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Sample records for high serum resistin

  1. High serum resistin associates with intrahepatic inflammation and necrosis: an index of disease severity for patients with chronic HBV infection.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhongji; Zhang, Yonghong; Wei, Zhiqiang; Liu, Ping; Kang, Jian; Zhang, Yinhua; Ma, Deqiang; Ke, Changzheng; Chen, Yue; Luo, Jie; Gong, Zuojiong

    2017-01-07

    Studies have revealed that resistin plays a role as an intrahepatic cytokine with proinflammatory activities. This study investigated the association between serum resistin and fibrosis severity and the possible marker role of resistin in the inflammatory process of chronic hepatitis B. In this study, 234 subjects with HBV infection were retrospectively selected, including 85 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 70 patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis (LC-B), and 79 patients with HBV-related liver failure (LF-B). Serum levels of resistin, IL-1, IL-6, IL-17, IL-23, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 were assayed by ELISA. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were extracted from clinical databases of Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, including serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBil), and liver stiffness (LS). All the selected patients with HBV infection showed significantly increased levels of serum resistin, which was rarely detectable in the healthy controls. Serum resistin levels in patients with CHB, LC-B, and LF-B were 4.119 ± 5.848 ng/mL, 6.370 ± 6.834 ng/mL, and 6.512 ± 6.076 ng/mL, respectively. Compared with the CHB group, patients with LC-B or LF-B presented with significantly higher serum levels of resistin (p < 0.01). On the other hand, all of the enrolled patients had high serum levels of IL-1, IL-6, IL-17, TNF-α, and TGF-β1, but not IL-23. Interestingly, serum levels of resistin was significantly positively correlated with serum levels of TGF-β1 in LC-B patients (R = 0.3090, p = 0.0290), with IL-17 in LC-B (R = 0.4022, p = 0.0038) and LF-B patients (R = 0.5466, p < 0.0001), and with AST (R = 0.4501, p = 0.0036) and LS (R = 0.3415, p = 0.0310) in CHB patients. High serum resistin associates with intrahepatic inflammation and necrosis and may be used as an index of disease severity for patients with

  2. High serum resistin is associated with an increase in adiposity but not a worsening of insulin resistance in Pima Indians.

    PubMed

    Vozarova de Courten, Barbora; Degawa-Yamauchi, Mikako; Considine, Robert V; Tataranni, P Antonio; Volarova de Courten, Barbora

    2004-05-01

    Resistin is an adipokine with putative prodiabetogenic properties. Like other hormones secreted by adipose tissue, resistin is being investigated as a possible etiologic link between excessive adiposity and insulin resistance. Although there is growing evidence that circulating levels of this adipokine are proportional to the degree of adiposity, an effect on insulin resistance in humans remains unproven. To evaluate the relations among resistin, obesity, and insulin resistance, we measured fasting serum resistin levels in 113 nondiabetic (75-g oral glucose tolerance test) Pima Indians (ages 29 +/- 7 years, body fat 31 +/- 8%, resistin 3.7 +/- 1.1 ng/ml [means +/- SD]), who were characterized for body composition (assessed by hydrodensitometry or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), whole-body insulin sensitivity (M; assessed by hyperinsulinemic clamp), basal hepatic glucose output (BHGO) and hepatic glucose output during low-dosage insulin infusion of a hyperinsulinemic clamp (HGO; a measure of hepatic insulin resistance), and acute insulin secretory response (AIR; assessed by 25-g intravenous glucose tolerance test). Follow-up measurements of M, BHGO, HGO, and AIR were available for 34 subjects who had normal glucose tolerance at baseline and remained nondiabetic at follow-up. The average time to follow-up was 4.5 +/- 2.7 years. In cross-sectional analyses, serum resistin levels were positively associated with percent body fat (r = 0.37, P = 0.0001) and 2-h glucose (r = 0.19, P = 0.04), respectively. Serum resistin levels were not associated with fasting glucose and insulin levels, M, BHGO, HGO, or AIR (r = 0.17, 0.12, -0.13, -0.06, -0.03, and -0.04, respectively; all P > 0.05). After adjusting for percent body fat, there was no association between serum resistin levels and 2-h glucose (r = 0.06, P = 0.6). In prospective analyses, high serum resistin levels at baseline were not associated with a decline in M (r = -0.1, P > 0.5). Resistin levels were, however

  3. Diabetes and hypertension markedly increased the risk of ischemic stroke associated with high serum resistin concentration in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama Study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Resistin, secreted from adipocytes, causes insulin resistance in mice. The relationship between resistin and coronary artery disease is highly controversial, and the information regarding resistin and ischemic stroke is limited. In the present study, the association between serum resistin concentration and cardiovascular disease (CVD) was investigated in a general Japanese population. Methods A total of 3,201 community-dwelling individuals aged 40 years or older (1,382 men and 1,819 women) were divided into quintiles of serum resistin, and the association between resistin and CVD was examined cross-sectionally. The combined effect of either diabetes or hypertension and high serum resistin was also assessed. Serum resistin was measured using ELISA. Results Compared to those without CVD, age- and sex-adjusted mean serum resistin concentrations were greater in subjects with CVD (p = 0.002) or ischemic stroke (p < 0.001), especially in those with lacunar and atherothrombotic infarction, but not elevated in subjects with hemorrhagic stroke or coronary heart disease. When analyzed by quintile of serum resistin concentration, the age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for having CVD and ischemic stroke increased with quintile of serum resistin (p for trends, 0.02 for CVD, < 0.001 for ischemic stroke), while such associations were not observed for hemorrhagic stroke or coronary heart disease. Compared to the first quintile, the age- and sex-adjusted OR of ischemic stroke was greater in the third (OR = 3.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-10.67; p = 0.02), fourth (OR = 4.48; 95% CI, 1.53-13.09; p = 0.006), and fifth quintiles (OR = 4.70; 95% CI, 1.62-13.61; p = 0.004). These associations remained substantially unchanged even after adjustment for other confounding factors including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. In the stratified analysis, the combination of high serum resistin and either diabetes or hypertension markedly increased the risk of ischemic

  4. RELATIONSHIP OF SERUM RESISTIN WITH INSULIN RESISTANCE AND OBESITY.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Syeda Ijlal Zehra; Shirwany, Tanvir Ali Khan

    2015-01-01

    Adipokines have been implicated in the modulation of insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance and have thus gained importance in the study of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Resistin, a unique signalling molecule, is being proposed as a significant factor in the pathogenesis of obesity-related insulin resistance. However, its relevance to human diabetes mellitus remains uncertain and controversial. This study was therefore planned to compare and correlate the potential role of resistin in obese patients with T2DM and obese non-diabetic controls and also to evaluate the correlation between resistin and marker of obesity and glycaemic parameters. Fasting serum resistin, glucose and insulin were measured in forty obese diabetics (mean±SD BMI 35±5 kg/m2) and forty obese non-diabetics (mean±SD BMI 33±3 kg/m2). Insulin resistance was assessed using the HOMA-IR formula derived from fasting insulin and glucose levels. Serum resistin levels (38±8 ng/ml) were significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients as compared with the controls. Fasting blood glucose (164±46 mg/dl), serum insulin (37±7 µU/ml) and insulin resistance (19±8), were considerably higher among the studied diabetics than in the controls. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed positive correlation between serum resistin and BMI (p=0.001) and HOMA-IR (p=0.561) in diabetic subjects. Similarly, a correlation also existed between serum resistin and BMI (p=0.016) and HOMA-IR (p=0.307) in control obese subjects. However, it was highly significant in diabetics as compared to non-diabetic controls. A significant BMI-dependent association exists between resistin and insulin resistance in patients with T2DM. It appears that resistin may play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance and that both of these may contribute to the development of T2DM.

  5. Increased resistin levels in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neuromyelitis optica.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yuan; Jia, Kun; Zhang, Da-Qi; Li, Ting; Li, Li-Min; Zhang, Lin-Jie; Wang, Jing; Gao, Chun-Li; Sun, Li-Sha; Shi, Fu-Dong; Yang, Li

    2016-05-01

    Resistin, which acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. However, the involvement of resistin in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a severe inflammatory central nervous system disorder that targets the optic nerve and spinal cord, remains unclear. We measured serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) resistin levels in patients with NMO and controls matched by age and sex. The link between resistin levels and clinical variables in NMO was subsequently assessed. The concentrations of serum and CSF resistin were significantly higher in patients with NMO than in controls, and decreased following treatment with methylprednisolone. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels and annualized relapse rate positively correlated with resistin levels in patients with NMO. Resistin might be a useful biomarker of inflammation in NMO, and a potential target for the treatment of NMO. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Serum resistin and high sensitive CRP levels in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism before and after L-thyroxine therapy

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Duygu Yazgan; Cinar, Nese; Harmanci, Ayla; Karakaya, Jale; Yildiz, Bulent Okan; Usman, Aydan; Bayraktar, Miyase

    2013-01-01

    Background Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined by increased thyrotropin (TSH) and normal free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels. Resistin is secreted from adipose tissue and is reported to be associated with insulin resistance and/or inflammation. High sensitive CRP (hs-CRP) is a reliable marker of inflammation. Data related to levels of resistin and hs-CRP in SH and the effect of L-thyroxine treatment on those is limited. We aimed to determine the levels of resistin and hs-CRP in women with SH, and potential effects of L-thyroxine therapy on those levels. Material/Methods Thirty-six patients with SH and 27 age- and BMI-matched healthy control women were included. Waist circumference (Wc), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), resting energy expenditure (REE), fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM), TSH, free T4 (fT4), free T3 (fT3), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and HDL- and LDL-cholesterol were determined in all participants. Patients received L-thyroxine treatment for 6 months, after which all measurements were repeated. Resistin and hs-CRP levels were studied from frozen samples after the completion of the study. Results The 2 groups had similar values for Wc, WHR, FM, LM, TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, resistin, and hs-CRP at the beginning. fT4 were higher, whereas TSH was lower in the control group. Resistin and hs-CRP levels did not change after treatment. hs-CRP correlated with BMI and FM before and after treatment. Conclusions Our results suggest that achievement of euthyroid status by replacement therapy did not change resistin or hs-CRP levels in women with SH. hs-CRP correlated with parameters of obesity, which emphasizes the role of body weight in inflammation. PMID:23518675

  7. Relationships between serum resistin and fat intake, serum lipid concentrations and adiposity in the general population.

    PubMed

    Cabrera de León, Antonio; Almeida González, Delia; González Hernández, Ana; Domínguez Coello, Santiago; Marrugat, Jaume; Juan Alemán Sánchez, José; Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Marcelino Rodríguez, Itahisa; Pérez, María del Cristo Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    The serum resistin level is associated with the incidence of ischemic heart disease in the general population. We analyzed the associations between serum resistin and fat intake, serum lipid concentrations and adiposity in the general population. A cross-sectional study of 6,637 randomly recruited adults was conducted. The resistin levels were measured in thawed aliquots of serum using an enzyme immunoanalysis technique. The resistin level exhibited a positive nonparametric correlation with saturated fat intake(p < 0.001) and an inverse correlation with adherence to the Mediterranean diet(p < 0.001), monounsaturated fat intake(p < 0.05), total serum cholesterol(p < 0.001), non-HDL cholesterol(p < 0.001), LDL cholesterol(p < 0.001), body mass index(p < 0.001), waist circumference(p < 0.001) and the waist/height ratio(p < 0.001). An elevated resistin concentration(fifth quintile) was associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet(OR=0.82 CI95%=0.71-0.93), saturated fat intake(OR=1.34 CI95%=1.16-1.56), monounsaturated fat intake(OR=0.88 CI95%=0.78-0.99), a total cholesterol level of ≥200 mg/dL(OR=0.81 CI95%=0.72-0.91), a low HDL cholesterol level(OR=0.84 CI95%= 0.76-0.93), a high non-HDL cholesterol level(OR=0.84 CI95%=0.72-0.99), a high LDL cholesterol level(OR=0.82 CI95%=0.70-0.97) and a waist/height ratio of ≥0.55(OR=0.76 CI95%=0.67-0.85). The multivariate models corroborated the positive associations between the resistin level and saturated fat intake(p < 0.001) and serum triglycerides(p=0.004) and the inverse associations between the resistin level and adherence to the Mediterranean diet(p=0.002), total serum cholesterol(p < 0.001) and cholesterol fractions and the waist/height ratio(p=0.02). In the general population, the serum resistin level is associated with fat intake: positively with saturated fat intake and inversely with monounsaturated fat intake. As a consequence, the resistin level is also inversely associated with adherence to the

  8. Evaluation of serum Resistin in children with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamshary, Abd El-Hamid Salah; El-Shaaer, Osama Saad; Soliman, Doaa Refaay; El-Mashad, Ghada Mohamed; Hussien, Ahmed Ibraheem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction High serum resistin levels are associated with the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The objectives of this study were to determine the serum concentrations of resistin in children that present with chronic renal failure (CRF) and end stage renal disease (ESRD), in order to examine the impact of hemodialysis (HD) on serum resistin levels, and to determine if a correlation exists between resistin and growth retardation in patients with CRF. Methods This case control study was undertaken in the pediatric hemodialysis unit of the Benha and Menoufia University hospitals from April 2014 to March 2015. The case group consisted of 50 patients with CRF aged from 6–18 years (25 of them under HD and 25 of them under conservative treatment) and 30 healthy children who constituted the control group. Urea, creatinine, and serum resistin were measured before and after the HD session for patients with CRF who are already under HD. Results A highly significant difference was found between the resistin levels in the two groups with mean level of 20.2 ± 7.58 ng/ml in the patient case group as compared to 4.9 ± 1.72 ng/ml in the control group. This highly significant difference found in the resistin level differed according to the Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) stage of progression as patients on regular HD had resistin levels with a mean of 24.6 ± 7.28 ng/ml while the CKD patients under conservative treatment have resistin level mean of 15.6 ± 4.72 ng/ml. there was a highly significant difference in resistin levels before HD (mean = 24.6 ± 7.28) and after hemodialysis (mean = 14.7 ± 5.2). Conclusion Patients with CRF experienced higher than normal resistin levels as compared to the case control group and it was found that patients on HD had more elevated levels of resistin than did those patients who were on conservative treatment. HD treatments were found to be capable of lowering a patient’s resistin levels. A highly significant negative correlation

  9. Serum Resistin, Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Menzaghi, Claudia; Bacci, Simonetta; Salvemini, Lucia; Mendonca, Christine; Palladino, Giuseppe; Fontana, Andrea; De Bonis, Concetta; Marucci, Antonella; Goheen, Elizabeth; Prudente, Sabrina; Morini, Eleonora; Rizza, Stefano; Kanagaki, Alyssa; Fini, Grazia; Mangiacotti, Davide; Federici, Massimo; De Cosmo, Salvatore; Pellegrini, Fabio; Doria, Alessandro; Trischitta, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Background High serum resistin has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the general population, Only sparse and conflicting results, limited to Asian individuals, have been reported, so far, in type 2 diabetes. We studied the role of serum resistin on coronary artery disease, major cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes. Methods We tested the association of circulating resistin concentrations with coronary artery disease, major cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and non-fatal stroke) and all-cause mortality in 2,313 diabetic patients of European ancestry from two cross-sectional and two prospective studies. In addition, the expression of resistin gene (RETN) was measured in blood cells of 68 diabetic patients and correlated with their serum resistin levels. Results In a model comprising age, sex, smoking habits, BMI, HbA1c, and insulin, antihypertensive and antidyslipidemic therapies, serum resistin was associated with coronary artery disease in both cross-sectional studies: OR (95%CI) per SD increment = 1.35 (1.10–1.64) and 1.99 (1.55–2.55). Additionally, serum resistin predicted incident major cardiovascular events (HR per SD increment = 1.31; 1.10–1.56) and all-cause mortality (HR per SD increment = 1.16; 1.06–1.26). Adjusting also for fibrinogen levels affected the association with coronary artery disease and incident cardiovascular events, but not that with all cause-mortality. Finally, serum resistin was positively correlated with RETN mRNA expression (rho = 0.343). Conclusions This is the first study showing that high serum resistin (a likely consequence, at least partly, of increased RETN expression) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in diabetic patients of European ancestry. PMID:23755138

  10. Effect of ovarian hormones on serum adiponectin and resistin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chalvatzas, Nektarios; Dafopoulos, Konstantinos; Kosmas, Georgios; Kallitsaris, Athanasios; Pournaras, Spyros; Messinis, Ioannis E

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the effect of ovarian hormones on adiponectin and resistin levels in women. Experimental study. University hospital. Thirteen normally cycling women (7 in group 1 and 6 in group 2) and 8 postmenopausal women (group 3). Women of group 1 were investigated in a control cycle and in a subsequent cycle in which total abdominal hysterectomy plus bilateral salpingooophorectomy (TAH+BSO) was performed on day 3. In both cycles, the women received increasing doses of E(2) from days 3 to 5. Women of group 2 underwent TAH+BSO on day 3 without receiving any hormonal treatment. Women of group 3 received increasing doses of E(2) for 15 days. Adiponectin, resistin, and E(2) concentrations. In group 1, serum adiponectin and resistin levels did not show any significant changes for the week following day 3 and were similar in the two cycles. In group 2, adiponectin and resistin levels were similar before and after TAH+BSO and remained stable during the first postoperative week. In group 3, no significant changes in adiponectin and resistin levels were seen during the 15 days of E(2) administration. Adiponectin and resistin values were not affected either by estrogen treatment or after ovariectomy in women. It is suggested that ovarian hormones are not involved in the regulation of adiponectin and resistin secretion in women.

  11. Serum Resistin and Kidney Function: A Family-Based Study in Non-Diabetic, Untreated Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Menzaghi, Claudia; Salvemini, Lucia; Fini, Grazia; Thompson, Ryan; Mangiacotti, Davide; Di Paola, Rosa; Morini, Eleonora; Giorelli, Maddalena; De Bonis, Concetta; De Cosmo, Salvatore; Doria, Alessandro; Trischitta, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Background High serum resistin levels have been associated with kidney dysfunction. Most of these studies have been carried out in individuals with severe kidney impairment, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and related treatments. Thus, the observed association might have been influenced by these confounders. Our aim was to study the relationship between serum resistin, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in a family-based sample, the Gargano Family Study (GFS) of 635 non diabetic, untreated Whites. Methods A linear mixed effects model and bivariate analyses were used to evaluate the phenotypic and genetic relations between serum resistin and both ACR and eGFR. All analyses were adjusted for sex, age, age squared, BMI, systolic blood pressure, smoking habits and physical exercise. Results After adjustments, resistin levels were slightly positively associated with ACR (β±SE = 0.049±0.023, p = 0.035) and inversely related to eGFR (β±SE = −1.43±0.61, p = 0.018) levels. These associations remained significant when either eGFR or ACR were, reciprocally, added as covariates. A genetic correlation (ρg = −0.31±0.12; adjusted p = 0.013) was observed between resistin and eGFR (but not ACR) levels. Conclusion Serum resistin levels are independently associated with ACR and eGFR in untreated non-diabetic individuals. Serum resistin and eGFR share also some common genetic background. Our data strongly suggest that resistin plays a role in modulating kidney function. PMID:22701635

  12. Relationship between serum resistin concentrations with metabolic syndrome and its components in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Sedigheh; SamsamShariat, Seyyed Ziaedin; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Keshvari, Mahtab; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the association of resistin with each MetS component. This study had a case-control design, and its data was retrieved from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), Serum samples from 44 subjects with MetS (diagnosed according to the NCEP-ATPIII criteria) and 46 healthy controls were analyzed for resistin using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Association between serum resistin and levels of total (TC), low- (LDL-C) and high-density (HDL-C) lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), fasting blood sugar (FBS), waist circumference, body mass index, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures was determined. Serum resistin levels were significantly higher in the MetS compared with control group (3.64 ± 1.63, P=0.040). Serum levels of resistin were found to be significantly correlated with levels of TC (r=-0.347; P=0.027) and LDL-C (r=-0.311; P=0.050), but not other components of MetS including systolic and diastolic blood pressure, TG, HDL-C and FBS (P>0.05) in the MetS group, after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. No significant correlation between resistin and MetS components was observed in the control group (P>0.05). Serum resistin levels are elevated in subjects with MetS and may be associated with the severity of this syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Serum resistin levels inversely associated with cardiovascular risk indices in type 2 diabetics from central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Solis-Cano, Dania G; Porchia, Leonardo M; Gonzalez-Mejia, M Elba; Pérez-Fuentes, Ricardo; Ruiz-Vivanco, Guadalupe; Nieva-Vazquez, Adriana; Torres-Rasgado, Enrique

    2017-07-25

    Since, resistin has been associated with coronary heart disease and with the progression of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), our objective was to determine the correlation between resistin and cardiovascular risk (CVR) in subjects with increasing degrees of hyperglycemia. Using a cross-sectional study design, the anthropometric and biochemical profiles were collected from 180 subjects from Puebla, Mexico. Subjects were separated into Normoglycemic (NGT), pre-diabetic (PT2D), or T2D. CVR was determined by the Atherosclerosis Coefficient ((total cholesterol-high-density lipoprotein)/high-density lipoprotein), Castelli 1 index (total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein), Castelli 2 index (low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein), Framingham risk score (https://www.mdcalc.com/framingham-coronary-heart-disease-risk-score#next-steps), and the CVR index (CVRI=triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein). Differences between groups were determined using ANOVA. Partial correlation assessed the association between resistin and CVR indices. Logistic regression was used to determine the risk [Odds ratio (OR)] between resistin and CVR. Serum Resistin levels were similar between NGT, PT2D, and T2D. No correlation was observed between resistin and CVR indices for the NGT and PT2D. However, T2D demonstrated a strong negative association between the Framingham (r=-0.34, p=0.01), the Castelli 1 index (r=-0.29, p<0.01), and the CVRI (r=-0.38, p<0.05), when adjusted for sex and taking treatment for T2D. For T2D, when the subjects were separated by resistin into tertiles, elevated resistin was associated with a benefit for the Castelli 1 index (T1 v T3: OR=0.15, 95% CI: 0.03-0.070) and the CVRI (T1 v T3: OR=0.13, 95% CI: 0.03-0.66). Here, we demonstrate that, for T2D, elevated resistin levels lowered the CVR in Mexicans. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of cardiac changes with serum adiponectin and resistin levels in obese and overweight children.

    PubMed

    Aknc, Ayşehan; Karakurt, Cemsit; Gurbuz, Sibel; Elkran, Ozlem; Nalbantoglu, Ozlem; Kocak, Gulendam; Guldur, Tayfun; Yologlu, Saim

    2013-03-01

    To investigate serum adiponectin and resistin levels in childhood obesity and their relationship with cardiac changes and insulin resistance. Seventy-one obese and 24 overweight children and 40 healthy children and adolescents were selected for the study. Height and weight measurements, BMI values and BMI SD score values were obtained for each individual. After blood pressure measurement, left ventricular wall thickness, left ventricular mass, stroke volume, cardiac output, systolic and diastolic functions of the left ventricle were measured using an M-mode, two dimensional color-coded echocardiography device. Blood samples of the individuals were obtained for fasting blood sugar, total blood cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin, C-peptide, adiponectin and resistin values. Cholesterol and LDL values, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, fasting insulin and fasting C-peptide values of the obese and overweight groups were higher (P<0.01). Adiponectin level (P<0.001) and resistin level (P<0.05) of the obese and overweight groups were lower than those of the control group (P<0.05). Echocardiographic evaluation showed diastolic dysfunction in addition to increased left ventricular wall thickness and left ventricle mass values in the obese and overweight children. We also detected a significant positive correlation among left ventricular mass, interventricular septum systolic diameter and resistin in obese children. Among the factors, resistin level was determined as an independent predictor of left ventricular mass in obese children. In this study, even in asymptomatic obese and overweight children, cardiac structural and functional changes, such as increased left ventricular mass and diastolic dysfunction, were demonstrated. Although decreased adiponectin level was not related to cardiac changes, it was shown that decreased serum

  15. [Association between resistin serum levels and dimension and body composition variables in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Souki, Aida; Arraíz, Nailet; Prieto, Carem; Pérez Jiménez, Francisco; Valero, Paola; Amell, Anilsa; Cano-Ponce, Clímaco

    2016-03-01

    Resistin is an adipokine secreted in adipose tissue that may be associated with the metabolic and endocrine disorders of obesity. To assess the association between serum resistin levels and body composition variables, in children and adolescents. Cross-sectional assessment of 302 subjects, aged 10-16 years. According to body mass index, 124 were classified as eutrophic and 178 as obese. A clinical examination and pubertal assessment were performed. Body weight, height, waist and arm circumferences were measured. Serum resistin levels were measured using an immunoenzymatic assay. Male obese children had significantly higher resistin levels than their eutrophic counterparts. Eutrophic women had higher levels than eutrophic males. No significant association between resistin and pubertal status was observed. In the whole sample and among obese subjects, resistin levels correlated with body mass index, tricipital skinfold, arm circumference, arm fat area and fat mass. There is a significant association between resistin levels and body composition variables, particularly with indicators of fat accretion.

  16. Serum resistin positively correlates with serum lipids, but not with insulin resistance, in first-degree relatives of type-2 diabetes patients: an observational study in China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiao-Hong; Li, Li; Li, Jun-Yan; Song, Qi; Jin, Miao-Miao; Liu, Jin-Xia

    2017-04-01

    To investigate whether serum resistin correlated with hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, or insulin resistance (IR) in Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and their first-degree relatives (DFDRs) in a case-control observational study.We determined the serum levels of resistin, plasma lipids, glucose, and insulin, and performed clinical assessments of hypertension, obesity, and IR for 42 T2DM patients, 74 of their DFDRs, and 51 healthy control participants with no family history of T2DM (NC group). The biochemical and clinical variables were compared between the 3 groups, and relationships between serum resistin and the other variables were evaluated using a Pearson correlation analysis.Significant trends were observed in the triglyceride, HbA1c, and resistin levels, in which the values observed in the DFDR group were intermediate to those of the T2DM and NC groups (P < .05 for all). A stratified analysis revealed significant trends in the resistin level and scores for homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) indexes for IR and insulin sensitivity in women and in the HbA1c and resistin levels in men (P < .05 for all), with DFDR subjects exhibiting intermediate values. The Pearson analysis showed that serum resistin positively correlated with total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the DFDR group only (P < .05 for both), and that resistin did not correlate significantly with HOMA indexes, blood glucose, insulin, HbA1c, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, BMI, waist or hip circumference, or blood pressure.Our results suggest that elevated serum resistin might contribute to an increased risk of hyperlipidemia in DFDRs of Chinese T2DM patients.

  17. Serum Resistin Levels May Contribute to an Increased Risk of Acute Cerebral Infarction.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Liu; Xu, Shi-Jun; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Xiu-Qing; Liu, Ting; Gao, Qiu-Yan; Qian, Qing-Qiang; Sun, Bao-Liang; Yang, Ming-Feng

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between serum resistin levels and acute cerebral infarction (ACI). PubMed, SpringerLink, Wiley, EBSCO, Ovid, Web of Science, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP databases (last updated search in October 2014) were exhaustively searched, and data from the eligible studies were extracted and analyzed to assess the association between serum resistin levels and ACI. STATA software (version 12.0, Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA) was utilized for data analysis. Ten studies including 1829 ACI patients and 1557 healthy controls were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Our major result revealed that ACI patients exhibited higher serum resistin levels compared with healthy controls. Asubgroup analysis based on ethnicity showed a significant association between serum resistin levels and ACI in Asians, but surprisingly not in Caucasians. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that serum resistin levels are associated with an increased risk of ACI.

  18. Serum resistin and glomerular filtration rate in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Lorena Ortega; Salvemini, Lucia; Mendonca, Christine; Copetti, Massimiliano; De Bonis, Concetta; De Cosmo, Salvatore; Doria, Alessandro; Trischitta, Vincenzo; Menzaghi, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    High serum levels of the pro-inflammatory adipokine resistin have been associated with decreased renal function in the general population. The goal of this study was to investigate whether such association is also present among diabetic subjects, who are at increased risk of renal function loss. The cross-sectional association between serum resistin levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was investigated in 1,560 type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients of European ancestry comprised in two different cohorts: 762 patients from San Giovanni Rotondo (SGR; Italy) and 798 patients from Boston (US). Serum resistin was inversely associated with eGFR in SGR [β (SE) for one SD of resistin increment = -1.01 (0.70) ml/min/1.73 m(2), p = 0.019] and in Boston [β (SE) = -5.31 (0.74) ml/min/1.73 m(2), p < 0.001] samples, as well as in the two studies combined [β (SE) = -3.42 (0.52) ml/min/1.73 m(2), p < 0.001]. The association was unaffected by adjustment for smoking habits, BMI, waist circumference, diabetes duration, HbA1c, insulin treatment, hypertension and lipid-lowering therapy: β (SE) for one SD of resistin increment = -1.07 (0.70), p = 0.02; -5.50 (0.88), p < 0.001; and -2.81 (0.55) ml/min/1.73 m(2), p < .001, in SGR, Boston and the two studies combined, respectively. The association was significantly stronger in men than in women (p for resistin-by-gender interaction = 0.003). For each resistin SD increment, the odds of having eGFR < 0 ml/min/1.7 3m(2) increased by 22% (OR = 1.22; 95% CI 1.02-1.44; p = 0.025) in SGR sample, 69% (OR = 1.69; 95% CI 1.38-2.07; p < 0.001) in Boston sample, and 47% (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.29-1.68; p < 0.001) in the two studies considered together. Similar associations were observed in the adjusted model: OR 95% CI for each SD resistin increment being 1.23 (1.03-1.46), p = 0.021; 1.52 (1.20-1.92), p < 0.001; 1.33 (1.16-1.53), p < 0.001, in SGR, Boston and the two studies combined, respectively. This is the first report of an

  19. Serum resistin is associated with the severity of microangiopathies in type 2 diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Osawa, Haruhiko . E-mail: harosawa@m.ehime-u.ac.jp; Ochi, Masaaki; Kato, Kenichi; Yamauchi, Junko; Nishida, Wataru; Takata, Yasunori; Kawamura, Ryoichi; Onuma, Hiroshi; Takasuka, Tomomi; Shimizu, Ikki; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Ohashi, Jun; Makino, Hideichi

    2007-04-06

    Resistin, secreted from adipocytes, causes insulin resistance and diabetes in rodents. To determine the relation between serum resistin and diabetic microangiopathies in humans, we analyzed 238 Japanese T2DM subjects. Mean serum resistin was higher in subjects with either advanced retinopathy (preproliferative or proliferative) (P = 0.0130), advanced nephropathy (stage III or IV) (P = 0.0151), or neuropathy (P = 0.0013). Simple regression analysis showed that serum resistin was positively correlated with retinopathy stage (P = 0.0212), nephropathy stage (P = 0.0052), and neuropathy (P = 0.0013). Multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and BMI, revealed that serum resistin was correlated with retinopathy stage (P = 0.0144), nephropathy stage (P = 0.0111), and neuropathy (P = 0.0053). Serum resistin was positively correlated with the number of advanced microangiopathies, independent of age, gender, BMI, and either the duration of T2DM (P = 0.0318) or serum creatinine (P = 0.0092). Therefore, serum resistin was positively correlated with the severity of microangiopathies in T2DM.

  20. Serum resistin is inversely related to breast cancer risk in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Georgia P; Provatopoulou, Xeni; Kalogera, Eleni; Siasos, Gerasimos; Menenakos, Evangelos; Zografos, George C; Gounaris, Antonia

    2016-10-01

    Adipokines have been suggested as potential mediators linking obesity and breast cancer. Resistin is the least-studied adipokine with diverse findings regarding its association with disease development and progression. The present study aimed to determine resistin serum levels in breast cancer in relation to the histological type of disease and to investigate their association with breast cancer risk. The study included 216 women, of which 163 were diagnosed with breast cancer (58 with IDC, 52 with DCIS and 53 with LN) and 53 were healthy. Serum levels of resistin, leptin and adiponectin were quantitatively determined in duplicates by ELISA. Differences in resistin levels among patient groups were evaluated with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. The association of resistin with breast cancer risk was evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Resistin levels varied between histological types of breast cancer (p = 0.044). Significant differences in serum resistin were observed in IDC patients compared to those with DCIS and to controls (p < 0.014 and p < 0.03, respectively). Decreased levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were observed in premenopausal patients. Resistin was associated with a reduced risk for ductal carcinoma only in premenopausal women (OR: 0.364, 95% CI: 0.154-0.862, p < 0.022). Our findings indicate that resistin levels were inversely related to breast cancer risk in premenopausal women, supporting a protective role of resistin for these patients. Further advances in adipokine research may lead to tangible benefits for overweight/obese women at an increased risk for breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship between serum resistin concentrations and insulin resistance in nonobese, obese, and obese diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Heilbronn, L K; Rood, J; Janderova, L; Albu, J B; Kelley, D E; Ravussin, E; Smith, S R

    2004-04-01

    Early reports suggested that resistin is associated with obesity and insulin resistance in rodents. However, subsequent studies have not supported these findings. To our knowledge, the present study is the first assessment in human subjects of serum resistin and insulin sensitivity by the insulin clamp technique. Thirty-eight nonobese subjects [age, 23 +/- 4 yr; body mass index (BMI), 25.4 +/- 4.3 kg/m(2)], 12 obese subjects (age, 54 +/- 8 yr; BMI, 33.0 +/- 2.5 kg/m(2)), and 22 obese subjects with type 2 diabetes (age, 59 +/- 7 yr; BMI, 34.0 +/- 2.4 kg/m(2)) were studied. Serum resistin concentrations were not different among nonobese (4.1 +/- 1.7 ng/ml), obese (4.2 +/- 1.6 ng/ml), and obese diabetic subjects (3.7 +/- 1.2 ng/ml), and were not significantly correlated to glucose disposal rate during a hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp across groups. Serum resistin was, however, inversely related to insulin sensitivity in nonobese subjects only (r = -0.35; P = 0.05), although this association was lost after adjusting for percent body fat. Serum resistin was not related to percent fat, BMI, or fat cell size. A strong correlation was observed between serum resistin and resistin mRNA expression from abdominal sc adipose tissue in a separate group of obese subjects (r = 0.62; P < 0.01; n = 56). Although the exact function of resistin is unknown, we demonstrated only a weak relationship between resistin and insulin sensitivity in nonobese subjects, indicating that resistin is unlikely to be a major link between obesity and insulin resistance in humans.

  2. Association between serum resistin level and outcomes in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Kristof; Ujszaszi, Akos; Czira, Maria E; Remport, Adam; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Mathe, Zoltan; Rhee, Connie M; Mucsi, Istvan; Molnar, Miklos Z

    2016-03-01

    Resistin is an adipocytokine that is associated with inflammation, coronary artery disease, and other types of cardiovascular disease among patients with normal kidney function. However, little is known about the association of resistin with outcomes in kidney transplant recipients. We collected socio-demographic and clinical parameters, medical and transplant history, and laboratory data from 988 prevalent kidney transplant recipients enrolled in the Malnutrition-Inflammation in Transplant-Hungary Study (MINIT-HU study). Serum resistin levels were measured at baseline. Associations between serum resistin level and death with a functioning graft over a 6-year follow-up period were examined in unadjusted and adjusted models. The mean±SD age of the study population was 51 ± 13 years, among whom 57% were men and 21% were diabetics. Median serum resistin concentrations were significantly higher in patients who died with a functioning graft as compared to those who did not die during the follow-up period (median [IQR]: 22[15-26] vs. 19[14-22] ng/ml, respectively; P < 0.001). Higher serum resistin level was associated with higher mortality risk in both unadjusted and fully adjusted models: HRs (95% CI): 1.33(1.16-1.54) and 1.21(1.01-1.46), respectively. In prevalent kidney transplant recipients, serum resistin was an independent predictor of death with a functioning graft. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  3. Correlation of Resistin Serum Level with Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated Gene (FTO) rs9939609 Polymorphism in Obese Women with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Majdi, Maryam Abbasi; Mohammadzadeh, Naser Aga; Lotfi, Hajie; Mahmoudi, Rasoul; Alipour, Farzaneh Ghafarian; Shool, Fatemeh; Moghanloo, Mehdi Niknam; Porfaraj, Sadeg; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2017-05-13

    The aim of this study was to detect any association of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) rs9939609 variant to metabolic and anthropometric parameters and resistin level as adipokines in Iranian obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Totally, 42 diabetic and 36 non-diabetic women were selected. The PCR amplicons of FTO gene were sequenced and metabolic, anthropometric parameters and resistin level were measured. Serum resistin concentrations were not different between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects (p>0.05), while resistin level in diabetic group with AA genotype was lower than that with other genotypes in the same group. In rs9939609 SNP adjusted analysis, insulin and HOMA levels were high in AA genotype. While levels of FBS and HbA1c were higher in AA and AT genotypes. In diabetic group, only TG showed significant difference among three genotypes and mean of TG was higher in TA genotype. No significant correlation between resistin and anthropometric and metabolic parameters was found except for DBP in diabetic patients. There was no significant association between rs9939609 and resistin serum level in type 2 obese diabetic women while percentile ranges (25(th), 50(th) and 75(th)) of resistin concentrations was high in diabetic group. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prognostic value of serum resistin levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Erer, Hatice Betul; Sayar, Nurten; Guvenc, Tolga Sinan; Aksaray, Sebahat; Yilmaz, Hale; Altay, Servet; Turer, Ayca; Oz, Tugba Kemaloglu; Karadeniz, Fatma Ozpamuk; Oz, Dilaver; Ekmekci, Ahmet; Zencirci, Aycan Esen; Eren, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is a novel adipokine that is suggested to be involved in inflammatory conditions and atherosclerosis. To investigate the prognostic importance of resistin in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Resistin levels were measured in a population of 132 patients with AMI, of whom 72 (54%) had a diagnosis of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), and 60 (46%) had non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Thirty-three consecutive subjects who were referred to elective coronary angiography due to chest pain evaluation with normal coronary angiograms served as controls. All patients were followed-up for the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). There was a significant increase in serum resistin levels in patients with AMI compared to controls (3.71 ± 4.20 vs. 2.00 ± 1.05, p = 0.001, respectively). However, serum resistin levels were similar in patients with STEMI and NSTEMI. (4.26 ± 5.11 vs. 3.06 ± 2.64, p = 0.49, respectively). The patients with MACE had significantly higher levels of serum resistin levels compared to either the AMI or the control group (6.35 ± 5.47, p = 0.005, respectively). Logistic regression analysis revealed that resistin, left ventricular ejection fraction, and coronary artery bypass graft were independent predictors of MACE in AMI patients (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.01-1.22, p = 0.03 and OR = 3.84, 95% CI 1.26-11.71, p = 0.018, respectively). Serum resistin level was increased in patients with AMI and constituted a risk factor for MACE in this group.

  5. Serum resistin levels in women taking combined oral contraceptives containing desogestrel or gestodene.

    PubMed

    Rechberger, Tomasz; Tomaszewski, Jacek; Pieprzowska-Białek, Anna; Kulik-Rechberger, Beata; Skorupski, Paweł

    2004-06-01

    Resistin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue that could be involved in the development of insulin resistance. Previous studies confirmed that endogenous sex steroids may influence serum resistin concentration in women. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of combined oral contraceptives containing desogestrel or gestodene on circulating levels of resistin. Fifty-three women were enrolled in the study. Thirteen patients received 20 microg ethinylestradiol/150 microg desogestrel, 15 women were treated with 20 microg ethinylestradiol/75 microg gestodene, 11 with 30 microg ethinylestradiol/150 microg desogestrel and 14 with 30 microg ethinylestradiol/75 microg gestodene. Blood samples for estimation of serum resistin and insulin levels were drawn before administration of oral contraceptive and after 6 cycles of therapy. We found that serum resistin level remained unchanged in women receiving ethinylestradiol/desogestrel and was reduced in women treated with formulations containing gestodene. We conclude that ethinylestradiol combined with desogestrel or gestodene is unlikely to induce insulin resistance through resistin pathway.

  6. Resistin: New serum marker for predicting severity of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kibar, Yunus I; Albayrak, Fatih; Arabul, Mahmut; Dursun, Hakan; Albayrak, Yavuz; Ozturk, Yasin

    2016-04-01

    To assess the effectiveness of resistin in predicting the severity of acute pancreatitis. Patients with acute pancreatitis who presented at the Gastroenterology Clinic, Erzurum Education and Research Hospital, Turkey were enrolled in this prospective study. White blood cell (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and resistin levels were measured on admission and at 24 h, day 3 and day 7 following admission, along with other blood parameters. Patients were divided into two groups: mild acute pancreatitis and moderate/severe acute pancreatitis. Of 59 patients with acute pancreatitis (mild, n = 37; moderate/severe, n = 22), significant between-group differences were found in terms of resistin and CRP levels. Receiver operating curve analysis showed that resistin levels were better for predicting severe cases of acute pancreatitis than CRP or WBC levels on day 3 (area under the curve [AUC], 0.88 versus 0.81 and 0.63, respectively). Resistin levels on day 3 were better than CRP levels for predicting necrosis development (AUC, 0.70 versus 0.69, respectively). Resistin may represent a new, effective indicator to predict the severity of acute pancreatitis and presence of necrosis in patients with acute pancreatitis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Assessing the relationship between serum resistin and nasal obstruction in children with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Zicari, Anna Maria; Occasi, Francesca; Cesoni Marcelli, Azzurra; Marcelli, Azzurra Cesoni; Lollobrigida, Valeria; Carbone, Maria Palma; Galandrini, Ricciarda; Giuffrida, Anna; Duse, Marzia

    2013-01-01

    Nasal obstruction has been reported as a "key symptom" of allergic rhinitis (AR) because it is deeply associated with impaired quality of life and it reflects more directly the allergic inflammation in the nasal mucosa. Resistin is known to be involved in inflammatory processes exerting an important role in the regulation of cytokine production even though its effective proinflammatory activity at nasal level has never been fully established. This study investigates the relationship between resistin levels and nasal obstruction assessed by an objective method such as active anterior rhinomanometry. Fifty-three children between 4 and 10 years of age affected by persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) were enrolled and subdivided in two groups. Serum resistin levels were detected in all children. The same day patients underwent rhinomanometry, which was considered negative (no nasal obstruction) when the fraction of predicted values (p.v.'s) was between 71 and 100% and it was considered positive when the fraction of p.v. was ≤70%. The serum resistin levels were significantly higher in children with moderate-severe PAR than in patients with mild PAR (p < 0.03). Furthermore, serum resistin levels were significantly higher in children with positive rhinomanometry compared with negative rhinomanometry (p < 0.03). The fraction of p.v.'s of nasal flows in patients with nasal obstruction had a significant negative correlation with serum resistin levels (p < 0.001). This study provides evidence that resistin levels are increased in children with severe nasal obstruction measured by an objective and quantitative approach.

  8. Resistin in serum and gingival crevicular fluid as a marker of periodontal inflammation and its correlation with single-nucleotide polymorphism in human resistin gene at −420

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Swati Pradeep; Raju, Pradeep Avani

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Resistin is an adipocytokine, which have been studied for its role in insulin resistance and recently in inflammation. The aim of the present study is to assess the concentration of resistin in serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and to compare the levels between subjects with and without periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to further correlate the resistin levels with the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at −420. Setting and Designs: A total of 96 subjects (48 males and 48 females) were divided on the basis of gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and hemoglobin A1c levels into healthy (group 1, n = 24), uncontrolled-diabetes related periodontitis (group 2, n = 24), controlled-diabetes related periodontitis (group 3, n = 24) and chronic periodontitis without T2DM (group 4, n = 24). Materials and Methods: The GCF and serum levels of resistin were quantified using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared among the study groups. Further, the association of the resistin levels with periodontal inflammation and SNP at −420 was studied. Results and Conclusion: The resistin levels in GCF and serum from patients with periodontitis or diabetes mellitus related periodontitis (controlled or uncontrolled) were higher than that of healthy subjects and correlated positively with GI. Further, subjects with GG genotype at −420 showed significantly higher GI, PD, CAL as compared with genotype group CC. Resistin was detected in all serum and GCF samples and was significantly higher in periodontitis. Further, GG genotype at −420 was associated significantly with periodontal inflammation and resistin levels. PMID:24015008

  9. Increased Resistin Serum Concentrations in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Geyikli, İclal; Keskin, Mehmet; Kör, Yılmaz; Akan, Müslüm

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Adiponectin, leptin, and resistin are adipokines which play a significant role in the regulation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes, while little is known about their role in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The aim of this study was to measure serum adiponectin, leptin, and resistin levels and to investigate their relationships with some parameters in patients with T1DM and healthy controls. Methods: Fifty children and adolescents with T1DM (21 boys and 29 girls) and 33 healthy control subjects (18 boys and 15 girls) participated in the study. All subjects were patients followed in the Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit of Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine. None of the subjects had hypertension, obesity, hyperlipidemia, anemia, or infection. Adiponectin, leptin, and resistin levels were analyzed with ELISA. Results: There were no statistically significant differences related with age, sex, pubertal status, or body mass index distribution between the diabetic and control groups. Resistin levels were significantly higher in the diabetic group compared to controls (5.26±3.15 ng/mL vs. 3.50±1.26 ng/mL; p<0.01). Conclusion: Of the three investigated adipokines, only resistin was associated with T1DM. Resistin may play a role in the process of inflammation and also in the pathophysiology of T1DM. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24072088

  10. Increased serum resistin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes are not linked with markers of insulin resistance and adiposity.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, G; Ohta, M; Ichida, Y; Obayashi, H; Shigeta, M; Yamasaki, M; Fukui, M; Yoshikawa, T; Nakamura, N

    2005-06-01

    The role of resistin in human biology remains uncertain. We measured serum resistin levels in Japanese patients with (n=111) and without (n=98) type 2 diabetes mellitus and investigated the significance of this hormone in the pathophysiology of diabetes. The levels of serum adiponectin and leptin were also measured. Resistin levels were increased significantly in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with non-diabetic subjects (24.7+/-2.6 vs. 15.0+/-1.2 ng/ml, p=0.0013). However, there was no correlation in either patient group between serum resistin levels and markers of insulin resistance, obesity or hyperlipidaemia. These results were in direct contrast to the data of leptin or adiponectin, both of which were closely related to these clinical markers of diabetes. Multivariate regression analysis on the combined data of the two groups demonstrated that the presence of diabetes and HDL cholesterol levels were significant predictors of serum resistin levels (diabetes: beta=0.159, p=0.035; HDL: beta=-0.172, p=0.039). No correlation was observed between C-reactive protein and resistin adjusted for BMI. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that serum resistin levels are increased in patients with type 2 diabetes, but this increase is not linked to markers of insulin resistance or adiposity. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the significance of serum resistin concentration in human pathophysiology.

  11. Serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and resistin are associated with dengue infection in adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuan-Ting; Liu, Yao-Hua; Lin, Chun-Yu; Tsai, Ming-Ju; Hsu, Ya-Ling; Yen, Meng-Chi; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2016-08-22

    Dengue is a major health problem in tropical areas, including Taiwan. Dengue virus infection affects various types of cells and results in elevation of serum inflammatory molecules. Because these molecules may be associated with dengue virus infection, the aim of this study was to identify novel molecules in febrile patients with dengue infection. In addition, we determined whether these molecules were correlated with the count of leukocytes and platelets. Febrile adults (Age >18 years old) who presented to the emergency department and were confirmed dengue virus infection were enrolled in this study. Serum from dengue patients and healthy controls was collected and serum level of sepsis-associated inflammatory molecules was measured by Luminex assay. Elevated level of macrophage migration inhibitory factor, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, sFasL, resistin and interferon-γ were detected in patients' serum. Higher levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and resistin were detected in dengue patients with normal leukocyte count and all dengue patients, respectively. Furthermore, the serum level of NGAL, but not resistin, was correlated with cell count in dengue patients. Our results revealed that resistin and NGAL are novel dengue-associated molecules. These results may help elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of anti-dengue immune responses.

  12. Relevance and clinical significance of serum resistin level in obese T2DM rhesus monkey models.

    PubMed

    Qi, S-D; He, Z-L; Chen, Y; Ma, J; Yu, W-H; Li, Y-Y; Yang, F-M; Wang, J-B; Chen, L-X; Zhao, Y; Lu, S-Y

    2015-09-01

    Resistin is a type of hormone-like adipocytokines, which is secreted specifically by adipocytes. It may be a key factor in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from obesity- associated insulin resistance due to results that show that it has a close relationship with insulin resistance in rodents. We utilized the rhesus monkeys as study objects to preliminarily test the association with glucose metabolism and to conduct a correlation analysis for clinical parameters and serum resistin levels in obese rhesus monkey models of T2DM. The results suggested that resistin was significantly increased in T2DM monkeys (P <0.01), and that resistin had a positive correlation respectively with total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FPI) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), Insulin resistance index (HOA-IR), but a negative correlation with islet β-cell function (HOMA-β). In the course of glucose metabolism, reverse release change of resistin and insulin in T2DM monkeys occurred, but the phenomenon that was not observed in the control group, these findings indicated that resistin negatively regulated and interfered with carbohydrate metabolism in T2DM monkey models. The character of the releasing change of resistin might be a unique process in T2DM. Therefore, all of the results could provide references for clinical diagnostic criteria for human cases of T2DM, and could have clinical significance for obese T2DM diagnosis and degree of insulin resistance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Ellagic acid improves hepatic steatosis and serum lipid composition through reduction of serum resistin levels and transcriptional activation of hepatic ppara in obese, diabetic KK-A(y) mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Nishii, Saori; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio

    2013-05-10

    Ellagic acid (EA) is a polyphenol found in a wide variety of plant foods that not only exhibits free radical-scavenging activity, but also confers protective effects against liver injury. Previously, we reported that pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) had an inhibitory effect on resistin secretion from differentiated murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes and identified EA contained in PFE as a potent suppressor of resistin secretion. Resistin, an adipocytokine, is considered the link between obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we explored whether EA supplementation reduces serum resistin and improves hepatic steatosis and serum lipid profile by using KK-A(y) mice fed high-fat diet as a model for obese type 2 diabetes. We found that EA supplementation improved serum lipid profile and hepatic steatosis, and reduced serum resistin levels without altering mRNA expression levels in adipose tissue. Moreover, EA supplementation upregulated mRNA expression of apoa1, ldlr, cpt1a, and ppara genes in the liver. In conclusion, our findings indicate that EA is a potent suppressor of resistin secretion in vivo and a transcriptional activator of ppara in the liver, suggesting a possibility for improving obesity-induced dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis in KK-A(y) mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gingival crevicular fluid and serum levels of resistin in obese and non-obese subjects with and without periodontitis and association with single nucleotide polymorphism at −420

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Swati Pradeep; Raju, Pradeep Avani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Resistin is an adipocytokine, which have been studied for its role in insulin resistance and recently in inflammation. The present study was designed to study the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum levels of resistin in obese and non-obese subjects with and without periodontitis and to further study the association of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) −420 with these levels. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 subjects were divided based on gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) into: Non-obese healthy (Group 1, n = 30, BMI ≤ 22.9 and WC < 90 for male subjects and < 80 for female subjects, PPD ≤ 3 mm, CAL = 0, GI = 0), non-obese periodontitis (Group 2, n = 30, BMI ≤ 22.9 and WC < 90 for male subjects and < 80 for female subjects, PPD ≥ 5 mm, CAL ≥ 3, GI ≥ 1) and obese periodontitis (Group 3, n = 30, BMI ≥ 25.0 and WC ≥ 90 for male subjects and ≥ 80 for female subjects, PPD ≥ 5 mm, CAL ≥ 3, GI ≥ 1). The GCF and serum levels of resistin were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared amongst the study groups. Further, the association of the resistin levels with periodontal inflammation and SNP at −420 was studied. Results: The mean resistin levels were highest in Group 3 (14.66 ± 5.93 ng/ml and 9.99 ± 7.22 μg/ml), followed by Group 2 (12.34 ± 4.31 ng/ml and 7.47 ± 3.94 μg/ml) and least in Group 1 (7.09 ± 3.34 ng/ml and 6.05 ± 3.61 μg/ml) in serum and GCF respectively. The levels positively correlated with GI, PPD, CAL, BMI, WC and waist-hip ratio (r < 0.6). The SNP at −420 showed that GG genotype was associated with Group 2 and 3 i.e. periodontitis, while CC genotype was associated with periodontal health. The GG genotype was also associated with high serum resistin levels as compared to CC and CG genotypes. Conclusion: Resistin levels increased with periodontal inflammation indicating its

  15. Obesity, Serum Resistin and Leptin Levels Linked to Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Bolouri, Ahmad; Paghalea, Raheleh Sharifian; Mahani, Mahbubeh Khodadadpour; Karajibani, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical studies have demonstrated that adipocytokines play an important role in developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Objective The aim of study was to evaluate the relationship between serum resistin and leptin levels with obesity and coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the levels of serum resistin and leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), lipid profile and cardiac enzyme tests (AST, CPK, LDH, CK-MB) in 40 CAD patients compared to 40 healthy controls. Anthropometric measurements including weight and height for calculating of body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were performed for evaluation of obesity. Results CAD patients had increased levels of leptin and CRP, (p < 0.001), cholesterol (p < 0.05), triglyceride (p < 0.01), and WC (p < 0.05) compared to healthy controls. There was no statistical difference between CAD and control subjects for resistin (p = 0.058). In a multiple regression analysis, only an association between serum leptin with BMI (β = 0.480, p < 0.05) and WC (β = 1.386, p < 0.05) was found. Conclusions The findings suggest that leptin is a better marker of fat mass value than resistin and may be considered an independent risk factor for cardiac disorders that is largely dependent on obesity. However, further prospective studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:27627223

  16. Possible Involvement of Serum and Synovial Fluid Resistin in Knee Osteoarthritis: Cartilage Damage, Clinical, and Radiological Links.

    PubMed

    Song, Yong-Zhou; Guan, Jian; Wang, Hua-Jun; Ma, Wei; Li, Feng; Xu, Fang; Ding, Luo-Bin; Xie, Lei; Liu, Bo; Liu, Kai; Lv, Zhe

    2016-09-01

    Resistin is an adipocytokine associated with inflammation and insulin resistance. Recent studies have shown that resistin plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. The current study was aimed at investigating the relationship between resistin in serum and synovial fluid (SF) and disease severity in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Seventy-four patients diagnosed with knee OA and 79 healthy controls receiving regular body check in our hospital were recruited in the study. The Noyes score method was used to assess articular cartilage damage arthroscopically. The symptomatic severity was evaluated according to the Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) scores. The radiographic disease severity of OA was assessed by the Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grading system. The resistin levels in serum and SF were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cartilage degradation marker CTX-II in SF was also examined. SF but not serum resistin levels are positively associated with Noyes scores, K-L grading scores WOMAC pain scores, physical functional scores and WOMAC total scores. In addition, SF resistin correlated positively with CTX-II. Resistin in SF might serve as a potential biomarker for reflecting the disease severity and cartilage degenerative extent of knee OA. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Serum resistin levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qing; Tao, Sha-Sha; Zhang, Yu-Jing; Zhang, Chao; Li, Lian-Ju; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Meng-Qin; Li, Peng; Pan, Hai-Feng; Mao, Chen; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate whether serum resistin level was associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by comparing serum resistin levels between RA or SLE patients and normal controls. PubMed and EMBASE databases (up to May 13, 2014) were used to search all related articles. The weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated using random-effect model analysis. The Cochrane Q test and I(2) statistic were used to test heterogeneity. To assess publication bias, the Egger's test and visual observation of a funnel plot were used. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess the study quality. The STATA statistical software (version 11.0) was applied to deal with statistical data. A total of eight studies of RA including 620 patients and 460 healthy controls, and six studies of SLE including 559 patients and 430 healthy controls were finally included in the meta-analysis. The results revealed that the serum resistin levels in RA were significantly higher than those in normal controls (WMD = 0.767 ng/ml, 95 % CI = 0.114-1.419, P = 0.021), but there was no significant difference between SLE patients and normal controls (WMD = 2.771 ng/ml, 95 % CI = -0.521-6.063, P = 0.099). Publication bias was undetected. In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicate that serum resistin level was significantly elevated in RA patients.

  18. Serum levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin in relation to clinical characteristics in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Song, Yingna; Gao, Jinsong; Qu, Yimin; Wang, Shu; Wang, Xi; Liu, Juntao

    2016-07-01

    Alterations in serum adipokines in preeclampsia remain vague. We investigated the roles of leptin, adiponectin and resistin and their relationships with clinical characteristics in normotensive and preeclamptic patients. A case-control study was carried out in a cohort of 74 preeclampsia(PE) and 79 healthy pregnant women. Serum levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean body mass index(BMI), the serum leptin and resistin levels were significantly higher in the PE group than in the control group (p<0.001). The resistin/creatinine ratio was also higher in the PE group than in the control group (p=0.018). No significant difference was observed in the serum adiponectin level between both groups. Serum leptin levels were positively correlated with BMI (r=0.301, p<0.001) and negatively correlated with newborn birth weight (r=-0.435, p<0.001). Serum resistin levels were also negatively correlated with birth weight (r=-0.229, p=0.005) but were unrelated to BMI. Logistic regression showed that BMI≥28 and serum leptin levels were independent factors of PE. Leptin was a potential mediator between BMI and PE (p<0.001), and the mediating effect accounted for 22.54% of the total effect. Leptin, resistin, and obesity play important roles in the onset of PE. Leptin and resistin may have some impacts on the fetal growth and development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Serum Resistin Levels in Periodontal Health and Disease and Effects of Non Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Its Levels

    PubMed Central

    Devanoorkar, Archana; Dwarakanath, C.D.; Gundanavar, Gayatri; Kathariya, Rahul; Patil, Sudhir R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Resistin and adiponectin are the adipokines secreted by adipocytes and various inflammatory cells. These adipokines are known to play an important role in insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the serum resistin levels in periodontal health and disease and also, to determine the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on its levels. Methods: A total of 40 patients (20 Males and 20 Females; age range 20–50 years) participated in the study. Subjects were categorized as healthy (group 1; Controls) and chronic periodontitis (group 2; Study) groups based on their periodontal status. Periodontal parameters (Plaque index (PI), Gingival index (GI), Bleeding index (BI), Probing pocket depth (PPD), Clinical attachment loss (CAL)) together with serum resistin levels were assessed at baseline and between 6–8 weeks following nonsurgical periodontal therapy for subjects in group~2 and only at baseline in group 1. Sera were tested in duplicate (single run), and the results were averaged. Results: Study group showed higher (1.89 ± 1.83 ng/ml) serum resistin levels, compared to control group (1.35 ± 0.70 ng/ml). However, this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.227). Also, resistin levels decreased following nonsurgical periodontal therapy but, this decrease failed to show any statistical significance, with pretreatment levels being 1.89 ± 1.83 ng/ml and post treatment levels being 1.59 ± 1.01 ng/ml (P=0.386). Conclusion: Observations of the present study revealed that there was not much difference in the serum resistin levels between the cases and the controls. Also the decrease in the resistin levels following nonsurgical periodontal therapy did not show any statistical significance. PMID:22848926

  20. Evaluation of serum resistin levels in periodontal health and disease and effects of non surgical periodontal therapy on its levels.

    PubMed

    Devanoorkar, Archana; Dwarakanath, C D; Gundanavar, Gayatri; Kathariya, Rahul; Patil, Sudhir R

    2012-01-01

    Resistin and adiponectin are the adipokines secreted by adipocytes and various inflammatory cells. These adipokines are known to play an important role in insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the serum resistin levels in periodontal health and disease and also, to determine the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on its levels. A total of 40 patients (20 Males and 20 Females; age range 20-50 years) participated in the study. Subjects were categorized as healthy (group 1; Controls) and chronic periodontitis (group 2; Study) groups based on their periodontal status. Periodontal parameters (Plaque index (PI), Gingival index (GI), Bleeding index (BI), Probing pocket depth (PPD), Clinical attachment loss (CAL)) together with serum resistin levels were assessed at baseline and between 6-8 weeks following nonsurgical periodontal therapy for subjects in group 2 and only at baseline in group 1. Sera were tested in duplicate (single run), and the results were averaged. Study group showed higher (1.89 ± 1.83 ng/ml) serum resistin levels, compared to control group (1.35 ± 0.70 ng/ml). However, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.227). Also, resistin levels decreased following nonsurgical periodontal therapy but, this decrease failed to show any statistical significance, with pretreatment levels being 1.89 ± 1.83 ng/ml and post treatment levels being 1.59 ± 1.01 ng/ml (P = 0.386). Observations of the present study revealed that there was not much difference in the serum resistin levels between the cases and the controls. Also the decrease in the resistin levels following nonsurgical periodontal therapy did not show any statistical significance.

  1. The Serum Levels of Resistin and Its Relationship with Other Proinflammatory Cytokines in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Seden; Aynalı, Ayşe; Demirci, Kadir; Demirci, Serpil; Arıdoğan, Buket Cicioğlu

    2017-01-01

    Objective The present study aims to analyze the levels of resistin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-18, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and also investigate a potential relationship between resistin levels and TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, and CRP levels in patients with AD. Methods The study included fifty patients with AD and 30 healthy controls with normal cognitive functions. The serum resistin, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, and CRP levels were assessed. We performed a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to evaluate the general cognitive performance. Results The mean serum resistin, IL-1β, IL-18, and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in patients with AD compared with the controls (p=0.026, p=0.002, p=0.003, and p=0.038, respectively). The IL-6 and CRP levels did not differ between the groups (p=0.874 and p=0.941). The resistin levels were positively correlated with the levels of CRP and IL-18 (r=0.526, p<0.001; r=0.402, p=0.004, respectively). MMSE scores and inflammatory markers were not correlated (p>0.05 for all). Conclusion Serum resistin levels were significantly increased and correlated with some inflammatory markers in AD patients, suggesting that resistin might play a role in the inflammatory process of AD. PMID:28138112

  2. Serum levels of resistin and interleukin-17 are associated with increased cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kang; Xu, Jianhua; Cai, Jingyu; Zheng, Shuang; Yang, Xueqing; Ding, Changhai

    2017-03-01

    To investigate cross-sectional associations between serum levels of resistin and interleukin-17 (IL-17) and cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) in patients with knee symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA). One hundred and ninety-four consecutively-selected patients with knee symptomatic OA (mean 55.4 years, range 34-74, 87% females) were included in Anhui Osteoarthritis (AHOA) Study. Knee cartilage defects and BMLs were determined at different sites using T2-weighted fat-suppressed fast spin echo MRI. Serum resistin, IL-17, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were measured using ELISA. In multivariable analyses, serum resistin was positively associated with cartilage defects at lateral femoral, lateral tibial, and medial tibial (all p < 0.05) sites. The significant associations were also present with BMLs at lateral femoral and tibial sites (ORs: 1.13-1.19, both p < 0.05). In patients with the highest quartile of hs-CRP (>2.45 pg/ml), IL-17 was positively and significantly associated with cartilage defect score at nearly all sites (ORs: 1.33-1.44, all p < 0.05), and BMLs at lateral and medial femoral sites (ORs: 1.26-1.51, both p < 0.05). Serum levels of resistin were positively and independently associated with cartilage defects and BMLs in patients with knee OA. Serum IL-17 was significantly associated with cartilage defects and BMLs in patients with an increased inflammatory status. These suggest that metabolic and inflammatory mechanisms may have a role to play in knee OA.

  3. Resistin mediates tomato and broccoli extract effects on glucose homeostasis in high fat diet-induced obesity in rats.

    PubMed

    Aborehab, Nora M; El Bishbishy, Mahitab H; Waly, Nermien E

    2016-07-18

    Resistin is an adipocyte hormone that regulates glucose metabolism. Elevated levels of resistin may cause insulin resistance. This may link obesity, and increased fat mass to type II diabetes and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that treatment with tomato and broccoli extracts regulates glucose homeostasis via modulation of resistin levels in high fat diet-induced obesity rats (HFD). Forty-eight male albino rats were divided into 8 groups as follows: control, HFD, stop fat diet (SD), Tomato 200 mg/kg (T200), Tomato 400 mg/kg (T400), Broccoli 200 mg/kg (B200), Broccoli 400 mg/kg (B400), and Chromax (CX). Treatment continued for 1 month. Serum levels of resistin, leptin, adiponectin, glucose and insulin were measured using ELISA and spectrophotometry. Serum levels of resistin were significantly reduced in the T 200, T 400, B 200, B 400 and CX groups to: 4.13 ± 0.22 ng/ml, 1.51 ± 0.04 ng/ml, 4.13 ± 0.22 ng/ml, 2.32 ± 0.15 ng/ml and 1.37 ± 0.03 ng/ml, respectively, compared to HFD group and SD group (P value < 0.0001). Non-significant differences were found between T 400, B 400 and CX groups. Serum levels of leptin were significantly reduced in the T 400 (22.7 ± 0.84 pg/ml) group compared to the B 400 (41 ± 2.45 Pg/ml) and CX groups (45.7 ± 2.91 Pg/ml), P value < 0.001. Serum levels of adiponectin were significantly increased in the T 400 group (131 ± 3.84 pg/ml) compared to the CX group (112 ± 4.77 pg/ml), P value < 0.01. Our results demonstrate that tomato and broccoli extract treatment regulates glucose homeostasis via reduction of serum resistin and may be a useful non-pharmacological therapy for obesity.

  4. Relationship of serum adiponectin and resistin to glucose intolerance and fat topography in south-Asians

    PubMed Central

    Wasim, Hanif; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Chetty, Raja; McTernan, Phillip G; Barnett, A H; Kumar, Sudhesh

    2006-01-01

    Objectives South-Asians have lower adiponectin levels compared to Caucasians. It was not clear however, if this intrinsic feature is related to aspects of glucose metabolism. This study aims to determine the relationship between body fat distribution and adipocytokine in South-Asian subjects by measuring serum adipocytokines, adiposity, insulinemia, and glucose tolerance levels. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 150 South-Asians (80 males, 70 females) were included, 60 had NGT (Control group, Age 51.33 ± 11.5, BMI 27 ± 2.3), 60 had IGT (Age 57.7 ± 12.5, BMI 27.2 ± 2.7), 30 had type 2 DM (Age 49.5 ± 10.9, BMI 28 ± 1.7). Measures of adiposity, adipocytokines and other metabolic parameters were determined. Parameters were measured using the following: a) Plasma glucose by glucose oxidase method b) CRP by immunoturbidimetric method (Roche/Hitachi analyser) c) insulin by Medgenix INS-ELISA immunoenzymetric assay by Biosource (Belgium) d) Leptin, Adiponectin by radioimmunoassay kits by Linco Research (St. Charles MO) e) Resistin by immunoassay kits by Phoenix Pharmaceuticals INC (530 Harbor Boulevard, Belmont CA 94002, USA). Results Adiponectin concentrations were highest in NGT, decreased in IGT and lowest in DMT2, (both p < 0.01). Leptin was significantly higher in DMT2 than IGT and NGT p = 0.02 and 0.04 respectively. There was a significant positive relationships between log adiponectin and 2-hr insulin values, p = 0.028 and history of hypertensions and a ischemic heart disease p = 0.008 with R = 0.65. There was a significant inverse correlation between log adiponectin and resistin, p < 0.01. Conclusion Resistin levels had an inverse correlation with adiponectin levels, indicating an inverse relationship between pro-inflammatory cytokines and adiponectin. Adiponectin levels were related to glucose tolerance. PMID:16669997

  5. High insulin and leptin increase resistin and inflammatory cytokine production from human mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Tsiotra, Panayoula C; Boutati, Eleni; Dimitriadis, George; Raptis, Sotirios A

    2013-01-01

    Resistin and the proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF- α , IL-6, and IL-1 β , produced by adipocytes, and macrophages, are considered to be important modulators of chronic inflammation contributing to the development of obesity and atherosclerosis. Human monocyte-enriched mononuclear cells, from ten healthy individuals, were exposed to high concentrations of insulin, leptin, and glucose (alone or in combination) for 24 hours in vitro. Resistin, TNF- α , IL-6, and IL-1 β production was examined and compared to that in untreated cells. High insulin and leptin concentrations significantly upregulated resistin and the cytokines. The subsequent addition of high glucose significantly upregulated resistin and TNF- α mRNA and protein secretion, while it did not have any effect on IL-6 or IL-1 β production. By comparison, exposure to dexamethasone reduced TNF- α , IL-6, and IL-1 β production, while at this time point it increased resistin protein secretion. These data suggest that the expression of resistin, TNF- α , IL-6, and IL-1 β from human mononuclear cells, might be enhanced by the hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia and possibly by the hyperglycemia in metabolic diseases as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Therefore, the above increased production may contribute to detrimental effects of their increased adipocyte-derived circulating levels on systemic inflammation, insulin sensitivity, and endothelial function of these patients.

  6. Serum resistin is related to plasma HDL cholesterol and inversely correlated with LDL cholesterol in diabetic and obese humans.

    PubMed

    Owecki, Maciej; Nikisch, Elżbieta; Miczke, Anna; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Sowiński, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    Plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and serum resisistin may all be influenced by diabetes and obesity, but their associations remain unclear. Therefore, we put forward a hypothesis that serum lipids might be parallel to resistin, as they all reflect the metabolic status of obese humans. We measured the concentrations of resistin, total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) in 134 obese non-diabetic (73 women and 61 men) and 65 obese diabetic (33 women, 32 men) humans, and examined their interrelations. Obesity was defined according to the WHO criterion (BMI, ≥ 30 kg/m²) The presence of diabetes was the only differentiating factor between two groups of frankly obese humans. Non-diabetic vs. diabetic, median and interquartile range, respectively: resistin (ng/mL) 26.08, 16.09 vs. 22.37, 14.54, p=0.736; TC (mmol/L) 5.02, 1.39 vs. 5.16, 1.56, p=0.374; HDL-C (mmol/L): 1.10, 0.41 vs. 1.02, 0.47 p<0.05; LDL-C (mmol/L): 3.00, 1.05 vs. 3.00, 1.30 p=0.978; TG (mmol/L) 1.70, 1.43 vs.1.95, 1.81 p<0.05. To investigate the interrelations between resistin and lipids, a simple regression analysis was used, and the results were for resistin & TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG, respectively: in the whole cohort r=-0.1364, p=0.0670, r=0.1514, p=0.0437, r=-0.2573, p=0.0006, r=0.0434, p=0.5597; in non-diabetics: r=-0.2067, p=0.0213, r=0.1023, p=0.2621, r=-0.2399, p=0.0083 and r=0.0288, p=0.7497; in diabetics r=0.0280, p=0.8360, r=0.2267, p=0.0929, r=-0.2933, p=0.0298, r=0.1349, p=0.3127. In diabetic and non-diabetic subjects the atherogenic LDL cholesterol shows an inverse correlation with resistin, whereas the protective anti-atherosclerotic HDL cholesterol is positively correlated with resistin.

  7. Resistin gene polymorphisms are associated with acne and serum lipid levels, providing a potential nexus between lipid metabolism and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Younis, Sidra; Blumenberg, Miroslav; Javed, Qamar

    2016-05-01

    Acne vu lgaris is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease causing social stigma and psychological effect on patients. We hypothesized that the genes that can affect both lipid metabolism and inflammation may be central for acne formation and present targets for treatment. Pro-inflammatory adipokine resistin, one such likely target, activates NFkB and JNK pathways inducing TLR-2, IL-1, IL-6, and TNFα genes. The polymorphisms in promoter and intron region of the resistin gene affect its expression levels. Therefore, we explored the association of resistin polymorphisms (RETN +299G > A and -420C > G) with pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. We used PCR-RFLP method to genotype at the two single nucleotide polymorphisms at RETN promoter in 530 acne patients vs. 550 age- and sex-matched control subjects. We also measured serum lipid levels in acne patients and associated these with RETN genotypes. We found that the RETN gene polymorphisms are strongly associated with acne vulgaris and the severity of acne symptoms. In females the variant allele frequencies of both SNPs are statistically higher in patients than in controls; in males frequency distribution does not reach significance. The haplotype containing both variant alleles is significantly more common in patients than in controls. We find no association of RETN SNPs with the acne types. Importantly, we found that the levels of HDL-C were significantly decreased in variant genotype of RETN. Our results show that the RETN polymorphisms expected to boost resistin expression increase the risk of developing acne. We suggest that resistin may provide an attractive target for treatment.

  8. Serum omentin, resistin and tumour necrosis factor-α levels in Behcet patients with and without ocular involvement.

    PubMed

    Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; Şahin, Alparslan; Cingü, Abdullah Kürşat; Kaya, Savaş; Yüksel, Hatice; Cinar, Yasin; Batmaz, İbrahim

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate serum omentin, resistin and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in Behcet disease (BD) patients with and without ocular involvement, as well as control subjects. Omentin, resistin and TNF-α levels were assessed in the plasma of 51 BD patients and compared with those of 24 control subjects. The plasma resistin and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the BD patients than in the control group (p = 0.028 and p = 0.011, respectively), whereas the plasma omentin level was significantly lower in BD patients than in the control group (p = 0.035). In the ocular BD, non-ocular BD and control groups, the omentin levels were 8.9 ± 4.65, 8.6 ± 3.61, and 12.4 ± 6.24 ng/mL; resistin levels were 0.29 ± 0.21, 0.24 ± 0.2 and 0.15 ± 0.45 ng/mL; and TNF-α levels were 25.45 ± 3.65, 24.03 ± 2.49 and 21.93 ± 4.86 ng/mL, respectively. Omentin/resistin and TNF-α/omentin ratios were more significant parameters in the demonstration of the differences in the groups; the former was lower and the latter was higher in the patient groups (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). We demonstrated that the plasma omentin level and omentin/resistin ratio were decreased, whereas the resistin and TNF-α levels and TNF-α/omentin ratio were increased in BD patients. These ratios may be used in the presentation of deviation in the inflammatory and anti-inflammatory balance in BD.

  9. Association of Serum Adiponectin, Leptin, and Resistin Concentrations with the Severity of Liver Dysfunction and the Disease Complications in Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Surdacka, Agata; Smolen, Agata

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. There is growing evidence that white adipose tissue is an important contributor in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We investigated serum concentrations of total adiponectin (Acrp30), leptin, and resistin in patients with chronic alcohol abuse and different grades of liver dysfunction, as well as ALD complications. Materials and Methods. One hundred forty-seven consecutive inpatients with ALD were prospectively recruited. The evaluation of plasma adipokine levels was performed using immunoenzymatic ELISA tests. Multivariable logistic regression was applied in order to select independent predictors of advanced liver dysfunction and the disease complications. Results. Acrp30 and resistin levels were significantly higher in patients with ALD than in controls. Lower leptin levels in females with ALD compared to controls, but no significant differences in leptin concentrations in males, were found. High serum Acrp30 level revealed an independent association with advanced liver dysfunction, as well as the development of ALD complications, that is, ascites and hepatic encephalopathy. Conclusion. Gender-related differences in serum leptin concentrations may influence the ALD course, different in females compared with males. Serum Acrp30 level may serve as a potential prognostic indicator for patients with ALD. PMID:24259947

  10. Fulvic Acid Attenuates Resistin-Induced Adhesion of HCT-116 Colorectal Cancer Cells to Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Shih; Yang, Jen-Tsung; Lu, Chien-Chang; Chang, Shun-Fu; Chen, Cheng-Nan; Su, Yu-Ping; Lee, Ko-Chao

    2015-12-09

    A high level of serum resistin has recently been found in patients with a number of cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Hence, resistin may play a role in CRC development. Fulvic acid (FA), a class of humic substances, possesses pharmacological properties. However, the effect of FA on cancer pathophysiology remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistin on the endothelial adhesion of CRC and to determine whether FA elicits an antagonistic mechanism to neutralize this resistin effect. Human HCT-116 (p53-negative) and SW-48 (p53-positive) CRC cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used in the experiments. Treatment of both HCT-116 and SW-48 cells with resistin increases the adhesion of both cells to HUVECs. This result indicated that p53 may not regulate this resistin effect. A mechanistic study in HCT-116 cells further showed that this resistin effect occurs via the activation of NF-κB and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Co-treating cells with both FA and resistin revealed that FA significantly attenuated the resistin-increased NF-κB activation and ICAM-1/VCAM-1 expression and the consequent adhesion of HCT-116 cells to HUVECs. These results demonstrate the role of resistin in promoting HCT-116 cell adhesion to HUVECs and indicate that FA might be a potential candidate for the inhibition of the endothelial adhesion of CRC in response to resistin.

  11. Association of serum resistin with cystatin C and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio in elderly Chinese men with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Cui, Hua; Zhu, Bing-Po; Fu, Shu-Hong

    2015-03-01

    Resistin, a recently discovered proinflammatory cytokine, has been strongly linked to kidney dysfunction. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of serum resistin with serum cystatin C (sCysC) and albuminuria, two sensitive endogenous markers of renal function, in elderly male patients with essential hypertension (EH). This was a cross-sectional study enrolling 296 Chinese men (age ≥60 years, mean age 81.42 years) diagnosed with EH between January 2008 and May 2011. Renal function was assessed by measurement of sCysC levels and albuminuria (calculated as the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR)). Serum resistin and selected metabolic and cardiovascular markers were determined by serological testing. Relationships between serum resistin levels and sCysC levels and uACR were analysed using multiple regression analysis. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that the serum resistin level was positively associated with the sCysC level and uACR (β(uACR)=0.132, p(uACR)=0.002; β(sCysC)=0.015, p(sCysC)=0.008). Our findings demonstrated that a raised serum resistin level is a potential indicator of renal dysfunction in elderly patients with EH. Resistin may be explored as a potential biomarker in addition to sCysC and uACR to provide a more accurate diagnosis of renal damage in elderly men with EH. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Increased serum leptin and resistin levels and increased carotid intima-media wall thickness in patients with psoriasis: is psoriasis associated with atherosclerosis?

    PubMed

    Robati, Reza M; Partovi-Kia, Masoud; Haghighatkhah, Hamid Reza; Younespour, Shima; Abdollahimajd, Fahimeh

    2014-10-01

    Patients with psoriasis may have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We sought to evaluate the potential association between subclinical atherosclerosis and psoriasis by measuring the intima-media wall thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery (CCA) in patients with psoriasis and evaluating its correlation with serum leptin and resistin levels. The mean IMT (MIMT) of the CCA and leptin, resistin, triglyceride (TG), and total cholesterol levels in serum were determined in 60 patients and 60 healthy sex- and age-matched control subjects. Compared with the healthy control subjects, patients with psoriasis had significantly higher MIMT of the CCA and higher levels of serum leptin, resistin, TG, and total cholesterol. In addition, MIMT of the CCA was positively correlated with serum leptin, resistin, TG, and total cholesterol levels in patients with psoriasis. This was a cross-sectional single-center study, and we could not evaluate additional biomarkers such as adipokine or adiponectin because of our restricted facilities. Although serum leptin, resistin, TG, and total cholesterol levels and MIMT of the CCA were significantly increased in patients with psoriasis, MIMT of the CCA was also positively correlated with these biomarkers. Therefore, psoriasis could be an independent risk factor for subclinical atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. High leptin and resistin expression in chronic heart failure: adverse outcome in patients with dilated and inflammatory cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, Peter; Jenke, Alexander; Bobbert, Thomas; Kühl, Uwe; Rauch, Ursula; Lassner, Dirk; Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Poller, Wolfgang; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Skurk, Carsten

    2012-11-01

    The expression of leptin and resistin is known to be positively correlated with the incidence of chronic heart failure (CHF). Both adipokines have been implicated in immunomodulation and cardiac remodelling. Therefore, we performed for the first time a clinical study to elucidate the effects of leptin and resistin on progression of CHF in patients with non-ischaemic dilated (DCM) and inflammatory (DCMi) cardiomyopathy. For the clinical study 120 patients were divided into a control (n = 16), DCM (n = 52), and DCMi (n = 52) group to determine the effect of leptin and resistin on CHF progression. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, reactive oxygen species generation, and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression following adipokine exposition were determined in vitro in cardiomyocytes. Leptin and resistin systemic plasma levels and not cardiac expression were significantly elevated in patients with DCM (leptin, 13.12 ± 17.2 ng/mL, P < 0.05; resistin, 6.87 ± 2.25 ng/mL, P < 0.05) and DCMi (leptin, 13.63 ± 16 ng/mL, P < 0.05; resistin, 7.27 ± 2.2 ng/mL, P < 0.05) compared with the control group (leptin, 7.34 ± 5.7 ng/mL; resistin, 4.4 ± 1.18 ng/mL). A multivariate linear regression model revealed low leptin and resistin plasma levels as contributors for favourable cardiac functional parameters at 6-month follow-up independent of inflammatory conditions. Cell culture experiments in vitro showed leptin and resistin to be potent regulators of TNF-α and IL-6 expression in cardiomyocytes, leading to significantly increased redox stress in cardiac cells. High leptin and resistin expression in patients with DCM and DCMi is associated with CHF progression, i.e. severe cardiac dysfunction, independent of immune responses.

  14. Serum Resistin Levels Are Associated with Adiposity and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Hispanic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Nieva-Vazquez, Adriana; Torres-Rasgado, Enrique; López-López, José G.; Romero, Jose R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims: Resistin is involved in the development of obesity and insulin resistance (IR) in mice and may play a similar role in humans through mechanisms that remain unresolved. The objective of this study was to characterize the relationship between resistin levels in obese subjects with and without IR among Hispanic subjects. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 117 nondiabetic Hispanic subjects of both genders that were allocated into three study groups: A control group (n=47) of otherwise healthy individuals in metabolic balance, a group with obesity (OB) (n=36), and a group with obesity and IR (OB-IR) (n=34). Anthropometric and clinical characterization was carried out, and resistin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: We found that resistin levels were higher in OB and OB-IR groups when compared to the control group (1331.79±142.15 pg/mL, 1266.28±165.97 pg/mL vs. 959.21±171.43 pg/mL; P<0.05), an effect that was not confounded by age (control, 34.04±10.00 years; OB, 37.30±10.78 years; and OB-IR, 35.67±10.15 years). In addition, we observed a significant correlation (P<0.001) between resistin levels and higher adiposity and insulin sensitivity (IS) in our cohort. Conclusions: Our results suggest that higher resistin levels are associated with higher adiposity and lower IS among obese Hispanic subjects. PMID:24266722

  15. Increased Serum Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha, Resistin, and Visfatin in the Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Mousavinejad, Elham; Riahi, Forough; Mousavinejad, Masoumeh; Afsharmanesh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are complex disorders where the pathogenesis is not fully understood. Several proinflammatory and immunoinflammatory disturbances have been observed in the etiology of ASD. There is, however, limited knowledge on variations of adipokines in ASD. The present study aimed to analyze the serum levels of resistin, visfatin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in children with ASD in relation to body weight, gender, and ASD severity level. Method. In total, 30 children with ASD (mean age: 7.72 ± 2.65 y; range; 4-12 y) and 30 healthy children (mean age: 8.4 ± 2.66 y; range: 4-12 y), including males and females, were matched for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Serum samples were collected, and visfatin, resistin, and TNF-α serum levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Result. Serum visfatin, resistin, and TNF-α levels in children with ASD were significantly higher than that in the healthy patients (p < 0.05). Two significant correlations were found: a correlation between resistin and visfatin with TNF-α in children with ASD (R = 0.8 and R = 0.62, resp.) and a correlation between resistin and visfatin in children with ASD (R = 0.66). Conclusion. Higher TNF-α, resistin, and visfatin levels were found in children with ASD in comparison with controls, suggesting that elevated levels of serum proinflammatory agents may be implicated in the pathophysiology of ASD.

  16. Increased Serum Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha, Resistin, and Visfatin in the Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Riahi, Forough; Mousavinejad, Masoumeh; Afsharmanesh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are complex disorders where the pathogenesis is not fully understood. Several proinflammatory and immunoinflammatory disturbances have been observed in the etiology of ASD. There is, however, limited knowledge on variations of adipokines in ASD. The present study aimed to analyze the serum levels of resistin, visfatin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in children with ASD in relation to body weight, gender, and ASD severity level. Method. In total, 30 children with ASD (mean age: 7.72 ± 2.65 y; range; 4–12 y) and 30 healthy children (mean age: 8.4 ± 2.66 y; range: 4–12 y), including males and females, were matched for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Serum samples were collected, and visfatin, resistin, and TNF-α serum levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Result. Serum visfatin, resistin, and TNF-α levels in children with ASD were significantly higher than that in the healthy patients (p < 0.05). Two significant correlations were found: a correlation between resistin and visfatin with TNF-α in children with ASD (R = 0.8 and R = 0.62, resp.) and a correlation between resistin and visfatin in children with ASD (R = 0.66). Conclusion. Higher TNF-α, resistin, and visfatin levels were found in children with ASD in comparison with controls, suggesting that elevated levels of serum proinflammatory agents may be implicated in the pathophysiology of ASD. PMID:28018676

  17. Low Resistin Level is Associated with Poor Hospitalization-Free Survival in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Wookyung; Jung, Eul Sik; Shin, Dongsu; Choi, Shung Han; Jung, Ji Yong; Chang, Jae Hyun; Lee, Hyun Hee; Kim, Dong Ki

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition and inflammation are related to high rates of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Resistin is associated with nutrition and inflammation. We attempted to determine whether resistin levels may predict clinical outcomes in hemodialysis patients. We conducted a prospective evaluation of 100 outpatients on hemodialysis in a single dialysis center (male, 46%; mean age, 53.7 ± 16.4 yr). We stratified the patients into 4 groups according to quartiles of serum resistin levels. During the 18-month observational period, patients with the lowest quartile of serum resistin levels had poor hospitalization-free survival (log rank test, P = 0.016). After adjustment of all co-variables, patients with the lowest quartile of serum resistin levels had poor hospitalization-free survival, compared with reference resistin levels. Higher levels of interleukin-6 were an independent predictor of poor hospitalization-free survival. In contrast, serum resistin levels were not correlated with interleukin-6 levels. The current data showed that low resistin levels may independently predict poor hospitalization free survival in hemodialysis patients. PMID:22468100

  18. THE ASSOCIATION OF PLASMA RESISTIN WITH DIETARY SODIUM MANIPULATION, THE RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN-ALDOSTERONE SYSTEM, AND 25-HYDROXYVITAMIN D3 IN HUMAN HYPERTENSION

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Anand; Pojoga, Luminita; Underwood, Patricia C.; Forman, John P.; Hopkins, Paul N.; Williams, Gordon H.; Williams, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Both resistin and vitamin D have been associated with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). We investigated the association between resistin and the RAAS, and resistin and vitamin D under controlled dietary sodium conditions. Design Retrospective cross-sectional study of subjects from the HyperPATH Consortium, who were maintained in high dietary sodium (HS) and low dietary sodium (LS) balance for one week each. Patients Caucasian subjects with hypertension (n=177). Measurements 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels were used to assess vitamin D status. Plasma resistin and RAAS measures were evaluated on each dietary intervention. Results Resistin levels were significantly higher in LS, where RAAS activity was high, when compared to HS balance, where RAAS activity was suppressed (6.36 vs. 5.86 µg/L, p<0.0001); however, resistin concentrations were not associated with plasma renin activity or serum aldosterone on either diet. 25(OH)D levels were positively and independently associated with resistin in both dietary conditions (HS: β=0.400, p-trend=0.027; LS: β=0.540, p-trend=0.014). Conclusions Dietary sodium loading reduced resistin levels, possibly by suppressing the RAAS; however, circulating RAAS components were not related to resistin concentrations within each specific dietary sodium condition. 25(OH)D was positively associated with resistin and may be involved in resistin regulation through an unknown mechanism. Further studies to better understand resistin regulation in human hypertension are warranted. PMID:21050256

  19. Effects of Serum Leptin and Resistin Levels on Cancer Cachexia in Patients With Advanced-Stage Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Demiray, Gökcen; Değirmencioğlu, Serkan; Uğurlu, Erhan; Yaren, Arzu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cancer cachexia is one of the most frequent effects of malignancy, is often associated with poor prognosis, and may account for up to 20% of cancer deaths. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship of cancer cachexia and serum levels of resistin and leptin in patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer. Methods: A total of 67 chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced-stage non–small cell cancer and a control group containing 20 healthy individuals without a known chronic disease were enrolled in this study. All individuals in the control group were age and sex matched. Demographic, anthropometric, laboratory data and serum levels of adipokines were measured for 2 groups. Progression-free survival and overall survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Survival among various factors was calculated using the log-rank test. Results: Patients presented significantly higher serum resistin (P = .0001) and lower serum leptin levels (P = .025) than the control group. Lower serum levels of leptin were correlated with overall survival (P = .011). Conclusions: Serum leptin and resistin levels play key role as proinflammatory cytokines in lung cancer and cancer cachexia; however, their use as diagnostic or prognostic markers is not possible yet, and further large-scale studies are required to confirm our findings. PMID:28469508

  20. Fulvic Acid Attenuates Resistin-Induced Adhesion of HCT-116 Colorectal Cancer Cells to Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Shih; Yang, Jen-Tsung; Lu, Chien-Chang; Chang, Shun-Fu; Chen, Cheng-Nan; Su, Yu-Ping; Lee, Ko-Chao

    2015-01-01

    A high level of serum resistin has recently been found in patients with a number of cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Hence, resistin may play a role in CRC development. Fulvic acid (FA), a class of humic substances, possesses pharmacological properties. However, the effect of FA on cancer pathophysiology remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistin on the endothelial adhesion of CRC and to determine whether FA elicits an antagonistic mechanism to neutralize this resistin effect. Human HCT-116 (p53-negative) and SW-48 (p53-positive) CRC cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used in the experiments. Treatment of both HCT-116 and SW-48 cells with resistin increases the adhesion of both cells to HUVECs. This result indicated that p53 may not regulate this resistin effect. A mechanistic study in HCT-116 cells further showed that this resistin effect occurs via the activation of NF-κB and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Co-treating cells with both FA and resistin revealed that FA significantly attenuated the resistin-increased NF-κB activation and ICAM-1/VCAM-1 expression and the consequent adhesion of HCT-116 cells to HUVECs. These results demonstrate the role of resistin in promoting HCT-116 cell adhesion to HUVECs and indicate that FA might be a potential candidate for the inhibition of the endothelial adhesion of CRC in response to resistin. PMID:26690142

  1. Investigating the correlation of the number of diagnostic criteria to serum adiponectin, leptin, resistin, TNF-alpha, EGFR levels and abdominal adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Ayeser, Tayfun; Basak, Mesut; Arslan, Kadem; Sayan, Ismet

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Metabolic syndrome is a common clinical presentation posing significant risk in cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated the correlation between the number of diagnostic criteria and serum adiponectin, leptin, resistin, TNF-alpha, EGFR levels and abdominal adipose tissue in the individuals with metabolic syndrome. This study included a total of 40 patients (18 men and 22 women) with metabolic syndrome that applied to the Internal Diseases Outpatient Clinic of Ümraniye Training and Research Hospital between March 2011 and August 2011. The data including age, gender, personal history, familial history, habits, height, weight, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, body composition (tanita) were recorded for each patient. Blood samples were collected for biochemical examinations. The serum adiponectin, leptin, resistin, TNF-alpha, EGFR levels were measured. Statistical analyses were carried out using the NCSS (Number Cruncher Statistical System) 2007 and the PASS (Power Analysis and Sample Size) 2008 Statistical Software (UT, USA). When the patients with metabolic syndrome were analyzed by gender, no statistically significant difference was found between the EGFR and TNF-alpha levels (p>0.05). On the other side, the visceral fat rating and GGT levels of women were significantly lower than those of men (p<0.05). However, the resistin and leptin levels were found significantly higher in female patients as compared to male patients (p<0.05). In the present study, we did not observe any statistically significant change in abdominal adipose tissue thickness, serum TNF-alpha, adiponectin, resistin, and EGFR levels of the patients according to the number of diagnostic criteria; however, there was significant change in the patients' leptin levels. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by

  2. Resistin mediates the hepatic stellate cell phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhi-Xia; Su, Lin; Brymora, Joanne; Bird, Claire; Xie, Qing; George, Jacob; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To describe the role of resistin in liver fibrosis. METHODS: For the in vivo animal study, Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL) for 4 wk. Rat liver, adipose tissue (epididymal fat) and serum were analyzed for resistin expression. For the in vitro experiment, rat primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and Kupffer cells (KCs) were used. HSCs were exposed to recombinant resistin, and collagen I, transforming growth factor β1, α smooth muscle actin, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 and connective tissue growth factor expression were analyzed. Resistin gene and protein expression was quantified as was the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). The effects of resistin on HSC proliferation, migration and apoptosis were determined. The effects of resistin on KCs were also investigated. RESULTS: Following BDL, rat epididymal fat and serum rather than liver showed higher resistin expression compared to control rats. In liver, resistin was expressed in quiescent HSCs and KCs. Resistin treatment resulted in enhancement of TNFα, IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 gene expression and increased IL-6 and MCP-1 protein in HSCs. Resistin activated HSC phospho-MAPK/p38, and p38 inhibition diminished IL-6 and MCP-1 expression. Furthermore, resistin facilitated HSC proliferation and migration, but decreased apoptosis which was via an IL-6 and MCP-1 mechanism. Finally, resistin-induced transforming growth factor β1 from KCs enhanced HSC collagen Iexpression. CONCLUSION: Resistin directly and indirectly modulates HSC behavior towards a more pro-fibrogenic phenotype. PMID:23901222

  3. Resistin impairs glucose permeability in EA.hy926 cells by down-regulating GLUT1 expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Cai, Yuxi; Huang, Jing; Yu, Xiaolan; Sun, Jun; Yang, Zaiqing; Zhou, Lei

    2016-10-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease which is now affecting the health of more and more people in the world. Resistin, discovered in 2001, is considered to be closely related to metabolic dysfunction and obesity. Previous study showed that hyperglycemia is always accompanied by a high serum resistin concentration. We therefore investigated whether resistin can mediate glucose transfer across the blood-tissue barrier. Here, we employed a transwell system to analyze glucose permeability in EA.hy926 human endothelial cells treated without or with human resistin. In EA.hy926 cells treated with resistin, the permeability to glucose was heavily impaired. This was due to the down-regulation of GLUT1 expression as a result of the treatment, rather than regulation of tight junctions. In addition, overexpression of GLUT1 in EA.hy926 cells was able to recover the blocking effect of resistin on glucose permeability. We further found that resistin could inhibit the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and consequently impede the transcription of GLUT1. The results of the present study suggested that resistin could cause glucose retention in serum and thus result in hyperglycemia. This provides a novel explanation for hyperglycemia and a potential new way of treating type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  4. Inverse association of resistin with physical activity in the general population.

    PubMed

    Marcelino-Rodríguez, Itahisa; Almeida Gonzalez, Delia; Alemán-Sánchez, José Juan; Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Rodríguez Pérez, María Del Cristo; Gannar, Fadoua; Domínguez Coello, Santiago; Cuevas Fernández, Francisco J; Cabrera de León, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Resistin is a cytokine related with inflammation and ischemic heart disease. Physical activity (PA) prevents chronic inflammation and ischemic heart disease. We studied the relationship of serum concentration of resistin with HDL cholesterol, a known biomarker of PA, and with different measures of PA, in a large sample of the general adult population in the Canary Islands. Cross-sectional study of 6636 adults recruited randomly. We analyzed the correlation of resistin and HDL cholesterol with PA (as metabolic equivalent level [MET]), and fitted the results with linear and logistic regression models using adjustment for age, alcohol consumption and smoking. Mean resistin level was higher in women (p<0.001), correlated inversely with age, HDL cholesterol (p<0.001) and alcohol consumption (p<0.001 in men), and correlated directly with smoking (p<0.001). Resistin correlated inversely with the duration of leisure time PA (p<0.001), leisure time MET (p<0.001) and moderate leisure time PA (p<0.001), with some differences between sexes. Men (OR = 0.78 [0.61-0.99; p<0.05]) and women (OR = 0.75 [0.61-0.92; p<0.01]) in the upper quintile of leisure time PA had a lower risk of elevated resistin. In contrast, a high degree of sedentarism was associated with an increased risk elevated resistin in women (OR = 1.24 [1.04-1.47; p<0.05] and in men (OR = 1.40 [1.01-1.82; p<0.05]). In our sample of the general population, resistin was inversely associated with measures and levels of PA and HDL cholesterol. The association of resistin with PA was stronger than the association of HDL cholesterol with PA, making resistin a potentially useful biomarker of PA.

  5. Effects of resistin on ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis in the vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajit; Suragani, Madhuri; Krishna, Amitabh

    2014-11-01

    The bat Scotophilus heathi exhibit prolonged anovulatory condition known as delayed ovulation coinciding with the period of extensive fat accumulation. The present study was undertaken to find out whether extensive accumulation of fat in S. heathi is responsible for suppression of ovarian activity by increasing production of adipokine resistin in the bat. This was achieved by (a) investigating variation in serum resistin level in relation to the changes in the body fat mass and (b) evaluating the effect of resistin treatment on ovarian activity with reference to steroid synthesis. An attempt was also made to determine whether resistin mediate its effects on ovary through signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling mechanism. The results showed significant seasonal variation in serum resistin level with the peak level coinciding with the period of maximum fat accumulation, high circulating androgen level and period of anovulation. The treatment with resistin to the bat caused increase in androstenedione due to stimulatory effects on 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, but decrease in estradiol level due to inhibitory effect on aromatase. Resistin treatment increased androgen receptor protein together with increased insulin receptor but not through conventional luteinizing hormone receptor and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mediated pathways. This study further showed that resistin treatment increases androstenedione synthesis and up-regulates insulin receptor in the ovary through STAT3 mediated pathways. These findings suggest that obese women through increased resistin synthesis may causes development of non-ovulatory antral follicles through insulin receptor signaling cascade. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Resistin is not an appropriate biochemical marker to predict severity of acute pancreatitis: A case-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Maramhy, Hamdi; Abdelrahman, Abdelrahman I; Sawalhi, Samer

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess levels of serum resistin upon hospital admission as a predictor of acute pancreatitis (AP) severity. METHODS: AP is both a common and serious disease, with severe cases resulting in a high mortality rate. Several predictive inflammatory markers have been used clinically to assess severity. This prospective study collected data from 102 patients who were diagnosed with an initial acute biliary pancreatitis between March 2010 and February 2013. Measurements of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were obtained and serum resistin levels were analyzed at the time of hospital admission using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additionally, resistin levels were measured from a control group after matching gender, BMI and age. RESULTS: A total of 102 patients (60 females and 42 males) were diagnosed with acute gallstone-induced pancreatitis. The mean age was 45 years, and mean BMI value was 30.5 kg/m2 (Obese, class I). Twenty-two patients (21.6%) had severe AP, while eighty-eight patients had mild pancreatitis (78.4%). Our results showed that BMI significantly correlated with pancreatitis severity (P = 0.007). Serum resistin did not correlate with BMI, weight or WC. Furthermore, serum resistin was significantly higher in patients with AP compared to control subjects (P < 0.0001). The mean resistin values upon admission were 17.5 ng/mL in the severe acute biliary pancreatitis group and 16.82 ng/mL in the mild AP group (P = 0.188), indicating that resistin is not an appropriate predictive marker of clinical severity. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that obesity is a risk factor for developing severe AP. Further, although there is a correlation between serum resistin levels and AP at the time of hospital admission, resistin does not adequately serve as a predictive marker of clinical severity. PMID:25386084

  7. Resistin is not an appropriate biochemical marker to predict severity of acute pancreatitis: a case-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Al-Maramhy, Hamdi; Abdelrahman, Abdelrahman I; Sawalhi, Samer

    2014-11-07

    To assess levels of serum resistin upon hospital admission as a predictor of acute pancreatitis (AP) severity. AP is both a common and serious disease, with severe cases resulting in a high mortality rate. Several predictive inflammatory markers have been used clinically to assess severity. This prospective study collected data from 102 patients who were diagnosed with an initial acute biliary pancreatitis between March 2010 and February 2013. Measurements of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were obtained and serum resistin levels were analyzed at the time of hospital admission using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additionally, resistin levels were measured from a control group after matching gender, BMI and age. A total of 102 patients (60 females and 42 males) were diagnosed with acute gallstone-induced pancreatitis. The mean age was 45 years, and mean BMI value was 30.5 kg/m(2) (Obese, class I). Twenty-two patients (21.6%) had severe AP, while eighty-eight patients had mild pancreatitis (78.4%). Our results showed that BMI significantly correlated with pancreatitis severity (P = 0.007). Serum resistin did not correlate with BMI, weight or WC. Furthermore, serum resistin was significantly higher in patients with AP compared to control subjects (P < 0.0001). The mean resistin values upon admission were 17.5 ng/mL in the severe acute biliary pancreatitis group and 16.82 ng/mL in the mild AP group (P = 0.188), indicating that resistin is not an appropriate predictive marker of clinical severity. We demonstrate that obesity is a risk factor for developing severe AP. Further, although there is a correlation between serum resistin levels and AP at the time of hospital admission, resistin does not adequately serve as a predictive marker of clinical severity.

  8. SGK1 is modulated by resistin in vascular smooth muscle cells and in the aorta following diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Scott, Takara A; Babayeva, Oguljahan; Banerjee, Saswati; Zhong, Wei; Francis, Sharon C

    2016-03-01

    Enhanced serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) activity contributes to the pathogenesis of vascular disease. This study evaluated SGK1 modulation in vascular smooth muscle cells by the adipokine resistin and in aortic tissue in a murine model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Modulation of SGK1 by resistin was assessed in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMC) in vitro by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. To induce the lean or obese phenotype, mice were fed a 10 kcal% low-fat or 60 kcal% high-fat diet, respectively, for 8 weeks. Upon study completion, plasma resistin was assessed and aortic tissue was harvested to examine the effect of DIO on regulation of SGK1 in vivo. Resistin increased SGK1 mRNA, total protein abundance, and its activation as determined by phosphorylation of its serine 422 residue (pSGK1) in HAoSMC. Resistin-mediated SGK1 phosphorylation was dependent upon phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and Toll-like receptor 4. Furthermore, inhibition of SGK1 attenuated resistin-induced proliferation in HAoSMC. DIO led to up-regulation of total SGK1 protein levels and pSGK1 in association with increased plasma resistin. These data suggest that high levels of resistin observed during obesity may activate SGK1 in the vasculature and contribute to the development of obesity-related vascular disease. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  9. Suggestive evidence of a multi-cytokine resistin pathway in humans and its role on cardiovascular events in high-risk individuals

    PubMed Central

    Menzaghi, Claudia; Marucci, Antonella; Antonucci, Alessandra; De Bonis, Concetta; Ortega Moreno, Lorena; Salvemini, Lucia; Copetti, Massimiliano; Trischitta, Vincenzo; Di Paola, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    In cells and tissues resistin affects IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 and TNF-α expression, thus suggesting the existence of a multi-cytokine “resistin pathway”. We investigated whether such pathway does exist in humans and, if so, if it is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Serum cytokines were measured in 280 healthy subjects from the Gargano Study 2 (GS2) whose BMI, waist circumference, HOMAIR, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure data were available and in 353 patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease from the Gargano Heart Study (GHS)-prospective design (follow-up 5.4 ± 2.5 years; 71 MACE). In GS2, cytokines mRNA levels in white blood cells were also measured. In GS2, resistin mRNA was correlated with all cytokines expression (all p < 0.001), but IL-12B. Consistently, serum resistin was correlated with all serum cytokines (all p < 0.001), but IL-12. Expression (eRPS) and serum (sRPS) resistin pathway scores (excluding IL-12) were each other correlated (p < 0.001) and both associated with cardiovascular risk factors (all p < 0.01). In GHS, sRPS was independently associated with MACE (HR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.10–1.90). Our data indicate the existence of a resistin pathway, which is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and which strongly and independently predicts MACE. PMID:28290549

  10. Resistin disrupts glycogen synthesis under high insulin and high glucose levels by down-regulating the hepatic levels of GSK3β

    PubMed Central

    Song, Rongjing; Wang, Xi; Mao, Yiqing; Li, Hui; Li, Zhixin; Xu, Wei; Wang, Rong; Guo, Tingting; Jin, Ling; Zhang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Yizhuang; Zhou, Na; Hu, Ruobi; Jia, Jianwei; Lei, Zhen; Irwin, David M.; Niu, Gang; Tan, Huanran

    2014-01-01

    The effect of mouse resistin on hepatic insulin resistance in vivo and in vitro, and its possible molecular mechanism were examined. Focusing on liver glycogen metabolism and gluconeogenesis, which are important parts of glucose metabolism, in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes we found that glycogen content was significantly lower (P<0.05) after treatment with recombinant murine resistin only in the presence of insulin plus glucose stimulation. Protein levels of factors in the insulin signaling pathway involved in glycogen synthesis were examined by Western blot analysis, with the only significant change observed being the level of phosphorylated (at Ser 9) glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) (P<0.001). No differences in the protein levels for the insulin receptor β (IRβ), insulin receptor substrates (IRS1 and IRS2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt) or their phosphorylated forms were observed between control and resistin treated primary rat hepatocytes. In a mouse model with high liver-specific expression of resistin, fasting blood glucose levels and liver glycogen content changed. Fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher (P<0.001) in the model mice, compared to the control mice, while the glycogen content of the liver tissue was about 60% of that of the control mice (P<0.05). The gluconeogenic response was not altered between the experimental and control mice. The level of phosphorylated GSK-3β in the liver tissue was also decreased (P<0.05) in the model mice, consistent with the results from the primary rat hepatocytes. Our results suggests that resistin reduces the levels of GSK-3β phosphorylated at Ser 9 leading to impaired hepatic insulin action in primary rat hepatocytes and in a mouse model with high liver-specific expression of resistin. PMID:23860320

  11. Cord blood resistin and adiponectin in term newborns of diabetic mothers

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Maha H.; Gad, Ghada I.; Ibrahim, Hala Y.; El Shemi, Mohamed S.; Atef, Shereen H.; Ramadan, Naglaa M.; El Saeid, Shimaa M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Adipose tissue can release hormones into the blood stream in response to specific extracellular stimuli or changes in metabolic status. Resistin, an adipose-secreted factor, is primarily involved in the modulation of insulin sensitivity and adipocyte differentiation. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-specific hormone with insulin sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic effects, is reduced in obesity and type II diabetes. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of maternal pre-existing diabetes on cord blood resistin and adiponectin at birth in relation to neonatal anthropometric parameters and cord blood insulin levels. Material and methods A total of 60 term newborns were prospectively enrolled and categorized into three groups: 20 were macrosomic infants of pre-gestational diabetic mothers (group I), 20 were non-macrosomic infants of pre-gestational diabetic mothers (group II) and 20 were healthy non-macrosomic infants born to non-diabetic mothers serving as controls (group III). Infants’ anthropometric indices were recorded. Cord blood samples for glucose, insulin, resistin and adiponectin assay, together with maternal glycosylated haemoglobin were obtained. Results Serum insulin was increased while resistin and adiponectin were significantly decreased in infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs) compared to the control group. Serum glucose, insulin, resistin and adiponectin were comparable in group I and II. Cord serum resistin correlated positively with cord blood glucose in IDMs in both macrosomic and non-macrosomic groups. Cord serum insulin correlated positively with triceps skinfold thickness in all studied neonates. Cord serum resistin and adiponectin showed no correlation with neonatal anthropometric indices. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that insulin, resistin and adiponectin together were highly correlated with birth weight, with adiponectin as the one responsible for this positive correlation. Conclusions Infants of

  12. SGK1 Activity is Modulated by Resistin in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and in the Aorta in Response to Diet-Induced Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Takara A.; Babayeva, Oguljahan; Banerjee, Saswati; Zhong, Wei; Francis, Sharon C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Enhanced serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) activity contributes to the pathogenesis of vascular disease. We evaluated SGK1 modulation in vascular smooth muscle cells by the adipokine, resistin and in aortic tissue in a murine model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Methods Modulation of SGK1 by resistin was assessed in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMC) in vitro by quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analyses. To induce the lean or obese phenotype, mice were fed a 10 kcal% low-fat or 60 kcal% high-fat diet, respectively for eight weeks. Upon study completion, plasma resistin was assessed and aortic tissue was harvested to examine the effect of DIO on regulation of SGK1 in vivo. Results Resistin increased SGK1 mRNA, total protein abundance and its activation as determined by phosphorylation of its serine 422 residue (pSGK1) in HAoSMC. Resistin-mediated SGK1 phosphorylation was dependent upon phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and Toll-like receptor 4. Furthermore, inhibition of SGK1 attenuated resistin-induced proliferation in HAoSMC. DIO led to upregulation of total SGK1 protein levels and pSGK1 in association with increased plasma resistin. Conclusions These data suggest that high levels of resistin observed during obesity may activate SGK1 in the vasculature and contribute to the development of obesity-related vascular disease. PMID:26833885

  13. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Regulates Adipocyte Resistin Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lefterova, Martina I.; Mullican, Shannon E.; Tomaru, Takuya; Qatanani, Mohammed; Schupp, Michael; Lazar, Mitchell A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Resistin is a secreted polypeptide that impairs glucose metabolism and, in rodents, is derived exclusively from adipocytes. In murine obesity, resistin circulates at elevated levels but its gene expression in adipose tissue is paradoxically reduced. The mechanism behind the downregulation of resistin mRNA is poorly understood. We investigated whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is characteristic of obese adipose tissue, regulates resistin expression in cultured mouse adipocytes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The effects of endoplasmic stress inducers on resistin mRNA and secreted protein levels were examined in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, focusing on the expression and genomic binding of transcriptional regulators of resistin. The association between downregulated resistin mRNA and induction of ER stress was also investigated in the adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet. RESULTS ER stress reduced resistin mRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The effects of ER stress were transcriptional because of downregulation of CAAT/enhancer binding protein-α and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ transcriptional activators and upregulation of the transcriptional repressor CAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein-10 (CHOP10). Resistin protein was also substantially downregulated, showing a close correspondence with mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes as well as in the fat pads of obese mice. CONCLUSIONS ER stress is a potent regulator of resistin, suggesting that ER stress may underlie the local downregulation of resistin mRNA and protein in fat in murine obesity. The paradoxical increase in plasma may be because of various systemic abnormalities associated with obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:19491212

  14. Clinical potential of resistin as a novel prognostic biomarker for cellulitis

    PubMed Central

    ERTURK, AYSE; CURE, MEDINE CUMHUR; CURE, ERKAN; KURT, AYSEL; CICEK, AYSEGUL COPUR; YUCE, SULEYMAN

    2015-01-01

    Cellulitis is an acute, subacute or chronic inflammation of the dermis and subdermal tissues, which is typically caused by bacteria, although other causes are possible. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between resistin levels and the recovery time of patients with cellulitis. In addition, the effect of resistin and insulin resistance on the prognosis of cellulitis was investigated. In total, 52 patients with cellulitis (male, 21; female, 31) and an age-matched group of 42 healthy individuals (male, 18; female, 24) were included in the study. The levels of serum resistin, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and other biochemical parameters were compared between the groups. The mean resistin levels in the cellulitis and control groups were 9.4±5.3 and 5.8±3.1 ng/ml, respectively. The levels of resistin, FPG, HOMA-IR and CRP were significantly higher in the cellulitis group compared with the control group (P<0.001). Furthermore, the mean recovery time of the patients with cellulitis was 21.2±5.6 days. Thus, increased levels of resistin (P=0.002) and HOMA-IR (P=0.005) could be used as predictive factors for the recovery time. The enhanced levels of resistin and HOMA-IR were shown to correlate with the high CRP levels in the cellulitis group. Therefore, the results indicated that increased levels of resistin may function as a prognostic marker for cellulitis. PMID:26136908

  15. The effects of ovariectomy and LPS-induced endotoxemia on resistin levels in female rats.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Matsui, Sumika; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Kawami, Takako; Yamasaki, Mikio; Murakami, Masahiro; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Irahara, Minoru

    2015-12-01

    Resistin is involved in the inflammatory response, as well as in insulin resistance. In rodents, resistin levels are partially regulated by ovarian hormones. Thus, ovariectomy-induced changes in resistin levels and their response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic stress were evaluated. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats exhibited higher serum resistin concentrations and visceral and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) resistin mRNA levels than sham-operated (sham) rats under the saline-injected (basal) conditions. The serum resistin levels of the gonadal intact male rats were higher than those of the sham rats, whereas the serum resistin levels of the male and OVX rats did not differ. In both the sham and OVX rats, the serum resistin concentration and the resistin mRNA levels of WAT were increased by LPS injection. At 24h after the LPS injection, no difference was detected in the serum resistin concentrations or WAT mRNA resistin levels between the sham and OVX rats. These results suggest that ovarian hormones partially regulate the basal resistin levels of female rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Remarkably increased resistin levels in anti-AChR antibody-positive myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Qi; Wang, Rong; Li, Ting; Li, Xin; Qi, Yuan; Wang, Jing; Yang, Li

    2015-06-15

    Resistin is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. To investigate serum resistin levels in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) and determine if there are associations between resistin levels and disease severity, we measured serum resistin levels in 102 patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive MG (AChR-MG). We further analyzed associations between serum resistin levels and clinical variables in patients with MG. Our findings demonstrate that serum resistin levels are elevated in patients with AChR-generalized MG and AChR-MG with thymoma and are correlated with disease severity. Resistin has potential as a useful serum biomarker for inflammation in AChR-MG.

  17. Circulating resistin protein and mRNA concentrations and clinical severity of coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Sopic, Miron; Spasojevic-Kalimanovska, Vesna; Kalimanovska-Ostric, Dimitra; Andjelkovic, Kristina; Jelic-Ivanovic, Zorana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have implicated a strong link between circulating plasma resistin and coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) resistin mRNA and its plasma protein concentrations between the patients with CAD of different clinical severity. Material and methods This study included 33 healthy subjects as the control group (CG) and 77 patients requiring coronary angiography. Of the latter 30 was CAD negative whereas 47 were CAD positive [18 with stable angina pectoris (SAP) and 29 with acute coronary syndrome (ACS)]. Circulating resistin was measured by ELISA; PBMC resistin mRNA was determined by real-time PCR. Results Resistin protein was significantly higher in the ACS group compared to the CG (P = 0.001) and the CAD negative group (P = 0.018). Resistin mRNA expression did not vary across the study groups, despite the positive correlation seen with plasma resistin (ρ = 0.305, P = 0.008). In patients, plasma resistin and PBMC resistin mRNA negatively correlated with HDL-C (ρ = -0.404, P < 0.001 and ρ = -0.257, P = 0.032, respectively). Furthermore, the highest plasma resistin tertile showed the lowest HDL-C (P = 0.006). Plasma resistin was positively associated with serum creatinine (ρ = 0.353, P = 0.002). Conclusion Significant increase of plasma resistin in patients with ACS compared to CG and CAD negative patients was observed. Despite no change in PBMC resistin mRNA in different disease conditions a positive association between resistin mRNA and resistin plasma protein was evident. Both plasma resistin and PBMC resistin mRNA were negatively associated with plasma HDL-C, and plasma resistin positively with serum creatinine. PMID:26110037

  18. Circulating resistin protein and mRNA concentrations and clinical severity of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Joksic, Jelena; Sopic, Miron; Spasojevic-Kalimanovska, Vesna; Kalimanovska-Ostric, Dimitra; Andjelkovic, Kristina; Jelic-Ivanovic, Zorana

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have implicated a strong link between circulating plasma resistin and coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) resistin mRNA and its plasma protein concentrations between the patients with CAD of different clinical severity. This study included 33 healthy subjects as the control group (CG) and 77 patients requiring coronary angiography. Of the latter 30 was CAD negative whereas 47 were CAD positive [18 with stable angina pectoris (SAP) and 29 with acute coronary syndrome (ACS)]. Circulating resistin was measured by ELISA; PBMC resistin mRNA was determined by real-time PCR. Resistin protein was significantly higher in the ACS group compared to the CG (P=0.001) and the CAD negative group (P=0.018). Resistin mRNA expression did not vary across the study groups, despite the positive correlation seen with plasma resistin (ρ=0.305, P=0.008). In patients, plasma resistin and PBMC resistin mRNA negatively correlated with HDL-C (ρ=-0.404, P<0.001 and ρ=-0.257, P=0.032, respectively). Furthermore, the highest plasma resistin tertile showed the lowest HDL-C (P=0.006). Plasma resistin was positively associated with serum creatinine (ρ=0.353, P=0.002). Significant increase of plasma resistin in patients with ACS compared to CG and CAD negative patients was observed. Despite no change in PBMC resistin mRNA in different disease conditions a positive association between resistin mRNA and resistin plasma protein was evident. Both plasma resistin and PBMC resistin mRNA were negatively associated with plasma HDL-C, and plasma resistin positively with serum creatinine.

  19. Pituitary resistin gene expression: effects of age, gender and obesity.

    PubMed

    Morash, Barbara A; Ur, Ehud; Wiesner, Glen; Roy, Jeremy; Wilkinson, Michael

    2004-03-01

    in a tissue-specific manner. Thus in visceral fat obesity increases but starvation decreases resistin mRNA. In contrast, pituitary levels are decreased in the presence of both high (ob/ob) and low (fasting) adipose stores. Further studies are required to define the unexpected hormonal regulation of resistin gene expression in the pituitary.

  20. The relationship between hepatic resistin overexpression and inflammation in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between resistin and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is not clear, some studies claimed that serum resistin levels were associated with neither the presence of NASH nor its severity, others declared that serum resistin was related with inflammation and fibrosis in NASH. Our animal study verified that the distribution of resistin in the liver is correlated with inflammation in NASH. However, there is no pertinent study in humans. Methods Thirty patients with NASH, 28 simple steatosis, and 43 controls were recruited. Blood was collected for resistin, liver chemistries, fasting insulin and some metabolic parameters. Liver histology was scored according to NAFLD activity scoring system. Hepatic resistin expression was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry. Resistin protein expression was confirmed by western blotting in 13 patients with concomitant NAFLD and gallstone. Results Serum resistin was significantly elevated in both NASH and simple steatotic subjects compared with controls (all P < 0.05). Hepatic resistin was significantly increased in NASH patients in both mRNA and protein levels than those in simple steatosis and control subjects (all P < 0.05). Both serum and hepatic resistin had a correlation with obesity, but not with insulin resistance. The distribution of resistin positive cells was predominantly in perisinusoidal cells (such as Kupffer cells and hepatic stellate cells) in human NASH. Multivariate analysis revealed that waist-hip ratio, higher serum triglyceride, and hyperresistinemia were independent factors related to higher grade of steatosis; whereas hepatic resistin and serum cytokeratin predict NASH and severity of liver fibrosis. Conclusions Hepatic resistin overexpression in NASH patients is associated with the severity of liver inflammation and fibrosis. Liver-derived resistin may be involved in the pathogenesis of human NASH. PMID:24559185

  1. Adipokine resistin predicts anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticoids in asthma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adipokines are protein mediators secreted by adipose tissue. Recently, adipokines have also been involved in the regulation of inflammation and allergic responses, and suggested to affect the risk of asthma especially in obese female patients. We assessed if adipokines predict responsiveness to glucocorticoids and if plasma adipokine levels are associated with lung function or inflammatory activity also in non-obese (body mass index (BMI) ≤ 30 kg/m2) women with newly-diagnosed steroid-naïve asthma. Methods Lung function, exhaled NO, plasma levels of adipokines leptin, resistin, adiponectin and adipsin, and inflammatory markers were measured in 35 steroid-naïve female asthmatics and in healthy controls. The measurements were repeated in a subgroup of asthmatics after 8 weeks of treatment with inhaled fluticasone. Adipokine concentrations in plasma were adjusted for BMI. Results High baseline resistin concentrations were associated with a more pronounced decrease in serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) (r = -0.745, p = 0.013), eosinophil protein X (EPX) (r = -0.733, p = 0.016) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) (r = -0.721, p = 0.019) during fluticasone treatment. In asthmatics, leptin correlated positively with asthma symptom score and negatively with lung function. However, no significant differences in plasma adipokine levels between non-obese asthmatics and healthy controls were found. The effects of resistin were also investigated in human macrophages in cell culture. Interestingly, resistin increased the production of proinflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-α and that was inhibited by fluticasone. Conclusions High resistin levels predicted favourable anti-inflammatory effect of inhaled glucocorticoids suggesting that resistin may be a marker of steroid-sensitive phenotype in asthma. High leptin levels were associated with a more severe disease suggesting that the link between leptin and asthma is not restricted to obesity. PMID:21615949

  2. Resistin 420C/G gene polymorphism on circulating resistin, metabolic risk factors and insulin resistance in adult women.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Gupta, Vani; Srivastava, Nidhi; Gupta, Vandana; Mishra, Sameeksha; Mishra, Supriya; Natu Shankar, Madhav; Roy, Uma; Chandra, Abhijit; Negi, M P S; Kumar, Sandeep

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the frequency association between resistin gene polymorphism with its circulating levels, metabolic risk factor and insulin resistance in adult women. Totally 615 subjects were enrolled for the study, 305 women were with metabolic syndrome and 310 women were without metabolic syndrome according to NCEP-ATP III criteria. Fasting circulatory level of resistin, insulin, plasma glucose and lipid profiles were estimated along with calculation of insulin resistance. Resistin 420C/G promoter region polymorphism was done by RFLP method. Variant genotype (CC vs CG+GG) (p<0.001: OR=2.22: 95% CI=1.60-3.10) of 420C/G resistin gene polymorphism was less frequently observed in control population. Further dividing subjects into two groups according to absence (Resistin -1) or presence (Resistin-2) of the G allele, significantly high levels of triglyceride (p<0.001), plasma glucose (p=0.012), systolic blood pressure (p<0.001), diastolic blood pressure (p<0.001), waist hip ratio (p<0.001), body mass index (p<0.001) and resistin (p<0.001), were observed in resistin-2 group. Present study shows that 420C/G polymorphism of resistin gene directly correlated to its high circulating level and metabolic risk factors, specifically markers of obesity and atherosclerosis, so it may have an important role in the development of metabolic syndrome and cardio metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Down-regulated resistin level in consequence of decreased neutrophil counts in untreated Grave's disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fengjiao; Chen, Xinxin; Zhou, Yulin; Ye, Lei; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang; Wang, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Resistin, belongs to cysteine-rich secretory protein, is mainly produced by circulating leukocytes, such as neutrophils monocytes and macrophages in humans. To date, few but controversial studies have reported about resistin concentrations in hyperthyroid patients, especially in Graves' disease (GD). We undertaked a controlled, prospective study to explore the serum resistin concentration in GD patients before and after -MMI treatment. In addition, we also investigated the main influencing factor on serum resistin level and discuessed the potential role of serum resistin plays in GD patients. 39 untreated GD (uGD) patients, including 8 males and 31 females, were enrolled in our investigation. All of these patients were prescribed with MMI treatment, in addition to 25 healthy controls. Anthropometric parameters and hormone assessment were measured. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect serum resistin concentration in different stages of GD patients. Furthermore, neutrophil cell line NB4 with or without T3 treatment to detect the effect of thyroid hormones on resistin expression. The serum resistin level and neutrophil counts in untreated GD patients were significantly declined. And all of these parameters were recovered to normal after MMI treatment in ethyroid GD (eGD) and TRAb-negative conversion (nGD) patients. Resistin concentration exhibited a negative correlation with FT3 and FT4, but a positive correlation with absolute number of neutrophiles in uGD patients, whereas did not correlate with thyroid autoimmune antibodies and BMI. Neutrophile cell line, NB4, produced decreased expression of resistin when stimulated with T3. Our study showed a decrease of serum resistin level in GD patients and we suggested that the serum resistin might primarily secreted from circulating neutrophils and down-regulated by excessive thyroid hormones in GD patients. PMID:27637079

  4. Relationship between resistin and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Chi, Po-Jui; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Hsu, Bang-Gee; Tasi, Jen Pi

    2016-09-01

    Determine the relationship of serum resistin level with outcome in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients. This 49-month prospective study enrolled 101 HD patients and examined their clinical and demographic characteristics. 23 of the 87 patients in the cohort died. Survivors were younger, had higher body mass index, diastolic blood pressure, and serum levels of albumin, creatinine, potassium, and phosphate, and lower serum levels of resistin. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated the optimal cut-off value of resistin for prediction of mortality was 127.4 ng/mL (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.667, p = 0.01). Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis indicated that advanced age (p < 0.001) and resistin level above 127.4 ng/mL (p = 0.004) were associated with increased mortality risk. Albumin (p = 0.048), creatinine (p = 0.014), potassium (p = 0.023), calcium (p = 0.021), and phosphate (p = 0.001) were associated with decreased mortality risk. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that advanced age (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.11, p < 0.0001) and elevated resistin concentration (aHR = 2.442, p = 0.0387) increased the risk for mortality. Advanced age and serum resistin concentration above 127.4 ng/mL are independent risk factors for mortality in patients undergoing maintenance HD.

  5. Inflammatory Induction of Human Resistin Causes Insulin Resistance in Endotoxemic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeong-Kyu; Qatanani, Mohammed; Briggs, Erika R.; Ahima, Rexford S.; Lazar, Mitchell A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although adipocyte-derived murine resistin links insulin resistance to obesity, the role of human resistin, predominantly expressed in mononuclear cells and induced by inflammatory signals, remains unclear. Given the mounting evidence that obesity and type 2 diabetes are inflammatory diseases, we sought to determine the relationship between inflammatory increases in human resistin and insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS To investigate the role of human resistin on glucose homeostasis in inflammatory states, we generated mice lacking murine resistin but transgenic for a bacterial artificial chromosome containing human resistin (BAC-Retn), whose expression was similar to that in humans. The metabolic and molecular phenotypes of BAC-Retn mice were assessed after acute and chronic endotoxemia (i.e., exposure to inflammatory lipopolysaccharide). RESULTS We found that BAC-Retn mice have circulating resistin levels within the normal human range, and similar to humans, lipopolysaccharide markedly increased serum resistin levels. Acute endotoxemia caused hypoglycemia in mice lacking murine resistin, and this was attenuated in BAC-Retn mice. In addition, BAC-Retn mice developed severe hepatic insulin resistance under chronic endotoxemia, accompanied by increased inflammatory responses in liver and skeletal muscle. CONCLUSIONS These results strongly support the role of human resistin in the development of insulin resistance in inflammation. Thus, human resistin may link insulin resistance to inflammatory diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. PMID:21282361

  6. Serum adipokine profiles in Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Kemmotsu, Yasushi; Saji, Tsutomu; Kusunoki, Natsuko; Tanaka, Nahoko; Nishimura, Chiaki; Ishiguro, Akira; Kawai, Shinichi

    2012-02-01

    Adipokines are cytokines derived from adipose tissue. Recently it has been established that adipokines are closely linked to the pathophysiology of not only metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and atherosclerosis, but also to inflammation and immune diseases. In this study we measured serum levels of adipokines in patients with acute Kawasaki disease to investigate the role of adipokines in the pathophysiology of Kawasaki disease. Serum resistin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, leptin, and visfatin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in a total of 117 subjects: 56 patients with acute Kawasaki disease, 30 healthy children, and 31 patients with acute infectious diseases. Serum resistin levels in patients with Kawasaki disease were significantly higher than those of healthy children and patients with acute infectious diseases. In contrast, mean serum HMW adiponectin, leptin, and visfatin levels in patients with Kawasaki disease exhibited no statistically significant differences compared with those in healthy children and patients with infectious diseases. Serum resistin levels decreased significantly after administration of intravenous immune globulin. Serum resistin levels on admission were significantly higher in nonresponders compared with responders to intravenous immune globulin therapy. A multivariate model revealed that C-reactive protein was a factor that was significantly related to elevated serum resistin level in patients with Kawasaki disease. In patients with Kawasaki disease, serum resistin levels were elevated, but decreased to nearly normal after intravenous administration of immune globulin. In contrast, serum HMW adiponectin, leptin, and visfatin levels showed no statistically significant changes. These findings suggest that resistin plays an important role, while other adipokines do not play a major role, in the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease.

  7. Peripheral blood leptin and resistin levels as clinical activity biomarkers in Mexican Rheumatoid Arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Bustos Rivera-Bahena, Carolina; Xibillé-Friedmann, Daniel-Xavier; González-Christen, Judith; Carrillo-Vázquez, Sandra Miriam; Montiel-Hernández, José Luis

    To evaluate the association between the clinical activity of RA patients and serum adipocytokines (Leptin, Adiponectin and Resistin) and inflammatory cytokines. All RA patients fulfilled ACR 1987 criteria and were treated with DMARDs. Adipocytokine and inflammatory cytokine levels were evaluated using ELISA. 121 patients were included in the study. Stratifying according to DAS28 (low, moderate and high activity), there were significant differences for Leptin, Resistin, IL-6 and IL-17, however, no differences were seen for Adiponectin, TNFα or IL-1β. Clinical activity positively correlated with Leptin, Resistin, IL-17 and IL-6 levels, but not with Adiponectin, TNFα or IL-1β. Adiponectin levels negatively correlated with TNFα and positively correlated with IL-1β. IL-1β positively correlated with IL-6 and negatively correlated with TNFα and IL-17. Circulating Leptin, Resistin, IL-6 and IL-17 levels positively correlate with RA clinical activity in a manner independent of the subject's BMI. Complex relationships between inflammatory cytokines were observed in RA patients suggesting that other metabolic or inflammatory factors could be involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  8. Total and High-Molecular Weight Adiponectin and Resistin in Relation to the Risk for Type 2 Diabetes in Women: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Heidemann, Christin; Sun, Qi; van Dam, Rob M.; Meigs, James B.; Zhang, Cuilin; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Mantzoros, Christos S.; Hu, Frank B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adiponectin, particularly high-molecular weight adiponectin, and resistin are recently discovered adipokines that may provide a molecular link between adiposity and type 2 diabetes. Objective To evaluate whether total and high-molecular weight adiponectin and resistin are associated with the future risk for type 2 diabetes, independent of obesity and other known diabetes risk factors. Design Prospective, nested case-control study. Settings United States. Participants 1,038 initially healthy women of the Nurses’ Health Study who developed type 2 diabetes after blood sampling (1989–1990) through 2002 and 1,136 matched control subjects. Measurements Plasma concentrations of adipokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results In multivariate models adjusting for diabetes risk factors including body-mass index (BMI), both higher total and high-molecular weight adiponectin levels were associated with a substantially lower risk for type 2 diabetes. The odds ratios comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles were 0.17 (95% CI, 0.12–0.25) for total adiponectin and 0.10 (CI, 0.06–0.15) for high-molecular weight adiponectin. In addition, a higher high-molecular weight-to-total adiponectin ratio was associated with a significantly lower risk even after adjusting for total adiponectin (odds ratio, 0.45 [CI, 0.31–0.65]). In the multivariate model adjusting for diabetes risk factors except BMI, high resistin levels were significantly associated with an increased diabetes risk for (odds ratio, 1.68 [CI, 1.25–2.25]). However, after additional adjustment for BMI, this association was no longer statistically significant (odds ratio, 1.28 [CI, 0.93–1.76]). Limitations Residual confounding by imperfectly or unmeasured confounders cannot be excluded. Conclusions These results indicate that adiponectin, but not resistin is strongly associated with diabetes risk independent of BMI. The high-molecular weight-to-total adiponectin ratio is

  9. Circulating resistin is a significant predictor of mortality independently from cardiovascular comorbidities in elderly, non-diabetic subjects with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Marouga, Anna; Dalamaga, Maria; Kastania, Anastasia N; Kroupis, Christos; Lagiou, Maria; Saounatsou, Koralia; Dimas, Kleanthi; Vlahakos, Demetrios V

    2016-01-01

    Resistin is associated with inflammation, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular (CV) disease. To associate circulating resistin with all-cause and CV mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Serum resistin was determined in a cohort of 80 elderly, non-diabetic patients with stable CKD at different stages in a follow-up period of 5 years. Circulating resistin was significantly elevated in deceased compared to alive patients. Resistin emerged as an independent biomarker of all-cause and CV mortality after a 5-year follow-up period. Elevated circulating resistin was a significant independent predictor of CV and all-cause mortality in elderly, non-diabetic CKD patients.

  10. Resistin levels are related to fat mass, but not to body mass index in children.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Lorena; Riestra, Pía; Navarro, Pilar; Gavela-Pérez, Teresa; Soriano-Guillén, Leandro; Garcés, Carmen

    2013-11-01

    The relationship of resistin levels with obesity remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine resistin levels in prepubertal children and adolescents and evaluate their association with anthropometric parameters and body composition. The study population included 420 randomly selected 6-8-year-old children and 712 children aged 12-16 years. Anthropometric data were measured and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip and waist-to-height ratios were calculated. Body composition was assessed using an impedance body composition analyzer. Serum resistin levels were determined using a multiplexed bead immunoassay. Resistin levels were not significantly different between sexes. No significant differences in serum resistin concentrations were found between obese, overweight, and normal weight children at any age, and no significant correlations were observed between resistin concentrations and weight or BMI. However, resistin levels showed a significant positive correlation with fat mass in 12-16-year-old children, particularly in girls. In addition to describing serum resistin levels in prepubertal children and adolescents, our study suggests that resistin is related to body fat rather than to BMI in adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Resistin may be an independent predictor of subclinical atherosclerosis formale smokers.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Bai, Xiao-Jun; Li, Fen-Xia; Fan, Li-Hong; Ren, Jie; Liang, Qi; Li, Hong-Bing; Bai, Ling; Tian, Hong-Yan; Fan, Fen-Ling; Tian, Gang; Ma, Ai-Qun; Chen, Jinghong

    To investigate whether resistin is associated with early atherosclerosis in male smokers. The present study consecutively enrolled 50 male smokers. Their serum resistin contents were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and subclinical atherosclerosis indices, including carotid inner middle thickness (IMT) and arterial elasticity indices (C1 and C2), were measured. The association between serum resistin levels and IMT, C1 and C2 were respectively evaluated with the Pearson's correlation coefficient method. The results showed that the serum resistin level had a positive association with IMT (r = 0.307, p = .030), but were both inversely associated with C1 (r = -0.440, p = .001) and C2 (r = -0.381, p = .006). These associations remained significant even after adjustment for cardiovascular confounders. In conclusion, serum resistin concentration was independently associated with early atherosclerosis in male smokers.

  12. Resistin as potential biomarker for chronic periodontitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Akram, Zohaib; Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; Taiyeb-Ali, Tara Bai; Shahdan, Mohd Shahril Amin; Baharuddin, Nor Adinar; Vaithilingam, Rathna Devi; Safii, Syarida Hasnur

    2017-01-01

    To determine the serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of resistin between individuals with chronic periodontitis (CP) and those without CP, and to evaluate the role of resistin in CP. The addressed focused question was "Is there a difference in the resistin levels between individuals with CP and those without CP?" four electronic databases: Medline, PubMed (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda), EMBASE, and Science direct databases from 1977 up to March 2016 for appropriate articles addressing the focused question. EMBASE and Medline were accessed using OVID interface which facilitated simultaneous search of text words, MeSH or Emtree. Unpublished studies (gray literature) were identified by searching the Open-GRAY database and references of the included studies (cross referencing) were performed to obtain new studies. In-vitro studies, animal studies, studies that reported levels of other cytokines but not resistin, letters to the editor and review papers were excluded. Ten studies were included. Nine studies compared resistin levels between CP and periodontally healthy (H) individuals and reported higher mean serum and GCF levels of resistin in CP patients than the H controls. Two studies showed comparable resistin levels from GCF and serum between diabetes mellitus with CP (DMCP) and CP groups. Three studies included obese subjects and showed comparable serum and GCF resistin levels between obese subjects with CP (OBCP) and CP subjects. CP patients were presented with elevated levels of GCF or serum resistin as compared with H individuals. Resistin modulates inflammation in chronic periodontal disease and may be used as surrogate measure to identify subjects at risk for periodontitis. Resistin levels in patients with CP and systemic inflammatory disorders such as diabetes, obesity, or rheumatoid arthritis was not significantly higher than the levels in patients with only CP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Resistin as an Intrahepatic Cytokine

    PubMed Central

    Bertolani, Cristiana; Sancho-Bru, Pau; Failli, Paola; Bataller, Ramon; Aleffi, Sara; DeFranco, Raffaella; Mazzinghi, Benedetta; Romagnani, Paola; Milani, Stefano; Ginés, Pere; Colmenero, Jordi; Parola, Maurizio; Gelmini, Stefania; Tarquini, Roberto; Laffi, Giacomo; Pinzani, Massimo; Marra, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance accelerate the progression of fibrosis during chronic liver disease. Resistin antagonizes insulin action in rodents, but its role in humans is still controversial. The aims of this study were to investigate resistin expression in human liver and to evaluate whether resistin may affect the biology of activated human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), key modulators of hepatic fibrogenesis. Resistin gene expression was low in normal human liver but was increased in conditions of severe fibrosis. Up-regulation of resistin during chronic liver damage was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In a group of patients with alcoholic hepatitis, resistin expression correlated with inflammation and fibrosis, suggesting a possible action on HSCs. Exposure of cultured HSCs to recombinant resistin resulted in increased expression of the proinflammatory chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-8, through activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Resistin induced a rapid increase in intracellular calcium concentration, mainly through calcium release from intracellular inositol triphosphate-sensitive pools. The intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM blocked resistin-induced NF-κB activation and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression. In conclusion, this study shows a role for resistin as an intrahepatic cytokine exerting proinflammatory actions in HSCs, via a Ca2+/NF-κB-dependent pathway and suggests involvement of this adipokine in the pathophysiology of liver fibrosis. PMID:17148667

  14. Elevated Resistin Gene Expression in African American Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vallega, Karin A; Liu, NingNing; Myers, Jennifer S; Yu, Kaixian; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2016-01-01

    African American (AA) women diagnosed with breast cancer are more likely to have aggressive subtypes. Investigating differentially expressed genes between patient populations may help explain racial health disparities. Resistin, one such gene, is linked to inflammation, obesity, and breast cancer risk. Previous studies indicated that resistin expression is higher in serum and tissue of AA breast cancer patients compared to Caucasian American (CA) patients. However, resistin expression levels have not been compared between AA and CA patients in a stage- and subtype-specific context. Breast cancer prognosis and treatments vary by subtype. This work investigates differential resistin gene expression in human breast cancer tissues of specific stages, receptor subtypes, and menopause statuses in AA and CA women. Differential gene expression analysis was performed using human breast cancer gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We performed inter-race resistin gene expression level comparisons looking at receptor status and stage-specific data between AA and CA samples. DESeq was run to test for differentially expressed resistin values. Resistin RNA was higher in AA women overall, with highest values in receptor negative subtypes. Estrogen-, progesterone-, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2- negative groups showed statistically significant elevated resistin levels in Stage I and II AA women compared to CA women. In inter-racial comparisons, AA women had significantly higher levels of resistin regardless of menopause status. In whole population comparisons, resistin expression was higher among Stage I and III estrogen receptor negative cases. In comparisons of molecular subtypes, resistin levels were significant higher in triple negative than in luminal A breast cancer. Resistin gene expression levels were significantly higher in receptor negative subtypes, especially estrogen receptor negative cases in AA women. Resistin may serve as an early breast

  15. Resistin as an inflammatory marker in patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine.

    PubMed

    Klemettilä, Jari-Pekka; Kampman, Olli; Seppälä, Niko; Viikki, Merja; Hämäläinen, Mari; Moilanen, Eeva; Leinonen, Esa

    2017-02-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with excess cardiovascular comorbidity and mortality related to lifestyle factors, such as lack of physical activity, poor diet, and smoking. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increased among patients with schizophrenia, with the highest rates among patients on clozapine treatment. Smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, airway inflammation and obstruction, and adipose tissue and inflammatory marker activation are related in systemic inflammation. Low-grade inflammation is also associated with schizophrenia. Adipokine resistin is a biomarker involving several acute and chronic inflammatory states. However, the inflammatory role of resistin is so far inconclusive and studies in schizophrenia are scanty. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of serum resistin as an inflammatory marker in patients with schizophrenia on clozapine treatment. Associations between serum levels of resistin and some other selected cytokines/adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, adipsin, IL-6, IL-1Ra, TNF-α, hs-CRP) and metabolic markers in 190 patients with schizophrenia on clozapine treatment were studied using a cross-sectional study design. Among male patients especially, smokers had higher levels of resistin than non-smokers, and among smokers resistin levels were associated with IL-1Ra and hs-CRP levels. In the whole patient group levels of resistin associated with levels of IL-1Ra, and among male patients with low HDL-cholesterol. Resistin is a biomarker of systemic inflammation associated with smoking among patients with schizophrenia on clozapine treatment. Resistin might have a role as a marker of cardiovascular comorbidity.

  16. Higher circulating resistin protein and PBMCs resistin mRNA levels are associated with increased prevalence of small dense LDL particles in coronary artery disease patients.

    PubMed

    Joksić, Jelena; Sopić, Miron; Spasojević-Kalimanovska, Vesna; Gojković, Tamara; Zeljković, Aleksandra; Vekić, Jelena; Andjelkovic, Kristina; Kalimanovska-Oštrić, Dimitra; Jelić-Ivanović, Zorana

    2016-01-01

    Recent in vitro experiments have indicated that human resistin increases the number of lipoprotein particles secreted by the human hepatocytes and also influences their quality, in terms of generating more proatherogenic lipid particles. The aim of this study is to investigate associations of plasma resistin and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) resistin messenger RNA (mRNA) levels with different prevalence of small, dense low-density lipoprotein particles (sdLDL) in patients with indications for coronary angiography. This study included 65 patients requiring coronary angiography. There were 41 patients without significant stenosis and 24 patients with significant stenosis in at least one major coronary artery. Circulating resistin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; PBMC resistin mRNA was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The LDL and high density lipoprotein subclasses were determined by gradient gel electrophoresis. Plasma resistin (P = 0.031) and PBMCs resistin mRNA (P = 0.004) were significantly higher in patients with proportion of sdLDL particles ≥ 50%, compared to the group with relative proportion of sdLDL particles < 50%. Plasma resistin correlated positively with creatinine (r = 0.456, P < 0.001) and resistin mRNA (r = 0.298, P = 0.014) but negatively with body mass index (r = -0.254, P = 0.034) and total cholesterol (r = -0.286, P = 0.021). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed LDL particle diameter as the only independent predictor of resistin mRNA (R(2) = 0.258; adjR(2) = 0.190). A significant association between resistin, both PBMCs mRNA and plasma protein, and the relative proportion of sdLDL particles in the circulation of coronary artery disease patients has been established, which implies that increased gene expression of resistin in PBMCs and higher resistin concentration in plasma are related to pro-atherogenic LDL particle phenotype. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Human Resistin in Chemotherapy-Induced Heart Failure in Humanized Male Mice and in Women Treated for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Daniel R.; Briggs, Erika R.; Qatanani, Mohammed; Sawaya, Heloisa; Sebag, Igal A.; Picard, Michael H.; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle

    2013-01-01

    Resistin is a circulating mediator of insulin resistance mainly expressed in human monocytes and responsive to inflammatory stimuli. Recent clinical studies have connected elevated resistin levels with the development and severity of heart failure. To further our understanding of the role of human resistin in heart failure, we studied a humanized mouse model lacking murine resistin but transgenic for the human Retn gene (Hum-Retn mice), which exhibits basal and inflammation-stimulated resistin levels similar to humans. Specifically, we explored whether resistin underlies acute anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. Remarkably, doxorubicin (25mg/kg ip) led to a 4-fold induction of serum resistin levels in Hum-Retn mice. Moreover, doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity was greater in the Hum-Retn mice than in littermate controls not expressing human resistin (Retn−/−). Hum-Retn mice showed increased cardiac mRNA levels of inflammatory and cell adhesion genes compared with Retn−/− mice. Macrophages, but not cardiomyocytes, from Hum-Retn mice treated with doxorubicin in vitro showed dramatic induction of hRetn (human resistin) mRNA and protein expression. We also examined resistin levels in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients with and without cardiotoxicity. Intriguingly, serum resistin levels in women undergoing anthracycline-containing chemotherapy increased significantly at 3 months and remained elevated at 6 months in those with subsequent cardiotoxicity. Further, elevation in resistin correlated with decline in ejection fraction in these women. These results suggest that elevated resistin is a biomarker of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity and may contribute in the development of heart failure via its direct effects on macrophages. These results further implicate resistin as a link between inflammation, metabolism, and heart disease. PMID:23981771

  18. High-fat- and lipid-induced insulin resistance in rats: the comparison of glucose metabolism, plasma resistin and adiponectin levels.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Yang, Gangyi; Li, Qingming; Tang, Yi; Li, Ke

    2006-01-01

    In animal models, both an acute elevation in plasma free fatty acid (FFA) via intravenous infusion of a lipid emulsion and a chronic elevation in plasma FFA via high-fat feeding have been shown to induce skeletal muscle and liver insulin resistance. However, there have been very few studies comparing the effects of high-fat- and lipid-induced insulin resistance on glucose metabolism and adipocytokines. In the current study, we used lipid infusion and a high-fat feed in combination with the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique to assess the impact of acute and chronically elevated FFA levels on overall glucose metabolism and insulin action; two adipocytokines, resistin and adiponectin, were used. At baseline, plasma FFA levels were significantly increased in the high-fat diet (HF) group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). During clamp steady-state, the FFA levels were reduced by approximately 25% in the control and approximately 48% in the HF groups. In contrast, there was a significant increase in the plasma FFA level in the lipid-infused group (from 0.82 +/- 0.03 to 2.87 +/- 0.18 mmol/l). The glucose infusion rates (GIRs) in the HF and lipid groups were obviously lower than in the control group (p < 0.01). Moreover, GIR was lower in the lipid group compared with the HF group (p < 0.05). The rate of glucose disappearance (G(Rd)) was significantly lower in the lipid group compared with the control group. Hepatic glucose production in the control group was suppressed by approximately 15% compared with the HF and lipid groups where it was suppressed by only approximately 72 and approximately 91%, respectively. The resistin level of muscle tissues in the lipid group was significantly higher compared with the control and HF groups (both p < 0.05). After the insulin clamp, the circulating adiponectin level was significantly decreased in the lipid group compared with the control and HF groups (p < 0.05). Lipid infusion, which was more effective than a high

  19. Resistin's, obesity and insulin resistance: the continuing disconnect between rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Huang, X; Yang, Z

    2016-06-01

    This review aimed to discuss the conflicting findings from resistin research in rodents and humans as well as recent advances in our understanding of resistin's role in obesity and insulin resistance. A comprehensive review and synthesis of resistin's role in obesity and insulin resistance as well as conflicting findings from resistin research in rodents and humans. In rodents, resistin is increased in high-fat/high-carbohydrate-fed, obese states characterized by impaired glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity. Resistin plays a causative role in the development of insulin resistance in rodents via 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent and AMPK-independent suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3) signaling. In contrast to rodents, human resistin is primarily secreted by peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as opposed to white adipocytes. Circulating resistin levels have been positively associated with central/visceral obesity (but not BMI) as well as insulin resistance, while other studies show no such association. Human resistin has a role in pro-inflammatory processes that have been conclusively associated with obesity and insulin resistance. PBMCs, as well as vascular cells, have been identified as the primary targets of resistin's pro-inflammatory activity via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, p50/p65) and other signaling pathways. Mounting evidence reveals a continuing disconnect between resistin's role in rodents and humans due to significant differences between these two species with respect to resistin's gene and protein structure, differential gene regulation, tissue-specific distribution, and insulin resistance induction as well as a paucity of evidence regarding the resistin receptor and downstream signaling mechanisms of action.

  20. Resistin: a potential biomarker for periodontitis influenced diabetes mellitus and diabetes induced periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Devanoorkar, Archana; Kathariya, Rahul; Guttiganur, Nagappa; Gopalakrishnan, D; Bagchi, Paulami

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are highly specific and sensitive indicators of disease activity. Resistin is a recently discovered adipocytokine, having a potent biomarker quality. Initially resistin was thought to be produced by adipocytes alone; however, emerging evidence suggests that it is also produced in abundance by various cells of the immunoinflammatory system, indicating its role in various chronic inflammatory diseases. Data suggests that resistin plays a role in obesity, insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, and periodontitis. Resistin derived its name from the original observation that it induced insulin resistance (resist-in: resist insulin) in mice and is downregulated in mature murine adipocytes cultured in the presence of insulin sensitizing drugs like thiazolidinediones. It is well recognized that obesity, is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. A three-way relationship has been established between diabetes, obesity and periodontitis. Recent evidence also suggests an association between obesity and increased risk for periodontitis. Our previous research showed incremental elevation of resistin with periodontal disease activity and a reduced level of resistin, after periodontal therapy. Thus resistin would be one of the molecular links connecting obesity, periodontitis, and diabetes and may serve as a marker that links periodontal disease with other systemic diseases. A Medline/PubMed search was carried out for keywords "Diabetes Mellitus," "Periodontitis," and "Resistin," and all relevant research papers from 1990 in English were shortlisted and finalized based on their importance. This review provides an insight into the biological action of resistin and its possible role in periodontitis influenced diabetes mellitus and diabetes induced periodontitis.

  1. Changes in the before and after thyroxine treatment levels of adipose tissue, leptin, and resistin in subclinical hypothyroid patients.

    PubMed

    Akbaba, Gulhan; Berker, Dilek; Isık, Serhat; Tuna, Mazhar Muslum; Koparal, Suha; Vural, Murat; Yılmaz, Fatma Meric; Topcuoglu, Canan; Guler, Serdar

    2016-08-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) occurs when serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations are raised and serum thyroid hormone concentrations are normal. The effect of SH on the proinflammatory adipose cytokine releasing visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is not clear. The aim of this study is to identify the difference between the pre and posttreatment levels of VAT, leptin, and resistin in SH patients. There were 51 SH patients and 43 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects included in the study. Thyroid functions, biochemical tests, leptin, resistin, and visceral and subcutaneous fat measurements were made. The measurements were repeated in the SH group in the third month following L-thyroxin treatment. Initially, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, carotid artery intima-media thickness (mm), leptin, and resistin levels were significantly higher in the SH group compared to the controls, while the other parameters were similar. While no correlation was observed between TSH levels and adipokines, a positive correlation was detected between waist circumference and leptin levels (r = 0.549, p < 0.01). Visceral adipose tissue was positively correlated to age, waist circumference, and leptin levels, but negatively correlated to free thyroxin (T4) levels (r = 0.419, p = 0.009; r = 0.794, p < 0.01; r = 0.515, p < 0.01 and r = - 0.416, p = 0.009, respectively). A significant decrease was observed in VAT volume, leptin, and resistin levels of SH patients following levothyroxine treatment. Conclusion The reduced VAT volume, leptin, and resistin levels in SH patients following treatment may support the idea that TSH affects adipose tissue functions.

  2. Effects of an in-patient treatment program based on regular exercise and a balanced diet on high molecular weight adiponectin, resistin levels, and insulin resistance in adolescents with severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Gueugnon, Carine; Mougin, Fabienne; Simon-Rigaud, Marie-Laure; Regnard, Jacques; Nègre, Véronique; Dumoulin, Gilles

    2012-08-01

    Adiponectin, the most abundant hormone produced by adipose tissue, circulates in 3 isoforms, including high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin. The latter has been suggested to be a better predictor of metabolic disturbances and insulin resistance associated with obesity. This study investigated changes in total and HMW adiponectin, resistin, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) during a 9-month in-patient treatment program based on physical exercise and a balanced diet in 32 severely obese adolescents. Total and HMW adiponectin, resistin, and HOMA were measured at baseline (month 0) and during the program (months 3, 6, 9). In addition, a control group of 15 teenagers served as a reference for the baseline assessments. At baseline, HMW adiponectin was more markedly decreased in obese adolescents than total adiponectin, and both were lower than in controls. Conversely, resistin and HOMA were higher in obese adolescents. During the program, there was a significant change in body composition and improved insulin sensitivity among obese teenagers. In addition, HMW adiponectin and the ratio of HMW-to-total adiponectin increased throughout the study, whereas total adiponectin only increased up until the sixth month. On the contrary, resistin did not show any significant change. In obese adolescents, a long-term combination of aerobic exercise and a balanced diet, inducing change in body composition and improved insulin sensitivity, markedly increased HMW adiponectin compared with total adiponectin, without any change in resistin concentrations. Our results thus suggest that the determination of HMW adiponectin could be more useful than measurement of total adiponectin in clinical settings.

  3. Validity of adiponectin-to-leptin and adiponectin-to-resistin ratios as predictors of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sarray, Sameh; Madan, Samira; Saleh, Layal R; Mahmoud, Naeema; Almawi, Wassim Y

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the association of changes in adipokine ratios with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and related features as altered levels of the adipokines adiponectin, leptin, and resistin were linked with the pathogenesis of PCOS. Case-control retrospective study. Outpatient obstetrics/gynecology and adult endocrinology clinics. Unrelated women with PCOS (n = 211) and age-matched control women (n = 215). None. Utility of adiponectin/leptin and adiponectin/resistin ratios as potential biomarkers of PCOS and associated features. Significant differences in adiponectin but not leptin or resistin serum levels were seen between women with PCOS and control women. Ratios of adiponectin/leptin and adiponectin/resistin, but not leptin/resistin ratios, were statistically significantly different between PCOS cases and control women. Receiver operated characteristics area under the curve demonstrated sensitivity and specificity for adiponectin/leptin and adiponectin/resistin but not leptin/resistin ratios or individual adipokines as predictors of PCOS. Adiponectin/leptin and adiponectin/resistin ratios negatively correlated with body mass index, homeostatic model assessment, insulin resistance, and free insulin, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin. In addition, adiponectin/resistin ratio negatively correlated with menarche. Ratios of adiponectin/leptin and adiponectin/resistin constitute novel predictor factors to explain PCOS and associated features and thus may present target for novel therapeutics in PCOS. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Human resistin stimulates the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-{alpha} and IL-12 in macrophages by NF-{kappa}B-dependent pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Silswal, Nirupama; Singh, Anil K.; Aruna, Battu; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita; Ghosh, Sudip; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z. . E-mail: nas_ehtesham@yahoo.com

    2005-09-09

    Resistin, a recently discovered 92 amino acid protein involved in the development of insulin resistance, has been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. The elevated serum resistin in human diabetes is often associated with a pro-inflammatory milieu. However, the role of resistin in the development of inflammation is not well understood. Addition of recombinant human resistin protein (hResistin) to macrophages (both murine and human) resulted in enhanced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-{alpha} and IL-12, similar to that obtained using 5 {mu}g/ml lipopolysaccharide. Both oligomeric and dimeric forms of hResistin were able to activate these cytokines suggesting that the inflammatory action of resistin is independent of its conformation. Heat denatured hResistin abrogated cytokine induction while treatment of recombinant resistin with polymyxin B agarose beads had no effect thereby ruling out the role of endotoxin in the recombinant hResistin mediated cytokine induction. The pro-inflammatory nature of hResistin was further evident from the ability of this protein to induce the nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B transcription factor as seen from electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Induction of TNF-{alpha} in U937 cells by hResistin was markedly reduced in the presence of either dominant negative I{kappa}B{alpha} plasmid or PDTC, a pharmacological inhibitor of NF-{kappa}B. A protein involved in conferring insulin resistance is also a pro-inflammatory molecule that has important implications.

  5. Resistin potentiates chemoresistance and stemness of breast cancer cells: Implications for racially disparate therapeutic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Sachin K; Srivastava, Sanjeev K; Zubair, Haseeb; Bhardwaj, Arun; Tyagi, Nikhil; Al-Ghadhban, Ahmed; Singh, Ajay P; Dyess, Donna L; Carter, James E; Singh, Seema

    2017-06-28

    Breast cancer (BC) continues to be the most frequently diagnosed cancer in American women, which disproportionately affects women of African-American (AA) descent. Previously, we reported greater serum levels of resistin in AA BC patients relative to Caucasian-American (CA) patients, and established its role in growth and aggressiveness of breast tumor cells. Here we have investigated the role of resistin in BC-chemoresistance. MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 BC cells of CA and AA origin, respectively, were incubated with resistin prior to doxorubicin treatment. Our data suggest that resistin conferred chemoresistance to both BC cell lines; however, the effect on AA cells was more profound. Furthermore, the resistin-induced doxorubicin-resistance was shown to occur due to suppression of apoptosis. Resistin treatment also affected the stemness of BC cells, as suggested by reduced cell surface expression of CD24, induced expression of CD44 and ALDH1, and increased capability of cells to form mammospheres. Mechanistic studies revealed that resistin-induced chemoresistance, apoptosis and stemness of BC cells were mediated through STAT3 activation. Taken together, our findings provide novel insight into the role of resistin in BC biology, and strengthen its role in racially disparate clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Relevance Study on Cerebral Infarction and Resistin Gene Polymorphism in Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Aijuan; Cai, Gaoyu; Fu, Ningzhen; Feng, Yulan; Sun, Jialan; Maimaiti, Yiming; Zhou, Weijun; Fu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Recent research on genome-wide associations has implicated that the serum resistin level and its gene polymorphism are associated with cerebral infarction (CI) morbidity and prognosis, and could thereby regulate CI. This study aimed to investigate the association between the resistin single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the susceptibility to CI in the Chinese Han population. A total of 550 CI patients and 313 healthy controls were genotyped. Nine SNPs of the resistin gene previously shown were sequenced and assessed for an association with CI. The numbers of GG genotype carriers of rs3219175 and rs3486119 in the CI group were significantly higher than those in the control group among the middle-aged group (aged 45-65), at 76% vs 67.9% (P=0.025) and 75.5% vs 67.9% (P=0.031). rs3219175 and rs34861192 were associated with CI in the dominant and superdominant models according to the genetic model analysis (P<0.05). Meanwhile, there was strong linkage disequilibrium among the rs34124816, rs3219175, rs34861192, rs1862513, rs3745367, 180C/G and rs3745369 sites. In a haplotype analysis, the occurrence rate of the haplotype AGGCAGC was 1.97 times (P<0.05) higher in the patient group than in the control group. In addition, the numbers of GG genotype carriers of rs3219175 and rs3486119 in the middle-aged male CI patients and the middle-aged small artery occlusion (SAO) CI patients were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). In the Chinese Han middle-aged population, the GG gene type carriers of the resistin gene sites rs3219175 and rs34861192 had a high risk for CI onset, especially in middle-aged male patients and SAO CI in all middle-aged patients. PMID:27699082

  7. Low Shear Stress Attenuates COX-2 Expression Induced by Resistin in Human Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Ping; Chen, Cheng-Nan; Chang, Hsin-I; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Cheng, Chin-Chang; Chiu, Fang-Yao; Lee, Ko-Chao; Lo, Chun-Min; Chang, Shun-Fu

    2017-06-01

    Low shear stress has been proposed to play a reparative role in modulating cartilage homeostasis. Recently, epidemiological studies have found a positive correlation between the resistin level in serum and synovial fluid and osteoarthritis (OA) severity in patients. However, the effect of moderate shear stress on the catabolic stimulation of resistin in OA chondrocytes remains unclear. Hence, this study was to investigate whether low shear stress could regulate resistin-induced catabolic cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in human OA chondrocytes and the underlying mechanism. Human OA chondrocytes and SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells were used in this study. Two modes of low shear stress (2 dyn/cm(2) ), pre-shear and post-shear, were applied to the chondrocytes. A specific activator and siRNAs were used to investigate the mechanism of low shear stress-regulated COX-2 expression of resistin induction. We found that human OA chondrocytes exposed to different modes of low shear stress elicit an opposite effect on resistin-induced COX-2 expression: pre-shear for a short duration attenuates the resistin effect by inhibiting the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB-p65 subunit and the cAMP response element binding protein; however, post-shear over a longer duration enhances the resistin effect by activating only the NF-κB-p65 subunit. Moreover, our results demonstrated that the regulation of both shear modes in resistin-stimulated COX-2 expression occurs through increasing AMP-activated protein kinase activation and then sirtuin 1 expression. This study elucidates the detailed mechanism of low shear stress regulating the resistin-induced catabolic COX-2 expression and indicates a possible reparative role of moderate shear force in resistin-stimulated OA development. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1448-1457, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Elevated resistin levels induce central leptin resistance and increased atherosclerotic progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Asterholm, Ingrid W; Rutkowski, Joseph M; Fujikawa, Teppei; Cho, You-Ree; Fukuda, Makoto; Tao, Caroline; Wang, Zhao V; Gupta, Rana K; Elmquist, Joel K; Scherer, Philipp E

    2014-06-01

    Resistin was originally identified as an adipocyte-derived factor upregulated during obesity and as a contributor to obesity-associated insulin resistance. Clinically, resistin has also been implicated in cardiovascular disease in a number of different patient populations. Our aim was to simultaneously address these phenomena. We generated mice with modest adipocyte-specific resistin overexpression. These mice were crossed with mice deficient in the LDL receptor (Ldlr (-/-)) to probe the physiological role of resistin. Both metabolic and atherosclerotic assessments were performed. Resistin overexpression led to increased atherosclerotic progression in Ldlr (-/-) mice. This was in part related to elevated serum triacylglycerol levels and a reduced ability to clear triacylglycerol upon a challenge. Additional phenotypic changes, such as increased body weight and reduced glucose clearance, independent of the Ldlr (-/-) background, confirmed increased adiposity associated with a more pronounced insulin resistance. A hallmark of elevated resistin was the disproportionate increase in circulating leptin levels. These mice thus recapitulated both the proposed negative cardiovascular correlation and the insulin resistance. A unifying mechanism for this complex phenotype was a resistin-mediated central leptin resistance, which we demonstrate directly both in vivo and in organotypic brain slices. In line with reduced sympathetic nervous system outflow, we found decreased brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity. The resulting elevated triacylglycerol levels provide a likely explanation for accelerated atherosclerosis. Resistin overexpression leads to a complex metabolic phenotype driven by resistin-mediated central leptin resistance and reduced BAT activity. Hypothalamic leptin resistance thus provides a unifying mechanism for both resistin-mediated insulin resistance and enhanced atherosclerosis.

  9. Resistin as a potential marker of renal disease in lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Hutcheson, J; Ye, Y; Han, J; Arriens, C; Saxena, R; Li, Q-Z; Mohan, C; Wu, T

    2015-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis (LN) have strong concomitance with cardiovascular disease that cannot be explained fully by typical risk factors. We examined the possibility that serum or urine expression of adipokines may act as biomarkers for LN, as these proteins have been associated previously with cardiovascular disease as well as SLE. Antibody arrays were performed on serum and urine from lupus patients and matched controls using a cross-sectional study design. From the initial array-based screening data of 15 adipokines, adiponectin, leptin and resistin were selected for validation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Correlations were determined between adipokine expression levels and measures of disease activity or lupus nephritis. The expression of adiponectin and resistin was increased in both sera and urine from LN patients, while leptin was increased in LN patient sera, compared to matched controls. Serum resistin, but not urine resistin, was correlated with measures of renal dysfunction in LN. Serum resistin expression may be useful as a marker of renal dysfunction in patients with LN, although longitudinal studies are warranted. Further studies are necessary to determine if resistin has functional consequences in LN. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  10. Resistin in Dairy Cows: Plasma Concentrations during Early Lactation, Expression and Potential Role in Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6) in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase) in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro. PMID:24675707

  11. Resistin: insulin resistance to malignancy.

    PubMed

    Codoñer-Franch, Pilar; Alonso-Iglesias, Eulalia

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue is recognized as an endocrine organ that secretes bioactive substances known as adipokines. Excess adipose tissue and adipose tissue dysfunction lead to dysregulated adipokine production that can contribute to the development of obesity-related co-morbidities. Among the various adipokines, resistin, which was initially considered as a determinant of the emergence of insulin resistance in obesity, has appeared as an important link between obesity and inflammatory processes. Several experimental and clinical studies have suggested an association between increased resistin levels and severe conditions associated with obesity such as cardiovascular disease and malignancies. In this review, we present the growing body of evidence that human resistin is an inflammatory biomarker and potential mediator of obesity-associated diseases. A common pathway seems to involve the combined alteration of immune and inflammatory processes that favor metabolic disturbances, atherosclerosis and carcinogenesis. The mode of action and the signaling pathways utilized by resistin in its interactions with target cells could involve oxidative and nitrosative stress. Therefore, resistin could function as a key molecule in the complications of obesity development and could potentially be used as a diagnostic and prognostic marker. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Resistin Production from Adipose Tissue Is Decreased in db/db Obese Mice, and Is Reversed by Rosiglitazone

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hongying; Zhang, Herbert J.; Xu, Aimin; Hoo, Ruby L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to (1) investigate the expression profiles of resistin in db/db mice and its dynamic association with metabolic parameters; and (2) evaluate the effects of Rosiglitazone on production of resistin. Methods Db/db mice and their lean litter mates were used for this study. Epididymal fat tissue was excised from mice of different age (from 5 to 12 weeks) for ex vivo incubation. Resistin,along with adiponectin,in serum and conditioned culture medium of epididymal fat pads were measured with immunoassays. The gene expression of resistin was determined by real-time PCR. Rosiglitazone or the vehicle (PBS) was administered into db/db mice by daily intra-gastric gavage. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were used for in vitro evaluation. Results The secretion of resistin from the fat pads in db/db mice was significantly lower than that in lean mice (P<0.01). The mRNA expression of the resistin gene in fat tissue of db/db mice at the age of 5 weeks was decreased by 60.5% compared to lean controls (p<0.05). Serum levels of resistin were comparable between the obese and lean groups, perhaps due to the increased total fat mass in db/db mice. Correlation analysis showed that serum resistin levels were positively correlated to resistin secretion from fat pads(r = 0.844,P = 0.000), while negatively associated with the body weight (r = −0.515, P = 0.000) and fasting glucose level (r = −0.357, P = 0.002). Notably, treatment with rosiglitazone increased the serum resistin levels by 66.4%(P<0.05)in db/db mice. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Rosiglitazone (10 uM) markedly enhanced the secretion of resistin by 120% (P<0.01) and its gene expression by 78.1% (P<0.05). Conclusion Both resistin gene expression and its secretion from the epididymal adipose tissue were decreased in db/db obese mice, while the insulin-sensitizing drug rosiglitazone increased resistin production. Our results do not support the role of resistin as an etiological

  13. Circulating resistin concentrations are independently associated with aortic pulse wave velocity in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Norman, Glenda; Norton, Gavin R; Gomes, Monica; Michel, Frederic; Majane, Olebogeng H I; Sareli, Pinhas; Millen, Aletta M E; Woodiwiss, Angela J

    2016-02-01

    The role of the adipokine, resistin in mediating increases in aortic stiffness is uncertain. We aimed to determine independent relations between circulating resistin concentrations and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and wave reflection in a community-based sample with a high prevalence of untreated hypertension and obesity. Plasma resistin, adiponectin, and C-reactive protein concentrations (ELISA); carotid-femoral (aortic) PWV and the aortic reflected wave index (applanation tonometry and SphygmoCor software) were determined in 683 randomly selected participants of African ancestry from SOWETO, South Africa who had never received antihypertensive therapy. Resistin concentrations were not independently associated with office or 24-h (n = 492) blood pressure (BP). In a stepwise regression model with BMI included in the model, age (P < 0.0001), mean arterial pressure (P < 0.0001), plasma resistin concentrations (P < 0.005), female sex (P = 0.01), and creatinine concentrations (P < 0.01) contributed independently to variations in PWV. Independent relations between resistin concentrations and PWV persisted with further adjustments for C-reactive protein concentrations (P < 0.005), and the homeostasis model of insulin resistance (P < 0.02). Similar relations were noted with waist circumference rather than BMI in the model. Resistin concentrations were not independently associated with aortic reflected wave index or aortic BP. Resistin is independently and directly associated with aortic stiffness and these effects occur beyond BP, insulin resistance, and general inflammation.

  14. Resistin confers resistance to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells through autophagy induction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenyu; Shi, Aiping; Song, Dong; Han, Bing; Zhang, Zhiru; Ma, Le; Liu, Dongxu; Fan, Zhimin

    2017-01-01

    Clear evidence has linked obesity to a high risk of incidence as well as poor clinical outcome of breast cancer. It has been proven that changes in the levels of adipokines caused by obesity are associated with the initiation and progression of breast cancer. Resistin is a novel adipokine that is upregulated in breast cancer patients and promotes breast cancer cell growth, invasion, and migration. The aim of the study was to investigate whether resistin affected the efficacy of doxorubicin (Dox), one of the most effective anthracycline chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of breast cancer. Treatment with resistin significantly attenuated Dox-induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner, resulting in an increase in breast cancer cells survival. Moreover, resistin significantly induced autophagy flux and inhibition of autophagy abrogated the pro-survival effect of resistin in doxorubicin-treated cells. Furthermore, the AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 and JNK signaling pathways were activated by resistin treatment. Inhibition of these two pathways markedly reduced the ratio of LC3B-II/LC3B-I and increased cell apoptosis induced by Dox. For the first time, our findings indicate that resistin confers resistance to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis through autophagy induction and that this process involves the activation of AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 and JNK signaling pathways. Our findings suggest that resistin antagonism may be a novel strategy to overcome resistance to doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.

  15. Resistin/ADSF/FIZZ3 in obesity and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sul, Hei Sook

    2004-08-01

    The role of adipocyte-secreted resistin/adipocyte-specific secretory factor (ADSF)/FIZZ3 in obesity and diabetes has been controversial at best. Recently generated resn knockout mice showed normal glucose and insulin sensitivity with lower fasting glucose levels. Upon feeding with a high-fat diet, the knockout mice exhibited increased glucose tolerance with decreased hepatic glucose output, possibly due to phosphorylation and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase and suppression of gluconeogenic genes. In comparison, transgenic mice overexpressing a dominant negative form of resistin/ADSF/FIZZ3 showed increased adiposity with elevated leptin and adiponectin levels, accompanying enhanced glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity both on chow and high-fat diets. Although its underlying mechanisms need further elucidation, the in vivo studies demonstrate a role of resistin/ADSF/FIZZ3 in obesity and insulin resistance.

  16. Macrophage-Derived Human Resistin Is Induced in Multiple Helminth Infections and Promotes Inflammatory Monocytes and Increased Parasite Burden

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jessica C.; Chen, Gang; Wang, Spencer H.; Barnes, Mark A.; Chung, Josiah I.; Camberis, Mali; Le Gros, Graham; Cooper, Philip J.; Steel, Cathy; Nutman, Thomas B.; Lazar, Mitchell A.; Nair, Meera G.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic helminth infections can be associated with lifelong morbidity such as immune-mediated organ failure. A better understanding of the host immune response to helminths could provide new avenues to promote parasite clearance and/or alleviate infection-associated morbidity. Murine resistin-like molecules (RELM) exhibit pleiotropic functions following helminth infection including modulating the host immune response; however, the relevance of human RELM proteins in helminth infection is unknown. To examine the function of human resistin (hResistin), we utilized transgenic mice expressing the human resistin gene (hRetnTg+). Following infection with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb), hResistin expression was significantly upregulated in infected tissue. Compared to control hRetnTg− mice, hRetnTg+ mice suffered from exacerbated Nb-induced inflammation characterized by weight loss and increased infiltration of inflammatory monocytes in the lung, along with elevated Nb egg burdens and delayed parasite expulsion. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the infected tissue revealed that hResistin promoted expression of proinflammatory cytokines and genes downstream of toll-like receptor signaling. Moreover, hResistin preferentially bound lung monocytes, and exogenous treatment of mice with recombinant hResistin promoted monocyte recruitment and proinflammatory cytokine expression. In human studies, increased serum resistin was associated with higher parasite load in individuals infected with soil-transmitted helminths or filarial nematode Wuchereria bancrofti, and was positively correlated with proinflammatory cytokines. Together, these studies identify human resistin as a detrimental factor induced by multiple helminth infections, where it promotes proinflammatory cytokines and impedes parasite clearance. Targeting the resistin/proinflammatory cytokine immune axis may provide new diagnostic or treatment strategies for helminth infection and associated

  17. In vitro interaction between resistin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in porcine ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Rak-Mardyła, Agnieszka; Drwal, Eliza

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting methods, we quantified the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, PPARα and PPARβ in different sized ovarian follicles (small (SF), medium (MF) and large (LF) follicles) in prepubertal and adult pigs. In prepubertal pigs, PPARγ and PPARα expression was highest in LF; however, PPARβ expression did not differ among SF, MF and LF. In mature pigs, only protein expression of PPARγ and PPARα increased during ovarian follicle development. Following identification of very high levels of PPARγ expression in LF in prepubertal and adult pigs, using in vitro culture of ovarian follicles, we determined the effect of resistin at 0.1, 1 and 10ngmL(-1) on PPARγ mRNA and protein expression and the effect of rosiglitazone at 25 and 50µM (a PPARγ agonist) on resistin mRNA and protein expression. Resistin increased PPARγ expression in ovarian follicles in both prepubertal and adult pigs, whereas rosiglitazone had an inhibitory effect on resistin expression. The role of PPARγ in regulating the effects of resistin on ovarian steroidogenesis was investigated using GW9662 (a PPARγ antagonist at dose of 1μM). In these studies, GW9662 reversed the effect of resistin on steroid hormone secretion. The data suggest that there is local cooperation between resistin and PPARγ expression in the porcine ovary. Resistin significantly increased the expression of PPARγ, whereas PPARγ decreased resistin expression; thus, PPARγ is a new key regulator of resistin expression and function.

  18. Resistin: A Potential Biomarker for Periodontitis Influenced Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Induced Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Devanoorkar, Archana; Kathariya, Rahul; Guttiganur, Nagappa; Gopalakrishnan, D.; Bagchi, Paulami

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are highly specific and sensitive indicators of disease activity. Resistin is a recently discovered adipocytokine, having a potent biomarker quality. Initially resistin was thought to be produced by adipocytes alone; however, emerging evidence suggests that it is also produced in abundance by various cells of the immunoinflammatory system, indicating its role in various chronic inflammatory diseases. Data suggests that resistin plays a role in obesity, insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, and periodontitis. Resistin derived its name from the original observation that it induced insulin resistance (resist-in: resist insulin) in mice and is downregulated in mature murine adipocytes cultured in the presence of insulin sensitizing drugs like thiazolidinediones. It is well recognized that obesity, is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. A three-way relationship has been established between diabetes, obesity and periodontitis. Recent evidence also suggests an association between obesity and increased risk for periodontitis. Our previous research showed incremental elevation of resistin with periodontal disease activity and a reduced level of resistin, after periodontal therapy. Thus resistin would be one of the molecular links connecting obesity, periodontitis, and diabetes and may serve as a marker that links periodontal disease with other systemic diseases. A Medline/PubMed search was carried out for keywords “Diabetes Mellitus,” “Periodontitis,” and “Resistin,” and all relevant research papers from 1990 in English were shortlisted and finalized based on their importance. This review provides an insight into the biological action of resistin and its possible role in periodontitis influenced diabetes mellitus and diabetes induced periodontitis. PMID:24692844

  19. Obesity in psoriasis: Leptin and resistin as mediators of cutaneous inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, A.; Arnadottir, S.; Gudjonsson, J. E.; Aphale, A.; Sigmarsdottir, A. A.; Gunnarsson, S. I.; Steinsson, J. T.; Elder, J. T.; Valdimarsson, H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Obesity is a significant risk factor for psoriasis and body mass index (BMI) correlates with disease severity. Objectives To investigate the relationship between obesity and psoriasis, focusing on the role of adipokines such as leptin and resistin. Patients/Methods Psoriasis patients (n=30) were recruited and their BMI, waist circumference and disease severity (PASI) were recorded. Fasting serum samples were obtained on enrollment and after a course of UVB treatment. Age, sex and BMI-matched healthy controls were also recruited. Results On enrollment, serum leptin and soluble leptin receptor levels were not raised compared with the controls. However, resistin, IL-1β, IL-6, CCL2, CXCL8 and CXCL9 were all significantly elevated in the patient group and serum resistin correlated with disease severity (r=0.372, p=0.043). Improvement after UVB treatment was accompanied by decreased serum CXCL8. In vitro, both leptin and resistin could induce CXCL8 and TNF-α production by blood monocytes, and leptin could additionally induce IL-1β and IL-1ra production. Leptin also dose dependently increased secretion of the growth factor amphiregulin by ex vivo-cultured lesional psoriasis skin. Conclusions These data support the view that leptin and resistin may be involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis in overweight individuals, possibly by augmenting the cytokine expression by the inflammatory infiltrate. PMID:18547319

  20. Oral Angiotensin-(1-7) prevented obesity and hepatic inflammation by inhibition of resistin/TLR4/MAPK/NF-κB in rats fed with high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sérgio Henrique Sousa; Andrade, João Marcus Oliveira; Fernandes, Luciana Rodrigues; Sinisterra, Ruben D M; Sousa, Frederico B; Feltenberger, John David; Alvarez-Leite, Jaqueline Izaura; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza

    2013-08-01

    Obesity is characterized by a pro-inflammatory state commonly associated with type 2 diabetes and fat-liver disease. In the last few years, different studies pointed out the role of Angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) in the metabolic regulation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of oral-administration of Ang-(1-7) in metabolism and inflammatory state of high-fat feed rats. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into three groups: High Fat Diet (HFD); Standard Diet (ST); High Fat Diet+Angiotensin-(1-7) [HFD+Ang-(1-7)]. Glycemic profile was evaluated by glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests, plasmatic glucose and insulin. Cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides analyses presented lipidic profile. RT-PCR evaluated mRNA expression to ACE, ACE2, resistin, TLR4, IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB genes. The main results showed that oral Ang-(1-7) decreased body weight and abdominal fat-mass. In addition, HFD+Ang-(1-7) treated rats presented enhanced glucose tolerance, insulin-sensitivity and decreased plasma-insulin levels, as well as a significant decrease in circulating lipid levels. These alterations were accompanied by a marked decreased expression of resistin, TLR4, ACE and increased ACE2 expression in liver. Furthermore, Ang-(1-7) decreases phosphorylation of MAPK and increases NF-κB expression. These alterations diminished expression of interleukin-6 and TNF-α, ameliorate inflammatory state in liver. In summary, the present study showed that oral-treatment with Ang-(1-7) in high-fat feed rats improved metabolism down-regulating resistin/TLR4/NF-κB-pathway.

  1. Linking resistin, inflammation, and cardiometabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeong Kyu; Kwak, Mi Kyung; Kim, Hye Jeong; Ahima, Rexford S

    2017-03-01

    Adipose tissue secretes a variety of bioactive substances that are associated with chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. While resistin was first known as an adipocyte-secreted hormone (adipokine) linked to obesity and insulin resistance in rodents, it is predominantly expressed and secreted by macrophages in humans. Epidemiological and genetic studies indicate that increased resistin levels are associated with the development of insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Resistin also appears to mediate the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by promoting endothelial dysfunction, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, arterial inflammation, and the formation of foam cells. Thus, resistin is predictive of atherosclerosis and poor clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease and heart failure. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that resistin is associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertension. The present review will focus on the role of human resistin in the pathogeneses of inflammation and obesity-related diseases.

  2. Linking resistin, inflammation, and cardiometabolic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeong Kyu; Kwak, Mi Kyung; Kim, Hye Jeong; Ahima, Rexford S.

    2017-01-01

    Adipose tissue secretes a variety of bioactive substances that are associated with chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. While resistin was first known as an adipocyte-secreted hormone (adipokine) linked to obesity and insulin resistance in rodents, it is predominantly expressed and secreted by macrophages in humans. Epidemiological and genetic studies indicate that increased resistin levels are associated with the development of insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Resistin also appears to mediate the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by promoting endothelial dysfunction, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, arterial inflammation, and the formation of foam cells. Thus, resistin is predictive of atherosclerosis and poor clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease and heart failure. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that resistin is associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertension. The present review will focus on the role of human resistin in the pathogeneses of inflammation and obesity-related diseases. PMID:28192887

  3. Circulating resistin levels and risk of multiple myeloma in three prospective cohorts.

    PubMed

    Santo, Loredana; Teras, Lauren R; Giles, Graham G; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Albanes, Demetrius; Wang, Ye; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Birmann, Brenda M; Colditz, Graham A; Pollak, Michael N; Purdue, Mark P; Hofmann, Jonathan N

    2017-10-10

    Resistin is a polypeptide hormone secreted by adipose tissue. A prior hospital-based case-control study reported serum resistin levels to be inversely associated with risk of multiple myeloma (MM). To date, this association has not been investigated prospectively. We measured resistin concentrations for pre-diagnosis peripheral blood samples from 178 MM cases and 358 individually matched controls from three cohorts participating in the MM cohort consortium. In overall analyses, higher resistin levels were weakly associated with reduced MM risk. For men, we observed a statistically significant inverse association between resistin levels and MM (odds ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24-0.83 and 0.54; 95% CI 0.29-0.99, for the third and fourth quartiles, respectively, vs the lowest quartile; Ptrend=0.03). No association was observed for women. This study provides the first prospective evidence that low circulating resistin levels may be associated with an increased risk of MM, particularly for men.

  4. Quantification and regulation of the adipokines resistin and progranulin in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Berghoff, Martin; Hochberg, Alexandra; Schmid, Andreas; Schlegel, Jutta; Karrasch, Thomas; Kaps, Manfred; Schäffler, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Adipokines bearing the potential to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are promising candidates for the endocrine regulation of central nervous processes and of a postulated fat-brain axis. Resistin and progranulin concentrations in paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of patients undergoing neurological evaluation and spinal puncture were investigated. Samples of n = 270 consecutive patients with various neurological diseases were collected without prior selection. Adipokine serum and CSF concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and serum and CSF routine parameters by standard procedures. Anthropometric data, medication and patient history were available. Serum levels of resistin and progranulin were positively correlated among each other, with respective CSF levels, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and markers of systemic inflammation. CSF resistin concentrations were generally low. Progranulin CSF concentrations and CSF/serum progranulin ratio were significantly higher in patients with infectious diseases, with disturbed BBB function and with elevated CSF cell count and presence of oligoclonal bands. Both adipokines are able to cross the BBB depending on a differing patency that increases with increasing grade of barrier dysfunction. Whereas resistin represents a systemic marker of inflammation, CSF progranulin levels strongly depend on the underlying disease and dysfunction of blood-CSF barrier. Resistin and progranulin represent novel and putative regulators of the fat-brain axis by their ability to cross the BBB under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The presented data provide insight into the characteristics of BBB function regarding progranulin and resistin and the basis for future establishment of normal values for CSF concentrations and CSF/serum ratios. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  5. Resistin Enhances Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Coronary Artery Tissues by Activating the NF-κB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fang; Si, Feifei; Feng, Siqi; Liu, Ruixi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis and is a leading cause of coronary artery lesions (CALs) in childhood. Our previous study has shown higher levels of serum Resistin in KD patients with coronary aneurysm. This study aimed at examining the association of Resistin with inflammatory cytokine expression in mouse model of coronary arteritis and determining the potential mechanisms. Methods. C57BL/6 mice were injected with Lactobacillus cell wall extract (LCWE) to induce coronary arteritis. The relative levels of Resistin, TNF-α, IL-1β, and MMP-9 expression and inflammatory infiltrates in the coronary arteries were determined longitudinally by quantitative RT-PCR, ELISA, and histology. The effect of TLR4 and NF-κB activation on Resistin-induced TNF-α and IL-1β expression in human coronary artery endothelium cells (HCAECs) was examined by quantitative RT-PCR. Results. Higher levels of Resistin, TNF-α, IL-1β, and MMP-9 expression were associated with the degrees of inflammatory infiltrates in the coronary artery walls of the LCWE-injected mice. Resistin enhanced TNF-α and IL-1β expression in HCAECs at 18 or 24 hours after stimulation. Pretreatment with anti-TLR4 attenuated Resistin-enhanced IL-1β, but not TNF-α, expression and pretreatment with parthenolide or QNZ demolished Resistin-enhanced TNF-α expression in HACECs. Pretreatment with parthenolide, but not QNZ, blocked Resistin-enhanced IL-1β expression in HCAECs. Conclusion. Resistin may enhance inflammation by cross-talking with TLR4/NF-κB signaling during the development of coronary arteritis in mice. PMID:27800490

  6. Resistin Enhances Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Coronary Artery Tissues by Activating the NF-κB Signaling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fang; Si, Feifei; Feng, Siqi; Yi, Qijian; Liu, Ruixi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis and is a leading cause of coronary artery lesions (CALs) in childhood. Our previous study has shown higher levels of serum Resistin in KD patients with coronary aneurysm. This study aimed at examining the association of Resistin with inflammatory cytokine expression in mouse model of coronary arteritis and determining the potential mechanisms. Methods. C57BL/6 mice were injected with Lactobacillus cell wall extract (LCWE) to induce coronary arteritis. The relative levels of Resistin, TNF-α, IL-1β, and MMP-9 expression and inflammatory infiltrates in the coronary arteries were determined longitudinally by quantitative RT-PCR, ELISA, and histology. The effect of TLR4 and NF-κB activation on Resistin-induced TNF-α and IL-1β expression in human coronary artery endothelium cells (HCAECs) was examined by quantitative RT-PCR. Results. Higher levels of Resistin, TNF-α, IL-1β, and MMP-9 expression were associated with the degrees of inflammatory infiltrates in the coronary artery walls of the LCWE-injected mice. Resistin enhanced TNF-α and IL-1β expression in HCAECs at 18 or 24 hours after stimulation. Pretreatment with anti-TLR4 attenuated Resistin-enhanced IL-1β, but not TNF-α, expression and pretreatment with parthenolide or QNZ demolished Resistin-enhanced TNF-α expression in HACECs. Pretreatment with parthenolide, but not QNZ, blocked Resistin-enhanced IL-1β expression in HCAECs. Conclusion. Resistin may enhance inflammation by cross-talking with TLR4/NF-κB signaling during the development of coronary arteritis in mice.

  7. Resistin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and human semen parameters in the presence of leukocytospermia, smoking habit, and varicocele.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Elena; Collodel, Giulia; Mazzi, Lucia; Campagna, MariaStella; Iacoponi, Francesca; Figura, Natale

    2014-08-01

    To explore the relationships between resistin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and semen parameters, sperm apoptosis, and necrosis in infertile patients and in control subjects with unknown reproductive potential with/without smoking habits, leukocytospermia, and varicocele. Prospective study. Sperm laboratory. A total of 110 selected men. Family history, clinical/physical examination, ELISA determination (resistin, IL-6, TNF-α), semen analysis, annexin V/propidium iodide assay. Relationships among resistin, IL-6, and TNF-α and semen parameters in the presence of smoking habits, varicocele, leukocytospermia, and in infertile subjects. Resistin level was higher in semen than in serum. Resistin semen levels showed negative correlations with sperm motility and positive correlations with apoptotic, necrotic sperm and TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Resistin, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were higher in smokers compared with nonsmokers and in cases with leukocytospermia, in which an increase in necrotic sperm and a decrease in the number of sperm with normal morphology and motility were observed. Cytokine levels were significantly higher in infertile patients compared with control subjects with unknown reproductive potential. A total of 74.5% of infertile patients showed leukocytospermia. Semen resistin correlated with IL-6, TNF-α, and sperm quality; in cases of leukocytospermia and smoking habits, resistin concentrations were increased, suggesting that resistin may play a regulatory role in inflammation of the male reproductive system. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Short-term Regulation of Resistin in vivo by Oral Lipid Ingestion and in vitro by Fatty Acid Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Karrasch, T; Schäffler, A

    2015-10-01

    Dysbalance of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines is a hallmark of metabolic syndrome but their nutrition-dependent regulation in healthy individuals is poorly characterized. We investigated pro-inflammatory resistin and anti-inflammatory adiponectin regulation during oral lipid ingestion (OLI) in healthy adults. Response of resistin upon free fatty acid (FFA) stimulation was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 100 healthy volunteers underwent OLI. Venous blood was drawn after 0, 2, 4, and 6 hours (h). Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and standard laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of adiponectin and resistin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Adipocytes were stimulated with FFA and concentrations of adipokines were measured by ELISA. Irrespective of BMI and gender, OLI led to a significant reduction of resistin serum levels in a stepwise manner whereas adiponectin concentrations remained unchanged. There were positive correlations of resistin with waist/hip ratio and visfatin levels, as was calculated by regression analysis. Resistin concentrations were significantly higher in smokers when compared to non-smokers. Adiponectin concentrations were higher in females and in users of hormonal contraception. Adiponectin levels showed a positive correlation with heart rate and HDL cholesterol and a negative correlation with age, waist/hip-ratio, BMI, diastolic/systolic blood pressure, visfatin levels and LDL/HDL-ratio. Resistin secretion was significantly induced by palmitic acid, linoleic acid and oleic acid in adipocytes. OLI is a physiological repressor of systemic resistin release whereas FFA upregulate resistin release in vitro from adipocytes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. The effect of prolonged aerobic exercise on serum adipokine levels during an ultra-marathon endurance race.

    PubMed

    Roupas, Nikolaos D; Mamali, Irene; Maragkos, Spyros; Leonidou, Lydia; Armeni, Anastasia K; Markantes, George K; Tsekouras, Athanasios; Sakellaropoulos, George C; Markou, Kostas B; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of prolonged intensive aerobic exercise and acute energy deficit (180 km ultra-marathon race) on serum leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin levels and their association and interaction with serum cortisol and insulin levels in highly trained ultra-endurance runners. The study included 17 highly trained ultra-endurance male athletes (mean age 51.29±6.84 years and body mass index (ΒΜΙ) 23.51±1.90) participating in the 5th Olympian Race held in Greece on May 2010. Anthropometric values were assessed; Serum cortisol, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin levels were measured at baseline, post-exercise and ~20 hours after the end of the race. All hormonal values of the post-exercise and recovery status were corrected for plasma volume changes. The estimated energy deficit during the ultra-endurance event was about 5000 Kcal. At the end of the race serum resistin levels were elevated (p<0.001) and serum leptin levels were reduced (p<0.001) and failed to reach pre-exercise levels, although showing a tendency towards restoration. No significant changes were noted in serum adiponectin and visfatin levels. Ultra-endurance aerobic exercise and acute negative energy balance lead to an up-regulation of serum resistin levels and a down-regulation of serum leptin levels.

  10. Resistin and Visfatin Expression in HCT-116 Colorectal Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Ghaemmaghami, Sara; Mohaddes, Seyed Mojtaba; Hedayati, Mehdi; Gorgian Mohammadi, Masumeh; Dehbashi, Golnoosh

    2013-01-01

    Adipocytokines, hormones secreted from adipose tissue, have been shown to be associated with many cancers such as breast, prostate and colorectal cancer. Recent studies have indicated that resistin and visfatin, two of these adipokines have high level plasma concentrations in colorectal cancer patients and may be promising biomarkers for colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to identify whether the colorectal cancer cell line, HCT-116, itself is the source of these two adipokines secretion. Resistin and visfatin expression were investigated in HCT-116 by RT – PCR at mRNA level and confirmed by ELISA at protein level. Visfatin showed a high expression at both mRNA and protein levels in HCT-116. Conversely, resistin was not expressed in either cell lysate or supernatant. These results showed that HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells secrete and express visfatin endogenously. However, they are not the main source of resistin and the high level of resistin in colorectal cancer may be due to monocytes and other inflammatory cells which increase in proinflammation status of cancer. Taken together, visfatin may act on colorectal cancer cell in an autocrine manner while resistin may act in a paracrine manner. PMID:24551805

  11. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions.

  12. Resistin is associated with mortality in patients with traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Recently, we reported that high levels of resistin are present in the peripheral blood of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage and are associated with a poor outcome. However, not much is known regarding the change in plasma resistin and its relation with mortality after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Thus, we sought to investigate change in plasma resistin level after TBI and to evaluate its relation with disease outcome. Methods Fifty healthy controls and 94 patients with acute severe TBI were included. Plasma samples were obtained on admission and at days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 after TBI. Its concentration was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Twenty-six patients (27.7%) died from TBI within 1 month. After TBI, plasma resistin level in patients increased during the 6-hour period immediately after TBI, peaked within 24 hours, plateaued at day 2, decreased gradually thereafter and was substantially higher than that in healthy controls during the 7-day period. A forward stepwise logistic regression selected plasma resistin level (odds ratio, 1.107; 95% confidence interval, 1.014-1.208; P = 0.023) as an independent predictor for 1-month mortality of patients. A multivariate linear regression showed that plasma resistin level was negatively associated with Glasgow Coma Scale score (t = -6.567, P < 0.001). A receiver operating characteristic curve identified plasma resistin cutoff level (30.8 ng/mL) that predicted 1-month mortality with the optimal sensitivity (84.6%) and specificity (75.0%) values (area under curve, 0.854; 95% confidence interval, 0.766-0.918; P < 0.001). Conclusions Increased plasma resistin level is found and associated with Glasgow Coma Scale score and mortality after TBI. PMID:21029428

  13. The associations of leptin, adiponectin and resistin with incident atrial fibrillation in women.

    PubMed

    Ermakov, Simon; Azarbal, Farnaz; Stefanick, Marcia L; LaMonte, Michael J; Li, Wenjun; Tharp, Katie M; Martin, Lisa W; Nassir, Rami; Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Albert, Christine M; Manson, JoAnn E; Assimes, Themistocles L; Hlatky, Mark A; Larson, Joseph C; Perez, Marco V

    2016-09-01

    Higher body mass index (BMI) is an important risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF). The adipokines leptin, adiponectin and resistin are correlates of BMI, but their association with incident AF is not well known. We explored this relationship in a large cohort of postmenopausal women. We studied an ethnically diverse cohort of community-dwelling postmenopausal women aged 50-79 who were nationally recruited at 40 clinical centres as part of the Women's Health Initiative investigation. Participants underwent measurements of baseline serum leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels and were followed for incident AF. Adipokine levels were log transformed and normalised using inverse probability weighting. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate associations with adjustment for known AF risk factors. Of the 4937 participants included, 892 developed AF over a follow-up of 11.1 years. Those with AF had higher mean leptin (14.9 pg/mL vs 13.9 pg/mL), adiponectin (26.3 ug/mL vs 24.5 ug/mL) and resistin (12.9 ng/mL vs 12.1 ng/mL) levels. After multivariable adjustment, neither log leptin nor log adiponectin levels were significantly associated with incident AF. However, log resistin levels remained significantly associated with incident AF (HR=1.57 per 1 log (ng/mL) increase, p=0.006). Additional adjustment for inflammatory cytokines only partially attenuated the association between resistin and incident AF (HR=1.43, p=0.06 adjusting for C-reactive protein (CRP); HR=1.39, p=0.08 adjusting for IL-6). Adjusting for resistin partially attenuated the association between BMI and incident AF (HR=1.14 per 5 kg/m(2), p=0.006 without resistin; HR=1.12, p=0.02 with resistin). In women, elevated levels of serum resistin are significantly associated with higher rates of incident AF and partially mediate the association between BMI and AF. In the same population, leptin and adiponectin levels are not significantly associated with AF. Published by

  14. Increased resistin may suppress reactive oxygen species production and inflammasome activation in type 2 diabetic patients with pulmonary tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Chao, Wen-Cheng; Yen, Chia-Liang; Wu, Ying-Hsun; Chen, Shin-Yi; Hsieh, Cheng-Yuan; Chang, Tsung-Chain; Ou, Horng-Yih; Shieh, Chi-Chang

    2015-03-01

    Although it has been known for decades that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are more susceptible to severe tuberculosis (TB) infection, the underlying immunological mechanisms remain unclear. Resistin, a protein produced by immune cells in humans, causes insulin resistance and has been implicated in inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in leukocytes. Recent studies suggested that IL-1β production in patients with Mycobacteria tuberculosis infection correlates with inflammasome activation which may be regulated by ROS production in the immune cells. By investigating the level of resistin in different patient groups, we found that serum resistin levels were significantly higher in severe TB and DM-only groups when compared with mild TB cases and healthy controls. Moreover, elevation of serum resistin correlated with impairment of ROS production of neutrophils in patients with both DM and TB. In human macrophages, exogenous resistin inhibits the production of ROS which are important in the mycobacterium-induced inflammasome activation. Moreover, macrophages with defective ROS production had poor IL-1β production and ineffective control of mycobacteria growth. Our results suggest that increased resistin in severe TB and DM patients may suppress the mycobacterium-induced inflammasome activation through inhibiting ROS production by leukocytes. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Polymorphisms of the resistin gene and their association with obesity and resistin levels in Malaysian Malays.

    PubMed

    Apalasamy, Yamunah Devi; Rampal, Sanjay; Salim, Agus; Moy, Foong Ming; Su, Tin Tin; Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Bulgiba, Awang; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2015-06-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the resistin gene (RETN) are linked to obesity and resistin levels in various populations. However, results have been inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate association between polymorphisms in the resistin gene with obesity in a homogenous Malaysian Malay population. This study is also aimed to determine association between resistin levels with certain SNPs and haplotypes of RETN. A total of 631 Malaysian Malay subjects were included in this study and genotyping was carried out using Sequenom MassARRAY. There was no significant difference found in both allelic and genotype frequencies of each of the RETN SNPs between the obese and non-obese groups after Bonferroni correction. RETN rs34861192 and rs3219175 SNPs were significantly associated with log-resistin levels. The GG genotype carriers are found to have higher levels of log-resistin compared to A allele carriers. The RETN haplotypes (CAG, CGA and GA) were significantly associated with resistin levels. However, the haplotypes of the RETN gene were not associated with obesity. Resistin levels were not correlated to metabolic parameters such as body weight, waist circumference, body mass index, and lipid parameters. RETN SNPs and haplotypes are of apparent functional importance in the regulation of resistin levels but are not correlated with obesity and related markers.

  16. Resistin levels in morbid obese patients following the biliopancreatic diversion surgery.

    PubMed

    de Luis, D A; Terroba, M C; Cuellar, L; Conde, R; Primo, D; Aller, R; Sagrado, M G; Izaola, O

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies addressing the changes of resistin concentrations in morbidly obese patients after bariatric surgery have yielded conflicting results. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the changes in serum resistin levels 1 year after biliopancreatic diversion in morbidly obese patients without diabetes mellitus. A cohort of 39 morbidly obese patients without diabetes mellitus was operated. Biochemical and anthropometric evaluation were realized at basal visit and at each visit. The frequency of patients with hypertension and hyperlipidemia was recorded at each visit. Overall the mean patient age was 44.8 ± 14.1, and the mean preoperative BMI was 47.3 ± 6.5 kg/m². After one year of surgery, a significant decrease was observed in BMI, weight, waist circumference, fat mass, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Resistin levels did not change after surgery (5.61 ± 1.93 ng/ml vs. 6.41 ± 3.58 ng/ml; ns). Correlation analysis showed a positive association between basal resistin and weight (r = 0.68, p < 0.01) and fat mass (r = 0.65, p < 0.05). Resistin concentrations did not change after massive weight loss with biliopancreatic diversion in morbid obese patients without diabetes mellitus.

  17. Correlation between Resistin, Tuberculosis and Khat Addiction: A Study from South Western Province of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alvi, Ayesha; Fatima, Nuzhath; Jerah, Ahmed Ali; Rizwan, Mohammed; Hobani, Yahya Hasan; Sunosi, Rashad Al; Taha, Manal Mohamed El Hassan; Habiballah, Eldaw Mohamed; Agarwal, Pradeep Kumar; Abdulwahab, Siddig Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis(TB) is a disease of global significance, which accounts for a death in every 15 seconds. Recent studies shows TB is rising in certain parts of the world, and Saudi Arabia is one of them. Several factor contribute in predisposing the subjects for infection including but not limited to addiction to various compounds which have immune modulation properties, such as amphetamines and Heroin etc. Khat a plant whose leaves are chewed for its euphoric effect in east Africa and Arabian Peninsula including Saudi Arabia, is considered as mildly addictive, and its principle compound, Cathinone shares structural and functional similarity with amphetamine a known immunomodulator. Tuberculosis being a disease of immune modulation has a varied spectrum of complex interplay of proinflammatory molecules, resistin is one of them. In the present study, we try to explore the trinity of khat addiction, serum resistin level and tuberculosis by correlating the serum resistin level in non khat addicted healthy subjects, khat addicted healthy subjects, and in patients, both khat addicted and non khat addicted, with active tuberculosis. We observed significantly higher resistin level among the apparently healthy khat addicted subjects as compared to non addicted healthy controls. Thereafter, when we compare the resistin levels between khat addicted and non khat addicted TB patients we did not found significant difference between the two groups. However bacillary load was observe to be significantly higher among the khat addicted TB patient as compare to non addicted one. Validation of above results in animal model revealed dose dependant increase in bacillary growth in the Wistar rats treated with khat. Taken together these results suggest the role of khat in immune modulation albeit in the limited frame of resistin level.

  18. Resistin promotes tumor metastasis by down-regulation of miR-519d through the AMPK/p38 signaling pathway in human chondrosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ho-Ning; Hung, Chih-Hung; Hsu, Chin-Jung; Fong, Yi-Chin; Hsu, Horng-Chaung; Huang, Yuan-Li; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Resistin is a recently discovered adipocyte-secreting adipokine, which may play a critical role in modulating cancer pathogenesis. Chondrosarcoma is a highly malignant tumor known to frequently metastasize; however, the role of resistin in the metastasis of human chondrosarcoma is largely unknown. Here, we found that the expression of resistin was higher in chondrosarcoma biopsy tissues than in normal cartilage. Moreover, treatment with resistin increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression and promoted cell migration in human chondrosarcoma cells. Co-transfection with microRNA (miR)-519d mimic resulted in reversed resistin-mediated cell migration and MMP-2 expression. Additionally, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p38 inhibitors or siRNAs reduced the resistin-increased cell migration and miR-519d suppression, and inhibition of resistin expression resulted in suppression of MMP-2 expression and lung metastasis in vivo. Taken together, our results indicate that resistin promotes chondrosarcoma metastasis and MMP-2 expression through activation of the AMPK/p38 signaling pathway and down-regulation of miR-519d expression. Therefore, resistin may represent a potential novel molecular therapeutic target in chondrosarcoma metastasis. PMID:25404641

  19. Resistin role in development of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Khalid; George, Teena P

    2017-07-01

    Diabetes is estimated to be one of the major causes of deaths in most countries due to its high prevalence rate, which was 8.8% in 2015. Hyperglycemia detected during pregnancy is known as gestational diabetes mellitus and it increases the potential risk of development of Type 2 diabetes in mothers with its varying prevalence rate of 1-14% in different populations. It also leads to the higher risk of developing abnormal glucose tolerance and obesity in their child at an early age. Recent studies show that potential mediators of insulin resistance such as adipokines - adiponectin, leptin and resistin are important for glucose and lipid metabolism. Adipokines are directly involved in the regulation of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in the liver, muscle and adipose tissue. It is also involved in inflammation, adipose tissue accumulation, adverse fat distribution and subsequently affects glucose metabolism. This review highlights the role of resistin (an adipokine) in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  20. Resistin and interleukin-6 exhibit racially-disparate expression in breast cancer patients, display molecular association and promote growth and aggressiveness of tumor cells through STAT3 activation

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Arun; Singh, Ajay P.; Tyagi, Nikhil; Marimuthu, Saravanakumar; Dyess, Donna L.; Zotto, Valeria Dal; Carter, James E.; Singh, Seema

    2015-01-01

    African-American (AA) women with breast cancer (BC) are diagnosed with more aggressive disease, have higher risk of recurrence and poorer prognosis as compared to Caucasian American (CA) women. Therefore, it is imperative to define the factors associated with such disparities to reduce the unequal burden of cancer. Emerging data suggest that inherent differences exist in the tumor microenvironment of AA and CA BC patients, however, its molecular bases and functional impact have remained poorly understood. Here, we conducted cytokine profiling in serum samples from AA and CA BC patients and identified resistin and IL-6 to be the most differentially-expressed cytokines with relative greater expression in AA patients. Resistin and IL-6 exhibited positive correlation in serum levels and treatment of BC cells with resistin led to enhanced production of IL-6. Moreover, resistin also enhanced the expression and phosphorylation of STAT3, and treatment of BC cells with IL-6-neutralizing antibody prior to resistin stimulation abolished STAT3 phosphorylation. In addition, resistin promoted growth and aggressiveness of BC cells, and these effects were mediated through STAT3 activation. Together, these findings suggest a crucial role of resistin, IL-6 and STAT3 in BC racial disparity. PMID:25868978

  1. Resistin and interleukin-6 exhibit racially-disparate expression in breast cancer patients, display molecular association and promote growth and aggressiveness of tumor cells through STAT3 activation.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Sachin K; Srivastava, Sanjeev K; Bhardwaj, Arun; Singh, Ajay P; Tyagi, Nikhil; Marimuthu, Saravanakumar; Dyess, Donna L; Dal Zotto, Valeria; Carter, James E; Singh, Seema

    2015-05-10

    African-American (AA) women with breast cancer (BC) are diagnosed with more aggressive disease, have higher risk of recurrence and poorer prognosis as compared to Caucasian American (CA) women. Therefore, it is imperative to define the factors associated with such disparities to reduce the unequal burden of cancer. Emerging data suggest that inherent differences exist in the tumor microenvironment of AA and CA BC patients, however, its molecular bases and functional impact have remained poorly understood. Here, we conducted cytokine profiling in serum samples from AA and CA BC patients and identified resistin and IL-6 to be the most differentially-expressed cytokines with relative greater expression in AA patients. Resistin and IL-6 exhibited positive correlation in serum levels and treatment of BC cells with resistin led to enhanced production of IL-6. Moreover, resistin also enhanced the expression and phosphorylation of STAT3, and treatment of BC cells with IL-6-neutralizing antibody prior to resistin stimulation abolished STAT3 phosphorylation. In addition, resistin promoted growth and aggressiveness of BC cells, and these effects were mediated through STAT3 activation. Together, these findings suggest a crucial role of resistin, IL-6 and STAT3 in BC racial disparity.

  2. Association of adiponectin and resistin gene polymorphisms in South Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Vandana; Vijesh, Vijayabhavanath Vijayakumaran; Lakshmanan, Prabha; Sukumaran, Shervin; Suganthi, Ramaswamy

    2016-05-01

    To investigate whether genetic polymorphisms in the resistin and adiponectin genes cause a predisposition towards polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in a South Indian women population. This case controlled study included samples from 484 study subjects (282 diagnosed with PCOS and 200 normal controls). The clinical and biochemical parameters of the samples assayed included BMI, LH, FSH, testosterone, fasting glucose, adiponectin and resistin levels. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms of the resistin (RETN) gene 420(C→G) (rs1862513), 299(G→A) (rs3745367), and 62(G→A) (rs3745368), and two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the adiponectin (ADPIOQ) gene 45(T→G) (rs2241766), and 276(G→T) (rs1501299), were analyzed using a PCR-RFLP method. Statistical analysis was carried out to determine the association of the genotypic and allelic variations with the syndrome and also analyze the influence of genotypic variations on adipokine levels. Serum levels of testosterone, LH, fasting glucose and resistin were found to be significantly increased in the PCOS patients when compared to controls, while adiponectin was found to be significantly lower (P<0.05). BMI was found to positively correlate with resistin levels and negatively correlate with adiponectin levels. A positive association was found between the RETN promoter 420 (C→G) SNP and the intron 2 299 (G→A) variant of the resistin gene, while no association was found between the ADPIOQ gene polymorphisms and PCOS. The 'GG' variant of the adiponectin 45 (T→G) variant showed a near-significant tendency towards a decreased concentration of adiponectin in PCOS patients. Polymorphisms of the resistin gene could be assigned to play a role in increasing the risk of PCOS. However, the adiponectin gene does not seem to play a major role in PCOS susceptibility in a South Indian population. Serum adiponectin and resistin levels were more dependent on BMI rather than the presentation of PCOS. Obesity plays a major role

  3. Associations of Resistin Levels with Resistin Gene Polymorphism and Metabolic Syndrome in Thais

    PubMed Central

    Suriyaprom, Kanjana; Tungtrongchitr, Rungsunn; Namjuntra, Pisit

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a clinical constellation comprising risk factors associated with developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Resistin has been suggested as a linkage between obesity, inflammation and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to investigate resistin concentrations and hematological-biochemical parameters in MS subjects and controls, and to determine whether two resistin gene (RETN) polymorphisms (−420C>G & +299G>A) are linked to resistin levels and MS among Thais. Methods This case-control study was performed with 322 Thai volunteers: 160 MS subjects and 162 controls. Anthropometric parameters and hematological-biochemical variables were determined. The RETN −420C>G (rs1862513) and +299G>A (rs3745367) polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR-RFLP technique. Results The resistin levels of the MS group were significantly higher than those of the control group. Resistin levels were positively correlated with anthropometric parameters and WBC count in the MS group. According to RETN −420C>G polymorphism, MS subjects with the G allele (CG/GG) (3.9 μg/L) had significantly higher resistin concentrations than in subjects with the CC genotype (2.4 μg/L); with regard to RETN +299G>A polymorphism, carriers with the A allele (GA/AA) (3.8 μg/L) had significantly higher resistin levels than subjects with the GG genotype (2.7 μg/L), after adjusting for potential covariates. However, the RETN −420C>G and +299G>A polymorphisms were not found to be associated with MS, hematological-biochemical parameters and anthropometric variables. Conclusions These findings suggest resistin levels are linked with MS and the RETN −420C>G and +299G>A polymorphisms have impacted the circulating resistin concentrations. However, these two RETN polymorphisms probably do not influence susceptibility to MS among Thais. PMID:28356829

  4. Relation of resistin to proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 levels in coronary artery disease patients with different nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Xu, R X; Zhang, Y; Guo, Y L; Zhu, C G; Liu, G; Dong, Q; Li, J J

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the association of resistin with proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels, another novel regulator of atherosclerosis, in the condition of coronary artery disease (CAD). We prospectively enrolled a total of 356 consecutive stable CAD patients who were not treated with lipid-lowering drugs in the present study. The baseline clinical characteristics were collected. Plasma PCSK9 and resistin levels were determined by ELISA. The relationship between plasma PCSK9 and resistin levels was investigated. Overall, plasma resistin exhibited a positive nonparametric correlation with PCSK9 levels (r = 0.123, p = 0.02). When the patients were classified into groups based on body mass index (BMI), the resistin correlated significantly to the PCSK9 levels in patients with BMI < 25 kg/m(2) (r = 0.162, p = 0.026) but not in patients with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) (r = 0.087, p = 0.205). Multivariate regression analysis corroborated the relation between the PCSK9 and an elevated resistin level in patients with BMI < 25 kg/m(2) independently of traditional parameters including age, sex, BMI, smoking, family history of CAD, systolic blood pressure, glucose, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, white blood cell, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein. Plasma resistin was positively related to PCSK9 levels in CAD patients with normal weight, suggesting that the circulating resistin might represent a link with PCSK9 level variations in CAD progression of normal body weight.

  5. Human Resistin: Found in Translation From Mouse to Man

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Daniel R.; Lazar, Mitchell A.

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of resistin ten years ago as a fat cell-secreted factor that modulates insulin resistance suggested a link to the obesity-associated epidemics of diabetes and cardiovascular disease that are major human health concerns. While adipocyte-derived resistin is indisputably linked to insulin resistance in rodent models, the relevance of human resistin is complicated because human resistin is secreted by macrophages rather than adipocytes, and because of the descriptive nature of human epidemiology. Here we review the recent and growing evidence that human resistin is an inflammatory biomarker and potential mediator of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:21497511

  6. Resistin Increases Monolayer Permeability of Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jamaluddin, Md Saha; Yan, Shaoyu; Lü, Jianming; Liang, Zhengdong; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2013-01-01

    Resistin has been linked to obesity, insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, and the development of cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, the effects and the molecular mechanisms of resistin on endothelial permeability, a key event in the development of atherosclerosis, inflammation, and vascular disease, are largely unknown. In order to determine the effect of resistin on endothelial permeability, human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were treated with clinically relevant concentrations of resistin and the endothelial permeability was measured using the Transwell system with a Texas-Red-labeled dextran tracer. The permeability of HCAEC monolayers treated with resistin (80 ng/mL) was 51% higher than the permeability of control monolayers (P<0.05). The mRNA levels of tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin in resistin-treated cells were 37% and 42% lower, respectively, than the corresponding levels in untreated cells. The protein levels of these molecules in resistin-treated cells were significantly reduced by 35% and 37%, respectively (P<0.05), as shown by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic MnTBAP effectively blocked the resistin-mediated reduction of ZO-1 and occludin levels in HCAECs. In addition, superoxide anion production was increased from 21% (untreated cells) to 55% (cells treated with 40 ng/mL resistin), and 64% (resistin, 80 mg/mL) (P<0.05). The natural antioxidant Ginkgolide A effectively inhibited resistin-induced increase in permeability and the increase in superoxide anion production in HCAECs. Furthermore, resistin treatment significantly activated p38 MAPK, but not ERK1/2. Pretreatment of HCAECs with a p38 inhibitor effectively blocked resistin-induced permeability. These results provide new evidence that resistin may contribute to the vascular lesion formation via increasing endothelial permeability through the mechanism of oxidative stress and the activation of p38 MAPK. PMID

  7. Circulating leptin, resistin, adiponectin, visfatin, adipsin and ghrelin levels and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women with and without the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chedraui, Peter; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Escobar, Gustavo S; Palla, Giulia; Montt-Guevara, Magdalena; Cecchi, Elena; Genazzani, Andrea R; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2014-09-01

    To measure serum levels of adipsin, leptin, resistin, adiponectin, visfatin, ghrelin and insulin in postmenopausal women screened for the metabolic syndrome (METS). Serum of 100 postmenopausal women was analyzed using multiplex technology for the mentioned analytes. In addition, values for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were calculated. Comparisons were performed in accordance to the presence or not of the METS and each of its components. Criteria of the American Heart Association were used to define the METS. Age and time since menopause onset were similar in women with the METS (n=57) as compared to those without the syndrome (n=43). METS women displayed significantly higher levels of adipsin, leptin, resistin, insulin and HOMA-IR values and lower adiponectin levels. These differences were mainly observed among women with abdominal obesity, independent of fulfilling METS criteria or not. In this same sense, lower adiponectin levels significantly related to low HDL-C and high triglyceride levels; and higher insulin and HOMA-IR values related to high triglyceride and glucose levels, respectively. In this sample, postmenopausal women with the METS displayed higher insulin and adipokine levels. These were mainly related to abdominal obesity and metabolic and lipid abnormalities. More research is warranted in this regard. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interleukin-6 and resistin in relation to anthropometric measurements in school children.

    PubMed

    Del Pilar Escalona-Villasmil, Carolina; Leal-Montiel, Jorymar Yoselyn; Ortega-Fernindez, Pablo Antonio; Javier Chavez, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    The worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased greatly over the past three decades. The increasing occurrence in children of disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, is believed to be a consequence of this obesity epidemic. Although the precise mechanisms are still unclear, dysregulated production or secretion of adipokines caused by excess adipose tissue and adipose tissue dysfunction can contribute to the development of obesity-related me- tabolic diseases. The objective of the study was to determine the serum levels of interleukin-6 and resistin in relation to anthropometric measurements in school children. One hundred and three school-age children were studied. The anthropometric assessment included weight, hei- ght, triceps skinfold (TSF), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WiHtR) and Body Mass Index (BMI). Interleukin-6 and resistin levels were measured by ELISA. The data were analyzed using the SPSS version 20 statistical program and 95% CIs (p<0.05) was considelred significant. BMI values indicated that 15.54 % of the population was overweight, and 11.65 % was obese. We found that scholars with excess WC, WHtR and BMI (overweight) had higher levels of IL-6 and scholars with excess WC and WHtR had higher levels of resistin (p <0.05). Interleukin-6 showed positive correlation with WC (r=0.229; p = 0.020) and waist-to-height ratio (r=0.397; presistin with waist-to-height ratio (r=0.283; p= 0.004). These results suggest that WC and waist-to-height ratio are good anthropometric indicators in school children, contributing to early detection and prognosis of metabolic risks in children, due to their positive correlation with pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and resistin).

  9. Circulating levels of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin after mud-bath therapy in patients with bilateral knee osteoarthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Giannitti, Chiara; Cheleschi, Sara; Simpatico, Antonella; Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2015-11-01

    Adipocytokines, including adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin may play an important role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). Spa therapy is one of the most commonly used non-pharmacological approaches for OA, but its mechanisms of action are not completely known. The aim of the present study was to assess whether a cycle of mud-bath therapy (MBT) influences the serum levels of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin in patients with knee OA. As part of a prospective randomized, single blind-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of MBT in knee OA, we included in this study 95 outpatients. One group ( n = 49) received a cycle of MBT at the spa center of Chianciano Terme (Italy) in addition to the usual treatment, and one group (control group; n = 46) continued their regular care routine alone. Patients were assessed at basal time and at the end of the study (15 days) for clinical and biochemical parameters. Clinical assessments included spontaneous pain on a visual analog scale (VAS) score and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities index (WOMAC) subscores for knee OA evaluated as total pain score (W-TPS), total stiffness score (W-TSS), and total physical function score (W-TPFS). Adiponectin, resistin and visfatin serum levels were assessed by enzyme immunoassay methods. At the end of the mud-bath therapy, serum adiponectin levels showed a significant decrease ( p < 0.001), while no significant modifications were found in the control group at day 15. Serum resistin showed a significant decrease ( p < 0.0001) in the MBT group at the end of the study and a significant increase in the control patients ( p < 0.001). No significant modifications of visfatin were found in MBT. Furthermore, we tested the relationships between demographic and clinical parameters and adipocytokine concentrations measured in the MBT group at basal and at the end of the study. In conclusion, the present study shows that a cycle of MBT can modify serum levels of adiponectin and

  10. Circulating levels of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin after mud-bath therapy in patients with bilateral knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Giannitti, Chiara; Cheleschi, Sara; Simpatico, Antonella; Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2015-11-01

    Adipocytokines, including adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin may play an important role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). Spa therapy is one of the most commonly used non-pharmacological approaches for OA, but its mechanisms of action are not completely known. The aim of the present study was to assess whether a cycle of mud-bath therapy (MBT) influences the serum levels of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin in patients with knee OA. As part of a prospective randomized, single blind-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of MBT in knee OA, we included in this study 95 outpatients. One group (n = 49) received a cycle of MBT at the spa center of Chianciano Terme (Italy) in addition to the usual treatment, and one group (control group; n = 46) continued their regular care routine alone. Patients were assessed at basal time and at the end of the study (15 days) for clinical and biochemical parameters. Clinical assessments included spontaneous pain on a visual analog scale (VAS) score and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities index (WOMAC) subscores for knee OA evaluated as total pain score (W-TPS), total stiffness score (W-TSS), and total physical function score (W-TPFS). Adiponectin, resistin and visfatin serum levels were assessed by enzyme immunoassay methods. At the end of the mud-bath therapy, serum adiponectin levels showed a significant decrease (p < 0.001), while no significant modifications were found in the control group at day 15. Serum resistin showed a significant decrease (p < 0.0001) in the MBT group at the end of the study and a significant increase in the control patients (p < 0.001). No significant modifications of visfatin were found in MBT. Furthermore, we tested the relationships between demographic and clinical parameters and adipocytokine concentrations measured in the MBT group at basal and at the end of the study. In conclusion, the present study shows that a cycle of MBT can modify serum levels of

  11. Reversal of Acute Kidney Injury-Induced Neutrophil Dysfunction: A Critical Role for Resistin.

    PubMed

    Singbartl, Kai; Miller, Lauren; Ruiz-Velasco, Victor; Kellum, John A

    2016-07-01

    To assess the reversibility of acute kidney injury-induced neutrophil dysfunction and to identify involved mechanisms. Controlled laboratory experiment and prospective observational clinical study. University laboratory and hospital. C57BL/6 wild-type mice. Patients with septic shock with or without acute kidney injury. Murine acute kidney injury was induced by intraperitoneal injections of folic acid (nephrotoxic acute kidney injury) or by IM injections of glycerol (rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury). After 24 hours, we incubated isolated neutrophils for 3 hours in normal mouse serum or minimum essential medium buffer. We further studied the effects of plasma samples from 13 patients with septic shock (with or without severe acute kidney injury) on neutrophilic-differentiated NB4 cells. Experimental acute kidney injury significantly inhibited neutrophil migration and intracellular actin polymerization. Plasma levels of resistin, a proinflammatory cytokine and uremic toxin, were significantly elevated during both forms of acute kidney injury. Incubation in serum or minimum essential medium buffer restored normal neutrophil function. Resistin by itself was able to induce acute kidney injury-like neutrophil dysfunction in vitro. Plasma resistin was significantly higher in patients with septic shock with acute kidney injury compared with patients with septic shock alone. Compared with plasma from patients with septic shock, plasma from patients with septic shock and acute kidney injury inhibited neutrophilic-differentiated NB4 cell migration. Even after 4 days of renal replacement therapy, plasma from patients with septic shock plus acute kidney injury still showed elevated resistin levels and inhibited neutrophilic-differentiated NB4 cell migration. Resistin inhibited neutrophilic-differentiated NB4 cell migration and intracellular actin polymerization at concentrations seen during acute kidney injury, but not at normal physiologic concentrations. Acute

  12. S-resistin, a non secretable resistin isoform, impairs the insulin signalling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, María; Moltó, Eduardo; Aguado, Lidia; Gallardo, Nilda; Andrés, Antonio; Arribas, Carmen

    2015-09-01

    S-resistin is a non-secretable resistin spliced variant, which is expressed mainly in the white adipose tissue from Wistar rats. Previous results confirmed that 3T3-L1 cells expressing s-resistin (3T3-L1-s-res) showed an inflammatory response and exhibited a decrease in glucose transport, both basal and insulin-stimulated. Here we present evidences demonstrating for the first time that s-resistin, like resistin, blocks insulin signalling pathway by inhibiting insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1, protein kinase B/Akt and the mammalian target of rapamycin phosphorylation, and increasing the suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 levels being the later probably due to augmented of leptin expression. Thus, our data suggest that s-resistin could act by a still unknown intracrine pathway as an intracellular sensor, regulating the adipocyte insulin sensitivity.

  13. Ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, and resistin levels in sleep apnea syndrome: Role of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ursavas, Ahmet; Ilcol, Yesim Ozarda; Nalci, Nazan; Karadag, Mehmet; Ege, Ercument

    2010-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among plasma leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin levels, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). METHODS: Fifty-five consecutive newly diagnosed OSAS patients and 15 age-matched nonapneic controls were enrolled in this study. After sleep study between 8:00 AM and 9:00 AM on the morning, venous blood was obtained in the fasting state to measure ghrelin and adipokines. RESULTS: Serum ghrelin levels of OSAS group were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of the control group. No significant difference was noted in the levels of leptin, adiponectin, and resistin in OSAS group when compared to controls. There was a significant positive correlation between ghrelin and apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) (r = 0.237, P < 0.05) or the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) (r = 0.28, P < 0.05). There was also a significant positive correlation between leptin and body mass index (r = 0.592, P < 0.0001). No significant correlation was observed between leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and any polysomnographic parameters. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that serum ghrelin levels were higher in OSAS patients than those of control group and correlated with AHI and ESS. Further studies are needed to clarify the complex relation among OSAS, obesity, adipokines, and ghrelin. PMID:20835311

  14. Association of Variants in RETN With Plasma Resistin Levels and Diabetes-Related Traits in the Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Hivert, Marie-France; Manning, Alisa K.; McAteer, Jarred B.; Dupuis, Josée; Fox, Caroline S.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Meigs, James B.; Florez, Jose C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE— The RETN gene encodes the adipokine resistin. Associations of RETN with plasma resistin levels, type 2 diabetes, and related metabolic traits have been inconsistent. Using comprehensive linkage disequilibrium mapping, we genotyped tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RETN and tested associations with plasma resistin levels, risk of diabetes, and glycemic traits. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— We examined 2,531 Framingham Offspring Study participants for resistin levels, glycemic phenotypes, and incident diabetes over 28 years of follow-up. We genotyped 21 tag SNPs that capture common (minor allele frequency >0.05) or previously reported SNPs at r2 > 0.8 across RETN and its flanking regions. We used sex- and age-adjusted linear mixed-effects models (with/without BMI adjustment) to test additive associations of SNPs with traits, adjusted Cox proportional hazards models accounting for relatedness for incident diabetes, and generated empirical P values (Pe) to control for type 1 error. RESULTS— Four tag SNPs (rs1477341, rs4804765, rs1423096, and rs10401670) on the 3′ side of RETN were strongly associated with resistin levels (all minor alleles associated with higher levels, Pe<0.05 after multiple testing correction). rs10401670 was also associated with fasting plasma glucose (Pe = 0.02, BMI adjusted) and mean glucose over follow-up (Pe = 0.01; BMI adjusted). No significant association was observed for adiposity traits. On meta-analysis, the previously reported association of SNP −420C/G (rs1862513) with resistin levels remained significant (P = 0.0009) but with high heterogeneity across studies (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS— SNPs in the 3′ region of RETN are associated with resistin levels, and one of them is also associated with glucose levels, although replication is needed. PMID:19074981

  15. Resistin and right ventricular function in children with recently diagnosed type-1 diabetes mellitus: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Al-Biltagi, Mohammed A; Tolba, Osama A; Mawlana, Wegdan; Abd El Hamed, Abdallah; Ghazy, May

    2015-03-01

    Resistin is an adipocyte-derived signaling polypeptide described in adipose tissue, which acts as a metabolic link between inflammation and atherosclerosis. This study aimed to assess the relation between right ventricular (RV) function assessed by echocardiography and resistin levels in recently diagnosed type-1 diabetic children. The study was conducted as a prospective cohort study and it included 30 children with type-1 diabetes mellitus as a patient group and 30 healthy children matched for age and sex as controls. It evaluated RV functions by tissue Doppler imaging, speckle tracking imaging, and real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE), as well as assessing resistin serum level using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The left ventricle (LV) showed no significant difference between the two groups in E/A ratio across the mitral valve, ejection fraction, and S wave mitral annulus. However, it showed significant decrease in the E'/A' wave of mitral annulus, impairment of LV myocardial performance index (MPI), and decrease in LV EF measured by RT3DE in diabetic patients compared to the control group. Significant differences in the mean value of tricuspid annular systolic excursion (TASE), pulmonary artery pressure, longitudinal systolic strain (RV LSS), MPI, and RV ejection fraction were observed between the studied groups. Yet, no significant differences in E/A ratio and S value were observed between the two groups. Significant positive correlation of resistin level with age of studied group and significant negative correlation of resistin with both TASE and RV LSS values were also observed. We confirmed the presence of subclinical RV systolic and diastolic dysfunction in type-1 diabetic children with positive correlation between resistin level and RV dysfunction among them.

  16. Circulating Chemerin Is Associated With Carotid Plaque Instability, Whereas Resistin Is Related to Cerebrovascular Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Gasbarrino, Karina; Mantzoros, Christos; Gorgui, Jessica; Veinot, John P; Lai, Chi; Daskalopoulou, Stella S

    2016-08-01

    The rupture of unstable carotid atherosclerotic plaques is one of the main causes of cerebrovascular ischemic events. There is need for circulating markers that can predict plaque instability and risk of stroke. Proinflammatory chemerin, leptin, and resistin, along with anti-inflammatory adiponectin, are adipokines with direct influence on vascular function. We investigated the association of circulating adipokines with carotid plaque instability and cerebrovascular symptomatology. Neurologically symptomatic and asymptomatic patients (n=165) scheduled for carotid endarterectomy were recruited. Fasting blood samples were collected preoperatively; adiponectin and leptin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay; and chemerin and resistin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The instability of plaque specimens was assessed using gold-standard histological classifications. Chemerin was significantly associated with plaque instability. The fully adjusted model, accounting for age, sex, body mass index, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and circulating adiponectin, leptin, and resistin, yielded an odds ratio of 0.991 (95% confidence interval 0.985-0.998) for plaque instability per unit increase in chemerin. High leptin levels were significantly associated with presence of specific features of plaque instability. In subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus, resistin levels were significantly elevated in symptomatic when compared with asymptomatic subjects (P=0.001) and increased the risk of cerebrovascular symptomatology (adjusted odds ratio 1.264, 95% confidence interval 1.004-1.594). Low chemerin and high resistin levels were associated with carotid disease severity, suggesting that these adipokines may act as potential markers for plaque instability and stroke risk. Future studies are needed to assess causation between circulating adipokines and plaque instability. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Resistin is a survival factor for porcine ovarian follicular cells.

    PubMed

    Rak, Agnieszka; Drwal, Eliza; Wróbel, Anna; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa Łucja

    2015-10-01

    Previously, we demonstrated the expression of resistin in the porcine ovary, the regulation of its expression and its direct effect on ovarian steroidogenesis. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of resistin on cell proliferation and apoptosis in a co-culture model of porcine granulosa and theca cells. First, we analysed the effect of resistin at 1 and 10  ng/ml alone or in combination with FSH- and IGF1 on ovarian cell proliferation with an alamarBlue assay and protein expression of cyclins A and B using western blot. Next, the mRNA and protein expression of selected pro-apoptotic and pro-survival regulators of cell apoptosis, caspase-9, -8 and -3 activity and DNA fragmentation using real time PCR, western blot, fluorescent assay and an ELISA kit, respectively, were analysed after resistin treatment. Furthermore, we determined the effect of resistin on the protein expression of ERK1/2, Stat and Akt kinase. Using specific inhibitors of these kinases, we also checked caspase-3 activity and protein expression. We found that resistin, at both doses, has no effect on cell proliferation. The results showed that resistin decreased pro-apoptotic genes, which was confirmed on protein expression of selected factors. We demonstrate an inhibitory effect of resistin on caspase activity and DNA fragmentation. Finally, resistin stimulated phosphorylation of the ERK1/2, Stat and Akt and kinases inhibitors reversed resistin action on caspase-3 activity and protein expression to control. All of these results showed that resistin has an inhibitory effect on porcine ovarian cell apoptosis by activation of the MAPK/ERK, JAK/Stat and Akt/PI3 kinase signalling pathways. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  18. The Relationship Between Skinfold Thickness and Leptin, Ghrelin, Adiponectin, and Resistin Levels in Infants of Diabetic Mothers.

    PubMed

    Kara, Mustafa; Orbak, Zerrin; Döneray, Hakan; Ozkan, Behzat; Akcay, Fatih

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between skinfold thickness and serum leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin levels in infants of diabetic mothers. Biochemical parameters were also similar for the two groups (infants of diabetic mothers and controls) (p > 0.05). We confirmed that there was a negative correlation between birth weight and serum ghrelin level (p < 0.05) in the two groups. When it was evaluated for control newborns, a positive correlation between abdominal circumference and serum resistin level was found in the controls (p < 0.05). Our results indicate that gestational diabetes by appropriate diet or insulin treatment may be effective in the protection of fetuses of diabetic mothers from the negative effects of gestational diabetes. Ghrelin alone was negatively correlated with birth weight. This negative correlation could be potentially advantageous to infants, because a reduction in appetite might prevent excessive food intake and postnatal weight gain.

  19. Resistin: functional roles and therapeutic considerations for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Jamaluddin, Md S; Weakley, Sarah M; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2012-01-01

    Resistin, originally described as an adipocyte-specific hormone, has been suggested to be an important link between obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. Although its expression was initially defined in adipocytes, significant levels of resistin expression in humans are mainly found in mononuclear leukocytes, macrophages, spleen and bone marrow cells. Increasing evidence indicates that resistin plays important regulatory roles apart from its role in insulin resistance and diabetes in a variety of biological processes: atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune disease, malignancy, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease and chronic kidney disease. As CVD accounts for a significant amount of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes and without diabetes, it is important to understand the role that adipokines such as resistin play in the cardiovascular system. Evidence suggests that resistin is involved in pathological processes leading to CVD including inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, thrombosis, angiogenesis and smooth muscle cell dysfunction. The modes of action and signalling pathways whereby resistin interacts with its target cells are beginning to be understood. In this review, the current knowledge about the functions and pathophysiological implications of resistin in CVD development is summarized; clinical translations, therapeutic considerations and future directions in the field of resistin research are discussed. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Fat and Vascular Responsiveness. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-3 PMID:21545576

  20. E-selectin, resistin and reactive oxygen species levels in GnRH -agonist and -antagonist protocols in IVF/ICSI: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Siristatidis, Charalampos; Askoxylaki, Marily; Varounis, Christos; Kassanos, Dimitrios; Chrelias, Charalampos

    2015-06-01

    To compare E-selectin, resistin and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in serum and follicular fluid (FF) of subfertile women undergoing Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation (COH) during IVF/ICSI cycles, using GnRH-agonist and -antagonist protocols. In this prospective cohort study, 85 subfertile women undergoing IVF/ICSI were included. Participants underwent the GnRH-agonist and -antagonist protocols; and blood samples were collected at three time points: basic (at start of COH), on the day of hCG and at oocyte retrieval (OR); and from the FF from the first follicle aspirate. Clinical and IVF cycle characteristics, were compared between groups, together with the levels of E-selectin, resistin and ROS in serum and FF, through ELISA. Their prognostic value on pregnancy outcomes was examined. Examining molecules levels are increasing in serum, from start of COH until OR, irrespectively of the protocol used; FF levels at OR were similar to those in serum at that day. Resistin FF levels were lower in GnRH agonists, compared with the antagonist protocol. Resistin levels at start of COH were associated with clinical pregnancy rates, and this remained significant following adjustment for age, BMI and IVF protocol used, while values of >13.5 ng/ml were associated with a six times greater odd of a pregnancy. E-selectin, resistin and ROS levels are increasing during COH, reaching their highest values at OR, with comparable values measured in the FF at that time. Resistin values >13.5 ng/ml are linked with a 6-fold increase on the odds of a pregnancy.

  1. Exercise and obesity in fibromyalgia: beneficial roles of IGF-1 and resistin?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Severe fatigue is a major health problem in fibromyalgia (FM). Obesity is common in FM, but the influence of adipokines and growth factors is not clear. The aim was to examine effects of exercise on fatigue, in lean, overweight and obese FM patients. Methods In a longitudinal study, 48 FM patients (median 52 years) exercised for 15 weeks. Nine patients were lean (body mass index, BMI 18.5 to 24.9), 26 overweight (BMI 25 to 29.9) and 13 obese. Fatigue was rated on a 0 to 100 mm scale (fibromyalgia impact questionnaire [FIQ] fatigue) and multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20) general fatigue (MFIGF). Higher levels in FIQ fatigue and MFIGF indicate greater degree of fatigue. Free and total IGF-1, neuropeptides, adipokines were determined in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Results Baseline FIQ fatigue correlated negatively with serum leptin (r = -0.345; P = 0.016) and nerve growth factor (NGF; r = -0.412; P = 0.037). In lean patients, baseline MFIGF associated negatively with serum resistin (r = -0.694; P = 0.038). FIQ Fatigue associated negatively with CSF resistin (r = -0.365; P = 0.073). Similarly, FIQ fatigue (r = -0.444; P = 0.026) and MFIGF correlated negatively with CSF adiponectin (r = -0.508; P = 0.01). In lean patients, FIQ fatigue (P = 0.046) decreased after 15 weeks. After 30 weeks, MFIGF decreased significantly in lean (MFIGF: P = 0.017), overweight (MFIGF: P = 0.001), and obese patients (MFIGF: P = 0.016). After 15 weeks, total IGF-1 increased in lean (P = 0.043) patients. ∆Total IGF-1 differed significantly between lean and obese patients (P = 0.010). ∆Total IGF-1 related negatively with ∆MFIGF after 15 weeks (r = -0.329; P = 0.050). After 30 weeks, ∆FIQ fatigue negatively correlated with ∆NGF (r = -0.463; P = 0.034) and positively with ∆neuropeptide Y (NPY) (r = 0.469; P = 0.032). Resistin increased after 30 weeks (P = 0.034). ∆MFIGF correlated negatively with ∆resistin (r = -0.346; P = 0.031), being strongest in

  2. Reverse regulation of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products and proinflammatory factor resistin and S100A12 in Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Kawasaki disease (KD), an acute febrile disease, characterized by systemic vasculitis, predominantly affects infants and children under 5 years of age. Coronary artery lesions (CALs) are its most critical complication, and the etiology remains unknown yet. In order to explore the value of resistin, S100A12 and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) in the pathophysiology of KD, we studied the serum levels of resistin, S100A12 and sRAGE in different stages of KD. Methods Serum levels of resistin, S100A12 and sRAGE were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method in 15 healthy children and 40 KD patients at acute, afebrile and subacute stage. Results The resistin and S100A12 levels, including the ratio of resistin to sRAGE and S100A12 to sRAGE increased significantly in the acute stage, and decreased progressively in the afebrile and subacute stage. However, the sRAGE levels decreased significantly in the acute stage, and increased progressively in the afebrile and subacute stage. In the acute, afebrile and subacute stage, the resistin levels were higher in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) non-responders (0.64 ± 0.30, 0.48 ± 0.35, 0.28 ± 0.19, × 102 ng/ml) than in IVIG responders (0.35 ± 0.24, 0.21 ± 0.19, 0.12 ± 0.05, × 102 ng/ml). In the acute and subacute stage, the S100A12 levels were higher in IVIG non-responders (7.92 ± 2.61, 4.98 ± 4.75, × 102 ng/ml) than in IVIG responders (5.05 ± 3.22, 2.35 ± 2.26, × 102 ng/ml). In the afebrile and subacute stage, the sRAGE levels were lower in IVIG non-responders (3.51 ± 2.64, 3.65 ± 3.27, × 102 pg/ml) than in IVIG responders (6.00 ± 2.78, 7.19 ± 2.88, × 102 pg/ml). The resistin levels were positively correlated with S100A12 levels. The sRAGE levels were negatively related with S100A12 and resistin levels. Conclusions Resistin, S100A12 and sRAGE are involved in the pathophysiology of KD. PMID:23171632

  3. Dual Effects of a RETN Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) at -420 on Plasma Resistin: Genotype and DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Hiroshi; Tabara, Yasuharu; Kawamura, Ryoichi; Ohashi, Jun; Nishida, Wataru; Takata, Yasunori; Ochi, Masaaki; Nishimiya, Tatsuya; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Miki, Tetsuro; Osawa, Haruhiko

    2017-03-01

    We previously reported that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-420 C>G (rs1862513) in the promoter region of RETN was associated with type 2 diabetes. Plasma resistin was tightly correlated with SNP-420 genotypes. SNP-420 is a CpG-SNP affecting the sequence of cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotides. To examine whether methylation at SNP-420 affects plasma resistin, we analyzed plasma resistin and methylation at RETN SNP-420. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral white blood cells in 2078 Japanese subjects. Quantification of the methylation was performed by pyrosequencing after DNA bisulfite conversion. Methylation at SNP-420 was highest in the C/C genotype (36.9 ± 5.7%), followed by C/G (21.4 ± 3.5%) and G/G (2.9 ± 1.4%; P < 0.001). When assessed in each genotype, methylation at SNP-420 was inversely associated with plasma resistin in the C/C (β = -0.134, P < 0.001) or C/G (β = -0.227, P < 0.001) genotype. In THP-1 human monocytes intrinsically having the C/C genotype, a demethylating reagent, 5-aza-dC, decreased the methylation at SNP-420 and increased RETN messenger RNA. SNP+1263 (rs3745369), located in the 3' untranslated region of RETN, was also associated with methylation at SNP-420. In addition, highly sensitive C-reactive protein was inversely associated with methylation at SNP-420 in the C/C genotype, whereas body mass index was positively associated. Plasma resistin was inversely associated with the extent of methylation at SNP-420 mainly dependent on the SNP-420 genotype. The association can also be explained partially independent of SNP-420 genotypes. SNP-420 could have dual, genetic and epigenetic effects on plasma resistin.

  4. Evaluation of insulin resistance and plasma levels for visfatin and resistin in obese and non-obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gul, Ozen Oz; Cander, Soner; Gul, Bulent; Açıkgoz, Ebru; Sarandol, Emre; Ersoy, Canan

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate insulin resistance and plasma levels of visfatin and resistin in obese and non-obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A total of 37 premenopausal PCOS patients with (n = 18, mean (SD) age: 27.5 (5.7 years) or without obesity (n = 19, mean (SD) age: 23.7 (3.1) years) and healthy volunteers (n = 18, mean (SD) age:29.8 (4.1) years) were included in this study. Data on clinical characteristics, glycemic parameters and lipid parameters were recorded for each subject as were plasma visfatin and resistin levels. Mean (SD) HOMA-IR values were significantly higher in obese PCOS patients (3.4 (1.7)) compared with non-obese PCOS patients (2.0 (1.2), p<0.01) and controls (1.6 (0.8), p<0.01). No significant difference was noted between study groups in terms of plasma resistin (ng/mL) or visfatin (ng/mL) levels. There was no correlation between serum plasma visfatin (r = 0.127, p = 0.407) and resistin (r = -0.096, p = 0.544) levels and HOMA-IR. In conclusion, our findings revealed increased likelihood of metabolic and dyslipidemic manifestations in obese compared to non-obese PCOS patients, while no significant difference was noted in visfatin and resistin levels among PCOS patients in terms of co-morbid obesity and in comparison to controls.

  5. Resistin aggravates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in cerulein‑stimulated AR42J pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chong-Yi; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Resistin, an adipocytokine secreted by fat tissues, has been shown to be associated with increased local and systemic complications in acute pancreatitis (AP). However, the mechanism underlying the effect of resistin in the aggravation of AP remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional consequences of exposing rat pancreatic acinar cells to resistin and to determine whether it amplifies proinflammatory signaling in an in vitro AP model. AR42J cells pretreated with recombinant resistin were activated by cerulein as an in vitro model of AP. The secretion of amylase was measured to evaluate the cytotoxic effect. The mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α and interleukin (IL)‑6 were determined using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. The nuclear protein expression levels of the nuclear factor (NF)‑κB p65 subunit were determined using western blot analysis. Resistin treatment significantly increased the secretion of amylase, and the mRNA expression levels of TNF‑α and IL‑6 in the cerulein‑induced in vitro AP model. High protein levels of the NF‑κB p65 subunit were observed in the nuclei of cells in the resistin‑treated AP model, compared with the untreated AP model. Pretreatment of the in vitro resistin‑treated AP model with the NF‑κB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate decreased the protein expression of the NF‑κB p65 subunit in nuclei, and significantly attenuated the increased mRNA expression levels of TNF‑α and IL‑6 induced by resistin. The results of the present study showed that resistin increased the production of the TNF‑α and IL‑6 proinflammatory cytokines via the NF‑κB‑dependent pathway during AP. Thus, the overproduction of obesity‑associated resistin and the associated amplification of the inflammatory response may result in the aggravation of AP severity.

  6. Longitudinal changes in adipose tissue of dairy cows from late pregnancy to lactation. Part 1: The adipokines apelin and resistin and their relationship to receptors linked with lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Weber, M; Locher, L; Huber, K; Kenéz, Á; Rehage, J; Tienken, R; Meyer, U; Dänicke, S; Sauerwein, H; Mielenz, M

    2016-02-01

    The transition from pregnancy to lactation is characterized by major changes in glucose and adipose tissue metabolism. Anti- and prolipolytic pathways mediated via the hydroxycarboxylic acid receptors 1 (HCAR1) and 2 (HCAR2) and tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 1 (TNFR1), as well as the adipokines apelin and resistin, are likely involved in regulating these processes. This study aimed to determine the mRNA abundance of the aforementioned receptors in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, to characterize the adipokine concentrations in serum, and to test the effects of feeding diets with either high or low portions of concentrate and a concomitant niacin supplementation from late gestation to early lactation. Twenty pluriparous German Holstein cows were all kept on the same silage-based diet until d 42 antepartum, when they were allocated to 2 feeding groups: until d 1 antepartum, 10 animals each were assigned to either a high-concentrate (60:40 concentrate-to-roughage ratio) or a low-concentrate diet (30:70). Both groups were further subdivided into a control and a niacin group, the latter receiving 24 g/d of nicotinic acid from d -42 until 24. From d 1 to 24 postpartum, the concentrate portion was increased from 30 to 50% for all cows. Biopsies of subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT) were taken at d -42, 1, 21, and 100 relative to parturition. Blood samples were drawn along with the biopsies and on d -14, 3, 7, 14, and 42. The concentrations of the adipokines apelin and resistin in serum were measured via ELISA. The mRNA of the 3 receptors in AT was quantified as well as the protein abundance of HCAR2 by Western blot. The feeding regimen did not affect the variables examined. The concentrations of apelin remained fairly constant during the observation period, whereas the resistin concentrations increased toward parturition and decreased to precalving levels within 1 wk after calving. The mRNA abundance of HCAR1, HCAR2, and TNFR1

  7. Heparanase Interacts with Resistin and Augments Its Activity

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Daniela; Barak, Sara; Ilan, Neta; Vlodavsky, Israel

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to isolate a heparanase receptor, postulated to mediate non-enzymatic functions of the heparanase protein, we utilized human urine collected from healthy volunteers. Affinity chromatography of this rich protein source on immobilized heparanase revealed resistin as a heparanase binding protein. Co-immunoprecipitation and ELISA further confirmed the interaction between heparanase and resistin. Importantly, we found that heparanase potentiates the bioactivity of resistin in its standard bioassay in which monocytic human leukemia cell line, THP1, differentiates into adherent macrophage-like foam cells. It is thus conceivable that this newly identified complex of heparanase and resistin exerts a stimulatory effect also in various inflammatory conditions known to be affected by the two proteins. PMID:24465803

  8. Resistin: regulation of food intake, glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nogueiras, Ruben; Novelle, Marta G; Vazquez, María Jesús; Lopez, Miguel; Dieguez, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Resistin has been identified as a hormone secreted by adipocytes that is under hormonal and nutritional control. This hormone has been suggested to be the link between obesity and type 2 diabetes. In rodents, resistin is mainly located and secreted from adipocytes, even though its expression was also found in several other tissues. However, in humans resistin is expressed primarily by macrophages and seems to be involved in the recruitment of other immune cells and the secretion of pro-inflammatory factors, although its role in insulin resistance cannot be ruled out. In addition to its role in glucose metabolism, resistin has been also involved in the control of hypothalamic and peripheral lipid metabolism and in the regulation of food intake. In this short review, we will summarize the most relevant findings of this hormone in rodents. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Leptin and resistin induce increased procoagulability in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, Peter; Eisenreich, Andreas; Weithäuser, Alice; Schultheiss, Heinz Peter; Rauch, Ursula

    2011-11-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) suffer from an increased risk of cardiovascular events caused by thrombotic conditions. Adipose tissue might play a crucial role in this pathogenesis by synthesis of procoagulant mediators. This study was performed to elucidate the role of the adipocytokines leptin and resistin in the development of hypercoagulability and hypofibrinolysis under diabetic conditions. Sixty two patients with or without DM were included in our study to measure leptin, resistin and tissue factor (TF) plasma concentrations. Moreover, flow chamber experiments were performed to assess factor Xa and plasmin activity on the surface of HUVECs. Western blot and real-time PCR were performed to determine mRNA and protein expression of main factors of the coagulation and fibrinolytic system. Patients with diabetes showed increased levels of leptin and resistin (leptin: 25.69±13.9 vs. 15.98±17.5 ng/mL, p<0.05; resistin: 2.61±0.6 vs. 1.19±0.7 ng/mL, p<0.05), which were positively correlated with TF. In vitro, leptin and resistin induced increased factor Xa activity (leptin: 4.29±0.57-fold, p<0.05; resistin 4.19±0.7-fold, p<0.05 vs. control) on HUVECs as also reflected by elevated TF mRNA and protein expression. Moreover, stimulatory (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1) and inhibitory (tissue plasminogen activator) mediators of the fibrinolytic cascade were induced by leptin and resistin, leading to a balanced plasmin activity regulation. Leptin and resistin lead to a procoagulant state in HUVECs by inducing TF expression. This mechanism might be one explanation for the prothrombotic state observed under diabetic conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characteristics of resistin in rheumatoid arthritis angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Su, Chen-Ming; Huang, Chun-Yin; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2016-06-01

    Adipokines have been reported to be involved in the regulation of various physiological processes, including the immune response. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an example of a systemic immune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the synovium and bone destruction in the joint. Recent therapeutic strategies based on the understanding of the role of cytokines and cellular mechanisms in RA have improved our understanding of angiogenesis. On the other hand, endogenous endothelial progenitor cells, which are a population isolated from peripheral blood monocytes have recently been identified as a homing target for pro-angiogeneic factor and vessel formation. In this review, we summarize the effects of common adipokines, such as adiponectin, leptin and resistin in RA pathogenesis and discuss other potential mechanisms of relevance for the therapeutic treatment of RA.

  11. Allotypy of High Density Lipoprotein of Rabbit Serum

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Kåre; Boman, Helge; Torsvik, Harald; Walker, Suzanne M.

    1971-01-01

    A common antigenic polymorphism of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in rabbit serum is described. The presence or absence of an antigen termed Hl 1 appears to be controlled by autosomal dominant inheritance. The polymorphism should be a useful tool in the study of serum lipoproteins, particularly since genetic polymorphisms within the low density lipoprotein are already known in several species. The Hl polymorphism may make the rabbit more useful for model studies of serum lipoproteins in health and disease. Images PMID:4995822

  12. Leptin and resistin in overweight patients with and without asthma.

    PubMed

    Muc, M; Todo-Bom, A; Mota-Pinto, A; Vale-Pereira, S; Loureiro, C

    2014-01-01

    Excess body mass increases the risk of development of asthmatic symptoms and their severity and decreases the treatment effectiveness. One of the hypotheses explaining the link between the two diseases concerns the adipokines, hormones produced by adipose tissue with a proinflammatory character. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of the adipokines (leptin and resistin) between overweight asthmatic patients, asthmatic patients with normal weight and overweight patients without asthma. 80 peripheral blood samples were collected from patients and blood serum extracted. Three groups were selected: overweight asthmatic patients (BMI≥25), overweight patients without asthma and asthmatic patients with normal weight (BMI<25). Waist circumference of the patients was measured (cut-off points were 80cm for women and over 94cm for men) and a skin prick test performed. Comparison of adipokine concentration between the 3 groups was made and association between these concentrations and the measurements was performed. Although the concentrations of both adipokines were slightly higher for overweight asthmatic patients compared to overweight healthy patients, these differences were not significant. A significant association was found between leptin concentration and both BMI (p<0.01) and waist circumference (p<0.01). A difference for this cytokine was also found between asthmatic and non-asthmatic female patients (p<0.05). As expected overweight patients with BMI≥25 and patients with increased waist circumference showed higher leptin levels. We suggest that the studied cytokines, with a stronger indication for leptin, can elicit asthmatic inflammation in obese phenotype of asthma that affects more frequently women. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Autocrine effects of transgenic resistin reduce palmitate and glucose oxidation in brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Pravenec, Michal; Mlejnek, Petr; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Šimáková, Miroslava; Šilhavý, Jan; Strnad, Hynek; Eigner, Sebastian; Eigner Henke, Kateřina; Škop, Vojtěch; Malínská, Hana; Trnovská, Jaroslava; Kazdová, Ludmila; Drahota, Zdeněk; Mráček, Tomáš; Houštěk, Josef

    2016-06-01

    Resistin has been originally identified as an adipokine that links obesity to insulin resistance in mice. In our previous studies in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) expressing a nonsecreted form of mouse resistin (Retn) transgene specifically in adipose tissue (SHR-Retn), we have observed an increased lipolysis and serum free fatty acids, ectopic fat accumulation in muscles, and insulin resistance. Recently, brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disturbances. In the current study, we have analyzed autocrine effects of transgenic resistin on BAT glucose and lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function in the SHR-Retn vs. nontransgenic SHR controls. We observed that interscapular BAT isolated from SHR-Retn transgenic rats compared with SHR controls showed a lower relative weight (0.71 ± 0.05 vs. 0.91 ± 0.08 g/100 g body wt, P < 0.05), significantly reduced both basal and insulin stimulated incorporation of palmitate into BAT lipids (658 ± 50 vs. 856 ± 45 and 864 ± 47 vs. 1,086 ± 35 nmol/g/2 h, P ≤ 0.01, respectively), and significantly decreased palmitate oxidation (37.6 ± 4.5 vs. 57 ± 4.1 nmol/g/2 h, P = 0.007) and glucose oxidation (277 ± 34 vs. 458 ± 38 nmol/g/2 h, P = 0.001). In addition, in vivo microPET imaging revealed significantly reduced (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT induced by exposure to cold in SHR-Retn vs. control SHR (232 ± 19 vs. 334 ± 22 kBq/ml, P < 0.05). Gene expression profiles in BAT identified differentially expressed genes involved in skeletal muscle and connective tissue development, inflammation and MAPK and insulin signaling. These results provide evidence that autocrine effects of resistin attenuate differentiation and activity of BAT and thus may play a role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in the rat.

  14. Adiponectin, resistin and IL-6 plasma levels in subjects with diabetic foot and possible correlations with clinical variables and cardiovascular co-morbidity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It is very suggestive that diabetic foot is characterized by a pronounced inflammatory reaction and the pathogenic significance of this inflammation has received little attention. On this basis the aim of our study was to evaluate plasma levels of adiponectin, resistin and IL-6 in subjects with diabetic foot in comparison with subjects without foot complications. Materials and methods We recruited 34 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and foot ulceration hospitalized for every condition related to diabetic disease, but not for new vascular events (group A). As controls we recruited 37 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without foot ulceration (group B) hospitalized for every condition related to diabetic disease, but not for new vascular events. Adiponectin, Resistin and IL-6 serum levels were evaluated. Results Subjects of group A showed lower median plasma levels of adiponectin [7.7450 (4.47-12.17) μg/ml vs 8.480 (5.15-12.87) μg/ml], higher median plasma levels of IL-6 [3.21 (1.23-5.34) pg/ml vs 2.73 (1.24-3.97 pg/ml)] and of resistin [3.860 (2.96-6.29 ng/ml) vs 3.690 (2.,37-6.5 ng/ml)]. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that diabetic subjects with diabetic foot showed in comparison with diabetics without diabetic foot higher IL-6 and resistin plasma levels, lower adiponectin plasma levels. PMID:20836881

  15. Leptin and resistin levels and their relationships with glucose metabolism in children with chronic renal insufficiency and undergoing dialysis.

    PubMed

    Buyan, Necla; Necla, Buyan; Bideci, Aysun; Aysun, Bideci; Ozkaya, Ozan; Ozan, Ozkaya; Ortac, Erol; Erol, Ortac; Bakkaloglu, Sevcan; Sevcan, Bakkaloglu; Gonen, Sevim; Sevim, Gonen; Peru, Harun; Harun, Peru; Soylemezoglu, Oğuz; Oğuz, Soylemezoglu; Cinaz, Peyami; Peyami, Cinaz

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present study is: (i) to evaluate the serum concentrations of leptin and resistin in the paediatric patients with chronic renal impairment (CRI), on haemodialysis (HD) and on peritoneal dialysis (PD) treatment; (ii) to examine the relationship between these hormones; and (iii) to investigate the possible influence of these hormones on the insulin resistance and sensitivity indexes as well as on serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels. In total, 52 patients (15 patients with CRI, 24 PD patients and 13 HD patients) and 23 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects were included in the present study. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was higher than 2.5 in 47.1% of the patients. IGF-1 levels of patients with CRI, PD and HD patients were significantly lower than those in the controls (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). The leptin levels of patients with CRI and on PD and HD treatment were significantly higher than the control group (P = 0.038, P = 0.002, P = 0.006, respectively). Similarly, serum resistin levels of patients with CRI and those of PD and HD patients were higher when compared with healthy controls (P = 0.037, P < 0.001, P = 0.005, respectively). Leptin and resistin levels were increased in the children with CRF; however, this elevation was not found to be associated with hyperinsulinism. Further studies to explain the mechanisms and consequences of the accumulation of these hormones in CRF may provide the therapeutical approach aiming to normalize their circulating levels.

  16. Association between resistin levels and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: a new study and a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Andrea; Spadaro, Sara; Copetti, Massimiliano; Spoto, Belinda; Salvemini, Lucia; Pizzini, Patrizia; Frittitta, Lucia; Mallamaci, Francesca; Pellegrini, Fabio; Trischitta, Vincenzo; Menzaghi, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Studies concerning the association between circulating resistin and mortality risk have reported, so far, conflicting results. To investigate the association between resistin and both all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality risk by 1) analyzing data from the Gargano Heart Study (GHS) prospective design (n=359 patients; 81 and 58 all-cause and CV deaths, respectively); 2) performing meta-analyses of all published studies addressing the above mentioned associations. MEDLINE and Web of Science search of studies reporting hazard ratios (HR) of circulating resistin for all-cause or CV mortality. Performed independently by two investigators, using a standardized data extraction sheet. In GHS, adjusted HRs per one standard deviation (SD) increment in resistin concentration were 1.28 (95% CI: 1.07-1.54) and 1.32 (95% CI: 1.06-1.64) for all-cause and CV mortality, respectively. The meta-analyses included 7 studies (n=4016; 961 events) for all-cause mortality and 6 studies (n=4,187: 412 events) for CV mortality. Pooled HRs per one SD increment in resistin levels were 1.21 (95% CI: 1.03-1.42, Q-test p for heterogeneity<0.001) and 1.05 (95% CI: 1.01-1.10, Q-test p for heterogeneity=0.199) for all-cause and CV mortality, respectively. At meta-regression analyses, study mean age explained 9.9% of all-cause mortality studies heterogeneity. After adjusting for age, HR for all-cause mortality was 1.24 (95% CI: 1.06-1.45). Our results provide evidence for an association between circulating resistin and mortality risk among high-risk patients as are those with diabetes and coronary artery disease.

  17. RESISTIN: A HORMONE WHICH INDUCES INSULIN RESISTANCE IS INCREASED IN NORMAL PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Nien, Jyh Kae; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Gotsch, Francesca; Pineles, Beth L.; Friel, Lara A.; Espinoza, Jimmy; Goncalves, Luis; Santolaya, Joaquin; Gomez, Ricardo; Hong, Joon-Seok; Edwin, Samuel; Soto, Eleazar; Richani, Karina; Mazor, Moshe; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2008-01-01

    Aims Resistin, a newly discovered adipokine, is thought to play a key role in the regulation of insulin resistance. The objectives of this study were to develop a nomogram of maternal plasma concentrations of resistin from 11 weeks of gestation to term and to determine whether resistin concentrations differ between normal and overweight pregnant women. Methods In this cross-sectional study, plasma concentrations of resistin were determined in normal pregnant women of normal body mass index (BMI 18.5–24.9; n=261), overweight pregnant women (BMI ≥25; n=140), and non-pregnant women of normal weight (n=40). Blood samples were collected once from each woman between the first trimester and term. Percentiles for resistin concentration were determined for five pre-specified windows of gestational age. Plasma resistin concentration was determined by immunoassay. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results The median maternal plasma concentration of resistin between 11 to 14 weeks of gestation in women of normal weight was significantly higher than non-pregnant women; The plasma concentration of resistin increased with gestational age. Conclusions Normal pregnant women have a higher median plasma concentration of resistin than non-pregnant women and the concentration of this adipokine increases with advancing gestation. Alterations in the maternal plasma concentration of resistin during pregnancy may contribute to metabolic changes of pregnancy. PMID:17919114

  18. Molecular cloning of feline resistin and the expression of resistin, leptin and adiponectin in the adipose tissue of normal and obese cats.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Satoshi; Nishii, Naohito; Kato, Akiko; Matsubara, Tatsuya; Shibata, Sanae; Kitagawa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Resistin, one of the adipokines that has a cycteine-rich C-terminus, is considered to relate to the development of insulin resistance in rats. However, in cats, there is little knowledge regarding resistin. In this study, we cloned the feline resistin cDNA from adipose tissue by RT-PCR. The feline resistin clone contained an entire open reading frame encoding 107 amino acids that had 72.8%, 75.4%, 50.9% and 51.8% homology with bovine, human, mouse and rat homologues, respectively. In both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues, the transcription levels of feline resistin mRNA were significantly higher in obese cats than normal cats, and those of feline adiponectin mRNA were significantly lower in obese cats than normal cats. However, there was no difference in the expression of feline leptin between normal and obese cats. On the other hand, in both normal and obese cats, there were no significant differences in resistin, leptin and adiponectin mRNA levels between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues. In cats, the altered expression of resistin and adiponectin mRNA with obesity may contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and subsequent diabetes mellitus. In addition to feline adiponectin, the feline resistin cDNA clone obtained in this study will be useful for further investigation of the pathogenesis of obesity in cats.

  19. High serum serotonin in sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Robin L; Frelinger, Andrew L; Giles, Emma K; Goldstein, Richard D; Tran, Hoa; Kozakewich, Harry P; Haas, Elisabeth A; Gerrits, Anja J; Mena, Othon J; Trachtenberg, Felicia L; Paterson, David S; Berry, Gerard T; Adeli, Khosrow; Kinney, Hannah C; Michelson, Alan D

    2017-07-18

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), the leading cause of postneonatal infant mortality, likely comprises heterogeneous disorders with the common phenotype of sudden death without explanation upon postmortem investigation. Previously, we reported that ∼40% of SIDS deaths are associated with abnormalities in serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in regions of the brainstem critical in homeostatic regulation. Here we tested the hypothesis that SIDS is associated with an alteration in serum 5-HT levels. Serum 5-HT, adjusted for postconceptional age, was significantly elevated (95%) in SIDS infants (n = 61) compared with autopsied controls (n = 15) [SIDS, 177.2 ± 15.1 (mean ± SE) ng/mL versus controls, 91.1 ± 30.6 ng/mL] (P = 0.014), as determined by ELISA. This increase was validated using high-performance liquid chromatography. Thirty-one percent (19/61) of SIDS cases had 5-HT levels greater than 2 SDs above the mean of the controls, thus defining a subset of SIDS cases with elevated 5-HT. There was no association between genotypes of the serotonin transporter promoter region polymorphism and serum 5-HT level. This study demonstrates that SIDS is associated with peripheral abnormalities in the 5-HT pathway. High serum 5-HT may serve as a potential forensic biomarker in autopsied infants with SIDS with serotonergic defects.

  20. High serum serotonin in sudden infant death syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Frelinger, Andrew L.; Giles, Emma K.; Goldstein, Richard D.; Tran, Hoa; Kozakewich, Harry P.; Haas, Elisabeth A.; Gerrits, Anja J.; Mena, Othon J.; Trachtenberg, Felicia L.; Paterson, David S.; Berry, Gerard T.; Adeli, Khosrow; Kinney, Hannah C.; Michelson, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), the leading cause of postneonatal infant mortality, likely comprises heterogeneous disorders with the common phenotype of sudden death without explanation upon postmortem investigation. Previously, we reported that ∼40% of SIDS deaths are associated with abnormalities in serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in regions of the brainstem critical in homeostatic regulation. Here we tested the hypothesis that SIDS is associated with an alteration in serum 5-HT levels. Serum 5-HT, adjusted for postconceptional age, was significantly elevated (95%) in SIDS infants (n = 61) compared with autopsied controls (n = 15) [SIDS, 177.2 ± 15.1 (mean ± SE) ng/mL versus controls, 91.1 ± 30.6 ng/mL] (P = 0.014), as determined by ELISA. This increase was validated using high-performance liquid chromatography. Thirty-one percent (19/61) of SIDS cases had 5-HT levels greater than 2 SDs above the mean of the controls, thus defining a subset of SIDS cases with elevated 5-HT. There was no association between genotypes of the serotonin transporter promoter region polymorphism and serum 5-HT level. This study demonstrates that SIDS is associated with peripheral abnormalities in the 5-HT pathway. High serum 5-HT may serve as a potential forensic biomarker in autopsied infants with SIDS with serotonergic defects. PMID:28674018

  1. Metformin decreases plasma resistin concentrations in pediatric patients with impaired glucose tolerance: a placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Díaz, Rita A; Talavera, Juan O; Pool, Elsy Canché; Ortiz-Navarrete, Francisco Vianney; Solórzano-Santos, Fortino; Mondragón-González, Rafael; Valladares-Salgado, Adan; Cruz, Miguel; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Wacher, Niels H

    2012-09-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of metformin on the concentrations of resistin and other markers of insulin resistance or inflammation (C-reactive protein, cytokines, body weight, HbA1c, among others) in minors with glucose intolerance. Patients aged 4 to 17 years with glucose intolerance were studied. They were randomized to receive 850 mg of either metformin or placebo twice daily for 12 weeks, during which all followed an iso-caloric diet and an exercise program. High sensitivity C-reactive protein, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL1-beta, resistin, leptin, adiponectin, glucose, insulin, HbA1c, lipid profile and transaminases were measured at the beginning and at the end of the period. Fifty-two patients were included, 11.9±2.6 years old; 28 (12 males/16 females) received metformin and 24 placebo (11 males/13 females). Baseline characteristics were similar between groups (except for body mass index, which in the metformin group was slightly higher). Percentage weight loss was greater in the metformin group (-5.86% vs 2.75%, P<.05). At study end, there were statistically significant differences in resistin concentrations, even after adjusting for confounding variables (F=7.714; P<.006). Also, metformin was associated with a significant decrease in HOMA-IR index (P=.032) and HbA1c levels (P=.001), but no change was observed in the concentration of other markers of inflammation. Metformin resulted in significant reductions of plasma resistin levels in minors with glucose intolerance. This change is independent of its effects on body weight. In contrast, metformin did not alter the concentration of inflammatory markers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum adipocytokine profile and metabolic syndrome in young adult female dermatomyositis patients.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marilda Guimarães; Borba, Eduardo Ferreira; Mello, Suzana Beatriz Veríssimo de; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki

    2016-12-01

    To analyse the frequency of metabolic syndrome in young adult female dermatomyositis patients and its possible association with clinical and laboratory dermatomyositis-related features and serum adipocytokines. This cross-sectional study included 35 dermatomyositis patients and 48 healthy controls. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the 2009 Joint Interim Statement. Patient age was comparable in the dermatomyositis and control groups, and the median disease duration was 1.0 year. An increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome was detected in the dermatomyositis group (34.3% vs. 6.3%; p=0.001). In addition, increased serum adiponectin and resistin levels were noted in contrast to lower leptin levels. In dermatomyositis patients, adipocytokine levels were correlated with the levels of total cholesterol, low-density cholesterol, triglycerides and muscle enzymes. A comparison of dermatomyositis patients with (n=12) and without (n=23) syndrome metabolic revealed that adipocytokine levels were also correlated with age, and that dermatomyositis patients with metabolic syndrome tended to have more disease activity despite similar adipocytokine levels. Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in young adult female dermatomyositis patients and is related to age and disease activity. Moreover, increased serum adiponectin and resistin levels were detected in dermatomyositis patients, but lower serum leptin levels were observed.

  3. Serum adipocytokine profile and metabolic syndrome in young adult female dermatomyositis patients

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marilda Guimarães; Borba, Eduardo Ferreira; de Mello, Suzana Beatriz Veríssimo; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse the frequency of metabolic syndrome in young adult female dermatomyositis patients and its possible association with clinical and laboratory dermatomyositis-related features and serum adipocytokines. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 35 dermatomyositis patients and 48 healthy controls. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the 2009 Joint Interim Statement. RESULTS: Patient age was comparable in the dermatomyositis and control groups, and the median disease duration was 1.0 year. An increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome was detected in the dermatomyositis group (34.3% vs. 6.3%; p=0.001). In addition, increased serum adiponectin and resistin levels were noted in contrast to lower leptin levels. In dermatomyositis patients, adipocytokine levels were correlated with the levels of total cholesterol, low-density cholesterol, triglycerides and muscle enzymes. A comparison of dermatomyositis patients with (n=12) and without (n=23) syndrome metabolic revealed that adipocytokine levels were also correlated with age, and that dermatomyositis patients with metabolic syndrome tended to have more disease activity despite similar adipocytokine levels. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in young adult female dermatomyositis patients and is related to age and disease activity. Moreover, increased serum adiponectin and resistin levels were detected in dermatomyositis patients, but lower serum leptin levels were observed. PMID:28076515

  4. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on body fat, tumor necrosis factor alpha and resistin secretion in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Díaz, Guillermo; Alexander-Aguilera, Alfonso; Arzaba-Villalba, Agustin; Soto-Rodríguez, Ida; García, Hugo S

    2010-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a naturally occurring group of dienoic derivaties of linoleic acid found mainly in beef and dairy products. CLA has been reported to reduce body fat, as well as to possess anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic and procatabolic activities in animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of CLA supplementation to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) on body fat, biochemical parameters of serum related tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and resistin secretion. Thirty rats were divided in three groups, the first group of spontaneously hypertensive rats received a standard diet (V-SHR group, n=10), a second group of SHR was fed 1.5% of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-SHR group, n=10) and the third was the control, non-hypertensive group (KW, n=10) also on a standard diet including 7.5% of sunflower oil during eight weeks. After CLA diet administration, spontaneously hypertensive rats showed a significant reduction in blood pressure, serum glucose, cholesterol and triacylglycerols, together with reduction of index of body fat, pericardic, abdominal and epididymal adipose tissue. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in the secretion of TNF-alpha and resistin. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adiponectin, Resistin, and Visfatin in Childhood Obesity and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou, Antonios; Koutsias, Stilianos; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Fatouros, Ioannis

    2015-11-01

    Childhood obesity is increasing alarmingly, and a strong association with chronic diseases has been established. Specific adipokines are released from the adipose tissue and relate with chronic diseases even in the pediatric population. Adiponectin levels are lower in obesity and increase with decreasing body weight. A few pediatric studies examining a possible relationship between resistin and obesity do not provide a clear picture. Most studies agree that visfatin levels appear elevated in childhood obesity. Exercise seems to increase adiponectin levels whereas resistin levels are reduced. The lack of data on the effects of acute and chronic exercise on visfatin levels precludes us from making safe conclusions as to what the effects of exercise (acute or chronic) would be on visfatin levels in children. Clearly, exercise has an impact on the adipose tissue and the release of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin. However, other factors affect the secretion rate of these adipokines from the adipose tissue; these factors should also be taken into consideration when examining the effects of exercise on adipokines. Gender, age, body composition, physical activity levels, mode and intensity of exercise are some of the factors that should be looked into in future studies.

  6. Resistin, a fat-derived secretory factor, promotes metastasis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells through ERM activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Ok; Kim, Nami; Lee, Hye Jeong; Lee, Yong Woo; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sun Hwa; Kim, Hyeon Soo

    2016-01-05

    Resistin, an adipocyte-secreted factor, is known to be elevated in breast cancer patients. However, the molecular mechanism by which resistin acts is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether resistin could stimulate invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. Here, we report that resistin stimulated invasion and migration of breast cancer cells as well as phosphorylation of c-Src. Inhibition of c-Src blocked resistin-induced breast cancer cell invasion. Resistin increased intracellular calcium concentration, and chelation of intracellular calcium blocked resistin-mediated activation of Src. Resistin also induced phosphorylation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Inhibition of c-Src blocked resistin-mediated PP2A phosphorylation. In addition, resistin increased phosphorylation of PKCα. Inhibition of PP2A enhanced resistin-induced PKCα phosphorylation, demonstrating that PP2A activity is critical for PKCα phosphorylation. Resistin also increased phosphorylation of ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM). Additionally, ezrin interacted with PKCα, and resistin promoted co-localization of ezrin and PKCα. Either inhibition of c-Src and PKCα or knock-down of ezrin blocked resistin-induced breast cancer cells invasion. Moreover, resistin increased expression of vimentin, a key molecule for cancer cell invasion. Knock-down of ezrin abrogated resistin-induced vimentin expression. These results suggest that resistin play as a critical regulator of breast cancer metastasis.

  7. Resistin, a fat-derived secretory factor, promotes metastasis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells through ERM activation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Ok; Kim, Nami; Lee, Hye Jeong; Lee, Yong Woo; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sun Hwa; Kim, Hyeon Soo

    2016-01-01

    Resistin, an adipocyte-secreted factor, is known to be elevated in breast cancer patients. However, the molecular mechanism by which resistin acts is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether resistin could stimulate invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. Here, we report that resistin stimulated invasion and migration of breast cancer cells as well as phosphorylation of c-Src. Inhibition of c-Src blocked resistin-induced breast cancer cell invasion. Resistin increased intracellular calcium concentration, and chelation of intracellular calcium blocked resistin-mediated activation of Src. Resistin also induced phosphorylation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Inhibition of c-Src blocked resistin-mediated PP2A phosphorylation. In addition, resistin increased phosphorylation of PKCα. Inhibition of PP2A enhanced resistin-induced PKCα phosphorylation, demonstrating that PP2A activity is critical for PKCα phosphorylation. Resistin also increased phosphorylation of ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM). Additionally, ezrin interacted with PKCα, and resistin promoted co-localization of ezrin and PKCα. Either inhibition of c-Src and PKCα or knock-down of ezrin blocked resistin-induced breast cancer cells invasion. Moreover, resistin increased expression of vimentin, a key molecule for cancer cell invasion. Knock-down of ezrin abrogated resistin-induced vimentin expression. These results suggest that resistin play as a critical regulator of breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26729407

  8. The association of resistin with cardiovascular disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Muse, Evan D; Feldman, David I; Blaha, Michael J; Dardari, Zeina A; Blumenthal, Roger S; Budoff, Matthew J; Nasir, Khurram; Criqui, Michael H; Cushman, Mary; McClelland, Robyn L; Allison, Matthew A

    2015-03-01

    To describe the relationship between circulating resistin levels and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and all-cause death in a multi-ethnic cohort. We studied 1913 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis with measurements of plasma resistin levels. Absolute proportions experiencing new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF), atherosclerotic CVD (myocardial infarction, angina, resuscitated cardiac arrest, stroke), heart failure (HF), and all-cause death were calculated for each quartile of resistin. We used adjusted Cox proportional regression modeling resistin as a continuous variable per standard deviation of log-transformed resistin and secondarily as a categorical variable using resistin quartiles. Results were stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. The mean age of the population was 64.5 ± 10 years with half being female and a median resistin concentration of 15.1 ng/mL (11.9-19.1). Mean follow-up time was 7.2 ± 1.8 years. There was a graded increase in the occurrence of all outcomes across increasing quartiles of resistin. Modeled as a continuous variable, after adjustment for anthropomorphic measures, traditional risk factors, markers of inflammation, and other adipokines, significant associations were noted for HF (HR 1.4, CI 1.0-2.0), hard and all CVD (HR 1.3, 1.1-1.7 and 1.3, 1.1-1.6, respectively), and CHD (HR 1.31, 1.0-1.6), but not for AF or death. Significant interaction terms were noted between resistin and race, with Hispanic race/ethnicity showing the strongest relationship between resistin and outcomes. In an ethnically diverse population without known CVD at baseline, there was a strong, independent association between higher resistin levels and incident CVD, CHD and HF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase attenuates hepatocellular carcinoma cell adhesion stimulated by adipokine resistin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Resistin, adipocyte-secreting adipokine, may play critical role in modulating cancer pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistin on HCC adhesion to the endothelium, and the mechanism underlying these resistin effects. Methods Human SK-Hep1 cells were used to study the effect of resistin on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expressions as well as NF-κB activation, and hence cell adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, was used to determine the regulatory role of AMPK on HCC adhesion to the endothelium in regard to the resistin effects. Results Treatment with resistin increased the adhesion of SK-Hep1 cells to HUVECs and concomitantly induced NF-κB activation, as well as ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions in SK-Hep1 cells. Using specific blocking antibodies and siRNAs, we found that resistin-induced SK-Hep1 cell adhesion to HUVECs was through NF-κB-regulated ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions. Moreover, treatment with AICAR demonstrated that AMPK activation in SK-Hep1 cells significantly attenuates the resistin effect on SK-Hep1 cell adhesion to HUVECs. Conclusions These results clarify the role of resistin in inducing HCC adhesion to the endothelium and demonstrate the inhibitory effect of AMPK activation under the resistin stimulation. Our findings provide a notion that resistin play an important role to promote HCC metastasis and implicate AMPK may be a therapeutic target to against HCC metastasis. PMID:24555415

  10. Novel adiponectin-resistin (AR) and insulin resistance (IRAR) indexes are useful integrated diagnostic biomarkers for insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adiponectin and resistin are adipokines which modulate insulin action, energy, glucose and lipid homeostasis. Meta-analyses showed that hypoadiponectinemia and hyperresistinemia are strongly associated with increased risk of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to propose a novel adiponectin-resistin (AR) index by taking into account both adiponectin and resistin levels to povide a better indicator of the metabolic homeostasis and metabolic disorders. In addition, a novel insulin resistance (IRAR) index was proposed by integration of the AR index into an existing insulin resistance index to provide an improved diagnostic biomarker of insulin sensitivity. Methods In this case control study, anthropometric clinical and metabolic parameters including fasting serum total adiponectin and resistin levels were determined in 809 Malaysian men (208 controls, 174 MS without T2DM, 171 T2DM without MS, 256 T2DM with MS) whose ages ranged between 40-70 years old. Significant differences in continuous variables among subject groups were confirmed by ANCOVA or MANCOVA test using 1,000 stratified bootstrap samples with bias corrected and accelerated (BCa) 95% CI. Spearman's rho rank correlation test was used to test the correlation between two variables. Results The AR index was formulated as 1+log10(R0)-log10(A0). The AR index was more strongly associated with increased risk of T2DM and MS than hypoadiponectinemia and hyperresistinemia alone. The AR index was more strongly correlated with the insulin resistance indexes and key metabolic endpoints of T2DM and MS than adiponectin and resistin levels alone. The AR index was also correlated with a higher number of MS components than adiponectin and resistin levels alone. The IRAR index was formulated as log10(I0G0)+log10(I0G0)log10(R0/A0). The normal reference range of the IRAR index for insulin sensitive individuals was between 3.265 and

  11. Novel adiponectin-resistin (AR) and insulin resistance (IRAR) indexes are useful integrated diagnostic biomarkers for insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Lau, Cia-Hin; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2011-01-21

    Adiponectin and resistin are adipokines which modulate insulin action, energy, glucose and lipid homeostasis. Meta-analyses showed that hypoadiponectinemia and hyperresistinemia are strongly associated with increased risk of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to propose a novel adiponectin-resistin (AR) index by taking into account both adiponectin and resistin levels to provide a better indicator of the metabolic homeostasis and metabolic disorders. In addition, a novel insulin resistance (IRAR) index was proposed by integration of the AR index into an existing insulin resistance index to provide an improved diagnostic biomarker of insulin sensitivity. In this case control study, anthropometric clinical and metabolic parameters including fasting serum total adiponectin and resistin levels were determined in 809 Malaysian men (208 controls, 174 MS without T2DM, 171 T2DM without MS, 256 T2DM with MS) whose ages ranged between 40-70 years old. Significant differences in continuous variables among subject groups were confirmed by ANCOVA or MANCOVA test using 1,000 stratified bootstrap samples with bias corrected and accelerated (BCa) 95% CI. Spearman's rho rank correlation test was used to test the correlation between two variables. The AR index was formulated as 1+log10(R0)-log10(A0). The AR index was more strongly associated with increased risk of T2DM and MS than hypoadiponectinemia and hyperresistinemia alone. The AR index was more strongly correlated with the insulin resistance indexes and key metabolic endpoints of T2DM and MS than adiponectin and resistin levels alone. The AR index was also correlated with a higher number of MS components than adiponectin and resistin levels alone. The IRAR index was formulated as log10(I0G0)+log10(I0G0)log10(R0/A0). The normal reference range of the IRAR index for insulin sensitive individuals was between 3.265 and 3.538. The minimum cut

  12. Effect of high fluoride and high fat on serum lipid levels and oxidative stress in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Hui; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of high fluoride and high fat on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxide (LPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rabbits. A factorial experimental design was used, with two factors (fluoride and fat) and three levels. Seventy-two male rabbits were randomly assigned into nine groups according to initial weight and serum lipid levels. The rabbits were fed with basic feed, moderate fat feed or high fat feed and drank tap water, fluoridated water at levels of 50 and 100mgfluorion/L freely. Biological materials were collected after 5 months, and serum lipid, T-AOC, LPO, and MDA levels were then measured. Using these data, the separate and interactive effects of high fluoride and high fat were analyzed. High fluoride and high fat both increased serum levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly (P<0.05), and there was also a synergistic effect between high fluoride and high fat (P<0.05). High fluoride and high fat had different effects on TG levels: high fat significantly increased TG levels (P<0.01) whereas high fluoride had nothing to do with TG levels (P>0.05). High fat significantly elevated LPO and MDA levels and lowered T-AOC levels in serum (P<0.05). Similarly, high fluoride significantly increased LPO and MDA levels in serum (P<0.05). However, there was no interactive effect between high fat and high fluoride on these indexes. In summary, high fluoride and high fat increased serum TC and LDL-C levels individually and synergistically, and this would cause and aggravate hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. At the same time, high fluoride and high fat both made the accumulation of product of oxidative stress in experimental animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Elevated resistin levels induce central leptin resistance and increased atherosclerotic progression in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistin was originally identified as an adipocyte-derived factor upregulated during obesity and as a contributor to obesity-associated insulin resistance. Clinically, resistin has also been implicated in cardiovascular disease in a number of different patient populations. Our aim was to simultaneou...

  14. Resistin Promotes the Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Ovary Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Li; Zhang, Yi; Yu, Yu; Zhang, Shulan

    2013-01-01

    Resistin is a novel hormone that is secreted by human adipocytes and mononuclear cells and is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and inflammation. Recently, resistin has been postulated to play a role in angiogenesis. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that resistin regulates ovary carcinoma production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the angiogenic processes. We found that in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cells (HO-8910), resistin (10–150 ng/mL) enhanced both VEGF protein and mRNA expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, as well as promoter activity. Furthermore, resistin enhanced DNA-binding activity of Sp1 with VEGF promoter in a PI3K/Akt-dependent manner. PI3K/Akt activated by resistin led to increasing interaction with Sp1, triggering a progressive phosphorylation of Sp1 on Thr453 and Thr739, resulting in the upregulation of VEGF expression. In an in vitro angiogenesis system for endothelial cells (EA.hy926) co-cultured with HO-8910 cells, we observed that the addition of resistin stimulated endothelial cell tube formation, which could be abolished by VEGF neutralizing antibody. Our findings suggest that the PI3K/Akt-Sp1 pathway is involved in resistin-induced VEGF expression in HO-8910 cells and indicates that antiangiogenesis therapy may be beneficial treatment against ovarian epithelial carcinoma, especially in obese patients. PMID:23652833

  15. Central Resistin/TLR4 Impairs Adiponectin Signaling, Contributing to Insulin and FGF21 Resistance.

    PubMed

    Benomar, Yacir; Amine, Hamza; Crépin, Délphine; Al Rifai, Sarah; Riffault, Laure; Gertler, Arieh; Taouis, Mohammed

    2016-04-01

    Adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing hormone, and resistin, known to promote insulin resistance, constitute a potential link between obesity and type 2 diabetes. In addition, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)21 has effects similar to those of adiponectin in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. However, the interplay between adiponectin, FGF21, and resistin signaling pathways during the onset of insulin resistance is unknown. Here, we investigated whether central resistin promotes insulin resistance through the impairment of adiponectin and FGF21 signaling. We show that chronic intracerebroventricular resistin infusion downregulated both hypothalamic and hepatic APPL1, a key protein in adiponectin signaling, associated with decreased Akt-APPL1 interaction and an increased Akt association with its endogenous inhibitor tribbles homolog 3. Resistin treatment also decreased plasma adiponectin levels and reduced both hypothalamic and peripheral expression of adiponectin receptors. Additionally, we report that intracerebroventricular resistin increased plasma FGF21 levels and downregulated its receptor components in the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues, promoting FGF21 resistance. Interestingly, we also show that resistin effects were abolished in TLR4 knockout mice and in neuronal cells expressing TLR4 siRNAs. Our study reveals a novel mechanism of insulin resistance onset orchestrated by a central resistin-TLR4 pathway that impairs adiponectin signaling and promotes FGF21 resistance. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  16. Central Resistin Overexposure Induces Insulin Resistance Through Toll-Like Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Benomar, Yacir; Gertler, Arieh; De Lacy, Pamela; Crépin, Delphine; Ould Hamouda, Hassina; Riffault, Laure; Taouis, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Resistin promotes both inflammation and insulin resistance associated with energy homeostasis impairment. However, the resistin receptor and the molecular mechanisms mediating its effects in the hypothalamus, crucial for energy homeostasis control, and key insulin-sensitive tissues are still unknown. In the current study, we report that chronic resistin infusion in the lateral cerebral ventricle of normal rats markedly affects both hypothalamic and peripheral insulin responsiveness. Central resistin treatment inhibited insulin-dependent phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), AKT, and extracellular signal–related kinase 1/2 associated with reduced IR expression and with upregulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 and phosphotyrosine phosphatase 1B, two negative regulators of insulin signaling. Additionally, central resistin promotes the activation of the serine kinases Jun NH2-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, enhances the serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1, and increases the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in the hypothalamus and key peripheral insulin-sensitive tissues. Interestingly, we also report for the first time, to our knowledge, the direct binding of resistin to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 receptors in the hypothalamus, leading to the activation of the associated proinflammatory pathways. Taken together, our findings clearly identify TLR4 as the binding site for resistin in the hypothalamus and bring new insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in resistin-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in the whole animal. PMID:22961082

  17. GCF Resistin As A Novel Marker in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis and Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Manoj; Hassan, Basit; Desai, Khushboo; Duseja, Shilpa; Kumar, Santosh; Reddy, Sharaschandra G

    2015-04-01

    The associational studies between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis are less documented, although they are found to have similar inflammatory pathogenesis. Resistin, a novel adipokine is suggested to be a common link between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of the present study was to reinforce the inter-relationship between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis by using resistin as a potent inflammatory marker. Hundred patients (aged >30 y) of either sex were selected for this study and were divided equally into four groups of 25 patients each. Group A consisted of healthy individuals, Group B consisted of patients with chronic periodontitis, Group C of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and Group D had patients suffering from both arthritis and periodontitis. Periodontal parameters assessed were plaque index (PI), modified gingival index (GI) and probing depth (PD). Panoramic radiographs were taken to confirm the diagnosis of periodontitis. Rheumatoid arthritis was confirmed by the rheumatologists and seropositivity for rheumatoid factor (RF) was checked. Resistin levels were analysed in GCF collected from all the four groups and statistical analysis was done by using Pearson correlation coefficient. The GCF of all the patients showed presence of resistin. The level of resistin was highest in Group D patients and least in Group A patients. On analysing the samples together positive co-relation was found between GCF resistin and PD, PI, GI and RF. Resistin levels are increased in both chronic periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, the increased level of GCF resistin can be regarded as potential inflammatory marker for periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis.

  18. Resistin Induces Hypertension and Insulin Resistance in Mice via a TLR4-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yun; Lu, Linfang; Hu, Youtao; Li, Qiang; An, Chaoqiang; Yu, Xiaolan; Shu, Le; Chen, Ao; Niu, Congcong; Zhou, Lei; Yang, Zaiqing

    2016-01-01

    Resistin, an adipokine involved in insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes, has recently been reported to play a role in cardiovascular events. However, its effect on blood pressure (BP) and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we showed that resistin induces hypertension and IR in wild type (WT) mice, but not in tlr4−/− mice. Resistin upregulated angiotensinogen (Agt) expression in WT mice, whereas it had no effect on tlr4−/− mice, or in mice treated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril. Real-time PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation further confirmed that resistin activates the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) via the TLR4/P65/Agt pathway. This finding suggested an essential role of resistin in linking IR and hypertension, which may offer a novel target in clinic on the study of the association between diabetes and hypertension. PMID:26917360

  19. Resistin Induces Hypertension and Insulin Resistance in Mice via a TLR4-Dependent Pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yun; Lu, Linfang; Hu, Youtao; Li, Qiang; An, Chaoqiang; Yu, Xiaolan; Shu, Le; Chen, Ao; Niu, Congcong; Zhou, Lei; Yang, Zaiqing

    2016-02-26

    Resistin, an adipokine involved in insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes, has recently been reported to play a role in cardiovascular events. However, its effect on blood pressure (BP) and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we showed that resistin induces hypertension and IR in wild type (WT) mice, but not in tlr4(-/-) mice. Resistin upregulated angiotensinogen (Agt) expression in WT mice, whereas it had no effect on tlr4(-/-) mice, or in mice treated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril. Real-time PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation further confirmed that resistin activates the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) via the TLR4/P65/Agt pathway. This finding suggested an essential role of resistin in linking IR and hypertension, which may offer a novel target in clinic on the study of the association between diabetes and hypertension.

  20. Resistin deficiency in mice has no effect on pulmonary responses induced by acute ozone exposure

    PubMed Central

    Razvi, Shehla S.; Richards, Jeremy B.; Malik, Farhan; Cromar, Kevin R.; Price, Roger E.; Bell, Cynthia S.; Weng, Tingting; Atkins, Constance L.; Spencer, Chantal Y.; Cockerill, Katherine J.; Alexander, Amy L.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Alcorn, Joseph L.; Haque, Ikram U.

    2015-01-01

    Acute exposure to ozone (O3), an air pollutant, causes pulmonary inflammation, airway epithelial desquamation, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Pro-inflammatory cytokines—including IL-6 and ligands of chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 [keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2], TNF receptor 1 and 2 (TNF), and type I IL-1 receptor (IL-1α and IL-1β)—promote these sequelae. Human resistin, a pleiotropic hormone and cytokine, induces expression of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 (the human ortholog of murine KC and MIP-2), and TNF. Functional differences exist between human and murine resistin; yet given the aforementioned observations, we hypothesized that murine resistin promotes O3-induced lung pathology by inducing expression of the same inflammatory cytokines as human resistin. Consequently, we examined indexes of O3-induced lung pathology in wild-type and resistin-deficient mice following acute exposure to either filtered room air or O3. In wild-type mice, O3 increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) resistin. Furthermore, O3 increased lung tissue or BALF IL-1α, IL-6, KC, TNF, macrophages, neutrophils, and epithelial cells in wild-type and resistin-deficient mice. With the exception of KC, which was significantly greater in resistin-deficient compared with wild-type mice, no genotype-related differences in the other indexes existed following O3 exposure. O3 caused AHR to acetyl-β-methylcholine chloride (methacholine) in wild-type and resistin-deficient mice. However, genotype-related differences in airway responsiveness to methacholine were nonexistent subsequent to O3 exposure. Taken together, these data demonstrate that murine resistin is increased in the lungs of wild-type mice following acute O3 exposure but does not promote O3-induced lung pathology. PMID:26386120

  1. Resistin Promotes Intervertebral Disc Degeneration by Upregulation of ADAMTS-5 Through p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Caijun; Yang, Hao; Gao, Fei; Li, Xiang; An, Yan; Wang, Jianru; Jin, Anmin

    2016-09-15

    Rat nucleus pulposus (NP) cells were activated with resistin with or without p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway inhibition. The expression of a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motif-5 (ADAMTS-5), which plays an important role in intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD), was determined. The aim of this study was to demonstrate whether resistin can influence the ADAMTS-5 expression and to further investigate the underlying mechanisms. Obesity has been demonstrated to promote IDD, whereas the exact mechanism remains poorly understood. Resistin, as an important adipokine, is increased with obesity and has been shown to play pro-inflammatory and catabolic role in cartilage metabolism. However, the effect of resistin on the catabolic enzymes within NP cells remains unknown. We exposed NP cells to resistin, and the transcriptional activity, gene expression, and protein levels of ADAMTS-5 were measured by luciferase reporter assay, qRT-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, and western blot, respectively. The activation of p38 MAPK pathways was detected using western blot analysis. Resistin had no effect on cell viability. Resistin increased ADAMTS-5 expression in rat NP cells time and dose dependently. The p38 MAPK signaling pathway was activated after exposure to resistin. Treatment with p38 inhibitor decreased the upregulation of ADAMTS-5 by resistin. The current study, for the first time, investigated the role of resistin in ADAMTS-5 regulation in IDD. These findings provide novel evidence supporting the causative role of obesity in IDD, which is important to develop novel preventative or therapeutic treatment in disc degenerative disorders. N/A.

  2. Resistin deficiency in mice has no effect on pulmonary responses induced by acute ozone exposure.

    PubMed

    Razvi, Shehla S; Richards, Jeremy B; Malik, Farhan; Cromar, Kevin R; Price, Roger E; Bell, Cynthia S; Weng, Tingting; Atkins, Constance L; Spencer, Chantal Y; Cockerill, Katherine J; Alexander, Amy L; Blackburn, Michael R; Alcorn, Joseph L; Haque, Ikram U; Johnston, Richard A

    2015-11-15

    Acute exposure to ozone (O3), an air pollutant, causes pulmonary inflammation, airway epithelial desquamation, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Pro-inflammatory cytokines-including IL-6 and ligands of chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 [keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2], TNF receptor 1 and 2 (TNF), and type I IL-1 receptor (IL-1α and IL-1β)-promote these sequelae. Human resistin, a pleiotropic hormone and cytokine, induces expression of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 (the human ortholog of murine KC and MIP-2), and TNF. Functional differences exist between human and murine resistin; yet given the aforementioned observations, we hypothesized that murine resistin promotes O3-induced lung pathology by inducing expression of the same inflammatory cytokines as human resistin. Consequently, we examined indexes of O3-induced lung pathology in wild-type and resistin-deficient mice following acute exposure to either filtered room air or O3. In wild-type mice, O3 increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) resistin. Furthermore, O3 increased lung tissue or BALF IL-1α, IL-6, KC, TNF, macrophages, neutrophils, and epithelial cells in wild-type and resistin-deficient mice. With the exception of KC, which was significantly greater in resistin-deficient compared with wild-type mice, no genotype-related differences in the other indexes existed following O3 exposure. O3 caused AHR to acetyl-β-methylcholine chloride (methacholine) in wild-type and resistin-deficient mice. However, genotype-related differences in airway responsiveness to methacholine were nonexistent subsequent to O3 exposure. Taken together, these data demonstrate that murine resistin is increased in the lungs of wild-type mice following acute O3 exposure but does not promote O3-induced lung pathology. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Long-term in vivo Resistin Overexpression Induces Myocardial Dysfunction and Remodeling in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chemaly, Elie R.; Hadri, Lahouaria; Zhang, Shihong; Kim, Maengjo; Kohlbrenner, Erik; Sheng, Jipo; Liang, Lifan; Chen, Jiqiu; K-Raman, Purushothaman; Hajjar, Roger J.; Lebeche, Djamel

    2011-01-01

    We have previously reported that resistin induces hypertrophy and impairs contractility in isolated rat cardiomyocytes. To examine the long-term cardiovascular effects of resistin, we induced in vivo overexpression of resistin using adeno-associated virus serotype 9 injected by tail vein in rats and compared to control animals. Ten weeks after viral injection, overexpression of resistin was associated with increased ratio of left ventricular (LV) weight/body weight increased end-systolic LV volume and significant decrease in LV contractility, measured by the end-systolic pressure volume relationship slope in LV pressure volume loops, compared to controls. At the molecular level, mRNA expression of ANF and β-MHC, and protein levels of phospholamban were increased in the resistin group without a change in the level of SERCA2a protein expression. Increased fibrosis by histology, associated with increased mRNA levels of collagen, fibronectin and connective tissue growth factor were observed in the resistin-overexpressing hearts. Resistin overexpression was also associated with increased apoptosis in vivo, along with an apoptotic molecular phenotype in vivo and in vitro. Resistin-overexpressing LV tissue had higher levels of TNF-α receptor 1 and iNOS, and reduced levels of eNOS. Cardiomyocytes overexpressing resistin in vitro produced larger amounts of TNFα in the medium, had increased phosphorylation of IκBα and displayed increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content with increased expression and activity of ROS-producing NADPH oxidases compared to controls. Long-term resistin overexpression is associated with a complex phenotype of oxidative stress, inflammation, fibrosis, apoptosis and myocardial remodeling and dysfunction in rats. This phenotype recapitulates key features of diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:21549710

  4. Abnormally high serum ferritin levels among professional road cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Zotter, H; Robinson, N; Zorzoli, M; Schattenberg, L; Saugy, M; Mangin, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: An international, longitudinal medical follow up examination of male professional road cyclists revealed excessively elevated serum ferritin levels. Objective: To evaluate the importance of elevated ferritin values among professional cyclists, their relationship with age and nationality, and their evolution over 3 years. Methods: Over 1000 serum ferritin values were collected. Other parameters were included in order to exclude conditions which might have increased ferritin levels without changing body iron stores. Results: In 1999, over 45% of riders displayed ferritin values above 300 ng/ml and one fourth levels over 500 ng/ml. These percentages had decreased to 27% and 9%, respectively, 3 years later, while the overall average, which was above the normal limits in 1999, had decreased by 33% in 3 years. Older cyclists had higher ferritin values than younger cyclists. There was also a relationship between ferritin levels and the nationality of the cyclists. Analysis of 714 riders in 2000 and 2002 showed only a slight and insignificant decrease in the mean ferritin value although those with initially elevated iron stores had a much greater decrease. Conclusion: Professional road cyclists used excessive iron supplementation leading to high serum ferritin levels correlating with increased body iron stores. Although the situation progressively improved over 3 years, it remains worrying as increased body iron stores are related to health complications. Therefore, prevention in addition to the fight against doping should be a main goal of the UCI. Aggressive therapy for athletes with excessive ferritin values should be carried out at or before the end of their careers. PMID:15562163

  5. Sp1 mediates repression of the resistin gene by PPAR{gamma} agonists in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.S.; Choi, H.H.; Cho, Y.M.; Lee, H.K.; Park, K.S. . E-mail: kspark@snu.ac.kr

    2006-09-15

    Resistin is an adipokine related to obesity and insulin resistance. Expression of the resistin gene is repressed by the treatment of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonists, thiazolidinediones (TZDs). In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which TZDs inhibit the resistin gene expression. Resistin gene expression was decreased by TZD in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which was abolished after treatment of cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor). TZD could not repress the expression of the resistin gene in the presence of mithramycin A (an Sp1 binding inhibitor). Sp1 binding site of the resistin promoter (-122/-114 bp) was necessary for the repression. Further investigation of the effect of TZDs on the modification of Sp1 showed that the level of O-glycosylation of Sp1 was decreased in this process. These results suggest that PPAR{gamma} activation represses the expression of the resistin gene by modulating Sp1 activity.

  6. Localization of resistin and its possible roles in the ovary of a vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajit; Suragani, Madhuri; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z; Krishna, Amitabh

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression and effect of resistin on ovarian activities of Scotophilus heathi. Immunohistochemical study showed marked variation in resistin immunostaining during different reproductive phases. Most intense immunostaining of resistin was noticed in thecal-interstitial cells in ovary during the period of delayed ovulation, the period of increased androgen synthesis and suppressed ovulation. The changes in ovarian resistin level also correlated positively with circulating leptin level and body white adipose tissue accumulation. The in vitro study showed that resistin alone preferentially stimulated progesterone synthesis, but with luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulated androgen secretion. Resistin alone dose-dependently increased expression of LH-receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and insulin receptor proteins in the ovary, whereas together with LH showed dose-dependent stimulatory effect on expression of androgen receptor and insulin receptor proteins in the ovary. In conclusion, during the period of fat accumulation increased ovarian resistin level may be responsible for increased androgen synthesis through insulin receptor mediated pathways in the ovary of S. heathi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. High Serum SHBG Predicts Incident Vertebral Fractures in Elderly Men

    PubMed Central

    Vandenput, Liesbeth; Mellström, Dan; Kindmark, Andreas; Johansson, Helena; Lorentzon, Mattias; Leung, Jason; Redlund‐Johnell, Inga; Rosengren, Björn E; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wang, Yi‐Xiang; Kwok, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previous prospective cohort studies have shown that serum levels of sex steroids and sex hormone‐binding globulin (SHBG) associate with nonvertebral fracture risk in men. The predictive value of sex hormones and SHBG for vertebral fracture risk specifically is, however, less studied. Elderly men (aged ≥65 years) from Sweden and Hong Kong participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study had baseline estradiol and testosterone analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) and SHBG by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). Incident clinical vertebral fractures (n = 242 cases) were evaluated in 4324 men during an average follow‐up of 9.1 years. In a subsample of these men (n = 2256), spine X‐rays were obtained at baseline and after an average follow‐up of 4.3 years to identify incident radiographic vertebral fractures (n = 157 cases). The likelihood of incident clinical and radiographic vertebral fractures was estimated by Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression models, respectively. Neither serum estradiol (hazard ratio [HR] per SD increase = 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80–1.08) nor testosterone (1.05, 0.91–1.21) predicted incident clinical vertebral fractures in age‐adjusted models in the combined data set. High serum SHBG, however, associated with increased clinical vertebral fracture risk (1.24, 1.12–1.37). This association remained significant after further adjustment for FRAX with or without bone mineral density (BMD). SHBG also associated with increased incident radiographic vertebral fracture risk (combined data set; odds ratio [OR] per SD increase = 1.23, 95% CI 1.05–1.44). This association remained significant after adjustment for FRAX with or without BMD. In conclusion, high SHBG predicts incident clinical and radiographic vertebral fractures in elderly men and adds moderate information beyond FRAX with BMD for vertebral fracture risk prediction. © 2015 The

  8. N-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acid therapy improves endothelial function and affects adiponectin and resistin balance in the first month after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Mizia-Stec, Katarzyna; Haberka, Maciej; Mizia, Magdalena; Chmiel, Artur; Gieszczyk, Klaudia; Lasota, Bartosz; Janowska, Joanna; Zahorska-Markiewicz, Barbara; Gąsior, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    Introduction N-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) exert clinical beneficial effects in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, their exact mechanisms of action are not well recognized yet. Our aim was to evaluate effects of early introduced n-3 PUFA supplementation on endothelial function and serum adipokine concentrations in patients with AMI. Material and methods Thirty-eight patients with AMI and successful coronary stent implantation were randomized to the study group (PUFA group: n = 19; standard therapy + PUFA 1 g daily) and the control group (control group: n = 19; standard therapy). The study group patients were given n-3 PUFA (Omacor 1 g daily) starting from the 3rd day of AMI. Ultrasound vascular indexes (flow-mediated dilatation [FMD], nitroglycerine-mediated dilation [NMD]) and serum concentrations of adiponectin and resistin (ELISA) were evaluated before and after 30 days of pharmacotherapy. Results Comparison of the mean delta values (baseline/after 30 days of therapy) between groups revealed significant differences for delta FMD (PUFA 7.6 ±12.4% vs. control –1.7 ±10.5%, p = 0.019) and delta resistin concentrations (PUFA 1.0 ±3.8pg/ml vs. control –1.6 ±2.9pg/ml, p = 0.028). Multiple linear regression analysis for all subjects revealed the n-3 PUFA supplementation (r = 10.933, p = 0.004) and waist circumference (r = –0.467, p = 0.01) as independent factors associated with delta FMD values (R-adjusted 0.29; p = 0.002). Conclusions Early and short-term n-3 PUFA supplementation in AMI with successful primary PCI and optimal pharmacotherapy improves endothelial function. However, increased resistin serum levels observed after 1-month n-3 PUFA supplementation merits further investigations. PMID:22291823

  9. EPCA-2: a highly specific serum marker for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Leman, Eddy S; Cannon, Grant W; Trock, Bruce J; Sokoll, Lori J; Chan, Daniel W; Mangold, Leslie; Partin, Alan W; Getzenberg, Robert H

    2007-04-01

    To describe the initial assessment of early prostate cancer antigen (EPCA)-2 as a serum marker for the detection of prostate cancer and to examine its sensitivity and specificity. Serum samples were obtained from 385 men: those with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels less than 2.5 ng/mL, PSA levels of 2.5 ng/mL or greater with negative biopsy findings, benign prostatic hyperplasia, organ-confined prostate cancer, non-organ-confined disease, and prostate cancer with PSA levels less than 2.5 ng/mL. In addition, a diverse group of controls was assessed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect an epitope of the EPCA-2 protein, EPCA-2.22. Using a cutoff of 30 ng/mL, the EPCA-2.22 assay had a 92% specificity (95% confidence interval 85% to 96%) for healthy men and men with benign prostatic hyperplasia and 94% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI] 93% to 99%) for overall prostate cancer. The specificity for PSA in these selected groups of patients was 65% (95% CI 55% to 75%). Additionally, EPCA-2.22 was highly accurate in differentiating between localized and extracapsular disease (area under the curve 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.97, P <0.0001) in contrast to PSA (area under the curve 0.62, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.75, P = 0.05). The results of our study have shown that EPCA-2 is a novel biomarker associated with prostate cancer that has high sensitivity and specificity and accurately differentiates between men with organ-confined and non-organ-confined disease.

  10. Effects of resistin on porcine ovarian follicle steroidogenesis in prepubertal animals: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Resistin was first reported to be an adipocyte-specific hormone, but recent studies have indicated a connection between resistin and reproductive function. However, it is not yet known if resistin is expressed by the ovary and if it can affect steroidogenesis in ovarian follicles from prepubertal pigs. Methods In this study, using real time PCR, immunoblotting, and ELISA, we quantified resistin expression and concentration in maturing ovarian follicles (small, 3–4 mm; medium, 4–5 mm; large, 6–7 mm) collected from prepubertal pigs. In addition, the dose-responsive effects of recombinant human resistin (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml) on steroid hormone (i.e., progesterone [P4], androstendione [A4], testosterone [T], and estradiol [E2]) secretion in culture medium and steroidogenic enzyme (i.e., CYP11A1, 3betaHSD, CYP17A1, 17betaHSD, and CYP19A1) expression in ovarian follicles were determined. Results We observed that resistin gene and protein expression increased significantly (P < 0.05) during follicular growth, with large follicles expressing the highest level of this adipokine. Recombinant resistin also increased P4, A4, and T secretion by up-regulating the steady state levels of CYP11A1, 3betaHSD, CYP17A1, and 17betaHSD. Recombinant resistin had no effects on E2 secretion and CYP19A1 expression in ovarian follicles. Conclusion Our results show resistin expression in ovarian follicles from prepubertal pigs for the first time. We also show that recombinant resistin stimulates steroidogenesis in ovarian follicles by increasing the expression of CYP11A1, 3betaHSD, CYP17A1, and 17betaHSD. The presence of resistin in the porcine ovary and its direct effects on steroidogenesis suggest that resistin is a new regulator of ovary function in prepubertal animals. PMID:23680257

  11. On-Statin Resistin, Leptin, and Risk of Recurrent Coronary Events After Hospitalization for an Acute Coronary Syndrome (from the Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 22 Study).

    PubMed

    Khera, Amit V; Qamar, Arman; Murphy, Sabina A; Cannon, Christopher P; Sabatine, Marc S; Rader, Daniel J

    2015-09-01

    Resistin is an adipokine secreted by macrophages and inflammatory cells linked to insulin resistance and inflammation. Leptin is an adipokine regulator of appetite and obesity. Although circulating levels of both have been associated with atherosclerosis, few data have reported their relation to coronary events in the context of statin therapy. This study measured on-statin levels of both resistin and leptin through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in a nested case-control cohort (n = 176 cases with coronary death, myocardial infarction, or unstable angina pectoris observed in follow-up matched 1:1 to 176 controls) derived from the Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 22 study, a randomized controlled trial of atorvastatin 80 mg/day versus pravastatin 40 mg/day in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome. Resistin demonstrated a moderate association with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP; Spearman rho = 0.25, p <0.0001). On-statin resistin levels were linked to recurrent coronary events in conditional logistic regression analysis adjusted for additional risk factors including hsCRP and history of diabetes (tertile 3 vs 1 adjusted odds ratio 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 4.19). An additive risk was noted when patients were stratified by resistin and glycated hemoglobin levels. In contrast, leptin levels were associated with obesity, diabetes, triglycerides, and hsCRP (p <0.001 for each) but demonstrated no association with recurrent coronary events (tertile 3 vs 1 adjusted odds ratio 0.72; 95% CI 0.28 to 1.83). In conclusion, on-statin resistin, but not leptin, is an independent marker of residual risk for recurrent coronary events in patients after hospitalization for an acute coronary syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Does high serum uric acid level cause aspirin resistance?

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Ozkan, Emel; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Ozkan, Hayrettin; Bilgin, Murat; Kilic, Ismail D; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-06-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), though aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces atherothrombotic complications, it does not always sufficiently inhibit platelet function, thereby causing a clinical situation known as aspirin resistance. As hyperuricemia activates platelet turnover, aspirin resistance may be specifically induced by increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In this study, we thus investigated the association between SUA level and aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. We analyzed 245 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who in coronary angiography showed more than 50% occlusion in a major coronary artery. According to aspirin resistance, two groups were formed: the aspirin resistance group (Group 1) and the aspirin-sensitive group (Group 2). Compared with those of Group 2, patients with aspirin resistance exhibited significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, SUA levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and fasting blood glucose levels. After multivariate analysis, a high level of SUA emerged as an independent predictor of aspirin resistance. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 6.45 mg/dl for SUA to predict aspirin resistance with 79% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Hyperuricemia may cause aspirin resistance in patients with CAD and high SUA levels may indicate aspirin-resistant patients. Such levels should thus recommend avoiding heart attack and stroke by adjusting aspirin dosage.

  13. Allergen-induced resistin-like molecule-α promotes esophageal epithelial cell hyperplasia in eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Mavi, Parm; Niranjan, Rituraj; Dutt, Parmesh; Zaidi, Asifa; Shukla, Jai Shankar; Korfhagen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Resistin-like molecule (Relm)-α is a secreted, cysteine-rich protein belonging to a newly defined family of proteins, including resistin, Relm-β, and Relm-γ. Although resistin was initially defined based on its insulin-resistance activity, the family members are highly induced in various inflammatory states. Earlier studies implicated Relm-α in insulin resistance, asthmatic responses, and intestinal inflammation; however, its function still remains an enigma. We now report that Relm-α is strongly induced in the esophagus in an allergen-challenged murine model of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Furthermore, to understand the in vivo role of Relm-α, we generated Relm-α gene-inducible bitransgenic mice by using lung-specific CC-10 promoter (CC10-rtTA-Relm-α). We found Relm-α protein is significantly induced in the esophagus of CC10-rtTA-Relm-α bitransgenic mice exposed to doxycycline food. The most prominent effect observed by the induction of Relm-α is epithelial cell hyperplasia, basal layer thickness, accumulation of activated CD4+ and CD4− T cell subsets, and eosinophilic inflammation in the esophagus. The in vitro experiments further confirm that Relm-α promotes primary epithelial cell proliferation but has no chemotactic activity for eosinophils. Taken together, our studies report for the first time that Relm-α induction in the esophagus has a major role in promoting epithelial cell hyperplasia and basal layer thickness, and the accumulation of activated CD4+ and CD4− T cell subsets may be responsible for partial esophageal eosinophilia in the mouse models of EoE. Notably, the epithelial cell hyperplasia and basal layer thickness are the characteristic features commonly observed in human EoE. PMID:24994859

  14. Allergen-induced resistin-like molecule-α promotes esophageal epithelial cell hyperplasia in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Mavi, Parm; Niranjan, Rituraj; Dutt, Parmesh; Zaidi, Asifa; Shukla, Jai Shankar; Korfhagen, Thomas; Mishra, Anil

    2014-09-01

    Resistin-like molecule (Relm)-α is a secreted, cysteine-rich protein belonging to a newly defined family of proteins, including resistin, Relm-β, and Relm-γ. Although resistin was initially defined based on its insulin-resistance activity, the family members are highly induced in various inflammatory states. Earlier studies implicated Relm-α in insulin resistance, asthmatic responses, and intestinal inflammation; however, its function still remains an enigma. We now report that Relm-α is strongly induced in the esophagus in an allergen-challenged murine model of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Furthermore, to understand the in vivo role of Relm-α, we generated Relm-α gene-inducible bitransgenic mice by using lung-specific CC-10 promoter (CC10-rtTA-Relm-α). We found Relm-α protein is significantly induced in the esophagus of CC10-rtTA-Relm-α bitransgenic mice exposed to doxycycline food. The most prominent effect observed by the induction of Relm-α is epithelial cell hyperplasia, basal layer thickness, accumulation of activated CD4(+) and CD4(-) T cell subsets, and eosinophilic inflammation in the esophagus. The in vitro experiments further confirm that Relm-α promotes primary epithelial cell proliferation but has no chemotactic activity for eosinophils. Taken together, our studies report for the first time that Relm-α induction in the esophagus has a major role in promoting epithelial cell hyperplasia and basal layer thickness, and the accumulation of activated CD4(+) and CD4(-) T cell subsets may be responsible for partial esophageal eosinophilia in the mouse models of EoE. Notably, the epithelial cell hyperplasia and basal layer thickness are the characteristic features commonly observed in human EoE.

  15. Adipocytokine resistin correlates with oxidative stress and myocardial injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Laurikka, Antti; Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Toikkanen, Vesa; Rinne, Timo; Leppänen, Tiina; Tarkka, Matti; Laurikka, Jari; Moilanen, Eeva

    2014-10-01

    Adipocytokines are hormones regulating energy metabolism and appetite and according to recent reports also inflammatory responses including ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Based on experimental data, we hypothesized that the levels of adipocytokines adiponectin, adipsin, leptin and/or resistin would correlate with myocardial injury, inflammation and oxidative stress during cardiac surgery. Thirty-two patients undergoing an elective on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were recruited into the study. Blood samples were collected after the induction of anaesthesia, and at the onset of CPB, 1 and 15 min after the removal of aortic cross-clamp and 4 and 24 h after the onset of CPB. Samples were analysed for levels of four adipocytokines (adiponectin, adipsin, leptin and resistin) and markers of oxidative stress [myeloperoxidase (MPO) and 8-isoprostane], inflammation [interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and myocardial injury [troponin T (TnT)]. Adiponectin and adipsin concentrations declined, while leptin and resistin levels increased significantly by 24 h after the onset of the operation. Interestingly, basal levels of resistin (r = 0.41, P = 0.020) as well as the maximal increase occurring in resistin levels during the 24-h follow-up (r = 0.49, P = 0.005) correlated positively with TnT release. In addition, the reperfusion-induced elevation in resistin levels correlated positively with oxidative stress measured as increases in MPO concentrations. As an original finding, we report here that resistin levels correlate with oxidative stress and myocardial injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. In addition, leptin levels were increased on the first postoperative day, but only minor declines were found in adiponectin and adipsin levels. Resistin has been implicated in unfavourable metabolic, cardiovascular and inflammatory responses: it may thus serve as a useful biomarker or a drug target in conditions complicated by ischaemia

  16. Visfatin -948G/T and resistin -420C/G polymorphisms in Egyptian type 2 diabetic patients with and without cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Motawi, Tarek M K; Shaker, Olfat G; El-Sawalhi, Maha M; Abdel-Nasser, Zeinab M

    2014-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the main threats to human health in the 21st century. Visfatin/Nampt and resistin are novel adipokines that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) complication. Several genetic studies have shown inconsistent results regarding association of visfatin/Nampt gene (NAMPT) and resistin gene (RETN) polymorphisms with T2DM and CVD complications. Here, we investigate whether NAMPT -948G/T and RETN -420C/G polymorphisms are associated with T2DM, its CVD complications, and serum adipokines levels in 90 Egyptian diabetic patients (44 without CVD and 46 with CVD) along with 60 healthy control subjects. Higher frequencies of NAMPT -948G/G and RETN -420G/G were observed among T2DM patients compared with controls. Furthermore, the frequencies of these genotypes were significantly higher in T2DM patients with CVD than those without CVD. Both NAMPT -948G/G and RETN -420G/G genotypes and G alleles were significantly associated with T2DM and CVD in Egyptian diabetic patients. Moreover, serum visfatin/Nampt and resistin levels were markedly elevated in T2DM patients, with the highest values observed in G/G genotypes among T2DM patients with CVD. In addition, positive correlations were observed between plasma adipokines levels and CVD risk factors. In conclusion, our data suggests that genetic variations in NAMPT -948G/T and RETN -420C/G may contribute to the disposition for T2DM and its CVD complications in Egyptian patients. However, further studies with greater sample size should be performed to verify these results.

  17. Serum levels of apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage are associated with hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) and adipocytokines are involved in the metabolic syndrome, which has been putatively associated with the progression of chronic hepatitis C (CHC). However, the association between these cytokines and CHC is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study is to test whether serum levels of AIM and adipocytokines are associated with histological features, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), or whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) in CHC patients. Methods Serum samples were obtained from 77 patients with biopsy-proven CHC. In 39 patients without overt diabetes mellitus, a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed and HOMA-IR and WBISI were calculated. Results A serum AIM level of ≥1.2 μg/ml was independently associated with advanced hepatic fibrosis (F2 or F3) (odds ratio [OR], 5.612; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.103–28.563; P = 0.038) based on a multivariate analysis, but there was no significant association between AIM and hepatic steatosis or inflammation. Furthermore, a serum leptin level of ≥8.6 ng/ml was independently associated with the presence of hepatic steatosis (≥5%) (OR, 6.195; 95% CI, 1.409–27.240; P = 0.016), but not hepatic fibrosis or inflammation. No relationship was observed between levels of adiponectin or resistin and hepatic histological parameters based on a multivariate analysis. Although serum levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR and WBISI, there was no significant relationship between serum AIM levels and HOMA-IR or WBISI, respectively. Conclusion High serum levels of AIM in CHC patients are potentially related to advanced hepatic fibrosis. AIM and adipocytokines are possibly associated with pathological changes via a different mechanism. PMID:24524410

  18. Resistin Regulates Pituitary Lipid Metabolism and Inflammation In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Pacheco, F.; Novelle, M. G.; Vazquez, M. J.; Garcia-Escobar, E.; Soriguer, F.; Rojo-Martinez, G.; García-Fuentes, E.; Malagon, M. M.; Dieguez, C.

    2013-01-01

    The adipokine resistin is an insulin-antagonizing factor that also plays a regulatory role in inflammation, immunity, food intake, and gonadal function and also regulates growth hormone (GH) secretion in rat adenopituitary cells cultures with the adipokine. Although adipose tissue is the primary source of resistin, it is also expressed in other tissues, including the pituitary. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible action of resistin on the lipid metabolism in the pituitary gland in vivo (rats in two different nutritional status, fed and fast, treated with resistin on acute and a chronic way) and in vitro (adenopituitary cell cultures treated with the adipokine). Here, by a combination of in vivo and in vitro experimental models, we demonstrated that central acute and chronic administration of resistin enhance mRNA levels of the lipid metabolic enzymes which participated on lipolysis and moreover inhibiting mRNA levels of the lipid metabolic enzymes involved in lipogenesis. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that resistin has a regulatory role on lipid metabolism in the pituitary gland providing a novel insight in relation to the mechanism by which this adipokine can participate in the integrated control of lipid metabolism. PMID:23710116

  19. Increased protein and mRNA expression of resistin after dexamethasone administration.

    PubMed

    Sasayama, D; Hori, H; Nakamura, S; Yamamoto, N; Hattori, K; Teraishi, T; Ota, M; Kunugi, H

    2015-06-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone are widely used to treat a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, but they may induce adverse events including hyperglycemia. To shed light on the effect and action mechanism of dexamethasone, we examined the alterations of gene expression levels caused by dexamethasone.Microarray analysis was performed on whole blood collected from 24 physically healthy subjects at baseline and after dexamethasone administration. The expression levels of resistin mRNA were found to be significantly increased after the dexamethasone administration. In a separate sample of 12 subjects, we examined plasma resistin protein levels and found that they were increased after dexamethasone administration. Furthermore, the plasma mRNA and protein levels of resistin were significantly higher in individuals who carried the A allele of RETN single nucleotide polymorphism rs3219175 than in those who did not carry the allele. There was no significant interaction between the genotype and dexamethasone administration. No significant correlation was found between plasma levels of cortisol and resistin. Consistent with previous studies, the genotype of RETN rs3219175 was a strong determinant of resistin levels. The present study showed that oral administration of dexamethasone increases the protein and mRNA levels of resistin irrespective of the rs3219175 genotype. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. High serum apolipoprotein AIV levels in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Massy, Z A; Kandoussi, A M; Mamzer-Bruneel, M F; Kreis, H; Drüeke, T; Lacour, B

    2001-02-01

    Human apolipoprotein (apo) AIV might play a role in post-transplant reverse cholesterol transport, which appears to be comparable to that seen in healthy subjects. However, there may be subtle differences between healthy individuals and renal transplant recipients, given the other abnormalities of lipoprotein metabolism in the latter. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate possible changes of serum apo AIV levels in renal transplant recipients, and to evaluate potential factors influencing these levels. Total and free serum apo AIV was determined in 36 clinically stable renal transplant recipients and in 20 sex- and age-matched healthy control subjects. Mean total serum apo IV concentrations (+/- SD) were significantly higher in renal transplant recipients than in control subjects (202 +/- 102 vs 79 +/- 45 mg/l, p < 0.01). The percentage of lipoprotein-free fractions of apo AIV was comparable in both groups. The elevated total serum concentrations of apo AIV were mainly related to creatinine clearance and partially to serum triglyceride levels in renal transplant recipients. Our data suggest that the observed elevation of serum apo AIV concentrations in renal transplant recipients is essentially related to the presence of impaired renal function.

  1. Human resistin promotes neutrophil pro-inflammatory activation, neutrophil extracellular trap formation, and increases severity of acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shaoning; Park, Dae Won; Tadie, Jean-Marc; Gregoire, Murielle; Deshane, Jessy; Pittet, Jean Francois; Abraham, Edward; Zmijewski, Jaroslaw W.

    2014-01-01

    Although resistin was recently found to modulate insulin resistance in preclinical models of type II diabetes and obesity, recent studies have also suggested that resistin has proinflammatory properties. In these studies, we examined if the human specific variant of resistin affects neutrophil activation as well as the severity of LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Because human and mouse resistin have distinct patterns of tissue distribution, experiments were performed using resistin humanized mice that exclusively express human resistin (hRTN+/−/−), but are deficient in mouse resistin. Enhanced production of TNF-α or MIP-2 was found in LPS-treated hRtn+/−/−, compared to control Rtn−/−/− neutrophils. Expression of human resistin inhibited the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a major sensor and regulator of cellular bioenergetics that is also implicated in inhibiting inflammatory activity of neutrophils and macrophages. In addition to the ability of resistin to sensitize neutrophils to LPS stimulation, human resistin also enhanced neutrophil extracellular trap formation. In LPS-induced ALI, humanized resistin mice demonstrated enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, more severe pulmonary edema, increased NET formation, and elevated concentration of the alarmins HMGB1 and histone 3 in the lungs. Our results suggest that human resistin may play an important contributory role in enhancing TLR4 induced inflammatory responses, and may be a target for future therapies aimed at diminishing the severity of acute lung injury and other inflammatory situations where neutrophils play a major role. PMID:24719460

  2. Adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 is a receptor for human resistin and mediates inflammatory actions of human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sahmin; Lee, Hyun-Chae; Kwon, Yoo-Wook; Lee, Sang Eun; Cho, Youngjin; Kim, Joonoh; Lee, Soobeom; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Jaewon; Yang, Han-Mo; Mook-Jung, Inhee; Nam, Ky-Youb; Chung, Junho; Lazar, Mitchell A; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2014-03-04

    Human resistin is a cytokine that induces low-grade inflammation by stimulating monocytes. Resistin-mediated chronic inflammation can lead to obesity, atherosclerosis, and other cardiometabolic diseases. Nevertheless, the receptor for human resistin has not been clarified. Here, we identified adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1) as a functional receptor for human resistin and clarified its intracellular signaling pathway to modulate inflammatory action of monocytes. We found that human resistin directly binds to CAP1 in monocytes and upregulates cyclic AMP (cAMP) concentration, protein kinase A (PKA) activity, and NF-κB-related transcription of inflammatory cytokines. Overexpression of CAP1 in monocytes enhanced the resistin-induced increased activity of the cAMP-dependent signaling. Moreover, CAP1-overexpressed monocytes aggravated adipose tissue inflammation in transgenic mice that express human resistin from their monocytes. In contrast, suppression of CAP1 expression abrogated the resistin-mediated inflammatory activity both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, CAP1 is the bona fide receptor for resistin leading to inflammation in humans.

  3. Resistin decreases expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase through oxidative stress in human coronary artery endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jun; Lü, Jian-Ming; Chai, Hong; Wang, Xinwen; Lin, Peter H.; Yao, Qizhi

    2010-01-01

    Resistin is a newly discovered adipocyte-derived cytokine that may play an important role in insulin resistance, diabetes, adipogenesis, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. However, it is largely unknown whether resistin impairs endothelial functions by affecting the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) system. In this study, we determined the effect of human recombinant resistin protein on eNOS expression and regulation in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). When cells were treated with clinically relevant concentrations of resistin (40 or 80 ng/ml) for 24 h, the levels of eNOS mRNA, protein, and activity and eNOS mRNA stability were significantly reduced. Cellular nitric oxide levels were also decreased. In addition, the cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide anion, were significantly increased in resistin-treated HCAECs. Mitochondrial membrane potential and the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were reduced. Three antioxidants, seleno-l-methionine, ginsenoside Rb1, and MnTBAP (superoxide dismutase mimetic), effectively blocked resistin-induced eNOS downregulation. Meanwhile, resistin activated the mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and the specific p38 inhibitor SB-239063 effectively blocked resistin-induced ROS production and eNOS downregulation. Furthermore, immunoreactivity of resistin was increased in atherosclerotic regions of human aorta and carotid arteries. Thus resistin directly induces eNOS downregulation through overproduction of ROS and activation of p38 and JNK in HCAECs. Resistin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and imbalance in cellular redox enzymes may be the underlying mechanisms of oxidative stress. PMID:20435848

  4. Resistin induces lipolysis and suppresses adiponectin secretion in cultured human visceral adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Neng; Zhou, Lingmei; Zhang, Zixiang; Xu, Jiaying; Wan, Zhongxiao; Qin, Liqiang

    2014-11-01

    Resistin is an adipokine secreted from adipose tissue, which is likely involved in the development of obesity and insulin resistance via its interaction with other organs, as well as affecting adipose tissue function. The impact of resistin treatment on lipolysis and adiponectin secretion in human visceral adipose tissue is currently unknown. Mesenteric adipose tissue samples were obtained from 14 male subjects [age 54±6 yr, body mass index (BMI) 23.59±0.44 kg/m(2)] undergoing abdominal surgeries. Adipose tissues were cultured and treated with resistin (100 ng/mL, 24h) in the absence or presence of different signaling inhibitors: H89 (1 μM), PD98059 (25 μM) and SB201290 (20 μM) for glycerol and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) measurement. Adiponectin level from media at 24 h was also measured via ELISA. Adipose tissue minces after resistin incubation (100 ng/mL, 24 h) were also collected for further Western blotting analysis. Resistin resulted in significant induction of glycerol (3.62±0.57 vs. 5.30±1.11 mmol/L/g tissue, p<0.05) and NEFA (5.99±1.06 vs. 8.48±1.57 mmol/L/g tissue, p<0.05) release at 24 h. H89 and PD98059 partially inhibited resistin induced glycerol and NEFA release, while SB201290 has no such effect. Resistin induced the phosphorylation of p-HSL at serine 563, PKA at ~62 kDa and ERK1/2 as measured by Western blotting. Resistin led to significant reduction of the secretion of adiponectin (38.16±10.43 vs. 21.81±4.21 ng/mL/g tissue, p<0.05). Our current findings implicate that resistin might play a significant role in obesity related pathologies in various tissues via its effect on adipose tissue function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An enzymatic method for assaying sulbactam in human serum: comparison with high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sotto, A; Peray, P; Geny, F; Brunschwig, C; Carrière, C; Galtier, M; Ramuz, M; Jourdan, J

    1995-03-01

    An enzymatic method using nitrocefin as substrate was developed to assay sulbactam in human serum. Serum containing sulbactam was incubated with purified titrated TEM-1 beta-lactamase and nitrocefin was then added to the mixture to determine the remaining beta-lactamase activity and consequently the concentration of sulbactam. Assays were carried out on five patients with pulmonary infections receiving sulbactam plus amoxycillin iv. The values for serum sulbactam concentrations determined by the enzymatic method were compared with those determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The correlation coefficient was 0.990 for serum sulbactam concentrations below 15 mg/L.

  6. Production of High Potency Anti-Teschen Disease Serum From Rabbits and Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Dardiri, A H; Delay, P D

    1964-01-01

    An antiserum of high antibody content against Teschen disease Konratice virus was obtained by inoculating rabbits and guinea pigs with an antigen composed of aluminum gel and virus propagated in swine kidney cell cultures. The rabbit and guinea pig serums neutralized 1,500 TCID(50) of virus at dilutions of 1:5,120 and 1:2,048, respectively. The antibody level in the rabbit serum was tenfold greater than that in convalescent swine serum. Rabbit serum neutralized 2.8 x 10(6) plaque-forming units of the Konratice virus. At a dilution of 1:5,120, this serum neutralized 1,500 TCID(50) of the Reporyje virus. The methods used to prepare and assay the serum are described.

  7. Production of High Potency Anti-Teschen Disease Serum From Rabbits and Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Dardiri, A. H.; DeLay, P. D.

    1964-01-01

    An antiserum of high antibody content against Teschen disease Konratice virus was obtained by inoculating rabbits and guinea pigs with an antigen composed of aluminum gel and virus propagated in swine kidney cell cultures. The rabbit and guinea pig serums neutralized 1,500 TCID50 of virus at dilutions of 1:5,120 and 1:2,048, respectively. The antibody level in the rabbit serum was tenfold greater than that in convalescent swine serum. Rabbit serum neutralized 2.8 x 106 plaque-forming units of the Konratice virus. At a dilution of 1:5,120, this serum neutralized 1,500 TCID50 of the Reporyje virus. The methods used to prepare and assay the serum are described. PMID:17649483

  8. Circulating Resistin Levels and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gui; Fan, Wei; Luo, Baohong; Xu, Zhigao; Wang, Ping; Tang, Shihui; Xu, Peipei; Yu, Mingxia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Published data on resistin levels in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) were conflicting and heterogeneous. We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to examine the association of circulating resistin levels with carcinogenesis of the CRC. Methods. Potentially eligible studies published up to November 2015 were searched through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded database, CNKI, and WanFang database. The pooled weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by fixed- or random-effect model were used to estimate the effects. Results. A total of 11 studies involving 965 patients were admitted in our meta-analysis. The pooled effects indicated that resistin levels were higher in CRC patients compared to healthy controls (WMD: 1.47 ng/mL; 95% CI: 0.78 to 2.16), with significant heterogeneity across the studies (I (2) = 72%, p < 0.0001). Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses revealed that study quality, design, sample type, and resistin assays may account for this heterogeneity. No publication bias was observed. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis suggests that increased circulating resistin levels are associated with greater risk of colorectal cancer. Given the limited number of available studies and significant heterogeneity, larger well-designed randomized studies are warranted.

  9. Resistin, an Adipokine with Non-Generalized Actions on Sympathetic Nerve Activity

    PubMed Central

    Badoer, Emilio; Kosari, Samin; Stebbing, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization has called obesity a global epidemic. There is a strong association between body weight gain and blood pressure. A major determinant of blood pressure is the level of activity in sympathetic nerves innervating cardiovascular organs. A characteristic of obesity, in both humans and in animal models, is an increase in sympathetic nerve activity to the skeletal muscle vasculature and to the kidneys. Obesity is now recognized as a chronic, low level inflammatory condition, and pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated including those produced by adipose tissue. The most well-known adipokine released from fat tissue is leptin. The adipokine, resistin, is also released from adipose tissue. Resistin can act in the central nervous system to influence the sympathetic nerve activity. Here, we review the effects of resistin on sympathetic nerve activity and compare them with leptin. We build an argument that resistin and leptin may have complex interactions. Firstly, they may augment each other as both are excitatory on sympathetic nerves innervating cardiovascular organs; In contrast, they could antagonize each other's actions on brown adipose tissue, a key metabolic organ. These interactions may be important in conditions in which leptin and resistin are elevated, such as in obesity. PMID:26617526

  10. High-Flux Hemodialysis and High-Volume Hemodiafiltration Improve Serum Calcification Propensity

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Marijke; Pasch, Andreas; van der Sande, Frank; Konings, Constantijn; Bachtler, Matthias; Dionisi, Mauro; Meier, Matthias; Kooman, Jeroen; Canaud, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Background Calciprotein particles (CPPs) may play an important role in the calcification process. The calcification propensity of serum (T50) is highly predictive of all-cause mortality in chronic kidney disease patients. Whether T50 is therapeutically improvable, by high-flux hemodialysis (HD) or hemodiafiltration (HDF), has not been studied yet. Methods We designed a cross-sectional single center study, and included stable prevalent in-center dialysis patients on HD or HDF. Patients were divided into two groups based on dialysis modality, were on a thrice-weekly schedule, had a dialysis vintage of > 3 months and vascular access providing a blood flow rate > 300 ml/min. Calcification propensity of serum was measured by the time of transformation from primary to secondary CPP (T50 test), by time-resolved nephelometry. Results We included 64 patients, mean convective volume was 21.7L (SD 3.3L). In the pooled analysis, T50 levels increased in both the HD and HDF group with pre- and post-dialysis (mean (SD)) of 244(64) - 301(57) and 253(55) - 304(61) min respectively (P = 0.43(HD vs. HDF)). The mean increase in T50 was 26.29% for HD and 21.97% for HDF patients (P = 0.61 (HD vs. HDF)). The delta values (Δ) of calcium, phosphate and serum albumin were equal in both groups. Baseline T50 was negatively correlated with phosphate, and positively correlated with serum magnesium and fetuin-A. The ΔT50 was mostly influenced by Δ phosphate (r = -0.342; P = 0.002 HD and r = -0.396; P<0.001 HDF) in both groups. Conclusions HD and HDF patients present with same baseline T50 calcification propensity values pre-dialysis. Calcification propensity is significantly improved during both HD and HDF sessions without significant differences between both modalities. PMID:27064679

  11. High-Flux Hemodialysis and High-Volume Hemodiafiltration Improve Serum Calcification Propensity.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Marijke; Pasch, Andreas; van der Sande, Frank; Konings, Constantijn; Bachtler, Matthias; Dionisi, Mauro; Meier, Matthias; Kooman, Jeroen; Canaud, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Calciprotein particles (CPPs) may play an important role in the calcification process. The calcification propensity of serum (T50) is highly predictive of all-cause mortality in chronic kidney disease patients. Whether T50 is therapeutically improvable, by high-flux hemodialysis (HD) or hemodiafiltration (HDF), has not been studied yet. We designed a cross-sectional single center study, and included stable prevalent in-center dialysis patients on HD or HDF. Patients were divided into two groups based on dialysis modality, were on a thrice-weekly schedule, had a dialysis vintage of > 3 months and vascular access providing a blood flow rate > 300 ml/min. Calcification propensity of serum was measured by the time of transformation from primary to secondary CPP (T50 test), by time-resolved nephelometry. We included 64 patients, mean convective volume was 21.7L (SD 3.3L). In the pooled analysis, T50 levels increased in both the HD and HDF group with pre- and post-dialysis (mean (SD)) of 244(64) - 301(57) and 253(55) - 304(61) min respectively (P = 0.43(HD vs. HDF)). The mean increase in T50 was 26.29% for HD and 21.97% for HDF patients (P = 0.61 (HD vs. HDF)). The delta values (Δ) of calcium, phosphate and serum albumin were equal in both groups. Baseline T50 was negatively correlated with phosphate, and positively correlated with serum magnesium and fetuin-A. The ΔT50 was mostly influenced by Δ phosphate (r = -0.342; P = 0.002 HD and r = -0.396; P<0.001 HDF) in both groups. HD and HDF patients present with same baseline T50 calcification propensity values pre-dialysis. Calcification propensity is significantly improved during both HD and HDF sessions without significant differences between both modalities.

  12. Novel expression of resistin in rat testis: functional role and regulation by nutritional status and hormonal factors.

    PubMed

    Nogueiras, Ruben; Barreiro, M Luz; Caminos, Jorge E; Gaytán, Francisco; Suominen, Janne S; Navarro, Victor M; Casanueva, Felipe F; Aguilar, Enrique; Toppari, Jorma; Diéguez, Carlos; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2004-07-01

    Resistin, a recently cloned adipose-secreted factor, is primarily involved in the modulation of insulin sensitivity and adipocyte differentiation. However, additional metabolic or endocrine functions of this molecule remain largely unexplored. In this study, a series of experiments were undertaken to explore the potential expression, regulation and functional role of this novel adipocytokine in rat testis. Resistin gene expression was demonstrated in rat testis throughout postnatal development, with maximum mRNA levels in adult specimens. At this age, resistin peptide was immunodetected in interstitial Leydig cells and Sertoli cells within seminiferous tubules. Testicular expression of resistin was under hormonal regulation of pituitary gonadotropins and showed stage-specificity, with peak expression values at stages II-VI of the seminiferous epithelial cycle. In addition, testicular resistin mRNA was down-regulated by the selective agonist of PPARgamma, rosiglitazone, in vivo and in vitro. Similarly, fasting and central administration of the adipocyte-derived factor, leptin, evoked a significant reduction in testicular resistin mRNA levels, whereas they remained unaltered in a model of diet-induced obesity. From a functional standpoint, resistin, in a dose-dependent manner, significantly increased both basal and choriogonadotropin-stimulated testosterone secretion in vitro. Overall, our present results provide the first evidence for the expression, regulation and functional role of resistin in rat testis. These data underscore a reproductive facet of this recently cloned molecule, which may operate as a novel endocrine integrator linking energy homeostasis and reproduction.

  13. 13C metabolic flux analysis shows that resistin impairs the metabolic response to insulin in L6E9 myotubes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that the adipokine resistin links obesity and insulin resistance, although how resistin acts on muscle metabolism is controversial. We aimed to quantitatively analyse the effects of resistin on the glucose metabolic flux profile and on insulin response in L6E9 myotubes at the metabolic level using a tracer-based metabolomic approach and our in-house developed software, Isodyn. Results Resistin significantly increased glucose uptake and glycolysis, altering pyruvate utilisation by the cell. In the presence of resistin, insulin only slightly increased glucose uptake and glycolysis, and did not alter the flux profile around pyruvate induced by resistin. Resistin prevented the increase in gene expression in pyruvate dehydrogenase-E1 and the sharp decrease in gene expression in cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-1 induced by insulin. Conclusions These data suggest that resistin impairs the metabolic activation of insulin. This impairment cannot be explained by the activity of a single enzyme, but instead due to reorganisation of the whole metabolic flux distribution. PMID:25217974

  14. Independent associations between resistin and left ventricular mass and myocardial dysfunction in a community sample with prevalent obesity.

    PubMed

    Norman, Glenda; Norton, Gavin R; Libhaber, Carlos D; Michel, Frederic; Majane, Olebogeng H I; Millen, Aletta M E; Sareli, Pinhas; Woodiwiss, Angela J

    2015-10-01

    Although the adipokine resistin may play a role in heart failure, the mechanisms of this effect are uncertain. Relations with left ventricular mass (LVM) and function are uncertain. In 739 randomly selected participants from a community sample (43.6% obese), we assessed relations between circulating resistin concentrations and LVM index (LVMI), LVM beyond that predicted by stroke work (inappropriate LVMI [LVMinappr]) and systolic and diastolic LV function (echocardiography). Resistin concentrations were not independently associated with blood pressure (BP). However, resistin concentrations were associated with LVMI (partial r=0.12, p<0.0005), LVMinappr (partial r=0.18, p<0.0001) and LV hypertrophy (partial r=0.13, p<0.001) independent of BP, BMI, the homeostasis model of insulin resistance and additional confounders. Independent relations between resistin concentrations and LVMI and LVMinappr persisted with further adjustments for C-reactive protein concentrations. Resistin concentration (partial r=-0.12, p<0.002 in all and partial r=-0.15, p<0.0005 in untreated) was the only factor independently associated with LV midwall fractional shortening and these relations were enhanced at incremental concentrations of CRP. Resistin was not independently associated with transmitral and myocardial tissue Doppler indices of LV diastolic function. Resistin in-part explains variations in LVM, hypertrophy and myocardial systolic dysfunction, and these effects are independent of insulin resistance and general inflammatory changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mouse Resistin Modulates Adipogenesis and Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes Through the ROR1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Solana, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Mouse resistin, a cysteine-rich protein primarily secreted from mature adipocytes, is involved in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Human resistin, however, is mainly secreted by immune mononuclear cells, and it competes with lipopolysaccharide for the binding to Toll-like receptor 4, which could mediate some of the well-known proinflammatory effects of resistin in humans. In addition, resistin has been involved in the regulation of many cell differentiation and proliferation processes, suggesting that different receptors could be involved in mediating its numerous effects. Thus, a recent work identifies an isoform of Decorin (Δ Decorin) as a functional resistin receptor in adipocyte progenitors that may regulate white adipose tissue expansion. Our work shows that the mouse receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor (ROR)1 could mediate some of the described functions of resistin in 3T3-L1 adipogenesis and glucose uptake. We have demonstrated an interaction of mouse resistin with specific domains of the extracellular region of the ROR1 receptor. This interaction results in the inhibition of ROR1 phosphorylation, modulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and regulates suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, glucose transporter 4, and glucose transporter 1 expression. Moreover, mouse resistin modulates glucose uptake and promotes adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells through ROR1. In summary, our results identify mouse resistin as a potential inhibitory ligand for the receptor ROR1 and demonstrate, for the first time, that ROR1 plays an important role in adipogenesis and glucose homeostasis in 3T3-L1 cells. These data open a new line of research that could explain important questions about the resistin mechanism of action in adipogenesis and in the development of insulin resistance. PMID:22074948

  16. Efficacy of resistin and leptin in predicting persistent organ failure in patients with acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Pengfei; Wang, Shiqi; Qiu, Zhaoyan; Bai, Bin; Zhao, Zhanwei; Hao, Yiming; Wang, Qian; Guo, Min; Feng, Xiangying; Zhu, Junjie; Feng, Quanxin; Zhao, Qingchuan

    To investigate the accuracy of resistin, leptin and adiponectin levels in predicting persistent organ failure in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). Data from 90 consecutive patients admitted to our hospital for AP were retrospectively collected from an ongoing prospective cohort study. The levels of adiponectin, leptin and resistin were measured and compared between patients with and without persistent organ failure. The accuracy of the adipokines in predicting persistent organ failure were compared with the patients' Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) score, and were separately investigated in overweight and non-overweight groups. Persistent organ failure occurred in 26.7% of the patients. The levels of resistin were significantly increased in AP patients with persistent organ failure, in both the overweight and the non-overweight subgroups. Resistin and APACHE-II score predicted persistent organ failure with comparable areas under the curve (AUC) of 0.72 and 0.75, respectively (p = 0.66). Resistin demonstrated similar accuracy with the APACHE-II score in predicting persistent organ failure in the overweight (0.69 vs. 0.66, p = 0.82) and non-overweight (0.76 vs. 0.87, p = 0.39) subgroups. There was no correlation between adiponectin and persistent organ failure, but a weak correlation between leptin and persistent organ failure was demonstrated. Resistin and leptin levels, rather than adiponectin, correlate with persistent organ failure in patients with AP. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between Serum Interleukin-17A Level and High-Altitude Deacclimatization Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    He, Binfeng; Li, Hongli; Hu, Mingdong; Dong, Weijie; Wei, Zhenghua; Li, Jin; Yao, Wei; Guo, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    High-altitude deacclimatization syndrome (HADAS) is emerging as a severe public health issue that threatens the quality of life of individuals who return to lower altitude from high altitude. In this study, we measured serum levels of SOD, MDA, IL-17A, IL-10, TNF-α, and HADAS score in HADAS subjects at baseline and 50th and 100th days and to evaluate the relationship between interleukins, including IL-17A, and HADAS. Our data showed that and the serum IL-17A levels and HADAS score decreased over time in the HADAS group, and serum IL-17A levels were significantly higher in the HADAS group at baseline and 50th day compared with controls (p < 0.05). Furthermore, baseline serum levels of MDA and TNF-α were significantly higher, while SOD and IL-10 levels were lower in HADAS subjects compared with controls (p < 0.05). It is interesting that serum levels of IL-17A were clearly interrelated with HADAS incidence and severity (p < 0.05). ROC curve analysis showed that combined serum IL-17A and IL-10 levels were a better predictor of HADAS incidence than serum levels of IL-17A or IL-10 alone. These data suggest that serum levels of IL-17A are a novel predictive index of HADAS. PMID:27190491

  18. Optimizing cationic and neutral lipids for efficient gene delivery at high serum content.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chia-Ling; Ewert, Kai K; Majzoub, Ramsey N; Hwu, Yeu-Kuang; Liang, Keng S; Leal, Cecília; Safinya, Cyrus R

    2014-01-01

    Cationic liposome (CL)-DNA complexes are promising gene delivery vectors with potential application in gene therapy. A key challenge in creating CL-DNA complexes for application is that their transfection efficiency (TE) is adversely affected by serum. In particular, little is known about the effects of a high serum content on TE, even though this may provide design guidelines for application in vivo. We prepared CL-DNA complexes in which we varied the neutral lipid [1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophosphatidylcholine, glycerol-monooleate (GMO), cholesterol], the headgroup charge and chemical structure of the cationic lipid, and the ratio of neutral to cationic lipid; we then measured the TE of these complexes as a function of serum content and assessed their cytotoxicity. We tested selected formulations in two human cancer cell lines (M21/melanoma and PC-3/prostate cancer). In the absence of serum, all CL-DNA complexes of custom-synthesized multivalent lipids show high TE. Certain combinations of multivalent lipids and neutral lipids, such as MVL5(5+)/GMO-DNA complexes or complexes based on the dendritic-headgroup lipid TMVLG3(8+) exhibited high TE both in the absence and presence of serum. Although their TE still dropped to a small extent in the presence of serum, it reached or surpassed that of benchmark commercial transfection reagents, particularly at a high serum content. Two-component vectors (one multivalent cationic lipid and one neutral lipid) can rival or surpass benchmark reagents at low and high serum contents (up to 50%, v/v). We propose guidelines for optimizing the serum resistance of CL-DNA complexes based on a given cationic lipid. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Optimizing Cationic and Neutral Lipids for Efficient Gene Delivery at High Serum Content

    PubMed Central

    Majzoub, Ramsey N.; Hwu, Yeu-kuang; Liang, Keng S.; Leal, Cecília; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cationic liposome (CL)-DNA complexes are promising gene delivery vectors with potential applications in gene therapy. A key challenge in creating CL-DNA complexes for applications is that their transfection efficiency (TE) is adversely affected by serum. In particular, little is known about the effects of high serum contents on TE even though this may provide design guidelines for applications in vivo. Methods We prepared CL-DNA complexes in which we varied the neutral lipid (DOPC, glycerol-monooleate (GMO), cholesterol), the headgroup charge and chemical structure of the cationic lipid, and the ratio of neutral to cationic lipid; we then measured the TE of these complexes as a function of serum content and assessed their cytotoxicity. We tested selected formulations in two human cancer cell lines (M21/melanoma and PC-3/prostate cancer). Results In the absence of serum, all CL-DNA complexes of custom-synthesized multivalent lipids show high TE. Certain combinations of multivalent lipids and neutral lipids, such as MVL5(5+)/GMO-DNA complexes or complexes based on the dendritic-headgroup lipid TMVLG3(8+) exhibited high TE both in the absence and presence of serum. Although their TE still dropped to a small extent in the presence of serum, it reached or surpassed that of benchmark commercial transfection reagents, in particular at high serum content. Conclusions Two-component vectors (one multivalent cationic lipid and one neutral lipid) can rival or surpass benchmark reagents at low and high serum contents (up to 50%, v/v). We suggest guidelines for optimizing the serum resistance of CL-DNA complexes based on a given cationic lipid. PMID:24753287

  20. Occurrence of a multimeric high-molecular-weight glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in human serum.

    PubMed

    Kunjithapatham, Rani; Geschwind, Jean-Francois; Devine, Lauren; Boronina, Tatiana N; O'Meally, Robert N; Cole, Robert N; Torbenson, Michael S; Ganapathy-Kanniappan, Shanmugasundaram

    2015-04-03

    Cellular glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a phylogenetically conserved, ubiquitous enzyme that plays an indispensable role in energy metabolism. Although a wealth of information is available on cellular GAPDH, there is a clear paucity of data on its extracellular counterpart (i.e., the secreted or extracellular GAPDH). Here, we show that the extracellular GAPDH in human serum is a multimeric, high-molecular-weight, yet glycolytically active enzyme. The high-molecular-weight multimers of serum GAPDH were identified by immunodetection on one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using multiple antibodies specific for various epitopes of GAPDH. Partial purification of serum GAPDH by DEAE Affigel affinity/ion exchange chromatography further established the multimeric composition of serum GAPDH. In vitro data demonstrated that human cell lines secrete a multimeric, high-molecular-weight enzyme similar to that of serum GAPDH. Furthermore, LC-MS/MS analysis of extracellular GAPDH from human cell lines confirmed the presence of unique peptides of GAPDH in the high-molecular-weight subunits. Furthermore, data from pulse-chase experiments established the presence of high-molecular-weight subunits in the secreted, extracellular GAPDH. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the presence of a high-molecular-weight, enzymatically active secretory GAPDH in human serum that may have a hitherto unknown function in humans.

  1. Giant benign true cyst of the spleen with high serum level of CA 19-9.

    PubMed

    Trompetas, Vassilis; Panagopoulos, Emmanuel; Priovolou-Papaevangelou, Maria; Ramantanis, George

    2002-01-01

    We report the case of a 21-year-old woman with a giant (20 cm) benign mesothelial splenic cyst and a high CA 19-9 serum level (1240 U/ml). The patient underwent resection of the cyst and splenectomy. True non-parasitic splenic cysts are very rare. Only 10 cases of benign true splenic cysts, with a high CA 19-9 serum level, have ever been published in the medical literature written in English. These are reviewed in this paper. We believe that the inner cellular lining of the cyst wall produces CA 19-9, which causes the high CA 19-9 serum level. This is supported by the facts that (1) the inner cellular lining is strongly positive for immunohistochemistry with CA 19-9, and (2) the CA 19-9 serum level returned to normal after resection of the cyst.

  2. Resistin expression in adipose tissues and its effect on glucose metabolism in rats with brain injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Wang, Z Y; Zhu, L L; Wu, F; Chen, D Q; Sun, L F; Lu, Z Q

    2016-02-11

    Resistin (RSTN) expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue, and its effect on glucose metabolism in rats with traumatic brain injury, was investigated using real-time PCR, western blots, and enzyme linked immunoassays. Our results show that the expression of RSTN mRNA (3.192 ± 0.046, 4.016 ± 0.010, 6.004 ± 0.020, 8.213 ± 0.013, 11.199 ± 0.174, 15.094 ± 0.030), protein levels (1.79 ± 0.05, 1.98 ± 0.07, 2.75 ± 0.08, 3.19 ± 0.08, 4.25 ± 0.11, 4.48 ± 0.07), levels of serum insulin (512.96 ± 1.21, 580.57 ± 1.52, 769.71 ± 2.22, 826.08 ± 2.03, 1262.25 ± 3.40, 1512.80 ± 3.93), and fasting blood glucose levels (10.277 ± 0.040, 12.776 ± 0.038, 13.403 ± 0.263, 14.698 ± 0.100, 16.637 ± 0.110, 19.416 ± 0.025) were significantly higher in the traumatic rat group compared to the control group (P < 0. 05). Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) was significantly lower in the traumatic group (-8.570 ± 0.005, -8.912 ± 0.004, -9.241 ± 0.022, -9.404 ± 0.007, -9.952 ± 0.007, -10.288 ± 0.002) than in the control group (-7.633 ± 0.003, -7.639 ± 0.004, -7.637 ± 0.006, -7.643 ± 0.003, -7.636 ± 0.006, -7.634 ± 0.004) (P < 0.05). Single factor linear correlation analysis showed that there was a significant negative correlation between RSTN expression and QUICKI (-0.983, P < 0.05) in the traumatic group. The increase in RSTN expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of rats with traumatic brain injury is likely related to the indexes of glycometabolism, including serum insulin, fasting blood glucose, and QUICKI. Our results lead us to conclude that RSTN may play an important role in the process of insulin resistance in rats with traumatic brain injury.

  3. High serum parathyroid hormone and calcium are risk factors for hypertension in Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Shusuke; Aihara, Ken-ichi; Kondo, Takeshi; Endo, Itsuro; Hotchi, Junko; Ise, Takayuki; Iwase, Takashi; Akaike, Masashi; Matsumoto, Toshio; Sata, Masataka

    2014-01-01

    Excess parathyroid hormone (PTH), known as primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), results in hypercalcemia and bone loss. Recent studies have shown that PTH is associated with the occurrence of hypertension in Western countries; however, controversy remains regarding high serum levels of PTH and calcium as risk factors for hypertension in Japanese patients. We retrospectively enrolled 114 consecutive Japanese patients who visited our hospital for examination and treatment of hypercalcemia and/or hypertension with serum calcium levels ≥ 9.8 mg/dL. To estimate the prevalence of hypertension, the patients were categorized according to calcium levels into hypercalcemic (10.2-13.4 mg/dL) and normocalcemic (9.8-10.1 mg/dL) groups, which were further categorized into high PTH (50-440 pg/mL) and low PTH (8-49 pg/mL) groups. The prevalence of hypertension was higher in patients with hypercalcemia than in patients with normocalcemia in both the high and low PTH groups. The prevalence of hypertension was higher in patients with high serum PTH levels than in patients with low serum PTH levels in both the hypercalcemic and normocalcemic groups. Logistic multiple regression analysis determined that serum calcium (P < 0.05) and PTH (P < 0.01) levels were positive contributors to hypertension. In conclusion, high serum levels of PTH and calcium are risk factors for hypertension in Japanese patients.

  4. Experimental Hyperthyroidism Decreases Gene Expression and Serum Levels of Adipokines in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Luvizotto, Renata de Azevedo Melo; do Nascimento, André Ferreira; de Síbio, Maria Teresa; Olímpio, Regiane Marques Castro; Conde, Sandro José; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Leopoldo, André Soares; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos; Nogueira, Célia Regina

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To analyze the influence of hyperthyroidism on the gene expression and serum concentration of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in obese animals. Main Methods. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (C)—fed with commercial chow ad libitum—and obese (OB)—fed with a hypercaloric diet. After group characterization, the OB rats continued receiving a hypercaloric diet and were randomized into two groups: obese animals (OB) and obese with 25 μg triiodothyronine (T3)/100 BW (OT). The T3 dose was administered every day for the last 2 weeks of the study. After 30 weeks the animals were euthanized. Samples of blood and adipose tissue were collected for biochemical and hormonal analyses as well as gene expression of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin. Results. T3 treatment was effective, increasing fT3 levels and decreasing fT4 and TSH serum concentration. Administration of T3 promotes weight loss, decreases all fat deposits, and diminishes serum levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin by reducing their gene expression. Conclusions. Our results suggest that T3 modulate serum and gene expression levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in experimental model of obesity, providing new insights regarding the relationship between T3 and adipokines in obesity. PMID:22645452

  5. Determination of nadolol in serum by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, H; Yoshida, K; Murano, M; Naruto, S

    1992-01-17

    A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method for a routine assay of nadolol in serum is described. Serum samples spiked with atenolol (internal standard) were extracted with diethyl ether. After centrifugation, the organic layer was evaporated to dryness. The residue was redissolved in the mobile phase and injected onto an octadecyl silica column (150 mm x 4.6 mm I.D.). The mobile phase was 0.05 M ammonium acetate (pH 4.5)-acetonitrile (85:15, v/v). Fluorometric detection (excitation 230 nm, emission 300 nm) was used. The minimum detectable level of nadolol in serum was 1 ng/ml.

  6. Resistin Stimulates Expression of Chemokine Genes in Chondrocytes via Combinatorial Regulation of C/EBPβ and NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ziji; Zhang, Zhiqi; Kang, Yan; Hou, Changhe; Duan, Xin; Sheng, Puyi; Sandell, Linda J.; Liao, Weiming

    2014-01-01

    To further investigate the regulation role of two chemokine genes CCL3 and CCL4 in chondrocytes in response to resistin, human primary chondrocytes and T/C-28a2 cells were cultured. The function of resistin on the chemokine genes, and the expression of C/EBPβ, NF-κB isoforms were tested using qPCR. The methods used to investigate timed co-regulation of C/EBPβ and NF-κBwere NF-κB inhibitor (IKK-NBD) and C/EBPβ inhibitor (SB303580) treatments, and subcellular localization, with or without resistin stimulation. Results showed that resistin could increase the up-regulation of chemokine genes independently. Resistin increased the expression of C/EBPβ and NF-κB isoforms. C/EBPβ regulated basal activity and steadily increased over time up to 24h with resistin. NF-κB was up-regulated upon induction with resistin, peaking at 4 h. C/EBPβ and NF-κB co-enhanced the chemokines expression; inhibition of their activity was additive. The timing of activation in chondrocytes was confirmed by subcellular localization of C/EBPβ and c-rel. Chondrocytes react to resistin in a non-restricted cell-specific manner, utilizing C/EBPβ and NF-κB in a combinatorial regulation of chemokine gene expression. The activity of C/EBPβ is augmented by a transient increase in activity of NF-κB, and both transcription factors act independently on the chemokine genes, CCL3 and CCL4. Thus, resistin stimulates CCL3 and CCL4 through combinatorial regulation of C/EBPβ and NF-κB in chondrocytes. PMID:25264740

  7. Resistin and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: effect modification by adiponectin in end-stage kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Spoto, Belinda; Mattace-Raso, Francesco; Sijbrands, Eric; Pizzini, Patrizia; Cutrupi, Sebastiano; D'Arrigo, Graziella; Tripepi, Giovanni; Zoccali, Carmine; Mallamaci, Francesca

    2013-11-01

    Resistin is a major adipose tissue cytokine implicated in insulin resistance, inflammation and vascular damage. This cytokine is raised in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) but the relationship between resistin and major clinical outcomes has not been investigated in this population. We studied the mutual relationship between resistin and the two major adipokines (adiponectin and leptin) and the interaction between resistin and adiponectin (ADPN) and all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality in a cohort of 231 haemodialysis patients followed up for 57 ± 44 months. Plasma resistin was substantially raised in ESKD patients when compared with healthy subjects (P < 0.001). On univariate analysis, resistin was related inversely to ADPN (r = -0.14, P = 0.04) and directly to C-reactive protein (r = 0.15, P = 0.03), but was largely independent of leptin (r = 0.08, P = 0.24) and the HOMA-IR index (r = -0.04, P = 0.51). During the follow-up, 165 patients died (96 for CV causes). On both univariate (all-cause mortality: P = 0.004; CV mortality P < 0.001) and multivariate (all-cause mortality: P = 0.01; CV mortality P < 0.001) Cox regression analyses, the effect of resistin on study outcomes was closely dependent on ADPN levels. There was a consistent excess risk for all-cause (P = 0.002) and CV mortality (P = 0.003) by plasma resistin (20 ng/mL) in patients in the first ADPN tertile, but no risk excess for these outcomes was apparent in patients in the third tertile. This study indicates that resistin predicts death and fatal CV events depending on plasma ADPN levels. These findings underscore the importance of the interaction among adipokines for the prediction of adverse clinical outcomes in ESKD.

  8. Neuropeptide B and W regulate leptin and resistin secretion, and stimulate lipolysis in isolated rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Skrzypski, Marek; Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, Ewa; Ruciński, Marcin; Szczepankiewicz, Dawid; Sassek, Maciej; Wojciechowicz, Tatiana; Kaczmarek, Przemysław; Kołodziejski, Paweł A; Strowski, Mathias Z; Malendowicz, Ludwik K; Nowak, Krzysztof W

    2012-06-10

    Neuropeptide B (NPB) and W (NPW) regulate food intake and energy homeostasis in humans via two G-protein-coupled receptor subtypes, termed as GPR7 and GPR8. Rodents express GPR7 only. In animals, NPW decreases insulin and leptin levels, whereas the deletion of either NPB or GPR7 leads to obesity and hyperphagia. Metabolic and endocrine in vitro activities of NPW/NPB in adipocytes are unknown. We therefore characterize the effects of NPB and NPW on the secretion and expression of leptin and resistin, and on lipolysis, using rat adipocytes. Isolated rat adipocytes express GPR7 mRNA. NPB and NPW are expressed in macrophages and preadipocytes but are absent in mature adipocytes. Both, NPB and NPW reduce the secretion and expression of leptin from isolated rat adipocytes. NPB stimulates the secretion and expression of resistin, whereas both, NPB and NPW increase lipolysis. Our study demonstrates for the first time that NPB and NPW regulate the expression and secretion of leptin and resistin, and increase lipolysis in isolated rat adipocytes. These effects are presumably mediated via GPR7. The increase of resistin secretion, stimulation of lipolysis and the decrease of leptin secretion may represent mechanisms, through which NPB and NPW can affect glucose and lipid homeostasis, and food intake in rodents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of novel serum peptide biomarkers for high-altitude adaptation: a comparative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Juan; Li, Wenhua; Liu, Siyuan; Yuan, Dongya; Guo, Yijiao; Jia, Cheng; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to identify serum biomarkers for screening individuals who could adapt to high-altitude hypoxia at sea level. HHA (high-altitude hypoxia acclimated; n = 48) and HHI (high-altitude hypoxia illness; n = 48) groups were distinguished at high altitude, routine blood tests were performed for both groups at high altitude and at sea level. Serum biomarkers were identified by comparing serum peptidome profiling between HHI and HHA groups collected at sea level. Routine blood tests revealed the concentration of hemoglobin and red blood cells were significantly higher in HHI than in HHA at high altitude. Serum peptidome profiling showed that ten significantly differentially expressed peaks between HHA and HHI at sea level. Three potential serum peptide peaks (m/z values: 1061.91, 1088.33, 4057.63) were further sequence identified as regions of the inter-α trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 fragment (ITIH4 347–356), regions of the inter-α trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H1 fragment (ITIH1 205–214), and isoform 1 of fibrinogen α chain precursor (FGA 588–624). Expression of their full proteins was also tested by ELISA in HHA and HHI samples collected at sea level. Our study provided a novel approach for identifying potential biomarkers for screening people at sea level who can adapt to high altitudes.

  10. Rapid Analysis of Cefazolin in Serum by High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Wold, John S.

    1977-01-01

    A high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the analysis of cefazolin in serum. Serum was deproteinized by the addition of 6% trichloroacetic acid and injected onto a reverse-phase column with a mobile phase of 10 to 15% methanol in 1% aqueous acetic acid. Cefazolin chromatographed without interference from ultraviolet-absorbing components of serum, with a retention time of 3.1 min. Standard curves comparing peak area with concentration prepared from dog or human sera were linear over a range of 1.6 to 200 μg/ml. Results from the HPLC assay were compared with microbiological assays (cylinder plate method) on both standard serum samples and sera from dogs and human subjects receiving intramuscular cefazolin. The HPLC method was somewhat more accurate in comparison with the microbiological assay performed on serum samples of known concentration. The comparison of results from an analysis of serum levels of dogs or human subjects receiving cefazolin indicated that the two methods would lead to identical conclusions concerning pharmacokinetics or the achievement of therapeutic serum levels. The HPLC assay method presents an alternative to conventional microbiological assays, with marked improvement in speed (30 min) and considerable potential for future development. PMID:836007

  11. Adiponectin, resistin and leptin in paediatric chronic renal failure: correlation with auxological and endocrine profiles.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Maria Cristina; Montaperto, Daniela; Maringhini, Silvio; Corrado, Ciro; Gucciardino, Eleonora; Corsello, Giovanni

    2014-06-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) compromises nutrition, growth, puberty, glycometabolic homeostasis, and adipokine secretion (i.e. adiponectin, resistin, and leptin). Adipokines play a role in the clinical outcome, but data in paediatric patients is scant. To evaluate the link between kidney function, adiponectin, resistin, leptin, hormonal status, nutritional state and late outcome of CRF children. We studied leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels in 31 CRF patients (19 males, 12 females, aged 12.1 ± 4.47 years) managed conservatively, and 30 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Clinical, auxological, biochemical, hormonal data, glucose and insulin levels were correlated with adipokine levels. Six percent of patients had glycaemia T0' > 126 mg/dl, 23 % glycaemia T60' > 126, and 23 % glycaemia T120' ≥ 140. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) measured during follow-up was in the normal range in all patients (4-5.6 %). Insulinaemia was significantly higher in CRF patients than controls. Homeostatic model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels were more elevated in patients (32 % had HOMA-IR > 2.5) than controls. Leptin levels were significantly higher in CRF patients than controls and differed significantly between males and females. Leptin correlated significantly with creatinine, body mass index (BMI), BA, pubertal stage, insulin-like growth factor 1, and HOMA-IR in females. Adiponectin levels were significantly higher in patients than controls, higher in patients with BMI < 85th centile and significantly inversely correlated to BMI, BA, haemoglobin, ferritin, proteins, albumin, and creatininuria. Resistin levels showed a direct correlation with C-reactive protein and an inverse correlation with haemoglobin. Normal resistin levels are an expression of both adequate nutritional state and controlled inflammatory state. Adiponectin could protect against chronic inflammation, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular diseases. Preventing obesity and ensuring a

  12. Relationship between craving and ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin levels in patients with alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Akkişi Kumsar, Neslihan; Dilbaz, Nesrin

    2015-04-01

    Alcoholism is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. The most widely accepted hypothesis of its etiology is multidimensional and includes biological, psychological, and sociological factors. The biological factors have been the focus of investigation. In recent years, pathways related to nutrition and the relationship between alcohol addiction and craving have been studied. Our aim was to explore the relationship between the appetite hormones (adiponectin, ghrelin, and resistin) and alcohol craving. Blood samples were obtained from 107 male patients over a 7-day period. Levels of adiponectin, resistin, and ghrelin, the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) score, and the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS) score were assessed on days 0 and 7. Adiponectin, resistin, and ghrelin levels were also tested in 83 healthy males in the control group. The sample group consisted of 190 males (107 patients and 83 healthy controls). Comparison of alcohol craving scales with biological markers in the patient group showed a positive correlation between adiponectin levels and the OCDS compulsive subscale scores, and a positive correlation between ghrelin levels and the OCDS total and compulsive subscale scores and the PACS resistance subscale scores. Resistin levels were negatively correlated with the OCDS total, obsessive subscale, and compulsive subscale scores. Although we did not observe a significant relationship between craving and any of the 3 biomarkers on day 0, craving was positively correlated with the levels of adiponectin and ghrelin and negatively correlated resistin levels on day 7. Our findings support the hypothesis that appetite hormones are trait markers for alcohol craving. Nevertheless, more conclusive results require future studies that evaluate the relationship between these hormones and withdrawal/detoxification period or long-term soberness. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. Liraglutide treatment causes upregulation of adiponectin and downregulation of resistin in Chinese type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongmei; Xu, Xiaohua; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Jian; Ye, Lei; Lee, Kok Onn; Ma, Jianhua

    2015-11-01

    To assess the effect of 16 weeks of liraglutide administration on the plasma levels of adiponectin and resistin in Chinese patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Forty-four subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to once-a-day dosage of either liraglutide, or glimepiride (4 mg) in a double-blinded double-dummy active-controlled study. All treatments were administered in combination with metformin (1 g, twice daily). The efficacy of liraglutide was estimated by measuring and comparing the levels of HbA1c, adiponectin and resistin in the plasma before and after the 16-week treatment. The plasma level of adiponectin was significantly increased (0.74±0.19 ng/ml, p<0.05) and resistin was significantly lowered (-1.34±0.34 pg/ml, p<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner in the liraglutide group when compared with the glimepiride group (-0.44±0.09 ng/ml of adiponectin and 0.14±0.41 pg/ml of resistin). In contrast, we found no differences in the decrease in HbA1c between the two groups (8.3±1.2% to 7.2±1.1% in NGSP units vs. 8.3±1.0% to 7.3±1.2% in NGSP units; 67±13 mmol/mol to 55±12 mmol/mol vs. 67±11 mmol/mol to 56±13 mmol/mol in IFCC units). In Chinese T2DM patients, liraglutide treatment led to increased adiponectin and decreased resistin levels compared to glimepiride-treated subjects, while inducing similar glycemic changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High cut-off dialysis in chronic haemodialysis patients reduces serum procalcific activity.

    PubMed

    Zickler, Daniel; Willy, Kevin; Girndt, Matthias; Fiedler, Roman; Martus, Peter; Storr, Markus; Schindler, Ralf

    2016-10-01

    Vascular calcification is enhanced in chronic dialysis patients, possibly due to the insufficient removal of various intermediate molecular weight uraemic toxins such as interleukins with conventional membranes. In this study, we assessed the modulation of in vitro vascular calcification with the use of high cut-off (HCO) membranes in chronic dialysis patients. In a PERCI trial, 43 chronic dialysis patients were treated with conventional high-flux and HCO filters for 3 weeks in a randomized order following a 2-period crossover design. After each phase, serum predialysis samples were drawn. Calcifying human coronary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were incubated with the patient's serum samples. Calcification was assessed with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alizarin red staining. In the clinical trial, HCO dialysis reduced the serum levels of the soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR) 1 and 2, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL2R). We therefore investigated the in vitro effects of these mediators on vascular calcification. VSMCs incubated with HCO dialysis serum showed a 26% reduction of ALP with HCO serum compared with high-flux serum. Alizarin was 43% lower after incubation with the HCO serum compared with the high-flux serum. While sIL2R and sTNFR 1 and 2 showed no effects on VSMC calcification, VCAM-1 caused a dose-dependent enhancement of calcification. The use of HCO dialysis membranes in chronic dialysis patients reduces the procalcific effects of serum on VSMC in vitro. The mechanisms of the strong effect of HCO on in vitro calcification are not completely understood. One factor may be lower levels of VCAM-1 in HCO serum samples, since VCAM-1 was able to induce vascular calcification in our experiments. Neither sTNFR 1, sTNFR 2 nor sIL2R enhance vascular calcification in vitro. Regardless of the mechanisms, our results encourage further studies of highly permeable filters in chronic dialysis

  15. Hemoglobin is associated with serum high molecular weight adiponectin in Japanese community-dwelling persons.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Tabara, Yasuharu; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Miki, Tetsuro; Kusunoki, Tomo; Takayama, Shuzo; Abe, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    Serum high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin improves insulin sensitivity, and a decreased level of serum HMW adiponectin has been reported as a risk factor for the development of diabetes and coronary heart disease. This association may be further confounded by the hemoglobin status, which is involved in the development of atherosclerosis. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2002. Study participants, consisting of 897 men aged 61±14 (mean±standard deviation) years and 1,148 women aged 63±12 years, were randomly recruited from a single community at the time of their annual health examination. Serum HMW adiponectin levels were lowered dose-dependently with an increased hemoglobin level. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses for serum HMW adiponectin revealed that the hemoglobin status was independently and significantly associated with serum HMW adiponectin levels as well as sex, age, body mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, antilipidemic medication, uric acid, serum gamma glutamyltransferase, and insulin resistance. Inclusion of hemoglobin levels in the model further increased the coefficient of determination. In stratified analysis, mean serum HMW adiponectin levels were significantly and similarly decreased as hemoglobin levels increased in men, ages ≥ 65 years, BMI < 23.0 kg/m(2), alcohol drinkers, and lower insulin resistance, and there were significant interactions between the two groups for BMI, alcohol consumption and insulin resistance. Hemoglobin status is inversely associated with serum HMW adiponectin levels in community-dwelling persons, especially those aged ≥ 65 years, BMI < 23.0 kg/m(2), alcohol drinkers, and lower insulin resistance groups.

  16. Serum adipokines, adipose tissue measurements and metabolic parameters in patients with advanced radiographic knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Toussirot, Eric; Michel, Fabrice; Béreau, Matthieu; Dehecq, Barbara; Gaugler, Béatrice; Wendling, Daniel; Grandclément, Emilie; Saas, Philippe; Dumoulin, Gilles

    2017-08-22

    We conducted the present study to evaluate the serum levels of adipokines (leptin, total and high molecular adiponectin, resistin), a marker of cartilage breakdown (C2C), and ghrelin together with body composition in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Fifty patients and 50 sex-matched healthy subjects (HS) were evaluated. Knee OA was scored according to the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade. Body composition parameters including lean mass and measurements of fat mass (total fat, adiposity, fat in the android and gynoid regions, visceral fat and trunk/legs fat ratio) were obtained using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Most of the recruited patients (88%) had advanced knee OA with KL grade 3 or 4. The patients had higher body mass index than HS (p < 0.0001). Serum leptin, high molecular adiponectin, resistin and ghrelin levels did not differ between patients and HS. Total adiponectin was higher in women with OA compared to women from the HS group (p = 0.004). Total fat mass, adiposity and measurements of central adiposity (fat in the android region, trunk/lower limbs fat ratio and visceral fat) were increased in patients with knee OA (all p < 0.05). Total adiponectin was borderline associated with the severity of OA. Our results show that total adiponectin is significantly increased in women with advanced knee OA. Independently of gender, patients with severe knee OA were characterized by a significant excess of fat with a distribution toward the visceral region. This abnormal body composition may contribute to the cardiometabolic profile that is described in patients with knee OA.

  17. An evaluation of serum high density lipoproteins-phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Ide, H; Tsuji, M; Shimada, M; Kondo, T; Fujiya, S; Asanuma, Y; Agishi, Y

    1988-07-01

    Phospholipids in high density lipoproteins (HDL) is being used as a negative risk indicator of atherosclerosis. Phospholipids in HDL may not demonstrate the actual level of HDL-phospholipids when determined by the precipitation or ultracentrifugal methods, because HDL fractions contain very high density lipoproteins (VHDL) and albumin. In the present study, the true level of phospholipids in HDL was estimated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and it was compared with the level of phospholipids in HDL determined by the precipitation method. Sera from 18 healthy subjects were used as materials. In the HPLC method, the HDL fraction was extracted making sure that it contained no free albumin, which is albumin not bound to phospholipids. The HDL fraction was separated into subfractions. It was found that phospholipids in the VHDL fraction make a 20.2 +/- 7.3% (mean +/- S.D.) part of the total HDL-phospholipids. A large part of the VHDL fraction was constituted of albumin-bound phospholipids. A significant correlation was observed between HDL-phospholipids determined by the precipitation method, which contain albumin, and the actual HDL fraction phospholipids determined by HPLC, which do not contain VHDL (r = 0.903, p less than 0.01). These results suggest that HDL-phospholipids values determined by the precipitation method give useful clinical data.

  18. Genetic causes of high and low serum HDL-cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; Pajukanta, Päivi

    2010-01-01

    Plasma levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) have a strong inherited basis with heritability estimates of 40-60%. The well-established inverse relationship between plasma HDL-C levels and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) has led to an extensive search for genetic factors influencing HDL-C concentrations. Over the past 30 years, candidate gene, genome-wide linkage, and most recently genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified several genetic variations for plasma HDL-C levels. However, the functional role of several of these variants remains unknown, and they do not always correlate with CAD. In this review, we will first summarize what is known about HDL metabolism, monogenic disorders associated with both low and high HDL-C levels, and candidate gene studies. Then we will focus this review on recent genetic findings from the GWA studies and future strategies to elucidate the remaining substantial proportion of HDL-C heritability. Comprehensive investigation of the genetic factors conferring to low and high HDL-C levels using integrative approaches is important to unravel novel pathways and their relations to CAD, so that more effective means of diagnosis, treatment, and prevention will be identified. PMID:20421590

  19. The relationship between serum adiponectin and postpartum luteal activity in high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kafi, Mojtaba; Tamadon, Amin; Saeb, Mehdi

    2015-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to initially determine the pattern of serum adiponectin concentrations during a normal estrous cycle in high-producing postpartum dairy cows and then evaluate the relationship between the serum concentrations of adiponectin and insulin with the commencement of postpartum luteal activity and ovarian activities in clinically healthy high-producing Holstein dairy cows. During a normal estrous cycle of cows (n = 6), serum adiponectin concentrations gradually decreased (P < 0.05) after ovulation by Day-17 estrous cycle and then increased before the next ovulation. Cows with higher peak of milk yield had lower serum adiponectin concentrations by week 7 postpartum (P = 0.01). Serum adiponectin and insulin concentrations in cows with different postpartum luteal activity (based on the progesterone profile) were evaluated using the following class of cows: normal (≤45 days, n = 11) and delayed (>45 days, n = 11) commencement of luteal activity (C-LA) and four different profiles of normal luteal activity (NLA, n = 5), prolonged luteal phase (n = 6), delayed first ovulation (n = 6), and anovulation (AOV, n = 5). Serum adiponectin concentrations decreased gradually by week 3 postpartum in NLA and then increased; whereas in AOV and delayed first ovulation, they were decreased after week 3 postpartum (P < 0.05). Moreover, serum adiponectin concentrations in NLA were more than AOV at weeks 5 and 7 postpartum (P = 0.05). The increase in the milk yield from weeks 1 to 7 postpartum in prolonged luteal phase (P = 0.05) and AOV (P = 0.04) cows was more than that of NLA cows. Insulin concentrations were almost maintained at a stable level in NLA cows (P > 0.05), whereas they increased in the other groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, adiponectin concentrations in cows with C-LA greater than 45 days decreased more than those with C-LA 45 days or less after week 3 postpartum (P = 0.002). Serum adiponectin concentrations at week 7 postpartum were lower in

  20. Serum and follicular fluid irisin levels in poor and high responder women undergoing IVF/ICSI.

    PubMed

    Acet, M; Celik, N; Acet, T; Ilhan, S; Yardim, M; Aktun, H L; Basaranoglu, S; Deregozu, A; Aydin, S

    2016-05-01

    We examined the follicular fluid (FF) and serum levels of irisin in high and poor responders undergoing IVF/ICSI to test whether irisin has a role in the metabolic regulation of energy homeostasis in growing follicle. Twenty infertile women with PCOS and 20 poor responder participants undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with GnRH antagonist protocol for IVF/ICSI treatment were allocated. Blood was obtained at the time of oocyte retrieval. The follicular fluid content of mature follicles was collected from both high and poor responder women. Irisin levels were measured by using EIA. There was no significant difference between serum and FF-irisin levels in women with PCOS. (11.18 ± 5.14 µg/mL vs. 11.06 ± 4.93 µg/mL, p < 0.96). In contrast, serum levels of irisin in poor responders were significantly higher than in the FF-irisin levels (13.13 ± 4.27 µg/mL vs. 10.09 ± 4.14 µg/mL, p < 0.01). FF-irisin levels of PCOS subjects were positively and significantly correlated with serum levels of irisin (r: 0.81, p < 0.00). Serum irisin was positively associated with serum levels of total testosterone but was negatively associated with HOMA-IR in the overall patient population. FF-irisin levels were also noted to be negatively correlated with HOMA-IR. Although there is no correlation between serum irisin and AMH levels, FF irisin levels were negatively correlated with serum AMH levels in PCOS subjects. Contrary to PCOS group there were no significant correlation between serum and FF-irisin levels in poor responder group (r: 0.21; p < 0.35). The present study is the first attempt to explore the role of irisin in oocyte development by measuring FF and serum levels of this molecules in patients with poor and high responders undergoing IVF/ICSI.

  1. A comparison of depletion versus equalization for reducing high-abundance proteins in human serum.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Carolina; Santos, Hugo M; Ruíz-Romero, Cristina; Blanco, Francisco J; Capelo-Martínez, José-Luis

    2011-11-01

    In this work three methods to diminish the content of most highly abundant proteins in human serum have been studied and compared. Protein depletion with ACN or DTT and protein equalization with the ProteoMiner(™) (PM) have been assessed by 1-D gel electrophoresis and MS. After treatment 5, 18 and 9 major proteins within the 20 most abundant proteins in serum were identified for the ACN, DTT and PM methods, respectively. The ACN method was efficient for depleting high molecular weight proteins, over 75 KDa, resulting in 10±4% (n=3) of the total protein content remaining in the depleted serum. In addition, 75% of the proteins belonging to the group of the 20 most abundant proteins were not detected, making this depletion strategy a cheap alternative to expensive commercial tools regularly used for removing high abundance proteins from serum. The ACN extract was found rich in apolipoproteins. The dithithreitol method promotes the precipitation of proteins rich in disulfide bonds, mainly albumin, with 73±7% (n=3) of the total protein content remaining in the depleted serum, which was found rich in immunoglobulins. The PM method compresses the dynamic range of the serum proteins, rendering an extract containing 16±2% (n=3) of the total initial protein content. The extract was found to be rich in both apolipoproteins and immunoglobulins. As a general rule the DTT and PM methods provide a compression of the dynamic range of serum protein concentrations while the ACN method allows an effective depletion of the protein fraction above 72 KDa.

  2. High serum bilirubin is associated with the reduced risk of diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Seok; Na, Ki Young; Chae, Dong-Wan; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2010-06-01

    Several studies have suggested a potential effect of serum bilirubin as an antioxidant and cytoprotectant factor. For the results presented here, we evaluated the correlation between serum bilirubin and diabetes mellitus (DM) or chronic kidney disease originated from DM (DMCKD) in a Korean population. We used a cross-sectional, population-based design to examine 93,909 subjects (aged 18-96 years, 53.0% male). The trend of P values in the odds ratios for being DM and DMCKD was calculated using patients separated into five groups based on individual serum bilirubin concentrations. The prevalence of DM and DMCKD was 6.7% and 0.8%, respectively. Higher serum bilirubin levels were significantly associated with decreased prevalence of DM in both men (P trend < 0.001) and women (P trend = 0.014). The risk of DMCKD also decreased as bilirubin levels increased in women (P trend = 0.011), but not in men (P trend = 0.467). Serum bilirubin level was inversely related to insulin resistance using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), serum insulin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in multiple linear regression analyses. The regression coefficients (B) of log-HOMA-IR, log-insulin, and log-CRP were as follows: -0.09, -0.13, and -0.60 in men; -0.07, -0.09, and -0.50 in women, respectively. All the regressions were statistically significant (P < 0.001). These results indicate that serum bilirubin might have some protective function against DM and DMCKD, although the association between high serum bilirubin and decreased prevalence of DMCKD is observed only in women.

  3. Role of resistin in the inflammatory response induced by nicotine plus lipopolysaccharide in human periodontal ligament cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kang, S K; Park, Y D; Kang, S I; Kim, D K; Kang, K L; Lee, S Y; Lee, H J; Kim, E C

    2015-10-01

    Resistin was recently reported to play a role in inflammation-related diseases such as arthritis. However, the precise role of resistin in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as periodontal disease, remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of nicotine and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the expression of resistin and to assess whether resistin expression influences the levels of inflammatory cytokines, extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and MMPs in human periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) stimulated with both nicotine and LPS. PDLCs were pretreated with isoproterenol or resistin-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA), stimulated with LPS plus nicotine for 24 h, and then monitored for the production of inflammatory mediators. The concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured by radioimmunoassay and the Griess method, respectively. RT-PCR and western blot analysis were used to measure the levels of mRNA and protein, respectively. Western blot analysis was also used to assess the activation of various signal-transduction pathways. Treatment with nicotine plus LPS up-regulated the expression of resistin mRNA and the production of resistin protein in PDLCs in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Isoproterenol-mediated interference with the function of resistin, or siRNA-mediated knockdown of resistin expression, markedly attenuated the LPS plus nicotine-mediated stimulation of PGE2 and NO production, the production of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase proteins and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-12] and MMPs (MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9); however, these treatments restored the expression of ECM molecules. Furthermore, pretreatment with isoproterenol or resistin-specific siRNA blocked nicotine plus LPS-induced activation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase, glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta, β-catenin, p38, ERK

  4. High Serum Estradiol and Heavy Metals Responsible for Human Spermiation Defect-A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Manish; Kalsi, Amanpreet Kaur; Srivastava, Amita; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Spermiation is a process of releasing sperm into the lumen of seminiferous tubules. Failure in releasing sperm into the lumen is designated as spermiation defect. Spermiation defect cases present as oligo-azoospermia or azoospermia despite normal gonadotropins and testicular histology/cytology. Human spermiation defect never got attention to investigate infertility practice. Most of the information on spermiation defect, so far is from animal experiments. We assume some cases of non-obstructive azoospermia with normal gonadotropins and testicular histology/cytology could be due to spermiation defect. Aim The aim of the study was to find out the underlying aetiology in cases of human spermiation defect. Materials and Methods A total of 13 cases of spermiation defect and 20 fertile men as control constituted study material. Cases were studied for chromosomal abnormalities by conventional karyotyping, sex chromosome mosaicism by interphase XY FISH, Yq microdeletion by STS PCR, sertoli cell quality (function) and quantity (numbers) by serum Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) and inhibin B besides other hormones like Follicular Stimulating Hormone (FSH), prolactin, testosterone and estradiol. Vitamin A concentration in serum was also measured. Presence of heavy metal was investigated by elemental electron microscopy in seminal cells (eight cases) & by spectrometry in serum as well as seminal plasma. Results Chromosomal and Yq microdeletion study failed to detect any abnormalities. AMH, inhibin B and vitamin A were also normal. Estradiol level was high in 6 out of 13 cases (46%) while platinum in seminal cells was high in 4 cases (50%). High (four times or more) serum level of lead and nickel was observed in 11 (85%) and 6 (46%) cases, respectively. Conclusion High serum concentration of heavy metals like lead & nickel or high platinum accumulation in seminal cells or high serum estradiol alone or in combinations may be underlying aetiologic factors in human

  5. Resistin Increases Ectopic Deposition of Lipids Through miR-696 in C2C12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fengyun; Zhang, Haiwei; Bao, Chen; Yang, Mengshi; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Jie; Hu, Yajie; Yang, Xi; Geng, Jinjing; Yang, Zaiqing

    2015-06-01

    Resistin is associated with ectopic deposition of lipids, and determining its developmental and molecular mechanisms may help in the development of novel treatments. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in many physiological and pathological processes as negative regulators. We performed mouse liver miRNA microarrays to analyze the differences in expression between resistin-treated and control mice; the results showed that miR-696 was significantly upregulated by resistin. Therefore, we aimed to study whether miR-696 played a role in the resistin-induced ectopic deposition of lipids. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that miR-696 was upregulated both in vivo and in vitro, consistent with the microarray. We transfected C2C12 cells and used miR-696 mimics and inhibitors to assess the role of miR-696 in the resistin-induced ectopic deposition of lipids. The overexpression of miR-696 increased the TG content in C2C12 cells and decreased the mitochondrial content. Next, a study of miR-696's role in the deposition of lipids in C2C12 induced by resistin showed that inhibition of miR-696 restored the TG content by up to 80%, which suggests that, in C2C12 cells, resistin at least partially increases the deposition of lipids through miR-696. miR-696 plays a role in the ectopic deposition of lipids induced by resistin in skeletal muscle at least partially.

  6. Extremely high maternal alkaline phosphatase serum concentration with syncytiotrophoblastic origin

    PubMed Central

    Boronkai, A; Than, N G; Magenheim, R; Bellyei, S; Szigeti, A; Deres, P; Hargitai, B; Sumegi, B; Papp, Z; Rigo, J

    2005-01-01

    An extremely high alkaline phosphatase (AP) concentration (3609 IU/litre) was found in a 20 year old primigravida at 37 week’s gestation, prompting an examination of its histological and cellular origin. Immunohistochemistry and western blots using antibodies against AP, Ki-67, phospho-protein kinase B (Akt), phospho-p44/42 mitogen activated protein kinase/extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (MAPK/Erk1/2), phospho-glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), phospho-stress activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase, total-Akt, total-GSK-3β, and phospho-p38-MAPK were carried out on index and control placental samples of the same gestational age. Compared with controls, staining of the index placenta showed minimal AP labelling of the brush border and remarkable positivity of the intervillous space. Cytotrophoblastic proliferation was 8–10% in the index placenta compared with 1–2% in controls. The index placenta also had raised concentrations of protein kinases with important roles in cell differentiation. The proliferation and differentiation rates of the cytotrophoblasts were found to be five times higher in index samples than in controls. It is hypothesised that loss of syncytial membranes in immature villi led to increased AP concentrations in the maternal circulation and decreased AP staining of the placenta. Loss of the syncytium might also stimulate increased proliferation of villous cytotrophoblasts, which would then fuse and maintain the syncytium. PMID:15623487

  7. Poor nutrition and alcohol consumption are related to high serum homocysteine level at post-stroke.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung-Hye; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Jong-Sung

    2015-10-01

    Increased serum homocysteine (Hcy) levels have been reported to be related to the occurrence of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. High serum Hcy levels are also related to the development of secondary stroke and all-cause mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of high serum homocysteine level and relating factors, and the change over the 10 month period post-stroke. Consecutive stroke patients who were admitted to the Asan Medical Center were enrolled. Ten months after the onset of stroke, an interview with a structured questionnaire was performed and blood samples were obtained for the biochemical parameters. Nutritional status was determined using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) score and dietary nutrient intakes were also obtained using a 24 hour recall method. Out of 203 patients, 84% were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, and 26% had high homocysteine levels at 10 months post-stroke. Using logistic regression, the factors related with high homocysteine levels at 10 months post-stroke included heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.020), low MNA scores (P = 0.026), low serum vitamin B12 (P = 0.021) and low serum folate levels (P = 0.003). Of the 156 patients who had normal homocysteine levels at admission, 36 patients developed hyperhomocysteinemia 10 months post-stroke, which was related to heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.013). Persistent hyperhomocysteinemia, observed in 22 patients (11%), was related to male sex (P = 0.031), old age (P = 0.042), low vitamin B6 intake (P = 0.029), and heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.013). Hyperhomocysteinemia is common in post-stroke, and is related to malnutrition, heavy alcohol drinking and low serum level of folate and vitamin B12. Strategies to prevent or manage high homocysteine levels should consider these factors.

  8. Sitagliptin decreases ventricular arrhythmias by attenuated glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)-dependent resistin signalling in infarcted rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tsung-Ming; Chen, Wei-Ting; Chang, Nen-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) was associated with insulin resistance, in which resistin acts as a critical mediator. We aimed to determine whether sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, can attenuate arrhythmias by regulating resistin-dependent nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in postinfarcted rats. Normoglycaemic male Wistar rats after ligating coronary artery were randomized to either vehicle or sitagliptin for 4 weeks starting 24 h after operation. Post-infarction was associated with increased myocardial noradrenaline [norepinephrine (NE)] levels and sympathetic hyperinnervation. Compared with vehicle, sympathetic innervation was blunted after administering sitagliptin, as assessed by immunofluorescent analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase, growth-associated factor 43 and neurofilament and western blotting and real-time quantitative RT-PCR of NGF. Arrhythmic scores in the sitagliptin-treated infarcted rats were significantly lower than those in vehicle. Furthermore, sitagliptin was associated with reduced resistin expression and increased Akt activity. Ex vivo studies showed that glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) infusion, but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), produced similar reduction in resistin levels to sitagliptin in postinfarcted rats. Furthermore, the attenuated effects of sitagliptin on NGF levels can be reversed by wortmannin (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase antagonist) and exogenous resistin infusion. Sitagliptin protects ventricular arrhythmias by attenuating sympathetic innervation in the non-diabetic infarcted rats. Sitagliptin attenuated resistin expression via the GIP-dependent pathway, which inhibited sympathetic innervation through a signalling pathway involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt protein. PMID:26811539

  9. Sitagliptin decreases ventricular arrhythmias by attenuated glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)-dependent resistin signalling in infarcted rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsung-Ming; Chen, Wei-Ting; Chang, Nen-Chung

    2016-01-25

    Myocardial infarction (MI) was associated with insulin resistance, in which resistin acts as a critical mediator. We aimed to determine whether sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, can attenuate arrhythmias by regulating resistin-dependent nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in postinfarcted rats. Normoglycaemic male Wistar rats after ligating coronary artery were randomized to either vehicle or sitagliptin for 4 weeks starting 24 h after operation. Post-infarction was associated with increased myocardial noradrenaline [norepinephrine (NE)] levels and sympathetic hyperinnervation. Compared with vehicle, sympathetic innervation was blunted after administering sitagliptin, as assessed by immunofluorescent analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase, growth-associated factor 43 and neurofilament and western blotting and real-time quantitative RT-PCR of NGF. Arrhythmic scores in the sitagliptin-treated infarcted rats were significantly lower than those in vehicle. Furthermore, sitagliptin was associated with reduced resistin expression and increased Akt activity. Ex vivo studies showed that glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) infusion, but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), produced similar reduction in resistin levels to sitagliptin in postinfarcted rats. Furthermore, the attenuated effects of sitagliptin on NGF levels can be reversed by wortmannin (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase antagonist) and exogenous resistin infusion. Sitagliptin protects ventricular arrhythmias by attenuating sympathetic innervation in the non-diabetic infarcted rats. Sitagliptin attenuated resistin expression via the GIP-dependent pathway, which inhibited sympathetic innervation through a signalling pathway involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt protein. © 2016 Authors.

  10. Ameliorative effects of boron on serum profile in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) fed high fluoride ration.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Vijay K; Gupta, Meenakshi; Lall, D

    2008-02-01

    An experiment was undertaken to evaluate the protective role of boron on the serum profile of buffalo calves fed a high fluoride ration. Twelve male Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves of 6-8 months age, divided into three groups of four calves in each, were fed basal diets and supplemented with sodium fluoride (NaF, 60 ppm) alone or in combination with borax (Na2B4O7.10H2O, 140 ppm) for 90 days. Boron (B) was added in the ration as borax to make @140 ppm boron (elemental B) on DM basis in treatment II. Dietary F caused a significant (p<0.05) depressing effect on serum Ca and Zn on day 90 which was improved with B supplementation. However, serum Fe and Cu did not show any significant change on F or F+B supplementation. The serum ALP and phosphorus level were increased significantly (p<0.05) on F feeding but declined significantly (p<0.05) when B was fed. The findings suggested beneficial effect of boron on serum minerals and ALP in buffalo calves fed high fluoride ration.

  11. Association of serum uric acid with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Raeisi, A; Ostovar, A; Vahdat, K; Rezaei, P; Darabi, H; Moshtaghi, D; Nabipour, I

    2017-02-01

    To explore the independent correlation between serum uric acid and low-grade inflammation (measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, hs-CRP) in postmenopausal women. A total of 378 healthy Iranian postmenopausal women were randomly selected in a population-based study. Circulating hs-CRP levels were measured by highly specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and an enzymatic calorimetric method was used to measure serum levels of uric acid. Pearson correlation coefficient, multiple linear regression and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between uric acid and hs-CRP levels. A statistically significant correlation was seen between serum levels of uric acid and log-transformed circulating hs-CRP (r = 0.25, p < 0.001). After adjustment for age and cardiovascular risk factors (according to NCEP ATP III criteria), circulating hs-CRP levels were significantly associated with serum uric acid levels (β = 0.20, p < 0.001). After adjustment for age and cardiovascular risk factors, hs-CRP levels ≥3 mg/l were significantly associated with higher uric acid levels (odds ratio =1.52, 95% confidence interval 1.18-1.96). Higher serum uric acid levels were positively and independently associated with circulating hs-CRP in healthy postmenopausal women.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF DRUG INTERACTIONS WITH SERUM PROTEINS BY USING HIGH-PERFORMANCE AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Hage, David S.; Anguizola, Jeanethe; Barnaby, Omar; Jackson, Abby; Yoo, Michelle J.; Papastavros, Efthimia; Pfaunmiller, Erika; Sobansky, Matt; Tong, Zenghan

    2011-01-01

    The binding of drugs with serum proteins can affect the activity, distribution, rate of excretion, and toxicity of pharmaceutical agents in the body. One tool that can be used to quickly analyze and characterize these interactions is high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC). This review shows how HPAC can be used to study drug-protein binding and describes the various applications of this approach when examining drug interactions with serum proteins. Methods for determining binding constants, characterizing binding sites, examining drug-drug interactions, and studying drug-protein dissociation rates will be discussed. Applications that illustrate the use of HPAC with serum binding agents such as human serum albumin, α1-acid glycoprotein, and lipoproteins will be presented. Recent developments will also be examined, such as new methods for immobilizing serum proteins in HPAC columns, the utilization of HPAC as a tool in personalized medicine, and HPAC methods for the high-throughput screening and characterization of drug-protein binding. PMID:21395530

  13. Hyperphosphatemia is a combined function of high serum PTH and high dietary protein intake in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Streja, Elani; Lau, Wei Ling; Goldstein, Leanne; Sim, John J; Molnar, Miklos Z; Nissenson, Allen R; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2013-12-01

    Elevated serum phosphorus is associated with higher death risk in hemodialysis patients. Previous studies have suggested that both higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level and higher dietary protein intake may contribute to higher serum phosphorus levels. However, it is not well known how these two factors simultaneously contribute to the combined risk of hyperphosphatemia in real patient-care scenarios. We hypothesized that the likelihood of hyperphosphatemia increases across higher serum PTH and higher normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) levels, a surrogate of protein intake. Over an 8-year period (July 2001-June 2009), we identified 69,355 maintenance hemodialysis patients with PTH, nPCR, and phosphorus data in a large dialysis provider. Logistic regression models were examined to assess the association between likelihood of hyperphosphatemia (serum phosphorus >5.5 mg/dl) and serum PTH and nPCR increments. Patients were 61±15 years old and included 46% women, 33% blacks, and 57% diabetics. Both higher serum PTH level and higher protein intake were associated with higher risk of hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients. Compared with patients with PTH level 150-<300 pg/ml and nPCR level 1.0-<1.2 g/kg/day, patients with iPTH>600 pg/ml and nPCR>1.2 g/kg/day had a threefold higher risk of hyperphosphatemia (OR: 3.17, 95% CI: 2.69-3.75). Hyperphosphatemia is associated with both higher dietary protein intake and higher serum PTH level in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Worsening or resistant hyperphosphatemia may be an under-appreciated consequence of secondary hyperparathyroidism independent of dietary phosphorus load. Management of hyperphosphatemia should include diligent correction of hyper-parathyroidism while maintaining adequate intake of high protein foods with low phosphorus content.

  14. Adiponectin is partially associated with exosomes in mouse serum.

    PubMed

    Phoonsawat, Worrawalan; Aoki-Yoshida, Ayako; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Sonoyama, Kei

    2014-06-06

    Exosomes are membrane vesicles 30-120 nm in diameter that are released by many cell types and carry a cargo of proteins, lipids, mRNA, and microRNA. Cultured adipocytes reportedly release exosomes that may play a role in cell-to-cell communication during the development of metabolic diseases. However, the characteristics and function of exosomes released from adipocytes in vivo remain to be elucidated. Clearly, adipocyte-derived exosomes could exist in the circulation and may be associated with adipocyte-specific proteins such as adipocytokines. We isolated exosomes from serum of mice by differential centrifugation and analyzed adiponectin, leptin, and resistin in the exosome fraction. Western blotting detected adiponectin but no leptin and only trace amounts of resistin in the exosome fraction. The adiponectin signal in the exosome fraction was decreased by proteinase K treatment and completely quenched by a combination of proteinase K and Triton X-100. Quantitative ELISA showed that the exosome fraction contains considerable amounts of adiponectin, but not leptin or resistin. The concentration of adiponectin in the serum and the ratio of adiponectin to total protein in the exosome fraction were lower in obese mice than in lean mice. These results suggest that a portion of adiponectin exists as a transmembrane protein in the exosomes in mouse serum. We propose adiponectin as a marker of exosomes released from adipocytes in vivo.

  15. Low Serum Testosterone But Not Obesity Predicts High Gleason Score at Biopsy Diagnosed as Prostate Cancer in Patients with Serum PSA Lower than 20 ng/ml.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Masaki; Takeuchi, Ario; Sugimoto, Masaaki; Dejima, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Eiji; Kiyoshima, Keijiro; Inokuchi, Junichi; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Yokomizo, Akira

    2015-11-01

    The impact of testosterone or obesity on the pathological grade of prostate cancer remains controversial. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the relationship of serum testosterone and body mass index (BMI) to Gleason score at biopsy. This study included 128 Japanese patients diagnosed with prostate cancer from 2000 through 2012 whose serum testosterone level and BMI were measured before treatment. Associations between clinical parameters, including pre-treatment serum testosterone level and BMI, and Gleason score at biopsy were examined. The median serum testosterone and BMI were 434 ng/dl (interquartile range=362-542 ng/dl) and 23.5 kg/m(2) (interquartile range=21.7-25.4 kg/m(2)), respectively. Gleason score at biopsy was <7, 7 and >7 for 58 patients (45.3%), 52 patients (40.6%) and 18 patients (14.1%), respectively. On univariate analysis, positive finding at digital rectal examination (DRE), high prostate-specific antigen level at diagnosis and low serum testosterone level, but not BMI, were correlated with high Gleason score at biopsy. Multivariate analysis identified positive finding at DRE and low serum testosterone level as significant predictors of a high Gleason score at prostate biopsy. By combining these parameters, the predictive ability of a high Gleason score was improved. This study showed that positive finding at DRE and a low pre-treatment serum testosterone level, but not obesity, may be factors predictive of aggressive prostate cancer, indicating the diagnostic value of serum testosterone, as well as DRE findings, in risk assessment. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of serum neopterin levels and its relationship with adipokines in pediatric obesity-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Nur; Tokgoz, Yavuz; Kume, Tuncay; Bulbul, Memduh; Sayın, Oya; Harmancı, Duygu; Akdogan, Gul Guner

    2013-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with inflammation and increased risk of atherosclerosis. Neopterin is regarded as a biochemical marker of cell-mediated immunity, which is secreted by monocytes and macrophages, mainly in response to interferon-gamma. The aim of the present study was to investigate the serum neopterin levels in obese adolescents and compare the neopterin levels in patients with and without NAFLD and also with healthy controls. The second aim of the study was to research the possible relationship between neopterin levels and adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and ghrelin). Ninety-three obese adolescents (39 with NAFLD, 54 without NAFLD) and 55 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Serum levels of neopterin and adipokines were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Serum neopterin levels were significantly higher in patients with NAFLD (3.20 ± 0.09 nmol/L) than in their healthy peers (2.91 ± 0.08 nmol/L) (p=0.020). Neopterin levels were positively correlated with leptin levels in obese patients (r=0.380, p<0.001) and in the group comprising all individuals (r=0.206, p<0.05). There was no correlation between neopterin concentrations and relative weight, alanin aminotransferase, adiponectin, resistin, and ghrelin levels. The serum neopterin levels were significantly higher in obese adolescents with fatty liver disease compared to controls, and this may be related to increased cell-mediated immunity in fatty liver disease.

  17. Adenylyl Cyclase-Associated Protein 1(CAP1) is a Receptor for Human Resistin and Mediates Inflammatory Actions of Human Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sahmin; Lee, Hyun-Chae; Kwon, Yoo-Wook; Lee, Sang Eun; Cho, Youngjin; Kim, Joonoh; Lee, Soobeom; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Jaewon; Yang, Han-Mo; Mook-Jung, Inhee; Nam, Ky-Youb; Chung, Junho; Lazar, Mitchell A.; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Resistin is a cytokine that induces low-grade inflammation by stimulating monocytes in human. Resistin-mediated chronic inflammation can lead to obesity, atherosclerosis and other cardiometabolic disease. Nevertheless, the receptor for human resistin has not yet been clarified. Here, we identified adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1(CAP1) as a functional receptor for human resistin and clarified its intracellular signaling pathway to modulate inflammatory action of monocytes. We found that human resistin directly binds to CAP1 in monocytes and up-regulates intracellular cAMP concentration, PKA activity and NF-kB-related transcription of inflammatory cytokines. Over-expression of CAP1 in monocytes enhanced resistin-induced increased activity of cAMP-dependent signaling pathway. Moreover, CAP1-over-expressed monocytes aggravated adipose tissue inflammation in transgenic mice that express human resistin from their monocytes. In contrast, suppression of CAP1 expression abrogated the resistin-mediated inflammatory activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our results highlight CAP1 as the bona fide receptor for resistin leading to inflammation in human. PMID:24606903

  18. Resistin-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is inhibited by apelin through the inactivation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway in H9c2 embryonic rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jian-Wei; Zheng, Xian; Cheng, Guan-Chang; Ye, Qun-Hui; Deng, Yong-Zhi; Wu, Lin

    2016-10-01

    It has been reported that resistin induces, whereas apelin inhibits cardiac hypertrophy. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of apelin inhibiting resistin-induced cardiac hypertrophy remain unclear. The aim of the current study is to investigate the effects of apelin on resistin-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism. H9c2 cells were used in the present study, and cell surface area and protein synthesis were evaluated. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the expression levels of hypertrophic markers, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC). In addition, western blotting was conducted to examine phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. Following treatment of H9c2 cells with resistin, cell surface area, protein synthesis, and BNP and β-MHC mRNA expression levels were increased. Subsequent to co-treatment of H9c2 cells with apelin and resistin, lead to the inhibition of resistin-induced hypertrophic effects by apelin. In addition, treatment with resistin increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, whereas pretreatment with apelin decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which was increased by resistin. These results indicate that resistin-induced cardiac hypertrophy is inhibited by apelin via inactivation of ERK1/2 cell signaling.

  19. A large, benign prostatic cyst presented with an extremely high serum prostate-specific antigen level.

    PubMed

    Chen, Han-Kuang; Pemberton, Richard

    2016-01-08

    We report a case of a patient who presented with an extremely high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level and underwent radical prostatectomy for presumed prostate cancer. Surprisingly, the whole mount prostatectomy specimen showed only small volume, organ-confined prostate adenocarcinoma and a large, benign intraprostatic cyst, which was thought to be responsible for the PSA elevation. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. Serum protein determination by high-performance gel-permeation chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, K; Masuko, M; Mineta, M; Yoshikawa, K; Yamauchi, K; Hirano, M; Katsumata, N; Tanaka, T

    1997-08-15

    A general high-performance gel-permeation chromatography (HPGPC) method was developed to determine protein in human serum with improved sensitivity and speed. The optimum UV wavelength for protein detection was found to be 210 nm, by comparing the protein values obtained by varying the UV wavelength of the HPLC detection system with the protein values obtained from spectrophotometric protein assays, i.e., the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method and the biuret method. The analysis time was less than 1 min. Since this HPGPC serum protein assay method is simple and rapid, it is expected to be particularly well adapted for use in clinical laboratories.

  1. High Throughput Quantitative Analysis of Serum Proteins Using Glycopeptide Capture and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hui; Yi, Eugene C.; Li, Xiao-jun; Mallick, Parag; Kelly-Spratt, Karen S.; Masselon, Christophe D.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Kemp, Christopher J.; Aebersold, Reudi

    2005-02-01

    It is expected that the composition of the serum proteome can provide valuable information about the state of the human body in health and disease and that this information can be extracted via quantitative proteomic measurements. Suitable proteomic techniques need to be sensitive, reproducible, and robust to detect potential biomarkers below the level of highly expressed proteins, generate data sets that are comparable between experiments and laboratories, and have high throughput to support statistical studies. Here we report a method for high throughput quantitative analysis of serum proteins. It consists of the selective isolation of peptides that are N-linked glycosylated in the intact protein, the analysis of these now deglycosylated peptides by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and the comparative analysis of the resulting patterns. By focusing selectively on a few formerly N-linked glycopeptides per serum protein, the complexity of the analyte sample is significantly reduced and the sensitivity and throughput of serum proteome analysis are increased compared with the analysis of total tryptic peptides from unfractionated samples. We provide data that document the performance of the method and show that sera from untreated normal mice and genetically identical mice with carcinogen-induced skin cancer can be unambiguously discriminated using unsupervised clustering of the resulting peptide patterns. We further identify, by tandem mass spectrometry, some of the peptides that were consistently elevated in cancer mice compared with their control littermates.

  2. Plasma insulin, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, ghrelin, and melatonin in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis patients treated with melatonin.

    PubMed

    Gonciarz, Maciej; Bielański, Wladyslaw; Partyka, Robert; Brzozowski, Tomasz; Konturek, Piotr C; Eszyk, Jerzy; Celiński, Krzysztof; Reiter, Russel J; Konturek, Stanislaw J

    2013-03-01

    Insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and an abnormal production of adipokines and cytokines are implicated in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Recently, we reported a significant improvement in plasma liver enzymes among patients with NASH treated with melatonin. In this study, we investigated the effect of melatonin, administered at a dose of 10 mg/day for 28 days to 16 patients with histologically proven NASH on insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), on the plasma levels of adiponectin, leptin, ghrelin, and resistin. Additionally, plasma levels of aminotransferases and gamma glutamyltranspeptidase as well as plasma concentrations of melatonin were evaluated. Median baseline values of HOMA-IR, leptin (ng/mL), and resistin (pg/mL) in patients with NASH were significantly higher in comparison with controls: 4.90 versus 1.60, 10.70 versus 4.30, and 152 versus 91, respectively. Median adiponectin level (μg/mL) was decreased in patients compared to controls: 6.40 versus 16.25; no significant difference in ghrelin levels between patients and controls was found. After melatonin treatment, the median value of HOMA-IR was significantly reduced by 60% as compared to baseline values, whereas adiponectin, leptin, and ghrelin plasma levels rose significantly by 119%, 33%, and 20%, respectively; the difference between pre-/posttreatment in plasma resistin levels was not significant. These findings make melatonin a suitable candidate for testing in patients with NASH in the large controlled clinical trials.

  3. Genome-wide association analysis identifies TYW3/CRYZ and NDST4 loci associated with circulating resistin levels

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Qibin; Menzaghi, Claudia; Smith, Shelly; Liang, Liming; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Garcia, Melissa E.; Lohman, Kurt K.; Miljkovic, Iva; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Cummings, Steve R.; Kanaya, Alka M.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Ding, Jingzhong; Rimm, Eric B.; Trischitta, Vincenzo; Hu, Frank B.; Liu, Yongmei; Qi, Lu

    2012-01-01

    Resistin is a polypeptide hormone that was reported to be associated with insulin resistance, inflammation and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We conducted a genome-wide association (GWA) study on circulating resistin levels in individuals of European ancestry drawn from the two independent studies: the Nurses' Health Study (n = 1590) and the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study (n = 1658). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in the GWA analysis were replicated in an independent cohort of Europeans: the Gargano Family Study (n = 659). We confirmed the association with a previously known locus, the RETN gene (19p13.2), and identified two novel loci near the TYW3/CRYZ gene (1p31) and the NDST4 gene (4q25), associated with resistin levels at a genome-wide significant level, best represented by SNP rs3931020 (P = 6.37 × 10–12) and SNP rs13144478 (P = 6.19 × 10−18), respectively. Gene expression quantitative trait loci analyses showed a significant cis association between the SNP rs3931020 and CRYZ gene expression levels (P = 3.68 × 10−7). We also found that both of these two SNPs were significantly associated with resistin gene (RETN) mRNA levels in white blood cells from 68 subjects with type 2 diabetes (both P = 0.02). In addition, the resistin-rising allele of the TYW3/CRYZ SNP rs3931020, but not the NDST4 SNP rs13144478, showed a consistent association with increased coronary heart disease risk [odds ratio = 1.18 (95% CI, 1.03–1.34); P = 0.01]. Our results suggest that genetic variants in TYW3/CRYZ and NDST4 loci may be involved in the regulation of circulating resistin levels. More studies are needed to verify the associations of the SNP rs13144478 with NDST4 gene expression and resistin-related disease. PMID:22843503

  4. Serum high mobility group box 1 is upregulated in myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Uzawa, Akiyuki; Kawaguchi, Naoki; Kanai, Tetsuya; Himuro, Keiichi; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) functions as an inflammatory mediator and is implicated in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases. Our primary aim is to determine whether HMGB1 is involved in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis (MG). Serum HMGB1 levels of 60 patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody-positive MG without immunosuppressive treatment and of 10 patients with anti-muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK) antibody-positive MG were compared with those in 40 controls. We also investigated the potential correlation between serum HMGB1 levels and the clinical variables in patients with MG. Serum HMGB1 levels in patients with anti-AChR antibody-positive MG were higher than those in controls (7.80 ± 7.47 vs 4.13 ± 2.55 ng/mL, p=0.004) and were decreased after treatment (p=0.051). Although not significant, patients with anti-MuSK antibody-positive MG showed higher serum HMGB1 levels than the controls (p=0.178). There were correlations between serum HMGB1 levels and phenotypes of anti-AChR antibody-positive MG: patients with generalised MG showed higher HMGB1 levels than those of patients with ocular MG (p=0.059) and controls (p=0.002); patients with thymoma showed higher HMGB1 levels than those without thymoma (p=0.094) and controls (p=0.001). Serum HMGB1 is elevated in patients with MG and may play a key role in the inflammation of the neuromuscular junction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Increased serum levels of high mobility group box 1 protein in patients with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Emanuele, Enzo; Boso, Marianna; Brondino, Natascia; Pietra, Stefania; Barale, Francesco; Ucelli di Nemi, Stefania; Politi, Pierluigi

    2010-05-30

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a highly conserved, ubiquitous protein that functions as an activator for inducing the immune response and can be released from neurons after glutamate excitotoxicity. The objective of the present study was to measure serum levels of HMGB1 in patients with autistic disorder and to study their relationship with clinical characteristics. We enrolled 22 adult patients with autistic disorder (mean age: 28.1+/-7.7 years) and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean age: 28.7+/-8.1 years). Serum levels of HMGB1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared with healthy subjects, serum levels of HMGB1 were significantly higher in patients with autistic disorder (10.8+/-2.6 ng/mL versus 5.6+/-2.5 ng/mL, respectively, P<0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, serum HMGB1 levels were independently associated with their domain A scores in the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, which reflects their impairments in social interaction. These results suggest that HMGB1 levels may be affected in autistic disorder. Increased HMGB1 may be a biological correlate of the impaired reciprocal social interactions in this neurodevelopmental disorder. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High-performance thin-layer chromatographic determination of lamotrigine in serum.

    PubMed

    Patil, Kuldeep M; Bodhankar, Subhash L

    2005-09-05

    A simple and rapid high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) determination of lamotrigine (LTG) in serum is reported. The method involves extraction of the drug by ethyl acetate followed by separation on TLC silica plates using a mixture of toluene-acetone-ammonia (7:3:0.5), as eluting solvent. Densitometric analysis was carried out at 312 nm with lamotrigine being detected at Rf of 0.54. The analytical method has excellent linearity (r=0.998) in the range of 20-300 ng/spot. This assay range is adequate for analyzing human serum, as it corresponds to lamotrigine concentrations measured in human serum from epileptic patients. The method was validated for sensitivity, selectivity, extraction efficiency, accuracy and intra and inter-day reproducibility. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were found to be 6.4 and 10.2 ng, respectively. Good accuracy is reported in the range of 92.06-97.12% and high precision with %CV in range of 0.53-2.59. The method was applied for determination of serum lamotrigine levels in epileptic patients and in pharmacokinetic study of lamotrigine administered orally to rabbits.

  7. Low- and high-grade bladder cancer determination via human serum-based metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Navneeta; Gupta, Ashish; Mitash, Nilay; Shakya, Prashant Singh; Mandhani, Anil; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Sankhwar, Satya Narain; Mandal, Sudhir Kumar

    2013-12-06

    To address the shortcomings of urine cytology and cystoscopy for probing and grading urinary bladder cancer (BC), we applied (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as a surrogate method for the identification of BC. This study includes 99 serum samples comprising low-grade (LG; n = 36) and high-grade (HG; n = 31) BC as well as healthy controls (HC; n = 32). (1)H NMR-derived serum data were analyzed using orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). OPLS-DA-derived model validity was confirmed using an internal and external cross-validation. Internal validation was performed using the initial samples (n = 99) data set. External validation was performed on a new batch of suspected BC patients (n = 106) through a double-blind study. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was also performed. OPLS-DA-derived serum metabolomics (six biomarkers, ROC; 0.99) were able to discriminate 95% of BC cases with 96% sensitivity and 94% specificity when compared to HC. Likewise (three biomarkers, ROC; 0.99), 98% of cases of LG were able to differentiate from HG with 97% sensitivity and 99% specificity. External validation reveals comparable results to the internal validation. (1)H NMR-based serum metabolic screening appears to be a promising and less invasive approach for probing and grading BC in contrast to the highly invasive and painful cystoscopic approach for BC detection.

  8. High level of serum AFP is an independent negative prognostic factor in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yueguang; Qu, Hui; Jian, Mi; Sun, Guorui; He, Qingsi

    2015-11-11

    Gastric cancer with a high level of serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is uncommon and has unique clinicopathological features and a poorer prognosis. The aim of this research was to elucidate the clinicopathological and prognostic features of gastric cancer with a high level of AFP. The sera from 1,286 patients with gastric cancer treated at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University from January 2004 to December 2008 were analyzed preoperatively for AFP, CEA and CA19-9 levels after excluding active or chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma as well as preoperative distant metastasis. Patients were divided into 2 groups: 86 serum AFP-positive patients and 1,200 serum AFP-negative patients according to a cutoff of 20 ng/mL. The clinicopathological features and prognostic factors were compared between the groups. A higher incidence of serosal invasion, lymph node metastasis and liver metastasis and poorer prognosis was observed in the AFP-positive group compared with the AFP-negative group (all p<0.05). Serum AFP showed the highest specificity (93.66%) and diagnostic accuracy (92.38%) for predicting liver metastasis among the 3 tumor markers examined. Multivariate survival analysis revealed that AFP positivity was an independent prognostic factor in all 1,286 gastric cancer patients. The prognosis of AFP-positive gastric cancer was poorer than that of AFP-negative gastric cancer (p<0.05). A high level of serum AFP is an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer and can be used for evaluating the prognosis of gastric cancers whether in the presence or absence of liver metastasis.

  9. Sustained high serum malondialdehyde levels are associated with severity and mortality in septic patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    oxidative state in septic patients to date. The novel finding is that high serum MDA levels sustained throughout the first week of follow up were associated with severity and mortality in septic patients. PMID:24326199

  10. Impacts of High Serum Total Cholesterol Level on Brain Functional Connectivity in Non-Demented Elderly.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Li, He; Zhang, Junying; Li, Xin; Qi, Di; Wang, Nuo; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that high serum cholesterol is a risk factor of dementia. However, the effects of cholesterol on cognition and brain remain largely unclear. This study aims to investigate the associations between serum total cholesterol (TC) and neuropsychological performance, and intrinsic functional networks in non-demented elderly. Among a cohort of 120 community-dwelling Beijing residents, 29 subjects in the high-TC group (1st quartile) and 31 in the low-TC group (4th quartile) were included in this study, and underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, including T2- and T1-weighted imaging, and resting-state functional MRI. No significant group difference was found in any of the neuropsychological tests used. Stronger connectivity in the default mode network was observed in the high-TC group compared to that in the low-TC group (p <  0.001, uncorrected). While in the salience network (SN), the high-TC group showed lower connectivity in the anterior cingulate cortex and frontal regions, compared to the low-TC group (p <  0.05, FWE corrected). Our findings suggest that in non-demented elderly persons, high serum cholesterol is associated with disruption of functional connectivity in the SN. The results not only deepen our understanding of how cholesterol affects the brain, but are also significant for selecting sensitive indicators for monitoring the impairments of cholesterol on the neural system.

  11. [Determination of ivermectin in pig serum by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-hong; Sun, Cheng-jun; Mao, Li-sha; Yin, Zong-ning; Jiang, Bo; Li, Yong-xin

    2005-01-01

    To establish a high performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of micro-amount of ivermectin in pig serum. Ivermectin in pig serum was extracted with ethyl acetate after the serum protein was precipitated with 0.05% metaphosphoric acid-methanol in the ratio of 7:3 (V/V). Then the sample was centrifuged at 4000 r/min for 5 min and the supernate was evaporated to dryness with rotary vacuum evaporator. The residue was dissolved with 0.20 ml of methanol as the sample solution for HPLC analysis. HPLC column used was a phenomenex C18 (5 microm, 250 mm x 4.6 mm) with a same type of guard column. Mobile phase consisted of methanol and water in the ratio of 90:10 (V/V) and the flow rate was 1.0 ml/min. The detection wavelength was 245 nm. The linear range of the method was found to be 0.010-20 mg/L and its detection limit was 0.010 mg/L. The relative standard deviation of the method was 0.78%-3.82% and the recoveries varied from 94.0% to 100.0%, with an average recovery of 97.3%. This method is simple, reproducible, accurate and suitable to the determination of micro-amount of ivermectin in pig serum.

  12. High Levels of Serum Ubiquitin and Proteasome in a Case of HLA-B27 Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Settimio; Gesualdo, Carlo; Maisto, Rosa; Trotta, Maria Consiglia; Di Carluccio, Nadia; Brigida, Annalisa; Di Iorio, Valentina; Testa, Francesco; Simonelli, Francesca; D’Amico, Michele; Di Filippo, Clara

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a case of high serum levels of ubiquitin and proteasome in a woman under an acute attack of autoimmune uveitis. The woman was 52 years old, diagnosed as positive for the Human leukocyte antigen-B27 gene, and came to our observation in January 2013 claiming a severe uveitis attack that involved the right eye. During the acute attack of uveitis, this woman had normal serum biochemical parameters but higher levels of serum ubiquitin and proteasome 20S subunit, with respect to a healthy volunteer matched for age and sex. These levels correlated well with the clinical score attributed to uveitis. After the patient was admitted to therapy, she received oral prednisone in a de-escalation protocol (doses from 50 to 5 mg/day) for four weeks. Following this therapy, she had an expected reduction of clinical signs and score for uveitis, but concomitantly she had a reduction of the serum levels of ubiquitin, poliubiquitinated proteins (MAb-FK1) and proteasome 20S activity. Therefore, a role for ubiquitin and proteasome in the development of human autoimmune uveitis has been hypothesized. PMID:28245629

  13. A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of propranolol in serum.

    PubMed

    al-Angary, A A; el-Sayed, Y M; al-Meshal, M A; al-Dardiri, M M; Mahrous, G M

    1991-04-01

    A rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay was developed for quantitative determination of propranolol in serum. The assay is performed after single extraction of propranolol and indenolol [internal standard (IS)] from alkalinized serum into ether and eluted from C-18 U Bondapak column with a mobile phase composed of methanol: 0.01 M phosphate buffer pH 3.4 (40:60%, v/v). The column eluant was monitored on a fluorescence detector. Measurement was achieved by taking the peak height ratio of propranolol and comparing it to that of the IS. The detection limit for propranolol in serum is 2.5 ng/ml. Intraday coefficients of variation (CV) ranged from 2.84 to 4.0% and interday (CVs) from 5.8 to 8.4% at three different concentrations. The relative and absolute recoveries varied from 93.8 to 102.3%. Preliminary stability tests showed that propranolol is stable for at least 3 weeks in serum after freezing. The method is applied for the determination of the pharmacokinetic parameters of propranolol after intravenous administration (1 mg/kg) to rabbits.

  14. A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for ciprofloxacin in human serum.

    PubMed

    Jim, L K; el-Sayed, N; al-Khamis, K I

    1992-04-01

    A simple and selective high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of ciprofloxacin in serum has been developed and evaluated. Serum protein was precipitated with acetonitrile. The drug and the internal standard (quinine) were evaluated from a 10 microns U-Bondapack C-18 cartridge at ambient temperature with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile: 0.1 M sodium dihydrogen phosphate (20:80%, v/v) adjusted to pH 3.9 with phosphoric acid, and at a flow rate of 2.5 ml/min. The effluent was monitored on a fluorescence detector using an excitation and emission wavelength of 280 and 455 nm, respectively. Each analysis required no longer than 6 min. Quantification was achieved by the measurement of the peak-height ratio and the limit of quantification for ciprofloxacin in serum is 25 ng/ml. The intraday coefficient of variation (CV) ranged from 0.4 to 5.8%, and interday CV from 4.6 to 8.8% at three different concentrations. Relative recovery ranged from 98 to 100.2% at three different concentrations. Preliminary stability tests show that ciprofloxacin is stable for at least 3 weeks in serum after freezing.

  15. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of mitomycin C in human serum.

    PubMed

    Buice, R G; Sidhu, P; Gurley, B J; Niell, H B

    1984-01-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method is presented by which the cancer chemotherapeutic agent, mitomycin C, may be measured in human serum. A mobile phase of methanol:water (35:65) passed through a mu-Bondapak C-18 column at a rate of 1.0 ml/min produced a sharp, symmetrical band for mitomycin C. An improved serum extraction procedure, using a reversed-phase sample preparation cartridge, proved to be efficient and reproducible. Recovery over a concentration range of 10-100 ng/ml was 81.6% with a between-day coefficient of variation of 4.6% (n = 5). The within-day coefficient of variation at 50 ng/ml was 5.6% (n = 10). Ultraviolet detection at a wavelength of 365 nm was sensitive to serum concentrations of 10 ng/ml. Serum concentration-time course data from lung cancer patients receiving mitomycin C by rapid intravenous injection are presented.

  16. Determination of miloxacin and metabolites in human serum and urine by high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshitake, A; Kawahara, K; Shono, F; Umeda, I; Izawa, A; Komatsu, T

    1980-01-01

    A sensitive and reliable high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for miloxacin and its two principal metabolites, 5,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2H-1,3-dioxolo[4,5-g]quinoline-7-carboxylic acid (M-1) and 1,4-dihydro-1,6-dimethoxy-7-hydroxy-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (M-2), in human serum and urine was developed. A strong anion-exchange Zipax SAX column using a mobile phase of 0.01 M citric acid solution containing 0.03 M sodium nitrate with pH 5.0 was used to achieve separation of the three compounds. The retention times of miloxacin, M-1, and M-2 were 3.8, 9.3, and 5.9 min, respectively. Serum and urine concentrations of these compounds as low as 10 ng/ml were measured. When results from the HPLC assay were compared with those from the microbiological assay of serum and urine samples from human subjects receiving miloxacin orally, the correlation coefficients were 0.94 for the serum and 0.99 for the urine. The HPLC assay method presents an alternative to the microbiological assay and permits future pharmacokinetic investigations of miloxacin. PMID:7416751

  17. Proteomics tools reveal startlingly high amounts of oxytocin in plasma and serum

    PubMed Central

    Brandtzaeg, Ole Kristian; Johnsen, Elin; Roberg-Larsen, Hanne; Seip, Knut Fredrik; MacLean, Evan L.; Gesquiere, Laurence R.; Leknes, Siri; Lundanes, Elsa; Wilson, Steven Ray

    2016-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is associated with a plethora of social behaviors, and is a key topic at the intersection of psychology and biology. However, tools for measuring OT are still not fully developed. We describe a robust nano liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS) platform for measuring the total amount of OT in human plasma/serum. OT binds strongly to plasma proteins, but a reduction/alkylation (R/A) procedure breaks this bond, enabling ample detection of total OT. The method (R/A + robust nanoLC-MS) was used to determine total OT plasma/serum levels to startlingly high concentrations (high pg/mL-ng/mL). Similar results were obtained when combining R/A and ELISA. Compared to measuring free OT, measuring total OT can have advantages in e.g. biomarker studies. PMID:27528413

  18. Proteomics tools reveal startlingly high amounts of oxytocin in plasma and serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandtzaeg, Ole Kristian; Johnsen, Elin; Roberg-Larsen, Hanne; Seip, Knut Fredrik; Maclean, Evan L.; Gesquiere, Laurence R.; Leknes, Siri; Lundanes, Elsa; Wilson, Steven Ray

    2016-08-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is associated with a plethora of social behaviors, and is a key topic at the intersection of psychology and biology. However, tools for measuring OT are still not fully developed. We describe a robust nano liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS) platform for measuring the total amount of OT in human plasma/serum. OT binds strongly to plasma proteins, but a reduction/alkylation (R/A) procedure breaks this bond, enabling ample detection of total OT. The method (R/A + robust nanoLC-MS) was used to determine total OT plasma/serum levels to startlingly high concentrations (high pg/mL-ng/mL). Similar results were obtained when combining R/A and ELISA. Compared to measuring free OT, measuring total OT can have advantages in e.g. biomarker studies.

  19. Differential neutrophil responses to bacterial stimuli: Streptococcal strains are potent inducers of heparin-binding protein and resistin-release.

    PubMed

    Snäll, Johanna; Linnér, Anna; Uhlmann, Julia; Siemens, Nikolai; Ibold, Heike; Janos, Marton; Linder, Adam; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Herwald, Heiko; Johansson, Linda; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

    2016-02-18

    Neutrophils are critical for the control of bacterial infections, but they may also contribute to disease pathology. Here we explore neutrophil responses, in particular the release of sepsis-associated factors heparin-binding protein (HBP) and resistin in relation to specific bacterial stimuli and sepsis of varying aetiology. Analyses of HBP and resistin in plasma of septic patients revealed elevated levels as compared to non-infected critically ill patients. HBP and resistin correlated significantly in septic patients, with the strongest association seen in group A streptococcal (GAS) cases. In vitro stimulation of human neutrophils revealed that fixed streptococcal strains induced significantly higher release of HBP and resistin, as compared to Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli. Similarly, neutrophils stimulated with the streptococcal M1-protein showed a significant increase in co-localization of HBP and resistin positive granules as well as exocytosis of these factors, as compared to LPS. Using a GAS strain deficient in M1-protein expression had negligible effect on neutrophil activation, while a strain deficient in the stand-alone regulator MsmR was significantly less stimulatory as compared to its wild type strain. Taken together, the findings suggest that the streptococcal activation of neutrophils is multifactorial and involves, but is not limited to, proteins encoded by the FCT-locus.

  20. Differential neutrophil responses to bacterial stimuli: Streptococcal strains are potent inducers of heparin-binding protein and resistin-release

    PubMed Central

    Snäll, Johanna; Linnér, Anna; Uhlmann, Julia; Siemens, Nikolai; Ibold, Heike; Janos, Marton; Linder, Adam; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Herwald, Heiko; Johansson, Linda; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are critical for the control of bacterial infections, but they may also contribute to disease pathology. Here we explore neutrophil responses, in particular the release of sepsis-associated factors heparin-binding protein (HBP) and resistin in relation to specific bacterial stimuli and sepsis of varying aetiology. Analyses of HBP and resistin in plasma of septic patients revealed elevated levels as compared to non-infected critically ill patients. HBP and resistin correlated significantly in septic patients, with the strongest association seen in group A streptococcal (GAS) cases. In vitro stimulation of human neutrophils revealed that fixed streptococcal strains induced significantly higher release of HBP and resistin, as compared to Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli. Similarly, neutrophils stimulated with the streptococcal M1-protein showed a significant increase in co-localization of HBP and resistin positive granules as well as exocytosis of these factors, as compared to LPS. Using a GAS strain deficient in M1-protein expression had negligible effect on neutrophil activation, while a strain deficient in the stand-alone regulator MsmR was significantly less stimulatory as compared to its wild type strain. Taken together, the findings suggest that the streptococcal activation of neutrophils is multifactorial and involves, but is not limited to, proteins encoded by the FCT-locus. PMID:26887258

  1. Tissue factor is induced by resistin in human coronary artery endothelial cells by the NF-ĸB-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Paolo; Cirillo, Plinio; Limongelli, Giuseppe; Maddaloni, Valeria; Riegler, Lucia; Palmieri, Rosalinda; Pacileo, Giuseppe; De Rosa, Salvatore; Pacileo, Mario; De Palma, Raffaele; Golino, Paolo; Calabrò, Raffaele

    2011-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by endothelial inflammation and dysfunction. Adipose tissue has increasingly been recognized as an active endocrine organ secreting so-called adipokines. Among these, resistin--recently described, but not yet extensively studied--has been defined as a novel inflammatory marker in atherosclerosis. The pathophysiology underlying this interplay, however, remains to be fully characterized. The aim of the study is to determine whether resistin might affect prothrombotic characteristics of human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). Incubation of HCAECs with resistin caused upregulation of tissue factor (TF) expression as demonstrated by FACS analysis. Moreover, TF activity was induced in a dose-dependent manner, as shown by real-time PCR and colorimetric assay. Resistin-induced TF expression was mediated by oxygen free radicals through the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), as demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and by suppression of TF expression by superoxide dismutase, catalase, and the NF-κB inhibitors PDTC and BAY 11-7082. These data confirm the hypothesis that resistin may contribute to atherothrombosis, exerting direct effects on HCAECs by promoting TF expression; thus, it represents an effector molecule able to induce a prothrombotic phenotype in cells present in the vessel wall. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Adiponectin and resistin: potential metabolic signals affecting hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal axis in females and males of different species.

    PubMed

    Rak, Agnieszka; Mellouk, Namya; Froment, Pascal; Dupont, Joëlle

    2017-06-01

    Adipokines, including adiponectin and resistin, are cytokines produced mainly by the adipose tissue. They play a significant role in metabolic functions that regulate the insulin sensitivity and inflammation. Alterations in adiponectin and resistin plasma levels, or their expression in metabolic and gonadal tissues, are observed in some metabolic pathologies, such as obesity. Several studies have shown that these two hormones and the receptors for adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 are present in various reproductive tissues in both sexes of different species. Thus, these adipokines could be metabolic signals that partially explain infertility related to obesity, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Species and gender differences in plasma levels, tissue or cell distribution and hormonal regulation have been reported for resistin and adiponectin. Furthermore, until now, it has been unclear whether adiponectin and resistin act directly or indirectly on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. The objective of this review was to summarise the latest findings and particularly the species and gender differences of adiponectin and resistin on female and male reproduction known to date, based on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  3. High-throughput asparaginase activity assay in serum of children with leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Christian A; Cai, Xiangjun; Elozory, Allie; Liu, Chengcheng; Panetta, J Carl; Jeha, Sima; Molinelli, Alejandro R; Relling, Mary V

    2013-01-01

    Asparaginase is an antineoplastic agent used in combination therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The asparaginase activity measured in serum reflects the effectiveness of the drug. However, the wide inter-individual variability in the pharmacokinetics of asparaginase suggests that the serum activity should be closely monitored in patients during therapy. In order to identify patients with low asparaginase exposure during treatment, a fast, sensitive, and high-throughput assay is required for measuring asparaginase activity in patient sera. In this study, asparaginase activity was determined by monitoring the enzymatically-coupled oxidation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) to NAD+ in a 96-well format. The rate of disappearance of NADH (ΔmOD/minute) was directly proportional to the activity of asparaginase, and the linear range of the assay was established from 0.025 to 2.2 IU/mL (R2 = 0.998) with a reportable range that was extended to 4.0 IU/mL by dilution with serum albumin. Inter-assay precision was established (low control CV% = 8.8, high control CV% = 9.0), as was intra-assay precision (low control CV% = 3.3, high control CV% = 2.7). The method is high-throughput and provides a broader linear range of detection compared to previously described assays. The speed, ease, and accuracy of the assay make it suitable for assessing serum asparaginase activity after standard doses of native E. coli, Erwinia, and PEGylated E. coli asparaginase given to children during the treatment of leukemia. PMID:23936585

  4. Serum visfatin and vaspin levels in prepubertal children: effect of obesity and weight loss after behavior modifications on their secretion and relationship with glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Martos-Moreno, G Á; Kratzsch, J; Körner, A; Barrios, V; Hawkins, F; Kiess, W; Argente, J

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the impact of obesity, weight loss and oral glucose ingestion on serum visfatin and vaspin levels in prepubertal children. A total of 100 prepubertal obese Caucasian children (OB) and 42 controls (C) were studied. The OB group was studied at baseline and after moderate (n=46) and extensive (n=14) body mass index (BMI) reduction by conservative treatment, undergoing body composition studies (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs). Serum visfatin and vaspin levels were studied throughout the OGTT, as were their relationships with insulin, leptin, leptin soluble receptor (sOB-R), adiponectin (total and high molecular weight), resistin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α levels at every time point. OB had higher visfatin (P<0.001), but similar vaspin than C. BMI reduction decreased visfatin levels (P<0.001), with BMI, waist circumference and the surrogate markers of body fat (leptin and sOB-R) showing significant correlations (P<0.05) with this peptide, but not with vaspin. Visfatin and vaspin decreased during the OGTT (P<0.001). Weight reduction did not alter visfatin dynamics in the OGTT, but decreased the area under the curve (AUC) for vaspin (P<0.001), with a correlation between the AUCs for vaspin and insulin after weight loss (P<0.05). Visfatin levels were positively correlated with resistin and IL-6, after controlling for BMI and HOMA (homeostatic model assessment) index at every time point in the study. Serum visfatin, but not vaspin, levels are influenced by body fat content in obese children, whereas both adipokines are modulated by glucose intake in a BMI-dependent manner.

  5. High serum ferritin is associated with worse outcome of patients with decompensated cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Oikonomou, Theodora; Goulis, Ioannis; Soulaidopoulos, Stergios; Karasmani, Areti; Doumtsis, Petros; Tsioni, Konstantina; Mandala, Eudokia; Akriviadis, Evangelos; Cholongitas, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    Background Studies in patients with decompensated cirrhosis showed a correlation between serum ferritin levels and patients’ prognosis. Besides, red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV) have been associated with the severity of hepatic function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of serum ferritin and RDW/MPV in the outcome [survival, death, or liver transplantation (LT)] of patients with stable decompensated cirrhosis. Methods Consecutive adult patients with stable decompensated cirrhosis admitted to our department between September 2010 and February 2016 were included. Serum ferritin, RDW and MPV were recorded in every patient. They were followed up and their outcome (alive, death, or LT) was evaluated. Results 192 consecutive patients with stable decompensated cirrhosis (142 men, age 54.2±12 years); at the end of follow up [12 (range: 1-64) months] 62 patients remained alive and 130 died or underwent LT. In multivariate analysis, serum ferritin (HR 1.001, 95%CI 1.00-1.002, P=0.005) and GFR (HR 0.96, 95%CI 0.92-0.99, P=0.035) were the only independent factors significantly associated with the outcome. Ferritin had low discriminative ability (AUC: 0.61) to the outcome yielding a sensitivity and specificity of 85.3% and 44.2%, respectively, at the best cut-off point (>55 ng/mL), while patients with ferritin >55 ng/mL (n=145) had a worse outcome compared to those with ferritin ≤55 ng/mL (n=47) (log rank P=0.001). RDW and MPV were not associated with the outcome. Conclusion High serum ferritin, but not RDW/MPV, is associated with worse outcome in patients with established decompensated cirrhosis. However, further studies are needed to elucidate better this issue. PMID:28243043

  6. High Serum Phosphorus Level Is Associated with Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Lin, Hong; Fan, Rui; Li, Cuiling; Liu, Donghong; Yao, Fengjuan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We initiated this study to explore the relationships of serum phosphorus level with left ventricular ultrasound features and diastolic function in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods 174 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving PD were enrolled in this retrospective observational study. Conventional echocardiography examination and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) were performed in each patient. Clinical information and laboratory data were also collected. Analyses of echocardiographic features were performed according to phosphorus quartiles groups. And multivariate regression models were used to determine the association between serum phosphorus and Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). Results With the increase of serum phosphorus levels, patients on PD showed an increased tissue Doppler-derived E/e’ ratio of lateral wall (P < 0.001), indicating a deterioration of left ventricular diastolic function. Steady growths of left atrium and left ventricular diameters as well as increase of left ventricular muscle mass were also observed across the increasing quartiles of phosphorus, while left ventricular ejection fraction remained normal. In a multivariate analysis, the regression coefficient for E/e’ ratio in the highest phosphorus quartile was almost threefold higher relative to those in the lowest quartile group. And compared with patients in the lowest phosphorus quartile (<1.34 mmol/L) those in the highest phosphorus quartile (>1.95 mmol/L) had a more than fivefold increased odds of E/e’ ratio >15. Conclusions Our study showed an early impairment of left ventricular diastolic function in peritoneal dialysis patients. High serum phosphorus level was independently associated with greater risk of LVDD in these patients. Whether serum phosphorus will be a useful target for prevention or improvement of LVDD remains to be proved by further studies. PMID:27661984

  7. High Serum Alkaline Phosphatase, Hypercalcaemia, Race, and Mortality in South African Maintenance Haemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Raquel; Naicker, Saraladevi

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the association between serum total alkaline phosphatase (TAP) and mortality in African maintenance haemodialysis patients (MHD). Patients and Methods. The study enrolled a total of 213 patients on MHD from two dialysis centers in Johannesburg between January 2009 and March 2016. Patients were categorized into a low TAP group (≤112 U/L) versus a high TAP group (>112 U/L) based on a median TAP of 112 U/L. Results. During the follow-up period of 7 years, there were 55 (25.8%) deaths. After adjusting for cofounders such as age, other markers of bone disorder, and comorbidity (diabetes mellitus), patients in the high TAP group had significantly higher risk of death compared to patients in the low TAP group (hazard ratio, 2.50; 95% CI 1.24–5.01, P = 0.01). Similarly, serum calcium >2.75 mmol/L was associated with increased risk of death compared to patients within levels of 2.10–2.37 mmol/L (HR 6.34, 95% CI 1.40–28.76; P = 0.02). The HR for death in white patients compared to black patients was 6.88; 95% CI 1.82–25.88; P = 0.004. Conclusion. High levels of serum alkaline phosphatase, hypercalcaemia, and white race are associated with increased risk of death in MHD patients. PMID:28168054

  8. Serum free light chain ratio as a biomarker for high-risk smoldering multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, JT; Kumar, SK; Dispenzieri, A; Kyle, RA; Katzmann, JA; Rajkumar, SV

    2013-01-01

    A markedly elevated serum free light chain (FLC) ratio may serve as a biomarker for malignant transformation in high-risk smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) and identify patients who are at imminent risk of progression. We retrospectively studied the predictive value of the serum (FLC) assay in 586 patients with SMM diagnosed between 1970 to 2010. A serum involved/uninvolved FLC ratio ≥100 was used to define high-risk SMM, which included 15% (n = 90) of the total cohort. Receiver operating characteristics analysis determined the optimal FLC ratio cut-point to predict progression to symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM) within 2 years of diagnosis, which resulted in a specificity of 97% and sensitivity of 16%. Fifty-six percent of patients developed progressive disease during median follow-up of 52 months, but this increased to 98% in the subgroup of patients with FLC ratio ≥100. The median time to progression in the FLC ratio ≥100 group was 15 months versus 55 months in the FLC <100 group (P<0.0001). The risk of progression to MM within the first 2 years in patients with an FLC ratio ≥100 was 72%; the risk of progression to MM or light chain amyloidosis in 2 years was 79%. We conclude that a high FLC ratio ≥100 is a predictor of imminent progression in SMM, and such patients may be considered candidates for early treatment intervention. PMID:23183428

  9. Determination of vancomycin in human serum by high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Jehl, F; Gallion, C; Thierry, R C; Monteil, H

    1985-01-01

    A rapid, accurate, reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatographic procedure for vancomycin quantitation in human serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and peritoneal fluid was developed. This procedure involves a simple chemical extraction of the antibiotic and is suitable for each of these body fluids. The column and mobile phase used provided a good resolution of the vancomycin peak with a retention time of 6.1 min. The precision of the assay was within the requirement for a daily routine clinical application. Coefficients of variation for within-day reproducibility were 5.80 and 6.28%, respectively, for samples at 50 and 25 micrograms/ml, and for between-day reproducibility they were 11.4 and 11.1%, respectively. No interference was found with respect to beta-lactam and aminoglycoside antibiotics and many other currently used drugs, indicating a good specificity for the procedure. The detection limit of 100 ng/ml has proven to be sufficient for monitoring drug levels in serum obtained after usual dosages. Drug levels in 112 clinical serum specimens assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography were regressed against the levels obtained for the same samples by radioimmunoassay and fluorescent polarization immunoassay. Correlation coefficients were 0.945 and 0.967, respectively, and were highly significant (alpha less than 0.001). PMID:3890726

  10. Serum free light chain ratio as a biomarker for high-risk smoldering multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Larsen, J T; Kumar, S K; Dispenzieri, A; Kyle, R A; Katzmann, J A; Rajkumar, S V

    2013-04-01

    A markedly elevated serum free light chain (FLC) ratio may serve as a biomarker for malignant transformation in high-risk smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) and identify patients who are at imminent risk of progression. We retrospectively studied the predictive value of the serum (FLC) assay in 586 patients with SMM diagnosed between 1970 to 2010. A serum involved/uninvolved FLC ratio ≥ 100 was used to define high-risk SMM, which included 15% (n=90) of the total cohort. Receiver operating characteristics analysis determined the optimal FLC ratio cut-point to predict progression to symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM) within 2 years of diagnosis, which resulted in a specificity of 97% and sensitivity of 16%. Fifty-six percent of patients developed progressive disease during median follow-up of 52 months, but this increased to 98% in the subgroup of patients with FLC ratio ≥ 100. The median time to progression in the FLC ratio ≥ 100 group was 15 months versus 55 months in the FLC <100 group (P<0.0001). The risk of progression to MM within the first 2 years in patients with an FLC ratio ≥ 100 was 72%; the risk of progression to MM or light chain amyloidosis in 2 years was 79%. We conclude that a high FLC ratio ≥ 100 is a predictor of imminent progression in SMM, and such patients may be considered candidates for early treatment intervention.

  11. High Serum Alkaline Phosphatase, Hypercalcaemia, Race, and Mortality in South African Maintenance Haemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Waziri, Bala; Duarte, Raquel; Naicker, Saraladevi

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the association between serum total alkaline phosphatase (TAP) and mortality in African maintenance haemodialysis patients (MHD). Patients and Methods. The study enrolled a total of 213 patients on MHD from two dialysis centers in Johannesburg between January 2009 and March 2016. Patients were categorized into a low TAP group (≤112 U/L) versus a high TAP group (>112 U/L) based on a median TAP of 112 U/L. Results. During the follow-up period of 7 years, there were 55 (25.8%) deaths. After adjusting for cofounders such as age, other markers of bone disorder, and comorbidity (diabetes mellitus), patients in the high TAP group had significantly higher risk of death compared to patients in the low TAP group (hazard ratio, 2.50; 95% CI 1.24-5.01, P = 0.01). Similarly, serum calcium >2.75 mmol/L was associated with increased risk of death compared to patients within levels of 2.10-2.37 mmol/L (HR 6.34, 95% CI 1.40-28.76; P = 0.02). The HR for death in white patients compared to black patients was 6.88; 95% CI 1.82-25.88; P = 0.004. Conclusion. High levels of serum alkaline phosphatase, hypercalcaemia, and white race are associated with increased risk of death in MHD patients.

  12. Serum Biomarker Profile Associated With High Bone Turnover and BMD in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Siegel, Eric R; Achenbach, Sara J; Khosla, Sundeep; Suva, Larry J

    2008-01-01

    Early diagnosis of the onset of osteoporosis is key to the delivery of effective therapy. Biochemical markers of bone turnover provide a means of evaluating skeletal dynamics that complements static measurements of BMD by DXA. Conventional clinical measurements of bone turnover, primarily the estimation of collagen and its breakdown products in the blood or urine, lack both sensitivity and specificity as a reliable diagnostic tool. As a result, improved tests are needed to augment the use of BMD measurements as the principle diagnostic modality. In this study, the serum proteome of 58 postmenopausal women with high or low/normal bone turnover (training set) was analyzed by surface enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and a diagnostic fingerprint was identified using a variety of statistical and machine learning tools. The diagnostic fingerprint was validated in a separate distinct test set, consisting of serum samples from an additional 59 postmenopausal women obtained from the same Mayo cohort, with a gap of 2 yr. Specific protein peaks that discriminate between postmenopausal patients with high or low/normal bone turnover were identified and validated. Multiple supervised learning approaches were able to classify the level of bone turnover in the training set with 80% sensitivity and 100% specificity. In addition, the individual protein peaks were also significantly correlated with BMD measurements in these patients. Four of the major discriminatory peaks in the diagnostic profile were identified as fragments of interalpha-trypsin-inhibitor heavy chain H4 precursor (ITIH4), a plasma kallikrein-sensitive glycoprotein that is a component of the host response system. These data suggest that these serum protein fragments are the serum-borne reflection of the increased osteoclast activity, leading to the increased bone turnover that is associated with decreasing BMD and presumably an increased risk of fracture. In conjunction with the

  13. A biosensor of high-density lipoprotein of human serum on a liquid crystal and polymer composite film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Chang, Kai-Han; Chu, Wei-Lin; Tsou, Yu-Shih; Wu, Li-Ching; Li, Chien-Feng

    2013-10-01

    A biosensor for the concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in human serum on a liquid crystal and polymer composite film (LCPCF) is demonstrated. The sensing mechanism is based on a polar-polar interaction between orientation of LC directors and HDL in human serum. The concentration of polar HDL in human serum affects the orientations of LC directors at the interface between LCPCF and the human serum. In addition, the surface free energy of LCPCF changes with the applied voltage due to the electrically tunable orientations of LC directors anchored among the polymer grains of LCPCF. As a result, the droplet motion of human serum on LCPCF under applied voltages can sense the concentration of HDL in human serum.

  14. [Amebic colitis and liver abscess complicated by high serum procalcitonin in acute myeloid leukemia].

    PubMed

    Oku, Eijiro; Nomura, Kei; Nakamura, Takayuki; Morishige, Satoshi; Seki, Ritsuko; Imamura, Rie; Hashiguchi, Michitoshi; Osaki, Kouichi; Mizuno, Shinichi; Nagafuji, Koji; Okamura, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    We present a case of amebic colitis and liver abscess complicated by acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with high serum procalcitonin (PCT). A 61-year-old Japanese man seen at our hospital for severe diarrhea and high fever was found to have multiple ulcers in the transverse and sigmoid colon and rectum by colonoscopy and biopsies were conducted. Immature leukocytes with mild anemia and thrombocytopenia were seen in peripheral blood, necessitating bone marrow aspiration and biopsy that yielded a diagnosis of AML (FAB M4Eo). Serum C-reactive protein and PCT were extremely elevated. Blood cultures for bacteria and fungi were negative. Multiple low-density areas in the liver were found in abdominal computed tomography. Histological colon biopsy findings revealed amebic colitis, strongly suggesting amebic liver abscess. Metronidazole treatment was initiated for amebiasis and subsequent standard chemotherapy for AML was followed after fever was lowered. Hematological and cytogenetic CR was maintained with good clinical condition. Few case reports have been published in Japan to date on amebic colitis and liver abscess complicated by AML and no reports have been made on PCT elevation caused by amebiasis. In conclusion, differential diagnosis of amebiasis is necessary in addition to that of bacterial or fungal infection in serum PCT elevation.

  15. Serum testosterone levels and excessive erythrocytosis during the process of adaptation to high altitudes

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2013-01-01

    Populations living at high altitudes (HAs), particularly in the Peruvian Andes, are characterized by a mixture of subjects with erythrocytosis (16 g dl−121 g dl−1). Elevated haemoglobin values (EE) are associated with chronic mountain sickness, a condition reflecting the lack of adaptation to HA. According to current data, native men from regions of HA are not adequately adapted to live at such altitudes if they have elevated serum testosterone levels. This seems to be due to an increased conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) to testosterone. Men with erythrocytosis at HAs show higher serum androstenedione levels and a lower testosterone/androstenedione ratio than men with EE, suggesting reduced 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) activity. Lower 17beta-HSD activity via Δ4-steroid production in men with erythrocytosis at HA may protect against elevated serum testosterone levels, thus preventing EE. The higher conversion of DHEAS to testosterone in subjects with EE indicates increased 17beta-HSD activity via the Δ5-pathway. Currently, there are various situations in which people live (human biodiversity) with low or high haemoglobin levels at HA. Antiquity could be an important adaptation component for life at HA, and testosterone seems to participate in this process. PMID:23524530

  16. Determination of meropenem levels in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Roth, Thomas; Fiedler, Stella; Mihai, Sidonia; Parsch, Hans

    2017-05-01

    Meropenem is a β-lactam broad-spectrum antibiotic and belongs to the subgroup of carbapenems. It is primarily used in intensive care units for intravenous treatment of severe infections. To avoid bacterial resistance or toxic side effects, the determination of serum meropenem concentration is highly advisable. A simple and fast method for the quantitative determination of meropenem in human serum using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC/UV) was developed and validated. Meropenem was determined by an isocratic HPLC using a tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer (pH 8.5; 15% methanol) as a mobile phase and UV detection at 300 nm, with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and an analysis time of 10 min. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Kinetex C18 column (5 μm, 150 × 4.6 mm). In order to remove undesired serum components, solid-phase extraction was used for sample preparation. Since meropenem is not stable in solution, sample and stock solution were stored at -80°C. After preparation, samples were stable at room temperature for at least 6 h. The calibration curve was linear from 3.5 to 200 mg/L with a correlation coefficient r(2) of 0.999. The method is accurate with an intra- and inter-assay precision <18.5%. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Analysis of minocycline by high-performance liquid chromatography in tissue and serum.

    PubMed

    Wrightson, W R; Myers, S R; Galandiuk, S

    1998-03-20

    A sensitive and rapid reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography assay can be used to accurately determine serum and tissue minocycline concentrations. Minocycline is a broad spectrum tetracycline derivative with many applications. Tissue and serum samples were obtained from guinea pigs that had received either topical or intravenous minocycline. Samples were extracted using a Sep-Pak C18 cartridge and were injected into a microBondapak C18 column with an isocratic methanol mobile phase. Samples were analyzed using UV detection and produced sharp peaks with a retention time of 2.5 min. The lower limit of detection was 100 ng and drug recovery was 61%. This method greatly facilitated the analysis of minocycline while allowing for sensitivity.

  18. Direct determination of benzamides in serum by column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Ryoko; Ogasawara, Ayako; Kubo, Teppei; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Umino, Masuo; Ishizuka, Yoichi

    2003-05-01

    A column-switching high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of four benzamide-type anti-psychotic drugs: sulpiride, tiapride, sultopride and metoclopramide in human serum. In this method, a TSKgel Super-ODS column was used as an analytical column, and a TSKgel G 2000SW was prepared as a pretreatment column. Under the optimized analytical conditions, four benzamide-type anti-psychotic drugs were eluted within 18 min. The detection limits (S/N = 3) for sulpiride, tiapride, sultopride and metoclopramide are 1 ng/ml, 4 ng/ml, 2 ng/ml and 0.5 ng/ml, respectively. Finally, the method was applied to the determination of sulpiride in human serum samples obtained after a single oral dose of sulpiride.

  19. Measurement of serum pralidoxime methylsulfate (Contrathion) by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Houzé, Pascal; Borron, Stephen W; Scherninski, François; Bousquet, Bernard; Gourmel, Bernard; Baud, Frédéric

    2005-01-05

    Pralidoxime methylsulfate (Contrathion) is widely used to treat organophosphate poisoning. Despite animal and human studies, the usefulness of Contrathion therapy remains a matter of debate. Therapeutic dosage regimens need to be clarified and availability of a reliable method for plasma pralidoxime quantification would be helpful in this process. We here describe a high-performance liquid chromatography technique with electrochemical detection to measure pralidoxime concentrations in human serum using guanosine as an internal standard. The assay was linear between 0.25 and 50 microg mL(-1) with a quantification limit of 0.2 microg mL(-1). The analytical precision was satisfactory, with variation coefficients lower 10%. This assay was applied to the analysis of a serum from an organophosphorate poisoned patient and treated by Contrathion infusions (100 and 200 mg h(-1)) after a loading dose (400 mg).

  20. Determination of lipid hydroperoxides in serum iodometry and high performance liquid chromatography compared.

    PubMed

    Wieland, E; Schettler, V; Diedrich, F; Schuff-Werner, P; Oellerich, M

    1992-06-01

    It is postulated that lipid peroxidation plays a role in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. Efforts have therefore been made to develop reliable and practicable procedures for quantifying lipid peroxidation products such as lipid hydroperoxides in biological specimens. An iodometric cholesterol colour reagent (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) can be used to measure lipid hydroperoxides in isolated low density lipoproteins without lipid extraction. This method has been validated with respect to its analytical performance and suitability for serum samples by comparing it with a high performance liquid chromatography technique. The method was found to have acceptable performance characteristics with aqueous fatty acid hydroperoxide solutions (linoleic acid) and isolated low density lipoproteins, but it cannot be applied to native serum samples without extraction of lipids.

  1. Immobilization of Bovine Serum Albumin Upon Multiwall Carbon Nanotube for High Speed Humidity Sensing Application.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sankhya; Sasmal, Milan

    2016-01-01

    We present a high-speed humidity sensor based on immobilization of bovine serum albumin upon multiwall carbon nanotube (IBC). A simple and versatile drop casting technique was employed to make the humidity sensor using novel material IBC at room temperature. IBC was synthesized using easy solution process technique. The working principle of the IBC humidity sensor depends upon the variation of output current or conductance with the exposure of different humidity level. Humidity sensing properties of our device is explained on the basis of charge transfer from water molecules to IBC and bovine serum albumin to multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT). Our sensor exhibits faster response time around 1.2 s and recovery time 1.5 s respectively.

  2. Regulatory Role of Gonadotropins and Local Factors Produced by Ovarian Follicles on In Vitro Resistin Expression and Action on Porcine Follicular Steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rak, Agnieszka; Drwal, Eliza; Karpeta, Anna; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa Ł

    2015-06-01

    Resistin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes, is thought to be important in reproduction. Our previous study demonstrated resistin expression in porcine ovarian follicles and its direct effect on steroidogenesis. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of gonadotropins and the local ovarian factors, such as insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF1) and steroids (progesterone, testosterone, and 17 beta-estradiol), on the expression and secretion of resistin, as well as its steroidogenic action. Porcine ovarian follicles were exposed to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) at 50-150 ng/ml, IGF1 (10-100 ng/ml), and steroids at 10(-8) to 10(-6) M for 24 h. Then, mRNA, protein expression, and medium concentration of resistin were determined using real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and ELISA, respectively. In the subsequent experiments, ovarian follicles were exposed to resistin and/or FSH, LH, IGF1, and steroids, and ovarian steroidogenesis was analyzed. Additionally, we examined the direct effect of resistin on the protein expression of receptors for gonadotropins and investigated local factors. The results showed that gonadotropins and steroids have stimulatory effects but that IGF1 has an inhibitory effect on resistin expression and secretion. Resistin decreased gonadotropins and local hormone-induced steroid secretion and inhibited 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and cytochrome P450 aromatase protein expression. Additionally, we demonstrated that resistin increased the expression of receptors for progesterone and testosterone. These findings all show that the expression and function of resistin are regulated by gonadotropins and local factors produced by ovarian follicles. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  3. The impact of high serum bicarbonate levels on mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kyung Yoon; Kim, Hyung Wook; Kim, Woo Jeong; Kim, Yong Kyun; Kim, Su-Hyun; Song, Ho Chul; Kim, Young Ok; Jin, Dong Chan; Choi, Euy Jin; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Nam-Ho; Kang, Shin-Wook; Kim, Yon-Su; Kim, Young Soo

    2017-01-01

    The optimal serum bicarbonate level is controversial for patients who are undergoing hemodialysis (HD). In this study, we analyzed the impact of serum bicarbonate levels on mortality among HD patients. Prevalent HD patients were selected from the Clinical Research Center registry for End Stage Renal Disease cohort in Korea. Patients were categorized into quartiles according to their total carbon dioxide (tCO2) levels: quartile 1, a tCO2 of < 19.4 mEq/L; quartile 2, a tCO2 of 19.4 to 21.5 mEq/L; quartile 3, a tCO2 of 21.6 to 23.9 mEq/L; and quartile 4, a tCO2 of ≥ 24 mEq/L. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and confidence interval (CI) for mortality. We included 1,159 prevalent HD patients, with a median follow-up period of 37 months. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the all-cause mortality was significantly higher in patients from quartile 4, compared to those from the other quartiles (p = 0.009, log-rank test). The multivariate Cox proportional hazard model revealed that patients from quartile 4 had significantly higher risk of mortality than those from quartile 1, 2 and 3, after adjusting for the clinical variables in model 1 (HR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.15 to 3.45; p = 0.01) and model 2 (HR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.03 to 3.22; p = 0.04). Our data indicate that high serum bicarbonate levels (a tCO2 of ≥ 24 mEq/L) were associated with increased mortality among prevalent HD patients. Further effort might be necessary in finding the cause and correcting metabolic alkalosis in the chronic HD patients with high serum bicarbonate levels.

  4. Leptin Production by Encapsulated Adipocytes Increases Brown Fat, Decreases Resistin, and Improves Glucose Intolerance in Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    DiSilvestro, David J.; Melgar-Bermudez, Emiliano; Yasmeen, Rumana; Fadda, Paolo; Lee, L. James; Kalyanasundaram, Anuradha; Gilor, Chen L.; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2016-01-01

    The neuroendocrine effects of leptin on metabolism hold promise to be translated into a complementary therapy to traditional insulin therapy for diabetes and obesity. However, injections of leptin can provoke inflammation. We tested the effects of leptin, produced in the physiological adipocyte location, on metabolism in mouse models of genetic and dietary obesity. We generated 3T3-L1 adipocytes constitutively secreting leptin and encapsulated them in a poly-L-lysine membrane, which protects the cells from immune rejection. Ob/ob mice (OB) were injected with capsules containing no cells (empty, OB[Emp]), adipocytes (OB[3T3]), or adipocytes overexpressing leptin (OB[Lep]) into both visceral fat depots. Leptin was found in the plasma of OB[Lep], but not OB[Emp] and OB[3T3] mice at the end of treatment (72 days). The OB[Lep] and OB[3T3] mice have transiently suppressed appetite and weight loss compared to OB[Emp]. Only OB[Lep] mice have greater brown fat mass, metabolic rate, and reduced resistin plasma levels compared to OB[Emp]. Glucose tolerance was markedly better in OB[Lep] vs. OB[Emp] and OB[3T3] mice as well as in wild type mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance treated with encapsulated leptin-producing adipocytes. Our proof-of-principle study provides evidence of long-term improvement of glucose tolerance with encapsulated adipocytes producing leptin. PMID:27055280

  5. Leptin Production by Encapsulated Adipocytes Increases Brown Fat, Decreases Resistin, and Improves Glucose Intolerance in Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    DiSilvestro, David J; Melgar-Bermudez, Emiliano; Yasmeen, Rumana; Fadda, Paolo; Lee, L James; Kalyanasundaram, Anuradha; Gilor, Chen L; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2016-01-01

    The neuroendocrine effects of leptin on metabolism hold promise to be translated into a complementary therapy to traditional insulin therapy for diabetes and obesity. However, injections of leptin can provoke inflammation. We tested the effects of leptin, produced in the physiological adipocyte location, on metabolism in mouse models of genetic and dietary obesity. We generated 3T3-L1 adipocytes constitutively secreting leptin and encapsulated them in a poly-L-lysine membrane, which protects the cells from immune rejection. Ob/ob mice (OB) were injected with capsules containing no cells (empty, OB[Emp]), adipocytes (OB[3T3]), or adipocytes overexpressing leptin (OB[Lep]) into both visceral fat depots. Leptin was found in the plasma of OB[Lep], but not OB[Emp] and OB[3T3] mice at the end of treatment (72 days). The OB[Lep] and OB[3T3] mice have transiently suppressed appetite and weight loss compared to OB[Emp]. Only OB[Lep] mice have greater brown fat mass, metabolic rate, and reduced resistin plasma levels compared to OB[Emp]. Glucose tolerance was markedly better in OB[Lep] vs. OB[Emp] and OB[3T3] mice as well as in wild type mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance treated with encapsulated leptin-producing adipocytes. Our proof-of-principle study provides evidence of long-term improvement of glucose tolerance with encapsulated adipocytes producing leptin.

  6. Three serum metabolite signatures for diagnosing low-grade and high-grade bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Guangguo; Wang, Haibo; Yuan, Jianlin; Qin, Weijun; Dong, Xin; Wu, Hong; Meng, Ping

    2017-01-01

    To address the shortcomings of cystoscopy and urine cytology for detecting and grading bladder cancer (BC), ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with Q-TOF mass spectrometry in conjunction with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses was employed as an alternative method for the diagnosis of BC. A series of differential serum metabolites were further identified for low-grade(LG) and high-grade(HG) BC patients, suggesting metabolic dysfunction in malignant proliferation, immune escape, differentiation, apoptosis and invasion of cancer cells in BC patients. In total, three serum metabolites including inosine, acetyl-N-formyl-5-methoxykynurenamine and PS(O-18:0/0:0) were selected by binary logistic regression analysis, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) test based on their combined use for HG BC showed that the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.961 in the discovery set and 0.950 in the validation set when compared to LG BC. Likewise, this composite biomarker panel can also differentiate LG BC from healthy controls with the AUC of 0.993 and 0.991 in the discovery and validation set, respectively. This finding suggested that this composite serum metabolite signature was a promising and less invasive classifier for probing and grading BC, which deserved to be further investigated in larger samples. PMID:28382976

  7. Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity Is Associated with Fatty Acid Composition of High Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Boshtam, Maryam; Pourfarzam, Morteza; Ani, Mohsen; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Basati, Gholam; Mansourian, Marjan; Dinani, Narges Jafari; Asgary, Seddigheh; Abdi, Soheila

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. Methods. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Results. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA). PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ω6 fatty acids of HDL. Conclusion. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health. PMID:24167374

  8. Determination of ofloxacin in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography with column switching.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, T; Kudo, M; Sugawara, K

    1992-01-17

    The chromatographic behaviour of ofloxacin on various sorbents, including ODS, C8, C1, nitril, phenyl and tert,-butyl, as stationary phases was investigated and a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay was developed for the determination of ofloxacin in serum. The serum samples were directly introduced onto an HPLC column after filtering through a Morcut II membrane filter to remove proteins. The filtrate was concentrated on a pre-column using a phenyl stationary phase and was then introduced to an analytical column with an ODS stationary phase by column switching. Ofloxacin and enoxacin as an internal standard were detected by ultraviolet absorbance at 300 nm. Determination was possible for ofloxacin over the concentration range 50-2000 ng/ml; the limit of detection was 20 ng/ml. The recovery of ofloxacin added to serum was 88.8-101.7% with a coefficient of variation of less than 5.2%. This method is applicable to pharmacokinetic studies of patients after treatment with ofloxacin.

  9. IgA glomerulonephritis (Berger's disease): evidence of high serum levels of polymeric IgA.

    PubMed

    Trascasa, M L; Egido, J; Sancho, J; Hernando, L

    1980-11-01

    Eleven out of 15 patients with IgA mesangial glomerulonephritis (Berger's disease) had an increased proportion of serum IgA in 9-21S fractions on 5-40% sucrose density-gradient ultracentrifugation; the heavier fractions decreased at acid pH. Serum IgA purified by starch electrophoresis was subjected to reduction-alkylation yielding fragments of lower molecular weight. J chain was detected on urea alkaline polyacrylamide electrophoresis and the high-molecular weight IgA bound the human secretory component. In six patients treated with phenytoin for 1 year there was a decrease in polymeric IgA and an increase in monomeric IgA adopting a pattern similar to that of the controls. Our results show the presence of a large amount of true IgA polymers, partially as immune complexes, in the serum of patients with Berger's disease. These data together with their normalization after phenytoin treatment may open a new pathogenic and therapeutic approach to this entity.

  10. Low- and high-grade bladder cancer appraisal via serum-based proteomics approach.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Navneeta; Gupta, Ashish; Sankhwar, Satya Narain; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2014-09-25

    To address the shortcomings of urine cytology and cystoscopy for screening and grading of urinary bladder cancer (BC) we applied a serum-based proteomics approach as a surrogate tactic for rapid BC probing. This study was performed on 90 sera samples comprising of low-grade (LG, n=33) and high-grade (HG, n=32) BC, and healthy controls (HC, n=25). Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) tactic was executed to describe serum proteome. MALDI-TOF-MS (MS) was used to identify the characteristics of aberrantly expressed proteins in 2DE and validated using Western blot (WB) and ELISA approach. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was also performed to determine the clinical usefulness of these proteins to discriminate among LG, HG and HC cohorts. This comprehensive approach of 2DE, MS, WB and ELISA reveals five differentially expressed proteins. Among them two biomarkers (S100A8 and S100A9) were able to accurately (ROC, 0.946) distinguish 81% of BC (LG+HG) cases compared to HC with highest sensitivity and specificity. With a comparable tactic, two biomarkers (S100A8 and S100A4) were able to precisely (ROC, 0.941) discriminate 92% of LG cases from HG with utmost sensitivity and specificity. Serum proteomics probing appears to be an encouraging and least-invasive tactic for screening and grading of BC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Oestrogen levels in serum and urine of premenopausal women eating low and high amounts of meat.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Brook E; Morimoto, Yukiko; Beckford, Fanchon; Franke, Adrian A; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2014-09-01

    Based on the hypothesis that high-meat diets may increase breast cancer risk through hormonal pathways, the present analysis compared oestrogens in serum and urine by meat-eating status. Intervention with repeated measures. Two randomized soya trials (BEAN1 and BEAN2) among premenopausal healthy women. BEAN1 participants completed seven unannounced 24 h dietary recalls and donated five blood and urine samples over 2 years. BEAN2 women provided seven recalls and three samples over 13 months. Serum samples were analysed for oestrone (E₁) and oestradiol (E₂) using RIA. Nine oestrogen metabolites were measured in urine by LC-MS. Semi-vegetarians included women who reported consuming <30 g of red meat, poultry and fish daily, and pescatarians those who reported consuming <20 g of meat/poultry but >10 g of fish daily. All other women were classified as non-vegetarians. We applied mixed models to compute least-square means by vegetarian status adjusted for potential confounders. The mean age of the 272 participants was 41·9 (SD 4·5) years. Serum E₁ (85 v. 100 pg/ml, P = 0·04) and E₂ (140 v. 154 pg/ml, P = 0·04) levels were lower in the thirty-seven semi-vegetarians than in the 235 non-vegetarians. The sum of the nine urinary oestrogen metabolites (183 v. 200 pmol/mg creatinine, P = 0·27) and the proportions of individual oestrogens and pathways did not differ by meat-eating status. Restricting the models to the samples collected during the luteal phase strengthened the associations. Given the limitations of the study, the lower levels of serum oestrogens in semi-vegetarians than non-vegetarians need confirmation in larger populations.

  12. Serum Creatinine Versus Plasma Methotrexate Levels to Predict Toxicities in Children Receiving High-dose Methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Priya; Thomas, M K; Pathania, Subha; Dhawan, Deepa; Gupta, Y K; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Facilities for measuring methotrexate (MTX) levels are not available everywhere, potentially limiting administration of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX). We hypothesized that serum creatinine alteration after HDMTX administration predicts MTX clearance. Overall, 122 cycles in 50 patients of non-Hodgkin lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged ≤18 years receiving HDMTX were enrolled prospectively. Plasma MTX levels were measured at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hours; serum creatinine was measured at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Correlation of plasma MTX levels with creatinine levels and changes in creatinine from baseline (Δ creatinine) were evaluated. Plasma MTX levels at 72 hours showed positive correlation with serum creatinine at 48 hours (P = .011) and 72 hours (P = .013) as also Δ creatinine at 48 hours (P = .042) and 72 hours (P = .045). However, cut-off value of either creatinine or Δ creatinine could not be established to reliably predict delayed MTX clearance. Greater than 50% Δ creatinine at 48 and 72 hours significantly predicted grade 3/4 leucopenia (P = .036 and P = .001, respectively) and thrombocytopenia (P = .012 and P = .009, respectively) but not mucositis (P = .827 and P = .910, respectively). Delayed MTX elimination did not predict any grade 3/4 toxicity. In spite of demonstration of significant correlation between serum creatinine and Δ creatinine with plasma MTX levels at 72 hours, cut-off value of either variable to predict MTX delay could not be established. Thus, either of these cannot be used as a surrogate for plasma MTX estimation. Interestingly, Δ creatinine effectively predicted hematological toxicities, which were not predicted by delayed MTX clearance.

  13. Effects of serum amyloid A on the structure and antioxidant ability of high-density lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Megumi; Ohkawa, Ryunosuke; Yoshimoto, Akira; Yano, Kouji; Ichimura, Naoya; Nishimori, Madoka; Okubo, Shigeo; Yatomi, Yutaka; Tozuka, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) levels increase during acute and chronic inflammation and are mainly associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL). In the present study, we investigated the effect of SAA on the composition, surface charge, particle size and antioxidant ability of HDL using recombinant human SAA (rhSAA) and HDL samples from patients with inflammation. We confirmed that rhSAA bound to HDL3 and released apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) from HDL without an apparent change in particle size. Forty-one patients were stratified into three groups based on serum SAA concentrations: Low (SAA ≤ 8 μg/ml), Middle (8 < SAA ≤ 100 μg/ml) and High (SAA > 100 μg/ml). The ratios of apoA-I to total protein mass, relative cholesterol content and negative charge of HDL samples obtained from patients with high SAA levels were lower than that for samples from patients with low SAA levels. Various particle sizes of HDL were observed in three groups regardless of serum SAA levels. Antioxidant ability of rhSAA, evaluated as the effect on the formation of conjugated diene in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) induced by oxidation using copper sulfate, was higher than that of apoA-I. Consistent with this result, reconstituted SAA-containing HDL (SAA-HDL) indicated higher antioxidant ability compared with normal HDL. Furthermore, HDL samples obtained from High SAA group patients also showed the highest antioxidant ability among the three groups. Consequently, SAA affects the composition and surface charge of HDL by displacement of apoA-I and enhances its antioxidant ability. PMID:27422844

  14. Circulating resistin levels are early and significantly increased in deceased brain dead organ donors, correlate with inflammatory cytokine response and remain unaffected by steroid treatment.

    PubMed

    Pullerits, Rille; Oltean, Simona; Flodén, Anne; Oltean, Mihai

    2015-06-26

    Resistin is a pro-inflammatory adipokine that increases after brain injury (trauma, bleeding) and may initiate an inflammatory response. Resistin was found increased in deceased, brain dead organ donors (DBD) and correlated with delayed graft function after kidney transplantation. The kinetics of resistin during brain death (BD), its impact on the inflammatory response and the influence of several donor variables on resistin levels are still unknown. Resistin along with a panel of Th1/Th2 cytokines [interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL10, IL-12, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)] was analyzed in 36 DBDs after the diagnosis of BD and before organ procurement and in 12 living kidney donors (LD). The cytokine levels and resistin were analyzed in relation to donor parameters including cause of death, donors' age and steroid treatment. Resistin levels were higher in DBDs both at BD diagnosis and before organ procurement compared to LD (p < 0.001). DBDs had significantly increased IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF levels at both time points compared with LD. In DBDs, resistin at BD diagnosis correlated positively with IL-1beta (rs 0.468, p = 0.007), IL-6 (rs 0.511, p = 0.002), IL-10 (rs 0.372, p = 0.028), IL-12 (rs 0.398, p = 0.024), IL-13 (rs 0.397, p = 0.030) and TNF (rs 0.427, p = 0.011) at procurement. The cause of death, age over 60 and steroid treatment during BD did not affect resistin levels. However, steroid treatment significantly decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, IL-8, TNF and IFN-gamma at the time of organ procurement. Resistin is increased early in DBDs, remains increased throughout the period of BD and correlates strongly with pro-inflammatory mediators. Resistin level, in contrast to cytokines, is not affected by steroid treatment. Resistin increase is related to the BD but is not influenced by age or cause of death. Resistin may be one of the initial triggers for the systemic inflammatory activation seen

  15. Stability of serum high-density lipoprotein-microRNAs for preanalytical conditions.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Yamada, Hiroya; Taromaru, Nao; Kondo, Kanako; Nagura, Ayuri; Yamazaki, Mirai; Ando, Yoshitaka; Munetsuna, Eiji; Suzuki, Koji; Ohashi, Koji; Teradaira, Ryoji

    2017-01-01

    Background Recently, several studies have shown that microRNAs are present in high-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein-microRNA may be a promising disease biomarker. We investigated the stability of high-density lipoprotein-microRNAs in different storage conditions as this is an important issue for its application to the field of clinical research. Methods microRNAs were extracted from the high-density lipoprotein fraction that was purified from the serum. miR-135 a and miR-223, which are known to be present in high-density lipoprotein, were quantified by quantitative real-time PCR. The influence of preanalytical parameters on the analysis of high-density lipoprotein-miRNAs was examined by the effect of RNase, storage conditions, and freezing and thawing. Results The concentrations of microRNA in high-density lipoprotein were not altered by RNase A treatment (0-100 U/mL). No significant change in these microRNAs was observed after storing serum at room temperature or 4℃ for 0-24 h, and there was a similar result in the cryopreservation for up to two weeks. Also, high-density lipoprotein-microRNAs were stable for, at least, up to five freeze-thaw cycles. Conclusions These results demonstrated that high-density lipoprotein-microRNAs are relatively resistant to various storage conditions. This study provides new and important information on the stability of high-density lipoprotein-microRNAs.

  16. Serum metabolic variables associated with impaired glucose tolerance induced by high-fat-high-cholesterol diet in Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinli; Chen, Younan; Liu, Jingping; Yang, Guang; Zhao, Jiuming; Liao, Guangneng; Shi, Meimei; Yuan, Yujia; He, Sirong; Lu, Yanrong; Cheng, Jingqiu

    2012-11-01

    Dyslipidemia caused by 'Western-diet pattern' is a strong risk factor for the onset of diabetes. This study aimed to disclose the relationship between the serum metabolite changes induced by habitual intake of high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet and the development of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and insulin resistance through animal models of Macaca mulatta. Sixteen M. mulatta (six months old) were fed a control diet or a HFHC diet for 18 months. The diet effect on serum metabolic profiles was investigated by longitudinal research. Islet function was assessed by intravenous glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp test. Metabonomics were determined by (1)H proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Prolonged diet-dependent hyperlipidemia facilitated visceral fat accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and disorder of glucose homeostasis in juvenile monkeys. Glucose disappearance rate (K(Glu)) and insulin response to the glucose challenge effects in HFHC monkeys were significantly lower than in control monkeys. Otherwise, serum trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), lactate and leucine/isoleucine were significantly higher in HFHC monkeys. Sphingomyelin and choline were the most positively correlated with K(Glu) (R(2) = 0.778), as well as negative correlation (R(2) = 0.64) with total cholesterol. The HFHC diet induced visceral fat, abnormal lipid metabolism and IGT prior to weight gain and body fat content increase in juvenile monkeys. We suggest that increased serum metabolites, such as TMAO, lactate, branched-chain amino acids and decreased sphingomyelin and choline, may serve as possible predictors for the evaluation of IGT and insulin resistance risks in the prediabetic state.

  17. Serum organochlorines and urinary porphyrin pattern in a population highly exposed to hexachlorobenzene

    PubMed Central

    Sunyer, Jordi; Herrero, Carmen; Ozalla, Dolores; Sala, Maria; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Grimalt, Joan; Basagaña, Xavier

    2002-01-01

    Background Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is caused by hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in several species of laboratory mammals, but the human evidence is contradictory. In a study among adults of a population highly exposed to HCB (Flix, Catalonia, Spain), the prevalence of PCT was not increased. We aimed at analysing the association of individual urinary porphyrins with the serum concentrations of HCB and other organochlorine compounds in this highly exposed population. Methods A cross-sectional study on total porphyrins was carried out in 1994 on 604 inhabitants of the general population of Flix, older than 14 years. Of them, 241 subjects (comprising a random sample and the subgroup with the highest exposure) were included for the present study. The porphyrin profile was determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Serum concentrations of HCB, as well as common organochlorine compounds, were determined by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture detection. Results Coproporphyrin I (CPI) and coproporphyrin III (CPIII) were the major porphyrins excreted, while uroporphyrins I and III were only detected in 2% and 36% of the subjects respectively, and heptaporphyrins I and III in 1% and 6%, respectively. CPI and CPIII decreased with increasing HCB concentrations (p < 0.05). This negative association was not explained by age, alcohol, smoking, or other organochlorine compounds. No association was found between uroporphyrin I and III excretion, nor heptaporphyrin excretion, and HCB. CPIII increased with smoking (p < 0.05). Conclusion HCB exposure in this highly exposed population did not increase urinary concentrations of individual porphyrins. PMID:12495451

  18. Identification of Candidate Biomarkers in Ovarian Cancer Serum by Depletion of Highly Abundant Proteins and Differential In Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, John D.; Boylan, Kristin L.M.; Xue, Feifei S.; Anderson, Lorraine B.; Witthuhn, Bruce A.; Markowski, Todd W.; Higgins, LeeAnn; Skubitz, Amy P.N.

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death for women in the U.S., yet survival rates are over 90% when it is diagnosed at an early stage, highlighting the need for biomarkers for early detection. To enhance the discovery of tumor-specific proteins which could represent novel serum biomarkers for ovarian cancer, we depleted serum of highly abundant proteins which can mask the detection of proteins present in serum at low concentrations. Three commercial immunoaffinity columns were used in parallel to deplete the highly abundant proteins in serum from 60 patients with serous ovarian carcinoma and 60 non-cancer controls. Medium and low abundance serum proteins from each serum pool were then evaluated by the quantitative proteomic technique of Differential-In-Gel-Electrophoresis (DIGE). The number of protein spots that were elevated in ovarian cancer sera by at least 2-fold ranged from 36 to 248, depending upon the depletion and separation methods. From the 33 spots picked for MS analysis, nine different proteins were identified, including the novel candidate ovarian cancer biomarkers leucine-rich alpha-2 glycoprotein-1 and ficolin 3. Western blotting validated the relative increases in serum protein levels for three of the proteins identified, demonstrating the utility of this approach for the identification of novel serum biomarkers for ovarian cancer. PMID:20162585

  19. Gene Transfection in High Serum Levels: Case Studies with New Cholesterol Based Cationic Gemini Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Santosh K.; Biswas, Joydeep; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Background Six new cationic gemini lipids based on cholesterol possessing different positional combinations of hydroxyethyl (-CH2CH2OH) and oligo-oxyethylene -(CH2CH2O)n- moieties were synthesized. For comparison the corresponding monomeric lipid was also prepared. Each new cationic lipid was found to form stable, clear suspensions in aqueous media. Methodology/Principal Findings To understand the nature of the individual lipid aggregates, we have studied the aggregation properties using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential measurements and X-ray diffraction (XRD). We studied the lipid/DNA complex (lipoplex) formation and the release of the DNA from such lipoplexes using ethidium bromide. These gemini lipids in presence of a helper lipid, 1, 2-dioleoyl phophatidyl ethanol amine (DOPE) showed significant enhancements in the gene transfection compared to several commercially available transfection agents. Cholesterol based gemini having -CH2-CH2-OH groups at the head and one oxyethylene spacer was found to be the most effective lipid, which showed transfection activity even in presence of high serum levels (50%) greater than Effectene, one of the potent commercially available transfecting agents. Most of these geminis protected plasmid DNA remarkably against DNase I in serum, although the degree of stability was found to vary with their structural features. Conclusions/Significance -OH groups present on the cationic headgroups in combination with oxyethylene linkers on cholesterol based geminis, gave an optimized combination of new genera of gemini lipids possessing high transfection efficiency even in presence of very high percentage of serum. This property makes them preferential transfection reagents for possible in vivo studies. PMID:23861884

  20. False serum calcitonin high levels using a non-competitive two-site IRMA.

    PubMed

    Tommasi, M; Brocchi, A; Cappellini, A; Raspanti, S; Mannelli, M

    2001-05-01

    Dual site antibody-base immunoassays are commonly used in clinical laboratories to quantify the CT serum concentrations as a specific and sensitive marker of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Heterophile antibodies can interfere with these assays, however, and cause erroneous results. In order to avoid this interference, immobilized and conjugated antibodies from two different animal species or immunoreactive antibody fragments, as well as the addition of non-immune globulins, are generally included among the assay reagents. We describe the case of a 73-year-old man affected by a multinodular goiter, who showed high basal CT plasma levels as measured by a monoclonal antibody based IRMA. The finding of negative results for the presence of MTC at fine needle aspiration (FNA) and the mild increase observed in plasma CT during a pentagastrin (Pg) stimulation test, suggested that the high CT levels might depend on a cross-reaction with heterophilic antibodies. In fact, after the addition of the heterophilic blocking tube (HBT) to each specimen, the CT levels markedly decreased by more than 80% (average decrease+/-SE= 87.6+/-2.668%). Such a decrease strongly suggests that in our case the routinely used F(ab')2 fragments were unable to eliminate all of the interference and that the elevated serum CT levels might have been caused by human heterophilic antibodies. In conclusion, these results indicate a novel cause of CT false positivity, suggesting that high serum CT levels, when combined with a slight increase during Pg stimulation, should be critically interpreted in view of the possible presence of heterophilic antibodies in the specimens.

  1. Consumption of blueberries with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast decreases postprandial serum markers of oxidation.

    PubMed

    Blacker, Bryan C; Snyder, Shannon M; Eggett, Dennis L; Parker, Tory L

    2013-05-01

    We sought to determine whether consumption of blueberries could reduce postprandial oxidation when consumed with a typical high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast. Participants (n 14) received each of the three treatments over 3 weeks in a cross-over design. Treatments consisted of a high blueberry dose (75 g), a low blueberry dose (35 g) and a control (ascorbic acid and sugar content matching that of the high blueberry dose). Serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), serum lipoprotein oxidation (LO) and serum ascorbate, urate and glucose were measured at fasting, and at 1, 2 and 3 h after sample consumption. The mean serum ORAC was significantly higher in the 75 g group than in the control group during the first 2 h postprandially, while serum LO lag time showed a significant trend over the 3 h for both blueberry doses. Changes in serum ascorbate, urate and glucose were not significantly different among the groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report that has demonstrated that increased serum antioxidant capacity is not attributable to the fructose or ascorbate content of blueberries. In summary, a practically consumable quantity of blueberries (75 g) can provide statistically significant oxidative protection in vivo after a high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast. Though not tested directly, it is likely that the effects are due to phenolic compounds, either directly or indirectly, as they are a major family of compounds in blueberries with potential bioactive activity.

  2. A case of hypocomplementaemic urticarial vasculitis with a high serum level of rheumatoid factor.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Atsuko; Murata, Hiroshi; Ohashi, Atsuko; Ogawa, Eisaku; Uhara, Hisashi; Okuyama, Ryuhei

    2013-08-01

    We report a case of hypocomplementaemic urticarial vasculitis with an elevated serum rheumatoid factor level. Hypocomplementaemic urticarial vasculitis is an immune complex-mediated disease characterised by urticarial eruptions. High levels of rheumatoid factor may be associated with hypocomplementaemia due to the consumption of complement, because the rheumatoid factor can form immune complexes with immunoglobulin. It is necessary to pay attention to the amounts of complement in cases of urticarial eruptions with elevated rheumatoid factor level. The eruptions were relieved with a combination of prednisolone and colchicine. © 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2012 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  3. High serum creatinine is associated with reduction of vision impaired in patients with NMOSD.

    PubMed

    Zhu, De-Sheng; Yu, Lu; Li, Mei; Han, Lu; Huang, Xin-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Yang, Xiao-Li; Zhu, Ying; Zhou, Xia-Jun; Guan, Yang-Tai

    2017-09-15

    Serum creatinine (SCR) has been found to be neuroprotective in neurodegenerative disease. However, whether SCR is a protective factor for vision impaired in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is unclear. This study to determine the relationship between SCR level and vision impaired in NMOSD patients through multivariate-adjusted linear regression analyses. Our result showed that high level of SCR was associated with a low occurrence of vision impaired, and the association was independent after adjustment for confounding risk factors and hierarchical analysis. Therefore, these results demonstrated that higher SCR level is a protective factor of vision impaired in male NMOSD patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of free and total polyamines in human serum as fluorescamine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kai, M; Ogata, T; Haraguchi, K; Ohkura, Y

    1979-06-11

    A highly sensitive and simple fluorimetric method for the determination of free and total polyamines, spermidine, spermine, putrescine and cadaverine, in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography is described. The polyamines, obtained after clean-up of deproteinized serum by Cellex P column chromatography, are converted to their fluorescamine derivatives in the presence of nickel ion which inhibits the reaction of interfering amines with fluorescamine, and the derivatives are separated simultaneously by reversed-phase chromatography (LiChrosorb RP-18) with a linear gradient elution. The lower limits of detection are 10 and 15 pmole for spermine and the others in 0.5 ml of serum, respectively.

  5. Webinar Presentation: Suspect Screening of Environmental Organic Acids in Human Serum Using High-resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Suspect Screening of Environmental Organic Acids in Human Serum Using High-resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS), was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2016 Webinar Series: Exposome held on May 11, 2016.

  6. Body mass index, serum total cholesterol, and risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya-Kai; Kang, Wei-Ming; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhou, Li; Yu, Jian-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is related to an increased risk of gastric cardia cancer. However, the influences of excess body weight and serum total cholesterol on the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia have not been fully characterized. A case–control study was conducted to explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI), serum total cholesterol level, and the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in Chinese adults. A total of 893 consecutive patients with gastric high-grade dysplasia (537 men and 356 women) and 902 controls (543 men and 359 women) were enrolled from January 2000 to October 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, and a multivariate analysis was conducted. After adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, smoking status, family history of gastric cancer or esophageal cancer, and serum total cholesterol level, a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was significantly related to an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.24–2.81) and women (adjusted OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.44–5.16). The 2 highest BMI categories (27.5–29.9 and ≥30.0) were identified as risk factors for gastric cardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (BMI = 27.5–29.9: adjusted OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.02–3.10; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.27–5.08) and women (BMI = 27.5–29.9: adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.27–6.55; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.36–5.64), whereas only a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was a risk factor for gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.25–3.14) and women (adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.43–5.81). In addition, higher serum total cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.25–2.69) in women. Increased BMI was associated with an increased risk

  7. Development of Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2973 Vitamin D Metabolites in Frozen Human Serum (High Level).

    PubMed

    Tai, Susan; Nelson, Michael; Bedner, Mary; Lang, Brian; Phinney, Karen; Sander, Lane; Yen, James; Betz, Joseph; Sempos, Christopher; Wise, Stephen

    2017-07-24

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements and the Vitamin D Standardization Program, has recently issued a new serum-matrix Standard Reference Material (SRM): 2973 Vitamin D Metabolites in Frozen Human Serum (High Level). SRM 2973 was designed to provide a serum material with a total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration near 100 nmol/L to complement the existing serum-based SRMs with values assigned for total 25(OH)D between 20 and 80 nmol/L. Values were assigned for 25-hydroxyvitamin D₂ [25(OH)D₂], 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃ [25(OH)D₃], 3-epi-25(OH)D₃ , and total 25(OH)D [the sum of 25(OH)D₂ + 25(OH)D₃] using the NIST isotope dilution LC with tandem MS (MS/MS) reference measurement procedure (RMP) and related methods. SRM 2973 has a certified value of 98.4 ± 2.1 nmol/L for 25(OH)D₃ and reference values of 1.59 ± 0.05 nmol/L for 25(OH)D₂ and 5.23 ± 0.20 nmol/L for 3-epi-25(OH)D₃ . In addition, a candidate RMP for 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ [24R,25(OH)₂D₃] based on LC-MS/MS was used to assign values to SRM 2973 and the existing SRM 972a Vitamin D Metabolites in Frozen Human Serum. Reference values for 24R,25(OH)₂D₃ were assigned to SRM 2973 (7.51 ± 0.26 nmol/L) and the four levels of SRM 972a: Level 1 (6.38 ± 0.23 nmol/L), Level 2 (3.39 ± 0.12 nmol/L), Level 3 (3.88 ± 0.013 nmol/L), and Level 4 (6.32 ± 0.22 nmol/L). The development of SRM 2973 [with a higher concentration of 25(OH)D₃] and the addition of values for 24R,25(OH)₂D₃ assigned to both SRM 972a and SRM 2973 provide laboratories involved in vitamin D measurements with improved QA tools.

  8. Development of Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2973 Vitamin D Metabolites in Frozen Human Serum (High Level).

    PubMed

    Tai, Susan S-C; Nelson, Michael A; Bedner, Mary; Lang, Brian E; Phinney, Karen W; Sander, Lane C; Yen, James H; Betz, Joseph M; Sempos, Christopher T; Wise, Stephen A

    2017-09-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements and the Vitamin D Standardization Program, has recently issued a new serum-matrix Standard Reference Material (SRM): 2973 Vitamin D Metabolites in Frozen Human Serum (High Level). SRM 2973 was designed to provide a serum material with a total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration near 100 nmol/L to complement the existing serum-based SRMs with values assigned for total 25(OH)D between 20 and 80 nmol/L. Values were assigned for 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 [25(OH)D2], 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3], 3-epi-25(OH)D3, and total 25(OH)D [the sum of 25(OH)D2 + 25(OH)D3] using the NIST isotope dilution LC with tandem MS (MS/MS) reference measurement procedure (RMP) and related methods. SRM 2973 has a certified value of 98.4 ± 2.1 nmol/L for 25(OH)D3 and reference values of 1.59 ± 0.05 nmol/L for 25(OH)D2 and 5.23 ± 0.20 nmol/L for 3-epi-25(OH)D3. In addition, a candidate RMP for 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24R,25(OH)2D3] based on LC-MS/MS was used to assign values to SRM 2973 and the existing SRM 972a Vitamin D Metabolites in Frozen Human Serum. Reference values for 24R,25(OH)2D3 were assigned to SRM 2973 (7.51 ± 0.26 nmol/L) and the four levels of SRM 972a: Level 1 (6.38 ± 0.23 nmol/L), Level 2 (3.39 ± 0.12 nmol/L), Level 3 (3.88 ± 0.013 nmol/L), and Level 4 (6.32 ± 0.22 nmol/L). The development of SRM 2973 [with a higher concentration of 25(OH)D3] and the addition of values for 24R,25(OH)2D3 assigned to both SRM 972a and SRM 2973 provide laboratories involved in vitamin D measurements with improved QA tools.

  9. New high-performance liquid chromatographic method for plasma/serum analysis of lamotrigine.

    PubMed

    Croci, D; Salmaggi, A; de Grazia, U; Bernardi, G

    2001-12-01

    Lamotrigine is an anticonvulsant drug recently approved in Italy for clinical use. Therapeutic monitoring of lamotrigine is relevant for patient management and avoidance of toxicity. The authors describe a simple, sensitive, and highly selective high-performance liquid chromatography method that does not involved extraction for analysis of serum lamotrigine. Serum (20 microL) with internal standard (BW 725 C) was injected directly into a column (25 cm x 4.6 mm) with an internal surface reversed phase (ISRP). The mobile phase consisted of 0.01 mol/L potassium phosphate bibasic (pH 6.0) and acetonitrile (82:18), the flow rate was 1.0 mL/min, and UV detection was optimized at 330 nm. The overall between-run coefficient of variance ranged from 1.89% to 3.25% and the lowest limit of detection was 0.05 mg/L. High linearity (r = 0.9996) in a wide range of concentrations (0.1-20.0 mg/L) and no interference with other antiepileptic drugs, benzodiazepines, and tricyclic antidepressants were the other characteristics of the method. The innovation of this method is the use of ISRP column and the choice of detection wavelength, which allow a shorter analysis time (5-6 minutes). The possibility of direct injection of plasma samples into the column permits a reduction in reagent consumption and in analytic steps, and hence in analytic error.

  10. Serum amyloid P component prevents high-density lipoprotein-mediated neutralization of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    de Haas, C J; Poppelier, M J; van Kessel, K P; van Strijp, J A

    2000-09-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an amphipathic macromolecule that is highly aggregated in aqueous preparations. LPS-binding protein (LBP) catalyzes the transfer of single LPS molecules, segregated from an LPS aggregate, to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), which results in the neutralization of LPS. When fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled LPS (FITC-LPS) is used, this transfer of LPS monomers to HDL can be measured as an increase in fluorescence due to dequenching of FITC-LPS. Recently, serum amyloid P component (SAP) was shown to neutralize LPS in vitro, although only in the presence of low concentrations of LBP. In this study, we show that SAP prevented HDL-mediated dequenching of FITC-LPS, even in the presence of high concentrations of LBP. Human bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), a very potent LPS-binding and -neutralizing protein, also prevented HDL-mediated dequenching of FITC-LPS. Furthermore, SAP inhibited HDL-mediated neutralization of both rough and smooth LPS in a chemiluminescence assay quantifying the LPS-induced priming of neutrophils in human blood. SAP bound both isolated HDL and HDL in serum. Using HDL-coated magnetic beads prebound with SAP, we demonstrated that HDL-bound SAP prevented the binding of LPS to HDL. We suggest that SAP, by preventing LPS binding to HDL, plays a regulatory role, balancing the amount of LPS that, via HDL, is directed to the adrenal glands.

  11. Arginine and lysine reduce the high viscosity of serum albumin solutions for pharmaceutical injection.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Naoto; Takai, Eisuke; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2014-05-01

    Therapeutic protein solutions for subcutaneous injection must be very highly concentrated, which increases their viscosity through protein-protein interactions. However, maintaining a solution viscosity below 50 cP is important for the preparation and injection of therapeutic protein solutions. In this study, we examined the effect of various amino acids on the solution viscosity of very highly concentrated bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) at a physiological pH. Among the amino acids tested, l-arginine hydrochloride (ArgHCl) and l-lysine hydrochloride (LysHCl) (50-200 mM) successfully reduced the viscosity of both BSA and HSA solutions; guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl), NaCl, and other sodium salts were equally as effective, indicating the electrostatic shielding effect of these additives. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that BSA is in its native state even in the presence of ArgHCl, LysHCl, and NaCl at high protein concentrations. These results indicate that weakened protein-protein interactions play a key role in reducing solution viscosity. ArgHCl and LysHCl, which are also non-toxic compounds, will be used as additives to reduce the solution viscosity of concentrated therapeutic proteins.

  12. Salvia libanotica improves glycemia and serum lipid profile in rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Bassil, Maya; Daher, Costantine F; Mroueh, Mohammad; Zeeni, Nadine

    2015-10-23

    Salvia libanotica (S. Libanotica) is a commonly used herb in folk medicine in Lebanon and the Middle East. The present study aimed to assess the scientific basis for the therapeutic use of S. libanotica in glycemia and to evaluate its effects on lipemia and abdominal fat. Animals were fed a high-fat diet and allocated into a control and three experimental groups (GI, GII and GIII) receiving incremental doses of the plant water extract in drinking water (50, 150 and 450 mg/Kg body weight respectively) for six weeks. The intake of S. libanotica extract was associated with a significant decrease in fasting serum glucose (102.9 ± 10.8 in GII and 87.5 ± 6.4 in GIII vs. 152.1 ± 7.9 mg/dl in controls) and a two fold increase in fasting serum insulin (GIII) and liver glycogen content (GII and GIII). Group III also had better glucose tolerance following intraperitoneal glucose challenges. Additionally, the plant extract intake produced a significant improvement in serum HDL (34.4 ± 2.4 in GIII vs. 27.2 ± 1.9 mg/dl in controls) and HDL/LDL cholesterol ratio (2.79 ± 0.32 in GII and 3.02 ± 0.31 in GIII vs. 1.74 ± 0.18 in controls), as well as a decrease in abdominal fat. The current study is the first to demonstrate that the chronic intake of S. libanotica infusion helps in the prevention of high fat-induced hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. This supports the plant use as a remedy for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Identification of a Proteinaceous Component in the Leaf of Moringa Oleifera lam. with Effects on High Serum Creatinine.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S; Raghavendra, K M; Biswas, S

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above) were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one.

  14. Identification of a Proteinaceous Component in the Leaf of Moringa Oleifera lam. with Effects on High Serum Creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, S.; Raghavendra, K. M.; Biswas, S.

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above) were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one. PMID:24799742

  15. Resistin-Like Molecule-β in Scleroderma-Associated Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Daniel J.; Su, Qingning; Yamaji-Kegan, Kazuyo; Fan, Chunling; Teng, Xingwu; Hassoun, Paul M.; Yang, Stephen C.; Champion, Hunter C.; Tuder, Rubin M.; Johns, Roger A.

    2009-01-01

    Scleroderma is a systemic, mixed connective tissue disease that can impact the lungs through pulmonary fibrosis, vascular remodeling, and the development of pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure. Currently, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that drive this condition, but we have recently identified a novel gene product that is up-regulated in a murine model of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. This molecule, known as hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor (HIMF), is a member of the newly described resistin gene family. We have demonstrated that HIMF has mitogenic, angiogenic, vasoconstrictive, inflammatory, and chemokine-like properties, all of which are associated with vascular remodeling in the lung. Here, we demonstrate that the human homolog of HIMF, resistin-like molecule (RELM)-β, is expressed in the lung tissue of patients with scleroderma-associated pulmonary hypertension and is up-regulated compared with normal control subjects. Immunofluorescence colocalization revealed that RELM-β is expressed in the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle of remodeled vessels, as well as in plexiform lesions, macrophages, T cells, and myofibroblast-like cells. We also show that addition of recombinant RELM-β induces proliferation and activation of ERK1/2 in primary cultured human pulmonary endothelial and smooth muscle cells. These results suggest that RELM-β may be involved in the development of scleroderma-associated pulmonary hypertension. PMID:19251945

  16. Metabolic status and resistin in chronic schizophrenia over a 2-year period with continuous atypical antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Kawabe, Kentaro; Ochi, Shinichiro; Yoshino, Yuta; Mori, Yoko; Onuma, Hiroshi; Osawa, Haruhiko; Hosoda, Yoshiki; Ueno, Shu-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Common adverse effects of atypical antipsychotic treatments for schizophrenia are weight gain and lipid metabolism abnormality. We aimed to identify the signs of metabolic problems with continuous atypical antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia over a 2-year period. Methods: The participants were 68 schizophrenic patients (29 males, 39 females; ages 53.4 ± 13.5 years old). Changes in carbohydrate metabolism and changes in physical characteristics were studied over a 2-year period. In addition, functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in the transcriptional regulatory region of the resistin gene were examined. Results: We found no changes in the mental state of the participants over a 2-year period. Patients did show a significant decrease in total cholesterol and hemoglobin A1c levels, although physical changes such as body mass index and abdominal girth, were not observed. The amount of resistin may not be associated with mental states and physical parameters. Conclusions: We could not find physical factors related to metabolic changes of antipsychotics in this 2-year study. However, several psychological factors, such as health-related thoughts and behaviors, should be studied in the future. PMID:26557983

  17. High-Mr glycoprotein profiles in human milk serum and fat-globule membrane.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, M; Yamauchi, K; Miyauchi, Y; Sakurai, T; Tokugawa, K; McIlhinney, R A

    1986-02-01

    Gradient-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of human milk serum separated three high-Mr glycoprotein bands. The properties of the components corresponding to the three bands (tentatively termed 'Components C, B and A' in their order of migration) were compared by staining with four monoclonal antibodies and lectins. Components B and C both reacted with the four antibodies, but Component A did not. Components B and C were stained with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) agglutinin (PNA) and wheat (Triticum)-germ agglutinin (WGA), Component A being stained with soya-bean (Glycine max) agglutinin as well as PNA and WGA. These results suggest that Components B and C were related molecules, whereas Component A was markedly different from them. The reactivities of Components B and C were the same as those of PAS-0, a high-Mr periodate/Schiff (PAS)-positive glycoprotein previously isolated from human milk fat-globule membrane (MFGM). Component C, whose electrophoretic mobility was the same as PAS-0, could have been a soluble form of PAS-0. A high-Mr glycoprotein having the same properties as Component A was also observed in MFGM. The amino acid composition of the isolated Component A was significantly different from that of Component C and PAS-0, high threonine and serine contents being characteristic of Component A. The carbohydrate content of Component A was 65-80%, and was much higher than that of Component C and PAS-0. Fucose, galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine and sialic acid were each detected as constituent sugars of Component A. Component A represents, therefore, a new high-Mr glycoprotein species in human milk serum and MFGM. Since these glycoproteins were high-Mr mucin-like glycoproteins, the names 'HM glycoprotein-A' and 'HM glycoprotein-C' were proposed for Component A and Component C (PAS-O) respectively.

  18. Serum Biomarkers Identification by Mass Spectrometry in High-Mortality Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tessitore, Alessandra; Gaggiano, Agata; Cicciarelli, Germana; Verzella, Daniela; Capece, Daria; Fischietti, Mariafausta; Zazzeroni, Francesca; Alesse, Edoardo

    2013-01-01

    Cancer affects millions of people worldwide. Tumor mortality is substantially due to diagnosis at stages that are too late for therapies to be effective. Advances in screening methods have improved the early diagnosis, prognosis, and survival for some cancers. Several validated biomarkers are currently used to diagnose and monitor the progression of cancer, but none of them shows adequate specificity, sensitivity, and predictive value for population screening. So, there is an urgent need to isolate novel sensitive, specific biomarkers to detect the disease early and improve prognosis, especially in high-mortality tumors. Proteomic techniques are powerful tools to help in diagnosis and monitoring of treatment and progression of the disease. During the last decade, mass spectrometry has assumed a key role in most of the proteomic analyses that are focused on identifying cancer biomarkers in human serum, making it possible to identify and characterize at the molecular level many proteins or peptides differentially expressed. In this paper we summarize the results of mass spectrometry serum profiling and biomarker identification in high mortality tumors, such as ovarian, liver, lung, and pancreatic cancer. PMID:23401773

  19. Assessing the Association between Serum Ferritin, Transferrin Saturation, and C-Reactive Protein in Northern Territory Indigenous Australian Patients with High Serum Ferritin on Maintenance Haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, Paul D.; Barzi, Federica; Cass, Alan; Hughes, Jaquelyne T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the significance of high serum ferritin observed in Indigenous Australian patients on maintenance haemodialysis in the Northern Territory, we assessed the relationship between ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) as measures of iron status and ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP) as markers of inflammation. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of data from adult patients (≥18 years) on maintenance haemodialysis (>3 months) from 2004 to 2011. Results. There were 1568 patients. The mean age was 53.9 (11.9) years. 1244 (79.3%) were Indigenous. 44.2% (n = 693) were male. Indigenous patients were younger (mean age [52.3 (11.1) versus 57.4 (15.2), p < 0.001]) and had higher CRP [14.7 mg/l (7–35) versus 5.9 mg/l (1.9–17.5), p < 0.001], higher median serum ferritin [1069 µg/l (668–1522) versus 794.9 µg/l (558.5–1252.0), p < 0.001], but similar transferrin saturation [26% (19–37) versus 28% (20–38), p = 0.516]. We observed a small positive correlation between ferritin and TSAT (r2 = 0.11, p < 0.001), no correlation between ferritin and CRP (r2 = 0.001, p < 0.001), and positive association between high serum ferritin and TSAT (p < 0.001), Indigenous ethnicity (p < 0.001), urea reduction ratio (p = 0.001), and gender (p < 0.001) after adjustment in mixed regression analysis. Conclusion. Serum ferritin and TSAT may inadequately reflect iron status in this population. The high ferritin was poorly explained by inflammation. PMID:28243472

  20. The impact of metformin treatment on adiponectin and resistin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Basios, G; Trakakis, E; Chrelias, Ch; Panagopoulos, P; Vaggopoulos, V; Skarpas, P; Kassanos, D; Dimitriadis, G; Hatziagelaki, E

    2015-02-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are often characterized by adiposity and insulin resistance (IR). Recent studies in patients with obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMt2) indicate that adiponectin and resistin may play a role in the pathophysiology of IR. The aim of this study was to identify a possible correlation between the plasma levels of adiponectin and resistin and IR in patients with PCOS. Thirty-one women of reproductive age were enrolled in this prospective study after being diagnosed with PCOS and IR according to Rotterdam and American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria, respectively. Every patient was treated with a daily dose of 1275 mg metformin for 6 months. Adiponectin, resistin, and the primary hormonal and metabolic parameters of the syndrome were evaluated at entry and endpoint of treatment. Adiponectin plasma levels were reduced after metformin treatment, but resistin levels were not significantly affected. Our study suggests that circulating levels of adiponectin should be evaluated with skepticism in patients with PCOS. The adipokine's role in the manifestation of IR in PCOS remains unclear and needs further investigation.

  1. [Possible connection between ghrelin, resistin and TNF-alpha levels and the metabolic syndrome caused by atypical antipsychotics].

    PubMed

    Birkás Kováts, Dezso; Palik, Eva; Faludi, Gábor; Cseh, Károly

    2005-09-01

    Second generation antipsychotics (SGA) are obesitogenic and diabetogenic. Role of ghrelin (RIA), resistin and TNF-alpha (ELISA) in weight gain and insulin resistance (fasting plasma insulin, HOMA, ELISA) was studied in Hungarian psychiatryic patients (n=60) treated with SGA (clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, 15 each). After 1 year, 80% of patients became overweight/obese (BMI > 27/30) and 35% (n= 21/60) presented impaired glucose tolerance (13/60) or diabetes (8/60). Ghrelin (1.3 +/- 0.6 ng/ml), resistin (9.8 +/- 3.7 ng/ml), TNF-alpha (5.8 +/- 1.7 pg/ml), insulin (10.4 +/- 7.6 U/ml, HOMA A: 2.5 +/- 1.8, HOMA B: 133 +/- 62.5) were significantly higher in patients than in healthy matched controls. Resistin and TNF-alpha positively correlated with each other, insulin, HOMA, and negatively with ghrelin. Ghrelin contributes to weight gain, resistin and TNF-alpha to insulin resistance. A negative feedback regulation may exist between adipocytokines and ghrelin production. SGA drugs enhance ghrelin production despite the suppressive effect of adipocytokines. All four SGA drugs are equally obesitogenic and diabetogenic.

  2. Expression of lipogenic factors galectin-12, resistin, SREBP-1, and SCD in human sebaceous glands and cultured sebocytes.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Wesley J; Bull, Jonathan J; Seltmann, Holger; Zouboulis, Christos C; Philpott, Michael P

    2007-06-01

    The transcription factors CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha, beta, and delta, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma are known to be crucial to the differentiation of adipocytes and are expressed in sebaceous gland cells. As lipogenesis is key to both adipocyte and sebocyte differentiation we hypothesize that sebocytes follow a similar program of differentiation to adipocytes. We have investigated the expression of known adipogenic factors resistin, galectin-12, sterol response-element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase in the immortalized sebaceous gland cell line SZ95 and whole skin. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis showed the expression of galectin-12, resistin, SREBP-1, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase mRNAs in SZ95 sebocytes. Immunoreactivity was observed for galectin-12 and SREBP-1 in the nuclei and resistin in the cytoplasm of basal sebocytes, and stearoyl CoA desaturase in the cytoplasm of basal and luminal sebocytes of human scalp skin. Expression of galectin-12, resistin, and SREBP-1 in SZ95 sebocytes was confirmed by Western blot analysis. These data provide further evidence that pathways of differentiation in adipocytes and sebocytes could be similar and therefore further understanding of sebaceous gland differentiation and lipogenesis and potential therapies for sebaceous gland disorders may be obtained from our knowledge of adipocyte differentiation.

  3. Allelic variation in porcine resistin (RETN) gene is associated with fatness traits in a Wild Boar x Meishan reference family

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cloning and comparative sequencing of the porcine resistin (RETN) gene and 5’ flanking region, located at 64 cM on SSC2, revealed 9 SNPs and 2 indels. A European Wild Boar x Meishan family encompassing 335 F2 animals measured for 46 traits including growth, fat deposition and muscle accretion was sc...

  4. An integrated bioanalytical platform for supporting high-throughput serum protein binding screening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Shou, Wilson Z; Vath, Marianne; Kieltyka, Kasia; Maloney, Jennifer; Elvebak, Larry; Stewart, Jeremy; Herbst, John; Weller, Harold N

    2010-12-30

    Quantification of small molecules using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer has become a common practice in bioanalytical support of in vitro adsorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) screening. The bioanalysis process involves primarily three indispensable steps: MS/MS optimization for a large number of new chemical compounds undergoing various screening assays in early drug discovery, high-throughput sample analysis with LC/MS/MS for those chemically diverse compounds using the optimized MS/MS conditions, and post-acquisition data review and reporting. To improve overall efficiency of ADME bioanalysis, an integrated system was proposed featuring an automated and unattended MS/MS optimization, a staggered parallel LC/MS/MS for high-throughput sample analysis, and a sophisticated software tool for LC/MS/MS raw data review as well as biological data calculation and reporting. The integrated platform has been used in bioanalytical support of a serum protein binding screening assay with high speed, high capacity, and good robustness. In this new platform, a unique sample dilution scheme was also introduced. With this dilution design, the total number of analytical samples was reduced; therefore, the total operation time was reduced and the overall throughput was further improved. The performance of the protein binding screening assay was monitored with two controls representing high and low binding properties and an acceptable inter-assay consistency was achieved. This platform has been successfully used for the determination of serum protein binding in multiple species for more than 4000 compounds.

  5. A High Legume Low Glycemic Index Diet Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Men

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiying; Lanza, Elaine; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Colburn, Nancy H.; Bagshaw, Deborah; Rovine, Michael J.; Ulbrecht, Jan S.; Bobe, Gerd; Chapkin, Robert S.; Hartman, Terryl J.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that fiber consumption facilitates weight loss and improves lipid profiles; however, the beneficial effects of high fermentable fiber low glycemic index (GI) diets under conditions of weight maintenance are unclear. In the Legume Inflammation Feeding Experiment, a randomized controlled cross-over feeding study, 64 middle-aged men who had undergone colonoscopies within the previous 2 years received both a healthy American (HA) diet (no legume consumption, fiber consumption = 9 g/1,000 kcal, and GI = 69) and a legume enriched (1.5 servings/1,000 kcal), high fiber (21 g/1,000 kcal), low GI (GI = 38) diet (LG) in random order. Diets were isocaloric and controlled for macronutrients including saturated fat; they were consumed each for 4 weeks with a 2–4 week break separating dietary treatments. Compared to the HA diet, the LG diet led to greater declines in both fasting serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P <0.001 and P <0.01, respectively). Insulin-resistant (IR) subjects had greater reductions in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; P <0.01), and triglycerides (TAG)/HDL-C (P = 0.02) after the LG diet, compared to the HA diet. Insulin-sensitive (IS) subjects had greater reductions in TC (P <0.001), LDL-C (P <0.01), TC/HDL-C (P <0.01), and LDL-C/HDL-C (P = 0.02) after the LG diet, compared to the HA diet. In conclusion, a high legume, high fiber, low GI diet improves serum lipid profiles in men, compared to a healthy American diet. However, IR individuals do not achieve the full benefits of the same diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) lipid risk factors. PMID:20734238

  6. Column-switching high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of vancomycin in serum.

    PubMed

    Demotes-Mainard, F; Labat, L; Vinçon, G; Bannwarth, B

    1994-06-01

    Concentrations of vancomycin in serum were measured by an automatic high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) micromethod. Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic with broad application in the therapy of gram-positive infections. As this drug is potentially nephro- and ototoxic, a method to maximize its therapeutic benefit while minimizing the risk of toxicity is desirable. This fully automated HPLC method did not involve a sample pretreatment step. The configuration of the apparatus permitted a solid phase extraction of the serum sample on two precolumns filled with a reversed-phase material, followed by a chromatographic separation of the sample constituents on an analytical column. The reversed phase analytical column (muBondapak C18) was flushed with a mobile phase of water-acetonitrile-triethylamine, 870: 130: 4 (vol/vol/vol); the pH was adjusted to 3.0 with orthophosphoric acid. Precision was expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV), which was always < or = 4.13% for intra- and inter-assays (n = 10) in the range 2-50 micrograms/ml. We compared this specific HPLC determination to an enzyme-multiplied immunoassay (EMIT). Fifty clinical samples obtained from patients under vancomycin therapy were assayed by each method and results compared using a linear regression analysis. There was a significant correlation between results from HPLC and EMIT: EMIT = 0.51 + 1 x HPLC (r = 0.963; p < 0.0001). The rapidity and specificity of this HPLC micromethod make it suitable for use in the monitoring of serum levels of vancomycin and for use in pharmacokinetic studies of this antibiotic.

  7. Short-term cooling increases serum triglycerides and small high-density lipoprotein levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Hoeke, Geerte; Nahon, Kimberly J; Bakker, Leontine E H; Norkauer, Sabine S C; Dinnes, Donna L M; Kockx, Maaike; Lichtenstein, Laeticia; Drettwan, Diana; Reifel-Miller, Anne; Coskun, Tamer; Pagel, Philipp; Romijn, Fred P H T M; Cobbaert, Christa M; Jazet, Ingrid M; Martinez, Laurent O; Kritharides, Leonard; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Boon, Mariëtte R; Rensen, Patrick C N

    Cold exposure and β3-adrenergic receptor agonism, which both activate brown adipose tissue, markedly influence lipoprotein metabolism by enhancing lipoprotein lipase-mediated catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and increasing plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and functionality in mice. However, the effect of short-term cooling on human lipid and lipoprotein metabolism remained largely elusive. The objective was to assess the effect of short-term cooling on the serum lipoprotein profile and HDL functionality in men. Body mass index-matched young, lean men were exposed to a personalized cooling protocol for 2 hours. Before and after cooling, serum samples were collected for analysis of lipids and lipoprotein composition by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance. Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1)-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL was measured using [(3)H]cholesterol-loaded ABCA1-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. Short-term cooling increased serum levels of free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Cooling increased the concentration of large very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles accompanied by increased mean size of VLDL particles. In addition, cooling enhanced the concentration of small LDL and small HDL particles as well as the cholesterol levels within these particles. The increase in small HDL was accompanied by increased ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux in vitro. Our data show that short-term cooling increases the concentration of large VLDL particles and increases the generation of small LDL and HDL particles. We interpret that cooling increases VLDL production and turnover, which results in formation of surface remnants that form small HDL particles that attract cellular cholesterol. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Consumption of sericin reduces serum lipids, ameliorates glucose tolerance and elevates serum adiponectin in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Kakehi, Shoko; Xu, Yonghui; Tsujimoto, Kazuhisa; Sasaki, Masahiro; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Kato, Norihisa

    2010-01-01

    The effect was examined of dietary sericin on the lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed with a high-fat diet. The rats were fed with a 20% beef tallow diet with or without sericin at the level of 4% for 5 weeks. The final body weight and white adipose tissue weight were unaffected by dietary manipulation. The consumption of sericin significantly reduced the serum levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, phospholipids and free fatty acids. Serum very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and LDL-phospholipids were also significantly reduced by the sericin intake. Liver triglyceride and the activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme, the lipogenic enzymes, were also reduced by the sericin intake. Dietary sericin caused a marked elevation in serum adiponectin. The consumption of sericin suppressed the increases in plasma glucose and insulin levels after an intraperitoneal glucose injection. These results imply the usefulness of sericin for improving the lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed on a high-fat diet.

  9. Alcohol drinking status is associated with serum high molecular weight adiponectin in community-dwelling Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Tabara, Yasuharu; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Miki, Tetsuro; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kusunoki, Tomo; Abe, Masanori

    2010-09-30

    Serum high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin improves insulin sensitivity, and a decreased level of serum HMW adiponectin has been reported as a risk factor for the development of diabetes and coronary heart disease. This association may be further confounded by the alcohol drinking status, which is involved in the development of liver dysfunction. The aim of this study was to determine whether the alcohol drinking status is associated with serum HMW adiponectin levels in community-dwelling Japanese men. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2002. Study participants without a clinical history of diabetes (747 men aged 60 ± 14 (mean ± standard deviation) (range, 20-89) years) were randomly recruited from a single community at the time of their annual health examination. They were classified into never drinkers, light drinkers (< 1 unit/day), moderate drinkers (1-1.9 units/day), and heavy drinkers (≥ 2 units/day). We examined the effects of alcohol consumption on serum HMW adiponectin. Overall, mean serum HMW adiponectin levels were significantly lower in the group with higher alcohol consumption, and there were inter-group differences in the alcohol drinking status. Moreover, age-adjusted mean serum HMW adiponectin levels were significantly lower in the group with higher alcohol consumption. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the alcohol drinking status was significantly and independently associated with serum adiponectin as well as age, smoking status, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, serum ALT, and HOMA-IR. Multivariate-adjusted mean serum HMW adiponectin levels were also significantly lower in the group with higher alcohol consumption. The alcohol drinking status is negatively associated with serum HMW adiponectin levels in Japanese community-dwelling men.

  10. Unusually high serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase without perivalvular leakage following double valve replacement: predictor of tetany attack after thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Ryomoto, Masaaki; Miyamoto, Yuji; Mitsuno, Masataka; Yamamura, Mitsuhiro; Ohata, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Hiroe

    2006-11-01

    A 57-year-old woman who complained of exertional dyspnea was diagnosed as having severe aortic valve stenosis and mitral valve regurgitation. The patient underwent double valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis. Postoperative laboratory data showed unusually high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, even though no perivalvular leakage was detected by echocardiography. Tetany occurred suddenly owing to hypoparathyroidism, which seemed to be a late complication after thyroidectomy. After calcium administration, the symptoms dramatically diminished, as did the serum LDH levels. Hypoparathyroidism should be doubted if serum LDH levels increase higher than the normal range following valve replacement without obvious perivalvular leakage.

  11. Running a Marathon Induces Changes in Adipokine Levels and in Markers of Cartilage Degradation – Novel Role for Resistin

    PubMed Central

    Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Leppänen, Tiina; Kekkonen, Riina; Korpela, Riitta; Moilanen, Eeva

    2014-01-01

    Running a marathon causes strenuous joint loading and increased energy expenditure. Adipokines regulate energy metabolism, but recent studies have indicated that they also exert a role in cartilage degradation in arthritis. Our aim was to investigate the effects of running a marathon on the levels of adipokines and indices of cartilage metabolism. Blood samples were obtained from 46 male marathoners before and after a marathon run. We measured levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), cartilage oligomeric protein (COMP) and chitinase 3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) as biomarkers of cartilage turnover and/or damage and plasma concentrations of adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin. Mean marathon time was 3∶30∶46±0∶02∶46 (h:min:sec). The exertion more than doubled MMP-3 levels and this change correlated negatively with the marathon time (r = –0.448, p = 0.002). YKL-40 levels increased by 56% and the effect on COMP release was variable. Running a marathon increased the levels of resistin and adiponectin, while leptin levels remained unchanged. The marathon-induced changes in resistin levels were positively associated with the changes in MMP-3 (r = 0.382, p = 0.009) and YKL-40 (r = 0.588, p<0.001) and the pre-marathon resistin levels correlated positively with the marathon induced change in YKL-40 (r = 0.386, p = 0.008). The present results show the impact of running a marathon, and possible load frequency, on cartilage metabolism: the faster the marathon was run, the greater was the increase in MMP-3 levels. Further, the results introduce pro-inflammatory adipocytokine resistin as a novel factor, which enhances during marathon race and associates with markers of cartilage degradation. PMID:25333960

  12. Running a marathon induces changes in adipokine levels and in markers of cartilage degradation--novel role for resistin.

    PubMed

    Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Leppänen, Tiina; Kekkonen, Riina; Korpela, Riitta; Moilanen, Eeva

    2014-01-01

    Running a marathon causes strenuous joint loading and increased energy expenditure. Adipokines regulate energy metabolism, but recent studies have indicated that they also exert a role in cartilage degradation in arthritis. Our aim was to investigate the effects of running a marathon on the levels of adipokines and indices of cartilage metabolism. Blood samples were obtained from 46 male marathoners before and after a marathon run. We measured levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), cartilage oligomeric protein (COMP) and chitinase 3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) as biomarkers of cartilage turnover and/or damage and plasma concentrations of adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin. Mean marathon time was 3:30:46±0:02:46 (h:min:sec). The exertion more than doubled MMP-3 levels and this change correlated negatively with the marathon time (r = -0.448, p = 0.002). YKL-40 levels increased by 56% and the effect on COMP release was variable. Running a marathon increased the levels of resistin and adiponectin, while leptin levels remained unchanged. The marathon-induced changes in resistin levels were positively associated with the changes in MMP-3 (r = 0.382, p = 0.009) and YKL-40 (r = 0.588, p<0.001) and the pre-marathon resistin levels correlated positively with the marathon induced change in YKL-40 (r = 0.386, p = 0.008). The present results show the impact of running a marathon, and possible load frequency, on cartilage metabolism: the faster the marathon was run, the greater was the increase in MMP-3 levels. Further, the results introduce pro-inflammatory adipocytokine resistin as a novel factor, which enhances during marathon race and associates with markers of cartilage degradation.

  13. [Two Cases of Germ Cell Tumors with Hyperthyroidism Due to High Serum hCGLevels].

    PubMed

    Chihara, Ichiro; Nitta, Satoshi; Kimura, Tomokazu; Kandori, Shuya; Kawahara, Takashi; Waku, Natsui; Kojima, Takahiro; Joraku, Akira; Miyazaki, Jun; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Kawai, Koji; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    We reported two cases of hyperthyroidism that developed during induction chemotherapy for advanced germ cell tumors with high serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels. Case 1 : An 18-year-old man with mediastinal choriocarcinoma complained of tachycardia and tremor. His pretreatment serum hCG level was 1.37 million mIU/ml. The free thyroxine (fT4) level measured on day 2 of the first course of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) was elevated to 7.8 ng/dl (<1.7 ng/dl), whereasthe thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH) level was undetectable. We diagnosed the patient with hyperthyroidism and started oral propranolol and thiamazole. Subsequently, his tachycardia and tremor disappeared. On day 12 of the first course of BEP, his hCG level decreased to less than 50,000 mIU/ml. Also, his fT4 level returned to the normal range. Case 2 : A 29-year-old man presented with a left scrotal mass. He was diagnosed with non-seminoma testicular cancer (embryonal carcinoma and choriocarcinoma) with multiple lung, liver and lymph node metastases. On the admission day, his serum hCG and fT4 levels were high ; 3.23 million mIU/ml and 2.2 ng/dl, respectively. The TSH level was low at 0.011 mIU/ml. On day 3 of the first course of BEP, his hCG and fT4 levels increased to 4.5 million mIU/ml and 3.0 ng/dl, respectively. He complained of tachycardia, tremor and hyperhydrosis. He was started on propranolol and potassium iodide. After the treatment, histachycardia, tremor and hyperhidrosisdis appeared. HisfT4 level normalized on day 17 of the first course of BEP. The TSH-like activity of hCG is considered to be responsible for paraneoplastic hyperthyroidism among germ cell cancer patients with high hCG levels. To our knowledge, thisisthe first report of such a case in Japan. However, thisphenomenon isnot rare among patients with extremely high hCG levels. Therefore, we should be careful of these patients.

  14. Serum Response Factor Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells Against High-Glucose Damage.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yan; Wang, Liang; Zhao, Junhong; Zhang, Hongbing; Tian, Ying; Liang, Houcheng; Ma, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Serum response factor (SRF), which encodes the MADS-box family of related proteins, is a common transcription factor related to the expression of genes associated with cell survival. However, SRF's role in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after high-glucose injury remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the protective role of SRF after high-glucose injury and its underlying mechanism. The in vitro RGC model subjected to high glucose was established by employing a 50 mmol/L glucose culture environment. As detected by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot, SRF was significantly upregulated in RGCs treated with high glucose. Overexpression of SRF significantly promoted survival among RGCs exposed to high glucose and inhibited RGC apoptosis. Knockdown of SRF exerted an inverse effect. Moreover, SRF upregulation enhanced expression of an antioxidant protein, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), via control of the Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1). SRF upregulation also affected RGC survival after high-glucose treatment. Our findings showed that overexpression of SRF promoted survival of RGCs after high-glucose injury by regulating Fra-1 and Nrf2.

  15. Determination of mitomycin C in human aqueous humor and serum by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, W Y; Seah, S K; Koda, R T

    1993-09-08

    Mitomycin C (MMC) is used in the treatment of disseminated adenocarcinoma of the stomach and pancreas and is used in ophthalmology as adjunctive therapy in trabeculectomy. Since only small volumes of aqueous humor are available for analysis, a sensitive method requiring limited sample preparation was developed. An internal standard, 4-aminoacetophenone, was added to aqueous humor specimens, and the solution was directly injected into the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) column. The use of a short 50-mm C18 reversed-phase column gave adequate resolution of peaks with improved sensitivity. The method was applicable for determination of MMC in serum, although solid-phase extraction for sample clean-up was required prior to injection into the HPLC column, and analytical columns of 150-250 mm were necessary for adequate resolution of peaks. The method has been validated and is linear from 6.25 to 50 ng/ml in aqueous humor and from 10 to 500 ng/ml in serum.

  16. Protein haptenation by amoxicillin: high resolution mass spectrometry analysis and identification of target proteins in serum.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Adriana; Garzon, Davide; Abánades, Daniel R; de los Ríos, Vivian; Vistoli, Giulio; Torres, María J; Carini, Marina; Aldini, Giancarlo; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2012-12-21

    Allergy towards wide spectrum antibiotics such as amoxicillin (AX) is a major health problem. Protein haptenation by covalent conjugation of AX is considered a key process for the allergic response. However, the nature of the proteins involved has not been completely elucidated. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in plasma and is considered a major target for haptenation by drugs, including β-lactam antibiotics. Here we report a procedure for immunological detection of AX-protein adducts with antibodies recognizing the lateral chain of the AX molecule. With this approach we detected human serum proteins modified by AX in vitro and identified HSA, transferrin and immunoglobulins heavy and light chains as prominent AX-modified proteins. Since HSA was the major AX target, we characterized AX-HSA interaction using high resolution LTQ orbitrap MS. At 0.5mg/mL AX, we detected one main AX-HSA adduct involving residues Lys 190, 199 or 541, whereas higher AX concentrations elicited a more extensive modification. In molecular modeling studies Lys190 and Lys 199 were found the most reactive residues towards AX, with surrounding residues favoring adduct formation. These findings provide novel tools and insight for the study of protein haptenation and the mechanisms involved in AX-elicited allergic reactions.

  17. High-density lipoprotein inhibits ox-LDL-induced adipokine secretion by upregulating SR-BI expression and suppressing ER Stress pathway.

    PubMed

    Song, Guohua; Wu, Xia; Zhang, Pu; Yu, Yang; Yang, Mingfeng; Jiao, Peng; Wang, Ni; Song, Haiming; Wu, You; Zhang, Xiangjian; Liu, Huaxia; Qin, Shucun

    2016-07-29

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in adipocytes can modulate adipokines secretion. The aim of this study was to explore the protective effect of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced ERS-C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) pathway-mediated adipokine secretion. Our results showed that serum adipokines, including visfatin, resistin and TNF-α, correlated inversely with serum HDL cholesterol level in patients with abdominal obesity. In vitro, like ERS inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), HDL inhibited ox-LDL- or tunicamycin (TM, an ERS inducer)-induced increase in visfatin and resistin secretion. Moreover, HDL inhibited ox-LDL-induced free cholesterol (FC) accumulation in whole cell lysate and in the endoplasmic reticulum. Additionally, like PBA, HDL inhibited ox-LDL- or TM-induced activation of ERS response as assessed by the decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase-like ER kinase and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α and reduced nuclear translocation of activating transcription factor 6 as well as the downregulation of Bip and CHOP. Furthermore, HDL increased scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) expression and SR-BI siRNA treatment abolished the inhibitory effects of HDL on ox-LDL-induced FC accumulation and CHOP upregulation. These data indicate that HDL may suppress ox-LDL-induced FC accumulation in adipocytes through upregulation of SR-BI, subsequently preventing ox-LDL-induced ER stress-CHOP pathway-mediated adipocyte inflammation.

  18. High-density lipoprotein inhibits ox-LDL-induced adipokine secretion by upregulating SR-BI expression and suppressing ER Stress pathway

    PubMed Central

    Song, Guohua; Wu, Xia; Zhang, Pu; Yu, Yang; Yang, Mingfeng; Jiao, Peng; Wang, Ni; Song, Haiming; Wu, You; Zhang, Xiangjian; Liu, Huaxia; Qin, Shucun

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in adipocytes can modulate adipokines secretion. The aim of this study was to explore the protective effect of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced ERS-C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) pathway-mediated adipokine secretion. Our results showed that serum adipokines, including visfatin, resistin and TNF-α, correlated inversely with serum HDL cholesterol level in patients with abdominal obesity. In vitro, like ERS inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), HDL inhibited ox-LDL- or tunicamycin (TM, an ERS inducer)-induced increase in visfatin and resistin secretion. Moreover, HDL inhibited ox-LDL-induced free cholesterol (FC) accumulation in whole cell lysate and in the endoplasmic reticulum. Additionally, like PBA, HDL inhibited ox-LDL- or TM-induced activation of ERS response as assessed by the decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase-like ER kinase and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α and reduced nuclear translocation of activating transcription factor 6 as well as the downregulation of Bip and CHOP. Furthermore, HDL increased scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) expression and SR-BI siRNA treatment abolished the inhibitory effects of HDL on ox-LDL-induced FC accumulation and CHOP upregulation. These data indicate that HDL may suppress ox-LDL-induced FC accumulation in adipocytes through upregulation of SR-BI, subsequently preventing ox-LDL-induced ER stress-CHOP pathway-mediated adipocyte inflammation. PMID:27468698

  19. A validated method for measurement of serum total, serum free, and salivary cortisol, using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution ESI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Montskó, Gergely; Tarjányi, Zita; Mezősi, Emese; Kovács, Gábor L

    2014-04-01

    Blood cortisol level is routinely analysed in laboratory medicine, but the immunoassays in widespread use have the disadvantage of cross-reactivity with some commonly used steroid drugs. Mass spectrometry has become a method of increasing importance for cortisol estimation. However, current methods do not offer the option of accurate mass identification. Our objective was to develop a mass spectrometry method to analyse salivary, serum total, and serum free cortisol via accurate mass identification. The analysis was performed on a Bruker micrOTOF high-resolution mass spectrometer. Sample preparation involved protein precipitation, serum ultrafiltration, and solid-phase extraction. Limit of quantification was 12.5 nmol L(-1) for total cortisol, 440 pmol L(-1) for serum ultrafiltrate, and 600 pmol L(-1) for saliva. Average intra-assay variation was 4.7%, and inter-assay variation was 6.6%. Mass accuracy was <2.5 ppm. Serum total cortisol levels were in the range 35.6-1088 nmol L(-1), and serum free cortisol levels were in the range 0.5-12.4 nmol L(-1). Salivary cortisol levels were in the range 0.7-10.4 nmol L(-1). Mass accuracy was equal to or below 2.5 ppm, resulting in a mass error less than 1 mDa and thus providing high specificity. We did not observe any interference with routinely used steroidal drugs. The method is capable of specific cortisol quantification in different matrices on the basis of accurate mass identification.

  20. Relations between high-affinity binding sites of markers for binding regions on human serum albumin.

    PubMed Central

    Kragh-Hansen, U

    1985-01-01

    Binding of warfarin, digitoxin, diazepam, salicylate and Phenol Red, individually or in different pair combinations, to defatted human serum albumin at ligand/protein molar ratios less than 1:1 was studied at pH 7.0. The binding was determined by ultrafiltration. Some of the experiments were repeated with the use of equilibrium dialysis in order to strengthen the results. Irrespective of the method used, all ligands bind to one high-affinity binding site with an association constant in the range 10(4)-10(6) M-1. High-affinity binding of the following pair of ligands took place independently: warfarin-Phenol Red, warfarin-diazepam, warfarin-digitoxin and digitoxin-diazepam. Simultaneous binding of warfarin and salicylate led to a mutual decrease in binding of one another, as did simultaneous binding of digitoxin and Phenol Red. Both effects could be accounted for by a coupling constant. The coupling constant is the factor by which the primary association constants are affected; in these examples of anti-co-operativity the factor has a value between 0 and 1. In the first example it was calculated to be 0.8 and in the latter 0.5. Finally, digitoxin and salicylate were found to compete for a common high-affinity binding site. The present findings support the proposal of four separate primary binding sites for warfarin, digitoxin (and salicylate), diazepam and Phenol Red. An attempt to correlate this partial binding model for serum albumin with other models in the literature is made. PMID:3977850

  1. [3'UTR +62G>A polymorphism of the RETN gene coding resistin and its association with metabolic syndrome components].

    PubMed

    Arráiz, Nailet; Escalona, Carolina; Prieto, Carem; Bermúdez, Valmore; Mújica, Endrina; Sánchez, María Patricia; Mújica, Andrea

    2013-10-19

    The polymorphism of the resistin gene (RETN/RSTN) has been associated with metabolic alterations. In this study the association between the 3'UTR +62G>A polymorphism and metabolic syndrome components was evaluated. The population (n=218) was distributed in 3 groups: the control group with no metabolic alterations (n=77), nSMA group with isolated metabolic alterations (n=94) and MS group with metabolic syndrome (n=47). The 3'UTR +62G>A polymorphism was analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Central obesity was the most frequent alteration in both nSMA (56.4%) and MS (91.5%) groups followed by low c-HDL levels in the nSMA group (42.6%) and arterial hypertension in the MS group (85%). The frequency of the +62G/A genotype was 20.2% in the population. The G/A genotype was more frequently found in the MS (38.3%) and nSMA (17%) groups than in the control group (13%). The allelic distribution between the control group (+62G=0.94, +62A=0.06) and MS group (+62G=0.81, +62A=0.19) was significantly different (P=.0001). Significant associations between the G/A genotype and high values of abdominal circumference (P=.047), basal glycemia (P=.02) and systolic arterial pressure (P=.003) were found. The findings suggest the association between the G/A genotype and high values of systolic arterial pressure, basal glycemia and abdominal circumference. This association was independent of the metabolic syndrome context. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Tuna extract reduces serum uric acid in gout-free subjects with insignificantly high serum uric acid: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kubomura, Daiki; Yamada, Masanori; Masui, Ayano

    2016-01-01

    Long-term reduction of serum urate levels is vital in the treatment of gout. However, it is difficult to convince gout-free individuals of the necessity of treatment as few appropriate over-the-counter remedies and dietary supplements are available. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the antihyperuricemic efficacy and safety of a tuna extract containing the imidazole compounds to evaluate its potential as a functional food ingredient. A randomized, 4-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted. A total of 48 male gout-free subjects with insignificantly high serum uric acid were randomly assigned to low- and high-dose tuna extract groups or a placebo group. The efficacy of the extract was assessed by measuring serum uric acid levels. Furthermore, a safety assessment was performed by physical parameters, hematology, blood biochemistry and urinalysis. The results indicated that the uric acid level was decreased at week 4 during the intervention in the tuna extract groups (low and high dose, −0.23 and −0.34 mg/dl, respectively) compared to the placebo group (−0.07 mg/dl). At week 4 after the intervention, a significant reduction in uric acid levels (−0.41 mg/dl; P<0.05) was observed in the high-dose tuna extract group compared with the placebo group (+0.11 mg/dl). No dose-related adverse events were observed during and following the intervention. Therefore, the present results suggest that oral administration of tuna extract containing the imidazole compounds has hypouricemic activity with no undesirable side effects. PMID:27446553

  3. Alteration of the serum N-glycome of mice locally exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Chaze, Thibault; Slomianny, Marie-Christine; Milliat, Fabien; Tarlet, Georges; Lefebvre-Darroman, Tony; Gourmelon, Patrick; Bey, Eric; Benderitter, Marc; Michalski, Jean-Claude; Guipaud, Olivier

    2013-02-01

    Exposure of the skin to ionizing radiation leads to characteristic reactions that will often turn into a pathophysiological process called the cutaneous radiation syndrome. The study of this disorder is crucial to finding diagnostic and prognostic bioindicators of local radiation exposure or radiation effects. It is known that irradiation alters the serum proteome content and potentially post-translationally modifies serum proteins. In this study, we investigated whether localized irradiation of the skin alters the serum glycome. Two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis of serum proteins from a man and from mice exposed to ionizing radiation showed that potential post-translational modification changes occurred following irradiation. Using a large-scale quantitative mass-spectrometry-based glycomic approach, we performed a global analysis of glycan structures of serum proteins from non-irradiated and locally irradiated mice exposed to high doses of γ-rays (20, 40, and 80 Gy). Non-supervised descriptive statistical analyses (principal component analysis) using quantitative glycan structure data allowed us to discriminate between uninjured/slightly injured animals and animals that developed severe lesions. Decisional statistics showed that several glycan families were down-regulated whereas others increased, and that particular structures were statistically significantly changed in the serum of locally irradiated mice. The observed increases in multiantennary N-glycans and in outer branch fucosylation and sialylation were associated with the up-regulation of genes involved in glycosylation in the liver, which is the main producer of serum proteins, and with an increase in the key proinflammatory serum cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα, which can regulate the expression of glycosylation genes. Our results suggest for the first time a role of serum protein glycosylation in response to irradiation. These protein-associated glycan structure changes might

  4. Alteration of the Serum N-glycome of Mice Locally Exposed to High Doses of Ionizing Radiation*

    PubMed Central

    Chaze, Thibault; Slomianny, Marie-Christine; Milliat, Fabien; Tarlet, Georges; Lefebvre-Darroman, Tony; Gourmelon, Patrick; Bey, Eric; Benderitter, Marc; Michalski, Jean-Claude; Guipaud, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of the skin to ionizing radiation leads to characteristic reactions that will often turn into a pathophysiological process called the cutaneous radiation syndrome. The study of this disorder is crucial to finding diagnostic and prognostic bioindicators of local radiation exposure or radiation effects. It is known that irradiation alters the serum proteome content and potentially post-translationally modifies serum proteins. In this study, we investigated whether localized irradiation of the skin alters the serum glycome. Two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis of serum proteins from a man and from mice exposed to ionizing radiation showed that potential post-translational modification changes occurred following irradiation. Using a large-scale quantitative mass-spectrometry-based glycomic approach, we performed a global analysis of glycan structures of serum proteins from non-irradiated and locally irradiated mice exposed to high doses of γ-rays (20, 40, and 80 Gy). Non-supervised descriptive statistical analyses (principal component analysis) using quantitative glycan structure data allowed us to discriminate between uninjured/slightly injured animals and animals that developed severe lesions. Decisional statistics showed that several glycan families were down-regulated whereas others increased, and that particular structures were statistically significantly changed in the serum of locally irradiated mice. The observed increases in multiantennary N-glycans and in outer branch fucosylation and sialylation were associated with the up-regulation of genes involved in glycosylation in the liver, which is the main producer of serum proteins, and with an increase in the key proinflammatory serum cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα, which can regulate the expression of glycosylation genes. Our results suggest for the first time a role of serum protein glycosylation in response to irradiation. These protein-associated glycan structure changes might

  5. Quantitative proteomic analysis for high-throughput screening of differential glycoproteins in hepatocellular carcinoma serum

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hua-Jun; Chen, Ya-Jing; Zuo, Duo; Xiao, Ming-Ming; Li, Ying; Guo, Hua; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Rui-Bing

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Novel serum biomarkers are required to increase the sensitivity and specificity of serum screening for early HCC diagnosis. This study employed a quantitative proteomic strategy to analyze the differential expression of serum glycoproteins between HCC and normal control serum samples. Methods Lectin affinity chromatography (LAC) was used to enrich glycoproteins from the serum samples. Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis combined with stable isotope dimethyl labeling and 2D liquid chromatography (LC) separations were performed to examine the differential levels of the detected proteins between HCC and control serum samples. Western blot was used to analyze the differential expression levels of the three serum proteins. Results A total of 2,280 protein groups were identified in the serum samples from HCC patients by using the 2D LC-MS/MS method. Up to 36 proteins were up-regulated in the HCC serum, whereas 19 proteins were down-regulated. Three differential glycoproteins, namely, fibrinogen gamma chain (FGG), FOS-like antigen 2 (FOSL2), and α-1,6-mannosylglycoprotein 6-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase B (MGAT5B) were validated by Western blot. All these three proteins were up-regulated in the HCC serum samples. Conclusion A quantitative glycoproteomic method was established and proven useful to determine potential novel biomarkers for HCC. PMID:26487969

  6. The High Serum Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 in Obesity Is Influenced by High Parathyroid Hormone and Not Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Sukumar, D.; Partridge, N. C.; Wang, X.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Chronic high levels of PTH may be associated with up-regulation of proteases and cytokines. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is an inflammatory cytokine, produced predominantly by macrophages and endothelial cells, and is expressed in adipose tissue. More recently it has been shown that PTH administration increases MCP-1 expression in osteoblasts. Objectives: Because both PTH and MCP-1 levels are higher in obesity, the goal was to determine whether the high MCP-1 occurs only in the presence of high serum PTH and is independent of adiposity and examine its relationship with bone mineral density (BMD) and turnover. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case-control clinical design, 111 eligible women were categorized into four groups: leaner women [body mass index (BMI) 23 ± 2 kg/m2] with normal or higher PTH and obese (BMI 44 ± 7 kg/m2) with normal or higher PTH. Results: Serum MCP-1 levels were higher (P < 0.01) in the high (PTH = 74.9 ± 27.0 pg/ml, MCP-1 = 421.5 ± 157.0 pg/ml) compared with normal PTH (PTH = 32.5 ± 10.4 pg/ml, MCP-1 = 322.5 ± 97.8 pg/ml) group, independent of BMI. C-reactive protein and adiponectin were influenced only by BMI and not PTH. MCP-1 was positively associated with osteocalcin and propeptide of type 1 collagen in the leaner (r > 0.3, P < 0.05) but not the obese women and was not associated with BMD in either group. Conclusions: Together these data suggest that MCP-1 is higher only in the presence of increased PTH and that adiposity alone cannot explain the higher MCP-1 levels in obesity. PMID:21508136

  7. Natural prevalence of antibody titers to glucosyltransferase of Streptococcus mutans in serum in high and low caries active children.

    PubMed

    Kirtaniya, B C; Chawla, H S; Tiwari, A; Ganguly, N K; Sachdev, V

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) titers, as well as total immunoglobulin concentration (IgG + IgA + IgM), were found to be raised with the increase in the number of dental caries. Only the total serum antibody titer in high dental caries (HDC) group was found to be significantly raised as compared to no dental carries (NDC) group. Although the IgG and IgA titers were raised in blood with the increased number of caries, the results were not statistically significant. However, we could not find any correlation between serum antibodies and dental caries except that there was an increased trend of serum antibodies to GTF with the increased number of carious lesions.

  8. Impact of 14-day bed rest on serum adipokines and low-grade inflammation in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Jurdana, Mihaela; Jenko-Pražnikar, Zala; Mohorko, Nina; Petelin, Ana; Jakus, Tadeja; Šimunič, Boštjan; Pišot, Rado

    2015-12-01

    Ageing and inactivity both contribute to systemic inflammation, but the effects of inactivity on inflammation in healthy elderly individuals have not been elucidated. We hypothesised that 14-day bed rest could affect the pro- and anti-inflammatory markers in young subjects differently than in older adults. A short-term 14-day horizontal bed rest study (BR14) has been used as a model of inactivity in two groups of healthy male volunteers: 7 aged 18-30 years (young) and 16 aged 55-65 years (older adults). The effects of inactivity on inflammation were compared. Key low-grade inflammation mediators, tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), visfatin, resistin, and anti-inflammatory adiponectin were measured in fasting serum samples, collected at baseline (BDC) and post BR14. Young responded to BR14 by increasing serum visfatin and resistin while older adults responded to BR14 by increasing IL-6 and TNF-α. In addition, serum adiponectin increased in all participants. Data from correlation analysis demonstrated positive association between Δ serum visfatin and Δ IL-6 in both groups, while Δ serum adiponectin was negatively associated with Δ TNF-α in young and positively associated with Δ resistin in the older adults. As little as 14 days of complete physical inactivity (BR14) negatively affected markers of low-grade inflammation in both groups, but the inflammation after BR14 was more pronounced in older adults. The effect of BR14 on IL-6 and resistin differed between young and older adults. Inflammatory responses to BR14 in older adults differed from those reported in the literature for obese or subjects in pathological states, suggesting potentially different mechanisms between inactivity- and obesity-induced inflammations.

  9. Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic load and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations among South Indian adults.

    PubMed

    Radhika, G; Ganesan, A; Sathya, R M; Sudha, V; Mohan, V

    2009-03-01

    To examine the relationship between dietary carbohydrates, glycemic load and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations in Asian Indians, a high-risk group for diabetes and premature coronary artery disease. The study population comprised of 2043 individuals aged >/=20 years randomly selected from Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiological Study (CURES), an ongoing population-based study on a representative population of Chennai (formerly Madras) city in southern India. Participants with self-reported history of diabetes or heart disease or on drug therapy for dyslipidemia were excluded from the study. Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index and glycemic load were assessed using a validated interviewer administered semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Both dietary glycemic load (P<0.0001) and total dietary carbohydrate intake (P<0.001) were significantly associated with higher serum triglyceride levels and lower serum HDL-C levels. For the lowest to highest quintile of glycemic load, the multivariate-adjusted mean HDL-C values were 44.1 mg per 100 ml and 41.2 mg per 100 ml (6.6% difference, P for trend<0.001), while for total carbohydrate it was less (5% difference, P for trend=0.016). The pattern of decrease in HDL-C for the lowest to highest quintile of glycemic load was more pronounced among men (1st vs 5th quintile: adjusted HDL-C: 4.3 mg per 100 ml decrease (10.3%)) than women (1st vs 5th quintile: adjusted HDL-C: 3.2 mg per 100 ml decrease (6.9%)). Our findings indicate that both total carbohydrates and dietary glycemic load intake are inversely associated with plasma HDL-C concentrations among Asian Indians, with dietary glycemic load having a stronger association.

  10. Analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum by gas chromatography-mass selective detection operating at high ion source temperature.

    PubMed

    Tran, Buu N; Zhang, Li; Jansing, Robert; Aldous, Kenneth

    2009-04-15

    Optimization of analytical instrumentation is essential when analyses of persistent organic pollutants in human serum are performed at ultra-trace levels. This research describes the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in serum using gas chromatography coupled with a mass selective detector (GC/MSD) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. We selected PCB-58 and PCB-186 as internal standards (ISs) for the method development, and newborn calf serum (NCS) was chosen as the matrix. The matrix was fortified with PCB congeners and extracted by an automated solid phase extraction system using C18 sorbent. The extracts were analyzed at two ion source temperatures, 230 and 300 degrees C. The use of high ion source temperature increased the abundances of high-mass ions, and the response factors in SIM mode for PCBs. An excellent linearity from 0.5 to 100 ng/ml at ion source temperature of 300 degrees C was demonstrated, with a calculated detection limit of 0.1 ng/g serum. Seven replicate fortifications of newborn calf serum, at three spiking levels of 1, 10, and 50 ng/g of serum, gave mean recoveries of 110%, 85%, and 98%, with average relative standard deviation (RSD) values of 5.4%, 7.3%, and 4.7%, respectively.

  11. High-yield peptide-extraction method for the discovery of subnanomolar biomarkers from small serum samples.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Yusuke; Fukutomi, Toshiyuki; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nomura, Fumio; Maeda, Tadakazu; Kodera, Yoshio

    2010-04-05

    Serum proteins/peptides reflect physiological or pathological states in humans and are an attractive target for the discovery of disease biomarkers. However, the existence of high-abundance proteins and the large dynamic range of serum proteins/peptides make any quantitative analysis of low-abundance proteins/peptides challenging. Furthermore, analyses of peptides, including the cleaved fragments of proteins, are difficult because of carrier protein binding. Here, we developed a differential solubilization (DS) method to extract low-molecular-weight proteins/peptides in serum with good reproducibility and yield as compared to typical peptide-extraction methods such as organic solvent precipitation and ultrafiltration. Using the DS method combined with reverse-phase HPLC fractionation followed by MALDI-TOF-MS, we performed high-quality comparative analyses of more than 1500 peptides from 1 microL of serum samples, including low-abundance peptides in the subnanomolar range and containing many peptides bound to carrier proteins such as albumin. We applied this method and successfully discovered four new biomarker candidates of colon cancer, none of which have previously been observed in serum and one of which is a fragment of the protein zyxin that possibly originated from tumor cells. Our results indicate that serum peptide analyses based on the DS method should greatly contribute to the discovery of novel low-abundance biomarkers.

  12. Serum lipid effects of a high-monounsaturated fat diet based on macadamia nuts.

    PubMed

    Curb, J D; Wergowske, G; Dobbs, J C; Abbott, R D; Huang, B

    2000-04-24

    Recent studies have identified potential beneficial effects of eating nuts, most of which have substantial amounts of monounsaturated fats. Macadamia nuts are 75% fat by weight, 80% of which is monounsaturated. To examine variations in serum lipid levels in response to a high-monounsaturated fat diet based on macadamia nuts. A randomized crossover trial of three 30-day diets was conducted in 30 volunteers aged 18 to 53 years from a free-living population. Each was fed a "typical American" diet high in saturated fat (37% energy from fat); an American Heart Association Step 1 diet (30% energy from fat); and a macadamia nut-based monounsaturated fat diet (37% energy from fat) in random order. Serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured. Mean total cholesterol level after the typical American diet was 5.20 mmol/L (201 mg/dL). After the Step 1 diet and the macadamia nut diet, total cholesterol level was 4.99 mmol/L (193 mg/dL) and 4.95 mmol/L (191 mg/dL), respectively. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was 3.37 mmol/L (130 mg/dL) (typical diet), 3.21 mmol/L (124 mg/dL) (Step 1 diet), and 3.22 mmol/L (125 mg/dL) (macadamia nut diet). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was 1.43 mmol/L (55 mg/dL) (typical), 1.34 mmol/L (52 mg/dL) (Step 1), and 1.37 mmol/L (53 mg/dL) (macadamia nut). Lipid values after the Step 1 and macadamia nut diets were significantly different from those after the typical diet (P<.05). The macadamia nut-based diet high in monounsaturated fat and the moderately low-fat diet both had potentially beneficial effects on cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels when compared with a typical American diet.

  13. Association of resistin with impaired membrane fluidity of red blood cells in hypertensive and normotensive men: an electron paramagnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Kazushi

    2016-10-01

    Abnormalities in physical properties of the cell membranes may strongly be linked to hypertension. Recent evidence indicates that resistin may actively participate in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and other circulatory disorders. The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible relationships among plasma resistin, oxidative stress and membrane fluidity (a reciprocal value of membrane microviscosity) in hypertension. We measured the membrane fluidity of red blood cells (RBCs) in hypertensive and normotensive men using an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and spin-labeling method. The order parameter (S) for the spin-label agents (5-nitroxide stearate) in EPR spectra of red blood cell (RBC) membranes was significantly higher in hypertensive men than in normotensive men, indicating that membrane fluidity was decreased in hypertension. Plasma resistin levels were correlated with systolic blood pressure and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α levels (an index of oxidative stress). Furthermore, the order parameter (S) of RBCs significantly correlated with plasma resistin and plasma 8-isoPG F2α, suggesting that reduced membrane fluidity of RBCs might be associated with hyperresistinemia and increased oxidative stress. Multivariate regression analysis showed that, after adjustment for confounding factors, plasma resistin might be an independent determinant of membrane fluidity of RBCs. The EPR study suggests that resistin might have a close correlation with impaired rheologic behavior of RBCs and microcirculatory dysfunction in hypertension, at least in part, via an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism.

  14. MiR-34a is Involved in the Decrease of ATP Contents Induced by Resistin Through Target on ATP5S in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fengyun; Li, Bin; Huang, Chunyan; Wei, Zhiguo; Zhou, Yingying; Liu, Jianyu; Zhang, Haiwei

    2015-12-01

    Resistin is associated with metabolic syndrome and deciphering its developmental and molecular mechanisms may help the development of new treatments. MiRNAs serve as negative regulators in many physiological and pathological processes. Here, miRNA microarrays were used to detect differences in expression between resistin-treated and control mice, and results showed miR-34a to be upregulated by resistin. The purpose of this study was to determine whether miR-34a played a role in resistin-induced decrease of ATP contents. Transient transfection of miR-34a mimics was used to overexpress miR-34a and quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect its expression. Western blot analysis was used to determine the rate of expression at the protein level. ATP content was measured using an ATP assay kit. The target gene of miR-34a was analyzed using bioinformatics and confirmed with dual-luciferase report system. MiR-34a was upregulated by resistin in HepG2 cells, and overexpression of miR-34a was found to diminish ATP levels significantly. This study is the first to show that ATP5S is one of the target genes of miR-34a. Resistin diminishes ATP content through the targeting of ATP5S mRNA 3'UTR by miR-34a.

  15. Two variants in the resistin gene and the response to long-term overfeeding.

    PubMed

    Ukkola, O; Kesäniemi, Y Antero; Tremblay, A; Bouchard, C

    2004-04-01

    To investigate the role of resistin gene variants on the adiposity and metabolic changes observed in response to a 100-day overfeeding protocol conducted with 12 pairs of monozygotic twins. Body-fat measurements included hydrodensitometry and abdominal fat from computed tomography. Plasma glucose and insulin during fasting and in response to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were assayed. A 4.2 MJ test meal was consumed, after which calorimetric measurements were performed for 240 min. Respiratory quotient (RQ) decreased (P=0.001) more in AA/AG than in GG subjects of the IVS2+181G>A polymorphism after the caloric surplus and the significance persisted when correction for multiple testing was performed. Total abdominal (P=0.027) and visceral (P=0.004) fat increased more in TC than in TT subjects of the IVS2+39C>T polymorphism. In response to overfeeding, glucose area under the curve during the OGTT showed a slight decrease (P=0.031) in the TC while it increased in TT subjects. OGTT insulin area tended to increase less (P=0.055) in TC than in TT subjects. After overfeeding, fasting insulin was lower in TC than in TT subjects (P=0.010). In addition, TC subjects experienced more decrease in RQ than TT subjects (P=0.034). The IVS2+181G>A variant was associated with the changes in RQ in response to overfeeding. The IVS2+39C>T polymorphism was associated with overfeeding-induced changes in abdominal visceral fat, OGTT glucose area and RQ. The results suggest that sequence variation in the resistin gene is involved in the adaptation to chronic positive energy balance.

  16. Emergence of NDM-1-positive capsulated Escherichia coli with high resistance to serum killing in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Takano, Tomomi; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Hishinuma, Akira

    2011-06-01

    The New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) gene, bla (NDM-1), is an emerging plasmid-borne drug resistance gene, which encodes for exceptionally broad-spectrum β-lactamase, being able to hydrolyze a wide variety of β-lactams, including carbapenems, and was first reported in Klebsiella pneumoniae from a Swedish patient of Indian origin in 2009. It is widely distributed among Enterobacteriacae and has geographically exhibited extremely rapid and global spread. In this study, we characterized the bla (NDM-1)-positive ST38 Escherichia coli strain NDM-1 Dok01 (which was isolated from the blood of a 54-year-old Japanese inpatient, who had previously visited India), focusing on bacterial surface structures related to virulence. The E. coli culture contained colony variants, which developed a transparent smooth colony and a rough colony on blood agar plates. The smooth colony-forming cells (substrain M1) possessed a surface capsule and were resistant to serum killing, whereas rough colony-forming mutants (substrain B2) lacked a capsule (and a 5.3-kb plasmid) and were highly susceptible to serum killing. Reflecting the surface structural difference, substrain M1 was more flagellated and motile, whereas substrain B2 was less flagellated and apparently possessed straight pili 5 nm wide, which played a role in adherence to human intestinal cells and bacterial autoaggregation. Data suggest that the bla (NDM-1)-positive ST38 E. coli has emerged in Japan and that it is a capsulated bacterial pathogen with virulence potential in the blood stream.

  17. High-performance liquid affinity chromatography: rapid immunoanalysis of transferrin in serum.

    PubMed

    Ohlson, S; Gudmundsson, B M; Wikström, P; Larsson, P O

    1988-10-01

    We describe a new method for quantitatively measuring substances of clinical interest by high-performance liquid affinity chromatography (HPLAC). As a model system we selected analysis for transferrin in human serum with immobilized antibodies in a high-performance liquid chromatographic system. SelectiSpher-10 Activated Tresyl columns (5 or 10 x 0.5 cm) were used for in situ coupling of polyclonal antibodies to transferrin. The amount of transferrin eluted was determined by integrating the eluted peak at 280 nm. The whole analytical procedure--including injection of sample, washing, elution, and analysis of data--takes only 7 min. We characterized the HPLAC system for analysis of transferrin in several ways: intra-assay CV approximately 3%; inter-assay CV 2-9%; linear response up to 1 mg/mL column volume; detection limit approximately 3 micrograms; analytical recovery 98% +/- 2%; purity of eluted sample greater than 95% (SDS-PAGE). The HPLAC method was compared with "rocket" immunoelectrophoresis, a commonly used method of analysis for transferrin, and there was excellent correlation between the two methods (r = 0.96, n = 60). Benefits of this HPLAC technique include high precision, rapid analysis, and simplified sample handling.

  18. High serum concentration of L-kynurenine predicts unfavorable outcomes in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, Ryoko; Hara, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Takuro; Shibata, Yuhei; Nakamura, Nobuhiko; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Junichi; Kanemura, Nobuhiro; Goto, Naoe; Shimizu, Masahito; Ito, Hiroyasu; Yamamoto, Yasuko; Saito, Kuniaki; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Tsurumi, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    The immunomodulatory effects of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) are ascribed to its ability to catalyze the breakdown of the L-tryptophan along the L-kynurenine pathway. Because blasts from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) express IDO, the goal of this study was to investigate the role of L-kynurenine as a prognostic marker for AML. We enrolled 48 AML patients. L-kynurenine concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The median serum L-kynurenine level was 1.67 μM. There was no significant difference in the complete remission rate between patients with L-kynurenine < 2.4 (77%) and ≥ 2.4 μM (75%). However, 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were significantly better in patients with low L-kynurenine levels (76%) than in those with high L-kynurenine levels (11%) (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, in intermediate-risk cytogenetics patients, only L-kynurenine was significantly associated with OS (p < 0.005). Multivariate analyses revealed that L-kynurenine and high leukocyte count were independent prognostic factors.

  19. High serum uric acid concentration predicts poor survival in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yue, Cai-Feng; Feng, Pin-Ning; Yao, Zhen-Rong; Yu, Xue-Gao; Lin, Wen-Bin; Qian, Yuan-Min; Guo, Yun-Miao; Li, Lai-Sheng; Liu, Min

    2017-08-26

    Uric acid is a product of purine metabolism. Recently, uric acid has gained much attraction in cancer. In this study, we aim to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of serum uric acid concentration in breast cancer patients. A total of 443 female patients with histopathologically diagnosed breast cancer were included. After a mean follow-up time of 56months, survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method. To further evaluate the prognostic significance of uric acid concentrations, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were applied. Of the clinicopathological parameters, uric acid concentration was associated with age, body mass index, ER status and PR status. Univariate analysis identified that patients with increased uric acid concentration had a significantly inferior overall survival (HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.15-3.94, p=0.016). In multivariate analysis, we found that high uric acid concentration is an independent prognostic factor predicting death, but insufficient to predict local relapse or distant metastasis. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that high uric acid concentration is related to the poor overall survival (p=0.013). High uric acid concentration predicts poor survival in patients with breast cancer, and might serve as a potential marker for appropriate management of breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Predictors of High Serum Casein Antibody Levels among Malnourished Infants and Young Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    El-Alameey, Inas R.; Ahmed, Hanaa H.; Monir, Zeinab M.; Rabah, Thanaa M.; Gawad, Ayman M. Abdel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Factors predictive of growth retardation and malnutrition in patients with congenital heart disease remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to measure antibody response to bovine casein through assessing serum casein antibody levels in malnourished patients three year or younger with CHD, and to determine its relationship to gastrointestinal symptoms, anthropometric measures, and laboratory data. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This cross sectional case control study was conducted in sixty patients with CHD aged 4 to 72 months. They were subdivided into thirty patients with cyanotic and thirty patients with acyanotic CHD compared with thirty apparently healthy children. RESULTS: On comparison with controls, patients showed highly significant lower anthropometric measures, calcium, iron, hemoglobin levels, and higher serum levels of casein antibody, total iron binding capacity, and alkaline phoshatase activity (P<0.000). Serum levels of casein antibody showed significantly positive correlations with serum total iron binding capacity and alkaline phosphatase activities and negatively correlated with the age at onset of symptoms, anthropometric measures, serum calcium, and iron levels. CONCLUSION: Serum casein antibody levels play a significant role in the pathogenesis of malnutrition. Encouragement of breast feeding and avoidance of early cow’s milk consumption could prevent the development of antibody response to bovine casein. PMID:27275203

  1. Association of a high normalized protein catabolic rate and low serum albumin level with carpal tunnel syndrome in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin, Jui-Hsiang; Lee, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common mononeuropathy in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The association between chronic inflammation and CTS in hemodialysis (HD) patients has rarely been investigated. HD patients with a high normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) and low serum albumin level likely have adequate nutrition and inflammation. In this study, we assume that a low serum albumin level and high nPCR is associated with CTS in HD patients. We recruited 866 maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients and divided them into 4 groups according to their nPCR and serum albumin levels: (1) nPCR <1.2 g/kg/d and serum albumin level <4 g/dL; (2) nPCR ≥1.2 g/kg/d and serum albumin level <4 g/dL; (3) nPCR <1.2 g/kg/d and serum albumin level ≥4 g/dL; and (4) nPCR ≥1.2 g/kg/d and serum albumin level ≥4 g/dL. After adjustment for related variables, HD duration and nPCR ≥1.2 g/kg/d and serum albumin level <4 g/dL were positively correlated with CTS. By calculating the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, we calculated that the nPCR and HD duration cut-off points for obtaining the most favorable Youden index were 1.29 g/kg/d and 7.5 years, respectively. Advance multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that in MHD patients, nPCR ≥1.29 g/kg/d and serum albumin <4 g/dL, and also HD duration >7.5 years were associated with CTS. A high nPCR and low serum albumin level, which likely reflect adequate nutrition and inflammation, were associated with CTS in MHD patients. PMID:27368039

  2. Antioxidant and anti‑inflammatory effects of DHK‑medicated serum on high glucose‑induced injury in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ziyang; Chen, Wenpei; Wang, Yandong; Xiong, Tianqin; Zhou, Chenghao; Yao, Xiaolan; Lin, Baoqin

    2017-09-21

    It has been shown that oxidative damage and inflammation caused by hyperglycemia in endothelial cells are key factors triggering diabetic vascular complications. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant and anti‑inflammatory effects of Danhong Huayu Koufuye (DHK)‑medicated serum on high glucose (HG)‑induced injury in endothelial cells, and examine its underlying mechanisms. EA. hy926 cells were treated with normal glucose, HG, or HG with DHK‑medicated serum. Cell viability was assessed using the MTT method. Apoptosis was detected using flow cytometry. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured using the 2',7'‑dichlorodihydrofluorescein method. Cell culture supernatant was collected for detecting the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). The protein expression levels of intercellular adhesion molecule‑1 (ICAM‑1), nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB), hypoxia‑inducible factor‑1α (HIF‑1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined using western blot analysis. The results revealed that DHK‑medicated serum accelerated the proliferation and inhibited the apoptosis of cells treated with HG (P<0.01) in a dose‑dependent manner. Compared with the HG group, the high levels of ROS and MDA were significantly reduced by DHK‑medicated serum (P<0.01). A 10% concentration of DHK‑medicated serum increased the activities of SOD and GPx by 59.4 and 95.5%, respectively. The high protein expression levels of ICAM‑1, NF‑κB, VEGF and HIF‑1α were significantly ameliorated by DHK‑medicated serum (P<0.01, vs. HG group). These findings indicated that DHK‑medicated serum protected EA. hy926 cells from HG‑induced injury and apoptosis through antioxidation and anti‑inflammatory effects.

  3. Serum total and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the risk prediction of cardiovascular events - the JALS-ECC -.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Naohito; Iso, Hiroyasu; Okada, Katsutoshi; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Harada, Akiko; Ohashi, Yasuo; Ando, Takashi; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2010-07-01

    Few Japanese studies have compared serum non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol with serum total cholesterol as factors for predicting risk of cardiovascular events. Currently, few tools accurately estimate the probability of developing cardiovascular events for the Japanese general population. A total of 22,430 Japanese men and women (aged 40-89 years) without a history of cardiovascular events from 10 community-based cohorts were followed. In an average 7.6-year follow up, 104 individuals experienced acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and 339 experienced stroke. Compared to serum total cholesterol, serum non-HDL cholesterol was more strongly associated with risk of AMI in a dose-response manner (multivariable adjusted incidence rate ratio per 1 SD increment [95% confidence interval] =1.49 [1.24-1.79] and 1.62 [1.35-1.95], respectively). Scoring systems were constructed based on multivariable Poisson regression models for predicting a 5-year probability of developing AMI; the non-HDL cholesterol model was found to have a better predictive ability (area under the receiver operating curve [AUC] =0.825) than the total cholesterol model (AUC =0.815). Neither total nor non-HDL serum cholesterol levels were associated with any stroke subtype. The risk of AMI can be more reliably predicted by serum non-HDL cholesterol than serum total cholesterol. The scoring systems are useful tools to predict risk of AMI. Neither total nor non-HDL serum cholesterol can predict stroke risk in the Japanese general population.

  4. Development of gel-filter method for high enrichment of low-molecular weight proteins from serum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingsheng; Zhai, Linhui; Li, Yanchang; Li, Ning; Zhang, Chengpu; Ping, Lingyan; Chang, Lei; Wu, Junzhu; Li, Xiangping; Shi, Deshun; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The human serum proteome has been extensively screened for biomarkers. However, the large dynamic range of protein concentrations in serum and the presence of highly abundant and large molecular weight proteins, make identification and detection changes in the amount of low-molecular weight proteins (LMW, molecular weight ≤ 30kDa) difficult. Here, we developed a gel-filter method including four layers of different concentration of tricine SDS-PAGE-based gels to block high-molecular weight proteins and enrich LMW proteins. By utilizing this method, we identified 1,57