-octyl-benzene) interaction parameter.

  14. Can Producing Oil Store Carbon? Greenhouse Gas Footprint of CO2EOR, Offshore North Sea.

    PubMed

    Stewart, R Jamie; Haszeldine, R Stuart

    2015-05-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2EOR) is a proven and available technology used to produce incremental oil from depleted fields while permanently storing large tonnages of injected CO2. Although this technology has been used successfully onshore in North America and Europe, there are currently no CO2EOR projects in the United Kingdom. Here, we examine whether offshore CO2EOR can store more CO2 than onshore projects traditionally have and whether CO2 storage can offset additional emissions produced through offshore operations and incremental oil production. Using a high-level Life Cycle system approach, we find that the largest contribution to offshore emissions is from flaring or venting of reproduced CH4 and CO2. These can already be greatly reduced by regulation. If CO2 injection is continued after oil production has been optimized, then offshore CO2EOR has the potential to be carbon negative--even when emissions from refining, transport, and combustion of produced crude oil are included. The carbon intensity of oil produced can be just 0.056-0.062 tCO2e/bbl if flaring/venting is reduced by regulation. This compares against conventional Saudi oil 0.040 tCO2e/bbl or mined shale oil >0.300 tCO2e/bbl. PMID:25789442

  15. Can Producing Oil Store Carbon? Greenhouse Gas Footprint of CO2EOR, Offshore North Sea.

    PubMed

    Stewart, R Jamie; Haszeldine, R Stuart

    2015-05-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2EOR) is a proven and available technology used to produce incremental oil from depleted fields while permanently storing large tonnages of injected CO2. Although this technology has been used successfully onshore in North America and Europe, there are currently no CO2EOR projects in the United Kingdom. Here, we examine whether offshore CO2EOR can store more CO2 than onshore projects traditionally have and whether CO2 storage can offset additional emissions produced through offshore operations and incremental oil production. Using a high-level Life Cycle system approach, we find that the largest contribution to offshore emissions is from flaring or venting of reproduced CH4 and CO2. These can already be greatly reduced by regulation. If CO2 injection is continued after oil production has been optimized, then offshore CO2EOR has the potential to be carbon negative--even when emissions from refining, transport, and combustion of produced crude oil are included. The carbon intensity of oil produced can be just 0.056-0.062 tCO2e/bbl if flaring/venting is reduced by regulation. This compares against conventional Saudi oil 0.040 tCO2e/bbl or mined shale oil >0.300 tCO2e/bbl.

  16. Environmental fate of a dispersed Ekofisk crude oil in sea-immersed plastic columns

    SciTech Connect

    Tjessem, K.; Pedersen, D.; Aaberg, A.

    1984-01-01

    Particular emphasis is placed on the strong photochemical impacts of this crude oil under field conditions at 60 degrees latitude with the understanding that the oil dispersant-photooxidation interactions may well be a component of much of the observed detergent toxicity effects occurring during cleanup operations after oil spills. Both tritiated and unlabelled Ekofisk crude oil were poured (.5 L each) onto the water surface of two large plastic enclosures north of Bergen, Norway during June 1980. A nonlabelled detergent Corexit 9527 was used to treat the slicks 24 hr after the initial addition of the oil to the water surface. Two replicate ecosystems without the added detergent served as control. A high concentration of polar petroleum derived components exceeding the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons several time was formed inside the oil/dispersant enclosures which, together with transformation products of the dispersant, proved fairly toxic to several marine biota, virtually eliminating the total planktonic biomass. Photooxidation of the oil/dispersant mixture has been invoked as a primary mechanism to explain the formation of polar substances being leached into the water column. These findings suggest that the dispersed hydrocarbons or the original detergent itself are not likely to be responsible for most of the observed toxicity. The toxicity of the transformation products of the oil and detergent contain many reactive groups and are a much more valid concern. 23 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  17. Dynamic changes in the structure of microbial communities in Baltic Sea coastal seawater microcosms modified by crude oil, shale oil or diesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Viggor, Signe; Juhanson, Jaanis; Jõesaar, Merike; Mitt, Mario; Truu, Jaak; Vedler, Eve; Heinaru, Ain

    2013-08-25

    The coastal waters of the Baltic Sea are constantly threatened by oil spills, due to the extensive transportation of oil products across the sea. To characterise the hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial community of this marine area, microcosm experiments on diesel fuel, crude oil and shale oil were performed. Analysis of these microcosms, using alkane monooxygenase (alkB) and 16S rRNA marker genes in PCR-DGGE experiments, demonstrated that substrate type and concentration strongly influence species composition and the occurrence of alkB genes in respective oil degrading bacterial communities. Gammaproteobacteria (particularly the genus Pseudomonas) and Alphaproteobacteria were dominant in all microcosms treated with oils. All alkB genes carried by bacterial isolates (40 strains), and 8 of the 11 major DGGE bands from the microcosms, had more than 95% sequence identity with the alkB genes of Pseudomonas fluorescens. However, the closest relatives of the majority of sequences (54 sequences from 79) of the alkB gene library from initially collected seawater DNA were Actinobacteria. alkB gene expression, induced by hexadecane, was recorded in isolated bacterial strains. Thus, complementary culture dependent and independent methods provided a more accurate picture about the complex seawater microbial communities of the Baltic Sea.

  18. Toxicity of binary mixtures of oil fractions to sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Rial, Diego; Vázquez, José A; Menduiña, Araceli; García, Ana M; González, M Pilar; Mirón, Jesús; Murado, Miguel A

    2013-12-15

    The assumption of additive toxicity for oil compounds is related to a narcotic mode of action. However, the joint toxicity of oil fractions has not been fully investigated. A fractionation of Maya crude oil into aliphatics, aromatics and polars was performed, fractions were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and subsequently toxicity of single fractions and binary mixtures was assessed using the sea urchin embryo test. The descriptive ability of Concentration Addition (CA), Independent Action (IA) and modifications of both models for describing the joint toxicity of mixtures has also been evaluated. The hydrocarbon content extractable with dichloromethane of the fractions dissolved in DMSO was: 12.0 ± 1.8 mg mL(-1), 39.0 ± 0.5 mg mL(-1) and 20.5 ± 2.5 mg mL(-1) for aliphatics, aromatics and polars, respectively. The toxicity of the extracts in DMSO of the fractions as EC50 (μLL(-1)) was: aliphatics (165.8-242.3)oil fractions. In addition, synergistic or antagonistic effects were not observed.

  19. Assessment of sediment hydrocarbon contamination from the 2009 Montara oil blow out in the Timor Sea.

    PubMed

    Burns, Kathryn A; Jones, Ross

    2016-04-01

    In August 2009, a blowout of the Montara H1 well 260 km off the northwest coast of Australia resulted in the uncontrolled release of about 4.7 M L of light crude oil and gaseous hydrocarbons into the Timor Sea. Over the 74 day period of the spill, the oil remained offshore and did not result in shoreline incidents on the Australia mainland. At various times slicks were sighted over a 90,000 km(2) area, forming a layer of oil which was tracked by airplanes and satellites but the slicks typically remained within 35 km of the well head platform and were treated with 183,000 L of dispersants. The shelf area where the spill occurred is shallow (100-200 m) and includes off shore emergent reefs and cays and submerged banks and shoals. This study describes the increased inputs of oil to the system and assesses the environmental impact. Concentrations of hydrocarbon in the sediment at the time of survey were very low (total aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranged from 0.04 to 31 ng g(-1)) and were orders of magnitude lower than concentrations at which biological effects would be expected. PMID:26774768

  20. Assessment of sediment hydrocarbon contamination from the 2009 Montara oil blow out in the Timor Sea.

    PubMed

    Burns, Kathryn A; Jones, Ross

    2016-04-01

    In August 2009, a blowout of the Montara H1 well 260 km off the northwest coast of Australia resulted in the uncontrolled release of about 4.7 M L of light crude oil and gaseous hydrocarbons into the Timor Sea. Over the 74 day period of the spill, the oil remained offshore and did not result in shoreline incidents on the Australia mainland. At various times slicks were sighted over a 90,000 km(2) area, forming a layer of oil which was tracked by airplanes and satellites but the slicks typically remained within 35 km of the well head platform and were treated with 183,000 L of dispersants. The shelf area where the spill occurred is shallow (100-200 m) and includes off shore emergent reefs and cays and submerged banks and shoals. This study describes the increased inputs of oil to the system and assesses the environmental impact. Concentrations of hydrocarbon in the sediment at the time of survey were very low (total aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranged from 0.04 to 31 ng g(-1)) and were orders of magnitude lower than concentrations at which biological effects would be expected.

  1. Diet among oil-workers on off-shore oil installations in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Oshaug, A; Ostgård, L I; Trygg, K U

    1992-07-01

    Dietary studies based on 24 h recalls were carried out on four oil installations in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Two hundred and three persons were interviewed about what they had eaten the previous 24 h. Food purchased for the installations in the previous 5 months was recorded. Results based on 24 h recalls showed that average daily intake of energy was 12.2 MJ of which 17% came from protein, 44% from fat and 39% from carbohydrate, including 8% from sugar. Meat, vegetables, fresh fruits, seafood (shellfish), french fries, eggs, cream and ice-cream were important components of the diet, while bread, fish and cereals played a minor role. Average daily intake (mg) of nutrients were: calcium 1244, iron 15, vitamin A 1049 micrograms, vitamin D 4.1 micrograms, thiamin 1.6, riboflavin 2.2, nicotinic acid 22, ascorbic acid 143. Dietary fibre intake, estimated as unavailable carbohydrate, was on average 19 g, and the average daily intake of cholesterol was 755 mg. Intakes were compared with the Norwegian recommended dietary allowance. Most of the employees chose a diet which when eaten over a longer period of time may contribute to the development of coronary heart diseases (CHD) and thereby increase the morbidity and mortality from CHD in the oil industry.

  2. Diet among oil-workers on off-shore oil installations in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Oshaug, A; Ostgård, L I; Trygg, K U

    1992-07-01

    Dietary studies based on 24 h recalls were carried out on four oil installations in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Two hundred and three persons were interviewed about what they had eaten the previous 24 h. Food purchased for the installations in the previous 5 months was recorded. Results based on 24 h recalls showed that average daily intake of energy was 12.2 MJ of which 17% came from protein, 44% from fat and 39% from carbohydrate, including 8% from sugar. Meat, vegetables, fresh fruits, seafood (shellfish), french fries, eggs, cream and ice-cream were important components of the diet, while bread, fish and cereals played a minor role. Average daily intake (mg) of nutrients were: calcium 1244, iron 15, vitamin A 1049 micrograms, vitamin D 4.1 micrograms, thiamin 1.6, riboflavin 2.2, nicotinic acid 22, ascorbic acid 143. Dietary fibre intake, estimated as unavailable carbohydrate, was on average 19 g, and the average daily intake of cholesterol was 755 mg. Intakes were compared with the Norwegian recommended dietary allowance. Most of the employees chose a diet which when eaten over a longer period of time may contribute to the development of coronary heart diseases (CHD) and thereby increase the morbidity and mortality from CHD in the oil industry. PMID:1390597

  3. Mortality of seabirds in high-seas salmon gillnets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ainley, D.G.; DeGange, A.R.; Jones, L.L.; Beach, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1952, the Japanese have operated a large salmon driftnet.fishery in the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. This fishery is divided into two components: the high-seas mothership fleet, which consists of several processing ships and their numerous, smaller catcher boats that remain at sea during the entire fishing season, and the land-based fleet, which consists of independent fishing boats that catch and store their own fish and return to Japan at more frequent intervals (Sanger 1976; Fredin et al. 2 ). A similar fishery in the North Atlantic between 1965 and 1976 was responsible for the deaths of large numbers of the thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia, and significant reductions in its breeding populations (Tull et al. 1972). Recent work in the North Pacific and Bering Sea by Sana (1978) and King et al. (1979) indicated that large numbers of seabirds are killed annually in the Japanese salmon fishery also.

  4. Growth and immune system performance to assess the effect of dispersed oil on juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Dussauze, Matthieu; Danion, Morgane; Floch, Stéphane Le; Lemaire, Philippe; Theron, Michaël; Pichavant-Rafini, Karine

    2015-10-01

    The potential impact of chemically and mechanically dispersed oil was assessed in a model fish of European coastal waters, the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Juvenile sea bass were exposed for 48h to dispersed oil (mechanically and chemically) or dispersants alone. The impact of these exposure conditions was assessed using growth and immunity. The increase observed in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in bile indicated oil contamination in the fish exposed to chemical and mechanical dispersion of oil without any significant difference between these two groups. After 28 days of exposure, no significant differences were observed in specific growth rate,apparent food conversion efficiency and daily feeding). Following the oil exposure, fish immunity was assessed by a challenge with Viral Nervous Necrosis Virus (VNNV). Fish mortality was observed over a 42 day period. After 12 days post-infection, cumulative mortality was significantly different between the control group (16% p≤0.05) and the group exposed to chemical dispersion of oil (30% p≤0.05). However, at the end of the experiment, no significant difference was recorded in cumulative mortality or in VNNV antibodies secreted in fish in responses to the treatments. These data suggested that in our experimental condition, following the oil exposure, sea bass growth was not affected whereas an impact on immunity was observed during the first days. However, this effect on the immune system did not persist over time. PMID:26092553

  5. 2013 update on sea otter studies to assess recovery from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballachey, Brenda E.; Monson, Daniel H.; Esslinger, George G.; Kloecker, Kimberly; Bodkin, James; Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith

    2014-01-01

    On March 24, 1989, the tanker vessel Exxon Valdez ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska, spilling an estimated 42 million liters of Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Oil spread in a southwesterly direction and was deposited on shores and waters in western Prince William Sound (WPWS). The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) was one of more than 20 nearshore species considered to have been injured by the spill. Since 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey has led a research program to evaluate effects of the spill on sea otters and assess progress toward recovery, as defined by demographic and biochemical indicators. Here, we provide an update on the status of sea otter populations in WPWS, presenting findings through 2013. To assess recovery based on demographic indicators, we used aerial surveys to estimate abundance and annual collections of sea otter carcasses to evaluate patterns in ages-at-death. To assess recovery based on biochemical indicators, we quantified transcription rates for a suite of genes selected as potential indicators of oil exposure in sea otters based on laboratory studies of a related species, the mink (Mustela vison). In our most recent assessment of sea otter recovery, which incorporated results from a subset of studies through 2009, we concluded that recovery of sea otters in WPWS was underway. This conclusion was based on increasing abundance throughout WPWS, including increasing numbers at northern Knight Island, an area that was heavily oiled in 1989 and where the local sea otter population had previously shown protracted injury and lack of recovery. However, we did not conclude that the WPWS sea otter population had fully recovered, due to indications of continuing reduced survival and exposure to lingering oil in sea otters at Knight Island, at least through 2009. Based on data available through 2013, we now conclude that the status of sea otters—at all spatial scales within WPWS—is consistent with the designation of recovery from the spill as

  6. Enhanced methane emissions from oil and gas exploration areas to the atmosphere--the central Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Hua-de; Zhai, Wei-dong; Zang, Kun-peng; Wang, Ju-ying

    2014-04-15

    The distributions of dissolved methane in the central Bohai Sea were investigated in November 2011, May 2012, July 2012, and August 2012. Methane concentration in surface seawater, determined using an underway measurement system combined with wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy, showed marked spatiotemporal variations with saturation ratio from 107% to 1193%. The central Bohai Sea was thus a source of atmospheric methane during the survey periods. Several episodic oil and gas spill events increased surface methane concentration by up to 4.7 times and raised the local methane outgassing rate by up to 14.6 times. This study demonstrated a method to detect seafloor CH4 leakages at the sea surface, which may have applicability in many shallow sea areas with oil and gas exploration activities around the world. PMID:24602676

  7. Enhanced methane emissions from oil and gas exploration areas to the atmosphere--the central Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Hua-de; Zhai, Wei-dong; Zang, Kun-peng; Wang, Ju-ying

    2014-04-15

    The distributions of dissolved methane in the central Bohai Sea were investigated in November 2011, May 2012, July 2012, and August 2012. Methane concentration in surface seawater, determined using an underway measurement system combined with wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy, showed marked spatiotemporal variations with saturation ratio from 107% to 1193%. The central Bohai Sea was thus a source of atmospheric methane during the survey periods. Several episodic oil and gas spill events increased surface methane concentration by up to 4.7 times and raised the local methane outgassing rate by up to 14.6 times. This study demonstrated a method to detect seafloor CH4 leakages at the sea surface, which may have applicability in many shallow sea areas with oil and gas exploration activities around the world.

  8. Oil degradation and biosurfactant production by the deep sea bacterium Dietzia maris As-13-3

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wanpeng; Cai, Bobo; Shao, Zongze

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigations of extreme environments have revealed numerous bioactive natural products. However, biosurfactant-producing strains from deep sea extreme environment are largely unknown. Here, we show that Dietzia maris As-13-3 isolated from deep sea hydrothermal field could produce di-rhamnolipid as biosurfactant. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the purified di-rhamnolipid was determined to be 120 mgL−1, and it lowered the surface tension of water from 74 ± 0.2 to 38 ± 0.2 mN m−1. Further, the alkane metabolic pathway-related genes and di-rhamnolipid biosynthesis-related genes were also analyzed by the sequencing genome of D. maris As-13-3 and quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR), respectively. Q-PCR analysis showed that all these genes were induced by n-Tetradecane, n-Hexadecane, and pristane. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report about the complete pathway of the di-rhamnolipid synthesis process in the genus Dietzia. Thus, our study provided the insights into Dietzia in respects of oil degradation and biosurfactant production, and will help to evaluate the potential of Dietzia in marine oil removal. PMID:25566224

  9. Oil degradation and biosurfactant production by the deep sea bacterium Dietzia maris As-13-3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanpeng; Cai, Bobo; Shao, Zongze

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigations of extreme environments have revealed numerous bioactive natural products. However, biosurfactant-producing strains from deep sea extreme environment are largely unknown. Here, we show that Dietzia maris As-13-3 isolated from deep sea hydrothermal field could produce di-rhamnolipid as biosurfactant. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the purified di-rhamnolipid was determined to be 120 mgL(-1), and it lowered the surface tension of water from 74 ± 0.2 to 38 ± 0.2 mN m(-1). Further, the alkane metabolic pathway-related genes and di-rhamnolipid biosynthesis-related genes were also analyzed by the sequencing genome of D. maris As-13-3 and quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR), respectively. Q-PCR analysis showed that all these genes were induced by n-Tetradecane, n-Hexadecane, and pristane. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report about the complete pathway of the di-rhamnolipid synthesis process in the genus Dietzia. Thus, our study provided the insights into Dietzia in respects of oil degradation and biosurfactant production, and will help to evaluate the potential of Dietzia in marine oil removal. PMID:25566224

  10. Development of decision support system for oil spill management in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liubartseva, Svitlana; Coppini, Giovanni; Pinardi, Nadia; De Dominicis, Michela; Marra, Palmalisa; Lecci, Rita; Turrisi, Giuseppe; Creti, Sergio; Martinelli, Sara; Agostini, Paola; Palermo, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    developed as a part of TESSA Project portfolio providing the unified access to others services. Thus, SEACONDITIONS (http://www.sea-conditions.com) performs visualization and on-line delivery of forecast of surface currents, sea surface temperature, significant wave height and direction, wave period and direction; air temperature, surface pressure, precipitation, cloud coverage, wind speed, etc. Apart from the basin scale visualization SEACONDITIONS supports the zooming capability. User feedback reports from fishermen, port authorities including Coast Guard, offshore companies, aquatic and coastal tourism managers, and academia have been collected and used for the system improvements. User-friendliness of GUI, tooltips, an opportunity to vary the advanced parameters, efficiency of the visualization tool, and a help section were appreciated in these reports. In accordance with the users' requirements, a to-do list is composed for the further development of WITOIL. This work was performed in the framework of the TESSA Project (Sviluppo di TEcnologie per la Situational Sea Awareness) supported by PON (Ricerca & Competitività 2007-2013) cofunded by UE (Fondo Europeo di sviluppo regionale), MIUR (Ministero Italiano dell'Università e della Ricerca), and MSE (Ministero dello Sviluppo Economico). References De Dominicis, M., Pinardi, N., Zodiatis, G., and Lardner, R., 2013. MEDSLIK-II, a Lagrangian marine surface oil spill model for short term forecasting - Part 1: Theory. Geosci. Model Dev. 6, 1851-1869.

  11. Gene transcript profiling in sea otters post-Exxon Valdez oil spill: A tool for marine ecosystem health assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Waters, Shannon C.; Bodkin, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Using a panel of genes stimulated by oil exposure in a laboratory study, we evaluated gene transcription in blood leukocytes sampled from sea otters captured from 2006–2012 in western Prince William Sound (WPWS), Alaska, 17–23 years after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). We compared WPWS sea otters to reference populations (not affected by the EVOS) from the Alaska Peninsula (2009), Katmai National Park and Preserve (2009), Clam Lagoon at Adak Island (2012), Kodiak Island (2005) and captive sea otters in aquaria. Statistically, sea otter gene transcript profiles separated into three distinct clusters: Cluster 1, Kodiak and WPWS 2006–2008 (higher relative transcription); Cluster 2, Clam Lagoon and WPWS 2010–2012 (lower relative transcription); and Cluster 3, Alaska Peninsula, Katmai and captive sea otters (intermediate relative transcription). The lower transcription of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), an established biomarker for hydrocarbon exposure, in WPWS 2010–2012 compared to earlier samples from WPWS is consistent with declining hydrocarbon exposure, but the pattern of overall low levels of transcription seen in WPWS 2010–2012 could be related to other factors, such as food limitation, pathogens or injury, and may indicate an inability to mount effective responses to stressors. Decreased transcriptional response across the entire gene panel precludes the evaluation of whether or not individual sea otters show signs of exposure to lingering oil. However, related studies on sea otter demographics indicate that by 2012, the sea otter population in WPWS had recovered, which indicates diminishing oil exposure.

  12. Spore-forming thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from North Sea oil field waters

    SciTech Connect

    Rosnes, J.T.; Torsvik, T.; Lien, T. )

    1991-08-01

    Thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from oil field waters from oil production platforms in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Spore-forming rods dominated in the enrichments when lactate, propionate, butyrate, or a mixture of aliphatic fatty acids (C{sub 4} through C{sub 6}) was added as a carbon source and electron donor. Representative strains were isolated and characterized. The isolates grew autotrophically on H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} and heterotrophically on fatty acids such as formate, propionate, butyrate, caproate, valerate, pyruvate, and lactate and on alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, and propanol. Sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate but not nitrate could be used as an electron acceptor. The temperature range for growth was 43 to 78C; the spores were extremely heat resistant and survived 131C for 20 min. The optimum pH was 7.0. The isolates grew well in salt concentrations ranging from 0 to 800 mmol of NaCl per liter. Sulfite reductase P582 was present, but cytochrome c and desulfoviridin were not found. Electron micrographs revealed a gram-positive cell organization. The isolates were classified as a Desulfotomaculum sp. on the basis of spore formation, general physiological characteristics, and submicroscopic organization. To detect thermophilic spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil field water, polyvalent antisera raised against antigens from two isolates were used. These bacteria were shown to be widespread in oil field water from different platforms. The origin of thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria in the pore water of oil reservoirs is discussed.

  13. Deep-sea bacteria enriched by oil and dispersant from the Deepwater Horizon spill.

    PubMed

    Baelum, Jacob; Borglin, Sharon; Chakraborty, Romy; Fortney, Julian L; Lamendella, Regina; Mason, Olivia U; Auer, Manfred; Zemla, Marcin; Bill, Markus; Conrad, Mark E; Malfatti, Stephanie A; Tringe, Susannah G; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Hazen, Terry C; Jansson, Janet K

    2012-09-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in a massive influx of hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico (the Gulf). To better understand the fate of the oil, we enriched and isolated indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from deep, uncontaminated waters from the Gulf with oil (Macondo MC252) and dispersant used during the spill (COREXIT 9500). During 20 days of incubation at 5°C, CO(2) evolution, hydrocarbon concentrations and the microbial community composition were determined. Approximately 60% to 25% of the dissolved oil with or without COREXIT, respectively, was degraded, in addition to some hydrocarbons in the COREXIT. FeCl(2) addition initially increased respiration rates, but not the total amount of hydrocarbons degraded. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed a succession in the microbial community over time, with an increase in abundance of Colwellia and Oceanospirillales during the incubations. Flocs formed during incubations with oil and/or COREXIT in the absence of FeCl(2) . Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy revealed that the flocs were comprised of oil, carbohydrates and biomass. Colwellia were the dominant bacteria in the flocs. Colwellia sp. strain RC25 was isolated from one of the enrichments and confirmed to rapidly degrade high amounts (approximately 75%) of the MC252 oil at 5°C. Together these data highlight several features that provide Colwellia with the capacity to degrade oil in cold, deep marine habitats, including aggregation together with oil droplets into flocs and hydrocarbon degradation ability. PMID:22616650

  14. Deep-sea bacteria enriched by oil and dispersant from the Deepwater Horizon spill.

    PubMed

    Baelum, Jacob; Borglin, Sharon; Chakraborty, Romy; Fortney, Julian L; Lamendella, Regina; Mason, Olivia U; Auer, Manfred; Zemla, Marcin; Bill, Markus; Conrad, Mark E; Malfatti, Stephanie A; Tringe, Susannah G; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Hazen, Terry C; Jansson, Janet K

    2012-09-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in a massive influx of hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico (the Gulf). To better understand the fate of the oil, we enriched and isolated indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from deep, uncontaminated waters from the Gulf with oil (Macondo MC252) and dispersant used during the spill (COREXIT 9500). During 20 days of incubation at 5°C, CO(2) evolution, hydrocarbon concentrations and the microbial community composition were determined. Approximately 60% to 25% of the dissolved oil with or without COREXIT, respectively, was degraded, in addition to some hydrocarbons in the COREXIT. FeCl(2) addition initially increased respiration rates, but not the total amount of hydrocarbons degraded. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed a succession in the microbial community over time, with an increase in abundance of Colwellia and Oceanospirillales during the incubations. Flocs formed during incubations with oil and/or COREXIT in the absence of FeCl(2) . Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy revealed that the flocs were comprised of oil, carbohydrates and biomass. Colwellia were the dominant bacteria in the flocs. Colwellia sp. strain RC25 was isolated from one of the enrichments and confirmed to rapidly degrade high amounts (approximately 75%) of the MC252 oil at 5°C. Together these data highlight several features that provide Colwellia with the capacity to degrade oil in cold, deep marine habitats, including aggregation together with oil droplets into flocs and hydrocarbon degradation ability.

  15. Spreading of oil films on the sea surface: radar/optical observations and physical mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, Stanislav; Kapustin, Ivan; Sergievskaya, Irina; da Silva, Jose

    2015-10-01

    Marine slicks are one of the most common features on the sea surface and a significant part of the slicks is a result of accidental or deliberate oil spills. The shape of oil slicks is their important characteristic that can be used to identify the nature of slick signatures in radar or optical images of the sea surface and possibly to describe them quantitatively. Nowadays, however, there is a lack of systematic experiments with slicks, and the very physical mechanisms of slick spreading are still not well understood. This paper presents results of controlled experiments with spills of surfactants, and a possible physical mechanism of slick asymmetry is discussed. Experiments with artificial film slicks were carried out in different environmental conditions: from an Oceanographic Platform on the Black Sea, and from a vessel on the Gorky Water Reservoir. Slick shape and its evolution were studied using photographic methods, and satellite radar imagery. In the satellite experiments surfactants were poured on the surface at certain time intervals before the satellite overpass. It is obtained that film spreading is not axial symmetric, and the spills are stretched along the wind, a long-to-short slick axis ratio weakly depends on spreading time and grows with wind speed. A physical mechanism of slick deformation due to mean surface currents induced by wind waves is proposed. Namely, drift currents induced by oblique propagating surface waves increase in film slicks due to enhanced wave damping and these currents result in reduced spreading rate in the cross wind direction. Theoretical analysis of slick spreading accounting for the effect of surface waves is presented, and theoretical estimates are shown to be consistent with experiment.

  16. Calculating model for equivalent consumption efficiency in polarization measurement system of oil-spilled on the sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiang; Qian, Weixian; Lu, Dongming; Lu, Yingcheng

    2016-07-01

    As a new analytical method to identify oil spill on sea, the main effect of polarization measurement system is the scattering polarization information of different measured parts. This paper observed the polarization characteristic of oil film and seawater, and analyzed the transmission path of polarized light in the samples. Combined with Fresnel formula and law of Beer, the path of polarized light was divided into three parts, and the light propagation between the molecules was analyzed in detail. The results were affected by the capacity to change the polarization state. In order to quantify the equivalence, we defined an equivalent consumption efficiency (ECE). The ECE describes the ability of the molecules to weaken the polarization attribute of incident light. Then according to the polarization information in Mueller matrix, we inferred that the oil film and seawater had different polarization characteristics. In order to verify the correctness of the model, we applied it to detect the actual oil spill on sea in the case of simulated sunlight finally. Research indicated that the propagation path of polarization light was in connection with the molecular structure and interactions of medium. Under the different measuring angles, the ECE of oil film and seawater have both differences and regularities, the experimental results indicated that it can be used for rapid detection of oil spill on sea, and the data is accurate and reliable.

  17. Healing efficacy of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed oil in an ovine burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroshi; Asmussen, Sven; Traber, Daniel L; Cox, Robert A; Hawkins, Hal K; Connelly, Rhykka; Traber, Lillian D; Walker, Timothy W; Malgerud, Erik; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the efficacy of sea buckthorn (SBT) seed oil - a rich source of substances known to have anti-atherogenic and cardioprotective activity, and to promote skin and mucosa epithelization - on burn wound healing, five adult sheep were subjected to 3rd degree flame burns. Two burn sites were made on the dorsum of the sheep and the eschar was excised down to the fascia. Split-thickness skin grafts were harvested, meshed, and fitted to the wounds. The autograft was placed on the fascia and SBT seed oil was topically applied to one recipient and one donor site, respectively, with the remaining sites treated with vehicle. The wound blood flow (LASER Doppler), and epithelization (ultrasound) were determined at 6, 14, and 21 days after injury. 14 days after grafting, the percentage of epithelization in the treated sites was greater (95 ± 2.2% vs. 83 ± 2.9%, p<0.05) than in the untreated sites. Complete epithelization time was shorter in both treated recipient and donor sites (14.20 ± 0.48 vs. 19.60 ± 0.40 days, p<0.05 and 13.40 ± 1.02 vs. 19.60 ± 0.50 days, p<0.05, respectively) than in the untreated sites, confirmed by ultrasound. In conclusion, SBT seed oil has significant wound healing activity in full-thickness burns and split-thickness harvested wounds.

  18. Structural setting and validation of direct hydrocarbon indicators for Amauligak oil field, Canadian Beaufort Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Enachescu, M.E. )

    1990-01-01

    The recent discovery of a giant oil field in the southeastern Beaufort-Mackenzie basin has brought this frontier area closer to oil production despite severe environmental conditions. The Amauligak field is a fault-bounded growth structure developed in the Kugmallit Trough, within deltaic deposits of the Beaufort Sea Shelf. Shelf construction occurred during the Late Cretaceous-Tertiary by repeated progradation of the Mackenzie River delta in response to rift-induced opening of the Canada basin and extension of the Kugmallit Trough. The Amauligak field contains oil and gas in multiple sandstone reservoirs of the Oligocene Kugmallit sequence. The upper sandstones are truncated by an unconformity and sealed by the overlying shales of the Miocene Mackenzie Bay sequence. Based on two-dimensional seismic coverage, the field was initially described as structurally simple. Interactive interpretation on Landmark and SIDIS workstations of a three-dimensional seismic program revealed the local structural complications, spatial configuration, and detailed structural elements of the field. Direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs), including amplitude anomaly, phase change, flat spot, and low-frequency zone, associated with a large gas cap were investigated using full amplitude-range and attribute-extraction methods. Interpretation of seismic data and correlation with well results suggest that a combination of structural, stratigraphic, and hydrodynamic factors are responsible for the appearance and distribution of Amauligak DHIs. On the amplitude displays, a fluid contact is seismically mappable over the field, clearly separating the gas cap from the wet reservoir. 16 figs.

  19. Effect of seawater desalination and oil pollution on the lipid composition of blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. from the White Sea.

    PubMed

    Fokina, N N; Bakhmet, I N; Shklyarevich, G A; Nemova, N N

    2014-12-01

    A study on the effect oil pollution under normal and reduced salinity had on blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. from the White Sea in an aquarium-based experiment and in the natural habitat revealed a change in gill total lipids as a compensatory response. The cholesterol concentration and the cholesterol/phospholipids ratio in gills were found to reflect the impact of the environmental factors (oil pollution and desalination), and evidence adaptive changes in the cell membrane structure. An elevated content of storage lipids (chiefly triacylglycerols) in the mussels in the aquarium experiment indicates, first of all, the uptake and accumulation of oil products in gill cells under both normal and reduced seawater salinity, while high triacylglycerols level in gill littoral mussels from 'control' biotope in the Gulf of Kandalaksha is primarily associated with the mussel׳s pre-spawning period.

  20. Meteotsunami-tide interactions and high-frequency sea level oscillations in the eastern Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byoung-Ju; Hwang, Chorong; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2014-10-01

    While an air pressure jump was moving southeastward over the shallow water region of the eastern Yellow Sea in March 2007, a long ocean wave (meteotsunami) was generated and amplified due to the Proudman resonance. The long wave arrived at the coast during high tide with wave amplitude of 1.4 m and seawater overflew seawalls and inundated the land. High-frequency sea level oscillations continued for 8-9 h after the long wave hit a local coast. The Moon's age was 12 days, and the tidal range was about 4 m between neap and spring tides. Two-dimensional numerical simulations were performed, to reproduce amplification of the long ocean wave in offshore and oscillations of sea level at the coast. Both tidal elevation and tidal currents were found to affect the growth of the long wave amplitude by the interactions between tides and the long wave. Long wave-tides interactions are important processes for the accurate prediction of long wave arrival time and maximum height and for the reduction of coastal hazards in the macrotidal region. After the long wave hit the coast of remote regions, reflected waves propagated radially from remote regions to a local coast. The high-frequency sea level oscillations at a local observation station continued, until all of the reflected waves from remote regions had passed by. It was concluded that high-frequency oscillations of sea level are generated not only by local reflection of the long wave, but also by propagation of the reflected waves from remote regions.

  1. High protein production of phytoplankton in the Amundsen Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung Song, Ho; Jung Kang, Jae; Kyung Kim, Bo; Joo, HuiTae; Jin Yang, Eun; Park, Jisoo; Hoon Lee, Sang; Heon Lee, Sang

    2016-01-01

    The Amundsen Sea polynya is one of the largest and most productive polynyas in the Southern Ocean and has recently experienced a rapid change in sea ice coverage. However, very little is known about current physiological status of phytoplankton and its quality as food for pelagic herbivores and consequently higher trophic levels in the Amundsen Sea. Using a 13C isotope tracer technique, macromolecular production measurements of phytoplankton at eleven stations were conducted at three light depths (100, 30, and 1%) onboard R/V ARAON in the Amundsen Sea, 2012. The concentrations of major inorganic nutrients were replete at all the productivity stations and no substantial difference in macromolecular production was found between polynya and non-polynya regions. Distinct vertical trends were not observed in low-molecular-weight metabolites (LMWM) and polysaccharide productions, but weak vertical patterns in lipid and protein productions were found during our cruise period. The vertical patterns of lipids slightly increased with depth whereas decreased for protein synthesis in this study, and these vertical trends were not consistent with the results reported previously in the Arctic Ocean. Overall, phytoplankton allocated more photosynthetic carbon into proteins (60.0%) than other macromolecules in the Amundsen Sea, which is markedly higher than those reported previously in the Antarctic Ocean, ranging from 7 to 23%. The high protein synthesis appears to be sustained by high concentrations of major nutrients, which might be a strong factor for general patterns of macromolecular productions of phytoplankton in polar oceans, even under potential iron limitation.

  2. Bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in arctic amphipods in the oil development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

    PubMed

    Neff, Jerry M; Durell, Gregory S

    2012-04-01

    An objective of a multiyear monitoring program, sponsored by the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management was to examine temporal and spatial changes in chemical and biological characteristics of the Arctic marine environment resulting from offshore oil exploration and development activities in the development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. To determine if petroleum hydrocarbons from offshore oil operations are entering the Beaufort Sea food web, we measured concentrations of hydrocarbons in tissues of amphipods, Anonyx nugax, sediments, Northstar crude oil, and coastal peat, collected between 1999 and 2006 throughout the development area. Mean concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), saturated hydrocarbons (SHC), and sterane and triterpane petroleum biomarkers (StTr) were not significantly different in amphipods near the Northstar oil production facility, before and after it came on line in 2001, and in amphipods from elsewhere in the study area. Forensic analysis of the profiles (relative composition and concentrations) of the 3 hydrocarbon classes revealed that hydrocarbon compositions were different in amphipods, surface sediments where the amphipods were collected, Northstar crude oil, and peat from the deltas of 4 North Slope rivers. Amphipods and sediments contained a mixture of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic PAH. The SHC in amphipods were dominated by pristane derived from zooplankton, indicating that the SHC were primarily from the amphipod diet of zooplankton detritus. The petroleum biomarker StTr profiles did not resemble those in Northstar crude oil. The forensic analysis revealed that hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were not from oil production at Northstar. Hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were primarily from their diet and from river runoff and coastal erosion of natural diagenic and fossil terrestrial materials, including seep oils, kerogens, and peat. Offshore oil and gas exploration and development

  3. β-Cyclodextrin-based oil-absorbent microspheres: preparation and high oil absorbency.

    PubMed

    Song, Ci; Ding, Lei; Yao, Fei; Deng, Jianping; Yang, Wantai

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the preparation and evaluation of polymeric microspheres as a new class of oil-absorbent (POAMs). Based on our earlier oil-absorbents, the present microspheres contained β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) moieties as both cross-linking agent and porogen agent, and showed exciting high oil absorbency, fast oil absorption speed and good reusability. Such microspheres were prepared via suspension polymerization with octadecyl acrylate and butyl acrylate as co-monomers, β-CD derivative as cross-linking agent, 2,2'-azoisobutyronitrile as initiator and polyvinylalcohol as stabilizer. Oil absorbency of the POAMs was, for CCl(4), 83.4; CHCl(3), 75.1; xylene, 48.7; toluene, 42.8; gasoline, 30.0; kerosene 27.1; and diesel, 18.2 g/g (oil/POAMs). Saturation oil absorption reached within 3h in CCl(4). The POAMs exhibited high oil retention percentage (>90%), and can be reused for at least 10 times while keeping oil absorbency almost unchanged. PMID:23044125

  4. Differential gene expression induced by exposure of captive mink to fuel oil: A model for the sea otter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, L.; Riva, F.; Mohr, C.; Aldridge, B.; Schwartz, J.; Miles, A.K.; Stott, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Free-ranging sea otters are subject to hydrocarbon exposure from a variety of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. Effects of direct exposure to unrefined crude oil, such as that associated with the Exxon Valdez oil spill, are readily apparent. However, the impact of subtle but pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of crude oil on sea otters is difficult to assess. The present study was directed at developing a model for assessing the impact of low concentrations of fuel oil on sea otters. Quantitative PCR was used to identify differential gene expression in American mink that were exposed to low concentrations of bunker C fuel oil. A total of 23 genes, representing 10 different physiological systems, were analyzed for perturbation. Six genes with immunological relevance were differentially expressed in oil-fed mink. Interleukin-18 (IL-18), IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and complement cytolysis inhibitor (CLI) were down-regulated while IL-2 was up-regulated. Expression of two additional genes was affected; heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was up-regulated and thyroid hormone receptor (THR) was down-regulated. While the significance of each perturbation is not immediately evident, we identified differential expression of genes that would be consistent with the presence of immune system-modifying and endocrine-disrupting compounds in fuel oil. Application of this approach to identify effects of petroleum contamination on sea otters should be possible following expansion of this mink model to identify a greater number of affected genes in peripheral blood leukocytes. ?? 2007 Ecohealth Journal Consortium.

  5. 15 CFR 971.403 - Freedom of the high seas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... freedoms of the high seas. (c)(1) In the event of a conflict between the commercial recovery program of an... Administrator, in consultation and cooperation with the Department of State and other interested agencies, will enter into negotiations with that nation to resolve the conflict. To the maximum extent possible...

  6. 15 CFR 970.503 - Freedom of the high seas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... freedoms of the high seas. (c)(1) In the event of a conflict between the exploration program of an... Administrator, in consultation and cooperation with the Department of State and other interested agencies, will enter into negotiations with that nation to resolve the conflict. To the maximum extent possible...

  7. Long-term impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on sea otters, assessed through age-dependent mortality patterns.

    PubMed

    Monson, D H; Doak, D F; Ballachey, B E; Johnson, A; Bodkin, J L

    2000-06-01

    We use age distributions of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead on beaches of western Prince William Sound, Alaska, between 1976 and 1998 in conjunction with time-varying demographic models to test for lingering effects from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Our results show that sea otters in this area had decreased survival rates in the years following the spill and that the effects of the spill on annual survival increased rather than dissipated for older animals. Otters born after the 1989 spill were affected less than those alive in March 1989, but do show continuing negative effects through 1998. Population-wide effects of the spill appear to have slowly dissipated through time, due largely to the loss of cohorts alive during the spill. Our results demonstrate that the difficult-to-detect long-term impacts of environmental disasters may still be highly significant and can be rigorously analyzed by using a combination of population data, modeling techniques, and statistical analyses. PMID:10823920

  8. Long-term impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on sea otters, assessed through age-dependent mortality patterns.

    PubMed

    Monson, D H; Doak, D F; Ballachey, B E; Johnson, A; Bodkin, J L

    2000-06-01

    We use age distributions of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead on beaches of western Prince William Sound, Alaska, between 1976 and 1998 in conjunction with time-varying demographic models to test for lingering effects from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Our results show that sea otters in this area had decreased survival rates in the years following the spill and that the effects of the spill on annual survival increased rather than dissipated for older animals. Otters born after the 1989 spill were affected less than those alive in March 1989, but do show continuing negative effects through 1998. Population-wide effects of the spill appear to have slowly dissipated through time, due largely to the loss of cohorts alive during the spill. Our results demonstrate that the difficult-to-detect long-term impacts of environmental disasters may still be highly significant and can be rigorously analyzed by using a combination of population data, modeling techniques, and statistical analyses.

  9. Long-term impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on sea otters, assessed through age-dependent mortality patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monson, D.H.; Doak, D.F.; Ballachey, B.E.; Johnson, Aaron H.; Bodkin, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    We use age distributions of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead on beaches of western Prince William Sound, Alaska, between 1976 and 1998 in conjunction with time-varying demographic models to test for lingering effects from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Our results show that sea otters in this area had decreased survival rates in the years following the spill and that the effects of the spill on annual survival increased rather than dissipated for older animals. Otters born after the 1989 spill were affected less than those alive in March 1989, but do show continuing negative effects through 1998. Population-wide effects of the spill appear to have slowly dissipated through time, due largely to the loss of cohorts alive during the spill. Our results demonstrate that the difficult-to-detect long- term impacts of environmental disasters may still be highly significant and can be rigorously analyzed by using a combination of population data, modeling techniques, and statistical analyses.

  10. Highly recyclable superhydrophobic sponge suitable for the selective sorption of high viscosity oil from water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jintao; Geng, Guihong

    2015-08-15

    Inspired by the adhesion of marine mussels, a kind of superhydrophobic oil sorbent was successfully fabricated by robustly immobilizing the micro/nanostructure layer onto the sponge skeleton. The as-prepared sponges possess excellent hydrophobicity with the water contact angle of 154°, which enables the sponge to selectively absorb various oils floating on water surface. The oil sorption capacities of as-prepared sponge for a series of oils can reach 18.3-46.8g/g. The absorbed oil can be recovered by mechanical squeezing and the resulting sponge can be recycled more than 70 cycles while still keeping high oil sorption capability. More importantly, the obtained sponge has excellent affinity to the high viscosity oils. Therefore, the as-prepared sponge might find practical applications in the large-scale removal of oils especially high viscosity oils from water surface.

  11. Microbial diversity during biodegradation of crude oil in seawater from the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Brakstad, O G; Lødeng, A G G

    2005-01-01

    Microbial communities were characterized during biodegradation of immobilized oil in seawater from the Statfjord field and the German Bight in the North Sea. Seawater samples were collected at different distances from pollution sources at the two locations. A Statfjord oil was immobilized on hydrophobic synthetic Fluortex fabrics and submerged in closed flasks (no headspace) with natural or sterile seawater and incubated at 13 degrees C for 56 days. Biodegradation of immobilized n-alkanes was measured by gas chromatography, total microbes were enumerated by epifluorescence microscopy, and culturable heterotrophic and oil-degrading microorganisms were quantified by most probable number (MPN) analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of bacterial 16S rDNA in water samples was conducted during biodegradation experiments. The amplified 16S rDNA fragments were characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and by sequence analysis of cloned inserts. Biodegradation rates of alkanes in seawater collected at different distances from the pollution sources did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Concentrations of oil-degrading microorganisms showed a temporary peak after 7 days of degradation, with a subsequent decline later in the period. DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that community diversity decreased during the first 2-3 weeks of biodegradation, with the emergence of a few dominant bands. Cloning, restriction analysis, and sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA fragments revealed >30 different phylotypes. Abundant types during biodegradation belonged to the alpha-Proteobacteria, in waters from both Statfjord and the German Bight. Cloning and sequencing studies indicated that the most abundant bacteria during biodegradation belonged to the family Rhodobacteraceae, with the closest relationship to the genera Sulfitobacter and Roseobacter.

  12. Safe Maritime Autonomous Path Planning in a High Sea State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Quadrelli, Marco; Huntsberger, Terrance L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a path planning method for sea surface vehicles that prevents capsizing and bow-diving in a high sea-state. A key idea is to use response amplitude operators (RAOs) or, in control terminology, the transfer functions from a sea state to a vessel's motion, in order to find a set of speeds and headings that results in excessive pitch and roll oscillations. This information is translated to arithmetic constraints on the ship's velocity, which are passed to a model predictive control (MPC)-based path planner to find a safe and optimal path that achieves specified goals. An obstacle avoidance capability is also added to the path planner. The proposed method is demonstrated by simulations.

  13. 76 FR 53481 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region... Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193, Chukchi Sea, Alaska (OCS EIS/EA BOEMRE 2011-041)....

  14. 78 FR 59715 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 237 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior... later than November 12, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael S. Rolland, Chief,...

  15. Biodegradation of complex hydrocarbons in spent engine oil by novel bacterial consortium isolated from deep sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Ganesh Kumar, A; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Joshi, Gajendra; Magesh Peter, D; Dharani, G; Kirubagaran, R

    2014-10-01

    Complex hydrocarbon and aromatic compounds degrading marine bacterial strains were isolated from deep sea sediment after enrichment on spent engine (SE) oil. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the isolates were related to members of the Pseudoalteromonas sp., Ruegeria sp., Exiguobacterium sp. and Acinetobacter sp. Biodegradation using 1% (v/v) SE oil with individual and mixed strains showed the efficacy of SE oil utilization within a short retention time. The addition of non-ionic surfactant 0.05% (v/v) Tween 80 as emulsifying agent enhanced the solubility of hydrocarbons and renders them more accessible for biodegradation. The degradation of several compounds and the metabolites formed during the microbial oxidation process were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. The potential of this consortium to biodegrade SE oil with and without emulsifying agent provides possible application in bioremediation of oil contaminated marine environment.

  16. High mortality of Red Sea zooplankton under ambient solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M O; Satheesh, Sathianeson; Mantha, Gopikrishna; Agustī, Susana; Carreja, Beatriz; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    High solar radiation along with extreme transparency leads to high penetration of solar radiation in the Red Sea, potentially harmful to biota inhabiting the upper water column, including zooplankton. Here we show, based on experimental assessments of solar radiation dose-mortality curves on eight common taxa, the mortality of zooplankton in the oligotrophic waters of the Red Sea to increase steeply with ambient levels of solar radiation in the Red Sea. Responses curves linking solar radiation doses with zooplankton mortality were evaluated by exposing organisms, enclosed in quartz bottles, allowing all the wavelengths of solar radiation to penetrate, to five different levels of ambient solar radiation (100%, 21.6%, 7.2%, 3.2% and 0% of solar radiation). The maximum mortality rates under ambient solar radiation levels averaged (±standard error of the mean, SEM) 18.4±5.8% h(-1), five-fold greater than the average mortality in the dark for the eight taxa tested. The UV-B radiation required for mortality rates to reach ½ of maximum values averaged (±SEM) 12±5.6 h(-1)% of incident UVB radiation, equivalent to the UV-B dose at 19.2±2.7 m depth in open coastal Red Sea waters. These results confirm that Red Sea zooplankton are highly vulnerable to ambient solar radiation, as a consequence of the combination of high incident radiation and high water transparency allowing deep penetration of damaging UV-B radiation. These results provide evidence of the significance of ambient solar radiation levels as a stressor of marine zooplankton communities in tropical, oligotrophic waters. Because the oligotrophic ocean extends across 70% of the ocean surface, solar radiation can be a globally-significant stressor for the ocean ecosystem, by constraining zooplankton use of the upper levels of the water column and, therefore, the efficiency of food transfer up the food web in the oligotrophic ocean. PMID:25309996

  17. High mortality of Red Sea zooplankton under ambient solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M O; Satheesh, Sathianeson; Mantha, Gopikrishna; Agustī, Susana; Carreja, Beatriz; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    High solar radiation along with extreme transparency leads to high penetration of solar radiation in the Red Sea, potentially harmful to biota inhabiting the upper water column, including zooplankton. Here we show, based on experimental assessments of solar radiation dose-mortality curves on eight common taxa, the mortality of zooplankton in the oligotrophic waters of the Red Sea to increase steeply with ambient levels of solar radiation in the Red Sea. Responses curves linking solar radiation doses with zooplankton mortality were evaluated by exposing organisms, enclosed in quartz bottles, allowing all the wavelengths of solar radiation to penetrate, to five different levels of ambient solar radiation (100%, 21.6%, 7.2%, 3.2% and 0% of solar radiation). The maximum mortality rates under ambient solar radiation levels averaged (±standard error of the mean, SEM) 18.4±5.8% h(-1), five-fold greater than the average mortality in the dark for the eight taxa tested. The UV-B radiation required for mortality rates to reach ½ of maximum values averaged (±SEM) 12±5.6 h(-1)% of incident UVB radiation, equivalent to the UV-B dose at 19.2±2.7 m depth in open coastal Red Sea waters. These results confirm that Red Sea zooplankton are highly vulnerable to ambient solar radiation, as a consequence of the combination of high incident radiation and high water transparency allowing deep penetration of damaging UV-B radiation. These results provide evidence of the significance of ambient solar radiation levels as a stressor of marine zooplankton communities in tropical, oligotrophic waters. Because the oligotrophic ocean extends across 70% of the ocean surface, solar radiation can be a globally-significant stressor for the ocean ecosystem, by constraining zooplankton use of the upper levels of the water column and, therefore, the efficiency of food transfer up the food web in the oligotrophic ocean.

  18. Could residual oil from the Exxon Valdez spill create a long-term population "sink" for sea otters in Alaska?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monson, D.H.; Doak, D.F.; Ballachey, B.E.; Bodkin, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, the Exxon Valdez oil tanker spilled 42 million L of crude oil into the waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. At the time of the spill, the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population inhabiting the spill area suffered substantial acute injuries and loss. Subsequent research has resulted in one of the best-studied species responses to an oil spill in history. However, the question remains: Is the spill still influencing the Prince William Sound sea otter population? Here we fit time-varying population models to data for the sea otter population of western Prince William Sound to quantify the duration and extent of mortality effects from the spill. We hypothesize that the patchy nature of residual oil left in the environment has created a source-sink population dynamic. We fit models using the age distributions of both living and dying animals and estimates of sea otter population size to predict the number of sea otters in the hypothesized sink population and the number lost to this sink due to chronic exposure to residual oil. Our results suggest that the sink population has remained at just over 900 individuals (95% CI: 606-960) between 1990 and 2009, during which time prime-age survival remained 2-6% below pre-spill levels. This reduced survival led to chronic losses of ???900 animals over the past two decades, which is similar in magnitude to the number of sea otter deaths documented in western Prince William Sound during the acute phase of the spill. However, the unaffected source population appears to be counterbalancing these losses, with the model indicating that the sea otter population increased from ???2150 individuals in 1990 to nearly 3000 in 2009. The most optimistic interpretation of our results suggests that mortality effects dissipated between 2005 and 2007. Our results suggest that residual oil can affect wildlife populations on time scales much longer than previously believed and that cumulative chronic effects can be as

  19. Rapid determination of alpha tocopherol in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bakre, S M; Gadmale, D K; Toche, R B; Gaikwad, V B

    2015-05-01

    A new method is developed to determine the presence of sunflower oil in olive oil. α-tocopherol is selected as discriminating parameter for detecting sunflower oil adulterant in olive oil. Admixtures of olive oil and sunflower oil (5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % sunflower oil in olive oil) are prepared. These admixtures are analysed by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. The sample preparation does not require saponification or addition of antioxidant. The chromatographic system consists of a C18 column with methanol: acetonitrile (50:50) mobile phase. Fluorescence detector excitation wavelength is set at 290 nm and emission wavelength is set at 330 nm. The α tocopherol concentration increases linearly in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil. The method is simple, selective, sensitive and is precise (RSD = 2.65 %) for α tocopherol. The present method can precisely detect 5 % sunflower oil in olive oil.

  20. Chemical use in North Sea oil and gas E and P

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, C.M. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    In May 1990, the Norwegian Oil Industry Assn., Oljeindustriens Landsforening (OLF), commissioned a survey of chemical use in E and P activities in the North Sea. Ten operating companies and six chemical suppliers provided data on the specific types and quantities of chemicals used in their operations and the properties of those chemicals. These companies operated or supplied chemicals in the Norwegian, British, and Netherlands sectors. Technical discussions on the reasons for using chemicals and their application also were held. The comprehensive results of this survey are available from OLF as a report, with all chemical data on disk. This paper summarizes the primary observations from the OLF report. The quantitative uses are compared with previous summaries of quantities of chemicals used. Probable discharge quantities and concentrations are discussed. Acute aquatic toxicity data submitted by participants are presented and practical aspects discussed.

  1. Clinical and clinical laboratory correlates in sea otters dying unexpectedly in rehabilitation centers following the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Rebar, A H; Lipscomb, T P; Harris, R K; Ballachey, B E

    1995-07-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, 347 oiled sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were treated in rehabilitation centers. Of these, 116 died, 94 within 10 days of presentation. Clinical records of 21 otters dying during the first 10 days of rehabilitation were reviewed to define the laboratory abnormalities and clinical syndromes associated with these unexpected deaths. The most common terminal syndrome was shock characterized by hypothermia, lethargy, and often hemorrhagic diarrhea. In heavily and moderately oiled otters, shock developed within 48 hours of initial presentation, whereas in lightly oiled otters shock generally occurred during the second week of captivity. Accompanying laboratory abnormalities included leukopenia with increased numbers of immature neutrophils (degenerative left shift), lymphopenia, anemia, azotemia (primarily prerenal), hyperkalemia, hypoproteinemia/hypoalbuminemia, elevations of serum transaminases, and hypoglycemia. Shock associated with hemorrhagic diarrhea probably occurred either as a direct primary effect of oiling or as an indirect effect secondary to confinement and handling in the rehabilitation centers. Lightly oiled otters were less likely to die from shock than were heavily oiled otters (22% vs. 72%, respectively). Heavily oiled otters developed shock more rapidly and had greater numbers of laboratory abnormalities, suggesting that exposure to oil was an important contributing factor. PMID:7483208

  2. Clinical and clinical laboratory correlates in sea otters dying unexpectedly in rehabilitation centers following the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Rebar, A H; Lipscomb, T P; Harris, R K; Ballachey, B E

    1995-07-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, 347 oiled sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were treated in rehabilitation centers. Of these, 116 died, 94 within 10 days of presentation. Clinical records of 21 otters dying during the first 10 days of rehabilitation were reviewed to define the laboratory abnormalities and clinical syndromes associated with these unexpected deaths. The most common terminal syndrome was shock characterized by hypothermia, lethargy, and often hemorrhagic diarrhea. In heavily and moderately oiled otters, shock developed within 48 hours of initial presentation, whereas in lightly oiled otters shock generally occurred during the second week of captivity. Accompanying laboratory abnormalities included leukopenia with increased numbers of immature neutrophils (degenerative left shift), lymphopenia, anemia, azotemia (primarily prerenal), hyperkalemia, hypoproteinemia/hypoalbuminemia, elevations of serum transaminases, and hypoglycemia. Shock associated with hemorrhagic diarrhea probably occurred either as a direct primary effect of oiling or as an indirect effect secondary to confinement and handling in the rehabilitation centers. Lightly oiled otters were less likely to die from shock than were heavily oiled otters (22% vs. 72%, respectively). Heavily oiled otters developed shock more rapidly and had greater numbers of laboratory abnormalities, suggesting that exposure to oil was an important contributing factor.

  3. Endoparasites in common eiders Somateria mollissima from birds killed by an oil spill in the northern Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieltges, David W.; Hussel, Birgit; Baekgaard, Henrik

    2006-05-01

    Mass mortalities of common eiders Somateria mollissima have been ascribed to high parasite loads. However, the actual role of parasites in mortalities is disputed as in the case of a mass mortality of eiders in the Wadden Sea in the winter of 1999/2000. A critical evaluation of the role of parasites in eider mass mortalities is hampered by (1) a lack of data on actual parasite loads of the birds involved, (2) missing regional data for comparison, and (3) a lack of unbiased samples: investigations are often based on dead beached individuals, which are presumably the more heavily infected birds of a population and thus more likely to die and be washed ashore. Although published data on parasite loads in birds of the winter 1999/2000 mortality are available, no data on background parasitism in eiders from the Wadden Sea exist, making an evaluation of the potential role of parasites in this mortality event difficult. By investigating endoparasites of 102 eiders affected by an oil spill in the northern Wadden Sea in winter 1998/1999, we provide a data set of background parasitism in wintering eiders from the Wadden Sea. We found 13 different parasite taxa with high prevalence values (% infected birds) in the acanthocephalan Profilicollis botulus, the nematode Amidostomum acutum, cestodes and trematodes. In some taxa we observed pronounced differences in prevalence values between juvenile eiders and adults, as well as between adult sexes. The parasite composition shows that bivalves, crabs ( Carcinus maenas) and other crustaceans are important sources of infections by being intermediate hosts. This is partly mirrored in the food content of eider stomachs where bivalves and crabs were predominantly found. Intensities of the acanthocephalan P. botulus, suspected of causing eider mortalities, were especially high in juveniles (1112 ± 416 ind per infected host), but lower in adult males (40 ± 7) and adult females (81 ± 18). However, no extraordinary mortality event was

  4. Improving a prediction system for oil spills in the Yellow Sea: effect of tides on subtidal flow.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Sin; Cho, Yang-Ki; Choi, Byoung-Ju; Jung, Kyung Tae; You, Sung Hyup

    2013-03-15

    A multi-nested prediction system for the Yellow Sea using drifter trajectory simulations was developed to predict the movements of an oil spill after the MV Hebei Spirit accident. The speeds of the oil spill trajectories predicted by the model without tidal forcing were substantially faster than the observations; however, predictions taking into account the tides, including both tidal cycle and subtidal periods, were satisfactorily improved. Subtidal flow in the simulation without tides was stronger than in that with tides because of reduced frictional effects. Friction induced by tidal stress decelerated the southward subtidal flows driven by northwesterly winter winds along the Korean coast of the Yellow Sea. These results strongly suggest that in order to produce accurate predictions of oil spill trajectories, simulations must include tidal effects, such as variations within a tidal cycle and advections over longer time scales in tide-dominated areas.

  5. Estimation of the Thickness and Emulsion Rate of Oil Spilled at Sea Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Imagery in the SWIR Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicot, G.; Lennon, M.; Miegebielle, V.; Dubucq, D.

    2015-08-01

    The thickness and the emulsion rate of an oil spill are two key parameters allowing to design a tailored response to an oil discharge. If estimated on per pixel basis at a high spatial resolution, the estimation of the oil thickness allows the volume of pollutant to be estimated, and that volume is needed in order to evaluate the magnitude of the pollution, and to determine the most adapted recovering means to use. The estimation of the spatial distribution of the thicknesses also allows the guidance of the recovering means at sea. The emulsion rate can guide the strategy to adopt in order to deal with an offshore oil spill: efficiency of dispersants is for example not identical on a pure oil or on an emulsion. Moreover, the thickness and emulsion rate allow the amount of the oil that has been discharged to be estimated. It appears that the shape of the reflectance spectrum of oil in the SWIR range (1000-2500nm) varies according to the emulsion rate and to the layer thickness. That shape still varies when the oil layer reaches a few millimetres, which is not the case in the visible range (400-700nm), where the spectral variation saturates around 200 μm (the upper limit of the Bonn agreement oil appearance code). In that context, hyperspectral imagery in the SWIR range shows a high potential to describe and characterize oil spills. Previous methods which intend to estimate those two parameters are based on the use of a spectral library. In that paper, we will present a method based on the inversion of a simple radiative transfer model in the oil layer. We will show that the proposed method is robust against another parameter that affects the reflectance spectrum: the size of water droplets in the emulsion. The method shows relevant results using measurements made in laboratory, equivalent to the ones obtained using methods based on the use of a spectral library. The method has the advantage to release the need of a spectral library, and to provide maps of thickness

  6. High-resolution sea wind hindcasts over the Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez, M.; García-Díez, M.; Fita, L.; Fernández, J.; Méndez, F. J.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this study is to develop a high-resolution atmospheric hindcast over the Mediterranean area using the WRF-ARW model, focusing on offshore surface wind fields. In order to choose the most adequate model configuration, the study provides details on the calibration of the experimental saet-up through a sensitivity test considering the October-December 2001 period (the 2001 super-storm event in the West Mediterranean). A daily forecast outperforms the spectral technique of previous products and the boundary data from ERA-Interim reanalysis produces the most accurate estimates in terms of wind variability and hour-to-hour correspondence. According to the sensitivity test, two data sets of wind hindcast are produced: the SeaWind I (30-km horizontal resolution for a period of 60 years) and the SeaWind II (15-km horizontal resolution for 20 years). The validation of the resulting surface winds is undertaken considering two offshore observational datasets. On the one hand, hourly surface buoy stations are used to validate wind time series at specific locations; on the other hand, wind altimeter satellite observations are considered for spatial validation in the whole Mediterranean Sea. The results obtained from this validation process show a very good agreement with observations for the southern Europe region. Finally, SeaWind I and II are used to characterize offshore wind fields in the Mediterranean Sea. The statistical structure of sea surface wind is analyzed and the agreement with Weibull probability distribution is discussed. In addition, wind persistence and extreme wind speed (50 year return period) are characterized and relevant areas of wind power generation are described by estimating wind energy quantities.

  7. Living marine resources of the Chukchi Sea: a resource report for the Chukchi Sea oil and gas lease sale Number 85. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, B.F.

    1981-04-01

    An area of the outer continental shelf of the northeastern Chukchi Sea is currently proposed by the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land Management for oil and gas leasing in February 1985. The report assesses the biological resources of the northeastern Chukchi Sea that may be at risk from petroleum exploration and development, and proposes research needs to minimize and avoid potential biological impacts. The Chukchi Sea supports large populations of marine mammals and seabirds, which depend on the fish and invertebrate populations of the region. The marine mammals of major importance in the region are the bowhead whale, gray whale, beluga whale, walrus, ringed seal, bearded seal, spotted seal, and polar bear. Less frequent but regular visitors to the area are the fin, minke, humpback, and killer whales, the harbor porpoise, and ribbon seals.

  8. High-resolution aeromagnetics as an exploration tool in the Timor Sea, northwestern Australia

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, G.W.; Wellman, P. )

    1991-03-01

    The Mesozoic Vulcan Graben in the Timor Sea, northwestern Australia, is one of Australia's most active oil exploration areas, with a number of discoveries made within the last five years. To further assist in understanding the structural setting of the region, the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR) carried out a regional high-resolution aeromagnetic survey over the Vulcan Graben in late 1989. Three to twelve km wavelength, 0.2-2.0 nT amplitude magnetic anomalies have northeast strikes and correlate well with the position and orientation of the rift faults, as defined by seismic reflection data. Significantly, the magnetic trends closely match the fault trends at the prospective Valanginian unconformity horizon, where all of the major producing reservoirs are located. Numerous northwest-trending (strike-slip ) faults have also been mapped as zones of low anomaly, some of which correspond with offsets in the major northeast-trending anomalies. These faults, which are probably due to the reactivation of either Mesozoic transfer faults or Paleozoic normal faults, may have a major role in the entrapment of hydrocarbons in the Timor Sea, as most producing fields are located close to a northwest-trending fault or its extension. The northwest-trending faults have not previously been defined using seismic data. This survey shows that even in an area with extensive seismic coverage such as the Timor Sea, high-resolution aeromagnetics can provide important information that both complements and supplements the seismic data.

  9. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on sea turtles could span the Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Putman, Nathan F; Abreu-Grobois, F Alberto; Iturbe-Darkistade, Iñaky; Putman, Emily M; Richards, Paul M; Verley, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the extent that the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill potentially affected oceanic-stage sea turtles from populations across the Atlantic. Within an ocean-circulation model, particles were backtracked from the Gulf of Mexico spill site to determine the probability of young turtles arriving in this area from major nesting beaches. The abundance of turtles in the vicinity of the oil spill was derived by forward-tracking particles from focal beaches and integrating population size, oceanic-stage duration and stage-specific survival rates. Simulations indicated that 321 401 (66 199-397 864) green (Chelonia mydas), loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) turtles were likely within the spill site. These predictions compared favourably with estimates from in-water observations recently made available to the public (though our initial predictions for Kemp's ridley were substantially lower than in-water estimates, better agreement was obtained with modifications to mimic behaviour of young Kemp's ridley turtles in the northern Gulf). Simulations predicted 75.2% (71.9-76.3%) of turtles came from Mexico, 14.8% (11-18%) from Costa Rica, 5.9% (4.8-7.9%) from countries in northern South America, 3.4% (2.4-3.5%) from the United States and 1.6% (0.6-2.0%) from West African countries. Thus, the spill's impacts may extend far beyond the current focus on the northern Gulf of Mexico.

  10. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on sea turtles could span the Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Putman, Nathan F; Abreu-Grobois, F Alberto; Iturbe-Darkistade, Iñaky; Putman, Emily M; Richards, Paul M; Verley, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the extent that the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill potentially affected oceanic-stage sea turtles from populations across the Atlantic. Within an ocean-circulation model, particles were backtracked from the Gulf of Mexico spill site to determine the probability of young turtles arriving in this area from major nesting beaches. The abundance of turtles in the vicinity of the oil spill was derived by forward-tracking particles from focal beaches and integrating population size, oceanic-stage duration and stage-specific survival rates. Simulations indicated that 321 401 (66 199-397 864) green (Chelonia mydas), loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) turtles were likely within the spill site. These predictions compared favourably with estimates from in-water observations recently made available to the public (though our initial predictions for Kemp's ridley were substantially lower than in-water estimates, better agreement was obtained with modifications to mimic behaviour of young Kemp's ridley turtles in the northern Gulf). Simulations predicted 75.2% (71.9-76.3%) of turtles came from Mexico, 14.8% (11-18%) from Costa Rica, 5.9% (4.8-7.9%) from countries in northern South America, 3.4% (2.4-3.5%) from the United States and 1.6% (0.6-2.0%) from West African countries. Thus, the spill's impacts may extend far beyond the current focus on the northern Gulf of Mexico. PMID:26701754

  11. Assessing, planning, and management of North Sea oil development effects in the Shetland Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.G.; Butler, R.W. Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario )

    1993-07-01

    The Shetland Islands have long had the reputation of having planned and managed the onshore effects of offshore petroleum development very well. The islands are seen as something of a model for others to follow and have frequently been visited since the beginning of northern North Sea oil development in the early 1970s by those wishing to learn how to best approach offshore petroleum development in their home areas. In this assessment the authors wish to focus on views expressed on the effectiveness of the planning and managing of onshore effects of petroleum development and present an overview of interviewee statements on future issues. Emphasis will be placed on the environmental aspects, where that term is taken for present purposes, to include fauna, flora, water quality, and other resources and their relationships to industries such as fishing and tourism--although observations will also be made about planning and management of land use and socio-economic effects. The paper concludes with an attempt to set their findings in a broader pluralist context by relating them to the views expressed in recent books by Shetland residents that contain observations on oil effects although written for more general purposes.

  12. Artic oil-spill response guide for the alaskan beaufort sea. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    Contents include--Federal Response Organization; Initial Response; Elements of Response; Detection and Surveillance, Oil-Spill Trajectory Models, Oil-Spill Containment, Oil-Spill Recovery, Transfer Equipment, Recovered Oil Storage Equipment, Oil-Spill Disposal, Personnel, Logistics, Well Control, Dispersants, Mechanics of Response, Oil Spill Response Scenarios; Appendices.

  13. Replacement of Marine Fish Oil with de novo Omega-3 Oils from Transgenic Camelina sativa in Feeds for Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    Betancor, Mónica B; Sprague, M; Montero, D; Usher, S; Sayanova, O; Campbell, P J; Napier, J A; Caballero, M J; Izquierdo, M; Tocher, D R

    2016-10-01

    Omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are essential components of the diet of all vertebrates. The major dietary source of n-3 LC-PUFA for humans has been fish and seafood but, paradoxically, farmed fish are also reliant on marine fisheries for fish meal and fish oil (FO), traditionally major ingredients of aquafeeds. Currently, the only sustainable alternatives to FO are vegetable oils, which are rich in C18 PUFA, but devoid of the eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) abundant in FO. Two new n-3 LC-PUFA sources obtained from genetically modified (GM) Camelina sativa containing either EPA alone (ECO) or EPA and DHA (DCO) were compared to FO and wild-type camelina oil (WCO) in juvenile sea bream. Neither ECO nor DCO had any detrimental effects on fish performance, although final weight of ECO-fed fish (117 g) was slightly lower than that of FO- and DCO-fed fish (130 and 127 g, respectively). Inclusion of the GM-derived oils enhanced the n-3 LC-PUFA content in fish tissues compared to WCO, although limited biosynthesis was observed indicating accumulation of dietary fatty acids. The expression of genes involved in several lipid metabolic processes, as well as fish health and immune response, in both liver and anterior intestine were altered in fish fed the GM-derived oils. This showed a similar pattern to that observed in WCO-fed fish reflecting the hybrid fatty acid profile of the new oils. Overall the data indicated that the GM-derived oils could be suitable alternatives to dietary FO in sea bream.

  14. Replacement of Marine Fish Oil with de novo Omega-3 Oils from Transgenic Camelina sativa in Feeds for Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    Betancor, Mónica B; Sprague, M; Montero, D; Usher, S; Sayanova, O; Campbell, P J; Napier, J A; Caballero, M J; Izquierdo, M; Tocher, D R

    2016-10-01

    Omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are essential components of the diet of all vertebrates. The major dietary source of n-3 LC-PUFA for humans has been fish and seafood but, paradoxically, farmed fish are also reliant on marine fisheries for fish meal and fish oil (FO), traditionally major ingredients of aquafeeds. Currently, the only sustainable alternatives to FO are vegetable oils, which are rich in C18 PUFA, but devoid of the eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) abundant in FO. Two new n-3 LC-PUFA sources obtained from genetically modified (GM) Camelina sativa containing either EPA alone (ECO) or EPA and DHA (DCO) were compared to FO and wild-type camelina oil (WCO) in juvenile sea bream. Neither ECO nor DCO had any detrimental effects on fish performance, although final weight of ECO-fed fish (117 g) was slightly lower than that of FO- and DCO-fed fish (130 and 127 g, respectively). Inclusion of the GM-derived oils enhanced the n-3 LC-PUFA content in fish tissues compared to WCO, although limited biosynthesis was observed indicating accumulation of dietary fatty acids. The expression of genes involved in several lipid metabolic processes, as well as fish health and immune response, in both liver and anterior intestine were altered in fish fed the GM-derived oils. This showed a similar pattern to that observed in WCO-fed fish reflecting the hybrid fatty acid profile of the new oils. Overall the data indicated that the GM-derived oils could be suitable alternatives to dietary FO in sea bream. PMID:27590240

  15. A systematic review of high-oleic vegetable oil substitutions for other fats and oils on cardiovascular disease risk factors: implications for novel high-oleic soybean oils.

    PubMed

    Huth, Peter J; Fulgoni, Victor L; Larson, Brian T

    2015-11-01

    High-oleic acid soybean oil (H-OSBO) is a trait-enhanced vegetable oil containing >70% oleic acid. Developed as an alternative for trans-FA (TFA)-containing vegetable oils, H-OSBO is predicted to replace large amounts of soybean oil in the US diet. However, there is little evidence concerning the effects of H-OSBO on coronary heart disease (CHD)(6) risk factors and CHD risk. We examined and quantified the effects of substituting high-oleic acid (HO) oils for fats and oils rich in saturated FAs (SFAs), TFAs, or n-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) on blood lipids in controlled clinical trials. Searches of online databases through June 2014 were used to select studies that defined subject characteristics; described control and intervention diets; substituted HO oils compositionally similar to H-OSBO (i.e., ≥70% oleic acid) for equivalent amounts of oils high in SFAs, TFAs, or n-6 PUFAs for ≥3 wk; and reported changes in blood lipids. Studies that replaced saturated fats or oils with HO oils showed significant reductions in total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) (P < 0.05; mean percentage of change: -8.0%, -10.9%, -7.9%, respectively), whereas most showed no changes in HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), the ratio of TC to HDL cholesterol (TC:HDL cholesterol), and apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1). Replacing TFA-containing oil sources with HO oils showed significant reductions in TC, LDL cholesterol, apoB, TGs, TC:HDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol and apoA-1 (mean percentage of change: -5.7%, -9.2%, -7.3%, -11.7%, -12.1%, 5.6%, 3.7%, respectively; P < 0.05). In most studies that replaced oils high in n-6 PUFAs with equivalent amounts of HO oils, TC, LDL cholesterol, TGs, HDL cholesterol, apoA-1, and TC:HDL cholesterol did not change. These findings suggest that replacing fats and oils high in SFAs or TFAs with either H-OSBO or oils high in n-6 PUFAs would have favorable and comparable effects on plasma lipid risk factors and

  16. High abundance and diversity of archaea from deep-sea sediments of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Li, T.; Hu, A.; Zhang, C.

    2009-12-01

    Archaea communities from two subseafloor sediment core MD05-2896 and MD05-2902 from the south china sea were evaluated by molecular analysis. Archaea abundances determined by FISH and DAPI were over 109 cells/gram along two cores and the portion of archaea to microbial community ranged from 29% to 57% in our study, indicating the important role of archaea in South China Sea. The most of Shannon index of two sites were over 1.5, indicating the high diversity of archaea in South China Sea. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the spatial community structure of two cores were different and the geographical position, TON were the main factors for the difference. A. Depth profiles of total prokaryotic cells in sediment cores. Open square (DAPI for MD05-2896), closed square (FISH: EUB338+ARC915 for MD05-2896); open triangle (DAPI for MD05-2902), closed triangle (FISH: EUB338+ARC915 for MD05-2902) B. Archaeal percentage of total prokaryotic cells (FISH: EUB338+ARC915) in sediment cores. Open circle (MD05-2896), closed circle (MD05-2902)

  17. Contribution of remote sensing data to oil spills monitoring. A pilot study in the Black and Azov Seas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchma, T.

    Oil pollution belongs to the most widespread man-caused emergency situations considerably harming natural ecosystems and different types of economic activity fishing tourism and other About 50 of oil pollution of the World Ocean is on transportation where 75 is on the ordinary process of transportation related to the illicit vessel discharges such as ballasts water tank washings flowing of engine-room and other But this type of pollution can be considerably decreased due to the effective monitoring and penalty system For monitoring of marine pollution the state inspections as a rule use marine or aviation facilities which are quite expensive limited by a day light and weather conditions and cover only a territorial waters The satellites SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar images instead can be used for studding the large equatorials and does not depend on cloud coverage season and daytime Oil discharged in the water damps gravity-capillary waves and changes the slope angle Thus oil spills could be viewed on the SAR images as black spots on an unpolluted sea surface However one of the problems in odder to create an operational integrated space-based monitoring system is an absence of various pilot researches to develop methodological principles for the unified algorithm of monitoring on international level To contribute to this need a pilot research on Oil Spills Monitoring in the Black and Azov Seas was conducted by SSPC Pryroda with a support of European Space Agency under the ERUNET project within the framework of

  18. High stress actuation by dielectric elastomer with oil capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La, Thanh-Giang; Lau, Gih-Keong; Shiau, Li-Lynn; Tan, Adrian W. Y.

    2014-03-01

    Though capable of generating a large strain, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) generate only a moderate actuation stress not more than 200kPa, which seriously limits its use as artificial muscles for robotic arm. Enhancement of dielectric strength (greater than 500MV/m) by dielectric oil immersion could possibly enable it a larger force generation. Previously, the immersion was done in an oil bath, which limits portability together with DEAs. In this study, we developed portable capsules to enclose oil over the DEA substrate (VHB 4905). The capsules is made of a thinner soft acrylic membrane and they seals dielectric liquid oil (Dow Corning Fluid 200 50cSt). The DEA substrate is a graphiteclad VHB membrane, which is pre-stretched with pure-shear boundary condition for axial actuation. When activated under isotonic condition, the oil-capsule DEA can sustain a very high dielectric field up to 903 MV/m and does not fail; whereas, the dry DEA breaks down at a lower electric field at 570 MV/m. Furthermore, the oil-capsule DEA can produces higher isometric stress change up to 1.05MPa, which is 70% more than the maximum produced by the dry DEA. This study confirmed that oil capping helps DEA achieve very high dielectric strength and generate more stress change for work.

  19. Pathological studies of sea otters. Marine mammal study 6-11. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Rebar, A.H.; Ballachey, B.E.; Haebler, R.J.

    1996-06-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, sea otters were captured and taken to rehabilitaion centers. Oil exposure was assessed by visual examination on arrival at the centers. Records of 21 oiled otters that died within 10 days of arrival at the centers were reviewed to define the laboratory abnormalities and clinical syndromes associated with these deaths. Tissues from 51 oiled and 6 unoiled sea otters that died in the centers were examined histologically. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from 5 oiled otters found dead shortly after the spill. Nucropsies were performed on 214 sea otters that were collected and frozen following the oil spill. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema and gastric erosion and hemorrhage were common in oiled animals, and were less frequent in unoiled animals. Tissues from 6 sea otters collected from a nonoiled area were examined, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that pulmonary interstitial emphysema, gastric erosion and hemorrhage, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis were associated with exposure to crude oil in sea otters.

  20. Hydrocarbon residues in tissues of sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) collected following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-16. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ballachey, B.E.; Kloecker, K.A.

    1997-04-01

    Ten moderately to heavily oiled sea otters were collected in Prince William Sound during the Exxon Valdez oil spill and up to seven tissues from each were analyzed for hydrocarbons. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in all tissues. Concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons in fat samples were an order of magnitude higher than in other tissues. The patterns of distribution of these hydrocarbons suggested crude oil as the source of contamination. However, there was variation among oiled otters in the concentrations of individual hydrocarbons, which may be due to differing proximate causes of mortality and varying lengths of time and sea otters survived following oil exposure. The concentrations of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in the tissues of the ten oiled sea otters generally were higher than in tissues from 7 sea otters with no external oiling that were collected from prince William Sound in 1989 and 1990, or from 12 sea otters collected from an area in southeast Alaska which had not experienced an oil spill.

  1. Hydrocarbon-water interactions during brine migration: Evidence from hydrocarbon inclusions in calcite cements from Danish North Sea oil fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensenius, J.; Burruss, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Crude oils in primary and secondary fluid inclusions in calcite from fractures in seven offshore oil fields associated with diapiric salt structures in the Danish sector of the North Sea were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography and compared with crude oils produced from the same reservoirs. Oils from fluid inclusions in all fields show evidence of biodegradation (decreased n-C17/pristane and n-C18/phytane ratios and loss of n-C7, 2-methyl hexane, and 3-methyl hexane relative to methyl cyclohexane) and water washing (absence of benzene and depletion of toluene). Some oils in inclusions are extremely enriched in C6 and C7 cyclic alkanes suggesting that these samples contain hydrocarbons exsolved from ascending, hotter formation waters. Compared to inclusion oils the produced oils are less biodegraded, but are water washed, indicating that both types of oil interacted with large volumes of formation water. The carbon isotopic composition of the calcite host of the fluid inclusions in the Dagmar and Skjold fields is as light as -16.5%. PDB and the sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite in and adjacent to the calcite veins in the Skjold field is as light as -39.6%. CDT, indicating that biodegradation of the oils was a source of some of the carbon in the calcite and sulfate reduction was the source of sulfur for the pyrite. The evidence for microbial degradation of petroleum is consistent with present-day reservoir temperatures (65??-96??C) but is not consistent with previous estimates of the temperatures of calcite vein filling (95??-130??C) which are much higher than the temperatures of known occurrences of biodegraded oil. ?? 1990.

  2. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    DOEpatents

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  3. Genome sequencing of the high oil crop sesame provides insight into oil biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sesame, Sesamum indicum L., is considered the queen of oilseeds for its high oil content and quality, and is grown widely in tropical and subtropical areas as an important source of oil and protein. However, the molecular biology of sesame is largely unexplored. Results Here, we report a high-quality genome sequence of sesame assembled de novo with a contig N50 of 52.2 kb and a scaffold N50 of 2.1 Mb, containing an estimated 27,148 genes. The results reveal novel, independent whole genome duplication and the absence of the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain in resistance genes. Candidate genes and oil biosynthetic pathways contributing to high oil content were discovered by comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses. These revealed the expansion of type 1 lipid transfer genes by tandem duplication, the contraction of lipid degradation genes, and the differential expression of essential genes in the triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway, particularly in the early stage of seed development. Resequencing data in 29 sesame accessions from 12 countries suggested that the high genetic diversity of lipid-related genes might be associated with the wide variation in oil content. Additionally, the results shed light on the pivotal stage of seed development, oil accumulation and potential key genes for sesamin production, an important pharmacological constituent of sesame. Conclusions As an important species from the order Lamiales and a high oil crop, the sesame genome will facilitate future research on the evolution of eudicots, as well as the study of lipid biosynthesis and potential genetic improvement of sesame. PMID:24576357

  4. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on sea turtles could span the Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Putman, Nathan F.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto; Iturbe-Darkistade, Iñaky; Putman, Emily M.; Richards, Paul M.; Verley, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the extent that the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill potentially affected oceanic-stage sea turtles from populations across the Atlantic. Within an ocean-circulation model, particles were backtracked from the Gulf of Mexico spill site to determine the probability of young turtles arriving in this area from major nesting beaches. The abundance of turtles in the vicinity of the oil spill was derived by forward-tracking particles from focal beaches and integrating population size, oceanic-stage duration and stage-specific survival rates. Simulations indicated that 321 401 (66 199–397 864) green (Chelonia mydas), loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) turtles were likely within the spill site. These predictions compared favourably with estimates from in-water observations recently made available to the public (though our initial predictions for Kemp's ridley were substantially lower than in-water estimates, better agreement was obtained with modifications to mimic behaviour of young Kemp's ridley turtles in the northern Gulf). Simulations predicted 75.2% (71.9–76.3%) of turtles came from Mexico, 14.8% (11–18%) from Costa Rica, 5.9% (4.8–7.9%) from countries in northern South America, 3.4% (2.4–3.5%) from the United States and 1.6% (0.6–2.0%) from West African countries. Thus, the spill's impacts may extend far beyond the current focus on the northern Gulf of Mexico. PMID:26701754

  5. Growth rates and ages of deep-sea corals impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Fisher, Charles R.; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Druffel, Ellen R. M.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the April 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill on deep-sea coral communities in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is still under investigation, as is the potential for these communities to recover. Impacts from the spill include observation of corals covered with flocculent material, with bare skeleton, excessive mucous production, sloughing tissue, and subsequent colonization of damaged areas by hydrozoans. Information on growth rates and life spans of deep-sea corals is important for understanding the vulnerability of these ecosystems to both natural and anthropogenic perturbations, as well as the likely duration of any observed adverse impacts. We report radiocarbon ages and radial and linear growth rates based on octocorals (Paramuricea spp. and Chrysogorgia sp.) collected in 2010 and 2011 from areas of the DWH impact. The oldest coral radiocarbon ages were measured on specimens collected 11 km to the SW of the oil spill from the Mississippi Canyon (MC) 344 site: 599 and 55 cal yr BP, suggesting continuous life spans of over 600 years for Paramuricea biscaya, the dominant coral species in the region. Calculated radial growth rates, between 0.34 μm yr−1 and 14.20 μm yr−1, are consistent with previously reported proteinaceous corals from the GoM. Anomalously low radiocarbon (Δ14C) values for soft tissue from some corals indicate that these corals were feeding on particulate organic carbon derived from an admixture of modern surface carbon and a low 14C carbon source. Results from this work indicate fossil carbon could contribute 5–10% to the coral soft tissue Δ14C signal within the area of the spill impact. The influence of a low 14C carbon source (e.g., petro-carbon) on the particulate organic carbon pool was observed at all sites within 30 km of the spill site, with the exception of MC118, which may have been outside of the dominant northeast-southwest zone of impact. The quantitatively assessed extreme longevity and slow growth rates documented

  6. Peopling of the high Arctic - induced by sea ice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funder, Svend

    2010-05-01

    'We travelled in the winter after the return of daylight and did not go into fixed camp until spring, when the ice broke up. There was good hunting on the way, seals, beluga, walrus, bear.' (From Old Merkrusârk's account of his childhood's trek from Baffin Island to Northwest Greenland, told to Knud Rasmussen on Saunders Island in 1904) Five thousand years ago people moving eastwards from Beringia spread over the barrens of the Canadian high Arctic. This was the first of three waves of prehistoric Arctic 'cultures', which eventually reached Greenland. The passage into Greenland has to go through the northernmost and most hostile part of the country with a 5 month Polar night, and to understand this extraordinary example of human behaviour and endurance, it has been customary to invoke a more favourable (warmer) climate. This presentation suggests that land-fast sea ice, i.e. stationary sea ice anchored to the coast, is among the most important environmental factors behind the spread of prehistoric polar cultures. The ice provides the road for travelling and social communion - and access to the most important source of food, the ocean. In the LongTerm Project (2006 and 2007) we attempted to establish a Holocene record for sea ice variations along oceanic coasts in northernmost Greenland. Presently the coasts north of 80° N are beleaguered by year-round sea ice - for ten months this is land-fast ice, and only for a period in the stormy autumn months are the coasts exposed to pack-ice. This presentation Land-fast ice - as opposed to pack-ice - is a product of local temperatures, but its duration over the year, and especially into the daylight season, is also conditioned by other factors, notably wind strength. In the geological record we recognize long lasting land-fast ice by two absences: absence of traces of wave action (no beach formation), which, however, can also be a result of pack-ice along the coast; - and absence of driftwood on the shore (land-fast ice

  7. Recent wind driven high sea ice area export in the Fram Strait contributes to Arctic sea ice decline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedsrud, L. H.; Sirevaag, A.; Kloster, K.; Sorteberg, A.; Sandven, S.

    2011-10-01

    Arctic sea ice area has been decreasing for the past two decades. Apart from melting, the southward drift through Fram Strait is the main ice loss mechanism. We present high resolution sea ice drift data across 79° N from 2004 to 2010. Ice drift has been derived from radar satellite data and corresponds well with variability in local geostrophic wind. The underlying East Greenland current contributes with a constant southward speed close to 5 cm s-1, and drives around a third of the ice export. We use geostrophic winds derived from reanalysis data to calculate the Fram Strait ice area export back to 1957, finding that the sea ice area export recently is about 25% larger than during the 1960's. The increase in ice export occurred mostly during winter and is directly connected to higher southward ice drift velocities, due to stronger geostrophic winds. The increase in ice drift is large enough to counteract a decrease in ice concentration of the exported sea ice. Using storm tracking we link changes in geostrophic winds to more intense Nordic Sea low pressure systems. Annual sea ice area export likely has a significant influence on the summer sea ice variability and we find low values in the 1960's, the late 1980's and 1990's, and particularly high values during 2005-2008. The study highlights the possible role of variability in ice export as an explanatory factor for understanding the dramatic loss of Arctic sea ice during the last decades.

  8. Acute toxicity of chemically and mechanically dispersed crude oil to juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Absence of synergistic effects between oil and dispersants.

    PubMed

    Dussauze, Matthieu; Pichavant-Rafini, Karine; Le Floch, Stéphane; Lemaire, Philippe; Theron, Michaël

    2015-07-01

    The goal of the present experiment was to assess the relative acute toxicities of mechanically and chemically dispersed oil (crude Arabian Light) in controlled conditions. Juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed to 4 commercial formulations of dispersants (Corexit EC9500A, Dasic Slickgone NS, Finasol OSR 52, Inipol IP 90), to mechanically dispersed oil, and to the corresponding chemical dispersions. Acute toxicity was evaluated at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h through the determination of 10%, 50%, and 90% lethal concentrations calculated from measured total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations; Kaplan-Meyer mortality analyses were based on nominal concentrations. Animals were exposed to the dissolved fraction of the oil and to the oil droplets (ranging from 14.0 μm to 42.3 μm for the chemical dispersions). Kaplan-Meyer analyses demonstrated an increased mortality in the case of chemical dispersions. This difference can be attributed mainly to differences in TPH, because the chemical lethal concentrations were not reduced compared with mechanical lethal concentrations (except after 24 h of exposure). The ratios of lethal concentrations of mechanical dispersions to the different chemical dispersions were calculated to allow direct comparisons of the relative toxicities of the dispersions. The results ranged from 0.27 to 3.59, with a mean ratio close to 1 (0.92). These results demonstrate an absence of synergistic effect between oil and chemical dispersants in an operational context.

  9. Air-Sea Methane Flux after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Leak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdoo, J.; Sweeney, C.; Kiene, R. P.; McGillis, W. R.

    2012-12-01

    One of the key questions associated with the Deepwater Horizon's (DWH) oil leak involves understanding how much of its methane is still entrained in deep waters. Analysis of air-sea fluxes reveals a slight decrease in average aqueous CH4 from 3.3 nM in June to 3.1 and 2.8 nM in August and September, respectively. The flux estimate showed higher methane flux to the atmosphere after the blowout was capped (3.8 μmol m-2 d-1 in August) compared to 0.024 μmol m-2 d-1 during the leak. Almost all observations were within the range of historical levels. The exception was one large peak to the southwest of the wellhead, but its contribution to atmospheric methane is found to be insignificant compared to the total amount of methane released by the leak. This result supports findings that DWH methane remained entrained in the deep waters and consequently is available for biological degradation and threatens to deplete oxygen, adding further stress to an area that already suffers from anoxic-induced dead zones.

  10. Drilling and operational sounds from an oil production island in the ice-covered Beaufort sea.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Susanna B; Greene, Charles R; Richardson, W John

    2004-11-01

    Recordings of sounds underwater and in air, and of iceborne vibrations, were obtained at Northstar Island, an artificial gravel island in the Beaufort Sea near Prudhoe Bay (Alaska). The aim was to document the levels, characteristics, and range dependence of sounds and vibrations produced by drilling and oil production during the winter, when the island was surrounded by shore-fast ice. Drilling produced the highest underwater broadband (10-10,000 Hz) levels (maximum= 124 dB re: 1 microPa at 1 km), and mainly affected 700-1400 Hz frequencies. In contrast, drilling did not increase broadband levels in air or ice relative to levels during other island activities. Production did not increase broadband levels for any of the sensors. In all media, broadband levels decreased by approximately 20 dB/tenfold change in distance. Background levels underwater were reached by 9.4 km during drilling and 3-4 km without. In the air and ice, background levels were reached 5-10 km and 2-10 km from Northstar, respectively, depending on the wind but irrespective of drilling. A comparison of the recorded sounds with harbor and ringed seal audiograms showed that Northstar sounds were probably audible to seals, at least intermittently, out to approximately 1.5 km in water and approximately 5 km in air. PMID:15603166

  11. Structural evolution of the East China Sea and the relationship with oil and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xianghong; Duan, Chang

    1995-12-31

    The East China Sea (ECH) is a Cenozoic sedimentary basin, lying on the Pre-Cretaceous basement. During Cenozoic Era, the basin went through three development stages: the half-graben, domnwarping depression, and regional subsidence. Analyzed the data from gravity, magnetism, reflection seismology measurements, the structural pattern of the ECS can be decided: east-west zone of the NE-or NNE-trending structural belts and a south-north differentiation of structural blocks. From west to east the structural belts are the Zhe-min uplift, the shelf basin, Diaoyu island uplift, Okinawa trough basin and Ryukyu islands. This structural pattern is controlled by the activity of the Eurasia plate and the Pacific plate, which can be interpreted from the data of the earthquake and the structural stress field. Calculating of Moho and Curie, and 2-D modeling of gravity and magnetism data help constrain the seismic interpretation and understood the faults and structure. Modeling of sedimentary and thermal history help find the region of generation oil.

  12. Volumetric properties of sunflower methyl ester oil at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Cristina; Guignon, Bérengère; Rodríguez-Antón, Luis M; Sanz, Pedro D

    2007-09-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative to diesel oil (DO), because it is a fuel obtained from renewable resources that has lower emissions than DO. Biomass production should promote agricultural activity to obtain fuels for the transport sector. The study of the behavior of biodiesel at varying pressure and temperature is very interesting because diesel engines are mechanical systems that work with fuels submitted to high pressure. The specific volume, isothermal compressibility, and cubic expansion coefficients of refined sunflower methyl ester oil (SMEO) and unrefined sunflower methyl ester oil (URSMEO) were obtained and compared with those of DO from 0.1 to 350 MPa and 288.15 to 328.15 K. This work shows that oil refinement did not significantly modify any of the properties studied of the final biodiesel. Compared with DO, both SMEOs were about 6% denser, whereas isothermal compressibility and cubic expansion coefficients were bigger or smaller for DO depending on pressure and temperature.

  13. High-frequency hearing in seals and sea lions.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Kane A; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Existing evidence suggests that some pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) can detect underwater sound at frequencies well above the traditional high-frequency hearing limits for their species. This phenomenon, however, is not well studied: Sensitivity patterns at frequencies beyond traditional high-frequency limits are poorly resolved, and the nature of the auditory mechanism mediating hearing at these frequencies is unknown. In the first portion of this study, auditory sensitivity patterns in the 50-180 kHz range were measured for one California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), one harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and one spotted seal (Phoca largha). Results show the presence of two distinct slope-regions at the high-frequency ends of the audiograms of all three subjects. The first region is characterized by a rapid decrease in sensitivity with increasing frequency-i.e. a steep slope-followed by a region of much less rapid sensitivity decrease-i.e. a shallower slope. In the second portion of this study, a masking experiment was conducted to investigate how the basilar membrane of a harbor seal subject responded to acoustic energy from a narrowband masking noise centered at 140 kHz. The measured masking pattern suggests that the initial, rapid decrease in sensitivity on the high-frequency end of the subject's audiogram is not due to cochlear constraints, as has been previously hypothesized, but rather to constraints on the conductive mechanism. PMID:26519092

  14. High-frequency hearing in seals and sea lions.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Kane A; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Existing evidence suggests that some pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) can detect underwater sound at frequencies well above the traditional high-frequency hearing limits for their species. This phenomenon, however, is not well studied: Sensitivity patterns at frequencies beyond traditional high-frequency limits are poorly resolved, and the nature of the auditory mechanism mediating hearing at these frequencies is unknown. In the first portion of this study, auditory sensitivity patterns in the 50-180 kHz range were measured for one California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), one harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and one spotted seal (Phoca largha). Results show the presence of two distinct slope-regions at the high-frequency ends of the audiograms of all three subjects. The first region is characterized by a rapid decrease in sensitivity with increasing frequency-i.e. a steep slope-followed by a region of much less rapid sensitivity decrease-i.e. a shallower slope. In the second portion of this study, a masking experiment was conducted to investigate how the basilar membrane of a harbor seal subject responded to acoustic energy from a narrowband masking noise centered at 140 kHz. The measured masking pattern suggests that the initial, rapid decrease in sensitivity on the high-frequency end of the subject's audiogram is not due to cochlear constraints, as has been previously hypothesized, but rather to constraints on the conductive mechanism.

  15. Intersection model for estimating sea otter mortality from the Exxon Valdez oil spill along the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Marine mammal study 6-5. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodkin, J.L.; Udevitz, M.S.

    1995-06-01

    The authors developed an analytical model (intersection model) to estimate the exposure of sea otters (Enhydra lutris), to oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The authors applied estimated and assumed exposure dependent mortality rates to the Kenai Peninsula sea otter population to provide examples of the application of the model in estimating sea otter mortality. The intersection model requires three distinct types of data: (1) distribution, abundance, and movements of oil, (2) abundance and distribution of sea otters, and (3) sea otter mortality rates relative to oil exposure. Initial output of the model is an estimate of exposure of otters to oil. Exposure is measured in amount and duration of oil near an otter`s observed location (intersections). The authors provide two examples of the model using different assumptions about the relation between exposure and mortality. Because of an apparent non-linear relation between the degree of oiling and survival of otters from rehabilitation, output from the authors` examples are likely biased.

  16. Detecting surface oil slick related to gas hydrate/petroleum on the ocean bed of South China Sea by ENVI/ASAR radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunpeng; Chen, Duofu; Song, Zhiguang

    2013-03-01

    For exploring the distribution of oil slick related to gas hydrate or petroleum in the northern part of South China Sea and evaluating the potential of ENVI/ASAR radar data for detecting oil slick, this paper tries to detect the oil slick on ocean surface of some potential areas in South China Sea and map oil slick from anomaly area in radar image. Seven surface oil slicks in Qiongdongnan Basin and four potential targets of oil slicks in Taixi-Dongsha Basin were detected and extracted by using ENIV/ASAR data. The anomalies of the radar image representing oil slick are validated by in-site sampling and laboratory analyzing. The Gas Chromatograph (GC) results of the extracted oil from the water samples gathered from the sites of detected oil slick demonstrate a typical composition of oil rather than that of ocean microbial origins, and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) concentrations in two designed vertical profiles keep steady in different depths, showing that the organic contents in water column are steady from the deep area to ocean surface. These results suggest the detected oil slick is a thin floating oil rather than a thick spill. Influencing factors to the results of oil slick detection including wind speed, current, small islands and capes as well as deep-sea petroleum reservoirs are discussed. The results in this study exhibit that extracting the anomaly signals related to oil slick related to oil/gas seeps using image processing techniques from ENVI/ASAR data is helpful to predict anomaly areas as potential targets for further exploration in this area.

  17. Effect of solvents on the fractionation of high oleic-high stearic sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Bootello, Miguel A; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Salas, Joaquín J

    2015-04-01

    Solvent fractionation of high oleic-high stearic (HOHS) sunflower oil was studied to determine the best solvent to use (hexane or acetone) in terms of the operational parameters and properties of the final stearins. Acetone fractionation on two types of HOHS sunflower oils (N17 and N20) was carried out at temperatures from 5 to 10 °C using micelles with different oil/solvent ratios. Acetone was more suitable than hexane as a solvent for HSHO sunflower oil fractionation because it allowed the oil to be fractionated at higher temperatures and at lower supercooling degrees. Likewise, a sunflower soft stearin obtained by dry fractionation of HOHS sunflower oil was also used to produce high-melting point stearins by acetone or hexane fractionation. The fractionation of these stearins could be performed at higher temperatures and gave higher yields. The combination of dry and solvent fractionation to obtain tailor-made stearins is discussed.

  18. Detection of crude oil emulsions in the Bering Sea by the analysis of seawater color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salyuk, Pavel A.; Stepochkin, Igor E.; Sokolova, Ekaterina B.; Kachur, Vasiliy A.; Prokuda, Natalya A.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents the analysis of uncertainties between observed remote sensed reflectance spectra of seawater, with crude oil emulsions and oil dissolved fractions, and modeled remote sensed reflectance spectra of seawater without oil calculated from the fluorometric measurements of chlorophyll-a and dissolved organic matter concentrations carried out in the layer under oil pollution.

  19. High-temperature natural antioxidant improves soy oil for frying.

    PubMed

    Warner, Kathleen; Gehring, Marta Meta

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the frying stability of soybean oil (SBO) treated with a natural citric acid-based antioxidant, EPT-OILShield able to withstand high temperatures and to establish the oxidative stability of food fried in the treated oil. Soybean oil with 0.05% and 0.5% EPT-OILShield and an untreated control SBO were used for intermittent batch frying of tortilla chips at 180 degrees C for up to 65 h. Oil frying stability was measured by free fatty acids (FFA) and total polar compounds (TPC). Chips were aged for up to 4 mo at 25 degrees C and evaluated for rancid flavor by a 15-member, trained, experienced analytical sensory panel and for hexanal content as an indicator of oxidation. Oil with 0.05% EPT-OILShield had significantly less FFA and TPC than the control. The effect of EPT-OILShield was apparently retained in aged chips because hexanal levels were significantly lower in chips fried in oil with 0.05% EPT-OILShield than in chips fried in the control. Tortilla chips fried in the control were rancid after 2 mo at 25 degrees C at sampling times evaluated from 25 to 65 h; however, chips fried in oil with 0.05% EPT-OILShield and used for 65 h were described as only slightly rancid after 4 mo. Gamma tocopherol levels were significantly higher in the chips fried in the oil with 0.05% EPT-OILShield than in the control, helping to inhibit oxidation in the tortilla chips during storage.

  20. Planning, Development, and Change in Bristol Bay: A High School Curriculum. Teacher Guide and Student Text. Unit V: Oil and Gas Development. Unit VI: Minerals and Mining. Unit VII: State Land Disposal. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Jerry; Willer, Cristy

    Written with the broad goal of involving high school students in Bristol Bay, Alaska, in the planning and design of their region's future, this combined teacher guide and student text contains the final three units of a seven-unit curriculum. Unit V looks at oil development in the Bering Sea, covering topics such as Alaska's dependence on oil,…

  1. Unexpectedly high ultrafine aerosol concentrations above East Antarctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, R. S.; Klekociuk, A. R.; Schofield, R.; Keywood, M.; Ward, J.; Wilson, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    Better characterisation of aerosol processes in pristine, natural environments, such as Antarctica, have recently been shown to lead to the largest reduction in uncertainties in our understanding of radiative forcing. Our understanding of aerosols in the Antarctic region is currently based on measurements that are often limited to boundary layer air masses at spatially sparse coastal and continental research stations, with only a handful of studies in the vast sea-ice region. In this paper, the first observational study of sub-micron aerosols in the East Antarctic sea ice region is presented. Measurements were conducted aboard the icebreaker Aurora Australis in spring 2012 and found that boundary layer condensation nuclei (CN3) concentrations exhibited a five-fold increase moving across the polar front, with mean polar cell concentrations of 1130 cm-3 - higher than any observed elsewhere in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean region. The absence of evidence for aerosol growth suggested that nucleation was unlikely to be local. Air parcel trajectories indicated significant influence from the free troposphere above the Antarctic continent, implicating this as the likely nucleation region for surface aerosol, a similar conclusion to previous Antarctic aerosol studies. The highest aerosol concentrations were found to correlate with low-pressure systems, suggesting that the passage of cyclones provided an accelerated pathway, delivering air masses quickly from the free troposphere to the surface. After descent from the Antarctic free troposphere, trajectories suggest that sea-ice boundary layer air masses travelled equatorward into the low-albedo Southern Ocean region, transporting with them emissions and these aerosol nuclei which, after growth, may potentially impact on the region's radiative balance. The high aerosol concentrations and their transport pathways described here, could help reduce the discrepancy currently present between simulations and observations of

  2. Dynamical behavior of rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambuleac, Dumitru

    2012-04-01

    Fuels' physical properties such as density, viscosity, speed of sound and bulk modulus have and important influence on the engine performance. This work will study the behavior of the rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection. Several aspects of the injection and combustion process will be analyzed in order to try to find out in what manner these aspects are influenced by the above-mentioned fuels' characteristics and also by different operating regimes. In such a way, some features of the technical efficiency of the two non-conventional diesel fuels will be determined. As a reference, it will serve the results from testing classical diesel.

  3. Influence of adding Sea Spaghetti seaweed and replacing the animal fat with olive oil or a konjac gel on pork meat batter gelation. Potential protein/alginate association.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Martín, F; López-López, I; Cofrades, S; Colmenero, F Jiménez

    2009-10-01

    Standard and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, MDSC) and dynamic rheological thermal analysis (DRTA) were used to in situ simulate the batter gelation process. Texture profile analysis (TPA) and conventional quality evaluations were applied to processed products. Sea Spaghetti seaweed addition was highly effective at reinforcing water/oil retention capacity, hardness and elastic modulus in all formulations. Olive oil substituting half pork fat yielded a presumably healthier product with slightly better characteristics than control. A konjac-starch mixed gel replacing 70% of pork fat produced a similar product to control but with nearly 10% more water. DSC revealed the currently unknown phenomenon that Sea Spaghetti alginates apparently prevented thermal denaturation of a considerable protein fraction. MDSC confirmed that this mainly concerned non-reversing effects, and displayed glass transition temperatures in the range of 55-65°C. DRTA and TPA indicated however much stronger alginate-type gels. It is tentatively postulated that salt-soluble proteins associate athermally with seaweed alginates on heating to constitute a separate phase in a thermal composite-gelling process.

  4. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) oil protects against chronic stress-induced inhibitory function of natural killer cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Diandong, Hou; Feng, Gu; Zaifu, Liang; Helland, Timothy; Weixin, Fu; Liping, Cai

    2016-03-01

    Chronic stress can suppress natural killer (NK) cell activity; this may also be related to the effect of stress on the neuroendocrine-immune network. Sea buckthorn (SBT) (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is a thorny nitrogen fixing deciduous shrub, native to both Europe and Asia. It has been used as a medicinal plant in Tibetan and Mongolian traditional medicines. SBT has multifarious medical properties, including anti-fatigue as well as immunoregulatory effects. This study reports the effects of SBT oil with regard to the cytotoxicity and quantity of NK cells in the blood of a chronic-stress rat model, in addition to its mechanisms on the neuroendocrine-immune network. These results show that SBT oil, given by gavage to rats with chronic stress, could increase the following: body weight, NK cell quantities, and cytotoxicity, as well as the expression of perforin and granzyme B. The results also show that SBT oil in rats with chronic stress could suppress cortisol, ACTH, IL-1β and TNF-α levels, in addition to increasing 5-HT and IFN-γ serum levels. This leads to suggest that SBT oil, in rats with chronic stress, can increase NK cell cytotoxicity by upregulating the expression of perforin and granzyme B, thus causing associated effects of SBT oil on the neuroendocrine-immune network. PMID:26684638

  5. Effects of simulated weathering on the toxicity of selected crude oils and their components to sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Rial, Diego; Radović, Jagoš R; Bayona, Josep M; Macrae, Kenneth; Thomas, Kevin V; Beiras, Ricardo

    2013-09-15

    Artificial weathering of Angolan crude and a Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) was performed by evaporation and photooxidation. The aliphatic, aromatic, polar and asphaltene fractions of the fresh and weathered oils were isolated. The toxicity of the water accommodated fraction or an oil/fraction dissolved in DMSO was assessed using the sea urchin embryo test. Photooxidation was observed to decrease the aromatics content and increase polar compounds. A slight reduction in the toxicity of Angolan crude was observed following weathering for the water-accommodated fraction and the extract in DMSO, but no effect was seen for the Heavy Fuel Oil. For aliphatic compounds, the toxicity decreased in the order fresh>evaporated>photooxidated for both Angolan crude and HFO. Weathering slightly increased the toxicity of the aromatic and polar fractions of the oil. The aromatic fractions were responsible for most of the toxicity and the polar compounds were the second most important toxic components, despite having less or similar abundance than the aliphatic fraction. The toxic contribution of the aromatic compounds was higher for the HFO than for the Angolan crude. A decrease in the toxicity of Angolan crude following weathering correlated with a reduction in the toxicity of the aliphatic fraction.

  6. Bubble bursting as an aerosol generation mechanism during an oil spill in the deep-sea environment: laboratory experimental demonstration of the transport pathway.

    PubMed

    Ehrenhauser, Franz S; Avij, Paria; Shu, Xin; Dugas, Victoria; Woodson, Isaiah; Liyana-Arachchi, Thilanga; Zhang, Zenghui; Hung, Francisco R; Valsaraj, Kalliat T

    2014-01-01

    Oil spills in the deep-sea environment such as the 2010 Deep Water Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico release vast quantities of crude oil into the sea-surface environment. Various investigators have discussed the marine transport and fate of the oil into different environmental compartments (air, water, sediment, and biota). The transport of the oil into the atmosphere in these previous investigations has been limited to only evaporation, a volatility dependent pathway. In this work, we studied the aerosolization of oil spill matter via bursting bubbles as they occur during whitecaps in a laboratory aerosolization reactor. By evaluating the alkane content in oil mousse, crude oil, the gas phase, and particulate matter we clearly demonstrate that aerosolization via bursting bubbles is a solubility and volatility independent transport pathway for alkanes. The signature of alkane fractions in the native oil and aerosolized matter matched well especially for the less volatile alkanes (C20-C29). Scanning electron microscope interfaced with energy dispersive X-ray images identified the carbon fractions associated with salt particles of aerosols. Theoretical molecular dynamics simulations in the accompanying paper lend support to the observed propensity for alkanes at air-salt water interfaces of breaking bubbles and the produced droplets. The presence of a dispersant in the aqueous phase increased the oil ejection rate at the surface especially for the C20-C29 alkanes. The information presented here emphasizes the need to further study sea-spray aerosols as a possible transport vector for spilled oil in the sea surface environment. PMID:24296745

  7. A High School Project Seminar on Sea Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, M.; Bosch, W.

    2012-04-01

    In Bavaria the curriculum of the upper grade of high school includes a so called project seminar, running over one and a half year. The aims of the seminar are to let the pupils learn to work on a specific topic, to organize themselves in a team, to improve their soft skills and become familiar with the working life. The topic of the project seminar, jointly organized by the Bertold-Brecht-Gymnasium in Munich and the Deutsche Geodätische Forschungsinstitut (DGFI) was on the "Global sea level rise". A team of 13 pupils computed the mean sea level rise by using on the one hand altimetry data of TOPEX, Jason-1 and Jason2 and on the other hand data of globally distributed tide gauges, corrected for vertical crustal movements derived from GPS products. The results of the two independent approaches were compared with each other and discussed considering also statements and discussions found in press, TV, and the web. Finally, a presentation was prepared and presented at school.

  8. Effects of oil exposure and dispersant use upon environmental adaptation performance and fitness in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Claireaux, Guy; Théron, Michael; Prineau, Michel; Dussauze, Matthieu; Merlin, François-Xavier; Le Floch, Stéphane

    2013-04-15

    The worldwide increasing recourse to chemical dispersants to deal with oil spills in marine coastal ecosystems is a controversial issue. Yet, there exists no adequate methodology that can provide reliable predictions of how oil and dispersant-treated oil can affect relevant organism or population-level performance. The primary objective of the present study was to examine and compare the effects of exposure to untreated oil (weathered Arabian light crude oil), chemically dispersed oil (Finasol, TOTAL-Fluides) or dispersant alone, upon the ability of fish for environmental adaptation. To reach that goal, we implemented high-throughput, non-lethal challenge tests to estimate individual hypoxia and heat tolerance as surrogate measures of their capacity to face natural contingencies. Experimental populations were then transferred into semi-natural tidal ponds and correlates of individuals' fitness (growth and survival) were monitored over a period of 6 months. In accordance with our stated objectives, the contamination conditions tested corresponded to those observed under an oil slick drifting in shallow waters. Our results revealed that the response of control fish to both challenges was variable among individuals and temporally stable (repeatable) over a 2-month period. Exposure to chemical dispersant did not affect the repeatability of fish performance. However, exposure to oil or to a mixture of oil plus dispersant affected the repeatability of individuals' responses to the experimental challenge tests. At population level, no difference between contamination treatments was observed in the distribution of individual responses to the hypoxia and temperature challenge tests. Moreover, no correlation between hypoxia tolerance and heat tolerance was noticed. During the field experiment, hypoxia tolerance and heat tolerance were found to be determinants of survivorship. Moreover, experimental groups exposed to oil or to dispersant-treated oil displayed significantly

  9. Disposal of oil cuttings by downhole periodic fracturing injections, Valhall, North Sea: Case study and modeling concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Moschovidis, Z.A.; Gardner, D.C.; Sund, G.V.; Veatch, R.W. Jr.

    1994-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a pilot study for the injection of cuttings at great depth [8,094 ft total vertical depth (TVD)] in paleocene/Eocene shale by periodic fracturing injections in two wells in the Valhall field in the North Sea. Injection is necessary to meet environmental requirements (< 1 vol% of oil in the cuttings disposed in the sea) that went into effect Jan. 1, 1993. Valhall is an Upper Cretaceous chalk oil reservoir [approx] 180 miles offshore southern Norway. Amoco operates the field for Amerada Hess Norge A/S, Elf Petroleum Norge A/S, and Enterprise Oil Norge Ltd. Simulations were performed with a new conceptual model for disposal of cuttings (called the disposal domain). The actual pressure response during cuttings injections supports the model predictions. The cuttings are contained within a limited region of the formation (the disposal domain) where a system of hydraulic fractures have been created. The same model then was used to estimate the capacity of the formation to contain cuttings without increasing the treating pressure (and the closure stress) beyond the capacity of the tubulars.

  10. Detecting the specific parameters that affect the maturation of farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fillets stored in sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Baygar, Taçnur; Alparslan, Yunus; Okumuş, Melis; Güler, Merve

    2014-06-01

    In this study, it was aimed to detect the specific parameters that effect the maturation of farmed sea bass fillets stored in sunflower oil. Sea bass fillets were taken into the pickling solution (2.5% acetic acid and 11% sodium chloride) at 4 °C(±1). Fish meat in each group was analysed for the following parameters; pH, moisture%, acetic acid% and NaCl% in the maturation pickling solution and in sunflower oil. At the end of the 90 days storage, there were not any negative situations about the fish in terms of the scientific approach. It was detected that the skinless samples had the less NaCl and acidity values but scaly and scaleless samples had the higher values. Main reasons are: for the scaly and scaleless samples, the skin acted as a barrier in the pickling solution or oil and for scaly samples, scales depart from the skin and defeat the passing of NaCl and acid to the meat. When evaluating this study results, the fillet group samples which contain more salt and acetic acid are thought to be more appropriate for marinating in terms of shelf-life and quality. PMID:24876656

  11. The sound velocity measurement in diacylglycerol oil under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostocki, A. J.; Malanowski, A.; Tarakowski, R.; Szlachta, K.; Kiełczyński, P.; Szalewski, M.; Balcerzak, A.; Ptasznik, S.

    2013-03-01

    In this article, the influence of high pressure on sound velocity at 293 K has been presented. The investigated diacylglycerol oil (DAG - [D82T18]AG) was composed of 82% DAGs and 18% triacylglycerols. The variation of sound velocity with hydrostatic pressure for DAG was evaluated up to 400 MPa. The phase transformation in DAG has been observed as a discontinuity of the dependence of sound velocity on pressure. The sound velocity during the phase transition has shown distinct increment. Also the volume changes have been measured. It has shown the rapid drop of the volume at the phase transformation pressure due to the possible crystallization of DAG oil.

  12. The offshore northeastern Chukchi Sea, Alaska: A complex high-latitude ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Robert H.; Weingartner, Thomas J.; Hopcroft, Russell R.; Aerts, Lisanne A. M.; Blanchard, Arny L.; Gall, Adrian E.; Gallaway, Benny J.; Hannay, David E.; Holladay, Brenda A.; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Norcross, Brenda L.; Questel, Jennifer M.; Wisdom, Sheyna S.

    2013-09-01

    We conducted an interdisciplinary ecological study in and near 3 nearby proposed exploratory oil and gas prospects in the offshore northeastern Chukchi Sea during the open-water seasons of 2008-2010. This region exhibits a classical pelagic-benthic dichotomy of food-web structure in ecological function. The Klondike study area borders the eastern edge of the Central Channel and functions as a pelagic-dominated ecosystem, whereas the Burger study area lies south of Hanna Shoal and functions as a benthic-dominated ecosystem. The Statoil study area, which is located north of Klondike and northwest of Burger, has both pelagic and benthic attributes, although it is more like Burger than like Klondike. Klondike has lower benthic density and biomass, a higher biomass of oceanic zooplankton, and more fishes and planktivorous seabirds than does Burger, which has benthic communities with high density and biomass, primarily neritic zooplankton, and higher densities of benthic-feeding marine mammals than Klondike; Statoil has characteristics of both ecosystems. Patterns of sea-ice retreat vary interannually; in some years, much of the northeastern Chukchi is ice-free by mid-May, leading to pelagic and ice-edge phytoplankton blooms, whereas heavy ice cover in other years leads to substantial within-ice production. The characteristics of this region during the open-water season are not consistent among years, in that Bering Sea Water impinges onto all study areas only in some years, resulting in interannual variation in the distribution and abundance of zooplankton, planktivorous seabirds, and pelagic-feeding seals. These interannual variations alter several aspects of this pelagic-benthic dichotomy, and some aspects of this region suggest unusual structure (e.g., replacement of benthic-feeding fishes in some areas by predatory invertebrates, a lack of benthic-feeding seaducks).

  13. Microbial Evolution at High Pressure: Deep Sea and Laboratory Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Elevated hydrostatic pressures are present in deep-sea and deep-Earth environments where this physical parameter has influenced the evolution and characteristics of life. Piezophilic (high-pressure-adapted) microbes have been isolated from diverse deep-sea settings, and would appear likely to occur in deep-subsurface habitats as well. In order to discern the factors enabling life at high pressure my research group has explored these adaptations at various levels, most recently including molecular analyses of deep-sea trench communities, and through the selective evolution of the model microbe Escherichia coli in the laboratory to progressively higher pressures. Much of the field work has focused on the microbes present in the deeper portions of the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT)and in the Peru-Chile Trench (PCT), from 6-8.5 km below the sea surface (~60-85 megapascals pressure). Culture-independent phylogenetic data on the Bacteria and Archaea present on particles or free-living, along with data on the microeukarya present was complemented with genomic analyses and the isolation and characterization of microbes in culture. Metagenomic analyses of the PRT revealed increased genome sizes and an overrepresentation at depth of sulfatases for the breakdown of sulfated polysaccharides and specific categories of transporters, including those associated with the transport of diverse cations or carboxylate ions, or associated with heavy metal resistance. Single-cell genomic studies revealed several linneages which recruited to the PRT metagenome far better than existing marine microbial genome sequences. analyses. Novel high pressure culture approaches have yielded new piezophiles including species preferring very low nutrient levels, those living off of hydrocarbons, and those adapted to various electron donor/electron acceptor combinations. In order to more specifically focus on functions enabling life at increased pressure selective evolution experiments were performed with

  14. Twentieth century sea-ice trends in the Ross Sea from a high-resolution, coastal ice-core record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Kate E.; Bertler, Nancy A. N.; Bowen, Melissa M.; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2014-05-01

    We present the first proxy record of sea-ice area (SIA) in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, from a 130 year coastal ice-core record. High-resolution deuterium excess data show prevailing stable SIA from the 1880s until the 1950s, a 2-5% reduction from the mid-1950s to the early-1990s, and a 5% increase after 1993. Additional support for this reconstruction is derived from ice-core methanesulphonic acid concentrations and whaling records. While SIA has continued to decline around much of the West Antarctic coastline since the 1950s, concurrent with increasing air and ocean temperatures, the underlying trend is masked in the Ross Sea by a switch to positive SIA anomalies since the early-1990s. This increase is associated with a strengthening of southerly winds and the enhanced northward advection of sea ice.

  15. Dietary vegetable oils do not alter the intestine transcriptome of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), but modulate the transcriptomic response to infection with Enteromyxum leei

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies conducted with gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) have determined the maximum dietary replacement of fish meal and oil without compromising growth or product quality. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of the nutritional background on fish health and fish fed plant protein-based diets with fish oil (FO diet) or a blend of vegetable oils (66VO diet) were exposed for 102 days to the intestinal myxosporean parasite Enteromyxum leei, and the intestine transcriptome was analyzed with a customized oligo-microarray of 7,500 annotated genes. Results Infection prevalence was high and similar in the two diet groups, but the outcome of the disease was more pronounced in fish fed the 66VO diet. No differences were found in the transcriptome of both diet control groups, whereas the number of differentially expressed genes in infected groups was considerable. K-means clustering of these differentially expressed genes identified four expression patterns that reflected the progression of the disease with the magnitude of the fold-change being higher in infected 66VO fish. A positive correlation was found between the time of infection and the magnitude of the transcriptional change within the 66VO group, being higher in early infected animals. Within this diet group, a strong up-regulation of many components of the immune specific response was evidenced, whereas other genes related to complement response and xenobiotic metabolism were down-regulated. Conclusions The high replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils in practical fish feeds did not modify the intestine transcriptome of gilthead sea bream, but important changes were apparent when fish were exposed to the myxosporean E. leei. The detected changes were mostly a consequence rather than a cause of the different disease progression in the two diet groups. Hence, the developed microarray constitutes an excellent diagnostic tool to address changes associated with the action of intestinal

  16. Decision support system for emergency management of oil spill accidents in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liubartseva, Svitlana; Coppini, Giovanni; Pinardi, Nadia; De Dominicis, Michela; Lecci, Rita; Turrisi, Giuseppe; Cretì, Sergio; Martinelli, Sara; Agostini, Paola; Marra, Palmalisa; Palermo, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an innovative web-based decision support system to facilitate emergency management in the case of oil spill accidents, called WITOIL (Where Is The Oil). The system can be applied to create a forecast of oil spill events, evaluate uncertainty of the predictions, and calculate hazards based on historical meteo-oceanographic datasets. To compute the oil transport and transformation, WITOIL uses the MEDSLIK-II oil spill model forced by operational meteo-oceanographic services. Results of the modeling are visualized through Google Maps. A special application for Android is designed to provide mobile access for competent authorities, technical and scientific institutions, and citizens.

  17. Detection of argan oil adulteration with vegetable oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Salghi, Rachid; Armbruster, Wolfgang; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2014-06-15

    Triacylglycerol profiles were selected as indicator of adulteration of argan oils to carry out a rapid screening of samples for the evaluation of authenticity. Triacylglycerols were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection. Different peak area ratios were defined to sensitively detect adulteration of argan oil with vegetable oils such as sunflower, soy bean, and olive oil up to the level of 5%. Based on four reference argan oils, mean limits of detection and quantitation were calculated to approximately 0.4% and 1.3%, respectively. Additionally, 19 more argan oil reference samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection, resulting in highly comparative results. The overall strategy demonstrated a good applicability in practise, and hence a high potential to be transferred to routine laboratories.

  18. Acute toxicity of chemically and mechanically dispersed crude oil to juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Absence of synergistic effects between oil and dispersants.

    PubMed

    Dussauze, Matthieu; Pichavant-Rafini, Karine; Le Floch, Stéphane; Lemaire, Philippe; Theron, Michaël

    2015-07-01

    The goal of the present experiment was to assess the relative acute toxicities of mechanically and chemically dispersed oil (crude Arabian Light) in controlled conditions. Juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed to 4 commercial formulations of dispersants (Corexit EC9500A, Dasic Slickgone NS, Finasol OSR 52, Inipol IP 90), to mechanically dispersed oil, and to the corresponding chemical dispersions. Acute toxicity was evaluated at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h through the determination of 10%, 50%, and 90% lethal concentrations calculated from measured total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations; Kaplan-Meyer mortality analyses were based on nominal concentrations. Animals were exposed to the dissolved fraction of the oil and to the oil droplets (ranging from 14.0 μm to 42.3 μm for the chemical dispersions). Kaplan-Meyer analyses demonstrated an increased mortality in the case of chemical dispersions. This difference can be attributed mainly to differences in TPH, because the chemical lethal concentrations were not reduced compared with mechanical lethal concentrations (except after 24 h of exposure). The ratios of lethal concentrations of mechanical dispersions to the different chemical dispersions were calculated to allow direct comparisons of the relative toxicities of the dispersions. The results ranged from 0.27 to 3.59, with a mean ratio close to 1 (0.92). These results demonstrate an absence of synergistic effect between oil and chemical dispersants in an operational context. PMID:25677812

  19. An Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals Divergent Evolutionary Pattern of Oil Biosynthesis in High- and Low-Oil Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Shi-Bo; Li, Qi-Gang; Song, Jian; Hao, Yu-Qi; Zhou, Ling; Zheng, Huan-Quan; Dunwell, Jim M; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Seed oils provide a renewable source of food, biofuel and industrial raw materials that is important for humans. Although many genes and pathways for acyl-lipid metabolism have been identified, little is known about whether there is a specific mechanism for high-oil content in high-oil plants. Based on the distinct differences in seed oil content between four high-oil dicots (20~50%) and three low-oil grasses (<3%), comparative genome, transcriptome and differential expression analyses were used to investigate this mechanism. Among 4,051 dicot-specific soybean genes identified from 252,443 genes in the seven species, 54 genes were shown to directly participate in acyl-lipid metabolism, and 93 genes were found to be associated with acyl-lipid metabolism. Among the 93 dicot-specific genes, 42 and 27 genes, including CBM20-like SBDs and GPT2, participate in carbohydrate degradation and transport, respectively. 40 genes highly up-regulated during seed oil rapid accumulation period are mainly involved in initial fatty acid synthesis, triacylglyceride assembly and oil-body formation, for example, ACCase, PP, DGAT1, PDAT1, OLEs and STEROs, which were also found to be differentially expressed between high- and low-oil soybean accessions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed distinct differences of oleosin in patterns of gene duplication and loss between high-oil dicots and low-oil grasses. In addition, seed-specific GmGRF5, ABI5 and GmTZF4 were predicted to be candidate regulators in seed oil accumulation. This study facilitates future research on lipid biosynthesis and potential genetic improvement of seed oil content. PMID:27159078

  20. An Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals Divergent Evolutionary Pattern of Oil Biosynthesis in High- and Low-Oil Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Shi-Bo; Li, Qi-Gang; Song, Jian; Hao, Yu-Qi; Zhou, Ling; Zheng, Huan-Quan; Dunwell, Jim M.; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Seed oils provide a renewable source of food, biofuel and industrial raw materials that is important for humans. Although many genes and pathways for acyl-lipid metabolism have been identified, little is known about whether there is a specific mechanism for high-oil content in high-oil plants. Based on the distinct differences in seed oil content between four high-oil dicots (20~50%) and three low-oil grasses (<3%), comparative genome, transcriptome and differential expression analyses were used to investigate this mechanism. Among 4,051 dicot-specific soybean genes identified from 252,443 genes in the seven species, 54 genes were shown to directly participate in acyl-lipid metabolism, and 93 genes were found to be associated with acyl-lipid metabolism. Among the 93 dicot-specific genes, 42 and 27 genes, including CBM20-like SBDs and GPT2, participate in carbohydrate degradation and transport, respectively. 40 genes highly up-regulated during seed oil rapid accumulation period are mainly involved in initial fatty acid synthesis, triacylglyceride assembly and oil-body formation, for example, ACCase, PP, DGAT1, PDAT1, OLEs and STEROs, which were also found to be differentially expressed between high- and low-oil soybean accessions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed distinct differences of oleosin in patterns of gene duplication and loss between high-oil dicots and low-oil grasses. In addition, seed-specific GmGRF5, ABI5 and GmTZF4 were predicted to be candidate regulators in seed oil accumulation. This study facilitates future research on lipid biosynthesis and potential genetic improvement of seed oil content. PMID:27159078

  1. Rapid determination of alpha tocopherol in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bakre, S M; Gadmale, D K; Toche, R B; Gaikwad, V B

    2015-05-01

    A new method is developed to determine the presence of sunflower oil in olive oil. α-tocopherol is selected as discriminating parameter for detecting sunflower oil adulterant in olive oil. Admixtures of olive oil and sunflower oil (5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % sunflower oil in olive oil) are prepared. These admixtures are analysed by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. The sample preparation does not require saponification or addition of antioxidant. The chromatographic system consists of a C18 column with methanol: acetonitrile (50:50) mobile phase. Fluorescence detector excitation wavelength is set at 290 nm and emission wavelength is set at 330 nm. The α tocopherol concentration increases linearly in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil. The method is simple, selective, sensitive and is precise (RSD = 2.65 %) for α tocopherol. The present method can precisely detect 5 % sunflower oil in olive oil. PMID:25892814

  2. Investigation on the antidepressant effect of sea buckthorn seed oil through the GC-MS-based metabolomics approach coupled with multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun-sheng; Liu, Cai-chun; Xiang, Huan; Zheng, Xiao-fen; Peng, Guo-jiang; Zhang, Xiang; Du, Guan-hua; Qin, Xue-mei

    2015-11-01

    Depression is one of the prevalent and serious mental disorders and the number of depressed patients has been on the rise globally during the recent decades. Sea buckthorn seed oil from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is edible and has been widely used for treatment of different diseases for a long time. However, there are few published reports on the antidepressant effect of sea buckthorn seed oil. With the objective of finding potential biomarkers of the therapeutic response of sea buckthorn seed oil in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats, urine metabolomics based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with multivariate analysis was applied. In this study, we discovered a higher level of pimelic acid as well as palmitic acid and a lower level of suberic acid, citrate, phthalic acid, cinnamic acid and Sumiki's acid in urine of rats exposed to CUMS procedures after sea buckthorn seed oil was administered. These changes of metabolites are involved in energy metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and other metabolic pathways as well as in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and it is helpful to facilitate the efficacy evaluation and mechanism elucidating the effect of sea buckthorn seed oil for depression management. PMID:26328874

  3. Investigation on the antidepressant effect of sea buckthorn seed oil through the GC-MS-based metabolomics approach coupled with multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun-sheng; Liu, Cai-chun; Xiang, Huan; Zheng, Xiao-fen; Peng, Guo-jiang; Zhang, Xiang; Du, Guan-hua; Qin, Xue-mei

    2015-11-01

    Depression is one of the prevalent and serious mental disorders and the number of depressed patients has been on the rise globally during the recent decades. Sea buckthorn seed oil from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is edible and has been widely used for treatment of different diseases for a long time. However, there are few published reports on the antidepressant effect of sea buckthorn seed oil. With the objective of finding potential biomarkers of the therapeutic response of sea buckthorn seed oil in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats, urine metabolomics based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with multivariate analysis was applied. In this study, we discovered a higher level of pimelic acid as well as palmitic acid and a lower level of suberic acid, citrate, phthalic acid, cinnamic acid and Sumiki's acid in urine of rats exposed to CUMS procedures after sea buckthorn seed oil was administered. These changes of metabolites are involved in energy metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and other metabolic pathways as well as in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and it is helpful to facilitate the efficacy evaluation and mechanism elucidating the effect of sea buckthorn seed oil for depression management.

  4. Oil Spill Map for Indian Sea Region based on Bhuvan- Geographic Information System using Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaya kumar, L. J.; Kishore, J. K.; Kesava Rao, P.; Annadurai, M.; Dutt, C. B. S.; Hanumantha Rao, K.; Sasamal, S. K.; Arulraj, M.; Prasad, A. V. V.; Kumari, E. V. S. Sita; Satyanarayana, S. N.; Shenoy, H. P.

    2014-11-01

    Oil spills in the ocean are a serious marine disaster that needs regular monitoring for environmental risk assessment and mitigation. Recent use of Polarimetric SAR imagery in near real time oil spill detection systems is associated with attempts towards automatic and unambiguous oil spill detection based on decomposition methods. Such systems integrate remote sensing technology, geo information, communication system, hardware and software systems to provide key information for analysis and decision making. Geographic information systems (GIS) like BHUVAN can significantly contribute to oil spill management based on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. India has long coast line from Gujarat to Bengal and hundreds of ports. The increase in shipping also increases the risk of oil spills in our maritime zone. The availability of RISAT-1 SAR images enhances the scope to monitor oil spills and develop GIS on Bhuvan which can be accessed by all the users, such as ships, coast guard, environmentalists etc., The GIS enables realization of oil spill maps based on integration of the geographical, remote sensing, oil & gas production/infrastructure data and slick signatures detected by SAR. SAR and GIS technologies can significantly improve the realization of oil spill footprint distribution maps. Preliminary assessment shows that the Bhuvan promises to be an ideal solution to understand spatial, temporal occurrence of oil spills in the marine atlas of India. The oil spill maps on Bhuvan based GIS facility will help the ONGC and Coast Guard organization.

  5. Effects of fish oil replacement by vegetable oil blend on digestive enzymes and tissue histomorphology of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carolina; Couto, Ana; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Serra, Cláudia R; Díaz-Rosales, Patricia; Fernandes, Rui; Corraze, Geneviève; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2016-02-01

    The impact of replacing circa 70% fish oil (FO) by a vegetable oil (VO) blend (rapeseed, linseed, palm oils; 20:50:30) in diets for European sea bass juveniles (IBW 96 ± 0.8 g) was evaluated in terms of activities of digestive enzymes (amylase, lipase, alkaline phosphatase, trypsin and total alkaline proteases) in the anterior (AI) and posterior (PI) intestine and tissue morphology (pyloric caeca-PC, AI, PI, distal intestine-DI and liver). For that purpose, fish were fed the experimental diets for 36 days and then liver and intestine were sampled at 2, 6 and 24 h after the last meal. Alkaline protease characterization was also done in AI and PI at 6 h post-feeding. Dietary VO promoted higher alkaline phosphatase activity at 2 h post-feeding in the AI and at all sampling points in the PI. Total alkaline protease activity was higher at 6 h post-feeding in the PI of fish fed the FO diet. Identical number of bands was observed in zymograms of alkaline proteases of fish fed both diets. No alterations in the histomorphology of PC, AI, PI or DI were noticed in fish fed the VO diets, while in the liver a tendency towards increased hepatocyte vacuolization due to lipid accumulation was observed. Overall, and with the exception of a higher intestine alkaline phosphatase activity, 70% FO replacement by a VO blend in diets for European sea bass resulted in no distinctive alterations on the postprandial pattern of digestive enzyme activities and intestine histomorphology. PMID:26364216

  6. Effects of fish oil replacement by vegetable oil blend on digestive enzymes and tissue histomorphology of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carolina; Couto, Ana; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Serra, Cláudia R; Díaz-Rosales, Patricia; Fernandes, Rui; Corraze, Geneviève; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2016-02-01

    The impact of replacing circa 70% fish oil (FO) by a vegetable oil (VO) blend (rapeseed, linseed, palm oils; 20:50:30) in diets for European sea bass juveniles (IBW 96 ± 0.8 g) was evaluated in terms of activities of digestive enzymes (amylase, lipase, alkaline phosphatase, trypsin and total alkaline proteases) in the anterior (AI) and posterior (PI) intestine and tissue morphology (pyloric caeca-PC, AI, PI, distal intestine-DI and liver). For that purpose, fish were fed the experimental diets for 36 days and then liver and intestine were sampled at 2, 6 and 24 h after the last meal. Alkaline protease characterization was also done in AI and PI at 6 h post-feeding. Dietary VO promoted higher alkaline phosphatase activity at 2 h post-feeding in the AI and at all sampling points in the PI. Total alkaline protease activity was higher at 6 h post-feeding in the PI of fish fed the FO diet. Identical number of bands was observed in zymograms of alkaline proteases of fish fed both diets. No alterations in the histomorphology of PC, AI, PI or DI were noticed in fish fed the VO diets, while in the liver a tendency towards increased hepatocyte vacuolization due to lipid accumulation was observed. Overall, and with the exception of a higher intestine alkaline phosphatase activity, 70% FO replacement by a VO blend in diets for European sea bass resulted in no distinctive alterations on the postprandial pattern of digestive enzyme activities and intestine histomorphology.

  7. Oil seal effects and subsynchronous vibrations in high-speed compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allaire, P. E.; Kocur, J. A., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Oil seals are commonly used in high speed multistage compressors. If the oil seal ring becomes locked up against the fixed portion of the seal, high oil film crosscoupled stiffnesses can result. A method of analysis for determining if the oil seals are locked up or not is discussed. The method is then applied to an oil seal in a compressor with subsynchronous vibration problems.

  8. Potential biodegradation of crude petroleum oil by newly isolated halotolerant microbial strains from polluted Red Sea area.

    PubMed

    Shetaia, Yousseria M H; El Khalik, Wafaa A A; Mohamed, Tarek M; Farahat, Laila A; ElMekawy, Ahmed

    2016-10-15

    Two microbial isolates from oil polluted Red Sea water in Egypt, designated as RS-Y1 and RS-F3, were found capable of degrading Belayim mix (BX) crude oil. Strains RS-Y1 and RS-F3 were assigned to the genera Lipomyces tetrasporus and Paecilomyces variotii based on their morphological and physiological characteristics. Both isolates were compared for the biodegradation of crude petroleum-oil hydrocarbons in basal salt medium supplemented with 5% (w/v) of BX-crude oil. Gas chromatography profile showed that the biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) inoculated with L. tetrasporus (68.3%) and P. variotii (58.15%) along with their consortium (66%) significantly reduced TPHs levels as compared to the control after 30days. L. tetrasporus (44.5%) was more effective than P. variotii strain (32.89%) in reducing the unresolved complex mixtures (UCM) content from the medium. Both isolates exhibited a strong growth over a wide range of salinity (5-45g/L NaCl). PMID:26902685

  9. Prolonged recovery of sea otters from the Exxon Valdez oil spill? A re-examination of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Garshelis, David L; Johnson, Charles B

    2013-06-15

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) suffered major mortality after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 1989. We evaluate the contention that their recovery spanned over two decades. A model based on the otter age-at-death distribution suggested a large, spill-related population sink, but this has never been found, and other model predictions failed to match empirical data. Studies focused on a previously-oiled area where otter numbers (~80) stagnated post-spill; nevertheless, post-spill abundance exceeded the most recent pre-spill count, and population trends paralleled an adjacent, unoiled-lightly-oiled area. Some investigators posited that otters suffered chronic effects by digging up buried oil residues while foraging, but an ecological risk assessment indicated that exposure levels via this pathway were well below thresholds for toxicological effects. Significant confounding factors, including killer whale predation, subsistence harvests, human disturbances, and environmental regime shifts made it impossible to judge recovery at such a small scale.

  10. Relevance of the Sea Sand Disruption Method (SSDM) for the biometrical differentiation of the essential-oil composition from conifers.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Czapczyńska, Natalia B; Wianowska, Dorota

    2013-02-01

    Sea Sand Disruption Method (SSDM) is a simple and cheap sample-preparation procedure allowing the reduction of organic solvent consumption, exclusion of sample component degradation, improvement of extraction efficiency and selectivity, and elimination of additional sample clean-up and pre-concentration step before chromatographic analysis. This article deals with the possibility of SSDM application for the differentiation of essential-oils components occurring in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.) needles from Madrid (Spain), Laganas (Zakhyntos, Greece), Cala Morell (Menorca, Spain), Lublin (Poland), Helsinki (Finland), and Oradea (Romania). The SSDM results are related to the analogous - obtained applying two other sample preparation methods - steam distillation and Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE). The results presented established that the total amount and the composition of essential-oil components revealed by SSDM are equivalent or higher than those obtained by one of the most effective extraction technique, PLE. Moreover, SSDM seems to provide the most representative profile of all essential-oil components as no heat is applied. Thus, this environmentally friendly method is suggested to be used as the main extraction procedure for the differentiation of essential-oil components in conifers for scientific and industrial purposes. PMID:23418171

  11. Relevance of the Sea Sand Disruption Method (SSDM) for the biometrical differentiation of the essential-oil composition from conifers.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Czapczyńska, Natalia B; Wianowska, Dorota

    2013-02-01

    Sea Sand Disruption Method (SSDM) is a simple and cheap sample-preparation procedure allowing the reduction of organic solvent consumption, exclusion of sample component degradation, improvement of extraction efficiency and selectivity, and elimination of additional sample clean-up and pre-concentration step before chromatographic analysis. This article deals with the possibility of SSDM application for the differentiation of essential-oils components occurring in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.) needles from Madrid (Spain), Laganas (Zakhyntos, Greece), Cala Morell (Menorca, Spain), Lublin (Poland), Helsinki (Finland), and Oradea (Romania). The SSDM results are related to the analogous - obtained applying two other sample preparation methods - steam distillation and Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE). The results presented established that the total amount and the composition of essential-oil components revealed by SSDM are equivalent or higher than those obtained by one of the most effective extraction technique, PLE. Moreover, SSDM seems to provide the most representative profile of all essential-oil components as no heat is applied. Thus, this environmentally friendly method is suggested to be used as the main extraction procedure for the differentiation of essential-oil components in conifers for scientific and industrial purposes.

  12. Prolonged recovery of sea otters from the Exxon Valdez oil spill? A re-examination of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Garshelis, David L; Johnson, Charles B

    2013-06-15

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) suffered major mortality after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 1989. We evaluate the contention that their recovery spanned over two decades. A model based on the otter age-at-death distribution suggested a large, spill-related population sink, but this has never been found, and other model predictions failed to match empirical data. Studies focused on a previously-oiled area where otter numbers (~80) stagnated post-spill; nevertheless, post-spill abundance exceeded the most recent pre-spill count, and population trends paralleled an adjacent, unoiled-lightly-oiled area. Some investigators posited that otters suffered chronic effects by digging up buried oil residues while foraging, but an ecological risk assessment indicated that exposure levels via this pathway were well below thresholds for toxicological effects. Significant confounding factors, including killer whale predation, subsistence harvests, human disturbances, and environmental regime shifts made it impossible to judge recovery at such a small scale. PMID:23639486

  13. High resolution archives from the Black Sea and Caspian Sea as records of hydrological changes during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marret, F.; Mudie, P.; Leroy, S.; Aksu, A.; Hiscott, R.

    2009-04-01

    Studies of multiple proxies from sediments of marginal seas, such as the Black Sea, or epicontinental seas, such as the Caspian Sea, have demonstrated their great potential to document past changes in climate and hydrological cycles. Over the last decade, the Black Sea has been the centre of focus with regards to the timing, speed and extent of its reconnection with the Mediterranean Sea at the beginning of the Holocene; this has led to controversial debate in the scientific community and world-wide public interest. Notably, it has been suggested that the speed of this catastrophic flooding event led to the dispersal of Neolithic populations living on the northern shore of the Black Sea. The evidence for this abrupt flooding hypothesis included geophysical surveys, sedimentological and geochemical studies on the western and northern shelves. Although the interpretation of these data may be equivocal, it appears that a major environmental change occurred at around 8.5 ka BP as evidenced by a number of proxies (1). The Caspian Sea has revealed significant information with regards to modern marine proxies that were previously identified in early Holocene Black Sea sediments. Their modern distribution in the Caspian Sea has allowed to better constraint the paleoconditions of the Black Sea before its reconnection with the Mediterranean Sea at the beginning of the Holocene (2). Further studies of late Holocene Caspian Sea sediments have highlighted changes in salinity due to modification in river flows and climate change (3). We present here evidence for the gradual pace of this transformation of the Black Sea, from a brackish lake to its present-day marine conditions, based on a high resolution record of dinoflagellate cysts that are used to reconstruct past sea-surface conditions. Most previous Black Sea dinocyst studies were conducted at a low resolution, on the order of millennia, whereas our new record has a multi-decadal resolution. This has enabled us to pinpoint

  14. Decadal-scale variations of trophic levels at high trophic levels in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Tang, Q.; Jin, X.

    2007-09-01

    A total of 2759 stomachs collected from a bottom trawl survey carried out by R/V "Bei Dou" in the Yellow Sea between 32°00 and 36°30N in autumn 2000 and spring 2001 were examined. The trophic levels (TL) of eight dominant fish species were calculated based on stomach contents, and trophic levels of 17 dominant species in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea reported in later 1950s and mid-1980s were estimated so as to be comparable. The results indicated that the mean trophic level at high trophic levels declined from 4.06 in 1959-1960 to 3.41 in 1998-1999, or 0.16-0.19·decade - 1 (mean 0.17·decade - 1 ) in the Bohai Sea, and from 3.61 in 1985-1986 to 3.40 in 2000-2001, or 0.14·decade - 1 in the Yellow Sea; all higher than global trend. The dominant species composition in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea changed, with the percentage of planktivorous species increases and piscivorous or omnivorous species decreases, and this was one of the main reasons for the decline in mean trophic level at high tropic levels. Another main reason was intraspecific changes in TL. Similarly, many factors caused decline of trophic levels in the dominant fish species in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea. Firstly, TL of the same prey got lower, and anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) as prey was most representative. Secondly, TLs of diet composition getting lower resulted in not only decline of trophic levels but also changed feeding habits of some species, such as spotted velvetfish ( Erisphex pottii) and Trichiurus muticus in the Yellow Sea. Thirdly, species size getting smaller also resulted in not only decline of trophic levels but also changed feeding habits of some species, such as Bambay duck ( Harpodon nehereus) and largehead hairtail ( Trichiurus haumela). Furthermore, fishing pressure and climate change may be interfering to cause fishing down the food web in the China coastal ocean.

  15. Reducing uncertainty in high-resolution sea ice models.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston

    2013-07-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system, reflecting a significant amount of solar radiation, insulating the ocean from the atmosphere and influencing ocean circulation by modifying the salinity of the upper ocean. The thickness and extent of Arctic sea ice have shown a significant decline in recent decades with implications for global climate as well as regional geopolitics. Increasing interest in exploration as well as climate feedback effects make predictive mathematical modeling of sea ice a task of tremendous practical import. Satellite data obtained over the last few decades have provided a wealth of information on sea ice motion and deformation. The data clearly show that ice deformation is focused along narrow linear features and this type of deformation is not well-represented in existing models. To improve sea ice dynamics we have incorporated an anisotropic rheology into the Los Alamos National Laboratory global sea ice model, CICE. Sensitivity analyses were performed using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA) to determine the impact of material parameters on sea ice response functions. Two material strength parameters that exhibited the most significant impact on responses were further analyzed to evaluate their influence on quantitative comparisons between model output and data. The sensitivity analysis along with ten year model runs indicate that while the anisotropic rheology provides some benefit in velocity predictions, additional improvements are required to make this material model a viable alternative for global sea ice simulations.

  16. Penetration of sulfate reducers through a porous North Sea oil reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Beeder, J.; Nilsen, R.K.; Thorstenson, T.; Torsvik, T.

    1996-09-01

    During offshore oil production, seawater is often injected into the reservoir to maintain pressure. Sulfate reducers have been reported from water samples in Norwegian oil fields. However in order to demonstrate penetration, a suitable indicator microorganism is required. This paper reports the isolation of one such indicator bacterium from injection water followed by isolation of the same bacterium from water from oil field production system. 28 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Abrupt climate changes for Iceland during the last millennium: Evidence from high resolution sea ice reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massé, Guillaume; Rowland, Steven J.; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Jacob, Jeremy; Jansen, Eystein; Belt, Simon T.

    2008-05-01

    A high resolution account of Icelandic sea ice over the last millennium has been constructed using a novel proxy based on the presence in sediments of a biomarker (IP 25) produced by sea ice algae. Comparison with historical sea ice records demonstrates a strong correlation between documented sea ice occurrences and the IP 25 proxy. An excellent agreement is also observed between the IP 25 record and a diatom-based sea surface temperature reconstruction obtained from the same core and the Crowley and Lowery Northern Hemisphere temperature reconstruction. Using this approach, we provide new historical sea ice data for periods where records are scarce or absent and evidence for abrupt changes to sea ice and/or climate conditions around Iceland during the Little Ice Age.

  18. High Doses of Fish Oil Might Help Healing After Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160178.html High Doses of Fish Oil Might Help Healing After Heart Attack Study ... Heart attack patients who took high doses of fish oil supplements for six months showed improved heart ...

  19. Sea level rise Contribution from High Mountain Asia by 20150

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liyun; Moore, John; Ding, Ran

    2015-04-01

    We estimate individual area and volume change by 2050 of all 83,460 glaciers of high mountain Asia (HMA), with a total area of 118,263 km2, delineated in the Randolph Glacier Inventory version 4.0 which separates glacier complexes in its previous version into individual glaciers. We used the 25 km resolution regional climate model RegCM 3.0 temperature and precipitation change projections forced by the IPCC A1B scenario. Glacier simulations were based on a novel surface mass balance-altitude parameterization fitted to observational data, and various volume-area scaling approaches using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission surface topography of each individual glacier. We generate mass balance-altitude relations for all the glaciers by region using nearest available glacier measurements. Two method are used to model the Equilibrium line altitude (ELA) variation. One is to use ELA sensitivities to temperature and precipitation change vary by region based on the relative importance of sublimation and melting processes. The other is solved ELA implicitly for every year using the temperature at ELA and Degree Day model. We project total glacier area loss in high mountain Asia in 2050 to be 22% of their extent in 2000, and they will contribute 5-8 mm to global sea level rise.

  20. 15 CFR 970.520 - Freedom of the high seas requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Freedom of the high seas requirements... THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance... high seas requirements. Each license issued under this part must include such restrictions as may...

  1. 15 CFR 970.520 - Freedom of the high seas requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Freedom of the high seas requirements... THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance... high seas requirements. Each license issued under this part must include such restrictions as may...

  2. 15 CFR 970.520 - Freedom of the high seas requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Freedom of the high seas requirements... THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance... high seas requirements. Each license issued under this part must include such restrictions as may...

  3. 15 CFR 970.520 - Freedom of the high seas requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Freedom of the high seas requirements... THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance... high seas requirements. Each license issued under this part must include such restrictions as may...

  4. 15 CFR 970.520 - Freedom of the high seas requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Freedom of the high seas requirements... THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance... high seas requirements. Each license issued under this part must include such restrictions as may...

  5. Biodiversity and degradation potential of oil-degrading bacteria isolated from deep-sea sediments of South Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiangxing; Gao, Wei; Cui, Zhisong; Han, Bin; Yang, Peihua; Sun, Chengjun; Zheng, Li

    2015-08-15

    The indigenous oil-degrading bacterial consortia MARA and MARB were enriched from the deep-sea sediments of South Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) with crude oil as sole carbon and energy sources. Biodiversity and community analyses showed that members of α-Proteobacteria were the key players in consortium MARA, whereas those of γ-Proteobacteria were the key players in consortium MARB, which were studied by MiSeq sequencing method. Gravimetric method estimated the oil degradation rates of MARA and MARB to be 63.4% and 85.8%, respectively, after 20d. Eleven cultivable oil degraders with different morphologies were isolated. These strains were identified as Alcanivorax, Bacillus, Dietzia, Erythrobacter, Marinobacter, Nitratireductor, and Oceanicola based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Three strains belonging to Dietzia exhibited the highest oil degradation capability. Results indicated that the intrinsic biodegradation capacity of oil contaminants by indigenous microbial communities exists in South MAR sediments.

  6. Surveys of sea otters in the Gulf of Alaska in response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-7. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeGange, A.R.; Douglas, D.C.; Monson, D.H.; Robbins, C.M.

    1995-05-01

    Sea otter (Enhydra lutris) abundance and distribution in the Gulf of Alaska west of Prince William Sound were surveyed by helicopter in the spring of 1989 at the time of the Exxon Valdez oil spill and the following fall. Estimated population sizes did not significantly decline between spring and fall for areas with comparable survey data. No significant (p>0.05) shifts of sea otter distributions in heavily, lightly and unoiled areas were detected between spring and fall surveys.

  7. The Atlantic Inflow through the Barents Sea from the high-resolution simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, Y.; Bacon, S.; Coward, A. C.; Nurser, A. J. G.

    2009-04-01

    Atlantic Water is an important component of the Arctic Ocean circulation. To study Atlantic Water pathways we used the results of a high-resolution global sea ice-ocean simulations for the period 1985 - 2006. The simulations also included passive tracers and ventilation tracer analysis which demonstrated high ventilation of the Barents Sea at few localized sites. Mode waters of Barents Sea Water were identified: the first mode is formed at the shallow convective sites in the northern Barents Sea and contributes in the formation of the Arctic cold halocline water; the second mode is the source of the Arctic low halocline water and is formed in the southeastern Barents Sea; the third dense mode is formed west of Novaya Zemlya. The mode waters continue into the Eurasian Arctic through the northwestern Barents Sea and along the northern Barents Sea shelf, and, via the other route, through the southeastern Barents Sea and the St.Anna Trough. The formation rates of the mode waters along with the heat ans salt transports through the Barents Sea have been estimated and compared to observations. Keywords Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Atlantic Water, mode waters, ocean modelling

  8. Off-shore enhanced oil recovery in the north sea: matching CO_2 demand and supply given uncertain market conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compernolle, Tine; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Huisman, Kuno; Piessens, Kris; Kort, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Introduction CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) entails the injection of CO2 in mature oil fields in order to mobilize the oil. In particular, the injected CO2 reduces the oil's viscosity and acts as a propellant, resulting in an increased oil extraction rate (Leach et al., 2011). Given uncertainty in both oil price and CO2 price under the EU ETS system, aim of this study is to analyze under which economic conditions a CO2 exchange can be established between a CO2 supplier (an electricity producer for whom CO2 is a by-product) and a CO2 user (an offshore oil company that exploits oil fields in the North Sea and needs CO2 for enhanced oil recovery). Methodology A techno-economic simulation tool, PSS IV, was developed to provide investment decision support on integrated CO2-EOR projects (Welkenhuysen et al., 2014). Until now, a fixed onshore supply of CO2 was presumed. An economic optimization model is now developed for both the CO2 producer and the CO2 user. Because net present value and discounted cash flow methods are inadequate to deal with issues like uncertainty and the irreversibility of an investment decision, the real options theory is applied (Dixit and Pindyck, 1994). The way in which cooperation between the companies can take place, will be studied using game theoretical concepts (Lukas and Welling, 2014). Economic and technical data on CO2 capture are available from the PSS database (Piessens et al., 2012). Data on EOR performance, CO2 requirements and various costs are taken from literature (BERR, 2007; Klokk et al., 2010; Pershad et al., 2012). Results/Findings It will be shown what the impact of price uncertainty is on the investment decision of the electricity producer to capture and sell CO2, and on the decision of the oil producer to make the necessary investments to inject CO2 for enhanced oil recovery. Based on these results, it will be determined under which economic conditions a CO2 exchange and transport can take place. Furthermore, also the

  9. Floating production platforms and their applications in the development of oil and gas fields in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dagang; Chen, Yongjun; Zhang, Tianyu

    2014-03-01

    This paper studies the current available options for floating production platforms in developing deepwater oil fields and the potential development models of future oil and gas exploration in the South China Sea. A detailed review of current deepwater platforms worldwide was performed through the examples of industry projects, and the pros and cons of each platform are discussed. Four types of platforms are currently used for the deepwater development: tension leg platform, Spar, semi-submersible platform, and the floating production system offloading. Among these, the TLP and Spar can be used for dry tree applications, and have gained popularity in recent years. The dry tree application enables the extension of the drilling application for fixed platforms into floating systems, and greatly reduces the cost and complexity of the subsea operation. Newly built wet tree semi-submersible production platforms for ultra deepwater are also getting their application, mainly due to the much needed payload for deepwater making the conversion of the old drilling semi-submersible platforms impossible. These platforms have been used in different fields around the world for different environments; each has its own advantages and disadvantages. There are many challenges with the successful use of these floating platforms. A lot of lessons have been learned and extensive experience accumulated through the many project applications. Key technologies are being reviewed for the successful use of floating platforms for field development, and potential future development needs are being discussed. Some of the technologies and experience of platform applications can be well used for the development of the South China Sea oil and gas field.

  10. High-seas fish wars generate marine reserves

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Guillermo E.; Moeller, Holly V.

    2016-01-01

    The effective management of marine fisheries is an ongoing challenge at the intersection of biology, economics, and policy. One way in which fish stocks—and their habitats—can be protected is through the establishment of marine reserves, areas that are closed to fishing. Although the potential economic benefits of such reserves have been shown for single-owner fisheries, their implementation quickly becomes complicated when more than one noncooperating harvester is involved in fishery management, which is the case on the high seas. How do multiple self-interested actors distribute their fishing effort to maximize their individual economic gains in the presence of others? Here, we use a game theoretic model to compare the effort distributions of multiple noncooperating harvesters with the effort distributions in the benchmark sole owner and open access cases. In addition to comparing aggregate rent, stock size, and fishing effort, we focus on the occurrence, size, and location of marine reserves. We show that marine reserves are a component of many noncooperative Cournot–Nash equilibria. Furthermore, as the number of harvesters increases, (i) both total unfished area and the size of binding reserves (those that actually constrain behavior) may increase, although the latter eventually asymptotically decreases; (ii) total rents and stock size both decline; and (iii) aggregate effort used (i.e., employment) can either increase or decrease, perhaps nonmonotonically. PMID:26976560

  11. High-seas fish wars generate marine reserves.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Guillermo E; Moeller, Holly V; Neubert, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    The effective management of marine fisheries is an ongoing challenge at the intersection of biology, economics, and policy. One way in which fish stocks-and their habitats-can be protected is through the establishment of marine reserves, areas that are closed to fishing. Although the potential economic benefits of such reserves have been shown for single-owner fisheries, their implementation quickly becomes complicated when more than one noncooperating harvester is involved in fishery management, which is the case on the high seas. How do multiple self-interested actors distribute their fishing effort to maximize their individual economic gains in the presence of others? Here, we use a game theoretic model to compare the effort distributions of multiple noncooperating harvesters with the effort distributions in the benchmark sole owner and open access cases. In addition to comparing aggregate rent, stock size, and fishing effort, we focus on the occurrence, size, and location of marine reserves. We show that marine reserves are a component of many noncooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria. Furthermore, as the number of harvesters increases, (i) both total unfished area and the size of binding reserves (those that actually constrain behavior) may increase, although the latter eventually asymptotically decreases; (ii) total rents and stock size both decline; and (iii) aggregate effort used (i.e., employment) can either increase or decrease, perhaps nonmonotonically.

  12. High-seas fish wars generate marine reserves.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Guillermo E; Moeller, Holly V; Neubert, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    The effective management of marine fisheries is an ongoing challenge at the intersection of biology, economics, and policy. One way in which fish stocks-and their habitats-can be protected is through the establishment of marine reserves, areas that are closed to fishing. Although the potential economic benefits of such reserves have been shown for single-owner fisheries, their implementation quickly becomes complicated when more than one noncooperating harvester is involved in fishery management, which is the case on the high seas. How do multiple self-interested actors distribute their fishing effort to maximize their individual economic gains in the presence of others? Here, we use a game theoretic model to compare the effort distributions of multiple noncooperating harvesters with the effort distributions in the benchmark sole owner and open access cases. In addition to comparing aggregate rent, stock size, and fishing effort, we focus on the occurrence, size, and location of marine reserves. We show that marine reserves are a component of many noncooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria. Furthermore, as the number of harvesters increases, (i) both total unfished area and the size of binding reserves (those that actually constrain behavior) may increase, although the latter eventually asymptotically decreases; (ii) total rents and stock size both decline; and (iii) aggregate effort used (i.e., employment) can either increase or decrease, perhaps nonmonotonically. PMID:26976560

  13. Starch-Soybean Oil Composites with High Oil: Starch Ratios Prepared by Steam Jet Cooking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aqueous mixtures of soybean oil and starch were jet cooked at oil:starch ratios ranging from 0.5:1 to 4:1 to yield dispersions of micron-sized oil droplets that were coated with a thin layer of starch at the oil-water interface. The jet cooked dispersions were then centrifuged at 2060 and 10,800 x ...

  14. High-resolution IP25-based reconstruction of sea-ice variability in the western North Pacific and Bering Sea during the past 18,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méheust, Marie; Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; Max, Lars; Riethdorf, Jan-Rainer

    2016-04-01

    Due to its strong influence on heat and moisture exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, sea ice is an essential component of the global climate system. In the context of its alarming decrease in terms of concentration, thickness and duration, understanding the processes controlling sea-ice variability and reconstructing paleo-sea-ice extent in polar regions have become of great interest for the scientific community. In this study, for the first time, IP25, a recently developed biomarker sea-ice proxy, was used for a high-resolution reconstruction of the sea-ice extent and its variability in the western North Pacific and western Bering Sea during the past 18,000 years. To identify mechanisms controlling the sea-ice variability, IP25 data were associated with published sea-surface temperature as well as diatom and biogenic opal data. The results indicate that a seasonal sea-ice cover existed during cold periods (Heinrich Stadial 1 and Younger Dryas), whereas during warmer intervals (Bølling-Allerød and Holocene) reduced sea ice or ice-free conditions prevailed in the study area. The variability in sea-ice extent seems to be linked to climate anomalies and sea-level changes controlling the oceanographic circulation between the subarctic Pacific and the Bering Sea, especially the Alaskan Stream injection though the Aleutian passes.

  15. The Black Sea coastal zone in the high resolution satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurovskaya, Maria; Dulov, Vladimir; Kozlov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    Landsat data with spatial resolution of 30-100 m provide the ability of regular monitoring of ocean phenomena with scale of 100-1000 m. Sentinel-1 is equipped with C-band synthetic aperture radar. The images allow recognizing the features that affect either the sea surface roughness, or its color characteristics. The possibilities of using the high spatial resolution satellite data are considered for observation and monitoring of Crimean coastal zone. The analyzed database includes all Landsat-8 (Level 1) multi-channel images from January 2013 to August 2015 and all Sentinel-1 radar images in May-August 2015. The goal of the study is to characterize the descriptiveness of these data for research and monitoring of the Crimean coastal areas. The observed marine effects are reviewed and the physical mechanisms of their signatures in the satellite images are described. The effects associated with the roughness variability are usually manifested in all bands, while the subsurface phenomena are visible only in optical data. Confidently observed structures include internal wave trains, filamentous natural slicks, which reflect the eddy coastal dynamics, traces of moving ships and the oil films referred to anthropogenic pollution of marine environment. The temperature fronts in calm conditions occur due to surfactant accumulation in convergence zone. The features in roughness field can also be manifested in Sentinel-1 data. Subsurface processes observed in Landsat-8 images primarily include transport and distribution of suspended matter as a result of floods and sandy beach erosion. The surfactant always concentrates on the sea surface in contaminated areas, so that these events are also observed in Sentinel-1 images. A search of wastewater discharge manifestations is performed. The investigation provides the basis for further development of approaches to obtain quantitative characteristics of the phenomena themselves. Funding by Russian Science Foundation under grant 15

  16. Effects of an oil production effluent on gametogenesis and gamete performance in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Stimpson)

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, P.R. . Dept. of Biological Sciences)

    1994-07-01

    Adult organisms subjected to chronic discharges from a point source of pollution may exhibit several sublethal responses. One such response is the impairment of gamete production. This may be expressed in the amount and/or quality of gametes produced by adults. In this study the effects of chronic exposure to produced water (an oil production effluent) on the gametogenesis and gamete performance of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Stimpson) were examined using an in situ caging experiment. Adult purple sea urchins were kept in benthic cages arrayed down-field from a discharging diffuser at 13 sites, with distances ranging from 5 to 1,000 m. Cage exposures were maintained in the field for eight weeks, and each cage held 25 animals. Gametogenesis was examined for each sex by comparing a size-independent measure of relative gonads ass as determined by analysis of covariance. Results showed that there was a significant negative relationship between these estimates of relative gonad mass and distance from the outfall for both sexes, indicating that sea urchins living closer to the outfall produced significantly larger gonads. Gamete performance was measured through a fertilization kinetics bioassay that held the concentration of eggs constant and varied the amount of sperm added. The proportion of eggs fertilized under each sperm concentration was determined and the response fit to a model of fertilizability showed a positive relationship with distance away from the outfall. These findings indicate that although adult sea urchins exposed to a produced water outfall exhibit larger gonads, they suffer a marked decrease in a gamete performance.

  17. The extremely high 137Cs inventory in the Sulu Sea: a possible mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Zheng, Jian

    2006-01-01

    Large-volume seawater samples were collected in the Sulu and South China Seas and their (137)Cs activities were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry using a low background type high-purity Ge detector. Vertical distributions of (137)Cs activity showed an exponential decrease in the South China Sea, whereas a subsurface maximum at 200m depth and monotonic decrease below 300m were observed in the Sulu Sea. A significant difference in intermediate water (137)Cs activities in the 500-2000m depth was observed between the Sulu and South China Seas, i.e., the (137)Cs activities in the Sulu Sea were remarkably higher than those in the South China Sea. The difference in the (137)Cs inventory below 500m was approximately 1200Bqm(-2) between the Sulu and South China Seas. The (137)Cs total inventory of 3200Bqm(-2) in the Sulu Sea was 5.7 times higher than that expected from global fallout. A possible mechanism controlling this extremely high (137)Cs total inventory may be inflows of the (137)Cs rich water masses through the Luzon Strait, lateral transport across the Mindoro Strait into the Sulu Sea, and then subduction into the deep layer in the basin.

  18. High severity pyrolysis of shale and petroleum gas oil mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Leftin, H.P.; Newsome, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    Light gas oil and heavy gas oil from Paraho shale oil and their mixtures with a petroleum light gas oil were pyrolyzed in the presence of steam at 880-900/sup 0/C and contact times between 60 and 90 ms in a nonisothermal bench-scale pyrolysis reactor. Blending of petroleum LGO into the shale oil feeds provided product yields that were the weighted linear combination of the yields of the individual components of the blends. Partial denitrogenation and a pronounced decrease in the rate of coke deposition on the reactor walls were observed when petroleum gas oil was blended with the shale gas oils.

  19. Oil pollution in the Red Sea — Environmental monitoring of an oilfield in a coral area, Gulf of Suez

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicks, Brian

    The Red Sea is rapidly developing as one of the world's largest offshore oil production areas. It also comprises a wide range of tropical marine habitats, many of which are internationally recognised for their conservation, scientific, economic or recreational value. Past oil production, refining and transport have resulted in chronic pollution of some areas, and environmental programmes to protect new areas of development from pollution damage are assuming increasing importance. At the initiative of an Egyptian oil company operating in the Gulf of Suez, an environmental protection and management scheme has been prepared for a new offshore oilfield and marine terminal at Ras Budran. This paper describes the form of the scheme and the results of its component environmental surveys. The development area comprises rich and diverse marine communities of fringing coral reefs, nearshore lagoons, seagrass beds, sandy beaches and fine sediments offshore. A baseline survey was designed following detailed discussion of the scope of the development with the company and a preliminary site visit, and the fieldwork was completed in October 1980. On the basis of the findings of the survey, a series of recommendations was made to the company, aimed at reducing environmental impacts during construction and operation to a minimum and acceptable level. These were subsequently implemented and the results of a post-construction survey in February 1983 are reported which show that environmental damage to the nearshore habitats during the construction phase had been relatively small and localised. Recently, the biological information obtained from the two surveys has also been incorporated into oil spill contingency plans.

  20. Detection of plant oil DNA using high resolution melting (HRM) post PCR analysis: a tool for disclosure of olive oil adulteration.

    PubMed

    Vietina, Michelangelo; Agrimonti, Caterina; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-12-15

    Extra virgin olive oil is frequently subjected to adulterations with addition of oils obtained from plants other than olive. DNA analysis is a fast and economic tool to identify plant components in oils. Extraction and amplification of DNA by PCR was tested in olives, in milled seeds and in oils, to investigate its use in olive oil traceability. DNA was extracted from different oils made of hazelnut, maize, sunflower, peanut, sesame, soybean, rice and pumpkin. Comparing the DNA melting profiles in reference plant materials and in the oils, it was possible to identify any plant components in oils and mixtures of oils. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) platform has been added of the new methodology of high resolution melting (HRM), both were used to analyse olive oils mixed with different percentage of other oils. Results showed HRM a cost effective method for efficient detection of adulterations in olive oils.

  1. Development of ultra-high erucic acid oil in the industrial oil crop Crambe abyssinica.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueyuan; van Loo, Eibertus N; Gruber, Jens; Fan, Jing; Guan, Rui; Frentzen, Margrit; Stymne, Sten; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2012-09-01

    Erucic acid (22 : 1) is a major feedstock for the oleochemical industry. In this study, a gene stacking strategy was employed to develop transgenic Crambe abyssinica lines with increased 22 : 1 levels. Through integration of the LdLPAAT, BnFAE1 and CaFAD2-RNAi genes into the crambe genome, confirmed by Southern blot and qRT-PCR, the average levels of 18 : 1, 18 : 2 and 18 : 3 were markedly decreased and that of 22 : 1 was increased from 60% in the wild type to 73% in the best transgenic line of T4 generation. In single seeds of the same line, the 22 : 1 level could reach 76.9%, an increase of 28.0% over the wild type. The trierucin amount was positively correlated to 22 : 1 in the transgenic lines. Unlike high erucic rapeseed, the wild-type crambe contains 22 : 1 in the seed phosphatidylcholine and in the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols (5% and 8%, respectively). The transgenic line with high 22 : 1 had decreased 22 : 1 level in phosphatidylcholine, and this was negatively correlated with the 22 : 1 level at the sn-2 position of TAG. The significances of this study include (i) achieving an unprecedented level of 22 : 1 in an oil crop; (ii) disclosing mechanisms in the channelling of a triacylglycerol-specific unusual fatty acid in oil seeds; (iii) indicating potential limiting factors involved in the erucic acid biosynthesis and paving the way for further increase of this acid and (iv) development of an added value genetically modified oil crop having no risk of gene flow into feed and food crops.

  2. High-resolution area-wide sea-floor mapping: The paleo Elbe valley (S North Sea) revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papenmeier, Svenja; Hass, H. Christian

    2014-05-01

    The North Sea Basin is shaped by multiple glacial advances and retreats that left complex sequences of glacio-fluvial and sub-glacial deposits, cut by sub-glacial tunnel valleys. Today, the submerged valley of the Elbe forms one of the most prominent structures of the southern North Sea. Flanked by huge moraine deposits of older glacials, the valley developed to its present form during the Weichselian sea-level lowstand (-130 m below present). Melt waters that discharged in north-westerly directions along the Scandinavian Ice Sheet fed the paleo Elbe at that time. During the Holocene the valley drowned in the rising sea. Here we present an area-wide high-resolution map of the seafloor and high-resolution shallow seismic data covering 1,600 km2 of the paleo Elbe valley (PEV) including its eastern levee. The data allow to shed new light on the PEV development including the historical process of sedimentary infill with the successive Holocene sea level rise in detail. Shallow seismic data with transect distances of 400 m and several cross sections allow 3-D visualization. The eastern flank of the valley is characterized by a relatively steep slope with one or more terraces. At its levee a significant sediment change is present on the modern sea floor, representing moraine and marine deposits. High resolution sidescan sonar data of this area show a much higher heterogeneity and complexity in sediment and habitat distribution as assumed before. Holocene marine sediments form a patchy and thin drape east of the valley floor. The western slip-off slope of the valley slope is much smoother than the eastern undercut slope. As yet, significant sedimentological changes at the present seafloor are not known for the western side of the PEV. Shallow seismic data show the base of the PEV. There are conspicuous internal seismic reflectors above the base, inclined in northeastern direction. They indicate a sedimentary infill of the valley from the southwest when the southern part

  3. Oil spill behaviour and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Fingas, M.; Jokuty, P.; Fieldhouse, B.

    1996-12-31

    The behavior of oil in the environment is reviewed. This is then applied to modeling of the behavior of oil in the environment once spilled. The most important behavior of oil in terms of modeling its fate when spilled is evaporation. Significant numbers of modeling equations are available. The second most important behavior aspect of oil is the formation of water-in-oil emulsions. Natural dispersion of oil is the next most important factor. Oils which contain large fractions of small saturates will disperse naturally given high sea energies. Modeling equations for this factor are primitive. A related factor, dissolution, is not as important in terms of mass balance but is important in terms of toxicity in the environment. Laboratory work shows that the dissolution of oils can be predicted and measured, but no models incorporate dissolution as a separate term from dispersion. There are several lesser chemical and behavior aspects to oil, these include photooxidation, sinking and biodegradation.

  4. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Caspian Basin, Middle Caspian Basin, North Ustyurt Basin, and South Caspian Basin Provinces, Caspian Sea Area, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 19.6 billion barrels of crude oil, 243 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 9.3 billion barrels of natural gas liquids for the Caspian Sea area, using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  5. Biomarkers of damage to sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska, following potential exposure to oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez. Marine mammal study 6-1. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ballachey, B.E.

    1995-05-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate several biomarkers of genotoxic damage in sea otters that had potentially been exposed to oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez. Thirteen adult male sea otters were captured in eastern (unoiled) Prince William Sound, and 14 in western (oiled) Prince William Sound in September and October 1991. Blood lymphocytes, sperm and testicular cells were collected from the otters for flow cytometric analyses to measure: (1) DNA content of lymphocytes, (2) nuclear chromatin structure of sperm, and (3) subpopulations of cell types in the testis. Additionally, sperm cells were examined by light microscopy for morphological abnormalities. The DNA content of blood lymphocytes from sea otters in the oiled vs. unoiled areas was not significantly different, although there was greater variation among samples from the oiled area. One measure of sperm cell quality was poorer for male sea otters from the unoiled area, and may have been associated with differences in the age and breeding status of the two groups sampled. Other measures of sperm and testicular cells did not differ between areas.

  6. Oxidative stability of high-oleic sunflower oil in a porous starch carrier.

    PubMed

    Belingheri, Claudia; Giussani, Barbara; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Ferrillo, Antonio; Vittadini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the oxidation level of high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) plated onto porous starch as an alternative to spray drying. Encapsulated oils were subjected to accelerated oxidation by heat and light exposure, and peroxide value (PV) and conjugated dienes (CD) were measured. Bulk oil was the control. PV increased in all samples with increased light exposure, with similar values being reached by oil carried on porous starch and spray dried oil. The encapsulation processes determined a reduced effect of light on the increase of CD in the oil, as compared to bulk oil. Spray dried oil presented the highest CD in the experimental domain considered. Since similar levels of PV and lower levels of CD were shown in the HOSO carried on porous starch compared to the spray dried HOSO, plating flavour oils on porous starch could be a suitable technological alternative to spray drying, for flavour encapsulation.

  7. High field dc conduction current and spectroscopy of aged transformer oil

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sulaiman, A.A.; Ahmed, O.; Hassan, M.M.; Quresh, M.

    1982-11-01

    This paper studies the experimental results of the quasi-state high field dc conduction current, and changes occuring in the molecular structure of aged transformer oil, sampled from EHV transformer operating for the last five years. Aged oil was compared with fresh transformer oil and liquid paraffin. It was found that aged oil exhibits higher conduction than both of the other oils through 600 seconds of field application. However, no molecular changes were detected using different techniques of spectroscopy such as GC; UV; IR and NMR. Metallic impurities were found to be of the same order but the acidity increased manifolds to that of fresh oil.

  8. Accidental versus operational oil spills from shipping in the Baltic Sea: risk governance and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Hassler, Björn

    2011-03-01

    Marine governance of oil transportation is complex. Due to difficulties in effectively monitoring procedures on vessels en voyage, incentives to save costs by not following established regulations on issues such as cleaning of tanks, crew size, and safe navigation may be substantial. The issue of problem structure is placed in focus, that is, to what degree the specific characteristics and complexity of intentional versus accidental oil spill risks affect institutional responses. It is shown that whereas the risk of accidental oil spills primarily has been met by technical requirements on the vessels in combination with Port State control, attempts have been made to curb intentional pollution by for example increased surveillance and smart governance mechanisms such as the No-Special-Fee system. It is suggested that environmental safety could be improved by increased use of smart governance mechanisms tightly adapted to key actors' incentives to alter behavior in preferable directions.

  9. Concerns--High Sea Levels and Temperatures Seen Next Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Paul R.

    1984-01-01

    A National Research Council committee recently concluded that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will "most likely" double by late in the next century, causing an increase in the earth's average temperature. Effects of the increase on sea levels, global climate, and other parameters are discussed. (JN)

  10. Differential sensitivity of macrozoobenthic species to discharges of oil-contaminated drill cuttings in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daan, Rogier; Mulder, Maarten; Van Leeuwen, Anja

    To assess the effects on macrozoobenthos of discharged drill cuttings with adhering drilling mud, monitoring studies have been performed around several drilling locations in the Dutch sector of the North Sea since 1985. Altogether 11 surveys were carried out at well sites where oil-based drilling muds (OBM) had been used, and 4 at locations where water-based muds (WBM) had been used. The resulting data-matrices, comprising the numerical densities of species at increasing distances from the discharge sites, were inspected for consistent patterns in the spatial abundance of individual species around the sites. Of the species that were abundant by nature at most locations, 15 showed reduced abundance near OBM discharge sites on five or more occasions. These species are considered useful indicators of OBM stress in the Dutch sector of the North Sea. None of them showed reduced abundance at WBM locations. Only one species, the opportunist polychaete Capitella capitata, consistently occurred in increased numbers near OBM locations. It did not show this response at WBM locations. Oil on drill cuttings is apparently a major stress factor affecting the macrofauna around drilling sites. The species showing the strongest response to OBM cutting discharges were the amphipod Harpinia antennaria, the echinoid Echinocardium cordatum and the bivalve Montacuta ferruginosa. Their numbers were frequently found to be reduced up to a few km from OBM locations. In view of the commensal relationship between M. ferruginosa and E. cordatum, their relative sensitivity is discussed in detail. The host species E. cordatum (particularly adult specimens) is probably the really sensitive species of the two.

  11. Correlation of crude oils with their oil source formation, using high resolution GLC C6-C7 component analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippi, G. T.

    1981-09-01

    A novel method based on high resolution gas liquid chromatography (GLC) component analyses of shale and crude oil C6-C7 hydrocarbons is reported, by means of which the composition parameters in an oil are compared with the corresponding parameters in a shale. A similarity coefficient has been devised to measure the degree of correlation between crude oil and source rock hydrocarbons and between the hydrocarbons from different groups of crude oils, having 1.00 as its theoretical maximum value and a fraction close to zero as its minimum. With values above 0.80, correlation between the given hydrocarbons is considered good, and poor below 0.73. It has been found that erroneous crude oil-source rock combinations from areas with more than one source formation have low similarity coefficients, indicating that the correlation method proposed is functioning properly.

  12. Alloy performance in high temperature oil refining environments

    SciTech Connect

    Sorell, G.; Humphries, M.J.; McLaughlin, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The performance of steels and alloys in high temperature petroleum refining applications is strongly influenced by detrimental interactions with aggressive process environments. These are encountered in conventional refining processes and especially in processing schemes for fuels conversion and upgrading. Metal-environment interactions can shorten equipment life and cause impairment of mechanical properties, metallurgical stability and weldability. Corrosion and other high temperature attack modes discussed are sulfidation, hydrogen attack, carburization, and metal dusting. Sulfidation is characterized by bulky scales that are generally ineffective corrosion barriers. Metal loss is often accompanied by sub-surface sulfide penetration. Hydrogen attack and carburization proceed without metal loss and are detectable only by metallographic examination. In advanced stages, these deterioration modes cause severe impairment of mechanical properties. Harmful metal-environment interactions are characterized and illustrated with data drawn from test exposures and plant experience. Alloys employed for high temperature oil refining equipment are identified, including some promising newcomers.

  13. Penetration of Sulfate Reducers through a Porous North Sea Oil Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Beeder, J.; Nilsen, R. K.; Thorstenson, T.; Torsvik, T.

    1996-01-01

    The presence of mesophilic benzoate-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria in the water systems of three Norwegian oil platforms was investigated. Strain 4502 was isolated from the injection water system, and specific antibodies were produced against this isolate. It was present in the injection water system during a period of 3 years, but not in the in situ reservoir water. Later it was found in water samples collected from the oil field production system. This showed that strain 4502 had penetrated the reservoir together with the injection water and eventually reached the production well. PMID:16535415

  14. Population model for sea otters in western Prince William sound. Restoration project 93043-3. Sea otter demographics. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Udevitz, M.S.; Ballachey, B.E.; Bruden, D.L.

    1996-05-01

    A large portion of the western Prince William Sound (PWS) sea otter population was killed by the Exxon Valdez oil spill in March 1989, but little is known about the dynamics of the population before the spill in March 1989, or the rate at which the population can be expected to recover. We estimated age-specific reproductive and survival rates for the western PWS population before the spill based on examinations or reproductive tracts and the age structure of carcasses collected in 1989. We developed a new technique for estimating survival rates that uses age-structure and age-at-death data, and does not require the assumption of a stable age structure. Because of the lack of data for estimating juvenile survival rates, were considered a series of 4 potential scenarios. The population was projected to decrease slightly during the first year under all of the scenarios and then begin increasing, achieving maximum rates of increase ranging from 10% to 14% per year and recovering to its estimated 1985 population size in 10 to 23 years. Projected population sizes during the first few years after the spill are in broad agreement with estimates based on boat surveys in 1990, 1991, and 1993.

  15. Experiments to determine drift patterns and rates of recovery of sea otter carcasses following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-9. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Doroff, A.M.; DeGange, A.R.

    1995-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate efforts to recover sea otter (Enhydra lutris) carcasses following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The first study was implemented during sea otter rescue and carcass recovery activities to assess the probability of carcass recovery. Twenty-five previously recovered sea otter carcasses were marked with flipper tags and released near northern Kodiak Island between 27 May and 3 June 1989. Five were recovered, for a recovery rate of 20%. In the second study, 30 radio-monitored floats designed to assess drift characteristics of floating sea otter carcasses were deployed in early summer 1990. During a 43-day monitoring period, 27 were known to have washed ashore, 25 in Prince William Sound (PWS) and two on the Gulf of Alaska coast of Montague Island. These studies suggest that many more sea otters may have died from the spill than were recovered, and that some sea otters succumbing to oil exposure in PWS could have drifted outside of PWS and never been recovered.

  16. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: a review.

    PubMed

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel.

  17. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: a review.

    PubMed

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel. PMID:20362044

  18. High pressure hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil to middle distillates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, C. R.; Biswas, Dipa

    1986-05-01

    Hydrocracking of heavier petroleum fractions into lighter ones is of increasing importance today to meet the huge demand, particularly for gasoline and middle distillates. Much work on hydrocracking of a gas oil range feed stock to mainly gasoline using modified zeolite catalyst-base exchanged with metals (namely Ni, Pd, Mo, etc.) has been reported. In India, however, present demand is for a maximum amount of middle distillate. The present investigation was therefore aimed to maximize the yield of middle distillate (140-270°C boiling range) by hydrocracking a vacuum gas oil (365-450°C boiling range) fraction from an Indian Refinery at high hydrogen pressure and temperature. A zeolite catalyst-base exchanged with 4.5% Ni was chosen for the reaction. A high pressure batch reactor with a rocking arrangement was used for the study. No pretreatment of the feed stock for sulphur removal applied as the total sulphur in the feed was less than 2%. The process variables studied for the maximum yield of the middle distillate were temperature 300-450°C, pressure 100-200 bar and residence period 1-3 h at the feed to catalyst ratio of 9.3 (wt/wt). The optimum conditions for the maximum yield of 36% middle distillate of the product were: temperature 400°C, pressure 34.5 bar (initially) and residence period 2 h. A carbon balance of 90-92% was found for each run.

  19. Short-term scheduling of crude oil operations in refinery with high-fusion-point oil and two transportation pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, NaiQi; Zhu, MengChu; Bai, LiPing; Li, ZhiWu

    2016-07-01

    In some refineries, storage tanks are located at two different sites, one for low-fusion-point crude oil and the other for high one. Two pipelines are used to transport different oil types. Due to the constraints resulting from the high-fusion-point oil transportation, it is challenging to schedule such a system. This work studies the scheduling problem from a control-theoretic perspective. It proposes to use a hybrid Petri net method to model the system. It then finds the schedulability conditions by analysing the dynamic behaviour of the net model. Next, it proposes an efficient scheduling method to minimize the cost of high-fusion-point oil transportation. Finally, it gives a complex industrial case study to show its application.

  20. High resolution hybrid optical and acoustic sea floor maps (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, C.; Inglis, G.

    2013-12-01

    This abstract presents a method for creating hybrid optical and acoustic sea floor reconstructions at centimeter scale grid resolutions with robotic vehicles. Multibeam sonar and stereo vision are two common sensing modalities with complementary strengths that are well suited for data fusion. We have recently developed an automated two stage pipeline to create such maps. The steps can be broken down as navigation refinement and map construction. During navigation refinement a graph-based optimization algorithm is used to align 3D point clouds created with both the multibeam sonar and stereo cameras. The process combats the typical growth in navigation error that has a detrimental affect on map fidelity and typically introduces artifacts at small grid sizes. During this process we are able to automatically register local point clouds created by each sensor to themselves and to each other where they overlap in a survey pattern. The process also estimates the sensor offsets, such as heading, pitch and roll, that describe how each sensor is mounted to the vehicle. The end results of the navigation step is a refined vehicle trajectory that ensures the points clouds from each sensor are consistently aligned, and the individual sensor offsets. In the mapping step, grid cells in the map are selectively populated by choosing data points from each sensor in an automated manner. The selection process is designed to pick points that preserve the best characteristics of each sensor and honor some specific map quality criteria to reduce outliers and ghosting. In general, the algorithm selects dense 3D stereo points in areas of high texture and point density. In areas where the stereo vision is poor, such as in a scene with low contrast or texture, multibeam sonar points are inserted in the map. This process is automated and results in a hybrid map populated with data from both sensors. Additional cross modality checks are made to reject outliers in a robust manner. The final

  1. Film-forming properties of blends of high-oleic sunflower oil with polyalkyl glycol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The viscosity, density, and elastohydrodynamic film thicknesses of oil-soluble polyalkyl glycols (PAG), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSuO), and their 50/50 (wt.) blends were investigated. The viscosity and density of the blends were found to be predictable from the corresponding neat oil properties us...

  2. High resolution NMR characterization of olive oils in terms of quality, authenticity and geographical origin.

    PubMed

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P

    2011-12-01

    This review deals with the most relevant results obtained in the last 10 years of studies of olive oils by high field nuclear magnetic resonance. Among these, quality and authenticity of olive oils, as well as geographical and variety characterization of Mediterranean olive oils, are discussed.

  3. Sounds from an oil production island in the Beaufort Sea in summer: characteristics and contribution of vessels.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Susanna B; Greene, Charles R

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels, characteristics, and range dependence of underwater and in-air sounds produced during the open-water seasons of 2000-2003 by the Northstar oil development, located in nearshore waters of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Specifically, sounds originating at the island itself (from construction, drilling, and oil production activities) were compared with sounds produced by vessels performing island support. Sounds were obtained with boat-based recordings (at distances up to 37 km from Northstar), a cabled hydrophone (distance approximately 450 m), and with autonomous seafloor recorders (distance approximately 22 km). Vessels (crew boat, tugs, self-propelled barges) were the main contributors to the underwater sound field and were often detectable underwater as much as approximately 30 km offshore. Without vessels, broadband island sounds reached background values at 2-4 km. Island sound levels showed more variation (lower min, higher max) during construction than during drilling and production. In-air broadband measurements were not affected by the presence of vessels and reached background values 1-4 km from Northstar. However, one airborne tone (81 Hz) believed to originate at Northstar was still detectable in the spectrum 37 km away.

  4. Sounds from an oil production island in the Beaufort Sea in summer: characteristics and contribution of vessels.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Susanna B; Greene, Charles R

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels, characteristics, and range dependence of underwater and in-air sounds produced during the open-water seasons of 2000-2003 by the Northstar oil development, located in nearshore waters of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Specifically, sounds originating at the island itself (from construction, drilling, and oil production activities) were compared with sounds produced by vessels performing island support. Sounds were obtained with boat-based recordings (at distances up to 37 km from Northstar), a cabled hydrophone (distance approximately 450 m), and with autonomous seafloor recorders (distance approximately 22 km). Vessels (crew boat, tugs, self-propelled barges) were the main contributors to the underwater sound field and were often detectable underwater as much as approximately 30 km offshore. Without vessels, broadband island sounds reached background values at 2-4 km. Island sound levels showed more variation (lower min, higher max) during construction than during drilling and production. In-air broadband measurements were not affected by the presence of vessels and reached background values 1-4 km from Northstar. However, one airborne tone (81 Hz) believed to originate at Northstar was still detectable in the spectrum 37 km away. PMID:16454275

  5. The origin of virgin argan oil's high oxidative stability unraveled.

    PubMed

    Gharby, Saïd; Harhar, Hicham; Guillaume, Dominique; Haddad, Aziza; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2012-05-01

    To prepare either virgin edible or beauty argan oil, roasted or unroasted argan kernels are cold-pressed, respectively. Comparing the physicochemical parameters of edible and beauty argan oil immediately after preparation and after a two-year delay has led to the suggestion that phospholipids are a new and essential type of oil component participating in the excellent oxidative stability of edible argan oil, in addition to the already suggested Maillard-reaction products, phenols, and tocopherols.

  6. Genetic control of soybean seed oil: I. QTL and genes associated with seed oil concentration in RIL populations derived from crossing moderately high-oil parents.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-02-01

    Soybean seed is a major source of oil for human consumption worldwide and the main renewable feedstock for biodiesel production in North America. Increasing seed oil concentration in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] with no or minimal impact on protein concentration could be accelerated by exploiting quantitative trait loci (QTL) or gene-specific markers. Oil concentration in soybean is a polygenic trait regulated by many genes with mostly small effects and which is negatively associated with protein concentration. The objectives of this study were to discover and validate oil QTL in two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations derived from crosses between three moderately high-oil soybean cultivars, OAC Wallace, OAC Glencoe, and RCAT Angora. The RIL populations were grown across several environments over 2 years in Ontario, Canada. In a population of 203 F(3:6) RILs from a cross of OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe, a total of 11 genomic regions on nine different chromosomes were identified as associated with oil concentration using multiple QTL mapping and single-factor ANOVA. The percentage of the phenotypic variation accounted for by each QTL ranged from 4 to 11 %. Of the five QTL that were tested in a population of 211 F(3:5) RILs from the cross RCAT Angora × OAC Wallace, a "trait-based" bidirectional selective genotyping analysis validated four QTL (80 %). In addition, a total of seven two-way epistatic interactions were identified for oil concentration in this study. The QTL and epistatic interactions identified in this study could be used in marker-assisted introgression aimed at pyramiding high-oil alleles in soybean cultivars to increase oil concentration for biodiesel as well as edible oil applications.

  7. Live-dead agreement of benthic communities under pressure by chronic oil pollution in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albano, Paolo G.; Tomašových, Adam; Stachowitsch, Michael; Filippova, Nadezhda; Steger, Jan; Zuschin, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Mismatch between the richness or species composition of a death assemblage (DA) and the local living assemblage (LA) is typically attributed to natural post-mortem processes, particularly preservational bias. Recent research, however, suggests that live-dead (LD) agreement is significantly lower in anthropogenically disturbed settings. This reflects the so-called "compositional inertia" of DAs to recent environmental change, i.e., DAs still capture earlier community states not affected by such disturbance. The inertia to changing ecological conditions should be particularly likely under conditions of anthropogenic modification because the rapidity of many human-driven changes is unprecedented in natural systems. Our research tests this hypothesis by evaluating the agreement between the LA and DA in benthic communities around the Zakum oil field in the Southern Arabian Sea, off the coast of the United Arab Emirates. This is an area of intense oil extraction, with almost 800 offshore oil and gas platforms and 25 major terminals, but no studies on the related impacts are widely available. This approach also sheds light on chronic pollution in tropical settings, an underrepresented topic in the literature. The size fraction between 2 and 5 mm was sorted for living molluscs and empty shells, which were then segregated to morphospecies and identified. The agreement was evaluated in terms of fidelity of species richness, evenness, and rank-order agreement. Compositional fidelity was also evaluated by multivariate analysis. The communities are dominated by bivalves. Polyplacophorans and scaphopods are occasionally present. Gastropod abundance is marginal compared to the bivalves, although their contribution is more significant when species diversity is taken into consideration. Moreover, the living assemblage in the studied size range was particularly poor in terms of species abundance.

  8. High risk groups in an oil shale workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, L.B.; Marine, W.M.; Perry, B.W.; Savitz, D.A.

    1984-04-01

    The workforce risks of a hypothetical one million barrels-per-day oil shale industry were estimated. The risks for the different workforce segments were compared and high risk groups were identified. Accidents and injuries were statistically described by rates for fatalities, for accidents with days lost from work, and for accidents with no days lost from work. Workforce diseases analyzed were cancers, silicosis, pneumoconiosis, chronic bronchitis, chronic airway obstruction, and high frequency hearing loss. A comparison of the workforce groups under different risk measures (occurrence, fatality, and life-loss expectancy) was performed. The miners represented the group with the largest fatality and the most serious accident rate, although the estimated rates were below the average industry-wide underground mining experience. Lung disease from inhalation exposure of about the nuisance dust threshold limit value presents a significant risk for future concerns.

  9. The 2014 high record of Antarctic sea ice extent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massonnet, Francois; Guemas, Virginie; Fuckar, Neven; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    In September 2014, Antarctic sea ice extent exceeded the symbolic level of 20 million km²for the first time since 1978, when reliable satellite measurements became available. After the successive records of 2012 and 2013, sea ice extent in 2014 once again reinforced the positive trend observed since the late 1970s. We conduct here a dedicated study to elucidate the origins of a major, and perhaps the most intriguing, event that happened at our Poles recently. Observations, reanalyses and model results all point towards the important role of winds in modifying near-surface heat advection patterns around Antarctica. The role of pre-conditioning (summer conditions) is found to be of lesser importance. Finally, we find no evidence that anomalous freshwater forcing (from atmospheric or continental origin) could have explained the record extent of 2014.

  10. A High Resolution Normal Mode Solution of Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Satake, K.

    2014-12-01

    Normal mode calculation of a semi-closed or completely closed bay or ocean basin helps us to understand the oscillation characteristics including those excited by incoming tsunamis. In addition, tsunami propagation can be synthesized by superposition of normal modes. Japan Sea is an almost closed ocean basin where many large tsunamigenic earthquakes occurred (fig. 1). Satake and Shimazaki (1988) calculated the normal modes using a 20km grid (~10' or about 2,000 ocean grids), compared the observed and calculated normal modes from the 1964 Niigata and 1983 Japan Sea earthquakes, and discussed the their different excitation characteristics . Because of development of computer and numerical computation techniques, it is worthwhile to revisit this problem. Starting from Laplace's tidal equations and ignoring the rotation of the earth, Loomis (1975) discretized the problem into the eigenvalue problem of a symmetric sparse matrix, which was solved by Householder transformations. This method is used by Satake and Shimazaki (1988) for Japan Sea and Aida (1996) for Tokyo Bay. However, this method needs O(n^3) operation in time and O(n^2) in memory (n is the total number of water grid. e.g., for Japan Sea in 30 sec grid, n~10^6), which would require a super computer.To overcome this disadvantage, we first introduce a recent iteration method called Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi Method (Lehoucq et al., 1997), which itself speeds up the calculation a bit. Then after we develop a sparse version of matrix storage and multiplication, the operation count in time and memory reduced dramatically to O(n^1.5) (including about 0.5 for iteration process) and O(n) respectively, utilizing the special property of the matrix and the iteration method. This means any current computer can easily solve a large eigenvalue problem. Earthquakes.png

  11. Determination of vegetable oils and fats adulterants in diesel oil by high performance liquid chromatography and multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Luiz Filipe Paiva; Braga, Jez Willian Batista; Suarez, Paulo Anselmo Ziani

    2012-02-17

    The current legislation requires the mandatory addition of biodiesel to all Brazilian road diesel oil A (pure diesel) marketed in the country and bans the addition of vegetable oils for this type of diesel. However, cases of irregular addition of vegetable oils directly to the diesel oil may occur, mainly due to the lower cost of these raw materials compared to the final product, biodiesel. In Brazil, the situation is even more critical once the country is one of the largest producers of oleaginous products in the world, especially soybean, and also it has an extensive road network dependent on diesel. Therefore, alternatives to control the quality of diesel have become increasingly necessary. This study proposes an analytical methodology for quality control of diesel with intention to identify and determine adulterations of oils and even fats of vegetable origin. This methodology is based on detection, identification and quantification of triacylglycerols on diesel (main constituents of vegetable oils and fats) by high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase with UV detection at 205nm associated with multivariate methods. Six different types of oils and fats were studied (soybean, frying oil, corn, cotton, palm oil and babassu) and two methods were developed for data analysis. The first one, based on principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbor classification (KNN) and univariate regression, was used for samples adulterated with a single type of oil or fat. In the second method, partial least square regression (PLS) was used for the cases where the adulterants were mixtures of up to three types of oils or fats. In the first method, the techniques of PCA and KNN were correctly classified as 17 out of 18 validation samples on the type of oil or fat present. The concentrations estimated for adulterants showed good agreement with the reference values, with mean errors of prediction (RMSEP) ranging between 0.10 and 0.22% (v/v). The PLS method was

  12. New High-Resolution Images of Summer Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, Ronald; Untersteiner, Norbert

    2011-02-01

    In 1995 a group of government and academic scientists were appointed by the vice president of the United States to review and advise on acquisitions of imagery obtained by classified intelligence satellites (National Technical Means) and to recommend the declassification of certain data sets for the benefit of science. The group is called MEDEA and was first described by Richelson [1998]. MEDEA disbanded in 2000 but reassembled in 2008. On 15 June 2009, under the auspices of MEDEA, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released to the public as Literal Image Derived Products (LIDPs) numerous images with 1-meter resolution acquired since 1999 at six locations in the Arctic Basin (Beaufort Sea, Canadian Arctic, Fram Strait, East Siberian Sea, Chukchi Sea, and Point Barrow). These locations are named “fiducial sites” to suggest that the collected imagery establishes a baseline data set for understanding recent and future changes. Data in the Global Fiducials Library (GFL) can be accessed via http://gfl.usgs.gov/. This data repository is updated by USGS as additional data become available.

  13. High resolution gas chromatography analysis of rice bran oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fengxiang; Lin, Qinlu; Chen, Xu; Wei, Xiaojun

    To assess the nutritional value and safety quality of rice bran oil (RBO) ,fatty acids of RBO from 15 species rice come from Hunan Province were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). Crude RBOs were extracted by hexane 3-times using a solvent-to-rice bran ratio of 3:1 (w/w) at 40°C and composition of RBOs was analyzed by HRGC. The result showed that main fatty acids of 15 kinds of RBO include myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), arachidic acid (C20:0), arachidonic acid (C20:1). It is strange that arachidonic acid (C20:1) is not listed in Chinese standard of RBO (GB11192-2003), and it exists in our samples of RBO. The average value of linolenic acid in RBOs is 1.6304% (range from 1.2425% to 2.131%), and it showed higher level comparing with Chinese standard that linolenic acid is less than 1.0%. The average value of USFA and SFA are 76.81% (range 75.96% to 82.06% ) and 20.15% (range 13.72% to 23.06%) respectively, and USFA content is close to olive oil (83.75%), peanut oil (81.75%) and soybean oil (85.86%). USFA in Jingyou 13 RBO is the highest content. The ratio of USFA to SFA content is 4:1 (range from 3.32 to 5.98:1). The ratio of SFA: MUFA: PUFA of 15 RBOs is 1: 2.2: 1.8, and ω6/ω3 ratio is 21.69 (range from16.54 to 27.28) and it is close to the 26:1 which is reported to be helpful to increase SOD activity. The oleic acid /linoleic acid ratio of 15 RBOs is 1.23:1 (rang from 1.04:1 to 1.42:1). Our data analyzed composition of RBOs from 15 species rice of China and will provide new evidence to revise RBO standard. It also helps us to assess nutritional value of RBOs and identify different RBOs from various species rice and places of origin.

  14. A Convective Cloud Feedback and Spring Arctic Sea Ice Forecasting at High CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbot, D. S.; Walker, C. C.; Tziperman, E.

    2008-12-01

    Winter and spring sea ice dramatically cool the Arctic climate during the the coldest seasons of the year and may have remote effects on global climate as well. Accurate forecasting of winter and spring sea ice has significant social and economic benefits. Such forecasting requires the identification and understanding of all the feedbacks that can affect sea ice. A novel convective cloud feedback has recently been proposed in the context of explaining equable climates, e.g., the climate of the Eocene, that might be important for determining future winter and spring sea ice. In this feedback CO2 -initiated warming leads to sea ice reduction, which which allows increased heat and moisture fluxes from the ocean surface, which destabilizes the atmosphere and leads to atmospheric convection. This atmospheric convection produces high and optically thick convective clouds and increases high-altitude moisture levels, both of which trap outgoing longwave radiation and therefore result in a further warming and sea ice loss. Here it is shown that this convective cloud feedback is active during winter in the coupled ocean-sea ice-land-atmosphere global climate models used for the 1%/year CO2 increase to quadrupling scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment report. It is further shown that the convective cloud feedback plays an essential role in the elimination of maximum seasonal (spring) sea ice in NCAR's CCSM model, one of the IPCC models that nearly completely loses spring sea ice. This is done by performing a sensitivity analysis using the atmospheric component of CCSM, run at a CO2 concentration of 1120 ppm, by selectively disabling the convective cloud feedback and the ocean heat transport feedback. The result is that both feedbacks are necessary for the elimination of spring sea ice at this CO2 concentration.

  15. A high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of furfural in crude palm oil.

    PubMed

    Loi, Chia Chun; Boo, Huey Chern; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Ariffin, Abdul Azis

    2011-09-01

    A modified steam distillation method was developed to extract furfural from crude palm oil (CPO). The collected distillates were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an ultraviolet diode detector at 284nm. The HPLC method allowed identification and quantification of furfural in CPO. The unique thermal extraction of CPO whereby the fresh fruit bunches (FFB) are first subjected to steam treatment, distinguishes itself from other solvent-extracted or cold-pressed vegetable oils. The presence of furfural was also determined in the fresh palm oil from FFB (without undergoing the normal extraction process), palm olein, palm stearin, olive oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, soya oil and corn oil. The chromatograms of the extracts were compared to that of standard furfural. Furfural was only detected in CPO. The CPO consignments obtained from four mills were shown to contain 7.54 to 20.60mg/kg furfural.

  16. A high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of furfural in crude palm oil.

    PubMed

    Loi, Chia Chun; Boo, Huey Chern; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Ariffin, Abdul Azis

    2011-09-01

    A modified steam distillation method was developed to extract furfural from crude palm oil (CPO). The collected distillates were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an ultraviolet diode detector at 284nm. The HPLC method allowed identification and quantification of furfural in CPO. The unique thermal extraction of CPO whereby the fresh fruit bunches (FFB) are first subjected to steam treatment, distinguishes itself from other solvent-extracted or cold-pressed vegetable oils. The presence of furfural was also determined in the fresh palm oil from FFB (without undergoing the normal extraction process), palm olein, palm stearin, olive oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, soya oil and corn oil. The chromatograms of the extracts were compared to that of standard furfural. Furfural was only detected in CPO. The CPO consignments obtained from four mills were shown to contain 7.54 to 20.60mg/kg furfural. PMID:25214353

  17. Husky proposes Canadian insurance policy for oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    Husky Oil Ltd. proposed that the federal government ensure future domestic supplies of oil from high-risk sources by means of long-term purchase contracts. The paper discusses Husky's domestic oil supply analysis, including the cost of upgraded in-situ oil sands, cost of upgraded mineable oil sands, cost of Hibernia field development, cost of floating production field, cost of Beaufort Sea and onshore Amauligak field development, and the supply cost of oil. The Husky policy proposal is described. 2 figures, 1 table.

  18. Inversion of submesoscale patterns from a high-resolution Solomon Sea model: Feasibility assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaultier, Lucile; Djath, Bughsin'; Verron, Jacques; Brankart, Jean-Michel; Brasseur, Pierre; Melet, Angelique

    2014-07-01

    A high-resolution realistic numerical model of the Solomon Sea, which exhibits a high level of variability at mesoscales and submesoscales, is used to explore new avenues for data assimilation. Image data assimilation represents a powerful methodology to integrate information from high-resolution observations such as satellite sea surface temperature or chlorophyll, or high-resolution altimetric sea surface height that will be observed in the forthcoming SWOT mission. The present study investigates the feasibility and accuracy of the inversion of the dynamical submesoscale information contained in high-resolution images of sea surface temperature (SST) or salinity (SSS) to improve the estimation of oceanic surface currents. The inversion method is tested in the context of twin experiments, with SST and SSS data provided by a model of the Solomon Sea. For that purpose, synthetic tracer images are built by binarizing the norm of the gradient of SST, SSS or spiciness. The binarized tracer images are compared to the dynamical image which is derived from the Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponents. The adjustment of the dynamical image to the tracer image provides the optimal correction to be applied on the surface velocity field. The method is evaluated by comparing the result of the inversion to the reference model solution. The feasibility of the inversion of various images (SST, SSS, both SST and SSS or spiciness) is explored on two small areas of the Solomon Sea. We show that errors in the surface velocity field can be substantially reduced through the inversion of tracer images.

  19. Metagenomic analysis and metabolite profiling of deep–sea sediments from the Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Kimes, Nikole E.; Callaghan, Amy V.; Aktas, Deniz F.; Smith, Whitney L.; Sunner, Jan; Golding, BernardT.; Drozdowska, Marta; Hazen, Terry C.; Suflita, Joseph M.; Morris, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    Marine subsurface environments such as deep-sea sediments, house abundant and diverse microbial communities that are believed to influence large-scale geochemical processes. These processes include the biotransformation and mineralization of numerous petroleum constituents. Thus, microbial communities in the Gulf of Mexico are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic bioremediation of crude oil released by the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. While hydrocarbon contamination is known to enrich for aerobic, oil-degrading bacteria in deep-seawater habitats, relatively little is known about the response of communities in deep-sea sediments, where low oxygen levels may hinder such a response. Here, we examined the hypothesis that increased hydrocarbon exposure results in an altered sediment microbial community structure that reflects the prospects for oil biodegradation under the prevailing conditions. We explore this hypothesis using metagenomic analysis and metabolite profiling of deep-sea sediment samples following the DWH oil spill. The presence of aerobic microbial communities and associated functional genes was consistent among all samples, whereas, a greater number of Deltaproteobacteria and anaerobic functional genes were found in sediments closest to the DWH blowout site. Metabolite profiling also revealed a greater number of putative metabolites in sediments surrounding the blowout zone relative to a background site located 127 km away. The mass spectral analysis of the putative metabolites revealed that alkylsuccinates remained below detection levels, but a homologous series of benzylsuccinates (with carbon chain lengths from 5 to 10) could be detected. Our findings suggest that increased exposure to hydrocarbons enriches for Deltaproteobacteria, which are known to be capable of anaerobic hydrocarbon metabolism. We also provide evidence for an active microbial community metabolizing aromatic hydrocarbons in deep-sea sediments of the Gulf of Mexico. PMID

  20. High-Value Components and Bioactives from Sea Cucumbers for Functional Foods—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2011-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:22072996

  1. High-value components and bioactives from sea cucumbers for functional foods--a review.

    PubMed

    Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2011-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:22072996

  2. High-value components and bioactives from sea cucumbers for functional foods--a review.

    PubMed

    Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2011-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  3. A high-resolution global sea surface temperature climatology

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.W.; Smith, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    In response to the development of a new higher-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis at the National Meteorological Center (NMC), a new monthly 1{degrees} global sea surface temperature climatology was constructed from two intermediate climatologies: the 2{degrees} SST climatology used a 30-yr 1950-1979 base period between roughly 40{degrees}S and 60{degrees}N based on in situ (ship and buoy) SST data supplemented by four years (1982-1985) of satellite SST retrievals, and sea-ice coverage data over a 12-yr period (1982-1993). The final climatology was combined from these two products so that a 1{degrees} resolution was maintained and the base period was adjusted to the 1950-1979 period wherever possible (approximately between 40{degrees}S and 60{degrees}N). Compared to the 2{degrees} climatology, the 1{degrees} climatology resolves equatorial upwelling and fronts much better. This leads to a better matching of the scales of the new analysis and climatology. In addition, because the magnitudes of large-scale features are consistently maintained in both the older 2{degrees} and the new 1{degrees} climatologies, climate monitoring of large-scale anomalies will be minimally affected by the analysis change. The use of 12 years of satellite SST retrievals makes this new climatology useful for many additional purposes because its effective resolution actually approaches 1{degrees} everywhere over the global ocean and because the mean SST values are more accurate south of 40{degrees}S than climatologies without these data. 12 refs., 16 figs.

  4. Standing stocks and body size of deep-sea macrofauna: Predicting the baseline of 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chih-Lin; Rowe, Gilbert T.; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Nunnally, Clifton; Soliman, Yousria; Ellis, Nick

    2012-11-01

    A composite database encompassing 6 benthic surveys from years 1983 to 2003 was constructed to evaluate the distribution of macrofaunal biomass in the deep Gulf of Mexico (GoM) prior to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Predictive models based on optimal scaling of ocean color data and high resolution bathymetry were employed to map the benthic biomass in the vicinity of spill site because no previous sampling had been conducted at that exact location. The predicted biomass declines with water and mixed layer depth and is an increasing function of surface primary production and temporal variation of sea surface temperature. The decline of animal size with depth, however, was a function of a shift of dominant abundance from large to small taxa. At a local scale, high benthic biomass in the N GoM was associated with the enhanced productivity by the nutrient-laden Mississippi River outflows, offshore transport of the river plumes, and upwelling along the northern edge of the Loop Current. The apparent biomass enhancement at the Mississippi and De Soto Canyon and deep sediment fan was presumably related to lateral down-slope advection of organic carbon from the surrounding continental margin. Except for the Campeche Bank, the meager biomass of the Mexican margin may reflect the characteristic low-productivity Caribbean water that enters the GoM through Yucatan Strait. Benthic biomass in the N GoM was not statistically different between comprehensive surveys in the years 1983-1985 and 2000-2002. The stock assessment and biomass predictions from 669 cores at 170 locations throughout the deep GoM provide an important baseline of the sediment-dwelling fauna that may be subjected to immediate or long-term impacts from the oil spill or from climate change.

  5. High Acidification Rate of Norwegian Sea Revealed by Boron Isotopes in the Deep-Sea Coral Madrepora Oculata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, C.; Douville, E.; Hall-Spencer, J.; Montagna, P.; Louvat, P.; Gaillardet, J.; Frank, N.; Bordier, L.; Juillet-Leclerc, A.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean acidification and global warming due to the increase of anthropogenic CO2 are major threats for marine calcifying organisms, such as deep-sea corals, particularly in high-latitude regions. In order to evaluate the current anthropogenic perturbation and to properly assess the impacts and responses of calcifiers to previous changes in pH it is critical to investigate past changes of the seawater carbonate system. Unfortunately, current instrumental records of oceanic pH are limited, covering only a few decades. Scleractinian coral skeletons record chemical parameters of the seawater in which they grow. However, pH variability over multidecadal timescales remains largely unknown in intermediate and deep seawater masses. Here we present a study that highlights the potential of deep-sea-corals to overcome the lack of long-term pH records and that emphasizes a rapid acidification of high latitude subsurface waters of Norwegian Sea during the past decades. We have reconstructed seawater pH and temperature from a well dated deep-sea coral specimen Madrepora oculata collected alive from Røst reef in Norwegian Sea (67°N, 9°E, 340 m depth). This large branching framework forming coral species grew its skeleton over more than four decades determined using AMS 14C and 210Pb dating (Sabatier et al. 2012). B-isotopes and Li/Mg ratios yield an acidification rate of about -0.0030±0.0008 pH-unit.year-1 and a warming of 0.3°C during the past four decades (1967-2007). Overall our reconstruction technique agrees well with previous pH calculations (Hönisch et al., 2007 vs. Trotter et al., 2011 and McCulloch et al., 2012, i.e. the iterative method), but additional corrections are here applied using stable isotope correlations (O, C, B) to properly address kinetic fractionation of boron isotopes used for pH reconstruction. The resulting pH curve strongly anti-correlates with the annual NAO index, which further strengthens our evidence for the ocean acidification rate

  6. Automatic Sea Bird Detection from High Resolution Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, S.; Grenzdörffer, G. J.

    2016-06-01

    Great efforts are presently taken in the scientific community to develop computerized and (fully) automated image processing methods allowing for an efficient and automatic monitoring of sea birds and marine mammals in ever-growing amounts of aerial imagery. Currently the major part of the processing, however, is still conducted by especially trained professionals, visually examining the images and detecting and classifying the requested subjects. This is a very tedious task, particularly when the rate of void images regularly exceeds the mark of 90%. In the content of this contribution we will present our work aiming to support the processing of aerial images by modern methods from the field of image processing. We will especially focus on the combination of local, region-based feature detection and piecewise global image segmentation for automatic detection of different sea bird species. Large image dimensions resulting from the use of medium and large-format digital cameras in aerial surveys inhibit the applicability of image processing methods based on global operations. In order to efficiently handle those image sizes and to nevertheless take advantage of globally operating segmentation algorithms, we will describe the combined usage of a simple performant feature detector based on local operations on the original image with a complex global segmentation algorithm operating on extracted sub-images. The resulting exact segmentation of possible candidates then serves as a basis for the determination of feature vectors for subsequent elimination of false candidates and for classification tasks.

  7. High-resolution record of last post-glacial variations of sea-ice cover and river discharge in the western Laptev Sea (Arctic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. H.; Hörner, T.; Fahl, K.

    2014-12-01

    Here, we provide a high-resolution reconstruction of sea-ice cover variations in the western Laptev Sea, a crucial area in terms of sea-ice production in the Arctic Ocean and a region characterized by huge river discharge. Furthermore, the shallow Laptev Sea was strongly influenced by the post-glacial sea-level rise that should also be reflected in the sedimentary records. The sea Ice Proxy IP25 (Highly-branched mono-isoprenoid produced by sea-ice algae; Belt et al., 2007) was measured in two sediment cores from the western Laptev Sea (PS51/154, PS51/159) that offer a high-resolution composite record over the last 18 ka. In addition, sterols are applied as indicator for marine productivity (brassicasterol, dinosterol) and input of terrigenous organic matter by river discharge into the ocean (campesterol, ß-sitosterol). The sea-ice cover varies distinctly during the whole time period and shows a general increase in the Late Holocene. A maximum in IP25 concentration can be found during the Younger Dryas. This sharp increase can be observed in the whole circumarctic realm (Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, Fram Strait and Laptev Sea). Interestingly, there is no correlation between elevated numbers of ice-rafted debris (IRD) interpreted as local ice-cap expansions (Taldenkova et al. 2010), and sea ice cover distribution. The transgression and flooding of the shelf sea that occurred over the last 16 ka in this region, is reflected by decreasing terrigenous (riverine) input, reflected in the strong decrease in sterol (ß-sitosterol and campesterol) concentrations. ReferencesBelt, S.T., Massé, G., Rowland, S.J., Poulin, M., Michel, C., LeBlanc, B., 2007. A novel chemical fossil of palaeo sea ice: IP25. Organic Geochemistry 38 (1), 16e27. Taldenkova, E., Bauch, H.A., Gottschalk, J., Nikolaev, S., Rostovtseva, Yu., Pogodina, I., Ya, Ovsepyan, Kandiano, E., 2010. History of ice-rafting and water mass evolution at the northern Siberian continental margin (Laptev Sea) during Late

  8. Post-glacial variations of sea ice cover and river discharge in the western Laptev Sea (Arctic Ocean) - a high-resolution study over the last 18 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörner, Tanja; Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten

    2015-04-01

    Here, we provide a high-resolution reconstruction of sea-ice cover variations in the western Laptev Sea, a crucial area in terms of sea-ice production in the Arctic Ocean and a region characterized by huge river discharge. Furthermore, the shallow Laptev Sea was strongly influenced by the post-glacial sea-level rise that should also be reflected in the sedimentary records. The sea Ice Proxy IP25 (Highly-branched mono-isoprenoid produced by sea-ice algae; Belt et al., 2007) was measured in two sediment cores from the western Laptev Sea (PS51/154, PS51/159) that offer a high-resolution composite record over the last 18 ka. In addition, sterols are applied as indicator for marine productivity (brassicasterol, dinosterol) and input of terrigenous organic matter by river discharge into the ocean (campesterol, ß-sitosterol). The sea-ice cover varies distinctly during the whole time period and shows a general increase in the Late Holocene. A maximum in IP25 concentration can be found during the Younger Dryas. This sharp increase can be observed in the whole circumarctic realm (Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, Fram Strait and Laptev Sea). Interestingly, there is no correlation between elevated numbers of ice-rafted debris (IRD) interpreted as local ice-cap expansions (Taldenkova et al. 2010), and sea ice cover distribution. The transgression and flooding of the shelf sea that occurred over the last 16 ka in this region, is reflected by decreasing terrigenous (riverine) input, reflected in the strong decrease in sterol (ß-sitosterol and campesterol) concentrations. References Belt, S.T., Massé, G., Rowland, S.J., Poulin, M., Michel, C., LeBlanc, B., 2007. A novel chemical fossil of palaeo sea ice: IP25. Organic Geochemistry 38 (1), 16e27. Taldenkova, E., Bauch, H.A., Gottschalk, J., Nikolaev, S., Rostovtseva, Yu., Pogodina, I., Ya, Ovsepyan, Kandiano, E., 2010. History of ice-rafting and water mass evolution at the northern Siberian continental margin (Laptev Sea) during Late

  9. High-precision GPS autonomous platforms for sea ice dynamics and physical oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elosegui, P.; Wilkinson, J.; Olsson, M.; Rodwell, S.; James, A.; Hagan, B.; Hwang, B.; Forsberg, R.; Gerdes, R.; Johannessen, J.; Wadhams, P.; Nettles, M.; Padman, L.

    2012-12-01

    Project "Arctic Ocean sea ice and ocean circulation using satellite methods" (SATICE), is the first high-rate, high-precision, continuous GPS positioning experiment on sea ice in the Arctic Ocean. The SATICE systems collect continuous, dual-frequency carrier-phase GPS data while drifting on sea ice. Additional geophysical measurements also collected include ocean water pressure, ocean surface salinity, atmospheric pressure, snow-depth, air-ice-ocean temperature profiles, photographic imagery, and others, enabling sea ice drift, freeboard, weather, ice mass balance, and sea-level height determination. Relatively large volumes of data from each buoy are streamed over a satellite link to a central computer on the Internet in near real time, where they are processed to estimate the time-varying buoy positions. SATICE system obtains continuous GPS data at sub-minute intervals with a positioning precision of a few centimetres in all three dimensions. Although monitoring of sea ice motions goes back to the early days of satellite observations, these autonomous platforms bring out a level of spatio-temporal detail that has never been seen before, especially in the vertical axis. These high-resolution data allows us to address new polar science questions and challenge our present understanding of both sea ice dynamics and Arctic oceanography. We will describe the technology behind this new autonomous platform, which could also be adapted to other applications that require high resolution positioning information with sustained operations and observations in the polar marine environment, and present results pertaining to sea ice dynamics and physical oceanography.

  10. Elastohydrodynamics of oil-soluble PAGs, high-oleic sunflower oil and their blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent reports indicate that the oxidative stability of vegetable oils can be improved for lubrication purposes by mixing them with oil-soluble polyalkyl glycols (OS-PAG). This inspired a study of other lubrication-related properties of their blends. The viscosity, density, and elastohydrodynamic fi...

  11. Accuracy improvement of the radar backscatter simulation from sea surface covered by oil slick using fetch-dependent waveheight spectrum: Comparison with the 2007 Heibei Spirit Case in the Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Yang, Chan-Su; Ouchi, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, results are presented on the comparison of X-band radar backscattering coefficient (RBC) from an oilcovered sea surface that features the Elfouhaily and Durden-Vesecky waveheight spectra. The Durden-Vesecky spectrum applies to a fully-developed sea, while the Elfouhaily spectrum accounts for the fetch of arbitrary length. Using these two waveheight spectra, a one-dimensional random rough surface is simulated by the Monte Carlo method, and the method of moments (MoM) is applied to yield the RBC. Comparison of the results with TerraSAR-X synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data acquired over the coastal waters polluted by the Hebei Spirit oil tanker shows that the Elfouhaily spectrum yields better agreement than the Durden-Vesecky spectrum for the fully-developed sea, and that the fetch-dependent Elfouhaily spectrum improves the agreement with SAR data in comparison with the fetch-independent spectrum for the fully developed sea. A possible application to estimate the amount of spilled oil is also suggested.

  12. High efficiency of meiotic gynogenesis in sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus.

    PubMed

    Rinchard, Jacques; Dabrowski, Konrad; Garcia-Abiado, Mary-Ann

    2006-11-15

    Induction of androgenesis and gynogenesis by applying a pressure (PS) or heat shock (HS) to double the haploid chromosomal set results in progenies possessing only chromosomes from a single parent. This has never been accomplished in representatives of Agnatha. The objective of this study was to induce gynogenesis and androgenesis in sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. For gynogenesis experiments, ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated sperm was used to activate sea lamprey eggs and HS or PS were applied to inhibit the second meiotic division and consequently induce diploidy in the embryos. The UV irradiation of immobilized sperm was performed for 1 min at 1,719 J m(-2). HS of 35+/-1 degrees C for 2 min and PS of 9,000 psi for 4 min were applied at different times after egg activation (8, 12, 20, and 24 min or 8, 16, and 24 min for HS or PS, respectively). Regardless of the induction time of the HS, survivals at pre-hatching stage were similar. In contrast, PS applied 8 min after activation appears to increase survival rate of pre-hatched embryos in comparison to 16 and 24 min after activation. In control groups, without shock treatment (no diploidization), there were no survivors. All deformed, gynogenetic embryos were confirmed to be haploids and died prior to burying themselves in the sand. We confirmed by flow cytometry that progenies produced using both shock methods surviving to the next stage, burying in the substrate, were diploid gynogenetic. For the androgenesis experiments, UV-irradiated eggs (1,719 J m(-2) for 1 min) were fertilized with non-treated sperm and HS was applied to restore diploidy of the eggs. Several attempts have been made to optimize the parameters used. HS of 35+/-1 degrees C was applied 110, 140, 170, 200, and 230 min after activation for 2 min. Low yields of androgens were obtained and all animals died within a week after hatching. These techniques will allow to establish meiotic gynogenetic lines of sea lamprey for determining sex differentiation

  13. High efficiency of meiotic gynogenesis in sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinchard, J.; Dabrowski, K.; Garcia-Abiado, M. -A.

    2006-01-01

    Induction of androgenesis and gynogenesis by applying a pressure (PS) or heat shock (HS) to double the haploid chromosomal set results in progenies possessing only chromosomes from a single parent. This has never been accomplished in representatives of Agnatha. The objective of this study was to induce gynogenesis and androgenesis in sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. For gynogenesis experiments, ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated sperm was used to activate sea lamprey eggs and HS or PS were applied to inhibit the second meiotic division and consequently induce diploidy in the embryos. The UV irradiation of immobilized sperm was performed for 1 min at 1,719 J m-2. HS of 35 ?? 1??C for 2 min and PS of 9,000 psi for 4 min were applied at different times after egg activation (8, 12, 20, and 24 min or 8, 16, and 24 min for HS or PS, respectively). Regardless of the induction time of the HS, survivals at pre-hatching stage were similar. In contrast, PS applied 8 min after activation appears to increase survival rate of pre-hatched embryos in comparison to 16 and 24 min after activation. In control groups, without shock treatment (no diploidization), there were no survivors. All deformed, gynogenetic embryos were confirmed to be haploids and died prior to burying themselves in the sand. We confirmed by flow cytometry that progenies produced using both shock methods surviving to the next stage, burying in the substrate, were diploid gynogenetic. For the androgenesis experiments, UV-irradiated eggs (1,719 J m-2 for 1 min) were fertilized with non-treated sperm and HS was applied to restore diploidy of the eggs. Several attempts have been made to optimize the parameters used. HS of 35 ?? 1??C was applied 110, 140, 170, 200, and 230 min after activation for 2 min. Low yields of androgens were obtained and all animals died within a week after hatching. These techniques will allow to establish meiotic gynogenetic lines of sea lamprey for determining sex differentiation in this species

  14. Integrated and comparative proteomics of high-oil and high-protein soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiu Ping; Liu, Hui; Tian, Lihong; Dong, Xiang Bai; Shen, Shi Hua; Qu, Le Qing

    2015-04-01

    We analysed the global protein expression in seeds of a high-oil soybean cultivar (Jiyu 73, JY73) by proteomics. More than 700 protein spots were detected and 363 protein spots were successfully identified. Comparison of the protein profile of JY73 with that of a high-protein cultivar (Zhonghuang 13, ZH13) revealed 40 differentially expressed proteins, including oil synthesis, redox/stress, hydrolysis and storage-related proteins. All redox/stress proteins were less or not expressed in JY73, whereas the expression of the major storage proteins, nitrogen and carbon metabolism-related proteins was higher in ZH13. Biochemical analysis of JY73 revealed that it was in a low oxidation state, with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. Vitamin E was more active than antioxidant enzymes and protected the soybean seed in a lower oxidation state. The characteristics of high oil and high protein in soybean, we revealed, might provide a reference for soybean nutrition and soybean breeding.

  15. SeaWiFS satellite monitoring of oil spill impact on primary production in the Galápagos Marine Reserve.

    PubMed

    Banks, Stuart

    2003-01-01

    Near daily satellite monitoring of ocean colour using sea viewing wide angle of field viewing sensor (SeaWiFS) allowed the oceanic and near coastal chlorophyll-a distributions to be followed across the Galápagos Marine Reserve (GMR) from space. In the aftermath of the Jessica spill early indications suggested that, compared to the three preceding years 1998-2000, local chlorophyll concentrations over January 2001 were elevated across the Galápagos Marine Reserve [Biological Impacts of the Jessica Oil Spill on the Galápagos Environment: Preliminary Report. Charles Darwin Foundation, Puerto Ayora, Galápagos, Ecuador, 2001]. At the time of the spill the central and eastern extent of the archipelago was experiencing a spatially extensive moderate bloom event (0.5-2.5 mgm(-3) chl-a) extending over the central islands, including the source of the spill and areas of known impact such as the islands of Santa Fé, eastern Santa Cruz and Floreana directly in the advection path.Further investigation shows that chlorophyll across the affected regions of western San Cristóbal, Santa Fé, southeast Santa Cruz, eastern Floreana and eastern Isabela declined in the week directly following the spill event, yet rose in the successive month to levels analogous to preceding years. Although there may have been a localised effect of the spill upon near coast phytoplankton primary production in the short term, the observed variance in the weeks following the spill was not significant in comparison to the normal high variation between years and within the El Niño/Southern Oscillation signal.

  16. High tides and rising seas: potential effects on estuarine waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Sanders, G.M.; Prosser, D.J.; Cahoon, D.R.; Greenberg, Russell; Maldonado, Jesus; Droege, Sam; McDonald, M.V.

    2006-01-01

    Coastal waterbirds are vulnerable to water-level changes especially under predictions of accelerating sea-level rise and increased storm frequency in the next century. Tidal and wind-driven fluctuations in water levels affecting marshes, their invertebrate communities, and their dependent waterbirds are manifested in daily, monthly, seasonal, annual, and supra-annual (e.g., decadal or 18.6-yr) periodicities. Superimposed on these cyclic patterns is a long-term (50?80 yr) increase in relative sea-level rise that varies from about 2?4 + mm/yr along the Atlantic coastline. At five study sites selected on marsh islands from Cape Cod, Massachusetts to coastal Virginia, we monitored marsh elevation changes and flooding, tide variations over time, and waterbird use. We found from longterm marsh core data that marsh elevations at three of five sites may not be sufficient to maintain pace with current sea-level rise. Results of the short-term (3?4 yr) measures using surface elevation tables suggest a more dramatic difference, with marsh elevation change at four of five sites falling below relative sea-level rise. In addition, we have found a significant increase (in three of four cases) in the rate of surface marsh flooding in New Jersey and Virginia over the past 70?80 yr during May?July when waterbirds are nesting on or near the marsh surface. Short-term, immediate effects of flooding will jeopardize annual fecundity of many species of concern to federal and state agencies, most notably American Black Duck (Anas rubripes), Nelson?s Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Ammodramus nelsoni), Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow (A. caudacutus), Seaside Sparrow (A. maritima), Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana nigrescens), Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis), Forster?s Tern (Sterna forsteri), Gull-billed Tern (S. nilotica), Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger), and American Oystercatcher (Haemotopus palliatus). Forster?s Terns are probably most at risk given the large proportion of their

  17. Incidental catch of marine birds in high seas driftnets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gould, P.J.; Johnson, D.H.; Shaffer, T.L.; Wohl, K.

    1992-01-01

    The incidental take of marine birds was estimated for the following North Pacific driftnet fisheries in 1990: Japanese squid, Japanese large-mesh, Korean squid, and Taiwanese squid and large-mesh combined. The take was estimated by assuming that the data represented a random sample from an unstratified population of all driftnet fisheries in the North Pacific. Estimates for 13 species or species groups are presented, along with some discussion of inadequacies of the design. About 416,000 marine birds were estimated to be taken incidentally during the 1990 season; 80 % of these were in the Japanese squid fishery. Sooty Shearwaters, Short-tailed Shearwaters, and Laysan Albatrosses were the most common species in the bycatch. Regression models were also developed to explore the relations between bycatch rate of three groups Black-footed Albatross, Laysan Albatross, and dark shearwaters and various explanatory variables, such as latitude, longitude, month, vessel, sea surface temperature, and net soak time (length of time nets were in the water). This was done for only the Japanese squid fishery, for which the most complete information was available. For modelling purposes, fishing operations for each vessel were grouped into 5-degree blocks of latitude and longitude. Results of model building indicated that vessel had a significant influence on bycatch rates of all three groups. This finding emphasizes the importance of the sample of vessels being representative of the entire fleet. In addition, bycatch rates of all three groups varied spatially and temporally. Bycatch rates for Laysan Albatrosses tended to decline during the fishing season, whereas those for Black-footed Albatrosses and dark shearwaters tended to increase as the season progressed. Bycatch rates were positively related to net soak time for Laysan Albatrosses and dark shearwaters. Bycatch rates of dark shearwaters were lower for higher sea surface temperatures.

  18. Exploitation of deep-sea resources: the urgent need to understand the role of high pressure in the toxicity of chemical pollutants to deep-sea organisms.

    PubMed

    Mestre, Nélia C; Calado, Ricardo; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2014-02-01

    The advent of industrial activities in the deep sea will inevitably expose deep-sea organisms to potentially toxic compounds. Although international regulations require environmental risk assessment prior to exploitation activities, toxicity tests remain focused on shallow-water model species. Moreover, current tests overlook potential synergies that may arise from the interaction of chemicals with natural stressors, such as the high pressures prevailing in the deep sea. As pressure affects chemical reactions and the physiology of marine organisms, it will certainly affect the toxicity of pollutants arising from the exploitation of deep-sea resources. We emphasize the need for environmental risk assessments based on information generated from ecotoxicological trials that mimic, as close as possible, the deep-sea environment, with emphasis to a key environmental factor - high hydrostatic pressure.

  19. Exploitation of deep-sea resources: the urgent need to understand the role of high pressure in the toxicity of chemical pollutants to deep-sea organisms.

    PubMed

    Mestre, Nélia C; Calado, Ricardo; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2014-02-01

    The advent of industrial activities in the deep sea will inevitably expose deep-sea organisms to potentially toxic compounds. Although international regulations require environmental risk assessment prior to exploitation activities, toxicity tests remain focused on shallow-water model species. Moreover, current tests overlook potential synergies that may arise from the interaction of chemicals with natural stressors, such as the high pressures prevailing in the deep sea. As pressure affects chemical reactions and the physiology of marine organisms, it will certainly affect the toxicity of pollutants arising from the exploitation of deep-sea resources. We emphasize the need for environmental risk assessments based on information generated from ecotoxicological trials that mimic, as close as possible, the deep-sea environment, with emphasis to a key environmental factor - high hydrostatic pressure. PMID:24230462

  20. Facile removal of oils from water surfaces through highly hydrophobic and magnetic polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Junjun; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Fenghe; Chen, Mudan; Mao, Jianyu; Xie, Tan

    2014-05-01

    In this study, magnetic polymer nanocomposites were investigated as highly selective absorbent materials for removing oils from water surfaces. The nanocomposites with highly hydrophobic and superoleophilic surface were synthesized through a low-cost emulsion polymerization, and exhibited some practical properties including unsinkability, thermal stability and corrosive-resistance for real applications. These as-prepared nanoparticles could effectively absorb three kinds of oils up to above 3.63 times of the particles' weight while completely repelling water. It is very easy to collect the oil-absorbed nanoparticles by applying an external magnetic field. Besides, the oil could be readily removed from the surfaces of nanoparticles by a simple ultrasonic treatment, and the nanocomposites still kept highly hydrophobic and oleophilic characteristics after repeatedly removing oils from water surface for many cycles. The findings of this study might provide a convenient method for fast and selective removal of oils from the surface of water.

  1. Trends in sea otter population abundance in western Prince William Sound, Alaska: Progress toward recovery following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Ballachey, B.E.; Esslinger, G.G.

    2011-01-01

    Sea otters in western Prince William Sound (WPWS) and elsewhere in the Gulf of Alaska suffered widespread mortality as a result of oiling following the 1989 T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill. Following the spill, extensive efforts have been directed toward identifying and understanding long-term consequences of the spill and the process of recovery. We conducted annual aerial surveys of sea otter abundance from 1993 to 2009 (except for 2001 and 2006) in WPWS. We observed an increasing trend in population abundance at the scale of WPWS through 2000 at an average annual rate of 4 percent: however, at northern Knight Island where oiling was heaviest and sea otter mortality highest, no increase in abundance was evident by 2000. We continued to see significant increase in abundance at the scale of WPWS between 2001 and 2009, with an average annual rate of increase from 1993 to 2009 of 2.6 percent. We estimated the 2009 population size of WPWS to be 3,958 animals (standard error=653), nearly 2,000 animals more than the first post-spill estimate in 1993. Surveys since 2003 also have identified a significant increasing trend at the heavily oiled site in northern Knight Island, averaging about 25 percent annually and resulting in a 2009 estimated population size of 116 animals (standard error=19). Although the 2009 estimate for northern Knight Island remains about 30 percent less than the pre-spill estimate of 165 animals, we interpret this trend as strong evidence of a trajectory toward recovery of spill-affected sea otter populations in WPWS.

  2. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOEpatents

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1993-01-19

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  3. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Eddie G.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  4. High concentrations and turnover rates of DMS, DMSP and DMSO in Antarctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, Elizabeth C.; Dacey, John W. H.; Mills, Matthew M.; Arrigo, Kevin R.; Tortell, Philippe D.

    2011-12-01

    The vast Antarctic sea-ice zone (SIZ) is a potentially significant source of the climate-active gas dimethylsulfide (DMS), yet few data are available on the concentrations and turnover rates of DMS and the related compounds dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in sea ice environments. Here we present new measurements characterizing the spatial variability of DMS, DMSP, and DMSO concentrations across the Antarctic SIZ, and results from tracer experiments quantifying the production rates of DMS from various sources. We observed extremely high concentrations (>200 nM) and turnover rates (>100 nM d-1) of DMS in sea-ice brines, indicating intense cycling of DMS/P/O. Our results demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for DMSO reduction as a major pathway of DMS production in Antarctic sea ice.

  5. The implementation of sea ice model on a regional high-resolution scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Siva; Zakharov, Igor; Bobby, Pradeep; McGuire, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The availability of high-resolution atmospheric/ocean forecast models, satellite data and access to high-performance computing clusters have provided capability to build high-resolution models for regional ice condition simulation. The paper describes the implementation of the Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE) on a regional scale at high resolution. The advantage of the model is its ability to include oceanographic parameters (e.g., currents) to provide accurate results. The sea ice simulation was performed over Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea to retrieve important parameters such as ice concentration, thickness, ridging, and drift. Two different forcing models, one with low resolution and another with a high resolution, were used for the estimation of sensitivity of model results. Sea ice behavior over 7 years was simulated to analyze ice formation, melting, and conditions in the region. Validation was based on comparing model results with remote sensing data. The simulated ice concentration correlated well with Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) and Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI-SAF) data. Visual comparison of ice thickness trends estimated from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite (SMOS) agreed with the simulation for year 2010-2011.

  6. Winners and losers in a world where the high seas is closed to fishing.

    PubMed

    Sumaila, U Rashid; Lam, Vicky W Y; Miller, Dana D; Teh, Louise; Watson, Reg A; Zeller, Dirk; Cheung, William W L; Côté, Isabelle M; Rogers, Alex D; Roberts, Callum; Sala, Enric; Pauly, Daniel

    2015-02-12

    Fishing takes place in the high seas and Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of maritime countries. Closing the former to fishing has recently been proposed in the literature and is currently an issue of debate in various international fora. We determine the degree of overlap between fish caught in these two areas of the ocean, examine how global catch might change if catches of straddling species or taxon groups increase within EEZs as a result of protection of adjacent high seas; and identify countries that are likely to gain or lose in total catch quantity and value following high-seas closure. We find that <0.01% of the quantity and value of commercial fish taxa are obtained from catch taken exclusively in the high seas, and if the catch of straddling taxa increases by 18% on average following closure because of spillover, there would be no loss in global catch. The Gini coefficient, which measures income inequality, would decrease from 0.66 to 0.33. Thus, closing the high seas could be catch-neutral while inequality in the distribution of fisheries benefits among the world's maritime countries could be reduced by 50%.

  7. Trajectory of an oil spill off Goa, eastern Arabian Sea: field observations and simulations.

    PubMed

    Vethamony, P; Sudheesh, K; Babu, M T; Jayakumar, S; Manimurali, R; Saran, A K; Sharma, L H; Rajan, B; Srivastava, M

    2007-07-01

    An oil spill occurred off Goa, west coast of India, on 23 March 2005 due to collision of two vessels. In general, fair weather with weak winds prevails along the west coast of India during March. In that case, the spill would have moved slowly and reached the coast. However, in 2005 when this event occurred, relatively stronger winds prevailed, and these winds forced the spill to move away from the coast. The spill trajectory was dominated by winds rather than currents. The MIKE21 Spill Analysis model was used to simulate the spill trajectory. The observed spill trajectory and the slick area were in agreement with the model simulations. The present study illustrates the importance of having pre-validated trajectories of spill scenarios for selecting eco-sensitive regions for preparedness and planning suitable response strategies whenever spill episodes occur.

  8. Model-based long-term reconstruction of weather-driven variations in chronic oil pollution along the German North Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Chrastansky, Alena; Callies, Ulrich

    2009-07-01

    Lagrangian passive tracer transport simulations covering the 46-year period 1958-2003 were utilized to compare the exposures of different parts of the German North Sea coast to ship-related chronic oil pollution. Assuming the spatial distribution of oil releases to be proportional to estimated ship traffic density, detailed drift reconstructions allowed for the reconstruction of wind-induced inter-annual variations in coastal pollution. For the winter months, a statistical relationship between simulated advective transports and prevailing sea surface pressure fields was established via Canonical Correlation Analysis. Wind effects were found to be more important for the northern (Schleswig-Holstein) than for the southern (Lower Saxony) part of the German North Sea coast. For Schleswig-Holstein, simulations showed consensus with beached bird survey data from this region. Proper identification of weather-driven inter-annual and spatial variations in monitoring data helps to avert misjudgments with regard to trends in the general level of chronic oil pollution.

  9. Significance of high-wax oil variability to Pacific Rim exploration and production

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.M.K. ); Jacobson, S.R. )

    1996-01-01

    High-Wax oils are a class of paraffinic crudes that occur widely in Pacific Rim petroleum systems. New analytical technologies, particularly High Temperature Gas Chromatography (HTGC) show unexpected variations in the molecular weight ranges and concentrations of paraffin waxes within this class of crudes. These variations are source and maturity-related, providing paleoenvironmental and generative information useful to exploration. Paleoenvironmental factors revealed by high-wax oil HTGC source signatures can also help interpret the potential for nearby reservoirs. Furthermore, variations in wax compositions affect flow and organic scale-forming properties that impact the production economics of these oils. Lacustrine-sourced high-wax oils contain broad distributions of paraffin waxes ranging from C[sub 20] to C[sub 60] or higher. Various algae appear to be the source of higher molecular weight waxes in these oils. Paleoenvironmental factors, such as water salinities and paleoclimate, affect wax compositions of resulting lacustrine high-wax oils. Other terrestrial-sourced oils generated by paralic or nearshore marine source rocks show high concentrations of C[sub 25] to C[sub 35] waxes, but much lower distributions of higher molecular weight waxes. These high-wax oils appear to. contain waxes derived principally from terrestrial, higher plant materials. Results for high-wax petroleum systems in Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines and China illustrate these conclusions with examples ranging in age from Carboniferous-Permian to late Tertiary.

  10. Significance of high-wax oil variability to Pacific Rim exploration and production

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.M.K.; Jacobson, S.R.

    1996-12-31

    High-Wax oils are a class of paraffinic crudes that occur widely in Pacific Rim petroleum systems. New analytical technologies, particularly High Temperature Gas Chromatography (HTGC) show unexpected variations in the molecular weight ranges and concentrations of paraffin waxes within this class of crudes. These variations are source and maturity-related, providing paleoenvironmental and generative information useful to exploration. Paleoenvironmental factors revealed by high-wax oil HTGC source signatures can also help interpret the potential for nearby reservoirs. Furthermore, variations in wax compositions affect flow and organic scale-forming properties that impact the production economics of these oils. Lacustrine-sourced high-wax oils contain broad distributions of paraffin waxes ranging from C{sub 20} to C{sub 60} or higher. Various algae appear to be the source of higher molecular weight waxes in these oils. Paleoenvironmental factors, such as water salinities and paleoclimate, affect wax compositions of resulting lacustrine high-wax oils. Other terrestrial-sourced oils generated by paralic or nearshore marine source rocks show high concentrations of C{sub 25} to C{sub 35} waxes, but much lower distributions of higher molecular weight waxes. These high-wax oils appear to. contain waxes derived principally from terrestrial, higher plant materials. Results for high-wax petroleum systems in Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines and China illustrate these conclusions with examples ranging in age from Carboniferous-Permian to late Tertiary.

  11. Towards an operational use of space imagery for oil pollution monitoring in the Mediterranean basin: a demonstration in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Guido; Bernardini, Annalia; David, Matej; Meyer-Roux, Serge; Muellenhoff, Oliver; Perkovic, Marko; Tarchi, Dario; Topouzelis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Studies of operational pollution carried out by European commission - Joint Research Centre in the Mediterranean Sea for the years 1999-2004 are briefly introduced. The specific analysis of the Adriatic Sea for the same period demonstrates that this area has been characterized by a relevant number of illegal discharges from ships. After setting the historical background of the project AESOP (aerial and satellite surveillance of operational pollution in the Adriatic Sea), the content, partners and aim of the project are presented. Finally, the results of the first phase of the AESOP project are presented. The results seem very encouraging. For the first time in the Adriatic, real time detection of oil spills in satellite images and an immediate verification by the Coast Guard has been undertaken. An exploratory activity has also been carried out in collaboration with the University of Ljubljana to use automatic information system (AIS) to identify the ships detected in the satellite images.

  12. Marine bird and sea otter population abundance of Prince william sound, Alaska: Trends following the t/v Exxon Valdez oil spill, 1989-93. Restoration project 93045. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Agler, B.A.; Seiser, P.E.; Kendall, S.J.; Irons, D.B.

    1994-05-01

    We conducted small boat surveys to estimate marine bird and sea otter (Enhdra lutris) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska during March and July 1993, using methods developed for the 1989-91 surveys (Klosiewski and Laing 1994). During 1993, we recorded 65 birds and 13 mammal species. We estimated that 402,760 + or - 167,697 marine birds were in the Sound during March 1993, an increase of >200,000 birds over 1990 and 1991. To examine trends in our marine bird population estimates from 1989-93, we assumed that in the absence of oil spill effects, population estimates in the oiled zone would change at the same rate as those in the unoiled zone. For Prince William Sound as a whole, we examined population trends from 1989-1993, using regression analyses. We also examined the relative abundance of the species groups seen in Prince William Sound from 1972 to 1993. Sea otter populations in 1993 were estimated at 6,813 + or - 1,861 for March and 8,216 + or - 2,435 for July. We found no difference in the rate of change between the oiled and unoiled zones from 1989-93 for either the March or July population estimates. There was no significant trend in the total number of sea otters in Prince William Sound from 1989-93.

  13. The body weight loss during acute exposure to high-altitude hypoxia in sea level residents.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ri-Li; Wood, Helen; Yang, Hui-Huang; Liu, Yi-Ning; Wang, Xiu-Juan; Babb, Tony

    2010-12-25

    Weight loss is frequently observed after acute exposure to high altitude. However, the magnitude and rate of weight loss during acute exposure to high altitude has not been clarified in a controlled prospective study. The present study was performed to evaluate weight loss at high altitude. A group of 120 male subjects [aged (32±6) years] who worked on the construction of the Golmud-Lhasa Railway at Kunlun Mountain (altitude of 4 678 m) served as volunteer subjects for this study. Eighty-five workers normally resided at sea level (sea level group) and 35 normally resided at an altitude of 2 200 m (moderate altitude group). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference were measured in all subjects after a 7-day stay at Golmud (altitude of 2 800 m, baseline measurements). Measurements were repeated after 33-day working on Kunlun Mountain. In order to examine the daily rate of weight loss at high altitude, body weight was measured in 20 subjects from the sea level group (sea level subset group) each morning before breakfast for 33 d at Kunlun Mountain. According to guidelines established by the Lake Louise acute mountain sickness (AMS) consensus report, each subject completed an AMS self-report questionnaire two days after arriving at Kunlun Mountain. After 33-day stay at an altitude of 4 678 m, the average weight loss for the sea level group was 10.4% (range 6.5% to 29%), while the average for the moderate altitude group was 2.2% (-2% to 9.1%). The degree of weight loss (Δ weight loss) after a 33-day stay at an altitude of 4 678 m was significantly correlated with baseline body weight in the sea level group (r=0.677, P<0.01), while the correlation was absent in the moderate altitude group (r=0.296, P>0.05). In the sea level subset group, a significant weight loss was observed within 20 d, but the weight remained stable thereafter. AMS-score at high altitude was significantly higher in the sea level group (4.69±2.48) than that in the moderate

  14. A Systematic Review of High-Oleic Vegetable Oil Substitutions for Other Fats and Oils on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Implications for Novel High-Oleic Soybean Oils12

    PubMed Central

    Huth, Peter J; Fulgoni, Victor L; Larson, Brian T

    2015-01-01

    High–oleic acid soybean oil (H-OSBO) is a trait-enhanced vegetable oil containing >70% oleic acid. Developed as an alternative for trans-FA (TFA)-containing vegetable oils, H-OSBO is predicted to replace large amounts of soybean oil in the US diet. However, there is little evidence concerning the effects of H-OSBO on coronary heart disease (CHD)6 risk factors and CHD risk. We examined and quantified the effects of substituting high-oleic acid (HO) oils for fats and oils rich in saturated FAs (SFAs), TFAs, or n–6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) on blood lipids in controlled clinical trials. Searches of online databases through June 2014 were used to select studies that defined subject characteristics; described control and intervention diets; substituted HO oils compositionally similar to H-OSBO (i.e., ≥70% oleic acid) for equivalent amounts of oils high in SFAs, TFAs, or n–6 PUFAs for ≥3 wk; and reported changes in blood lipids. Studies that replaced saturated fats or oils with HO oils showed significant reductions in total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) (P < 0.05; mean percentage of change: −8.0%, −10.9%, −7.9%, respectively), whereas most showed no changes in HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), the ratio of TC to HDL cholesterol (TC:HDL cholesterol), and apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1). Replacing TFA-containing oil sources with HO oils showed significant reductions in TC, LDL cholesterol, apoB, TGs, TC:HDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol and apoA-1 (mean percentage of change: −5.7%, −9.2%, −7.3%, −11.7%, −12.1%, 5.6%, 3.7%, respectively; P < 0.05). In most studies that replaced oils high in n–6 PUFAs with equivalent amounts of HO oils, TC, LDL cholesterol, TGs, HDL cholesterol, apoA-1, and TC:HDL cholesterol did not change. These findings suggest that replacing fats and oils high in SFAs or TFAs with either H-OSBO or oils high in n–6 PUFAs would have favorable and comparable effects on

  15. Distinctive microbial community structure in highly stratified deep-sea brine water columns.

    PubMed

    Bougouffa, S; Yang, J K; Lee, O O; Wang, Y; Batang, Z; Al-Suwailem, A; Qian, P Y

    2013-06-01

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools. PMID:23542623

  16. Operational use of high-resolution sst in a coupled sea ice-ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albretsen, A.

    2003-04-01

    A high-latitude, near real time, sea surface temperature (SST) product with 10 km resolution is developed at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (met.no) through the EUMETSAT project OSI-SAF (Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility). The product covers the Atlantic Ocean from 50N to 90N and is produced twice daily. A digitized SST and sea ice map is produced manually once a week at the Ice Mapping Service at met.no using all available information from the previous week. This map is the basis for a daily SST analysis, in which the most recent OSI-SAF SST products are successively overlaid. The resulting SST analysis field is then used in a simple data assimilation scheme in a coupled ice-ocean model to perform daily 10 days forecasts of ocean and sea ice variables. Also, the associated OSI-SAF sea ice concentration product, built from different polar orbiting satellites, is assimilated into the sea ice model. Preliminary estimates of impact on forecast skill and error statistics will be presented.

  17. Distinctive Microbial Community Structure in Highly Stratified Deep-Sea Brine Water Columns

    PubMed Central

    Bougouffa, S.; Yang, J. K.; Lee, O. O.; Wang, Y.; Batang, Z.; Al-Suwailem, A.

    2013-01-01

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools. PMID:23542623

  18. Re-evaluating high-latitude warming in the Pliocene Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Daniel; Smith, Yvonne; Dolan, Aisling

    2016-04-01

    The Pliocene warm period was generally been seen as stable warm climate with global temperatures of 2-3K above pre-industrial and significant polar amplification. Northern Hemisphere ice has been reconstructed to be restricted to the high altitude areas of Greenland and global reconstructions of sea surface temperatures show an especially strong warming in the Nordic Seas, most often attributed to increased ocean heat transport in the North Atlantic Ocean. Here we present climate model results that show that the strongest warming recorded in the Nordic Seas and Arctic is forced by changes in orbital forcing and palaeogeographic changes. Of particular importance is the presence of a sub-aerial landmass in the Barents Sea region, which has subsequently been eroded by Pleistocene glaciation. While climate models can produce strong warming signals in the Nordic Seas, a new iceberg modelling study showing that through much of the Pliocene the conditions in the Nordic Seas were suitable for the presence of significant quantities of icebergs. The locations of IRD records also raises the possibility of significant glaciations in places previously considered to be ice free in the Pliocene.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain ND6B, an Oil-Degrading Isolate from Eastern Mediterranean Sea Water Collected at a Depth of 1,210 Meters

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Austin P.; Techtmann, Stephen M.; Stelling, Savannah C.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Alshibli, Noor K.; Brown, Steven D.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2014-11-26

    We report the draft genome of Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain ND6B, which is able to grow with crude oil as a carbon source. Strain ND6B was isolated from eastern Mediterranean Sea deep water at a depth of 1,210 m. The genome of strain ND6B provides insight into the oil-degrading ability of the Pseudoalteromonas species.

  20. INTEGRATION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS WITH IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson; Michael G. McKellar; Lee O. Nelson

    2011-05-01

    This paper evaluates the integration of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to an in situ oil shale retort operation producing 7950 m3/D (50,000 bbl/day). The large amount of heat required to pyrolyze the oil shale and produce oil would typically be provided by combustion of fossil fuels, but can also be delivered by an HTGR. Two cases were considered: a base case which includes no nuclear integration, and an HTGR-integrated case.

  1. Pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse and species-specific microbial communities in sponges from the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Lee, On On; Wang, Yong; Yang, Jiangke; Lafi, Feras F; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2011-04-01

    Marine sponges are associated with a remarkable array of microorganisms. Using a tag pyrosequencing technology, this study was the first to investigate in depth the microbial communities associated with three Red Sea sponges, Hyrtios erectus, Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria. We revealed highly diverse sponge-associated bacterial communities with up to 1000 microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and richness estimates of up to 2000 species. Altogether, 26 bacterial phyla were detected from the Red Sea sponges, 11 of which were absent from the surrounding sea water and 4 were recorded in sponges for the first time. Up to 100 OTUs with richness estimates of up to 300 archaeal species were revealed from a single sponge species. This is by far the highest archaeal diversity ever recorded for sponges. A non-negligible proportion of unclassified reads was observed in sponges. Our results demonstrated that the sponge-associated microbial communities remained highly consistent in the same sponge species from different locations, although they varied at different degrees among different sponge species. A significant proportion of the tag sequences from the sponges could be assigned to one of the sponge-specific clusters previously defined. In addition, the sponge-associated microbial communities were consistently divergent from those present in the surrounding sea water. Our results suggest that the Red Sea sponges possess highly sponge-specific or even sponge-species-specific microbial communities that are resistant to environmental disturbance, and much of their microbial diversity remains to be explored. PMID:21085196

  2. Terrestrial source to deep-sea sink sediment budgets at high and low sea levels: Insights from tectonically active Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Covault, J.A.; Romans, B.W.; Graham, S.A.; Fildani, A.; Hilley, G.E.

    2011-01-01

    Sediment routing from terrestrial source areas to the deep sea influences landscapes and seascapes and supply and filling of sedimentary basins. However, a comprehensive assessment of land-to-deep-sea sediment budgets over millennia with significant climate change is lacking. We provide source to sink sediment budgets using cosmogenic radionuclide-derived terrestrial denudation rates and submarine-fan deposition rates through sea-level fluctuations since oxygen isotope stage 3 (younger than 40 ka) in tectonically active, spatially restricted sediment-routing systems of Southern California. We show that source-area denudation and deep-sea deposition are balanced during a period of generally falling and low sea level (40-13 ka), but that deep-sea deposition exceeds terrestrial denudation during the subsequent period of rising and high sea level (younger than 13 ka). This additional supply of sediment is likely owed to enhanced dispersal of sediment across the shelf caused by seacliff erosion during postglacial shoreline transgression and initiation of submarine mass wasting. During periods of both low and high sea level, land and deep-sea sediment fluxes do not show orders of magnitude imbalances that might be expected in the wake of major sea-level changes. Thus, sediment-routing processes in a globally significant class of small, tectonically active systems might be fundamentally different from those of larger systems that drain entire orogens, in which sediment storage in coastal plains and wide continental shelves can exceed millions of years. Furthermore, in such small systems, depositional changes offshore can reflect onshore changes when viewed over time scales of several thousand years to more than 10 k.y. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  3. High resolution sea floor bathymetry using high frequency multibeam sonar and structured light laser imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, C.; Inglis, G.; Smart, C.; Vaughn, I.; Carey, S.

    2011-12-01

    Detailed bathymetric maps of the sea floor with centimeter level resolution can be produced by underwater vehicles using multibeam sonars and structured light laser imaging. Over spatial scales up to tens of thousands of square meters it is possible to produce maps gridded to sub centimeter levels. This level of accuracy demands detailed treatments of the sensor relative data, the vehicle navigation data and the vehicle to sensor position and rotational offsets. The presented results will show comparisons between these two sensor modalities. Data have a been collected during recent field programs to the Kolumbo volcanic crater and the Southern Aegean Sea. Our data processing and map making technique is based on the Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) concept, which is an active research area in both the marine and land robotics communities. The SLAM method provides a common framework for addressing both sensor and navigation errors in a self consistent manner. Using automated patch registration and filter techniques both the multibeam and laser data can be processed by the same algorithm. Structured light imaging has been a common machine vision technique for 3D shape estimation in industrial applications, but has had limited use underwater. By using a camera to image a projected laser line on the sea floor it is possible to determine the 3D profile of the bottom with sub centimeter resolution. Sequential images taken during a survey can be processed and merged into a bathymetric map in a similar manner as individual multibeam sonar pings. The resulting maps can be gridded down to 2.5 millimeter resolution and clearly show objects just a few centimeters in size. The structured light data have been compared to multibeam sonar data taken with BlueView Technologies sonars operating at both 1375 kHz and 2250 kHz. Such high frequency sonars offer centimeter resolution over ranges to 30 and 10 meters respectively. The difference between the broader footprint

  4. Improving Arctic sea ice edge forecasts by assimilating high horizontal resolution sea ice concentration data into the US Navy's ice forecast systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posey, P. G.; Metzger, E. J.; Wallcraft, A. J.; Hebert, D. A.; Allard, R. A.; Smedstad, O. M.; Phelps, M. W.; Fetterer, F.; Stewart, J. S.; Meier, W. N.; Helfrich, S. R.

    2015-08-01

    This study presents the improvement in ice edge error within the US Navy's operational sea ice forecast systems gained by assimilating high horizontal resolution satellite-derived ice concentration products. Since the late 1980's, the ice forecast systems have assimilated near real-time sea ice concentration derived from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSMI and then SSMIS). The resolution of the satellite-derived product was approximately the same as the previous operational ice forecast system (25 km). As the sea ice forecast model resolution increased over time, the need for higher horizontal resolution observational data grew. In 2013, a new Navy sea ice forecast system (Arctic Cap Nowcast/Forecast System - ACNFS) went into operations with a horizontal resolution of ~ 3.5 km at the North Pole. A method of blending ice concentration observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR2) along with a sea ice mask produced by the National Ice Center (NIC) has been developed, resulting in an ice concentration product with very high spatial resolution. In this study, ACNFS was initialized with this newly developed high resolution blended ice concentration product. The daily ice edge locations from model hindcast simulations were compared against independent observed ice edge locations. ACNFS initialized using the high resolution blended ice concentration data product decreased predicted ice edge location error compared to the operational system that only assimilated SSMIS data. A second evaluation assimilating the new blended sea ice concentration product into the pre-operational Navy Global Ocean Forecast System 3.1 also showed a substantial improvement in ice edge location over a system using the SSMIS sea ice concentration product alone. This paper describes the technique used to create the blended sea ice concentration product and the significant improvements in ice edge forecasting in both of the

  5. Effect of high-fiber and high-oil diets on the fecal flora of swine.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, W E; Moore, L V; Cato, E P; Wilkins, T D; Kornegay, E T

    1987-01-01

    Six pairs of pigs were fed a basal diet, a high-fiber diet, and a diet high in corn oil in different sequences to minimize the carry-over effect of diet. After 2 months on each diet, a fecal specimen from each pig was cultured on nonselective medium in roll tubes. Fifty colonies were randomly selected from each fecal sample, and isolates were characterized to identify a representative cross section of the fecal flora. The bacterial composition of the fecal flora differed between basal and high-fiber diets (P = 0.002) and between high-fiber and high-oil diets (P = 0.015). However, the floras were not significantly different between the basal and the high-oil diets (P = 0.135), nor were the floras of the 12 individual pigs (each on all three diets) statistically different (P = 0.103). Only 14 of the 160 observed taxa have been detected in the human fecal flora, and only 159 of 1,871 total isolates (8.5%) were members of described species. The most common isolate was a Streptococcus species similar to that reported by Robinson et al. (I. M. Robinson, S. C. Whipp, J. A. Bucklin, and M. J. Allison, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 48:964-969, 1984), which was found in 34 of 36 samples and which represented 27.5% of all isolates. Lactobacillus, Fusobacterium, Eubacterium, Bacteroides, and Peptostreptococcus species were the next most common bacteria. Escherichia coli represented 1.7% of all fecal isolates, which is somewhat higher than the 0.1 to 0.6% observed in human feces cultured similarly with prereduced anaerobically sterilized media.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2821900

  6. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis. PMID:27051672

  7. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis.

  8. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis. PMID:27051672

  9. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of perilla oil in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yeseul; Jang, Ja Young; Ban, Young-Hwan; Guo, Haiyu; Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Tae-Su; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Choi, Jieun; An, Eun-Suk; Seo, Da-Woom; Yon, Jung-Min

    2016-01-01

    Anti-atherosclerosis effects of perilla oil were investigated, in comparison with lovastatin, in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). Hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding the HCD containing 0.5% cholesterol and 1% corn oil, and perilla oil (0.1 or 0.3%) was added to the diet containing 0.5% cholesterol for 10 weeks. HCD greatly increased blood total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins, and caused thick atheromatous plaques, covering 74% of the aortic wall. Hyper-cholesterolemia also induced lipid accumulation in the liver and kidneys, leading to lipid peroxidation. Perilla oil not only attenuated hypercholesterolemia and atheroma formation, but also reduced fat accumulation and lipid peroxidation in hepatic and renal tissues. The results indicate that perilla oil prevents atherosclerosis and fatty liver by controlling lipid metabolism, and that it could be the first choice oil to improve diet-induced metabolic syndrome. PMID:27729934

  10. A Novel Method for Measuring Electrical Conductivity of High Insulating Oil Using Charge Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. Q.; Qi, P.; Wang, D. S.; Wang, Y. D.; Zhou, W.

    2016-05-01

    For the high insulating oil, it is difficult to measure the conductivity precisely using voltammetry method. A high-precision measurementis proposed for measuring bulk electrical conductivity of high insulating oils (about 10-9--10-15S/m) using charge decay. The oil is insulated and charged firstly, and then grounded fully. During the experimental procedure, charge decay is observed to show an exponential law according to "Ohm" theory. The data of time dependence of charge density is automatically recorded using an ADAS and a computer. Relaxation time constant is fitted from the data using Gnuplot software. The electrical conductivity is calculated using relaxation time constant and dielectric permittivity. Charge density is substituted by electric potential, considering charge density is difficult to measure. The conductivity of five kinds of oils is measured. Using this method, the conductivity of diesel oil is easily measured to beas low as 0.961 pS/m, as shown in Fig. 5.

  11. Development and characterization of ultra lightweight, highly selective, filter media for oil-water mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghernejad, Lida

    Emulsions formed by oil-water mixtures can cause serious issues at different stages of crude oil production, produced water remediation, and oil spills. Efficient, cost-effective processes for separation of oil--water emulsions or dispersions are critical and highly desirable. Filters are among the most common means employed to separate oil-water emulsions into their corresponding components. To conduct single step gravity-based or centrifugal separation of oil--water mixtures into their pure phase, it is essential that the filter be hydrophilic and oleophobic both in air and water. The filter medium should also have high surface porosity, which affects the rate of permeation of one phase. It should be stable at operating temperatures and pressures and be resistant to degradation by chemicals in the feed stream. Favorable oil rejection characteristics, resistance to fouling by organic and inorganic foulants and low cost of production are also important. The goal of this project is to develop ultra-lightweight filters that are durable, highly porous and able to selectively separate oil-water mixtures, from non-woven cellulose based materials by electrospinning. Since electrospinning is a cost-effective, scalable method that can be used to fabricate filters with very thin nanoscale fibers and nano-dimension pores, and cellulose is a very cheap and abundant ingredient, these filters may be considered as novel tools for efficient, cost-effective separation of oil-water emulsions in industry. Currently there is a growing demand for highly porous selective filters for oil-water mixtures in the petroleum industry. These filters are beneficial to both manufacturers and consumers. This research focuses on the development and characterization of the new filter material and evaluation of its suitability for oil-water separation in the field.

  12. Effects of high-fat diets composed of different oils on adipokine production in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dysregulation of adipokines is a hallmark of obesity. Polyunsaturated (n3) fatty acids in fish oil are shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue mitigating the dysregulation of adipokines. In this study, we compared high-fat diets composed of different dietary oils with various le...

  13. 78 FR 60892 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning... addition of the map entitled ``Chukchi Sea Planning Area for Information and Nominations Lease Sale 237... Lease Sale 237 in the Chukchi Sea Planning Area, scheduled to be held in 2016, as included in...

  14. Added value of high-resolution regional climate model over the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Delei; von Storch, Hans; Geyer, Beate

    2016-04-01

    Added value from dynamical downscaling has long been a crucial and debatable issue in regional climate studies. A 34 year (1979-2012) high-resolution (7 km grid) atmospheric hindcast over the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea (BYS) has been performed using COSMO-CLM (CCLM) forced by ERA-Interim reanalysis data (ERA-I). The accuracy of CCLM in surface wind reproduction and the added value of dynamical downscaling to ERA-I have been investigated through comparisons with the satellite data (including QuikSCAT Level2B 12.5 km version 3 (L2B12v3) swath data and MODIS images) and in situ observations, with adoption of quantitative metrics and qualitative assessment methods. The results revealed that CCLM has a reliable ability to reproduce the regional wind characteristics over the BYS areas. Over marine areas, added value to ERA-I has been detected in the coastal areas with complex coastlines and orography. CCLM was better able to represent light and moderate winds but has even more added value for strong winds relative to ERA-I. Over land areas, the high-resolution CCLM hindcast can add value to ERA-I in reproducing wind intensities and direction, wind probability distribution and extreme winds mainly at mountain areas. With respect to atmospheric processes, CCLM outperforms ERA-I in resolving detailed temporal and spatial structures for phenomena of a typhoon and of a coastal atmospheric front; CCLM generates some orography related phenomena such as a vortex street which is not captured by ERA-I. These added values demonstrate the utility of the 7-km-resolution CCLM for regional and local climate studies and applications. The simulation was constrained with adoption of spectral nudging method. The results may be different when simulations are considered, which are not constrained by spectral nudging.

  15. Bankers Trust forecasts new high in oil imports

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    H.W. Krupp of Bankers Trust Company stated that the recent collapse of oil prices almost certainly will lead oil imports to rise to unprecedented levels within the next decade. This increased dependence on foreign sources of supply represents a clear threat to the nation's military and economic security. Krupp notes that it is widely expected that OPEC's leverage over oil prices will be restored over the next decade, and in large part, the US will be responsible for OPEC's growing market power. Over the next decade, US oil imports alone will account for over 60 percent of the increase in worldwide requirements for OPEC oil. He concludes that legislators should give consideration to development of an alternative fuels policy. Although not a fashionable topic at the moment, the fact remains that some alternative fuels will become economic and play an increasingly important role in the next century. But we cannot depend on the private sector alone to foster development of alternatives that will become economic so far in the future. Therefore, the Government should provide a helping hand now to provide for a foundation of alternative fuel technologies.

  16. Past High sea Stands, Evidence From Conch Bar Cave, Middle Caicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, G. E.; Smart, P. L.; Richards, D. A.; Hoffmann, D. L.; Whitaker, F. F.

    2008-12-01

    Flank margin caves form at sea level through a combination of enhanced dissolution by greater groundwater flux in the distal part of the freshwater lens and undersaturation associated with mixing of saline and freshwater discharging at the island margin (Smart et al., 1988). Measurement of the elevation of distinctive horizontally extensive and vertically restricted phreatic passages relative to the present sea level, allows for the position of former high sea stands to be established. Distinct horizons of cave development have been determined in Conch Bar Cave (21 49' N, 71 47' W), Middle Caicos, Turks and Caicos Islands. Passages were observed between -15 to -12, -1 to +3, +2 to +6, +7 to +10 and +16 to +22 m above sea level (asl). The highest level present is more than 16 m above the present sea level, which suggests either that there has been uplift of the platform or that past sea levels have been above this elevation. Assuming a stable platform, the elevations of passage development are in agreement with other records of high sea stands from the Bahamas region. Evidence for a MIS 11 sea level of up to 20 m asl has been observed in the Bahamas and Bermuda (Kindler and Hearty, 2000) which may have been responsible for forming the high elevation passage at +16 m asl. Additionally, high stands of +6 m asl are well documented in the Bahamas (Chen et al., 1991; Hearty and Neumann, 2001) and may have formed the +2 to +6 m cave passage. The antiquity of the passages has been determined through U-series dating of speleothems collected from a variety of elevations. The majority of samples were deposited post MIS 5a, as would be expected to confirm the opinion that emergent Bahamian flank margin caves are restricted to forming during MIS 5e (Mylroie and Carew, 1990). Speleothem from the high elevation +16 m passage therefore constrains the timing of passage formation to MIS 5 or earlier only. However, flowstone from present sea level began deposition at 260 ± 6.0 ka

  17. Effect of linseed oil and macadamia oil on metabolic changes induced by high-fat diet in mice.

    PubMed

    Barrena, Helenton C; Schiavon, Fabiana P M; Cararra, Marcia A; Marques, Any de Castro R; Schamber, Christiano R; Curi, Rui; Bazotte, Roberto B

    2014-06-01

    The effects of linseed oil (LO) and macadamia oil (MO) on the metabolic changes induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fatty acid were investigated. For the purpose of this study, the vegetable oil present in the HFD, i.e. soybean oil (SO) was replaced with LO (HFD-LO) or MO (HFD-MO). For comparative purposes, a group was included, which received a normal fat diet (NFD). Male Swiss mice (6-week old) were used. After 14 days under the dietary conditions, the mice were fasted for 18 h, and experiments were then performed. The HFD-SO, HFD-LO and HFD-MO groups showed higher glycaemia (p < 0.05 versus NFD). However, no significant effect was observed on glycaemia, liver gluconeogenesis and liver ketogenesis when SO was replaced by either LO or MO. The body weight and the sum of epididymal, mesenteric, retroperitoneal and inguinal fat weights were higher (p < 0.05) in the HFD-SO and HFD-MO groups as compared with the NFD group. However, there was no significant difference in these parameters between the NFD and HFD-LO groups. Thus, the protective role of LO on lipid accumulation induced by an HFD rich in saturated fatty acid is potentially mediated by the high content of ɷ-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in LO.

  18. Comparison Between Oil-mist and Oil-jet Lubrication of High-speed, Small-bore, Angular-contact Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7 percent was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

  19. 3d Operational Hydrodinamic Modelling System as a Support to Oil Spill Responses in the Ligurian Sea (North-Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Giudice, T.; Quagliati, M.; Bertolotto, R.; Pedroncini, A.; Cusati, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Accidental oil spills have a significant impact on marine ecosystems reminding us the importance of an efficiency emergency planning to ensure a quick and proper response. In this phase, the numerical modelling approach emerges as a useful tool in order to simulate the scenarios and addresses the issue of oil dispersion in the case of a spill. The 3D operational hydrodynamic modelling system of the Ligurian Sea (North-Western Mediterranean) is used as a base to predict the possible oil trajectory and to track the path and fate of spilled oil under the prevailing hydrodynamic and meteorological conditions. The operative chain of the hydrodynamic model was developed by DHI Italia for the Regional Environment Protection Agency (ARPAL) operating in the Ligurian region (Italy) with the objective to preserve the environment, support the activities of the Civil Protection Department and promote a sustainable, healthy and safety management of the local resources. In this chain the MFS Mediterranean 3D model (operated within MyOcean EU Project - Copernicus Programme) was downscaled from 6.5 km to finer nearshore mesh (500 m). The increased spatial resolution allows the correct simulation of current developments in the vicinity of morphological discontinuities such as the promontory of Portofino on the Ligurian coast. The meteorological forcing is provided by MOLOCH, a LAM model operated by ARPAL together with fresh water discharges from the main rivers through hydrological modelling. Since the Ligurian Sea recently hosted the transfer of wreck Costa Concordia some real time simulations of hypothetical oil spill were performed to support the crisis unit of the Genoa Coast Guard. Simulations led to interesting results concerning the importance of updated weather conditions, which strongly influence current trends, focusing on the importance of the continuity of the modelling chain.

  20. Fish oil disrupts seabird feather microstructure and waterproofing.

    PubMed

    Morandin, Lora A; O'Hara, Patrick D

    2014-10-15

    Seabirds and other aquatic avifauna are highly sensitive to exposure to petroleum oils. A small amount of oil is sufficient to break down the feather barrier that is necessary to prevent water penetration and hypothermia. Far less attention has been paid to potential effects on aquatic birds of so called 'edible oils', non-petroleum oils such as vegetable and fish oils. In response to a sardine oil discharge by a vessel off the coast of British Columbia, we conducted an experiment to assess if feather exposure to sheens of sardine oil (ranging from 0.04 to 3 μm in thickness) resulted in measurable oil and water uptake and significant feather microstructure disruption. We designed the experiment based on a previous experiment on effects of petroleum oils on seabird feathers. Feathers exposed to the thinnest fish oil sheens (0.04 μm) resulted in measurable feather weight gain (from oil and water uptake) and significant feather microstructure disruption. Both feather weight gain and microstructure disruption increased with increasing fish oil thickness. Because of the absence of primary research on effects of edible oils on sea birds, we conducted interviews with wildlife rehabilitation professionals with experience rehabilitating sea birds after edible oil exposure. The consensus from interviews and our experiment indicated that physical contact with fish and other 'edible oils' in the marine environment is at least as harmful to seabirds as petroleum oils.

  1. Evidence for high salinity of Early Cretaceous sea water from the Chesapeake Bay crater.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Ward E; Doughten, Michael W; Coplen, Tyler B; Hunt, Andrew G; Bullen, Thomas D

    2013-11-14

    High-salinity groundwater more than 1,000 metres deep in the Atlantic coastal plain of the USA has been documented in several locations, most recently within the 35-million-year-old Chesapeake Bay impact crater. Suggestions for the origin of increased salinity in the crater have included evaporite dissolution, osmosis and evaporation from heating associated with the bolide impact. Here we present chemical, isotopic and physical evidence that together indicate that groundwater in the Chesapeake crater is remnant Early Cretaceous North Atlantic (ECNA) sea water. We find that the sea water is probably 100-145 million years old and that it has an average salinity of about 70 per mil, which is twice that of modern sea water and consistent with the nearly closed ECNA basin. Previous evidence for temperature and salinity levels of ancient oceans have been estimated indirectly from geochemical, isotopic and palaeontological analyses of solid materials in deep sediment cores. In contrast, our study identifies ancient sea water in situ and provides a direct estimate of its age and salinity. Moreover, we suggest that it is likely that remnants of ECNA sea water persist in deep sediments at many locations along the Atlantic margin.

  2. Winter marine bird and sea otter abundance of Prince William Sound, Alaska: Trends following the t/v Exxon Valdez oil spill from 1990-94. Restoration project 94159. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Agler, B.A.; Seiser, P.E.; Kendall, S.J.; Irons, D.B.

    1995-05-01

    We conducted small boat surveys to determine population abundance of marine birds and sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in Prince William Sound, Alaska during March 1994. We observed 45 bird and 8 mammal species in Prince William Sound, and we estimated that 320,470 + or - 63,640 marine birds were present. We estimated trends in the March population estimates from 1990-94 by determining whether estimates in the oiled zone changed at the same rate as those in the unoiled zone. For Prince William Sound as a whole, we also examined the population trends from 1990-94 using regression analyses. We found significant positive trends for harlequin duck (Histrionicus), goldeneye, merganser, bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) and gull (Larus and Rissa spp.) populations. We also examined the relative abundance of marine bird species groups from 1972 to 1994. During March 1994, we estimated that the sea otter population was 7,746 + or - 2,073 otters. We found no difference in the rate of change between the oiled and unoiled zones from 1990-94, and there was no significant trend in the total number of sea otters in Prince William Sound from 1990-94.

  3. Identification of fucans from four species of sea cucumber by high temperature 1H NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Nian; Chen, Shiguo; Ye, Xingqian; Li, Guoyun; Yin, Li'ang; Xue, Changhu

    2014-10-01

    Acidic polysaccharide, which has various biological activities, is one of the most important components of sea cucumber. In the present study, crude polysaccharide was extracted from four species of sea cucumber from three different geographical zones, Pearsonothuria graeffei ( Pg) from Indo-Pacific, Holothuria vagabunda ( Hv) from Norwegian Coast, Stichopus tremulu ( St) from Western Indian Ocean, and Isostichopus badionotu ( Ib) from Western Atlantic. The polysaccharide extract was separated and purified with a cellulose DEAE anion-exchange column to obtain corresponding sea cucumber fucans (SC-Fucs). The chemical property of these SC-Fucs, including molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and sulfate content, was determined. Their structure was compared simply with fourier infrared spectrum analyzer and identified with high temperature 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum analyzer (NMR) and room temperature 13C NMR. The results indicated that Fuc- Pg obtained from the torrid zone mainly contained 2,4-O-disulfated and non-sulfated fucose residue, whereas Fuc- Ib from the temperate zone contained non-, 2-O- and 2,4-O-disulfated fucose residue; Fuc- St from the frigid zone and Fuc- Hv from the torrid zone contained mainly non-sulfated fucose residue. The proton of SC-Fucs was better resolved via high temperature 1H NMR than via room temperature 1H NMR. The fingerprint of sea cucumber in different sea regions was established based on the index of anomer hydrogen signal in SC-Fucs. Further work will help to understand whether there exists a close relationship between the geographical area of sea cucumber and the sulfation pattern of SC-Fucs.

  4. Dietary Mannan Oligosaccharides: Counteracting the Side Effects of Soybean Meal Oil Inclusion on European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Gut Health and Skin Mucosa Mucus Production?

    PubMed Central

    Torrecillas, Silvia; Montero, Daniel; Caballero, Maria José; Pittman, Karin A.; Custódio, Marco; Campo, Aurora; Sweetman, John; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of 4 g kg−1 dietary mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) inclusion in soybean oil (SBO)- and fish oil (FO)-based diets on the gut health and skin mucosa mucus production of European sea bass juveniles after 8 weeks of feeding. Dietary MOS, regardless of the oil source, promoted growth. The intestinal somatic index was not affected, however dietary SBO reduced the intestinal fold length, while dietary MOS increased it. The dietary oil source fed produced changes on the posterior intestine fatty acid profiles irrespective of MOS dietary supplementation. SBO down-regulated the gene expression of TCRβ, COX2, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, TGFβ, and Ig and up-regulated MHCII. MOS supplementation up-regulated the expression of MHCI, CD4, COX2, TNFα, and Ig when included in FO-based diets. However, there was a minor up-regulating effect on these genes when MOS was supplemented in the SBO-based diet. Both dietary oil sources and MOS affected mean mucous cell areas within the posterior gut, however the addition of MOS to a SBO diet increased the mucous cell size over the values shown in FO fed fish. Dietary SBO also trends to reduce mucous cell density in the anterior gut relative to FO, suggesting a lower overall mucosal secretion. There are no effects of dietary oil or MOS in the skin mucosal patterns. Complete replacement of FO by SBO, modified the gut fatty acid profile, altered posterior gut-associated immune system (GALT)-related gene expression and gut mucous cells patterns, induced shorter intestinal folds and tended to reduce European sea bass growth. However, when combined with MOS, the harmful effects of SBO appear to be partially balanced by moderating the down-regulation of certain GALT-related genes involved in the functioning of gut mucous barrier and increasing posterior gut mucous cell diffusion rates, thus helping to preserve immune homeostasis. This denotes the importance of a balanced

  5. Soybean Oil: Powering a High School Investigation of Biodiesel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Rosa, Paul; Azurin, Katherine A.; Page, Michael F. Z.

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory investigation challenges students to synthesize, analyze, and compare viable alternative fuels to Diesel No. 2 using a renewable resource, as well as readily available reagents and supplies. During the experiment, students synthesized biodiesel from soybean oil in an average percent yield of 83.8 ± 6.3%. They then prepared fuel…

  6. The role of the cold Okhotsk Sea in the strengthening the Pacific subtropical high and Baiu precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Kenta; Tachibana, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Tetsu; Yamazaki, Koji; Kodera, Kunihiko

    2016-04-01

    It is commonly known that the formation of a stationery precipitation zone in association with the Baiu front is influenced by the existence of the warm Tibetan Plateau. Some GCM studies in which the Tibetan Plateau is removed pointed out that without the Tibetan Plateau, the Baiu front wound not appear. The cold Okhotsk Sea, which is located to the north of Japan, is also important in forming cold air for the Bai front. This study focused on the role of the Okhotsk Sea in the formation of the Baiu front by using an atmospheric GCM. One GCM is executed without the Okhotsk Sea, in which was changed to an eastern part of the Eurasian continent as if the Okhotsk Sea was totally landfilled (land run). The other (sea run) is a control run under the boundary condition of climatic seasonal changes of the SST over the globe. The comparison of the land run with the sea run showed that precipitation over Japan would weaken in the Baiu season without the Okhotsk Sea, indicating that the existence of the Okhotsk Sea has an impact on the increase in precipitation. The precipitation increase in the sea run is directly accounted by the strengthening of southeast wind in association with the strengthening of the subtropical high located over the Pacific Ocean. The westerly jet, which is located at the northern part of the subtropical high, was also accelerated in the sea run. The subtropical high in association with the accelerated jet was strengthened by meridional atmospheric thermal gradient caused by underlying cold Okhotsk Sea and the warm Pacific Ocean. The strengthened thermal gradient also activated the storm track that extends zonally over the Okhotsk Sea, and the activated storm track further strengthened the jet and subtropical high by wave-mean flow feedback. This feedback loop could further strengthen the Baiu precipitation. In consequence, the Okhotsk plays a significant role in the strengthening the subtropical high and its associated Baiu precipitation.

  7. [Hand injuries resulting from high-pressure injection: lesions specific to industrial oil].

    PubMed

    Obert, L; Lepage, D; Jeunet, D; Gérard, F; Garbuio, P; Tropet, Y

    2002-12-01

    Nineteen cases of high pressure injection injuries in the hand were treated between 1973 and 1998. Same surgical treatment plan was followed in all cases: excision of the penetration point, irrigation, debridement and synovectomy if opening of the flexor sheath was noted, and skin closure to allow early mobilisation. All cases concerned men, work injuries, and volar aspect of the hand. The elapsed time between injection and initial surgery ranged from 1 hour to 1 month with a mean of 6.5 days. Eighteen patients out of 19 were reviewed with a mean follow up of 12 years. In 11/19 cases, (58%) oil was injected. The results of oil injection cases have been analysed: the quantity of oil and the preoperative delay (if more ten hours) are associated with poor functional results or complications. Two amputations, two cases of skin necrosis at the injection point, and one case of infection are reported. One case of oleoma of the thumb is described. The specificity of injuries by industrial oil under pressure must be known: paint or white spirit are more toxic than oil which was in all cases injected in the dominant hand (no high pressure injection tool but a defect in the pipe). An important inflammatory reaction with functional sequelae is caused by foreign bodies in oil. Extraction of oil off the injured tissues is difficult because oil is not visible. A specific information is necessary for farmers and truck driver, very exposed population.

  8. Oxidized fish oil in rat pregnancy causes high newborn mortality and increases maternal insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Albert, Benjamin B; Vickers, Mark H; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Derraik, José G B; Lewandowski, Paul A; Garg, Manohar L; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2016-09-01

    Fish oil is commonly taken by pregnant women, and supplements sold at retail are often oxidized. Using a rat model, we aimed to assess the effects of supplementation with oxidized fish oil during pregnancy in mothers and offspring, focusing on newborn viability and maternal insulin sensitivity. Female rats were allocated to a control or high-fat diet and then mated. These rats were subsequently randomized to receive a daily gavage treatment of 1 ml of unoxidized fish oil, a highly oxidized fish oil, or control (water) throughout pregnancy. At birth, the gavage treatment was stopped, but the same maternal diets were fed ad libitum throughout lactation. Supplementation with oxidized fish oil during pregnancy had a marked adverse effect on newborn survival at day 2, leading to much greater odds of mortality than in the control (odds ratio 8.26) and unoxidized fish oil (odds ratio 13.70) groups. In addition, maternal intake of oxidized fish oil during pregnancy led to increased insulin resistance at the time of weaning (3 wks after exposure) compared with control dams (HOMA-IR 2.64 vs. 1.42; P = 0.044). These data show that the consumption of oxidized fish oil is harmful in rat pregnancy, with deleterious effects in both mothers and offspring. PMID:27385731

  9. The sedimentary records of Holocene environmental changes from the Central High of the Sea of Marmara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filikci, Betul; Çağatay, Namık; Kadir Eriş, Kürşad; Akyol, Mustafa; Yalamaz, Burak; Uçarkuş, Gülsen; Henry, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The Sea of Marmara (SoM) is located between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea, to which it is connected via the Istanbul (Bosphorus) and Canakkale (Dardanelles) straits having sill depths of 65 and 35 m, respectively. It has a two-way water mass exchange with a permanent pycnocline located at 20-25 m water depth. With the objective of determining Holocene paleoenvironmental changes, we studied a 8.36 m-long piston core recovered from the Central High of the SoM at a water depth of 835 m, using multiproxy analyses such as total organic and inorganic carbon, high resolution µ-XRF core scanner analysis, grain size, magnetic susceptibility and density. A 2 cm-thick tephra layer with high K and Zr and relatively low magnetic susceptibility occurs at 2.1 meter below sea floor (mbsf), which is correlated with the Avellino (Somma-Vesuvius, Italy) eruption dated at 3.9 ka BP, according to the previous studies. Using this age and assuming a uniform sedimentation rate, the base of the core dates back to ca 8 ka BP. The core includes organic-rich (sapropelic) sediments with 1.5 % to 2.2%) in its top 3.5 m and bottom 1 m. Sapropelic layers are olive green and in part laminated, and contain occasional reddish brown spots and laminae formed by oxidation of iron monosulphides. The core also contains some few mm- to cm-thick sandy-silty mass-flow units below 2.4 mbsf, some of which could have been triggered by the earthquake activity on the Central High segment of the North Anatolian Fault, just a few km away from the core location. Variations in Ca-Ti ratio suggest millennial-scale climatic changes during the Holocene. Keywords: Sea of Marmara, Holocene paleoenvironmental records, tephra, turbidites, TOC analysis, XRF analysis, physical properties.

  10. High sea-floor stress induced by extreme hurricane waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesekera, Hemantha W.; Wang, David W.; Teague, William J.; Jarosz, Ewa

    2010-06-01

    Strong surface waves and currents generated by major hurricanes can produce extreme forces at the seabed that scour the seafloor and cause massive underwater mudslides. Our understanding of these forces is poor due to lack of concurrent measurements of waves and currents under these storms. Using unique observations collected during the passage of a category-4 hurricane, Ivan, bottom stress due to currents and waves over the outer continental shelf in the Gulf of Mexico was examined. During the passage of Ivan, the bottom stress was highly correlated with the wind with a maximum of about 40% of the wind stress. The bottom stress was dominated by the wave-induced stresses, and exceeded critical levels at depths as large as 90 m. Surprisingly, the bottom damaging stress persisted after the passage of Ivan for about a week, and was modulated by near-inertial waves.

  11. Studies of the effects of experimentally produced noise associated with oil and gas exploration and development on sea otters in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Riedman, M.L.

    1983-11-15

    During the winter 1983 tape-recorded industrial noises associated with offshore oil and gas operations were projected underwater at Soberanes Point, California. Seismic-exploration sounds were produced using a multiple air gun array (4000 cu. in) and a single air gun (100 cu. in) along a 10-15 km transect paralleling the coastline from Rocky Point to Yankee Point. The behavior, density, and distribution of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) within the vicinity of the sound projection area were not affected by the acoustic experiments. Foraging and diving behaviors of sea otters were normal and undisturbed. There were no movements of otters away from the sound source or out of the sound projection vicinity during either the winter or spring acoustic experiments.

  12. Influence of harvest time on the quality of oil-based compounds in sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L. ssp. sinensis) seed and fruit.

    PubMed

    St George, Susan D; Cenkowski, Stefan

    2007-10-01

    The effect of the harvest time on oil-based bioactive compounds in sea buckthorn berries ( Hippophae rhamnoides L. ssp. sinensis) was investigated. Sea buckthorn berries were collected at early maturity (September), maturity (November), and postmaturity (January) during the 2003-2004 harvest year. Whole berries were analyzed for physical characteristics, and fruit and seed fractions were analyzed for bioactive content. November-harvested berries yielded the highest values for berry sizes, CIELab factor a*, and total carotenoid content in the fruit fraction ( p < 0.05). September yielded significantly higher ( p < 0.05) levels of major compounds, alpha-tocopherol and beta-sitosterol, in the fruit fraction. Seed characteristics and bioactive compounds did not vary significantly with respect to the harvest time ( p > 0.05). These results have identified the most suitable level of maturity for the optimization of certain compounds and the losses that may occur with winter harvest, commonly practiced in cold climates.

  13. Aminostratigraphic correlations and paleotemperature implications, Pliocene-Pleistocene high-sea-level deposits, northwestern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Darrell S.; Brigham-Grette, Julie

    Multiple periods of Late Pliocene and Pleistocene high sea level are recorded by surficial deposits along the coastal plains of northwestern Alaska. Analyses of the extent of amino acid epimerization in fossil molluscan shells from the Nome coastal plain of the northern Bering Sea coast, and from the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain of the Chukchi and Beaufort Sea coasts, allow recognition of at least five intervals of higher-than-present relative sea level. Three Late Pliocene transgressions are represented at Nome by the complex and protracted Beringian transgression, and on the Arctic Coastal Plain by the Colvillian, Bigbendian, and Fishcreekian transgressions. These were followed by a lengthy period of non-marine deposition during the Early Pleistocene when sea level did not reach above its present position. A Middle Pleistocene high-sea-level event is represented at Nome by the Anvilian transgression, and on the Arctic Coastal Plain by the Wainwrightian transgression. Anvilian deposits at the type locality are considerably younger than previously thought, perhaps as young as Oxygen-Isotope Stage 11 (˜410,000 BP). Finally, the last interglacial Pelukian transgression is represented discontinuously along the shores of northwestern Alaska. Amino acid epimerization data, together with previous paleomagnetic measurements, radiometric-age determinations, and paleontologic evidence provide geochronological constraints on the sequence of marine deposits. They form the basis of regional correlations and offer a means of evaluating the post-depositional thermal history of the high-sea-level deposits. Provisional correlations between marine units at Nome and the Artic Coastal Plain indicate that the temperature difference that separates the two sites today had existed by about 3.0 Ma. Since that time, the effective diagenetic temperature was lowered by about 3-4°C at both sites, and the mean annual temperature was lowered considerably more. This temperature decrease was

  14. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Final report, January 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-09-29

    The Adams Counter-current shale oil recovery process is an improved retorting technology enabling highly efficient oil recovery from oil shale. The high efficiency results primarily from the following facts: it (1) recovers the ash heat to preheat the feed ore; (2) burns and uses the coke energy and (3) operates without using hot ash recycling as a heat carrier. This latter feature is doubly important, contributing to high oil yield and to the generation of highly reactive coke which can be burned below 1000{degree}F, avoiding the endothermal calcination of the mineral carbonates and helping to clean the ash of contaminants. This project demonstrates that oil shale can be retorted under the specified conditions and achieve the objectives of very high efficiency. The project accomplished the following: 51 quartz sand rotary kiln runs provided significant engineering data. A heat transfer value of 107 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degree}F was obtained at optimum RPM; eight oil shale samples were obtained and preliminary shakedown runs were made. Five of the samples were selected for kiln processing and twelve pyrolysis runs were made on the five different oil shales;average off recovery was 109% of Fisher Assay; retorted residue from all five samples was oxidized at approximately 1000{degree}F. The ash from these runs was oxidized to varying extents, depending on the oil shale and oxidizing temperatures. While 1000{degree}F is adequately hot to provide process heat from coke combustion for these ores, some Eastern oil shales, without mineral carbonates, may be oxidized at higher temperatures, perhaps 100--300 degrees hotter, to obtain a more complete oxidation and utilization of the coke.

  15. High waters at Liverpool since 1768: the UK's longest sea level record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodworth, Philip L.

    An exercise of ‘data archaeology’ of high water tidal information from Liverpool, NW England has resulted in the construction of a time series of ‘Adjusted Mean High Water’ spanning 1768 to the present which can be employed as a record of proxy Mean Sea Level (MSL). The time series, although gappy, is arguably the second oldest sea level-related record in the world, after Amsterdam's (1682, although the data we hold are from 1700 only) and of comparable age to Stockholm's (1774). It describes a secular trend for the period up to 1880 of 0.39+/-0.17 mm/year, a trend for the twentieth century of 1.22plus/-0.25 mm/year, and an overall low frequency acceleration of 0.33+/-0.10 mm/year/century. When considered alongside geological sea level information from the area, the evidence suggests that the greater secular trend of sea level in the twentieth century, compared to long term projections derived from geological information, is primarily the result of an acceleration towards the second half of the last century, consistent with conclusions inferred from previous analyses of the very small number of other long European MSL records.

  16. Integration of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Technology with Oil Sands Processes

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Demick

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation of siting an HTGR plant in a remote area supplying steam, electricity and high temperature gas for recovery and upgrading of unconventional crude oil from oil sands. The area selected for this evaluation is the Alberta Canada oil sands. This is a very fertile and active area for bitumen recovery and upgrading with significant quantities piped to refineries in Canada and the U.S Additionally data on the energy consumption and other factors that are required to complete the evaluation of HTGR application is readily available in the public domain. There is also interest by the Alberta oil sands producers (OSP) in identifying alternative energy sources for their operations. It should be noted, however, that the results of this evaluation could be applied to any similar oil sands area.

  17. High Meiofaunal and Nematodes Diversity around Mesophotic Coral Oases in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Bianchelli, Silvia; Pusceddu, Antonio; Canese, Simone; Greco, Silvio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Although the mesophotic zone of the Mediterranean Sea has been poorly investigated, there is an increasing awareness about its ecological importance for its biodiversity, as fish nursery and for the recruitment of shallow water species. Along with coastal rocky cliffs, isolated coralligenous concretions emerging from muddy bottoms are typical structures of the Mediterranean Sea mesophotic zone. Coralligenous concretions at mesophotic depths in the South Tyrrhenian Sea were investigated to assess the role of these coralligenous oases in relation to the biodiversity of surrounding soft sediments. We show here that the complex structures of the coralligenous concretions at ca. 110 m depth influence the trophic conditions, the biodiversity and assemblage composition in the surrounding sediments even at considerable distances. Coral concretions not only represent deep oases of coral biodiversity but they also promote a higher biodiversity of the fauna inhabiting the surrounding soft sediments. Using the biodiversity of nematodes as a proxy of the total benthic biodiversity, a high turnover biodiversity within a 200 m distance from the coralligenous concretions was observed. Such turnover is even more evident when only rare taxa are considered and seems related to specific trophic conditions, which are influenced by the presence of the coralligenous structures. The presence of a high topographic complexity and the trophic enrichment make these habitats highly biodiverse, nowadays endangered by human activities (such as exploitation of commercial species such as Corallium rubrum, or trawling fisheries, which directly causes habitat destruction or indirectly causes modification in the sedimentation and re-suspension rates). We stress that the protection of the coralligenous sea concretions is a priority for future conservation policies at the scale of large marine ecosystems and that a complete census of these mesophotic oases of biodiversity should be a priority for

  18. High Meiofaunal and Nematodes Diversity around Mesophotic Coral Oases in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Bianchelli, Silvia; Pusceddu, Antonio; Canese, Simone; Greco, Silvio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Although the mesophotic zone of the Mediterranean Sea has been poorly investigated, there is an increasing awareness about its ecological importance for its biodiversity, as fish nursery and for the recruitment of shallow water species. Along with coastal rocky cliffs, isolated coralligenous concretions emerging from muddy bottoms are typical structures of the Mediterranean Sea mesophotic zone. Coralligenous concretions at mesophotic depths in the South Tyrrhenian Sea were investigated to assess the role of these coralligenous oases in relation to the biodiversity of surrounding soft sediments. We show here that the complex structures of the coralligenous concretions at ca. 110 m depth influence the trophic conditions, the biodiversity and assemblage composition in the surrounding sediments even at considerable distances. Coral concretions not only represent deep oases of coral biodiversity but they also promote a higher biodiversity of the fauna inhabiting the surrounding soft sediments. Using the biodiversity of nematodes as a proxy of the total benthic biodiversity, a high turnover biodiversity within a 200 m distance from the coralligenous concretions was observed. Such turnover is even more evident when only rare taxa are considered and seems related to specific trophic conditions, which are influenced by the presence of the coralligenous structures. The presence of a high topographic complexity and the trophic enrichment make these habitats highly biodiverse, nowadays endangered by human activities (such as exploitation of commercial species such as Corallium rubrum, or trawling fisheries, which directly causes habitat destruction or indirectly causes modification in the sedimentation and re-suspension rates). We stress that the protection of the coralligenous sea concretions is a priority for future conservation policies at the scale of large marine ecosystems and that a complete census of these mesophotic oases of biodiversity should be a priority for

  19. High Meiofaunal and Nematodes Diversity around Mesophotic Coral Oases in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Bianchelli, Silvia; Pusceddu, Antonio; Canese, Simone; Greco, Silvio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Although the mesophotic zone of the Mediterranean Sea has been poorly investigated, there is an increasing awareness about its ecological importance for its biodiversity, as fish nursery and for the recruitment of shallow water species. Along with coastal rocky cliffs, isolated coralligenous concretions emerging from muddy bottoms are typical structures of the Mediterranean Sea mesophotic zone. Coralligenous concretions at mesophotic depths in the South Tyrrhenian Sea were investigated to assess the role of these coralligenous oases in relation to the biodiversity of surrounding soft sediments. We show here that the complex structures of the coralligenous concretions at ca. 110 m depth influence the trophic conditions, the biodiversity and assemblage composition in the surrounding sediments even at considerable dist