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Sample records for high serum tsh

  1. Influence of human body composition on serum peak thyrotropin (TSH) after recombinant human TSH administration in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Maria Grazia; Pinchera, Aldo; Marsili, Alessandro; Giannetti, Monica; Molinaro, Eleonora; Fierabracci, Paola; Grasso, Lucia; Pacini, Furio; Santini, Ferruccio; Elisei, Rossella

    2005-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the influence of height, weight, body mass index (BMI), body surface area, and body composition [total lean body mass (LBM) and fat body mass] on serum peak TSH levels obtained after recombinant human (rh)TSH. Furthermore, to verify whether the serum peak TSH influenced the efficacy of radioiodine ((131)I), we compared the rate of thyroid remnant ablation according to the patients' BMI. We studied 105 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma who underwent rhTSH stimulation test. Serum TSH measurements were performed before and 24, 48, and 72 h after rhTSH administration. We also compared the rate of thyroid remnant ablation among 70 differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients with different BMI. The serum peak TSH after rhTSH was significantly lower in overweight and obese subjects compared with normal-weight subjects (92.1 +/- 41.8, 82.4 +/- 24.2, and 112.7 +/- 46.3 microU/ml, respectively; P = 0.01) and in males compared with females (74.6 +/- 22.3 and 105.0 +/- 43.0 microU/ml, respectively; P = 0.0002). By univariate analysis, serum peak TSH was negatively related to weight, height, body surface area, BMI, LBM, and fat body mass, but only LBM was independently associated with serum peak TSH levels. Although it was confirmed that overweight and obese patients had a lower serum peak TSH, the rate of ablation did not differ among normal-weight, overweight, and obese patients. With this study we demonstrated that LBM is the only parameter independently associated with serum peak TSH after rhTSH administration. However, the serum peak TSH does not influence the rate of (131)I remnant ablation.

  2. Serum TSH reference interval in healthy Finnish adults using the Abbott Architect 2000i Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Tanner, Pirjo; Välimäki, Matti J; Hämäläinen, Esa

    2011-07-01

    Current serum TSH reference intervals have been criticized as they were established from unselected background populations. A special concern is that the upper limit, which defines subclinical hypothyroidism, is too high. The objective was to redefine the TSH reference interval in the adult Finnish population. The current reference interval for the widely used Abbott Architect method in Finland is 0.4-4.0 mU/L. Serum TSH and free T4 concentrations were derived from 606 healthy, non-pregnant, 18-91-year-old Finns from the Nordic Reference Interval Project (NORIP) and the possible effects of age, sex and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) status were evaluated. After excluding TPOAb-positive subjects and outliers, a reference population of 511 subjects was obtained. In the reference population, no statistically significant gender- or age-specific differences in mean TSH (1.55 ± 3.30 mU/L) or TSH reference intervals were observed. The new reference interval was 0.5-3.6 mU/L (2.5th-97.5th percentiles). The current upper TSH reference limit is 10% too high. A TSH > 3.6 mU/L, confirmed with a repeat TSH sampling, may indicate subclinical hypothyroidism. Differences in ethnicity, regional iodine-intake and analytical methods underline the need for redefining the TSH reference interval in central laboratories in different countries.

  3. Serum TSH levels are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Souza, Luciana Lopes de; Guedes, Erika Paniago; Teixeira, Patrícia Fátima Dos Santos; Moreira, Rodrigo Oliveira; Godoy-Matos, Amelio Fernando; Vaisman, Mario

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between serum thyrotropin (TSH), insulin resistance (IR), and cardiovascular risk factors (CRF) in a sample of overweight and obese Brazilian adolescents. A retrospective, longitudinal analysis of 199 overweight and obese pubescent adolescents was performed. The TSH and free T4 (fT4) levels, anthropometric measurements, and laboratory test results of these patients were analyzed. 27 individuals (13.56%) presented with TSH levels above the normal level (subclinical hypothyroidism [SCH]). Their waist circumference (WC) was significantly higher than those of euthyroid individuals. Serum TSH was positively correlated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Using TSH and BMI as independent variables, TSH levels were shown to be independently related to HOMA-IR (p=0.001) and TG (p=0.007). Among euthyroid subjects, individuals with TSH values <2.5mIU/mL exhibited statistically significant decreases in waist-to-hip ratio, HDL-C levels, and HOMA-IR scores and a tendency toward lower WC values. SCH in overweight and obese adolescents appears to be associated with excess weight, especially visceral weight. In euthyroid adolescents, there appears to be a direct relationship between TSH and some CRF. In conclusion, in the present sample of overweight and obese adolescents, TSH levels appear to be associated with IR and CRF. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Macro TSH in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Naoki; Ishihara, Takashi; Yamagami, Keiko; Shimatsu, Akira

    2015-12-01

    TSH is a sensitive indicator of thyroid function. In subclinical hypothyroidism, however, serum TSH concentrations are elevated despite normal thyroid hormone levels, and macro TSH is one of the causes. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence and nature of macro TSH in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. We conducted a 2-year cross-sectional observational study. We included 681 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and 38 patients with overt hypothyroidism (controls). Macro TSH was screened by polyethylene glycol (PEG) method and analysed by gel filtration chromatography and bioassays. Among 681 serum samples, 117 exhibited PEG-precipitable TSH ratios greater than 75% (mean + 1·5 SD in controls) and were subjected to gel filtration chromatography. TSH was eluted at a position greater than 100 kDa in 11 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (1·62%); these patients were diagnosed with macro TSH. The nature of macro TSH included eight anti-TSH autoantibodies of IgG class, two non-IgG-associated and one human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA). Macro TSH showed low bioactivity. Macro TSH was heterogeneous, but it is mostly comprised of TSH and anti-TSH autoantibodies. When PEG-precipitable TSH exceeds 90% in serum samples with TSH above 10 mU/l, clinicians should strongly suspect the presence of macro TSH and confirm it by gel chromatography. Because macro TSH exhibited low bioactivity, thyroid hormone replacement therapy may not be required in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism due to macro TSH except for those with high serum free TSH levels. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Diural TSH variations in hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Weeke, J; Laurberg, P

    1976-07-01

    There is a circadian variation in serum TSH in euthyroid subjects. A similar diurnal variation has been demonstrated in patients with hypothyroidism. In the present study the 24-hour pattern of serum TSH was investigated in eight patients with hypothyroidism of varying severity and in five hypothyroid patients treated with thyroxine (T4). There was a circadian variation in serum TSH in patients with hypothyroidism of moderate degree, and in patients treated for severe hypothyrodism with thyroxine. The pattern was similar to that found in normal subjects, i.e., low TSH levels in the daytime and higher levels at night. In severely hypothyroid patients, no diurnal variation in serum TSH was observed. A practical consequence is that blood samples for TSH measurements in patients with moderately elevated TSH levels are best taken after 1100 h, when the low day levels are reached.

  6. Age and body composition influence TSH concentrations after administration of rhTSH.

    PubMed

    Holthausen, F F; von Müller, F; Happel, C; Kranert, W T; Grünwald, F

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies listed body surface area (BSA), lean body mass (LBM), and age as modifying factors on the TSH concentrations after administration of recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH). The purpose of this study was to identify the main modifying factors on serum TSH levels and to compare the stimulation via single rhTSH injection after a short thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) with that of the standard stimulating protocol. 106 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) undergoing radioiodine therapy (RIT) after rhTSH administration were obtained through chart review. Two groups were evaluated: Group I was treated with a single rhTSH administration after two weeks of T3 therapy followed by one week of THW. Group II was stimulated according to the international standard protocol via rhTSH injections for two consecutive days. Serum TSH concentrations were documented prior to rhTSH administration (day 1 TSH), one day after (day 3 TSH) and 3-6 days after (mean 4.2 days, day 6 TSH) the last rhTSH injection. The following data was collected: age, gender, weight, height, BMI, LBM, BSA, residual thyroid tissue, CRP, creatinine, GFR, liver enzymes, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Group I: Age combined with anthropometric factors like BMI (TSH increase and day 6 TSH), BSA (TSH decrease), and gender (day 6 TSH) are the main modifying factors on serum TSH concentrations after rhTSH administration. Group II: Age and lean body mass (LBM) showed a significant impact on day 3 TSH, TSH increase (day 3-day 1), and TSH decrease (day 6-day 3). Day 6 TSH was found to be influenced by GFR (group II). Age and anthropometric parameters have significant independent influence on TSH concentrations after rhTSH injection in both groups. Anthropometric parameters (BSA, LBM) and demographic parameters (female gender) show strong influence on TSH concentrations. Further research should be conducted to examine the influence of body compartments on TSH levels

  7. Association between rs12045440 Polymorphism in the CAPZB Intron and Serum TSH Concentrations in Chinese Thyroid Tumor Patients

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shouhao; Lin, Shengli; Zou, Jidong; Wang, Yulong; Ji, Qinghai; Lv, Zhenghua

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible influence of different genotypes of the lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs10917468 and rs12045440 in the CAPZB gene on the thyroid function in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and benign thyroid neoplasm (BN) patients. In the study, a significant association was detected between rs12045440 and serum TSH concentrations in thyroid tumor patients (p = 0.001). After the adjustment of relevant covariates, the difference between the mean serum TSH levels in different genotypes of rs12045440 was still significant in the BN group (p = 0.003) but was not significant in the PTC cases (p = 0.115). No significant association of rs10917468 with TSH levels was found. The SNP rs12045440 was associated with the serum TSH concentrations in Chinese thyroid tumor patients, especially in benign thyroid tumor cases. PMID:26273293

  8. A large-scale association analysis of 68 thyroid hormone pathway genes with serum TSH and FT4 levels.

    PubMed

    Medici, Marco; van der Deure, Wendy M; Verbiest, Michael; Vermeulen, Sita H; Hansen, Pia S; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Hermus, Ad R M M; Breteler, Monique M; Hofman, Albert; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; den Heijer, Martin; Uitterlinden, André G; Visser, Theo J; Peeters, Robin P

    2011-05-01

    Minor variation in serum thyroid hormone (TH) levels can have important effects on various clinical endpoints. Although 45-65% of the inter-individual variation in serum TH levels is due to genetic factors, the causative genes are not well established. We therefore studied the effects of genetic variation in 68 TH pathway genes on serum TSH and free thyroxine (FT(4)) levels. Sixty-eight genes (1512 polymorphisms) were studied in relation to serum TSH and FT(4) levels in 1121 Caucasian subjects. Promising hits (P<0.01) were studied in three independent Caucasian populations (2656 subjects) for confirmation. A meta-analysis of all four studies was performed. For TSH, eight PDE8B polymorphisms (P=4×10(-17)) remained significant in the meta-analysis. For FT(4), two DIO1 (P=8×10(-12)) and one FOXE1 (P=0.0003) polymorphisms remained significant in the meta-analysis. Suggestive associations were detected for one FOXE1 (P=0.0028) and three THRB (P=0.0045) polymorphisms with TSH, and one SLC16A10 polymorphism (P=0.0110) with FT(4), but failed to reach the significant multiple-testing corrected P value (P<0.0022 and P<0.0033 respectively). Using a large-scale association analysis, we replicated previously reported associations with genetic variation in PDE8B, THRB, and DIO1. We demonstrate effects of genetic variation in FOXE1 on serum FT(4) levels, and borderline significant effects on serum TSH levels. A suggestive association of genetic variation in SLC16A10 with serum FT(4) levels was found. These data provide insight into the molecular basis of inter-individual variation in TH serum levels.

  9. Excess Mortality in Treated and Untreated Hyperthyroidism Is Related to Cumulative Periods of Low Serum TSH.

    PubMed

    Lillevang-Johansen, Mads; Abrahamsen, Bo; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative time-dependent excess mortality in hyperthyroid patients has been suggested. However, the effect of antithyroid treatment on mortality, especially in subclinical hyperthyroidism, remains unclarified. We investigated the association between hyperthyroidism and mortality in both treated and untreated hyperthyroid individuals. Register-based cohort study of 235,547 individuals who had at least one serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) measurement in the period 1995 to 2011 (7.3 years median follow-up). Hyperthyroidism was defined as at least two measurements of low serum TSH. Mortality rates for treated and untreated hyperthyroid subjects compared with euthyroid controls were calculated using multivariate Cox regression analyses, controlling for age, sex, and comorbidities. Cumulative periods of decreased serum TSH were analyzed as a time-dependent covariate. Hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was increased in untreated [1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12 to 1.37; P < 0.001], but not in treated, hyperthyroid patients. When including cumulative periods of TSH in the Cox regression analyses, HR for mortality per every 6 months of decreased TSH was 1.11 (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.13; P < 0.0001) in untreated hyperthyroid patients (n = 1137) and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.11 to 1.15; P < 0.0001) in treated patients (n = 1656). This corresponds to a 184% and 239% increase in mortality after 5 years of decreased TSH in untreated and treated hyperthyroidism, respectively. Mortality is increased in hyperthyroidism. Cumulative periods of decreased TSH increased mortality in both treated and untreated hyperthyroidism, implying that excess mortality may not be driven by lack of therapy, but rather inability to keep patients euthyroid. Meticulous follow-up during treatment to maintain biochemical euthyroidism may be warranted. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  10. [Effect of selenium on serum TGAb, TMAb, FT3, FT4 and TSH of rats with excessive intake of iodine].

    PubMed

    Chi, Haiyan; Zhou, Yuping; Li, Li

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the effect of selenium on the TGAb, TMAb, FT3, FT4 and TSH level of rats with excessive intake of iodine. Wistar rats were divided into three groups by random:normal control, high iodine group and high iodine plus selenium group. Rats in the high iodine plus selenium group were lavaged with sodium selenite for 10 weeks. The levels of serum TGAb, TMAb, FT3, FT4 and TSH were tested at different time of the experiment. There were no significant change on levels of FT3, FT4 and TSH (P > 0.05). The levels of TGAb and TMAb in the high iodine group were increased slowly (P < 0.05), but no significant change was observed in the high iodine plus selenium group. Excessive intake of iodine might induce goiter, and selenium might have antagonistic effect on it.

  11. Comparative effect of Citrus sinensis and carbimazole on serum T4, T3 and TSH levels.

    PubMed

    Uduak, Okon Akpan; Ani, Elemi John; Etoh, Emmauel Columba Inyang; Macstephen, Adienbo Ologbagno

    2014-05-01

    There are previous independent reports on the anti-thyroid property of Citrus sinensis. This isoflavones and phenolic acid-rich natural agent is widely consumed as dietary supplement, thus the need to investigate its comparative effect with a standard anti-thyroid drug on T4, T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. To compare the effect of Citrus sinensis and carbimazole (CARB) on blood levels of thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) and TSH. Male wistar albino rats weighing 100-150 g were employed in this research. The rats were randomly assigned to four groups of seven rats per group. Group I served as control and were administered distilled water while groups II-IV were administered with 1500 mg/kg of Citrus sinensis (fresh orange juice; FOJ), 0.1 μg/g of levothyroxine (LVT) and 0.01 mg/g of CARB, respectively, per oral once daily for 28 days. The animals were sacrificed under chloroform anaesthesia and blood sample collected by cardiac puncture and processed by standard method to obtain serum. TSH, T4 and T3 were assayed with the serum using ARIA II automated radioimmunoassay instrument. The results showed that TSH level was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in LVT treated group compared with the FOJ group. T4 was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in the FOJ and CARB groups compared with the control and LVT groups. LVT significantly increased T4 when compared with FOJ group. T3 was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in the CARB group compared with the control. These findings suggest that FOJ alters thyroid hormones metabolism to reduce their serum levels with a compensatory elevations of TSH level in a direction similar to CARB.

  12. Comparative effect of Citrus sinensis and carbimazole on serum T4, T3 and TSH levels

    PubMed Central

    Uduak, Okon Akpan; Ani, Elemi John; Etoh, Emmauel Columba Inyang; Macstephen, Adienbo Ologbagno

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are previous independent reports on the anti-thyroid property of Citrus sinensis. This isoflavones and phenolic acid-rich natural agent is widely consumed as dietary supplement, thus the need to investigate its comparative effect with a standard anti-thyroid drug on T4, T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Objective: To compare the effect of Citrus sinensis and carbimazole (CARB) on blood levels of thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) and TSH. Materials and Methods: Male wistar albino rats weighing 100-150 g were employed in this research. The rats were randomly assigned to four groups of seven rats per group. Group I served as control and were administered distilled water while groups II-IV were administered with 1500 mg/kg of Citrus sinensis (fresh orange juice; FOJ), 0.1 μg/g of levothyroxine (LVT) and 0.01 mg/g of CARB, respectively, per oral once daily for 28 days. The animals were sacrificed under chloroform anaesthesia and blood sample collected by cardiac puncture and processed by standard method to obtain serum. TSH, T4 and T3 were assayed with the serum using ARIA II automated radioimmunoassay instrument. Results: The results showed that TSH level was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in LVT treated group compared with the FOJ group. T4 was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in the FOJ and CARB groups compared with the control and LVT groups. LVT significantly increased T4 when compared with FOJ group. T3 was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in the CARB group compared with the control. Conclusion: These findings suggest that FOJ alters thyroid hormones metabolism to reduce their serum levels with a compensatory elevations of TSH level in a direction similar to CARB. PMID:25013255

  13. Thyroid hormone independent associations between serum TSH levels and indicators of bone turnover in cured patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Heemstra, Karen A; van der Deure, Wendy M; Peeters, Robin P; Hamdy, Neveen A; Stokkel, Marcel P; Corssmit, Eleonora P; Romijn, Johannes A; Visser, Theo J; Smit, Johannes W

    2008-07-01

    It has been proposed that TSH has thyroid hormone-independent effects on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism. This concept is still controversial and has not been studied in human subjects in detail. We addressed this question by studying relationships between serum TSH concentration and indicators of bone turnover, after controlling for triiodothyronine (T(3)), free thyroxine (FT(4)), and non-thyroid factors relevant to BMD and bone metabolism. We also studied the contribution of the TSH receptor (TSHR)-Asp727Glu polymorphism to these relationships. We performed a cross-sectional study with 148 patients, who had been thyroidectomized for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. We measured BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine. FT(4), T(3), TSH, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, procollagen type 1 aminoterminal propeptide levels, C-cross-linking terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, and urinary N-telopeptide of collagen cross-links were measured. Genotypes of the TSHR-Asp727Glu polymorphism were determined by Taqman assay. We found a significant, inverse correlation between serum TSH levels and indicators of bone turnover, which was independent of serum FT(4) and T(3) levels as well as other parameters influencing bone metabolism. We found that carriers of the TSHR-Asp727Glu polymorphism had an 8.1% higher femoral neck BMD, which was, however, no longer significant after adjusting for body mass index. We conclude that in this group of patients, serum TSH was related to indicators of bone remodeling independently of thyroid hormone levels. This may point to a functional role of the TSHR in bone in humans. Further research into this mechanism needs to be performed.

  14. Genetic Variants Associated with Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Levels in European Americans and African Americans from the eMERGE Network

    PubMed Central

    Malinowski, Jennifer R.; Denny, Joshua C.; Bielinski, Suzette J.; Basford, Melissa A.; Bradford, Yuki; Peissig, Peggy L.; Carrell, David; Crosslin, David R.; Pathak, Jyotishman; Rasmussen, Luke; Pacheco, Jennifer; Kho, Abel; Newton, Katherine M.; Li, Rongling; Kullo, Iftikhar J.; Chute, Christopher G.; Chisholm, Rex L.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Larson, Eric B.; McCarty, Catherine A.; Masys, Daniel R.; Roden, Dan M.; de Andrade, Mariza; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Crawford, Dana C.

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) hormone levels are normally tightly regulated within an individual; thus, relatively small variations may indicate thyroid disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified variants in PDE8B and FOXE1 that are associated with TSH levels. However, prior studies lacked racial/ethnic diversity, limiting the generalization of these findings to individuals of non-European ethnicities. The Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network is a collaboration across institutions with biobanks linked to electronic medical records (EMRs). The eMERGE Network uses EMR-derived phenotypes to perform GWAS in diverse populations for a variety of phenotypes. In this report, we identified serum TSH levels from 4,501 European American and 351 African American euthyroid individuals in the eMERGE Network with existing GWAS data. Tests of association were performed using linear regression and adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and principal components, assuming an additive genetic model. Our results replicate the known association of PDE8B with serum TSH levels in European Americans (rs2046045 p = 1.85×10−17, β = 0.09). FOXE1 variants, associated with hypothyroidism, were not genome-wide significant (rs10759944: p = 1.08×10−6, β = −0.05). No SNPs reached genome-wide significance in African Americans. However, multiple known associations with TSH levels in European ancestry were nominally significant in African Americans, including PDE8B (rs2046045 p = 0.03, β = −0.09), VEGFA (rs11755845 p = 0.01, β = −0.13), and NFIA (rs334699 p = 1.50×10−3, β = −0.17). We found little evidence that SNPs previously associated with other thyroid-related disorders were associated with serum TSH levels in this study. These results support the previously reported association between PDE8B and serum TSH levels in European Americans and emphasize the need for additional genetic

  15. Genetic variants associated with serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in European Americans and African Americans from the eMERGE Network.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Jennifer R; Denny, Joshua C; Bielinski, Suzette J; Basford, Melissa A; Bradford, Yuki; Peissig, Peggy L; Carrell, David; Crosslin, David R; Pathak, Jyotishman; Rasmussen, Luke; Pacheco, Jennifer; Kho, Abel; Newton, Katherine M; Li, Rongling; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Chute, Christopher G; Chisholm, Rex L; Jarvik, Gail P; Larson, Eric B; McCarty, Catherine A; Masys, Daniel R; Roden, Dan M; de Andrade, Mariza; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Crawford, Dana C

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) hormone levels are normally tightly regulated within an individual; thus, relatively small variations may indicate thyroid disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified variants in PDE8B and FOXE1 that are associated with TSH levels. However, prior studies lacked racial/ethnic diversity, limiting the generalization of these findings to individuals of non-European ethnicities. The Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network is a collaboration across institutions with biobanks linked to electronic medical records (EMRs). The eMERGE Network uses EMR-derived phenotypes to perform GWAS in diverse populations for a variety of phenotypes. In this report, we identified serum TSH levels from 4,501 European American and 351 African American euthyroid individuals in the eMERGE Network with existing GWAS data. Tests of association were performed using linear regression and adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and principal components, assuming an additive genetic model. Our results replicate the known association of PDE8B with serum TSH levels in European Americans (rs2046045 p = 1.85×10-17, β = 0.09). FOXE1 variants, associated with hypothyroidism, were not genome-wide significant (rs10759944: p = 1.08×10-6, β = -0.05). No SNPs reached genome-wide significance in African Americans. However, multiple known associations with TSH levels in European ancestry were nominally significant in African Americans, including PDE8B (rs2046045 p = 0.03, β = -0.09), VEGFA (rs11755845 p = 0.01, β = -0.13), and NFIA (rs334699 p = 1.50×10-3, β = -0.17). We found little evidence that SNPs previously associated with other thyroid-related disorders were associated with serum TSH levels in this study. These results support the previously reported association between PDE8B and serum TSH levels in European Americans and emphasize the need for additional genetic studies in more

  16. [Clinical studies on regulatory system of thyroid hormone secretion and serum triiodothyronine. Part. I. Solid-state radioimmunoassy for human serum TSH and its clinical application (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Y

    1975-01-20

    A solid-state RIA method using a plastic microtiter plate for human TSH was developed: 1) The choice of carrier protein for standard TSH was critical in this method and pooled sera from untreated Graves patients was found to be suitable for this purpose. The mean lowest detectable TSH level was 0.2 muU/assay, which was almost equal to those reported by other methods. This method is superior in simple assay procedure, especially in the separation of bound and free TSH and in the shorter incubation time required in the double antibody method. 2) Serum TSH concentration in 22 normal subjects, 17 patients with Graves' disease, 35 Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 18 primary hypothyrodism, 16 simple goiter, 4 nodular goiter and 7 secondary hypothyroidism was estimated as 4.7 +/- 2.0 muU/ml (mean +/- s.d.), 2.1 +/- 0.2 mu/U/ml, 14.1 +/- 26.5 muU/ml, 211 +/- 177 muU/ml, 3.6 +/- 2.4 muU/ml, 3.2 +/- 2.4 muU/ml and 2.6 +/- 1.0 muU/ml, respectively. 3) A statistically significant and hyperbolic inverse correlation (r= --0.37, N=90) was found between TSH and T4 levels. Some cases with normal T4 level were found to be high in TSH levels. It was also noted that 36 of 65 euthyroid cases (55.4%) who had been treated with 131I for Graves' disease showed elevated TSH levels. 4) After intravenous injection of 500 mug TRH, TSH level reached its peak value of 8 to 32 muU/ml at 15 to 45 minutes in normal subjects. Low to no response was found in patients with Graves' disease. An exaggerated response in patients with primary hypothyroidism to TRH was observed and an inhibitory process in TSH production at the pituitary level was suggested in patients with Cushing syndrome. Hypothyroid patients with pituitary lesion showed low or no response, on the other hand some hypothyroid patients with lesions around the pituitary and hypothalamus showed high basal TSH and exaggerated response to TRH.

  17. [Harmonization of TSH Measurements.

    PubMed

    Takeoka, Keiko; Hidaka, Yoh; Hishinuma, Akira; Ikeda, Katsuyoshi; Okubo, Shigeo; Tsuchiya, Tatsuyuki; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Furuta, Koh; Hotta, Taeko; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Masami; Maekawa, Masato

    2016-05-01

    The measured concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) differs depending on the reagents used. Harmonization of TSH is crucial because the decision limits are described in current clinical practice guide- lines as absolute values, e.g. 2.5 mIU/L in early pregnancy. In this study, we tried to harmonize the report- ed concentrations of TSH using the all-procedure trimmed mean. TSH was measured in 146 serum samples, with values ranging from 0.01 to 18.8 mIU/L, using 4 immunoassays. The concentration of TSH was highest with E test TOSOH and lowest with LUMIPULSE. The concentrations with each reagent were recalculated with the following formulas: E test TOSOH 0.855x-0.014; ECLusys 0.993x+0.079; ARCHITECT 1.041x- 0.010; and LUMIPULSE 1.096x-0.015. Recalculation eliminated the between-assay discrepancy. These formulas may be used until harmonization of TSH is achieved by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC).

  18. Assessment of thyroid function during first-trimester pregnancy: what is the rational upper limit of serum TSH during the first trimester in Chinese pregnant women?

    PubMed

    Li, Chenyan; Shan, Zhongyan; Mao, Jinyuan; Wang, Weiwei; Xie, Xiaochen; Zhou, Weiwei; Li, Chenyang; Xu, Bin; Bi, Lihua; Meng, Tao; Du, Jianling; Zhang, Shaowei; Gao, Zhengnan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yang, Liu; Fan, Chenling; Teng, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association (ATA) proposed that the upper limit of the TSH reference range should be 2.5 mIU/L in first trimester, but the reported ranges in China are significantly higher. Our objective was to establish a rational reference range of serum TSH for diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism in the first trimester of pregnant women in China. We screened 4800 pregnant women in the first trimester and 2000 women who planned to become pregnant and evaluated 535 pregnant women in follow-up visits during the second and third trimester. Median concentrations of serum TSH decreased significantly from the seventh week of gestation. The median of TSH from 4 to 6 weeks was significantly higher than from 7 to 12 weeks (2.15 [0.56-5.31] mIU/L vs 1.47 [0.10-4.34] mIU/L, P<.001); however, there was no significant difference compared with nonpregnant women (2.07 [0.69-5.64] mIU/L; P=.784). The median of free T4 was not significantly altered in the first trimester. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in the 4800 pregnant women was 27.8% on the diagnostic criteria of TSH>2.5 mIU/L and 4.0% using the reference interval derived by our laboratory (0.14-4.87 mIU/L).Additionally, of 118 pregnant women who had serum TSH>2.5 mIU/L in the first trimester, only 30.0% and 20.3% of them at the 20th and 30th week of gestation had TSH>3.0 mIU/L. The reference range for nonpregnant women can be used for the assessment of pregnant women at 4 to 6 weeks of gestation. The upper limit of serum TSH in the first trimester was much higher than 2.5 mIU/L in Chinese pregnant women.

  19. Effects of potassium iodide in concentrations of TSH, tT3 and tT4 in serum of subjects with sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Ramírez Soto, Max Carlos

    2014-08-01

    The saturated potassium iodide solution (SSKI) as treatment for sporotrichosis may cause hypothyroidism by suppressing the synthesis of thyroid hormones (tT3 and tT4 ) and the iodine excess could lead to thyrotoxicosis. Evaluating the changes in serum levels of TSH, tT3 and tT4 in euthyroid patients with sporotrichosis treated with SSKI. For the selection of euthyroid patients, TSH, tT3 and tT4 concentrations were measured for those adults and children diagnosed with sporotrichosis. Each paediatric patient was administered SSKI orally in increasing doses of 2-20 drops/3 times/day and 4-40 drops/3 times/day in adults. Serum concentrations of TSH, tT3 and tT4 were measured 20 days after started the treatment and 15 days posttreatment. Eight euthyroid patients aged between 2 to 65 years old were included. After 20 days of treatment, two suffered subclinical hypothyroidism, one developed subclinical hyperthyroidism, and one hyperthyroxinaemia euthyroid. At 15 days posttreatment only four patients were evaluated and all serum levels of TSH, tT3 and tT4 were normal. Some euthyroid patients with sporotrichosis can develop hyperthyroidism or subclinical iodine-induced hypothyroidism, during the administration of 3 or 6 g SSKI/day. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Blocking mitochondrial cyclophilin D ameliorates TSH-impaired defensive barrier of artery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojing; Du, Heng; Chai, Qiang; Jia, Qing; Liu, Lu; Zhao, Meng; Li, Jun; Tang, Hui; Chen, Wenbin; Zhao, Lifang; Fang, Li; Gao, Ling; Zhao, Jiajun

    2018-05-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) constitute the defensive barrier of vasculature, which maintains the vascular homeostasis. Mitochondrial oxidative stress (mitoOS) in ECs significantly affects the initiation and progression of vascular diseases. The higher serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level is being recognized as a nonconventional risk factor responsible for the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). However, effects and underlying mechanisms of elevated TSH on ECs are still ambiguous. We sought to investigate whether cyclophilin D (CypD), emerging as a crucial mediator in mitoOS, regulates effects of TSH on ECs. SCH patients with TSH > = 10mIU/L showed a positive correlation between serum TSH and endothelin-1 levels. When TSH levels declined to normal in these subjects after levothyroxine therapy, serum endothelin-1 levels were significantly reduced. Supplemented with exogenous thyroxine to keep normal thyroid hormones, thyroid-specific TSH receptor (TSHR)-knockout mice with injection of exogenous TSH exhibited elevated serum TSH levels, significant endothelial oxidative injuries and disturbed endothelium-dependent vasodilation. However, Tshr -/- mice resisted to TSH-impaired vasotonia. We further confirmed that elevated TSH triggered excessive mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and mitochondrial oxidative damages in mouse aorta, as well as in cultured ECs. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of CypD (the key regulator for mPTP opening) attenuated TSH-induced mitochondrial oxidative damages and further rescued endothelial functions. Finally, we confirmed that elevated TSH could activate CypD by enhancing CypD acetylation via inhibiting adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/sirtuin-3 signaling pathway in ECs. These findings reveal that elevated TSH triggers mitochondrial perturbations in ECs and provide insights that blocking mitochondrial CypD enhances the defensive ability of ECs under

  1. Serum concentrations of thyroid and adrenal hormones and TSH in men after repeated 1 h-stays in a cold room.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, I; Hassi, J; Leppäluoto, J

    2001-11-01

    We exposed six healthy men to 1-h cold air (10 degrees C) daily for 11 days and measured adrenal and thyroid hormones and TSH in serum before and after the cold air exposure on days 0, 5 and 10. We observed that on days 0, 5 and 10 the resting levels and the levels after the cold exposure in serum adrenaline, thyroid hormones and TSH did not significantly change, whereas the serum noradrenaline levels showed a significant 2.2-2.5-fold increase in response to the cold air exposures. The increases were similar indicating that the subjects did not show signs of habituation in their noradrenaline responses. Therefore the 1-h cold air exposure is not sufficiently intensive to reduce the cold-induced sympathetic response.

  2. Effect of endotoxin and radio-detoxified endotoxin on the serum T4 level of rats and response of their thyroid gland to exogenous TSH

    SciTech Connect

    Bertok, L.; Nagy, S.U.

    Experiments were performed to demonstrate that, while the shock-inducing dose of parent (toxic) endotoxin significantly decreases the serum T4 level of rats and inhibits the T4 response given to exogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), the radio-detoxified (/sup 60/Co-gamma, 150 kGy) endotoxin preparation does not inhibit the response to exogenous TSH. It also decreases serum T4 level to a lesser extent than untreated endotoxin.

  3. Serum TSH within the reference range as a predictor of future hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism: 11-year follow-up of the HUNT Study in Norway.

    PubMed

    Åsvold, Bjørn O; Vatten, Lars J; Midthjell, Kristian; Bjøro, Trine

    2012-01-01

    Serum TSH in the upper part of the reference range may sometimes be a response to autoimmune thyroiditis in early stage and may therefore predict future hypothyroidism. Conversely, relatively low serum TSH could predict future hyperthyroidism. The objective of the study was to assess TSH within the reference range and subsequent risk of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. This was a prospective population-based study with linkage to the Norwegian Prescription Database. A total of 10,083 women and 5,023 men without previous thyroid disease who had a baseline TSH of 0.20-4.5 mU/liter and who participated at a follow-up examination 11 yr later. Predicted probabilities of developing hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism during follow-up, by categories of baseline TSH, were estimated. During 11 yr of follow-up, 3.5% of women and 1.3% of men developed hypothyroidism, and 1.1% of women and 0.6% of men developed hyperthyroidism. In both sexes, the baseline TSH was positively associated with the risk of subsequent hypothyroidism. The risk increased gradually from TSH of 0.50-1.4 mU/liter [women, 1.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.8-1.4; men, 0.3%, 95% CI 0.1-0.6] to a TSH of 4.0-4.5 mU/liter (women, 31.5%, 95% CI 24.6-39.3; men, 14.7%, 95% CI 7.7-26.2). The risk of hyperthyroidism was higher in women with a baseline TSH of 0.20-0.49 mU/liter (3.9%, 95% CI 1.8-8.4) than in women with a TSH of 0.50-0.99 mU/liter (1.4%, 95% CI 0.9-2.1) or higher (∼1.0%). TSH within the reference range is positively and strongly associated with the risk of future hypothyroidism. TSH at the lower limit of the reference range may be associated with an increased risk of hyperthyroidism.

  4. Thyrotropin-induced hyperthyroidism caused by selective pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone. A new syndrome of "inappropriate secretion of TSH".

    PubMed Central

    Gershengorn, M C; Weintraub, B D

    1975-01-01

    An 18-yr-old woman with clinical and laboratory features of hyperthyroidism had persistently elevated serum levels of immunoreative thyrotropin (TSH). During 11 yr of follow-up there had been no evidence of a pituitary tumor. After thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), there was a marked increase in TSH and secondarily in triiodothyronine (T3), the latter observation confirming the biologic activity of the TSH. Exogenous T3 raised serum T3 and several measurements of peripheral thyroid hormone effect, while decreasing serum TSH, thyroxine (T4), and thyroidal radioiodine uptake. After T3, the TRH-stimulated TSH response was decreased but was still inappropriate for the elevated serum T3 levels. Dexamethasone reduced serum TSH but did not inhibit TRH stimulation of TSH. Propylthiouracil reduced serum T4 and T3 and raised TSH. This patient represents a new syndrome of TSH-induced hyperthyroidism, differing from previous reports in the absence of an obvious pituitary tumor and in the responsiveness of the TSH to TRH stimulation and thyroid hormone suppression. This syndrome appears to be caused by a selective, partial resistance of the pituitary to the action of thyroid hormone. This case is also compared with previous reports in the literature of patients with elevated serum levels of immunoreactive TSH in the presence of elevated total and free thyroid hormones. A classification of these cases, termed "inappropriate secretion of TSH," is proposed. PMID:1159077

  5. Does (131)I Radioactivity Interfere with Thyroglobulin Measurement in Patients Undergoing Radioactive Iodine Therapy with Recombinant Human TSH?

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Bang, Ji-In; Lee, Ho-Young; Kim, Sang-Eun

    2015-06-01

    Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) is widely used in radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) to avoid side effects caused by hypothyroidism during the therapy. Owing to RIT with rhTSH, serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is measured with high (131)I concentrations. It is of concern that the relatively high energy of (131)I could interfere with Tg measurement using the immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). We investigated the effect of (131)I administration on Tg measurement with IRMA after RIT. A total of 67 patients with thyroid cancer were analysed retrospectively. All patients had undergone rhTSH stimulation for RIT. The patients' sera were sampled 2 days after (131)I administration and divided into two portions: for Tg measurements on days 2 and 32 after (131)I administration. The count per minute (CPM) of whole serum (200 μl) was also measured at each time point. Student's paired t-test and Pearson's correlation analyses were performed for statistical analysis. Serum Tg levels were significantly concordant between days 2 and 32, irrespective of the serum CPM. Subgroup analysis was performed by classification based on the (131)I dose. No difference was noted between the results of the two groups. IRMA using (125)I did not show interference from (131)I in the serum of patients stimulated by rhTSH.

  6. TSH-induced hyperthyroidism caused by a pituitary tumor.

    PubMed

    Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Persani, Luca

    2006-09-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with frontal headache and visual disturbances to our clinic. For the previous 5 years, he had been receiving treatment for long-lasting mild hyperthyroidism with antithyroid therapy, but therapy had not been carefully followed. During the last 2 years he had also complained of erectile dysfunction and loss of libido. On physical examination, he had a small goiter, normal skin, no Graves' ophthalmopathy, normal BMI, and reduced testis volume and pubic hair. Serum levels of free T3 and T4, serum prolactin, testosterone, serum gonadotropins, insulin-like growth factor 1, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol were measured. MRI scan, TSH-releasing hormone test, and T3 suppression test were carried out. Levels of pituitary glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit and sex-hormone-binding protein were also measured. Hyperthyroidism caused by a mixed pituitary adenoma that secretes prolactin and TSH. Trans-sphenoidal resection of the pituitary tumor. After surgery, T3 suppression test failed to completely suppress TSH secretion, which suggested a persistence of residual adenomatous cells. Hyperthyroidism and hypogonadism recurred after 5 years, therefore, treatment with lanreotide was initiated, and resulted in complete resolution of signs and symptoms of the disease.

  7. Endogenous TSH in the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in dogs.

    PubMed

    Boretti, F S; Reusch, C E

    2004-04-01

    To determine whether measurement of canine thyrotropin (cTSH) would aid in the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, serum samples of 65 dogs with clinical signs suggestive of hypothyroidism were evaluated. Diagnosis was confirmed in 26 dogs and excluded in 39 dogs based on TSH-stimulation testing. Total thyroxine (T4) was significantly lower and cTSH significantly higher in hypothyroid dogs compared to euthyroid dogs. Canine TSH was above (> 0.6 ng/ml) in 15 (57.7%) and below the upper limit of the reference range in 11 (42.3%) of the hypothyroid dogs. All of the euthyroid dogs had a cTSH < 0.6 ng/ml. In all dogs with a cTSH above the upper limit of the reference range hypothyroidism could be confirmed. Therefore, our results show that measurement of cTSH has an excellent specificity (100%) and is a valuable tool in confirming canine hypothyroidism. However, due to the low sensitivity of cTSH assays (60%), it can not be recommended to exclude the disease.

  8. Competitive inhibition of thyroidal uptake of dietary iodide by perchlorate does not describe perturbations in rat serum total T4 and TSH.

    PubMed

    McLanahan, Eva D; Andersen, Melvin E; Campbell, Jerry L; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2009-05-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4(-)) is an environmental contaminant known to disrupt the thyroid axis of many terrestrial and aquatic species. ClO4(-) competitively inhibits iodide uptake into the thyroid at the sodium/iodide symporter and disrupts hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis homeostasis in rodents. We evaluated the proposed mode of action for ClO4(-)-induced rat HPT axis perturbations using a biologically based dose-response (BBDR) model of the HPT axis coupled with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of ClO4(-). We configured a BBDR-HPT/ClO4(-) model to describe competitive inhibition of thyroidal uptake of dietary iodide by ClO4(-) and used it to simulate published adult rat drinking water studies. We compared model-predicted serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and total thyroxine (TT4) concentrations with experimental observations reported in these ClO4(-) drinking water studies. The BBDR-HPT/ClO4(-) model failed to predict the ClO4(-)-induced onset of disturbances in the HPT axis. Using ClO4(-) inhibition of dietary iodide uptake into the thyroid, the model underpredicted both the rapid decrease in serum TT4 concentrations and the rise in serum TSH concentrations. Assuming only competitive inhibition of thyroidal uptake of dietary iodide, BBDR-HPT/ClO4(-) model calculations were inconsistent with the rapid decrease in serum TT4 and the corresponding increase in serum TSH. Availability of bound iodide in the thyroid gland governed the rate of hormone secretion from the thyroid. ClO4(-) is translocated into the thyroid gland, where it may act directly or indirectly on thyroid hormone synthesis/secretion in the rat. The rate of decline in serum TT4 in these studies after 1 day of treatment with ClO4(-) appeared consistent with a reduction in thyroid hormone production/secretion. This research demonstrates the utility of a biologically based model to evaluate a proposed mode of action for ClO4(-) in a complex biological process.

  9. Radioimmunoassay of Human Serum Thyrotrophin

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Reginald; Amos, Jacqueline; Ormston, Brian J.

    1971-01-01

    The double antibody radioimmunoassay of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) allows measurement of circulating levels of the hormone in most normal subjects. The serum TSH level in normal subjects is 1·6 ± 0·8μU/ml. Patients with non-toxic goitre and acromegaly have normal TSH levels. Values are always raised in hypothyroid patients (with primary thyroid disease) and are significantly lowered in those with hyperthyroidism. Of the many stimuli used in an attempt to raise TSH levels in normal adult subjects only three—synthetic thyrotrophin-releasing hormone, ethinyloestradiol, and carbimazole plus iodides—have been effective. The major clinical application of the TSH immunoassay lies in the diagnosis of minor degrees of hypothyroidism. An impaired response of serum TSH to synthetic thyrotrophin-releasing hormone should also help in the diagnosis of hypopituitarism affecting TSH production. PMID:5548300

  10. A case of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism in a patient with endemic goiter: effects of endogenous TSH hyperstimulation after discontinuation of the drug.

    PubMed

    Messina, M; Manieri, C; Spagnuolo, F; Sardi, E; Allegramente, L; Monaco, A; Ciccarelli, E

    1989-04-01

    Serum thyroid hormone and TSH concentrations were monitored in a patient with multinodular endemic goiter and severe methimazole (MMI) induced hypothyrodism up to 190 days after drug withdrawal. Serum concentrations of TT3, TT4 and TSH returned to normal values at the 6th., the 140th, and the 120th. day respectively. Within the first 20 days after MMI withdrawal the increase of serum T3 levels was correlated with the observed decrease of serum TSH concentrations. Successively T3 values decreased and T4 levels progressively increased. Six months after MMI withdrawal basal serum TSH concentration was normal while an exaggerated response to TRH was observed. We think that this peculiar hormone pattern is due to iodine depletion. In this case TSH hyperstimulation increases predominantly T3 secretion demonstrating the reduced thyroidal ability to produce T4 when hyperstimulated.

  11. Association of TSH With Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Overweight and Obese Children During Lifestyle Intervention.

    PubMed

    Rijks, Jesse M; Plat, Jogchum; Dorenbos, Elke; Penders, Bas; Gerver, Willem-Jan M; Vreugdenhil, Anita C E

    2017-06-01

    Overweight and obese children have an increased risk to develop cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in which thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) has been suggested as an intermediary factor. However, results of cross-sectional studies are inconclusive, and intervention studies investigating changes in TSH concentrations in association with changes in cardiovascular risk parameters in overweight and obese children are scarce. To gain insight in associations of circulating TSH concentrations and cardiovascular risk parameters in overweight and obese children. Nonrandomized lifestyle intervention. Centre for Overweight Adolescent and Children's Healthcare. Three hundred thirty euthyroid overweight and obese children. Long-term lifestyle intervention. TSH concentrations, pituitary TSH release in response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), and cardiovascular risk parameters. At baseline, serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triacylglycerol (TAG), and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 concentrations were significantly associated with serum TSH concentrations. TSH release by the pituitary in response to exogenous TRH was not associated with cardiovascular risk parameters. During lifestyle intervention, several cardiovascular risk parameters significantly improved. In children whose body mass index z score improved, changes in TSH concentrations were significantly associated with changes in TC, LDL-C, and TAG concentrations. In euthyroid overweight and obese children, circulating TSH concentrations are positively associated with markers representing increased CVD risk. Changes in TSH concentrations are also associated with changes in lipid concentrations in children with successful weight loss, which is consistent with TSH being an intermediary factor in modulating lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  12. Cell-phone-based measurement of TSH using Mie scatter optimized lateral flow assays.

    PubMed

    You, David J; Park, Tu San; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2013-02-15

    Semi-quantitative thyr oid stimulating hormone (TSH) lateral flow immunochromatographic assays (LFA) are used to screen for serum TSH concentration >5 mIUL(-1) (hypothyroidism). The LFA format, however, is unable to measure TSH in the normal range or detect suppressed levels of TSH (<0.4 mIU L(-1); hyperthyroidism). In fact, it does not provide quantitative TSH values at all. Obtaining quantitative TSH results, especially in the low concentration range, has until now required the use of centralized clinical laboratories which require specimen transport, specialized equipment and personnel, and result in increased cost and delays in the timely reporting of important clinical results. We have conducted a series of experiments to develop and validate an optical system and image analysis algorithm based upon a cell phone platform. It is able to provide point-of-care quantitative TSH results with a high level of sensitivity and reproducibility comparable to that of a clinical laboratory-based third-generation TSH immunoassay. Our research approach uses the methodology of the optimized Rayleigh/Mie scatter detection by taking into consideration the optical characteristics of a nitrocellulose membrane and gold nanoparticles on an LFA for quantifying TSH levels. Using a miniature spectrometer, LED light source, and optical fibers on a rotating benchtop apparatus, the light intensity from different angles of incident light and angles of detection to the LFA were measured. The optimum angles were found that the minimized Mie scattering from nitrocellulose membrane, consequently maximizes the Rayleigh scatter detection from the gold nanoparticles in the LFA bands. Using the results from the benchtop apparatus, a cell-phone-based apparatus was designed which utilized the embedded flash in the cell phone camera as the light source, piped the light with an optical fiber from the flash through a collimating lens to illuminate the LFA. Quantification of TSH was performed in an i

  13. TSH test

    MedlinePlus

    Thyrotropin; Thyroid stimulating hormone; Hypothyroidism - TSH; Hyperthyroidism - TSH; Goiter - TSH ... most often due to an underactive thyroid gland ( hypothyroidism ). There are many causes of this problem. A ...

  14. Transient neonatal hypothyroidism due to transplacental transfer of maternal immunoglobulins that inhibit TSH binding, TSH-induced cAMP increase and cell growth.

    PubMed

    Cho, B Y; Shong, Y K; Lee, H K; Koh, C S; Min, H K; Lee, M

    1988-12-01

    Transient neonatal hypothyroidism due to transplacental transfer of maternal blocking type TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb) was found in a baby born to a 27-yr-old mother, who had been receiving thyroxine medication for primary myxedema. Maternal IgG inhibited radiolabelled TSH binding to its receptor (TBII), TSH-stimulated thyroid adenylate cyclase (AC) activation (TSII) and TSH-stimulated 3H-thymidine uptake (TGII) in cultured rat thyroid cells (FRTL-5). At birth, the baby's IgG showed similar activities to maternal IgG but all these activities decreased gradually, and disappeared from her serum within 12 weeks of age. In the baby, initially nonvisualized thyroid was clearly visualized on 99 m-Tc thyroid scintigraphy when all these blocking activities disappeared, TSII and TGII being decreased more slowly than TBII, and the baby remained euthyroid after discontinuation of thyroxine. This study suggests that such IgGs induced hypothyroidism and thyroid atrophy in the mother and were responsible for transient neonatal hypothyroidism in the baby.

  15. Evaluation of Serum Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Concentration as a Diagnostic Test for Hyperthyroidism in Cats.

    PubMed

    Peterson, M E; Guterl, J N; Nichols, R; Rishniw, M

    2015-01-01

    In humans, measurement of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration is commonly used as a first-line discriminatory test of thyroid function. Recent reports indicate that canine TSH (cTSH) assays can be used to measure feline TSH and results can help diagnose or exclude hyperthyroidism. To investigate the usefulness of cTSH measurements as a diagnostic test for cats with hyperthyroidism. Nine hundred and seventeen cats with untreated hyperthyroidism, 32 euthyroid cats suspected of having hyperthyroidism, and 131 clinically normal cats. Prospective study. Cats referred to the Animal Endocrine Clinic for suspected hyperthyroidism were evaluated with serum T4, T3, free T4 (fT4), and TSH concentrations. Thyroid scintigraphy was used as the gold standard to confirm or exclude hyperthyroidism. Median serum TSH concentration in the hyperthyroid cats (<0.03 ng/mL) was significantly (P < .001) lower than concentrations in clinically normal cats (0.05 ng/mL) or euthyroid cats with suspected thyroid disease (0.06 ng/mL). Only 18 (2.0%) hyperthyroid cats had measurable TSH concentrations (≥0.03 ng/mL), whereas 114 (69.9%) of the 163 euthyroid cats had detectable concentrations. Combining serum TSH with T4 or fT4 concentrations lowered the test sensitivity of TSH from 98.0 to 97.0%, but markedly increased overall test specificity (from 69.9 to 98.8%). Serum TSH concentrations are suppressed in 98% of hyperthyroid cats, but concentrations are measurable in a few cats with mild-to-moderate hyperthyroidism. Measurement of serum TSH represents a highly sensitive but poorly specific test for diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and is best measured in combination with T4 and fT4. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Multiple metals predict prolactin and thyrotropin (TSH) levels in men

    SciTech Connect

    Meeker, John D., E-mail: meekerj@umich.edu; Rossano, Mary G.; Protas, Bridget

    2009-10-15

    Exposure to a number of metals can affect neuroendocrine and thyroid signaling, which can result in adverse effects on development, behavior, metabolism, reproduction, and other functions. The present study assessed the relationship between metal concentrations in blood and serum prolactin (PRL) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels, markers of dopaminergic, and thyroid function, respectively, among men participating in a study of environmental influences on male reproductive health. Blood samples from 219 men were analyzed for concentrations of 11 metals and serum levels of PRL and TSH. In multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, BMI and smoking, PRL was inversely associated withmore » arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc, but positively associated with chromium. Several of these associations (Cd, Pb, Mo) are consistent with limited studies in humans or animals, and a number of the relationships (Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo) remained when additionally considering multiple metals in the model. Lead and copper were associated with non-monotonic decrease in TSH, while arsenic was associated with a dose-dependent increase in TSH. For arsenic these findings were consistent with recent experimental studies where arsenic inhibited enzymes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis and signaling. More research is needed for a better understanding of the role of metals in neuroendocrine and thyroid function and related health implications.« less

  17. Serum lipids in hypothyroidism: Our experience.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Archana; Lal, Ashok Kumar

    2006-09-01

    In order to determine whether the screening of lipid profile is justified in patients with hypothyroidism we estimated serum lipids in cases having different levels of serum TSH. 60 patients of hypothyroidism in the age group of 20 to 60 yrs were studied for thyroid profile over a period of one year. On the basis of serum TSH level the cases were divided into three groups: In the first group TSH concentration was 8.8±2.99 μlU/ml, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 8.8±1.07, whereas serum total cholesterol and LDL-chol levels were 196±37.22 and 126±29.17 mg/dl respectively. The statistical analysis of these two groups showed a significant correlation between raised TSH levels and serum total cholesterol and LDL-chol (P<0.05 & P<0.01) respectively. We conclude that hypothyrodism is associated with changes in lipid profile.

  18. Association of Serum Thyrotropin with Anthropometric Markers of Obesity in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Tiller, Daniel; Ittermann, Till; Greiser, Karin H; Meisinger, Christa; Agger, Carsten; Hofman, Albert; Thuesen, Betina; Linneberg, Allan; Peeters, Robin; Franco, Oscar; Heier, Margit; Kluttig, Alexander; Werdan, Karl; Stricker, Bruno; Schipf, Sabine; Markus, Marcello; Dörr, Marcus; Völzke, Henry; Haerting, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Except from associations study with body weight, there are few longitudinal data regarding the association between thyroid function and anthropometric measurements such as waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, or waist-to height ratio. This study aimed to investigate the association of thyrotropin (TSH) at baseline with changes in different anthropometric markers between baseline and follow-up in the general population. Data were used from four population-based longitudinal cohort studies and one population-based cross-sectional study. A total of 16,902 (8204 males) subjects aged 20-95 years from the general population were studied. Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio were measured. Multivariable median regression models were calculated adjusting for the following covariates: age, sex, baseline value of the respective anthropometric marker, smoking status, follow-up-time period, and study site. In cross-sectional analyses, serum TSH within the reference range was positively associated with waist circumference (β = 0.94 cm [confidence interval (CI) 0.56-1.32]) and waist-to-height-ratio (β = 0.029 [CI 0.017-0.042]). These associations were also present for the full range of TSH. In the longitudinal analyses, serum TSH at baseline was inversely associated with a five-year change of all considered anthropometric measures within the prior defined study-specific reference range, as well as in the full range of serum TSH. High TSH serum levels were positively associated with current anthropometric markers, even in the study-specific reference ranges. In contrast, high TSH serum levels were associated with decreased anthropometric markers over a time span of approximately five years. Further research is needed to determine possible clinical implications as well as public health consequences of these findings.

  19. [Two Cases of Germ Cell Tumors with Hyperthyroidism Due to High Serum hCGLevels].

    PubMed

    Chihara, Ichiro; Nitta, Satoshi; Kimura, Tomokazu; Kandori, Shuya; Kawahara, Takashi; Waku, Natsui; Kojima, Takahiro; Joraku, Akira; Miyazaki, Jun; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Kawai, Koji; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    We reported two cases of hyperthyroidism that developed during induction chemotherapy for advanced germ cell tumors with high serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels. Case 1 : An 18-year-old man with mediastinal choriocarcinoma complained of tachycardia and tremor. His pretreatment serum hCG level was 1.37 million mIU/ml. The free thyroxine (fT4) level measured on day 2 of the first course of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) was elevated to 7.8 ng/dl (<1.7 ng/dl), whereasthe thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH) level was undetectable. We diagnosed the patient with hyperthyroidism and started oral propranolol and thiamazole. Subsequently, his tachycardia and tremor disappeared. On day 12 of the first course of BEP, his hCG level decreased to less than 50,000 mIU/ml. Also, his fT4 level returned to the normal range. Case 2 : A 29-year-old man presented with a left scrotal mass. He was diagnosed with non-seminoma testicular cancer (embryonal carcinoma and choriocarcinoma) with multiple lung, liver and lymph node metastases. On the admission day, his serum hCG and fT4 levels were high ; 3.23 million mIU/ml and 2.2 ng/dl, respectively. The TSH level was low at 0.011 mIU/ml. On day 3 of the first course of BEP, his hCG and fT4 levels increased to 4.5 million mIU/ml and 3.0 ng/dl, respectively. He complained of tachycardia, tremor and hyperhydrosis. He was started on propranolol and potassium iodide. After the treatment, histachycardia, tremor and hyperhidrosisdis appeared. HisfT4 level normalized on day 17 of the first course of BEP. The TSH-like activity of hCG is considered to be responsible for paraneoplastic hyperthyroidism among germ cell cancer patients with high hCG levels. To our knowledge, thisisthe first report of such a case in Japan. However, thisphenomenon isnot rare among patients with extremely high hCG levels. Therefore, we should be careful of these patients.

  20. Quality of life changes and clinical outcomes in thyroid cancer patients undergoing radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH): a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Taïeb, D; Sebag, F; Cherenko, M; Baumstarck-Barrau, K; Fortanier, C; Farman-Ara, B; De Micco, C; Vaillant, J; Thomas, S; Conte-Devolx, B; Loundou, A; Auquier, P; Henry, J F; Mundler, O

    2009-07-01

    Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) has become the modality of choice for radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) in low-risk thyroid cancer patients. The aims of the present prospective randomized study were to evaluate the impact of TSH stimulation procedure (hypothyroidism vs. rhTSH) on quality of life (QoL) of thyroid cancer patients undergoing RRA and to evaluate efficacy of both procedures. L-T4 was initiated in both groups after thyroidectomy. After randomization, L-T4 was discontinued in hypothyroid (hypo) group and continued in rhTSH group. A measure of 3.7 GBq of radioiodine was given to both groups. The functional assessment of chronic illness therapy-fatigue (FACIT-F) was administered from the early postoperative period to 9 months. Socio-demographic parameters, anxiety and depression scales were also evaluated (CES-D, BDI and Spielberger state-trait questionnaires). At 9 months, patients underwent an rhTSH stimulation test, diagnostic (131)I whole body scan (dxWBS) and neck ultrasonography. A total of 74 patients were enrolled for the study. There was a significant decrease in QoL from baseline (t0) to t1 (RRA period) in the hypothyroid group with significant differences in FACIT-F TOI (P < 10(-3)), FACT-G total score (P = 0.005) and FACIT-F total score (P = 0.003). By contrast, QoL was preserved in the rhTSH group. In the multivariate analysis, FACIT-TOI changes were only affected by the modality of TSH stimulation performed for RRA. From 3 to 9 months, changes of QoL scales and subscales were no longer statistically different in both groups of patients. Based on serum rhTSH-stimulated Tg alone (Tg < 0.8 microg/l, BRAHMS Tg Kryptor), no difference in ablation success was observed between rhTSH and hypothyroidism groups, 91.7% and 97.1%, respectively. A higher rate of persistent thyroid remnants was observed in the rhTSH arm, although in most cases uptake was < 0.1% and of no clinical significance. rhTSH preserves QoL of patients undergoing RRA with similar rates

  1. Thyroid hyperfunctioning adenomas with and without Gsp/TSH receptor mutations show similar clinical features.

    PubMed

    Arturi, F; Capula, C; Chiefari, E; Filetti, S; Russo, D

    1998-01-01

    Activating mutations of Gs alpha protein (gsp) and TSH receptor (TSH-R) identified in autonomously hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas have been proposed as the primary event responsible for this disease. Since mutations have not been detected in 100% (ranging from less than 10% to 90%) of the patients, we evaluated whether the presence of gsp and TSH-R mutations cause differences in the clinical and biochemical parameters of the affected patients. Fifteen consecutive patients (11 women and 4 men) with autonomously hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas who underwent thyroidectomy, previously examined for the presence of gsp or TSH-R mutations, were investigated. In all of the patients we examined plasma free T3, free T4, TSH levels and ultrasound volume of the nodules. The patients with mutations in gsp or TSH-R were similar to the patients without mutations for clinical presentation, sex distribution and mean age. Furthermore, basal serum FT3, TSH and tumor volume in the patients with mutations were not significantly different from the group without mutations. Our preliminary data demonstrate that no significant differences are present in the two groups of patients examined, suggesting that factors other than gsp or TSH-R mutations play a role in the clinical presentation of the disease.

  2. Comparison of two immunoradiometric assays for serum thyrotropin

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinin, B.; Drew, H.; La France, N.

    1985-05-01

    An ultra-sensitive TSH assay capable of detecting subnormal TSH levels would be useful in confirming suppressed pituitary function as seen in hyperthyroidism. Two sensitive immunoradiometric TSH assays (IRMA's) were studied to determine how well they distinguished thyrotoxic patients from normal subjects. Serono Diagnostics' method employs three monoclonal antibodies specific for different regions of the TSH molecule with a minimum detectable dose (MDD) limit of 0.1 ..mu..IU/ml. Precision studies using a low TSH control in the 1.8 ..mu..IU/ml range gave CV's of 15.0%. Boots-Celltech Diagnostics method is a two site IRMA using two monoclonal antibodies. The MDD limit is 0.05 ..mu..IU/mlmore » with precision CV's of 29.3% at a TSH control range of 0.62 ..mu..IU/ml. In 24 chemically thyrotoxic patients, the mean serum TSH concentration was significantly lower than in the normal control subjects: for Serono, 0.19 ..mu..IU/ml vs. 2.34 ..mu..IU/ml and for Boots Celltech, 0.18 IU/ml vs 2.06 ..mu..IU/ml. The range of TSH was 0 to 0.5 ..mu..IU/ml in thyrotoxic patients using Serono with the exception of one patient having a TSH value of 0.8 ..mu..IU/ml. The normal range was 0.6 to 6.0 ..mu..IU/ml. For Boots Celltech the thyrotoxic range was 0 to 0.2 ..mu..IU/ml with that same thyrotoxic patient giving a TSH value of 0.7 ..mu..IU/ml with a normal range of 0.6 to 5.0 IU/ml. Serum TSH measurements using both procedures are highly sensitive for distinguishing thyrotoxic patients from normal subjects and are useful to confirm suppressed pituitary function.« less

  3. [A case of GH and TSH secreting pituitary macroadenoma].

    PubMed

    Gołkowski, Filip; Buziak-Bereza, Monika; Stefańska, Agnieszka; Trofimiuk, Małgorzata; Pantofliński, Jacek; Huszno, Bohdan; Czepko, Ryszard; Adamek, Dariusz

    2006-01-01

    A case of GH and TSH secreting pituitary macroadenoma is reported. A 45-year-old female presented clinical features of acromegaly (the abnormal growth of the hands and feet, with lower jaw protrusion), diabetes mellitus, hypertension, nodular goiter and hyperthyroidism of unclear origin. NMR pituitary imaging revealed intra and extrasellar tumor. The laboratory examinations showed very high plasma levels of GH and IGF-1 and normal level of TSH coexisting with high plasma levels of free thyroid hormones. Pharmacological pretreatment with somatostatin analogues caused the substantial reduction of GH and TSH plasma levels. Histological and immunohistochemical examination of the tissue obtained at transsphenoidal surgery showed GH and TSH secreting adenoma. The laboratory examinations after surgery showed normal GH and IGF-1 plasma levels and reduced insulin requirement, what indicates radical operation. The very low plasma levels of TSH and free thyroid hormones after surgery and immunohistochemical examination suggest central hyperthyroidism due to TSH secreting pituitary tumor (thyrotropinoma).

  4. Low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels are associated with lipid profile in depressive patients with long symptom duration.

    PubMed

    Peng, Rui; Li, Yan

    2017-08-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the association between serum thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels with lipid profile in depressive disorder. A total of 370 depressive individuals aged 18 years and above were recruited in this cross-section study. All participants underwent a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and recorded the duration of their symptoms. The serum levels of total cholesterol (TCH), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), lipoprotein A (Lp(a)), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and TSH levels were determined and the ratios of TCH/HDL-C were assessed. Depressed subjects with a symptom duration ≥3 years had higher TG levels, increased TCH/HDL-C ratios and lower levels of HDL-C, FT4 and TSH compared with depressive patients with a symptom duration <3 years. Correlation analysis displayed that TSH is positively and significantly associated with TCH and LDL-C (p<0.05); the above FT4 and FT3 are negatively, significantly and respectively associated with TCH/HDL-C (p<0.05) and TCH, HDL-C, LDL-C (p<0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that serum TG and TSH levels are associated with depressive symptom duration. According to our results,These findings indicate that low serum TSH levels are associated with lipid profile, TG and TSH levels have significant association with symptom duration in depressive patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. SERUM THYROTROPIN CONCENTRATIONS ARE NOT PREDICTIVE OF AGGRESSIVE BREAST CANCER BIOLOGY IN EUTHYROID INDIVIDUALS

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Natalie M.; Li, Ning; Yeh, Michael W.; Hurvitz, Sara A.; Dawson, Nicole A.; Leung, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The potential influence of hypothyroidism on breast cancer remains incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum thyrotropin [thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)] concentration and markers of aggressive breast cancer biology, as defined by receptor expression profile, tumor grade, and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage characteristics. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of patients from 2002–2014. All breast cancer patients who had complete receptor (estrogen receptor, ER; progesterone receptor, PR; and Her2/neu) and pre-diagnosis serum TSH data (n=437) were included. All patients had one of six receptor profiles: ER+ PR+ Her2/neu −, ER+ PR− Her2/neu−, ER+ PR+ Her2/neu+, ER+ PRHer2/ neu+, ER− PR− Her2/neu+, ER− PR− Her2/neu−. Log-transformed serum TSH concentrations were analyzed using multinomial and logistic regressions for a potential relationship with markers of breast cancer aggressiveness. Results Increasing serum TSH concentration was associated with a lower probability of having the receptor expression profile ER+ PR+ Her2/neu+ compared to patients with the ER+ PR+ Her2/neu− profile (OR=0.52, p=0.0045). No significant associations between other receptor expression profiles and serum TSH concentration were found. All time-weighted and unweighted median serum TSH concentrations were within normal limits. No significant associations between serum TSH concentration and tumor grade, overall AJCC stage, or tumor size (T), lymph node positivity (N), or presence of metastasis (M) were observed. Conclusions Serum TSH was not associated with markers of breast cancer aggressiveness in our cohort. PMID:26121443

  6. Serum thyrotropin and thyroid hormone levels in elderly and middle-aged euthyroid persons.

    PubMed

    Hershman, J M; Pekary, A E; Berg, L; Solomon, D H; Sawin, C T

    1993-08-01

    To determine whether serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels are altered in euthyroid older persons compared with middle-aged adults. Serum TSH and thyroid hormone levels were measured in a large group of older persons (> 70 years old, n = 216) and their middle-aged offspring (40-60 years old, n = 211) after excluding those with clinical or historical evidence of thyroid disease or abnormal thyroid function. Serum TSH, thyroxine (T4), free T4 index, estimated free T4, triiodothyronine (T3), estimated free T3, and ferritin levels were measured on the Abbott IMx instrument. Peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies were measured by radioimmunoassay using Kronus kits. Overall, serum TSH showed a log-normal distribution. The geometric mean TSH (mU/L) and 95% confidence limits in the older persons, 1.24 (0.29-5.4), did not differ significantly from that in the middle-aged, 1.45 (0.54-3.9). The mean TSH in the 264 women, 1.37 (0.34-5.5), was similar to that of the 163 men, 1.30 (0.48-3.5). The mean TSH in older women, 1.21 (0.22-6.6), was slightly but significantly lower than that in middle-aged women, 1.52 (0.55-4.2). However, when euthyroid women with positive antibodies were excluded, this difference was not significant. Four of the 123 older women had TSH < 0.1 mU/L, but none of the men or middle-aged women had a suppressed serum TSH. The mean TSH in older men, 1.28 (0.43-3.8), was similar to that in middle-aged men, 1.32 (0.55-3.2). Free T4 was slightly higher in older women than middle-aged women. There were no significant correlations between TSH and any thyroid hormone level. Serum ferritin, measured as a potential marker for the action of thyroid hormone, did not correlate with any measure of thyroid function. At least one antibody level was > 10 U/mL in 14.6% of older women, 15.6% of middle-aged women, 4.3% of older men, and no middle-aged men. When those with milder elevations of antibody levels were included (at least one level > 1 U/mL), the prevalence was 32% of older

  7. The association between soya consumption and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations in the Adventist Health Study-2.

    PubMed

    Tonstad, Serena; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Messina, Mark; Haddad, Ella; Fraser, Gary E

    2016-06-01

    Consumers may choose soya foods as healthful alternatives to animal products, but concern has arisen that eating large amounts of soya may adversely affect thyroid function. The present study aimed to examine the association between soya food consumption and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in North American churchgoers belonging to the Seventh-day Adventist denomination that encourages vegetarianism. Participants completed six repeated 24 h dietary recalls within a 6-month period. Soya protein and soya isoflavone intakes were estimated, and their relationships to TSH concentrations measured at the end of 6 months were calculated using logistic regression analyses. Calibration sub-study of the Adventist Health Study-2. Women (n 548) and men (n 295) who were not taking thyroid medications. In men, age and urinary iodine concentrations were associated with high serum TSH concentrations (>5 mIU/l), while among women White ethnicity was associated with high TSH. In multivariate models adjusted for age, ethnicity and urinary iodine, soya isoflavone and protein intakes were not associated with high TSH in men. In women higher soya isoflavone consumption was associated with higher TSH, with an adjusted odds ratio (highest v. lowest quintile) of 4·17 (95 % CI 1·73, 10·06). Likewise, women with high consumption of soya protein (midpoint of highest quintile, 11 g/d) v. low consumption (midpoint of lowest quintile, 0 g/d) carried increased odds of high TSH (OR=2·69; 95 % CI 1·34, 5·30). In women high consumption of soya was associated with elevated TSH concentrations. No associations between soya intake and TSH were found in men.

  8. Excess TSH causes abnormal skeletal development in young mice with hypothyroidism via suppressive effects on the growth plate.

    PubMed

    Endo, Toyoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2013-09-01

    Hypothyroidism in the young leads to irreversible growth failure. hyt/hyt Mice have a nonfunctional TSH receptor (TSHR) and are severely hypothyroid, but growth retardation was not observed in adult mice. We found that epiphysial cartilage as well as cultured chondrocytes expressed functional TSHR at levels comparable to that seen in the thyroid, and that addition of TSH to cultured chondrocytes suppressed expression of chondrocyte differentiation marker genes such as Sox-9 and type IIa collagen. Next, we compared the long bone phenotypes of two distinct mouse models of hypothyroidism: thyroidectomized (THYx) mice and hyt/hyt mice. Although both THYx and hyt/hyt mice were severely hypothyroid and had similar serum Ca(2+) and growth hormone levels, the tibia was shorter and the proliferating and hypertrophic zones in the growth plate was significantly narrower in THYx mice than in hyt/hyt mice. Supplementation of hyt/hyt mice thyroid hormone resulted in a wider growth plate compared with that of wild-type mice. Expressions of chondrocyte differentiation marker genes Sox-9 and type IIa collagen in growth plate from THYx mice were 52 and 60% lower than those of hyt/hyt mice, respectively. High serum TSH causes abnormal skeletal development in young mice with hypothyroidism via suppressive effects on the growth plate.

  9. Mortality in a complete 4-year follow up of 85-year-old residents of Leiden, classified by serum level of thyrotropin and thyroxine.

    PubMed

    Singer, Richard B

    2006-01-01

    The authors of the source article emphasize the clinical tendency to screen for, detect and treat for thyroid dysfunction in very elderly patients, in which it is a fairly common disorder, often with occult or no symptoms. Published evidence is conflicting on the benefit, if any, of such a program. Accordingly, they devised a prospective, population-based study to determine outcomes, including survival outcome, based on serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine. A cohort of 558 subjects who had their 85th birthday between September 1997 and September 1999 was enrolled after consent of the subject and screening examination that included serum TSH and thyroxine levels. This represented a 79% sample of all 85-year-old residents of Leiden, the Netherlands. Follow up was complete for survival 4 years to the subject's 89th birthday or prior death, although 70 subjects refused the annual re-examination. Thyroid function, disability, cognitive function and number of chronic diseases were analyzed, in addition to mortality, through Cox regression and other statistical methods. In 67 subjects with abnormally high TSH (>4.8 mIU/ L), the mean annual mortality rate was derived as 64 deaths per 1000 per year. In the 491 subjects with normal TSH or low TSH (<0.3 mIU/L), the mean annual mortality rate was derived at 114 per 1000 per year. Laboratory evidence of hypothyroidism (initially low serum thyroxine) was found in only 37 of the 67 subjects. In the 13% of elderly subjects in Leiden with abnormally high serum TSH levels, the mean annual mortality rate was significantly lower than the mortality rate in the 87% of the elderly patients with normal or low serum TSH. The significance is based on 95% confidence levels of the Poisson distribution. The rate in the group with high TSH levels had 16 deaths in 264 person-years of follow up (FU). The majority with normal or low TSH levels had 193 deaths in 1698 person-years of FU.

  10. Validation of an immunoassay for canine thyroid-stimulating hormone and changes in serum concentration following induction of hypothyroidism in dogs.

    PubMed

    Williams, D A; Scott-Moncrieff, C; Bruner, J; Sustarsic, D; Panosian-Sahakian, N; Unver, E; el Shami, A S

    1996-11-15

    To validate a new immunoradiometric assay for canine thyroid-stimulating hormone (cTSH) and to document changes in serum cTSH concentration during induction of hypothyroidism in dogs. Six healthy adult male Beagles. Sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy of the cTSH assay were evaluated in vitro. Hypothyroidism was induced in dogs by i.v. administration of sodium iodide I 131 solution. Subsequently, L-thyroxine was administered orally to normalize serum thyroxine concentrations. The cTSH assay appeared to be specific and was sufficiently sensitive to detect cTSH in the serum of these dogs prior to induction of hypothyroidism. There was a 35-fold increase in mean serum cTSH concentration following induction of hypothyroidism, and 35 days after initiation of thyroid replacement therapy, mean serum cTSH concentration was not significantly greater than mean baseline value. Assay of serum cTSH is likely to prove helpful in the differential diagnosis of primary, secondary, and tertiary hypothyroidism in dogs, and in monitoring response to thyroid hormone replacement treatment.

  11. Diagnostic methods of TSH in thyroid screening tests.

    PubMed

    Matyjaszek-Matuszek, Beata; Pyzik, Aleksandra; Nowakowski, Andrzej; Jarosz, Mirosław J

    2013-01-01

    Reliable and quick thyreologic diagnostics, as well as verification of the effectiveness of the therapy undertaken, is of great importance for the state of health of society. The measurement of plasma TSH is the commonly accepted and most sensitive screening test for primary thyroid disorders, which are the most frequent diseases related to the endocrine glands. At present, the available methods for the determination of TSH are characterized by high sensitivity ≤0.01 µIU/ml and lack of cross-reactivity. However, many drugs and substances, as well as pathological conditions, may affect the TSH level. evaluation of contemporary laboratory methods for the determination of TSH and the principles of interpretation of screening tests. In many countries, the TSH test is the only test performed in the diagnostics of thyroid function; nevertheless, it seems that for genuine and objective assessment of thyroid status the TSH level, together with FT4 level, should be absolutely determined, which allows the differentiation and assessment of the intensity of thyroid function disorders and foresee its consequences. The interpretation of TSH results in screening tests is different in such population groups as: children aged under 14, pregnant women, the elderly, and patients with non-thyroidal illnesses. From among currently used laboratory methods for determination of TSH levels, third generation non-isotopic methods are most frequently recommended, especially the method of immunochemiluminescence.

  12. Serum Spot 14 concentration is negatively associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone level

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Pei-Lung; Chi, Yu-Chao; Han, Der-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Spot 14 (S14) is a protein involved in fatty acid synthesis and was shown to be induced by thyroid hormone in rat liver. However, the presence of S14 in human serum and its relations with thyroid function status have not been investigated. The objectives of this study were to compare serum S14 concentrations in patients with hyperthyroidism or euthyroidism and to evaluate the associations between serum S14 and free thyroxine (fT4) or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. We set up an immunoassay for human serum S14 concentrations and compared its levels between hyperthyroid and euthyroid subjects. Twenty-six hyperthyroid patients and 29 euthyroid individuals were recruited. Data of all patients were pooled for the analysis of the associations between the levels of S14 and fT4, TSH, or quartile of TSH. The hyperthyroid patients had significantly higher serum S14 levels than the euthyroid subjects (median [Q1, Q3]: 975 [669, 1612] ng/mL vs 436 [347, 638] ng/mL, P < 0.001). In univariate linear regression, the log-transformed S14 level (logS14) was positively associated with fT4 but negatively associated with creatinine (Cre), total cholesterol (T-C), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and TSH. The positive associations between logS14 and fT4 and the negative associations between logS14 and Cre, TG, T-C, or TSH remained significant after adjustment with sex and age. These associations were prominent in females but not in males. The logS14 levels were negatively associated with the TSH levels grouped by quartile (ß = −0.3020, P < 0.001). The association between logS14 and TSH quartile persisted after adjustment with sex and age (ß = −0.2828, P = 0.001). In stepwise multivariate regression analysis, only TSH grouped by quartile remained significantly associated with logS14 level. We developed an ELISA to measure serum S14 levels in human. Female patients with hyperthyroidism had higher serum S14 levels

  13. Evaluation of serum free thyroxine and thyrotropin concentrations in the diagnosis of canine hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R M; Mooney, C T

    1999-02-01

    Canine thyroid-stimulating hormone (cTSH), total thyroxine (T4) and free T4 by equilibrium dialysis (fT4d) were measured in serum samples from 107 dogs with clinical signs suggestive of hypothyroidism in which the diagnosis was either confirmed (n = 30) or excluded (n = 77) by exogenous TSH response testing. Median serum total T4 and fT4d concentrations were significantly lower and cTSH significantly higher (P < 0.001) in hypothyroid compared with euthyroid dogs. Differential positive rate analysis determined optimal cut-off values of less than 14.9 nmol/litre (total T4), less than 5.42 pmol/litre (fT4d), greater than 0.68 ng/ml (cTSH), less than 17.3 (T4 to cTSH ratio), and less than 7.5 (fT4d to cTSH ratio) for hypothyroidism. These had a sensitivity and specificity of 100 and 75.3 per cent, 80 and 93.5 per cent, 86.7 and 81.8 per cent, 86.7 and 92.2 per cent, and 80 and 97.4 per cent, respectively, for diagnosing hypothyroidism. Corresponding areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.92, 0.93, 0.87, 0.93 and 0.93. Unexpectedly low cTSH values in hypothyroid dogs may have resulted from concurrent non-thyroidal illness. Unexpectedly high serum cTSH values in the euthyroid dogs might have resulted from recovery from illness or concurrent potentiated sulphonamide therapy. Measurement of endogenous cTSH concentration is a valuable diagnostic tool for canine hypothyroidism if used in association with assessment of T4. Estimation of fT4d added only limited additional information over total T4 measurement.

  14. Low serum free thyroxine level is correlated with lipid profile in depressive patients with suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Peng, Rui; Dai, Wen; Li, Yan

    2018-05-24

    The present research was carried out to observe the relationships between serum free triiothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and lipid profile and suicide risk in depressive subjects. Serum concentrations of albumin, total bilrubin, uric acid, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), FT3, FT4 and TSH were measured in 271 patients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (202 subjects without suicidal behavior and 69 suicide attempters). A significant decrease in serum TC, TG and FT4 levels was found in suicide attempters with major depressive disorder compared with non-suicide attempters (all p < 0.0025). For the other biochemical factors levels (albumin, total bilrubin, uric acid, HDL, LDL, hs-CRP, FT3, and TSH), there were no significant differences between suicide attempters and non-suicide attempters. Relativity analysis suggested that FT4 is positively and significantly correlated with TC (p < 0.0025); TSH is positively associated with HDL (p < 0.0025). Univariate analysis showed that serum TC and FT4 abundances are correlated with the suicide attempts in major depressive subjects. This research demonstrated that the levels of serum TC, TG, and FT4 levels in suicidal patients were greatly decreased compared with patients without suicidal behavior. These findings support the hypothesis that low serum FT4 level affects lipid profile in major depressive patients with suicidal attempt. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and TSH as Risk Factors or Prognostic Markers in Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Danilovic, Debora Lucia Seguro; Ferraz-de-Souza, Bruno; Fabri, Amanda Wictky; Santana, Nathalie Oliveira; Kulcsar, Marco Aurelio; Cernea, Claudio Roberto; Marui, Suemi; Hoff, Ana Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Objective The increasing incidence of thyroid nodules demands identification of risk factors for malignant disease. Several studies suggested the association of higher TSH levels with cancer, but influence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is controversial. This study aimed to identify the relationship of thyroid cancer with higher TSH levels and hypovitaminosis D and to evaluate their influence on prognostic characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC). Methods We retrospectively evaluated 433 patients submitted to thyroidectomy for thyroid nodules. Patients were categorized according to quartiles of TSH and 25OHD levels. Clinicopathological features were analyzed. Results Subjects with thyroid carcinomas were more frequently male and younger compared to those with benign disease. Their median TSH levels were higher and adjusted odds-ratio (OR) for cancer in the highest-quartile of TSH (> 2.4 mUI/mL) was 2.36 (1.36–4.09). Although vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency was prevalent in our cohort (84%), no significant differences in 25OHD levels or quartile distribution were observed between benign and malignant cases. Among 187 patients with PTC, analyses of prognostic features revealed increased risk of lymph nodes metastases for subjects with highest-quartile TSH levels (OR = 3.7, p = 0.029). Decreased 25OHD levels were not overtly associated with poor prognosis in PTC. Conclusions In this cross-sectional cohort, higher TSH levels increased the risk of cancer in thyroid nodules and influenced its prognosis, particularly favoring lymph nodes metastases. On the other hand, no association was found between 25OHD levels and thyroid carcinoma risk or prognosis, suggesting that serum 25OHD determination may not contribute to risk assessment workup of thyroid nodules. PMID:27737011

  16. Effect of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone on serum thyroxin and thyroid scintigraphy in euthyroid cats.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, Ingrid M; Peremans, Kathelijne; Vandermeulen, Eva; Duchateau, Luc; Gommeren, Kris; Daminet, Sylvie

    2009-04-01

    This study investigated the thyroidal response to administration of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH) by means of serum total thyroxine (TT(4)) concentration and pertechnetate uptake by the thyroid gland in six healthy euthyroid spayed female cats. A pertechnetate scan was performed on day 1 to calculate thyroid/salivary gland (T/S) uptake ratio. On day 3, 25 microg rhTSH was injected intravenously. Six hours later the thyroid scan was repeated as on day 1. Blood was drawn for serum TT(4) measurement prior to injection of rhTSH and performance of the pertechnetate scan. Statistically significant differences in mean serum TT(4) concentration, T/S uptake ratio before and 6h after rhTSH administration and T/S uptake ratio between left and right lobes were noted. We can conclude that 25 microg rhTSH increases pertechnetate uptake in the thyroid glands of cats, this should be taken into account when thyroid scintigraphy after rhTSH administration is interpreted.

  17. Ability of the rhTSH stimulation test to predict relapse in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, after long-term follow-up

    PubMed Central

    MARCELINO, MAFALDA; LOPES, ANA FILIPA; MADUREIRA, DEOLINDA; FERREIRA, TERESA C.; LIMBERT, EDWARD; LEITE, VALERIANO

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) following thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation (sTg) has been recommended in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients, however, its routine use remains controversial. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the accuracy of sTg testing following recombinant human (rh) TSH stimulation in DTC patients, with a follow-up of 12.4 years. Retrospective studies were conducted of 125 DTC patients, who underwent rhTSH stimulation testing between 1999 and 2002. The exclusion criteria were: Patients with anti-Tg antibodies, Tg levels >1 ng/ml under TSH suppression and the absence of radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation therapy following surgery. In total, 49 patients were included in the study and all had been previously treated with total or near total thyroidectomy (with or without central neck dissection) and RAI, postoperatively. The Tg functional sensitivity was 1.0 ng/ml. The follow-up for patients was performed annually. During the median follow-up of 12.4 years after the rhTSH stimulation test, nine patients exhibited recurrence (18.4%). Of the nine patients, six exhibited sTg levels >2 ng/ml (positive result) and three exhibited levels <2 ng/ml (negative result). Relapse occurred at a mean of 5.9 years following the rhTSH stimulation test. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value (NPV) of positive sTg were 50 and 91.9%, respectively, with a sensitivity of 66.6% and a specificity of 85.0%. The rhTSH-stimulated Tg levels have a high NPV, allowing the identification of the patients who are free of the tumour. These results are consistent with the previously published data; however, to the best of our knowledge, this is the study with the longest follow-up duration after rhTSH stimulation. PMID:25663898

  18. Variable Suppression of Serum Thyroxine in Female Mice of Different Inbred Strains by Triiodothyronine Administered in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Hamidi, Sepehr; Aliesky, Holly; Chen, Chun-Rong; Rapoport, Basil

    2010-01-01

    Background Recombinant-inbred mouse strains differ in their susceptibility to Graves'-like hyperthyroidism induced by immunization with adenovirus expressing the human thyrotropin (TSH) receptor. Because one genetic component contributing to this susceptibility is altered thyroid sensitivity to TSH receptor agonist stimulation, we wished to quantify thyroid responsiveness to TSH. For such studies, it is necessary to suppress endogenous TSH by administering L-3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (L-T3), with the subsequent decrease in serum thyroxine (T4) reflecting endogenous TSH suppression. Our two objectives were to assess in different inbred strains of mice (i) the extent of serum T4 suppression after L-T3 administration and (ii) the magnitude of serum T4 increase induced by TSH. Methods Mice were tail-bled to establish baseline-serum T4 before L-T3 administration. We initially employed a protocol of L-T3-supplemented drinking water for 7 days. In subsequent experiments, we injected L-T3 intraperitoneally (i.p.) daily for 3 days. Mice were then injected i.p. with bovine TSH (10 mU) and euthanized 5 hours later. Serum T4 was assayed before L-T3 administration, and before and after TSH injection. In some experiments, serum T3 and estradiol were measured in pooled sera. Results Oral L-T3 (3 or 5 μg/mL) suppressed serum T4 levels by 26%–64% in female BALB/c mice but >95% in males. T4 suppression in female B6 mice ranged from 0% to 90%. In C3H mice, L-T3 at 3 μg/mL was ineffective but 5 μg/mL achieved >80% serum T4 reduction. Unlike inbred mice, in outbred CF1 mice the same protocol was more effective: 83% in females and 100% suppression in males. The degree of T4 suppression was unrelated to baseline T4, T3, or estradiol, but was related to mouse weight and postmortem T3, with greater suppression in larger mice (outbred CF1 animals and inbred males). Among females with serum T4 suppression >80%, the increase in serum T4 after TSH injection was greater for BALB

  19. Clinical experience with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH): whole-body scanning with iodine-131.

    PubMed

    Reiners, C; Luster, M; Lassmann, M

    1999-01-01

    Whole-body scanning (WBS) with iodine-131 (I-131) is currently used together with serum thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement in the diagnostic follow-up of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. One of the main disadvantages of I-131 WBS is its requirement of repeated weeks-long withdrawal of thyroid hormone suppression therapy (THST) to raise endogenous thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) production. This results in hypothyroidism and associated abnormalities, discomfort and morbidity. Recently, however, a series of multicentre clinical studies established the efficacy, safety, non-antigenicity, and quality of life benefits of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH, Thyrogen, thyrotropin alfa, Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA, USA) in promoting radioiodine uptake and permitting sensitive I-131 WBS in patients on THST after initial therapy of well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Thus in everyday practice, rhTSH administration may in many cases supersede THST withdrawal as a preparative method for I-131 imaging. With the use of rhTSH, as whenever I-131 WBS is performed, useful and accurate imaging requires meticulous attention to good scanning practices. These include use of appropriate equipment, proper timing, sufficient scanning time, vigilance against artifacts and iodine contamination, and consideration of additional imaging in the case of ambiguous 48-hour scans. Whole-body retention of I-131 is approximately 50% greater during hypothyroidism after THST withdrawal than during euthyroidism on THST and rhTSH. Therefore, it is important to use an adequate diagnostic activity of > or =4 mCi (148 MBq) to compensate for the faster radioiodine clearance in the euthyroid state permitted by rhTSH administration. Ongoing dosimetric research eventually may provide more specific guidance regarding radioiodine activities for diagnostic, and, particularly, therapeutic purposes, with the use of rhTSH.

  20. Short-term preoperative octreotide treatment for TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Noriaki; Horiguchi, Kentaro; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Hisanori; Takeshita, Akira; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Inoshita, Naoko; Yamada, Shozo

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative control of hyperthyroidism in patients with TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHoma) may avoid perioperative thyroid storm. Perioperative administration of octreotide may control hyperthyroidism, as well as shrink tumor size. The effects of preoperative octreotide treatment were assessed in a large number of patients with TSHomas. Of 81 patients who underwent surgery for TSHoma at Toranomon Hospital between January 2001 and May 2013, 44 received preoperative short-term octreotide. After excluding one patient because of side effects, 19 received octreotide as a subcutaneous injection, and 24 as a long-acting release (LAR) injection. Median duration between initiation of octreotide treatment and surgery was 33.5 days. Octreotide normalized free T4 in 36 of 43 patients (84%) and shrank tumors in 23 of 38 (61%). Length of octreotide treatment did not differ significantly in patients with and without hormonal normalization (p=0.09) and with and without tumor shrinkage (p=0.84). Serum TSH and free T4 concentrations, duration of treatment, incidence of growth hormone (GH) co-secretion, results of octreotide loading tests, form of administration (subcutaneous injection or LAR), tumor volume, and tumor consistency did not differ significantly in patients with and without hormonal normalization and with and without tumor shrinkage. Short-term preoperative octreotide administration was highly effective for TSHoma shrinkage and normalization of excess hormone concentrations, with tolerable side effects.

  1. Circulating IGF-1, IGFB-3, GH and TSH levels in multiple sclerosis and their relationship with treatment.

    PubMed

    Akcali, Aylin; Bal, Berrin; Erbagci, Binnur

    2017-07-01

    Improving the proficiency of oligodendrocytes in their ability to repair myelin damage is one of the major goals of multiple sclerosis treatment. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is one of several polypeptides that are considered to have potential benefits in that sense. In the present study, we aimed to determine serum levels of IGF-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and growth hormone (GH) among treated and non-treated patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) and a healthy control group. The study enrolled 100 RRMS patients and 100 age- and sex-matched control subjects diagnosed with definite multiple sclerosis (MS). Serum GH, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and TSH levels were studied. The number of relapses and Expanded Disability Status Scale were negatively correlated and IGFBP-3 and GH were positively correlated with IGF-1. A statistically significant difference was not observed when patients were divided into two subgroups as patients treated with a MS-specific therapy (n = 54) and non-treated patients (n = 46). TSH and IGFBP-3 values were significantly lower in patient group vs. While no difference was determined with in IGF-1 levels, low levels of IGF-1 was in correlation with the least levels of IGFBP-3. To understand the relation between IGF-1 and IGFBP-3, the role of low levels of IGFBP-3 and TSH may be studied with clinic isolated syndrome patients and the evolution of these patients to definite MS.

  2. Targeting thyroid diseases with TSH receptor analogs.

    PubMed

    Galofré, Juan C; Chacón, Ana M; Latif, Rauf

    2013-12-01

    The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) is a major regulator of thyroid function and growth, and is the key antigen in several pathological conditions including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and thyroid tumors. Various effective treatment strategies are currently available for many of these clinical conditions such as antithyroid drugs or radioiodine therapy, but they are not devoid of side effects. In addition, treatment of complications of Graves' disease such as Graves' ophthalmopathy is often difficult and unsatisfactory using current methods. Recent advances in basic research on both in vitro and in vivo models have suggested that TSH analogs could be used for diagnosis and treatment of some of the thyroid diseases. The advent of high-throughput screening methods has resulted in a group of TSH analogs called small molecules, which have the potential to be developed as promising drugs. Small molecules are low molecular weight compounds with agonist, antagonist and, in some cases, inverse agonist activity on TSHR. This short review will focus on current advances in development of TSH analogs and their potential clinical applications. Rapid advances in this field may lead to the conduct of clinical trials of small molecules related to TSHR for the management of Graves' disease, thyroid cancer, and thyroid-related osteoporosis in the coming years. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Mathematical Modeling of the Pituitary–Thyroid Feedback Loop: Role of a TSH-T3-Shunt and Sensitivity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berberich, Julian; Dietrich, Johannes W.; Hoermann, Rudolf; Müller, Matthias A.

    2018-01-01

    Despite significant progress in assay technology, diagnosis of functional thyroid disorders may still be a challenge, as illustrated by the vague upper limit of the reference range for serum thyrotropin (TSH). Diagnostical problems also apply to subjects affected by syndrome T, i.e., those 10% of hypothyroid patients who continue to suffer from poor quality of life despite normal TSH concentrations under substitution therapy with levothyroxine (L-T4). In this paper, we extend a mathematical model of the pituitary–thyroid feedback loop in order to improve the understanding of thyroid hormone homeostasis. In particular, we incorporate a TSH-T3-shunt inside the thyroid, whose existence has recently been demonstrated in several clinical studies. The resulting extended model shows good accordance with various clinical observations, such as a circadian rhythm in free peripheral triiodothyronine (FT3). Furthermore, we perform a sensitivity analysis of the derived model, revealing the dependence of TSH and hormone concentrations on different system parameters. The results have implications for clinical interpretation of thyroid tests, e.g., in the differential diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism. PMID:29619006

  4. Mathematical Modeling of the Pituitary-Thyroid Feedback Loop: Role of a TSH-T3-Shunt and Sensitivity Analysis.

    PubMed

    Berberich, Julian; Dietrich, Johannes W; Hoermann, Rudolf; Müller, Matthias A

    2018-01-01

    Despite significant progress in assay technology, diagnosis of functional thyroid disorders may still be a challenge, as illustrated by the vague upper limit of the reference range for serum thyrotropin ( TSH ). Diagnostical problems also apply to subjects affected by syndrome T, i.e., those 10% of hypothyroid patients who continue to suffer from poor quality of life despite normal TSH concentrations under substitution therapy with levothyroxine ( L - T 4 ). In this paper, we extend a mathematical model of the pituitary-thyroid feedback loop in order to improve the understanding of thyroid hormone homeostasis. In particular, we incorporate a TSH - T 3 -shunt inside the thyroid, whose existence has recently been demonstrated in several clinical studies. The resulting extended model shows good accordance with various clinical observations, such as a circadian rhythm in free peripheral triiodothyronine ( FT 3 ). Furthermore, we perform a sensitivity analysis of the derived model, revealing the dependence of TSH and hormone concentrations on different system parameters. The results have implications for clinical interpretation of thyroid tests, e.g., in the differential diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism.

  5. The widened use of exogenous stimulation with recombinant human TSH to treat metastatic thyroid carcinoma in Italy.

    PubMed

    Maffioli, L; Florimonte, L; Fugazzola, L; Banti, E; Bagnasco, M; Dottorini, M E; Perotti, G; Rubello, D; Seregni, E; Bombardieri, E; Testori, O

    2012-10-01

    Recently, in Italy, the reimbursement for the use of rhTSH in preparing patients for radiometabolic treatment of iodine-avid metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer has been made possible. Intramuscular administration of rhTSH increases the radioiodine uptake and thyroglobulin production by thyroid cells. In addition to the previous indications on the use of rhTSH (mainly: serum thyreoglobulin assay with or without 131I scintigraphy and ablation with 131I of remnants in low risk patients), the reimbursement is now allowed for the treatment with radioiodine of iodine-avid loco-regional and distant metastases, in subjects with inability to reach adequate TSH levels and/or severe clinical conditions which could be potentially worsened by other concurrent diseases (history of stroke or transient ischemic attack, severe cardiac disease, renal failure or major psychiatric disorders). The Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA) approved this use (and added this hormone in the special list of drugs regulated by the D.Lgs 648/96) on the basis of a series of scientific evidences, proposed by a "team of experts". In the present paper we illustrate the scientific background of the use of rhTSH (clinical usefulness, economic considerations, aspects related to a better quality of life) that allowed the modification of the reimbursement and how it was made possible in the Italian legislative context.

  6. Falsely undetectable TSH in a cohort of South Asian euthyroid patients.

    PubMed

    Drees, Julia C; Stone, Judith A; Reamer, C Randy; Arboleda, Victoria E; Huang, Karl; Hrynkow, Jane; Greene, Dina N; Petrie, Matthew S; Hoke, Carolyn; Lorey, Thomas S; Dlott, Richard S

    2014-04-01

    An index case of a clinically euthyroid woman of South Asian descent was identified with discordant TSH results: undetectable TSH on our routine assay and normal TSH on an alternate assay. Low TSH concentrations due to functionally compromising TSH mutations have been reported. Here we describe a new phenomenon of functional TSH that is undetectable by 4 widely used US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved TSH immunoassays marketed by a single vendor. The purpose of this study was to identify additional cases and investigate the cause of the falsely undetectable TSH. All samples with TSH results of <0.01 μIU/mL were retested with a second TSH assay. Discordant samples were evaluated on up to 8 FDA-approved TSH immunoassays and the TSHβ gene was sequenced. Retrospectively, thyroid function tests, diagnoses, and medications from 1.6 million individuals were analyzed. Out of approximately 2 million individuals, we have identified a cohort of 20 hypothyroid and euthyroid patients of shared ethnicity with falsely undetectable TSH (<0.01 μIU/mL) in 4 of 8 commercially available TSH assays. Half of these individuals were initially treated based on repeated falsely undetectable TSH values (7 euthyroid patients were treated with methimazole and 2 hypothyroid patients had doses of levothyroxine decreased). In all cases, a retrospective chart review revealed that clinical assessments and free T4 and total T3 results were inconsistent with the undetectable TSH results. Specific antibodies failing to detect TSH in these cases were identified in the 4 affected assays. A novel TSHβ point mutation was identified. Our data suggest that these individuals have a previously unrecognized, functionally normal, TSH variant to which some monoclonal antibodies fail to bind. To assure appropriate patient management, clinicians and laboratorians need to be aware that certain TSH variants may be undetectable in some hyperselective TSH assays.

  7. Thyroid stimulation with recombinant human thyrotropin in healthy cats, cats with non-thyroidal illness and in cats with low serum thyroxin and azotaemia after treatment of hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, Ingrid M; Vandermeulen, Eva; Peremans, Kathelijne; Daminet, Sylvie

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) stimulation test in healthy cats (group 1), cats with non-thyroidal illness (group 2) and cats with low serum total T(4) (TT(4)) and azotaemia after (131)I treatment (group 3). Serum TT(4) responses and thyroidal pertechnetate uptake after administration of 25 microg rhTSH IV were assessed. Baseline serum TT(4) was significantly lower in group 3 compared with group 1, but not between other group pairs. Serum TT(4) increased significantly in groups 1 and 2 but not in group 3 after rhTSH administration. Post-rhTSH serum TT(4) concentrations differed significantly between groups 1 and 3 and groups 2 and 3, but not between groups 1 and 2. Thyroid/salivary gland uptake ratio (T/S uptake ratio) differed only significantly between groups 1 and 3. Stimulation with rhTSH is valuable to differentiate euthyroidism from iatrogenic hypothyroidism in cats. Copyright 2009 ESFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Serum biomarkers for acute hepatotoxicity of Echis pyramidum snake venom in rats.

    PubMed

    Asmari, Abdulrahman K Al; Khan, Haseeb A; Banah, Faisal A; Buraidi, Ahmed A Al; Manthiri, Rajamohammed A

    2015-01-01

    Echis pyramidum is a venomous viper responsible for most cases of envenomation in Arabian Peninsula. We determined the acute phase (3-6 h) changes in serum markers of liver function including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and bilirubin in adult male Sprague Dawley rats injected with Echis pyramidum venom (EPV) in the doses of 0.00 (control), 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 mg/kg bodyweight. We also analyzed markers of oxidative stress including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total thiols (T-SH) and thiobarbituric acids reactive substances (TBARS) in liver. The results showed significant and dose- and time-dependent increases in serum ALT, ALP and GGT activities after a single injection of EPV. Serum bilirubin was significantly increased by medium and high doses of EVP after 3 h post-injection and then decreased at 6 h. The low dose of EPV neither affected the activity of SOD nor altered the levels of liver T-SH and TBARS, however, it significantly decreased the activity of CAT at 6 h post-injection of EPV. The medium dose of EPV significantly reduced liver SOD activity after 6 h whereas the high dose significantly reduced the SOD activity at 3 h and 6 h post-dosing. Both medium and high doses of EPV caused significant as well as dose- and time-dependent reductions in liver CAT activities. The high dose significantly reduced T-SH and increased TBARS in rat liver. Further studies are warranted to test the pharmacological potential of early phase antioxidant therapy for neutralizing the toxic effects of EPV.

  9. Expression of G(alpha)(s) proteins and TSH receptor signalling in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules with TSH receptor mutations.

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, Hans-Peter; Bergner, Beate; Wonerow, Peter; Paschke, Ralf

    2002-07-01

    Constitutively activating mutations of the thyrotrophin receptor (TSHR) are the main molecular cause of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (HTNs). The G protein coupling is an important and critical step in the TSHR signalling which mainly includes G(alpha)(s), G(alpha)(i) and G(alpha)(q)/11 proteins. We investigated the in vitro consequences of overexpressing G(alpha) proteins on signalling of the wild-type (WT) or mutated TSHR. Moreover, we investigated whether changes in G(alpha) protein expression are pathophysiologically relevant in HTNs or cold thyroid nodules (CTNs). Wild-type TSH receptor and mutated TSH receptors were coexpressed with G(alpha)(s), G(alpha)(i) or G(alpha)(q)/11, and cAMP and inositol phosphate (IP) production was measured after stimulation with TSH. The expression of G(alpha)(s), G(alpha)(i) and G(alpha)(q)/11 proteins was examined by Western blotting in 28 HTNs and 14 CTNs. Coexpression of G(alpha)(s) with the WT TSH receptor in COS 7 cells significantly increased the basal and TSH-stimulated cAMP accumulation while coexpression of the G(alpha)(q) or G(alpha)11 protein significantly increased the production of cAMP and inositol triphosphate (IP(3)). The coexpression of the TSH receptor mutants (I486F, DEL613-621), known to couple constitutively to G(alpha)(s) and G(alpha)(q) with G(alpha)(s) and G(alpha)(q)/11, significantly increased the basal and stimulated cAMP and IP(3) accumulation. Coexpression of the TSH receptor mutant V556F with G(alpha)(s) only increased the basal and stimulated cAMP production while its coexpression with G(alpha)(q)/11 increased the basal and stimulated IP(3) signalling. The expression of G(alpha)(s) protein subunits determined by Western blotting was significantly decreased in 14 HTNs with a constitutively activating TSH receptor mutation in comparison with the corresponding surrounding tissue, while in 14 HTNs without TSH receptor or G(alpha)(s) protein mutation and in 14 CTNs the expression of G

  10. Do TSH, FT3, and FT4 Impact BAT Visualization of Clinical FDG-PET/CT Images?

    PubMed

    Nishii, Ryuichi; Nagamachi, Shigeki; Mizutani, Youichi; Terada, Tamasa; Kiyohara, Syogo; Wakamatsu, Hideyuki; Fujita, Seigo; Higashi, Tatsuya; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Saga, Tsuneo; Hirai, Toshinori

    2018-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed activated BAT visualization on FDG-PET/CT in patients with various conditions and TH levels to clarify the relationships between visualization of BAT on FDG-PET/CT and the effect of TH. Patients who underwent clinical FDG-PET/CT were reviewed and we categorized patients into 5 groups: (i) thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) group; (ii) recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) group; (iii) hypothyroidism group; (iv) hyperthyroidism group; and (v) BAT group. A total of sixty-two FDG-PET/CT imaging studies in fifty-nine patients were performed. To compare each group, gender; age; body weight; serum TSH, FT3, and FT4 levels; and outside temperature were evaluated. No significant visualization of BAT was noted in any of the images in the THW, rhTSH, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism groups. All patients in the BAT group were in a euthyroid state. When the BAT-negative and BAT-positive patient groups were compared, it was noted that the minimum and maximum temperature on the day of the PET study and maximum temperature of the one day before the PET study were significantly lower in BAT-positive group than in all those of other groups. Elevated TSH condition before RIT, hyperthyroidism, or hypothyroidism did not significantly impact BAT visualization of clinical FDG-PET/CT images.

  11. [Monosymptomatic hyperthyroidism and TSH-producing adenoma: successful therapy with octreotide].

    PubMed

    Mayinger, B; Axelos, D; Pavel, M; Hahn, E G; Hensen, J

    1999-01-29

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the central nervous system was performed on a 72-year-old woman who was hyperthyroid without suppression of the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and had complained of a recent onset of headaches. MRI demonstrated a space-occupying lesion, 1 cm in diameter, in the anterior pituitary. The clinical symptoms were marked by a long-standing monosymptomatic illness of rapidly changing mood swings with depressive and manic phases. Endocrinological-biochemical tests showed hyperthyroidism (fT3 10.55 pmol/l and fT4 39 pmol/l) but no TSH suppression (TSH: 2.9 microU/ml). Octreotide scintigraphy documented an activity-rich area in the anterior pituitary and the upper anterior mediastinum. Mediastinal MRI revealed a 5 cm space-occupying mass lying on the right atrium. 131I scintigraphy identified the mass as a retrosternal goitre. As an operation on the anterior pituitary would have carried a high risk for the patient who was in a poor general condition and she had refused to be operated, treatment with octreotide, a long-acting somatostatin analogue, was initiated. This achieved a euthyroid state with partly suppressed TSH, and the patient's emotional swings ceased. If hyperthyroidism coexists with non-suppressed TSH levels, a TSH-producing hypophyseal adenoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis despite its rarity. Octreotide administration is an effective and safe treatment and is the method of choice, especially when there are contraindications to surgical resection of the anterior pituitary.

  12. Serum transthyretin concentration is decreased in dogs with nonthyroidal illness.

    PubMed

    Piechotta, Marion; Jens, Raila; Rick, Markus; Beyerbach, Martin; Hoppen, Hans-Otto

    2012-03-01

    Hypothyroidism in dogs is often difficult to diagnose owing to nonspecific clinical signs and laboratory test results that can be mimicked by nonthyroidal illness (NTI). Thyroxine (T4) circulates in blood mainly bound to T4-binding globulin and, to a lesser degree, transthyretin (TTR) and albumin. The concentration of total T4 depends on the concentrations of these binding proteins. We hypothesized that dogs with NTI and decreased serum total T4 concentrations would have decreased serum TTR concentrations. The objective of the study was to measure and compare serum TTR concentrations in healthy dogs, in dogs with NTI and low serum T4 concentrations, and in dogs with hypothyroidism. Assignment of dogs to 3 groups was based on physical examination and serum concentrations of T4 and TSH (mean ± SD): for healthy dogs (n = 13), T4 was 24.8 ± 3.6 nmol/L and TSH was 0.15 ± 0.08 μg/L; for dogs with NTI and low T4 (n = 20), T4 was 3.2 ± 3.0 nmol/L and TSH was 0.18 ± 0.13 μg/L; and for hypothyroid dogs (n = 19), T4 was 5.3 ± 4.3 nmol/L and TSH was 2.33 ± 1.90 μg/L). TTR concentrations in serum were determined semiquantitatively using western blot analysis. Serum TTR concentration (mean ± SD) was decreased in the dogs with NTI (24.8 ± 7.9 mg/L) compared with that of hypothyroid dogs (41.1 ± 21.4 mg/L, P = .0035). Differences were not found between TTR concentrations in clinically healthy dogs (33.3 ± 10.1 mg/L) and hypothyroid dogs or dogs with NTI. Serum TTR concentrations were significantly decreased in dogs with NTI and low T4 compared with concentrations in hypothyroid dogs. Additional studies should be done to determine if TTR concentrations can discriminate between dogs with NTI and low T4 and dogs with primary hypothyroidism. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  13. High levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone are associated with aortic wall thickness in the general population.

    PubMed

    Ittermann, Till; Lorbeer, Roberto; Dörr, Marcus; Schneider, Tobias; Quadrat, Alexander; Heßelbarth, Lydia; Wenzel, Michael; Lehmphul, Ina; Köhrle, Josef; Mensel, Birger; Völzke, Henry

    2016-12-01

    Our aim was to investigate the association of thyroid function defined by serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with thoracic aortic wall thickness (AWT) as a marker of atherosclerotic processes. We pooled data of 2,679 individuals from two independent population-based surveys of the Study of Health in Pomerania. Aortic diameter and AWT measurements were performed on a 1.5-T MRI scanner at the concentration of the right pulmonary artery displaying the ascending and the descending aorta. TSH, treated as continuous variable, was significantly associated with descending AWT (β = 0.11; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.21), while the association with ascending AWT was not statistically significant (β = 0.20; 95 % CI -0.01-0.21). High TSH (>3.29 mIU/L) was significantly associated with ascending (β = 0.12; 95 % CI 0.02-0.23) but not with descending AWT (β = 0.06; 95 % CI -0.04-0.16). There was no consistent association between TSH and aortic diameters. Our study demonstrated that AWT values increase with increasing serum TSH concentrations. Thus, a hypothyroid state may be indicative for aortic atherosclerosis. These results fit very well to the findings of previous studies pointing towards increased atherosclerotic risk in the hypothyroid state. • Serum TSH concentrations are positively associated with aortic wall thickness. • Serum TSH concentrations are not associated with the aortic diameters. • Serum 3,5-diiodothyronine concentrations may be positively associated with aortic wall thickness.

  14. Associations between metabolic syndrome, serum thyrotropin, and thyroid antibodies status in postmenopausal women, and the role of interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Siemińska, Lucyna; Wojciechowska, Celina; Walczak, Krzysztof; Borowski, Artur; Marek, Bogdan; Nowak, Mariusz; Kajdaniuk, Dariusz; Foltyn, Wanda; Kos-Kudła, Beata

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome increases after menopause; however, the role of concomitant subclinical hypothyroidism has not been completely elucidated. The aim of the study was to identify associations between thyrotropin, immune status, inflammation, and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. The specific goals were: to assess thyrotropin (TSH) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations in the serum of subclinical hypothyroid postmenopausal women with and without metabolic syndrome and compare them with euthyroid controls; to test whether immune status is related to metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women and determine the role of IL-6; to examine the relationships between TSH and different features of metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance, waist circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), BMI, metabolic parameters (triglycerides, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), and inflammatory cytokines (IL-6). Three hundred and seventy-two postmenopausal women were included in the study: 114 women had subclinical hypothyroidism (10.0 uIU/mL > TSH ≥ 4.5 uIU/mL, normal fT4), and 258 women were in euthyreosis (TSH 0.35-4.5 uIU/mL, normal fT4); both groups were matched by age. Anthropometric measurements were conducted (BMI, waist circumference, WHR) and blood pressure was measured. In all subjects the following were assessed in serum: lipid profile, glucose, insulin, TSH, fT4, thyroid antibodies (T-Abs) - TPO-Abs, TG-Abs, and IL-6 concentrations. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 49.12% in subclinical hypothyroid women and 46.89% in euthyroid women. However, the proportion of subjects with one or two abnormalities was significantly higher in the subclinical hypothyroid group (45.61%) than in the euthyroid group (32.17%). When we compared subclinical hypothyroid women with and without metabolic syndrome, subjects with metabolic syndrome had higher BMI, abdominal circumferences, WHR, and HOMA-I. They presented higher systolic and

  15. Thyroid stimulating hormone and serum, plasma, and platelet brain-derived neurotrophic factor during a 3-month follow-up in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Kang, Eun-Suk; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Lee, Dongsoo; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2014-12-01

    Thyroid dysfunction and elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) are common in patients with depression. TSH might exert its function in the brain through blood levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF decreases during depressed states and normalize after treatment. The gap is that the association between TSH and BDNF in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) is unknown. We studied 105 subjects ≥18 years of age with MDD and measured serum, plasma, and platelet BDNF at baseline, 1 month and 3 months during antidepressant treatment. Other baseline measurements included hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis hormones such as TSH, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4); hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hormones and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis hormones and prolactin. Linear mixed model effect analyses revealed that baseline TSH level was negatively associated with changes of serum BDNF from baseline to 3 months (F=7.58, p=0.007) after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index, but was not associated with plasma and platelet BDNF. In contrast, T3 and T4, HPA axis hormones, HPG axis hormones, and prolactin were not associated with serum, plasma, or platelet BDNF levels. Patients in the highest quartile of TSH showed significantly lower serum BDNF than in the other quartiles (F=4.54, p=0.038), but no significant differences were found based on T3 and T4 levels. TSH was only measured at baseline. Higher TSH is associated with lower baseline and reduced the increase of serum BDNF levels during antidepressant treatment in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Do TSH, FT3, and FT4 Impact BAT Visualization of Clinical FDG-PET/CT Images?

    PubMed Central

    Nagamachi, Shigeki; Mizutani, Youichi; Terada, Tamasa; Kiyohara, Syogo; Wakamatsu, Hideyuki; Fujita, Seigo; Higashi, Tatsuya; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Saga, Tsuneo; Hirai, Toshinori

    2018-01-01

    Objective We retrospectively analyzed activated BAT visualization on FDG-PET/CT in patients with various conditions and TH levels to clarify the relationships between visualization of BAT on FDG-PET/CT and the effect of TH. Methods Patients who underwent clinical FDG-PET/CT were reviewed and we categorized patients into 5 groups: (i) thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) group; (ii) recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) group; (iii) hypothyroidism group; (iv) hyperthyroidism group; and (v) BAT group. A total of sixty-two FDG-PET/CT imaging studies in fifty-nine patients were performed. To compare each group, gender; age; body weight; serum TSH, FT3, and FT4 levels; and outside temperature were evaluated. Results No significant visualization of BAT was noted in any of the images in the THW, rhTSH, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism groups. All patients in the BAT group were in a euthyroid state. When the BAT-negative and BAT-positive patient groups were compared, it was noted that the minimum and maximum temperature on the day of the PET study and maximum temperature of the one day before the PET study were significantly lower in BAT-positive group than in all those of other groups. Conclusions Elevated TSH condition before RIT, hyperthyroidism, or hypothyroidism did not significantly impact BAT visualization of clinical FDG-PET/CT images. PMID:29666563

  17. Plasmapheresis rapidly eliminates thyroid hormones from the circulation, but does not affect the speed of TSH recovery following prolonged suppression.

    PubMed

    Liel, Yair; Weksler, Natan

    2003-01-01

    To report an attempt to shorten the preparation interval before radioactive iodine administration using plasmapheresis in a 77-year-old woman with a history of papillary thyroid carcinoma with local recurrence and lung metastases, in whom the administration of a high dose of radioactive iodine was intended as a desperate rescue procedure. The patient was initially started on cholestyramine. Two days later, plasmapheresis was performed. Plasmapheresis rapidly decreased free tri-iodothyronine (FT(3)) and free thyroxine (FT(4)). Serum FT(4) subsequently remained low, while FT(3) recovered the next day. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) reached 25 mIU/l in 14 days, which is within the time frame required to reach the target TSH level by withdrawing levothyroxine alone. Plasmapheresis is very effective in eliminating thyroid hormones from the circulation. However, it does not seem to accelerate thyrotroph recovery to a considerable extent after prolonged suppression. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. An Enantiomer of an Oral Small-Molecule TSH Receptor Agonist Exhibits Improved Pharmacologic Properties.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Susanne; Padia, Umesh; Cullen, Mary Jane; Eliseeva, Elena; Nir, Eshel A; Place, Robert F; Morgan, Sarah J; Gershengorn, Marvin C

    2016-01-01

    We are developing an orally available small-molecule, allosteric TSH receptor (TSHR) agonist for follow-up diagnostics of patients with thyroid cancer. The agonist C2 (NCGC00161870) that we have studied so far is a racemic mixture containing equal amounts of two enantiomers, E1 and E2. As enantiomers of many drugs exhibit different pharmacologic properties, we assessed the properties of E1 and E2. We separated the two enantiomers by chiral chromatography and determined E2 as the (S)-(+) isomer via crystal structure analysis. E1 and E2 were shown to bind differently to a homology model of the transmembrane domain of TSHR in which E2 was calculated to exhibit lower binding energy than E1 and was, therefore, predicted to be more potent than E1. In HEK293 cells expressing human TSHRs, C2, E1, and E2 were equally efficacious in stimulating cAMP production, but their potencies were different. E2 was more potent (EC50 = 18 nM) than C2 (EC50 = 46 nM), which was more potent than E1 (EC50 = 217 nM). In primary cultures of human thyrocytes, C2, E1, and E2 stimulated increases in thyroperoxidase mRNA of 92-, 55-, and 137-fold and in sodium-iodide symporter mRNA of 20-, 4-, and 121-fold above basal levels, respectively. In mice, C2 stimulated an increase in radioactive iodine uptake of 1.5-fold and E2 of 2.8-fold above basal level, whereas E1 did not have an effect. C2 stimulated an increase in serum T4 of 2.4-fold, E1 of 1.9-fold, and E2 of 5.6-fold above basal levels, and a 5-day oral dosing regimen of E2 increased serum T4 levels comparable to recombinant human TSH (rhTSH, Thyrogen(®)). Thus, E2 is more effective than either C2 or E1 in stimulating thyroid function and as efficacious as rhTSH in vivo. E2 represents the next step toward developing an oral drug for patients with thyroid cancer.

  19. The TSH levels and risk of hypothyroidism: Results from a population based prospective cohort study in an Iranian adult's population.

    PubMed

    Aminorroaya, Ashraf; Meamar, Rokhsareh; Amini, Massoud; Feizi, Awat; Nasri, Maryam; Tabatabaei, Azamosadat; Faghihimani, Elham

    2017-06-01

    The aim of current study was to assess the relationship between serum TSH levels and hypothyroidism risk in the euthyroid population. In a population-based cohort study, a total of 615 individuals with a normal baseline TSH, from of total population (n=2254) in 2006, were followed up for 6years. TSH, total T4, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) were measured. The relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated based on logistic regression. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis along with area under the curve (AUC) was used to prediction of future hypothyroidism. TSH level in 2006 was a significant predictor for overt hypothyroidism, in the total population (RR=3.5) and female (RR=1.37) (all, P value<0.05). A cutoff value of TSH at 2.05mIU/L [AUC: (CI95 %), 0.68 (0.44-0.92; P=0.05)] was obtained for differentiating the patients with overt hypothyroidism from euthyroid. However, this cut off was not observed when we included only negative TPO and TgAbs people in 2006. The RR of hypothyroidism increased gradually when TSH level increased from 2.06-3.6mIU/L to >3.6mIU/L in the total population and both sexes. In women, the risk of overt hypothyroidism was significantly higher in subjects with TSH above 3.6 than those subject with THS levels≤2.05 [RR: (CI95 %), 20.57(2.-207.04), P value<0.05]. A cutoff value of TSH at 2.05mIU/L could predict the development of overt hypothyroidism in future. However, it was not applicable for people with negative TPOAb and negative TgAb. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Selective TSH Receptor Antagonist Inhibits Stimulation of Thyroid Function in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Susanne; Nir, Eshel A.; Eliseeva, Elena; Huang, Wenwei; Marugan, Juan; Xiao, Jingbo; Dulcey, Andrés E.

    2014-01-01

    Because the TSH receptor (TSHR) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of thyroid disease, a TSHR antagonist could be a novel treatment. We attempted to develop a small molecule, drug-like antagonist of TSHR signaling that is selective and active in vivo. We synthesized NCGC00242364 (ANTAG3) by chemical modification of a previously reported TSHR antagonist. We tested its potency, efficacy, and selectivity in a model cell system in vitro by measuring its activity to inhibit stimulation of cAMP production stimulated by TSH, LH, or FSH. We tested the in vivo activity of ANTAG3 by measuring its effects to lower serum free T4 and thyroid gene expression in female BALB/c mice continuously treated with ANTAG3 for 3 days and given low doses of TRH continuously or stimulated by a single administration of a monoclonal thyroid-stimulating antibody M22. ANTAG3 was selective for TSHR inhibition; half-maximal inhibitory doses were 2.1 μM for TSHR and greater than 30 μM for LH and FSH receptors. In mice treated with TRH, ANTAG3 lowered serum free T4 by 44% and lowered mRNAs for sodium-iodide cotransporter and thyroperoxidase by 75% and 83%, respectively. In mice given M22, ANTAG3 lowered serum free T4 by 38% and lowered mRNAs for sodium-iodide cotransporter and thyroperoxidase by 73% and 40%, respectively. In conclusion, we developed a selective TSHR antagonist that is effective in vivo in mice. This is the first report of a small-molecule TSHR antagonist active in vivo and may lead to a drug to treat Graves' disease. PMID:24169564

  1. A selective TSH receptor antagonist inhibits stimulation of thyroid function in female mice.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Susanne; Nir, Eshel A; Eliseeva, Elena; Huang, Wenwei; Marugan, Juan; Xiao, Jingbo; Dulcey, Andrés E; Gershengorn, Marvin C

    2014-01-01

    Because the TSH receptor (TSHR) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of thyroid disease, a TSHR antagonist could be a novel treatment. We attempted to develop a small molecule, drug-like antagonist of TSHR signaling that is selective and active in vivo. We synthesized NCGC00242364 (ANTAG3) by chemical modification of a previously reported TSHR antagonist. We tested its potency, efficacy, and selectivity in a model cell system in vitro by measuring its activity to inhibit stimulation of cAMP production stimulated by TSH, LH, or FSH. We tested the in vivo activity of ANTAG3 by measuring its effects to lower serum free T4 and thyroid gene expression in female BALB/c mice continuously treated with ANTAG3 for 3 days and given low doses of TRH continuously or stimulated by a single administration of a monoclonal thyroid-stimulating antibody M22. ANTAG3 was selective for TSHR inhibition; half-maximal inhibitory doses were 2.1 μM for TSHR and greater than 30 μM for LH and FSH receptors. In mice treated with TRH, ANTAG3 lowered serum free T4 by 44% and lowered mRNAs for sodium-iodide cotransporter and thyroperoxidase by 75% and 83%, respectively. In mice given M22, ANTAG3 lowered serum free T4 by 38% and lowered mRNAs for sodium-iodide cotransporter and thyroperoxidase by 73% and 40%, respectively. In conclusion, we developed a selective TSHR antagonist that is effective in vivo in mice. This is the first report of a small-molecule TSHR antagonist active in vivo and may lead to a drug to treat Graves' disease.

  2. Thyrotropin serum levels are differentially associated with biochemical markers of bone turnover and stiffness in women and men: results from the SHIP cohorts.

    PubMed

    Tsourdi, E; Wallaschofski, H; Rauner, M; Nauck, M; Pietzner, M; Rettig, R; Ittermann, T; Völzke, H; Völker, U; Hofbauer, L C; Hannemann, A

    2016-02-01

    In two large German population-based cohorts, we showed positive associations between serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations and the Fracture Risk Assessment score (FRAX) in men and positive associations between TSH concentrations and bone turnover markers in women. The role of thyroid hormones on bone stiffness and turnover is poorly defined. Existing studies are confounded by differences in design and small sample size. We assessed the association between TSH serum concentrations and bone stiffness and turnover in the SHIP cohorts, which are two population-based cohorts from a region in Northern Germany comprising 2654 men and women and 3261 men and women, respectively. We calculated the bone stiffness index using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the calcaneus, employed FRAX score for assessment of major osteoporotic fractures, and measured bone turnover markers, N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteocalcin, and type I collagen cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX) in all subjects and sclerostin in a representative subgroup. There was no association between TSH concentrations and the stiffness index in both genders. In men, TSH correlated positively with the FRAX score both over the whole TSH range (p < 0.01) and within the reference TSH range (p < 0.01). There were positive associations between TSH concentrations and P1NP, BAP, osteocalcin, and CTX (p < 0.01) in women but not in men. There was no significant association between TSH and sclerostin levels. TSH serum concentrations are associated with gender-specific changes in bone turnover and stiffness.

  3. TSH-controlled L-thyroxine therapy reduces cholesterol levels and clinical symptoms in subclinical hypothyroidism: a double blind, placebo-controlled trial (Basel Thyroid Study).

    PubMed

    Meier, C; Staub, J J; Roth, C B; Guglielmetti, M; Kunz, M; Miserez, A R; Drewe, J; Huber, P; Herzog, R; Müller, B

    2001-10-01

    This study evaluated the effect of physiological, TSH-guided, L-thyroxine treatment on serum lipids and clinical symptoms in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Sixty-six women with proven subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH, 11.7 +/- 0.8 mIU/liter) were randomly assigned to receive L-thyroxine or placebo for 48 wk. Individual L-thyroxine replacement (mean dose, 85.5 +/- 4.3 microg/d) was performed based on blinded TSH monitoring, resulting in euthyroid TSH levels (3.1 +/- 0.3 mIU/liter). Lipid concentrations and clinical scores were measured before and after treatment. Sixty-three of 66 patients completed the study. In the L-thyroxine group (n = 31) total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly reduced [-0.24 mmol/liter, 3.8% (P = 0.015) and -0.33 mmol/liter, 8.2% (P = 0.004), respectively]. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol decrease was more pronounced in patients with TSH levels greater than 12 mIU/liter or elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at baseline. A significant decrease in apolipoprotein B-100 concentrations was observed (P = 0.037), whereas high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein AI, and lipoprotein(a) levels remained unchanged. Two clinical scores assessing symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism (Billewicz and Zulewski scores) improved significantly (P = 0.02). This is the first double blind study to show that physiological L-thyroxine replacement in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism has a beneficial effect on low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism. An important risk reduction of cardiovascular mortality of 9-31% can be estimated from the observed improvement in low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  4. Super-sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for thyroid-stimulating hormone utilizing europium(III) nanoparticle labels achieved by protein corona stabilization, short binding time, and serum preprocessing.

    PubMed

    Näreoja, Tuomas; Rosenholm, Jessica M; Lamminmäki, Urpo; Hänninen, Pekka E

    2017-05-01

    Thyrotropin or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is used as a marker for thyroid function. More precise and more sensitive immunoassays are needed to facilitate continuous monitoring of thyroid dysfunctions and to assess the efficacy of the selected therapy and dosage of medication. Moreover, most thyroid diseases are autoimmune diseases making TSH assays very prone to immunoassay interferences due to autoantibodies in the sample matrix. We have developed a super-sensitive TSH immunoassay utilizing nanoparticle labels with a detection limit of 60 nU L -1 in preprocessed serum samples by reducing nonspecific binding. The developed preprocessing step by affinity purification removed interfering compounds and improved the recovery of spiked TSH from serum. The sensitivity enhancement was achieved by stabilization of the protein corona of the nanoparticle bioconjugates and a spot-coated configuration of the active solid-phase that reduced sedimentation of the nanoparticle bioconjugates and their contact time with antibody-coated solid phase, thus making use of the higher association rate of specific binding due to high avidity nanoparticle bioconjugates. Graphical Abstract We were able to decrease the lowest limit of detection and increase sensitivity of TSH immunoassay using Eu(III)-nanoparticles. The improvement was achieved by decreasing binding time of nanoparticle bioconjugates by small capture area and fast circular rotation. Also, we applied a step to stabilize protein corona of the nanoparticles and a serum-preprocessing step with a structurally related antibody.

  5. Are lower TSH cutoffs in neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism warranted?

    PubMed Central

    Lain, Samantha; Trumpff, Caroline; Grosse, Scott D; Olivieri, Antonella; Van Vliet, Guy

    2018-01-01

    When newborn screening (NBS) for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) using thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) as a primary screening test was introduced, typical TSH screening cutoffs were 20–50 U/L of whole blood. Over the years, lowering of TSH cutoffs has contributed to an increased prevalence of detected CH. However, a consensus on the benefit deriving from lowering TSH cutoffs at screening is lacking. The present paper outlines arguments both for and against the lowering of TSH cutoffs at NBS. It includes a review of recently published evidence from Australia, Belgium and Italy. A section focused on economic implications of lowering TSH cutoffs is also provided. One issue that bears further examination is the extent to which mild iodine deficiency at the population level might affect the association of neonatal TSH values with cognitive and developmental outcomes. A debate on TSH cutoffs provides the opportunity to reflect on how to make NBS for CH more effective and to guarantee optimum neurocognitive development and a good quality of life to babies with mild as well as with severe CH. All authors of this debate article agree on the need to establish optimal TSH cutoffs for screening programs in various settings and to ensure the benefits of screening and access to care for newborns worldwide. PMID:28694389

  6. Eliciting an antibody response against a recombinant TSH containing fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Mard-Soltani, Maysam; Rasaee, Mohamad Javad; Sheikhi, AbdolKarim; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Designing novel antigens to rise specific antibodies for Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) detection is of great significance. A novel fusion protein consisting of the C termini sequence of TSH beta subunit and a fusion sequence was designed and produced for rabbit immunization. Thereafter, the produced antibodies were purified and characterized for TSH detection. Our results indicate that the produced antibody is capable of sensitive and specific detection of TSH with low cross reactivity. This study underscores the applicability of designed fusion protein for specific and sensitive polyclonal antibody production and the importance of selecting an amenable region of the TSH for immunization.

  7. Termitarium-inhabiting Bacillus endophyticus TSH42 and Bacillus cereus TSH77 colonizing Curcuma longa L.: isolation, characterization, and evaluation of their biocontrol and plant-growth-promoting activities.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Ankit Kumar; Maheshwari, Dinesh Kumar; Kim, Kangmin; Bajpai, Vivek K

    2016-10-01

    Bacillus strains were isolated from termitarium soil and screened for their antifungal activity through the production of diffusible and volatile metabolites. Further, the bacterial strains that showed antifungal activity were evaluated for their biocontrol potential on the basis of their plant-growth-promoting attributes. Termitarium-inhabiting Bacillus strains TSH42 and TSH77 significantly reduced the growth of pathogenic fungus Fusarium solani, controlled the symptoms of rhizome rot in turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), and demonstrated various plant-growth-promoting traits in different in vitro assays. On the basis of morphological, physiological, biochemical, and 16S rDNA characteristics, isolates TSH42 and TSH77 were identified as Bacillus endophyticus (KT379993) and Bacillus cereus (KT379994), respectively. Through liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis, acidified cell-free culture filtrate (CFCF) of B. cereus TSH77 was shown to contain surfactin and fengycin, while CFCF of B. endophyticus TSH42 contained iturin in addition to surfactin and fengycin. Treatment of the turmeric (C. longa L.) plants with TSH42 and TSH77 significantly reduced the percentage incidence of rhizome rot disease caused by F. solani. The same treatment also increased the fresh rhizome biomass and plant growth in greenhouse conditions.

  8. Stability of selected serum hormones and lipids after long-term storage in the Janus Serum Bank.

    PubMed

    Gislefoss, Randi E; Grimsrud, Tom K; Mørkrid, Lars

    2015-04-01

    The potential value of a biobank depends on the quality of the samples, i.e. how well they reflect the biological or biochemical state of the donors at the time of sampling. Documentation of sample quality has become a particularly important issue for researchers and users of biobank studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term stability of selected components: cholesterol, high density cholesterol (HDLC), low density cholesterol (LDLC), apolipoprotein A1 (apo-A1), apolipoprotein B (apo B), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxin (FT4). Samples, stored at -25°C, from 520 men aged 40-49 years at blood sampling distributed in equally sized groups (n=130) according to length of storage, 0, 4, 17 and 29 years, respectively, were used in a cross sectional design. The freshly collected serum samples were used as a reference group to calculate storage related changes. The differences between fresh samples and samples stored for 29 years were substantial for apo-A1 (+12%), apo-B (+22.3%), HDLC (-69.2%), LDLC (+31.3%), and PRL (-33.5%), while total cholesterol, FSH, LH, TSH and FT4 did not show any significant difference. The study showed large differences in serum level of the selected components. The lipids and apolipoproteins were all changed except for total cholesterol. Most hormones investigated (FSH, LH, TSH and FT4) proved to be stable after 29 years of storage while PRL showed sign of degradation. The observed differences are probably due to long-term storage effects and/or external factors (i.e. diet and smoking). Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Negative correlation between bone mineral density and TSH receptor antibodies in long-term euthyroid postmenopausal women with treated Graves’ disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Thyrotoxicosis is a cause of secondary osteoporosis. High concentrations of triiodotironine (T3) in Graves’ disease stimulate bone turnover, but it is unclear if euthyroidism will always normalize bone metabolism. Thyrotropin (TSH) is known to affect directly the bone metabolism through the TSH receptor and TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb) may have an important role in bone turn-over. The aim of our study was to determine, in pre and postmenopausal euthyroidism patients with previous overt hyperthyroidism due to Graves’ disease the bone mineral density (BMD) as well as factors that could affect BMD in each group, including TRAb. Methods Cross-sectional, non-interventional study. Fifty-seven patients with previous hyperthyroidism due to Graves’ disease (premenopausal: 30, postmenopausal: 27) that remained euthyroid for at least 6 months prior to study were included and compared with fifty- two matched respective controls. Thyrotoxine (T4), TSH, TRAb and BMD were measured. Results Only euthyroid postmenopausal patients with a history of hyperthyroidism due to Graves’ disease showed lower whole body BMD than matched controls. The BMD expressed as Z-score was less in whole body and lumbar spine in postmenopausal in relation to premenopausal women with previous overt hyperthyroidism due to Graves’ disease. In the postmenopausal patients, the Z-score of lumbar spine BMD correlated negatively with TRAb (r = −0,53, p < 0.008), positively with the time of evolution of the disease (r = +0.42, p < 0.032) and positively with the time of euthyroidism (r = + 0.50, p < 0.008), but neither with serum T4 nor TSH. In a multiple regression analysis TRAb was the only significant independent variable in relation to lumbar spine BMD (F = 3. 90, p < 0.01). Conclusions In euthyroid women with a history of Graves’ hyperthyroidism, BMD was only affected in the postmenopausal group. The negative correlation of Z-score of lumbar spine BMD with TRAb suggests that this

  10. Serum microRNA profiles in athyroid patients on and off levothyroxine therapy.

    PubMed

    Massolt, Elske T; Chaker, Layal; Visser, Theo J; Gillis, Ad J M; Dorssers, Lambert C J; Beukhof, Carolien M; Kam, Boen L R; Franssen, Gaston J; Brigante, Giulia; van Ginhoven, Tessa M; Visser, W Edward; Looijenga, Leendert H J; Peeters, Robin P

    2018-01-01

    Levothyroxine replacement treatment in hypothyroidism is unable to restore physiological thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations in serum and tissues completely. Normal serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations reflect only pituitary euthyroidism and, therefore, novel biomarkers representing tissue-specific thyroid state are needed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding regulatory RNAs, exhibit tissue-specific expression patterns and can be detectable in serum. Previous studies have demonstrated differential expression of (precursors of) miRNAs in tissues under the influence of thyroid hormone. To study if serum miRNA profiles are changed in different thyroid states. We studied 13 athyroid patients (6 males) during TSH suppressive therapy and after 4 weeks of thyroid hormone withdrawal. A magnetic bead capture system was used to isolate 384 defined miRNAs from serum. Subsequently, the TaqMan Array Card 3.0 platform was used for profiling after individual target amplification. Mean age of the subjects was 44.0 years (range 20-61 years). Median TSH levels were 88.9 mU/l during levothyroxine withdrawal and 0.006 mU/l during LT4 treatment with a median dosage of 2.1 μg/kg. After normalization to allow inter-sample analysis, a paired analysis did not demonstrate a significant difference in expression of any of the 384 miRNAs analyzed on and off LT4 treatment. Although we previously showed an up-regulation of pri-miRNAs 133b and 206 in hypothyroid state in skeletal muscle, the present study does not supply evidence that thyroid state also affects serum miRNAs in humans.

  11. Seasonal Changes in Serum Thyrotropin Concentrations Observed from Big Data Obtained During Six Consecutive Years from 2010 to 2015 at a Single Hospital in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Ai; Noh, Jaeduk Yoshimura; Watanabe, Natsuko; Iwaku, Kenji; Kunii, Yo; Ohye, Hidemi; Suzuki, Miho; Matsumoto, Masako; Suzuki, Nami; Sugino, Kiminori; Thienpont, Linda M; Hishinuma, Akira; Ito, Koichi

    2018-04-01

    This study analyzed big data for serum thyrotropin (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT3), and free thyroxine (fT4) concentrations in patients who had attended the outpatient clinic of Ito Hospital (Tokyo, Japan) during a recent six-year period (between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2015) in order to investigate for seasonal changes. The serum TSH concentrations were reviewed for all 135,417 patients aged >20 years. Patients with any thyroid diseases were included, irrespective of whether they were receiving drug therapy. In total 1,637,721 serum samples were analyzed for TSH, 1,626,269 for fT3, and 1,669,381 for fT4. It was observed that the TSH concentrations showed annual changes during the six-year period. They decreased during the summer, while they increased during the winter. The TSH concentrations were negatively correlated with the daily temperatures (Spearman rank correlation coefficient -0.4486; p < 0.0001). The same applied for the correlation between fT3 concentrations and daily temperatures. The fact that the TSH concentrations show annual changes in areas where the temperature ranges during the year are rather wide should be borne in mind for interpretation of results.

  12. TSH evaluation in hypothyroid patients assuming liquid levothyroxine at breakfast or 30 min before breakfast.

    PubMed

    Pirola, I; Gandossi, E; Brancato, D; Marini, F; Cristiano, A; Delbarba, A; Agosti, B; Castellano, M; Cappelli, C

    2018-03-26

    To compare TSH levels of hypothyroid patients treated with liquid LT4 at breakfast or 30 min before breakfast. Subjects, aged 18-75 years old, were eligible if they presented hypothyroidism, due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis or after thyroidectomy for proven benign goiter. Seven hundred ninety-eight patients were recruited and enrolled in the study. Thirty-seven subjects withdrew from the trial. A total of 761 patients (mean age 46.2 ± 10.8 years) completed the study. The starting dose of LT4 was determined through clinical judgment, taking into account TSH levels, estimated residual thyroid function, age, body weight and comorbidities. All patients underwent TSH, fT4, and fT3 evaluation to verify achievement of euthyroidism with their initial fasting state assumption of LT4 after 8 weeks of therapy. If euthyroidism was not achieved, an appropriately adjusted LT4 dose was administered for 8 weeks, after which thyroid function parameters were checked again. If euthyroidism was achieved, the patients were asked to take LT4 at breakfast and hormone levels were checked again after 6 months. At the end of the study period, no significant differences in serum TSH level were observed whether LT4 was ingested at breakfast or 30 min prior in a fasting state: 2.61 ± 1.79 vs. 2.54 ± 1.86 mIU/L, respectively (p = 0.455). This study confirms in a large set of patients that a liquid LT4 formulation can be taken directly at breakfast and potentially improve therapeutic compliance.

  13. Reference Values for TSH and Free Thyroid Hormones in Healthy Pregnant Women in Poland: A Prospective, Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Kostecka-Matyja, Marta; Fedorowicz, Anna; Bar-Andziak, Ewa; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Buziak-Bereza, Monika; Dumnicka, Paulina; Górska, Maria; Krasnodębska, Małgorzata; Niedźwiedzka, Beata; Pach, Dorota; Ruchała, Marek; Siewko, Katarzyna; Solnica, Bogdan; Sowiński, Jerzy; Szelachowska, Małgorzata; Trofimiuk-Müldner, Małgorzata; Wachowiak-Ochmańska, Katarzyna; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja

    2017-04-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases in pregnant women remains a challenge. Various medical associations recommend establishing the reference intervals for thyroid hormones by a local laboratory. Considering differences within geophysical, socioeconomic conditions, and iodine prophylaxis in various populations, it is advisable to assess reference intervals for thyroid hormones specific to a region of residence. The objective was to assess trimester-specific reference intervals for TSH, fT 3 , and fT 4 for pregnant women in the Polish population. We conducted a prospective study in 4 centers representing different regions of Poland (Krakow, Warsaw, Poznan, and Bialystok). Our study included consecutive, healthy pregnant women (172 patients), with an age range of 27-47 years. All women had a negative history for thyroid diseases, normal thyroid peroxidase antibody levels, and proper iodine prophylaxis. All newborns had TSH levels in the appropriate reference range. Serum TSH, fT 3 , fT 4 , and thyroid-peroxidase antibodies were measured in each trimester. The reference intervals were calculated using the percentile method, as recommended by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry. The reference values calculated were 0.009-3.177, 0.05-3.442, and 0.11-3.53 mIU/L for TSH; 3.63-6.55, 3.29-5.45, and 3.1-5.37 pmol/L for fT 3 ; and 11.99-21.89, 10.46-16.67, and 8.96-17.23 pmol/L for fT 4 in consecutive trimesters of pregnancy. Reference intervals for pregnant women when compared to the general population showed a lower concentration of TSH in every trimester of pregnancy and lower fT 4 in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Using appropriate trimester-specific reference intervals may improve care of pregnant women by preventing misdiagnosis and inadequate treatment.

  14. Thyroid storm induced by TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fujio, Shingo; Ashari; Habu, Mika; Yamahata, Hitoshi; Moinuddin, F M; Bohara, Manoj; Arimura, Hiroshi; Nishijima, Yui; Arita, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHomas) are uncommon tumors of the anterior pituitary gland. Patients with TSHomas may present with hyperthyroidism, but the incidence of thyroid storm due to TSHomas has yet to be determined. We report a rare case of thyroid storm caused by TSHoma in a 54-year-old woman. Preoperatively she had symptoms of excessive sweating and palpitation. Blood tests showed inappropriate secretion of TSH with blood TSH 6.86 μ U/mL, fT3 19.8 pg/mL, and fT4 5.95 ng/dL. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a pituitary tumor with maximum diameter of 13 mm that was extirpated through transsphenoidal route. After operation the patient was stuporous and thyroid storm occurred presenting with hyperthermia, hypertension, and tachycardia. It was well managed with nicardipine, midazolam, steroids, and potassium iodide. Immunohistochemical staining of tumor specimen was positive for TSH and growth hormone (GH). One year after operation, fT3 and fT4 levels were still high. As her tumor was diagnosed to be GH- and TSH-producing adenoma, octreotide injection therapy was started, which normalized thyroid hormone levels. This is the second reported case with thyroid storm due to TSHoma and emphasizes the importance of strategies with interdisciplinary cooperation for prevention of such emergency conditions.

  15. [Low levels of TSH measured by a sensitive assay: do they reflect hyperthyroidism? A critical analysis of 580 cases].

    PubMed

    Rohmer, V; Ligeard-Ducoroy, A; Perdrisot, R; Beldent, V; Jallet, P; Bigorgne, J C

    1990-05-12

    Highly sensitive TSH assays make it easier to diagnose thyroid diseases. During one year, we performed 5,300 sensitive TSH assays (normal range: 0.15-4 mU/l) in various patients. The purpose of this work was to test the value of the low TSH plasma concentrations found in 580 patients. In 99.7 percent of the cases, low TSH levels were the consequence of a thyroid disorder or a treatment by thyroid hormones; non thyroidal illnesses were detected in only 0.3 percent. However, not all TSH values below 0.15 mU/l were associated with overt or occult thyrotoxicosis. When TSH was undetectable (less than 0.04 mU/l), and excluding thyroid hormone-treated patients, thyrotoxicosis was present in 97 percent of the cases. On the other hand, when TSH values were between 0.04 and 0.15 mU/l, 41 percent of the patients failed to show any sign or symptom of hyperthyroidism, although they had functioning thyroid nodules, multinodular goitre or iodine overload, or they received thyroid hormones.

  16. TSH-induced cyclic AMP production in an ovine thyroid cell line: OVNIS 5H.

    PubMed

    Fayet, G; Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S

    1986-01-06

    The TSH-induced cyclic AMP response was studied using a 3-year-old ovine thyroid cell line TSH-independent for growth: OVNIS 5H. The kinetics of cyclic AMP production was followed both in cell layers and in cell culture media, with or without phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It is noteworthy that following the first wave in cyclic AMP obtained within minutes, we observed later a sustained exponential increase in cyclic AMP during the 5 days following TSH stimulation. A bioassay of TSH was derived allowing measurement of 1 microU/ml TSH from a crude bTSH preparation.

  17. Higher Incidence Rates of Hypothyroidism and Late TSH Rise in Preterm Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants at a Tertiary Care Center.

    PubMed

    Tfayli, Hala; Charafeddine, Lama; Tamim, Hani; Saade, Joanne; Daher, Rose T; Yunis, Khalid

    2018-04-11

    Preterm newborns with a very low birth weight (VLBW) of < 1,500 g have an atypical form of hypothyroidism with a delayed rise in TSH, necessitating a second newborn screening specimen collection. The aims of this study were to survey the compliance with second newborn screening to detect delayed TSH rise in VLBW preterm infants at a tertiary care center, and to determine the rate of atypical hypothyroidism. Retrospective review of the records of 104 preterm VLBW infants. Late TSH rise was defined as an increase in TSH concentration after 14 days of age in the presence of a normal initial screen. The compliance rate was 92% for the second screening. High rates of hypothyroidism (16.3%) and of late TSH rise (4.8%) were detected. Patients with hypothyroidism had a significantly lower birth weight (p = 0.01) and longer hospital stay (p = 0.004). Patients with late versus those with early TSH rise had a significantly lower mean birth weight (851 ± 302 vs. 1,191 ± 121 g, p = 0.004). The rates of early and late TSH rise in this VLBW population were higher than those in the literature and could be due to the use of povidone-iodine disinfectants. The yield of a second TSH screening in this study was high indicating the need for vigilance in screening VLBW preterm infants. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Highly variable sensitivity of five binding and two bio-assays for TSH-receptor antibodies.

    PubMed

    Diana, T; Wüster, C; Kanitz, M; Kahaly, G J

    2016-10-01

    TSH-receptor (TSHR) antibodies (Ab) can be measured with binding or bio-assays. Sensitivity and specificity of five binding and two bio-assays were compared. TSHR-blocking (TBAb) and TSHR-stimulating (TSAb) Ab were measured with reporter bio-assays. Blocking activity was defined as percent inhibition of luciferase expression relative to induction with bTSH alone. TSAb was reported as percentage of specimen-to-reference ratio (SRR%). TSHR-binding inhibitory immunoglobulins (TBII) were measured with Kronus, Dynex, Kryptor, Cobas, and Immulite. Sixty patients with Graves' disease (GD), 20 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), and 20 healthy controls (C) were included. C tested negative in all assays (specificity 100 %) while all 60 hyperthyroid GD patients tested positive in the TSAb bio-assay (sensitivity 100 %). Among these 60 GD patients, 20 had low TSAb positivity (SRR% 140-279), but were TBII positive in only 20 (100 %), 7 (35 %), 9 (45 %), 11 (55 %), and 18 (90 %) using the Kronus, Dynex, Kryptor, Cobas, and Immulite, respectively. In 20 moderate TSAb-positive (SRR% 280-420) patients, TBII tested positive in 20 (100 %), 14 (70 %), 13 (65 %), 16 (80 %), and 19 (95 %), respectively. The high (SRR% > 420) TSAb-positive patients were all TBII positive. All 20 hypothyroid HT patients tested TBAb positive (sensitivity 100 %) in the bio-assay while they tested TBII positive in 20 (100 %), 18 (90 %), 20, 20, and 18, respectively. Results obtained with two luminometers correlated for TSAb positive (r = 0.99, p < 0.001), TBAb positive (r = 0.88, p < 0.001), and C (r = 0.86, p < 0.001). None of the binding assays differentiated between TSAb and TBAb. Sensitivity is highly variable between binding and bio-assays for TSHR-Abs.

  19. Image analysis for TSH mRNA in situ hybridization in pituitary glands from rats with thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy after treatment with three different test compounds.

    PubMed

    Funk, Juergen; Ebeling, Martin; Singer, Thomas; Landes, Christian

    2017-10-01

    The goal of this in situ hybridization and image analysis technique is to study the effects of new pharmacological/chemical entities on the thyroid and pituitary gland in rats, reveal the pathogenesis of thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy and to retrospectively exclude the risk of thyroid tumor development in humans. In the present study, we describe the increase of thyroid-stimulating hormone- (TSH-) beta subunit mRNA in the pars distalis of the pituitary gland and the quantitative measurement of TSH mRNA positive cells from rats of three 4-week toxicity studies treated with three different test compounds inducing thyroid follicular cell and hepatocellular hypertrophy in rats. Compared to immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization (ISH) for TSH was found to be more sensitive. With this technique we are able to exclude a direct effect of the test compound on the thyroid gland by showing the activation of thyrotrope cells from the pituitary gland and therefore this technique retrospectively enables us to exclude a possible risk for humans at an early stage of drug development. Also in case blood serum samples for evaluation of TSH are not available anymore or hepatocellular hypertrophy is not present (close metabolic relationship between thyroid gland and liver in rodents), the described method allows retrospective investigations on thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy or hyperplasia. This can be of high relevance in human safety assessment for certain drugs in order to exclude a primary effect on the thyroid gland especially when it comes to thyroid neoplasia in rodents as previously described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hypothyroidism in adults. Levothyroxine if warranted by clinical and laboratory findings, not for simple TSH elevation.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common disorder due to inadequate thyroid hormone secretion. When a patient has signs and symptoms suggestive of hypothyroidism, how is it determined whether thyroid hormone replacement therapy will have a favourable harm-benefit balance? How should treatment be managed? To answer these questions, we conducted a review of the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. The symptoms of hypothyroidism are due to slow metabolism (constipation, fatigue, sensitivity to cold, weight gain, etc.) and to polysaccharide accumulation in certain tissues, leading to hoarseness, eyelid swelling, etc. A blood TSH concentration of less than 4 or 5 mlU/L rules out peripheral hypothyroidism. TSH levels increase with age. Between 30% and 60% of high TSH levels are not confirmed on a second blood test. In overt hypothyroidism, the TSH level is high and the free T4 (thyroxine) level is low. Most of these patients are symptomatic. So-called subclinical hypothyroidism, which is rarely symptomatic, is characterised by high blood TSH levels and normal free T4 levels. The natural history of hypothyroidism depends on its cause. In chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, the most common form seen in rich countries, hypothyroidism generally worsens over time. However, other situations can lead to transient hypothyroidism that may last several weeks or months. Subclinical hypothyroidism, as the name implies, is usually asymptomatic. The risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism is about 3% to 4% per year overall but increases with the initial TSH level. Treatment guidelines are mainly based on physiological and pharmacological considerations and generally recommend levothyroxine therapy. The adverse effects of levothyroxine are signs of thyrotoxicosis in case of overdose (tachycardia, tremor, sweating, etc.). Even a slight overdose carries a risk of osteoporotic fractures and atrial fibrillation, especially in the elderly. In young adults, levothyroxine is usually started

  1. Targeting the thyroid gland with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-nanoliposomes.

    PubMed

    Paolino, Donatella; Cosco, Donato; Gaspari, Marco; Celano, Marilena; Wolfram, Joy; Voce, Pasquale; Puxeddu, Efisio; Filetti, Sebastiano; Celia, Christian; Ferrari, Mauro; Russo, Diego; Fresta, Massimo

    2014-08-01

    Various tissue-specific antibodies have been attached to nanoparticles to obtain targeted delivery. In particular, nanodelivery systems with selectivity for breast, prostate and cancer tissue have been developed. Here, we have developed a nanodelivery system that targets the thyroid gland. Nanoliposomes have been conjugated to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which binds to the TSH receptor (TSHr) on the surface of thyrocytes. The results indicate that the intracellular uptake of TSH-nanoliposomes is increased in cells expressing the TSHr. The accumulation of targeted nanoliposomes in the thyroid gland following intravenous injection was 3.5-fold higher in comparison to untargeted nanoliposomes. Furthermore, TSH-nanoliposomes encapsulated with gemcitabine showed improved anticancer efficacy in vitro and in a tumor model of follicular thyroid carcinoma. This drug delivery system could be used for the treatment of a broad spectrum of thyroid diseases to reduce side effects and improve therapeutic efficacy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Positive Correlation between Serum Osteocalcin and Testosterone in Male Hyperthyroidism Patients with High Bone Turnover.

    PubMed

    Zhong, N; Xu, B; Cui, R; Xu, M; Su, J; Zhang, Z; Liu, Y; Li, L; Sheng, C; Sheng, H; Qu, S

    2016-07-01

    Animal studies suggested that there is an independent bone-osteocalcin-gonadal axis, except of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Based on this hypothesis, the higher osteocalcin during the high bone turnover should be followed by higher testosterone formation. Yet such clinical evidence is limited. The patients with uncontrolled hyperthyroidism are proper model with high bone turnover. If this hypothesis is true, there should be high testosterone level in patients with uncontrolled hyperthyroidism. Therefore, Graves' disease patients were recruited to study the correlation between osteocalcin and testosterone. 50 male hyperthyroidism patients with Graves' disease and 50 health persons matched by age and gender were enrolled in our cross-section study. Serum markers for thyroid hormone, sex hormone and bone metabolic markers including free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and osteocalcin (OC), C-terminal telopeptide fragments of type I collagen (CTX) were examined. The demographic parameters such as duration of disease were also collected. All data was analyzed by SPSS 20.0. High testosterone and osteocalcin level was observed in the hyperthyroidism patients (T 36.35±10.72 nmol/l and OC 46.79±26.83 ng/ml). In simple Pearson correlation, testosterone was positively associated with OC (r=0.486, P<0.001), and this positive relation still existed after adjusted for age, BMI, smoking, drinking, duration of disease, FT3, FT4, LH, FSH, CTX in multi-linear regression analysis (See Model 1-4). In male hyperthyroidism patients, osteocalcin was positively correlated with serum testosterone, which indirectly supports the hypothesis that serum osteocalcin participates in the regulation of sex hormone. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Elevated TSH in adults treated for hypothyroidism is associated with increased mortality.

    PubMed

    Akirov, Amit; Gimbel, Hannah; Grossman, Alon; Shochat, Tzipora; Shimon, Ilan

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies investigated the link between hypothyroidism and mortality, but a definite conclusion is hard to reach as these were limited by a number of factors, including age of participants, comorbidities and single measurement of thyroid function. To evaluate the association between TSH and fT4 levels and mortality in patients with levothyroxine-treated hypothyroidism. Observational data of hospitalized patients (2011-2014). TSH and fT4 levels obtained between at least 30 days after discharge and until death or end of follow-up were collected. Median TSH and fT4 levels were stratified into categories. In total, 611 patients with treated hypothyroidism, aged 60-80 years (72% females, mean age 71 ± 6 years) were included in the study. All-cause mortality up to 66 months after discharge, by TSH and fT4 categories. During follow-up, the average numbers of TSH and fT4 measurements were 5.5 ± 3.8 and 2.5 ± 4.2 per patient respectively. Mortality rates were 28%, 29% and 54% with median TSH of 0.5-2.5, 2.5-5.0 and 5.0-10.0 IU/L respectively. Adjusted hazard ratios for mortality with median TSH between 5.0 and 10.0 IU/L were 2.3 (95% CI: 1.6-3.4) and 2.2 (95% CI: 1.6-3.2) compared with patients with TSH between 0.5-2.5 IU/L and 2.5-5 IU/L respectively. There was no difference in mortality between patients with median fT4 10-15 or 15-20 pmol/L. In treated hypothyroid adult patients and serial measurements of thyroid function tests, median TSH levels of 5-10 IU/L are associated with increased mortality with no effect of fT4 levels. Treatment should aim at achieving euthyroidism to improve survival. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  4. The reference intervals of thyroid stimulating hormone in healthy individuals with normal levels of serum free thyroxine and without sonographic pathologies.

    PubMed

    Kutluturk, Faruk; Yildirim, Beytullah; Ozturk, Banu; Ozyurt, Huseyin; Bekar, Ulku; Sahin, Semsettin; Akturk, Yeliz; Akbas, Ali; Cetin, Ilhan; Etikan, Ilker

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the reference intervals for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in healthy individuals with normal levels of serum free thyroxine (fT4) and without sonographic pathologies, and determine the effects of age, gender, and residence on the TSH reference intervals. This research was a population-based study conducted in 70 regions. The random sampling method was used to select the 1095 subjects of the study among inhabitants aged 18 and above. Patients who had a previous history of thyroid disease and had been taking medication were excluded from the study as this may have affected their fT4 or TSH levels. In addition, subjects who had serum fT4 without a reference range and abnormal ultrasonography findings were also excluded. A total of 408 subjects were used for establishing the reference intervals for TSH. The data for TSH in the study group were not normally distributed according to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov index. The geometric mean was 1.62 mIU/L, the median was 1.40 mIU/L, and the 95% reference intervals were 0.38-4.22 mIU/L. The median TSH level was higher in females compared to males (p < 0.05). In the female subjects 2.5th percentile of TSH was lower and 97.5th percentile was higher than those of males. The reference intervals of TSH were of lower values in subjects over 50 years old (p < 0.001). Studies suggest that determination of the TSH reference intervals may differ due to environmental influences or due to age, gender, and race. It is suggested that the lower limit of normal TSH for the adult Turkish population would be 0.38 mIU/L and the upper limit similar to the traditional value of 4.2 mIU/L. If each clinician uses their population-specific reference interval for TSH, thyroid function abnormalities can be accurately estimated.

  5. Serum thyrotrophin at baseline predicts the natural course of subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Das, G; Ojewuyi, T A; Baglioni, P; Geen, J; Premawardhana, L D; Okosieme, O E

    2012-07-01

    Optimal therapeutic strategies for subclinical hyperthyroidism are undecided. Overt disease develops in a minority of cases, but the risk factors for progression remain unclear. We examined whether a baseline thyrotrophin (TSH) predicted progression to overt hyperthyroidism in asymptomatic individuals with subclinical hyperthyroidism. This was a retrospective study of 323 patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism seen in our institution from 2003 to 2010 (mean age 71 years, males 26·9%, females 73·1%, mean follow-up duration 32 months, range 6-93 months). Serum TSH and free thyroxine (FT4) were documented at baseline and during follow-up. After excluding individuals with nonthyroid causes of low TSH, patients were grouped according to initial TSH as: TSH 0·10-0·39 mU/l (grade I) and TSH < 0·10 mU/l (grade II). Only 38 patients (11·8%) developed overt hyperthyroidism with annual progression rates of 0·6-3·7%. Most patients reverted to normal thyroid status (31·6%) or remained subclinically hyperthyroid (56·7%). Progression to frank hyperthyroidism was higher in grade II than in grade I patients (20·3% vs 6·8%, P < 0·001, Chi square test). Kaplan-Meier curves showed faster progression rates in grade II than grade I (P < 0·001, log rank test). In stepwise multivariate Cox regression analysis, TSH < 0·1 mU/l was associated with overt hyperthyroidism (hazard ratio 3·4, confidence interval 1·6-7·0), whereas age, gender, FT4 and aetiological diagnosis were not associated with hyperthyroidism. Thyrotrophin predicts overt hyperthyroidism in asymptomatic individuals with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Patients with TSH < 0·10 mU/l have a higher risk of progressing to hyperthyroidism than those with TSH 0·10-0·39 mU/l. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. TSH Receptor Signaling Abrogation by a Novel Small Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Rauf; Realubit, Ronald B.; Karan, Charles; Mezei, Mihaly; Davies, Terry F.

    2016-01-01

    Pathological activation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is caused by thyroid-stimulating antibodies in patients with Graves’ disease (GD) or by somatic and rare genomic mutations that enhance constitutive activation of the receptor influencing both G protein and non-G protein signaling. Potential selective small molecule antagonists represent novel therapeutic compounds for abrogation of such abnormal TSHR signaling. In this study, we describe the identification and in vitro characterization of a novel small molecule antagonist by high-throughput screening (HTS). The identification of the TSHR antagonist was performed using a transcription-based TSH-inhibition bioassay. TSHR-expressing CHO cells, which also expressed a luciferase-tagged CRE response element, were optimized using bovine TSH as the activator, in a 384 well plate format, which had a Z score of 0.3–0.6. Using this HTS assay, we screened a diverse library of ~80,000 compounds at a final concentration of 16.7 μM. The selection criteria for a positive hit were based on a mean signal threshold of ≥50% inhibition of control TSH stimulation. The screening resulted in 450 positive hits giving a hit ratio of 0.56%. A secondary confirmation screen against TSH and forskolin – a post receptor activator of adenylyl cyclase – confirmed one TSHR-specific candidate antagonist molecule (named VA-K-14). This lead molecule had an IC50 of 12.3 μM and a unique chemical structure. A parallel analysis for cell viability indicated that the lead inhibitor was non-cytotoxic at its effective concentrations. In silico docking studies performed using a TSHR transmembrane model showed the hydrophobic contact locations and the possible mode of inhibition of TSHR signaling. Furthermore, this molecule was capable of inhibiting TSHR stimulation by GD patient sera and monoclonal-stimulating TSHR antibodies. In conclusion, we report the identification of a novel small molecule TSHR inhibitor, which has

  7. Assessment of criteria used by veterinary practitioners to diagnose hypothyroidism in sighthounds and investigation of serum thyroid hormone concentrations in healthy Salukis.

    PubMed

    Shiel, Robert E; Sist, MaryDee; Nachreiner, Raymond F; Ehrlich, Claire P; Mooney, Carmel T

    2010-02-01

    To assess use of serum thyroid hormone concentrations by veterinarians to diagnose hypothyroidism in sighthounds and to evaluate serum thyroid hormone concentrations in healthy Salukis. Retrospective case series and cross-sectional study. 398 sighthounds of various breeds with a diagnosis of hypothyroidism and 283 healthy Salukis. Pretreatment thyroid hormone assay results from sighthounds subsequently classified as hypothyroid by practitioners were retrieved from a laboratory database. In healthy Salukis, serum concentrations of total thyroxine (T(4)), free T(4), total triiodothyronine (T(3)), free T(3), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and antibodies against thyroglobulin and thyroid hormones were assayed. Records indicated hypothyroidism had been diagnosed in 303 (76.1%) sight-hounds on the basis of low serum thyroid hormone concentrations alone and in 30 (7.5%) others despite all thyroid hormone indices being within reference limits. Only 65 (16.3%) dogs had a high TSH concentration or positive thyroglobulin autoantibody result to support the diagnosis. In healthy Salukis, median (reference limits) serum concentrations of total T(4), free T(4), total T(3), free T(3), and TSH were 13.0 nmol/L (2.8 to 40.0 nmol/L), 12.0 pmol/L (2.0 to 30.3 pmol/L), 1.0 nmol/L (0.4 to 2.1 nmol/L), 4.0 pmol/L (1.6 to 7.7 pmol/L), and 0.18 ng/mL (0 to 0.86 ng/mL), respectively. Diagnosis of hypothyroidism by practitioners was most often made without adequate supportive laboratory evidence. Thyroid hormone values in healthy Salukis differed markedly from standard reference limits for some, but not all, thyroid hormone indices. Breed-specific reference limits should be used when interpreting thyroid hormone profiles of sighthounds.

  8. Decrease in TSH levels after lactose restriction in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients with lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Asik, Mehmet; Gunes, Fahri; Binnetoglu, Emine; Eroglu, Mustafa; Bozkurt, Neslihan; Sen, Hacer; Akbal, Erdem; Bakar, Coskum; Beyazit, Yavuz; Ukinc, Kubilay

    2014-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of lactose intolerance (LI) in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis(HT) and the effects of lactose restriction on thyroid function in these patients. Eighty-three HT patients taking L-thyroxine (LT4) were enrolled, and lactose tolerance tests were performed on all patients. Lactose intolerance was diagnosed in 75.9 % of the patients with HT. Thirty-eight patients with LI were started on a lactose-restricted diet for 8 weeks. Thirty-eight patients with LI (30 euthyroid and 8 with subclinical hypothyroidism), and 12 patients without LI were included in the final analysis. The level of TSH significantly decreased in the euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroid patients with LI [from 2.06 ± 1.02 to 1.51 ±1.1 IU/mL and from 5.45 ± 0.74 to 2.25 ± 1.88 IU/mL,respectively (both P<0.05)]. However, the level of TSH in patients without LI did not change significantly over the 8 weeks (P>0.05). Lactose intolerance occurs at a high frequency in HT patients. Lactose restriction leads to decreased levels of TSH, and LI should be considered in hypothyroid patients who require increasing LT4 doses,have irregular TSH levels and are resistant to LT4 treatment.

  9. T3 Regulates a Human Macrophage-Derived TSH-β Splice Variant: Implications for Human Bone Biology.

    PubMed

    Baliram, R; Latif, R; Morshed, S A; Zaidi, M; Davies, T F

    2016-09-01

    TSH and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) are intimately involved in bone biology. We have previously reported the presence of a murine TSH-β splice variant (TSH-βv) expressed specifically in bone marrow-derived macrophages and that exerted an osteoprotective effect by inducing osteoblastogenesis. To extend this observation and its relevance to human bone biology, we set out to identify and characterize a TSH-β variant in human macrophages. Real-time PCR analyses using human TSH-β-specific primers identified a 364-bp product in macrophages, bone marrow, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells that was sequence verified and was homologous to a human TSH-βv previously reported. We then examined TSH-βv regulation using the THP-1 human monocyte cell line matured into macrophages. After 4 days, 46.1% of the THP-1 cells expressed the macrophage markers CD-14 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor and exhibited typical morphological characteristics of macrophages. Real-time PCR analyses of these cells treated in a dose-dependent manner with T3 showed a 14-fold induction of human TSH-βv mRNA and variant protein. Furthermore, these human TSH-βv-positive cells, induced by T3 exposure, had categorized into both M1 and M2 macrophage phenotypes as evidenced by the expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor for M1 and CCL-22 for M2. These data indicate that in hyperthyroidism, bone marrow resident macrophages have the potential to exert enhanced osteoprotective effects by oversecreting human TSH-βv, which may exert its local osteoprotective role via osteoblast and osteoclast TSH receptors.

  10. Fall in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) may be an early marker of ipilimumab-induced hypophysitis.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, Sunita M C; Sheriff, Nisa; Tran, Chau H; Menzies, Alexander M; Tsang, Venessa H M; Long, Georgina V; Tonks, Katherine T T

    2018-06-01

    Hypophysitis develops in up to 19% of melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab, a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 antibody. Early detection may avert life-threatening hypopituitarism. We aimed to assess the incidence of ipilimumab-induced hypophysitis (IH) at a quaternary melanoma referral centre, and to determine whether cortisol or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) monitoring could predict IH onset. We performed a retrospective cohort study of ipilimumab-treated patients at a quaternary melanoma referral centre in Australia. The inclusion criteria were patients with metastatic or unresectable melanoma treated with ipilimumab monotherapy, and cortisol and TSH measurements prior to ≥ 2 infusions. The main outcomes were IH incidence and TSH and cortisol patterns in patients who did and did not develop IH. Of 78 ipilimumab-treated patients, 46 met the study criteria and 9/46 (20%) developed IH at a median duration of 13.0 weeks (range 7.7-18.1) following ipilimumab initiation. All patients whose TSH fell ≥ 80% compared to baseline developed IH, and, in 5/9 patients with IH, TSH fell prior to cortisol fall and IH diagnosis. Pre-cycle-4 TSH was significantly lower in those who developed IH (0.31 vs. 1.73 mIU/L, P = 0.006). TSH fall was detected at a median time of 9.2 (range 7.7-16.4) weeks after commencing ipilimumab, and a median of 3.6 (range of - 1.4 to 9.7) weeks before IH diagnosis. There was no difference in TSH between the groups before cycles 1-3 or in cortisol before cycles 1-4. TSH fall ≥ 80% may be an early marker of IH. Serial TSH measurement during ipilimumab therapy may be an inexpensive tool to expedite IH diagnosis.

  11. Brief report: circadian melatonin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and cortisol levels in serum of young adults with autism.

    PubMed

    Nir, I; Meir, D; Zilber, N; Knobler, H; Hadjez, J; Lerner, Y

    1995-12-01

    An abnormal circadian pattern of melatonin was found in a group of young adults with an extreme autism syndrome. Although not out of phase, the serum melatonin levels differed from normal in amplitude and mesor. Marginal changes in diurnal rhythms of serum TSH and possibly prolactin were also recorded. Subjects with seizures tended to have an abnormal pattern of melatonin correlated with EEG changes. In others, a parallel was evidenced between thyroid function and impairment in verbal communication. There appears to be a tendency for various types of neuroendocrinological abnormalities in autistics, and melatonin, as well as possibly TSH and perhaps prolactin, could serve as biochemical variables of the biological parameters of the disease.

  12. Hyperthyroidism caused by a pituitary thyrotrophin-secreting tumour with excessive secretion of thyrotrophin-releasing hormone and subsequently followed by Graves' disease in a middle-aged woman.

    PubMed

    Kamoi, K; Mitsuma, T; Sato, H; Yokoyama, M; Washiyama, K; Tanaka, R; Arai, O; Takasu, N; Yamada, T

    1985-11-01

    A 46-year-old woman had signs of thyrotoxicosis and galactorrhoea. Serum immunoreactive TSH and its alpha-subunit increased in the presence of high serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and free T4 concentrations, whereas beta-subunit TSH was undetectable. Exogenous TRH failed to increase serum TSH. Serum TSH was markedly suppressed by glucocorticoid, but was increased by antithyroid drug. L-Dopa or bromocriptine partially suppressed, but nomifensine had no influence on serum TSH. Serum prolactin (Prl) was above normal and markedly increased by TRH, but depressed by bromocriptine and not suppressed by nomifensine. Plasma TRH was normal in the hyperthyroid state, but was increased by glucocorticoid and antithyroid drug. Excess thyroid hormone depressed plasma TRH concentrations. Basal serum GH levels were constantly low. Transsphenoidal removal of the tumour normalized serum hormones (T3, T4 free T4, TSH, alpha-subunit and Prl), and eradicated the clinical signs of hyperthyroidism and galactorrhoea. Histological study of the tumour tissue demonstrated both thyrotrophes and somatotrophes. A reciprocal relationship between serum TSH and T4 concentrations shifted to a higher level before but was normalized after removal of the tumour. Ten months later, the clinical signs of thyrotoxicosis and the increase in serum thyroid hormone recurred without a concomitant increase in serum TSH and its alpha-subunit. Thyroidal auto-antibodies were slightly positive, but thyrotrophin-binding inhibitor immunoglobulin (TBII) was negative. Administration of antithyroid drug produced a euthyroid state, but 3 years later, discontinuation of the treatment resulted in recurrent hyperthyroidism without suppressed plasma TRH and with no evidence of regrowth of the pituitary tumour. It is suggested that the patient initially had hyperthyroidism owing to excessive TSH secretion from the tumour caused by abnormal TRH secretion, and subsequently had hyperthyroidism owing to Graves

  13. Radioiodine remnant ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer after combined endogenous and exogenous TSH stimulation.

    PubMed

    Vrachimis, A; Schober, O; Riemann, B

    2012-01-01

    Radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) after (near-)total thyroidectomy (TE) is a key element in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The use of exogenous TSH stimulation (rhTSH) prior to RRA has shown promising results as compared to conventional thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). As yet, the efficacy of RRA after brief THW and single rhTSH administration has not been assessed. The study sample comprised 147 patients with DTC referred to our center between May 2008 and September 2010. All patients received TE with subsequent RRA. None of these 147 patients had evidence of distant metastasis. 93 patients had endogenous TSH stimulation 4-5 weeks after surgery (group I) and twenty-six received two rhTSH injections (group II). 28 patients were treated with a single rhTSH injection after a brief THW (group III). RRA-Efficacy was assessed three months after therapy by diagnostic whole-body scan and measurement of the tumour marker thyroglobulin (Tg) under TSH stimulation. Three categories of success were defined for remnant ablation. Based on the definition of successful remnant ablation no visible uptake and a Tg ≤ 2.0 ng/ml (category 1) was seen in 62/93 patients in group I, in 17/26 patients in group II (p = n.s.) and in 12/28 patients in group III (p < 0.05). Visible radioiodine uptake and a Tg ≤ 2.0 ng/ml (category 2) was seen in 16/28 patients of group III and thus significantly more frequent than in group I (28/93 patients) (p < 0.01). However, patients in group III (16/28 patients) and group II (8/26 patients) showed no significant difference in this category (p = n.s.). Visible radioiodine uptake and a Tg > 2.0 ng/ml (category 3) was found in 3/93 patients in group I and 1/26 patients in group II but in no patient in group III. The third strategy of remnant ablation using a single injection of rhTSH after a brief THW period resulted in a significant higher rate of patients with residual uptake in the thyroid bed and a Tg level below 2 ng/ml three

  14. Effect of high dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy followed by oral prednisolone administration on the production of anti-TSH receptor antibodies and clinical outcome in Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Sumihisa; Ohye, Hidemi; Nishihara, Eijun; Kudo, Takumi; Ito, Mitsuru; Fukata, Shuji; Amino, Nobuyuki; Kuma, Kanji; Miyauchi, Akira

    2005-12-01

    Little is known about the immunosuppressive effect of glucocorticoids on TSH receptor antibodies. We observed the long-term prognosis and serum TSH binding inhibitor immunoglobulin (TBII) levels in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy who had received intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy (pulse therapy) followed by oral prednisolone administration in order to ascertain how long the immunosuppressive effect of glucocorticoids continued. This is the first report on the effect of pulse therapy on Graves' disease outcome. We observed 67 patients who were treated by antithyroid drugs (ATD) alone for 2 years after pulse therapy. TBII was evaluated before and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after pulse therapy. The mean TBII decreased significantly 3 months after pulse therapy (p<0.001), and was maintained until 24 months. There were 24 patients whose TBII was positive (>15%) at 24 months, in whom the mean TBII decreased significantly 3 to 6 months after pulse therapy (p<0.001), but increased again at 12 to 24 months (p<0.05). Thus, the immunosuppressive effect of glucocorticoids may be lost at 12 months after pulse therapy in these patients. The remission rate in the pulse therapy group was 40.98%, and that of the control patient group was 48.57%. There was no significant difference between the two. These results suggest that the immunosuppressive effect of pulse therapy was temporary, and that pulse therapy did not increase remission rate of Graves' disease.

  15. TSH Comparison Between Chemiluminescence (Architect) and Electrochemiluminescence (Cobas) Immunoassays: An Indian Population Perspective.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rajarshi

    2014-04-01

    Although 3rd generation TSH assays are the most widely used immunoassays, credible comparison studies, specially involving Indian sub-populations are practically non-existent. To compare the TSH measurements between chemiluminescence (Architect) and electrochemiluminescence (Cobas) inmmunoassays in an urban ambulatory Indian population. 1,615 subjects were selected randomly from the usual laboratory workflow, their TSH measured in Architect and Cobas and the paired data thus generated were statistically analysed. TSH values of Cobas were observed to be higher than the Architect values by 28.7 %, with a significant proportional difference between the two, but majority of the Cobas values (above 90 %) were within the limits of agreement with Architect values. In situations where both the instruments are in use simultaneously, a standardization of the methods is imperative, in larger interest of the patient populace.

  16. Hypothyroidism during antithyroid drug treatment with methimazole is a favorable prognostic indicator in patients with Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Choo, Young Kwang; Yoo, Won Sang; Kim, Dong Woo; Chung, Hyun-Kyung

    2010-09-01

    A major problem with antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy in Graves' disease is the high relapse rate. Therefore, clinicians have sought prognostic indicators of permanent remission. Suppression of serum thyrotropin (TSH) when ATD therapy is stopped carries a poor prognosis, but little is known regarding the significance of elevated serum TSH concentrations in the course of ATD therapy. The objective of this study was to determine if elevated serum TSH concentrations during methimazole (MMI) therapy is associated with a favorable long-term prognosis. We retrospectively studied patients with Graves' disease who were initially on MMI, in whom this drug was stopped because they had undetectable thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAbs) or were euthyroid after at least 24 months on MMI treatment. A strategy of high MMI doses plus T4 was not used in these patients. We identified 40 patients with elevated serum TSH concentration (>10 microIU/mL) during MMI therapy (H-TSH group). Eighty-five percent of the H-TSH group had negative tests for TSAb. The H-TSH group was sex- and age-matched with 37 patients who had similar selection criteria, but did not have elevated serum TSH concentration during MMI therapy (N-TSH group). The H-TSH and N-TSH groups were similar in gross thyroid size, percentage of patients with exophthalmos, serum free thyroxine, duration of MMI treatment, TSAb status, duration that their TSAb tests remained negative, and thyroid peroxidase antibody titers. The patients were followed for 24 months after stopping MMI. In the H-TSH group, MMI-associated hypothyroidism typically occurred after 7-8 months of treatment with daily doses of 10-15 mg MMI. No patient had severe symptoms of hypothyroidism. The percentage of patients in remission at 6, 12, and 24 months after discontinuation of MMI was 90.0, 87.5, and 85.0, respectively, in the H-TSH group and 70.3, 67.6, and 54.1, respectively, in the N-TSH group (p  <  0.05 for the comparison of groups at 6 and 12

  17. Long-term treatment with bromocriptine of a plurihormonal pituitary adenoma secreting thyrotropin, growth hormone and prolactin.

    PubMed

    Shimatsu, A; Murabe, H; Nakamura, Y; Mizuta, H; Ihara, C; Nakao, K

    1999-02-01

    A 48-year-old female presented with acromegaly, amenorrhea and hyperthyroidism associated with high serum free T4 levels and measurable TSH concentrations. The administration of GHRH induced significant increases in GH, PRL and TSH. Conversely, intravenous infusion of dopamine or oral administration of bromocriptine effectively inhibited GH, PRL and TSH secretion. Serum alpha-subunit levels were neither affected by GHRH, dopamine nor bromocriptine. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and immunostaining of the tissue showed that the adenoma cells were positive for GH, PRL or TSH. The patient was treated with bromocriptine at a daily oral dose of 10 mg after surgery. Serum TSH were initially suppressed but returned within reference intervals with persistent normalized free T4 levels. Serum PRL became undetectable and GH levels were stable around 6 ng/ml except the periods of poor drug compliance, when serum TSH, GH and PRL levels rose considerably. The patient was followed-up for 10 years without any change in the residual adenoma tissues as detected by magnetic resonance imaging. These findings suggest that long-term bromocriptine therapy is effective in treating the hypersecretory state of a plurihormonal adenoma secreting TSH, GH and PRL.

  18. Mammary tumors and serum hormones in the bitch treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate or progesterone for four years

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, D.W.; Kirton, K.T.; Murchison, T.E.

    After four years of a long term contraceptive steroid safety study, the incidence and the histologic type of mammary dysplasia produced is similar in beagles treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (medroxyprogesterone) or progesterone. Serum insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine, growth hormone, prolactin, 17..beta..-estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay on samples collected after 45 months of treatment. Serum growth hormone and insulin concentrations were elevated in a dose related manner in both treatment groups. Triiodothyronine, cortisol, and estradiol-17..beta.. (medroxyprogesterone only) were lowered. TSH and prolactin concentrations were not changed. Pituitary--gonadal hormone interaction in the pathogenesis of mammary neoplasia ofmore » the dog is discussed. Prolonged treatment of the beagle with massive doses of progesterone or medroxyprogesterone results in a dose related incidence of mammary modules.« less

  19. [Will the thyroglobulin assay with lower functional sensitivity whilst the patients are on L-T4 treatment replace the TSH-stimulated thyroglobulin assay in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer?].

    PubMed

    Maciel, Rui M B

    2007-07-01

    The author reviews the literature on the new assays for serum thyroglobulin (sTg) presenting lower functional sensitivity and demonstrates that its use, whilst the patients are taking L-T4, presents better results than sTg following TSH stimulation in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Therefore, he suggests a revision on the guidelines for the follow-up of these patients (developed when the available assays present a sensitivity of 1 ng/mL), proposing the use of sTg assays with functional sensitivity of 0.1-0.2 ng/mL with the patients on L-T4 treatment instead of sTg stimulated by TSH.

  20. Epitope mapping of tsh receptor-blocking antibodies in Graves' disease that appear during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kung, A W; Lau, K S; Kohn, L D

    2001-08-01

    Spontaneous remission of Graves' disease during pregnancy is thought to be due to a reduction of thyroid-stimulating antibody activity. We suspected, however, that a broader change in TSH receptor antibody characteristics might play an important role in modulating disease activity during pregnancy. We measured TSH binding inhibitory Ig, thyroid-stimulating antibody, and thyroid stimulating-blocking antibody activities in 13 pregnant Graves' disease patients at first, second, and third trimesters and 4 months postpartum. To measure and epitope-map thyroid-stimulating antibody and thyroid stimulating-blocking antibody activities, we used CHO cells transfected with wild-type human TSH receptor or with several TSH receptor-LH/hCG receptor chimeras: Mc1+2, Mc2, and Mc4. These chimeric cells have their respective TSH receptor residues 9-165, 90-165, and 261-370 substituted with equivalent residues of the LH/hCG receptor. Overall thyroid-stimulating antibody decreased, whereas thyroid stimulating-blocking antibody increased progressively during pregnancy. TSH binding inhibitory Ig fluctuated in individual patients, but overall the activities remained statistically unchanged. Thyroid stimulating-blocking antibody appeared in subjects who were either negative for thyroid-stimulating antibody or whose thyroid-stimulating antibody activity increased or decreased during pregnancy. Epitope mapping showed that the thyroid-stimulating antibodies were mainly directed against residues 9-165 of the N-terminus of the TSH receptor extracellular domain. All thyroid stimulating-blocking antibodies had blocking activities against residues 261-370 of the C-terminus of the ectodomain. However, the majority of the thyroid stimulating-blocking antibodies had a hybrid conformational epitope directed against N-terminal residues 9-89 or 90-165 as well. Despite a change in the activity level, we did not observe any change in the epitope of either the stimulatory or blocking Abs as pregnancy

  1. Maternal TSH level and TPOAb status in early pregnancy and their relationship to the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ying, Hao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Bao, Yi-Rong; Su, Xiu-Juan; Cai, XueYa; Li, Yu-Hong; Wang, De-Fen

    2016-12-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is common in pregnant women and often related to adverse pregnancy outcomes, but its relationship with gestational diabetes remains controversial. In particular, the impact of thyroperoxidase antibodies status on the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and gestational diabetes is not clear. We investigated the association between combined thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level and thyroperoxidase antibodies status in early pregnancy (<20 weeks of gestation) and gestational diabetes mellitus. A total of 7084 pregnant women met the inclusion criteria, which included thyroperoxidase antibodies-positive subclinical hypothyroidism [TSH(H)TPOAb(+)] (n = 78), thyroperoxidase antibodies-negative subclinical hypothyroidism [TSH(H)TPOAb(-)] (n = 281), thyroperoxidase antibodies-positive euthyroidism [TSH(N)TPOAb(+)] (n = 648), and thyroperoxidase antibodies-negative euthyroidism [TSH(N)TPOAb(-)] (n = 6077). Of the 7084 cases included in our study, 1141 cases were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in TSH(N)TPOAb(-), TSH(H)TPOAb(-), TSH(N)TPOAb(+), and TSH(H)TPOAb(+) was 14.65, 19.57, 24.85, and 46.15 %, respectively. Compared with TSH(N)TPOAb(-) women, the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus was increased in all other groups of women in early pregnancy. After dividing early pregnancy into first and second trimesters, we found that TSH(H)TPOAb(-) women in the first trimester do not show this increase. Our study suggests that subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroperoxidase antibodies-positive euthyroidism in early pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  2. Motion sickness susceptibility related to ACTH, ADH and TSH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.; Leach, C.; Homick, J. L.; Larochelle, F. T.

    1983-01-01

    The hypothesis that endogenous levels of certain hormones might be indicative of an individual's susceptibility to stressful motion is tested in a comparison of subjects classified as less prone to motion sickness with those of higher susceptibility. The levels of ACTH and vasopressin measured before exposure to stressful motion were twice as high in the less-suceptible group. No significant differences were noted in the levels of angiotensin, aldosterone, or TSH. The differences between the two groups were greater for a given hormone than for any of the changes induced by exposure to stressful motion.

  3. WOMEN IN CANCER THEMATIC REVIEW: Thyroid-stimulating hormone in thyroid cancer: does it matter?

    PubMed

    Nieto, Hannah; Boelaert, Kristien

    2016-11-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and the incidence is increasing rapidly worldwide. Appropriate diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of patients with thyroid tumours are critical. Fine needle aspiration cytology remains the gold standard for diagnosing thyroid cancer, and although there have been significant refinements to this technique, diagnostic surgery is often required for patients suspected to have malignancy. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is higher in patients with malignant thyroid nodules than in those with benign disease, and TSH is proportionally increased in more aggressive tumours. Importantly, we have shown that the pre-operative serum TSH concentration independently predicts the presence of malignancy in subjects presenting with thyroid nodules. Establishing the use of TSH measurements in algorithms identifying high-risk thyroid nodules in routine clinical practice represents an exciting, cost-efficient and non-invasive approach to optimise thyroid cancer diagnosis. Binding of TSH to receptors on thyrocytes stimulates a number of growth promoting pathways both in normal and malignant thyroid cells, and TSH suppression with high doses of levothyroxine is routinely used after thyroidectomy to prevent cancer recurrence, especially in high-risk tumours. This review examines the relationship between serum TSH and thyroid cancer and reflects on the clinical potential of TSH measurements in diagnosis and disease monitoring. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  4. TSH and Thyrotropic Agonists: Key Actors in Thyroid Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Johannes W.; Landgrafe, Gabi; Fotiadou, Elisavet H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the reader with an overview of our current knowledge of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid feedback from a cybernetic standpoint. Over the past decades we have gained a plethora of information from biochemical, clinical, and epidemiological investigation, especially on the role of TSH and other thyrotropic agonists as critical components of this complex relationship. Integrating these data into a systems perspective delivers new insights into static and dynamic behaviour of thyroid homeostasis. Explicit usage of this information with mathematical methods promises to deliver a better understanding of thyrotropic feedback control and new options for personalised diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction and targeted therapy, also by permitting a new perspective on the conundrum of the TSH reference range. PMID:23365787

  5. Associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A levels, and serum thyroid hormones among the Korean adult population - Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Park, Choonghee; Choi, Wookhee; Hwang, Moonyoung; Lee, Youngmee; Kim, Suejin; Yu, Seungdo; Lee, Inae; Paek, Domyung; Choi, Kyungho

    2017-04-15

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) have been used extensively in many consumer products, resulting in widespread exposure in the general population. Studies have suggested associations between exposure to phthalates and BPA, and serum thyroid hormone levels, but confirmation on larger human populations is warranted. Data obtained from nationally representative Korean adults (n=6003) recruited for the second round of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS), 2012-2014, were employed. Three di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites, along with benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolites, and BPA were measured in subjects' urine. Thyroxine (T4), total triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in serum. The associations between urinary phthalates or BPA and thyroid hormone levels were determined. Urinary phthalate metabolites were generally associated with lowered total T4 or T3, or increased TSH levels in serum. Interquartile range (IQR) increases of mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) were associated with a 3.7% increase of TSH, and a 1.7% decrease of total T4 levels, respectively. When grouped by sex, urinary MEHHP levels were inversely associated with T4 only among males. Among females, mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) levels were inversely associated with TSH and T3, respectively. In addition, negative association between BPA and TSH was observed. Several phthalates and BPA exposures were associated with altered circulatory thyroid hormone levels among general Korean adult population. Considering the importance of thyroid hormones, public health implications of such alteration warrant further studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of oral administration of levothyroxine sodium on serum concentrations of thyroid gland hormones and responses to injections of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in healthy adult mares.

    PubMed

    Sommardahl, Carla S; Frank, Nicholas; Elliott, Sarah B; Webb, Latisha L; Refsal, Kent R; Denhart, Joseph W; Thompson, Donald L

    2005-06-01

    To determine the effects of levothyroxine sodium (L-T4) on serum concentrations of thyroid gland hormones and responses to injections of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in euthyroid horses. 12 healthy adult mares. 8 horses received an incrementally increasing dosage of L-T4 (24, 48, 72, or 96 mg of L-T4/d) for weeks 1 to 8. Each dose was provided for 2 weeks. Four additional horses remained untreated. Serum concentrations of total triiodothyronine (tT3), total thyroxine (tT4), free T3 (fT3), free T4 (fT4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in samples obtained at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8; 1.2 mg of TRH was then administered i.v., and serum concentrations of thyroid gland hormones were measured 2 and 4 hours after injection. Serum reverseT3 (rT3) concentration was also measured in the samples collected at weeks 0 and 8. Treated horses lost a significant amount of weight (median, 19 kg). Significant treatment-by-time effects were detected for serum tT3, tT4, fT3, fT4, and TSH concentrations, and serum tT4 concentrations were positively correlated (r, 0.95) with time (and therefore dosage) in treated horses. Mean +/- SD serum rT3 concentration significantly increased in treated horses (3.06 +/- 0.51 nmol/L for week 8 vs 0.74 +/- 0.22 nmol/L for week 0). Serum tT3, tT4, fT3, and TSH concentrations in response to TRH injections differed significantly between treated and untreated horses. Administration of levothyroxine sodium increased serum tT4 concentrations and blunted responses toTRH injection in healthy euthyroid horses.

  7. Evaluation of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone to test thyroid function in dogs suspected of having hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Boretti, Felicitas S; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, Nadja S; Favrot, Claude; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Reusch, Claudia E

    2006-12-01

    To evaluate the use of recombinant human (rh) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in dogs with suspected hypothyroidism. 64 dogs with clinical signs of hypothyroidism. Dogs received rhTSH (75 microg/dog, IV) at a dose independent of their body weight. Blood samples were taken before and 6 hours after rhTSH administration for determination of total serum thyroxine (T(4)) concentration. Dogs were placed into 1 of 3 groups as follows: those with normal (ie, poststimulation values indicative of euthyroidism), unchanged (ie, poststimulation values indicative of hypothyroidism; no thyroid gland stimulation), or intermediate (ie, poststimulation values between unchanged and normal values) post-TSH T(4) concentrations. Serum canine TSH (cTSH) concentration was determined in prestimulation serum (ie, before TSH administration). 14, 35, and 15 dogs had unchanged, normal, and intermediate post-TSH T(4) concentrations, respectively. Basal T(4) and post-TSH T(4) concentrations were significantly different among groups. On the basis of basal serum T(4) and cTSH concentrations alone, 1 euthyroid (normal post-TSH T(4), low basal T(4), and high cTSH concentrations) and 1 hypothyroid dog (unchanged post-TSH T(4) concentration and low to with-in reference range T(4) and cTSH concentrations) would have been misinterpreted as hypothyroid and euthyroid, respectively. Nine of the 15 dogs with intermediate post-TSHT(4) concentrations had received medication known to affect thyroid function prior to the test, and 2 of them had severe nonthyroidal disease. The TSH-stimulation test with rhTSH is a valuable diagnostic tool to assess thyroid function in selected dogs in which a diagnosis of hypothyroidism cannot be based on basal T(4) and cTSH concentrations alone.

  8. Unexplained high thyroid stimulating hormone: a "BIG" problem.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Heidi; Connacher, Alan; Srivastava, Rajeev

    2009-01-01

    Macro-hormones and macro-enzymes are high molecular weight conjugates of hormones or enzymes, respectively, often with immunoglobulins. These are referred to as macromolecular complexes, and may cause artefactually elevated biochemical tests results. Macro enzymes of the most commonly measured serum enzymes have been identified and are recognised as a source of elevated measurements that may cause diagnostic confusion; macro-creatine kinase and macro-amylase are the two better known macro-enzymes in clinical practice. Literature on macro-hormones is largely restricted to macro-prolactin. We present a case of a clinically euthyroid patient, who had persistently elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) but free thyroxine within the reference limits. She underwent repeated thyroid investigations and thyroid hormone interference studies, until macro-TSH was identified as the most likely cause of unexplained elevated TSH. Following the identification and characterisation of this biochemical abnormality, she is no longer subject to repeated blood tests for assessment of thyroid function; the patient currently remains clinically euthyroid.

  9. Reference values for TSH may be inadequate to define hypothyroidism in persons with morbid obesity: Di@bet.es study.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Sergio; Maldonado-Araque, Cristina; Lago-Sampedro, Ana; Lillo-Muñoz, Juan Antonio; Garcia-Fuentes, Eduardo; Perez-Valero, Vidal; Gutiérrez-Repiso, Carolina; Garcia-Escobar, Eva; Goday, Albert; Urrutia, Inés; Peláez, Laura; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso; Bordiú, Elena; Castaño, Luis; Castell, Conxa; Delgado, Elias; Menéndez, Edelmiro; Franch-Nadal, Josep; Gaztambide, Sonia; Girbés, Joan; Ortega, Emilio; Vendrell, Joan; Chacón, Matilde R; Javier Chaves, F; Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma

    2017-04-01

    To analyze the reference range of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in different BMI categories and its impact on the classification of hypothyroidism. The study included 3,928 individuals free of thyroid disease (without previous thyroid disease, no interfering medications, TSH <10 µUI/mL and thyroid peroxidase antibodies [TPO Abs] <50 IU/mL) who participated in a national, cross-sectional, population-based study and were representative of the adult population of Spain. Data gathered included clinical and demographic characteristics, physical examination, and blood and urine sampling. TSH, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, and TPO Ab were analyzed by electrochemiluminescence (E170, Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland). The reference range (p2.5-97.5) for TSH was estimated as 0.6 to 4.8 µUI/mL in the underweight category (BMI<20 kg/m 2 ), 0.6 to 5.5 µUI/mL in the normal-weight category (BMI 20-24.9 kg/m 2 ), 0.6 to 5.5 µUI/mL in the overweight category (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m 2 ), 0.5 to 5.9 µUI/mL in the obesity category (BMI 30-39.9 kg/m 2 ), and 0.7 to 7.5 µUI/mL in the morbid obesity category (BMI ≥40). By using the reference criteria for the normal-weight population, the prevalence of high TSH levels increased threefold in the morbid obesity category (P < 0.01). Persons with morbid obesity might be inappropriately classified if the standard ranges of normality of TSH for the normal-weight population are applied to them. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  10. Metformin Does Not Suppress Serum Thyrotropin by Increasing Levothyroxine Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alusi, Mostafa A.; Du, Lin; Li, Ning; Yeh, Michael W.; He, Xuemei; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Levothyroxine (LT4) absorption is affected by concomitant ingestion of certain minerals, medications, and foods. It has been hypothesized that metformin may suppress serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations by enhancing LT4 absorption or by directly affecting the hypothalamic–pituitary axis. This study examined the effect of metformin ingestion on LT4 absorption, as assessed by serum total thyroxine (TT4) concentrations. Methods: A modified Food and Drug Administration LT4 bioequivalence protocol was applied to healthy, metformin-naïve, euthyroid adult volunteers. Following an overnight fast, 600 μg LT4 was administered orally. Serum TT4 concentrations were measured at baseline and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, and 6 h following LT4 administration. Measurements were performed before and after one week of metformin ingestion (850 mg three times daily). Peak serum TT4 concentrations, time to peak TT4 concentrations, and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) were calculated. Results: Twenty-six subjects (54% men, 27% white, age 33 ± 10 years) were studied. There were no significant differences in peak serum TT4 concentrations (p = 0.13) and time to peak TT4 concentrations (p = 0.19) before and after one week of metformin use. A trend toward reduced TT4 AUC was observed after metformin ingestion (pre-metformin 3893 ± 568 μg/dL-min, post-metformin 3765 ± 588 μg/dL-min, p = 0.09). Conclusions: LT4 absorption is unchanged by concomitant metformin ingestion. Mechanisms other than increased LT4 absorption may be responsible for the suppressed TSH concentrations observed in patients ingesting both drugs. PMID:26191653

  11. TSH/IGF-1 Receptor Cross-Talk Rapidly Activates Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases in Multiple Cell Types.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Christine C; Perry, Joseph D; Morgan, Sarah J; Kahaly, George J; Gershengorn, Marvin C

    2017-10-01

    We previously showed that thyrotropin (TSH)/insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor cross-talk appears to be involved in Graves' orbitopathy (GO) pathogenesis and upregulation of thyroid-specific genes in human thyrocytes. In orbital fibroblasts from GO patients, coadministration of TSH and IGF-1 induces synergistic increases in hyaluronan secretion. In human thyrocytes, TSH plus IGF-1 synergistically increased expression of the sodium-iodide symporter that appeared to involve ERK1/2 activation. However, the details of ERK1/2 activation were not known, nor was whether ERK1/2 was involved in this synergism in other cell types. Using primary cultures of GO fibroblasts (GOFs) and human thyrocytes, as well as human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells overexpressing TSH receptors (HEK-TSHRs), we show that simultaneous activation of TSHRs and IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1Rs) causes rapid, synergistic phosphorylation/activation of ERK1 and ERK2 in all three cell types. This effect is partially inhibited by pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of TSHR coupling to Gi/Go proteins. In support of a role for Gi/Go proteins in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, we found that knockdown of Gi(1-3) and Go in HEK-TSHRs inhibited ERK1/2 phosphorylation stimulated by TSH and TSH plus IGF-1. These data demonstrate that the synergistic effects of TSH plus IGF-1 occur early in the TSHR signaling cascade and further support the idea that TSHR/IGF-1R cross-talk is an important mechanism for regulation of human GOFs and thyrocytes.

  12. Absence of mutations in PAX8, NKX2.5, and TSH receptor genes in patients with thyroid dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Brust, Ester S; Beltrao, Cristine B; Chammas, Maria C; Watanabe, Tomoco; Sapienza, Marcelo T; Marui, Suemi

    2012-04-01

    To precisely classify the various forms of TD, and then to screen for mutations in transcription factor genes active in thyroid development. Patients underwent ultrasound, thyroid scan, and serum thyroglobulin measurement to accurately diagnose the form of TD. DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes. The PAX8, and NKX2.5 genes were evaluated in all patients, and TSH receptor (TSHR) gene in those with hypoplasia. In 27 nonconsanguineous patients with TD, 13 were diagnosed with ectopia, 11 with hypoplasia, and 3 with athyreosis. No mutations were detected in any of the genes studied. Sporadic cases of TD are likely to be caused by epigenetic factors, rather than mutations in thyroid transcription factors or genes involved in thyroid development.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated biphenyl ethers in adipose tissue and matched serum from an E-waste recycling area (Wenling, China).

    PubMed

    Lv, Quan-Xia; Wang, Wenyue; Li, Xing-Hong; Yu, Lianlian; Zhang, Yun; Tian, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    To Date, the knowledge on relationship between PCBs/PBDEs exposure and thyroid hormones (THs) levels during pregnancy still needs to be extended. Meanwhile, studies on congener-specific adipose-serum ratios for PCBs/PBDEs were limited. This study reports the levels of PCBs/PBDEs in serum-adipose tissue samples (n = 64) from expectant women living surrounding e-waste recycling sites in Wenling, China. Their concentrations varied from several to hundreds of ng g(-1) lipid. Maternal exposure to PCBs was associated with lower TSH during pregnancy, suggesting possible implication for maternal health and fetal development. The compound levels between the adipose tissue and matched serum samples were highly correlated (p < 0.001), generating a predicted adipose-serum partitioning relationship for individual PCB congener and PBDE congener. Molecular characteristics, such as Kow value, molecular weight and molecular volume, may play a key role in the variable partitioning of some compounds between serum and adipose tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An FSH and TSH pituitary adenoma, presenting with precocious puberty and central hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Guadalupe; Balcazar-Hernandez, Lourdes-Josefina; Melgar, Virgilio; Magriña-Mercado, Roser-Montserrat; Gonzalez, Baldomero; Baquera, Javier

    2017-01-01

    A 19-year-old woman with a history of isosexual precocious puberty and bilateral oophorectomy at age 10 years because of giant ovarian cysts, presents with headaches and mild symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism. Hormonal evaluation revealed elevated FSH and LH levels in the postmenopausal range and free hyperthyroxinemia with an inappropriately normal TSH. Pituitary MRI showed a 2-cm macroadenoma with suprasellar extension. She underwent successful surgical resection of the pituitary tumor, which proved to be composed of two distinct populations of cells, each of them strongly immunoreactive for FSH and TSH, respectively. This mixed adenoma resulted in two different hormonal hypersecretion syndromes: the first one during childhood and consisting of central precocious puberty and ovarian hyperstimulation due to the excessive secretion of biologically active FSH and which was not investigated in detail and 10 years later, central hyperthyroidism due to inappropriate secretion of biologically active TSH. Although infrequent, two cases of isosexual central precocious puberty in girls due to biologically active FSH secreted by a pituitary adenoma have been previously reported in the literature. However, this is the first reported case of a mixed adenoma capable of secreting both, biologically active FSH and TSH. Learning points: Although functioning gonadotrophinomas are infrequent, they should be included in the differential diagnosis of isosexual central precocious puberty. Some functioning gonadotrophinomas are mixed adenomas, secreting other biologically active hormones besides FSH, such as TSH. Early recognition and appropriate treatment of these tumors by transsphenoidal surgery is crucial in order to avoid unnecessary therapeutic interventions that may irreversibly compromise gonadal function. PMID:28721217

  15. An FSH and TSH pituitary adenoma, presenting with precocious puberty and central hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Guadalupe; Balcazar-Hernandez, Lourdes-Josefina; Melgar, Virgilio; Magriña-Mercado, Roser-Montserrat; Gonzalez, Baldomero; Baquera, Javier; Mercado, Moisés

    2017-01-01

    A 19-year-old woman with a history of isosexual precocious puberty and bilateral oophorectomy at age 10 years because of giant ovarian cysts, presents with headaches and mild symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism. Hormonal evaluation revealed elevated FSH and LH levels in the postmenopausal range and free hyperthyroxinemia with an inappropriately normal TSH. Pituitary MRI showed a 2-cm macroadenoma with suprasellar extension. She underwent successful surgical resection of the pituitary tumor, which proved to be composed of two distinct populations of cells, each of them strongly immunoreactive for FSH and TSH, respectively. This mixed adenoma resulted in two different hormonal hypersecretion syndromes: the first one during childhood and consisting of central precocious puberty and ovarian hyperstimulation due to the excessive secretion of biologically active FSH and which was not investigated in detail and 10 years later, central hyperthyroidism due to inappropriate secretion of biologically active TSH. Although infrequent, two cases of isosexual central precocious puberty in girls due to biologically active FSH secreted by a pituitary adenoma have been previously reported in the literature. However, this is the first reported case of a mixed adenoma capable of secreting both, biologically active FSH and TSH. Although functioning gonadotrophinomas are infrequent, they should be included in the differential diagnosis of isosexual central precocious puberty.Some functioning gonadotrophinomas are mixed adenomas, secreting other biologically active hormones besides FSH, such as TSH.Early recognition and appropriate treatment of these tumors by transsphenoidal surgery is crucial in order to avoid unnecessary therapeutic interventions that may irreversibly compromise gonadal function.

  16. Factors associated with serum thyroglobulin levels in a population living in Belarus

    PubMed Central

    Cahoon, Elizabeth K; Rozhko, Alexander; Hatch, Maureen; Polyanskaya, Olga; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Tang, Min; Nadirov, Eldar; Yauseyenka, Vasilina; Savasteeva, Irina; McConnell, Robert J; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Brenner, Alina V

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) has been associated with a number of thyroid disorders and has been proposed as an indicator of iodine deficiency in a population. However, few studies have addressed the epidemiology of Tg in a population-based setting or in the context of exposure to radioactive iodine-131 (I-131). Our objective was to evaluate baseline levels of Tg in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, iodine status, and thyroid function for individuals exposed to I-131. Design A population-based cohort assembled in Belarus following the Chornobyl accident provided demographic factors, clinical data, and physiological measurements. Participants Our analytic sample included 10,344 subjects of whom 7,890 had no thyroid disease and 2,454 had evidence of structural or functional thyroid abnormality. Measurements Standardized assays were used to measure serum Tg, urinary iodine, TSH, and antibodies to Tg and thyroid peroxidase. Ultrasound was used to assess the presence of nodules and estimate thyroid volume. Results In the fully adjusted model, percent change in Tg was significantly increased among females, smokers, and subjects of older age and Tg increased with decreasing urinary iodine concentration, increasing serum TSH and increasing thyroid volume (p-values for trend < 0.0001), and presence of thyroid nodules (p < 0.05). We found a complex interaction between region of residence, rural/urban living, presence/absence of thyroid abnormalities, and serum Tg (p < 0.0001). Conclusions In residents of Belarus, serum Tg is significantly related to presence of thyroid abnormalities as well as indicators of thyroid function and iodine deficiency and, therefore, could be used to characterize the iodine status and thyroid function of individuals in the context of epidemiological study. PMID:23190420

  17. Correlation between serum lead and thyroid diseases: papillary thyroid carcinoma, nodular goiter, and thyroid adenoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Li, Xiang; Liu, Jie; Jin, Langping; Yang, Fan; Wang, Junbo; Wang, Ouchen; Gao, Ying

    2017-10-01

    Studies have showed that lead was associated with human health. However, the effects of lead on thyroid functions are inconsistent, and studies based on Chinese population are fragmentary. To evaluate the correlation between lead and thyroid functions of Chinese with different thyroid diseases, we conducted a hospital-based study. Ninety-six papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 10 nodular goiter (NG), and 7 thyroid adenoma (TA) patients were recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, China. Serum triiodothyronine (T3), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were evaluated with chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Serum lead was assessed with ICP-MASS. Partial correlation was used to explore the correlations of serum lead and thyroid diseases. Compared to PTC, the level of lead was significantly higher in TA, and lower in NG (p < 0.05). This difference remained significant in females when stratified by sex. Serum lead was negatively correlated with TSH (r s  =  - 0.27, p < 0.05) in PTC group. T3 was positively related to lead at quartile4 (r s  = 0.61, p < 0.05) in PTC group. No significant correlations were observed between lead and FT3 or FT4 in any group. The results suggested that lead might have different etiological roles in these three thyroid diseases.

  18. Moderate-to-high normal levels of thyrotropin is a risk factor for urinary incontinence and an unsuitable quality of life in women over 65 years.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, Estela; Sánchez-Cardiel, Angélica; Zamora-Gallegos, Angélica M; Cruz-Lumbreras, Rosalía; Corona-Quintanilla, Dora L; Castelán, Francisco; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between normal serum concentrations of thyrotropin (TSH) and urinary incontinence (IU), urinary infections, and quality of life in old women. Euthyroid post-menopausal women without sarcopenia, estrogen replacement, emotional illness, and/or cancer were enrolled as participants. Anthropometric indicators, serum glucose and estradiol, and thyroid profile were measured. Sociodemographic, clinical, physical activity, and quality of life (SF-36) surveys were applied. One-hour pad test and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form (ICIQ-SF) were used to determine UI. Urinalysis was also done. In agreement with results from the pad test (cut-off point ≥1.4 g), the ICIQ-SF reveled approximately 50% of incontinent women. A high percentage of women had moderate-high bacteriuria and urinary infections. Logistic regression analysis showed that age is a risk factor for both UI and urinary infection. Diabetes, number of pregnancies or childbirths, urinary infections, and bacteriuria did not influence the presence of UI. To allocate women into four groups according to their age (<65 or ≥65 years old) and TSH concentrations (0.3-1.9 or 2-10 μUI/mL), we found that moderate-to-high normal levels of TSH is a risk factor for UI and a worse quality of life in the oldest women. Our results highlight the profit of measuring TSH concentrations in post-menopausal women. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. GLIS3 is indispensable for TSH/TSHR-dependent thyroid hormone biosynthesis and follicular cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hong Soon; Kumar, Dhirendra; Liao, Grace; Lichti-Kaiser, Kristin; Gerrish, Kevin; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Refetoff, Samuel; Jothi, Raja; Jetten, Anton M.

    2017-01-01

    Deficiency in Krüppel-like zinc finger transcription factor GLI-similar 3 (GLIS3) in humans is associated with the development of congenital hypothyroidism. However, the functions of GLIS3 in the thyroid gland and the mechanism by which GLIS3 dysfunction causes hypothyroidism are unknown. In the current study, we demonstrate that GLIS3 acts downstream of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and TSH receptor (TSHR) and is indispensable for TSH/TSHR-mediated proliferation of thyroid follicular cells and biosynthesis of thyroid hormone. Using ChIP-Seq and promoter analysis, we demonstrate that GLIS3 is critical for the transcriptional activation of several genes required for thyroid hormone biosynthesis, including the iodide transporters Nis and Pds, both of which showed enhanced GLIS3 binding at their promoters. The repression of cell proliferation of GLIS3-deficient thyroid follicular cells was due to the inhibition of TSH-mediated activation of the mTOR complex 1/ribosomal protein S6 (mTORC1/RPS6) pathway as well as the reduced expression of several cell division–related genes regulated directly by GLIS3. Consequently, GLIS3 deficiency in a murine model prevented the development of goiter as well as the induction of inflammatory and fibrotic genes during chronic elevation of circulating TSH. Our study identifies GLIS3 as a key regulator of TSH/TSHR-mediated thyroid hormone biosynthesis and proliferation of thyroid follicular cells and uncovers a mechanism by which GLIS3 deficiency causes neonatal hypothyroidism and prevents goiter development. PMID:29083325

  20. Acute psychological stress increases plasma levels of cortisol, prolactin and TSH.

    PubMed

    Schedlowski, M; Wiechert, D; Wagner, T O; Tewes, U

    1992-01-01

    The effects of acute stress during a parachute jump on hormonal responses were studied in 12 experienced and 11 inexperienced military parachutists. Each subject performed two jumps. Prior to and immediately after each jump blood samples were drawn and analysed for plasma levels of cortisol, prolactin, thyrotropin (TSH), somatotropin (STH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). While there was a significant increase in cortisol, prolactin and TSH levels after both jumps, no alterations could be observed in STH and LH levels. Stress-induced hormonal responses were not affected by jump experience. There was also no association between the endocrine variables and anxiety scores.

  1. TSH Compensates Thyroid-Specific IGF-I Receptor Knockout and Causes Papillary Thyroid Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Kathrin; Führer, Dagmar; Mittag, Jens; Klöting, Nora; Blüher, Matthias; Weiss, Roy E.; Many, Marie-Christine; Schmid, Kurt Werner

    2011-01-01

    Although TSH stimulates all aspects of thyroid physiology IGF-I signaling through a tyrosine kinase-containing transmembrane receptor exhibits a permissive impact on TSH action. To better understand the importance of the IGF-I receptor in the thyroid in vivo, we inactivated the Igf1r with a Tg promoter-driven Cre-lox system in mice. We studied male and female mice with thyroidal wild-type, Igf1r+/−, and Igf1r−/− genotypes. Targeted Igf1r inactivation did transiently reduce thyroid hormone levels and significantly increased TSH levels in both heterozygous and homozygous mice without affecting thyroid weight. Histological analysis of thyroid tissue with Igf1r inactivation revealed hyperplasia and heterogeneous follicle structure. From 4 months of age, we detected papillary thyroid architecture in heterozygous and homozygous mice. We also noted increased body weight of male mice with a homozygous thyroidal null mutation in the Igf1r locus, compared with wild-type mice, respectively. A decrease of mRNA and protein for thyroid peroxidase and increased mRNA and protein for IGF-II receptor but no significant mRNA changes for the insulin receptor, the TSH receptor, and the sodium-iodide-symporter in both Igf1r+/− and Igf1r−/− mice were detected. Our results suggest that the strong increase of TSH benefits papillary thyroid hyperplasia and completely compensates the loss of IGF-I receptor signaling at the level of thyroid hormones without significant increase in thyroid weight. This could indicate that the IGF-I receptor signaling is less essential for thyroid hormone synthesis but maintains homeostasis and normal thyroid morphogenesis. PMID:21980075

  2. [Prevalence of thyroid function in pregnant and lactating women in areas with different iodine levels of Shanxi province].

    PubMed

    Ren, Y T; Jia, Q Z; Zhang, X D; Guo, B S; Zhang, F F; Cheng, X T; Wang, Y P

    2018-05-10

    Objective: To investigate the effects of high iodine intake on thyroid function in pregnant and lactating women. Methods: A cross sectional epidemiological study was conducted among 130 pregnant women and 220 lactating women aged 19-40 years in areas with high environment iodine level (>300 μg/L) or proper environment iodine level (50-100 μg/L) in Shanxi in 2014. The general information, urine samples and blood samples of the women surveyed and water samples were collected. The water and urine iodine levels were detected with arsenic and cerium catalysis spectrophotometric method, the blood TSH level was detected with electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, and thyroid stimulating hormone (FT(4)), antithyroid peroxidase autoantibody (TPOAb) and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb) were detected with chemiluminescence immunoassay. Results: The median urine iodine levels of the four groups were 221.9, 282.5, 814.1 and 818.6 μg/L, respectively. The median serum FT(4) of lactating women in high iodine area and proper iodine area were 12.96 and 13.22 pmol/L, and the median serum TSH was 2.45 and 2.17 mIU/L, respectively. The median serum FT(4) of pregnant women in high iodine area and proper iodine area were 14.66 and 16.16 pmol/L, and the median serum TSH was 2.13 and 1.82 mIU/L, respectively. The serum FT(4) levels were lower and the abnormal rates of serum TSH were higher in lactating women than in pregnant women in both high iodine area and proper iodine area, the difference was statistically significant (FT(4): Z =-6.677, -4.041, P <0.01; TSH: Z =8.797, 8.910, P <0.01). In high iodine area, the abnormal rate of serum FT(4) in lactating women was higher than that in pregnant women, the difference was statistically significant ( Z =7.338, P =0.007). The serum FT(4) level of lactating women in high iodine area was lower than that in proper iodine area, the difference was statistically significant ( Z =-4.687, P =0.000). In high iodine area, the median serum FT(4) in

  3. 2013 ETA Guideline: Management of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Simon H.S.; Brabant, Georg; Duntas, Leonidas H.; Monzani, Fabio; Peeters, Robin P.; Razvi, Salman; Wemeau, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) should be considered in two categories according to the elevation in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level: mildly increased TSH levels (4.0-10.0 mU/l) and more severely increased TSH value (>10 mU/l). An initially raised serum TSH, with FT4 within reference range, should be investigated with a repeat measurement of both serum TSH and FT4, along with thyroid peroxidase antibodies, preferably after a 2- to 3-month interval. Even in the absence of symptoms, replacement therapy with L-thyroxine is recommended for younger patients (<65-70 years) with serum TSH >10 mU/l. In younger SCH patients (serum TSH <10 mU/l) with symptoms suggestive of hypothyroidism, a trial of L-thyroxine replacement therapy should be considered. For such patients who have been started on L-thyroxine for symptoms attributed to SCH, response to treatment should be reviewed 3 or 4 months after a serum TSH within reference range is reached. If there is no improvement in symptoms, L-thyroxine therapy should generally be stopped. Age-specific local reference ranges for serum TSH should be considered in order to establish a diagnosis of SCH in older people. The oldest old subjects (>80-85 years) with elevated serum TSH ≤10 mU/l should be carefully followed with a wait-and-see strategy, generally avoiding hormonal treatment. If the decision is to treat SCH, then oral L-thyroxine, administered daily, is the treatment of choice. The serum TSH should be re-checked 2 months after starting L-thyroxine therapy, and dosage adjustments made accordingly. The aim for most adults should be to reach a stable serum TSH in the lower half of the reference range (0.4-2.5 mU/l). Once patients with SCH are commenced on L-thyroxine treatment, then serum TSH should be monitored at least annually thereafter. PMID:24783053

  4. Serum Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels and Body Mass Index Percentiles in Children with Primary Hypothyroidism on Levothyroxine Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Shaoba, Asma; Basu, Sanjib; Mantis, Stelios; Minutti, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association, if any, between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and body mass index (BMI) percentiles in children with primary hypothyroidism who are chemically euthyroid and on treatment with levothyroxine. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study consisted of a review of medical records from RUSH Medical Center and Stroger Hospital, Chicago, USA of children with primary hypothyroidism who were seen in the clinic from 2008 to 2014 and who were chemically euthyroid and on treatment with levothyroxine for at least 6 months. The patients were divided into two groups based on their TSH levels (0.34-<2.5 mIU/L and ≥2.5-5.6 mIU/L). The data were analyzed by Spearman rank correlation, linear regression, cross tabulation and chi-square, Mann-Whitney U test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: One hundred and forty-six children were included, of which 26% were obese (BMI ≥95%), 21.9% overweight (BMI ≥85-<95%), and 52.1% of a healthy weight (BMI ≥5-<85%). There was a significant positive correlation between TSH and BMI percentiles (r=0.274, p=0.001) and a significant negative correlation between TSH and serum free T4 (r=-0.259, p=0.002). In the lower TSH group, 68.4% of the children had a healthy weight, while the percentage of obese children was 60.5% in the upper TSH group (p=0.012). Conclusion: In children diagnosed with primary hypothyroidism who are chemically euthyroid on treatment with levothyroxine, there is a positive association between higher TSH levels and higher BMI percentiles. However, it is difficult to establish if the higher TSH levels are a direct cause or a consequence of the obesity. Further studies are needed to establish causation beyond significant association. PMID:28766504

  5. Serum Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels and Body Mass Index Percentiles in Children with Primary Hypothyroidism on Levothyroxine Replacement.

    PubMed

    Shaoba, Asma; Basu, Sanjib; Mantis, Stelios; Minutti, Carla

    2017-12-15

    To determine the association, if any, between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and body mass index (BMI) percentiles in children with primary hypothyroidism who are chemically euthyroid and on treatment with levothyroxine. This retrospective cross-sectional study consisted of a review of medical records from RUSH Medical Center and Stroger Hospital, Chicago, USA of children with primary hypothyroidism who were seen in the clinic from 2008 to 2014 and who were chemically euthyroid and on treatment with levothyroxine for at least 6 months. The patients were divided into two groups based on their TSH levels (0.34-<2.5 mIU/L and ≥2.5-5.6 mIU/L). The data were analyzed by Spearman rank correlation, linear regression, cross tabulation and chi-square, Mann-Whitney U test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. One hundred and forty-six children were included, of which 26% were obese (BMI ≥95%), 21.9% overweight (BMI ≥85-<95%), and 52.1% of a healthy weight (BMI ≥5-<85%). There was a significant positive correlation between TSH and BMI percentiles (r=0.274, p=0.001) and a significant negative correlation between TSH and serum free T4 (r=-0.259, p=0.002). In the lower TSH group, 68.4% of the children had a healthy weight, while the percentage of obese children was 60.5% in the upper TSH group (p=0.012). In children diagnosed with primary hypothyroidism who are chemically euthyroid on treatment with levothyroxine, there is a positive association between higher TSH levels and higher BMI percentiles. However, it is difficult to establish if the higher TSH levels are a direct cause or a consequence of the obesity. Further studies are needed to establish causation beyond significant association.

  6. Perfluorinated alkyl substances in serum of the southern Chinese general population and potential impact on thyroid hormones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yangjie; Cheng, Yating; Xie, Zhiyong; Zeng, Feng

    2017-02-01

    In this study, eight perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) and five thyroid hormones (TSH, FT4, FT3, TGAb, and TMAb) were determined in 202 human serum samples of the general population of Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan provinces in southern China. Σ8PFASs concentrations ranged from 0.85 to 24.3 ng/mL with a mean value of 4.66 ng/mL. The PFASs composition profiles of human serum samples nearly make no difference at different locations. A significant increase was observed for ∑8PFASs, PFOS, and PFHxS concentrations with age (p < 0.01). Gender-related differences were found; PFOS, PFHxS, PFBS, and PFOA levels were higher in males (p < 0.05), and the mean concentration of ∑8PFASs was 1.5 times greater in males (6.02 ng/mL) than in females (4.15 ng/mL). PFOS and ∑8PFASs were significantly negatively correlated with FT3 and FT4 and positively correlated with TSH while PFPeA and PFHxA were significantly positively correlated with TGAb and TMAb in all the samples. The opposite associations between FT3, TSH and PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS levels in hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism group indicate that the PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS enhance the negative feedback mechanisms of the thyroid gland.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of basal TSH determinations based on the intravenous TRH stimulation test: an evaluation of 2570 tests and comparison with the literature.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Helga; Dapunt, Otto; Moncayo, Roy

    2007-08-02

    Basal TSH levels reflect the metabolic status of thyroid function, however the definition and interpretation of the basal levels of TSH is a matter of controversial debate. The aim of this study was to evaluate basal TSH levels in relation to the physiological response to i.v. TRH stimulation. A series of 2570 women attending a specialized endocrine unit were evaluated. A standardized i.v. TRH stimulation test was carried out by applying 200 mug of TRH. TSH levels were measured both in the basal and the 30 minute blood sample. The normal response to TRH stimulation had been previously determined to be an absolute value lying between 2.5 and 20 mIU/l. Both TSH values were analyzed by cross tabulation. In addition the results were compared to reference values taken from the literature. Basal TSH values were within the normal range (0.3 to 3.5 mIU/l) in 91,5% of cases, diminished in 3,8% and elevated in 4.7%. Based on the response to TRH, 82.4% were considered euthyroid, 3.3% were latent hyperthyroid, and 14.3% were latent hypothyroid. Combining the data on basal and stimulated TSH levels, latent hypothyroidism was found in the following proportions for different TSH levels: 5.4% for TSH < 2.0 mIU/l, 30.2% for TSH between 2.0 and 3.0 mIU/l, 65,5% for TSH between 3.0 and 3.50 mIU/l, 87.5% for TSH between 3.5 and 4.0 mIU/l, and 88.2% for TSH between 4 and 5 mIU/l. The use of an upper normal range for TSH of 2.5 mIU/l, as recommended in the literature, misclassified 7.7% of euthyroid cases. Our analysis strategy allows us to delineate the predictive value of basal TSH levels in relation to latent hypothyroidism. A grey area can be identified for values between 3.0 and 3.5 mIU/l.

  8. Power spool test, TSH-002, SPTF No. 19

    SciTech Connect

    McInturff, A.D.

    1982-05-28

    The data presented in this Technical Memo will pertain to the operating characteristics of Power Spool TSH-002. This spool had a large number of thermometers built into it. These thermometers monitored most of the thermal characteristics of the 5000 A American Magnetics, Inc. vapor-cooled leads used in this power spool. Operating conditions, such as peak temperatures, ramp and dc lead cooling gas flow requirements, voltage as an indicator of stable conditions (ac and dc) and general voltage characteristics (i.e., amount of ice formed outside of leads vs high-pot voltage) were measured and observed. It was found that previous operating conditionsmore » of the power leads influenced the temperature gradients of the leads in certain cases.« less

  9. Dietary high-fat lard intake induces thyroid dysfunction and abnormal morphology in rats.

    PubMed

    Shao, Shan-shan; Zhao, Yuan-fei; Song, Yong-feng; Xu, Chao; Yang, Jian-mei; Xuan, Shi-meng; Yan, Hui-li; Yu, Chun-xiao; Zhao, Meng; Xu, Jin; Zhao, Jia-jun

    2014-11-01

    Excess dietary fat intake can induce lipotoxicity in non-adipose tissues. The aim of this study was to observe the effects of dietary high-fat lard intake on thyroid in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat lard diet for 24 weeks, and then the rats were fed a normal control diet (acute dietary modification) or the high-fat lard diet for another 6 weeks. The serum lipid profile, total thyroxine (TT4), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels were determined at the 12, 18, 24 and 30 weeks. High-frequency ultrasound scanning of the thyroid glands was performed at the 24 or 30 weeks. After the rats were sacrificed, the thyroid glands were collected for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. The high-fat lard diet significantly increased triglyceride levels in both the serum and thyroid, and decreased serum TT4 and FT4 levels in parallel with elevated serum TSH levels. Ultrasonic imaging revealed enlarged thyroid glands with lowered echotexture and relatively heterogeneous features in the high-fat lard fed rats. The thyroid glands from the high-fat lard fed rats exhibited enlarged follicle cavities and flattened follicular epithelial cells under light microscopy, and dilated endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, twisted nuclei, fewer microvilli and secretory vesicles under transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the thyroid glands from the high-fat lard fed rats showed markedly low levels of thyroid hormone synthesis-related proteins TTF-1 and NIS. Acute dietary modification by withdrawal of the high-fat lard diet for 6 weeks failed to ameliorate the high-fat lard diet-induced thyroid changes. Dietary high-fat lard intake induces significant thyroid dysfunction and abnormal morphology in rats, which can not be corrected by short-term dietary modification.

  10. A functional thyrotropin- and growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma with a ultrastructurally monomorphic feature: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Y; Kameya, T; Kasuga, A; Naritaka, H; Kanda, N; Maruyama, H; Saruta, T

    1998-04-01

    A 38-yr-old female with a TSH- and GH-secreting pituitary adenoma is described, who had both overt symptoms, hyperthyroidism and acromegaly. Her serum TSH was not suppressed despite high concentrations of free T3 and free T4, and her alpha-subunit/TSH molar ratio was high. Her serum GH was consistently high, and was not suppressed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Preoperative testing revealed that, although the TSH response was impaired, TSH, alpha-subunit and GH were increased by TRH injection, and that these hormones were reduced by bromocriptine or somatostatin analog. Although she did not have hyperprolactinemia, the in vitro culture and immunohistochemical studies revealed that the adenoma cells produced and released PRL, in addition to TSH, alpha-subunit and GH. Immunohistochemical studies showed the presence of GH in the cytoplasm of many adenoma cells. TSH beta-positive adenoma cells were less frequently seen than GH-positive adenoma cells. No cells showed the coexistence of GH and TSH beta, and a few cells were positive for PRL. By electron microscopy, the adenoma was found to be composed of a single cell type resembling thyrotrophs, and did not have any characteristics of somatotrophs. This case was considered to be of interest, because the adenoma was ultrastructurally monomorphous, but immunohistochemically polymorphous.

  11. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone, total and free T4 during the neonatal period: Establishing regional reference intervals

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Mahdaviani, Behnaz; Abdollahi, Alireza; Nayeri, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Context: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH), the most common etiology of preventable mental retardation in children, is estimated to be more prevalent among Asian population. Aims: Since thyroid function tests (TFTs) varied among different ages and geographical regions, in this study, the neonatal thyroid reference intervals in a healthy neonatal population is determined for the first time in Iran. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study performed on 246 healthy term newborns aged between 2 days and 1 month. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture from all subjects. The median, 2.5th, 5th, 95th, and 97.5th percentile of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), as well as the total and free T4 were assessed among different age groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Predictive Analytics Software (PASW Statistics 18) was used for the analysis. Results: Serum TSH, total and free T4 concentration peaked in 5th to 7th days of life, continued over 2 weeks, then decreased and started reaching to adult reference range. A significant negative correlation between age and serum concentration of TSH (P = 0.02), total T4 (P = 0.01) and free T4 (P = 0.01) was found. Conclusion: This study yielded fairly different values for TFTs compared compared values found in other countries and also different from values reported for laboratory kits we used. These differences were assumed to be due to variations in ethnicity, age, and laboratory methods used. Due to the lack of international standardization, conducting multicenter studies helps in making a more precise evaluation of thyroid status in neonates. PMID:24701428

  12. Evaluation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) alone as a first-line thyroid function test (TFT) in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Kende, M; Kandapu, S

    2002-01-01

    In the Port Moresby General Hospital, the Chemical Pathology Department assays both thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) on all requests for a thyroid function test (TFT). The cost of assaying both tests is obviously higher than either test alone. In order to minimize the cost of a TFT we aimed to determine if TSH or FT4 alone as a first-line test would be adequate in assessing the thyroid hormone status of patients. We analyzed TFT records from January 1996 to May 2000 in the Port Moresby General Hospital. A total of 3089 TSH and 2867 FT4 were assayed at an annual reagent cost of Papua New Guinea kina 14,500. When TSH alone is used as a first-line test at the Port Moresby General Hospital, the biochemical status of 95% of patients will be appropriately categorized as euthyroidism, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism with only 5% discrepant (ie, normal TSH with abnormal FT4) results. In contrast, using FT4 alone as a first-line test correctly classifies only 84% of TFTs. Euthyroid status is observed in 50% of patients and FT4 assays on these samples will be excluded appropriately if a TSH-only protocol is adopted. Furthermore, we will save a quarter of the yearly cost of TFTs on reagents alone by performing TSH only. We conclude that TSH alone is an adequate first-line thyroid function test in Papua New Guinea and when it is normal no further FT4 test is necessary unless clinically indicated.

  13. Influence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies on TSH levels of pregnant women and maternal-fetal complications.

    PubMed

    Fernández Martínez, Paula; Aguado García, Rocío; Barajas Galindo, David Emilio; Hernández Moreno, Ana; Alejo Ramos, Mirian; García Arias, Sara; Ballesteros Pomar, María D; Cano Rodríguez, Isidoro Manuel

    2018-06-14

    During pregnancy, thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies may increase the risk of developing subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). Both conditions appear to be associated to maternal-fetal complications. The objectives of this study were to analyze if a relationship exists between TSH and TPO levels during pregnancy and the potential effects on gestational and perinatal complications, and to assess whether detectable, but not positive, TPO levels have an impact on development of gestational SCH. A prospective study was conducted at the Leon Health Area (CAULE), where universal screening for gestational thyroid dysfunction is performed between weeks 7-13 of pregnancy. Data on TSH and TPO levels and gestational and perinatal complications were collected for all 2016 deliveries. Positive TPO antibodies were defined as values≥35IU/mL. In a previous study, a TSH level>3.72mU/L was established as the cut-off value for gestational SCH. Records corresponding to 1,980 deliveries at CAULE, 21 abortions, and 18 deliveries outside the hospital were analyzed. Of the 1,670 pregnant women screened (84.34%), 142 (8.50%) had positive TPO antibodies and their presence was associated to diagnosis of SCH (P<0.01) and to significantly higher mean TSH levels (3.51mU/L vs. 2.46mU/L, P=0.03). There were no significant differences in gestational or neonatal complications. In the group with undetectable TPO antibodies (<10lU/mL), the mean TSH levels was slightly lower than in the group with TPO values ranging from 10-35 IU/mL, but the difference was not significant (P=0.89). Presence of positive TPO antibodies is associated to higher TSH levels and higher risk of gestational SCH, but does not increase the rate of maternal-fetal complications. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Concentration at Birth in Belgian Neonates and Cognitive Development at Preschool Age

    PubMed Central

    Trumpff, Caroline; De Schepper, Jean; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Vercruysse, Nathalie; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Tafforeau, Jean; Vanderpas, Jean; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of MID during late pregnancy, assessed by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration at neonatal screening, on cognitive development of preschool children. A retrospective cohort study including 311 Belgian preschool children of 4–6 years old was conducted. Children were selected at random from the total list of neonates screened in 2008, 2009, and 2010 by the Brussels new-born screening center. Infants with congenital hypothyroidism, low birth weight, and/or prematurity were excluded from the selection. The selected children were stratified by gender and TSH-range (0.45–15 mIU/L). Cognitive abilities were assessed using Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—third edition. In addition, several socioeconomic, parental, and child confounding factors were assessed. Neonatal TSH concentration—a surrogate marker for MID—was not associated with Full Scale and Performance IQ scores in children. Lower Verbal IQ scores were found in children with neonatal TSH values comprised between 10–15 mIU/L compared to lower TSH levels in univariate analysis but these results did not hold when adjusting for confounding factors. Current levels of iodine deficiency among pregnant Belgian women may not be severe enough to affect the neurodevelopment of preschool children. PMID:26540070

  15. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Concentration at Birth in Belgian Neonates and Cognitive Development at Preschool Age.

    PubMed

    Trumpff, Caroline; De Schepper, Jean; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Vercruysse, Nathalie; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Tafforeau, Jean; Vanderpas, Jean; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2015-11-02

    The main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of MID during late pregnancy, assessed by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration at neonatal screening, on cognitive development of preschool children. A retrospective cohort study including 311 Belgian preschool children of 4-6 years old was conducted. Children were selected at random from the total list of neonates screened in 2008, 2009, and 2010 by the Brussels new-born screening center. Infants with congenital hypothyroidism, low birth weight, and/or prematurity were excluded from the selection. The selected children were stratified by gender and TSH-range (0.45-15 mIU/L). Cognitive abilities were assessed using Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-third edition. In addition, several socioeconomic, parental, and child confounding factors were assessed. Neonatal TSH concentration-a surrogate marker for MID-was not associated with Full Scale and Performance IQ scores in children. Lower Verbal IQ scores were found in children with neonatal TSH values comprised between 10-15 mIU/L compared to lower TSH levels in univariate analysis but these results did not hold when adjusting for confounding factors. Current levels of iodine deficiency among pregnant Belgian women may not be severe enough to affect the neurodevelopment of preschool children.

  16. A Tyrosine Residue on the TSH Receptor Stabilizes Multimer Formation

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Rauf; Michalek, Krzysztof; Morshed, Syed Ahmed; Davies, Terry F.

    2010-01-01

    Background The thyrotropin stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) with a large ectodomain. The ligand, TSH, acting via this receptor regulates thyroid growth and thyroid hormone production and secretion. The TSH receptor (TSHR) undergoes complex post –translational modifications including intramolecular cleavage and receptor multimerization. Since monomeric and multimeric receptors coexist in cells, understanding the functional role of just the TSHR multimers is difficult. Therefore, to help understand the physiological significance of receptor multimerization, it will be necessary to abrogate multimer formation, which requires identifying the ectodomain and endodomain interaction sites on the TSHR. Here, we have examined the contribution of the ectodomain to constitutive multimerization of the TSHR and determined the possible residue(s) that may be involved in this interaction. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied ectodomain multimer formation by expressing the extracellular domain of the TSHR linked to a glycophosphotidyl (GPI) anchor in both stable and transient expression systems. Using co-immunoprecipitation and FRET of tagged receptors, we established that the TSH receptor ectodomain was capable of multimerization even when totally devoid of the transmembrane domain. Further, we studied the effect of two residues that likely made critical contact points in this interaction. We showed that a conserved tyrosine residue (Y116) on the convex surface of the LRR3 was a critical residue in ectodomain multimer formation since mutation of this residue to serine totally abrogated ectodomain multimers. This abrogation was not seen with the mutation of cysteine 176 on the inner side of the LRR5, demonstrating that inter-receptor disulfide bonding was not involved in ectodomain multimer formation. Additionally, the Y116 mutation in the intact wild type receptor enhanced receptor degradation. Conclusions/Significance These data

  17. Interesting coincidence of atypical TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bolanowski, Marek; Zieliński, Grzegorz; Jawiarczyk-Przybyłowska, Aleksandra; Maksymowicz, Maria; Potoczek, Stanisław; Syrycka, Joanna; Podgórski, Jan K

    2014-01-01

    Thyrotropin-secreting adenomas (TSH-oma) are very rare pituitary tumours. They are macroadenomas usually presenting with signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism, and mass effects. They can co-secrete other hormones such as growth hormone or prolactin. Different malignancies, including haematological ones, are reported in patients with pituitary diseases. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) occurs mostly in older patients, more often in males. CLL is associated with increased risk of second malignancies such as other blood neoplasms, skin and solid tumours. We present a successful neurosurgical outcome in a patient with an interesting coincidence of atypical TSH-oma and asymptomatic CLL.

  18. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and cognition in older people.

    PubMed

    Ojala, Anna K; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Pitkälä, Kaisu H; Tilvis, Reijo S; Strandberg, Timo E

    2016-01-01

    high TSH concentrations and cognitive decline are both very common among older people and could be linked. to assess cognition in our cohort of 335 home-dwelling older people (75 years and older) and to cross-sectionally relate the results to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. Our special focus was on the upper normal TSH range and subclinical hypothyroidism. cognitive performance was evaluated using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease neuropsychological battery (CERAD-nb). The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale was used to evaluate severity of cognitive disorder. The APOEε4 genotype was also defined. Subjects were divided into quartiles based on the TSH concentrations, and results were compared between these groups. expected relations were observed between CERAD domains and both educational level and APOEε4 genotype. Female sex significantly associated with better performance in Boston naming (OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.27-0.85). In the whole cohort, higher TSH concentrations tended to associate with better scores in most parts of the CERAD-nb tests, but differences were not statistically significant. However, subjects with the highest TSH concentration (90th TSH percentile, range 4.14-14.4 mU/l) had better CDR scores compared with subjects with the lowest TSH concentration (10th percentile, range 0.001-0.63 mIU/l; OR 0.10; 95% CI 0.014-0.76). our results do not support the notion that higher TSH concentrations, not even in the range of subclinical hypothyroidism, would adversely affect cognition among older people. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A New Small-Molecule Antagonist Inhibits Graves' Disease Antibody Activation of the TSH Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Eliseeva, Elena; McCoy, Joshua G.; Napolitano, Giorgio; Giuliani, Cesidio; Monaco, Fabrizio; Huang, Wenwei; Gershengorn, Marvin C.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Graves' disease (GD) is caused by persistent, unregulated stimulation of thyrocytes by thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAbs) that activate the TSH receptor (TSHR). We previously reported the first small-molecule antagonist of human TSHR and showed that it inhibited receptor signaling stimulated by sera from four patients with GD. Objective: Our objective was to develop a better TSHR antagonist and use it to determine whether inhibition of TSAb activation of TSHR is a general phenomenon. Design: We aimed to chemically modify a previously reported small-molecule TSHR ligand to develop a better antagonist and determine whether it inhibits TSHR signaling by 30 GD sera. TSHR signaling was measured in two in vitro systems: model HEK-EM293 cells stably overexpressing human TSHRs and primary cultures of human thyrocytes. TSHR signaling was measured as cAMP production and by effects on thyroid peroxidase mRNA. Results: We tested analogs of a previously reported small-molecule TSHR inverse agonist and selected the best NCGC00229600 for further study. In the model system, NCGC00229600 inhibited basal and TSH-stimulated cAMP production. NCGC00229600 inhibition of TSH signaling was competitive even though it did not compete for TSH binding; that is, NCGC00229600 is an allosteric inverse agonist. NCGC00229600 inhibited cAMP production by 39 ± 2.6% by all 30 GD sera tested. In primary cultures of human thyrocytes, NCGC00229600 inhibited TSHR-mediated basal and GD sera up-regulation of thyroperoxidase mRNA levels by 65 ± 2.0%. Conclusion: NCGC00229600, a small-molecule allosteric inverse agonist of TSHR, is a general antagonist of TSH receptor activation by TSAbs in GD patient sera. PMID:21123444

  20. A new small-molecule antagonist inhibits Graves' disease antibody activation of the TSH receptor.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Susanne; Eliseeva, Elena; McCoy, Joshua G; Napolitano, Giorgio; Giuliani, Cesidio; Monaco, Fabrizio; Huang, Wenwei; Gershengorn, Marvin C

    2011-02-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is caused by persistent, unregulated stimulation of thyrocytes by thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAbs) that activate the TSH receptor (TSHR). We previously reported the first small-molecule antagonist of human TSHR and showed that it inhibited receptor signaling stimulated by sera from four patients with GD. Our objective was to develop a better TSHR antagonist and use it to determine whether inhibition of TSAb activation of TSHR is a general phenomenon. We aimed to chemically modify a previously reported small-molecule TSHR ligand to develop a better antagonist and determine whether it inhibits TSHR signaling by 30 GD sera. TSHR signaling was measured in two in vitro systems: model HEK-EM293 cells stably overexpressing human TSHRs and primary cultures of human thyrocytes. TSHR signaling was measured as cAMP production and by effects on thyroid peroxidase mRNA. We tested analogs of a previously reported small-molecule TSHR inverse agonist and selected the best NCGC00229600 for further study. In the model system, NCGC00229600 inhibited basal and TSH-stimulated cAMP production. NCGC00229600 inhibition of TSH signaling was competitive even though it did not compete for TSH binding; that is, NCGC00229600 is an allosteric inverse agonist. NCGC00229600 inhibited cAMP production by 39 ± 2.6% by all 30 GD sera tested. In primary cultures of human thyrocytes, NCGC00229600 inhibited TSHR-mediated basal and GD sera up-regulation of thyroperoxidase mRNA levels by 65 ± 2.0%. NCGC00229600, a small-molecule allosteric inverse agonist of TSHR, is a general antagonist of TSH receptor activation by TSAbs in GD patient sera.

  1. Alteration of Lipid Parameters in Patients With Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Laway, Bashir Ahmad; War, Fayaz Ahmad; Shah, Sonaullah; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad; Kumar Kotwal, Suman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Overt hypothyroidism is associated with abnormalities of lipid metabolism, but conflicting results regarding the degree of lipid changes in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) exist. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess differences in lipid profile parameters between subjects with and without SCH in a north Indian population. Patients and Methods: Serum lipid parameters of 70 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and 100 age and sex matched euthyroid controls were evaluated in a cross-sectional study. Results: Mean serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and very low-density cholesterol (VLDL) were significantly higher in patients with SCH than controls (P < 0.05). Mean TC, TG and low-density cholesterol (LDL) concentrations were higher in patients with serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) greater than 10 mU/L than those with serum TSH equal to or less than 10 mU/L, but this difference was not statistically significant. No association was found between serum high-density cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and serum TSH level. Conclusions: High TC, TG and VLDL were observed in our patients with SCH. PMID:25237326

  2. Lower-normal TSH is associated with better metabolic risk factors: a cross-sectional study on spanish men

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background and aims: Subclinical thyroid conditions, defined by normal thyroxin (T4) but abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, may be associated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk. More recently, TSH levels within the normal range have been suggested to be associated with metabolic ...

  3. Radioiodine thyroid remnant ablation after recombinant human thyrotropin or thyroid hormone withdrawal in patients with high-risk differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Pitoia, Fabián; Marlowe, Robert J; Abelleira, Erika; Faure, Eduardo N; Bueno, Fernanda; Schwarzstein, Diego; Lutfi, Rubén Julio; Niepomniszcze, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    To supplement limited relevant literature, we retrospectively compared ablation and disease outcomes in high-risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients undergoing radioiodine thyroid remnant ablation aided by recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) versus thyroid hormone withdrawal/withholding (THW). Our cohort was 45 consecutive antithyroglobulin antibody- (TgAb-) negative, T3-T4/N0-N1-Nx/M0 adults ablated with high activities at three referral centers. Ablation success comprised negative (<1 μg/L) stimulated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and TgAb, with absent or <0.1% scintigraphic thyroid bed uptake. "No evidence of disease" (NED) comprised negative unstimulated/stimulated Tg and no suspicious neck ultrasonography or pathological imaging or biopsy. "Persistent disease" was failure to achieve NED, "recurrence," loss of NED status. rhTSH patients (n = 18) were oftener ≥45 years old and higher stage (P = 0.01), but otherwise not different than THW patients (n = 27) at baseline. rhTSH patients were significantly oftener successfully ablated compared to THW patients (83% versus 67%, P < 0.02). After respective 3.3 yr and 4.5 yr mean follow-ups (P = 0.02), NED was achieved oftener (72% versus 59%) and persistent disease was less frequent in rhTSH patients (22% versus 33%) (both comparisons P = 0.03). rhTSH stimulation is associated with at least as good outcomes as is THW in ablation of high-risk DTC patients.

  4. Paediatric reference interval and biological variation trends of thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (T4) in an Asian population.

    PubMed

    Loh, Tze Ping; Sethi, Sunil Kumar; Metz, Michael Patrick

    2015-08-01

    To describe the reference intervals and biological variation data for thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) in a mixed Asian population using an indirect sampling approach and to compare them with published reports. TSH and FT4 of children measured once or twice over a 7-year period (2008-2014) at primary-care and tertiary-care settings were extracted from the laboratory information system. After excluding outliers, age-related reference intervals were derived using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) approach, while age-partitioned biological variation data were obtained according to recommendations by Fraser and Harris. Both TSH and FT4 were very high at birth and declined with age. Similarly within-individual and between-individual biological variations were higher for both TSH and FT4 at birth and also declined with age. Our data were broadly similar to previous studies. Significant heterogeneity in study population and methods prohibited direct numerical comparison between this and previously published studies. This study fills two important gaps in our knowledge of paediatric thyroid function by reporting the centile trends (and reference values) in a mixed Asian population, as well as providing age-partitioned biological variation data. The variation in published reference intervals highlights the difficulty in harmonising paediatric thyroid reference intervals or recommending universal clinical cut-offs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Effects of irradiation and semistarvation on rat thyrotropin beta subunit messenger ribonucleic acid, pituitary thyrotropin content, and thyroid hormone levels

    SciTech Connect

    Litten, R.Z.; Carr, F.E.; Fein, H.G.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of radiation-induced anorexia on serum thyrotropin (TSH), pituitary TSH-{beta} mRNA, pituitary TSH content, serum thyroxine (T{sub 4}), and serum 3,5,3{prime}-triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) was investigated using feed-matched controls. Rats received 10 Gy gamma whole-body irradiation and were examined 1-3 days postirradiation. Feed-matched and untreated controls were also studied. The average food intake of the irradiated and feed-matched groups was approximately 18% of the untreated controls. Over the three day period both the irradiated and feed-matched groups lost a significant amount of body weight. The serum T{sub 4} levels of both the irradiated and feed-matched groups were not significantly differentmore » from each other, but were significantly depressed when compared to the untreated control group. The serum TSH and T{sub 3} were, however, significantly greater in the irradiated than the feed-matched groups at day 3 posttreatment. To determine if the difference in the serum TSH level between the two groups was due to a pretranslational alteration in TSH production, we measured the TSH-{beta} mRNA using an RNA blot hybridization assay. We found that the TSH-{beta} mRNA level was the same in the irradiated and feed-matched groups, suggesting that the mechanism responsible for the radiation-induced increase in the serum TSH level is posttranscriptional. Pituitary TSH content in the irradiated rats was significantly less than in pair-fed controls, suggesting that irradiation may permit enhanced secretion of stored hormone.« less

  6. Communication Between the Calcium and cAMP Pathways Regulate the Expression of the TSH Receptor: TRPC2 in the Center of Action

    PubMed Central

    Löf, Christoffer; Sukumaran, Pramod; Viitanen, Tero; Vainio, Minna; Kemppainen, Kati; Pulli, Ilari; Näsman, Johnny; Kukkonen, Jyrki P.

    2012-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels are widely expressed and function in many physiologically important processes. Perturbations in the expression or mutations of the channels have implications for diseases. Many thyroid disorders, as excessive growth or disturbed thyroid hormone production, can be a result of dysregulated TSH signaling. In the present study, we found that of TRP canonicals (TRPCs), only TRPC2 was expressed in Fischer rat thyroid low-serum 5% cells (FRTL-5 cells). To investigate the physiological importance of the channel, we developed stable TRPC2 knockdown cells using short hairpin RNA (shTRPC2 cells). In these cells, the ATP-evoked entry of calcium was significantly decreased. This led to increased cAMP production, because inhibitory signals from calcium to adenylate cyclase 5/6 were decreased. Enhanced cAMP signaling projected to Ras-related protein 1-MAPK kinase 1 (MAPK/ERK kinase 1) pathway leading to phosphorylation of ERK1/2. The activated ERK1/2 pathway increased the expression of the TSH receptor. In contrast, secretion of thyroglobulin was decreased in shTRPC2 cells, due to improper folding and glycosylation of the protein. We show here a novel role for TRPC2 in regulating thyroid cell function. PMID:23015753

  7. High prevalence of iatrogenic hyperthyroidism in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation in an anticoagulation clinic.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Sandeep Kumar; Dohrmann, Mary L; Brietzke, Stephen A; Fleming, David A; Flaker, Greg C

    2011-01-01

    In elderly patients with established atrial fibrillation (AF) who are receiving thyroid replacement, regular testing for thyroid function is often not performed, placing the patient at risk for iatrogenic hyperthyroidism. Of 215 patients followed in an anticoagulation clinic, 41 were receiving thyroid replacement and 15 of these were found to have hyperthyroidism. Eight had documented AF coincident with abnormal thyroid function. In addition, only 22 patients on thyroid replacement had an annual TSH. In conclusion, iatrogenic hyperthyroidism may frequently be missed in AF patients because of inadequate monitoring of serum TSH. Thyroid replacement is common in elderly patients with AF followed in an anticoagulation clinic. Laboratory evidence of hyperthyroidism occurred in 37%, usually in patients with higher doses of thyroid replacement, and often associated with AF. The frequency of iatrogenic hyperthyroidism may be underestimated in patients with AF since many patients who receive thyroid replacement therapy are not monitored regularly with serum TSH.

  8. Fibrogenic impact of high serum glucose in chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Ratziu, Vlad; Munteanu, Mona; Charlotte, Fréderic; Bonyhay, Luminita; Poynard, Thierry

    2003-12-01

    There is considerable variability in the rate of fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C, most of which is related to factors so far unknown. We tested the hypothesis that high serum glucose and overweight might contribute to this variability. Seven hundred and ten patients with chronic hepatitis C with a known duration of infection and no hepatitis B virus or human immunodeficiency virus coinfection were studied. Significant fibrosis was defined as bridging fibrosis including cirrhosis. Variables were tested for their association with significant fibrosis. In univariate analyses both serum glucose and body mass index were associated with fibrosis. In multivariate analyses, age at infection, duration of infection, serum glucose and daily alcohol intake but not body mass index were independently associated with significant fibrosis. Patients with high serum glucose had been contaminated at an older age and had features of the metabolic syndrome, including steatosis more frequently, as well as faster fibrosis progression rates. High serum glucose was associated with intermediate and advanced, but not with early, fibrosis stages. A high serum glucose was associated with a higher relative risk for significant fibrosis than overweight. High serum glucose, is an independent co-factor of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C with a higher pro-fibrogenic impact than overweight.

  9. Reference interval for thyrotropin in a ultrasonography screened Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mijin; Kim, Soo Han; Lee, Yunkyoung; Park, Su-yeon; Kim, Hyung-don; Kwon, Hyemi; Choi, Yun Mi; Jang, Eun Kyung; Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Won Gu; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The diagnostic accuracy of thyroid dysfunctions is primarily affected by the validity of the reference interval for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Thus, the present study aimed to establish a reference interval for TSH using a normal Korean population. Methods This study included 19,465 subjects who were recruited after undergoing routine health check-ups. Subjects with overt thyroid disease, a prior history of thyroid disease, or a family history of thyroid cancer were excluded from the present analyses. The reference range for serum TSH was evaluated in a normal Korean reference population which was defined according to criteria based on the guidelines of the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry, ultrasound (US) findings, and smoking status. Sex and age were also taken into consideration when evaluating the distribution of serum TSH levels in different groups. Results In the presence of positive anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies or abnormal US findings, the central 95 percentile interval of the serum TSH levels was widened. Additionally, the distribution of serum TSH levels shifted toward lower values in the current smokers group. The reference interval for TSH obtained using a normal Korean reference population was 0.73 to 7.06 mIU/L. The serum TSH levels were higher in females than in males in all groups, and there were no age-dependent shifts. Conclusions The present findings demonstrate that the serum TSH reference interval in a normal Korean reference population was higher than that in other countries. This result suggests that the upper and lower limits of the TSH reference interval, which was previously defined by studies from Western countries, should be raised for Korean populations. PMID:25995664

  10. Vitamin D status in Egyptian euthyroid multinodular non-toxic goiter patients and its correlation with TSH levels.

    PubMed

    Aboelnaga, Mohamed M; Elshafei, Maha M; Elsayed, Eman

    2016-10-01

    Although the prevalence of MNG is widespread throughout the world, its pathogenesis is poorly understood, and the complex interactions of both genetic predisposition and the individuals' environment are likely. However, to the best of our knowledge, it remains unknown whether there is a relationship between vitamin D status and prevalence or pathogenesis of euthyroid MNG. Therefore, the goal of the present study was determination of vitamin D status in euthyroid MNG as well as exploration of the correlation between vitamin D status & TSH levels. A total of 77 patients diagnosed with euthyroid MNG and 50 subjects without goiter were matched according to age, weight and BMI as control group in this case control study. We found that patients with euthyroid MNG had statistically significant lower mean of [25(OH)D] (24.21±8.68ng/mL) in comparison with its mean in control subjects (28.37±10.91ng/mL, P value=0.019). The 28 sufficient vitamin D MNG patients had statistically significant lower level of TSH than 49 insufficient vitamin D MNG patients. Vitamin D and TSH levels correlate with vitamin D levels in MNG patients in Pearson correlation. Also 25 OH vitamin D was a significant independent predictor for TSH levels among euthyroid MNG patients in regression analysis. Patients with euthyroid MNG have lower levels of vitamin D and TSH levels correlate with vitamin D levels in euthyroid MNG patients. In addition, 25 OH vitamin D was a significant independent predictor for TSH levels among euthyroid MNG patients. We recommend hypovitaminosis D evaluation and correction in patients with MNG. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Thyroid function. Pathogenesis of Graves ophthalmopathy--a role for TSH-R?

    PubMed

    Wall, Jack R

    2014-05-01

    A new study highlights the complexities of anti-TSH-receptor antibody function and the differences between adult and paediatric patients with Graves disease, adding to the controversy regarding the possible role of these antibodies in the development of ophthalmopathy.

  12. Hyperthyroid-associated osteoporosis is exacerbated by the loss of TSH signaling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The osteoporosis associated with human hyperthyroidism has traditionally been attributed to elevated thyroid hormone levels. There is evidence, however, that thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is low in most hyperthyroid states, directly affects the skeleton. Importantly, Tshr-knockout mice ar...

  13. Association between the serum concentration of triiodothyronine with components of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risk, and diet in euthyroid post-menopausal women without and with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Luna-Vazquez, Fabiola; Cruz-Lumbreras, Rosalía; Rodríguez-Castelán, Julia; Cervantes-Rodríguez, Margarita; Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Arroyo-Helguera, Omar; Castelán, Francisco; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Cuevas, Estela

    2014-01-01

    To determine the association between the serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) with components of metabolic syndrome (MetS), cardiovascular risk (CVR), and diet in euthyroid post-menopausal women without and with MetS. A cross-sectional study was performed in 120 voluntary women of an indigenous population from Tlaxcala-México. Euthyroid status was assessed measuring the serum concentration of thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid hormones, while that of estradiol was measured to confirm the postmenopausal condition. MetS was diagnosed using the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement (AHA/NHLBI) criterion. Estimation of CVR was calculated based on the Framingham scale. Diet components were evaluated based on survey applications. Correlations, logistic regression analyses, ANOVA or Kruskall-Wallis, and chi-square tests were used to determine significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) between women without MetS and women with MetS having different serum concentrations of T3. Triiodothyronine was positively correlated with insulin but negatively correlated with glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and CVR. Compared to women without MetS, women with MetS and low-normal T3 concentration showed a high risk for hyperglycemia and moderate/high risk for CVR. In contrast, a high-normal T3 concentration increased the risk to have a big waist circumference, a high concentration of HDL-C, and insulin resistance. Diet analysis showed a high grade of malnutrition in women from all groups. The intake of calories was positively affected by the T3 concentration, albeit it did not affect the extent of malnutrition. In contrast to concentrations of TSH, total thyroxin (T4), and free T4, the concentration of serum T3 was strongly correlated with cardio-metabolic variables in euthyroid postmenopausal women. In comparison to women without MetS, a high-normal serum concentration of T3 in women with MetS is positively

  14. Elevated serum levels of free triiodothyronine in adolescent boys with gynaecomastia compared with controls.

    PubMed

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Sorensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette; Hagen, Casper P; Hilsted, Linda; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Juul, Anders

    2014-08-01

    Pubertal gynaecomastia is a frequent phenomenon occurring in 20-40% of otherwise healthy adolescent boys. Little is known about the aetiology of pubertal gynaecomastia. Markedly elevated thyroid hormone levels in adults with hyperthyroidism are associated with gynaecomastia. A cross-sectional examination of 444 healthy boys with and without pubertal gynaecomastia. We evaluated TSH, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), free T4 and free T3 in a cohort of healthy boys with and without pubertal gynaecomastia. Boys with gynaecomastia had significantly higher serum free T3, even after correction for age, BMI and pubertal stage. After inclusion of IGF1 in the model the differences disappeared. TSH, T4, free T4 and T3 did not differ between the groups. We speculate that the GH/IGF1 axis and thyroid hormones interact and influence the development of pubertal gynaecomastia. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  15. Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in a Large Southern European Population Analysis of modulatory factors The APNA Study.

    PubMed

    Santos Palacios, Silvia; Llavero Valero, María; Brugos-Larumbe, Antonio; Díez, Juan José; Guillén-Grima, Francisco; Galofré, Juan C

    2018-06-12

    To study the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in a very large unselected population. To determine the prevalence of abnormal thyroid function and evaluate potential modulatory factors. The Estudio de Atención Primaria de Navarra, The APNA Study, is a cross-sectional study conducted in northern Spain. It involved 303,883 people, of 20 years of age and older, who live in the Navarra region. Participants are covered by the public healthcare system and medical records are digitalized. The information was gathered from e-registered data regarding serum thyrotropin (TSH), thyroid hormones, thyroid antibody concentration, and clinical context. Measurements were logged (demographic information and potential thyroid function modulatory factors). Serum TSH (mU/L) normal range was established at 0.7-4.28. At the time of the study 87% of the Navarra population had a TSH level within the normal range. Mean serum TSH in euthyroid individuals was higher in women (2.15) than in men (1.96); (P<0.001); and higher in the obese with body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m 2 (2.12) as compared to the non-obese, BMI <30 kg/m 2 , (2.06); (P <0.001). Mean TSH for the entire population was 1.9. The native Spanish population had statistically significantly lower TSH (1.87) than non-native Spanish (2.15); (P <0.001). Additionally, we observed that serum TSH levels decreased with age and an increase in the prevalence of hypothyroidism in the elderly and among people with low income levels. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in Navarra was 12.3%. The prevalence of hypothyroidism (or high TSH) in the population was 8.8% (13.3% in women, 4.2% in men) and the prevalence of hyperthyroidism (or low TSH) was 4.3% (5.6% in women, 3.0% in men). Nearly 15% of the general population suffers from biochemical thyroid dysfunction. The serum TSH level appears to be influenced by sex, BMI, age, ethnic origin and socio-economic status. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is

  16. Impact of light exposure on thyroid-stimulating hormone results using the Siemens Advia Centaur TSH-3Ultra assay.

    PubMed

    Armer, Jane; Giles, Diane; Lancaster, Ian; Brownbill, Kathryn

    2017-09-01

    Background Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is used as the first-line test of thyroid function. Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics recommend that Siemens Centaur reagents must be protected from light in the assay information and on reagent packaging. We have compared the effect of light exposure on results using Siemens TSH-3Ultra and follicle-stimulating hormone reagents. The thyroid-stimulating hormone reagent includes fluoroscein thiocyanate whereas the follicle-stimulating hormone reagent does not. Methods Three levels of quality controls were analysed using SiemensTSH-3Ultra and follicle-stimulating hormone reagent packs that had been kept protected from light or exposed to light at 6-h intervals for 48 h and then at 96 h. Results Thyroid-stimulating hormone results were significantly lower after exposure of TSH-3Ultra reagent packs to light. Results were >15% lower at all three levels of quality control following 18 h of light exposure and continued to decrease until 96 h. There was no significant difference in follicle-stimulating hormone results whether reagents had been exposed to or protected from light. Conclusions Thyroid-stimulating hormone results but not follicle-stimulating hormone results are lowered after exposure of reagent packs to light. Laboratories must ensure that TSH-3Ultra reagents are not exposed to light and analyse quality control samples on every reagent pack to check that there has not been light exposure prior to delivery. The labelling on TSH-3Ultra reagent packs should reflect the significant effect of light exposure compared with the follicle-stimulating hormone reagent. We propose that the effect of light exposure on binding of fluoroscein thiocyanate to the solid phase antibody causes the falsely low results.

  17. TSH Receptor Function Is Required for Normal Thyroid Differentiation in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Opitz, Robert; Maquet, Emilie; Zoenen, Maxime; Dadhich, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    TSH is the primary physiological regulator of thyroid gland function. The effects of TSH on thyroid cells are mediated via activation of its membrane receptor [TSH receptor (TSHR)]. In this study, we examined functional thyroid differentiation in zebrafish and characterized the role of TSHR signaling during thyroid organogenesis. Cloning of a cDNA encoding zebrafish Tshr showed conservation of primary structure and functional properties between zebrafish and mammalian TSHR. In situ hybridization confirmed that the thyroid is the major site of tshr expression during zebrafish development. In addition, we identified tpo, iyd, duox, and duoxa as novel thyroid differentiation markers in zebrafish. Temporal analyses of differentiation marker expression demonstrated the induction of an early thyroid differentiation program along with thyroid budding, followed by a delayed onset of duox and duoxa expression coincident with thyroid hormone synthesis. Furthermore, comparative analyses in mouse and zebrafish revealed for the first time a thyroid-enriched expression of cell death regulators of the B-cell lymphoma 2 family during early thyroid morphogenesis. Knockdown of tshr function by morpholino microinjection into embryos did not affect early thyroid morphogenesis but caused defects in later functional differentiation. The thyroid phenotype observed in tshr morphants at later stages comprised a reduction in number and size of functional follicles, down-regulation of differentiation markers, as well as reduced thyroid transcription factor expression. A comparison of our results with phenotypes observed in mouse models of defective TSHR and cAMP signaling highlights the value of zebrafish as a model to enhance the understanding of functional differentiation in the vertebrate thyroid. PMID:21737742

  18. Thyrotropin (TSH) regulates triiodothyronine (T3) production in the unicellular Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Csaba, G; Pállinger, Eva

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the experiments was to study the regulation of triiodothyronine (T3) production in the unicellular Tetrahymena. Untreated and troph-hormone treated specimen were prepared and in different timepoints T3 content was measured and compared by immunocytochemical flow cytometry. 0.1 or 0.001 IU TSH in tryptone-yeast medium stimulated T3 synthesis at 10, 20, 30 min, but does not stimulate after 1 h. The overlapping gonadotropic hormone (GTH) also did it, however only at 10 min. In Losina salt solution (physiological for Tetrahymena) the effect was weaker, however outer amino acid source was not absolutely needed for the production of the hormone. The results show that the TSH regulation of thyroid hormone synthesis (storage, secretion) and troph-hormone overlap can be deduced to a unicellular level. This may allow the hypothesis that the endocrine mechanisms proved at a low level of phylogeny are preserved for the higher ranked organisms.

  19. Long-term outcome after radioiodine therapy with adjuvant rhTSH treatment: comparison between patients with non-toxic and pre-toxic large multinodular goitre.

    PubMed

    Giusti, M; Caorsi, V; Mortara, L; Caputo, M; Monti, E; Schiavo, M; Bagnara, M C; Minuto, F; Bagnasco, M

    2014-03-01

    In multinodular goitre (MNG), low radioiodine (RAI) activity after recombinant human (rh) TSH is able to reduce thyroid volume (TV) and improve symptoms. Our aim was to evaluate the long-term outcome of RAI after rhTSH treatment in patients who were divided according to their baseline TSH levels. Eighteen patients (69.2 ± 6.1 year) presented non-toxic (TSH >0.3 mIU/l) MNG (TV: 61.0 ± 3.8 ml; group 1), while 13 patients (74.1 ± 7.9 year) had non-autoimmune pre-toxic (TSH <0.3 mIU/l) MNG (TV: 82.6 ± 14.4 ml; group 2). TSH, thyroid hormones, TV (by ultrasonography), body mass index (BMI), symptoms and quality of life (QoL) were evaluated. Treatment induced short-term thyrotoxicosis in both groups, but this was slightly more marked in group 2 than in group 1. The number and severity of adverse events were similar. The follow-up period was 55.3 ± 4.1 months in group 1 and 57.2 ± 5.1 months in group 2. The final TV reduction was similar in groups 1 (63.4 ± 3.6%) and 2 (57.2 ± 4.6%) and TV reduction positively correlated only with initial TV. At the last examination, 14 group-1 subjects were on L-T4 therapy, while 2 group-2 subjects were on methimazole. An increase in BMI was noted only in group 2. MNG-related symptoms were significantly reduced in both groups. Symptoms related to sub-clinical hyperthyroidism improved in group 2, while no significant changes in QoL were noted in either group. This study confirms the effectiveness of rhTSH adjuvant treatment in reducing TV after low RAI activities, irrespective of baseline thyroid status. TSH levels <0.3 mIU/l proved to be predictive of a more severe thyrotoxic phase after rhTSH and RAI, while initial TSH levels >0.3 mIU/l were more frequently followed by a need for L-T4 therapy. Compressive symptoms improved in the majority of subjects.

  20. High serum selenium levels are associated with impaired fasting glucose and elevated fasting serum glucose in Linyi, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Li, Xia; Ju, Wen; Wu, Guanrui; Yang, Xiaomei; Fu, Xiaofeng; Gao, Xibao

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between selenium level and impaired fasting glucose or elevated fasting serum glucose remains controversial. This study aimed to evaluate these associations in China. This observational population study adopted a cluster sampling approach to enroll participants. Baseline information on selenium categories was tested using one-way analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association between serum selenium level and impaired fasting glucose or elevated fasting serum glucose. The mean serum selenium concentration was 121.5μg/L which in a relatively high baseline Se status. Differences were observed among individuals with normal, impaired fasting glucose and elevated fasting serum glucose levels in their basic information, physical examination results and laboratory findings. After adjusting for their basic information, physical examination results and laboratory findings, compared with the low-selenium group, the high-selenium groups (124.9-143.9 and above 143.9μg/L) had ORs for elevated fasting serum glucose of 2.31 (1.37-3.90) and 2.67 (1.59-4.48), respectively (both P<0.05). A sex-difference was observed, and a significant association between selenium levels and impaired fasting glucose was observed for males but not for females. The findings of this observational study suggest that relatively high selenium levels might be positively associated with elevated fasting serum glucose and relatively high selenium levels might be positively associated with impaired fasting glucose in men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of intensive training on menstrual function and certain serum hormones and peptides related to the female reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Cho, Geum Joon; Han, Sung Won; Shin, Jung-Ho; Kim, Tak

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of intensive training on menstrual function and related serum hormones and peptides.Forty female participants who attended a training course for an officer at the Korea Third Military Academy, and had regular menstrual periods were enrolled. Menstrual questionnaires and fasting blood samples were collected before entry and at 4-week intervals for 8 weeks. The levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), cortisol, prolactin, endorphin-β, neuropeptide Y (NPY), leptin, orexin-A, ghrelin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), thyrotropin (TSH), and thyroxine (T4) were determined.Body mass index and waist circumference decreased during the training course. Intensive training of military cadets resulted in changes of menstruation and related biomarkers. The levels of CRH, endorphin-β, NPY, orexin-A, ghrelin, E2, and T4 decreased substantially, and cortisol, prolactin, and TSH increased. Seventy percent of participants with regular menstrual periods before developed irregular during the training course. Participants were then categorized into 2 groups: those with regular menstruation (n = 12) and those with irregular menstruation (n = 28). The levels of hormones and peptides were not different between the 2 groups.In conclusion, cortisol, prolactin, and TSH level increased but levels of CRH, endorphin-β, NPY, orexin-A, ghrelin, E2, and T4 decreased throughout the training. Moreover, the levels were not different between participants with normal menstruation and those with irregular menstruation. Further research should extend these findings by investigating the exact mechanism by which high exercise levels, including intensive training, interfere with regular menstruation.

  2. Pituitary response to thyrotropin releasing hormone in children with overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Rijks, Jesse; Penders, Bas; Dorenbos, Elke; Straetemans, Saartje; Gerver, Willem-Jan; Vreugdenhil, Anita

    2016-08-03

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in the high normal range are common in children with overweight and obesity, and associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Prior studies aiming at unravelling the mechanisms underlying these high TSH concentrations mainly focused on factors promoting thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) production as a cause for high TSH concentrations. However, it is unknown whether TSH release of the pituitary in response to TRH is affected in children with overweight and obesity. Here we describe TSH release of the pituitary in response to exogenous TRH in 73 euthyroid children (39% males) with overweight or (morbid) obesity. Baseline TSH concentrations (0.9-5.5 mU/L) were not associated with BMI z score, whereas these concentrations were positively associated with TSH concentrations 20 minutes after TRH administration (r(2) = 0.484, p < 0.001) and the TSH incremental area under the curve during the TRH stimulation test (r(2) = 0.307, p < 0.001). These results suggest that pituitary TSH release in response to TRH stimulation might be an important factor contributing to high normal serum TSH concentrations, which is a regular finding in children with overweight and obesity. The clinical significance and the intermediate factors contributing to pituitary TSH release need to be elucidated in future studies.

  3. Pituitary response to thyrotropin releasing hormone in children with overweight and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Rijks, Jesse; Penders, Bas; Dorenbos, Elke; Straetemans, Saartje; Gerver, Willem-Jan; Vreugdenhil, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in the high normal range are common in children with overweight and obesity, and associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Prior studies aiming at unravelling the mechanisms underlying these high TSH concentrations mainly focused on factors promoting thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) production as a cause for high TSH concentrations. However, it is unknown whether TSH release of the pituitary in response to TRH is affected in children with overweight and obesity. Here we describe TSH release of the pituitary in response to exogenous TRH in 73 euthyroid children (39% males) with overweight or (morbid) obesity. Baseline TSH concentrations (0.9–5.5 mU/L) were not associated with BMI z score, whereas these concentrations were positively associated with TSH concentrations 20 minutes after TRH administration (r2 = 0.484, p < 0.001) and the TSH incremental area under the curve during the TRH stimulation test (r2 = 0.307, p < 0.001). These results suggest that pituitary TSH release in response to TRH stimulation might be an important factor contributing to high normal serum TSH concentrations, which is a regular finding in children with overweight and obesity. The clinical significance and the intermediate factors contributing to pituitary TSH release need to be elucidated in future studies. PMID:27485208

  4. Impact of TSH during the first trimester of pregnancy on obstetric and foetal complications: Usefulness of 2.5 mIU/L cut-off value.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Marta; López, Carolina; Soldevila, Berta; Cecenarro, Laura; Martínez-Barahona, María; Palomera, Elisabet; Rius, Ferran; Lecube, Albert; Pelegay, Maria José; García, Jordi; Mauricio, Dídac; Puig Domingo, Manel

    2018-05-01

    An association of pregnancy outcomes with subclinical hypothyroidism has been reported; however, there still exists a strong controversy regarding whether subclinical hypothyroidism ought to be dealt with or not. The objective of the study was to evaluate the association of foetal-maternal complications with first trimester maternal Thyrotropin (TSH) values. A retrospective study in a single tertiary care hospital was performed. A total of 1981 pregnant women were studied during 2012. Thyrotropin (TSH) universal screening was performed between 9 and 12 weeks of gestation. Outcomes included foetal-maternal complications and newborn health parameters. Median TSH was 1.72 (0.99-2.61) mIU/L. The incidence of perinatal loss, miscarriage and stillbirth was 7.2%, 5.9% and 1.1%, respectively. Median TSH of women with and without miscarriage was 1.97 (1.29-3.28) vs 1.71 (0.96-2.58) mIU/L (P = .009). Incidence of pre-eclampsia was 3.2%; TSH in these women was 2.10 (1.40-2.74) vs 1.71 (0.98-2.59) mIU/L in those without (P = .027). TSH in women with dystocia in labour was 1.76 (1.00-2.53) vs 1.68 (0.94-2.59) mIU/L in those who gave birth with normal progression (P = .044). Women with TSH 2.5-5.1 mIU/L had a higher risk of perinatal loss [OR 1.589 (1.085-2.329)], miscarriage [OR 1.702 (1.126-2.572)] and premature birth [OR 1.39 (1.013-1.876)], adjusted by mother's age. There was no association with the other outcomes analysed. There is a positive association between maternal TSH in the first trimester of pregnancy and the incidence of perinatal loss and miscarriage. The TSH cut-off value of 2.5 mIU/L identified women with higher adverse pregnancy outcomes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Cross-Sectional Associations of Serum Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Thyroid Hormones in U.S. Adults: Variation According to TPOAb and Iodine Status (NHANES 2007–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Glenys M.; Rauch, Stephen A.; Marie, Nathalie Ste; Mattman, Andre; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Venners, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFASs) are suspected thyroid toxicants, but results from epidemiological studies are inconsistent. Objectives: We examined associations between serum PFASs and thyroid hormones (THs) in a representative, cross-sectional sample of U.S. adults. We hypothesized that people with high thyroid peroxidase antibodies and low iodine would be more susceptible to PFAS-induced thyroid disruption. Methods: Our sample included 1,525 adults (≥ 18 years) from the 2007–2008 NHANES study with available serum PFASs and THs. We examined associations between four serum PFASs [perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)], and serum THs [free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), fT3/fT4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total T3 (TT3), and total T4 (TT4)] using multivariable linear regression. We stratified subjects into four groups by two indicators of thyroid “stress”: thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb ≥ 9 IU/mL) and iodine status (< 100 μg/L urine). Results: Of 1,525 participants, 400 (26%) had low iodine only (T0I1), 87 (6%) had high TPOAb only (T1I0), and 26 (2%) had both high TPOAb and low iodine (T1I1). In general, associations were similar among participants in the groups with neither (T0I0) or only one thyroid stressor (T0I1 or T1I0), suggesting that PFAS–TH associations were not modified by high TPOAb or low iodine alone. However, PFHxS and PFOS were negatively associated (p < 0.05) with fT4, and all four PFASs were positively associated (p < 0.05) with fT3, fT3/fT4, TSH, and TT3 in the group with joint exposure to high TPOAb and low iodine (T1I1). Conclusions: We found evidence of PFAS-associated thyroid disruption in a subset of U.S. adults with high TPOAb (a marker of autoimmune hypothyroidism) and low iodine status, who may represent a vulnerable subgroup. However, the small sample size, cross-sectional design, and possibility of

  6. Non-hyperfunctioning nodules from multinodular goiters: a minor role in pathogenesis for somatic activating mutations in the TSH-receptor and Gsalpha subunit genes.

    PubMed

    Derrien, C; Sonnet, E; Gicquel, I; Le Gall, J Y; Poirier, J Y; David, V; Maugendre, D

    2001-05-01

    Constitutive activation of the cAMP pathway stimulates thyrocyte proliferation. Gain-of-function mutations in Gsalpha protein have already been identified in thyroid nodules which have lost the ability to trap iodine. In contrast, most of the studies failed to detect somatic activating mutations in the thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) in non-hyperfunctioning thyroid tumors. The aim of this study was to screen for mutations TSH-R exon 10, encoding the whole intracytoplasmic area involved in signal transduction, and Gsalpha exons 8 and 9, containing the two hot-spot codons 201 and 227, in a subset of non-hyperfunctioning nodules from multinodular goiter. Identified by matching ultrasonography and scintiscan, 22 eufunctioning (normal 99Tc uptake) and 15 nonfunctioning (decreased 99Tc uptake) nodules from 27 non-toxic multinodular goiters were isolated. After DNA extraction, TSH-R exon 10 was analyzed by direct sequencing of the PCR products and Gsalpha exons 8 and 9 by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. No mutation of TSH-R or Gsalpha was detected in the 37 nodules analyzed. This absence of mutation, despite the use of two sensitive screening methods associated with the analysis of the TSH-R whole intracytoplasmic area and Gsalpha two hot-spot codons, suggests that TSH-R and Gsalpha play a minor role in the pathogenesis of non-toxic nodules from multinodular goiters.

  7. Effect of high fluoride and high fat on serum lipid levels and oxidative stress in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Hui; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of high fluoride and high fat on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxide (LPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rabbits. A factorial experimental design was used, with two factors (fluoride and fat) and three levels. Seventy-two male rabbits were randomly assigned into nine groups according to initial weight and serum lipid levels. The rabbits were fed with basic feed, moderate fat feed or high fat feed and drank tap water, fluoridated water at levels of 50 and 100mgfluorion/L freely. Biological materials were collected after 5 months, and serum lipid, T-AOC, LPO, and MDA levels were then measured. Using these data, the separate and interactive effects of high fluoride and high fat were analyzed. High fluoride and high fat both increased serum levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly (P<0.05), and there was also a synergistic effect between high fluoride and high fat (P<0.05). High fluoride and high fat had different effects on TG levels: high fat significantly increased TG levels (P<0.01) whereas high fluoride had nothing to do with TG levels (P>0.05). High fat significantly elevated LPO and MDA levels and lowered T-AOC levels in serum (P<0.05). Similarly, high fluoride significantly increased LPO and MDA levels in serum (P<0.05). However, there was no interactive effect between high fat and high fluoride on these indexes. In summary, high fluoride and high fat increased serum TC and LDL-C levels individually and synergistically, and this would cause and aggravate hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. At the same time, high fluoride and high fat both made the accumulation of product of oxidative stress in experimental animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reevaluation of the thyroidal radioactive iodine uptake test, with special reference to reversible primary hypothyroidism with elevated thyroid radioiodine uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, K.; Sato, K.; Ikenoue, H.

    The clinical significance of the thyroidal radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) test was reevaluated in patients with various thyroid disorders. Compared with 262 normal subjects or 194 patients with euthyroid diffuse goiter with normal serum TSH levels, RAIU values were significantly higher in 100 patients with latent primary hypothyroidism (serum TSH, 5-40 mU/L). In 126 patients with overt primary hypothyroidism (serum TSH, greater than 40 mU/L), RAIU values were either extremely high (49 patients with reversible hypothyroidism and 10 patients with postpartum hypothyroidism) or low (67 patients with irreversible hypothyroidism). The increase in RAIU values in latent, or reversible overt hypothyroidismmore » was TSH dependent, and there was a good correlation between RAIU values and serum TSH levels (r = 0.6203; P less than 0.001). In overt primary hypothyroidism, spontaneous recovery of thyroid function during iodide restriction alone occurred in 52 of 53 patients with RAIU values above 35%, in only 7 of 23 patients with RAIU values between 10-35%, and in none of 50 patients with RAIU below 10%. Thus, recovery was predicted by high RAIU values (P less than 0.001; prediction rate, 91.4%). Goiter was found in about 80% of the patients with reversible hypothyroidism, compared with only 34% of the patients with irreversible hypothyroidism. Recovery of thyroid function during iodide restriction also occurred in 71% of the patients with latent hypothyroidism. However, RAIU measurements did not predict the prognosis of patients with latent hypothyroidism. We conclude that iodine-induced reversible hypothyroidism is common in our patient population, and RAIU measurements may be helpful in determining the prognosis of patients with overt primary hypothyroidism.« less

  9. Update in TSH Receptor Agonists and Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The physiological role of the TSH receptor (TSHR) as a major regulator of thyroid function is well understood, but TSHRs are also expressed in multiple normal extrathyroidal tissues, and the physiological roles of TSHRs in these tissues are unclear. Moreover, TSHRs play a major role in several pathological conditions including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and thyroid tumors. Small molecule, “drug-like” TSHR agonists, neutral antagonists, and inverse agonists may be useful as probes of TSHR function in extrathyroidal tissues and as leads to develop drugs for several diseases of the thyroid. In this Update, we review the most recent findings regarding the development and use of these small molecule TSHR ligands. PMID:23019348

  10. Serum osteoprotegerin levels and mammographic density among high-risk women.

    PubMed

    Moran, Olivia; Zaman, Tasnim; Eisen, Andrea; Demsky, Rochelle; Blackmore, Kristina; Knight, Julia A; Elser, Christine; Ginsburg, Ophira; Zbuk, Kevin; Yaffe, Martin; Narod, Steven A; Salmena, Leonardo; Kotsopoulos, Joanne

    2018-06-01

    Mammographic density is a risk factor for breast cancer but the mechanism behind this association is unclear. The receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL) pathway has been implicated in the development of breast cancer. Given the role of RANK signaling in mammary epithelial cell proliferation, we hypothesized this pathway may also be associated with mammographic density. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a decoy receptor for RANKL, is known to inhibit RANK signaling. Thus, it is of interest to evaluate whether OPG levels modify breast cancer risk through mammographic density. We quantified serum OPG levels in 57 premenopausal and 43 postmenopausal women using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cumulus was used to measure percent density, dense area, and non-dense area for each mammographic image. Subjects were classified into high versus low OPG levels based on the median serum OPG level in the entire cohort (115.1 pg/mL). Multivariate models were used to assess the relationship between serum OPG levels and the measures of mammographic density. Serum OPG levels were not associated with mammographic density among premenopausal women (P ≥ 0.42). Among postmenopausal women, those with low serum OPG levels had higher mean percent mammographic density (20.9% vs. 13.7%; P = 0.04) and mean dense area (23.4 cm 2 vs. 15.2 cm 2 ; P = 0.02) compared to those with high serum OPG levels after covariate adjustment. These findings suggest that low OPG levels may be associated with high mammographic density, particularly in postmenopausal women. Targeting RANK signaling may represent a plausible, non-surgical prevention option for high-risk women with high mammographic density, especially those with low circulating OPG levels.

  11. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and melatonin in humans: possible interactions in the control of body temperature.

    PubMed

    Mazzoccoli, G; Giuliani, A; Carughi, S; De Cata, A; Puzzolante, F; La Viola, M; Urbano, N; Perfetto, F; Tarquini, R

    2004-10-01

    Melatonin plays a role in the regulation of biological rhythms, body temperature presents circadian variations with lower levels during nighttime, when melatonin levels are very high, and thyroid hormones influence shiver independent thermogenesis. We have investigated on possible interactions between the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and melatonin in the control of body temperature in humans. Peripheral blood samples for thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free-thyroxine (FT4), melatonin levels determination and body temperature measurements were obtained every four hours for 24-hours starting at 0600 h in a controlled temperature and light-dark environment from ten healthy males, aged 38-65 (mean age +/-s.e. 57.4+/-3.03, mean body mass index +/-s.e. 25.5+/-0.75). We calculated fractional variation and correlation on single time point hormone serum levels and tested whether the time-qualified data series showed consistent pattern of circadian variation. A statistically significant difference was evidenced for the fractional variation of daytime TSH serum levels (0600 h-1000 h vs. 1000 h-1400 h, p=0.01, 1000 h-1400 h vs. 1400 h-1800 h, p=0.0001, 1400 h-1800 h vs. 1800 h-2200 h, p=0.001) and for the fractional variation of FT4 serum levels at 1800 h-2200 h vs. 2200 h-0200 h (p=0.02). FT4 serum levels correlated positively with TRH serum levels at 1000 h (r=0.67, P=0.03) and at 1400 h (r=0.63, p=0.04), negatively with TSH serum levels at 2200 h (r=-0.67, p=0.03), negatively with melatonin serum levels at 2200 h (r=-0.64, p=0.04) and at 0200 h (r=-0.73, p=0.01). TRH serum levels correlated positively with TSH serum levels at 0200 h (r=0.65, p=0.04) and at 0600 h (r=0.64, p=0.04). Body temperature correlated positively with FT4 serum levels at 1000 h (r=0.63, p=0.04) and negatively with melatonin serum levels at 0200 h (r=-0.64, p=0.04). A clear circadian rhythm was validated for body temperature (with acrophase in the morning

  12. Evaluation of three high abundance protein depletion kits for umbilical cord serum proteomics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background High abundance protein depletion is a major challenge in the study of serum/plasma proteomics. Prior to this study, most commercially available kits for depletion of highly abundant proteins had only been tested and evaluated in adult serum/plasma, while the depletion efficiency on umbilical cord serum/plasma had not been clarified. Structural differences between some adult and fetal proteins (such as albumin) make it likely that depletion approaches for adult and umbilical cord serum/plasma will be variable. Therefore, the primary purposes of the present study are to investigate the efficiencies of several commonly-used commercial kits during high abundance protein depletion from umbilical cord serum and to determine which kit yields the most effective and reproducible results for further proteomics research on umbilical cord serum. Results The immunoaffinity based kits (PROTIA-Sigma and 5185-Agilent) displayed higher depletion efficiency than the immobilized dye based kit (PROTBA-Sigma) in umbilical cord serum samples. Both the PROTIA-Sigma and 5185-Agilent kit maintained high depletion efficiency when used three consecutive times. Depletion by the PROTIA-Sigma Kit improved 2DE gel quality by reducing smeared bands produced by the presence of high abundance proteins and increasing the intensity of other protein spots. During image analysis using the identical detection parameters, 411 ± 18 spots were detected in crude serum gels, while 757 ± 43 spots were detected in depleted serum gels. Eight spots unique to depleted serum gels were identified by MALDI- TOF/TOF MS, seven of which were low abundance proteins. Conclusions The immunoaffinity based kits exceeded the immobilized dye based kit in high abundance protein depletion of umbilical cord serum samples and dramatically improved 2DE gel quality for detection of trace biomarkers. PMID:21554704

  13. Associations between brominated flame retardants in human milk and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Eggesbø, Merete; Thomsen, Cathrine; Jørgensen, Jens V.; Becher, Georg; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been in widespread use in a vast array of consumer products since the 1970s. The metabolites of some BFRs show a structural similarity to thyroid hormones and experimental animal studies have confirmed that they may interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. A major concern has been whether intrauterine exposure to BFRs may disturb thyroid homeostasis since the fetal brain is particularly susceptible to alterations in thyroid hormones. However, few reports on newborns have been published to date. Objectives To evaluate the association between BFRs and neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Methods We studied six polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) measured in milk samples from 239 women who were part of the “Norwegian Human Milk Study” (HUMIS), 2003–2006. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and BDE-209 were measured in a subset of the women (193 and 46 milk samples, respectively). The milk was sampled at a median of 33 days after delivery. TSH was measured in babies three days after delivery as part of the routine national screening program for early detection of congenital hypothyroidism. Additional information was obtained through the Medical Birth Registry and questionnaires to the mothers. Results The PBDE concentrations in human milk in Norway were comparable to concentrations reported from other European countries and Asia, but not the US and Canada where levels are approximately one order of magnitude higher. We observed no statistically significant associations between BDE-47, 99, 153, 154, 209 and HBCD in human milk and TSH in models adjusted for possible confounders and other environmental toxicants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Conclusions We did not observe an association between TSH and exposure to HBCD and PBDEs within the exposure levels observed. PMID:21601188

  14. Canine serum thyroglobulin autoantibodies in health, hypothyroidism and non-thyroidal illness.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R M; Mooney, C T

    1999-06-01

    Thyroglobulin autoantibody (TGAA) was measured in serum from dogs with hypothyroidism (n = 42), non-thyroidal illness (NTI) (n = 77) and clinically healthy dogs (n = 70) using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay kit. Precision studies were consistent with good intra-assay and inter-assay repeatability. TGAA positive results occurred in 15 of the 42 (36 per cent) hypothyroid and four healthy dogs of the remaining 147 animals resulting in a lower incidence of false positive results than obtained with previous TGAA assays. The presence of TGAA was not influenced by age, sex, neutering or pedigree status. Of the four apparently healthy TGAA -positive dogs, two had additional clinicopathological evidence of hypothyroidism. TGAA was positive in 43 per cent of hypothyroid dogs with unexpectedly normal serum c TSH concentrations and was particularly useful in the classification of these cases. Copyright 1999 W.B. Saunders Company Ltd.

  15. Exposure to pyrethroids insecticides and serum levels of thyroid-related measures in pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jie; Hisada, Aya; Yoshinaga, Jun, E-mail: junyosh@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    Possible association between environmental exposure to pyrethroid insecticides and serum thyroid-related measures was explored in 231 pregnant women of 10–12 gestational weeks recruited at a university hospital in Tokyo during 2009–2011. Serum levels of free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid biding globulin (TBG) and urinary pyrethroid insecticide metabolite (3-phenoxybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) were measured. Obstetrical information was obtained from medical records and dietary and lifestyle information was collected by self-administered questionnaire. Geometric mean concentration of creatinine-adjusted urinary 3-PBA was 0.363 (geometric standard deviation: 3.06) μg/g cre, which was consistent with the previously reported levels for non-exposed Japanese adultmore » females. The range of serum fT4, TSH and TBG level was 0.83–3.41 ng/dL, 0.01–27.4 μIU/mL and 16.4–54.4 μg/mL, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was carried out by using either one of serum levels of thyroid-related measures as a dependent variable and urinary 3-PBA as well as other potential covariates (age, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, urinary iodine, smoking and drinking status) as independent variables: 3-PBA was not found as a significant predictor of serum level of thyroid-related measures. Lack of association may be due to lower pyrethroid insecticide exposure level of the present subjects. Taking the ability of pyrethroid insecticides and their metabolite to bind to nuclear thyroid hormone (TH) receptor, as well as their ability of placental transfer, into consideration, it is warranted to investigate if pyrethroid pesticides do not have any effect on TH actions in fetus brain even though maternal circulating TH level is not affected. -- Highlights: • Pyrethroid exposure and thyroid hormone status was examined in pregnant women. • Urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid was used as a biomarker of exposure. • Iodine nutrition, age and other covariates were

  16. High serum serotonin in sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Robin L; Frelinger, Andrew L; Giles, Emma K; Goldstein, Richard D; Tran, Hoa; Kozakewich, Harry P; Haas, Elisabeth A; Gerrits, Anja J; Mena, Othon J; Trachtenberg, Felicia L; Paterson, David S; Berry, Gerard T; Adeli, Khosrow; Kinney, Hannah C; Michelson, Alan D

    2017-07-18

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), the leading cause of postneonatal infant mortality, likely comprises heterogeneous disorders with the common phenotype of sudden death without explanation upon postmortem investigation. Previously, we reported that ∼40% of SIDS deaths are associated with abnormalities in serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in regions of the brainstem critical in homeostatic regulation. Here we tested the hypothesis that SIDS is associated with an alteration in serum 5-HT levels. Serum 5-HT, adjusted for postconceptional age, was significantly elevated (95%) in SIDS infants ( n = 61) compared with autopsied controls ( n = 15) [SIDS, 177.2 ± 15.1 (mean ± SE) ng/mL versus controls, 91.1 ± 30.6 ng/mL] ( P = 0.014), as determined by ELISA. This increase was validated using high-performance liquid chromatography. Thirty-one percent (19/61) of SIDS cases had 5-HT levels greater than 2 SDs above the mean of the controls, thus defining a subset of SIDS cases with elevated 5-HT. There was no association between genotypes of the serotonin transporter promoter region polymorphism and serum 5-HT level. This study demonstrates that SIDS is associated with peripheral abnormalities in the 5-HT pathway. High serum 5-HT may serve as a potential forensic biomarker in autopsied infants with SIDS with serotonergic defects.

  17. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) but not insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) remains elevated in euthyroid TSH-suppressed Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Wan Nazaimoon, W M; Khalid, B A

    1998-04-01

    Thyroid hormones have been shown to be involved in the regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) expression. This is a cross-sectional study to look at the effects of thyroid hormone status on the circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in a group of 127 patients, aged 20-80 years, who were hyperthyroid, hypothyroid, rendered euthyroid and clinically euthyroid with normal free thyroxine (fT4), but suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. TSH was measured by the IMx (Abbott) ultrasensitive assay, while radioimmunoassays for total T3 and T4 were performed using kits from ICN, USA; fT4 and fT3 using kits from DPC USA; IGF-I and IGFBP-3 using kits from Nichols Institute Diagnostics B.V., Netherlands. Differences in the levels of IGF-I between the 4 groups of patients were significant only in the patients aged 20-40. Mean (+/-SEM) IGF-I levels of hypothyroid patients (169+/-19ng/ml) was significantly lower than hyperthyroid (315+/-26 ng/ml, p=0.003), euthyroid patients (241+/-19 ng/ml, p=0.002) and patients with suppressed TSH (308+/-29 ng/ml, p=0.02). The IGF-I levels of the hyperthyroid and suppressed TSH patients were, however, comparable to age-matched normal subjects (281+/-86 ng/ml). Although there was no difference in mean IGFBP-3 levels between the 4 groups of patients, the levels in the patients aged 20-40 with hyperthyroidism (3.7+/-0.9 microg/ml) and suppressed TSH (3.9+/-1.2 microg/ml) were significantly higher (p=0.02) than age-matched normal subjects (3.1+/-0.8 microg/ml). The IGF-I levels of the thyroid patients aged 20-40 showed significant negative correlation to TSH and positive correlations to the thyroid hormones. Hence, whilst low IGF-I is associated with hypothyroidism, high IGFBP-3 is associated with hyperthyroidism. Our finding that IGFBP-3 remained significantly elevated in patients with suppressed TSH but normalised fT4 and fT3 is important as it suggests a prolonged tissue effect of

  18. Clinical characteristics of patients with thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yung-Yen; Chang, Hung-Yu; Lin, Jen-Der; Chen, Kwang-Wen; Huang, Yu-Yao; Jung, Shih-Ming

    2003-03-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin, TSH)-secreting pituitary adenoma is a very rare cause of hyperthyroidism. Diagnosis of this condition is often delayed due to lack of availability of TSH radioimmunoassay (RIA), the failure to recognize the utility of RIA and the incorrect attribution of the condition to other causes of thyrotoxicosis. This retrospective study analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients with this disorder treated from 1991 to 2002. Seven patients (6 females, 1 male; mean age, 48 years; range, 33 to 72 years) with a diagnosis of TSHsecreting pituitary adenoma based on detectable TSH levels with high serum free thyroid hormone or triiodothyronine concentrations and pituitary lesions found on neuroimaging were included in this study. Patient records including clinical features, endocrine studies, immunohistochemistry studies, and response to treatment were reviewed. All 7 patients had hyperthyroidism, elevated free thyroxine or triiodothyronine levels, and unsuppressed levels of TSH. Imaging studies demonstrated a pituitary mass or lesion in all patients. Six patients had macroadenomas and 1 patient had a microadenoma. One of the patients had coexisting acromegalic features and hypersecretion of growth hormone was diagnosed. All of the patients had been treated with thionamides or thyroidectomy for presumed primary hyperthyroidism. Serum alpha-subunit level was uncharacteristically normal in 2 patients and elevated in 1 patient. Alpha-subunit/TSH molar ratios were elevated in 3 patients. Five patients underwent transsphenoidal adenomectomy but only one of them remained well-controlled at follow-up. Three patients received administration of somatostatin analogs and they achieved normalization of serum TSH and free thyroid hormones during the period of therapy. TSH immunoassay has an important role in the evaluation of hyperthyroid patients to determine the presence of inappropriate secretion. TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma exhibits

  19. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in diabetic patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Díez, Juan J; Iglesias, Pedro

    2014-10-01

    To assess whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated to elevations in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. From a total population of 1,112 patients with type 2 diabetes screened for thyroid dysfunction (thyrotropin measurement), a group of 325 patients with normal thyroid function and another group of 29 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism were selected. No patient had known dyslipidemia or was taking lipid lowering medication. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism had serum levels of total cholesterol (4.88 ± 0.74 mmol/L), HDL cholesterol (1.37 ± 0.34 mmol/L), LDL cholesterol (2.94 ± 0.58 mmol/L), and triglycerides (1.05 [0.88-1.41] mmol/L) that did not significantly differ from those found in euthyroid patients (4.79 ± 0.83, 1.33 ± 0.36, 2.87 ± 0.76, and 1.11 [0.81-1.43] mmol/L, respectively). Multiple regression analysis showed no association between TSH and serum lipid levels. These results suggest that, in our population, there are no significant differences in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels between diabetic patients with normal and reduced thyroid function. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Parity and 11-Year Serum Thyrotropin and Thyroid Autoantibody Change: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Bjergved, Lena; Carlé, Allan; Jørgensen, Torben; Perrild, Hans; Laurberg, Peter; Krejbjerg, Anne; Ovesen, Lars; Bülow Pedersen, Inge; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Knudsen, Nils

    2016-02-01

    A role for female reproductive factors in the pathogenesis of thyroid autoimmunity has been suggested. This study investigated the prospective association between parity, abortion, use of oral contraceptive pill (OCP), and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and 11-year change in serum thyrotropin (TSH), as well as change in thyroid peroxidase autoantibody (TPOAb) status. A random sample of 4649 people aged 18-65 years participated in a population-based study in the period 1997-1998. In the study presented here, 1749 non-pregnant women with no history of thyroid disease were included who participated in the 11-year follow-up examination in the period 2008-2010. Gynecological exposures were reported in a self-administered questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. TSH and TPOAb were measured at baseline and follow-up. Increased TPOAb status during follow-up was defined as a TPOAb below the assay cutoff (<30 kIU/L) at baseline and a TPOAb ≥30 kIU/L at follow-up. Multiple linear regression models were used, adjusted for age, smoking status, and urinary iodine excretion. An inverse association was found between the number of years on HRT and the risk (odds ratio) of increased TPOAb status during follow-up (0.735 [confidence interval 0.558-0.968], p = 0.03). However, this association was not statistically significant when applying the Bonferroni adjusted significance level. The remaining reproductive factors showed no statistically significant association with risk of increased TPOAb during follow-up. Furthermore, parity, abortions, use of OCP, HRT use, age at menarche, and being pre- or postmenopausal were not significantly associated with 11-year TSH change. No statistically significant association was found between the studied female reproductive measures and 11-year risk of TSH or TPO change. A possible protective role for HRT in the etiology of thyroid autoimmunity, however, deserves further research.

  1. Identification of the trypanocidal factor in normal human serum: high density lipoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Rifkin, M R

    1978-01-01

    The differentiation of Trypanosoma brucei from T. rhodesiense, the causative agent of human sleeping sickness, depends on their relative sensitivities to the cytotoxic effects of normal human serum. The molecule responsible for the specific lysis of T. brucei has now been isolated. Serum lipoproteins were fractionated and purified by ultracentrifugal flotation and chromatography on Bio-Gel A-5m. Trypanocidal activity was recovered in the high density lipoprotein fraction (density, 1.063-1.216 g/ml). Contamination by other serum proteins was checked by crossed immunoelectrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulfate/acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Only a trace of beta-lipoprotein was found. The trypanocidal activity of pure human high density lipoprotein was identical to that of unfractionated serum when the following were tested: (i) time course of in vitro lysis of T. bruceli; (ii) in vivo destruction of T. brucei; (iii) relative resistance of T. rhodesiense to lysis. Rat or rabbit high density lipoprotein had no trypanocidal activity. Identification of the trypanocidal factor as high density lipoprotein was confirmed by the finding that serum from patients with Tangier disease, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a severe deficiency of high density lipoprotein, had no trypanocidal activity. Images PMID:210461

  2. Nitric oxide is involved in the hypothyroidism with significant morphology changes in female Wistar rats induced by chronic exposure to high water iodine from potassium iodate.

    PubMed

    Rong, Shengzhong; Gao, Yanhui; Yang, Yanmei; Shao, Hanwen; Okekunle, Akinkunmi Paul; Lv, Chunpeng; Du, Yang; Sun, Hongna; Jiang, Yuting; Darko, Gottfried M; Sun, Dianjun

    2018-05-03

    Epidemiological studies indicated that chronic exposure to high water iodine is associated with primary hypothyroidism (PH) and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). However, the mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we explored whether chronic exposure to high water iodine from potassium iodate (KIO 3 ) can induce hypothyroidism in addition to determining if nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the pathogenesis. 96 female Wistar rats were divided into six groups: control, I 1000μg/L , I 3000μg/L , I 6000μg/L , N-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) and L-NAME+I 6000μg/L . After 3 months, urine iodine concentration, thyroid hormone, NO and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) serum levels were determined. Additionally, thyroid expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was also investigated. Thyroid morphology was observed under light microscopy and transmission electron microscope. SCH as indicated by elevated serum thyrotropin (TSH) was induced among rats exposed to 3000 μg/L I - , while rats treated with 6000 μg/L I - presented PH characterized by elevated TSH and lowered total thyroxine in serum. Moreover, serum NO, NOS and iNOS expression in the thyroid were significantly increased in I 3000μg/L and I 6000μg/L groups. Changes in thyroid function and morphology in the L-NAME+I 6000μg/L group were extenuated compared to I 6000μg/L group. These findings suggested that chronic exposure to high water iodine from KIO 3 likely induces hypothyroidism with significant morphology changes in female Wistar rats and NO appears to be involved in the pathogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Congenital Hypothyroidism with Neurological and Respiratory Alterations: A Case Detected Using a Variable Diagnostic Threshold for TSH

    PubMed Central

    Barreiro, Jesús; Castro-Feijoo, Lidia; Colón, Cristóbal; Cabanas, Paloma; Heredia, Claudia; Castaño, Luis Antonio; Gómez-Lado, Carmen; Couce, M.Luz; Pombo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) with neurological and respiratory alterations due to a heterozygotic c.374-1G > A mutation of TITF1/NKX2-1. The hypothyroidism was detected using a neonatal screening protocol in which the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) threshold is re-set each day on the basis of within-day variability and between-day variation. In this case, the threshold on the day of the initial analysis was 8.2 mIU/L, and the measured TSH level in heel-prick blood was 8.3 mIU/L. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:22155464

  4. Effects of Shiitake Intake on Serum Lipids in Rats Fed Different High-Oil or High-Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Asada, Norihiko; Kairiku, Rumi; Tobo, Mika; Ono, Akifumi

    2018-04-27

    Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) extract, eritadenine, has been shown to reduce cholesterol levels, and its hypocholesterolemic actions are involved in the metabolism of methionine. However, the mechanisms by which eritadenine affects cholesterol metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet containing different sources of lipids have not yet been elucidated in detail. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of shiitake supplementation on serum lipid concentrations in rats fed a diet including a high amount of a plant oil (HO [high oil] and HOS [high oil with shiitake] groups), animal fat (HF [high fat] and HFS [high fat with shiitake] groups), or MCT- (medium-chain triglyceride-) rich plant oil (HM [high MCT] and HMS [high MCT with shiitake] groups). Rats in the HOS, HFS, and HMS groups were fed shiitake. When rats were fed a diet containing shiitake, serum triglyceride, cholesterol levels, and LCAT (lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase) activities were lower in rats given MCT-rich plant oil than in those that consumed lard. The lipid type in the diet with shiitake also affected serum cholesterol levels and LCAT activities. The diet containing MCT-rich plant oil showed the greatest rates of decrease in all serum lipid profiles and LCAT activities. These results suggest that shiitake and MCT-rich plant oil work together to reduce lipid profiles and LCAT activity in serum.

  5. Functional and morphological changes in the adenohypophysis of dogs with induced primary hypothyroidism: loss of TSH hypersecretion, hypersomatotropism, hypoprolactinemia, and pituitary enlargement with transdifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Espiñeira, M M; Mol, J A; van den Ingh, T S G A M; van der Vlugt-Meijer, R H; Rijnberk, A; Kooistra, H S

    2008-07-01

    From case studies in humans it is known that primary hypothyroidism (PH) may be associated with morphological and functional changes of the pituitary. There is no insight into the time scale of these changes. In this study, seven beagle dogs were followed up for 3 years after the induction of primary hypothyroidism. Three of these dogs were followed up for another 1.5 years while receiving l-thyroxine. Adenohypophyseal function was investigated at 2-month intervals with the combined intravenous injection of CRH, GHRH, GnRH, and TRH, and measurement of the plasma concentrations of ACTH, GH, LH, PRL, and TSH. In addition, after 2 years of hypothyroidism a single TRH-stimulation test and a somatostatin test were performed, with measurements of the same pituitary hormones. Every 6 months the pituitary gland was visualized by computed tomography (CT). Induction of PH led to high plasma TSH concentrations for a few months, where after concentrations gradually declined to values no longer significantly different from pre-PH values. A blunted response to stimulation of TSH release preceded this decline. Basal plasma GH concentrations increased during PH and there was a paradoxical hyperresponsiveness to TRH stimulation. Basal GH concentrations remained elevated and returned only to low values during l-thyroxine treatment. Basal PRL concentrations decreased significantly during PH and normalized after several months of l-thyroxine treatment. The pituitary gland became enlarged in all dogs. Histomorphology and immunohistochemical studies in 4 dogs, after 3 years of PH, revealed thyrotroph hyperplasia, large vacuolated thyroid deficiency cells, and decreased numbers of mammotrophs. Several cells stained for both GH and TSH. In conclusion, with time PH led to a loss of the TSH response to low T4 concentrations, hypersecretion of GH, and hyposecretion of PRL. The enlarged pituitaries were characterized by thyrotroph hyperplasia, large vacuolated thyroid deficiency cells, and

  6. Optimizing Cationic and Neutral Lipids for Efficient Gene Delivery at High Serum Content

    PubMed Central

    Majzoub, Ramsey N.; Hwu, Yeu-kuang; Liang, Keng S.; Leal, Cecília; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cationic liposome (CL)-DNA complexes are promising gene delivery vectors with potential applications in gene therapy. A key challenge in creating CL-DNA complexes for applications is that their transfection efficiency (TE) is adversely affected by serum. In particular, little is known about the effects of high serum contents on TE even though this may provide design guidelines for applications in vivo. Methods We prepared CL-DNA complexes in which we varied the neutral lipid (DOPC, glycerol-monooleate (GMO), cholesterol), the headgroup charge and chemical structure of the cationic lipid, and the ratio of neutral to cationic lipid; we then measured the TE of these complexes as a function of serum content and assessed their cytotoxicity. We tested selected formulations in two human cancer cell lines (M21/melanoma and PC-3/prostate cancer). Results In the absence of serum, all CL-DNA complexes of custom-synthesized multivalent lipids show high TE. Certain combinations of multivalent lipids and neutral lipids, such as MVL5(5+)/GMO-DNA complexes or complexes based on the dendritic-headgroup lipid TMVLG3(8+) exhibited high TE both in the absence and presence of serum. Although their TE still dropped to a small extent in the presence of serum, it reached or surpassed that of benchmark commercial transfection reagents, in particular at high serum content. Conclusions Two-component vectors (one multivalent cationic lipid and one neutral lipid) can rival or surpass benchmark reagents at low and high serum contents (up to 50%, v/v). We suggest guidelines for optimizing the serum resistance of CL-DNA complexes based on a given cationic lipid. PMID:24753287

  7. [Gigantism with low serum level of growth hormone: a case report].

    PubMed

    Ran, X; Zhang, L; Xiong, P; Zhao, T; Tong, N; Li, X

    2001-12-01

    Gigantism with low or normal basal concentrations of growth hormone (GH) is a rare condition, possibly due to abnormal GH secretory patterns, enhanced tissue sensitivity to GH, or the existence of an unidentified growth promoting factor. Here we report an 11 year-old female case of gigantism with a normal pituitary gland. Her height was 181 cm, body weight 77 kg, and bone age 11.1 years. Her basal serum GH levels were lower than 1 ng/ml. The levels of T3, T4, FT3, FT4, TSH, E2, LH, FSH, PRL, PTC and ACTH were normal. Serum GH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia or arginine stimulation tests was blunted. In this case, non-pulsatile GH secretion and enhanced tissue sensitivity to GH may induce hypersecretion of IGF-1 and the existence of an unidentified growth promoting factor or biologically active anti-GH receptor antibodies may cause clinical gigantism.

  8. Serum heart type fatty acid binding protein levels are not changed in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Mustafa; Gungunes, Askin; Sahin, Mustafa; Ginis, Zeynep; Ucan, Bekir; Sayki, Muyesser; Tutal, Esra; Cakal, Erman; Kuşkonmaz, Serife M; Öztürk, Mehmet A; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2016-09-01

    Heart type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) is a small protein and released into the circulation when myocardial damage has occurred. Previous studies have demonstrated that H-FABP is closely associated with cardiac and some endocrinologic disorders including prediabetes, metabolic syndrome, and acromegaly. Hyperthyroism is a well-known disorder associated with cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate the effect of hyperthyrodism on H-FABP levels. Forty six patients with hyperthyroidism with no known history of coronary artery disease and 40 healthy controls are involved in the study. Serum H-FABP levels are measured using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. There was no significant difference between serum H-FABP levels of patients with hyperthyroidism and controls (871±66 pg/mL, and 816±66 pg/mL, respectively P=0.56). There was no significant correlation between H-FABP, free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in patients and controls. Serum H-FABP levels are not altered in patients with hyperthyroidism.

  9. Definition of reference ranges for free T4, TSH, and thyroglobulin levels in healthy subjects of the Jaén Health District.

    PubMed

    Olmedo Carrillo, Pablo; Santiago Fernández, Piedad; García Fuentes, Eduardo; Ureña Fernández, Tomás; Gutiérrez Alcántara, Carmen; Sánchez-Malo, Carolina; Gassó Campos, Manuela; Martínez Ramírez, María José

    2017-10-01

    The treatment guidelines for thyroid dysfunction recommend defining reference ranges for thyroid hormones in each area through assessment of local population data considering the iodine nutritional status. The aim of this study was to define the reference ranges of free thyroxine (FT4), TSH, and thyroglobulin levels in a general population from Jaen, an area of southern Spain with an adequate iodine nutritional status, and whether they were associated with urinary iodine levels. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,003 subjects of the general population of the Jaen Health District. Levels of urinary iodine, FT4, TSH, thyroglobulin, and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies were measured according to age and sex. Median and mean urinary iodine levels were 110.59μg/L and 130.11μg/L respectively. Median TSH level was 1.83μIU/mL (p2.5=0.56μIU/mL, p97.5=4.66μIU/mL). Median FT4 level was 0.84ng/dL (p2.5=0.62ng/dL, p97.5=1.18ng/dL). TPO antibodies were detected in 5.7% of subjects. There was no correlation between urinary iodine levels and FT4, TSH or TPO antibodies. Subjects with positive TPO antibodies had higher TSH levels (3.34μIU/L versus 2.14μIU/mL, P=.001; odds ratio=2.42). Urinary iodine levels in Jaen are optimal according to World Health Organization standards. Reference ranges of FT4, TSH, and thyroglobulin do not differ from those reported in the literature and are no associated to urinary iodine levels. The prevalence of positive TPO antibodies was similar to that reported in other Spanish areas. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. The etiologies and incidences of congenital hypothyroidism before and after neonatal TSH screening program implementation: a study in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Jaruratanasirikul, Somchit; Piriyaphan, Jutarat; Saengkaew, Tansit; Janjindamai, Waricha; Sriplung, Hutcha

    2018-06-27

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is one of the common causes of intellectual disability which can be prevented by early detection of an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level in the newborn and by treatment with thyroxine. In Thailand, neonatal TSH screening was implemented nationwide in 2005. The objective of the study was to determine the etiologies and the estimated incidences of CH in southern Thailand before and after the implementation of a neonatal TSH screening program in 2005. The medical records of pediatric patients who were diagnosed with primary CH at Songklanagarind Hospital during 1995-2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The study was divided into two time periods: study period 1 (SP1) (1995-2004) and study period 2 (SP2) (2005-2013), the time before and after TSH program implementation. The most common form of CH during SP1 was overt permanent CH (66%), mostly caused by athyreosis or ectopic thyroid. In SP2, the most common form of CH was mild permanent CH (39%) (mostly due to dyshormonogenesis), followed by overt CH (32%) and transient CH (29%). The overall annual estimated incidence of CH per 10,000 live births in Songkhla Province was 1.69 (1:5021) in SP1, increasing to 4.77 (1:2238) in SP2; in all 14 provinces in southern Thailand, the estimated incidence was 1.24 (1:8094) in SP1 and 2.33 (1:4274) in SP2. Neonatal TSH screening has a significant impact on the increased detection of the mild form of permanent and transient CH cases, which may be important for the prevention of brain damage from less severe CH although this remains to be documented.

  11. Association between the clinical classification of hypothyroidism and reduced TSH in LT4 supplemental replacement treatment for pregnancy in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lyu; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Ye, Hongying; Zhu, Xiaoming; Li, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate the effects of levothyroxine (LT4) supplemental replacement treatment for pregnancy and analyze the associations between the clinical classification of hypothyroidism and reduced thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in LT4 therapy. Totally, 195 pregnant women with hypothyroidism receiving routine prenatal care were enrolled. They were categorized into three groups: overt hypothyroidism (OH), subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) with negative thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb), and SCH with positive TPOAb. The association between the clinical classification and reduced TSH in LT4 supplemental replacement treatment was assessed. The results indicated that reduced TSH was significantly different among the groups according to the clinical classifications (p = 0.043). The result was also significantly different between patients with OH and patients with SCH and negative TPOAb (p = 0.036). Similar result was reported for the comparison between patients with OH and patients with SCH and positive TPOAb (p = 0.016). Multiple variable analyses showed that LT4 supplementation, gestational age and the variable of clinical classifications were associated with reduced TSH independently. Our data suggested that the therapeutic effect of substitutive treatment with LT4 was significantly associated with different clinical classifications of hypothyroidism in pregnancy and the treatment should begin as soon as possible after diagnosis.

  12. Follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pagano, L; Klain, M; Pulcrano, M; Angellotti, G; Pasano, F; Salvatore, M; Lombardi, G; Biondi, B

    2004-12-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. More than 90% of primary thyroid cancers are differentiated papillary or follicular types. The treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) consists of total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine ablation therapy, followed by L-thyroxine therapy. The extent of initial surgery, the indication for radioiodine ablation therapy and the degree of TSH-suppression are all issues that are still being debated cancers are in relation to the risk of recurrence. Total thyroidectomy reduces the risk of recurrence and facilitates (131)I ablation of thyroid remnants. The aim of radioiodine ablation is to destroy any normal or neoplastic residuals of thyroid tissue. These procedures also improve the sensitivity of thyroglobulin (Tg) as a marker of disease, and increase the sensitivity of (131)I total body scan (TBS) for the detection of persistent or recurrent disease. The aim of TSH-suppressive therapy is to restore euthyroidism and to decrease serum TSH levels, in order to reduce the growth and progression of thyroid cancer. After initial treatment, the objectives of the follow-up of DTC is to maintain adequate thyroxine therapy and to detect persistent or recurrent disease through the combined use of neck ultrasound (US) and serum Tg and (131)I TBS after TSH stimulation. The follow-up protocol should be adapted to the risk of recurrence. Recent advances in the follow-up of DTC are related to the use of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) in order to stimulate Tg production and the ultrasensitive methods for Tg measurement. Undetectable serum Tg during TSH suppressive therapy with L-T4 does not exclude persistent disease, therefore serum Tg should be measured after TSH stimulation. The results of rhTSH administration and L-thyroxine therapy withdrawal are equivalent in detecting recurrent thyroid cancer, but the use of rhTSH helps to avoid the onset of hypothyroid symptoms and the negative effects of acute hypothyroidism on

  13. Thyroid function in 36 dogs with leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum before and during treatment with allopurinol with or without meglumine antimonate.

    PubMed

    Saridomichelakis, Manolis N; Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Chatzis, Manolis K; Kasabalis, Dimitris; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Petanides, Theodoros

    2013-10-18

    Hypothyroidism may predispose to the development of canine leishmaniosis or it may appear during the course of the latter due to infiltration and destruction of the thyroid gland by infected macrophages. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate thyroid function through measurement of serum total thyroxin (tT₄), free thyroxin (fT₄), and canine thyroid stimulating hormone (cTSH) concentrations in 36 dogs with leishmaniosis, before and after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment with allopurinol with or without meglumine antimonate. Before treatment 27/36 (75%) dogs had serum tT₄ concentrations below the lower limit of the reference interval but only 2 of them had concurrently serum fT₄ concentrations below the lower limit of the reference interval and none had increased serum cTSH concentrations. During treatment there were no significant changes in serum tT₄ or fT₄ concentrations, whereas a significant increase in serum cTSH was observed. Two dogs had decreased serum tT₄ and fT₄ but normal cTSH concentrations before treatment and two other dogs had decreased serum tT₄ and increased cTSH, but normal fT₄ concentrations during the treatment period. Although hypothyroidism could not be definitively excluded in these dogs it is considered unlikely based on their overall hormonal profile, clinical presentation, and response to treatment. Therefore, hypothyroidism does not appear to be an important predisposing disease or a frequent complication of canine leishmaniosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Regulation of hormone release by cultured cells from a thyrotropin-growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumor. Direct inhibiting effects of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and dexamethasone on thyrotropin secretion.

    PubMed

    Lamberts, S W; Oosterom, R; Verleun, T; Krenning, E P; Assies, H

    1984-08-01

    The regulation of TSH and GH secretion was investigated in cultured tumor cells prepared from a mixed TSH/GH secreting pituitary tumor. The tumor tissue had been removed transsphenoidally from a patient with hyperthyroidism and inappropriately high serum TSH levels and acromegaly. TSH and GH secretion by cultured cells were stimulated in a parallel way by TRH (300 nM) and LHRH (50 nM), but were unaffected by bromocriptine (10 nM). Exposure of the tumor cells to dexamethasone (0.1 microM) or T3 (50 nM) had differential effects on hormone secretion. GH secretion was greatly stimulated by dexamethasone, but unaffected by T3. TSH secretion was inhibited both by T3 and by dexamethasone. So, T3 and glucocorticoids inhibit TSH release by the human pituitary tumor cells studied at least partly by means of a direct effect.

  15. Experimental hyperthyroidism decreases gene expression and serum levels of adipokines in obesity.

    PubMed

    Luvizotto, Renata de Azevedo Melo; do Nascimento, André Ferreira; de Síbio, Maria Teresa; Olímpio, Regiane Marques Castro; Conde, Sandro José; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Leopoldo, André Soares; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos; Nogueira, Célia Regina

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the influence of hyperthyroidism on the gene expression and serum concentration of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in obese animals. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (C)-fed with commercial chow ad libitum-and obese (OB)-fed with a hypercaloric diet. After group characterization, the OB rats continued receiving a hypercaloric diet and were randomized into two groups: obese animals (OB) and obese with 25 μg triiodothyronine (T(3))/100 BW (OT). The T(3) dose was administered every day for the last 2 weeks of the study. After 30 weeks the animals were euthanized. Samples of blood and adipose tissue were collected for biochemical and hormonal analyses as well as gene expression of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin. T(3) treatment was effective, increasing fT(3) levels and decreasing fT(4) and TSH serum concentration. Administration of T(3) promotes weight loss, decreases all fat deposits, and diminishes serum levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin by reducing their gene expression. Our results suggest that T(3) modulate serum and gene expression levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in experimental model of obesity, providing new insights regarding the relationship between T(3) and adipokines in obesity.

  16. Experimental Hyperthyroidism Decreases Gene Expression and Serum Levels of Adipokines in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Luvizotto, Renata de Azevedo Melo; do Nascimento, André Ferreira; de Síbio, Maria Teresa; Olímpio, Regiane Marques Castro; Conde, Sandro José; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Leopoldo, André Soares; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos; Nogueira, Célia Regina

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To analyze the influence of hyperthyroidism on the gene expression and serum concentration of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in obese animals. Main Methods. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (C)—fed with commercial chow ad libitum—and obese (OB)—fed with a hypercaloric diet. After group characterization, the OB rats continued receiving a hypercaloric diet and were randomized into two groups: obese animals (OB) and obese with 25 μg triiodothyronine (T3)/100 BW (OT). The T3 dose was administered every day for the last 2 weeks of the study. After 30 weeks the animals were euthanized. Samples of blood and adipose tissue were collected for biochemical and hormonal analyses as well as gene expression of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin. Results. T3 treatment was effective, increasing fT3 levels and decreasing fT4 and TSH serum concentration. Administration of T3 promotes weight loss, decreases all fat deposits, and diminishes serum levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin by reducing their gene expression. Conclusions. Our results suggest that T3 modulate serum and gene expression levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in experimental model of obesity, providing new insights regarding the relationship between T3 and adipokines in obesity. PMID:22645452

  17. Effective visualization of suppressed thyroid tissue by means of baseline 99mTc-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile in comparison with 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy after TSH stimulation.

    PubMed

    Vattimo, A; Bertelli, P; Burroni, L

    1992-01-01

    Baseline 99mTc-MIBI thyroid scintigraphy was compared with 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy after TSH stimulation in seven patients with suppressed thyroid tissue due to an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule (AFTN). In all patients the suppressed thyroid tissue was visualized by means of both baseline 99mTc-MIBI and post-TSH 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy, and in some cases the former technique provided better visualization. In one patient presenting a "warm" nodule T3-suppression did not affect the nodular/extranodular uptake ratio of 99mTc-MIBI, whereas the 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake ratio increased significantly. This leads us to hypothesize that the thyroid uptake of 99mTc-MIBI is not related to TSH control, but rather to other mechanisms such as the blood flow. Since exogenous TSH is no longer available, 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy can be successfully used in the place of repeated 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy after TSH stimulation in the assessment of AFTN.

  18. The insecticide 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) alters the membrane raft location of the TSH receptor stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    De Gregorio, Francesca; Pellegrino, Mario; Picchietti, Simona

    2011-06-01

    DDT is a highly lipophilic molecule known to deplete membrane rafts of their phosphoglycolipid and cholesterol contents. However, we have recently shown that DDT can also alter the thyroid homeostasis by inhibiting TSH receptor (TSHr) internalization. The present study was undertaken to verify whether DDT goitrogenic effects are due to the insecticide acting directly on TSHr or via alteration of the membrane rafts hosting the receptor itself. Our results demonstrate that, in CHO-TSHr transfected cells, TSHr is activated in the presence of TSH, while it is inhibited following DDT exposure. DDT can also reduce the endocytic vesicular traffic, alter themore » extension of multi-branched microvilli along their plasma membranes and induce TSHr shedding in vesicular forms. To verify whether TSHr displacement might depend on DDT altering the raft constitution of CHO-TSHr cell membranes the extent of TSHr and lipid raft co-localization was examined by confocal microscopy. Evidence shows that receptor/raft co-localization increased significantly upon exposure to TSH, while receptors and lipid rafts become dislodged on opposite cell poles in DDT-exposed CHO-TSHr cells. As a control, under similar culturing conditions, diphenylethylene, which is known to be a lipophilic substance that is structurally related to DDT, did not affect the extent of TSHr and lipid raft co-localization in CHO-TSHr cells treated with TSH. These findings corroborate and extend our view that, in CHO cells, the DDT disrupting action on TSHr is primarily due to the insecticide acting on membranes to deplete their raft cholesterol content, and that the resulting inhibition on TSHr internalization is due to receptor dislodgement from altered raft microdomains of the plasma membrane. - Highlights: >DDT is a pesticide with a severe environmental impact >Epidemiologic correlation exists between exposition to DDT and thyroid dysfunction >DDT is a lipophilic molecule that has been shown to inhibit TSH

  19. Thyrotropin Suppressive Therapy for Low-Risk Small Thyroid Cancer: A Propensity Score-Matched Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Suyeon; Kim, Won Gu; Han, Minkyu; Jeon, Min Ji; Kwon, Hyemi; Kim, Mijin; Sung, Tae-Yon; Kim, Tae Yong; Kim, Won Bae; Hong, Suck Joon; Shong, Young Kee

    2017-09-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH) suppression has improved the clinical outcomes of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). However, the efficacy of TSH suppressive therapy (TST) is unclear in patients with low-risk DTC. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of TST and optimal TSH levels of patients with low-risk DTC. This retrospective propensity score-matched cohort study included DTC patients (n = 446) who underwent lobectomy from 2002 to 2008 with or without TST (TST group and No-TST group). Disease-free survival (DFS) and dynamic risk stratification were compared between both groups using serum TSH levels. Approximately 74% of TST patients and 11% of No-TST patients had suppressed serum TSH levels (<2 mIU/L). The median follow-up period was 8.6 years. During follow-up, the disease recurred in 10 (2.7%) patients, with no significant difference in DFS between the groups (p = 0.63). The proportion of patients with excellent treatment response was similar between the TST (65.2%) and No-TST (64.4%) groups. Incomplete biochemical response was noted in 17.2% of the TST group patients and 9.4% of the No-TST group patients. No significant difference was observed in the DFS between both groups by comparing serum TSH level (p = 0.57). TST did not improve clinical outcomes, and serum TSH levels were not associated with recurrence in patients with low-risk small DTC. No clinical benefits were shown for TSH suppression in low-risk patients who underwent lobectomy. Thus, levothyroxine is not necessary for patients without evidence of hypothyroidism.

  20. Loss-of-function mutations in the thyrotropin receptor gene as a major determinant of hyperthyrotropinemia in a consanguineous community.

    PubMed

    Tenenbaum-Rakover, Yardena; Grasberger, Helmut; Mamanasiri, Sunee; Ringkananont, Usanee; Montanelli, Lucia; Barkoff, Marla S; Dahood, Ahmad Mahameed-Hag; Refetoff, Samuel

    2009-05-01

    Resistance to TSH (RTSH) is a condition of impaired responsiveness of the thyroid gland to TSH, characterized by elevated serum TSH, low or normal thyroid hormone levels, and hypoplastic or normal-sized thyroid gland. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical course and the genotype-phenotype relationship of RTSH caused by two different TSH receptor (TSHR) gene mutations in a consanguineous population. We conducted a clinical and genetic investigation of 46 members of an extended family and 163 individuals living in the same town. In vitro functional studies of the mutant TSHRs were also performed. Two TSHR gene mutations (P68S and L653V) were identified in 33 subjects occurring as homozygous L653V (five subjects), heterozygous L653V (20 subjects), heterozygous P68S (four subjects), and compound heterozygous L653V/P68S (four subjects). With the exception of one individual with concomitant autoimmune thyroid disease, all homozygotes and compound heterozygotes presented with compensated RTSH (high TSH with free T(4) and T(3) in the normal range). Only nine of 24 heterozygotes had mild hyperthyrotropinemia. The L653V mutation resulted in a higher serum TSH concentration and showed a more severe in vitro abnormality than P68S. Haplotype analysis predicted a founder of the L653V six to seven generations earlier, whereas the P68S is older. Cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal studies indicate that TSH and T(4) concentrations remain stable over time. High frequency hyperthyrotropinemia in an Israeli Arab-Muslim consanguineous community is attributed to two inactivating TSHR gene mutations. Concordant genotype-phenotype was demonstrated clinically and by in vitro functional analysis. Retrospective and prospective studies indicate that in the absence of concomitant autoimmune thyroid disease, elevated TSH levels reflect stable compensated RTSH.

  1. Multihormonal regulation of thyroglobulin production by the OVNIS 6H thyroid cell line.

    PubMed

    Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S; Fayet, G

    1988-02-01

    The hormonal regulation of thyroglobulin production has been studied using a clone of the ovine thyroid cell line: OVNIS 6H. 3 among the 6 hormones proposed for serum replacement are required for an optimal thyroglobulin production; insulin, hydrocortisone and thyrotropin. Insulin alone stimulates thyroglobulin production. The presence of insulin is also required to observe hydrocortisone and TSH stimulations. Newborn calf serum inhibits thyroglobulin production. The best conditions for optimal thyroglobulin expression and TSH responsiveness are obtained in serum-free medium supplemented with 5 micrograms/ml insulin, 100 nM hydrocortisone and 1 mU/ml TSH.

  2. Association between Serum Interleukin-17A Level and High-Altitude Deacclimatization Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    He, Binfeng; Li, Hongli; Hu, Mingdong; Dong, Weijie; Wei, Zhenghua; Li, Jin; Yao, Wei; Guo, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    High-altitude deacclimatization syndrome (HADAS) is emerging as a severe public health issue that threatens the quality of life of individuals who return to lower altitude from high altitude. In this study, we measured serum levels of SOD, MDA, IL-17A, IL-10, TNF-α, and HADAS score in HADAS subjects at baseline and 50th and 100th days and to evaluate the relationship between interleukins, including IL-17A, and HADAS. Our data showed that and the serum IL-17A levels and HADAS score decreased over time in the HADAS group, and serum IL-17A levels were significantly higher in the HADAS group at baseline and 50th day compared with controls (p < 0.05). Furthermore, baseline serum levels of MDA and TNF-α were significantly higher, while SOD and IL-10 levels were lower in HADAS subjects compared with controls (p < 0.05). It is interesting that serum levels of IL-17A were clearly interrelated with HADAS incidence and severity (p < 0.05). ROC curve analysis showed that combined serum IL-17A and IL-10 levels were a better predictor of HADAS incidence than serum levels of IL-17A or IL-10 alone. These data suggest that serum levels of IL-17A are a novel predictive index of HADAS. PMID:27190491

  3. Bidirectional TSH and IGF-1 receptor cross talk mediates stimulation of hyaluronan secretion by Graves' disease immunoglobins.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Christine C; Neumann, Susanne; Place, Robert F; Marcus-Samuels, Bernice; Gershengorn, Marvin C

    2015-03-01

    There is no pathogenetically linked medical therapy for Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Lack of animal models and conflicting in vitro studies have hindered the development of such therapy. Recent reports propose that Graves' Igs bind to and activate thyrotropin receptors (TSHRs) and IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1Rs) on cells in orbital fat, stimulating hyaluronan (HA) secretion, a component of GO. The objective of the study was to investigate potential cross talk between TSHRs and IGF-1Rs in the pathogenesis of GO using a sensitive HA assay. Orbital fibroblasts from GO patients were collected in an academic clinical practice and cultured in a research laboratory. Cells were treated with TSH, IGF-1, and a monoclonal Graves' Ig M22. HA was measured by a modified ELISA. Simultaneous activation by TSH and IGF-1 synergistically increased HA secretion from 320 ± 52 for TSH and 430 ± 65 μg/mL for IGF-1 alone, to 1300 ± 95 μg/mL. IGF-1 shifted the TSH EC50 19-fold to higher potency. The dose response to M22 was biphasic. An IGF-1R antagonist inhibited the higher potency phase but had no effect on the lower potency phase. M22 did not cause IGF-1R autophosphorylation. A TSHR antagonist abolished both phases of M22-stimulated HA secretion. M22 stimulation of HA secretion by GO fibroblasts/preadipocytes involves cross talk between TSHR and IGF-1R. This cross talk relies on TSHR activation rather than direct activation of IGF-1R and leads to synergistic stimulation of HA secretion. These data propose a model for GO pathogenesis that explains previous contradictory results and argues for TSHR as the primary therapeutic target for GO.

  4. Occurrence of a multimeric high-molecular-weight glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in human serum.

    PubMed

    Kunjithapatham, Rani; Geschwind, Jean-Francois; Devine, Lauren; Boronina, Tatiana N; O'Meally, Robert N; Cole, Robert N; Torbenson, Michael S; Ganapathy-Kanniappan, Shanmugasundaram

    2015-04-03

    Cellular glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a phylogenetically conserved, ubiquitous enzyme that plays an indispensable role in energy metabolism. Although a wealth of information is available on cellular GAPDH, there is a clear paucity of data on its extracellular counterpart (i.e., the secreted or extracellular GAPDH). Here, we show that the extracellular GAPDH in human serum is a multimeric, high-molecular-weight, yet glycolytically active enzyme. The high-molecular-weight multimers of serum GAPDH were identified by immunodetection on one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using multiple antibodies specific for various epitopes of GAPDH. Partial purification of serum GAPDH by DEAE Affigel affinity/ion exchange chromatography further established the multimeric composition of serum GAPDH. In vitro data demonstrated that human cell lines secrete a multimeric, high-molecular-weight enzyme similar to that of serum GAPDH. Furthermore, LC-MS/MS analysis of extracellular GAPDH from human cell lines confirmed the presence of unique peptides of GAPDH in the high-molecular-weight subunits. Furthermore, data from pulse-chase experiments established the presence of high-molecular-weight subunits in the secreted, extracellular GAPDH. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the presence of a high-molecular-weight, enzymatically active secretory GAPDH in human serum that may have a hitherto unknown function in humans.

  5. A validated method for measurement of serum total, serum free, and salivary cortisol, using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution ESI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Montskó, Gergely; Tarjányi, Zita; Mezősi, Emese; Kovács, Gábor L

    2014-04-01

    Blood cortisol level is routinely analysed in laboratory medicine, but the immunoassays in widespread use have the disadvantage of cross-reactivity with some commonly used steroid drugs. Mass spectrometry has become a method of increasing importance for cortisol estimation. However, current methods do not offer the option of accurate mass identification. Our objective was to develop a mass spectrometry method to analyse salivary, serum total, and serum free cortisol via accurate mass identification. The analysis was performed on a Bruker micrOTOF high-resolution mass spectrometer. Sample preparation involved protein precipitation, serum ultrafiltration, and solid-phase extraction. Limit of quantification was 12.5 nmol L(-1) for total cortisol, 440 pmol L(-1) for serum ultrafiltrate, and 600 pmol L(-1) for saliva. Average intra-assay variation was 4.7%, and inter-assay variation was 6.6%. Mass accuracy was <2.5 ppm. Serum total cortisol levels were in the range 35.6-1088 nmol L(-1), and serum free cortisol levels were in the range 0.5-12.4 nmol L(-1). Salivary cortisol levels were in the range 0.7-10.4 nmol L(-1). Mass accuracy was equal to or below 2.5 ppm, resulting in a mass error less than 1 mDa and thus providing high specificity. We did not observe any interference with routinely used steroidal drugs. The method is capable of specific cortisol quantification in different matrices on the basis of accurate mass identification.

  6. Evaluation of thyroid function in dogs suffering from recurrent flank alopecia.

    PubMed Central

    Daminet, S; Paradis, M

    2000-01-01

    Thyroid function was assessed in euthyroid dogs (n = 20), dogs suffering from canine recurrent flank alopecia (CRFA, n = 18), and hypothyroid dogs (n = 21). Blood samples obtained from all dogs in each group were assayed for total thyroxine (TT4), thyrotropin (TSH), and thyroglobulin autoantibody (TgAA) serum concentrations. Total T4 and TSH serum concentrations were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, in the hypothyroid group compared with the other 2 groups. No significant differences in TT4 and TSH serum values were found between the euthyroid and CRFA groups. Thyroglobulin autoantibodies were detected in 10, 11.1, and 61.9% of euthyroid dogs, dogs with CRFA, and hypothyroid dogs, respectively. In conclusion, dogs suffering from CRFA have a normal thyroid function, and the determination of TT4 and TSH serum concentrations allows differentiation of these dogs from dogs with hypothyroidism, in most cases. Occasionally, the 2 diseases can be concomitant. PMID:10992988

  7. Serum cholesterol and risk of high-grade prostate cancer: results from the REDUCE study.

    PubMed

    Jamnagerwalla, Juzar; Howard, Lauren E; Allott, Emma H; Vidal, Adriana C; Moreira, Daniel M; Castro-Santamaria, Ramiro; Andriole, Gerald L; Freeman, Michael R; Freedland, Stephen J

    2017-12-27

    Epidemiologic evidence for a serum cholesterol-prostate cancer link is mixed. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is positively correlated with cholesterol, potentially increasing PSA-driven biopsy recommendations in men with high cholesterol, though biopsy compliance may be lower in men with comorbid conditions. These potential biases may affect PSA-driven biopsy rates and subsequent prostate cancer detection in men with high serum cholesterol. Our objective was to test the association between serum cholesterol and prostate cancer risk in men receiving PSA independent, study-mandated prostate biopsies. We conducted a post hoc analysis of data from 4974 non-statin users in REDUCE, a randomized trial in men with elevated PSA and a negative baseline biopsy. Men underwent 2- and 4-year trial-mandated prostate biopsies. Associations between baseline serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and prostate cancer risk, overall and by Gleason grade (<7 vs. ≥7), were examined using multivariable logistic regression. High total serum cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer diagnosis (OR per 10 mg/dL 1.05; 95% CI 1.00-1.09; p = 0.048), but cholesterol was unrelated to either overall or low-grade prostate cancer risk (p-values >0.185). There was no association between serum LDL and overall, low- or high-grade prostate cancer risk (p-values >0.137). In contrast, elevated serum HDL was associated with increased risk of both overall (OR per 10 mg/dL 1.08; 95% CI 1.01-1.16; p = 0.033) and high-grade prostate cancer (OR per 10 mg/dL 1.14; 95% CI 1.01-1.28; p = 0.034). In REDUCE, where all men received PSA independent, trial-mandated biopsies thus ensuring complete prostate cancer ascertainment, high total serum cholesterol and high HDL were associated with increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer, supporting a cholesterol-prostate cancer link.

  8. Identification of novel serum peptide biomarkers for high-altitude adaptation: a comparative approach

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Juan; Li, Wenhua; Liu, Siyuan; Yuan, Dongya; Guo, Yijiao; Jia, Cheng; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify serum biomarkers for screening individuals who could adapt to high-altitude hypoxia at sea level. HHA (high-altitude hypoxia acclimated; n = 48) and HHI (high-altitude hypoxia illness; n = 48) groups were distinguished at high altitude, routine blood tests were performed for both groups at high altitude and at sea level. Serum biomarkers were identified by comparing serum peptidome profiling between HHI and HHA groups collected at sea level. Routine blood tests revealed the concentration of hemoglobin and red blood cells were significantly higher in HHI than in HHA at high altitude. Serum peptidome profiling showed that ten significantly differentially expressed peaks between HHA and HHI at sea level. Three potential serum peptide peaks (m/z values: 1061.91, 1088.33, 4057.63) were further sequence identified as regions of the inter-α trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 fragment (ITIH4 347–356), regions of the inter-α trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H1 fragment (ITIH1 205–214), and isoform 1 of fibrinogen α chain precursor (FGA 588–624). Expression of their full proteins was also tested by ELISA in HHA and HHI samples collected at sea level. Our study provided a novel approach for identifying potential biomarkers for screening people at sea level who can adapt to high altitudes. PMID:27150491

  9. Identification of novel serum peptide biomarkers for high-altitude adaptation: a comparative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Juan; Li, Wenhua; Liu, Siyuan; Yuan, Dongya; Guo, Yijiao; Jia, Cheng; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to identify serum biomarkers for screening individuals who could adapt to high-altitude hypoxia at sea level. HHA (high-altitude hypoxia acclimated; n = 48) and HHI (high-altitude hypoxia illness; n = 48) groups were distinguished at high altitude, routine blood tests were performed for both groups at high altitude and at sea level. Serum biomarkers were identified by comparing serum peptidome profiling between HHI and HHA groups collected at sea level. Routine blood tests revealed the concentration of hemoglobin and red blood cells were significantly higher in HHI than in HHA at high altitude. Serum peptidome profiling showed that ten significantly differentially expressed peaks between HHA and HHI at sea level. Three potential serum peptide peaks (m/z values: 1061.91, 1088.33, 4057.63) were further sequence identified as regions of the inter-α trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 fragment (ITIH4 347-356), regions of the inter-α trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H1 fragment (ITIH1 205-214), and isoform 1 of fibrinogen α chain precursor (FGA 588-624). Expression of their full proteins was also tested by ELISA in HHA and HHI samples collected at sea level. Our study provided a novel approach for identifying potential biomarkers for screening people at sea level who can adapt to high altitudes.

  10. Impairment and restoration of response to TSH in dog thyroid slices after treatment with phospholipase A and lubrol PX.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, K; Oka, H; Kaneko, T; Ogata, E

    1976-01-01

    Incubation of dog thyroid slices with phospholipase A (10-40 U/Ml) or Lubrol PX (0.08-0.4%) caused a diminution in the subsequent TSH effect on the tissue cyclic AMP level and glucose oxidation. The same treatment had no effect on the basal level of these parameters. When the phospholipase A or Lubrol PX-treated slices were rinsed intensively with a Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer and then incubated at 37degreesC in the same buffer for a further 1 to 3 hours, responsiveness to TSH recovered progressively reaching almost completely that of the control slices. Again, these procedures were without any significant effect on the responsiveness of the control slices. The above results together with those reported previously suggest strongly that phospholipids are an essential component of the plasma membrane system by which TSH stimulates adenylate cyclase activity. In addition, these essential lipids in the membrane appear to be renewed rather efficiently in this tissue, thus securing the functional integrity of the thyroid in the face of various deleterious situations.

  11. Segmentectomy for giant pulmonary sclerosing haemangiomas with high serum KL-6 levels

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Hiroaki; Mun, Mingyon; Okumura, Sakae; Nakagawa, Ken

    2012-01-01

    We describe a 61-year old female patient with a giant pulmonary sclerosing haemangioma (PSH) and an extremely high preoperative serum KL-6 level. During an annual health screening, the patient showed a posterior mediastinal mass on chest radiography. Chest computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-circumscribed 60 mm diameter nodule with a marked contrast enhancement in the left lower lobe. The preoperative serum KL-6 level was elevated to 8204 U/ml. We performed a four-port thoracoscopic basal segmentectomy and lymph node sampling for diagnosis and therapy. The postoperative diagnosis showed PSH. The serum KL-6 level decreased dramatically with tumour resection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with PSH showing a high serum KL-6 level. PMID:22454483

  12. Effect of Nitrates, Thiocyanates and Selenium on the Iron and Iodine Status of Postpartum Women.

    PubMed

    Bivolarska, Anelia V; Maneva, Ana I; Gatseva, Penka D; Katsarova, Mariana N

    2016-09-01

    To find correlations between high thiocyanate and nitrate levels and low selenium levels and the indicators of the iodine and iron status of postpartum women. The study included 41 mothers aged 26.4±5.9 yrs from Asenovgrad and nearby villages. Urinary iodine was determined by the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction and thiocyanate - by the interaction of these ions with acidic solution of KMnO4; for serum nitrates we used the colorimetric method; serum selenium was assessed by electro-thermal atomic-absorption spectrophotometry; thyroxin (FT4), the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), serum ferritin (SF), and serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) were determined using ELISA; Hb levels were determined by hematology analyzer. Assessing the iodine status, we found a negative correlation between the levels of iodine and thiocyanates in urine (R=-0.717, р<0.0001), a positive correlation between nitrates and TSH (R=0.487, р=0.003) and a negative correlation between nitrates and FT4 (R=-0.312, р=0.06). For the iron status, we found a negative correlation between nitrates and SF (R=-0.429, р=0.009) and between nitrates and Hb (R=-0.383, р=0.021). The Mann-Whitney U-test showed that in women with nitrate levels higher than the mean value there was low FT4 level (р=0.06), high TSH level (р=0.013), low Hb concentration (р=0.061) and low SF concentration (р=0.005). The combined effects of environmental factors (elevated nitrate levels and low selenium level) on the iodine and iron status are manifested by low concentrations of FT4 (р=0.033), Hb (р=0.06) and SF (р=0.05) and high level of TSH (р=0.05). In conclusion, we found that environmental factors, especially when combined, have a negative impact on the iron and iodine status of females.

  13. In vivo and in vitro response to octreotide LAR in a TSH-secreting adenoma: characterization of somatostatin receptor expression and role of subtype 5.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Federico; Barbieri, Federica; Castelletti, Lara; Arvigo, Marica; Pattarozzi, Alessandra; Annunziata, Francesca; Saveanu, Alexandru; Minuto, Francesco; Castellan, Lucio; Zona, Gianluigi; Florio, Tullio; Ferone, Diego

    2011-06-01

    Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHomas) are a rare cause of hyperthyroidism and account for less than 2% of pituitary adenomas. Medical therapy with somatostatin analogues (SSAs) effectively reduces TSH secretion in approximately 80% of patients and induces shrinkage in about 45% of tumors. According with previous data, resistance to SSA treatment might be due to heterogeneity in somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) expression. We report the case of TSHoma in a 41-year-old man treated with octreotide LAR that caused a dramatic decrease of TSH and thyroid hormones and tumor shrinkage already after 3 months of pre-surgical therapy. In search of potential molecular determinants of octreotide effectiveness, we measured, in primary cultures from this tumor, SSTR and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) expression, and octreotide and/or cabergoline effects on TSH secretion and cell proliferation. SSTR5 and D2R expression was higher than SSTR2. Octreotide significantly inhibited TSH secretion more effectively than cabergoline (P<0.001), whereas the combined treatment was comparable with cabergoline alone. Similarly, octreotide resulted more effective than cabergoline on cell proliferation, while the combination did not show any additive or synergistic effects. In conclusion, the significant antisecretive and antiproliferative effect of octreotide in this patient might be related to the high expression of SSTR5, in the presence of SSTR2. After reviewing the literature, indeed, in line with previous observations, we hypothesize that SSTR5/SSTR2 ratio in TSHomas may represent a useful marker in predicting the outcome of therapy with SSAs. The role of D2R should be further explored considering that the presence of D2R can influence SSTRs functionality. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

  14. Non-transference of biological reference interval of TSH by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay: an Indian population perspective.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rajarshi

    2013-08-23

    Although TSH measurement by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay has become commonplace in India, significant discrepancy has been observed on interpretation of the test results when the manufacturer supplied biological reference interval (BRI) criteria were applied. This report determined whether the manufacturer's BRI (Roche Cobas) is transferable to the Indian population. Three hundred seventy-eight age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were selected from an urban Indian population. TSH reference measurements were acquired, and the reference data were statistically analysed. BRI of the Indian urban reference population was determined by non-parametric means. BRI was found to be 1.134 to 7.280μIU/ml. BRI thus calculated was found to be significantly different from that mentioned by the manufacturer (0.27 to 4.20μIU/ml), which, needless to mention, has profound clinical implications in this part of the globe. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of thyrotropin-releasing factor on serum thyroid-stimulating hormone

    PubMed Central

    Costom, Bruce H.; Grumbach, Melvin M.; Kaplan, Selna L.

    1971-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the primary defect in some patients with idiopathic hypopituitary dwarfism is failure to secrete hypothalamic hypophysiotropic-releasing factors, synthetic thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF), 500 μg, wa given intravenously, and timed venous samples obtained for determination of the concentration of plasma TSH by radioimmunoassay in three groups of subjects: (a) 11 patients without evidence of endocrine or systemic disease, (group I) (b) 8 with isolated growth hormone deficiency and normal thyroid function, (group II) and (c) 9 patients with idiopathic hypopituitary dwarfism and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiency (group III). The mean fasting plasma TSH value was 4.1 μU/ml in group I, and 3.9 μU/ml in group II; in both groups there was a brisk rise in plasma TSH to peak levels of 12-45 μU/ml at 30-45 min, and a fall toward base line levels at 120 min. All children in group III had basal TSH levels of < 1.5 μU/ml; one failed to respond to TRF; eight exhibited a rise in plasma TSH with peak values comparable with those in groups I and II. In four of eight children in group III who responded to TRF, the TSH response was delayed and the initial rise in plasma TSH was not detectable until 10-60 min. In these four patients, plasma TSH levels continued to rise at 120 min. The mean fasting concentration of plasma thyroxine iodide (T4) in subjects with normal thyroid function (groups I and II) was 5.6 μg/100 ml, and the mean plasma T4 level at 120 min was 6.6 μg/100 ml. This difference between fasting and postTRF plasma T4 was significant (P < 0.001) by paired analysis. Mean fasting plasma T4 concentration in group III patients was 1.3 μg/100 ml; after TRF a significant rise in T4 concentration was not detected in this group. The results indicate that TRF test is useful in distinguishing between primary hypothalamic and pituitary forms of TSH deficiency. In light of the evidence of TRF deficiency in eight of nine patients with

  16. How could we improve the increased cardiovascular mortality in patients with overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism?

    PubMed

    Biondi, Bernadette

    2012-09-01

    Over the past five years several meta-analyses have evaluated the cardiovascular mortality in patients with hyperthyroidism. They assessed various studies in which different inclusion criteria were used for the analysis of the cardiovascular mortality. More selective criteria have been used in recent meta-analyses. Only prospective cohort studies were included and only cohorts using second and third generation TSH assays were chosen. In addition, only the studies where the TSH evaluation was repeated during the follow-up were selected. The results of these recent meta-analyses provide evidence that overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism, particularly in patients with undetectable serum TSH, may increase the cardiovascular mortality. However, still today, the results remain inconclusive and not sufficient enough to recommend treatment for patients with low-detectable serum TSH. The high cardiovascular risk and mortality in presence of thyroid hormone excess suggest that this dysfunction is an important health problem and requires guidelines for the treatment of patients at high cardiovascular risk. Rigorous studies are necessary to evaluate the effects of the various causes of hyperthyroidism on the clinical outcomes. Randomized controlled clinical trials are needed to assess the benefits of treatment to improve the cardiovascular mortality and morbidity of mild and overt hyperthyroidism.

  17. Correlation of Body Mass Index (BMI) with Thyroid Function in Euthyroid Pregnant Women in Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sumit; Chiinngaihlun, T; Singh, M Rameswar; Punyabati, O

    2017-04-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is significantly increased during pregnancy due to gain of weight with normal progression of pregnancy. The exact influence of thyroid function on BMI are ill defined in euthyroid pregnant women. To correlate serum levels of Free Triiodothyronine (FT3), Free Thyroxine (FT4) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) level with BMI of participant normal pregnant women in all the three trimesters. In this cross-sectional comparative study, total of 210 healthy pregnant women comprising of 70 participants in each trimester, attending Obstetrics Outpatient Department (OPD) for antenatal check-up were consecutively selected. Estimation of serum FT3, FT4 and TSH level was done by ELISA based methods. The correlation of BMI with serum levels of FT3, FT4 and TSH was done using Pearson correlation test (r) by SPSS version 21.0 software. TSH level of participant normal pregnant women showed significant positive correlation with BMI during first (r=0.254 and p=0.034) and second trimester (r=0.263 and p=0.028) of pregnancy. FT4 level showed significant negative correlation in second (r= -0.454 and p<0.001) and third trimester (r= -0.351 and p=0.003) of pregnancy. Correlation between BMI and FT3 level showed no significant association in any of the trimesters. BMI correlates positively with TSH level in first and second trimesters while it correlates negatively with FT4 level in second and third trimesters, but, failed to demonstrate significant association with FT3 level in any of trimesters in euthyroid pregnant women. Serum TSH along with FT4 level appears more useful modality compared to serum TSH alone for targeted thyroid screening particularly in obese pregnant women.

  18. Hypothyroidism following treatment for head and neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Vrabec, D.P.; Heffron, T.J.

    One hundred ninety-six head and neck patients were studied to determine the effects of radiation therapy and surgery on thyroid function. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were obtained as a screening test for primary hypothyroidism. Elevated TSH levels were found in 57 of the 196 patients (29.1%). The highest incidence of abnormal TSH values (66%) occurred in the group treated with combination radiation therapy and surgery, including partial thyroidectomy. TSH levels rose early in the posttreatment period with 60% of the abnormal values occurring within the first three posttreatment years. Posttreatment thyroid dysfunction was twice as common in women (48.6%)more » as in men (25.4%). When serum thyroxine levels by radioimmunoassay (T4RIA) were correlated with the elevated serum TSH levels, a similar pattern was seen with 65% of the patients in Group 3 having a decreased T4RIA level indicating overt hypothyroidism. Pretreatment levels of thyroid function including thyroid antibody studies should be established for all patients. Serial TSH levels should be done every three months during the first three posttreatment years and semiannually thereafter as long as the patient will return for follow-up care. All patients treated with combination radiation therapy and surgery who develop elevated TSH levels should be treated with thyroid replacement therapy. Patients receiving radiation therapy alone should receive replacement thyroid therapy if they develop a depressed T4RIA value or a pattern of gradually increasing TSH levels.« less

  19. Serum leptin is correlated to high turnover in osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Hipmair, Gunter; Böhler, Nikolaus; Maschek, Wilma; Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Schimetta, Wolfgang; Pichler, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Clinical data have suggested that obesity protects against osteoporosis. Leptin, mainly secreted by white adipose tissue, might be involved by mediating an effect on bone metabolism. This study was conducted to investigate a possible relationship of leptin and bone turn-over in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. We measured bone mineral density (BMD), serum leptin levels and markers of bone metabolism, including osteocalcin and cross-laps in 44 patients with osteoporosis. The main group consisted of 32 postmenopausal women. Mean serum leptin was 13.1 microg/L and showed no statistically significant difference to the levels measured in a collective of normal persons adjusted for age and BMI. When related to serum cross-laps as markers of bone resorption, a positive correlation (p<0.05) was observed, whereas no correlation with osteocalcin could be seen. A dual control of bone formation by leptin is assumed: This involves local mechanisms acting on osteoblasts and a central inhibitory effect on bone metabolism via a hypothalamic relay. Our data indicate that the net effect of circulating leptin may cause bone loss and is significantly related to high-turnover serum bone markers, at least in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

  20. Deleting the Redundant TSH Receptor C-Peptide Region Permits Generation of the Conformationally Intact Extracellular Domain by Insect Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Rong; Salazar, Larry M; McLachlan, Sandra M; Rapoport, Basil

    2015-07-01

    The TSH receptor (TSHR) extracellular domain (ECD) comprises a N-terminal leucine-rich repeat domain and an hinge region (HR), the latter contributing to ligand binding and critical for receptor activation. The crystal structure of the leucine-rich repeat domain component has been solved, but previous attempts to generate conformationally intact complete ECD or the isolated HR component for structural analysis have failed. The TSHR HR contains a C-peptide segment that is removed during spontaneous TSHR intramolecular cleavage into disulfide linked A- and B-subunits. We hypothesized that deletion of the redundant C-peptide would overcome the obstacle to generating conformationally intact TSHR ECD protein. Indeed, lacking the C-peptide region, the TSHR ECD (termed ECD-D1) and the isolated HR (termed HR-D1) were secreted into medium of insect cells infected with baculoviruses coding for these modified proteins. The identities of TSHR ECD-D1 and HR-D1 were confirmed by ELISA and immunoblotting using TSHR-specific monoclonal antibodies. The TSHR-ECD-D1 in conditioned medium was folded correctly, as demonstrated by its ability to inhibit radiolabeled TSH binding to the TSH holoreceptor. The TSHR ECD-D1 purification was accomplished in a single step using a TSHR monoclonal antibody affinity column, whereas the HR-D1 required a multistep protocol with a low yield. In conclusion, we report a novel approach to generate the TSHR ECD, as well as the isolated HR in insect cells, the former in sufficient amounts for structural studies. However, such studies will require previous complexing of the ECD with a ligand such as TSH or a thyroid-stimulating antibody.

  1. Association between thyroid hormone parameters and dyslipidemia among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: Comparative cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wolide, Amare Desalegn; Zawdie, Belay; Alemayehu, Tilahun; Tadesse, Samuel

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between thyroid function and lipid profile has been documented in T2DM and healthy subjects. The aim of the current study was to assess the association between thyroid hormone parameters and dyslipidemia in T2DM and non-diabetic study participants. In this comparative cross-sectional study, 214 type 2 diabetic and 214 non-diabetic study participants were enrolled. Clinical and anthropometric data were collected from all study participants. After overnight fasting, 10ml of whole blood samples were drawn for the measurement of serum TSH, free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), serum reactive C-protein levels, as well as for lipid profile test and glucose. The burden of hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism among T2DM study participants were 73 (17.05%) and 13 (3.04%) respectively. Comparatively, T2DM study participants had significantly higher serum lipid level than non-diabetics. Stratified by TSH, hypothyroid T2DM study participants had increased lipid level than euthyroid subjects. T2DM serum TSH have shown a positive significant correlation with all lipid profile parameters except HDL-C. In the final model (multivariate linear regression), diabetics serum TSH significantly and positively associated with TG and BMI. Diabetic serum fT3 and fT4 negatively associated with body mass index. In addition, diabetics serum fT3 negatively and serum fT4 positively associated with TC and HDL-C respectively. T2DM study subjects had significantly higher lipid level than nondiabetic and We identified that TSH was positively associated with serum TG and BMI among T2DM study participants. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with frozen shoulder.

    PubMed

    Schiefer, Marcio; Teixeira, Patricia F Santos; Fontenelle, Cesar; Carminatti, Tiago; Santos, Daniel A; Righi, Lucas D; Conceição, Flavia Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Hypothyroidism and frozen shoulder (FS) have been associated, although this relationship remains uncertain. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with FS. A case-control study was performed to compare FS patients (cases) with patients who visited an orthopedic service for other clinical conditions (controls). FS was diagnosed according to specific criteria based on anamnesis, physical examination, and shoulder radiographs. A specific questionnaire was applied, and measurements of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free tetraiodothyronine were performed in all subjects. We evaluated 401 shoulders from 93 FS patients and 151 controls. The prevalence of hypothyroidism diagnosis was significantly higher in the FS group (27.2% vs. 10.7%; P = .001). There was also a tendency for higher prevalence of bilateral FS among patients with elevated TSH levels (P = .09). Mean serum TSH levels were higher in patients with bilateral FS compared with those with unilateral compromise (3.39 vs. 2.28; P = .05) and were higher in patients with severe FS compared with those with mild and moderate FS together (3.15 vs. 2.21; P = .03). Multivariate analysis showed that FS was independently related to a diagnosis of hypothyroidism (odds ratio, 3.1 [1.5-6.4]; P = .002). There was a trend toward independent association between high serum TSH levels and both severe (odds ratio, 3.5 [0.8-14.9]; P = .09) and bilateral (odds ratio, 11.7 [0.9-144.8]; P = .05) compromise. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in FS patients than in controls. The results suggest that higher serum TSH levels are associated with bilateral and severe cases of FS. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Thyroid function during the spontaneous course of subacute thyroiditis

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, V.L.; Romaldini, J.H.; Rodrigues, H.F.

    1985-05-01

    A study of changes in serum T/sub 4/, T/sub 3/, and Tg as well as of serum TSH response to TRH was done in ten patients with subacute thyroiditis, from the acute phase up to 56 mo. All patients had symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. The mean serum T/sub 4/, T/sub 3/, and Tg concentration were significantly higher than in normal subjects. The basal TSH concentrations failed to increase in response to TRH. Mean serum T/sub 3/ and serum Tg levels remained higher than in normal subjects until 4 to 5 mo after the acute phase. Thyroid autoantibodies were absent during themore » whole period of study. An exaggerated response of TSH to TRH in six out of seven patients was observed from a 2 to 3 mo period until the end of follow-up. All patients with T/sub 3/ to T/sub 4/ ratio above the normal range (7-24 ng/..mu..g) showed also an exaggerated response of TSH to TRH. These data suggest that the spontaneous course of subacute thyroiditis may lead to a low thyroid reserve detectable even 5 yr following the acute phase of the disease.« less

  4. Serum-free Erythroid Differentiation for Efficient Genetic Modification and High-Level Adult Hemoglobin Production.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Naoya; Demirci, Selami; Haro-Mora, Juan J; Fujita, Atsushi; Raines, Lydia N; Hsieh, Matthew M; Tisdale, John F

    2018-06-15

    In vitro erythroid differentiation from primary human cells is valuable to develop genetic strategies for hemoglobin disorders. However, current erythroid differentiation methods are encumbered by modest transduction rates and high baseline fetal hemoglobin production. In this study, we sought to improve both genetic modification and hemoglobin production among human erythroid cells in vitro . To model therapeutic strategies, we transduced human CD34 + cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with lentiviral vectors and compared erythropoietin-based erythroid differentiation using fetal-bovine-serum-containing media and serum-free media. We observed more efficient transduction (85%-93%) in serum-free media than serum-containing media (20%-69%), whereas the addition of knockout serum replacement (KSR) was required for serum-free media to promote efficient erythroid differentiation (96%). High-level adult hemoglobin production detectable by electrophoresis was achieved using serum-free media similar to serum-containing media. Importantly, low fetal hemoglobin production was observed in the optimized serum-free media. Using KSR-containing, serum-free erythroid differentiation media, therapeutic adult hemoglobin production was detected at protein levels with β-globin lentiviral transduction in both CD34 + cells and PBMCs from sickle cell disease subjects. Our in vitro erythroid differentiation system provides a practical evaluation platform for adult hemoglobin production among human erythroid cells following genetic manipulation.

  5. Bioassays for TSH Receptor Autoantibodies, from FRTL-5 Cells to TSH Receptor-LH/CG Receptor Chimeras: The Contribution of Leonard D. Kohn.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Cesidio; Saji, Motoyasu; Bucci, Ines; Napolitano, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery 60 years ago of the "long-acting thyroid stimulator" by Adams and Purves, great progress has been made in the detection of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) autoantibodies (TRAbs) in Graves' disease. Today, commercial assays are available that can detect TRAbs with high accuracy and provide diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of patients with Graves' disease. The present review focuses on the development of TRAbs bioassays, and particularly on the role that Leonard D. Kohn had in this. Indeed, 30 years ago, the Kohn group developed a bioassay based on the use of FRTL-5 cells that was characterized by high reproducibility, feasibility, and diagnostic accuracy. Using this FRTL-5 bioassay, Kohn and his colleagues were the first to develop monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) against the TSHR. Furthermore, they demonstrated the multifaceted functional nature of TRAbs in patients with Graves' disease, with the identification of stimulating and blocking TRAbs, and even antibodies that activated pathways other than cAMP. After the cloning of the TSHR, the Kohn laboratory constructed human TSHR-rat luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor chimeras. This paved the way to a new bioassay based on the use of non-thyroid cells transfected with the Mc4 chimera. The new Mc4 bioassay is characterized by high diagnostic and prognostic accuracy, greater than for other assays. The availability of a commercial kit based on the Mc4 chimera is spreading the use of this assay worldwide, indicating its benefits for these patients with Graves' disease. This review also describes the main contributions made by other researchers in TSHR molecular biology and TRAbs assay, especially with the development of highly potent moAbs. A comparison of the diagnostic accuracies of the main TRAbs assays, as both immunoassays and bioassays, is also provided.

  6. Bioassays for TSH Receptor Autoantibodies, from FRTL-5 Cells to TSH Receptor–LH/CG Receptor Chimeras: The Contribution of Leonard D. Kohn

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Cesidio; Saji, Motoyasu; Bucci, Ines; Napolitano, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery 60 years ago of the “long-acting thyroid stimulator” by Adams and Purves, great progress has been made in the detection of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) autoantibodies (TRAbs) in Graves’ disease. Today, commercial assays are available that can detect TRAbs with high accuracy and provide diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of patients with Graves’ disease. The present review focuses on the development of TRAbs bioassays, and particularly on the role that Leonard D. Kohn had in this. Indeed, 30 years ago, the Kohn group developed a bioassay based on the use of FRTL-5 cells that was characterized by high reproducibility, feasibility, and diagnostic accuracy. Using this FRTL-5 bioassay, Kohn and his colleagues were the first to develop monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) against the TSHR. Furthermore, they demonstrated the multifaceted functional nature of TRAbs in patients with Graves’ disease, with the identification of stimulating and blocking TRAbs, and even antibodies that activated pathways other than cAMP. After the cloning of the TSHR, the Kohn laboratory constructed human TSHR–rat luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor chimeras. This paved the way to a new bioassay based on the use of non-thyroid cells transfected with the Mc4 chimera. The new Mc4 bioassay is characterized by high diagnostic and prognostic accuracy, greater than for other assays. The availability of a commercial kit based on the Mc4 chimera is spreading the use of this assay worldwide, indicating its benefits for these patients with Graves’ disease. This review also describes the main contributions made by other researchers in TSHR molecular biology and TRAbs assay, especially with the development of highly potent moAbs. A comparison of the diagnostic accuracies of the main TRAbs assays, as both immunoassays and bioassays, is also provided. PMID:27504107

  7. cAMP dependent and independent regulation of thyroglobulin synthesis by two clones of the OVNIS 6H thyroid cell line.

    PubMed

    Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S; Fayet, G

    1987-07-01

    The hormonal regulation of thyroglobulin synthesis has been studied using two independent clones of the OVNIS 6H cell line. Insulin, hydrocortisone and TSH were able to stimulate thyroglobulin synthesis, whereas transferrin, somatostatin and glycyl-histidyl-lysine were without effect. Insulin stimulated thyroglobulin synthesis without affecting cAMP production. Hydrocortisone, when combined with insulin was a stimulator too; this stimulation was not accompanied by an increase in cAMP. TSH alone was unable to stimulate either cAMP or thyroglobulin synthesis. The stimulatory effect of TSH on thyroglobulin synthesis took place only when combined with insulin or insulin plus hydrocortisone, and was mediated by cAMP. Consequently, insulin and hydrocortisone stimulated thyroglobulin synthesis by cAMP-independent mechanisms, whereas TSH acted via the cAMP system. Forskolin mimicked TSH effects on cAMP and thyroglobulin synthesis. Calf serum inhibited cAMP and thyroglobulin production. Optimal cAMP and thyroglobulin synthesis as well as TSH responsiveness were obtained in serum-free medium supplemented with 5 micrograms/ml insulin, 100 nM hydrocortisone and 1 mU/ml TSH.

  8. Thyroid-stimulating hormone, 5-HTTLPR genotype, and antidepressant response in depressed women.

    PubMed

    Gressier, Florence; Trabado, Séverine; Verstuyft, Céline; Bouaziz, Elodie; Hardy, Patrick; Fève, Bruno; Becquemont, Laurent; Corruble, Emmanuelle

    2011-10-01

    Basal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels may predict antidepressant efficacy in patients with major depressive episodes (MDE), but data are inconsistent. As the SS genotype of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism has been associated with a lower antidepressant efficacy in women with MDE, we aimed at assessing the relationship between normal basal TSH, 5-HTTLPR, and antidepressant efficacy in women. A total of 71 women and 28 men, with normal baseline TSH serum levels, hospitalized for a MDE, were assessed for 5-HTTLPR genotypes and prospectively followed for short-term antidepressant efficacy. Women with SS genotype had higher TSH levels (P=0.002) and a worse antidepressant response (P=0.046) than the women with LL/LS genotype, whereas no significant difference was shown in men. In multivariate analyses, antidepressant response in women was explained by TSH and 5-HTTLPR, but not by other variables. Further research is needed to understand the underlying mechanism explaining interactions between sex, TSH, and serotonergic function.

  9. Do Thyroxine and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels Reflect Urinary Iodine Concentrations?

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie P.; Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Pezzullo, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The toxicity of environmental chemicals such as nitrates, thiocynates, and perchlorates, some therapeutics, and dietary goitrogens can lower thyroidal iodine uptake and result in hypothyroidism and goiter. Iodine sufficiency, essential for normal thyroid hormone synthesis, is critical during gestation to assure that sufficient thyroxine (T4) and iodine reach the developing fetus. Spot urinary iodide (UI) measurements are used globally to indicate and monitor iodine sufficiency of populations. In individuals, however, UI are not routinely measured; instead, normal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and T4 concentrations serve as surrogate indicators of iodine sufficiency as well as thyroidal health. Our objective was to examine the relationship between UI concentrations and serum T4 and TSH concentrations in individuals in an ‘‘iodine-sufficient population.’’ Using a cross-sectional sample of the US population (n = 7628) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; 1988–1994) database, we examined the relationship among UI, T4, and TSH in pregnant and nonpregnant women and in men (15–44 years). There was a lack of relationship between UI (or UI/Cr) concentrations and serum T4 or TSH concentrations. Therefore, TSH and T4 are not appropriate markers of UI concentrations in this population. Monitoring the status of iodine nutrition of individuals in the United States may be important because serum TSH and T4 concentrations do not indicate low iodine status. PMID:15795649

  10. Serum H-FABP levels in patients with hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Fahri; Asik, Mehmet; Temiz, Ahmet; Vural, Ahmet; Sen, Hacer; Binnetoglu, Emine; Bozkurt, Neslihan; Tekeli, Zeliha; Erbag, Gokhan; Ukinc, Kubilay; Akbal, Erdem

    2014-11-01

    Hypothyroidism (HT) has an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity due to increased atherosclerosis. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) is abundant in the cytosol of cardiomyocytes, and transports fatty acids into these cells. Although H-FABP has been shown to increase in several atherosclerotic and inflammatory conditions, there is no literature data indicating an alteration in other atherosclerotic processes such as HT. A total of 39 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), 26 patients with overt hypothyroidism (OH), and 29 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Carotid artery intima media thickness (CIMT) was measured by high resolution B mode ultrasonography. H-FABP levels, thyroid function test, and biochemical tests of all subjects were measured. The associations between H-FABP and thyroid test and CIMT were examined with correlation and regression analysis. OH patients had higher H-FABP levels (mean, 6.18 ± 3.08 ng/mL) than both the SCH (mean, 3.81 ± 2.16 ng/mL) and the controls (mean, 2.12 ± 1.27 ng/mL) (P < 0.01 and < 0.001, respectively). SCH patients had increased serum H-FABP levels compared with control subjects (P < 0.01). CIMT of both OH and SCH patients was also significantly greater compared with control subjects (both of p < 0.01). H-FABP was significantly and positively correlated with age, systolic blood pressure, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, and CIMT, and negatively correlated with fT4 levels. The H-FABP levels retained an independent and positive association with systolic blood pressure, and a negative association with fT4 levels. Serum H-FABP levels progressively increased from the control group to the OH group. This suggests that H-FABP may be an indicator of low-level myocardial damage in HT, especially when used together with CIMT. Decreasing serum fT4 levels seem also to have an effect on H-FABP levels.

  11. Functional central hypothyroidism in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Sell, Maren A; Schott, Matthias; Tharandt, Lutz; Cissewski, Klaus; Scherbaum, Werner A; Willenberg, Holger S

    2008-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that blood concentrations of free thyroxin and basal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) decrease during adult life. Suggested mechanisms include reduced thyroid activity resulting from decreased serum TSH concentrations, impairment of peripheral 5'-deiodinase, and an increase in reverse 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine due to non-thyroidal illness. However, testing of pituitary reserves leads to contradictory results and has infrequently been evaluated in studies. We investigated whether the response of TSH to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is preserved during aging. This was tested in a cohort of 387 subjects aged 13 to 100 years in whom thyroid disease was excluded by normal thyroid ultrasound, normal values for free thyroxin, free triiodothyronin, TSH, and negative thyroid peroxidase antibodies. Serum concentrations of free thyroxin remained almost unchanged, whereas free triiodothyronin and TSH levels were lower in older subjects. In addition, the TSH response to TRH was blunted in older subjects, especially in male individuals. There is evidence that the decreased thyroid hormone levels observed in aging are due to lower TSH concentrations, and that lower TSH concentrations may be linked to an impaired pituitary activity.

  12. Canine serum protein patterns using high-resolution electrophoresis (HRE).

    PubMed

    Abate, O; Zanatta, R; Malisano, T; Dotta, U

    2000-03-01

    Serum protein values were determined in 26 healthy dogs using agarose gel electrophoresis (SPE), splitting the electrophoretic separation into six regions: albumin, alpha(1), alpha(2), beta(1), beta(2)and gamma globulins. High-resolution electrophoresis (HRE) was used to separate single proteins. Serum proteins from dogs (26 healthy and 20 affected by various diseases) were then characterized by electrophoretic immunofixation (IFE) and Sudan black staining on HRE film. Haemoglobin and normal canine plasma and serum were used to identify haptoglobin and fibrinogen, respectively. In the standard pattern, determined by HRE, the following proteins were identified: albumin, alpha(1)-lipoprotein (alpha(1)-region), haptoglobin and alpha(2)-macroglobulin (alpha(2)-region), beta -lipoprotein and C3 (beta(1)-region), transferrin and IgM (beta(2)-region), IgG (mostly in gamma -region and partly in beta(2)-region). The HRE pattern shown by healthy dogs could be compared with those of dogs affected by various diseases to obtain clinical information. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  13. [Comparison of acetonitrile, ethanol and chromatographic column to eliminate high-abundance proteins in human serum].

    PubMed

    Li, Yin; Liao, Ming; He, Xiao; Zhou, Yi; Luo, Rong; Li, Hongtao; Wang, Yun; He, Min

    2012-11-01

    To compare the effects of acetonitrile precipitation, ethanol precipitation and multiple affinity chromatography column Human 14 removal to eliminate high-abundance proteins in human serum. Elimination of serum high-abundance proteins performed with acetonitrile precipitation, ethanol precipitation and multiple affinity chromatography column Human 14 removal. Bis-Tris Mini Gels electrophoresis and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to detect the effect. Grey value analysis from 1-DE figure showed that after serum processed by acetonitrile method, multiple affinity chromatography column Human 14 removal method and ethanol method, the grey value of albumin changed into 157.2, 40.8 and 8.2 respectively from the original value of 19. 2-DE analysis results indicated that using multiple affinity chromatography column Human 14 method, the protein points noticeable increased by 137 compared to the original serum. After processed by acetonitrile method and ethanol method, the protein point reduced, but the low abundance protein point emerged. The acetonitrile precipitation could eliminate the vast majority of high abundance proteins in serum and gain more proteins of low molecular weight, ethanol precipitation could eliminate part of high abundance proteins in serum, but low abundance proteins less harvested, and multiple affinity chromatography column Human 14 method could effectively removed the high abundance proteins, and keep a large number of low abundance proteins.

  14. DJ-1 is a reliable serum biomarker for discriminating high-risk endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Di Cello, Annalisa; Di Sanzo, Maddalena; Perrone, Francesca Marta; Santamaria, Gianluca; Rania, Erika; Angotti, Elvira; Venturella, Roberta; Mancuso, Serafina; Zullo, Fulvio; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    New reliable approaches to stratify patients with endometrial cancer into risk categories are highly needed. We have recently demonstrated that DJ-1 is overexpressed in endometrial cancer, showing significantly higher levels both in serum and tissue of patients with high-risk endometrial cancer compared with low-risk endometrial cancer. In this experimental study, we further extended our observation, evaluating the role of DJ-1 as an accurate serum biomarker for high-risk endometrial cancer. A total of 101 endometrial cancer patients and 44 healthy subjects were prospectively recruited. DJ-1 serum levels were evaluated comparing cases and controls and, among endometrial cancer patients, between high- and low-risk patients. The results demonstrate that DJ-1 levels are significantly higher in cases versus controls and in high- versus low-risk patients. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis shows that DJ-1 has a very good diagnostic accuracy in discriminating endometrial cancer patients versus controls and an excellent accuracy in distinguishing, among endometrial cancer patients, low- from high-risk cases. DJ-1 sensitivity and specificity are the highest when high- and low-risk patients are compared, reaching the value of 95% and 99%, respectively. Moreover, DJ-1 serum levels seem to be correlated with worsening of the endometrial cancer grade and histotype, making it a reliable tool in the preoperative decision-making process.

  15. Relations of thyroid function to body weight: cross-sectional and longitudinal observations in a community-based sample.

    PubMed

    Fox, Caroline S; Pencina, Michael J; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Murabito, Joanne M; Seely, Ellen W; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2008-03-24

    Overt hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism may be associated with weight gain and loss. We assessed whether variations in thyroid function within the reference (physiologic) range are associated with body weight. Framingham Offspring Study participants (n=2407) who attended 2 consecutive routine examinations, were not receiving thyroid hormone therapy, and had baseline serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations of 0.5 to 5.0 mIU/L and follow-up concentrations of 0.5 to 10.0 mIU/L were included in this study. Baseline TSH concentrations were related to body weight and body weight change during 3.5 years of follow-up. At baseline, adjusted mean weight increased progressively from 64.5 to 70.2 kg in the lowest to highest TSH concentration quartiles in women (P< .001 for trend), and from 82.8 (lowest quartile) to 85.6 kg (highest quartile) in men (P= .007 for trend). During 3.5 years of follow-up, mean (SD) body weight increased by 1.5 (5.6) kg in women and 1.0 (5.0) kg in men. Baseline TSH concentrations were not associated with weight change during follow-up. However, an increase in TSH concentration at follow-up was positively associated with weight gain in women (0.5-2.3 kg across increasing quartiles of TSH concentration change; P< .001 for trend) and men (0.4-1.3 kg across quartiles of TSH concentration change; P= .007 for trend). Thyroid function (as assessed by serum TSH concentration) within the reference range is associated with body weight in both sexes. Our findings raise the possibility that modest increases in serum TSH concentrations within the reference range may be associated with weight gain.

  16. A patient with thyrotropinoma cosecreting growth hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone with low alpha-glycoprotein: a new subentity?

    PubMed

    Elhadd, Tarik A; Ghosh, Sujoy; Teoh, Wei Leng; Trevethick, Katy Ann; Hanzely, Zoltan; Dunn, Laurence T; Malik, Iqbal A; Collier, Andrew

    2009-08-01

    Thyrotropinomas are rare pituitary tumors. In 25 percent of cases there is autonomous secretion of a second pituitary hormone, adding to the clinical complexity. We report a patient with thyrotropin (TSH)-dependant hyperthyroidism along with growth hormone (GH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) hypersecretion but low alpha-glycoprotein (alpha-subunit) concentrations, a hitherto unique constellation of findings. A 67-year-old Scottish lady presented with longstanding ankle edema, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, uncontrolled hypertension, fine tremors, warm peripheries, and agitation. Initial findings were a small goiter, elevated serum TSH of 7.37 mU/L (normal range, 0.30-6.0 mU/L), a free-thyroxine concentration of 34.9 pmol/L (normal range, 9.0-24.0 pmol/L), a flat TSH response to TSH-releasing hormone, and serum alpha-subunit of 3.1 IU/L (normal, <3.0 IU/L). There was no evidence of an abnormal thyroid hormone beta receptor by genotyping. Serum FSH was 56.8 U/L, but the luteinizing hormone (LH) was 23.6 U/L (postmenopausal FSH and LH reference ranges both >30 U/L) Basal insulin-like growth factor I was elevated to 487 microg/L with the concomitant serum GH being 14.1 mU/L, and subsequent serum GH values 30 minutes after 75 g oral glucose being 19.1 mU/L and 150 minutes later being 13.7 mU/L. An magnetic resonance imaging pituitary revealed a macroadenoma. Pituitary adenomectomy was performed with the histology confirming a pituitary adenoma, and the immunohistochemistry staining showed positive reactivity for FSH with scattered cells staining for GH and TSH. Staining for other anterior pituitary hormones was negative. After pituitary surgery she became clinically and biochemically euthyroid, the serum IFG-1 became normal, but the pattern of serum FSH and LH did not change. This case of plurihormonal thyrotropinoma is unique in having hypersecretion of TSH, GH, and FSH with low alpha-subunit. Such a combination may represent a new subentity of TSHomas.

  17. The prevalence of affective disorder and in particular of a rapid cycling of bipolar disorder in patients with abnormal thyroid function tests.

    PubMed

    Oomen, H A; Schipperijn, A J; Drexhage, H A

    1996-08-01

    .0 mU/l. CASE-CONTROL STUDY: In the case control analysis differences could not be noticed with regard to prevalences of dementia, schizophrenia or other psychiatric illnesses apart from the prevalence of affective disorders which were more prevalent in TPO-Ab positive patients and patients with a low serum TSH. Since prior use of lithium, carbamezapine, carbimazole and/or thyroxine could be a factor of importance in this association, analyses were also carried out excluding patients with such prior drug use. In these analyses affective disorders were still more prevalent in patients with a low serum TSH (particularly in males, 40% in cases vs 9% in controls, P < 0.05). The most significant association was however between TPO-antibody positivity (and in particular with high titre and/or with TSH > 4.0 mU/l) and a subgroup of the affective disorders, viz with a rapid cycling of bipolar disorder (18% in cases vs 0% in controls, P < 0.001). Though causal relations cannot be determined from this cross-sectional study, this admission survey found early forms of autoimmune thyroid disease, sometimes characterized only by TPO-Abs, highly significantly associated with rapid cycles of a bipolar disorder. It also found a weak association between subclinical hyperthyroidism (low serum TSH without TPO-Ab positivity) and affective disorder.

  18. Reference intervals for thyrotropin in an area of Northern Italy: the Pordenone thyroid study (TRIPP).

    PubMed

    Tozzoli, R; D'Aurizio, F; Metus, P; Steffan, A; Mazzon, C; Bagnasco, M

    2018-01-16

    Thyrotropin (TSH) is the most accurate marker of thyroid dysfunction in the absence of pituitary or hypothalamic disease. Studies on TSH reference intervals (RIs) showed wide inter-individual variability and prompted an intense debate about the best estimation of TSH RIs. We performed a population study on TSH RIs, using current data stored in the laboratory information system (LIS), at the Hospital Department of Laboratory Medicine, Pordenone (Italy), historically an area of mild-moderate iodine deficiency with a relatively high goiter prevalence. 136,650 individuals constituted the final sample. A TSH immunoassay was performed on fasting serum samples with the Dimension Vista 1500 analyzer (Siemens Healthineers). We adopted the Kairisto's procedure to analyze TSH data downloaded by the LIS, applying the indirect strategy for deriving RIs. TSH RIs of the entire population were 0.32-3.36 mIU/L with a distribution skewed towards higher values. RIs were 0.26-3.61 mIU/L for females, and 0.32-3.01 mIU/L for males. Unlike other studies, TSH median levels progressively decreased from 0-4 to 85-104 years in the overall population, both in male and in female subgroups, showing an inverse correlation between TSH and age in all groups. This study is the first to analyze a high percentage (40%) of individuals from an ethnically homogenous Caucasian population. The results obtained emphasize the opportunity to define the TSH RIs according to age, gender and race, in addition to assay methods, and provide further insight about the possible role of iodine status.

  19. Antibody protection reveals extended epitopes on the human TSH receptor.

    PubMed

    Latif, Rauf; Teixeira, Avelino; Michalek, Krzysztof; Ali, M Rejwan; Schlesinger, Max; Baliram, Ramkumarie; Morshed, Syed A; Davies, Terry F

    2012-01-01

    Stimulating, and some blocking, antibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR) have conformation-dependent epitopes reported to involve primarily the leucine rich repeat region of the ectodomain (LRD). However, successful crystallization of TSHR residues 22-260 has omitted important extracellular non-LRD residues including the hinge region which connects the TSHR ectodomain to the transmembrane domain and which is involved in ligand induced signal transduction. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to determine if TSHR antibodies (TSHR-Abs) have non-LRD binding sites outside the LRD. To obtain this information we employed the method of epitope protection in which we first protected TSHR residues 1-412 with intact TSHR antibodies and then enzymatically digested the unprotected residues. Those peptides remaining were subsequently delineated by mass spectrometry. Fourteen out of 23 of the reported stimulating monoclonal TSHR-Ab crystal contact residues were protected by this technique which may reflect the higher binding energies of certain residues detected in this approach. Comparing the protected epitopes of two stimulating TSHR-Abs we found both similarities and differences but both antibodies also contacted the hinge region and the amino terminus of the TSHR following the signal peptide and encompassing cysteine box 1 which has previously been shown to be important for TSH binding and activation. A monoclonal blocking TSHR antibody revealed a similar pattern of binding regions but the residues that it contacted on the LRD were again distinct. These data demonstrated that conformationally dependent TSHR-Abs had epitopes not confined to the LRDs but also incorporated epitopes not revealed in the available crystal structure. Furthermore, the data also indicated that in addition to overlapping contact regions within the LRD, there are unique epitope patterns for each of the antibodies which may contribute to their functional heterogeneity.

  20. Antibody Protection Reveals Extended Epitopes on the Human TSH Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Rauf; Teixeira, Avelino; Michalek, Krzysztof; Ali, M. Rejwan; Schlesinger, Max; Baliram, Ramkumarie; Morshed, Syed A.; Davies, Terry F.

    2012-01-01

    Stimulating, and some blocking, antibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR) have conformation-dependent epitopes reported to involve primarily the leucine rich repeat region of the ectodomain (LRD). However, successful crystallization of TSHR residues 22–260 has omitted important extracellular non-LRD residues including the hinge region which connects the TSHR ectodomain to the transmembrane domain and which is involved in ligand induced signal transduction. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to determine if TSHR antibodies (TSHR-Abs) have non-LRD binding sites outside the LRD. To obtain this information we employed the method of epitope protection in which we first protected TSHR residues 1–412 with intact TSHR antibodies and then enzymatically digested the unprotected residues. Those peptides remaining were subsequently delineated by mass spectrometry. Fourteen out of 23 of the reported stimulating monoclonal TSHR-Ab crystal contact residues were protected by this technique which may reflect the higher binding energies of certain residues detected in this approach. Comparing the protected epitopes of two stimulating TSHR-Abs we found both similarities and differences but both antibodies also contacted the hinge region and the amino terminus of the TSHR following the signal peptide and encompassing cysteine box 1 which has previously been shown to be important for TSH binding and activation. A monoclonal blocking TSHR antibody revealed a similar pattern of binding regions but the residues that it contacted on the LRD were again distinct. These data demonstrated that conformationally dependent TSHR-Abs had epitopes not confined to the LRDs but also incorporated epitopes not revealed in the available crystal structure. Furthermore, the data also indicated that in addition to overlapping contact regions within the LRD, there are unique epitope patterns for each of the antibodies which may contribute to their functional heterogeneity. PMID:22957097

  1. Intrauterine Zn Deficiency Favors Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone-Increasing Effects on Thyrotropin Serum Levels and Induces Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Weaned Rats.

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Alonso, Viridiana; Alvarez-Salas, Elena; Matamoros-Trejo, Gilberto; de Gortari, Patricia

    2017-10-18

    Individuals who consume a diet deficient in zinc (Zn-deficient) develop alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function, i.e., a low metabolic rate and cold insensitivity. Although those disturbances are related to primary hypothyroidism, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficient adults have an increased thyrotropin (TSH) concentration, but unchanged thyroid hormone (TH) levels and decreased body weight. This does not support the view that the hypothyroidism develops due to a low Zn intake. In addition, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficiency in weaned and adult rats reduces the activity of pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase II (PPII) in the medial-basal hypothalamus (MBH). PPII is an enzyme that degrades thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). This hypothalamic peptide stimulates its receptor in adenohypophysis, thereby increasing TSH release. We analyzed whether earlier low TH is responsible for the high TSH levels reported in adults, or if TRH release is enhanced by Zn deficiency at weaning. Dams were fed a 2 ppm Zn-deficient diet in the period from one week prior to gestation and up to three weeks after delivery. We found a high release of hypothalamic TRH, which along with reduced MBH PPII activity, increased TSH levels in Zn-deficient pups independently of changes in TH concentration. We found that primary hypothyroidism did not develop in intrauterine Zn-deficient weaned rats and we confirmed that metal deficiency enhances TSH levels since early-life, favoring subclinical hypothyroidism development which remains into adulthood.

  2. Association between organophosphate pesticides exposure and thyroid hormones in floriculture workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lacasana, Marina, E-mail: marina.lacasana.easp@juntadeandalucia.e; CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica; Lopez-Flores, Inmaculada

    The ability of organophosphate pesticides to disturb thyroid gland function has been demonstrated by experimental studies on animal, but evidence of such effects on human remains scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the association between exposure to organophosphate compounds and serum levels of thyroid hormones in floriculture workers. A longitudinal study was conducted on 136 male subjects from the State of Mexico and Morelos, Mexico, occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides, during agricultural periods of high (rainy season) and low (dry season) levels of pesticide application. Using a structured questionnaire, a survey was carried out on sociodemographic characteristics,more » anthropometry, clinical history, alcohol and tobacco consumption, residential chemical exposure, and occupational history. Urine and blood samples were taken the day after pesticide application to determine urine dialkylphosphate (DAP) levels, serum levels of TSH, total T{sub 3}, total T{sub 4}, serum PON1 activity, and serum p,p'-DEE levels. The analysis of the association between DAP levels and thyroid hormonal profile was carried out using multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Our results showed an increase in both TSH and T{sub 4} hormones in serum associated with a increase in total dimethylphosphate levels (SIGMADMP) in urine (p-trend < 0.001) and a decrease in total T{sub 3} serum levels with an increase of SIGMADMP levels in the urine (p-trend = 0.053). These results suggest that exposure to organophosphate pesticides may be responsible of increasing TSH and T{sub 4} serum hormone levels and decreasing T{sub 3} serum hormone levels, therefore supporting the hypothesis that organophosphate pesticides act as endocrine disruptors in humans.« less

  3. Grouper tshβ Promoter-Driven Transgenic Zebrafish Marks Proximal Kidney Tubule Development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Sun, Zhi-Hui; Zhou, Li; Li, Zhi; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Kidney tubule plays a critical role in recovering or secreting solutes, but the detailed morphogenesis remains unclear. Our previous studies have found that grouper tshβ (gtshβ) is also expressed in kidney, however, the distribution significance is still unknown. To understand the gtshβ role and kidney tubule morphogenesis, here, we have generated a transgenic zebrafish line Tg(gtshβ:GFP) with green fluorescent protein driven by the gtshβ promoter. Similar to the endogenous tshβ in zebrafish or in grouper, the gtshβ promoter-driven GFP is expressed in pituitary and kidney, and the developing details of proximal kidney tubule are marked in the transgenic zebrafish line. The gfp initially transcribes at 16 hours post fertilization (hpf) above the dorsal mesentery, and partially co-localizes with pronephric tubular markers slc20a1a and cdh17. Significantly, the GFP specifically localizes in proximal pronephric segments during embryogenesis and resides at kidney duct epithelium in adult fish. To test whether the gtshβ promoter-driven GFP may serve as a readout signal of the tubular development, we have treated the embryos with retinoic acid signaing (RA) reagents, in which exogenous RA addition results in a distal extension of the proximal segments, while RA inhibition induces a weakness and shortness of the proximal segments. Therefore, this transgenic line provides a useful tool for genetic or chemical analysis of kidney tubule. PMID:24905828

  4. Hyperthyroidism secondary to a pituitary adenoma secreting TSH, FSH, alpha-subunit and GH.

    PubMed

    Patrick, A W; Atkin, S L; MacKenzie, J; Foy, P M; White, M C; MacFarlane, I A

    1994-02-01

    A 51-year-old man had been treated for hyperthyroidism with antithyroid drugs for 8 years. He was then found to have a large pituitary adenoma with biochemical evidence of overproduction of TSH, FSH and alpha-subunit. Subsequent immunocytochemical and tissue culture studies confirmed secretion of these hormones. In addition, the tumour stained for GH and was capable of GH production in vitro. This combination of hormones produced by a pituitary adenoma has not been previously reported.

  5. Role of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B2 in Metabolism of Triiodothyronine: Effect of Microsomal Enzyme Inducers in Sprague Dawley and UGT2B2-Deficient Fischer 344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Terrilyn A.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2010-01-01

    Microsomal enzyme inducers (MEI) that increase UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) can impact thyroid hormone homeostasis in rodents. Increased glucuronidation can result in reduction of serum thyroid hormone and a concomitant increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). UGT2B2 is thought to glucuronidate triiodothyronine (T3). The purposes of this study were to determine the role of UGT2B2 in T3 glucuronidation and whether increased T3 glucuronidation mediates the increased TSH observed after MEI treatment. Sprague Dawley (SD) and UGT2B2-deficient Fischer 344 (F344) rats were fed a control diet or diet containing pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile (PCN; 800 ppm), 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC; 200 ppm), or Aroclor 1254 (PCB; 100 ppm) for 7 days. Serum thyroxine (T4), T3, and TSH concentrations, hepatic androsterone/T4/T3 glucuronidation, and thyroid follicular cell proliferation were determined. In both SD and F344 rats, MEI treatments decreased serum T4, whereas serum T3 was maintained (except with PCB treatment). Hepatic T4 glucuronidation increased significantly after MEI in both rat strains. Compared with the other MEI, only PCN treatment significantly increased T3 glucuronidation (281 and 497%) in both SD and UGT2B2-deficient F344 rats, respectively, and increased both serum TSH and thyroid follicular cell proliferation. These data demonstrate an association among increases in T3 glucuronidation, TSH, and follicular cell proliferation after PCN treatment, suggesting that T3 is glucuronidated by other PCN-inducible UGTs in addition to UGT2B2. These data also suggest that PCN (rather than 3-MC or PCB) promotes thyroid tumors through excessive TSH stimulation of the thyroid gland. PMID:20421340

  6. [Treatment of primary hypothyroidism in adult patients].

    PubMed

    Salmela, Pasi; Metso, Saara; Moilanen, Leena; Niskanen, Leo; Nuutila, Pirjo; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is based on the findings of an increased serum TSH (above the reference range) and decreased serum free T4 (below the reference range) concentration. Treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism is indicated if serum THS is above 10 mU/l. For less severe forms of subclinical hypothyroidism, the treatment should be individually tailored. The treatment of choice is synthetic human levothyroxine. The goals for treatment are amelioration of symptoms and normalization of TSH and free T4 concentrations.

  7. Subclinical Hypothyroidism after 131I-Treatment of Graves' Disease: A Risk Factor for Depression?

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Tian, Ai-Juan; Yuan, Xin; Cheng, Xiao-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Although it is well accepted that there is a close relationship between hypothyroidism and depression, previous studies provided inconsistent or even opposite results in whether subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) increased the risk of depression. One possible reason is that the etiology of SCH in these studies was not clearly distinguished. We therefore investigated the relationship between SCH resulting from 131I treatment of Graves' disease and depression. The incidence of depression among 95 patients with SCH and 121 euthyroid patients following 131I treatment of Graves' disease was studied. The risk factors of depression were determined with multivariate logistic regression analysis. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy was performed in patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels exceeding 10 mIU/L. Patients with SCH had significantly higher Hamilton Depression Scale scores, serum TSH and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) levels compared with euthyroid patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed SCH, Graves' eye syndrome and high serum TPO antibody level as risk factors for depression. L-thyroxine treatment is beneficial for SCH patients with serum TSH levels exceeding 10 mIU/L. The results of the present study demonstrated that SCH is prevalent among 131I treated Graves' patients. SCH might increase the risk of developing depression. L-thyroxine replacement therapy helps to resolve depressive disorders in SCH patients with TSH > 10mIU/L. These data provide insight into the relationship between SCH and depression.

  8. Thyroid function changes related to use of iodinated water in the U.S. Space Program.

    PubMed

    McMonigal, K A; Braverman, L E; Dunn, J T; Stanbury, J B; Wear, M L; Hamm, P B; Sauer, R L; Billica, R D; Pool, S L

    2000-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used iodination as a method of microbial disinfection of potable water systems in U.S. spacecraft and long-duration habitability modules. A review of thyroid function tests of NASA astronauts who had consumed iodinated water during spaceflight was conducted. Thyroid function tests of all past and present astronauts were reviewed. Medical records of astronauts with a diagnosis of thyroid disease were reviewed. Iodine consumption by space crews from water and food was determined. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and urinary iodine excretion from space crews were measured following modification of the Space Shuttle potable water system to remove most of the iodine. Mean TSH significantly increased in 134 astronauts who had consumed iodinated water during spaceflight. Serum TSH, and urine iodine levels of Space Shuttle crewmembers who flew following modification of the potable water supply system to remove iodine did not show a statistically significant change. There was no evidence supporting association between clinical thyroid disease and the number of spaceflights, amount of iodine consumed, or duration of iodine exposure. It is suggested that pharmacological doses of iodine consumed by astronauts transiently decrease thyroid function, as reflected by elevated serum TSH values. Although adverse effects of excess iodine consumption in susceptible individuals are well documented, exposure to high doses of iodine during spaceflight did not result in a statistically significant increase in long-term thyroid disease in the astronaut population.

  9. Subclinical hypothyroidism diagnosed by thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test in infertile women with basal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels of 2.5 to 5.0 mIU/L.

    PubMed

    Lee, You-Jeong; Kim, Chung-Hoon; Kwack, Jae-Young; Ahn, Jun-Woo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) diagnosed by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulating test in infertile women with basal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels of 2.5 to 5.0 mIU/L. This study was performed in 39 infertile women with ovulatory disorders (group 1) and 27 infertile women with male infertility only (group 2, controls) who had basal serum TSH levels of 2.5 to 5.0 mIU/L and a TRH stimulating test. Serum TSH levels were measured before TRH injection (TSH0) and also measured at 20 minutes (TSH1) and 40 minutes (TSH2) following intravenous injection of 400 µg TRH. Exaggerated TSH response above 30 mIU/L following TRH injection was diagnosed as SH. Group 1 was composed of poor responders (subgroup A), patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (subgroup B) and patients with WHO group II anovulation except poor responder or polycystic ovary syndrome (subgroup C). The prevalence of SH was significantly higher in group 1 of 46.2% (18/39) compared with 7.4% (2/27) in group 2 (P=0.001). TSH0, TSH1, and TSH2 levels were significantly higher in group 1 than the corresponding values in group 2 (P<0.001, P<0.001, P<0.001). In group 1, TSH1 and TSH2 levels were significantly lower in subgroup C compared with those in subgroup A and B (P=0.008, P=0.006, respectively). TRH stimulation test had better be performed in infertile women with ovulatory disorders who have TSH levels between 2.5 and 5.0 mIU/L for early detection and appropriate treatment of SH.

  10. Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH): Measurement of Intracellular, Secreted, and Circulating Hormone in Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is a hormone produced in the pituitary that stimulates the thyroid gland to grow and produce thyroid hormone (TH). The concentration of TH controls developmental changes that take place in a wide variety of organisms. Many use the metaphoric ch...

  11. [Relationship between hypothyroidism and cholesterol out of the records of 1756 patients].

    PubMed

    Sampaolo, Guido; Campanella, Nando; Catozzo, Vania; Ferretti, Maurizio; Vichi, Giovanna; Morosini, Pierpaolo

    2014-02-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is settled whenever high levels of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are detected, whereas free thyroid hormone levels are within the normal range. Benefits and risks of therapy for SH have been debated for 2 decades. However, consensus has not yet been achieved. Besides preventing the progression to overt hypothyroidism, the decision of undertaking replacement therapy in SH is made mainly by basing on the risk of metabolic (dyslypidemia) and subsequent cardiovascular complications. A series, made up of 1756 patients (mean age 42,8±16,8, range 0,5-94) and filed from 1984 to 2013, was studied retrospectively. 169 patients were affected by clinical (overt) hypothyroidism (IC: TSH >40). 1587 patients were affected by SH, out of whom 1121 were mild (TSH <10) and 466 medium (TSH ≥ 10 ≤40). The series of patients was properly followed-up. The mean follow-up time was 6 years. In all patients TSH, Ft4, and total cholesterol were evaluated basally and after appropriate (TSH normalized) medical therapy. By medical replacement treatment, clinical hypothyroidism (CI) related hypercholesterolemia decreased significantly in 28%. In SH, the baseline serum cholesterol levels were wide. However, replacement treatment did not reduce such levels. No major cardiovascular accident occurred to any patient over the follow-up period. Hypercholesterolemia is certainly due to CI, therapy reduces cholesterol levels that not always fall below 200 mg/dl and this condition persists over time. SH is not characterized by hypercholesterolemia. Cholesterol levels in these patients are variable equal to the normal people and can not be reduced with thyroxine.

  12. Growth stimulating antibody, as another predisposing factor of Graves' disease (GD): analysis using monoclonal TSH receptor antibodies derived from patients with GD.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Yoshiaki; Kanda, Yasunari; Seo, Marie; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Akamizu, Takashi; Tanaka, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) is clinically classified into thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) and thyroid-stimulation blocking antibody (TSBAb). Although the former is considered to cause Graves' disease (GD), its activity does not necessarily reflect hormone production and goiter size. Moreover, uptake of 99mTcO4(-), the best indicator for GD, is correlated with activity of TSH binding inhibitor immunoglobulin better than activity of TSAb. Because uptake of 99mTcO4(-) reflects thyroid volume, these observations suggest that there exist TRAb with thyrocyte growth stimulating activity (GSA) other than TSAb. In this study, we analyzed GSA of monoclonal TRAb established from patients with GD or idiopathic myxedema (IME). GSA was measured as the degree of FRTL-5 cell growth stimulated by each TRAb. The signaling pathways of the cell growth were pharmacologically analyzed. The cell growth stimulated by TSH was strongly suppressed by protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, but was not affected by extracellular signal regulated kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor. Although TSAb from GD stimulated the cell growth, both inhibitors suppressed it. Surprisingly, the cell growth was also induced by TSBAb from GD and was only suppressed by MEK inhibitor. TSBAb from IME did not have GSA and attenuated the cell growth stimulated by TSH. We concluded that 1; in GD, not only TSAb but some TSBAb could stimulate thyrocyte growth. 2; TSBAb might be classified with respect to their effects on thyrocyte growth; i.e., thyrocyte growth stimulating antibody and thyrocyte growth-stimulation blocking antibody.

  13. Hypothesis: Persistently normal TSH levels may be used to recognize patients with transient forms of hypothyroidism and to suggest treatment withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Tandeter, H; Fraenkel, M

    2018-07-01

    There are no text-book recommendations on when or if treatment should or could be stopped in patients with a diagnosis of hypothyroidism, and these patients usually receive lifelong thyroxine therapy (despite the fact that some of them may have forms of transient hypothyroidism that will later recover function). Since TSH fluctuations during thyroxine treatment are common and a lack of this fluctuation might be used to identify patients who no longer need thyroxine treatment, we hypothesize that by offering patients with persistently controlled TSH levels a withdrawal trial of thyroxine treatment we may identify those who no longer need life-long treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Differences in hypothalamic type 2 deiodinase ubiquitination explain localized sensitivity to thyroxine

    PubMed Central

    Werneck de Castro, Joao Pedro; Fonseca, Tatiana L.; Ueta, Cintia B.; McAninch, Elizabeth A.; Abdalla, Sherine; Wittmann, Gabor; Lechan, Ronald M.; Gereben, Balazs; Bianco, Antonio C.

    2015-01-01

    The current treatment for patients with hypothyroidism is levothyroxine (L-T4) along with normalization of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). However, normalization of serum TSH with L-T4 monotherapy results in relatively low serum 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3) and high serum thyroxine/T3 (T4/T3) ratio. In the hypothalamus-pituitary dyad as well as the rest of the brain, the majority of T3 present is generated locally by T4 deiodination via the type 2 deiodinase (D2); this pathway is self-limited by ubiquitination of D2 by the ubiquitin ligase WSB-1. Here, we determined that tissue-specific differences in D2 ubiquitination account for the high T4/T3 serum ratio in adult thyroidectomized (Tx) rats chronically implanted with subcutaneous L-T4 pellets. While L-T4 administration decreased whole-body D2-dependent T4 conversion to T3, D2 activity in the hypothalamus was only minimally affected by L-T4. In vivo studies in mice harboring an astrocyte-specific Wsb1 deletion as well as in vitro analysis of D2 ubiquitination driven by different tissue extracts indicated that D2 ubiquitination in the hypothalamus is relatively less. As a result, in contrast to other D2-expressing tissues, the hypothalamus is wired to have increased sensitivity to T4. These studies reveal that tissue-specific differences in D2 ubiquitination are an inherent property of the TRH/TSH feedback mechanism and indicate that only constant delivery of L-T4 and L-T3 fully normalizes T3-dependent metabolic markers and gene expression profiles in Tx rats. PMID:25555216

  15. A novel wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain TSH1 in scaling-up of solid-state fermentation of ethanol from sweet sorghum stalks.

    PubMed

    Du, Ran; Yan, Jianbin; Feng, Quanzhou; Li, Peipei; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Sandra; Li, Shizhong

    2014-01-01

    The rising demand for bioethanol, the most common alternative to petroleum-derived fuel used worldwide, has encouraged a feedstock shift to non-food crops to reduce the competition for resources between food and energy production. Sweet sorghum has become one of the most promising non-food energy crops because of its high output and strong adaptive ability. However, the means by which sweet sorghum stalks can be cost-effectively utilized for ethanol fermentation in large-scale industrial production and commercialization remains unclear. In this study, we identified a novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, TSH1, from the soil in which sweet sorghum stalks were stored. This strain exhibited excellent ethanol fermentative capacity and ability to withstand stressful solid-state fermentation conditions. Furthermore, we gradually scaled up from a 500-mL flask to a 127-m3 rotary-drum fermenter and eventually constructed a 550-m3 rotary-drum fermentation system to establish an efficient industrial fermentation platform based on TSH1. The batch fermentations were completed in less than 20 hours, with up to 96 tons of crushed sweet sorghum stalks in the 550-m3 fermenter reaching 88% of relative theoretical ethanol yield (RTEY). These results collectively demonstrate that ethanol solid-state fermentation technology can be a highly efficient and low-cost solution for utilizing sweet sorghum, providing a feasible and economical means of developing non-food bioethanol.

  16. A Novel Wild-Type Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain TSH1 in Scaling-Up of Solid-State Fermentation of Ethanol from Sweet Sorghum Stalks

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Quanzhou; Li, Peipei; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Sandra; Li, Shizhong

    2014-01-01

    The rising demand for bioethanol, the most common alternative to petroleum-derived fuel used worldwide, has encouraged a feedstock shift to non-food crops to reduce the competition for resources between food and energy production. Sweet sorghum has become one of the most promising non-food energy crops because of its high output and strong adaptive ability. However, the means by which sweet sorghum stalks can be cost-effectively utilized for ethanol fermentation in large-scale industrial production and commercialization remains unclear. In this study, we identified a novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, TSH1, from the soil in which sweet sorghum stalks were stored. This strain exhibited excellent ethanol fermentative capacity and ability to withstand stressful solid-state fermentation conditions. Furthermore, we gradually scaled up from a 500-mL flask to a 127-m3 rotary-drum fermenter and eventually constructed a 550-m3 rotary-drum fermentation system to establish an efficient industrial fermentation platform based on TSH1. The batch fermentations were completed in less than 20 hours, with up to 96 tons of crushed sweet sorghum stalks in the 550-m3 fermenter reaching 88% of relative theoretical ethanol yield (RTEY). These results collectively demonstrate that ethanol solid-state fermentation technology can be a highly efficient and low-cost solution for utilizing sweet sorghum, providing a feasible and economical means of developing non-food bioethanol. PMID:24736641

  17. Serum apelin levels in patients with thyroid dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Gürel, Ali; Doğantekin, Akif; Özkan, Yusuf; Aydın, Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    Adipocytes are not only for energy storage, but are also functionally active cells, producing biologically active peptides called adipocytokines. Adipocytokines control nutrition, thermogenesis, immunity, thyroid and reproductive hormones, and neuroendocrine functions. One of the most important new members of this family is apelin. In patients with thyroid dysfunctions, there are usually changes in weight, thermogenesis and adipose tissue lipolysis. Here, we investigated the serum apelin levels in different thyroid hormone states. Our study group consisted of the following patients: 32 thyrotoxicosis, 32 subclinical hyperthyroidism, 31 hypothyroidism, 34 subclinical hypothyroidism and 31 healthy control cases. In addition to routine blood tests, serum free T3 (FT3), free T4 (FT4), TSH and apelin levels were measured, and the body mass index (BMI) was recorded. In terms of the demographic characteristics, age and BMI, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups (P>0.05). The mean serum apelin levels of the groups were as follows: thyrotoxicosis group, 4.6±1.9 ng/ml; subclinical hyperthyroidism group, 3.7±1.9 ng/ml; hypothyroid group, 4.8±2.5 ng/ml; subclinical hypothyroidism group, 4.3±2.2 ng/mL; and control group, 3.4±1.4 ng/ml, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of the mean apelin levels between the groups (P>0.05). The hypothyroid group had the highest and the control group had the lowest mean apelin levels. As a result, the apelin levels were higher in both the patients with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, in comparison with the normal population, but without statistical significance. PMID:26629164

  18. Persistent high TRAb values during pregnancy predict increased risk of neonatal hyperthyroidism following radioiodine therapy for refractory hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Noboru; Momotani, Naoko; Ishikawa, Naofumi; Yoshimura Noh, Jaeduk; Okamoto, Yasuyuki; Konishi, Toshiaki; Ito, Koichi; Ito, Kunihiko

    2011-01-01

    Serum levels of TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) often increase after radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease, and high-serum levels of maternal TRAb in late pregnancy indicate a risk of neonatal hyperthyroidism. The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate the characteristics of Graves' women who had a history of radioiodine treatment for intractable Graves' disease, and whose neonates suffered from hyperthyroidism. The subjects of this study were 45 patients with Graves' disease who became pregnant during the period from 1988 to 1998 after receiving radioiodine treatment at Ito Hospital. 25 of the 45 subjects had had a relapse of hyperthyroidism after surgical treatment for Graves' disease. 19 pregnancies were excluded because of artificial or spontaneous abortion. In the remaining 44 pregnancies of 35 patients, neonatal hyperthyroidism developed in 5 (11.3%) pregnancies of 4 patients. Serum levels of TRAb at delivery were higher in patients whose neonates suffered from hyperthyroidism (NH mother) than those of patients who delivered normal infants (N mother). Furthermore, serum levels of TRAb in NH mother did not change during pregnancy, although those of 4 patients of N mother, in which serum levels of TRAb before radioiodine treatment were as high as in NH mother, decreased significantly during pregnancy. In conclusion, women who delivered neonates with hyperthyroidism following radioiodine treatment seem to have very severe and intractable Graves' disease. Persistent high TRAb values during pregnancy observed in those patients may be a cause of neonatal hyperthyroidism.

  19. Consumption of blueberries with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast decreases postprandial serum markers of oxidation.

    PubMed

    Blacker, Bryan C; Snyder, Shannon M; Eggett, Dennis L; Parker, Tory L

    2013-05-01

    We sought to determine whether consumption of blueberries could reduce postprandial oxidation when consumed with a typical high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast. Participants (n 14) received each of the three treatments over 3 weeks in a cross-over design. Treatments consisted of a high blueberry dose (75 g), a low blueberry dose (35 g) and a control (ascorbic acid and sugar content matching that of the high blueberry dose). Serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), serum lipoprotein oxidation (LO) and serum ascorbate, urate and glucose were measured at fasting, and at 1, 2 and 3 h after sample consumption. The mean serum ORAC was significantly higher in the 75 g group than in the control group during the first 2 h postprandially, while serum LO lag time showed a significant trend over the 3 h for both blueberry doses. Changes in serum ascorbate, urate and glucose were not significantly different among the groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report that has demonstrated that increased serum antioxidant capacity is not attributable to the fructose or ascorbate content of blueberries. In summary, a practically consumable quantity of blueberries (75 g) can provide statistically significant oxidative protection in vivo after a high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast. Though not tested directly, it is likely that the effects are due to phenolic compounds, either directly or indirectly, as they are a major family of compounds in blueberries with potential bioactive activity.

  20. Effect of UGT1A1, UGT1A3, DIO1 and DIO2 polymorphisms on L-thyroxine doses required for TSH suppression in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Ana B; Vargens, Daniela D; Barros Filho, Mateus de Camargo; Bulzico, Daniel A; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Meirelles, Ricardo M R; Paula, Daniela P; Neves, Ronaldo R S; Pessoa, Cencita N; Struchine, Claudio J; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the impact of genetic polymorphisms in uridine 5'-glucuronosylytansferases UGT1A1 and UGT1A3 and iodothyronine-deiodinases types 1 and 2 on levothyroxine (T4 ; 3,5,3',5'-triiodo-L-thyronine) dose requirement for suppression of thyrotropin (TSH) secretion in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Patients (n = 268) submitted to total thyroidectomy and ablation by (131) I, under T4 therapy for at least 6 months were recruited in three public institutions in Brazil. Multivariate regression modelling was applied to assess the association of T4 dosing with polymorphisms in UGT1A1 (rs8175347), UGT1A3 (rs3806596 and rs1983023), DIO1 (rs11206244 and rs2235544) and DIO2 (rs225014 and rs12885300), demographic and clinical variables. A regression model including UGT1A haplotypes, age, gender, body weight and serum TSH concentration accounted for 39% of the inter-individual variation in the T4 dosage. The association of T4 dose with UGT1A haplotype is attributed to reduced UGT1A1 expression and T4 glucuronidation in liver of carriers of low expression UGT1A1 rs8175347 alleles. The DIO1 and DIO2 genotypes had no influence of T4 dosage. UGT1A haplotypes associate with T4 dosage in DTC patients, but the effect accounts for only 2% of the total variability and recommendation of pre-emptive UGT1A genotyping is not warranted. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. Effect of UGT1A1, UGT1A3, DIO1 and DIO2 polymorphisms on L-thyroxine doses required for TSH suppression in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Ana B; Vargens, Daniela D; Barros Filho, Mateus de Camargo; Bulzico, Daniel A; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Meirelles, Ricardo M R; Paula, Daniela P; Neves, Ronaldo R S; Pessoa, Cencita N; Struchine, Claudio J; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the impact of genetic polymorphisms in uridine 5′-glucuronosylytansferases UGT1A1 and UGT1A3 and iodothyronine-deiodinases types 1 and 2 on levothyroxine (T4; 3,5,3′,5′-triiodo-L-thyronine) dose requirement for suppression of thyrotropin (TSH) secretion in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Methods Patients (n = 268) submitted to total thyroidectomy and ablation by 131I, under T4 therapy for at least 6 months were recruited in three public institutions in Brazil. Multivariate regression modelling was applied to assess the association of T4 dosing with polymorphisms in UGT1A1 (rs8175347), UGT1A3 (rs3806596 and rs1983023), DIO1 (rs11206244 and rs2235544) and DIO2 (rs225014 and rs12885300), demographic and clinical variables. Results A regression model including UGT1A haplotypes, age, gender, body weight and serum TSH concentration accounted for 39% of the inter-individual variation in the T4 dosage. The association of T4 dose with UGT1A haplotype is attributed to reduced UGT1A1 expression and T4 glucuronidation in liver of carriers of low expression UGT1A1 rs8175347 alleles. The DIO1 and DIO2 genotypes had no influence of T4 dosage. Conclusion UGT1A haplotypes associate with T4 dosage in DTC patients, but the effect accounts for only 2% of the total variability and recommendation of pre-emptive UGT1A genotyping is not warranted. PMID:24910925

  2. Prevalence and predictors of hyperprolactinemia in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Lokesh Kumar; Sharma, Neera; Gadpayle, Adesh Kisanji; Dutta, Deep

    2016-11-01

    Hyperprolactinemia has been reported in 0-57% of primary hypothyroidism. Data on hyperprolactinemia in subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH) is scant and inconsistent. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of hyperprolactinemia in ScH. Consecutive patients diagnosed to have normal thyroid function, ScH or overt primary hypothyroidism underwent serum prolactin, gonadotropins, testosterone and estradiol estimation. Patients with pregnancy, pituitary adenomas, secondary hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, comorbid states and drug-induced hyperprolactinemia were excluded. From initially screened 4950 patients, hormonal data from 2848 individuals who fulfilled all criteria were analyzed. The occurrence of hyperprolactinemia (females:males) was highest in primary hypothyroidism (42.95%:39.53%) (n=192), followed by ScH (35.65%:31.61%) (n=770) and euthyroid individuals (2.32%:2.02%) (n=1886) (P<0.001). Hyperprolactinemia in ScH with TSH 5-7.5, 7.5-10 and >10mIU/L (females: males) was 25.56%:20.73%, 49.07%:50% and 61.43%:35.71% respectively (P<0.001). Significant positive correlation between TSH and prolactin was noted in ScH and primary hypothyroidism. In females, testosterone was lowest in patients with primary hypothyroidism. In males, serum estradiol was significantly higher, and testosterone significantly lower in men with ScH and primary hypothyroidism. Regression analysis revealed serum TSH followed by free T 4 , to be best predictors of serum prolactin in both sexes. Hyperprolactinemia is common in ScH, especially in those with TSH>7.5mIU/L. ROC analysis confirmed that TSH≥7.51mIU/L in females and ≥8.33mIU/L in males had a sensitivity of ≈50% with a very high specificity of >90% in detecting hyperprolactinemia. Prolactin screening may be warranted in ScH with TSH>7.5mIU/L, and may form an indication for treating ScH. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The regulation of pituitary-thyroid abnormalities by peripheral administration of levothyroxine increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reelin protein expression in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Shabani, Sahreh; Farbood, Yaghoob; Mard, Seyyed Ali; Sarkaki, Alireza; Ahangarpour, Akram; Khorsandi, Layasadat

    2018-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with decreased serum levels of thyroid hormones (THs), increased levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and decreased protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and reelin in the hippocampus. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of subcutaneous administration of levothyroxine (L-T 4 ) on levels of THs and TSH as well as protein expression of BDNF and reelin in AD rats. To make an animal model of AD, amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) plus ibotenic acid were infused intrahippocampally, and rats were treated with L-T 4 and (or) saline for 10 days. The levels of THs and TSH were measured by ELISA kits. Protein synthesis was detected by Western blotting method. Results have been shown that serum level of THs, BDNF, and reelin protein expression in the hippocampus were significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in AD animals and elevated significantly in AD rats treated with L-T 4 (P < 0.01). Data showed that TSH level significantly decreased in AD rats treated with L-T 4 (P < 0.05). These findings indicated that L-T 4 increased BDNF and reelin protein expression by regulation of serum THs and TSH level in Aβ-induced AD rats.

  4. Subclinical hypothyroidism diagnosed by thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test in infertile women with basal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels of 2.5 to 5.0 mIU/L

    PubMed Central

    Lee, You-Jeong; Kwack, Jae-Young; Ahn, Jun-Woo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) diagnosed by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulating test in infertile women with basal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels of 2.5 to 5.0 mIU/L. Methods This study was performed in 39 infertile women with ovulatory disorders (group 1) and 27 infertile women with male infertility only (group 2, controls) who had basal serum TSH levels of 2.5 to 5.0 mIU/L and a TRH stimulating test. Serum TSH levels were measured before TRH injection (TSH0) and also measured at 20 minutes (TSH1) and 40 minutes (TSH2) following intravenous injection of 400 µg TRH. Exaggerated TSH response above 30 mIU/L following TRH injection was diagnosed as SH. Group 1 was composed of poor responders (subgroup A), patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (subgroup B) and patients with WHO group II anovulation except poor responder or polycystic ovary syndrome (subgroup C). Results The prevalence of SH was significantly higher in group 1 of 46.2% (18/39) compared with 7.4% (2/27) in group 2 (P=0.001). TSH0, TSH1, and TSH2 levels were significantly higher in group 1 than the corresponding values in group 2 (P<0.001, P<0.001, P<0.001). In group 1, TSH1 and TSH2 levels were significantly lower in subgroup C compared with those in subgroup A and B (P=0.008, P=0.006, respectively). Conclusion TRH stimulation test had better be performed in infertile women with ovulatory disorders who have TSH levels between 2.5 and 5.0 mIU/L for early detection and appropriate treatment of SH. PMID:25469340

  5. Clinical and biochemical presentation of sarcoidosis with high and normal serum angiotensin-converting enzyme.

    PubMed

    Sejdic, A; Graudal, N; Baslund, B

    2018-06-22

    The presentation of sarcoidosis can involve symptoms from all organs and the diagnosis is therefore often difficult. A raised serum level of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (sACE) can be detected in 41-58% of patients. However, whether the sACE level per se reflects the severity of the sarcoid inflammation at the onset of the disease is not well described. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratory significance of high versus normal sACE levels in sarcoidosis. Journal data were retrospectively extracted from 101 patients from our clinic. Clinical and biochemical data were compared between patients with high sACE levels (> 115 U/L) on at least one occasion and normal sACE levels (< 115 U/L). In total, 48% (n = 48) of the patients had high ACE and 52% (n = 53) had normal ACE. The most common extrapulmonary manifestation for both groups was arthritis, followed by skin and eye involvement, but none of these differed between the two groups. Serum ionized calcium was significantly higher in the high sACE group, with a correlation coefficient of 0.112 (p = 0.460). Our study demonstrates that serum ionized calcium is significantly higher in the high sACE group but there was no statistical correlation to sACE. No other clinical or biochemical differences were observed.

  6. Pretreatment with a single, low dose of recombinant human thyrotropin allows dose reduction of radioiodine therapy in patients with nodular goiter.

    PubMed

    Nieuwlaat, Willy-Anne; Huysmans, Dyde A; van den Bosch, Harrie C; Sweep, C G Fred; Ross, H Alec; Corstens, Frans H; Hermus, Ad R

    2003-07-01

    In patients with nodular goiter, radioiodine ((131)I) therapy results in a mean reduction in thyroid volume (TV) of approximately 40% after 1 yr. We have demonstrated that pretreatment with a single, low dose of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) doubles 24-h radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) in these patients. We have now studied the safety and efficacy of therapy with a reduced dose of (131)I after pretreatment with rhTSH. Twenty-two patients with nodular goiter received (131)I therapy, 24 h after im administration of 0.01 (n = 12) or 0.03 (n = 10) mg rhTSH. In preceding diagnostic studies using tracer doses of (131)I, 24-h RAIU without and with rhTSH pretreatment (either 0.01 or 0.03 mg) were compared. Therapeutic doses of (131)I were adjusted to the rhTSH-induced increases in 24-h RAIU and were aimed at 100 micro Ci/g thyroid tissue retained at 24 h. Pretreatment with rhTSH allowed dose reduction of (131)I therapy by a factor of 1.9 +/- 0.5 in the 0.01-mg and by a factor of 2.4 +/- 0.4 in the 0.03-mg rhTSH group (P < 0.05, 0.01 vs. 0.03 mg rhTSH). Before and 1 yr after therapy, TV and the smallest cross-sectional area of the tracheal lumen were measured with magnetic resonance imaging. During the year of follow-up, serum TSH, free T(4) (FT(4)), T(3), and TSH receptor antibodies were measured at regular intervals. TV before therapy was 143 +/- 54 ml in the 0.01-mg group and 103 +/- 44 ml in the 0.03-mg rhTSH group. One year after treatment, TV reduction was 35 +/- 14% (0.01 mg rhTSH) and 41 +/- 12% (0.03 mg rhTSH). In both groups, smallest cross-sectional area of the tracheal lumen increased significantly. In the 0.01-mg rhTSH group, serum FT(4) rose, after (131)I treatment, from 15.8 +/- 2.8 to 23.2 +/- 4.4 pM. In the 0.03-mg rhTSH group, serum FT(4) rose from 15.5 +/- 2.5 to 23.5 +/- 5.1 pM. Individual peak FT(4) levels, reached between 1 and 28 d after (131)I treatment, were above the normal range in 12 patients. TSH receptor antibodies were negative in all

  7. Thyroid disorders and the prevalence of antithyroid antibodies in Shiraz population.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Fariba; Kalantarhormozi, Mohammad Reza; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Ranjbar Omrani, Gholamhossein

    2014-05-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is a common health problem affecting millions of patients worldwide. Autoimmune thyroid disorders are among the most common autoimmune disorders. In this population-based study, we assessed the prevalence of abnormal thyroid function, antithyroid antibodies and the probable relationship between them in Shiraz, southern Iran. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) was determined in 981 subjects (66.8% female and 33.2% male; mean age: 39.1 ± 14.3 years), who were selected with stratified random sampling. Because of the preponderance of females over males, we performed the statistical analyses using sex-weighted data (50% for each sex). Also, antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb), and antithyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) were measured in two random subgroups of 376 and 537 patients respectively). Thyromegaly detected on physical examination. In this cross-sectional study, 8.1% of participants had elevated serum TSH level and 3.4% had low serum TSH level. A statistically significant relationship was found between gender and thyromegaly and TSH values. Positive TPOAb and positive TgAb were detected in 17% and 5.1% of participants respectively. In addition, a significant relationship was observed between elevated TSH levels and positive results for both antibodies. Detectable levels of thyroid antibodies correlated with female sex, while no correlation was observed between detectable levels of thyroid antibodies and thyromegaly. Thyroid disorders, especially elevated TSH level, are common. It seems that autoimmune mechanisms are strongly involved in the etiology of hypothyroidism in this area.

  8. Pregnancy outcomes are not altered by variation in thyroid function within the normal range in women free of thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Veltri, Flora; Kleynen, Pierre; Grabczan, Lidia; Salajan, Alexandra; Rozenberg, Serge; Pepersack, Thierry; Poppe, Kris

    2018-02-01

    In the recently revised guidelines on the management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy, treatment with thyroid hormone (LT4) is not recommended in women without thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) and TSH levels in the range 2.5-4.0 mIU/L, and in a recent study in that particular group of pregnant women, more complications were observed when a treatment with LT4 was given. The objective of the study was therefore to investigate whether variation in thyroid function within the normal (non-pregnant) range in women free of thyroid disease was associated with altered pregnancy outcomes? Cross-sectional data analysis of 1321 pregnant women nested within an ongoing prospective collection of pregnant women's data in a single centre in Brussels, Belgium. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-abs), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4 (FT4) and ferritin levels were measured and baseline characteristics were recorded. Women taking LT4, with TAI and thyroid function outside the normal non-pregnant range were excluded. Pregnancy outcomes and baseline characteristics were correlated with all TSH and FT4 levels within the normal range and compared between two groups (TSH cut-off < and ≥2.5 mIU/L). Tobacco use was associated with higher serum TSH levels (OR: 1.38; CI 95%: 1.08-1.74); P  = 0.009. FT4 levels were inversely correlated with age and BMI (rho = -0.096 and -0.089; P  < 0.001 and 0.001 respectively) and positively correlated with ferritin levels (rho = 0.097; P  < 0.001). Postpartum haemorrhage (>500 mL) was inversely associated with serum FT4 levels (OR: 0.35; CI 95%: 0.13-0.96); P  = 0.040. Also 10% of women free of thyroid disease had serum TSH levels ≥2.5 mIU/L. Variation in thyroid function during the first trimester within the normal (non-pregnant) range in women free of thyroid disease was not associated with altered pregnancy outcomes. These results add evidence to the recommendation against LT4 treatment in pregnant women with

  9. Using Hashimoto thyroiditis as gold standard to determine the upper limit value of thyroid stimulating hormone in a Chinese cohort.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Chen, Dong-Ning; Cui, Jing; Xin, Zhong; Yang, Guang-Ran; Niu, Ming-Jia; Yang, Jin-Kui

    2016-11-06

    Subclinical hypothyroidism, commonly caused by Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This disorder is defined as merely having elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. However, the upper limit of reference range for TSH is debated recently. This study was to determine the cutoff value for the upper normal limit of TSH in a cohort using the prevalence of Hashimoto thyroiditis as "gold" calibration standard. The research population was medical staff of 2856 individuals who took part in health examination annually. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) and other biochemistry parameters were tested. Meanwhile, thyroid ultrasound examination was performed. The diagnosis of HT was based on presence of thyroid antibodies (TPAb and TGAb) and abnormalities of thyroid ultrasound examination. We used two different methods to estimate the cutoff point of TSH based on the prevalence of HT. Joinpoint regression showed the prevalence of HT increased significantly at the ninth decile of TSH value corresponding to 2.9 mU/L. ROC curve showed a TSH cutoff value of 2.6 mU/L with the maximized sensitivity and specificity in identifying HT. Using the newly defined cutoff value of TSH can detect patients with hyperlipidemia more efficiently, which may indicate our approach to define the upper limit of TSH can make more sense from the clinical point of view. A significant increase in the prevalence of HT occurred among individuals with a TSH of 2.6-2.9 mU/L made it possible to determine the cutoff value of normal upper limit of TSH.

  10. Development of gel-filter method for high enrichment of low-molecular weight proteins from serum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingsheng; Zhai, Linhui; Li, Yanchang; Li, Ning; Zhang, Chengpu; Ping, Lingyan; Chang, Lei; Wu, Junzhu; Li, Xiangping; Shi, Deshun; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The human serum proteome has been extensively screened for biomarkers. However, the large dynamic range of protein concentrations in serum and the presence of highly abundant and large molecular weight proteins, make identification and detection changes in the amount of low-molecular weight proteins (LMW, molecular weight ≤ 30kDa) difficult. Here, we developed a gel-filter method including four layers of different concentration of tricine SDS-PAGE-based gels to block high-molecular weight proteins and enrich LMW proteins. By utilizing this method, we identified 1,576 proteins (n = 2) from 10 μL serum. Among them, 559 (n = 2) proteins belonged to LMW proteins. Furthermore, this gel-filter method could identify 67.4% and 39.8% more LMW proteins than that in representative methods of glycine SDS-PAGE and optimized-DS, respectively. By utilizing SILAC-AQUA approach with labeled recombinant protein as internal standard, the recovery rate for GST spiked in serum during the treatment of gel-filter, optimized-DS, and ProteoMiner was 33.1 ± 0.01%, 18.7 ± 0.01% and 9.6 ± 0.03%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the gel-filter method offers a rapid, highly reproducible and efficient approach for screening biomarkers from serum through proteomic analyses.

  11. Surface plasmon resonance immunoassay analysis of pituitary hormones in urine and serum samples.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Juan; Calle, Ana; Rodríguez-Frade, José Miguel; Mellado, Mario; Lechuga, Laura M

    2009-05-01

    Direct determination of four pituitary peptide hormones: human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH), growth hormone (hGH), follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH), and luteinizing hormone (hLH) has been carried out using a portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor. A commercial SPR biosensor was employed. The immobilization of the hormones was optimized and monoclonal antibodies were selected in order to obtain the best sensor performance. Assay parameters as running buffer and regeneration solution composition or antibody concentration were adjusted to achieve a sensitive analyte detection. The performance of the assays was assessed in buffer solution, serum and urine, showing sensitivity in the range from 1 to 6 ng/mL. The covalent attachment of the hormones ensured the stability of the SPR signal through repeated use in up to 100 consecutive assay cycles. Mean intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were all <7%, while batch-assay variability using different sensor surfaces was <5%. Taking account both the excellent reutilization performance and the outstanding reproducibility, this SPR immunoassay method turns on a highly reliable tool for endocrine monitoring in laboratory and point-of-care (POC) settings.

  12. Approach to the evaluation of a patient with an increased serum osmolal gap and high-anion-gap metabolic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Kraut, Jeffrey A; Xing, Shelly Xiaolei

    2011-09-01

    An increase in serum osmolality and serum osmolal gap with or without high-anion-gap metabolic acidosis is an important clue to exposure to one of the toxic alcohols, which include methanol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol, or isopropanol. However, the increase in serum osmolal gap and metabolic acidosis can occur either together or alone depending on several factors, including baseline serum osmolal gap, molecular weight of the alcohol, and stage of metabolism of the alcohol. In addition, other disorders, including diabetic or alcoholic ketoacidosis, acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, and lactic acidosis, can cause high-anion-gap metabolic acidosis associated with an increased serum osmolal gap and therefore should be explored in the differential diagnosis. It is essential for clinicians to understand the value and limitations of osmolal gap to assist in reaching the correct diagnosis and initiating appropriate treatment. In this teaching case, we present a systematic approach to diagnosing high serum osmolality and increased serum osmolal gap with or without high-anion-gap metabolic acidosis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. [Research of Hippophae rhamnoides fruits on serum lipids and liver protection effects in high-fat-diet rats].

    PubMed

    Song, Chunmei; Du, Juan; Ge, Hongjuan

    2015-07-01

    To study the effects o Hippophae rhamnoides fruits on serum lipids and liver protection in high-fat-diet rats. Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups,including control group, high lipid model group and Hippophae rhamnoides low-, medium- and high- dose groups,every group wastaken high-fat diet except control group. The rats in control group and high lipid group were lavaged with physiological saline. The doses of Hippophae rhamnoides in low, middle and high groups were determined based on the 1x, 5x, and 10x standard human doses (50 g/60 kg BW), respectively. The rat were orally given test sample respectively for 28 days, once a day. Observed the changes of serum lipids and hepatic tissues pathology. Compared with the control group, the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were increased significantly (P < 0.05) in high-fat-diet rats. Compared with the high lipid group, Hippophae rhamnoides of different doses could significantly reduce the content of TG (P < 0.01). Hippophae rhamnoides reduced the tendency of TC and LDL-C in serum and reduced the fatty degeneration of liver cells. The Hippophae rhamnoides fruits can reduce the level of serum lipids and prevent the occurrence of fatty liver, can be used for the prevention of hyperlipidemia.

  14. Iodine nutrition status and prevalence of abnormal TSH levels in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years in the autonomous community of the Basque Country.

    PubMed

    Arrizabalaga, Juan José; Jalón, Mercedes; Espada, Mercedes; Cañas, Mercedes; Arena, José María; Vila, Lluís

    2018-05-01

    An epidemiological study conducted between 1988 and 1992 showed iodine deficiency and endemic goiter in the schoolchildren of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. 1) To ascertain the iodine nutrition status of schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, and 2) to estimate the prevalence of abnormal TSH levels in capillary blood. The study was conducted on 497 schoolchildren selected by random sampling. Median urinary iodine concentration (mUIC) was used to assess iodine nutritional status, and the reference interval derived from the study population was used to estimate the prevalence of abnormal TSH levels. The mUIC (P 25 -P 75 ) was 140 (82-217) μg/L. A higher value was found in those who used iodized salt at home than in those who did not (146 [85-222] versus 126 μg/L [73-198], P<0.05). It was also higher in those who consumed 2 or more daily servings of milk and yogurt than in those taking less than 2 servings (146 [87-225] versus 110 μg/L [66-160], P<0.0001). Abnormal TSH levels were found in 2% of children. There was no correlation between TSH levels in capillary blood and urinary iodine concentrations (R=0.082; P=0.076). Schoolchildren aged 6-7 years of the autonomous community of the Basque Country have an adequate iodine nutrition status. Use of iodized salt at home and daily consumption of milk and yogurt were associated to the highest UICs. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. High serum creatinine in acute pancreatitis: a marker for pancreatic necrosis?

    PubMed

    Lankisch, Paul Georg; Weber-Dany, Bettina; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2010-05-01

    High serum creatinine is a well-known unfavorable prognostic parameter in acute pancreatitis. Elevated creatinine at 48 h after admission was recently described as a marker for pancreatic necrosis. As pancreatic necrosis is a serious complication of acute pancreatitis and its identification by a simple single laboratory test would be very helpful, the aim of this study was to test that statement. In a prospective multicenter study of 462 patients with a first attack of acute pancreatitis, serum creatinine was determined on admission, and at 24 and 48 h thereafter, and compared with the findings of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) performed within 96 h of admission. Pancreatic necrosis was present in 62 (13%) of the patients. Serum creatinine levels (abnormal > or = 2 mg/dl) on admission and after 24 and 48 h were evaluated vs. the presence or absence of pancreatic necrosis. Sensitivity rates varied between 14 and 23%, specificity between 95 and 97%, positive predictive values between 41 and 50%, and negative predictive values between 87 and 89%. Receiver operating characteristic curves revealed an area under the curve of between 0.604 and 0.669. An elevated serum creatinine concentration at any time during the first 48 h of admission is not a marker for pancreatic necrosis in a first attack of acute pancreatitis. If serum creatinine is normal, necrotizing pancreatitis is unlikely, and contrast-enhanced CT need not be performed unless complications occur and/or the patient's condition deteriorates.

  16. Beneficial effects of fingolimod in MS patients with high serum Sema4A levels.

    PubMed

    Koda, Toru; Namba, Akiko; Nakatsuji, Yuji; Niino, Masaaki; Miyazaki, Yusei; Sugimoto, Tomoyuki; Kinoshita, Makoto; Takata, Kazushiro; Yamashita, Kazuya; Shimizu, Mikito; Fukazawa, Toshiyuki; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Mochizuki, Hideki; Okuno, Tatsusada

    2018-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) of high serum Sema4A levels are resistant to IFN-β therapy. To further elucidate the role of serum Sema4A as a biomarker for therapeutic stratification in MS patients, it is important to clarify the efficacy of other disease-modifying drugs (DMD) in those with high serum Sema4A levels. Thus, in this study we investigated whether fingolimod has beneficial effects on MS patients with high Sema4A levels. We retrospectively analyzed annualized relapse rate (ARR) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) change in 56 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients who had been treated with fingolimod, including those who switched from IFN-β therapy. The levels of Sema4A in the sera were measured by sandwich ELISA. The implications of Sema4A on the efficacy of fingolimod were investigated by administering recombinant Sema4A-Fc and fingolimod to mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Retrospective analysis of MS cohort (17 high Sema4A and 39 low Sema4A) demonstrated the effectiveness of fingolimod in those with high serum Sema4A levels, showing reduction of ARR (from 1.21 to 0.12) and EDSS progression (from 0.50 to 0.04). Consistent with this observation, improvement in the disease severity of EAE mice receiving recombinant Sema4A-Fc was also observed after fingolimod treatment. These data suggest that fingolimod could serve as a candidate DMD for managing the disease activity of MS patients with high Sema4A levels.

  17. Association of serum uric acid with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Raeisi, A; Ostovar, A; Vahdat, K; Rezaei, P; Darabi, H; Moshtaghi, D; Nabipour, I

    2017-02-01

    To explore the independent correlation between serum uric acid and low-grade inflammation (measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, hs-CRP) in postmenopausal women. A total of 378 healthy Iranian postmenopausal women were randomly selected in a population-based study. Circulating hs-CRP levels were measured by highly specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and an enzymatic calorimetric method was used to measure serum levels of uric acid. Pearson correlation coefficient, multiple linear regression and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between uric acid and hs-CRP levels. A statistically significant correlation was seen between serum levels of uric acid and log-transformed circulating hs-CRP (r = 0.25, p < 0.001). After adjustment for age and cardiovascular risk factors (according to NCEP ATP III criteria), circulating hs-CRP levels were significantly associated with serum uric acid levels (β = 0.20, p < 0.001). After adjustment for age and cardiovascular risk factors, hs-CRP levels ≥3 mg/l were significantly associated with higher uric acid levels (odds ratio =1.52, 95% confidence interval 1.18-1.96). Higher serum uric acid levels were positively and independently associated with circulating hs-CRP in healthy postmenopausal women.

  18. The relationship between serum adiponectin and postpartum luteal activity in high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kafi, Mojtaba; Tamadon, Amin; Saeb, Mehdi

    2015-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to initially determine the pattern of serum adiponectin concentrations during a normal estrous cycle in high-producing postpartum dairy cows and then evaluate the relationship between the serum concentrations of adiponectin and insulin with the commencement of postpartum luteal activity and ovarian activities in clinically healthy high-producing Holstein dairy cows. During a normal estrous cycle of cows (n = 6), serum adiponectin concentrations gradually decreased (P < 0.05) after ovulation by Day-17 estrous cycle and then increased before the next ovulation. Cows with higher peak of milk yield had lower serum adiponectin concentrations by week 7 postpartum (P = 0.01). Serum adiponectin and insulin concentrations in cows with different postpartum luteal activity (based on the progesterone profile) were evaluated using the following class of cows: normal (≤45 days, n = 11) and delayed (>45 days, n = 11) commencement of luteal activity (C-LA) and four different profiles of normal luteal activity (NLA, n = 5), prolonged luteal phase (n = 6), delayed first ovulation (n = 6), and anovulation (AOV, n = 5). Serum adiponectin concentrations decreased gradually by week 3 postpartum in NLA and then increased; whereas in AOV and delayed first ovulation, they were decreased after week 3 postpartum (P < 0.05). Moreover, serum adiponectin concentrations in NLA were more than AOV at weeks 5 and 7 postpartum (P = 0.05). The increase in the milk yield from weeks 1 to 7 postpartum in prolonged luteal phase (P = 0.05) and AOV (P = 0.04) cows was more than that of NLA cows. Insulin concentrations were almost maintained at a stable level in NLA cows (P > 0.05), whereas they increased in the other groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, adiponectin concentrations in cows with C-LA greater than 45 days decreased more than those with C-LA 45 days or less after week 3 postpartum (P = 0.002). Serum adiponectin concentrations at week 7 postpartum were lower in

  19. Identification of a Proteinaceous Component in the Leaf of Moringa Oleifera lam. with Effects on High Serum Creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, S.; Raghavendra, K. M.; Biswas, S.

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above) were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one. PMID:24799742

  20. Is excessive weight gain after ablative treatment of hyperthyroidism due to inadequate thyroid hormone therapy?

    PubMed

    Tigas, S; Idiculla, J; Beckett, G; Toft, A

    2000-12-01

    There is controversy about the correct dose and form of thyroid hormone therapy for patients with hypothyroidism. Despite restoration of serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations to normal, many patients complain of excessive weight gain. We have compared weight at diagnosis of hyperthyroidism with that when euthyroid, evidenced by a stable, normal serum TSH concentration, with or without thyroxine (T4) replacement therapy, in patients treated with an 18-month course of antithyroid drugs (43 patients), surgery (56 patients), or 13I (34 patients) for Graves' disease. In addition, weights were recorded before and after treatment of 25 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma by total thyroidectomy, 131I, and long-term T4 suppressive therapy, resulting in undetectable serum TSH concentrations. Mean weight gain in patients with Graves' disease who required T4 replacement therapy following surgery was significantly greater than in those of the same age, sex, and severity of hyperthyroidism rendered euthyroid by surgery (3.9 kg) (p < 0.001) or at the end of a course of antithyroid drugs (4.1 kg) (p < 0.001). Weight gain was similar in those requiring T4 replacement following surgery or 131T therapy (10.4 versus 10.1 kg). In contrast, ablative therapy combined with suppression of TSH secretion by T4 in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma did not result in weight gain. The excessive weight gain in patients becoming hypothyroid after destructive therapy for Graves' disease suggests that restoration of serum TSH to the reference range by T4 alone may constitute inadequate hormone replacement.

  1. Late manifestation of subclinical hyperthyroidism after goitrogenesis in an index patient with a N670S TSH receptor germline mutation masquerading as TSH receptor antibody negative Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Schaarschmidt, J; Paschke, S; Özerden, M; Jäschke, H; Huth, S; Eszlinger, M; Meller, J; Paschke, R

    2012-12-01

    In 27 families with familial non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism (FNAH) reported up to date, the onset of hyperthyroidism varies from 18 months to 60 years. Also the manifestation of goitres is variable in these families. A 74-year-old woman first presented at the age of 69 years with tachyarrhythmia and hypertension. After initial treatment of her hypertension and oral anticoagulation for her intermittent atrial fibrillation, a thyroid workup revealed a suppressed TSH and normal fT3 and fT4. TPO, TSH receptor (TSHR), and thyroglobulin antibodies were negative. Thyroid ultrasound revealed a thyroid volume of 102 ml with several nodules with diameters of up to 2.6 cm right and up to 1.8 cm left. Scintigraphy showed a homogeneous Technetium-99 m ((99 m)Tc) uptake of 1.27%. She was subsequently treated with 1 GBq radioiodine ((131)I). At the age of 74, her thyroid function was normal and her thyroid volume decreased to 90 ml. Because of the diffuse (99 m)Tc uptake and the negative TPO, TSHR, and thyroglobulin antibodies, genetic analysis of her TSHR gene was performed, in spite of her negative family history for hyperthyroidism. Sequencing revealed a N670S TSHR germline mutation. Previous in vitro characterisation of this TSHR mutation suggests a weak constitutive activity, yet the experimental data are ambiguous. This case illustrates the necessity to analyse patients with hyperthyroidism accompanied by diffuse (99 m)Tc uptake and negative TPO, TSHR, and thyroglobulin antibodies for TSHR germline mutations. Moreover, it demonstrates that TSHR germline mutations may first lead to longstanding nodular goitrogenesis before the late manifestation of subclinical hyperthyroidism. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with pediatric sepsis.

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Gokhan; Cekmez, Ferhat; Kalkan, Gokhan; Fidanci, M Kursat; Kaya, Guven; Karaoglu, Abdulbaki; Meral, Cihan; Arzıman, İbrahim; Karademir, Ferhan; Ayar, Ganime; Gunduz, Ramiz Coskun; Suleymanoglu, Selami

    2014-12-01

    Despite major advances in intensive care, sepsis continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Vitamin D is involved in various physiologic functions, including cellular responses during infection and inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic value of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in childhood sepsis because it can be fatal if diagnosis delayed. The study included 40 children with sepsis and 20 children without sepsis (control group). We included only the patients with high probable sepsis, judged by clinical and laboratory findings, including positive blood culture. Blood samples were collected from patients with sepsis before treatment (pre-treatment group) and 48-72 hours later (post-treatment group). Treatment varied from ampicillin-sulbactam to cephalosporin. Blood samples were collected from control group once on admission. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly higher in sepsis (pre-treatment group) than control group (74 ± 8 ng/ml vs. 28 ± 12 ng/ml, p = 0.01) and the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were decreased to 44 ± 5 ng/ml (p = 0.01) after treatment. Moreover, we found significant positive correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and each of well-know sepsis markers, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6. A cut-off point of 20 ng/mL for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D showed 84% sensitivity and 76% specificity for sepsis diagnosis. This is the first study evaluating the diagnostic role of vitamin D in pediatric sepsis, thereby suggesting that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level can be used as a diagnostic marker for sepsis with high sensitivity and specificity.

  3. Pentobarbital quantitation using EMIT serum barbiturate assay reagents: application to monitoring of high-dose pentobarbital therapy.

    PubMed

    Pape, B E; Cary, P L; Clay, L C; Godolphin, W

    1983-01-01

    Pentobarbital serum concentrations associated with a high-dose therapeutic regimen were determined using EMIT immunoassay reagents. Replicate analyses of serum controls resulted in a within-assay coefficient of variation of 5.0% and a between-assay coefficient of variation of 10%. Regression analysis of 44 serum samples analyzed by this technique (y) and a reference procedure (x) were y = 0.98x + 3.6 (r = 0.98; x = ultraviolet spectroscopy) and y = 1.04x + 2.4 (r = 0.96; x = high-performance liquid chromatography). Clinical evaluation of the results indicates the immunoassay is sufficiently sensitive and selective for pentobarbital to allow accurate quantitation within the therapeutic range associated with high-dose therapy.

  4. Serum-deprived human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are highly angiogenic

    PubMed Central

    Oskowitz, Adam; McFerrin, Harris; Gutschow, Miriam; Carter, Mary Leita; Pochampally, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have indicated that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from bone marrow have a potential in vascular remodeling and angiogenesis. Here, we report a unique phenomenon that under serum-deprived conditions MSCs survive and replicate. Secretome analysis of MSCs grown under serum-deprived conditions (SD-MSCs) identified a significant upregulation of prosurvival and angiogenic factors including VEGF-A, ANGPTs, IGF-1, and HGF. An ex vivo rat aortic assay demonstrated longer neovascular sprouts generated from rat aortic rings cultured in SD-MSC-conditioned media compared to neovascular sprouts from aortas grown in MSC-conditioned media. With prolonged serum deprivation, a subpopulation of SD-MSCs began to exhibit an endothelial phenotype. This population expressed endothelial-specific proteins including VEGFR2, Tie2/TEK, PECAM/CD31, and eNOS and also demonstrated the ability to uptake acetylated LDL. SD-MSCs also exhibited enhanced microtubule formation in an in vitro angiogenesis assay. Modified chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis assays showed significantly higher angiogenic potential for SD-MSCs compared to MSCs. Analysis of CAMs grown with SD-MSCs identified human-specific CD31-positive cells in vascular structures. We conclude that under the stress of serum deprivation MSCs are highly angiogenic and a population of these cells has the potential to differentiate into endothelial-like cells. PMID:21421339

  5. Relation of serum molindone levels to serum prolactin levels and antipsychotic response.

    PubMed

    Pandurangi, A K; Narasimhachari, N; Blackard, W G; Landa, B S

    1989-10-01

    The antipsychotic drug molindone is considered to be atypical in its mode of action and to have mild side effects. Currently no data are available on the range of serum levels of this drug during treatment. By means of a high performance liquid chromatographic technique, serum molindone levels were measured in 14 psychotic patients receiving a wide range of doses of this drug. Molindone levels as high as 350 ng/mL were obtained and were not associated with any toxic effects. Significant relations were noted between the serum level of the drug and both serum prolactin level and treatment response. The authors suggest that molindone may have a range of serum levels consistent with therapeutic benefit. Serum molindone and prolactin levels might help assess resistance to molindone treatment.

  6. Clinical Significance of Classification of Graves’ Disease According to the Characteristics of TSH Receptor Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Bae; Chung, Hyun Kyung; Park, Young Joo; Park, Do Joon; Lee, Hong Kyu; Cho, Bo Youn

    2001-01-01

    Background : It has been widely accepted that the epitope (s) and/or functional characteristics of thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TSHRAb) from Graves’ patients are heterogenous among patients. However, the clinical significance of such heterogeneity has not been systematically evaluated yet. We were to elucidate and find the clinical significance of heterogeneity for TSH receptor antibodies in Graves’ disease. Methods : We measured stimulating TSHRAb (TSAb) activities using CHO-hTSHR cells, FRTL-5 cells and chimeric receptor expressing cells (Mcl+2 and Mc2), specific blocking TSHRAb (TSBAb) activities using Mc2 cells and TBII activities using porcine thyroid membrane in 136 patients with untreated hyperthyroid Graves’ disease. Results : Based on various TSHRAb activities from each patient, the patients could be categorized into 7 subgroups by cluster analysis: 1) Group 1 (n=41) was characterized by moderate TSAb activities both in CHO-hTSHR cells and in FRTL-5 cells, typical TSAb epitope, rare blocking antibodies and high TBII activities. 2) Group 2 (n=16) was characterized by the presence of blocking TSHRAb in most patients, albeit the other characteristics were the same as those in Group 1. 3) Group 3 (n=19) patients had low TSAb activities both in CHO-hTSHR cells and in FRTL-5 cells, seldom had blocking TSHRAb, but they had high TBII activities. 4) Group 4 (n = 30) could be categorized as ‘mild disease’ group, as they had low activities in all kinds of TSHRAb assay and had low antimicrosomal antibody activities. 5) Group 5 (n=14) was characterized by moderate TSAb activities with atypical epitope (s), rare blocking TSHRAb and moderate TBII activities. 6) Group 6 (n=10) patients had very high TSAb activities with typical epitopes, seldom blocking TSHRAb and low TBII activities. 7) Group 7 (n = 6) was characterized by very high TSAb activities with atypical epitopes and high TBII activities. Pretreatment serum thyroid hormone level was low only in

  7. Classifying low-grade and high-grade bladder cancer using label-free serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanjiao; Lai, Xiaoping; Zeng, Qiuyao; Li, Linfang; Lin, Lin; Li, Shaoxin; Liu, Zhiming; Su, Chengkang; Qi, Minni; Guo, Zhouyi

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to classify low-grade and high-grade bladder cancer (BC) patients using serum surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms. Serum SERS spectra are acquired from 88 serum samples with silver nanoparticles as the SERS-active substrate. Diagnostic accuracies of 96.4% and 95.4% are obtained when differentiating the serum SERS spectra of all BC patients versus normal subjects and low-grade versus high-grade BC patients, respectively, with optimal SVM classifier models. This study demonstrates that the serum SERS technique combined with SVM has great potential to noninvasively detect and classify high-grade and low-grade BC patients.

  8. [Influence of the high peak serum estradiol on the outcome of in vitro fertilization cycles].

    PubMed

    Carmona-Ruiz, Israel Obed; Galache-Vega, Pedro; Santos-Haliscak, Roberto; Díaz-Spíndola, Pablo; Batiza-Reséndiz, Víctor Alfonso; Hernández-Ayup, Samuel

    2010-10-01

    For the use of assisted reproductive technologies of high complexity (IVF-ET and ICSI) is essential to proper ovarian stimulation with recombinant FSH drugs menotropins, as well as the use of GnRH analogues. To correlate serum estradiol level on day 10th with the outcome of in vitro fertilization cycles. Retrospective study of 523 IVF cycles, selected and analyzed from 2005 to 2009. Patients underwent individualized stimulation protocols with gonadotropins and agonist (late luteal phase). The patients were divided into three groups according with the serum level of estradiol on day 10th of stimulation: Group I, patients with serum level of Estradiol below 1,000 pg/mL; Group II, with levels between 1,000-4,000 pg/mL; and Group III, with levels above 4,000 pg/mL. Peak serum estradiol levels, oocyte number, fertilization rates, implantation rates, and pregnancy rates were compared among groups. The fertilization rate was 62.8 in Group I; 60.6% in Group II, and 54.2% in Group III. The pregnancy rate in Group I was 29.8%; in Group II, 37.3%; and 24% for Group III. The implantation rates were 14, 22 and 14% for each group respectively (I, II and III). There is an inverse relationship between high peak serum estradiol levels and pregnancy rate; the implantation rate seems affected by the extreme levels of serum estradiol. The percent of total mature oocytes and fertilization rate improve with serum levels of estradiol at physiologic values.

  9. Low mood and response to Levothyroxine treatment in Indian patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Vishnoi, Gaurav; Chakraborty, Baidarbhi; Garda, Hormaz; Gowda, Srinivas H; Goswami, Binita

    2014-04-01

    There is considerable controversy regarding the association of subclinical hypothyrodism (SCH) and depression. We studied the association of SCH with low mood and also investigated the effects of L-thyroxine (LT4) therapy on improvement of symptoms. Three hundred patients with SCH and 300 age and sex-matched healthy controls were studied. Serum levels of TSH, FT3, FT4 were measured by chemi-illuminescence. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) was used to evaluate baseline depression in all participants and subsequently, in 133 patients who had undergone LT4 therapy for 2 months. The HAM-D scores were significantly higher for cases (10.0±4.7) as compared to controls (2.4±1.5). A positive correlation (r(2)=0.87, p=0.00) was found, between the Hamilton scores and serum TSH levels. No such association was seen between serum FT3, FT4 levels and HAM-D scores. Levothyroxine treatment resulted in a significant decrease in TSH levels and Hamilton scores. SCH is associated with low mood and there is a positive correlation between serum TSH levels and HAM-D scores. The administration of Levothyroxine therapy is associated with significant improvement in HAM-D scores. This underlines the importance of thyroid screening in cases of low mood and also asserts the role of Levothyroxine therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Is a high serum copper concentration a risk factor for implantation failure?

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Hidehiko; Kitaya, Kotaro; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Nishiyama, Rie; Takaya, Yukiko; Ishikawa, Tomomoto

    2017-08-10

    Copper-containing contraceptive devices may deposit copper ions in the endometrium, resulting in implantation failure. The deposition of copper ions in many organs has been reported in patients with untreated Wilson's disease. Since these patients sometimes exhibit subfertility and/or early pregnancy loss, copper ions were also considered to accumulate in the uterine endometrium. Wilson's disease patients treated with zinc successfully delivered babies because zinc interfered with the absorption of copper from the gastrointestinal tract. These findings led to the hypothesis that infertile patients with high serum copper concentrations may have implantation failure due to the excess accumulation of copper ions. The relationship between implantation (pregnancy) rates and serum copper concentrations has not yet been examined. The Japanese government recently stated that actual copper intake was higher among Japanese than needed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether serum copper concentrations are related to the implantation (pregnancy) rates of human embryos in vivo. We included 269 patients (age <40 years old) who underwent vitrifying and warming single embryo transfer with a hormone replacement cycle using good blastocysts (3BB or more with Gardner's classification). Serum hCG, copper, and zinc concentrations were measured 16 days after the first date of progesterone replacement. We compared 96 women who were pregnant without miscarriage at 10 weeks of gestation (group P) and 173 women who were not pregnant (group NP). No significant differences were observed in age or BMI between the groups. Copper concentrations were significantly higher in group NP (average 193.2 μg/dL) than in group P (average 178.1 μg/dL). According to the area under the curve (AUC) on the receiver operating characteristic curve for the prediction of clinical pregnancy rates, the Cu/Zn ratio (AUC 0.64, 95% CI 0.54-0.71) was a better predictor than copper or

  11. Proteomics tools reveal startlingly high amounts of oxytocin in plasma and serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandtzaeg, Ole Kristian; Johnsen, Elin; Roberg-Larsen, Hanne; Seip, Knut Fredrik; Maclean, Evan L.; Gesquiere, Laurence R.; Leknes, Siri; Lundanes, Elsa; Wilson, Steven Ray

    2016-08-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is associated with a plethora of social behaviors, and is a key topic at the intersection of psychology and biology. However, tools for measuring OT are still not fully developed. We describe a robust nano liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS) platform for measuring the total amount of OT in human plasma/serum. OT binds strongly to plasma proteins, but a reduction/alkylation (R/A) procedure breaks this bond, enabling ample detection of total OT. The method (R/A + robust nanoLC-MS) was used to determine total OT plasma/serum levels to startlingly high concentrations (high pg/mL-ng/mL). Similar results were obtained when combining R/A and ELISA. Compared to measuring free OT, measuring total OT can have advantages in e.g. biomarker studies.

  12. TSH and prolactin responses to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and domperidone in patients with empty sella syndrome.

    PubMed

    Valensi, P; Combes, M E; Perret, G; Attali, J R

    1996-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate TSH and PRL response to TRH and domperidone, an antidopaminergic drug which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, in 16 patients with primary empty sella (PES) and either normal or elevated plasma PRL level and to compare it with the response observed in 8 patients with prolactinoma. In the patients with PES and hyperprolactinemia, the PRL response to TRH was significantly lower than in the controls and the patients with PES and normal PRL, which suggests there is impaired PRL synthesis and release in cases of PES with hyperprolactinemia. The TSH response to domperidone was significantly elevated in patients with PES and either normal or elevated PRL, as in patients with prolactinoma. The PRL response to domperidone was significantly reduced in patients with PES and hyperprolactinemia as in patients with prolactionoma. These results suggestthat in PES with prolactinoma the inhibiting dopaminergic tone is increased on the thyrotropic cells and reduced on the lactotropic cells in PES with elevated PRL and that some patients with PES might bear a microprolactinoma in the bottom of the sella which remained undetected by the CT scan.

  13. Hyperthyroidism caused by an ectopic thyrotropin-secreting tumor of the nasopharynx: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tong, Anli; Xia, Weibo; Qi, Fang; Jin, Zimeng; Yang, Di; Zhang, Zhuhua; Li, Fang; Xing, Xiaoping; Lian, Xiaolan

    2013-09-01

    Ectopic thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting tumors are extremely rare. To our knowledge, only three cases have previously been reported so far, but the tumors were not studied ultrastructurally and in vitro. We present a case that was extensively examined to gain deeper insights in terms of the histopathological features and hormonal secretion profile of the tumor. A 49-year-old female complained of nasal obstruction for 15 years and thyrotoxicosis for one and a half years. Except for a high basal TSH with concomitantly elevated free tri-iodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels, her pituitary hormone profile yielded normal results. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 2 cm × 2 cm mass in the nasopharynx, which showed an increased tracer uptake on octreotide scintigraphy. Preoperative treatment with octreotide effectively reduced serum TSH, FT3, and FT4 to normal levels. The mass was endoscopically removed via an endonasal approach. Immunophenotyping and hormone determination of cultured cells confirmed that the mass was a plurihormonal TSH-/growth hormone (GH)-/prolactin (PRL)-producing adenoma. Co-expression of TSH and GH was found in most cells. Electron microscopy showed that the adenoma was formed by a single cell type, with secretory granules of small size. In vitro studies demonstrated that octreotide reduced both TSH and GH secretion. We report an ectopic TSH-secreting tumor, which had plurihormonal secretion in vitro, including TSH, GH, and PRL. Histologically, it mimicked a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Octreotide was useful in the diagnosis and treatment of this ectopic TSH-secreting tumor. Ectopic TSH-secreting tumors are extremely rare. In terms of hormone secretion profile, histological characteristics, and response to octreotide, they are similar to pituitary TSH-secreting adenomas, suggesting that they are of identical cell origin.

  14. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) enhances the serum levels of luteinising hormone in female rats.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Fumiaki; Jikyo, Tamaki; Takeda, Ryosuke; Ogata, Misato

    2014-02-03

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed fertility benefits. This study investigated the effect of Maca on the serum pituitary hormone levels during the pro-oestrus phase. Maca powder was made from the tubers of Lepidium meyenii Walp collected, dried, and reduced to powder at the plantation in Junín Plateau and was purchased from Yamano del Perú SAC. The Maca powder was identified by chemical profiling and taxonomic methods. Two groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were provided feed with normal feed containing 5%, 25%, or 50% Maca powder ad libitum for 7 weeks. At 1800h of the proestrus stage, the rats were euthanised, and blood samples were collected for serum isolation. The serum pituitary hormone levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). No significant differences in feed intake or growth rate were observed among the rats. During the pro-oestrus stage, a 4.5-fold increase (P<0.01) in luteinising hormone (LH) and a 19-fold increase (P<0.01) in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were observed in the sera of rats fed with 50% Maca powder compared with the control rats. No significant differences were observed in the levels of the other pituitary hormones, including growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). A dose-dependent increase of LH serum levels was observed within the range of 3-30g Maca/kg. Furthermore, the enhancement of the LH serum levels was specific to the pro-oestrus LH surge. The present study demonstrates that Maca uniquely enhances the LH serum levels of pituitary hormones in female rats during the pro-oestrus LH surge and acts in a pharmacological, dose-dependent manner. These findings support the traditional use of Maca to enhance fertility and suggest a potential molecular mechanism responsible for its effects. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lipid profile and thyroid hormone status in the last trimester of pregnancy in single-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Omidi, Arash; Sajedi, Zhila; Montazer Torbati, Mohammad Bagher; Ansari Nik, Hossein

    2014-04-01

    Changes in lipid metabolism have been shown to occur during pregnancy. The thyroid hormones affect lipid metabolism. The present study was carried out to find out whether the last trimester of pregnancy affects thyroid hormones, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), lipid, and lipoprotein profile in healthy dromedary camels. Twenty clinical healthy dromedary camels aged between 4-5 years were divided into two equal groups: (1) pregnant camels in their last trimester of pregnancy and (2) non-pregnant age-matched controls. Thyroid function tests were carried out by measuring serum levels of TSH, free thyroxin (fT4), total thyroxin (T4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), and total triiodothyronine (T3) by commercially available radio immunoassay kits. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were analyzed using enzymatic/spectrophotometric methods while low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and total lipid (TL) were calculated using Friedewald's and Raylander's formula, respectively. Serum levels of TSH and thyroid hormones except fT4 did not show any significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant camels. fT4 level was lower in the pregnant camels (P < 0.05). Serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, total lipid, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and VLDL did not show significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant camels. All of these variables in pregnant camels were higher than non-pregnant. Based on the results of this study, the fetus load may not alter the thyroid status of the camel and the concentrations of thyroid hormones were not correlated with TSH and lipid profile levels in the healthy pregnant camels.

  16. Overview of Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kroopnick, Jeffrey M; Kim, Caroline S

    2016-11-01

    Overt hypothyroidism in pregnancy, defined as an elevated serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and reduced serum free thyroxine or a TSH >10 mIU/L, is known to have adverse effects on pregnancy. Subclinical hypothyroidism is typically defined as an elevated TSH and normal FT4 levels. There remains much controversy on the benefit of starting levothyroxine for mothers diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism. Recent studies are redefining the normal range for TSH in pregnancy, and the data on whether treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism improves outcomes for the mother and fetus are unclear. One confounding variable is the presence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies, as it may be a surrogate marker for other autoimmune disorders detrimental to pregnancy. If levothyroxine treatment is initiated, the dosing and monitoring strategy is different from nonpregnant individuals. Randomized clinical trials are underway that may better elucidate whether treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism is warranted. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Atopy as a risk factor for subclinical hypothyroidism development in children.

    PubMed

    Pedullà, Marcella; Umano, Giuseppina Rosaria; Fierro, Vincenzo; Capuano, Francesco; Di Sessa, Anna; Marzuillo, Pierluigi; Perrone, Laura; Del Giudice, Emanuele Miraglia

    2017-08-28

    Increased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) serum concentration can be a marker of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) or transient hyperthyrotropinemia. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether high serum TSH concentrations in allergic children could represent true SCH or isolated and transient hyperthyrotropinemia. We enrolled 620 allergic children (1.11-12.8 years) consecutively attending to our department. They were classified as atopics and non-atopics on the basis of the atopy work-up and, at baseline, they were investigated for thyroid function and low-grade inflammation state. Further, TSH was evaluated after 6 (T1) and 12 (T2) months. Both atopics and non-atopics showed higher SCH prevalence compared to controls (p=0.0055 and p=0.02, respectively), and a significant association between atopy and SCH (OR 10.11, 95% CI 1.36-75.12) was found. Both at T1 and T2, atopics had a significant risk of developing severe SCH compared to non-atopics (RR 1.8, 95% CI 1.39-2.34 and 1.61, 95% CI 1.21-2.14; respectively). Our data may suggest that hyperthyrotropinemia in atopic children could be used as a marker of true SCH.

  18. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposures and thyroid hormones in children at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Ann M; Braun, Joseph M; Webster, Glenys M; Thomas Zoeller, R; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Sjödin, Andreas; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin

    2018-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) reduce serum thyroid hormone concentrations in animal studies, but few studies have examined the impact of early-life PBDE exposures on thyroid hormone disruption in childhood. We used data from 162 mother-child pairs from the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study (2003-2006, Cincinnati, OH). We measured PBDEs in maternal serum at 16 ± 3 weeks gestation and in child serum at 1-3 years. Thyroid hormones were measured in serum at 3 years. We used multiple informant models to investigate associations between prenatal and early-life PBDE exposures and thyroid hormone levels at age 3 years. Prenatal PBDEs were associated with decreased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels at age 3 years. A 10-fold increase in prenatal ∑PBDEs (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, and -153) was associated with a 27.6% decrease (95% CI -40.8%, -11.3%) in TSH. A ten-fold increase in prenatal ∑PBDEs was associated with a 0.25 pg/mL (0.07, 0.43) increase in free triiodothyronine (FT 3 ). Child sex modified associations between prenatal PBDEs and thyroid hormones, with significant decrements in TSH among females and decreased free T 4 (FT 4 ) in males. Prenatal ∑PBDEs were not associated with TT 4 , FT 4 , or total T 3 . These findings suggest an inverse relationship between prenatal ∑PBDEs and TSH at 3 years. Associations may be sexually dimorphic, with an inverse relationship between prenatal BDE-47 and -99 and TSH in females and null associations among males. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Women with high early pregnancy urinary iodine levels have an increased risk of hyperthyroid newborns: the population-based Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Medici, Marco; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Visser, Willy; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M P F; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Visser, W Edward; Hooijkaas, Herbert; Hofman, Albert; Steegers, Eric A P; Bongers-Schokking, Jacoba J; Ross, H Alec; Tiemeier, Henning; Visser, Theo J; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Peeters, Robin P

    2014-04-01

    Iodine deficiency during pregnancy results in thyroid dysfunction and has been associated with adverse obstetric and foetal effects, leading to worldwide salt iodization programmes. As nowadays 69% of the world's population lives in iodine-sufficient regions, we investigated the effects of variation in iodine status on maternal and foetal thyroid (dys)function in an iodine-sufficient population. Urinary iodine, serum TSH, free T4 (FT4) and TPO-antibody levels were determined in early pregnancy (13·3 (1·9) week; mean (SD)) in 1098 women from the population-based Generation R Study. Newborn cord serum TSH and FT4 levels were determined at birth. The median urinary iodine level was 222·5 μg/l, indicating an iodine-sufficient population. 30·8% and 11·5% had urinary iodine levels <150 and >500 μg/l, respectively. When comparing mothers with urinary iodine levels <150 vs ≥150 μg/l, and >500 vs ≤500 μg/l, there were no differences in the risk of maternal increased or decreased TSH, hypothyroxinaemia or hyperthyroidism. Mothers with urinary iodine levels >500 μg/l had a higher risk of a newborn with decreased cord TSH levels (5·6 ± 1·4 (mean ± SE) vs 2·1 ± 0·5%, P = 0·04), as well as a higher risk of a hyperthyroid newborn (3·1 ± 0·9 vs 0·6 ± 0·3%, P = 0·02). These mothers had newborns with higher cord FT4 levels (21·7 ± 0·3 vs 21·0 ± 0·1 pm, P = 0·04). Maternal urinary iodine levels <150 μg/l were not associated with newborn thyroid dysfunction. In an iodine-sufficient population, higher maternal urinary iodine levels are associated with an increased risk of a hyperthyroid newborn. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Primary goitrous hypothyroidism in a young adult domestic longhair cat: diagnosis and treatment monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Case summary Primary goitrous hypothyroidism was diagnosed in a 12-month-old cat examined because of small stature, mental dullness, severe lethargy, generalized weakness and gait abnormalities. Radiographs of the long bones and spine revealed delayed epiphyseal ossification and epiphyseal dysgenesis. Diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism was confirmed by low serum concentrations of total and free thyroxine (T4) with high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. Thyroid scintigraphy revealed severe enlargement of both thyroid lobes, as evidenced by a seven-fold increase in calculated thyroid volume above the reference interval. In addition, this bilateral goiter had an extremely high radionuclide uptake, about 10-fold higher than the normal feline thyroid gland. Treatment with twice-daily levothyroxine (L-T4), administered on an empty stomach, resulted in increased alertness, playfulness, strength and improvement in gait, as well as an increase in body length and weight. L-T4 replacement also led to normalization of serum thyroid hormone and TSH concentrations, and complete resolution of goiter. Relevance and novel information Spontaneous hypothyroidism is rarely reported in cats, with congenital hypothyroidism in kittens diagnosed most frequently. Despite the fact that this cat was a young adult, it likely had a form of congenital hypothyroidism caused by dyshormonogenesis (defect in thyroid hormone synthesis) that led to compensatory development of goiter. In hypothyroid cats, treatment with L-T4 is best given twice daily on an empty stomach to ensure adequate absorption. Normalization of serum TSH and shrinkage of goiter, as well as improvement in clinical signs, is the goal of treatment for cats with goitrous hypothyroidism. PMID:28491394

  1. Primary goitrous hypothyroidism in a young adult domestic longhair cat: diagnosis and treatment monitoring.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Primary goitrous hypothyroidism was diagnosed in a 12-month-old cat examined because of small stature, mental dullness, severe lethargy, generalized weakness and gait abnormalities. Radiographs of the long bones and spine revealed delayed epiphyseal ossification and epiphyseal dysgenesis. Diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism was confirmed by low serum concentrations of total and free thyroxine (T4) with high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. Thyroid scintigraphy revealed severe enlargement of both thyroid lobes, as evidenced by a seven-fold increase in calculated thyroid volume above the reference interval. In addition, this bilateral goiter had an extremely high radionuclide uptake, about 10-fold higher than the normal feline thyroid gland. Treatment with twice-daily levothyroxine (L-T4), administered on an empty stomach, resulted in increased alertness, playfulness, strength and improvement in gait, as well as an increase in body length and weight. L-T4 replacement also led to normalization of serum thyroid hormone and TSH concentrations, and complete resolution of goiter. Spontaneous hypothyroidism is rarely reported in cats, with congenital hypothyroidism in kittens diagnosed most frequently. Despite the fact that this cat was a young adult, it likely had a form of congenital hypothyroidism caused by dyshormonogenesis (defect in thyroid hormone synthesis) that led to compensatory development of goiter. In hypothyroid cats, treatment with L-T4 is best given twice daily on an empty stomach to ensure adequate absorption. Normalization of serum TSH and shrinkage of goiter, as well as improvement in clinical signs, is the goal of treatment for cats with goitrous hypothyroidism.

  2. Determination of acetaminophen concentrations in serum by high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Horvitz, R A; Jatlow, P I

    1977-09-01

    We describe a method for determination of serum acetaminophen concentrations in serum by reversed phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The homolog N-propionyl-p-aminophenol was used as an internal standard. The procedure, which requires only a single extraction with diethyl ether, can be optimized to be linear over the ranges of 10 to 100 or 1 to 20 mg/liter. Within-run CV was 1.2%; between-run CV was 4.4% and 4.9% at two different concentrations. Many commonly used drugs were tested and found not to interfere. The procedure is simple and rapid enough for use on an emergency basis in cases of overdosage, and can be optimized for measurement of either therapeutic or toxic concentrations.

  3. Gestational hypothyroidism: development of mild hypothyroidism in early pregnancy in previously euthyroid women.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Karen R; Cataldo, Nicholas A; Hubbard, Janice A; Malizia, Beth A; Steinkampf, Michael P

    2015-06-01

    To determine the proportion of euthyroid women attending a fertility practice who develop hypothyroidism in very early pregnancy (gestational hypothyroidism [GHT]), and to examine the association of GHT with exogenous gonadotropin treatment. Retrospective cohort study. A private reproductive medicine practice. All healthy women (N = 94) with infertility or recurrent pregnancy loss, TSH level <2.5 mIU/L, negative thyroid peroxidase antibodies at initial evaluation, and not taking thyroid medication, who conceived during an 18-month period. Usual fertility care; 30 women who had received exogenous gonadotropins. Serum TSH level at the time of pregnancy detection. Gestational hypothyroidism (TSH ≥ 2.5 mIU/L) developed in 23 of 94 women (24%). The mean increase in serum TSH level from initial evaluation to early pregnancy was 0.45 ± 0.08 [SE] mIU/L. There was a trend toward the association of GHT with use of exogenous gonadotropins. Gestational hypothyroidism was positively associated with initial prepregnancy TSH level. Euthyroid women may develop mild hypothyroidism in early pregnancy, especially after exogenous gonadotropin treatment. Appropriate vigilance will allow for timely levothyroxine treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of neonatal hyperthyroidism on the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Dussault, J H; Coulombe, P; Walker, P

    1982-03-01

    The acute and latent effects of neonatal hyperthyroidism (NH) on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis were studied in the rat after treatment of newborn animals with L-T4 (0.4 microgram/g BW, daily) for a period of 12 days. NH was associated with a permanent reduction in body weight in both male and female rats, in addition to a delay in the attainment of peak concentrations of hypothalamic TRH and pituitary and serum TSH. Serum TSH, T4, and T3 concentrations also were significantly and permanently reduced in NH animals (P less than 0.01) after cessation of L-T4 treatment. The serum TSH secretory response to 1 microgram synthetic TRH also was evaluated in 120-day-old control and NH rats, before and after the administration of L-T4 (0.6 microgram/100 g BW for 7 days) or propylthiouracil (0.05% in the drinking water for 14 days). In the baseline state, adult NH rats had a net secretory response similar to that of controls (189.0 +/- 31.3 vs. 227.0 +/- 29.3 microgram/ml . min). Administration of T4 significantly decreased while propylthiouracil treatment significantly increased the net TSH secretory response of NH rats compared to similarly treated control rats. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that NH leads to a permanent resetting of the regulatory set-point for pituitary TSH secretion and to increased sensitivity to the feedback inhibitory effects of thyroid hormones.

  5. Maturation of human hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid function and control.

    PubMed

    Fisher, D A; Nelson, J C; Carlton, E I; Wilcox, R B

    2000-03-01

    Measurements of serum thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (T4) concentrations were conducted in infants, children, and adults to assess maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) feedback control axis. Serum free T4 and TSH concentration data were collated for cord blood of the midgestation fetus, for premature and term infants, and for peripheral blood from newborn infants, children, and adults. Mean values were plotted on a nomogram developed to characterize the reference ranges of the normal axis quantitatively based on data from 522 healthy subjects, 2 weeks to 54 years of age; 83 untreated hypothyroid patients; and 116 untreated hyperthyroid patients. Samples for 75 patients with thyroid hormone resistance were also plotted. The characterized pattern of HPT maturation included a progressive decrease in the TSH/free T4 ratio with age, from 15 in the midterm fetus, to 4.7 in term infants, and 0.97 in adults. Maturation plotted on the nomogram was complex, suggesting increasing hypothalamic-pituitary T4 resistance during fetal development, probably secondary to increasing thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) secretion, the marked, cold-stimulated TRH-TSH surge at birth with reequilibration by 2-20 weeks, and a final maturation phase characterized by a decreasing serum TSH with minimal change in free T4 concentration during childhood and adolescence. The postnatal maturative phase during childhood and adolescence correlates with the progressive decrease in thyroxine secretion rate (on a microg/kg per day basis) and metabolic rate and probably reflects decreasing TRH secretion.

  6. Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas: biological and molecular features, diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Losa, M; Fortunato, M; Molteni, L; Peretti, E; Mortini, P

    2008-12-01

    Central hyperthyroidism due to a thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenoma is a rare cause of hyperthyroidism, representing 0.5-1.0% of all pituitary adenomas. The etiopathogenesis of TSH-secreting-adenomas is unknown and no definite role for various oncogenes has been proven. Patients with TSH-secreting adenoma usually present with signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism milder than those in patients with hyperthyroidism of thyroid origin, in addition to symptoms secondary to mass effects of the pituitary tumour. Mixed pituitary tumours co-secrete growth hormone and prolactin. The characteristic biochemical abnormalities are normal or high serum TSH concentrations in the presence of elevated total and/or free thyroid hormones concentrations. Measurement of markers of peripheral thyroid hormone action and dynamic tests may aid in the differential diagnosis with the syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone. Neuroimaging is fundamental to visualize the pituitary tumor. Therapy of TSH-secreting adenomas can be accomplished by surgery, radiation therapies, and medical treatment with somatostatin analogs or dopamine agonists. Nowadays, and in contrast with the first reports on this rare disease, most patients are well controlled by current therapies.

  7. High serum level of the soluble CD30 identifies Chinese kidney transplant recipients at high risk of unfavorable outcome.

    PubMed

    Iv, R; He, Q; Wang, H P; Jin, J; Chen, Y; Chen, J H

    2008-12-01

    We sought to investigate the relationship between serum level of sCD30 and recipient/graft survival rates, rejection types, as well as other prognostic factors among Chinese kidney transplant patients. We performed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of serum sCD30 levels in duplicate among retrospective cohort of 707 renal transplant patients. The incidences of rejection increased in relation to the pretransplant sCD30 level. The reversal rates of rejection were 100%, 90.6%, and 78.6% for the low, intermediate, and high sCD30 groups. This observation suggested that high levels of sCD30 and pretransplant panel-reactive antibody (PRA)-positive patients are risk factors for acute rejection with odds ratios of 6.862 and 1.756. High sCD30 was an independent risk factor for functional graft survival. The 5-year graft survival rates were 99.39% +/- 6.1%, 93.11% +/- 1.93%, and 82.07% +/- 3.97% among the low, intermediate, and high sCD30 groups, while the 5-year recipient survival rates were 89.25% +/- 2.41%, 91.82% +/- 1.64%, and 88.85% +/- 2.36%, respectively. Increased sCD30 levels were observed among patients who were PRA-positive, cytomegalovirus antigens or antibodies positive, on long-term dialysis, and serum levels reflect immune status.

  8. High Serum Folate Is Associated with Brain Atrophy in Older Diabetic People with Vitamin B12 Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Deng, Y; Wang, D; Wang, K; Kwok, T

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the adverse cognitive effects of high folate status in older individuals with vitamin B12 (VB12) deficiency. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate how high serum folate and VB12 deficiency could collaboratively aggravate neuronal degeneration. In total, 146 older non-demented diabetic individuals with an average age of 75 ± 3.9 were recruited. VB12 deficiency and high folate status were based on high serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations (> 0.3 μmol/L) and the serum folate concentration being in the top tertile (> 31.4 nmol/L) respectively. Among these subjects, there were 20 with elevated MMA and high folate. The structural magnetic resonance imaging data of these subjects were analyzed by performing flexible factorial analysis with the "folate level" and "MMA level" added as main effects, and the interaction effect of folate and VB12 on brain volume was evaluated. The results showed significant gray matter atrophy of the right middle occipital gyrus and the opercular part of the inferior frontal gyrus in subjects with a simultaneous high folate status and VB12 deficiency. Together with previous observational studies on cognitive function, this study lends support to the notion that high serum folate concentrations in older people with VB12 deficiency may be associated with increased neurodegeneration.

  9. Thyrotropin levels within the lower normal range are associated with an increased risk of hip fractures in euthyroid women, but not men, over the age of 65 years.

    PubMed

    Leader, Avi; Ayzenfeld, Racheli Heffez; Lishner, Michael; Cohen, Efrat; Segev, David; Hermoni, Doron

    2014-08-01

    The contemporary literature on the relationship between serum TSH levels and osteoporotic fractures in euthyroid individuals is limited by conflicting results and analyses conducted on a small number of fractures. Our objective was to examine the association between the normal range of variation of TSH and the incidence of hip fractures in male and female euthyroid patients aged 65 years or older. We performed a population-based historical prospective cohort study within the Clalit Health Services population. Clalit Health Services members aged ≥65 years with at least 1 TSH measurement during the year 2004. We excluded patients with preexisting hip fracture, thyroid disease, malignancy, or chronic kidney disease. The primary outcome was hip fracture, and the secondary outcome was any other osteoporotic fracture. Adjusted odds ratios comparing episodes of each outcome across 3 TSH groups (low, 0.35-1.6 mIU/L; intermediate, 1.7-2.9 mIU/L; high, 3-4.2 mIU/L) were generated using logistic regression models. The 14 325 included participants suffered from 514 hip fractures (mean follow-up, 102 ± 3 months). Women, but not men, in the lowest TSH group had a higher incidence of hip fractures (odds ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-1.59, P = .029) when compared with the intermediate group, after multivariate adjustment for age, comorbidities, and use of drugs affecting bone metabolism. There was no difference in hip fracture incidence between intermediate- and high-TSH groups. No association was found between TSH levels and other osteoporotic fractures. TSH levels within the lower normal range are associated with an increased risk of hip fractures in euthyroid women, but not men, aged 65 years and more.

  10. High density lipoprotein cholesterol is associated with serum cortisol in older people.

    PubMed

    Varma, V K; Rushing, J T; Ettinger, W H

    1995-12-01

    To determine the associations between serum cortisol and HDL cholesterol, other lipoprotein lipids and cardiovascular risk factors, carotid atherosclerosis, and clinical heart disease in older people. A cross-sectional, observational, ancillary study of the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). A total of 245 community-dwelling people, 65 to 89 years old, were recruited consecutively for a 2-month period from the CHS cohort in Forsyth County, North Carolina. Cortisol was measured by radioimmunoassay in serum collected between 7:00 and 10:00 AM after an overnight fast. Cortisol levels were correlated with lipoprotein lipids, insulin, glucose, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, prevalent coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and carotid atherosclerosis by B-mode ultrasound. Serum cortisol was correlated negatively (r = -.24) with body mass index and waist-hip ratio (r = -.16) but was not related significantly to fasting insulin or glucose. Cortisol was not associated significantly with triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol but showed a positive correlation (r = .21) with high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The relationship between cortisol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol persisted after adjustment for gender, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, cigarette and alcohol use, triglyceride level, and diabetes. There was a trend toward a negative correlation between cortisol and measures of carotid atherosclerosis, but no significant relationship was indicated between cortisol and prevalent coronary heart disease, hypertension, or diabetes. Endogenous glucocorticoid levels correlated with HDL cholesterol levels and may play a role in the physiologic regulation of high density lipoprotein levels in older people.

  11. Tea Dietary Fiber Improves Serum and Hepatic Lipid Profiles in Mice Fed a High Cholesterol Diet.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenxin; Shu, Yang; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-06-01

    Tea dietary fiber (TDF) was prepared from tea residues and modified to get cellulose-modified TDF (CTDF) by cellulase or micronized TDF (MTDF) by ultrafine grinding. The in vitro lipid-binding capacities of the three fibers and their effects on serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet were evaluated. The results showed that the three fibers had excellent lipid-binding capacities, and the cholesterol- and sodium cholate-binding capacities of CTDF and MTDF were significantly higher than those of TDF. Animal studies showed that, compared to model control, the three fibers significantly decreased mice average daily gain, gain: feed, and liver index, reduced total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol of serum and liver, increased serum and hepatic high density lipoprotein-cholesterol to TC ratio, and promoted the excretion of fecal lipids, and they also significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase of serum and liver, and decreased lipid peroxidation; moreover, the effects of CTDF and MTDF were better than that of TDF. It was concluded that the three fibers could improve serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet and the mechanism of action might be due to the promotion of fecal excretion of lipids through their lipid-binding ability and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that tea dietary fiber has the potential to be used as a functional ingredient to control cardiovascular disease.

  12. High serum bicarbonate level within the normal range prevents the progression of chronic kidney disease in elderly chronic kidney disease patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metabolic acidosis leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. The guidelines recommend a lower limit of serum bicarbonate level, but no upper limit. For serum bicarbonate level to be clinically useful as a therapeutic target marker, it is necessary to investigate the target serum bicarbonate level within the normal range to prevent CKD progression. Methods One hundred and thirteen elderly CKD patients, whose serum bicarbonate level was controlled within the normal range, were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study in Ibaraki, Japan. Outcome was defined as a decrease of 25% or more in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or starting dialysis. We used Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for patients’ characteristics to examine the association between serum bicarbonate level and the outcome. Results Female patients were 36.3%: average age (SD), 70.4 (6.6) years; eGFR, 25.7 (13.6) ml/min/1.73 m2; serum bicarbonate level, 27.4 (3.2) mEq/l. Patients with the lowest quartile of serum bicarbonate levels [23.4 (1.8) mEq/l] showed a high risk of CKD progression compared with patients with high serum bicarbonate levels [28.8 (2.3) mEq/l]: adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 3.511 (95% CI, 1.342-9.186). A 1 mEq/l increase in serum bicarbonate level was associated with a low risk of CKD progression: adjusted HR, 0.791 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.684-0.914]. Conclusions In elderly CKD patients, our findings suggest that serum bicarbonate level is independently associated with CKD progression, and that a high serum bicarbonate level is associated with a low risk of CKD progression. A high target serum bicarbonate level within the normal range may be effective for preventing CKD progression. PMID:23298330

  13. Evaluation of the relationship between serum apelin levels and vitamin D and mean platelet volume in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Kiskac, Muharrem; Zorlu, Mehmet; Cakirca, Mustafa; Karatoprak, Cumali; Kesgin, Sıdıka; Büyükaydın, Banu; Yavuz, Erdinc; Ardic, Cuneyt; Camli, Ahmet Adil; Cikrikcioglu, Mehmet Ali

    2014-09-01

    It was reported that Vitamin D deficiency was associated with a greater risk of cardiometabolic diseases, obesity, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus type 2, arterial hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Apelin is an adipocytokine suspected to have a role in skeletal muscle glucose utilization and glycemic regulation which may be a promising treatment modality for diabetes. It was recently reported that increased mean platelet volume (MPV) was emerging as an independent risk factor for thromboembolism, stroke, and myocardial infarction. In patients with diabetes, MPV was higher compared with the normal glycemic controls; in addition, it has been proposed that an increase in MPV may play a role in the micro- and macro-vascular complications related to diabetes. We postulated that deficiency in Vitamin D levels might be associated with higher MPV and lower serum apelin levels leading a further increase in insulin resistance in diabetic patients. So, we aimed to investigate Vitamin D levels, MPV and serum apelin levels in diabetic patients and their correlations between each other. This is a cross-sectional study design. Seventy-eight patients with Diabetes Mellitus type 2, admitted to our outpatient clinic of internal medicine department at Bezmialem Vakif University, were included in our study. Forty-one patients were female; 37 patients were male. Serum apelin levels, fasting glucose levels, urea, creatinine, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting serum insulin level, HbA1c, free T3, free T4, TSH, vitamin D (25-OH Vitamin D) and complete blood counts were analyzed in all subjects. Each sex was analyzed separately. We found that a positive correlation existed between serum apelin levels and BMI in female patients. (r: 0.380, P: 0.014) There was also a significant positive correlation between MPV and HbA1c and fasting glucose levels and a negative correlation

  14. The impact of high serum bicarbonate levels on mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kyung Yoon; Kim, Hyung Wook; Kim, Woo Jeong; Kim, Yong Kyun; Kim, Su-Hyun; Song, Ho Chul; Kim, Young Ok; Jin, Dong Chan; Choi, Euy Jin; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Nam-Ho; Kang, Shin-Wook; Kim, Yon-Su; Kim, Young Soo

    2017-01-01

    The optimal serum bicarbonate level is controversial for patients who are undergoing hemodialysis (HD). In this study, we analyzed the impact of serum bicarbonate levels on mortality among HD patients. Prevalent HD patients were selected from the Clinical Research Center registry for End Stage Renal Disease cohort in Korea. Patients were categorized into quartiles according to their total carbon dioxide (tCO 2 ) levels: quartile 1, a tCO 2 of < 19.4 mEq/L; quartile 2, a tCO 2 of 19.4 to 21.5 mEq/L; quartile 3, a tCO 2 of 21.6 to 23.9 mEq/L; and quartile 4, a tCO 2 of ≥ 24 mEq/L. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and confidence interval (CI) for mortality. We included 1,159 prevalent HD patients, with a median follow-up period of 37 months. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the all-cause mortality was significantly higher in patients from quartile 4, compared to those from the other quartiles ( p = 0.009, log-rank test). The multivariate Cox proportional hazard model revealed that patients from quartile 4 had significantly higher risk of mortality than those from quartile 1, 2 and 3, after adjusting for the clinical variables in model 1 (HR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.15 to 3.45; p = 0.01) and model 2 (HR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.03 to 3.22; p = 0.04). Our data indicate that high serum bicarbonate levels (a tCO2 of ≥ 24 mEq/L) were associated with increased mortality among prevalent HD patients. Further effort might be necessary in finding the cause and correcting metabolic alkalosis in the chronic HD patients with high serum bicarbonate levels.

  15. Precipitation of the thyrotropin receptor and identification of thyroid autoantigens using Graves' disease immunoglobulins.

    PubMed Central

    Heyma, P; Harrison, L C

    1984-01-01

    The thyrotropin (TSH) receptor is a putative target for autoantibodies in Graves' hyperthyroidism and therefore, should be capable of being identified, isolated, and structurally characterized by immunological means. To this end, four sera from patients with hyperthyroidism, three of which inhibited the binding of 125I-TSH to Triton-solubilized human thyroid membranes, were used to isolate TSH receptors by immunoprecipitation. To account for an effect of TSH binding or receptor occupancy on the ability of Graves' immunoglobulins to precipitate TSH receptors, two approaches were taken: (a) specific 125I-TSH binding activity was measured after solubilized thyroid membranes had been incubated with Graves' sera followed by precipitation with Staphylococcus protein A ("receptor depletion"); (b) TSH binding sites were labeled with 125I-TSH and the complexes were precipitated using Graves' sera and Staphylococcus protein A ("receptor precipitation"). The three sera which inhibited 125I-TSH binding depleted 125I-TSH binding activity between 30-80%. Preformed complexes between Staphylococcus protein A and immunoglobulins in these sera were also able to deplete 125I-TSH binding activity. However, after receptor depletion, the one serum that did not inhibit 125I-TSH binding was associated with a significant increase in 125I-TSH binding. All four sera specifically precipitated 80-100% of receptors identified by prelabeling with 125I-TSH. The dilutions of sera that precipitated 50% of 125I-TSH-receptor complexes ranged from 1:150-1:20. Complexes were partially precipitated by high concentrations of control sera (1:20), but the relative potency of control sera was at least fourfold less than Graves' sera. Immunoprecipitates of 125I-labeled thyroid membranes were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography to reveal Graves'-specific bands of reduced molecular weights of 100-110,000, 80-90,000, and 70-75,000. These bands were similar

  16. Sensitive thyrotropin and free thyroxine testing in outpatients. Are both necessary?

    PubMed

    Bauer, D C; Brown, A N

    1996-11-11

    The appropriate use of specific thyroid function tests to detect thyroid dysfunction remains controversial; some experts recommend both a sensitive thyrotropin (sTSH) test and a free thyroxine (FT4) test, while others recommend an sTSH test alone. To determine how often sTSH and FT4 tests are ordered simultaneously, how often the results are discordant, and under what circumstances a single test of thyroid function may be sufficient to rule out thyroid dysfunction. Retrospective descriptive study of all sTSH and FT4 tests performed on adult outpatients during a 6-month period. If both sTSH and FT4 tests were performed on a single serum specimen, the results were classified as concordant (both tests indicating hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or euthyroidism) or discordant. Chart review was performed on patients with normal sTSH results and abnormal FT4 results. A total of 6551 sTSH and 3518 FT4 tests were performed during the study period. Both sTSH and FT4 tests were ordered together on 3143 specimens (48% and 89% of the total number of sTSH and FT4 tests ordered, respectively) from 2629 patients. Of the sTSH results, 69.8% were within the normal range, and 92.7% of the FT4 results were normal. The concordance between sTSH and FT4 results was 74.3%. Among the 1835 specimens with normal sTSH results, FT4 level was low in 11 patients (0.6%; 95% confidence interval, 0.3%-0.9%) and high in 24 (1.3%; 95% confidence interval, 0.8%-1.8%). Chart review did not disclose any instances when an abnormal FT4 results contributed to the treatment of an individual with a normal sTSH result. The sTSH test alone, and not the combination of sTSH and FT4 tests, should be ordered in most outpatients. An FT4 test should not be routinely ordered if the sTSH result is normal; at our institution this approach would obviate the need for at least half of the FT4 tests performed each year.

  17. High VEGF-D and Low MMP-2 Serum Levels Predict Nodal-Positive Disease in Invasive Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Tobias; Keller, Etienne X.; Wolfsgruber, Pirmin; Hermanns, Thomas; Günthart, Michele; Banzola, Irina; Sulser, Tullio; Provenzano, Maurizio; Poyet, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate stromal variables including angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in the serum of patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) and to evaluate their association with histopathological characteristics and clinical outcome. Material/Methods Protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factors-A, -C, -D (VEGF-A/-C/-D), their receptors- VEGF-R2 and -R3 (VEGF-R2/-R3), and matrix metalloproteinases 2, -3, and -7 (MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7) were quantified in the blood serum samples of 71 patients with UCB before radical cystectomy (RC). Samples of patients with non-invasive UCB or no history of UCB were investigated as controls (n=20). Protein levels in the serum were measured using a flow cytometric cytokine assay. Results A positive association for VEGF-D (p<0.001) and an inverse association for MMP-2 (p=0.017) were observed in patients with positive lymph node (LN) status at the time of RC. VEGF-A (p<0.001), VEGF-C (p<0.001), MMP-2 (p<0.001), and MMP-7 (p=0.005) serum levels were different in serum of patients with invasive UCB compared with non-invasive UCB or healthy individuals. None of the serum markers were associated with disease progression. Conclusions High VEGF-D and low MMP-2 serum levels predict LN metastasis in patients with UCB at the time of RC. VEGF-A, VEGF-C, MMP-2, and MMP-7 serum levels varied significantly between invasive and non-invasive disease as well as in comparison with healthy individuals. Clinical implementation of these marker serum measurements may be valuable to select high-risk patients with more invasive or nodal-positive disease. PMID:26241709

  18. Risk of Thyroid Cancer in Euthyroid Asymptomatic Patients with Thyroid Nodules with an Emphasis on Family History of Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors-such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels-were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041-0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients.

  19. Sustained high serum caspase-3 concentrations and mortality in septic patients.

    PubMed

    Lorente, L; Martín, M M; Pérez-Cejas, A; González-Rivero, A F; López, R O; Ferreres, J; Solé-Violán, J; Labarta, L; Díaz, C; Palmero, S; Jiménez, A

    2018-02-01

    Caspase-3 is the main executor of the apoptotic process. Higher serum caspase-3 concentrations in non-survivor compared to survivor septic patients have been found. The objectives of this work (with the increase of sample size to 308 patients, and the determination of serum caspase-3 concentrations also on days 4 and 8 of diagnosis of severe sepsis) were to know whether an association between serum caspase-3 concentrationss during the first week, degree of apoptosis, sepsis severity, and sepsis mortality exists. We collected serum samples of 308 patients with severe sepsis from eight intensive care units on days 1, 4 and 8 to measure concentrations of caspase-3 and caspase-cleaved cytokeratin (CCCK)-18 (to assess degree of apoptosis). End point was 30-day mortality. We found higher serum concentrations of caspase-3 and CCCK-18 in non-survivors compared to survivors on days 1 (p < 0.001), 4 (p < 0.001), and 8 (p < 0.001). We found an association between serum caspase-3 concentrations on days 1, 4 and 8 of severe sepsis diagnosis and serum CCCK-18 concentrations (p < 0.001), SOFA (p < 0.001), serum acid lactic concentrations (p < 0.001), and 30-day sepsis mortality (p < 0.001). The new findings of this work were that an association between serum caspase-3 concentrations during the first week, apoptosis degree, sepsis severity, and sepsis mortality exists.

  20. Direct correlation between serum homocysteine level and insulin resistance index in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism: Does subclinical hypothyroidism increase the risk of diabetes and cardio vascular disease together?

    PubMed

    Ebrahimpour, Anahita; Vaghari-Tabari, Mostafa; Qujeq, Durdi; Moein, Soheila; Moazezi, Zoleikha

    2018-05-05

    Subclinical hypothyroidism known as mild thyroid disorder without significant sign and symptoms. The correlation between subclinical hypothyroidism and some of cardiovascular disease risk factors such as serum lipids, homocysteine levels and also insulin resistance index is not well established and the current study was conducted to clarify this issue. Seventy four patients with mild elevation in levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) along with normal levels of T3 and T4 were selected as patients group and 74 age and sex matched individuals were selected as healthy control group. Serum insulin, triglyceride, glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and homocysteine levels were measured. Obtained data compared between groups with independent sample t-test. For evaluation of the correlation between mentioned parameters Pearson correlation coefficient method was used. Serum levels of LDL-C and total cholesterol significantly increased in SCH group compared to healthy control group. Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOM-IR) and serum homocysteine level significantly elevated in patients with SCH compared to control group. There was a significant direct correlation between HOM-IR and serum homocysteine levels in SCH patients. Subclinical hypothyroidism likely have significant effect on insulin resistance as major diabetes risk factors and also cardiovascular disease risk factors such as homocysteine. The direct correlation between HOM-IR with serum homocysteine level indicate the possible role of insulin resistance in elevation of serum homocysteine in SCH patient group. Copyright © 2018 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine levels in persons with HFE C282Y homozygosity, a common hemochromatosis genotype: the HEIRS study.

    PubMed

    Barton, James C; Leiendecker-Foster, Catherine; Reboussin, David M; Adams, Paul C; Acton, Ronald T; Eckfeldt, John H

    2008-08-01

    Relationships of thyroid and iron measures in large cohorts are unreported. We evaluated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (T4) in white participants of the primary care-based Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study. We measured serum TSH and free T4 in 176 HFE C282Y homozygotes without previous hemochromatosis diagnoses and in 312 controls without HFE C282Y or H63D who had normal serum iron measures and were matched to C282Y homozygotes for Field Center, age group, and initial screening date. We defined hypothyroidism as having TSH >5.00 mIU/L and free T4 <0.70 ng/dL, and hyperthyroidism as having TSH <0.400 mIU/L and free T4 >1.85 ng/dL. Multivariate analyses were performed using age, sex, Field Center, log(10) serum ferritin (SF), HFE genotype, log(10) TSH, and log(10) free T4. Prevalences of hypothyroidism in C282Y homozygotes and controls were 1.7% and 1.3%, respectively, and of hyperthyroidism 0% and 1.0%, respectively. Corresponding prevalences did not differ significantly. Correlations of log(10) SF with log(10) free T4 were positive (p = 0.2368, C282Y homozygotes; p = 0.0492, controls). Independent predictors of log(10) free T4 were log(10) TSH (negative association) and age (positive association); positive predictors of log(10) SF were age, male sex, and C282Y homozygosity. Proportions of C282Y homozygotes and controls who took medications to supplement or suppress thyroid function did not differ significantly. Prevalences of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are similar in C282Y homozygotes without previous hemochromatosis diagnoses and controls. In controls, there is a significant positive association of SF with free T4. We conclude that there is no rationale for routine measurement of TSH or free T4 levels in hemochromatosis or iron overload screening programs.

  2. Improved micromethod for mezlocillin quantitation in serum and urine by high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, D; Auger, F A; Drusano, G L; Dandu, V R; Lesko, L J

    1984-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and specific method of analysis for mezlocillin in serum and urine by high-pressure liquid chromatography is described. A solid-phase extraction column was used to remove interfering substances from samples before chromatography. Quantitation included the use of an internal standard, nafcillin. Mezlocillin was chromatographed with a phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (73:27) mobile phase and a C-18 reverse-phase column and detected at a wavelength of 220 nm. The assay had a sensitivity of 1.6 micrograms/ml and a linearity of up to 600 micrograms/ml and 16 mg/ml in serum and urine, respectively, with only 0.1 ml of sample. The interday and intraday coefficients of variation for replicate analyses of spiked serum and urine specimens were less than 6.5%. PMID:6517560

  3. Adult Kawasaki's disease with myocarditis, splenomegaly, and highly elevated serum ferritin levels.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Pherez, Francisco M; Alexiadis, Varvara; Gagos, Marios; Strollo, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    erythema. We present a case of adult Kawasaki's disease with myocarditis and splenomegaly. The patient's myocarditis rapidly resolved, and he did not develop coronary artery aneurysms. In addition to splenomegaly, this case of adult Kawasaki's disease is remarkable because the patient had highly elevated serum ferritin levels of 944-1303 ng/mL; (normal<189 ng/mL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of adult Kawasaki's disease with highly elevated serum ferritin levels. This is also the first report of splenomegaly in adult Kawasaki's disease. We conclude that Kawasaki's disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis in adult patients with rash/fever for> or =5 days with conjunctival suffusion, cervical adenopathy, swelling of the dorsum of the hands/feet, thrombocytosis and otherwise unexplained highly elevated ferritin levels. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased serum levels of high mobility group box 1 protein in patients with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Emanuele, Enzo; Boso, Marianna; Brondino, Natascia; Pietra, Stefania; Barale, Francesco; Ucelli di Nemi, Stefania; Politi, Pierluigi

    2010-05-30

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a highly conserved, ubiquitous protein that functions as an activator for inducing the immune response and can be released from neurons after glutamate excitotoxicity. The objective of the present study was to measure serum levels of HMGB1 in patients with autistic disorder and to study their relationship with clinical characteristics. We enrolled 22 adult patients with autistic disorder (mean age: 28.1+/-7.7 years) and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean age: 28.7+/-8.1 years). Serum levels of HMGB1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared with healthy subjects, serum levels of HMGB1 were significantly higher in patients with autistic disorder (10.8+/-2.6 ng/mL versus 5.6+/-2.5 ng/mL, respectively, P<0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, serum HMGB1 levels were independently associated with their domain A scores in the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, which reflects their impairments in social interaction. These results suggest that HMGB1 levels may be affected in autistic disorder. Increased HMGB1 may be a biological correlate of the impaired reciprocal social interactions in this neurodevelopmental disorder. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in alcohol-dependent patients receiving high-dose baclofen.

    PubMed

    Geisel, Olga; Hellweg, Rainer; Müller, Christian A

    2016-06-30

    The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been suggested to be involved in the development and maintenance of addictive and other psychiatric disorders. Also, interactions of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic compounds and BDNF have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate serum levels of BDNF over time in alcohol-dependent patients receiving individually titrated high-dose treatment (30-270mg/d) with the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen or placebo for up to 20 weeks. Serum levels of BDNF were measured in patients of the baclofen/placebo group at baseline (t0), 2 weeks after reaching individual high-dose of baclofen/placebo treatment (t1) and after termination of study medication (t2) in comparison to carefully matched healthy controls. No significant differences in serum levels of BDNF between the baclofen and the placebo group or healthy controls were found at t0, t1, or at t2. Based on these findings, it seems unlikely that baclofen exerts a direct effect on serum levels of BDNF in alcohol-dependent patients. Future studies are needed to further explore the mechanism of action of baclofen and its possible relationship to BDNF in alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Corticotropin-releasing factor accelerates metamorphosis in Bufo arenarum: effect on pituitary ACTH and TSH cells.

    PubMed

    Miranda, L A; Affanni, J M; Paz, D A

    2000-04-01

    The actions of several neuropeptides as hypothalamic mediators in the regulation of Bufo arenarum metamorphosis were investigated. Prometamorphic larvae were injected with 1.5 microg thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), 2 microg ovine corticotropin-releasing factor (oCRF), 2 microg mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (mGnRH), 2 microg human growth hormone-releasing hormone (hGHRH), or Holtfreter solution (control group). Larvae received two injections with the same dose: one at the beginning of the experiment and the other 7 days later. Several morphologic parameters (total length, tail length, wet weight, hind limb length, and metamorphic stages) were measured as indicators of growth and metamorphic development. These measurements were taken in 20 larvae per treatment or control group at the beginning of the experiment, at day 7 and at day 14 when the experiment ended. We observed that only the administration of exogenous CRF stimulated resorption of the tail and accelerated the rate of metamorphosis. In the pituitary of CRF-treated larvae we observed that thyrotropin (TSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) producing cells showed a weaker immunoreactivity, a decrease in cell number and a reduction of volume density when compared with normal larvae. In conclusion, the results obtained indicate a possible role for CRF in Bufo arenarum metamorphosis. CRF may regulate interrenal and thyroid activity by acting directly upon TSH and ACTH cells. On the other hand, TRH, GnRH and GHRH were inactive in stimulating growth or metamorphosis of Bufo arenarum. J. Exp. Zool. 286:473-480, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Serum Creatinine: Not So Simple!

    PubMed

    Delanaye, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne; Pottel, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Measuring serum creatinine is cheap and commonly done in daily practice. However, interpretation of serum creatinine results is not always easy. In this review, we will briefly remind the physiological limitations of serum creatinine due notably to its tubular secretion and the influence of muscular mass or protein intake on its concentration. We mainly focus on the analytical limitations of serum creatinine, insisting on important concept such as reference intervals, standardization (and IDMS traceability), analytical interferences, analytical coefficient of variation (CV), biological CV and critical difference. Because the relationship between serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate is hyperbolic, all these CVs will impact not only the precision of serum creatinine but still more the precision of different creatinine-based equations, especially in low or normal-low creatinine levels (or high or normal-high glomerular filtration rate range). © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. High serum levels of pregenomic RNA reflect frequently failing reverse transcription in hepatitis B virus particles.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Kasthuri; Rydell, Gustaf E; Larsson, Simon B; Andersson, Maria; Norkrans, Gunnar; Norder, Heléne; Lindh, Magnus

    2018-05-15

    Hepatocytes infected by hepatitis B virus (HBV) produce different HBV RNA species, including pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), which is reverse transcribed during replication. Particles containing HBV RNA are present in serum of infected individuals, and quantification of this HBV RNA could be clinically useful. In a retrospective study of 95 patients with chronic HBV infection, we characterised HBV RNA in serum in terms of concentration, particle association and sequence. HBV RNA was detected by real-time PCR at levels almost as high as HBV DNA. The HBV RNA was protected from RNase and it was found in particles of similar density as particles containing HBV DNA after fractionation on a Nycodenz gradient. Sequencing the epsilon region of the RNA did not reveal mutations that would preclude its binding to the viral polymerase before encapsidation. Specific quantification of precore RNA and pgRNA by digital PCR showed almost seven times lower ratio of precore RNA/pgRNA in serum than in liver tissue, which corresponds to poorer encapsidation of this RNA as compared with pgRNA. The serum ratio between HBV DNA and HBV RNA was higher in genotype D as compared with other genotypes. The results suggest that HBV RNA in serum is present in viral particles with failing reverse transcription activity, which are produced at almost as high rates as viral particles containing DNA. The results encourage further studies of the mechanisms by which these particles are produced, the impact of genotype, and the potential clinical utility of quantifying HBV RNA in serum.

  9. Gestational urinary bisphenol A and maternal and newborn thyroid hormone concentrations: The HOME Study

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, Megan E., E-mail: megan_romano@brown.edu; Webster, Glenys M.; Vuong, Ann M.

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor used in consumer products, may perturb thyroid function. Prenatal BPA exposure may have sex-specific effects on thyroid hormones (THs). Our objectives were to investigate whether maternal urinary BPA concentrations during pregnancy were associated with THs in maternal or cord serum, and whether these associations differed by newborn sex or maternal iodine status. We measured urinary BPA concentrations at 16 and 26 weeks gestation among pregnant women in the HOME Study (2003–2006, Cincinnati, Ohio). Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free and total thyroxine (T{sub 4}) and triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) were measured in maternal serum atmore » 16 weeks (n=181) and cord serum at delivery (n=249). Associations between BPA concentrations and maternal or cord serum TH levels were estimated by multivariable linear regression. Mean maternal urinary BPA was not associated with cord THs in all newborns, but a 10-fold increase in mean BPA was associated with lower cord TSH in girls (percent change=−36.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI): −58.4, −1.7%), but not boys (7.8%; 95% CI: −28.5, 62.7%; p-for-effect modification=0.09). We observed no significant associations between 16-week BPA and THs in maternal or cord serum, but 26-week maternal BPA was inversely associated with TSH in girls (−42.9%; 95% CI: −59.9, −18.5%), but not boys (7.6%; 95% CI: −17.3, 40.2%; p-for-effect modification=0.005) at birth. The inverse BPA–TSH relation among girls was stronger, but less precise, among iodine deficient versus sufficient mothers. Prenatal BPA exposure may reduce TSH among newborn girls, particularly when exposure occurs later in gestation. - Highlights: • Examined associations of BPA with thyroid hormones in pregnant women and newborns. • Assessed effect modification of BPA–thyroid hormone associations by newborn sex. • Greater BPA related to decreased thyroid stimulating hormone in girls' cord serum. • Results

  10. The effect of metformin on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in patients with type 2 diabetes and subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, R; Szkrobka, W; Okopien, B

    2015-04-01

    In hypothyroid patients, metformin was found to reduce serum levels of TSH. No previous study investigated metformin action on hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in patients with hyperthyroidism. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of metformin treatment on thyroid function tests in patients with untreated subclinical hyperthyroidism. We studied 15 patients with low but detectable TSH levels (0.1-0.4 mIU/L) (group 1), 12 patients with suppressed TSH levels (less than 0.1 mIU/L) (group 2) and 15 euthyroid patients with a history of hyperthyroidism, who because of coexisting 2 diabetes were treated with metformin (2.55-3 g daily). Glucose homeostasis markers, as well as serum levels of TSH and total and free thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels were assessed at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of therapy. As expected, metformin reduced plasma glucose, insulin resistance and glycated hemoglobin. However, with the exception of an insignificant decrease in TSH levels after 3-month therapy in group 2, metformin therapy did not affect thyroid function tests. Our results indicate that metformin has a negligible effect on hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis activity in type 2 diabetic patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Serum thioredoxin reductase is highly increased in mice with hepatocellular carcinoma and its activity is restrained by several mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Le; Cheng, Qing; Zhang, Longjie; Wang, Yijun; Merrill, Gary F; Ilani, Tal; Fass, Deborah; Arnér, Elias S J; Zhang, Jinsong

    2016-10-01

    Increased thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) levels in serum were recently identified as possible prognostic markers for human prostate cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma. We had earlier shown that serum levels of TrxR protein are very low in healthy mice, but can in close correlation to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increase more than 200-fold upon chemically induced liver damage. We also found that enzymatic TrxR activity in serum is counteracted by a yet unidentified oxidase activity in serum. In the present study we found that mice carrying H22 hepatocellular carcinoma tumors present highly increased levels of TrxR in serum, similarly to that reported in human patients. In this case ALT levels did not parallel those of TrxR. We also discovered here that the TrxR-antagonistic oxidase activity in serum is due to the presence of quiescin Q6 sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1). We furthermore found that the chemotherapeutic agents cisplatin or auranofin, when given systemically to H22 tumor bearing mice, can further inhibit TrxR activities in serum. The TrxR serum activity was also inhibited by endogenous electrophilic inhibitors, found to increase in tumor-bearing mice and to include protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). Thus, hepatocellular carcinoma triggers high levels of serum TrxR that are not paralleled by ALT, and TrxR enzyme activity in serum is counteracted by several different mechanisms. The physiological role of TrxR in serum, if any, as well as its potential value as a prognostic marker for tumor progression, needs to be studied further. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A High Serum Iron Level Causes Mouse Retinal Iron Accumulation Despite an Intact Blood-Retinal Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liangliang; Li, Yafeng; Song, Delu; Song, Ying; Theurl, Milan; Wang, Chenguang; Cwanger, Alyssa; Su, Guanfang; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2015-01-01

    The retina can be shielded by the blood-retinal barrier. Because photoreceptors are damaged by excess iron, it is important to understand whether the blood-retinal barrier protects against high serum iron levels. Bone morphogenic protein 6 (Bmp6) knockout mice have serum iron overload. Herein, we tested whether the previously documented retinal iron accumulation in Bmp6 knockout mice might result from the high serum iron levels or, alternatively, low levels of retinal hepcidin, an iron regulatory hormone whose transcription can be up-regulated by Bmp6. Furthermore, to determine whether increases in serum iron can elevate retinal iron levels, we i.v. injected iron into wild-type mice. Retinas were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence to assess the levels of iron-regulated genes/proteins and oxidative stress. Retinal hepcidin mRNA levels in Bmp6 knockout retinas were the same as, or greater than, those in age-matched wild-type retinas, indicating that Bmp6 knockout does not cause retinal hepcidin deficiency. Changes in mRNA levels of L ferritin and transferrin receptor indicated increased retinal iron levels in i.v. iron-injected wild-type mice. Oxidative stress markers were elevated in photoreceptors of mice receiving i.v. iron. These findings suggest that elevated serum iron levels can overwhelm local retinal iron regulatory mechanisms. PMID:25174877

  13. Association of Subclinical Hypothyroidism with Dyslipidemia and Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Children.

    PubMed

    Unal, Edip; Akın, Alper; Yıldırım, Ruken; Demir, Vasfiye; Yildiz, İsmail; Haspolat, Yusuf Kenan

    2017-06-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level with free thyroxine (fT4) level in the normal range. There are very few studies in the literature reporting on the effect of SH on lipid metabolism and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in children. The study included 38 children diagnosed with SH and a control group comprising 38 healthy, euthyroid children. SH was diagnosed based on an elevated TSH level (4.2-20 mIU/L) and normal fT4 level measured in two morning fasting blood samples obtained at an interval of 2 to 6 weeks. Blood samples were collected by venipuncture in the morning after an overnight fast. The patient group included 38 children (16 male, 22 female) with SH and the control group -38 healthy, euthyroid children (20 male, 18 female). Mean age was 8.1±3.6 (range, 3.5-15) years in the patient group and 8.9±2.4 (range, 4.5-15) years in the control group. In the patient group, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and LDL-C/HDL-C were higher compared to the control group (p=0.049, p=0.014, p=0.002, and 0.003, respectively). In the patient group, CIMT was also significantly higher compared to the control group (p=0.001). The patient group was further divided into two subgroups based on their serum TSH level: (I) patients with mildly elevated TSH (TSH=4.2±10 mIU/L) (n=33) and (II) patients with high TSH (TSH≥10 mIU/L) (n=5). However, no significant difference was found between the patients with mild and severe SH with regard to TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglyceride level and CIMT levels (p=0.635, p=0.424, p=0.310, p=0.342, and 0.610, respectively). Subclinical hypothyroidism leads to increased dyslipidemia (increased TC and LDL) and increased CIMT, which leads to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Further studies are needed to substantiate these findings in children with SH.

  14. Transmembrane Domains of Attraction on the TSH Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ali, M. Rejwan; Mezei, Mihaly; Davies, Terry F.

    2015-01-01

    The TSH receptor (TSHR) has the propensity to form dimers and oligomers. Our data using ectodomain-truncated TSHRs indicated that the predominant interfaces for oligomerization reside in the transmembrane (TM) domain. To map the potentially interacting residues, we first performed in silico studies of the TSHR transmembrane domain using a homology model and using Brownian dynamics (BD). The cluster of dimer conformations obtained from BD analysis indicated that TM1 made contact with TM4 and two residues in TM2 made contact with TM5. To confirm the proximity of these contact residues, we then generated cysteine mutants at all six contact residues predicted by the BD analysis and performed cysteine cross-linking studies. These results showed that the predicted helices in the protomer were indeed involved in proximity interactions. Furthermore, an alternative experimental approach, receptor truncation experiments and LH receptor sequence substitution experiments, identified TM1 harboring a major region involved in TSHR oligomerization, in agreement with the conclusion from the cross-linking studies. Point mutations of the predicted interacting residues did not yield a substantial decrease in oligomerization, unlike the truncation of the TM1, so we concluded that constitutive oligomerization must involve interfaces forming domains of attraction in a cooperative manner that is not dominated by interactions between specific residues. PMID:25406938

  15. Association of high post-transplant soluble CD30 serum levels with chronic allograft nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Grenzi, Patricia C; Campos, Érika F; Tedesco-Silva, Hélio; Felipe, Claudia R; Franco, Marcello F; Soares, Maria Fernanda; Medina-Pestana, José Osmar; Gerbase-Delima, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of post-transplant soluble CD30 (sCD30) levels, isolated or in combination with of anti-HLA class II antibodies and of serum creatinine levels, with kidney graft loss due to chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), and type of lesions in graft biopsies for cause. The study comprised 511 first kidney graft recipients, transplanted at a single center, with a graft functioning for at least 2.8 years. A single blood sample was collected from each patient. sCD30 levels were determined by ELISA, and HLA antibodies by Luminex assay. The minimum follow-up after testing was 9.3 years. High sCD30 levels, set at sCD30 ≥ 34.15 ng/mL, the presence of HLA class II antibodies, and serum creatinine ≥ 1.9 mg/dL were independently associated with CAN-graft loss (P values <0.0001, 0.05, <0.0001, respectively), and the combined hazard ratio for CAN-graft loss was 20.2. Analyses of 166 biopsies for cause showed that high sCD30 levels and creatinine were independently associated with interstitial lesions. Post-transplant sCD30 serum levels, especially in conjunction with information regarding HLA class II antibodies and serum creatinine levels, provide valuable information regarding graft outcome and could be useful for the management of kidney transplant recipients. © 2013.

  16. High-sensitivity serum C-reactive protein levels in subjects with or without myocardial infarction or periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Persson, G Rutger; Pettersson, Thomas; Ohlsson, Ola; Renvert, Stefan

    2005-03-01

    Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsC-rp) is a non-specific marker of inflammation. Elevated hsC-rp levels are found in subjects with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Periodontitis may influence hsC-rp levels. To assess periodontal status and hsC-rp serum levels in consecutive subjects hospitalized and diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (n=85) and in a group of carefully matched subjects (gender, age social, ethnic, and smoking habits) without clinical evidence of CVD (n=63). hsC-rp levels, other routine serum values, and clinical periodontal conditions were studied. Subjects with AMI had higher hsC-rp levels than control subjects (p<0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test). The odds that subjects in the control group with periodontitis (30% or more sites with>4.0 mm loss of alveolar bone) had serum hsC-rp>1.8 mg/l was 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1-7.3, p<0.05). Stepwise linear regression analysis failed to include periodontal parameters in an explanatory model to hsC-rp values. Only the serum leucocyte (white blood cell (WBC)) counts were explanatory to hsC-rp values (beta standard coefficient=0.45, t=3.2, p<0.001). Serum WBC counts were significantly higher in control subjects with periodontitis (p<0.03) but not in subjects in the AMI group (p<0.57). (1) As expected, elevated serum hsC-rp concentration and serum WBC counts are associated with acute coronary heart disease. (2) Elevated serum hsC-rp values are associated with radiographically defined periodontitis in subjects with no evidence of CVD. (3) Periodontal parameters are not explanatory to elevated serum hsC-rp values if serum WBC and low-density lipoprotein counts are included in the regression model. Copyright 2005 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  17. High serum total cholesterol is a long-term cause of osteoporotic fracture.

    PubMed

    Trimpou, P; Odén, A; Simonsson, T; Wilhelmsen, L; Landin-Wilhelmsen, K

    2011-05-01

    Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures were evaluated in 1,396 men and women for a period of 20 years. Serum total cholesterol was found to be an independent osteoporotic fracture risk factor whose predictive power improves with time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term risk factors for osteoporotic fracture. A population random sample of men and women aged 25-64 years (the Gothenburg WHO MONICA project, N = 1,396, 53% women) was studied prospectively. The 1985 baseline examination recorded physical activity at work and during leisure time, psychological stress, smoking habits, coffee consumption, BMI, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fibrinogen. Osteoporotic fractures over a period of 20 years were retrieved from the Gothenburg hospital registers. Poisson regression was used to analyze the predictive power for osteoporotic fracture of each risk factor. A total number of 258 osteoporotic fractures occurred in 143 participants (10.2%). As expected, we found that previous fracture, smoking, coffee consumption, and lower BMI each increase the risk for osteoporotic fracture independently of age and sex. More unexpectedly, we found that the gradient of risk of serum total cholesterol to predict osteoporotic fracture significantly increases over time (p = 0.0377). Serum total cholesterol is an independent osteoporotic fracture risk factor whose predictive power improves with time. High serum total cholesterol is a long-term cause of osteoporotic fracture.

  18. The Effect of Differentially Designed Fusion Proteins to Elicit Efficient Anti-human Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Mard-Soltani, Maysam; Rasaee, Mohamad Javad; Khalili, Saeed; Sheikhi, Abdol-Karim; Hedayati, Mehdi; Ghaderi-Zefrehi, Hossein; Alasvand, Milad

    2018-04-01

    The production of human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH) immunoassays requires specific antibodies against hTSH which is a cumbersome process. Therefore, producing specific polyclonal antibodies against engineered recombinant fusion hTSH antigens would be of great significance. The best immunogenic region of the hTSH was selected based on in silico analyses and equipped with two different fusions. Standard methods were used for protein expression, purification, verification, structural evaluation, and immunizations of the white New Zealand rabbits. Ultimately, immunized serums were used for antibody titration, purification and characterization (specificity, sensitivity and cross reactivity). The desired antigens were successfully designed, sub-cloned, expressed, confirmed and used for in vivo immunization. Structural analyses indicated that only the bigger antigen has showed changed 2 dimensional (2D) and 3D structural properties in comparison to the smaller antigen. The raised polyclonal antibodies were capable of specific and sensitive hTSH detection, while the cross reactivity with the other members of the glycoprotein hormone family was minimum and negligible. The fusion which was solely composed of the tetanus toxin epitopes led to better protein folding and was capable of immunizing the host animals resulting into high titer antibody. Therefore, the minimal fusion sequences seem to be more effective in eliciting specific antibody responses.

  19. Comparative analysis reveals the underlying mechanism of vertebrate seasonal reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Animals utilize photoperiodic changes as a calendar to regulate seasonal reproduction. Birds have highly sophisticated photoperiodic mechanisms and functional genomics analysis in quail uncovered the signal transduction pathway regulating avian seasonal reproduction. Birds detect light with deep brain photoreceptors. Long day (LD) stimulus induces secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary gland. PT-derived TSH locally activates thyroid hormone (TH) in the hypothalamus, which induces gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and hence gonadotropin secretion. However, during winter, low temperatures increase serum TH for adaptive thermogenesis, which accelerates germ cell apoptosis by activating the genes involved in metamorphosis. Therefore, TH has a dual role in the regulation of seasonal reproduction. Studies using TSH receptor knockout mice confirmed the involvement of PT-derived TSH in mammalian seasonal reproduction. In addition, studies in mice revealed that the tissue-specific glycosylation of TSH diversifies its function in the circulation to avoid crosstalk. In contrast to birds and mammals, one of the molecular machineries necessary for the seasonal reproduction of fish are localized in the saccus vasculosus from the photoreceptor to the neuroendocrine output. Thus, comparative analysis is a powerful tool to uncover the universality and diversity of fundamental properties in various organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Patterns of Interferon-Alpha–Induced Thyroid Dysfunction Vary with Ethnicity, Sex, Smoking Status, and Pretreatment Thyrotropin in an International Cohort of Patients Treated for Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Ghazarian, Sharon R.; Rosen, Antony; Ladenson, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Interferon-alpha (IFNα)–induced thyroid dysfunction occurs in up to 20% of patients undergoing therapy for hepatitis C. The diversity of thyroid disease presentations suggests that several different pathological mechanisms are involved, such as autoimmunity and direct toxicity. Elucidating the relationships between risk factors and disease phenotype provides insight into the mechanisms of disease pathophysiology. Methods We studied 869 euthyroid patients from the ACHIEVE 2/3 trial, a randomized international clinical trial comparing pegylated-IFNα2a weekly or albumin-IFNα2b every 2 weeks for up to 24 weeks in patients with hepatitis C, genotype 2 or 3, from 136 centers. The study population was 60% male and 55% white. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine were measured before therapy, monthly during treatment from week 8, and at 4- and 12-week follow-up visits. Results Overall, 181 (20.8%) participants had at least one abnormal TSH during the study. Low TSH occurred in 71 (8.2%), of whom 30 (3.5%) had a suppressed TSH below 0.1 mU/L. Hypothyroidism occurred in 53 patients (6.1%), with peak TSH above 10 mU/L in 12 patients (1.4%). Fifty-seven patients had a biphasic thyroiditis (6.6%), with extreme values for the nadir and/or peak TSH in all but one. Medical therapy was given to one thyrotoxic patient, four hypothyroid patients, and 26 biphasic thyroiditis patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that biphasic thyroiditis is associated with being female and higher pretreatment serum TSH, whereas being Asian or a current smoker decreased the risk of thyroiditis. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism are most strongly predicted by the pretreatment TSH. Conclusions Biphasic thyroiditis accounted for the majority (58%) of clinically relevant IFNα-induced thyroid dysfunction. We confirmed our recent findings in a related cohort that female sex is a risk factor for thyroiditis but not hypothyroidism. Further, in this large multiethnic

  1. Highly sensitive and specific on-site detection of serum cocaine by a low cost aptasensor.

    PubMed

    Oueslati, Rania; Cheng, Cheng; Wu, Jayne; Chen, Jiangang

    2018-06-15

    Cocaine is one of the most used illegal recreational drugs. Developing an on-site test for cocaine use detection has been a focus of research effort, since it is essential to the control and legal action against drug abuse. Currently most of cocaine detection methods are time-consuming and require special or expensive equipment, and the detection often suffers from high cross-reactivity with cocaine metabolites and relative low sensitivity with the best limit of detection reported at sub nanomolar (nM) level. In this work, an aptasensor has been developed using capacitive monitoring of sensor surface incorporating alternating current electrokinetics effects to speed up molecular transport and minimize matrix effects. The aptasensor is rapid, low cost, highly sensitive and specific as well as simple-to-use for the detection of cocaine from serum. The assay has a sample-to-result time of 30 s, a limit of detection of 7.8 fM, and a linear response for cocaine ranging from 14.5fM to 14.5pM in standard buffer, which are great improvements from other reported cocaine sensors. Special buffer is used for serum cocaine detection, and a limit of detection of 13.4 fM is experimentally demonstrated for cocaine spiked in human serum (equivalent to 1.34pM cocaine in neat serum). The specificity of the biosensor is also demonstrated with structurally similar chemicals, ecgonine ethyl ester and methylecgonidine. This biosensor shows high promise in detection of low levels of cocaine from complex matrices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Small-molecule agonists for the thyrotropin receptor stimulate thyroid function in human thyrocytes and mice

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Susanne; Huang, Wenwei; Titus, Steve; Krause, Gerd; Kleinau, Gunnar; Alberobello, Anna Teresa; Zheng, Wei; Southall, Noel T.; Inglese, James; Austin, Christopher P.; Celi, Francesco S.; Gavrilova, Oksana; Thomas, Craig J.; Raaka, Bruce M.; Gershengorn, Marvin C.

    2009-01-01

    Seven-transmembrane-spanning receptors (7TMRs) are prominent drug targets. However, small-molecule ligands for 7-transmembrane-spanning receptors for which the natural ligands are large, heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones, like thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; thyrotropin), have only recently been reported, and none are approved for human use. We have used quantitative high-throughput screening to identify a small-molecule TSH receptor (TSHR) agonist that was modified to produce a second agonist with increased potency. We show that these agonists are highly selective for human TSHR versus other glycoprotein hormone receptors and interact with the receptor's serpentine domain. A binding pocket within the transmembrane domain was defined by docking into a TSHR homology model and was supported by site-directed mutagenesis. In primary cultures of human thyrocytes, both TSH and the agonists increase mRNA levels for thyroglobulin, thyroperoxidase, sodium iodide symporter, and deiodinase type 2, and deiodinase type 2 enzyme activity. Moreover, oral administration of the agonist stimulated thyroid function in mice, resulting in increased serum thyroxine and thyroidal radioiodide uptake. Thus, we discovered a small molecule that activates human TSHR in vitro, is orally active in mice, and could be a lead for development of drugs to use in place of recombinant human TSH in patients with thyroid cancer. PMID:19592511

  3. The influence of a high level of corn oil on rat serum lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Narayan, K A; McMullen, J J; Butler, D P; Wakefield, T; Calhoun, W K

    1976-01-01

    Although the stated requirement for linoleic acid in humans is less than 2% of the dietary calories, recently there has been considerable emphasis on the necessity to substitute dietary polyunsaturates for saturates in order to reduce serum cholesterol levels. In this study we have sought to determine the nutritional consequences of feeding a very high level of linoleate to rats. Three groups of thirty adult animals each were fed a semipurified diet consisting by weight of casein 17%; mineral mixture 5.5%; vitamin mixture in glucose 2.2%; cellulose fiber 3.0%; and corn oil 0% (group A), 10% (group B) or 40% (group C), which was provided at the expense of glucose. At the end of four weeks on the diets, blood was obtained in the fasting state from 16 rats in each group. The serum was ultracentrifugally fractionated into six classes of lipoproteins and analyzed for lipid composition and protein content. Disc gel electrophoresis using lipid and protein stains established that the various lipoprotein subclasses were reasonably free of adjacent density fractions. Although the total serum cholesterol levels were practically the same in the three groups, the cholesterol moiety of the major low density lipoproteins, LDL2 (d 1.019-1.050), but not of very low density lipoproteins, VLDL (d 1.006) or low density lipoproteins, LDL1 (d 1.006-1.019), was substantially and very significantly increased in rats fed the high level of corn oil as compared to the other groups. The concentration of the very low density lipoproteins was significantly lower in group C than in the groups A and B. The LDL2 concentration but not that of LDL1 was significantly greater in group C as compared to group A. The cholesterol/total lipid ratio was significantly greater in both LDL2 and LDL1 but not in VLDL of group C as compared with group A. The serum high density lipoproteins were relatively less influenced by the ingestion of an excessive level of corn oil at this time period. The serum lipoprotein

  4. An evaluation of serum soluble CD30 levels and serum CD26 (DPPIV) enzyme activity as markers of type 2 and type 1 cytokines in HIV patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Keane, N M; Price, P; Lee, S; Stone, S F; French, M A

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluates serum CD26 (dipeptidyl peptidase IV, DPPIV) enzyme activity and serum levels of soluble CD30 as markers of T1 and T2 cytokine environments in HIV patients who achieved immune reconstitution after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Patients who had experienced inflammatory disease associated with pre-existent opportunistic infections after HAART (immune restoration diseases, IRD) were considered separately. Serum sCD30 levels and CD26 (DPPIV) enzyme activity were compared with IFN-γ production by PBMC cultured with cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigen in controls and patient groups. High sCD30 levels were associated with low IFN-γ production after antigenic stimulation in control subjects and, to a lesser extent, in immune reconstituted HIV patients. There was no association between serum CD26 (DPPIV) enzyme activity and IFN-γ production or sCD30 levels. Serum sCD30 levels and CD26 (DPPIV) enzyme activity were significantly increased in immune reconstituted patients with high HIV viral loads. Patients who had experienced CMV retinitis as an IRD had significantly higher sCD30 levels than all other patient groups. Hence, high sCD30 levels may be a marker of a T2 cytokine environment in HIV patients with immune reconstitution and are associated with higher HIV viral loads and a history of CMV associated IRD. PMID:11678906

  5. Maternal thyroid dysfunction during gestation, preterm delivery, and birthweight. The Infancia y Medio Ambiente Cohort, Spain.

    PubMed

    León, Gemma; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Álvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Castilla, Ane M; Basterrechea, Mikel; Iñiguez, Carmen; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Blarduni, Elizabeth; Foradada, Carles M; Tardón, Adonina; Vioque, Jesús

    2015-03-01

    Maternal clinical thyroid disorders can cause reproductive complications. However, the effects of mild thyroid dysfunctions are not yet well established. The aim was to evaluate the association of maternal thyroid function during the first half of pregnancy with birthweight and preterm delivery. We analysed data on 2170 pregnant women and their children from a prospective population-based cohort study in four Spanish areas. Mid-gestation maternal serum and urine samples were gathered to determine thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4 ), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Thyroid status was defined according to percentile distribution as: euthyroid (TSH and fT4 >5th and <95th percentiles); hypothyroxinaemia (fT4  < 5 th percentile and TSH normal), hypothyroidism (TSH > 95th percentile and fT4 normal or <5th percentile), hyperthyroxinaemia (fT4  > 95 th percentile and TSH normal), and hyperthyroidism (TSH < 5 th percentile and fT4 normal or >95th percentile). Response variables were birthweight, small and large for gestational age (SGA/LGA), and preterm delivery. An inverse association of fT4 and TSH with birthweight was found, the former remaining when restricted to euthyroid women. High fT4 levels were also associated with an increased risk of SGA [odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28 (95% CI 1.08, 1.51)]. Mean birthweight was higher in the hypothyroxinaemic group (β = 109, P < 0.01). Iodine intake and UIC were not associated with birth outcomes. High maternal fT4 levels during the first half of pregnancy were related to lower birthweight and increased risk of SGA newborns, suggesting that maternal thyroid function may affect fetal growth, even within the normal range. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Subclinical hyperthyroidism: possible danger of overzealous thyroxine replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Ross, D S

    1988-12-01

    Many patients taking customary doses of levothyroxine have slightly elevated serum thyroxine (T4), apparently normal serum triiodothyronine, suppressed serum thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone; TSH) concentrations, and no clinical symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Recent reports suggest that these patients may have adverse effects from subclinical hyperthyroidism, including abnormally short systolic time intervals, elevations in liver enzymes, and reductions in bone density. Controversy exists about which thyroid function tests should be used to monitor patients taking levothyroxine. A review of currently available data suggests that replacement doses of levothyroxine given to hypothyroid patients should be adjusted so that serum TSH measured by the new sensitive assays is within the normal range. Patients requiring suppressive doses of levothyroxine to shrink goitrous thyroid tissue or to prevent growth of abnormal tissue should be given the minimal dose needed to accomplish the desired clinical or biochemical response.

  7. Cardiac troponin T determination by a highly sensitive assay in postmortem serum and pericardial fluid.

    PubMed

    González-Herrera, Lucas; Valenzuela, Aurora; Ramos, Valentín; Blázquez, Antonia; Villanueva, Enrique

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to test, for the first time, a highly sensitive cardiac troponin T (cTnThs) assay in postmortem serum and pericardial fluid and to evaluate cardiac troponin T (cTnT) levels and their stability after death at different postmortem intervals, in an attempt to determine the viability of the cTnThs assay in the postmortem diagnosis of the cause of death. cTnT levels were determined in serum and pericardial fluid samples taken from 58 cadavers at known postmortem intervals, whose causes of death were categorized into the following groups: (1) sudden cardiac deaths, (2) multiple trauma, (3) mechanical asphyxia, and (4) other natural deaths. cTnT was determined by inmunoassay, using the Troponin T highly sensitive STAT assay (Roche(®)). Average cTnT levels measured by a highly sensitive assay in postmortem serum were markedly higher than clinical serum levels. Moreover, similar results, higher cTnT levels in postmortem pericardial fluid, were obtained when compared to levels found in pericardial fluid taken from two living patients during coronary artery bypass surgery. cTnT levels in both postmortem fluids remained stable for up to 34 h after death. No differences in cTnT levels in either postmortem fluid by sex and age were detected. Levels of cTnT found in pericardial fluid in the other natural deaths group were significantly lower than the cTnT levels found in that postmortem fluid from any of the other causes of death groups. It is therefore reasonable to conclude that determination of cTnT by a highly sensitive assay in pericardial fluid can provide forensic pathologists with a complementary test to the diagnosis of cause of death.

  8. Liver lipase and high-density lipoprotein. Lipoprotein changes after incubation of human serum with rat liver lipase.

    PubMed

    Groot, P H; Scheek, L M; Jansen, H

    1983-05-16

    Human sera were incubated with rat liver lipase after inactivation of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, and the changes in serum lipoprotein composition were measured. In the presence of liver lipase serum triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine were hydrolyzed. The main changes in the concentrations of these lipids were found in the high-density lipoprotein fraction. Subfractionation of high-density lipoprotein by rate-zonal ultracentrifugation showed a prominent decrease in all constituents of high-density lipoprotein2, a smaller decrease in the 'light' high-density lipoprotein3 and an increase in the 'heavy' high-density lipoprotein3. These data support a concept in which liver lipase is involved in high-density lipoprotein2 phospholipid and triacylglycerol catabolism and suggest that as a result of this action high-density lipoprotein2 is converted into high-density lipoprotein3.

  9. Longitudinal trends in thyroid function in relation to iodine intake: ongoing changes of thyroid function despite adequate current iodine status.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, Annenienke C; Netea-Maier, Romana T; Ross, H Alec; van Herwaarden, Teun A E; Holewijn, Suzanne; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Kiemeney, Bart L A; van Tienoven, Doorlène; Wetzels, Jack F M; Smit, Johannes W; Sweep, Fred C G J; Hermus, Ad R M M; den Heijer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Several cross-sectional studies on populations with iodine deficiency showed that TSH-levels are negatively associated with age, while in populations with high iodine intake TSH is positively associated with age. The question is whether such an age-thyroid function relation is an ongoing process apparent also in longitudinal studies and whether it reflects an actual iodine deficiency or an iodine insufficiency in the past. In an area with a borderline iodine status in the past, we studied 980 participants of the Nijmegen Biomedical Study. We measured serum TSH, free thyroxine (FT₄), total triiodothyronine (T₃), peroxidase antibodies, and the urine iodine and creatinine concentration 4 years after our initial survey of thyroid function, in which we reported a negative association between TSH and age. within 4 years, TSH decreased by 5.4% (95% ci 2.58.3%) and FT₄ increased by 3.7% (95% ci 2.94.6%). median urinary iodine concentration was 130 μg/l. estimated 24-h iodine excretion was not associated with TSH, T₃, change of TSH, or FT₄ over time or with the presence of antibodies against thyroid peroxidase. Only FT₄ appeared to be somewhat higher at lower urine iodine levels: a 1.01% (95% CI 0.17-1.84%) higher FT₄ for each lower iodine quintile. In this longitudinal study, we found an ongoing decrease in TSH and increase in FT₄ in a previously iodine insufficient population, despite the adequate iodine status at present. This suggests that low iodine intake at young age leads to thyroid autonomy (and a tendency to hyperthyroidism) that persists despite normal iodine intake later in life.

  10. A case of myxedema coma caused by isolated thyrotropin stimulating hormone deficiency and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Iida, Keiji; Hino, Yasuhisa; Ohara, Takeshi; Chihara, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Myxedema coma (MC) is a rare, but often fatal endocrine emergency. The majority of cases that occur in elderly women with long-standing primary hypothyroidism are caused by particular triggers. Conversely, MC of central origin is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of MC with both central and primary origins. A 56-year-old woman was transferred to our hospital due to loss of consciousness; a chest x-ray demonstrated severe cardiomegaly. Low body temperature, bradycardia, and pericardial effusion suggested the presence of hypothyroidism. Endocrinological examination revealed undetectable levels of serum free thyroxine (T(4)) and free triiodothyronine (T(3)), whereas serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were not elevated. The woman's serum anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody and anti-thyroglobulin antibody tests were positive, indicating that she had Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Provocative tests to the anterior pituitary revealed that she had TSH and growth hormone (GH) deficiency; however, GH levels were restored after supplementation with levothyroxine for 5 months. This was not only a rare case of MC with TSH deficiency and Hashimoto's thyroiditis; the patient also developed severe osteoporosis and possessed transient elevated levels of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). This atypical case may suggest the role of anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies, as well as hypothyroidism, in the regulation of bone metabolism.

  11. Assessment of thyroid function in dogs with low plasma thyroxine concentration.

    PubMed

    Diaz Espineira, M M; Mol, J A; Peeters, M E; Pollak, Y W E A; Iversen, L; van Dijk, J E; Rijnberk, A; Kooistra, H S

    2007-01-01

    Differentiation between hypothyroidism and nonthyroidal illness in dogs poses specific problems, because plasma total thyroxine (TT4) concentrations are often low in nonthyroidal illness, and plasma thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations are frequently not high in primary hypothyroidism. The serum concentrations of the common basal biochemical variables (TT4, freeT4 [fT4], and TSH) overlap between dogs with hypothyroidism and dogs with nonthyroidal illness, but, with stimulation tests and quantitative measurement of thyroidal 99mTcO4(-) uptake, differentiation will be possible. In 30 dogs with low plasma TT4 concentration, the final diagnosis was based upon histopathologic examination of thyroid tissue obtained by biopsy. Fourteen dogs had primary hypothyroidism, and 13 dogs had nonthyroidal illness. Two dogs had secondary hypothyroidism, and 1 dog had metastatic thyroid cancer. The diagnostic value was assessed for (1) plasma concentrations of TT4, fT4, and TSH; (2) TSH-stimulation test; (3) plasma TSH concentration after stimulation with TSH-releasing hormone (TRH); (4) occurrence of thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAbs); and (5) thyroidal 99mTcO4(-) uptake. Plasma concentrations of TT4, fT4, TSH, and the hormone pairs TT4/TSH and fT4/TSH overlapped in the 2 groups, whereas, with TgAbs, there was 1 false-negative result. Results of the TSH- and TRH-stimulation tests did not meet earlier established diagnostic criteria, overlapped, or both. With a quantitative measurement of thyroidal 99mTcO4(-) uptake, there was no overlap between dogs with primary hypothyroidism and dogs with nonthyroidal illness. The results of this study confirm earlier observations that, in dogs, accurate biochemical diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism poses specific problems. Previous studies, in which the TSH-stimulation test was used as the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism may have suffered from misclassification. Quantitative measurement of thyroidal 99mTcO- uptake

  12. Functional morphology of pituitary -thyroid and -adrenocortical axes in middle-aged male rats treated with Vitex agnus castus essential oil.

    PubMed

    Šošić-Jurjević, Branka; Ajdžanović, Vladimir; Filipović, Branko; Trifunović, Svetlana; Jarić, Ivana; Ristić, Nataša; Milošević, Verica

    2016-09-01

    We previously reported that Vitex agnus-castus L. essential oil (VACEO), when administered to middle-aged males, exerts a bone-protective effect, induces silencing of locomotor activities and decreases pituitary prolactin immunopositivity. To further assess the putative endocrine effects of VACEO, we examined the pituitary-thyroid and -adrenocortical axes in our model. Sixteen-month-old Wistar rats were subcutaneously administered 60mg/kg of VACEO dissolved in sterile olive oil, while the control group received the same amount of vehicle alone for three weeks. Pituitaries, thyroids and adrenals were analyzed by qualitative and quantitative histological approaches. Concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine and triiodothyronine (TH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone in serum and in adrenal tissue were measured. In VACEO-treated rats, the relative volume density of pituitary thyrotrophs increased (p<0.001), while intensity of cytoplasmic TSHβ immunostaining decreased (p<0.001), consistent with elevated TSH in serum (p<0.01). The thyroid tissue was characterized by a micro-follicular structure, increased relative volume of follicular epithelium (p<0.05), decreased volume of luminal colloid (p<0.001) and increased basolateral expression of sodium-iodide symporter-immunopositivity (p<0.05). Serum TH also increased (p<0.01). The relative volume density of pituitary corticotrophs decreased (p<0.05), compatible with decline in circulating ACTH (p<0.05). Neither tissue nor serum corticosterone levels were affected by VACEO treatment. In conclusion, the observed changes in TSH and ACTH strongly indicate central endocrine effects of prolonged VACEO treatment. In this respect, production of ACTH decreased without impact on corticosterone production. Increase in serum concentration of both TH and TSH are not compatible with a negative feedback loop and suggest a major change in set-point regulation of the hypothalamic

  13. High serum level of retinol and α-tocopherol affords protection against oral cancer in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Athirajan, Vimmitra; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Thurairajah, Nalina; Ghani, Wan Maria Nabillah; Ching, Helen-Ng Lee; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Peng, Karen-Ng Lee; Abdul Rahman, Zainal Ariff; Mustafa, Wan Mahadzir Wan; Abraham, Mannil Thomas; Kiong, Tay Keng; Mun, Yuen Kar; Jalil, Norma; Zain, Rosnah Binti

    2014-01-01

    A comparative cross-sectional study involving oral cancer patients and healthy individuals was designed to investigate associations between retinol, α-tocopherol and β-carotene with the risk of oral cancer. This study included a total of 240 matched cases and controls where subjects were selected from the Malaysian Oral Cancer Database and Tissue Bank System (MOCDTBS). Retinol, α-tocopherol and β-carotene levels and intake were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) respectively. It was found that results from the two methods applied did not correlate, so that further analysis was done using the HPLC method utilising blood serum. Serum levels of retinol and α-tocopherol among cases (0.177±0.081, 1.649±1.670μg/ml) were significantly lower than in controls (0.264±0.137, 3.225±2.054μg/ml) (p<0.005). Although serum level of β-carotene among cases (0.106±0.159 μg/ml) were lower compared to controls (0.134±0.131μg/ml), statistical significance was not observed. Logistic regression analysis showed that high serum level of retinol (OR=0.501, 95% CI=0.254-0.992, p<0.05) and α-tocopherol (OR=0.184, 95% CI=0.091-0.370, p<0.05) was significantly related to lower risk of oral cancer, whereas no relationship was observed between β-carotene and oral cancer risk. High serum levels of retinol and α-tocopherol confer protection against oral cancer risk.

  14. Subclinical hypothyroidism and its relation to obesity in patients before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ignace M C; Homan, Jens; Schijns, Wendy; Betzel, Bark; Aarts, Edo O; Berends, Frits J; de Boer, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH), defined as a raised serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with a normal free thyroxine (FT4), is occasionally observed in morbidly obese patients. It is currently not known whether thyroid hormone treatment is indicated. The aim of the present study was to assess the changes in thyroid hormone levels in thyroxine-naïve patients with SH in response to weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). General hospital specialized in bariatric surgery. Serum levels of TSH and FT4 were measured at baseline in 503 patients presenting for RYGB. In patients diagnosed with SH, these measurements were repeated 12 months postoperatively. SH de novo was present in 71 out of 503 patients (14.1%). One-year follow-up was available in 61 out of 71 patients (86%). TSH level >10 mU/L was observed in 3 patients (.5%). RYGB induced a decrease in BMI from 47±8 kg/m(2) to 33±6 kg/m(2) at 12-month follow-up (P<.001), and this was associated with a decrease in TSH from 5.8±2.0 to 2.8±1.3 mU/L (P<.001) and a decrease in FT4 from 15.2±2.1 to 13.9±2.3 pmol/L (P<.001), respectively. SH completely resolved in 53 (87%) of the de novo cases. The prevalence of SH de novo is high in morbidly obese patients. After RYGB it resolves in about 90% of patients. This high degree of spontaneous recovery suggests that follow-up alone is sufficient in the majority of patients. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High serum levels of caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 are associated with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction patient mortality.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Leonardo; Martín, María M; Pérez-Cejas, Antonia; Ramos, Luis; Argueso, Mónica; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Cáceres, Juan J; Jiménez, Alejandro; García-Marín, Victor

    2018-03-24

    There have been found apoptotic changes in brain tissue samples from humans after cerebral ischemia. Caspase-cleaved cytokeratin (CCCK)-18 could appears in blood during apoptosis. High circulating levels of CCCK-18 have been associated with a poor prognosis in patients with cerebral process, such as traumatic brain injury and spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage. However, they have not been explored in patients with ischemic stroke. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between serum CCCK-18 levels and mortality in patients with severe malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI). This was an observational, prospective and multicentre study. We included patients with severe MMCAI. We considered MMCAI as severe when Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was lower than 9. We measured serum CCCK-18 levels at the diagnosis moment of the severe MMCAI. We found that non-surviving severe MMCAI patients (n = 33) showed lower GCS and platelet count, and higher serum CCCK-18 levels than survivor ones (n = 33). We found an area under the curve (AUC) of serum CCCK-18 levels to predict 30-day mortality of 82% (95% CI = 71%-91%; p < 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression analysis was found that serum CCCK-18 levels were associated with 30-day mortality (OR = 1.023; 95% CI = 1.010-1.037; p = 0.001) after to control for platelet count and GCS. To our knowledge, this is the first series reporting data on serum CCCK-18 levels in ischemic stroke patients. The novel findings of our study were that non-surviving severe MMCAI patients had higher serum CCCK-18 levels than surviving patients, and that there is an association between high serum CCCK-18 levels and MMCAI patients mortality.

  16. Serum miRNA levels are related to glucose homeostasis and islet autoantibodies in children with high risk for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Åkerman, Linda; Casas, Rosaura; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Tavira, Beatriz; Skoglund, Camilla

    2018-01-01

    Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are promising disease biomarkers due to their high stability. Their expression in serum is altered in type 1 diabetes, but whether deviations exist in individuals with high risk for type 1 diabetes remains unexplored. We therefore assessed serum miRNAs in high-risk individuals (n = 21) positive for multiple islet autoantibodies, age-matched healthy children (n = 17) and recent-onset type 1 diabetes patients (n = 8), using Serum/Plasma Focus microRNA PCR Panels from Exiqon. The miRNA levels in the high-risk group were similar to healthy controls, and no specific miRNA profile was identified for the high-risk group. However, serum miRNAs appeared to reflect glycemic status and ongoing islet autoimmunity in high-risk individuals, since several miRNAs were associated to glucose homeostasis and autoantibody titers. High-risk individuals progressing to clinical disease after the sampling could not be clearly distinguished from non-progressors, while miRNA expression in the type 1 diabetes group deviated significantly from high-risk individuals and healthy controls, perhaps explained by major metabolic disturbances around the time of diagnosis.

  17. Inability of recombinant human thyrotropin to predict the evolution from subclinical hypothyroidism to overt disease. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zafon, C; Rodríguez, B; Montoro, J B; Cabo, D; Mesa, J

    2012-01-01

    The use of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) is indicated to evaluate thyroid carcinoma patients. In recent years, some authors have reported that rhTSH could serve as a dynamic test of thyroid reserve. The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not rhTSH can predict the evolution from subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) to overt hypothyroidism. Twenty-one women who met the diagnostic criteria of SH were enrolled. All patients received a single dose of rhTSH (0.1 mg). Basal blood samples for TSH, free T4 (fT4), thyroglobulin (Tg), and anti-thyoperoxidase and anti-Tg antibodies were obtained before and 1 day after rhTSH administration. All patients were followed for 2 yr, and blood samples were obtained every 6 months. Twenty-four hours after rhTSH administration, the TSH level increased to >20 mU/l in 14 patients; the serum peak TSH levels remained <10 mU/l in only 5 patients. On follow-up, 7 women (33%) required L-T4 replacement therapy for overt hypothyroidism or a persistent TSH level >10 mlU/l. None of the parameters analyzed differed significantly between patients who developed overt hypothyroidism from those who had persistent SH. The response of thyroid function tests to a single low dose of rhTSH is not useful in identifying those patients with SH who will develop overt hypothyroidism over a 2-yr period.

  18. Association between TPO Asn698Thr and Thr725Pro gene polymorphisms and serum anti-TPO levels in Iranian patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Khoshi, Amirhosein; Sirghani, Alireza; Ghazisaeedi, Mehran; Mahmudabadi, Ali Zare; Azimian, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is defined as high levels of TSH in the presence of normal levels of serum FT4. Since thyroid peroxidase (TPO) plays a key role in thyroid hormone synthesis, variations in the TPO gene can change the enzyme structure and result in the production of anti-TPO antibodies. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the Asn698Thr (A2095C) and Thr725Pro (A2173C) polymorphisms of the TPO gene and anti-TPO levels in patients with SCH. In this study, 150 individuals (75 cases and 75 controls), aged 19-75 years, were selected randomly by a clinician. The thyroid function tests included were FT3, FT4, TSH and anti-TPO antibodies using ELISA. The TPO gene polymorphisms were examined by PCR-RFLP. Anti-TPO levels in the experimental group was significantly increased (P=0.020). The A2095C genotype frequency in the experimental and control groups were 37.3% vs 34.7% for the AA healthy genotype, 20% vs 46.7% for AC and 42.7% vs 18.6% for CC, respectively (P=0.001). The A2173C genotype frequency in the experimental and control groups were 22.6% vs 68% for healthy AA, 40% vs 25.3% for AC and 37.4% vs 6.7% for CC, respectively (P <0.001). The increased anti-TPO antibodies were significantly associated with the A2173C polymorphism (P=0.035). The findings showed that the chance (odds ratio) of developing subclinical hypothyroidism in individuals who had C alleles was 1.5 and 5.6-fold higher than in individuals without these alleles in the A2095C and A2173C regions, respectively. Determination of anti-TPO antibody levels and exon 12 TPO gene polymorphisms in patients with SCH can be helpful for prediction of overt hypothyroidism.

  19. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of methotrexate, 7-hydroxymethotrexate, 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid and folinic acid in serum and cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Belz, S; Frickel, C; Wolfrom, C; Nau, H; Henze, G

    1994-11-04

    A method for the simultaneous determination of the antifolates methotrexate and 7-hydroxymethotrexate as well as the folates 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid and folinic acid (5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is described. High-performance liquid chromatography with gradient elution and dual detection (ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence) was used to separate and quantitate the analytes. Serum samples containing high levels of the substances of interest and CSF samples were injected directly onto the HPLC column. For determination of low concentrations, serum samples were subjected to a solid-phase extraction method for clean-up and concentration purposes. The determination limits were 10 ng/ml for both antifolates, 100 ng/ml for folinic acid, and 0.1 ng/ml for the physiologically occurring methylated folate which is about 1/100 the serum concentration in healthy children. The suitability of the method for pharmacokinetic monitoring of high-dose methotrexate therapy combined with leucovorin rescue administered to children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia was demonstrated. Minimum values of the serum folate during treatment ranged from 0.2 to 3.1 ng/ml. Even those very low concentrations could be reliably measured.

  20. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Decandia, F

    2018-02-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH), defined as an increased serum thyrotropin (TSH) level and normal plasma-free thyroid hormones' concentrations, is common in the general population, in particular, among elderly women. Its prevalence ranges from 4 to 15% and up to 20% among females aged > 60 year. Although SH has been associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), it is acknowledged that the high prevalence of dyslipidemia in elderly people is considered a common biochemical condition. Therefore, whether SH is associated with a higher risk for CVD is still controversial. At the moment, no consensus exists on the clinical significance and treatment of the mild form of thyroid failure, although available data suggest that only patients with plasma TSH levels above 10 mU/L may have an increased risk of CVD. However, treatment of SH in older individual requires special consideration with regard to thyroid hormone replacement therapy and expected clinical outcomes, since the increase of TSH observed in this population may represent a physiological process. It is likely that age affects TSH levels, and some studies suggest that modified reference limits for elderly populations should be considered in the diagnosis of mild thyroid failure.

  1. Chronic High Fructose Intake Reduces Serum 1,25 (OH)2D3 Levels in Calcium-Sufficient Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Douard, Veronique; Patel, Chirag; Lee, Jacklyn; Tharabenjasin, Phuntila; Williams, Edek; Fritton, J. Christopher; Sabbagh, Yves; Ferraris, Ronaldo P.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive fructose consumption inhibits adaptive increases in intestinal Ca2+ transport in lactating and weanling rats with increased Ca2+ requirements by preventing the increase in serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3. Here we tested the hypothesis that chronic fructose intake decreases 1,25(OH)2D3 levels independent of increases in Ca2+ requirements. Adult mice fed for five wk a high glucose-low Ca2+ diet displayed expected compensatory increases in intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter expression and activity, in renal CYP27B1 (coding for 1α-hydroxylase) expression as well as in serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels, compared with mice fed isocaloric glucose- or fructose-normal Ca2+ diets. Replacing glucose with fructose prevented these increases in Ca2+ transporter, CYP27B1, and 1,25(OH)2D3 levels induced by a low Ca2+ diet. In adult mice fed for three mo a normal Ca2+ diet, renal expression of CYP27B1 and of CYP24A1 (24-hydroxylase) decreased and increased, respectively, when the carbohydrate source was fructose instead of glucose or starch. Intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter activity and expression did not vary with dietary carbohydrate. To determine the time course of fructose effects, a high fructose or glucose diet with normal Ca2+ levels was fed to adult rats for three mo. Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 decreased and of FGF23 increased significantly over time. Renal expression of CYP27B1 and serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 still decreased in fructose- compared to those in glucose-fed rats after three mo. Serum parathyroid hormone, Ca2+ and phosphate levels were normal and independent of dietary sugar as well as time of feeding. Thus, chronically high fructose intakes can decrease serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 in adult rodents experiencing no Ca2+ stress and fed sufficient levels of dietary Ca2+. This finding is highly significant because fructose constitutes a substantial portion of the average diet of Americans already deficient in vitamin D. PMID:24718641

  2. The effect of a very high daily plant stanol ester intake on serum lipids, carotenoids, and fat-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Gylling, Helena; Hallikainen, Maarit; Nissinen, Markku J; Miettinen, Tatu A

    2010-02-01

    Intake of 2-3 g/d of plant stanols as esters lowers LDL cholesterol level, but there is no information about the efficacy and safety of a respective very high daily intake. We studied the effects of 8.8 g/d of plant stanols as esters on serum lipids and safety variables in subjects with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study the intervention (n=25) and control (n=24) groups consumed spread and drink enriched or not with plant stanol esters for 10 weeks. Plant stanols reduced serum total and LDL cholesterol concentrations by 12.8 and 17.3% from baseline and by 12.0 and 17.1% from controls (P<0.01 for all). Liver enzymes, markers of hemolysis, and blood cells were unchanged. Serum vitamins A, D, and gamma-tocopherol concentrations, and the ratios of alpha-tocopherol to cholesterol were unchanged. Serum beta-carotene concentrations decreased significantly from baseline and were different from controls even when adjusted for cholesterol. Serum alpha-carotene concentration and alpha-carotene/cholesterol ratio were not different from controls. High intake of plant stanols reduced LDL cholesterol values without any other side effects than reduction of serum beta-carotene concentration. However, the end product, serum vitamin A levels, were unchanged. The results suggest that plant stanol ester intake can be increased to induce a greater cholesterol lowering effect. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. The Thr92Ala 5′ Type 2 Deiodinase Gene Polymorphism Is Associated with a Delayed Triiodothyronine Secretion in Response to the Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone–Stimulation Test: A Pharmacogenomic Study

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Peter W.; Smith, Sheila M.; Linderman, Joyce D.; Brychta, Robert J.; Alberobello, Anna Teresa; Dubaz, Ornella M.; Luzon, Javier A.; Skarulis, Monica C.; Cochran, Craig S.; Wesley, Robert A.; Pucino, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Background The common Thr92Ala D2 polymorphism has been associated with changes in pituitary–thyroid axis homeostasis, but published results are conflicting. To investigate the effects of the Thr92Ala polymorphism on intrathyroidal thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) conversion, we designed prospective pharmacogenomic intervention aimed to detect differences in T3 levels after thyrotropin (TSH)-releasing hormone (TRH)–mediated TSH stimulation of the thyroid gland. Methods Eighty-three healthy volunteers were screened and genotyped for the Thr92Ala polymorphism. Fifteen volunteers of each genotype (Thr/Thr, Thr/Ala, and Ala/Ala) underwent a 500 mcg intravenous TRH stimulation test with serial measurements of serum total T3 (TT3), free T4, and TSH over 180 minutes. Results No differences in baseline thyroid hormone levels were seen among the study groups. Compared to the Thr/Thr group, the Ala/Ala group showed a significantly lower TRH-stimulated increase in serum TT3 at 60 minutes (12.07 ± 2.67 vs. 21.07 ± 2.86 ng/dL, p = 0.029). Thr/Ala subjects showed an intermediate response. Compared to Thr/Thr subjects, the Ala/Ala group showed a blunted rate of rise in serum TT3 as measured by mean time to 50% maximum delta serum TT3 (88.42 ± 6.84 vs. 69.56 ± 6.06 minutes, p = 0.028). Subjects attained similar maximal (180 minutes) TRH-stimulated TT3 levels. TRH-stimulated TSH and free T4 levels were not significantly different among the three genotype groups. Conclusions The commonly occurring Thr92Ala D2 variant is associated with a decreased rate of acute TSH-stimulated T3 release from the thyroid consistent with a decrease in intrathyroidal deiodination. These data provide a proof of concept that the Thr92Ala polymorphism is associated with subtle changes in thyroid hormone homeostasis. PMID:21054208

  4. Diffuse thyroid uptake incidentally found on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in subjects without cancer history.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Young; Choi, Joon Young; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Hyun, Seung Hyup; Moon, Seung Hwan; Jang, Su Jin; Choe, Yearn Seong; Lee, Kyung-Han; Kim, Byung-Tae

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the clinical significance of incidental diffuse thyroid uptake (DTU) on (18)F-FDG PET in subjects without a history of cancer. This study included 2062 studies from adults who underwent (18)F-FDG PET as a cancer screening program. Subjects were divided into the following two groups: with (group I) or without (group II) DTU. The presence of DTU and the thyroid visual grading score were compared with thyroid function tests, serum anti-microsomal antibody (AMA) levels, and the presence of diffuse parenchymal change (DPC) on ultrasonography (USG). DTU was found in 6.6% of the scans (137/2062). Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and AMA levels were significantly higher in group I than in group II. Increased AMA level (55.1%) and DPC (48.7%) were more frequently found in group I (p < 0.001). The proportion of subjects with any abnormal results in serum free thyroxine, triiodothyronine, TSH, or AMA levels or DPC on USG was significantly higher in group I than in group II (71.5% vs. 10.6%, p < 0.001), and was significantly and gradually increased according to the visual grading score group (0 vs. 1-2 vs. 3-4 = 10.6% vs. 58.5% vs. 90.9%, p < 0.001). TSH and is AMA levels were significantly increased according to the visual grading score. The presence or degree of incidental DTU on (18)F-FDG PET is closely correlated with increased serum AMA and TSH levels, and the presence of DPC on USG. Therefore, the most plausible pathological cause of DTU may be cell damage by an autoimmune mechanism.

  5. [Cyanidin-3-glucoside attenuates body weight gain, serum lipid concentrations and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese rats].

    PubMed

    Yu, Ren-Qiang; Wu, Xiao-You; Zhou, Xiang; Zhu, Jing; Ma, Lu-Yi

    2014-05-01

    Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) is the main active ingredient of anthocyanidin. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of C3G on body weight gain, visceral adiposity, lipid profiles and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group (n=8) and a high fat diet group (n=22), and were fed with standard diet or high fat diet. Five weeks later, 17 high-fat diet-induced obese rats were randomly given C3G [100 mg/(kg·d)] or normal saline via intragastric administration for 5 weeks. Five weeks later, body weight, visceral adiposity and food intake were measured. Blood samples were collected for detecting fasting glucose, serum insulin, lipid profiles and adiponectin. Insulin resistance index, atherosclerosis index and average feed efficiency ratio were calculated. C3G supplementation markedly decreased body weight, visceral adiposity, average feed efficiency ratio, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index and atherosclerosis index in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. C3G supplementation normalized serum adiponectin and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Cyanidin-3-glucoside can reduce body weight gain, and attenuate obesity-associated dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed rats via up-regulating serum adiponectin level.

  6. Maternal Urinary Triclosan Concentration in Relation to Maternal and Neonatal Thyroid Hormone Levels: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Ouyang, Fengxiu; Feng, Liping; Wang, Xia; Liu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jun

    2017-06-27

    Triclosan (TCS) is a synthetic antibacterial chemical widely used in personal care products. TCS exposure has been associated with decreased thyroid hormone levels in animals, but human studies are scarce and controversial. We evaluated the association between maternal TCS exposure and thyroid hormone levels of mothers and newborns. TCS was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in urine samples collected during gestational weeks 38.8±1.1 from 398 pregnant women in a prospective birth cohort enrolled in 2012-2013 in Shanghai, China. Maternal serum levels of free thyroxine (FT 4 ), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) were obtained from medical records. Cord blood levels of free triiodothyronine (FT 3 ), FT 4 , TSH, and TPOAb were measured. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between maternal urinary TCS and thyroid hormone levels. TCS was detectable (≥0.1 ng/mL) in 98.24% of maternal urine samples with tertile of urinary TCS levels: low (>0.1-2.75 μg/g.Cr), medium (2.75–9.78 μg/g.Cr), and high (9.78–427.38 μg/g.Cr). With adjustment for potential confounders, cord blood log(FT 3 )pmol/L concentration was 0.11 lower in newborns of mothers with medium and high urinary TCS levels compared with those with low levels. At third trimester, the high TCS concentration was associated with 0.03 [95% confidence interval (CI) −0.08, −0.02] lower maternal serum log(FT 4 )pmol/L, whereas the medium TCS concentration was associated with 0.15 (95% CI: −0.28, −0.03) lower serum log(TSH)mIU/L with adjustment for covariates. Our results suggest significant inverse associations between maternal urinary TCS and cord blood FT 3 as well as maternal blood FT 4 concentrations at third trimester. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP500.

  7. Relationship between high serum ferritin level and glaucoma in a South Korean population: the Kangbuk Samsung health study.

    PubMed

    Gye, Hyo Jung; Kim, Joon Mo; Yoo, Chungkwon; Shim, Seong Hee; Won, Yu Sam; Sung, Ki Chul; Lee, Mi Yeon; Park, Ki Ho

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the association between serum ferritin levels and glaucoma in a South Korean population. This retrospective cross-sectional study included 164 029 subjects who underwent screening at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Health Screening Center between August 2012 and July 2013. All subjects underwent a physical examination, answered sociodemographic and behavioural questions, and provided samples for laboratory analyses. A digital fundus photograph of both eyes was taken, and all photographs were reviewed by ophthalmologists. The ophthalmologists determined if an eye had glaucoma based on criteria set forth by the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology and the appearance of the retinal nerve fibre layer and optic disc. The mean serum ferritin level was 56.98 ng/mL in women and 223.82 ng/mL in men. After adjusting for age, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation, white blood cell (WBC) count, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HsCRP) and total vitamin D level, males in the highest quartile for serum ferritin level had a higher OR for glaucoma than males in the lowest quartile (OR=1.176, 95% CI 1.030 to 1.342, p=0.016); we did not observe this relationship among women. Other markers of iron metabolism, such as iron level, transferrin saturation and TIBC, and inflammation measures, including WBC, HsCRP and total vitamin D, were not associated with glaucoma. High serum ferritin level was associated with a high risk of glaucoma in men, but not in women. Because serum ferritin is related to oxidative stress and inflammation, it might play a role in glaucoma development. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Determination of teicoplanin concentrations in serum by high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Joos, B; Lüthy, R

    1987-01-01

    An isocratic reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatographic method for the determination of six components of the teicoplanin complex in biological fluid was developed. By using fluorescence detection after precolumn derivatization with fluorescamine, the assay is specific and highly sensitive, with reproducibility studies yielding coefficients of variation ranging from 1.5 to 8.5% (at 5 to 80 micrograms/ml). Response was linear from 2.5 to 80 micrograms/ml (r = 0.999); the recovery from spiked human serum was 76%. An external quality control was performed to compare this high-pressure liquid chromatographic method (H) with a standard microbiological assay (M); no significant deviation from slope = 1 and intercept = 0 was found by regression analysis (H = 1.03M - 0.45; n = 15). PMID:2957953

  9. [Thyroid function and serum lipids of adults living in areas of excessive iodine in water in Hebei province].

    PubMed

    Li, Haiqiang; Sang, Zhongna; Tan, Long; Zhao, Na; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Guiqin; Liu, Hua; Wen, Songchen; Zhang, Wanqi

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the iodine status and the prevalence of thyroid disease and dyslipidemia in adults living in areas of excessive iodine in water in Hebei Province, and to explore the impact of excessive iodine intake on dyslipidemia. Subjects were selected from Haixing County in Cangzhou, Hebei. Fasting morning urine and venous blood were collected to test the levels of urinary iodine and serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone (sTSH). Thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) and total cholesterol (CHO), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were also measured. The median of urinary iodine was 1094.92 (627.38 - 1511.81) microg/L. There were 66 (22.0%) adults diagnosed as thyroid disorder, including 3 (1.0%) hyperthyroidism patients, 7 (2.3%) subclinical hyperthyroidism patients, 12 (4.0%) hypothyroidism patients and 44 (14.7%) subclinical hypothyroidism patients. The levels of CHO, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C were (5.46 +/- 1.06) mmol/L, 2.19 (1.70 - 2.96) mmol/L, 1.18 (1.03 - 1.45) mmol/L and (3.08 +/- 1.05) mmol/L respectively, no significant difference was observed between the thyroid disorder patients or non-patients. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in adults living in areas of excessive iodine in water was high.

  10. Subclinical hyperthyroidism: to treat or not to treat?

    PubMed Central

    Hoogendoorn, E; den Heijer, M; van Dijk, A P J; Hermus, A

    2004-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism may be defined as the presence of free thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine levels within the reference range and a reduced serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level. In this review the prevalence of low TSH in the population and health consequences of subclinical hyperthyroidism, for example, effects on heart and bone mass, are discussed. Guidelines for treatment are given, based on expert opinion. PMID:15254303

  11. Effect of weekly high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation on serum cholecalciferol concentrations in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Dimitris, Michelle C; Perumal, Nandita; Craig-Barnes, Hayley A; Leadley, Michael; Mahmud, Abdullah A; Baqui, Abdullah H; Roth, Daniel E

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D status is conventionally defined by the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. However, it has been proposed that the serum cholecalciferol concentration (D3) also determines functional vitamin D sufficiency. The objective of this study was to describe the effect of weekly high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation on inter-dose serum D3 in pregnant women. We conducted a sub-study of a completed randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 (35,000 IU/week) supplementation in late pregnancy (AViDD trial) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. This study included pregnant women enrolled at 26-29 weeks gestation who fully adhered to the prenatal supplement intervention for ≥8 consecutive weeks and for whom serum samples were available for D3 analysis (n=65). Serum D3 was uniformly low at enrolment. Mean D3 increased and was maximal at 1 day after vitamin D dose administration (152.09nmol/L, SD 25.11nmol/L) and remained significantly higher in VitD vs. Pl at 7 days (29.59nmol/L vs. 1.92nmol/L, p=0.007). Daily average of the group mean D3 during the week following dosing was 66.97nmol/L in VitD versus 2.13nmol/L in Pl. In conclusion, serum D3 remained significantly elevated throughout the week following ≥8 consecutive weekly doses of 35,000 IU D3 in pregnant women. However, the clinically significant minimum threshold of serum D3 remains to be established. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Heterophilic antibody interference affecting multiple hormone assays: Is it due to rheumatoid factor?

    PubMed

    Mongolu, Shiva; Armston, Annie E; Mozley, Erin; Nasruddin, Azraai

    2016-01-01

    Assay interference with heterophilic antibodies has been well described in literature. Rheumatoid factor is known to cause similar interference leading to falsely elevated hormone levels when measured by immunometric methods like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or multiplex immunoasays (MIA). We report a case of a 60-year-old male patient with a history of rheumatoid arthritis referred to our endocrine clinic for investigation of hypogonadism and was found to have high serum levels of LH, FSH, SHBG, Prolactin, HCG and TSH. We suspected assay interference and further tests were performed. We used Heteroblock tubes and PEG precipitation to eliminate the interference and the hormone levels post treatment were in the normal range. We believe the interference was caused by high serum levels of rheumatoid factor. Although he was treated with thyroxine for 3 years, we believe he may have been treated inappropriately as his Free T4 level was always normal despite high TSH due to assay interference. Our case illustrates the phenomenon of heterophilic antibody interference likely due to high levels of rheumatoid factor. It is essential for clinicians and endocrinologists in particular to be aware of this possibility when making treatment decisions in these groups of patients.

  13. PCBs Alter Dopamine Mediated Function in Aging Workers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Thyroid Hormone Function Analysis of serum samples collected for thyroid hormone function (T3, T4, free T3, free T4, and TSH levels) has been conducted by...Thyroid Hormone Measure Mean sem Mean sem TSH 2.06 0.13 2.55 0.36 T4 7.94 0.18 8.72 0.22 Free T4 1.23 0.02 1.22 0.03 T3 133 3.05 122 2.74...FreeT3 5.31 0.08 4.56 0.08 TSH = Thyroid Stimulating Hormone T4 = Thyroxine T3 = 3,5,3-Triidothyronine Investigators Meetings and

  14. Low zinc serum levels and high blood lead levels among school-age children in coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramono, Adriyan; Panunggal, Binar; Rahfiludin, M. Zen; Swastawati, Fronthea

    2017-02-01

    The coverage of environmental lead toxicant was quiet wide. Lead exposure recently has been expected to be associated with zinc deficiency and blood indices disturbance. Emphasizing on children, which could absorb more than 50 % of lead that enters the body. Lead became the issue on the coastal area due to it has polluted the environment and waters as the source of fisheries products. This was a cross sectional study to determined nutritional status, blood lead levels, zinc serum levels, blood indices levels, fish intake among school children in coastal region of Semarang. This study was carried out on the school children aged between 8 and 12 years old in coastal region of Semarang. Nutritional status was figured out using anthropometry measurement. Blood lead and zinc serum levels were analyzed using the Atomic Absorbent Spectrophotometry (AAS) at a wavelength of 213.9 nm for zinc serum and 283.3 nm for blood lead. Blood indices was measured using auto blood hematology analyzer. Fish intake was assessed using 3-non consecutive days 24-hours food recall. The children had high lead levels (median 34.86 μg/dl, range 11.46 - 58.86 μg/dl) compared to WHO cut off. Zinc serum levels was low (median 18.10 μg/dl, range 10.25 - 41.39 μg/dl) compared to the Joint WHO/UNICEF/IAEA/IZiNCG cut off. Approximately 26.4% of children were anemic. This study concluded that all school children had high blood lead levels, low zinc serum, and presented microcytic hypochromic anemia. This phenomenon should be considered as public health concern.

  15. High Levels of Serum Ubiquitin and Proteasome in a Case of HLA-B27 Uveitis.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Settimio; Gesualdo, Carlo; Maisto, Rosa; Trotta, Maria Consiglia; Di Carluccio, Nadia; Brigida, Annalisa; Di Iorio, Valentina; Testa, Francesco; Simonelli, Francesca; D'Amico, Michele; Di Filippo, Clara

    2017-02-26

    In this paper, the authors describe a case of high serum levels of ubiquitin and proteasome in a woman under an acute attack of autoimmune uveitis. The woman was 52 years old, diagnosed as positive for the Human leukocyte antigen-B27 gene, and came to our observation in January 2013 claiming a severe uveitis attack that involved the right eye. During the acute attack of uveitis, this woman had normal serum biochemical parameters but higher levels of serum ubiquitin and proteasome 20S subunit, with respect to a healthy volunteer matched for age and sex. These levels correlated well with the clinical score attributed to uveitis. After the patient was admitted to therapy, she received oral prednisone in a de-escalation protocol (doses from 50 to 5 mg/day) for four weeks. Following this therapy, she had an expected reduction of clinical signs and score for uveitis, but concomitantly she had a reduction of the serum levels of ubiquitin, poliubiquitinated proteins (MAb-FK1) and proteasome 20S activity. Therefore, a role for ubiquitin and proteasome in the development of human autoimmune uveitis has been hypothesized.

  16. Determination of miloxacin and metabolites in human serum and urine by high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshitake, A; Kawahara, K; Shono, F; Umeda, I; Izawa, A; Komatsu, T

    1980-01-01

    A sensitive and reliable high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for miloxacin and its two principal metabolites, 5,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2H-1,3-dioxolo[4,5-g]quinoline-7-carboxylic acid (M-1) and 1,4-dihydro-1,6-dimethoxy-7-hydroxy-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (M-2), in human serum and urine was developed. A strong anion-exchange Zipax SAX column using a mobile phase of 0.01 M citric acid solution containing 0.03 M sodium nitrate with pH 5.0 was used to achieve separation of the three compounds. The retention times of miloxacin, M-1, and M-2 were 3.8, 9.3, and 5.9 min, respectively. Serum and urine concentrations of these compounds as low as 10 ng/ml were measured. When results from the HPLC assay were compared with those from the microbiological assay of serum and urine samples from human subjects receiving miloxacin orally, the correlation coefficients were 0.94 for the serum and 0.99 for the urine. The HPLC assay method presents an alternative to the microbiological assay and permits future pharmacokinetic investigations of miloxacin. PMID:7416751

  17. [Dwarfism due to familial panhypopituitarism].

    PubMed

    Cos Welsh, J; Espinosa de los Monteros, A; de la Luz Ajuria, M; Morillo Almao, E

    1977-01-01

    Three sisters of 27 7/12, 13 8/12 and 9 1/12 years of age, respectively, with proportionate dwarfism, high pitched voice and lack of sexual development are described. All the patients had very low serum levels of immunoreactive growth hormone (GH), as well as of LH and FSH. Hypoglycemia induced by insulin and arginine infusion failed to increase GH levels, and the administration of the hypothalamic LH-FSH releasing hormone (LH-RH) did not elicit any response in the secretion of gonadotropins. The oldest sister developed hypothyroidism in recent years, since the I131 thyroid uptake was normal ten years before; her serum TSH was low and did not change with TRH stimulation. In addition, a low pituitary ACTH reserve was demonstrated by the hypoglycemia and metirapone tests. Case 2 showed partial pituitary TSH and ACTH reserve, whereas the youngest child only had low TSH pituitary reserve. These patients had all the clinical and laboratory characteristics of familial panhypopituitarism, with normal sella turcica. Genetic transmission in this cases is consistent with the autosomal recessive form, which is the most frequent type of inheritance of this entity. Consanguinity can not be ruled out. The results of the hypothalamic-pituitary functional tests apparently suggest that the primary defect could be located at the pituitary level. It is also possible that the pathological process may have a progressive evolution.

  18. Low serum free thyroxine concentrations associate with increased arterial stiffness in euthyroid subjects: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Zheng, Xuqin; Sun, Min; Wang, Zhixiao; Fu, Qi; Shi, Yun; Cao, Mengdie; Zhu, Zhenxin; Meng, Chuchen; Mao, Jia; Yang, Fan; Huang, Xiaoping; Xu, Jingjing; Zhou, Hongwen; Duan, Yu; He, Wei; Zhang, Mei; Yang, Tao

    2015-11-01

    Some studies suggest that even in euthyroid subjects, thyroid function may affect arteriosclerotic risk factors. We aimed to determine whether thyroid hormones or thyroid autoantibodies are associated with arterial stiffness in middle-aged and elderly Chinese subjects with euthyroidism. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in Nanjing, China. A total of 812 euthyroid subjects (mean age [56.75 ± 8.34] years; 402 men) without vascular disease and major arteriosclerotic risk factors were included. Clinical factors, oral glucose tolerance test results, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) results, and serum levels of lipids, free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid autoantibodies were measured. Arterial stiffness was assessed using brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). In Pearson correlation analyses, baPWV correlated inversely with FT4 (r = -0.146, P < 0.001), but not with FT3 (r = 0.008, P = 0.816) or TSH (r = 0.055, P = 0.118). Subsequently, a multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed a significant and independent association of FT4 with baPWV in euthyroid subjects (β = -0.076, P = 0.005). After adjusting for potential cardiovascular risk factors, mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP), HOMA-IR, and baPWV levels decreased across increasing FT4 quartiles (DBP, P < 0.001; HOMA-IR, P < 0.001; baPWV, P = 0.003). No difference in baPWV was observed between the positive and the negative thyroid antibody groups (15.23 ± 3.30 m/s vs. 15.73 ± 3.05 m/s, P > 0.05). FT4 levels were inversely associated with arterial stiffness in euthyroid subjects. A prospective study is warranted to validate whether subjects with low-normal FT4 levels have a high incidence of cardiovascular disease.

  19. Affinity chromatography on monolithic supports for simultaneous and high-throughput isolation of immunoglobulins from human serum.

    PubMed

    Martinović, Tamara; Andjelković, Uroš; Klobučar, Marko; Černigoj, Urh; Vidič, Jana; Lučić, Marina; Pavelić, Krešimir; Josić, Djuro

    2017-11-01

    Posttranslational modifications of immunoglobulins have been a topic of great interest and have been repeatedly reported as a major factor in disease pathology. Cost-effective, reproducible, and high-throughput (HTP) isolation of immunoglobulins from human serum is vital for studying the changes in protein structure and the following understanding of disease development. Although there are many methods for the isolation of specific immunoglobulin classes, only a few of them are applicable for isolation of all subtypes and variants. Here, we present the development of a scheme for fast and simultaneous affinity purification of α (A), γ (G), and μ (M) immunoglobulins from human serum through affinity monolith chromatography. Affinity-based monolithic columns with immobilized protein A, G, or L were used for antibody isolation. Monolithic stationary phases have a high surface accessibility of binding sites, large flow-through channels, and can be operated at high flow rates, making them the ideal supports for HTP isolation of biopolymers. The presented method can be used for HTP screening of human serum in order to simultaneously isolate all three above-mentioned immunoglobulins and determine their concentration and changes in their glycosylation pattern as potential prognostic and diagnostic disease biomarkers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. High-dose vitamin B6 decreases homocysteine serum levels in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Miodownik, Chanoch; Lerner, Vladimir; Vishne, Tali; Sela, Ben-Ami; Levine, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin B6 plays an essential role in the normal functioning of the central nervous system. Normal homocysteine (Hcy) serum level is maintained by remethylation of Hcy to methionine by enzymes that require folic acid and vitamin B12 and by catabolism to cysteine by a vitamin B6-dependent enzyme. These findings may be consistent with the hypothesis that the vitamin B6 status may influence plasma Hcy levels. The aims of this preliminary study were (1) to determine whether a correlation exists between Hcy and vitamin B6 levels in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders and (2) to investigate whether treatment with high-dose vitamin B6 may reduce Hcy levels in these patients. In this preliminary study, we enrolled 11 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (7 men and 4 women; mean age +/- SD, 50 +/- 12 years) receiving high doses of vitamin B6 treatment (1200 mg/d) for 12 weeks. Blood samples for the assessment of pyridoxal-5-phosphate and Hcy serum levels were obtained at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Age was significantly positively correlated with Hcy levels at baseline (r = 0.392, P = 0.004). All other parameters, including diagnosis, disease duration, and pyridoxal-5-phosphate serum level, were not correlated with Hcy serum levels at baseline. After vitamin B6 treatment, Hcy serum levels significantly decreased (14.2 +/- 3.4 vs. 11.8 +/- 2.0 micromol/L, respectively, t = 2.679, P = 0.023); this decrease being statistically significant in men but not in women. High doses of vitamin B6 lead to a decrease in Hcy serum level in male patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

  1. The soluble fiber complex PolyGlycopleX lowers serum triglycerides and reduces hepatic steatosis in high-sucrose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Raylene A; Grover, Gary J; Koetzner, Lee; Gahler, Roland J; Lyon, Michael R; Wood, Simon

    2011-04-01

    Viscous soluble fibers have been shown to reduce risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The novel functional fiber, PolyGlycopleX (PGX) (InovoBiologic Inc, Calgary, Alberta, Canada) displays greater viscosity than other currently identified soluble fibers. The objective of this study was to determine if PGX lowers serum and hepatic triglycerides (TGs) in a high-sucrose-fed rat model. In this rodent model, feeding a high-sucrose diet consistently increases serum TGs. We hypothesized that consumption of PGX would attenuate hypertriglyceridemia and reduce hepatic steatosis compared with cellulose in rats fed a high-sucrose background diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing 65% sucrose and supplemented with either 5% cellulose (control) or 5% PGX (wt/wt) for 43 weeks. At study termination, serum insulin and TGs, hepatic steatosis, and hepatocellular injury were assessed. Body weight increased over time in both groups, but weight gain was attenuated in rats fed PGX vs cellulose in weeks 2 through 22 (P < .05). Serum TGs did not differ from baseline for the first half of the study but consistently increased in the cellulose group thereafter. PolyGlycopleX significantly reduced serum TG to near-baseline levels. At study termination, rats fed PGX had significantly lower hepatic steatosis scores (measured by Sudan black staining) compared with rats fed cellulose. Hepatocellular injury scores did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, PGX reduced serum TG and lipid accumulation in the liver of sucrose-fed rats. Further examination of its potential as a fiber supplement aimed at lessening the burden of hepatic steatosis is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Free triiodothyronine/free thyroxine ratio rather than thyrotropin is more associated with metabolic parameters in healthy euthyroid adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Park, So Young; Park, Se Eun; Jung, Sang Won; Jin, Hyun Seok; Park, Ie Byung; Ahn, Song Vogue; Lee, Sihoon

    2017-07-01

    The interrelation between TSH, thyroid hormones and metabolic parameters is complex and has not been confirmed. This study aimed to determine the association of TSH and thyroid hormones in euthyroid subjects and the relationship between thyroid function and metabolic risk factors. Furthermore, this study examined whether thyroid function has predictive power for metabolic syndrome. This is a cross-sectional study that included subjects in a medical health check-up programme at a single institution. The study included 132 346 participants (66 991 men and 65 355 women) aged over 18 years who had TSH, free T4 (FT4) and free T3 (FT3) levels within the institutional reference ranges. Thyrotropin, FT4, FT3 and metabolic parameters including height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin and glucose were measured. There was a positive association between FT3/FT4 ratio and TSH in both men and women after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status and menopausal status (in women). The FT3/FT4 ratio and TSH were positively associated with risk of metabolic syndrome parameters including insulin resistance. The FT3/FT4 ratio had a greater predictive power than TSH for metabolic syndrome in both men and women. Thyrotropin levels were positively associated with FT3/FT4 ratio within the euthyroid range. The higher FT3/FT4 ratio is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome parameters and insulin resistance. FT3/FT4 ratio has a better predictive power for metabolic syndrome than TSH. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Hypothyroidism-when and how to treat?

    PubMed

    Koehler, V F; Reincke, M; Spitzweg, C

    2018-06-05

    The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is primarily based on clinical signs and symptoms as well as measurement of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration. Subclinical hypothyroidism is characterized by elevated TSH with normal serum free thyroxine (fT 4 ) and triiodothyronine (fT 3 ) levels, while in manifest hypothyroidism serum fT 4 and fT 3 levels are reduced. Common causes of primary hypothyroidism are autoimmune thyroiditis as well as therapeutic interventions, such as thyroid surgery or radioiodine therapy. Signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism include fatigue, bradycardia, constipation and cold intolerance. In subclinical hypothyroidism, symptoms may be absent. Initiation of levothyroxine (T 4 ) therapy not only depends on the level of TSH elevation, but also on other factors, such as patient age, presence of pregnancy or comorbidities. Treatment of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism is still a controversial topic. In general, thyroid hormone replacement therapy in non-pregnant adults ≤ 70 years is clearly indicated if the TSH concentration is >10 mU/l. Standard of care for treatment of hypothyroidism is T 4 monotherapy. The biochemical treatment goal for T 4 replacement in primary hypothyroidism is a TSH level within the reference range (0.4-4.0 mU/l). In contrast, in secondary hypothyroidism, serum fT 4 levels are the basis for adjusting thyroid hormone dosage. Inadequate replacement of T 4 resulting in subclinical or even manifest hyperthyroidism should urgently be avoided. T 4 /liothyronine (T3) combination therapy is still a matter of debate and not recommended as standard therapy, but may be considered in patients with persistence of symptoms, despite optimal T 4 treatment, based on expert opinion.

  4. Binding affinity of aluminium to human serum transferrin and effects of carbohydrate chain modification as studied by HPLC/high-resolution ICP-MS--speciation of aluminium in human serum.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Megumi Hamano; Maitani, Tamio

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium (Al) in the blood is bound to transferrin (Tf), a glycoprotein of about 80kDa that is characterized by its need for a synergistic anion. In this focused review, the binding affinity of Al to Tf is surveyed in the context of our recent studies using on-line high-performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC/HR-ICP-MS). Al in human serum without any in vitro Al-spikes was present in a form bound to the N-lobe site of Tf. The influences of sialic acid in the carbohydrate chain of human serum Tf (hTf) were studied using asialo-hTf, obtained by treatment with sialidase. The binding affinity of Fe was similar between asialo-hTf and native-hTf, while that of Al for asialo-hTf was larger than that for native-hTf, especially in the presence of oxalate, a synergistic anion. The above findings are discussed in relation to diseases in which the serum concentrations of carbohydrate-deficient Tf and oxalate are augmented.

  5. High pre-transplant serum nitrate levels predict risk of acute steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease in the absence of statin therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Sascha; Okun, Jürgen G.; Schmidt, Kathrin; Falk, Christine S.; Wagner, Andreas H.; Karamustafa, Suzan; Radujkovic, Aleksandar; Hegenbart, Ute; Ho, Anthony D.; Dreger, Peter; Luft, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease is a life-threatening complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Evidence is accumulating that steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease is associated with endothelial distress. Endothelial cell homeostasis is regulated by nitric oxide, and serum nitrates are derived from nitric oxide synthase activity or dietary sources. In this retrospective study based on 417 patients allografted at our institution we investigated whether quantification of serum nitrates could predict steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease. Elevated pre-transplant levels of serum nitrates (>26.5 μM) predicted steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease (P=0.026) and non-relapse mortality (P=0.028), particularly in combination with high pre-transplant angiopoietin-2 levels (P=0.0007 and P=0.021, respectively). Multivariate analyses confirmed serum nitrates as independent predictors of steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease and non-relapse mortality. Differences in serum nitrate levels did not correlate with serum levels of tumor necrosis factor or C-reactive protein or expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in blood cells. Patients with high pre-transplant nitrate levels had significantly reduced rates of refractory graft-versus-host disease (P=0.031) when pravastatin was taken. In summary, patients at high risk of developing steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease could be identified prior to transplantation by serum markers linked to endothelial cell function. Retrospectively, statin medication was associated with a reduced incidence of refractory graft-versus-host disease in this endothelial high-risk cohort. PMID:24142995

  6. High levels of serum fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 are associated with increased mortality in long haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Jean, Guillaume; Terrat, Jean-Claude; Vanel, Thierry; Hurot, Jean-Marc; Lorriaux, Christie; Mayor, Brice; Chazot, Charles

    2009-09-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, a novel bone-derived phosphaturic factor involved in mineral metabolism, is increased in chronic kidney disease (CKD); in dialysis patients, it has been linked to increased mortality rates and vascular calcification (VC). The present investigation aimed to study the factors associated with elevated serum FGF-23 levels in patients treated with long haemodialysis (LHD) sessions and to determine whether a relationship exists between serum FGF-23 levels and patient survival. All patients treated in one haemodialysis centre from September 2006 were included in the study. Standard laboratory values, medical history, cardiovascular events and risk factors, medication and FGF-23 levels [ELISA (C-Term) Immutopics] were recorded. Patients received haemodialysis three times a week, on a 5- to 8-h schedule. Patient data were analysed according to FGF-23 quartiles. The effect of FGF-23 on the 2-year survival rate was assessed using the Cox proportional hazard model, adjusted for confounding variables and according to the serum phosphate tertiles. The study included 219 patients. Serum FGF-23 levels were high: 7060 +/- 13 500 RU/mL (median, 2740 RU/mL). In logistical regressions, only calcaemia (P = 0.002), phosphataemia (P = 0.008) and warfarin use (P = 0.04) were associated with the highest FGF-23 quartile. In the subgroup of patients with an estimated VC score, the third and fourth quartiles of the FGF-23 levels were associated with more severe VC. In multivariate linear regressions, only phosphataemia remained significantly correlated with FGF-23 (P = 0.04). The 2-year mortality rate was significantly higher for haemodialysis patients with serum FGF-23 levels in the higher quartile [P = 0.007; hazard ratio, 2.5 (1.3-5)] than in the first quartile, whereas within the phosphataemia tertiles, the lowest serum FGF-23 quartile was associated with lowered mortality. This study demonstrated a high level of circulating FGF-23 in LHD patients

  7. Maternal urinary phthalate metabolites during pregnancy and thyroid hormone concentrations in maternal and cord sera: The HOME Study.

    PubMed

    Romano, Megan E; Eliot, Melissa N; Zoeller, R Thomas; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Calafat, Antonia M; Karagas, Margaret R; Yolton, Kimberly; Chen, Aimin; Lanphear, Bruce P; Braun, Joseph M

    2018-05-01

    Phthalates, endocrine-disrupting chemicals that are commonly found in consumer products, may adversely affect thyroid hormones, but findings from prior epidemiologic studies are inconsistent. In a prospective cohort study, we investigated whether maternal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and phthalate mixtures measured during pregnancy were associated with thyroid hormones among pregnant women and newborns. We measured nine phthalate metabolites [monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-isobutyl phthalate, monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), and four monoesthers of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate] in urine collected at approximately 16 and 26 weeks' gestation among women in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study (2003-2006, Cincinnati, Ohio). Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free and total thyroxine and triiodothyronine were measured in maternal serum at 16 weeks' gestation (n = 202) and cord serum at delivery (n = 276). We used multivariable linear regression to assess associations between individual urinary phthalate metabolites and concentrations of maternal or cord serum thyroid hormones. We used weighted quantile sum regression (WQS) to create a phthalate index describing combined concentrations of phthalate metabolites and to investigate associations of the phthalate index with individual thyroid hormones. With each 10-fold increase in 16-week maternal urinary MEP, maternal serum total thyroxine (TT 4 ) decreased by 0.52 μg/dL (95% CI: -1.01, -0.03). For each 10-fold increase in average (16- and 26-week) maternal urinary MBzP, cord serum TSH decreased by 19% (95% CI: -33.1, -1.9). Among mothers, the phthalate index was inversely associated with maternal serum TT 4 (WQS beta = -0.60; 95% CI: -1.01, -0.18). Among newborns, the phthalate index was inversely associated with both cord serum TSH (WQS beta = -0.11; 95% CI: -0.20, -0.03) and TT 4 (WQS beta = -0.53; 95% CI: -0.90, -0.16). Our results suggest

  8. Evaluation of thyroid function tests of acne vulgaris patients treated with systemic isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Neslihan; Doğan, Sibel; Atakan, Nilgün

    2017-03-01

    Isotretinoin is a systemic retinoid used to treat acne and it binds receptors which are the member of steroid-thyroid hormone superfamily. Certain types of retinoids may cause abnormalities in serum thyroid function tests (sTFTs) by suppressing thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). However, it is uncertain whether systemic isotretinoin has any effect on sTFTs. The aim of the study was to find out if there is any alteration in sTFTs of patients with acne vulgaris treated with systemic isotretinoin. A total of 51 patients (male/female: 22/29) with severe acne vulgaris treated with a total dose of 120 mg/kg isotretinoin were included into the study prospectively. Serum free T3 (fT3), free T4 (fT4) and TSH levels were measured at baseline, 3rd and 6th months of treatment. Mean serum TSH levels at baseline, 3rd and 6th months of treatment were 1.57 ± 0.67, 2.07 ± 0.88 and 2.25 ± 0.86 uIU/mL, respectively. Mean serum TSH levels increased significantly following isotretinoin therapy (p < 0.01, p = 0.007 and p < 0.01, respectively). Mean serum fT3 levels at baseline, 3rd and 6th months of treatment were 3.59 ± 0.57, 3.19 ± 0.45 and 3.09 ± 0.61 pmol/L, respectively. Mean serum fT4 levels at baseline, 3rd and 6th months of treatment were 1.21 ± 0.19, 1.09 ± 0.16 and 1.11 ± 0.19 pmol/L, respectively. Mean serum fT3 and fT4 levels decreased significantly at 3rd and 6th months compared to baseline levels (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, p < 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively). Systemic isotretinoin therapy causes significant alterations in sTFTs. Dose dependent or long-term effects of systemic isotretinoin on sTFTs needs further evaluation.

  9. Short communication: effects of serum obtained from dairy cows with low or high body condition score on in vitro embryo development.

    PubMed

    Oba, M; Miyashita, S; Nishii, R; Koiwa, M; Koyama, H; Ambrose, D J; Dochi, O

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether the serum obtained from animals differing in body condition score (BCS) affects in vitro embryo development. After in vitro fertilization, serum obtained from dairy cows of either low (L-BCS; 2.1 ± 0.14 on a scale of 1 to 5) or high BCS (H-BCS; 4.0 ± 0.0), or commercially available bovine serum (control) was added at 5% concentration to the in vitro culture medium. Use of serum obtained from H-BCS cows increased the cleavage rates compared with control serum at both 24 and 48 h after in vitro fertilization (78.3 vs. 71.9% and 79.9 vs. 75.1%, respectively), whereas use of serum obtained from L-BCS cows increased the blastocyst rate compared with control serum at 7d (23.8 vs. 19.1%), but this difference was not evident at 8 or 9 d after in vitro fertilization. As nonesterified fatty acid concentrations were highest in control serum, followed by serum from L-BCS and H-BCS cows (621, 559, and 272 μEq/L, respectively), a high concentration of nonesterified fatty acids might adversely affect the very early stages of embryo development, and its negative effects might be greater immediately after fertilization compared with developmental stages after morula formation. Our findings also indicate that factors promoting early stage embryo development do not necessarily promote blastocyst development. Serum obtained from animals under different physiological conditions may be used for in vitro embryo culture to stud