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Sample records for high strength glass-ceramics

  1. High strength glass-ceramic to metal seals

    SciTech Connect

    Haws, L D; Kramer, D P; Moddeman, W E; Wooten, G W

    1986-12-01

    In many applications, ceramics are joined to other materials, especially metals. In such cases, interfacial strength is as important as the strength of each constituent material. Examples are presented for tailoring materials and processes to optimize the glass-ceramic-to-metal seal. Means for detecting defects, nondestructively, are also identified.

  2. Crystallization of high-strength fine-sized leucite glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Chadwick, T C; Wilson, R M; Hill, R; Cattell, M J

    2010-12-01

    Manufacturing of leucite glass-ceramics often leads to materials with inhomogeneous microstructures. Crystal-glass thermal mismatches which produce microcracking around larger crystals-agglomerates are associated with reduced mechanical properties. The hypotheses were that fine (< 1 µm) crystal size and uniform microstructure in a thermally matched glass would increase the biaxial flexural strength (BFS). Glass was synthesized, attritor-milled, and heat-treated. Glasses and glass-ceramics were characterized by XRD, SEM, and Dilatometry. Experimental (A, M1A and M2A) and commercial glass-ceramics were tested by the BFS test. Experimental glass-ceramics showed an increased leucite crystal number and decreased crystal size with glass particle size reduction. Leucite glass-ceramics (< 1 µm) showed minimal matrix microcracking and BFS values of [mean (SD) MPa]: M1A = 253.8 (53.3); and M2A = 219.5 (54.1). Glass-ceramics M1A and M2A had higher mean BFS and characteristic strength than the IPS Empress Esthetic glass-ceramic (p < 0.05). Fine-grained, translucent leucite glass-ceramics were synthesized and produced high mean BFS.

  3. Crystallization of high-strength nano-scale leucite glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Theocharopoulos, A; Chen, X; Wilson, R M; Hill, R; Cattell, M J

    2013-11-01

    Fine-grained, high strength, translucent leucite dental glass-ceramics are synthesized via controlled crystallization of finely milled glass powders. The objectives of this study were to utilize high speed planetary milling of an aluminosilicate glass for controlled surface crystallization of nano-scale leucite glass-ceramics and to test the biaxial flexural strength. An aluminosilicate glass was synthesized, attritor or planetary milled and heat-treated. Glasses and glass-ceramics were characterized using particle size analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Experimental (fine and nanoscale) and commercial (Ceramco-3, IPS Empress Esthetic) leucite glass-ceramics were tested using the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) test. Gaussian and Weibull statistics were applied. Experimental planetary milled glass-ceramics showed an increased leucite crystal number and nano-scale median crystal sizes (0.048-0.055 μm(2)) as a result of glass particle size reduction and heat treatments. Experimental materials had significantly (p<0.05) higher mean BFS and characteristic strength values than the commercial materials. Attritor milled and planetary milled (2h) materials showed no significant (p>0.05) strength difference. All other groups' mean BFS and characteristic strengths were found to be significantly different (p<0.05) to each other. The mean (SD) MPa strengths measured were: Attritor milled: 252.4 (38.7), Planetary milled: 225.4 (41.8) [4h milling] 255.0 (35.0) [2h milling], Ceramco-3: 75.7 (6.8) and IPS Empress: 165.5 (30.6). Planetary milling enabled synthesis of nano-scale leucite glass-ceramics with high flexural strength. These materials may help to reduce problems associated with brittle fracture of all-ceramic restorations and give reduced enamel wear. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. IMPACT STRENGTH OF GLASS AND GLASS CERAMIC

    SciTech Connect

    Bless, S.; Tolman, J.

    2009-12-28

    Strength of glass and glass ceramic was measured with a bar impact technique. High-speed movies show regions of tensile and compressive failure. The borosilicate glass had a compressive strength of at least 2.2 GPa, and the glass ceramic at least 4 GPa. However, the BSG was much stronger in tension than GC. In ballistic tests, the BSG was the superior armor.

  5. Ca,P-rich layer formed on high-strength bioactive glass-ceramic A-W.

    PubMed

    Kokubo, T; Ito, S; Huang, Z T; Hayashi, T; Sakka, S; Kitsugi, T; Yamamuro, T

    1990-03-01

    Glass-ceramic A-W, containing crystalline apatite and wollastonite in a MgO-CaO-SiO2 glassy matrix shows high bioactivity as well as high mechanical strength, but other ceramics containing the same kinds of crystalline phases in different glassy matrices do not show the same bioactivity. In order to investigate the bone-bonding mechanism of this type of glass-ceramic, surface structural changes of the glass-ceramics after exposure to simulated body fluid were analyzed with various techniques. A solution with ion concentrations which are almost equal to those of the human blood plasma was used as the simulated body fluid, instead of Tris-buffer solution hitherto used. For analyzing the surface structural changes, thin-film x-ray diffraction was used in addition to conventional techniques. It was found that a bioactive glass-ceramic forms a Ca, P-rich layer on its surface in the fluid but nonbioactive ones do not, and that the Ca, P-rich layer consists of carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite of small crystallites and/or defective structure. These findings were common to those of Bioglass-type glasses. So, we conclude that the essential condition for glass and glass-ceramic to bond to bone is the formation of the surface apatite layer in the body environment but it is not essential to contain apatite within the material. Bioactivity of glass and glass-ceramic can be evaluated in vitro by examining the formation of the surface apatite layer in the simulated body fluid described above.

  6. Impact Strength of Glass and Glass Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bless, Stephan; Tolman, John

    2009-06-01

    Bar impact tests, using the techniques described elsewhere in this symposium, were used to measure compressive and tensile strengths of borosilicate glass, soda lime glass, and glass ceramic. The glass ceramic was 25% crystalline spinel, furnished by Corning, Inc. There are two measures of compressive strength: the peak stress that can be transmitted in unconfined compression and the steady-state strength. For both glasses, these values were similar, being about 1.8 and 1.5 GPa, respectively. The glass ceramic was almost 50% stronger. Tensile failure in the glass and glass ceramic takes places via surface flaws, and thus tensile strength is an extrinsic---as opposed to intrinsic---property.

  7. Exploring high-strength glass-ceramic materials for upcycling of industrial wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, Gu-Seul; Park, Hyun Seo; Seo, Sung Mo; Jung, Woo-Gwang

    2015-11-01

    To promote the recycling of industrial waste and to develop value-added products using these resources, the possibility of manufacturing glass-ceramic materials of SiO2-CaO-Al2O3 system has been investigated by various heat treatment processes. Glass-ceramic materials with six different chemical compositions were prepared using steel industry slags and power plant waste by melting, casting and heat treatment. The X-ray diffraction results indicated that diopside and anorthite were the primary phases in the samples. The anorthite phase was formed in SiO2-rich material (at least 43 wt%). In CaO-rich material, the gehlenite phase was formed. By the differential scanning calorimetry analyses, it was found that the glass transition point was in the range of 973-1023 K, and the crystallization temperature was in the range of 1123-1223 K. The crystallization temperature increased as the content of Fe2O3 decreased. By the multi-step heat treatment process, the formation of the anorthite phase was enhanced. Using FactSage, the ratio of various phases was calculated as a function of temperature. The viscosities and the latent heats for the samples with various compositions were also calculated by FactSage. The optimal compositions for glass-ceramics materials were discussed in terms of their compressive strength, and micro-hardness.

  8. Novel bioactive and biodegradable glass ceramics with high mechanical strength in the CaO--SiO2--B2O3 system.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hyun-Seung; Lee, Jung-Kun; Seo, Jun-Hyuk; Kim, Hwan; Hong, Kug Sun; Kim, Deug Joong; Lee, Jae Hyup; Lee, Dong-Ho; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Chung, Sung-Soo

    2004-01-01

    Novel bioactive and biodegradable glass ceramics with high mechanical strength in the (50-x/2)CaO. SiO(2)--xB(2)O(3) (4.2 < or = x < or = 17.2) system were investigated. The systems consisted of three phases: monoclinic wollastonite, calcium metaborate, and amorphous borosilicate matrix. The glass ceramics containing 4.2 mol% and 8.4 mol% B(2)O(3) showed high bulk density and a dense microstructure. Mechanical strengths of the glass ceramics were higher than those of other bioactive ceramics: high compressive strength (2813 MPa), bending strength of 212 MPa, and fracture toughness of 3.12 MPa. m(1/2). The glass-ceramic formed apatite layer on their surface in the simulated body fluid and showed significant biodegradation. The degree of apatite formation in the glass ceramics depended on the calcium metaborate content and borosilicate glassy matrix. Additional calcium metaborate and borosilicate glassy matrix increased the apatite formation rate on the surface. It might be likely that calcium metaborate causes supersaturation of Ca ions, for its high solubility in SBF and the water-reactive borosilicate glassy matrix formed Sibond;OH groups on the surface to provide nucleation sites for apatite formation. Also, through in vitro test for the biocompatibility of the CaO--SiO(2)--B(2)O(3) glass ceramics, no cytotoxicity of the glass ceramics were found. The results on bioactivity and noncytotoxicity indicated that glass ceramics in the (50-x/2)CaO. SiO(2)--xB(2)O(3) (4.2 < or = x < or = 17.2) system could be useful as a biodegradable bone replacement material. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 68A: 79-89, 2004

  9. Strength aspects for the design of ZERODUR glass ceramics structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Peter; Nattermann, Kurt; Doehring, Thorsten; Kuhr, Markus; Thomas, Peter; Kling, Guenther; Gath, Peter; Lucarelli, Stefano

    2007-09-01

    In some applications mirrors and support structures from the zero expansion glass ceramic material ZERODUR (R) have to endure mechanical loads, e.g. rocket launches or controlled deformations for optical image correction. Like for other glassy materials the strength of glass ceramics is dominated by its surface condition. Similar to other glass ceramics ZERODUR (R) has higher strengths than glasses for comparable surface conditions. For the design of ZERODUR (R) parts well known rules of thumb for its strength are not sufficient in any case. So new information and data with enlarged sample sets and hence better statistics have been collected to improve the understanding of its behavior under mechanical loads. Finally an outlook is given on the application of ZERODUR (R) in ambitious current and future space projects.

  10. Colorless and high strength MgO/Al2 O3 /SiO2 glass-ceramic dental material using zirconia as nucleating agent.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, Marc; Rüssel, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Glasses in the system of MgO/Al2 O3 /SiO2 with different concentrations of zirconia as nucleating agent, some of them additionally doped with ZnO or P2 O5 , were annealed in a temperature range from 950 to 1150°C. The use of zirconia led to colorless glass-ceramics, which were transparent to opaque. In all studied compositions, α-/β-quartz-solid-solutions, zirconia as well as spinel or gahnite (ZnAl2 O4 )/spinel-solid-solution precipitated. The highest bending strength of 475 MPa was obtained after annealing at 1000°C for 3 h. The increase of the annealing temperature or an increase in the zirconia concentration resulted in an increase of the microhardness up to 13.3 GPa and of the fracture toughness up to 2.7 MPa m(1/2) . The addition of ZnO results in an increase of the hardness up to 12.5 GPa. The addition of ZnO or P2 O5 led to a fracture toughness of 2 MPa m(1/2) . The described physical properties had to be highly advantageous for the preparation of colorless high strength dental glass-ceramics. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Fabrication of anatase precipitated glass-ceramics possessing high transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Masai, Hirokazu; Toda, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Takumi

    2009-04-13

    Transparent anatase precipitated glass-ceramics were fabricated using ZnO as a component. The particle size of precipitated anatase is several nanometers enough to possess high transparency. The preparation of the Bi-free transparent TiO{sub 2} glass-ceramic was attained by substitution of two different kinds of oxides for bismuth oxide. It is also noteworthy that we have demonstrated the crystallization of metastable anatase in the glass-ceramics as a main phase. The present bulk anatase glass-ceramics will open up an application field for a TiO{sub 2}-containing photocatalyst.

  12. Crystallization and flexural strength optimization of fine-grained leucite glass-ceramics for dentistry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaohui; Chadwick, Thomas C; Wilson, Rory M; Hill, Robert G; Cattell, Michael J

    2011-11-01

    Leucite glass-ceramics with fine-grained leucite crystals promote improved mechanical strength and increased translucency. The objectives of the study were to optimize the microstructure of a fine-grained leucite glass-ceramic in order to increase its flexural strength and reliability as measured by its Weibull modulus. Glass was prepared by a melt-derived method and ground into a powder (M1A). The glass crystallization kinetics were investigated using high temperature XRD and DSC. A series of two-step heat treatments with different nucleation/crystal growth temperatures and holds were carried out to establish the optimized crystallization heat treatment. Glass-ceramics were characterized using XRD, SEM and dilatometry. The glass-ceramic heat treated at the optimized crystallization parameters (M1A(opt)) was both sintered (SM1A(opt)) and heat extruded (EM1A(opt)) into discs and tested using the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) test. High temperature XRD suggested leucite and sanidine crystallization at different temperatures. Optimized crystallization resulted in an even distribution of fine leucite crystals (0.15 (0.09) μm(2)) in the glassy matrix, with no signs of microcracking. Glass-ceramic M1A(opt) showed BFS values of [mean (SD), MPa]: SM1A(opt)=252.4 (38.7); and EM1A(opt)=245.0 (24.3). Weibull results were: SM1A(opt); m=8.7 (C.I.=7.5-10.1) and EM1A(opt); m=11.9 (C.I.=9.3-15.1). Both experimental groups had a significantly higher BFS and characteristic strength than the IPS Empress Esthetic glass-ceramic, with a higher m value for the EM1A(opt) material (p<0.05). A processable fine-grained leucite glass-ceramic with high flexural strength and improved reliability was the outcome of this study. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Extended glaze firing improves flexural strength of a glass ceramic.

    PubMed

    Aurélio, Iana L; Fraga, Sara; Dorneles, Lucio S; Bottino, Marco A; May, Liliana G

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of firing protocols on flexural strength, surface roughness, and crystalline structure of a leucite-based glass ceramic. Discs produced by automated machining were distributed into five groups (n=30) according to the applied firing protocols, conducted above (790°C) or below (575°C) the ceramic transition temperature (Tg) (625±20°C): C - control, no heat treatment; G790 - glaze firing (790°C) for 1.5 min (manufacturer-recommended); G790-SC - G790 modified by slow cooling; EGF790-SC - extended G790 for 15 min, with slow cooling; and EF575-SC - extended firing below Tg at 575°C for 15 min, with slow cooling. Discs were subjected to biaxial flexural tests and results were assessed using Weibull analysis. Surface roughness was measured before and after treatments. One specimen from each group was used for X-ray diffraction (XRD). Highest values of characteristic strength (σ0) were obtained for EGF790-SC (211.7MPa). Regimens EF575-SC, G790-SC, and G790 produced σ0 values (167.9, 157.7, and 153.7MPa, respectively) lower than the control (C) (187.7MPa). The Weibull modulus (m) was statistically similar between groups. All treatments reduced the mean roughness (Ra) of the specimens. Extended cycles (EGF790-SC, EF575-SC) decreased the mean amplitude (Rz). XRD revealed no crystalline phase transformation and slight changes in size of leucite crystallites. Increased values of fracture strength and decreased surface roughness for a leucite-reinforced glass ceramic are achieved by extended glaze firing after machining. Crystalline structure is not modified. Glaze cycles, manufacturer-recommended or modified by slow cooling, and firing below Tg, significantly reduce fracture strength. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fibre-matrix bond strength studies of glass, ceramic, and metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grande, D. H.; Mandell, J. F.; Hong, K. C. C.

    1988-01-01

    An indentation test technique for compressively loading the ends of individual fibers to produce debonding has been applied to metal, glass, and glass-ceramic matrix composites; bond strength values at debond initiation are calculated using a finite-element model. Results are correlated with composite longitudinal and interlaminar shear behavior for carbon and Nicalon fiber-reinforced glasses and glass-ceramics including the effects of matrix modifications, processing conditions, and high-temperature oxidation embrittlement. The data indicate that significant bonding to improve off-axis and shear properties can be tolerated before the longitudinal behavior becomes brittle. Residual stress and other mechanical bonding effects are important, but improved analyses and multiaxial interfacial failure criteria are needed to adequately interpret bond strength data in terms of composite performance.

  15. Fibre-matrix bond strength studies of glass, ceramic, and metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grande, D. H.; Mandell, J. F.; Hong, K. C. C.

    1988-01-01

    An indentation test technique for compressively loading the ends of individual fibers to produce debonding has been applied to metal, glass, and glass-ceramic matrix composites; bond strength values at debond initiation are calculated using a finite-element model. Results are correlated with composite longitudinal and interlaminar shear behavior for carbon and Nicalon fiber-reinforced glasses and glass-ceramics including the effects of matrix modifications, processing conditions, and high-temperature oxidation embrittlement. The data indicate that significant bonding to improve off-axis and shear properties can be tolerated before the longitudinal behavior becomes brittle. Residual stress and other mechanical bonding effects are important, but improved analyses and multiaxial interfacial failure criteria are needed to adequately interpret bond strength data in terms of composite performance.

  16. Fiber reinforced glasses and glass-ceramics for high performance applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Brennan, J. J.; Layden, G. K.

    1986-01-01

    The development of fiber reinforced glass and glass-ceramic matrix composites is described. The general concepts involved in composite fabrication and resultant composite properties are given for a broad range of fiber and matrix combinations. It is shown that composite materials can be tailored to achieve high levels of toughness, strength, and elastic stiffness, as well as wear resistance and dimensional stability.

  17. Effect of several surface treatments on the strength of a glass ceramic-to-metal seal

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, D P; Salerno, R F; Egleston, E E

    1982-02-10

    Test shells of Inconel 625, Inconel 718, 21-6-9 stainless steel, and Hastelloy, C-276 were plasma and/or chemically cleaned before sealing with a multi-component glass-ceramic-to-metal seal was evaluated using a hydrostatic burst test. The results show that plasma cleaning can be used to increase the hydrostatic burst strength and hermeticity of a glass ceramic-to-metal seal.

  18. Bonding strength of the apatite layer formed on glass-ceramic apatite-wollastonite-polyethylene composites.

    PubMed

    Juhasz, J A; Best, S M; Kawashita, M; Miyata, N; Kokubo, T; Nakamura, T; Bonfield, W

    2003-12-01

    Bioactive glass-ceramic apatite-wollastonite (A-W) has been incorporated into polyethylene in particulate form to create new bioactive composites for potential maxillofacial applications. The effects of varying the volume fraction of glass-ceramic A-W filler and the glass-ceramic A-W particle size were investigated by measuring the bonding strength of the bonelike apatite layer formed on the surface of glass-ceramic A-W-polyethylene composites. The bonding strength was evaluated via a modified ASTM C-333 standard in which a tensile stress was applied to the substrate and the strength of the bioactive layer was compared with that formed on commercially available hydroxyapatite-polyethylene composite samples, HAPEX. The composites demonstrated greater bonding strength with increased filler content and reduced filler particle size (maximum 6.9 +/- 0.5 MPa) and a marginally greater bonding strength as compared with HAPEX (2.8 +/- 0.5 MPa), when glass-ceramic A-W-polyethylene composite samples with the same filler content were tested. The higher bonding strength of the apatite layer formed on the A-W-polyethylene composite samples suggests that, in addition to maxillofacial applications, these composites might also be utilized in applications involving higher levels of load bearing.

  19. Glass ceramics for sealing to high-thermal-expansion metals

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, Jr., J. A.

    1980-10-01

    Glass ceramics were studied, formulated in the Na/sub 2/O CaO.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/, Na/sub 2/O.BaOP/sub 2/O/sub 5/, Na/sub 2/O.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/, and Li/sub 2/O.BaO.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ systems to establish their suitability for sealing to high thermal expansion metals, e.g. aluminum, copper, and 300 series stainless steels. Glass ceramics in Na/sub 2/O.CaO.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and Na/sub 2/O.BaO.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ systems have coefficients of thermal expansion in the range 140 x 10/sup -1/ per /sup 0/C less than or equal to ..cap alpha.. less than or equal to 225 x 10/sup -7/ per /sup 0/C and fracture toughness values generally greater than those of phosphate glasses; they are suitable for fabricating seals to high thermal expansion metals. Crystal phases include NaPo/sub 3/, (NaPO/sub 3/)/sub 3/, NaBa(PO/sub 3/)/sub 3/, and NaCa(PO/sub 3/)/sub 3/. Glass ceramics formed in the Na/sub 2/O.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ systems have coefficients of thermal expansion greater than 240 x 10/sup -7/ per /sup 0/C, but they have extensive microcracking. Due to their low thermal expansion values (..cap alpha.. less than or equal to 120 x 10/sup -7/ per /sup 0/C), glass ceramics in the Li/sub 2/O.BaO.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ system are unsuitable for sealing to high thermal expansion metals.

  20. Improving shear bond strength between feldspathic porcelain and zirconia substructure with lithium disilicate glass-ceramic liner.

    PubMed

    Wattanasirmkit, Kamolporn; Srimaneepong, Viritpon; Kanchanatawewat, Kanchana; Monmaturapoj, Naruporn; Thunyakitpisal, Pasutha; Jinawath, Supatra

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the shear bond strength (SBS) between veneering porcelain and zirconia substructure using lithium disilicate glass-ceramic as a liner. The mineral phases and microstructures of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic at temperature range of 800-900°C were preliminarily investigated. SBSs of porcelain-veneered zirconia specimens with and without lithium disilicate glassceramic liner fired at the same temperature were determined. Results showed that SBSs of veneering porcelain and zirconia with lithium disilicate glass-ceramic liner was notably increased (p<0.05). Specimens from the group with the highest SBS (59.7 MPa) were subject to thermocycling up to 10,000 cycles and their post-thermocycling SBSs investigated. Though weakened by thermocycling, SBSs were above the clinically acceptable limit (25 MPa) of ISO 9693. Fractographic analysis revealed mixed cohesive and adhesive failures. It was concluded that lithium disilicate glass-ceramic is a potential liner which generated high SBS between veneering porcelain and zirconia.

  1. High-temperature testing of glass/ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, John F.; Grande, Dodd H.; Dannemann, Kathryn A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in ceramic and other high-temperature composites have created a need for test methods that can be used at 1000 C and above. Present test methods usually require adhesively bonded tabs that cannot be used at high temperatures. This paper discusses some of the difficulties with high-temperature test development and describes several promising test methods. Stress-strain data are given for Nicalon ceramic fiber reinforced glass and glass-ceramic matrix composites tested in air at temperatures up to 1000 C.

  2. High-temperature testing of glass/ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, John F.; Grande, Dodd H.; Dannemann, Kathryn A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in ceramic and other high-temperature composites have created a need for test methods that can be used at 1000 C and above. Present test methods usually require adhesively bonded tabs that cannot be used at high temperatures. This paper discusses some of the difficulties with high-temperature test development and describes several promising test methods. Stress-strain data are given for Nicalon ceramic fiber reinforced glass and glass-ceramic matrix composites tested in air at temperatures up to 1000 C.

  3. Glass-ceramic hermetic seals to high thermal expansion metals

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.

    1987-04-28

    A process for forming glass-ceramic materials from an alkaline silica-lithia glass composition comprising 60-72 mole-% SiO/sub 2/, 18-27 mole-% Li/sub 2/O, 0-5 mole-% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 0-6 mole-% K/sub 2/O, 0-3 mole-% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and 0.5-2.5 mole-% P/sub 2/O/sub 5/, which comprises heating said glass composition at a first temperature within the 950-1050/degree/C range for 5-60 minutes, and then at a devitrification temperature within the 700-900/degree/C range for about 5-300 minutes to obtain a glass-ceramic having a thermal expansion coefficient of up to 210 x 10/sup /minus/7///degree/C. These ceramics form strong, hermetic seals with high expansion metals such as stainless steel alloys. An intermediate nucleation heating step conducted at a temperature within the range of 675-750/degree/C for 10-120 minutes may be employed between the first stage and the devitrification stage. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Torsional Shear Strength Tests for Glass-Ceramic Joined Silicon Carbide

    DOE PAGES

    Ferraris, Monica; Ventrella, Andrea; Salvo, Milena; ...

    2014-03-17

    A torsion test on hour-glass-shaped samples with a full joined or a ring-shaped joined area was chosen in this study to measure shear strength of glass-ceramic joined silicon carbide. Shear strength of about 100 MPa was measured for full joined SiC with fracture completely inside their joined area. Attempts to obtain this shear strength with a ring-shaped joined area failed due to mixed mode fractures. However, full joined and ring-shaped steel hour-glasses joined by a glass-ceramic gave the same shear strength, thus suggesting that this test measures shear strength of joined components only when their fracture is completely inside theirmore » joined area.« less

  5. Torsional Shear Strength Tests for Glass-Ceramic Joined Silicon Carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraris, Monica; Ventrella, Andrea; Salvo, Milena; Katoh, Yutai; Gross, Dietmar

    2014-03-17

    A torsion test on hour-glass-shaped samples with a full joined or a ring-shaped joined area was chosen in this study to measure shear strength of glass-ceramic joined silicon carbide. Shear strength of about 100 MPa was measured for full joined SiC with fracture completely inside their joined area. Attempts to obtain this shear strength with a ring-shaped joined area failed due to mixed mode fractures. However, full joined and ring-shaped steel hour-glasses joined by a glass-ceramic gave the same shear strength, thus suggesting that this test measures shear strength of joined components only when their fracture is completely inside their joined area.

  6. Evaluation of High Permittivity Glass Ceramics for Millimeter Wave Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    Millimeter Wave IfS ASTNACT (enew em reverse e* if n aesee7 wd Identify by block namber) - The crystallization and dielectric properties of strontium ...34Dielectric Properties of Strontium Titanate Glass Ceramics," is included in Appendix 3. ’- 5.0 PARTICIPATING SCIENTIFIC PERSONNEL Work on the contract was...OH, U.S.A Abstract Strontium titanate glass-ceramics, prepared by the crystallization of strontium titanate-aluminosilicate glasses have been

  7. Correlation between dielectric breakdown strength and interface polarization in barium strontium titanate glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Jiajia; Zhang Yong; Ma Tao; Li Hongtao; Zhang Linwen

    2010-01-25

    The correlation between the dielectric breakdown performance and interface polarization was studied by the measurements of the dielectric breakdown strength and impedance spectroscopy as a function of sintering temperatures in a BaO-SrO-TiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} glass ceramic system. It was found that dielectric breakdown strength strongly depends on the interface polarization. The sintering temperature dependence of breakdown strength is attributed to the variation in interfacial polarization based on the results of complex impedance analysis.

  8. Novel glass-ceramics for dental restorations.

    PubMed

    Pollington, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    There are many different ceramic systems available on the market for dental restorations. Glass-ceramics are a popular choice due to their excellent esthetics and ability to bond to tooth structure allowing a more conservative approach. However, at present, these materials have insufficient strength to be used reliably in posterior regions of the mouth. The aim of this review article is to discuss the types of novel glass-ceramic currently be investigated including composition, microstructure and properties. Current research in glass-ceramics focuses on the quest for a highly esthetic material along with sufficient strength to enable crowns and bridgework to be reliably placed in these areas. There is a gap in the market for a machinable resin bonded glass-ceramic with sufficient strength as well as excellent esthetics.

  9. Cladding glass ceramic for use in high powered lasers

    DOEpatents

    Marker, A.J.; Campbell, J.H.

    1998-02-17

    A Cu-doped/Fe-doped low expansion glass ceramic composition comprising in Wt. %: SiO{sub 2} 50--65; Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} 18--27; P{sub 2}O{sub 5} 0--10; Li{sub 2}O 2--6; Na{sub 2}O 0--2; K{sub 2}O 0--2; B{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1; MgO 0--4; ZnO 0--5; CaO 0--4; BaO 0--5; TiO{sub 2} 1--3; ZrO{sub 3} 1--3; As{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1.5; Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1.5; CuO 0--3; and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1 wherein the total amount of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} is 80--89 wt. %, and said glass ceramic contains as a dopant 0.1--3 wt. % CuO, 0.1--1 wt. % Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} or a combined CuO+Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} amount of 0.1--4 wt. %. The glass ceramic composition is suitable for use as a cladding material for solid laser energy storage mediums as well as for use in beam attenuators for measuring laser energy level and beam blocks or beam dumps used for absorbing excess or unused laser energy.

  10. Cladding glass ceramic for use in high powered lasers

    DOEpatents

    Marker, Alexander J.; Campbell, John H.

    1998-01-01

    A Cu-doped/Fe-doped low expansion glass ceramic composition comprising in Wt. %: SiO{sub 2} 50--65; Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} 18--27; P{sub 2}O{sub 5} 0--10; Li{sub 2}O 2--6; Na{sub 2}O 0--2; K{sub 2}O 0--2; B{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1; MgO 0--4; ZnO 0--5; CaO 0--4; BaO 0--5; TiO{sub 2} 1--3; ZrO{sub 3} 1--3; As{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1.5; Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1.5; CuO 0--3; and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1 wherein the total amount of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} is 80--89 wt. %, and said glass ceramic contains as a dopant 0.1--3 wt. % CuO, 0.1--1 wt. % Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} or a combined CuO+Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} amount of 0.1--4 wt. %. The glass ceramic composition is suitable for use as a cladding material for solid laser energy storage mediums as well as for use in beam attenuators for measuring laser energy level and beam blocks or beam dumps used for absorbing excess or unused laser energy.

  11. Silanated Surface Treatment: Effects on the Bond Strength to Lithium Disilicate Glass-Ceramic.

    PubMed

    Baratto, Samantha Schaffer Pugsley; Spina, Denis Roberto Falcão; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes da; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Baratto Filho, Flares; Correr, Gisele Maria

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silanization protocols on the bond strength of two resin cements to a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. Thirty-two ceramic discs were assigned to 2 groups (n=16): G1 - dual-cured resin cement and G2 - light-cured resin cement. Four subgroups were evaluated according to the used silanization protocol. The glass-ceramic was etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 20 s and silane was applied for 1 min, as follows: CTL - according to the manufacturer's instructions; HA - dried with hot air; NWA - washed and dried with water and air at room temperature; HWA - washed and dried with hot water and hot air. Thereafter, adhesive was applied and light-cured for 20 s. Silicon molds were used to prepare resin cement cylinders (1x1 mm) on the ceramic surface. The specimens were stored in deionized water at 37 °C for 48 h and subjected to a micro-shear test. The data were submitted to statistical analysis (?#61537;=0.05). Group G1 showed higher bond strengths than G2, except for the CTL and NWA subgroups. Differences as function of the silanization protocol were only observed in G1: HWA (25.13±6.83)≥HA (22.95±7.78)≥CTL(17.44±7.24) ≥NWA(14.63±8.76). For G2 there was no difference among the subgroups. In conclusion, the silanization protocol affected the resin cement/ceramic bond strengths, depending on the material. Washing/drying with hot water and/or hot air increased only the bond strength of the dual-cured resin cement.

  12. Talc-silicon glass-ceramic waste forms for immobilization of high- level calcined waste

    SciTech Connect

    Vinjamuri, K.

    1993-06-01

    Talc-silicon glass-ceramic waste forms are being evaluated as candidates for immobilization of the high level calcined waste stored onsite at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These glass-ceramic waste forms were prepared by hot isostatically pressing a mixture of simulated nonradioactive high level calcined waste, talc, silicon and aluminum metal additives. The waste forms were characterized for density, chemical durability, and glass and crystalline phase compositions. The results indicate improved density and chemical durability as the silicon content is increased.

  13. Method for making glass-ceramic articles exhibiting high frangibility

    DOEpatents

    Beall, George H.; Brydges, III., William T.; Ference, Joseph; Kozlowski, Theodore R.

    1976-02-03

    This invention is concerned with glass-ceramic articles having compositions within a very narrowly-delimited area of the MgO-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 -B.sub.2 O.sub.3 -SiO.sub.2 field and having alpha-quartz and sapphirine as the principal crystal phases, resulting from nucleation through a combination of TiO.sub.2 and ZrO.sub.2. Upon contacting such articles with lithium ions at an elevated temperature, said lithium ions will replace magnesium ions on a two Li.sup.+-for-one Mg.sup..sup.+2 basis within the crystal structures, thereby providing a unitary glass-ceramic article having an integral surface layer wherein the principal crystal phase is a lithium-stuffed beta-quartz solid solution. That transformation of crystal phases results in compressive stresses being set up within the surface layer as the articles are cooled. Through the careful control of composition, crystallization treatment, and the parameters of the replacement reaction in the crystal structures, a tremendous degree of stored elastic energy can be developed within the articles such that they will demonstrate frangibility when fractured but will not exhibit undesirable spontaneous breakage and/or spalling.

  14. Flexural strength and microstructure of two lithium disilicate glass ceramics for CAD/CAM restoration in the dental clinic.

    PubMed

    Kang, Suk-Ho; Chang, Juhea; Son, Ho-Hyun

    2013-08-01

    There has been a growing interest in glass ceramic systems with good esthetics, high fracture resistance and bonding durability, and simplified fabrication techniques using CAD/CAM. The aim of this study is to compare flexural strength before and after heat treatment of two lithium disilicate CAD/CAM blocks, IPS e.max CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent) and Rosetta SM (Hass), and to observe their crystalline structures. Biaxial flexural strength was tested according to ISO 6872 with 20 disc form specimens sliced from each block before and after heat treatment. Also, the crystalline structures were observed using field-emission scanning microscopy (FE-SEM, Hitachi) and x-ray diffraction (XRD, Rigaku) analysis. The mean values of the biaxial flexural strength were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test at a significance level of p = 0.05. There were no statistically significant differences in flexural strength between IPS e.max CAD and Rosetta SM either before heat treatment or after heat treatment. For both ceramics, the initial flexural strength greatly increased after heat treatment, with significant differences (p < 0.05). The FE-SEM images presented similar patterns of crystalline structure in the two ceramics. In the XRD analysis, they also had similar patterns, presenting high peak positions corresponding to the standard lithium metasilicate and lithium disilicate at each stage of heat treatment. IPS e.max CAD and Rosetta SM showed no significant differences in flexural strength. They had a similar crystalline pattern and molecular composition.

  15. Effect of sintering temperature on the microstructure and properties of foamed glass-ceramics prepared from high-titanium blast furnace slag and waste glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chang-hong; Feng, Ke-qin; Zhou, Yu; Zhou, Hong-ling

    2017-08-01

    Foamed glass-ceramics were prepared via a single-step sintering method using high-titanium blast furnace slag and waste glass as the main raw materials The influence of sintering temperature (900-1060°C) on the microstructure and properties of foamed glass-ceramics was studied. The results show that the crystal shape changed from grainy to rod-shaped and finally turned to multiple shapes as the sintering temperature was increased from 900 to 1060°C. With increasing sintering temperature, the average pore size of the foamed glass-ceramics increased and subsequently decreased. By contrast, the compressive strength and the bulk density decreased and subsequently increased. An excessively high temperature, however, induced the coalescence of pores and decreased the compressive strength. The optimal properties, including the highest compressive strength (16.64 MPa) among the investigated samples and a relatively low bulk density (0.83 g/cm3), were attained in the case of the foamed glass-ceramics sintered at 1000°C.

  16. Enamel and Dentin Surface Finishing Influence on the Roughness and Microshear Bond Strength of a Lithium Silicate Glass-Ceramic for Laminate Veneers.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Bravo, Ruth Peggy; Pavelski, Thiago Vinícius; Garcia, Paula Pontes; Correr, Gisele Maria; Leonardi, Denise Piotto; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the influence of cavity surface finishing with diamond burs of different grit mounted on high-speed turbine and ultrasound on the roughness and microshear bond strength (MBS) of a lithium silicate glass-ceramic to enamel and dentin. Methods. Enamel and dentin specimens were divided into seven groups, according to the type of surface finishing: 1200-grit sandpaper (control), two different brands of medium-grit and fine-grit diamond burs in a high-speed turbine; medium-grit and fine-grit CVD (chemical vapor deposition) tips in an ultrasonic device. Roughness parameters (n = 5) and MSBS to a glass-ceramic (n = 10) were determined. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 5%). Results. Control group showed lower mean roughness readings and groups that used medium-grit diamond burs showed the highest mean roughness values. Regarding MSBS, there was no statistical difference when comparing the groups gritted with the same brand of medium- and fine-grit burs and tips. Conclusions. Cavity surface finishing influenced the roughness parameters and MSBS of a glass-ceramic to enamel and dentin. Medium-grit diamond burs in high-speed turbine showed the highest mean roughness values. Fine-grit CVD tips in ultrasound presented the highest MSBS values for both enamel and dentin.

  17. Enamel and Dentin Surface Finishing Influence on the Roughness and Microshear Bond Strength of a Lithium Silicate Glass-Ceramic for Laminate Veneers

    PubMed Central

    Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Bravo, Ruth Peggy; Pavelski, Thiago Vinícius; Garcia, Paula Pontes; Correr, Gisele Maria; Leonardi, Denise Piotto; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the influence of cavity surface finishing with diamond burs of different grit mounted on high-speed turbine and ultrasound on the roughness and microshear bond strength (MBS) of a lithium silicate glass-ceramic to enamel and dentin. Methods. Enamel and dentin specimens were divided into seven groups, according to the type of surface finishing: 1200-grit sandpaper (control), two different brands of medium-grit and fine-grit diamond burs in a high-speed turbine; medium-grit and fine-grit CVD (chemical vapor deposition) tips in an ultrasonic device. Roughness parameters (n = 5) and MSBS to a glass-ceramic (n = 10) were determined. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 5%). Results. Control group showed lower mean roughness readings and groups that used medium-grit diamond burs showed the highest mean roughness values. Regarding MSBS, there was no statistical difference when comparing the groups gritted with the same brand of medium- and fine-grit burs and tips. Conclusions. Cavity surface finishing influenced the roughness parameters and MSBS of a glass-ceramic to enamel and dentin. Medium-grit diamond burs in high-speed turbine showed the highest mean roughness values. Fine-grit CVD tips in ultrasound presented the highest MSBS values for both enamel and dentin. PMID:27347507

  18. Glasses, ceramics, and composites from lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beall, George H.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of useful silicate materials can be synthesized from lunar rocks and soils. The simplest to manufacture are glasses and glass-ceramics. Glass fibers can be drawn from a variety of basaltic glasses. Glass articles formed from titania-rich basalts are capable of fine-grained internal crystallization, with resulting strength and abrasion resistance allowing their wide application in construction. Specialty glass-ceramics and fiber-reinforced composites would rely on chemical separation of magnesium silicates and aluminosilicates as well as oxides titania and alumina. Polycrystalline enstatite with induced lamellar twinning has high fracture toughness, while cordierite glass-ceramics combine excellent thermal shock resistance with high flexural strengths. If sapphire or rutile whiskers can be made, composites of even better mechanical properties are envisioned.

  19. Glasses, ceramics, and composites from lunar materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beall, George H.

    1992-02-01

    A variety of useful silicate materials can be synthesized from lunar rocks and soils. The simplest to manufacture are glasses and glass-ceramics. Glass fibers can be drawn from a variety of basaltic glasses. Glass articles formed from titania-rich basalts are capable of fine-grained internal crystallization, with resulting strength and abrasion resistance allowing their wide application in construction. Specialty glass-ceramics and fiber-reinforced composites would rely on chemical separation of magnesium silicates and aluminosilicates as well as oxides titania and alumina. Polycrystalline enstatite with induced lamellar twinning has high fracture toughness, while cordierite glass-ceramics combine excellent thermal shock resistance with high flexural strengths. If sapphire or rutile whiskers can be made, composites of even better mechanical properties are envisioned.

  20. Influence of aluminium nitride as a foaming agent on the preparation of foam glass-ceramics from high-titanium blast furnace slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Huan; Feng, Ke-qin; Wang, Hai-bo; Chen, Chang-hong; Zhou, Hong-ling

    2016-05-01

    To effectively reuse high-titanium blast furnace slag (TS), foam glass-ceramics were successfully prepared by powder sintering at 1000°C. TS and waste glass were used as the main raw materials, aluminium nitride (AlN) as the foaming agent, and borax as the fluxing agent. The influence of the amount of AlN added (1wt%-5wt%) on the crystalline phases, microstructure, and properties of the produced foam glass-ceramics was studied. The results showed that the main crystal phases were perovskite, diopside, and augite. With increasing AlN content, a transformation from diopside to augite occurred and the crystallinity of the pyroxene phases slightly decreased. Initially, the average pore size and porosity of the foam glass-ceramics increased and subsequently decreased; similarly, their bulk density and compressive strength decreased and subsequently increased. The optimal properties were obtained when the foam glass-ceramics were prepared by adding 4wt% AlN.

  1. Molybdenum sealing glass-ceramic composition

    DOEpatents

    Eagan, Robert J.

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a glass-ceramic composition having low hydrogen and helium permeability properties, along with high fracture strength, a thermal coefficient of expansion similar to that of molybdenum, and adaptable for hermetically sealing to molybdenum at temperatures of between about 900.degree. and about 950.degree.C. to form a hermatically sealed insulator body.

  2. Effect of acid neutralization and mechanical cycling on the microtensile bond strength of glass-ceramic inlays.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Guilherme; Ariki, Eurípedes Kaizo; Federico, Cynthia Duarte; Galhano, Graziela; Zamboni, Sandra; Baldissara, Paolo; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the hypothesis that a process of hydrofluoric acid precipitate neutralization and fatigue load cycling performed on human premolars restored with ceramic inlays had an influence on microtensile bond strength results (MTBS). MOD inlay preparations were performed in 40 premolars (with their roots embedded in acrylic resin). Forty ceramic restorations were prepared using glass-ceramic (IPS Empress). The inner surfaces of all the restorations were etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 60 seconds, rinsed with water and dried. The specimens were divided into two groups

  3. Growth and Characterization of Nanostructured Glass Ceramic Scintillators for Miniature High-Energy Radiation Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    public release; distribution is unlimited. October 2013 HDTRA1-03-D-0009 Mansoor Sheik- Bahae Prepared by: OVPR...Characterization of Nanostructured Glass Ceramic Scintillators for Miniature High-Energy Radiation Sensors HDTRA01-03-D-0009 Mansoor Sheik- Bahae 26 OVPR...Table of Contents…………………………………………………………….3 I . Synthesis of Nano-Structured Glass Ceramic…..……………………………4 II. Characterize Structure and

  4. An evaluation of the processing conditions, structure, and properties (biaxial flexural strength and antibacterial efficacy) of sintered strontium-zinc-silicate glass ceramics.

    PubMed

    Looney, Mark; Shea, Helen O'; Gunn, Lynda; Crowley, Dolores; Boyd, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    The use of artificial bone grafts has increased in order to satisfy a growing demand for bone replacement materials. Initial mechanical stability of synthetic bone grafts is very advantageous for certain clinical applications. Coupled with the advantage of mechanical strength, a material with inherent antibacterial properties would be very beneficial. A series of strontium-doped zinc silicate (Ca-Sr-Na-Zn-Si) glass ceramics have been characterized in terms of their crystalline structure, biaxial flexural strength and antibacterial efficacy based on the identification of optimum sintering conditions. All three glass ceramics, namely, BT110, BT111, and BT112 were found to be fully crystalline, with BT111 and BT112 comprising of biocompatible crystalline phases. The biaxial flexural strengths of the three glass ceramics ranged from 70 to 149 MPa and were shown to be superior to those of clinically established ceramics in dry conditions and following incubation in simulated physiological conditions. The bacteriostatic effect for each glass ceramic was also established, where BT112 showed an inhibitory effect against three of the most common bacteria found at implantation sites, namely, Enterococcus faecalis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results of the evaluation suggest that the materials studied offer advantages over current clinical materials and indicate the potential suitability of the glass ceramics as therapeutic bone grafts.

  5. Reference-based optical characterization of glass-ceramic converter for high-power white LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Letz, M.; Zachau, T.; Pawlowski, E.; Seneschal-Merz, K.; Korb, T.; Enseling, D.; Hoppe, B.; Peuchert, U.; Hayden, J. S.

    2007-02-01

    Fluorescence techniques are known for their high sensitivity and are widely used as analytical tools and detection methods for product and process control, material sciences, environmental and bio-technical analysis, molecular genetics, cell biology, medical diagnostics and drug screening. According to DIN/ISO 17025 certified standards are used for fluorescence diagnostics having the drawback of giving relative values for fluorescence intensities only. Therefore reference materials for a quantitative characterization have to be related directly to the materials under investigation. In order to evaluate these figures it is necessary to calculate absolute numbers like absorption/excitation cross section and quantum yield. This can be done for different types of dopants in different materials like glass, glass ceramics, crystals or nano crystalline material embedded in polymer matrices. Here we consider a special type of glass ceramic with Ce doped YAG as the main crystalline phase. This material has been developed for the generation of white light realized by a blue 460 nm semiconductor transition using a yellow phosphor or converter material respectively. Our glass ceramic is a pure solid state solution for a yellow phosphor. For the production of such a kind of material a well controlled thermal treatment is employed to transfer the original glass into a glass ceramic with a specific crystalline phase. In our material Ce doped YAG crystallites of a size of several µm are embedded in a matrix of a residual glass. We present chemical, structural and spectroscopic properties of our material. Based on this we will discuss design options for white LED's with respect to heat management, scattering regime, reflection losses, chemical durability and stability against blue and UV radiation, which evolve from our recently developed material. In this paper we present first results on our approaches to evaluate quantum yield and light output. Used diagnostics are

  6. High-temperature tensile behavior of a boron nitride-coated silicon carbide-fiber glass-ceramic composite

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, E.Y.; Nutt, S.R.; Brennan, J.J.

    1996-06-01

    Tensile properties of a cross-ply glass-ceramic composite were investigated by conducting fracture, creep, and fatigue experiments at both room temperature and high temperatures in air. The composite consisted of a barium magnesium aluminosilicate (BMAS) glass-ceramic matrix reinforced with SiC fibers with a SiC/BN coating. The material exhibited retention of most tensile properties up to 1,200 C. Monotonic tensile fracture tests produced ultimate strengths of 230--300 MPa with failure strains of {approximately}1%, and no degradation in ultimate strength was observed at 1,100 and 1,200 C. In creep experiments at 1,100 C, nominal steady-state creep rates in the 10{sup {minus}9} s{sup {minus}1} range were established after a period of transient creep. Tensile stress rupture experiments at 1,100 and 1,200 C lasted longer than one year at stress levels above the corresponding proportional limit stresses for those temperatures. Tensile fatigue experiments were conducted in which the maximum applied stress was slightly greater than the proportional limit stress of the matrix, and, in these experiments, the composite survived 10{sup 5} cycles without fracture at temperatures up to 1,200 C. Microscopic damage mechanisms were investigated by TEM, and microstructural observations of tested samples were correlated with the mechanical response. The SiC/BN fiber coatings effectively inhibited diffusion and reaction at the interface during high-temperature testing. The BN layer also provided a weak interfacial bond that resulted in damage-tolerant fracture behavior.

  7. Influence of high magnetic field on the luminescence of Eu{sup 3+}-doped glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Wei; Chen, Weibo; Chen, Ping; Xu, Beibei; Zheng, Shuhong; Guo, Qiangbing; Liu, Xiaofeng E-mail: qjr@zju.edu.cn; Zhang, Junpei; Han, Junbo; Qiu, Jianrong E-mail: qjr@zju.edu.cn

    2014-09-28

    Rare earth (RE) doped materials have been widely exploited as the intriguing electronic configuration of RE ions offers diverse functionalities from optics to magnetism. However, the coupling of magnetism with photoluminescence (PL) in such materials has been rarely reported in spite of its fundamental significance. In the present paper, the effect of high pulsed magnetic field on the photoluminescence intensity of Eu{sup 3+}-doped nano-glass-ceramics has been investigated. In our experiment, Eu-doped oxyfluoride glass and glass ceramic were prepared by the conventional melt-quenching process and controlled heat treatment. The results demonstrate that the integrated PL intensity of Eu{sup 3+} decreases with the enhancement of magnetic field, which can be interpreted in terms of cooperation effect of Zeeman splitting and magnetic field induced change in site symmetry. Furthermore, as a result of Zeeman splitting, both blue and red shift in the emission peaks of Eu{sup 3+} can be observed, and this effect becomes more prominent with the increase of magnetic field. Possible mechanisms associated with the observed magneto-optical behaviors are suggested. The results of the present paper may open a new gate for modulation of luminescence by magnetic field and remote optical detection of magnetic field.

  8. Preliminary Technology Maturation Plan for Immobilization of High-Level Waste in Glass Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, John D.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Smith, G L.

    2012-09-30

    A technology maturation plan (TMP) was developed for immobilization of high-level waste (HLW) raffinate in a glass ceramics waste form using a cold-crucible induction melter (CCIM). The TMP was prepared by the following process: 1) define the reference process and boundaries of the technology being matured, 2) evaluate the technology elements and identify the critical technology elements (CTE), 3) identify the technology readiness level (TRL) of each of the CTE’s using the DOE G 413.3-4, 4) describe the development and demonstration activities required to advance the TRLs to 4 and 6 in order, and 5) prepare a preliminary plan to conduct the development and demonstration. Results of the technology readiness assessment identified five CTE’s and found relatively low TRL’s for each of them: • Mixing, sampling, and analysis of waste slurry and melter feed: TRL-1 • Feeding, melting, and pouring: TRL-1 • Glass ceramic formulation: TRL-1 • Canister cooling and crystallization: TRL-1 • Canister decontamination: TRL-4 Although the TRL’s are low for most of these CTE’s (TRL-1), the effort required to advance them to higher values. The activities required to advance the TRL’s are listed below: • Complete this TMP • Perform a preliminary engineering study • Characterize, estimate, and simulate waste to be treated • Laboratory scale glass ceramic testing • Melter and off-gas testing with simulants • Test the mixing, sampling, and analyses • Canister testing • Decontamination system testing • Issue a requirements document • Issue a risk management document • Complete preliminary design • Integrated pilot testing • Issue a waste compliance plan A preliminary schedule and budget were developed to complete these activities as summarized in the following table (assuming 2012 dollars). TRL Budget Year MSA FMP GCF CCC CD Overall $M 2012 1 1 1 1 4 1 0.3 2013 2 2 1 1 4 1 1.3 2014 2 3 1 1 4 1 1.8 2015 2 3 2 2 4 2 2.6 2016 2 3 2 2 4 2 4

  9. Effect of Storage Time on Bond Strength Performance of Multimode Adhesives to Indirect Resin Composite and Lithium Disilicate Glass Ceramic.

    PubMed

    Makishi, P; André, C B; Silva, Jp Lyra E; Bacelar-Sá, R; Correr-Sobrinho, L; Giannini, M

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the bond strength performance of multimode adhesives (MMAs) to indirect resin composite and lithium disilicate glass ceramic after 24 hours or one year of water storage. Thirty flat and polished plates of indirect resin composite (Epricord) and thirty lithium disilicate glass ceramic plates (IPS e.max Press) were prepared. Surfaces were pretreated using sandblasting (indirect resin composite) or hydrofluoric acid (glass-based ceramic). Specimens were bonded with one of two MMAs (Scotchbond Universal [SBU] or All-Bond Universal [ABU]) or ceramic primer and hydrophobic bonding (RelyX Ceramic Primer and Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Bond) as a control (n=10). Resin cement cylinders (0.75 mm in diameter × 0.5 mm in height) were bonded to both substrate surfaces using the respective adhesives. After 24 hours or one year of water storage, bonding performance was measured by microshear bond strength (MSBS) testing. Results were analyzed using three-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests (α=0.05). For indirect resin composite, significantly higher MSBS values were found for ABU after 24 hours (ABU > SBU = control); however, no significant difference among the adhesives was observed after one year (p>0.05). For glass-based ceramic, significantly different bond strengths were observed among the adhesives after 24 hours (control = ABU > SBU) and one year (control > SBU = ABU; p<0.05). Both MMAs tested can be considered effective alternatives for bonding to sandblasted indirect resin composite after aging, as they showed similar bond performance to that of the control group. However, separate bottles of silane bonding resin showed higher MSBS values and more durable bonding for etched glass-based ceramic.

  10. Bioactive and inert dental glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Montazerian, Maziar; Zanotto, Edgar Dutra

    2017-02-01

    The global market for dental materials is predicted to exceed 10 billion dollars by 2020. The main drivers for this growth are easing the workflow of dentists and increasing the comfort of patients. Therefore, remarkable research projects have been conducted and are currently underway to develop improved or new dental materials with enhanced properties or that can be processed using advanced technologies, such as CAD/CAM or 3D printing. Among these materials, zirconia, glass or polymer-infiltrated ceramics, and glass-ceramics (GCs) are of great importance. Dental glass-ceramics are highly attractive because they are easy to process and have outstanding esthetics, translucency, low thermal conductivity, high strength, chemical durability, biocompatibility, wear resistance, and hardness similar to that of natural teeth, and, in certain cases, these materials are bioactive. In this review article, we divide dental GCs into the following two groups: restorative and bioactive. Most restorative dental glass-ceramics (RDGCs) are inert and biocompatible and are used in the restoration and reconstruction of teeth. Bioactive dental glass-ceramics (BDGCs) display bone-bonding ability and stimulate positive biological reactions at the material/tissue interface. BDGCs are suggested for dentin hypersensitivity treatment, implant coating, bone regeneration and periodontal therapy. Throughout this paper, we elaborate on the history, processing, properties and applications of RDGCs and BDGCs. We also report on selected papers that address promising types of dental glass-ceramics. Finally, we include trends and guidance on relevant open issues and research possibilities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 619-639, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Damage to Macor glass-ceramic from high-dose 14 MeV neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Coghlan, W.A.; Clinard, F.W. Jr. . Dept. of Physics; Los Alamos National Lab., NM )

    1989-01-01

    Macor machinable glass-ceramic was irradiated to fluences up to 1 {times} 10{sup 23} 14 MeV n/m{sup 2} at room temperature. Post-irradiation measurements were carried out to determine changes in high-frequency electrical conductivity, hardness, and density. It was found that neutron damage caused slight increases in conductivity and hardness. The major changes noted was in density, where a fluence of 4 {times} 10{sup 22} n/m{sup 2} caused swelling of 1.55 vol % while a dose of 1 {times} 10{sup 23} n/m{sup 2} resulted in a lower swelling value (0.82 vol %). This unusual behavior is explained by a model involving expansion of the mica phase of Macor and contraction of the glassy phase. Implications of the present results for engineering performance of Macor at these and higher fluences are discussed. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  12. In vitro osteogenesis on a highly bioactive glass-ceramic (Biosilicate).

    PubMed

    Moura, João; Teixeira, Lucas Novaes; Ravagnani, Christian; Peitl, Oscar; Zanotto, Edgar Dutra; Beloti, Márcio Mateus; Panzeri, Heitor; Rosa, Adalberto Luiz; de Oliveira, Paulo Tambasco

    2007-09-01

    One of the strategies to improve the mechanical performance of bioactive glasses for load-bearing implant devices has been the development of glass-ceramic materials. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of a highly bioactive, fully-crystallized glass-ceramic (Biosilicate) of the system P(2)O(5)-Na(2)O-CaO-SiO(2) on various key parameters of in vitro osteogenesis. Surface characterization was carried out by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Osteogenic cells were obtained by enzymatic digestion of newborn rat calvarial bone and by growing on Biosilicate discs and on control bioactive glass surfaces (Biosilicate) parent glass and Bioglass(R) 45S5) for periods of up to 17 days. All materials developed an apatite layer in simulated body fluid for 24h. Additionally, as early as 12 h under culture conditions and in the absence of cells, all surfaces developed a layer of silica-gel that was gradually covered by amorphous calcium phosphate deposits, which remained amorphous up to 72 h. During the proliferative phase of osteogenic cultures, the majority of cells exhibited disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton, whereas reassembly of actin stress fibers took place only in areas of cell multilayering by day 5. Although no significant differences were detected in terms of total protein content and alkaline phosphatase activity at days 11 and 17, Biosilicate supported significantly larger areas of calcified matrix at day 17. The results indicate that full crystallization of bioactive glasses in a range of compositions of the system P(2)O(5)-Na(2)O-CaO-SiO(2) may promote enhancement of in vitro bone-like tissue formation in an osteogenic cell culture system.

  13. Phenomena and mechanisms of crack propagation in glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Apel, E; Deubener, J; Bernard, A; Höland, M; Müller, R; Kappert, H; Rheinberger, V; Höland, W

    2008-10-01

    Lithium disilicate, leucite and apatite glass-ceramics have become state-of-the-art framework materials in the fabrication of all-ceramic dental restorative materials. The goal of this study was to examine the crack propagation behaviour of these three known glass-ceramic materials after they have been subjected to Vickers indentation and to characterize their crack opening profiles (delta(meas) vs. (a-r)). For this purpose, various methods of optical examination were employed. Optical microscopy investigations were performed to examine the crack phenomena at a macroscopic level, while high-resolution techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), were employed to investigate the crack phenomena at a microscopic level. The crack patterns of the three glass-ceramics vary from fairly straightforward to more complex, depending on the amount of residual glass matrix present in the material. The high-strength lithium disilicate crystals feature a high degree of crosslinking, thereby preventing crack propagation. In this material, the crack propagates only through the residual glass phase, which constitutes 30%-40% by volume. Having a high glass content of more than 65% by volume, the leucite and apatite glass-ceramics show far more complex crack patterns. Cracks in the leucite glass-ceramic propagate through both the glass and crystal phase. The apatite glass-ceramic shows a similar crack behaviour as an inorganic-organic composite material containing nanoscale fillers, which are pulled out in the surroundings of the crack tip. The observed crack behaviour and the calculated K(tip) values of the three types of glass-ceramics were compared to the K(IC) values determined according to the SEVNB method.

  14. Bonding strength of resin cement to silicate glass ceramics for dental CAD/CAM systems is enhanced by combination treatment of the bonding surface.

    PubMed

    Shimakura, Yusuke; Hotta, Yasuhiro; Fujishima, Akihiro; Kunii, Jun; Miyazaki, Takashi; Kawawa, Tadaharu

    2007-09-01

    To increase the bond strength of CAD/CAM-fabricated, leucite-reinforced glass ceramics with a resin cement, the effects of the following were investigated: surface modification by tribochemical (TBC) treatment, followed by combined application of a silane coupling agent and a functional monomer as a primer. Bond strength was evaluated by a shear bond test. It was found that a silane coupling agent was useful for all the surfaces, particularly for the TBC-treated surface. This was because of the presence of a silica layer on the modified surface. The combination of a silane coupling agent and a functional monomer on the TBC surface allowed marked improvement in bonding, whereby the bonding endured 20,000 cycles of thermal cycling. Therefore, TBC treatment in combination with a silane coupling agent and a functional monomer as a primer substantially increased the bond strength of CAD/CAM-fabricated glass ceramics with resin cement, if the treatment conditions were appropriate.

  15. Nb-doped SrTiO3 glass-ceramics as high temperature stable n-type oxide thermoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingner, Julian; Jakob, Gerhard; Letz, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Niobium doped SrTiO3 is known for its high potential as an oxide thermoelectric material and is one of the possible candidates for the n-type site in an oxidic thermoelectric module. The high thermal conductivity [1] and the lack of high-temperature stability of the oxygen vacancies [2] limit its properties in the ceramic systems. Glass-ceramics are intrinsic nano-structured systems and provide crystal phases densely embedded in a glass matrix which prevents the material from detoriation at high temperatures. In particular, the glass-matrix prevents an uncontrolled reoxidization as well as an uncontrolled grain growth therefore retaining the nano-structure even at high temperatures. Here, measurements and results of first glass-ceramic systems are presented, which show a low thermal conductivity due to the residue glass phase. Furthermore a stable thermal cycling up to 650 °C is demonstrated.

  16. Glass Ceramic Formulation Data Package

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Vienna, John D.; Chung, Chul-Woo

    2012-06-17

    A glass ceramic waste form is being developed for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by aqueous reprocessing of commercial used nuclear fuel (Crum et al. 2012b). The waste stream contains a mixture of transition metals, alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanides, several of which exceed the solubility limits of a single phase borosilicate glass (Crum et al. 2009; Caurant et al. 2007). A multi-phase glass ceramic waste form allows incorporation of insoluble components of the waste by designed crystallization into durable heat tolerant phases. The glass ceramic formulation and processing targets the formation of the following three stable crystalline phases: (1) powellite (XMoO4) where X can be (Ca, Sr, Ba, and/or Ln), (2) oxyapatite Yx,Z(10-x)Si6O26 where Y is alkaline earth, Z is Ln, and (3) lanthanide borosilicate (Ln5BSi2O13). These three phases incorporate the waste components that are above the solubility limit of a single-phase borosilicate glass. The glass ceramic is designed to be a single phase melt, just like a borosilicate glass, and then crystallize upon slow cooling to form the targeted phases. The slow cooling schedule is based on the centerline cooling profile of a 2 foot diameter canister such as the Hanford High-Level Waste canister. Up to this point, crucible testing has been used for glass ceramic development, with cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) targeted as the ultimate processing technology for the waste form. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will conduct a scaled CCIM test in FY2012 with a glass ceramic to demonstrate the processing behavior. This Data Package documents the laboratory studies of the glass ceramic composition to support the CCIM test. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) measured melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling to identify a processing window (temperature range) for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the

  17. Effect of Heat-Pressing Temperature and Holding Time on the Microstructure and Flexural Strength of Lithium Disilicate Glass-Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jing; Wang, Hui; Chen, Jihua

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of various heat-pressing procedures (different holding time and heat pressing temperature) on the microstructure and flexural strength of lithium disilicate glass ceramic. An experimental lithium silicate glass ceramic (ELDC) was prepared from the SiO2-Li2O-K2O-Al2O3-ZrO2-P2O5 system and heat-pressed following different procedures by varying temperature and holding time. The flexural strength was tested and microstructure was analyzed. The relationships between the microstructure, mechanical properties and heat-pressing procedures were discussed in-depth. Results verified the feasibility of the application of dental heat-pressing technique in processing the experimental lithium disilicate glass ceramic. Different heat-pressing procedures showed significant influence on microstructure and flexural strength. ELDC heat-pressed at 950℃ with holding time of 15 min achieved an almost pore-free microstructure and the highest flexural strength, which was suitable for dental restorative application. PMID:25985206

  18. Mesoporous Nitrogen-Doped Carbon-LiSICON Glass Ceramics as High Performance Cathodes in Solid-State Lithium Oxygen Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-18

    SUBTITLE MESOPOROUS NITROGEN-DOPED CARBON-LiSICON GLASS CERAMICS AS HIGH PERFORMANCE CATHODES IN SOLID-STATE LITHIUM -OXYGEN BATTERIES (POSTPRINT) 5a...AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2015-0054 MESOPOROUS NITROGEN-DOPED CARBON-LiSICON GLASS CERAMICS AS HIGH PERFORMANCE CATHODES IN SOLID-STATE LITHIUM -OXYGEN...superior electrochemical activity of composite 3 for the reduction of oxygen and the higher ionic conductivity of LAGP to transport lithium ions in the

  19. Optimization of the Processing Parameters of High Temperature Superconducting Glass-Ceramics: Center Director's Discretionary Fund Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, E. C.; Kaukler, W. F.

    1993-01-01

    A number of promising glass forming compositions of high Tc superconducting Ba-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BSCCO) materials were evaluated for their glass-ceramic crystallization ability. The BSCCO ceramics belonging to the class of superconductors in the Ba-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system were the focus of this study. By first forming the superconducting material as a glass, subsequent devitrification into the crystalline (glass-ceramic) superconductor can be performed by thermal processing of the glass preform body. Glass formability and phase formation were determined by a variety of methods in another related study. This study focused on the nucleation and crystallization of the materials. Thermal analysis during rapid cooling aids in the evaluation of nucleation and crystallization behavior. Melt viscosity is used to predict glass formation ability.

  20. Surface or internal nucleation and crystallization of glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höland, W.; Rheinberger, V. M.; Ritzberger, C.; Apel, E.

    2013-07-01

    Fluoroapatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) was precipitated in glass-ceramics via internal crystallization of base glasses. The crystals grew with a needle-like morphology in the direction of the crystallographic c-axis. Two different reaction mechanisms were analyzed: precipitation via a disordered primary apatite crystals and a solid state parallel reaction to rhenanite (NaCaPO4) precipitation. In contrast to the internal nucleation used in the formation of fluoroapatite, surface crystallization was induced to precipitate a phosphate-free oxyapatite of NaY9(SiO4)6O2-type. Internal nucleation and crystallization have been shown to be a very useful tool for developing high-strength lithium disilicate (Li2Si2O5) glass-ceramics. A very controlled process was conducted to transform the lithium metasilicate glass-ceramic precursor material into the final product of the lithium disilicate glass-ceramic without the major phase of the precursor material. The combination of all these methods allowed the driving forces of the internal nucleation and crystallization mechanisms to be explained. An amorphous phosphate primary phase was discovered in the process. Nucleation started at the interface between the amorphous phosphate phase and the glass matrix. The final products of all these glass-ceramics are biomaterials for dental restoration showing special optical properties, e.g. translucence and color close to dental teeth.

  1. Influence of glass particle size of resin cements on bonding to glass ceramic: SEM and bond strength evaluation.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Fernanda; Moraes, Rafael R; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana; Boscato, Noéli

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of the filler particle size (micron or submicron) of experimental resin cements on the microtensile bond strength to a glass-ceramic pretreated with hydrofluoric acid (HFA) etching or alumina airborne-particle abrasion (AA). Cements were obtained from a Bis-GMA/TEGDMA mixture filled with 60 mass% micron-sized (1 ± 0.2 µm) or submicron-sized (180 ± 30 µm) Ba-Si-Al glass particles. Ceramic blocks (PM9; VITA) were treated with 10% HFA for 60 s or AA for 15 s. Silane and adhesive were applied. Ceramic blocks were bonded to resin composite blocks (Z250; 3M ESPE) using one of the cements. Bonded specimens were sectioned into beams (n = 20/group) and subjected to microtensile bond strength tests. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls' tests (5%). Failure modes were classified under magnification. Morphologies of the treated ceramic surfaces and bonded interfaces were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The HFA-submicron group had lower bond strengths than the other groups. All AA-submicron specimens debonded prematurely. Mixed failures were predominant for HFA groups, whereas interfacial failures predominated for AA groups. SEM revealed a honeycomb-like aspect in the HFA-treated ceramic, whereas the AA-treated groups showed an irregular retentive pattern. Continuity of cement infiltration along the bonded interface was more uniform for HFA-treated compared to AA-treated specimens. Cracks toward the bulk of the ceramic were observed in AA-treated specimens. Particle size significantly influenced the ceramic bond strength, whereas surface treatment had a minor effect.

  2. Americium and trivalent Lanthanides incorporation in high-level waste glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardez-Giboire, Isabelle; Kidari, Abdessamad; Magnin, Magali; Dussossoy, Jean-Luc; Peuget, Sylvain; Caraballo, Richard; Tribet, Magaly; Doreau, Franck; Jégou, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    The incorporation and partitioning of americium and trivalent lanthanides were investigated in aluminoborosilicate glass-ceramics with apatite-like silicate crystals of general formula Ca2(Ln,Am)8(SiO4)6O2. A microstructural and structural study of two glass-ceramics containing Am2O3 - La2O3 or Nd2O3 - La2O3, respectively, was carried out by XRD, SEM/EDS and EMPA so as to assess a comparison of Lanthanides and Actinides partitioning into apatite crystals and residual glass. Moreover, Raman analyses of residual glasses were performed to compare the role of Am and Nd on the glassy structure. Results put forward that shape, composition, Ln/Am stoichiometry and cell parameters of apatite crystals of both (Am-La) and (Nd-La) glass-ceramics are very close. This paper thus shows similar results for (Am-La) and (Nd-La) glass-ceramics in terms of apatite/glass partitioning and in terms of structural role on glassy structure. It can be therefore put forward that Nd3+ and Am3+ behaviors are close, either in the glass or in the crystalline structure.

  3. Influence of various bonding techniques on the fracture strength of thin CAD/CAM-fabricated occlusal glass-ceramic veneers.

    PubMed

    Yazigi, Christine; Kern, Matthias; Chaar, Mohamed Sad

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of immediate dentin sealing and the effects of different bonding protocols on the fracture strength of CAD/CAM occlusal veneers bonded to exposed dentin. Ninety-six extracted maxillary premolars were initially divided into three main groups with 32 specimens each: without immediate dentin sealing, immediate dentin sealing/total etching and immediate dentin sealing/selective etching. Teeth were identically prepared in the dentin to receive occlusal veneers of 0.8mm thickness, milled from lithium disilicate ceramic blocks (IPS e.max CAD). Each main group was later subdivided, according to the pre-cementation surface etching protocol (total/selective), into two subgroups with 16 specimens each. All restorations were adhesively bonded using a resin cement (Variolink Esthetic). Half of the specimens of each subgroup were subjected to thermo-dynamic loading in a chewing simulator with 1,200,000 cycles at 10kg load. The other half and the surviving specimens were subjected to quasi-static loading until failure. Statistical analysis was performed using three-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests. All specimens except one survived the artificial aging. A significantly higher fracture strength of restorations (p ≤ 0.001) was obtained when immediate dentin sealing was followed regardless of the etching method with values ranging from a minimum of 1122 ± 336N to a maximum of 1853 ± 333N. Neither the pre-cementation treatment nor the artificial aging had a statistical significant effect on the fracture strength. Immediate dentin sealing protocol is recommended whenever dentin is exposed during the preparation for thin glass-ceramic occlusal veneers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of zircon-based tricolor pigments on the color, microstructure, flexural strength and translucency of a novel dental lithium disilicate glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kun; Wang, Fu; Gao, Jing; Sun, Xiang; Deng, Zai-Xi; Wang, Hui; Jin, Lei; Chen, Ji-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of zircon-based tricolor pigments (praseodymium zircon yellow, ferrum zircon red, and vanadium zircon blue) on the color, thermal property, crystalline phase composition, microstructure, flexural strength, and translucency of a novel dental lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. The pigments were added to the glass frit, milled, pressed, and sintered. Ninety monochrome samples were prepared and the colors were analyzed. The effect of the pigments on thermal property, crystalline phase composition, and microstructure were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Addition of the pigments resulted in the acquisition of subtractive primary colors as well as tooth-like colors, and did not demonstrate significant effects on the thermal property, crystalline phase composition, microstructure, and flexural strength of the experimental glass-ceramic. Although significant differences (p < 0.01) were observed between the translucencies of the uncolored and 1.0 wt % zircon-based pigment colored ceramics, the translucencies of the latter were sufficient to fabricate dental restorations. These results indicate that the zircon-based tricolor pigments can be used with dental lithium disilicate glass-ceramic to produce abundant and predictable tooth-like colors without significant adverse effects, if mixed in the right proportions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Manufacture, characterisation and properties of novel fluorcanasite glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Pollington, Sarah; van Noort, Richard

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the manufacture and characterisation of different compositions of fluorcanasite glass-ceramics with reduced fluorine content and to assess their mechanical and physical properties. Three compositional variations (S80, S81 and S82) of a fluorcanasite glass were investigated. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified crystallisation temperatures and phases. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) determined the element composition in the glass-ceramics. Different heat treatments [2 h nucleation and either 2 or 4 h crystallisation] were used for the glasses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examined the microstructure of the cerammed glass. The chemical solubility, biaxial flexural strength, fracture toughness, hardness and brittleness index of S81 and S82 fluorcanasite were investigated with lithium disilicate (e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) as a commercial comparison. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey's multiple comparison tests (P<0.05). Weibull analysis was employed to examine the reliability of the strength data. All compositions successfully produced glasses. XRD analysis confirmed fluorcanasite formation with the S81 and S82 compositions, with the S82 (2+2h) showing the most prominent crystal structure. The chemical solubility of the glass-ceramics was significantly different, varying from 2565 ± 507 μg/cm(2) for the S81 (2+2 h) to 722 ± 177 μg/cm(2) for the S82 (2+2 h) to 37.4 ± 25.2 μg/cm(2) for the lithium disilicate. BFS values were highest for the S82 (2+2 h) composition (250 ± 26 MPa) and lithium disilicate (266 ± 37 MPa) glass-ceramics. The fracture toughness was higher for the S82 compositions, with the S82 (2+2h) attaining the highest value of 4.2 ± 0.3 MPa m(1/2)(P=0.01). The S82 (2+2 h) fluorcanasite glass-ceramic had the lowest brittleness index. The S82 (2+2 h) fluorcanasite glass-ceramic has acceptable chemical solubility, high biaxial flexural

  6. Pressurized heat treatment of glass ceramic

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, D.P.

    1984-04-19

    A method of producing a glass-ceramic having a specified thermal expansion value is disclosed. The method includes the step of pressurizing the parent glass material to a predetermined pressure during heat treatment so that the glass-ceramic produced has a specified thermal expansion value. Preferably, the glass-ceramic material is isostatically pressed. A method for forming a strong glass-ceramic to metal seal is also disclosed in which the glass-ceramic is fabricated to have a thermal expansion value equal to that of the metal. The determination of the thermal expansion value of a parent glass material placed in a high-temperature environment is also used to determine the pressure in the environment.

  7. Recent developments in glass-ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Beall, G.H.

    1993-12-31

    Glass-ceramic materials can be made by sintering and crystallization of fine glass powders or by internal nucleation and crystallization of formed glass articles. In both cases, the final properties are controlled by phase assemblage and microstructure. Transparent glass-ceramics based upon ultra-fine grained {beta}-quartz solid solution have been developed with near-zero thermal expansion coefficient for a variety of consumer and technical products: cookware, stove-tops, telescope mirrors, optical gyroscopes. Fluormica glass-ceramics with a {open_quotes}house-of-cards{close_quotes} microstructure are easily machined and have found wide application in vacuum systems, precision dielectric components, insulators, and medical and dental prostheses. Acicular chain silicate glass-ceramics are strong and tough, and have recently been developed as high performance tableware and magnetic memory disk substrates. Sintered glass-ceramics based on magnesium aluminosilicate frits are the basis of copper-cordierite packaging for advanced IC packaging.

  8. Fabrication of glass-ceramics containing spin-chain compound SrCuO{sub 2} and its high thermal conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Terakado, Nobuaki Watanabe, Kouki; Kawamata, Takayuki; Yokochi, Yuudai; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Koike, Yoji; Fujiwara, Takumi

    2015-04-06

    High thermal conductivity materials are in great demand for heat-flow control and heat dissipation in electronic devices. In this study, we have produced a glass-ceramics that contains spin-chain compound SrCuO{sub 2} and have found that the glass-ceramics yields high thermal conductivity of ∼5 W K{sup −1} m{sup −1} even at room temperature. The glass-ceramics is fabricated through crystallization of inhomogeneous melt-quenched oxides made from SrCO{sub 3}, CuO, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray and electron diffraction reveal that SrCuO{sub 2} crystallites with a size of 100–200 nm are precipitated in the glass-ceramics. The highness of the thermal conductivity is attributable to two sources: one is elongation of phonon mean free path due to the crystallization of the inhomogeneous structure or structural ordering. The other is emergence of the heat carriers, spinons, in the SrCuO{sub 2}. This highly thermal conductive glass-ceramics is expected to be utilized as base materials for heat-flow control devices.

  9. Reduced wear of enamel with novel fine and nano-scale leucite glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Theocharopoulos, Antonios; Chen, Xiaohui; Hill, Robert; Cattell, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    Leucite glass-ceramics used to produce all-ceramic restorations can suffer from brittle fracture and wear the opposing teeth. High strength and fine crystal sized leucite glass-ceramics have recently been reported. The objective of this study is to investigate whether fine and nano-scale leucite glass-ceramics with minimal matrix microcracking are associated with a reduction in in vitro tooth wear. Human molar cusps (n=12) were wear tested using a Bionix-858 testing machine (300,000 simulated masticatory cycles) against experimental fine crystal sized (FS), nano-scale crystal sized (NS) leucite glass-ceramics and a commercial leucite glass-ceramic (Ceramco-3, Dentsply, USA). Wear was imaged using Secondary Electron Imaging (SEI) and quantified using white-light profilometry. Both experimental groups were found to produce significantly (p<0.05) less volume and mean-height tooth loss compared to Ceramco-3. The NS group had significantly (p<0.05) less tooth mean-height loss and less combined (tooth and ceramic) loss than the FS group. Increased waviness and damage was observed on the wear surfaces of the Ceramco-3 glass-ceramic disc/tooth group in comparison to the experimental groups. This was also indicated by higher surface roughness values for the Ceramco-3 glass-ceramic disc/tooth group. Fine and nano-sized leucite glass-ceramics produced a reduction in in vitro tooth wear. The high strength low wear materials of this study may help address the many problems associated with tooth enamel wear and restoration failure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Properties and Clinical Application of Three Types of Dental Glass-Ceramics and Ceramics for CAD-CAM Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Ritzberger, Christian; Apel, Elke; Höland, Wolfram; Peschke, Arnd; Rheinberger, Volker M.

    2010-01-01

    The main properties (mechanical, thermal and chemical) and clinical application for dental restoration are demonstrated for three types of glass-ceramics and sintered polycrystalline ceramic produced by Ivoclar Vivadent AG. Two types of glass-ceramics are derived from the leucite-type and the lithium disilicate-type. The third type of dental materials represents a ZrO2 ceramic. CAD/CAM technology is a procedure to manufacture dental ceramic restoration. Leucite-type glass-ceramics demonstrate high translucency, preferable optical/mechanical properties and an application as dental inlays, onlays and crowns. Based on an improvement of the mechanical parameters, specially the strength and toughness, the lithium disilicate glass-ceramics are used as crowns; applying a procedure to machine an intermediate product and producing the final glass-ceramic by an additional heat treatment. Small dental bridges of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic were fabricated using a molding technology. ZrO2 ceramics show high toughness and strength and were veneered with fluoroapatite glass-ceramic. Machining is possible with a porous intermediate product.

  11. Celsian Glass-Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Dicarlo, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Glass-ceramic matrix reinforced fiber composite materials developed for use in low dielectric applications, such as radomes. Materials strong and tough, exhibit low dielectric properties, and endure high temperatures.

  12. Low-thermal expansion infrared glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Philip

    2009-05-01

    L2 Tech, Inc. is in development of an innovative infrared-transparent glass ceramic material with low-thermal expansion (<0.5 ppm/°C) and high thermal-shock resistance to be used as windows and domes for high speed flight. The material is an inorganic, non-porous glass ceramic, characterized by crystalline phases of evenly distributed nano-crystals in a residual glass phase. The major crystalline phase is zirconium tungstate (ZrW2O8) which has Negative Thermal Expansion (NTE). The glass phase is the infrared-transparent germanate glass which has positive thermal expansion (PTE). Then glass ceramic material has a balanced thermal expansion of near zero. The crystal structure is cubic and the thermal expansion of the glass ceramic is isotropic or equal in all directions.

  13. YAG glass-ceramic phosphor for white LED (I): background and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Shunsuke; Yoshihara, Satoru; Sakamoto, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Tanabe, Setsuhisa

    2005-09-01

    We have developed a Ce:YAG (Y3Al5O12) glass-ceramic phosphor for the white LED. The glass-ceramic phosphor was obtained by a heat treatment of a Ce-doped SiO2-Al2O3-Y2O3 mother glass between 1200°C and 1500°C for the prescribed time of period. We confirmed that, by XRD measurements, only YAG crystal precipitated in the mother glass after the heat treatment. It was shown from SEM observation that the YAG crystals with a grain size of approximately 20μm were uniformly dispersed in the glass matrix. The yellow emission, around 540nm in wavelength, was observed from the glass-ceramic phosphor, when it was excited by a blue LED (465nm). The white light due to the mix of yellow and blue light was observed from the glass-ceramic plate with a thickness of 0.5mm. The YAG glass-ceramic phosphor showed a high-temperature resistance and a good performance in a damp heat test. Moreover, a higher thermal conductivity of 2.18 Wm-1K-1 and bending strength of 125MPa were observed compared with a conventional soda-lime glass or an epoxy resin. In addition, since the YAG glass-ceramic phosphor can be formed in a plate-like shape, there is no need to be sealed in resins for the fabrication of the LED devices. Therefore, it is expected that this newly developed glass-ceramic phosphor is a promising candidate for the realization of resin-free, high-temperature and high-humidity resistant, long-life white LED devices.

  14. Predictive Surface Roughness Model for End Milling of Machinable Glass Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan Reddy, M.; Gorin, Alexander; Abou-El-Hossein, K. A.

    2011-02-01

    Advanced ceramics of Machinable glass ceramic is attractive material to produce high accuracy miniaturized components for many applications in various industries such as aerospace, electronics, biomedical, automotive and environmental communications due to their wear resistance, high hardness, high compressive strength, good corrosion resistance and excellent high temperature properties. Many research works have been conducted in the last few years to investigate the performance of different machining operations when processing various advanced ceramics. Micro end-milling is one of the machining methods to meet the demand of micro parts. Selecting proper machining parameters are important to obtain good surface finish during machining of Machinable glass ceramic. Therefore, this paper describes the development of predictive model for the surface roughness of Machinable glass ceramic in terms of speed, feed rate by using micro end-milling operation.

  15. The effect of ZrO2 and TiO 2 on solubility and strength of apatite-mullite glass-ceramics for dental applications.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Hawa M; Miller, Cheryl; Stokes, Christopher; Johnson, Anthony

    2014-03-01

    The effect of ZrO2 and TiO2 on the chemical and mechanical properties of apatite-mullite glass-ceramics was investigated after sample preparation according to the ISO (2768:2008) recommendations for dental ceramics. All materials were characterized using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the concentrations of elements present in all materials produced. The chemical solubility test and the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) test were then carried out on all the samples. The best solubility value of 242 ± 61 μg/cm(2) was obtained when HG1T was heat-treated for 1 h at the glass transition temperature plus 20 °C (Tg + 20 °C) followed by 5 h at 1200 °C. The highest BFS value of 174 ± 38 MPa was achieved when HG1Z and HG1Z+T were heat-treated for 1 h at the Tg + 20 °C followed by 7 h at 1200 °C. The present study has demonstrated that the addition of TiO2 to the reference composition showed promise in both the glass and heat-treated samples. However, ZrO2 is an effective agent for developing the solubility or the mechanical properties of an apatite-mullite glass-ceramic separately but does not improve the solubility and the BFS simultaneously.

  16. Analysis of Self-Adhesive Resin Cement Microshear Bond Strength on Leucite-Reinforced Glass-Ceramic with/without Pure Silane Primer or Universal Adhesive Surface Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Woo, Jung-Soo; Yi, Young-Ah; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Seo, Deog-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the microshear bond strength (μSBS) of self-adhesive resin (SA) cement on leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic using silane or universal adhesive. Materials and Methods. Ceramic blocks were etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid and divided into three groups (n = 16): (1) negative control (NC) without treatment; (2) Single Bond Universal (SBU); (3) RelyX Ceramic Primer as positive control (PC). RelyX Unicem resin cement was light-cured, and μSBS was evaluated with/without thermocycling. The μSBS was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The fractured surfaces were examined using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results. Without thermocycling, μSBS was highest for PC (30.50 MPa ± 3.40), followed by SBU (27.33 MPa ± 2.81) and NC (20.18 MPa ± 2.01) (P < 0.05). Thermocycling significantly reduced μSBS in SBU (22.49 MPa ± 4.11) (P < 0.05), but not in NC (20.68 MPa ± 4.60) and PC (28.77 MPa ± 3.52) (P > 0.05). PC and NC predominantly fractured by cohesive failure within the ceramic and mixed failure, respectively. Conclusion. SBU treatment improves μSBS between SA cement and glass ceramics, but to a lower value than PC, and the improvement is eradicated by thermocycling. NC exhibited the lowest μSBS, which remained unchanged after thermocycling. PMID:26557660

  17. Radiopaque Strontium Fluoroapatite Glass-Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Höland, Wolfram; Schweiger, Marcel; Dittmer, Marc; Ritzberger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The controlled precipitation of strontium fluoroapatite crystals was studied in four base glass compositions derived from the SiO2–Al2O3–Y2O3–SrO–Na2O–K2O/Rb2O/Cs2O–P2O5–F system. The crystal phase formation of these glasses and the main properties of the glass-ceramics, such as thermal and optical properties and radiopacity were compared with a fifth, a reference glass-ceramic. The reference glass-ceramic was characterized as Ca-fluoroapatite glass-ceramic. The four strontium fluoroapatite glass-ceramics showed the following crystal phases: (a) Sr5(PO4)3F – leucite, KAlSi2O6, (b) Sr5(PO4)3F – leucite, KAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, (c) Sr5(PO4)3F – pollucite, CsAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, and (d) Sr5(PO4)3F – Rb-leucite, RbAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4. The proof of crystal phase formation was possible by X-ray diffraction. The microstructures, which were studied using scanning electron microscopy, demonstrated a uniform distribution of the crystals in the glass matrix. The Sr-fluoroapatites were precipitated based on an internal crystallization process, and the crystals demonstrated a needle-like morphology. The study of the crystal growth of needle-like Sr-fluoroapatites gave a clear evidence of an Ostwald ripening mechanism. The formation of leucite, pollucite, and Rb-leucite was based on a surface crystallization mechanism. Therefore, a twofold crystallization mechanism was successfully applied to develop these types of glass-ceramics. The main focus of this study was the controlled development of glass-ceramics exhibiting high radiopacity in comparison to the reference glass-ceramic. This goal could be achieved with all four glass-ceramics with the preferred development of the Sr-fluoroapatite – pollucite-type glass-ceramic. In addition to this main development, it was possible to control the thermal properties. Especially the Rb-leucite containing glass-ceramic showed the highest coefficient of thermal

  18. Radiopaque Strontium Fluoroapatite Glass-Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Höland, Wolfram; Schweiger, Marcel; Dittmer, Marc; Ritzberger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The controlled precipitation of strontium fluoroapatite crystals was studied in four base glass compositions derived from the SiO2-Al2O3-Y2O3-SrO-Na2O-K2O/Rb2O/Cs2O-P2O5-F system. The crystal phase formation of these glasses and the main properties of the glass-ceramics, such as thermal and optical properties and radiopacity were compared with a fifth, a reference glass-ceramic. The reference glass-ceramic was characterized as Ca-fluoroapatite glass-ceramic. The four strontium fluoroapatite glass-ceramics showed the following crystal phases: (a) Sr5(PO4)3F - leucite, KAlSi2O6, (b) Sr5(PO4)3F - leucite, KAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, (c) Sr5(PO4)3F - pollucite, CsAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, and (d) Sr5(PO4)3F - Rb-leucite, RbAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4. The proof of crystal phase formation was possible by X-ray diffraction. The microstructures, which were studied using scanning electron microscopy, demonstrated a uniform distribution of the crystals in the glass matrix. The Sr-fluoroapatites were precipitated based on an internal crystallization process, and the crystals demonstrated a needle-like morphology. The study of the crystal growth of needle-like Sr-fluoroapatites gave a clear evidence of an Ostwald ripening mechanism. The formation of leucite, pollucite, and Rb-leucite was based on a surface crystallization mechanism. Therefore, a twofold crystallization mechanism was successfully applied to develop these types of glass-ceramics. The main focus of this study was the controlled development of glass-ceramics exhibiting high radiopacity in comparison to the reference glass-ceramic. This goal could be achieved with all four glass-ceramics with the preferred development of the Sr-fluoroapatite - pollucite-type glass-ceramic. In addition to this main development, it was possible to control the thermal properties. Especially the Rb-leucite containing glass-ceramic showed the highest coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). These

  19. Glass ceramic ionic conductor materials and method of making

    SciTech Connect

    Badzioch, S.

    1985-03-26

    Solid, crystalline glass ceramic compositions which are useful as ionic conductor materials, especially for use as solid electrolytes in high temperature, high energy density storage batteries. The glass ceramics are derived from sodium or calcium borates containing one or more metal halide, preferably the chlorides and bromides of the metals from Group 2 to 8 of the Periodic Table of the Elements.

  20. Glass-ceramic composition for hermetic seals

    DOEpatents

    Ballard, Jr., Clifford P.

    1979-01-01

    The invention relates to a glass-ceramic composition having a high fracture strength adaptable for hermetically sealing to chromium bearing iron or nickel base alloys at temperatures of between about 950.degree. C to about 1100.degree. C to form a hermetically sealed insulator body, comprising from about 55 to about 65 weight percent SiO.sub.2, from about 0 to about 5 weight percent Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, from about 6 to about 11 weight % Li.sub.2 O, from about 25 to about 32 weight percent BaO, from about 0.5 to about 1.0 weight percent CoO and from about 1.5 to about 3.5 weight percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5.

  1. Irradiation study of PNNL synthesized glass-ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Kossoy-simakov, Anna-eden; Tang, Ming; Valdez, James A; Usov, Igor O; Sickafus, Kurt E

    2011-01-18

    Two types of glass-ceramic were investigated: (1) for immobilization of Ln, alkali, and alkaline earths (GC4); and (2) same as above + high (7%) molybdenum content (Mo7) multiphase specimens. The purpose was to study the radiation stability of PNNL synthesized glass-ceramics and changes in microstructure/phase composition.

  2. Processing FeB03 glass-ceramics in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C. T.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of preparing FeBO3 glass-ceramic in space is explored. A transparent glass-ceramic of FeBO3, due to its unique properties could be an excellent material for magneto-optic applications which currently utilize high price materials such as single crystals of Ga-YIG. The unique magneto-optic properties of FeBO3 were found to come from glass-ceramic but not from the glass form. It was anticipated and later confirmed that the FeBO3 glass-ceramics could not be prepared on earth. Phase separation and iron valence reduction, were identified as the two terrestrial manufacturing obstacles. Since the phase separation problem could be overcome by space processing, the preparation of FeBO3 glass-ceramic in space appears attractive.

  3. Machinability of lithium disilicate glass ceramic in in vitro dental diamond bur adjusting process.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Fei; Ren, Hai-Tao; Yin, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Esthetic high-strength lithium disilicate glass ceramics (LDGC) are used for monolithic crowns and bridges produced in dental CAD/CAM and oral adjusting processes, which machinability affects the restorative quality. A machinability study has been made in the simulated oral clinical machining of LDGC with a dental handpiece and diamond burs, regarding the diamond tool wear and chip control, machining forces and energy, surface finish and integrity. Machining forces, speeds and energy in in vitro dental adjusting of LDGC were measured by a high-speed data acquisition and force sensor system. Machined LDGC surfaces were assessed using three-dimensional non-contact chromatic confocal optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Diamond bur morphology and LDGC chip shapes were also examined using SEM. Minimum tool wear but significant LDGC chip accumulations were found. Machining forces and energy significantly depended on machining conditions (p<0.05) and were significantly higher than other glass ceramics (p<0.05). Machining speeds dropped more rapidly with increased removal rates than other glass ceramics (p<0.05). Two material machinability indices associated with the hardness, Young's modulus and fracture toughness were derived based on the normal force-removal rate relations, which ranked LDGC the most difficult to machine among glass ceramics. Surface roughness for machined LDGC was comparable for other glass ceramics. The removal mechanisms of LDGC were dominated by penetration-induced brittle fracture and shear-induced plastic deformation. Unlike most other glass ceramics, distinct intergranular and transgranular fractures of lithium disilicate crystals were found in LDGC. This research provides the fundamental data for dental clinicians on the machinability of LDGC in intraoral adjustments.

  4. Hard machining, glaze firing and hydrofluoric acid etching: Do these procedures affect the flexural strength of a leucite glass-ceramic?

    PubMed

    Fraga, Sara; Valandro, Luiz F; Bottino, Marco A; May, Liliana G

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of hard machining, glaze firing and hydrofluoric acid etching on the biaxial flexural strength and roughness of a CAD/CAM leucite glass-ceramic; to investigate if ceramic post-machining surface roughness is influenced by the machining order and by the pair of burs used for it. A hundred forty four discs were machined by six nominally identical pairs of burs and divided into groups (n=24): (1) machining-M, (2) machining and glaze firing-MG, (3) machining and hydrofluoric acid etching-MA, (4) machining, glaze firing and hydrofluoric acid etching-MGA, (5) machining followed by polishing, as a control-MP, (6) machining, polishing and hydrofluoric acid etching-MPA. The roughness after each treatment (Ra and Rz) was measured. The discs were submitted to a piston-on-three ball flexure test (ISO 6872/2008) and strength data analyzed through Weibull statistics (95% CI). M resulted in lower characteristic strength (σ0) (128.2MPa) than MP (177.2MPa). The glaze firing reduced σ0 (109MPa), without affecting roughness. Hydrofluoric acid etching increased the roughness without affecting σ0. Spearman's coefficient (rs) indicated strong and significant correlation between machining order and roughness (rsRa=-0.66; rsRz=-0.73). The ceramic post-machining surface roughness differed significantly according to the pair of burs employed (p<0.05). hard machining and glaze firing reduced the leucite ceramic strength, while hydrofluoric acid etching did not affect the strength. Variability in the roughness might be expected after machining, since it was influenced by the machining order and by the bur pairing. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Zero-expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR: recent developments reveal high potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Peter; Jedamzik, Ralf; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    ZERODUR® is a well-established material in astronomy and all fields of applications where temperature gradients might limit extreme precision and stability. Together with its rich heritage come a series of recent developments, which reveal the potential of the material for broader and more demanding applications. The outstanding degree of light-weighting achieved with progress in CNC grinding in the last two years shows its high suitability for space telescope mirrors. This is supported by new data on strength enabling higher mechanical loads. Also ground based telescopes benefit from the improved light-weight processing such as solar telescopes and downstream mirrors of extremely large telescopes. More and better data have been collected demonstrating the unique CTE homogeneity of ZERODUR® and its very high reproducibility a necessary precondition for large series mirror production. Deliveries of more than 250 ZERODUR mirrors of 1.5 m in diameter prove the availability of robust industrial serial production capability inevitable for ELT mirror segment production.

  6. Glass formation and crystallization in high-temperature glass-ceramics and Si3N4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Charles H., III

    1991-01-01

    The softening of glassy grain boundaries in ceramic matrix composites and Si3N4 at high temperatures reduces mechanical strength and the upper-use temperature. By crystallizing this glass to a more refractory crystalline phase, a material which performs at higher temperatures may result. Three systems were examined: a cordierite composition with ZrO2 as a nucleating agent; celsian compositions; and yttrium silicate glasses both in bulk and intergranular in Si3N4. For the cordierite compositions, a series of metastable phases was obtained. The crystallization of these compositions was summarized in terms of metastable ternary isothermal sections. Zircon formed at the expense of ZrO2 and spinel. In SiC composites, the transformations were slower. In celsian, two polymorphs were crystallized. One phase, hexacelsian, which always crystallized, even when metastable, had an undesirable volume change. The other phase, celsian, was very difficult to crystallize. In yttrium silicate bulk glasses, similar in composition to the intergranular glass in Si3N4, a number of polymorphs of Y2Si2O7 were crystallized. The conditions under which these polymorphs formed are compared with crystallization in Si3N4.

  7. [A ten-year clinical study of cracked teeth restored with glass ceramic crowns].

    PubMed

    Luo, X P; Yuan, Y; Shi, Y J; Qian, D D

    2016-10-09

    Objective: To evaluate the clinic performance of high strength glass ceramic crowns for the painful cracked teeth during a 10-year observation period. Methods: Forty-two posterior teeth from 36 patients were diagnosed as having a crack, biting painful and sensitivity to cold were selected in the Department of Prosthodontic, Institute and Hospital of Stomatology, Nanjing University Medical School. The lost-wax hot pressed glass ceramic crowns were bonded on the minimally invasive prepared teeth by modern adhesive technology. Patients were interviewed and went through clinic examination after one week, one month, and every six months. Results: The effectiveness of 42 glass ceramic crowns for cracked teeth was evaluated for a mean observation time over 10-year. At the first week, 29(81%) patients were free of pain, three still had sensitivity to cold and chewing pain, three still had sensitivity to cold, one had painful to cold and hot. After one month, two patients still had chewing pain, and one tooth needed endodontic treatment after six months. In 10 years, 2(5%) all ceramic crowns were broken, the other 40 restorations kept good clinical performances with a 10-year survival rate of 95%. Conclusions: The high strength glass ceramic crowns are very effective and successful in treating the cracked teeth and then keep the good mastication function and appearance.

  8. Suppression effects of dental glass-ceramics with polarization-induced highly dense surface charges against bacterial adhesion.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Kosuke; Koizumi, Hiroki; Horiuchi, Naohiro; Nakamura, Miho; Okura, Toshinori; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Nagai, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the surface characteristics and antibacterial ability capacity of surface-improved dental glass-ceramics by an electrical polarization process. Commercially available dental glass-ceramic materials were electrically polarized to induce surface charges in a direct current field by heating. The surface morphology, chemical composition, crystal structure, and surface free energy (SFE) were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and water droplet methods, respectively. The antibacterial capacity was assessed by a bacterial adhesion test using Streptococcus mutans. Although the surface morphology, chemical composition, and crystal structure were not affected by electrical polarization, the polar component and total SFE were enhanced. After 24 h incubation at 37ºC, bacterial adhesion to the polarized samples was inhibited. The electrical polarization method may confer antibacterial properties on prosthetic devices, such as porcelain fused to metal crowns or all ceramic restorations, without any additional bactericidal agents.

  9. Leaching behavior of glass ceramic nuclear waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Lokken, R.O.

    1981-11-01

    Glass ceramic waste forms have been investigated as alternatives to borosilicate glasses for the immobilization of high-level radioactive waste at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Three glass ceramic systems were investigated, including basalt, celsian, and fresnoite, each containing 20 wt % simulated high-level waste calcine. Static leach tests were performed on seven glass ceramic materials and one parent glass (before recrystallization). Samples were leached at 90/sup 0/C for 3 to 28 days in deionized water and silicate water. The results, expressed in normalized elemental mass loss, (g/m/sup 2/), show comparable releases from celsian and fresnoite glass ceramics. Basalt glass ceramics demonstrated the lowest normalized elemental losses with a nominal release less than 2 g/m/sup 2/ when leached in polypropylene containers. The releases from basalt glass ceramics when leached in silicate water were nearly identical with those in deionized water. The overall leachability of celsian and fresnoite glass ceramics was improved when silicate water was used as the leachant.

  10. The effect of silane applied to glass ceramics on surface structure and bonding strength at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Tevfik; Eraslan, Oguz

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of various surface treatments on the surface structure and shear bond strength (SBS) of different ceramics. 288 specimens (lithium-disilicate, leucite-reinforced, and glass infiltrated zirconia) were first divided into two groups according to the resin cement used, and were later divided into four groups according to the given surface treatments: G1 (hydrofluoric acid (HF)+silane), G2 (silane alone-no heat-treatment), G3 (silane alone-then dried with 60℃ heat-treatment), and G4 (silane alone-then dried with 100℃ heat-treatment). Two different adhesive luting systems were applied onto the ceramic discs in all groups. SBS (in MPa) was calculated from the failure load per bonded area (in N/mm(2)). Subsequently, one specimen from each group was prepared for SEM evaluation of the separated-resin-ceramic interface. SBS values of G1 were significantly higher than those of the other groups in the lithium disilicate ceramic and leucite reinforced ceramic, and the SBS values of G4 and G1 were significantly higher than those of G2 and G3 in glass infiltrated zirconia. The three-way ANOVA revealed that the SBS values were significantly affected by the type of resin cement (P<.001). FIN ceramics had the highest rate of cohesive failure on the ceramic surfaces than other ceramic groups. AFM images showed that the surface treatment groups exhibited similar topographies, except the group treated with HF. The heat treatment was not sufficient to achieve high SBS values as compared with HF acid etching. The surface topography of ceramics was affected by surface treatments.

  11. The effect of silane applied to glass ceramics on surface structure and bonding strength at different temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Eraslan, Oguz

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the effect of various surface treatments on the surface structure and shear bond strength (SBS) of different ceramics. MATERIALS AND METHODS 288 specimens (lithium-disilicate, leucite-reinforced, and glass infiltrated zirconia) were first divided into two groups according to the resin cement used, and were later divided into four groups according to the given surface treatments: G1 (hydrofluoric acid (HF)+silane), G2 (silane alone-no heat-treatment), G3 (silane alone-then dried with 60℃ heat-treatment), and G4 (silane alone-then dried with 100℃ heat-treatment). Two different adhesive luting systems were applied onto the ceramic discs in all groups. SBS (in MPa) was calculated from the failure load per bonded area (in N/mm2). Subsequently, one specimen from each group was prepared for SEM evaluation of the separated-resin–ceramic interface. RESULTS SBS values of G1 were significantly higher than those of the other groups in the lithium disilicate ceramic and leucite reinforced ceramic, and the SBS values of G4 and G1 were significantly higher than those of G2 and G3 in glass infiltrated zirconia. The three-way ANOVA revealed that the SBS values were significantly affected by the type of resin cement (P<.001). FIN ceramics had the highest rate of cohesive failure on the ceramic surfaces than other ceramic groups. AFM images showed that the surface treatment groups exhibited similar topographies, except the group treated with HF. CONCLUSION The heat treatment was not sufficient to achieve high SBS values as compared with HF acid etching. The surface topography of ceramics was affected by surface treatments. PMID:27141250

  12. Effects of surface treatments, thermocycling, and cyclic loading on the bond strength of a resin cement bonded to a lithium disilicate glass ceramic.

    PubMed

    Guarda, G B; Correr, A B; Gonçalves, L S; Costa, A R; Borges, G A; Sinhoreti, M A C; Correr-Sobrinho, L

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives : The aim of this present study was to investigate the effect of two surface treatments, fatigue and thermocycling, on the microtensile bond strength of a newly introduced lithium disilicate glass ceramic (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) and a dual-cured resin cement. Methods : A total of 18 ceramic blocks (10 mm long × 7 mm wide × 3.0 mm thick) were fabricated and divided into six groups (n=3): groups 1, 2, and 3-air particle abraded for five seconds with 50-μm aluminum oxide particles; groups 4, 5, and 6-acid etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 20 seconds. A silane coupling agent was applied onto all specimens and allowed to dry for five seconds, and the ceramic blocks were bonded to a block of composite Tetric N-Ceram (Ivoclar Vivadent) with RelyX ARC (3M ESPE) resin cement and placed under a 500-g static load for two minutes. The cement excess was removed with a disposable microbrush, and four periods of light activation for 40 seconds each were performed at right angles using an LED curing unit (UltraLume LED 5, Ultradent) with a final 40 second light exposure from the top surface. All of the specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. Groups 2 and 5 were submitted to 3,000 thermal cycles between 5°C and 55°C, and groups 3 and 6 were submitted to a fatigue test of 100,000 cycles at 2 Hz. Specimens were sectioned perpendicular to the bonding area to obtain beams with a cross-sectional area of 1 mm(2) (30 beams per group) and submitted to a microtensile bond strength test in a testing machine (EZ Test) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test (p≤0.05). Results : The microtensile bond strength values (MPa) were 26.9 ± 6.9, 22.2 ± 7.8, and 21.2 ± 9.1 for groups 1-3 and 35.0 ± 9.6, 24.3 ± 8.9, and 23.9 ± 6.3 for groups 4-6. For the control group, fatigue testing and thermocycling produced a predominance of adhesive failures. Fatigue and

  13. Ion Exchange in Glass-Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beall, George; Comte, Monique; Deneka, Matthew; Marques, Paulo; Pradeau, Philippe; Smith, Charlene

    2016-08-01

    In the past few years ion-exchange in glasses has found a renewed interest with a lot of new development and research in industrial and academic labs and the commercialization of materials with outstanding mechanical properties. These glasses are now widely used in many electronic devices including hand-held displays and tablets. The exchange is generally conducted in a bath of molten salt below the transition temperature of the glass. The exchange at the surface of an alkali ion by a bigger one brings compressive stress at the surface. The mechanical properties are dependent on the stress level at the surface and the depth of penetration of the bigger ion. As compared to glasses, glass-ceramics have the interest to display a wide range of aspects (transparent to opaque) and different mechanical properties (especially higher modulus and toughness). There has been little research on ion-exchange in glass-ceramics. In these materials the mechanisms are much more complex than in glasses because of their polyphasic nature: ion-exchange generally takes place mostly in one phase (crystalline phase or residual glass). The mechanism can be similar to what is observed in glasses with the replacement of an ion by another in the structure. But in some cases this ion-exchange leads to microstructural modifications (for example amorphisation or phase change). This article reviews these ion-exchange mechanisms using several transparent and opaque alumino-silicate glass-ceramics as examples. The effect of the ion exchange in the various glass-ceramics will be described, with particular emphasis on flexural strength.

  14. Sintering behavior of lanthanide-containing glass-ceramic sealants for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, Ashutosh; Reddy, Allu Amarnath; Pascual, Maria J.; Gremillard, Laurent; Malchere, Annie; Ferreira, Jose M.

    2012-05-01

    This article reports on the influence of different lanthanides (La, Nd, Gd and Yb) on sintering behavior of alkaline-earth aluminosilicate glass-ceramics sealants for their application in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). All the glasses have been prepared by melt-quench technique. The in situ follow up of sintering behavior of glass powders has been done by high temperature - environmental scanning electron microscope (HT-ESEM) and hot-stage microscope (HSM) while the crystalline phase evolution and assemblage has been analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the glass compositions exhibit a glass-in-glass phase separation followed by two stage sintering resulting in well sintered glass powder compacts after heat treatment at 850 C for 1 h. Diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}) based phases constituted the major crystalline part in glass-ceramics followed by some minor phases. The increase in lanthanide content in glasses suppressed their tendency towards devitrification, thus, resulting in glass-ceramics with high amount of residual glassy phase (50-96 wt.%) which is expected to facilitate their self-healing behavior during SOFC operation. The electrical conductivity of the investigated glass-ceramics varied between (1.19 and 7.33) x 10{sup -7} S cm{sup -1} (750-800 C), and depended on the ionic field strength of lanthanide cations. Further experimentation with respect to the long term thermal and chemical stability of residual glassy phase under SOFC operation conditions along with high temperature viscosity measurements will be required in order to elucidate the potential of these glass-ceramics as self-healing sealants.

  15. Nanostructured glass-ceramic coatings for orthopaedic applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guocheng; Lu, Zufu; Liu, Xuanyong; Zhou, Xiaming; Ding, Chuanxian; Zreiqat, Hala

    2011-08-07

    Glass-ceramics have attracted much attention in the biomedical field, as they provide great possibilities to manipulate their properties by post-treatments, including strength, degradation rate and coefficient of thermal expansion. In this work, hardystonite (HT; Ca2ZnSi2O7) and sphene (SP; CaTiSiO5) glass-ceramic coatings with nanostructures were prepared by a plasma spray technique using conventional powders. The bonding strength and Vickers hardness for HT and SP coatings are higher than the reported values for plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings. Both types of coatings release bioactive calcium (Ca) and silicon (Si) ions into the surrounding environment. Mineralization test in cell-free culture medium showed that many mushroom-like Ca and phosphorus compounds formed on the HT coatings after 5 h, suggesting its high acellular mineralization ability. Primary human osteoblasts attach, spread and proliferate well on both types of coatings. Higher proliferation rate was observed on the HT coatings compared with the SP coatings and uncoated Ti-6Al-4V alloy, probably due to the zinc ions released from the HT coatings. Higher expression levels of Runx2, osteopontin and type I collagen were observed on both types of coatings compared with Ti-6Al-4V alloy, possibly due to the Ca and Si released from the coatings. Results of this study point to the potential use of HT and SP coatings for orthopaedic applications.

  16. Chemical strengthening of a dental lithium disilicate glass-ceramic material.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Horst; De Souza, Roger A; Wätjen, Anja M; Richter, Silvia; Edelhoff, Daniel; Mayer, Joachim; Martin, Manfred; Telle, Rainer

    2008-12-01

    Chemical strengthening of dental ceramics by ion exchange has hitherto only been confirmed for feldspathic porcelains. The objective of this study was to examine whether the strength of lithium disilicate glass-ceramics can be increased by ion exchange as well. A lithium disilicate glass-ceramic material was treated in different molten salts. The concentration gradients of the relevant ions in the surface layer were investigated by means of electron probe microanalysis and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Characteristic strength and Weibull modulus data were determined. An increase in strength of 25% was achieved by treatment in potassium nitrate. The chemical analyses revealed that the increase in strength resulted from an exchange of potassium for lithium ions. We conclude that ion-exchange treatments can increase the strength of lithium disilicate glass-ceramics. The improved material could be used for highly stressed applications, such as posterior crowns or inlay-retained bridges, with higher mechanical reliability. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 2008.

  17. Method of processing "BPS" glass ceramic and seals made therewith

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Scott T.; Stone, Ronald G.; McCollister, Howard L.; Wengert, deceased, Paul R.

    1998-01-01

    A glass ceramic composition, a glass ceramic-to-metal seal, and more specifically a hermetic glass ceramic-to-metal seal prepared by subjecting a glass composition comprising, by weight percent, SiO.sub.2 (65-80%), LiO.sub.2 (8-16%), Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 (2-8%), K.sub.2 O (1-8%), P.sub.2 O.sub.5 (1-5%), B.sub.2 O.sub.3 (0.5-7%), and ZnO (0-5%) to the following processing steps: 1) heating the glass composition in a belt furnace to a temperature sufficient to melt the glass and crystallize lithium phosphate, 2) holding at a temperature and for a time sufficient to create cristobalite nuclei, 3) cooling at a controlled rate and to a temperature to cause crystallization of lithium silicates and growth of cristobalite, and 4) still further cooling in stages to ambient temperature. This process produces a glass ceramic whose high coefficient of thermal expansion (up to 200.times.10.sup.-7 in/in/.degree.C.) permits the fabrication of glass ceramic-to-metal seals, and particularly hermetic glass ceramic seals to nickel-based and stainless steel alloys and copper.

  18. Method of processing ``BPS`` glass ceramic and seals made therewith

    DOEpatents

    Reed, S.T.; Stone, R.G.; McCollister, H.L.; Wengert, P.R.

    1998-10-13

    A glass ceramic composition, a glass ceramic-to-metal seal, and more specifically a hermetic glass ceramic-to-metal seal prepared by subjecting a glass composition comprising, by weight percent, SiO{sub 2} (65--80%), LiO{sub 2} (8--16%), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (2--8%), K{sub 2}O (1--8%), P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (1--5%), B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0.5--7%), and ZnO (0--5%) to the following processing steps: (1) heating the glass composition in a belt furnace to a temperature sufficient to melt the glass and crystallize lithium phosphate, (2) holding at a temperature and for a time sufficient to create cristobalite nuclei, (3) cooling at a controlled rate and to a temperature to cause crystallization of lithium silicates and growth of cristobalite, and (4) still further cooling in stages to ambient temperature. This process produces a glass ceramic whose high coefficient of thermal expansion (up to 200{times}10{sup {minus}7} in/in/C) permits the fabrication of glass ceramic-to-metal seals, and particularly hermetic glass ceramic seals to nickel-based and stainless steel alloys and copper. 5 figs.

  19. Low temperature sintering of fluorapatite glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Denry, Isabelle; Holloway, Julie A

    2014-02-01

    Fluorapatite glass-ceramics have been shown to be excellent candidates as scaffold materials for bone grafts, however, scaffold production by sintering is hindered by concurrent crystallization of the glass. Objective, our goal was to investigate the effect of Ca/Al ratio on the sintering behavior of Nb-doped fluorapatite-based glasses in the SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5-MgO-Na2O-K2O-CaO-CaF2 system. Methods, glass compositions with Ca/Al ratio of 1 (A), 2 (B), 4 (C) and 19 (D) were prepared by twice melting at 1525°C for 3h. Glasses were either cast as cylindrical ingots or ground into powders. Disk-shaped specimens were prepared by either sectioning from the ingots or powder-compacting in a mold, followed by heat treatment at temperatures ranging between 700 and 1050°C for 1h. The density was measured on both sintered specimens and heat treated discs as controls. The degree of sintering was determined from these measurements. Results and Significance XRD showed that fluorapatite crystallized in all glass-ceramics. A high degree of sintering was achieved at 775°C for glass-ceramic D (98.99±0.04%), and 900°C for glass-ceramic C (91.31±0.10). Glass-ceramics A or B were only partially sintered at 1000°C (63.6±0.8% and 74.1±1.5%, respectively). SEM revealed a unique microstructure of micron-sized spherulitic fluorapatite crystals in glass-ceramics C and D. Increasing the Ca/Al ratio promoted low temperature sintering of fluorapatite glass-ceramics, which are traditionally difficult to sinter.

  20. Low temperature sintering of fluorapatite glass-ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Denry, Isabelle; Holloway, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Fluorapatite glass-ceramics have been shown to be excellent candidates as scaffold materials for bone grafts, however, scaffold production by sintering is hindered by concurrent crystallization of the glass. Our goal was to investigate the effect of Ca/Al ratio on the sintering behavior of Nb-doped fluorapatite-based glasses in the SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5-MgO-Na2O-K2O-CaO-CaF2 system. Glass compositions with Ca/Al ratio of 1 (A), 2 (B), 4 (C) and 19 (D) were prepared by twice melting at 1525°C for 3h. Glasses were either cast as cylindrical ingots or ground into powders. Disc-shaped specimens were prepared by either sectioning from the ingots or powder-compacting in a mold, followed by heat treatment at temperatures ranging between 700 and 1050°C for 1h. The density was measured on both sintered specimens and heat treated discs as controls. The degree of sintering was determined from these measurements. XRD showed that fluorapatite crystallized in all glass-ceramics. A high degree of sintering was achieved at 775°C for glass-ceramic D (98.99±0.04%), and 900°C for glass-ceramic C (91.31±0.10). Glass-ceramics A or B were only partially sintered at 1000°C (63.6±0.8% and 74.1±1.5%, respectively). SEM revealed a unique microstructure of micron-sized spherulitic fluorapatite crystals in glass-ceramics C and D. Increasing the Ca/Al ratio promoted low temperature sintering of fluorapatite glass-ceramics, which are traditionally difficult to sinter. PMID:24252652

  1. Cementation of Glass-Ceramic Posterior Restorations: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    van den Breemer, Carline R. G.; Gresnigt, Marco M. M.; Cune, Marco S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this comprehensive review is to systematically organize the current knowledge regarding the cementation of glass-ceramic materials and restorations, with an additional focus on the benefits of Immediate Dentin Sealing (IDS). Materials and Methods. An extensive literature search concerning the cementation of single-unit glass-ceramic posterior restorations was conducted in the databases of MEDLINE (Pubmed), CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), and EMBASE. To be considered for inclusion, in vitro and in vivo studies should compare different cementation regimes involving a “glass-ceramic/cement/human tooth” complex. Results and Conclusions. 88 studies were included in total. The in vitro data were organized according to the following topics: (micro)shear and (micro)tensile bond strength, fracture strength, and marginal gap and integrity. For in vivo studies survival and quality of survival were considered. In vitro studies showed that adhesive systems (3-step, etch-and-rinse) result in the best (micro)shear bond strength values compared to self-adhesive and self-etch systems when luting glass-ceramic substrates to human dentin. The highest fracture strength is obtained with adhesive cements in particular. No marked clinical preference for one specific procedure could be demonstrated on the basis of the reviewed literature. The possible merits of IDS are most convincingly illustrated by the favorable microtensile bond strengths. No clinical studies regarding IDS were found. PMID:26557651

  2. Cementation of Glass-Ceramic Posterior Restorations: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    van den Breemer, Carline R G; Gresnigt, Marco M M; Cune, Marco S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this comprehensive review is to systematically organize the current knowledge regarding the cementation of glass-ceramic materials and restorations, with an additional focus on the benefits of Immediate Dentin Sealing (IDS). An extensive literature search concerning the cementation of single-unit glass-ceramic posterior restorations was conducted in the databases of MEDLINE (Pubmed), CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), and EMBASE. To be considered for inclusion, in vitro and in vivo studies should compare different cementation regimes involving a "glass-ceramic/cement/human tooth" complex. 88 studies were included in total. The in vitro data were organized according to the following topics: (micro)shear and (micro)tensile bond strength, fracture strength, and marginal gap and integrity. For in vivo studies survival and quality of survival were considered. In vitro studies showed that adhesive systems (3-step, etch-and-rinse) result in the best (micro)shear bond strength values compared to self-adhesive and self-etch systems when luting glass-ceramic substrates to human dentin. The highest fracture strength is obtained with adhesive cements in particular. No marked clinical preference for one specific procedure could be demonstrated on the basis of the reviewed literature. The possible merits of IDS are most convincingly illustrated by the favorable microtensile bond strengths. No clinical studies regarding IDS were found.

  3. High thermal behavior of a new glass ceramic developed from silica xerogel/SnO{sub 2} composite

    SciTech Connect

    Aripin, H.; Mitsudo, Seitaro; Sudiana, I. Nyoman; Priatna, Edvin; Sabchevski, Svilen

    2016-02-08

    In this investigation, a new glass ceramics have been produced by mixing SnO{sub 2} and amorphous silica xerogel (ASX) extracted from sago waste ash. The composition has been prepared by adding 10 mol% of SnO{sub 2} into SX. The samples have been dry pressed and sintered in the temperature range between 800 °C and 1500 °C. The effects of temperature on the crystallization of silica xerogel after adding SnO{sub 2} and their relationship to bulk density have been studied. The crystallization process of the silica xerogel/SnO{sub 2} composite has been examined by an X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the bulk density has been characterized on the basis of the experimental data obtained using Archimedes′ principle. It has been found that an addition of SnO{sub 2} confers an appreciable effect on the grain and from the interpretation of XRD patterns allow one to explain the increase in the density by an increased crystallite size of SnO{sub 2} in the composite.

  4. High thermal behavior of a new glass ceramic developed from silica xerogel/SnO2 composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aripin, H.; Mitsudo, Seitaro; Sudiana, I. Nyoman; Priatna, Edvin; Sabchevski, Svilen

    2016-02-01

    In this investigation, a new glass ceramics have been produced by mixing SnO2 and amorphous silica xerogel (ASX) extracted from sago waste ash. The composition has been prepared by adding 10 mol% of SnO2 into SX. The samples have been dry pressed and sintered in the temperature range between 800 °C and 1500 °C. The effects of temperature on the crystallization of silica xerogel after adding SnO2 and their relationship to bulk density have been studied. The crystallization process of the silica xerogel/SnO2 composite has been examined by an X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the bulk density has been characterized on the basis of the experimental data obtained using Archimedes' principle. It has been found that an addition of SnO2 confers an appreciable effect on the grain and from the interpretation of XRD patterns allow one to explain the increase in the density by an increased crystallite size of SnO2 in the composite.

  5. Properties of sintered glass-ceramics prepared from plasma vitrified air pollution control residues.

    PubMed

    Roether, J A; Daniel, D J; Rani, D Amutha; Deegan, D E; Cheeseman, C R; Boccaccini, A R

    2010-01-15

    Air pollution control (APC) residues, obtained from a major UK energy from waste (EfW) plant, processing municipal solid waste, have been blended with silica and alumina and melted using DC plasma arc technology. The glass produced was crushed, milled, uni-axially pressed and sintered at temperatures between 750 and 1150 degrees C, and the glass-ceramics formed were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mechanical properties assessed included Vickers's hardness, flexural strength, Young's modulus and thermal shock resistance. The optimum sintering temperature was found to be 950 degrees C. This produced a glass-ceramic with high density (approximately 2.58 g/cm(3)), minimum water absorption (approximately 2%) and relatively high mechanical strength (approximately 81+/-4 MPa). Thermal shock testing showed that 950 degrees C sintered samples could withstand a 700 degrees C quench in water without micro-cracking. The research demonstrates that glass-ceramics can be readily formed from DC plasma treated APC residues and that these have comparable properties to marble and porcelain. This novel approach represents a technically and commercially viable treatment option for APC residues that allow the beneficial reuse of this problematic waste.

  6. Microstructure, mechanical, and in vitro properties of mica glass-ceramics with varying fluorine content.

    PubMed

    Molla, Atiar Rahaman; Basu, Bikramjit

    2009-04-01

    The design and development of glass ceramic materials provide us the unique opportunity to study the microstructure development with changes in either base glass composition or heat treatment conditions as well as to understand processing-microstructure-property (mechanical/biological) relationship. In the present work, it is demonstrated how various crystal morphology can develop when F(-) content in base glass (K(2)O-B(2)O(3)-Al(2)O(3)-SiO(2)-MgO-F) is varied in the range of 1.08-3.85% and when all are heat treated at varying temperatures of 1000-1120 degrees C. For some selected heat treatment temperature, the heat treatment time is also varied over 4-24 h. It was established that with increase in fluoride content in the glass composition, the crystal volume fraction of the glass-ceramic decreases. Using 1.08% fluoride, more than 80% crystal volume fraction could be achieved in the K(2)O-B(2)O(3)-Al(2)O(3)-SiO(2)-MgO-F system. It was observed that with lower fluoride content glass-ceramic, if heated at 1040 degrees C for 12 h, an oriented microstructure with 'envelop like' crystals can develop. For glass ceramics with higher fluorine content (2.83% or 3.85%), hexagonal-shaped crystals are formed. Importantly, high hardness of around 8 GPa has been measured in glass ceramics with maximum amount of crystals. The three-point flexural strength and elastic modulus of the glass-ceramic (heat treated at 1040 degrees C for 24 h) was 80 MPa and 69 GPa of the sample containing 3.85% fluorine, whereas, similar properties obtained for the sample containing 1.08% F(-) was 94 MPa and 57 GPa, respectively. Further, in vitro dissolution study of the all three glass-ceramic composition in artificial saliva (AS) revealed that leached fluoride ion concentration was 0.44 ppm, when the samples were immersed in AS for 8 weeks. This was much lower than the WHO recommended safety limits of 1.5 ppm. Among all the investigated glass-ceramic samples, the glass ceramic with 3.85% F

  7. Sintered glass ceramic composites from vitrified municipal solid waste bottom ashes.

    PubMed

    Aloisi, Mirko; Karamanov, Alexander; Taglieri, Giuliana; Ferrante, Fabiola; Pelino, Mario

    2006-09-01

    A glass ceramic composite was obtained by sinter-crystallisation of vitrified municipal solid waste bottom ashes with the addition of various percentages of alumina waste. The sintering was investigated by differential dilatometry and the crystallisation of the glass particles by differential thermal analysis. The crystalline phases produced by the thermal treatment were identified by X-ray diffraction analysis. The sintering process was found to be affected by the alumina addition and inhibited by the beginning of the crystal-phase precipitation. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on the fractured sintered samples to observe the effect of the sintering. Young's modulus and the mechanical strength of the sintered glass ceramic and composites were determined at different heating rates. The application of high heating rate and the addition of alumina powder improved the mechanical properties. Compared to the sintered glass ceramic without additives, the bending strength and the Young's modulus obtained at 20 degrees C/min, increased by about 20% and 30%, respectively.

  8. Contact fatigue mechanisms as a function of crystal aspect ratio in baria-silicate glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suputtamongkol, Kallaya

    2003-10-01

    Ceramic materials are potentially useful for dental applications because of their esthetic potential and biocompatibility. However, the existence of fatigue damage in ceramics raises considerable concern regarding its effect on the life prediction of dental prostheses. During normal mastication, dental restorations are subjected to repeated loading more than a thousand times per day and relatively high clinical failure rates for ceramic prostheses have been reported. To simulate the intraoral loads, Hertzian indentation loading was used in this study to characterize the fatigue failure mechanisms of ceramic materials using clinically relevant parameters. The baria-silicate system was chosen because of the nearly identical composition between the crystal and the glass matrix. Little or no residual stress is expected from the elastic modulus and thermal expansion mismatches between the two phases. Crystallites with different aspect ratios can also be produced by controlled heat treatment schedules. The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of crystal morphology on the fatigue mechanisms of bariasilicate glass-ceramics under clinically relevant conditions. The results show that the failure of materials with a low toughness such as baria-silicate glass (0.7 MPa•m1/2) and glass-ceramic with an aspect ratio of 3/1 (1.3 MPa•m1/2) initiated from a cone crack developed during cyclic loading for 103 to 105 cycles. The mean strength values of baria-silicate glass and glass-ceramic with an aspect ratio of 3/1 decreased significantly as a result of the presence of a cone crack. Failure of baria-silicate glass-ceramics with an aspect ratio of 8/1 (Kc = 2.1 MPa•m1/2) was initiated from surface flaws caused by either polishing or cyclic loading. The gradual decrease of fracture stress was observed in specimens with an aspect ratio of 8/1 after loading in air for 103 to 10 5 cycles. A reduction of approximately 50% in fracture stress levels was found for

  9. Effect of ZnO addition on bioactive CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass-ceramics containing apatite and wollastonite.

    PubMed

    Kamitakahara, M; Ohtsuki, C; Inada, H; Tanihara, M; Miyazaki, T

    2006-07-01

    Some ceramics show bone-bonding ability, i.e. bioactivity. Apatite formation on ceramics is an essential condition to bring about direct bonding to living bone when implanted into bony defects. A controlled surface reaction of the ceramic is an important factor governing the bioactivity and biodegradation of the implanted ceramic. Among bioactive ceramics, glass-ceramic A-W containing apatite and wollastonite shows high bioactivity, as well as high mechanical strength. In this study, glass-ceramics containing zinc oxide were prepared by modification of the composition of the glass-ceramic A-W. Zinc oxide was selected to control the reactivity of the glass-ceramics since zinc is a trace element that shows stimulatory effects on bone formation. Glass-ceramics were prepared by heat treatment of glasses with the general composition: xZnOx(57.0-x)CaOx35.4SiO(2)x7.2P(2)O(5)x0.4CaF(2) (where x=0-14.2mol.%). Addition of ZnO increased the chemical durability of the glass-ceramics, resulting in a decrease in the rate of apatite formation in a simulated body fluid. On the other hand, the release of zinc from the glass-ceramics increased with increasing ZnO content. Addition of ZnO may provide bioactive CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) glass-ceramics with the capacity for appropriate biodegradation, as well as enhancement of bone formation.

  10. Effects of Clear and Amber Cullet on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Glass-Ceramics Containing Zinc Hydrometallurgy Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanpongpun, Wilasinee; Jiemsirilers, Sirithan; Thavorniti, Parjaree

    The effect of glass cullet on physical and mechanical properties of glass-ceramics developed from zinc hydrometallurgy waste and glass cullet was investigated. The glass-ceramics were prepared by mixing zinc hydrometallurgy waste with glass cullet through vitrification process. Two difference types of glass cullet (clear and amber cullet) were used. The parent glasses were ground and pressed into bars and sintered at low temperature (850°C) for 2 hours. The obtained glass-ceramics had low porosity. The glass-ceramics with clear cullet exhibited higher density and strength, comparing with the glass-ceramics with amber cullet. The type and the amount of the glass cullet present in the glass-ceramics have strong effect on their properties.

  11. Glass ceramic development for the combined fission products streams

    SciTech Connect

    Kossoy-simakov, Anna-eden; Tang, Ming; Valdez, James A; Usov, Igor O; Sickafus, Kurt E; Crum, Jarrod; Turo, Laura; Riley, Brian

    2011-01-18

    After immobilization, nuclear waste is stored for minimally hundreds of years. In waste-forms {beta}, {gamma}-radiation are main causes for damage. The objectives is to test radiation stability of PNNL synthesized glass-ceramics. Monitoring was done looking for changes in the microstructure or phase composition. These are designed for immobilization of: lanthanides, alkaline metals, alkaline arths, transition metals, high molybdenum content - 6.94%, and multi-phase glass-ceramic. The conclusion on aqueous stability is the PNNL glass ceramics - glass phase erodes but crystalline phases don't and it's more resistant to corrosion than vitrified waste. Leachability tests in accordance with standards will be performed and the results will be compared to XRD.

  12. Production of glass-ceramics from sewage sludge and waste glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenstrauha, I.; Sosins, G.; Petersone, L.; Krage, L.; Drille, M.; Filipenkov, V.

    2011-12-01

    In the present study for recycling of sewage sludge and waste glass from JSC "Valmieras stikla skiedra" treatment of them to the dense glass-ceramic composite material using powder technology is estimated. The physical-chemical properties of composite materials were identified - density 2.19 g/cm3, lowest water absorption of 2.5% and lowest porosity of 5% for the samples obtained in the temperature range of sintering 1120 - 1140 °C. Regarding mineralogical composition of glass-ceramics the following crystalline phases were identified by XRD analysis: quartz (SiO2), anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) and hematite (Fe2O3), which could ensure the high density of materials and improve the mechanical properties of material - compressive strength up to 60.31±5.09 - 52.67±19.18 MPa. The physical-chemical properties of novel materials corresponds to dense glass-ceramics composite which eventually could be used as a building material, e.g. for floor covering, road pavement, exterior tiles etc.

  13. Initial Examination of Low Velocity Sphere Impact of Glass Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, Timothy G; Fox, Ethan E; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Ferber, Mattison K

    2012-06-01

    ) Spheres with a lower elastic modulus require less force to initiate fracture in Resistan{trademark}-G1 from quasi-static spherical indentation. This indicates that friction is affecting ring crack initiation in Resistan{trademark}-G1. Friction also affected ring crack initiation in Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate and BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glasses. Among these three materials, friction was the most pronounced (largest slope in the RCIF-elastic modulus graph) in the Starphire{reg_sign} and least pronounced in the BOROFLOAT{reg_sign}. The reason for this is not understood, but differences in deformation behavior under high contact stresses could be a cause or contributor to this. (4) The force necessary to initiate contact-induced fracture is higher under dynamic conditions than it is under quasi-static conditions in Resistan{trademark}-L and Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramics. This is a trend observed too in Starphire{reg_sign} and BOROFLOAT{reg_sign}. (5) There is a subtle indication there was intra-tile differences in spherical indentation-induced ring crack initiation forces. This is not a material property nor is it exclusive to glass-ceramic Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, rather, it is a statistical mechanical response to an accumulated history of processing and handling of that specific tile.

  14. High reliable and chromaticity-tunable flip-chip w-LEDs with Ce:YAG glass-ceramics phosphor for long-lifetime automotive headlights applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chaoyang; Cao, Yongge; Shen, Xiaofei; Wen, Zicheng; Ma, Ran; Long, Jiaqi; Yuan, Xuanyi

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, major commercial w-LEDs fabricated by the traditionally gold-wire-welding packaging technology have undergone considerable development as indoor/outdoor lighting sources due to its high-energy utilization efficiency, long service life, environmental friendliness, and excellent chromatic stability. While, new generation applications in projections, automotive lighting, street lighting, plaza lighting, and high-end general lighting need further improvements in power handling and light extraction. Herein, transparent Ce:YAG glass-ceramics (GCs) phosphor was prepared by low-temperature co-sintering polycrystalline Ce:YAG phosphor powder and home-made PbO-B2O3-ZnO-SiO2 glass powder. Thereafter, the flip-chip (FC) w-LEDs were fabricated with the GCs phosphor plates and FC blue chips. The GCs-based FC w-LEDs show not only excellent heat- and humidity-resistance characteristics, but also superior optical performances with an LE of 112.8 lm/W, a CRI of 71.2, a CCT of 6103 K as well as a chromaticity coordinate of (0.3202, 0.3298), under a high operation current of 400 mA. The technology route will open a practically commercial feasible approach to achieve excellent performances for advanced high-power FC w-LEDs.

  15. Pressurized heat treatment of glass-ceramic to control thermal expansion

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, Daniel P.

    1985-01-01

    A method of producing a glass-ceramic having a specified thermal expansion value is disclosed. The method includes the step of pressurizing the parent glass material to a predetermined pressure during heat treatment so that the glass-ceramic produced has a specified thermal expansion value. Preferably, the glass-ceramic material is isostatically pressed. A method for forming a strong glass-ceramic to metal seal is also disclosed in which the glass-ceramic is fabricated to have a thermal expansion value equal to that of the metal. The determination of the thermal expansion value of a parent glass material placed in a high-temperature environment is also used to determine the pressure in the environment.

  16. Bonding of glass ceramic and indirect composite to non-aged and aged resin composite.

    PubMed

    Gresnigt, Marco; Özcan, Mutlu; Muis, Maarten; Kalk, Warner

    2012-02-01

    Since adhesion of the restorative materials to pre-polymerized or aged resin composites presents a challenge to the clinicians, existing restorations are often removed and remade prior to cementation of fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). This study evaluated bond strength of non-aged and aged resin composite to an indirect resin composite and pressed glass ceramic using two resin cements. Disk-shaped specimens (diameter: 3.5, thickness: 3 mm) (N = 160) produced from a microhybrid resin composite (Quadrant Anterior Shine) were randomly divided into eight groups. While half of the specimens were kept dry at 37°C for 24 h, the other half was aged by means of thermocycling (6000 times, 5°C to 55°C). The non-aged and aged resin composites were bonded to a highly filled indirect composite (Estenia) and a pressed glass ceramic (IPS Empress II) using either a photopolymerizing (Variolink Veneer) or a dual-polymerizing (Panavia F2.0) resin cement. While cementation surfaces of both the direct and indirect composite materials were silica coated (30 µm SiO2, CoJet-Sand) and silanized (ESPE-Sil), ceramic surfaces were conditioned with hydrofluoric acid (20 s), neutralized, and silanized prior to cementation. All specimens were cemented under a load of 750 g. Shear force was applied to the adhesive interface in a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). Failure types of the specimens were identified after debonding. Significant effects of aging (p < 0.05), restorative material (p < 0.05), and cement type (p < 0.05) were observed on the bond strength (3-way ANOVA). Interaction terms were also significant (p < 0.05) (Tukey's test). After aging, in terms of bond strength, indirect composite and pressed glass ceramic in combination with both cements showed no significant difference (p > 0.05). Both indirect composite (24.3 ± 5.1 MPa) and glass ceramic in combination with Variolink (22 ± 9 MPa) showed the highest results on non-aged composites, but were not significantly different

  17. Glass ceramic approaches for energy storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Calvin Goodwin, III

    Glass ceramics are an advanced material class that exhibit excellent potential for energy storage applications. Unique properties can be obtained through the controlled crystallization that is used to form these glassy and crystalline composite materials from an amorphous bulk. By exploiting this synthesis route, materials can be optimized to offer the best balance between the crystalline ceramic phase, and the amorphous glass phase. The topic of this dissertation focuses on the structure-property relationships for glass ceramic systems for energy storage applications. Specifically, a lithium aluminum titanium phosphate system, and a barium sodium niobate system were explored for battery and capacitor applications, respectively. Li1+xAlxTi2-x(PO4)3 (LATP) is a lithium ion conductor which has shown potential for use in current and future battery technology. In its glass ceramic form the material has a conductivity of approximately 10-4 S/cm, which makes it an excellent conductor compared to other solid state lithium ion conductors. This conductivity is still lower than ionic liquids and polymers with currently used as electrolytes with conductivity higher than 10-3 S/cm. In exploring synthesis routes, it was found that microwave hybrid heating offered improve conductivity, as opposed to conventional crystallization methods. The role of microstructure and the crystallization kinetics on the overall have been investigated. It was shown that commonly used Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation could not accurately describe the kinetics of LATP's nucleation and growth. An empirical Sestak-Berggren model was used in combination with differential scanning calorimetry data to model the kinetics of LATP. Glass ceramic systems based on a NaBa2Nb5O 15 (BNN) crystalline have shown potential as dielectrics in high energy density capacitors. Here microwave hybrid heating and conventional heating were used to crystallize BNN glass ceramics in the range of 750°C - 1000°C, and the results

  18. Phase composition and elemental partitioning in glass-ceramics containing high-Na/Al high level waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanovsky, S. V.; Sorokaletova, A. N.; Nikonov, B. S.

    2012-05-01

    Mixtures of surrogates of high level waste with high sodium and aluminum contents and sodium-lithium borosilicate frit were melted in alumina crucibles in a resistive furnace followed by quenching of one portion of the melt and annealing of the residual material in a turned-off furnace. The annealed materials with waste loading of up to 45 wt.% contained minor spinel type phase and trace of nepheline (Na,K)AlSiO4. In the annealed materials contained waste oxides in amount of 50 wt.% and more nepheline and spinel were found to be major and minor phases, respectively. At high waste loadings two extra phases: Cs-aluminosilicate (CsAlSiO4) and mixed Na/Cs-aluminosilicate were found in amount of 3-5 vol.% each. The latter phase contains of up to ˜5.7 wt.% SO3 or 0.13 formula units S (Na0.75K0.05Cs0.29Ca0.02Sr0.02Al0.99Fe0.03Si0.76S0.13O4). Sulfur incorporation as S6+ or SO42- ions into crystal lattice may be facilitated in the presence of large-size Cs+ cations. Simplified suggested formula of this phase may be represented as Na0.8Cs0.3AlSi0.8S0.1O3.95. It was also synthesized by sintering of mixture of chemicals at 1300 °C and found to be instable at temperatures higher than 1300 °C.

  19. Glass ceramic seals to inconel

    DOEpatents

    McCollister, Howard L.; Reed, Scott T.

    1983-11-08

    A glass ceramic composition prepared by subjecting a glass composition comprising, by weight, 65-80% SiO.sub.2, 8-16%, Li.sub.2 O, 2-8% , Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, 1-8% K.sub.2 O, 1-5% P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and 1.5-7% B.sub.2 O.sub.3, to the following processing steps of heating the glass composition to a temperature sufficient to crystallize lithium metasilicate therein, holding the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to dissolve the lithium metasilicate therein thereby creating cristobalite nucleii, cooling the glass composition and maintaining the composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to recrystallize lithium metasilicate therein, and thermally treating the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to cause growth of cristobalite and further crystallization of lithium metasilicate producing a glass ceramic composition having a specific thermal expansion coefficient and products containing said composition.

  20. Letter report on PCT/Monolith glass ceramic corrosion tests

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Charles L.

    2015-09-24

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is collaborating with personnel from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to study advanced waste form glass ceramics for immobilization of waste from Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) separations processes. The glass ceramic waste forms take advantage of both crystalline and glassy phases where ‘troublesome’ elements (e.g., low solubility in glass or very long-lived) partition to highly durable ceramic phases with the remainder of elements residing in the glassy phase. The ceramic phases are tailored to create certain minerals or unique crystalline structures that can host the radionuclides by binding them in their specific crystalline network while not adversely impacting the residual glass network (Crum et al., 2011). Glass ceramics have been demonstrated using a scaled melter test performed in a pilot scale (1/4 scale) cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) (Crum et al., 2014; Maio et al., 2015). This report summarizes recent results from both Phase I and Phase II bench scale tests involving crucible fabrication and corrosion testing of glass ceramics using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). Preliminary results from both Phase I and Phase II bench scale tests involving statistically designed matrices have previously been reported (Crawford, 2013; Crawford, 2014).

  1. Dominant toughening mechanisms in barium aluminosilicate (BAS) glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griggs, Jason Alan

    The purpose of this study was to develop a barium aluminosilicate (BAS) glass-ceramic with improved strength and fracture toughness by controlling the morphology of the constituent phases through a series of thermal crystallization treatments. The specific objectives of this study were to (1) determine which toughening mechanisms are active in the BAS system, (2) provide quantitative estimates of the relative contributions of those mechanisms, and (3) identify the processing conditions that correspond to a glass-ceramic with optimal fracture toughness. The BAS system was chosen for this study because of its potential applications in CAD-CAM production of dental prostheses. It is concluded that load sharing and crack deflection are the only major sources of toughening in the BAS system. Theoretical predictions for toughening increases due to load sharing and crack deflection are insufficient to account for 100% of the increases observed. The excess increase in fracture toughness is produced by thermal mismatch between and crystal and glass phases. The strength and fracture toughness of BAS glass-ceramics are shown to increase with increasing crystal growth time over the entire range of treatments studied. The strength and fracture toughness increased from 63 ± 8 MPa and 0.89 ± 0.05 MPa*msp{1/2}, respectively for BAS glass to 141 ± 8 MPa and 1.87 ± 0.07 MPa*msp{1/2} respectively for a glass-ceramic treated for 256 h at 975sp°C. Fracture toughness was also shown to increase with increasing mean crystal size. A non-stoichiometric glass composition results in thermal compatibility between the glass and crystal phases, eliminating the weakening at large crystal sizes that can be associated with a spontaneous microcracking mechanism.

  2. Proof Test Diagrams for a Lithia-Alumina-Silica Glass-Ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.

    2003-01-01

    The glass-ceramic (Zerodur, Schott Glaswerke, Mainz, Germany) contains 70% to 78% by weight crystalline phase of high-quartz structure with a mean crystal size of 50-55 nm. The vitreous phase has a positive thermal expansion coefficient which is practically balanced by the negative coefficient of the crystalline phase. This results in a material which can maintain longitudinal stability during thermal cycling. This was one of the reasons for its choice as the material for the grazing incidence mirrors for the Chandra X-Ray Facility. Brittle materials such as glass and glass-ceramics which exhibit slow crack growth and subsequent fast fracture to failure exhibit a time dependence in strength. The decrease in strength for a constant applied load is known as static fatigue. In many cases, environment plays a major role in the material lifetime. It has been shown for silicate glasses that crack velocity will increase as the amount of water vapor in the environment surface finish and rate of loading. A rough surface finish leads to a lower tensile strength than for an optically polished surface. The strength of glass is observed in general to increase with increasing load rate. This phenomena is known as dynamic fatigue. This was observed for Zerodur by Tucker and Gent and Tucker in previous dynamic fatigue studies, in which lifetimes were obtained. All of the above named factors need to be considered when glass is to be used in load bearing applications.

  3. Glass-ceramic frits from fly ash in terracotta production.

    PubMed

    Karamanova, Emilia; Karamanov, Alexander

    2009-02-01

    Preliminary results of an investigation into the possible use of glass-ceramic frits from fly ash and glass cullet in terracotta (stoneware) tile manufacture are reported. Two new ceramics were studied and compared with a plant composition, containing 45 wt.% sodium feldspar. In the first ceramic batch 20% of the feldspar was substituted by frits and in the second the whole amount of feldspar was eliminated and replaced by 35% frits and 10% refractory waste. It was found that the addition of low viscous glass-ceramic frits decreased the sintering temperature by 50-100 degrees C. At the same time, due to formation of an additional crystal phase (i.e. pyroxene or anorthite) the new ceramics showed an improvement of 25-50% in bending strength.

  4. Mechanical performance of a biocompatible biocide soda-lime glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    López-Esteban, S; Bartolomé, J F; Dí Az, L A; Esteban-Tejeda, L; Prado, C; López-Piriz, R; Torrecillas, R; Moya, J S

    2014-06-01

    A biocompatible soda-lime glass-ceramic in the SiO2-Na2O-Al2O3-CaO-B2O3 system containing combeite and nepheline as crystalline phases, has been obtained at 750°C by two different routes: (i) pressureless sintering and (ii) Spark Plasma Sintering. The SPS glass-ceramic showed a bending strength, Weibull modulus, and toughness similar values to the cortical human bone. This material had a fatigue limit slightly superior to cortical bone and at least two times higher than commercial dental glass-ceramics and dentine. The in vitro studies indicate that soda-lime glass-ceramic is fully biocompatible. The in vivo studies in beagle jaws showed that implanted SPS rods presented no inflammatory changes in soft tissues surrounding implants in any of the 10 different cases after four months implantation. The radiological analysis indicates no signs of osseointegration lack around implants. Moreover, the biocide activity of SPS glass-ceramic versus Escherichia coli, was found to be >4log indicating that it prevents implant infections. Because of this, the SPS new glass-ceramic is particularly promising for dental applications (inlay, crowns, etc). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamic fatigue testing of Zerodur glass-ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.

    1988-01-01

    The inherent brittleness of glass invariably leads to a large variability in strength data and a time dependence in strength. Leading rate plays a large role in strength values. Glass is found to be weaker when supporting loads over long periods of time as compared to glass which undergoes rapid leading. These properties complicate the structural design allowables for the utilization of glass components in an application such as Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). The test methodology to obtain parameters which can be used to predict the reliability and life time of Zerodur glass-ceramic which is to be used for the mirrors in the AXAF is described.

  6. Dynamic fatigue of a machinable glass-ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, K. K.; Magida, M. B.

    1982-01-01

    To assess the stress corrosion susceptibility of a machinable glass-ceramic, its dynamic fatigue behavior was investigated by measuring its strength as a function of stress rate. Fracture mechanics techniques were used to analyse the results for the purpose of making lifetime predictions for components of this material. This material was concluded to have only moderate resistance to stress in ambient conditions. The effects of specimen size on strength were assessed for the material used in this study: it was concluded that the Weibull edge-flaw scaling law adequately describes the observed strength-size relationship.

  7. Glass/Ceramic Composites for Sealing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

    2007-01-01

    A family of glass/ceramic composite materials has been investigated for use as sealants in planar solid oxide fuel cells. These materials are modified versions of a barium calcium aluminosilicate glass developed previously for the same purpose. The composition of the glass in mole percentages is 35BaO + 15CaO + 5Al2O3 + 10B2O3 + 35SiO2. The glass seal was found to be susceptible to cracking during thermal cycling of the fuel cells. The goal in formulating the glass/ ceramic composite materials was to (1) retain the physical and chemical advantages that led to the prior selection of the barium calcium aluminosilicate glass as the sealant while (2) increasing strength and fracture toughness so as to reduce the tendency toward cracking. Each of the composite formulations consists of the glass plus either of two ceramic reinforcements in a proportion between 0 and 30 mole percent. One of the ceramic reinforcements consists of alumina platelets; the other one consists of particles of yttria-stabilized zirconia wherein the yttria content is 3 mole percent (3YSZ). In preparation for experiments, panels of the glass/ceramic composites were hot-pressed and machined into test bars.

  8. Improved glass-ceramic to metal seals in actuator and detonator applications with an aluminum-containing austenitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Birkbeck, J.C.; Cassidy, R.T.; Fagin, P.N.; Moddeman, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    Requirements for the formation of a strong, hermetic seal between a glass-ceramic and a metal, in actuator and detonator applications, were reviewed. The necessary parameters are: (1) a high strength metal; (2) a match in the thermal expansion coefficient between the metal and glass-ceramic; (3) wettability of the metal by the glass; and (4) the chemical compatibility at the glass-ceramic/metal interface at sealing temperatures. An Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ layer, acting as a buffer between the glass and the metal, should be included to protect the metal from the glass attack. A model was proposed and tested with an aluminum-containing alloy (899) which formed a tightly adhering Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ layer when pre-sealed heated in air. This Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ layer was verified by Auger electron spectroscopy and is wettable by the glass and chemically compatible with it, as seen in the optical photomicrographs. The coefficients of thermal expansion for the oxide layer and the alumina-rich glass/oxide boundary were found to be acceptable. 23 refs., 7 figs.

  9. The effects of repeated heat-pressing on properties of pressable glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Chung, K-H; Liao, J-H; Duh, J-G; Chan, D C-N

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the properties of four heat-pressed glass-ceramic materials after repeated heat-pressing. Two commercially available heat-pressed glass-ceramic systems [Optimal pressable glass-ceramics (OPC and 3G) and Empress pressable glass-ceramics (Empress and Empress2)] were selected. Disc samples (14 mm x 1.4 mm) of each tested material were heat-pressed and used as controls. Sprue and button parts of the pressed groups were retrieved and used for repeated heat-pressing to construct specimens of re-pressed group. All the heat-pressed casting procedures were performed according to the manufacturers' instructions. A biaxial flexural strength (BFS) test (ISO 6872) was performed to determine the strength of pressed and re-pressed glass-ceramic disc specimens (n = 10) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm min(-1). Ions eluted from etching procedure were collected and examined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Surface characteristics were examined with electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and secondary electron imaging (SEI). The data were analysed statistically (ANOVA + Tukey's HSD post hoc test, P < 0.05). The BFS values obtained ranged from 123.5 +/- 18.5 to 365.9 +/- 35.5 MPa. The re-pressed Empress2 group had a statistically significant higher BFS mean than the pressed control group (P < 0.05). The SEI micrographs of the lithium disilicate-reinforced glass-ceramic material (Empress2) showed a densely packed, interlocking microstructure and an increase in size with preferred orientation of the lithium disilicate crystals after repeated heat-pressing. Repeated heat-pressing treatment produced a statistically significant increase in the flexural strength of Empress2 glass-ceramic material.

  10. High Capacity, Superior Cyclic Performances in All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on 78Li2S-22P2S5 Glass-Ceramic Electrolytes Prepared via Simple Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yibo; Chen, Rujun; Liu, Ting; Shen, Yang; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2017-08-30

    Highly Li-ion conductive 78Li2S-22P2S5 glass-ceramic electrolytes were prepared by simple heat treatment of the glass phase obtained via mechanical ball milling. A high ionic conductivity of ∼1.78 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) is achieved at room temperature and is attributed to the formation of a crystalline phase of high lithium-ion conduction. All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries based on these glass-ceramic electrolytes are assembled by using Li2S nanoparticles or low-cost commercially available FeS2 as active cathode materials and Li-In alloys as anode. A high discharge capacity of 535 mAh g(-1) is achieved after at least 50 cycles for the all-solid-state cells with Li2S as cathode materials, suggesting a rather high capacity retention of 97.4%. Even for the cells using low-cost FeS2 as cathode materials, same high discharge capacity of 560 mAh g(-1) is also achieved after at least 50 cycles. Moreover, the Coulombic efficiency remain at ∼99% for these all-solid-state cells during the charge-discharge cycles.

  11. Wear Behaviour of Pressible Lithium Disilicate Glass Ceramic

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhongxiao; Rahman, Muhammad Izzat Abdul; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Ling

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports effects of surface preparation and contact loads on abrasive wear properties of highly aesthetic and high-strength pressible lithium disilicate glass-ceramics (LDGC). Abrasive wear testing was performed using a pin-on-disk device in which LDGC disks prepared with different surface finishes were against alumina pins at different contact loads. Coefficients of friction and wear volumes were measured as functions of initial surface finishes and contact loads. Wear-induced surface morphology changes in both LDGC disks and alumina pins were characterized using 3D laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The results show that initial surface finishes of LDGC specimens and contact loads significantly affected the friction coefficients, wear volumes and wear-induced surface roughness changes of the material. Both wear volumes and friction coefficients of LDGC increased as the load increased while surface roughness effects were complicated. For rough LDGC surfaces, three-body wear was dominant while for fine LDGC surfaces, two-body abrasive wear played a key role. Delamination, plastic deformation and brittle fracture were observed on worn LDGC surfaces. The adhesion of LDGC matrix materials to alumina pins was also discovered. This research has advanced our understanding of the abrasive wear behaviour of LDGC and will provide guidelines for better utilisation and preparation of the material for long-term success in dental restorations. PMID:25980530

  12. Wear behavior of pressable lithium disilicate glass ceramic.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhongxiao; Izzat Abdul Rahman, Muhammad; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Ling

    2016-07-01

    This article reports effects of surface preparation and contact loads on abrasive wear properties of highly aesthetic and high-strength pressable lithium disilicate glass-ceramics (LDGC). Abrasive wear testing was performed using a pin-on-disk device in which LDGC disks prepared with different surface finishes were against alumina pins at different contact loads. Coefficients of friction and wear volumes were measured as functions of initial surface finishes and contact loads. Wear-induced surface morphology changes in both LDGC disks and alumina pins were characterized using three-dimensional laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that initial surface finishes of LDGC specimens and contact loads significantly affected the friction coefficients, wear volumes and wear-induced surface roughness changes of the material. Both wear volumes and friction coefficients of LDGC increased as the load increased while surface roughness effects were complicated. For rough LDGC surfaces, three-body wear was dominant while for fine LDGC surfaces, two-body abrasive wear played a key role. Delamination, plastic deformation, and brittle fracture were observed on worn LDGC surfaces. The adhesion of LDGC matrix materials to alumina pins was also discovered. This research has advanced our understanding of the abrasive wear behavior of LDGC and will provide guidelines for better utilization and preparation of the material for long-term success in dental restorations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 968-978, 2016.

  13. Comparison of the properties of glass, glass-ceramic and ceramic materials produced from coal fly ash.

    PubMed

    Erol, M; Küçükbayrak, S; Ersoy-Meriçboyu, A

    2008-05-01

    Glass, glass-ceramic and ceramic materials were produced from thermal power plant fly ash without any additives. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the amorphous phase of the glass sample. Augite phase was detected in the glass-ceramic sample, while the enstatite and mullite phases occurred in the ceramic samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations showed that tiny crystallites homogeneously dispersed in the microstructure of the glass-ceramic sample and elongated crystals formed in the ceramic samples. Density values of the obtained samples are comparable to those of the commercially produced glass, glass-ceramic and ceramic samples. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results indicated that the produced samples could be taken as non-hazardous materials. Produced samples showed high resistance to alkali solutions in contrast to acidic solutions. Microstructural, physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the produced glass-ceramic samples are better than those of the produced glass and ceramic samples.

  14. Optical glasses and glass ceramics for large optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doehring, Thorsten; Hartmann, Peter; Morian, Hans F.; Jedamzik, Ralf

    2003-02-01

    Schott has delivered blanks for large lenses and prisms since many decades. Glass and glass ceramics objects with dimensions above 300 mm diameter or edge lengths will remain challenges for a glass manufacturer. This holds especially when the quality specifications exceed the standard level significantly. Optical glass blocks of more than half a ton have been produced with outstanding internal quality. Although the manufacturing process is well controlled there are restrictions on the availability of such objects (glass types, long process times e.g.). Implications of the glass production process are presented as a guideline for designers in order to avoid unnecessary time losses. The similarity of the production process of the glass ceramic ZERODUR to that of optical glasses results in high homogeneity with regard to the coefficient of thermal expansion as well as to the optical properties. This qualifies ZERODUR for even higher demanding applications especially when reproducibility in series production is required.

  15. Crystallization Kinetics in Fluorochloroziroconate Glass-Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Carlos J.

    Annealing fluorochlorozirconate (FCZ) glasses nucleates BaCl2 nanocrystals in the glass matrix, resulting in a nanocomposite glass-ceramic that has optical properties suitable for use as a medical X-ray imaging plate. Understanding the way in which the BaCl¬2 nanocrystal nucleation, growth and phase transformation processes proceed is critical to controlling the optical behavior. However, there is a very limited amount of information about the formation, morphology, and distribution of the nanocrystalline particles in FCZ glass-ceramics. In this thesis, the correlation between the microstructure and the crystallization kinetics of FCZ glass-ceramics, are studied in detail. In situ X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy annealing experiments are used to analyze the crystal structure, size and distribution of BaCl 2 nanocrystals in FCZ glass-ceramics as a function of annealing rate and temperature. Microstructural analysis of the early stages on nucleation identified the formation of both BaCl2 and BaF2 nanocrystals. Annealing FCZ glass-ceramics above 280°C can cause the formation of additional glass matrix phase crystals, their microstructure and the annealing parameters required for their growth are identified. As the crystalline phases grow directly from the glass, small variations in processing of the glass can have a profound influence on the crystallization process. The information obtained from these experiments improves the understanding of the nucleation, growth and phase transformation process of the BaCl¬2 nanocrystals and additional crystalline phases that form in FCZ glass-ceramics, and may help expedite the implementation of FCZ glass-ceramics as next-generation X-ray detectors. Lastly, as these glass-ceramics may one day be commercialized, an investigation into their degradation in different environmental conditions was also performed. The effects of direct contact with water or prolonged exposure to humid environments on the

  16. Effect of V2O5 on SrO-ZnO-B2O3-SiO2 glass-ceramics for high temperature sealant application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Babita; Bhatacharya, S.; Dixit, A.; Gadkari, S. C.; Kothiyal, G. P.

    2012-06-01

    Glasses in the SrO-ZnO-B2O3-SiO2 (SZBS) system with and without V2O5 were prepared by melt-quench method and transformed into glass-ceramics by controlled crystallization. Investigated glasses and glass-ceramics have thermal expansion coefficients (TEC) in the range of 95-120 × 10-7/°C (30-600 °C), which match closely with TEC of other components of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Study of thermo-physical properties of SZBS glasses revealed the network modifying effect of V2O5. Addition of V2O5 increases the TEC and decreases the viscosity of the glass which is beneficial for making seal with Crofer-22-APU. Microstructural investigations have shown good bonding of SZBS glasses with Crofer-22-APU. Elemental line scans indicate that inter-diffusion of Fe, Cr and Si across interface, which is thought to be responsible for good bonding with Crofer-22-APU.

  17. Dynamic compressive failure of a glass ceramic under lateral confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weinong; Ravichandran, G.

    1997-08-01

    An experimental technique has been developed for imposing controlled multi-axial loading on cylindrical ceramic specimens. The multi-axial loading is achieved by superposing passive lateral confinement upon axial compression. Descriptions of the experimental technique, as well as experimental results for a machinable glass ceramic, Macor, are presented. The axial compression was applied using a Kolsky (split Hopkinson) pressure bar modified to apply a single loading pulse. Experiments were also conducted under quasi-static conditions using a servo-hydraulic load frame. The specimens were confined laterally using shrink-fit metal sleeves. The confining pressure ranges from 10 to 230 MPa. Under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions, the experimental results showed that the failure mode changes from fragmentation by axial splitting without confinement to localized faulting under moderate lateral confinement (10-120 MPa). The process of fault initiation was characterized in detail for specimens under moderate confinement. Based on the experimental results, a compressive failure mechanism was proposed for brittle materials under moderate lateral confinement. The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was found to fit the experimental strength data. The failure criterion is shown to be consistent with the analytical results from a micromechanical model for brittle failure. Transition from brittle to ductile behavior was observed under high confinement (230 MPa).

  18. Biocompatible glass-ceramic materials for bone substitution.

    PubMed

    Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Verné, Enrica; Robiglio, Lorenza; Martinasso, Germana; Canuto, Rosa A; Muzio, Giuliana

    2008-01-01

    A new bioactive glass composition (CEL2) in the SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaO-MgO-K(2)O-Na(2)O system was tailored to control pH variations due to ion leaching phenomena when the glass is in contact with physiological fluids. CEL2 was prepared by a traditional melting-quenching process obtaining slices that were heat-treated to obtain a glass-ceramic material (CEL2GC) that was characterized thorough SEM analysis. Pre-treatment of CEL2GC with SBF was found to enhance its biocompatibility, as assessed by in vitro tests. CEL2 powder was then used to synthesize macroporous glass-ceramic scaffolds. To this end, CEL2 powders were mixed with polyethylene particles within the 300-600 microm size-range and then pressed to obtain crack-free compacted powders (green). This was heat-treated to remove the organic phase and to sinter the inorganic phase, leaving a porous structure. The biomaterial thus obtained was characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM equipped with EDS, density measurement, image analysis, mechanical testing and in vitro evaluation, and found to be a glass-ceramic macroporous scaffold with uniformly distributed and highly interconnected porosity. The extent and size-range of the porosity can be tailored by varying the amount and size of the polyethylene particles.

  19. Nanocrystallization in Fluorochlorozirconate Glass-Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Carlos J; Liu, Yuzi; Leonard, Russell L; Johnson, Jacqueline A; Petford-Long, Amanda K

    2013-11-01

    Heat treating fluorochlorozirconate (FCZ) glasses nucleates nanocrystals in the glass matrix, resulting in a nanocomposite glass-ceramic that has optical properties suitable for use as a medical imaging plate. Understanding the way in which the nanocrystal nucleation proceeds is critical to controlling the optical behavior. The nucleation and growth of nanocrystals in FCZ glass-ceramics was investigated with in situ transmission electron microscopy heating experiments. The experiments showed the nucleation and growth of previously unreported BaF2 nanocrystals in addition to the expected BaCl2 nanocrystals. Chemical analysis of the BaF2 nanocrystals shows an association with the optically active dopant previously thought only to interact with BaCl2 nanocrystals. The association of the dopant with BaF2 crystals suggests that it plays a role in the photoluminescent (PL) properties of FCZ glass-ceramics.

  20. Tensile behavior of glass/ceramic composite materials at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, J. F.; Grande, D. H.; Jacobs, J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the tensile behavior of high-temperature composite materials containing continuous Nicalon ceramic fiber reinforcement and glass and glass/ceramic matrices. The longitudinal properties of these materials can approach theoretical expectations for brittle matrix composites, failing at a strength and ultimate strain level consistent with those of the fibers. The brittle, high-modulus matrices result in a nonlinear stress-strain curve due to the onset of stable matrix cracking at 10 to 30 percent of the fiber strain to failure, and at strains below this range in off-axis plies. Current fibers and matrices can provide attractive properties well above 1000 C, but composites experience embrittlement in oxidizing atmospheres at 800 to 1000 C due to oxidation of a carbon interface reaction layer.The oxidation effect greatly increases the interface bond strength, causing composite embrittlement.

  1. Tensile behavior of glass/ceramic composite materials at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, J. F.; Grande, D. H.; Jacobs, J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the tensile behavior of high-temperature composite materials containing continuous Nicalon ceramic fiber reinforcement and glass and glass/ceramic matrices. The longitudinal properties of these materials can approach theoretical expectations for brittle matrix composites, failing at a strength and ultimate strain level consistent with those of the fibers. The brittle, high-modulus matrices result in a nonlinear stress-strain curve due to the onset of stable matrix cracking at 10 to 30 percent of the fiber strain to failure, and at strains below this range in off-axis plies. Current fibers and matrices can provide attractive properties well above 1000 C, but composites experience embrittlement in oxidizing atmospheres at 800 to 1000 C due to oxidation of a carbon interface reaction layer.The oxidation effect greatly increases the interface bond strength, causing composite embrittlement.

  2. Preparation and characterization of novel foamed porous glass-ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Sasmal, Nibedita; Garai, Mrinmoy; Karmakar, Basudeb

    2015-05-15

    Foamed glass-ceramics without using foaming agent have been synthesized in a novel glass system of SrO-CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-M{sub x}O{sub y} (where M = Ba, Mg, La, Ce and Ni) by a simple process of powder sintering. The glass and glass-ceramics are characterized by dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), heating stage microscopy (HSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), optical microscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). All the glasses formed are amorphous and the glass transition temperature and dilatometric softening temperature of these glasses are found to be in the range 673–678 °C and 706–728 °C respectively. The glasses are highly stable as indicated by the DSC evaluated glass stability parameters of the range 195–240 °C. Quantitative sintering study of glass powder compacts revealed swelling in the samples with NiO and CeO{sub 2} corresponding to a geometry change of 75 and 108% around 900 °C respectively. With reference to this finding the glass powder compacts are heated to 900 °C and the foamed glass-ceramics are obtained. Characteristic crystalline silicate phases have been identified in the XRD studies and their microstructures are recorded by FESEM. Optical microscope study of the foamed samples revealed formation of bigger foamed cavity with residual pores in samples with NiO and CeO{sub 2} in comparison to samples with BaO, MgO and La{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The mean pore diameters of the samples with NiO and CeO{sub 2} are determined to be 43 and 32 μm, and their respective porosities are 2.34 and 1.82 cm{sup 3}/g respectively. Thus NiO and CeO{sub 2} are found to be very effective to obtain foamed glass-ceramics without using foaming agent by the viscous flow sintering of fine glass powder compacts along with the reduction of the respective polyvalent ions. - Highlights: • Synthesis of foamed porous glass-ceramics

  3. Nano-crystal glass-ceramics obtained by crystallization of vitrified red mud.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fei; Liang, Kai-Ming; Shao, Hua; Hu, An-Min

    2005-05-01

    Glass has been obtained by melting red mud from Shandong Province in China with different additives. Suitable thermal treatments were employed to convert the obtained glass into nano-crystal glass-ceramics. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the main crystalline phase in both the glass-ceramics is wollastonite (CaSiO3). These crystals are homogeneously dispersed within the parent glass, with an average crystal size of less than 100 nm. The size of nano-crystals varies when different thermal processes were used. Physical and mechanical properties, such as density, thermal expansion coefficient, hardness, and bending strength, of the two glasses have been examined and the corresponding microstructures are discussed. These results demonstrate that both glass-ceramics have potential for a wide range of construction application.

  4. Glass and glass-ceramic photonic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zur, Lidia; Thi Ngoc Tran, Lam; Meneghetti, Marcello; Varas, Stefano; Armellini, Cristina; Ristic, Davor; Chiasera, Alessandro; Scotognella, Francesco; Pelli, Stefano; Nunzi Conti, Gualtiero; Boulard, Brigitte; Zonta, Daniele; Dorosz, Dominik; Lukowiak, Anna; Righini, Giancarlo C.; Ramponi, Roberta; Ferrari, Maurizio

    2017-02-01

    The development of optically confined structure is a major topic in both basic and applied physics not solely ICT oriented but also concerning lighting, laser, sensing, energy, environment, biological and medical sciences, and quantum optics. Glasses and glass-ceramics activated by rare earth ions are the bricks of such structures. Glass-ceramics are nanocomposite systems that exhibit specific morphologic, structural and spectroscopic properties allowing developing new physical concepts, for instance the mechanism related to the transparency, as well as novel photonic devices based on the enhancement of the luminescence. The dependence of the final product on the specific parent glass and on the fabrication protocol still remain an important task of the research in material science. Looking to application, the enhanced spectroscopic properties typical of glass ceramic in respect to those of the amorphous structures constitute an important point for the development of integrated optics devices, including optical amplifiers, monolithic waveguide laser, novel sensors, coating of spherical microresonators, and up and down converters. This paper presents some results obtained by our consortium regarding glass-based photonics systems. We will comment the energy transfer mechanism in transparent glass ceramics taking as examples the up and down conversion systems and the role of SnO2 nanocrystals as sensitizers. Coating of spherical resonators by glass ceramics, 1D-Photonic Crystals for luminescence enhancement, laser action and disordered 1-D photonic structures will be also discussed. Finally, RF-Sputtered rare earth doped P2O5- SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O-Er2O3 planar waveguides, will be presented.

  5. Machinable glass-ceramics forming as a restorative dental material.

    PubMed

    Chaysuwan, Duangrudee; Sirinukunwattana, Krongkarn; Kanchanatawewat, Kanchana; Heness, Greg; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2011-01-01

    MgO, SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), MgF(2), CaF(2), CaCO(3), SrCO(3), and P(2)O(5) were used to prepare glass-ceramics for restorative dental materials. Thermal properties, phases, microstructures and hardness were characterized by DTA, XRD, SEM and Vickers microhardness. Three-point bending strength and fracture toughness were applied by UTM according to ISO 6872: 1997(E). XRD showed that the glass crystallized at 892°C (second crystallization temperature+20°C) for 3 hrs consisted mainly of calcium-mica and fluorapatite crystalline phases. Average hardness (3.70 GPa) closely matched human enamel (3.20 GPa). The higher fracture toughness (2.04 MPa√m) combined with the hardness to give a lower brittleness index (1.81 µm(-1/2)) which indicates that they have exceptional machinability. Bending strength results (176.61 MPa) were analyzed by Weibull analysis to determine modulus value (m=17.80). Machinability of the calcium mica-fluorapatite glass-ceramic was demonstrated by fabricating with CAD/CAM.

  6. Sodium nitrate containing mixture for producing ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Blake, R.D.; Meek, T.T.

    1984-10-10

    A mixture for, and method of using such a mixture, for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by the use of microwave energy are disclosed, wherein the mixture comprises a glass sealing material, a coupling agent, and an oxidizer. The seal produced exhibits greater strength due to its different microstructure. Sodium nitrate is the most preferred oxidizer.

  7. Ceramic fiber-reinforced monoclinic celsian phase glass-ceramic matrix composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor); Dicarlo, James A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A hyridopolysilazane-derived ceramic fiber reinforced monoclinic celsian phase barium aluminum silicate glass-ceramic matrix composite material is prepared by ball-milling an aqueous slurry of BAS glass powder and fine monoclinic celsian seeds. The fibers improve the mechanical strength and fracture toughness and with the matrix provide superior dielectric properties.

  8. Method for producing ceramic-glass-ceramic seals by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Blake, Rodger D.; Meek, Thomas T.

    1986-01-01

    Method for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by the use of microwave energy, and a sealing mixture which comprises a glass sealing material, a coupling agent, and an oxidizer. The seal produced exhibits greater strength due to its different microstructure. Sodium nitrate is the most preferred oxidizer.

  9. Glass Ceramic Waste Forms for Combined CS+LN+TM Fission Products Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Turo, Laura A.; Riley, Brian J.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna; Sickafus, Kurt E.

    2010-09-23

    In this study, glass ceramics were explored as an alternative waste form for glass, the current baseline, to be used for immobilizing alkaline/alkaline earth + lanthanide (CS+LN) or CS+LN+transition metal (TM) fission-product waste streams generated by a uranium extraction (UREX+) aqueous separations type process. Results from past work on a glass waste form for the combined CS+LN waste streams showed that as waste loading increased, large fractions of crystalline phases precipitated upon slow cooling.[1] The crystalline phases had no noticeable impact on the waste form performance by the 7-day product consistency test (PCT). These results point towards the development of a glass ceramic waste form for treating CS+LN or CS+LN+TM combined waste streams. Three main benefits for exploring glass ceramics are: (1) Glass ceramics offer increased solubility of troublesome components in crystalline phases as compared to glass, leading to increased waste loading; (2) The crystalline network formed in the glass ceramic results in higher heat tolerance than glass; and (3) These glass ceramics are designed to be processed by the same melter technology as the current baseline glass waste form. It will only require adding controlled canister cooling for crystallization into a glass ceramic waste form. Highly annealed waste form (essentially crack free) with up to 50X lower surface area than a typical High-Level Waste (HLW) glass canister. Lower surface area translates directly into increased durability. This was the first full year of exploring glass ceramics for the Option 1 and 2 combined waste stream options. This work has shown that dramatic increases in waste loading are achievable by designing a glass ceramic waste form as an alternative to glass. Table S1 shows the upper limits for heat, waste loading (based on solubility), and the decay time needed before treatment can occur for glass and glass ceramic waste forms. The improvements are significant for both combined waste

  10. Mechanical evaluation of SiC particle reinforced oxynitride glass and glass-ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Rouxel, T.; Lavelle, C. . Lab. de Materiaux Ceramiques et Traitements de Surface); Garnier, C.; Verdier, P.; Laurent, Y. . Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux)

    1994-07-01

    In silicon oxynitride glasses, the nitrogen occupies anion sites and is bonded to three silicons. Hence, replacement of divalent oxygen ions by trivalent nitrogen ones results in a considerable improvement of the mechanical resistance. In this exploratory work, the authors investigate some basic mechanical properties at room temperature of composite materials prepared by adding some SiC particles to a highly refractory Y-Mg-Si-Al-O-N oxynitride glass. Taking advantage of both constituents, the brittle particulate composites exhibit much better fracture strength and toughness and higher elastic moduli than the glassy matrix. Due to the easy crystallization of the selected glass, a further improvement is attainable through a crystallization treatment of the matrix. Fracture toughness and Young's modulus as high as 5.4 MPa.m[sup 0.5] and 215 GPa respectively have been measured on the glass-ceramic composite containing 50 vol.% SiC.

  11. Photoactive transparent nano-crystalline glass-ceramic for remazole red dye degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Gad-Allah, Tarek A.; Margha, Fatma H.

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Preparation and characterization of novel transparent nanocrystalline glass-ceramic. ► Precipitation of photoactive phases by using controlled heat-treatment. ► Conservation of transparency along with photoactivity. ► Using the prepared nanocrystalline glass-ceramic in water purification. -- Abstract: Transparent glass ceramic material was prepared from alkali-borosilicate glass containing titania by proper heat treatment scheme. The prepared samples were characterized using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, selected area electron diffraction and UV–visible spectroscopy. The applied heat treatment program allowed the crystallization of nano-crystalline anatase, rutile, barium titanate, titanium borate and silicate phases while maintaining the transparency. The precipitated nano-crystalline anatase and rutile phases were responsible for the observed high photocatalytic activity of the prepared samples. Samples of 24.29 and 32.39 TiO{sub 2} wt% showed better efficiency for the decolorization of remazole red dye compared with commercial-TiO{sub 2} used in preparation of glass-ceramic. The reuse of prepared glass-ceramic photocatalyst with nearly same efficiency for different times was also proved.

  12. Effect of binder burnout on the sealing performance of glass ceramics for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertugrul, Tugrul Y.; Celik, Selahattin; Mat, Mahmut D.

    2013-11-01

    The glass ceramics composite sealants are among few materials suitable for the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) due to their high operating temperatures (600 °C-850 °C). The glass ceramics chemically bond to both the metallic interconnector and the ceramic electrolyte and provide a gas tight connection. A careful and several stages manufacturing procedure is required to obtain a gas tight sealing. In this study, effects of binder burnout process on the sealing performance are investigated employing commercially available glass ceramic powders. The glass ceramic laminates are produced by mixing glass ceramic powders with the organic binders and employing a tape casting method. The laminates are sandwiched between the metallic interconnectors of an SOFC cell. The burnout and subsequent sealing quality are analyzed by measuring leakage rate and final macrostructure of sealing region. The effects of heating rate, dead weight load, solid loading, carrier gas and their flow rates are investigated. It is found that sealing quality is affected from all investigated parameters. While a slower heating rate is required for a better burnout, the mass flow rate of sweep gas must be adequate for removal of the burned gas. The leakage rate is reduced to 0.1 ml min-1 with 2 °C min-1 + 1 °C min-1 heating rate, 86.25% solid loading, 200 N dead weight load and 500 ml min-1 sweep gas flow rate.

  13. Chemical Vapor Deposited SiC (SCS-0) Fiber-Reinforced Strontium Aluminosilicate Glass-Ceramic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1997-01-01

    Unidirectional SrO Al2O3 2SiO2 glass-ceramic matrix composites reinforced with uncoated Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) SiC (SCS-0) fibers have been fabricated by hot-pressing under appropriate conditions using the glass-ceramic approach. Almost fully dense composites having a fiber volume fraction of 0.24 have been obtained. Monoclinic celsian, SrAl2Si2O8, was the only crystalline phase observed in the matrix by x-ray diffraction. No chemical reaction was observed between the fiber and the matrix after high temperature processing. In three-point flexure, the composite exhibited a first matrix cracking stress of approx. 231 +/- 20 MPa and an ultimate strength of 265 +/- 17 MPa. Examination of fracture surfaces revealed limited short length fiber pull-out. From fiber push-out, the fiber/matrix interfacial debonding and frictional strengths were evaluated to be approx. 17.5 +/- 2.7 MPa and 11.3 +/- 1.6 MPa, respectively. Some fibers were strongly bonded to the matrix and could not be pushed out. The micromechanical models were not useful in predicting values of the first matrix cracking stress as well as the ultimate strength of the composites.

  14. Interactions at glass-ceramic to metal interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Knorovsky, G.A.; Brow, R.K.; Watkins, R.D.; Loehman, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced pyrotechnic components can be fabricated from Ni-based superalloys with hermetic seals to high expansion lithium-silicate glass ceramics (LSGC). Prior studies have characterized the interfacial reactions in these systems necessary for good chemical bonding. Similar reactions occur when LSGCs are bonded to 300-series stainless steel except that these seals debond on cooling to room temperature. Cr-depletion (from {approximately}18 wt % to {approximately}5 wt %) from the steel interface cases an fcc-to-bcc phase transition that expands the interfacial grains and decreases their thermal expansion coefficient, putting the LSGC into tension, causing the seal to fail. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Glass ceramic toughened with tetragonal zirconia

    DOEpatents

    Keefer, K.D.

    1984-02-10

    A phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic and a process for making it are disclosed. A mixture of particulate network-forming oxide, network-modifying oxide, and zirconium oxide is heated to yield a homogeneous melt, and this melt is then heat treated to precipitate an appreciable quantity of tetragonal zirconia, which is retained at ambient temperature to form a phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic. Nuclearing agents and stabilizing agents may be added to the mixture to facilitate processing and improve the ceramic's properties. Preferably, the mixture is first melted at a temperature from 1200 to 1700/sup 0/C and is then heat-treated at a temperature within the range of 800 to 1200/sup 0/C in order to precipitate tetragonal ZrO/sub 2/. The composition, as well as the length and temperature of the heat treatment, must be carefully controlled to prevent solution of the precipitated tetragonal zirconia and subsequent conversion to the monoclinic phase.

  16. Fractal analysis of fracture in glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Mecholsky, J.J. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    The application of fractal geometry offers the potential to establish the scaling relationships between critical energies at all levels during fracture. The fracture energy, {gamma}, is directly related to the fractal dimensional increment, D*, and the elastic modulus, E: {gamma} = 0.5 E D* a{sub 0}, where the characteristic atomic parameter, a{sub 0}, can be interpreted as the fractal generator (on the atomic scale) or the process zone size. D* can be shown to be related to the crack/fracture-mirror size ratio. The purpose of this paper is to show the relationship between fractal geometry, fractography and the fracture process in the analysis of the fracture of glass ceramics. Examples of the fracture analysis of glass ceramics used as materials for dental restorations, radomes and electron generators will be presented.

  17. A glass-ceramic plate for mammography.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J. A.; Schweizer, S.; Lubinsky, A. R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Univ. of Paderborn; State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook

    2007-01-01

    We developed translucent glass-ceramic image plates for digital mammography. The glass ceramics are based on europium-doped fluorozirconate glasses, which were additionally doped with chlorine to initiate the nucleation of barium chloride nanoparticles therein. The X-ray image is stored in the form of stable electron-hole pairs, which can be read out afterwards with a scanning laser beam in a 'photostimulated luminescence' (PSL) process. Measurements of the required stimulating exposure, integrated PSL signal, and optical light spreading of the stimulating laser light were performed to allow projection of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) for the proposed X-ray storage phosphor system. The projected DQE is compared with commercially available electronic mammography systems.

  18. Glass-ceramic-mediated, magnetic-field-induced localized hyperthermia: response of a murine mammary carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Luderer, A.A.; Borrelli, N.F.; Panzarino, J.N.; Mansfield, G.R.; Hess, D.M.; Brown, J.L.; Barnett, E.H.; Hahn, E.W.

    1983-04-01

    Hyperthermia has found to be a useful modality for cancer therapy. In this report, a biocompatible, ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic capable of inducing localized hyperthermia by hysteresis heating upon exposure to an alternating magnetic field is presented. When the glass-ceramic was placed in the region of a subcutaneously transplanted, weakly antigenic breast carcinoma and subjected to the magnetic field, sufficient temperature rise was obtained to cause significant (approx.50%) tumor regrowth delay and a 12% permanent control. The data demonstrate that glass-ceramic-mediated hysteresis heating may be a useful therapeutic approach in the treatment of cancer which offers the advantage of producing a highly localized and predictable tumor volume hyperthermia.

  19. Sealing of Al-containing stainless steel to lithia-alumina-silica glass-ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Cassidy, R.T.; Moddeman, W.E.

    1989-12-31

    Recent work on a new glass-ceramic/alloy for pyrotechnic components is discussed. A newly developed family of austenitic stainless steels has been hermetically sealed to a widely used lithia-alumina-silica (LAS) glass-ceramic. These alloys, originally developed for high oxidation resistance, contain 4-5 wt% Al. The presence of Al offers several advantages from a glass or glass/ceramic sealing point of view: presence of a tenacious, stable oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) on the alloys` surface as well as the fact that they can be strengthened during sealing via precipitation of a secondary phase, NiAl. In addition these new alloys offer lower material and machining costs and improved weldability compared to the widely used Ni-base superalloys.

  20. Spectroscopic properties of Er 3+ doped chalco-halide glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seznec, Vincent; Ma, Hongli; Zhang, Xianghua; Nazabal, Virginie; Adam, Jean-Luc; Qiao, X. S.; Fan, X. P.

    2006-02-01

    In this paper, we present results concerning the fabrication and characterization of glass-ceramics based on chalcohalide for application as laser host materials. The objective is to develop a highly efficient host material for rare-earth doping. The studied system is Ga-Ge-S-CsCl with Er 3+ ions as doping elements. Glass-ceramics have been prepared by thermal treatment of the base glass. The evolution of the optical transmission versus annealing time and temperature has been investigated. Preliminary up-conversion measurement of Er 3+ were performed. Glass ceramics show higher luminescence efficiency as compared to the base glass. Nano-crystalline phases have been generated in well-controlled experimental conditions, so that crystals with reproducible size smaller than 50 nm could be achieved.

  1. Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of Transparent Nanocrystalline GdF3:Tb Glass-Ceramic Scintillator

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Savage, Nicholas; Wagner, Brent; Zhang, Yuelan; Jacobs, Benjamin; Menkara, Hisham; Summers, Christopher; Kang, Zhitao

    2014-01-01

    Transparent glass-ceramic containing rare-earth doped halide nanocrystals exhibits enhanced luminescence performance. In this study, a glass-ceramic with Tb doped gadolinium fluoride nanocrystals embedded in an aluminosilicate glass matrix is investigated for X-ray imaging applications. The nanocrystalline glass-ceramic scintillator was prepared by a melt-quench method followed by an anneal. The GdF3:Tb nanocrystals precipitated within the oxide glass matrix during the processing and their luminescence and scintillation properties were investigated. In this nanocomposite scintillator system, the incorporation of high atomic number Gd compound into the glass matrix increases the X-ray stopping power of the glass scintillator, and effective energy transfer between Gd3+ and Tb3+ ions in the nanocrystals enhances the scintillation efficiency. PMID:24610960

  2. Hot isostatically-pressed aluminosilicate glass-ceramic with natural crystalline analogues for immobilizing the calcined high-level nuclear waste at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, S.

    1993-12-01

    The additives Si, Al, MgO, P{sub 2}O{sub 5} were mechanically blended with fluorinelsodium calcine in varying proportions. The batches were vacuum sealed in stainless steel canisters and hot isostatically pressed at 20,000 PSI and 1000 C for 4 hours. The resulting suite of glass-ceramic waste forms parallels the natural rocks in microstructural and compositional heterogeneity. Several crystalline phases ar analogous in composition and structure to naturally occurring minerals. Additional crystalline phases are zirconia and Ca-Mg borate. The glasses are enriched in silica and alumina. Approximately 7% calcine elements occur dissolved in this glass and the total glass content in the waste forms averages 20 wt%. The remainder of the calcine elements are partitioned into crystalline phases at 75 wt% calcine waste loading. The waste forms were tested for chemical durability in accordance with the MCC1-test procedure. The leach rates are a function of the relative proportions of additives and calcine, which in turn influence the composition and abundances of the glass and crystalline phases. The DOE leach rate criterion of less than 1 g/m{sup 2}-day is met by all the elements B, Cs and Na are increased by lowering the melt viscosity. This is related to increased crystallization or devitrification with increases in MgO addition. This exploratory work has shown that the increases in waste loading occur by preferred partitioning of the calcine components among crystalline and glass phases. The determination of optimum processing parameters in the form of additive concentration levels, homogeneous blending among the components, and pressure-temperature stabilities of phases must be continued to eliminate undesirable effects of chemical composition, microstructure and glass devitrification.

  3. In vivo biological performance of a novel highly bioactive glass-ceramic (Biosilicate®): A biomechanical and histomorphometric study in rat tibial defects.

    PubMed

    Granito, Renata N; Rennó, Ana Claudia; Ravagnani, Christian; Bossini, Paulo S; Mochiuti, Daniel; Jorgetti, Vanda; Driusso, Patricia; Peitl, Oscar; Zanotto, Edgar D; Parizotto, Nivaldo A; Oishi, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate bone responses to a novel bioactive fully crystallized glass-ceramic of the quaternary system P(2)O(5)-Na(2)O-CaO-SiO(2) (Biosilicate®). Although a previous study demonstrated positive effects of Biosilicate® on in vitro bone-like matrix formation, its in vivo effect was not studied yet. Male Wistar rats (n = 40) with tibial defects were used. Four experimental groups were designed to compare this novel biomaterial with a gold standard bioactive material (Bioglass® 45S5), unfilled defects and intact controls. A three-point bending test was performed 20 days after the surgical procedure, as well as the histomorphometric analysis in two regions of interest: cortical bone and medullary canal where the particulate biomaterial was implanted. The biomechanical test revealed a significant increase in the maximum load at failure and stiffness in the Biosilicate® group (vs. control defects), whose values were similar to uninjured bones. There were no differences in the cortical bone parameters in groups with bone defects, but a great deal of woven bone was present surrounding Biosilicate® and Bioglass® 45S5 particulate. Although both bioactive materials supported significant higher bone formation; Biosilicate® was superior to Bioglass® 45S5 in some histomorphometric parameters (bone volume and number of osteoblasts). Regarding bone resorption, Biosilicate® group showed significant higher number of osteoclasts per unit of tissue area than defect and intact controls, despite of the non-significant difference in the osteoclastic surface as percentage of bone surface. This study reveals that the fully crystallized Biosilicate® has good bone-forming and bone-bonding properties. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Low level laser therapy does not modulate the outcomes of a highly bioactive glass-ceramic (Biosilicate) on bone consolidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Poliani; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Pipi, Elaine Favaro; Driusso, Patricia; Parizotto, Nivaldo A; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2010-04-01

    The main purpose of the present work was to evaluate if low level laser therapy (LLLT) can improve the effects of novel fully-crystallized glass-ceramic (Biosilicate) on bone consolidation in tibial defects of rats. Forty male Wistar rats with tibial bone defects were used. Animals were divided into four groups: group bone defect control (CG); group bone defect filled with Biosilicate (BG); group bone defect filled with Biosilicate, irradiated with LLLT, at 60 J cm(-2) (BG 60) and group bone defect filled with Biosilicate, irradiated with LLLT, at 120 J cm(-2) (BG 120). A low-energy GaAlAs 830 nm, CW, 0.6 mm beam diameter, 100 W cm(-2), 60 and 120 J cm(-2) was used in this study. Laser irradiation was initiated immediately after the surgery procedure and it was performed every 48 h for 14 days. Fourteen days post-surgery, the three-point bending test revealed that the structural stiffness of the groups CG and BG was higher than the values of the groups BG60 and BG120. Morphometric analysis revealed no differences between the control group and the Biosilcate group. Interestingly, the groups treated with Biosilicate and laser (BG 60 and BG120) showed statistically significant lower values of newly formed bone in the area of the defect when compared to negative control (CG) and bone defect group filled with Biosilicate (CB). Our findings suggest that although Biosilicate exerts some osteogenic activity during bone repair, laser therapy is not able to modulate this process.

  5. Ni(2+) doped glass ceramic fiber fabricated by melt-in-tube method and successive heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zaijin; Zheng, Shupei; Peng, Wencai; Zhang, Hang; Ma, Zhijun; Dong, Guoping; Zhou, Shifeng; Chen, Danping; Qiu, Jianrong

    2015-11-02

    Glass ceramic fibers containing Ni(2+) doped LiGa(5)O(8) nanocrystals were fabricated by a melt-in-tube method and successive heat treatment. Fiber precursors were prepared by drawing at high temperature where fiber core glass was melted while fiber clad glass was softened. After heat treatment, LiGa(5)O(8) nanocrystals were precipitated in the fiber core. Excited by 980 nm laser, efficient broadband near-infrared emission was observed in the glass ceramic fiber compared to that of precursor fiber. The melt-in-tube method can realize controllable crystallization and is suitable for fabrication of novel glass ceramic fibers. The Ni(2+)-doped glass ceramic fiber is promising for broadband optical amplification.

  6. Effect of ZrO(2) additions on the crystallization, mechanical and biological properties of MgO-CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) bioactive glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Li, H C; Wang, D G; Meng, X G; Chen, C Z

    2014-06-01

    A series of ZrO(2) doped MgO-CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) bioactive glass-ceramics were obtained by sintering method. The crystallization behavior, phase composition, morphology and structure of glass-ceramics were characterized. The bending strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, micro-hardness and thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of glass-ceramics were investigated. The in vitro bioactivity and cytotoxicity tests were used to evaluate the bioactivity and biocompatibility of glass-ceramics. The sedimentation mechanism and growth process of apatites on sample surface were discussed. The results showed that the mainly crystalline phases of glass-ceramics were Ca(5)(PO4)3F (fluorapatite) and β-CaSiO(3). (β-wollastonite). m-ZrO(2) (monoclinic zirconia) declined the crystallization temperatures of glasses. t-ZrO(2) (tetragonal zirconia) increased the crystallization temperature of Ca(5)(PO4)(3)F and declined the crystallization temperature of β-CaSiO(3). t-ZrO(2) greatly increased the fracture toughness, bending strength and micro-hardness of glass-ceramics. The nanometer apatites were induced on the surface of glass-ceramic after soaking 28 days in SBF (simulated body fluid), indicating the glass-ceramic has good bioactivity. The in vitro cytotoxicity test demonstrated the glass-ceramic has no toxicity to cell.

  7. Glass-ceramic optical fiber containing Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystals for frequency conversion of lasers

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zaijin; Xiao, Xusheng; Wang, Xin; Ma, Zhijun; Lewis, Elfed; Farrell, Gerald; Wang, Pengfei; Ren, Jing; Guo, Haitao; Qiu, Jianrong

    2017-01-01

    A glass-ceramic optical fiber containing Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystals fabricated using a novel combination of the melt-in-tube method and successive heat treatment is reported for the first time. For the melt-in-tube method, fibers act as a precursor at the drawing temperature for which the cladding glass is softened while the core glass is melted. It is demonstrated experimentally that following heat treatment, Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystals with diameters below 10 nm are evenly distributed throughout the fiber core. Comparing to the conventional rod-in-tube method, the melt-in-tube method is superior in terms of controllability of crystallization to allow for the fabrication of low loss glass-ceramic fibers. When irradiated using a 1030 nm femtosecond laser, an enhanced green emission at a wavelength of 515 nm is observed in the glass-ceramic fiber, which demonstrates second harmonic generation of a laser action in the fabricated glass-ceramic fibers. Therefore, this new glass-ceramic fiber not only provides a highly promising development for frequency conversion of lasers in all optical fiber based networks, but the melt-in-tube fabrication method also offers excellent opportunities for fabricating a wide range of novel glass-ceramic optical fibers for multiple future applications including fiber telecommunications and lasers. PMID:28358045

  8. Glass-ceramic optical fiber containing Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystals for frequency conversion of lasers.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zaijin; Xiao, Xusheng; Wang, Xin; Ma, Zhijun; Lewis, Elfed; Farrell, Gerald; Wang, Pengfei; Ren, Jing; Guo, Haitao; Qiu, Jianrong

    2017-03-30

    A glass-ceramic optical fiber containing Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystals fabricated using a novel combination of the melt-in-tube method and successive heat treatment is reported for the first time. For the melt-in-tube method, fibers act as a precursor at the drawing temperature for which the cladding glass is softened while the core glass is melted. It is demonstrated experimentally that following heat treatment, Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystals with diameters below 10 nm are evenly distributed throughout the fiber core. Comparing to the conventional rod-in-tube method, the melt-in-tube method is superior in terms of controllability of crystallization to allow for the fabrication of low loss glass-ceramic fibers. When irradiated using a 1030 nm femtosecond laser, an enhanced green emission at a wavelength of 515 nm is observed in the glass-ceramic fiber, which demonstrates second harmonic generation of a laser action in the fabricated glass-ceramic fibers. Therefore, this new glass-ceramic fiber not only provides a highly promising development for frequency conversion of lasers in all optical fiber based networks, but the melt-in-tube fabrication method also offers excellent opportunities for fabricating a wide range of novel glass-ceramic optical fibers for multiple future applications including fiber telecommunications and lasers.

  9. Photocatalytic properties of TiO{sub 2}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Jie

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glass ceramics were prepared in the binary system P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-TiO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Main crystalline phases were anatase-type TiO{sub 2} crystals or (TiO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} crystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The glass ceramics containing the anatase crystals showed photocatalytic activity. -- Abstract: Binary TiO{sub 2}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glasses with 69 mol% and 76 mol% TiO{sub 2} were prepared and converted into glass ceramics by heat-treatments. XRD measurements show that the main crystalline phases precipitated in the glass ceramics are anatase-type TiO{sub 2} crystals or (TiO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} crystals, depending on the concentration of titanium constituent. Photocatalytic activities of the glass ceramics were evaluated by the decomposition of methylene blue (MB) and measuring the water contact angle. It is found that the glass ceramics containing anatase crystals exhibit both photocatalytic oxidation activity and highly photo-induced hydrophilicity under UV irradiation with intensity of 1.0 mW/cm{sup 2}.

  10. Glass-ceramics: A class of nanostructured materials for photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pablos-Martin, A.; Ferrari, M.; Pascual, M. J.; Righini, G. C.

    2015-07-01

    Glass-ceramics (GCs) are constituted by nanometer-to-micron-sized crystals embedded in a glass matrix; usually, their structural or functional elements (clusters, crystallites or molecules) have dimensions in the 1 to 100nm range. As the name says, GCs must be considered an intermediate material between inorganic glasses and ceramics; in most cases the crystallinity is between 30 and 50%. GCs share many properties with both glasses and ceramics, offering low defects, extra hardness, high thermal shock resistance (typical of ceramics) together with the ease of fabrication and moulding (typical of glasses). The embedded crystalline phase, however, can enhance the existing properties of the matrix glass or lead to entirely new properties. GCs are produced by controlled crystallization of certain glasses, generally induced by nucleating additives; they may result opaque or transparent. Transparent GCs are now gaining a competitive advantage with respect to amorphous glasses and, sometimes, to crystals too. The aim of the present paper is to introduce the basic characteristics of transparent glass-ceramics, with particular attention to the relationship between structure and transparency and to the mechanism of crystallization, which may also be induced by selective laser treatments. Their applications to the development of guided-wave structures are also briefly described.

  11. Improved glass-ceramic to metal bonds for pyrotechnic header applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, D.L.

    1986-10-06

    Lithia-alumina-silica glass-ceramic was bonded inside metal Inconel 718 cylinders under varying proportions of an argon-helium processing gas. The metal members were subjected to chemical etching prior to the bonding process. Interfacial strength was determined by a cylindrical shear test showing response to both treatments. Results show that bond strength is increased with the degree of etching of metal members and with increased concentrations of helium present during bonding.

  12. Inorganic glass ceramic slip rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glossbrenner, E. W.; Cole, S. R.

    1972-01-01

    Prototypes of slip rings have been fabricated from ceramic glass, a material which is highly resistant to deterioration due to high temperature. Slip ring assemblies were not structurally damaged by mechanical tests and performed statisfactorily for 200 hours.

  13. The Shock Behaviour of a SiO2-Li2O Transparent Glass-Ceramic Armour Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickup, I. M.; Millett, J. C. F.; Bourne, N. K.

    2004-07-01

    The dynamic behaviour of a transparent glass-ceramic material, Transarm, developed by Alstom UK for the UK MoD has been studied. Plate impact experiments have been used to measure the materials Hugoniot characteristics and failure behaviour. Longitudinal stresses have been measured using embedded and back surface mounted Manganin gauges. Above a threshold stress of ca. 4 GPa, the longitudinal stress histories exhibit a significant secondary rise, prior to attaining their Hugoniot stress. Lateral stresses were also measured by embedding Manganin gauges in longitudinal cuts. Significant secondary rises in stress were observed when the applied longitudinal stress exceeded the 4 GPa threshold, indicating the presence of a failure front. The dynamic shear strength of the glass has been measured using the longitudinal and lateral data. Even though significant strength drops have been measured before and behind the failure front, the material has a high post-failure strength compared to non- crystalline glasses.

  14. Sewage sludge ash characteristics and potential for use in bricks, tiles and glass ceramics.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Ciarán J; Dhir, Ravindra K; Ghataora, Gurmel S

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of sewage sludge ash (SSA) and its use in ceramic applications pertaining to bricks, tiles and glass ceramics have been assessed using the globally published literature in the English medium. It is shown that SSA possesses similar chemical characteristics to established ceramic materials and under heat treatment achieves the targeted densification, strength increases and absorption reductions. In brick and tile applications, technical requirements relating to strength, absorption and durability are achievable, with merely manageable performance reductions with SSA as a partial clay replacement. Fluxing properties of SSA facilitate lower firing temperatures during ceramics production, although reductions in mix plasticity leads to higher forming water requirements. SSA glass ceramics attained strengths in excess of natural materials such as granite and marble and displayed strong durability properties. The thermal treatment and nature of ceramic products also effectively restricted heavy metal leaching to low levels. Case studies, predominantly in bricks applications, reinforce confidence in the material with suitable technical performances achieved in practical conditions.

  15. Intense red photoluminescence from Mn2+-doped (Na+; Zn2+) sulfophosphate glasses and glass ceramics as LED converters.

    PubMed

    Da, Ning; Peng, Mingying; Krolikowski, Sebastian; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2010-02-01

    We report on intense red fluorescence from Mn(2+)-doped sulfophosphate glasses and glass ceramics of the type ZnO-Na(2)O-SO(3)-P(2)O(5). As a hypothesis, controlled internal crystallization of as-melted glasses is achieved on the basis of thermally-induced bimodal separation of an SO(3)-rich phase. Crystal formation is then confined to the relict structure of phase separation. The whole synthesis procedure is performed in air at high dopant concentration of up to 3 mol.%. Recrystallization of the glass results in strongly increasing emission intensity. Dynamic emission spectroscopy reveals only on type of emission centers in the glassy material, whereas three different centers are observed in the glass ceramic. These are attributed to octahedrally coordinated Mn(2+) in the residual glass phase and in crystalline phosphate and sulfate lattices, respectively. Relatively low crystal field strength results in almost ideal red emission, peaking around 625 nm. Excitation bands lie in the blue-to-green spectral range and exhibit strong overlap. The optimum excitation range matches the emission properties of GaN- and InGaN-based light emitting devices.

  16. Glass ceramic-to-metal seals

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-04-19

    A glass ceramic composition prepared by subjecting a glass composition comprising, by weight, 65 to 80% SiO/sub 2/, 8 to 16% Li/sub 2/O, 2 to 8% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 1 to 8% K/sub 2/O, 1 to 5% P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and 1.5 to 7% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, to the following processing steps of heating the glass composition to a temperature sufficient to crystallize lithium metasilicate therein, holding the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to dissolve the lithium metasilicate therein thereby creating cristobalite nucleii, cooling the glass composition and maintaining the composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to recrystallize lithium metasilicate therein, and thermally treating the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to caus growth of cristobalite and further crystallization of lithium metasilicate producing a glass ceramic composition having a specific thermal expansion coefficient and products containing said composition.

  17. Glass ceramic toughened with tetragonal zirconia

    DOEpatents

    Keefer, Keith D.; Michalske, Terry A.

    1986-01-01

    A phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic and a process for making it are disclosed. A mixture of particulate network-forming oxide, network-modifying oxide, and zirconium oxide is heated to yield a homogeneous melt, and this melt is then heat-treated to precipitate an appreciable quantity of tetragonal zirconia, which is retained at ambient temperature to form a phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic. Nucleating agents and stabilizing agents may be added to the mixture to facilitate processing and improve the ceramic's properties. Preferably, the mixture is first melted at a temperature from 1200.degree. to 1700.degree. C. and is then heat-treated at a temperature within the range of 800.degree. to 1200.degree. C. in order to precipitate tetragonal ZrO.sub.2. The composition, as well as the length and temperature of the heat-treatment, must be carefully controlled to prevent solution of the precipitated tetragonal zirconia and subsequent conversion to the monoclinic phase.

  18. Influence of substituting B2O3 for CaF2 on the bonding behaviour to bone of glass-ceramics containing apatite and wollastonite.

    PubMed

    Kitsugi, T; Yamamuro, T; Nakamura, T; Yoshii, S; Kokubo, T; Takagi, M; Shibuya, T

    1992-01-01

    Glass-ceramics containing crystalline oxy-fluoroapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(O,F2)) and wollastonite (CaSiO3) (designated AWGC) are reported to have a fairly high mechanical strength as well as the capability of forming a chemical bond with bone tissue. The chemical composition is MgO 4.6, CaO 44.9, SiO2 34.2, P2O5 16.3, and CaF2 0.5 in weight ratio. In this study the influence of substituting B2O3 for CaF2 on the bonding behaviour of glass-ceramics containing apatite and wollastonite to bone tissue was investigated. Two kinds of glass-ceramics containing apatite and wollastonite were prepared. CaF2 0.5 was replaced with B2O3 at 0.5 and 2.0 in weight ratio (designated AWGC-0.5B and AWGC-2.0B). Rectangular ceramic plates (15 x 10 x 2 mm, abraded with No. 2000 alumina powder) were implanted into a rabbit tibia. The failure load, when an implant detached from the bone, or the bone itself broke, was measured. The failure load of AWGC-0.5B was 8.00 +/- 1.82 kg at 10 weeks after implantation and 8.16 +/- 1.36 kg at 25 weeks after implantation. The failure load of AWGC-2B was 8.08 +/- 1.70 kg at 10 weeks after implantation and 9.92 +/- 2.46 kg at 25 weeks after implantation. None of the loads for the two kinds of glass-ceramics decreased as time passed. Giemsa surface staining and contact microradiography revealed direct bonding between glass-ceramics and bone. SEM-EPMA showed a calcium-phosphorus rich layer (reaction zone) at the interface of ceramics and bone tissue. The thickness of the reaction zone was 10 to -15 microns and did not increase as time passed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Radioluminescence properties of Sm-doped fluorochlorozirconate glasses and glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Go; Edgar, Andy; Kasap, Safa; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2016-02-01

    We have investigated X-ray induced radioluminescence (XL) properties of Sm-doped fluorochlorozirconate (FCZ) glasses and glass-ceramics. The FCZ glass is a modified ZBLAN glass which shows a very high optical transmission over a wide spectral range. The glass matrix includes Sm3+-doped nanocrystals of BaCl2 after heat-treatment at temperatures above 250 °C. The glass-ceramic emits red light under UV and X-ray exposure. Since conventional Si-based photodetectors, e.g., CCDs, have the highest quantum efficiency to red light in general, the Sm-doped FCZ glass-ceramic plate can be a good candidate as a scintillator material for indirect radiation detection. Moreover, a very broad emission is present in the glass-ceramic around 300-500 nm, which is attributed to a self-trapped exciton (STE) emissions. The temperature dependence of X-ray induced luminescence and photoluminescence are very similar. The XL light yield is linearly proportional to the X-ray exposure rate for rates higher than 20 mR/s. For low exposure rates, emissions by Sm2+ are more sensitive than others, leading to a nonlinear response.

  20. Selection of a glass-ceramic formulation to immobilize fluorinel- sodium calcine

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, B.A.; Wood, H.C.

    1994-12-01

    One option for immobilizing calcined high level wastes produced by nuclear fuel reprocessing activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is conversion to a glass-ceramic form through hot isostatic pressing. Calcines exist in several different chemical compositions, and thus candidate formulations have been developed for converting each to glass-ceramic forms which are potentially resistant to aqueous corrosion and stable enough to qualify for repository storage. Fluorinel/Na, a chemically complex calcine type, is one of the types being stored at ICPP, and development efforts have identified three formulations with potential for immobilizing it. These are a glass forming additive that uses aluminum metal to enhance reactivity, a second glass forming additive that uses titanium metal to enhance reactivity and a third that uses not only a combination of silicon and titanium metals but enough phosphorous pentoxide to form a calcium phosphate host phase in the glass-ceramic product. Glass-ceramics of each formulation performed well in restricted characterization tests. However, none of the three was subjected to rigorous testing that would provide information on whether each was processable, that is able to retain favorable characteristics over a practical range of processing conditions.

  1. New bioactive glass-ceramic: synthesis and application in PMMA bone cement composites.

    PubMed

    Abd Samad, Hamizah; Jaafar, Mariatti; Othman, Radzali; Kawashita, Masakazu; Abdul Razak, Noor Hayati

    2011-01-01

    In present study, a new composition of glass-ceramic was synthesized based on the Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass system. Heat treatment of glass powder was carried out in 2 stages: 600 °C as the nucleation temperature and different temperature on crystallization at 850, 950 and 1000 °C. The glass-ceramic heat-treated at 950 °C was selected as bioactive filler in commercial PMMA bone cement; (PALACOS® LV) due to its ability to form 2 high crystallization phases in comparison with 850 and 1000 °C. The results of this newly glass-ceramic filled PMMA bone cement at 0-16 wt% of filler loading were compared with those of hydroxyapatite (HA). The effect of different filler loading on the setting properties was evaluated. The peak temperature during the polymerization of bone cement decreased when the liquid to powder (L/P) ratio was reduced. The setting time, however, did not show any trend when filler loading was increased. In contrast, dough time was observed to decrease with increased filler loading. Apatite morphology was observed on the surface of the glass-ceramic and selected cement after bioactivity test.

  2. Indirect selective laser sintering of apatite-wollostonite glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Xiao, K; Dalgarno, K W; Wood, D J; Goodridge, R D; Ohtsuki, C

    2008-10-01

    This paper develops an indirect selective laser sintering (SLS) processing route for apatite-wollastonite (A-W) glass-ceramic, and shows that the processing route, which can create porous three-dimensional products suitable for bone implants or scaffolds, does not affect the excellent mechanical and biological properties of the glass-ceramic. 'Green parts' with fine integrity and well-defined shape have been produced from glass particles of single-size range or mixed-size ranges with acrylic binder in various ratios by weight. A subsequent heat treatment process has been developed to optimize the crystallization process, and an infiltration process has been explored to enhance mechanical strength. Three-point bending test results show flexural strengths of up to 102 MPa, dependent on porosity, and simulated body fluid (SBF) tests show that the laser sintered porous A-W has comparable biological properties to that of conventionally produced A-W.

  3. Some developments on ceramic-to-metal and glass-ceramics-to-metal seals and related studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothiyal, G. P.; Goswami, M.; Shrikhande, V. K.

    2008-05-01

    Seals and coatings based on ceramics and glass-ceramics find numerous applications in different disciplines of science and technology including space, accelerators, nuclear energy, chemical industry. Ceramic-to-metal (CM) seals based on conventional design (using brazing alloys) and glass-ceramics have been prepared. While Ag-Cu brazing alloy has been used in conventional CM seal, we have employed lithium zinc silicate (LZS) and lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) glass-ceramics for glass-ceramics-to-metal (GCM) seals. LZS glass-ceramics based on two different compositions; (a) LZSL composition (wt.%)- Li2O: 12.65, ZnO: 1.85, SiO2: 74.4, Al2O3: 3.8, K2O: 2.95, P2O5: 3.15, and B2O3: 1.2 (low ZnO) and (b) LZSH composition (wt.%)- Li2O: 8.9, ZnO: 24.03, SiO2: 53.7, Na2O: 5.42, P2O5: 2.95, and B2O3: 5.0 (high ZnO) were prepared with desired sealing characteristics for matched type seals. In addition, (wt.%) 12.6Li2O-71.7SiO2-5.1Al2O3-4.9K2O-3.2B2O3-2.5P2O5 (LAS-GC) was investigated for compressive type of seal. LZS glass-ceramics-to-Cu as well as SS-321 seals were found to withstand a vacuum of 10-6 Torr with leak rate 10-9 Torr. 1/s and LAS GC-to-SS304 seal showed high pressure endurance of 12000psi. In order to understand the mechanism of sealing, glass-ceramics-to-metal interface study has also been carried out.

  4. Glass-ceramic coating material for the CO2 laser based sintering of thin films as caries and erosion protection.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Marin Dean; Wollgarten, Susanne; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Poprawe, Reinhart; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella; Fischer, Horst

    2017-09-01

    The established method of fissure-sealing using polymeric coating materials exhibits limitations on the long-term. Here, we present a novel technique with the potential to protect susceptible teeth against caries and erosion. We hypothesized that a tailored glass-ceramic material could be sprayed onto enamel-like substrates to create superior adhesion properties after sintering by a CO2 laser beam. A powdered dental glass-ceramic material from the system SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-Al2O3-MgO was adjusted with individual properties suitable for a spray coating process. The material was characterized using X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), heating microscopy, dilatometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), grain size analysis, biaxial flexural strength measurements, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and gas pycnometry. Three different groups of samples (each n=10) where prepared: Group A, powder pressed glass-ceramic coating material; Group B, sintered hydroxyapatite specimens; and Group C, enamel specimens (prepared from bovine teeth). Group B and C where spray coated with glass-ceramic powder. All specimens were heat treated using a CO2 laser beam process. Cross-sections of the laser-sintered specimens were analyzed using laser scanning microscopy (LSM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and SEM. The developed glass-ceramic material (grain size d50=13.1mm, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE)=13.310(-6)/K) could be spray coated on all tested substrates (mean thickness=160μm). FTIR analysis confirmed an absorption of the laser energy up to 95%. The powdered glass-ceramic material was successfully densely sintered in all sample groups. The coating interface investigation by SEM and EDX proved atomic diffusion and adhesion of the glass-ceramic material to hydroxyapatite and to dental enamel. A glass-ceramic material with suitable absorption properties was successfully sprayed and laser-sintered in thin films on hydroxyapatite as well as on bovine enamel

  5. Producing Durable Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement using Glass-ceramic Coated Reinforcing Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    BUILDING STRONG® Producing Durable Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement using Glass- ceramic Coated Reinforcing Steel Principal Investigator... ceramic Coated Reinforcing Steel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...Vitreous- Ceramic Coating  Ease of Application to Reinforcement Steel  Bond Strength and Corrosion-Resistance  Field Demonstration Program  Testing in

  6. Heritage of ZERODUR® glass ceramic for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döhring, Thorsten; Hartmann, Peter; Lentes, Frank-Thomas; Jedamzik, Ralf; Davis, Mark J.

    2009-08-01

    The zero-expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR® from SCHOTT is widely used for ground-based astronomical mirrors and in industrial applications. This paper points out that it is also well suited for satellite applications, especially with respect to the space radiation environment. Recent developments show that highly lightweighted components can be manufactured and that such structures are strong enough to survive launch vibrations. A series of thirty reference applications, where ZERODUR® has been or is currently used (including METEOSAT, SPOT, ROSAT, CHANDRA, and HST), demonstrate the high and long lasting performance of ZERODUR® components in orbit. The ongoing successful missions and upcoming new satellites continue to enlarge the space heritage of this unique material.

  7. Mechanical properties of bioactive glasses, glass-ceramics and composites.

    PubMed

    Thompson, I D; Hench, L L

    1998-01-01

    The application of bioactive glass and glass-ceramics has been widely documented over the past twenty years but the high modulus and low fracture toughness has made them less applicable for clinical, load bearing, applications. The development of non-resorbable polyethylene and polysulphone matrices for these materials has improved the mechanical properties. However, the primary concern of whether the bioactivity of the composites is reduced is still unresolved. The more recent development of resorbable carrier systems, dextran and collagen, for bioactive glasses does not introduce such problems, hence making this form of composite suitable for novel soft tissue applications. The development of a simple quality index has enabled some of the materials described within this paper to be ranked by their ability to replace bone, thus enabling possible new research directions to be emphasized.

  8. Influence of colorants on crystallization and mechanical properties of lithia-based glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Anusavice, K J; Zhang, N Z; Moorhead, J E

    1994-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that colorants such as AgNO3 and FeCl3 act as conucleating agents with P2O5 in the Li2O-Al2O3-CaO-SiO2 system and that the addition of either colorant and P2O5 produces a greater effect on crystallization and selected mechanical properties than the use of P2O5 alone. Microstructural effects were observed by SEM and optical microscopy. Mechanical properties were determined to monitor the effects of structural changes after crystallization. These include controlled-flaw flexure strength, fracture toughness (KIC), and Vickers hardness (VHN). Based on a glass composition of 27.84 mol% Li2O, 2.45 mol% Al2O3, 5.88 mol% CaO, and 63.84 mol% SiO2 (LACS), the mechanical properties of LACS glass-ceramics were influenced by P2O5, the colorant type, and the colorant concentration. The mean strength of the glass-ceramic disks without P2O5 increased with AgNO3 concentration to a peak value of 188 MPa at a concentration of 0.78 mmol%. The maximum value of controlled-flaw flexure strength increased from 120 MPa for one of the FeCl3 groups to 188 MPa for one of the AgNO3 groups. The maximum fracture toughness of glass-ceramic disks without P2O5 (2.45 MPa.m1/2) was associated with a AgNO3 concentration of 0.58 mmol%. This value was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than that of the corresponding group (1.90 MPa.m1/2) which also contained P2O5. There was no significant change in KIC of glass-ceramic specimens containing P2O5 as the AgNO3 concentration increased. The increase in controlled-flaw flexure strength and fracture toughness of specimen groups containing 0.58 to 0.78 mmol% AgNO3 support its use as a colorant and as a nucleating agent in LACS glass-ceramics. The development of tougher, higher strength glass-ceramics can be controlled by the use of colorants that are also effective as nucleating agents. Although certain colorants are believed to act synergistically when used in combination with known nucleating agents

  9. Transparent Glass Ceramics Doped by Chromium(III) and Chromium(III) and Neodymium(III) as New Materials for Lasers and Luminescent Solar Concentrators.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-31

    absorption spectrum of glass- ceramics doped by 3 m.p. Nd(III) and 0.1 m.p. Cr(IIl). The last shows very weak absorption bands due to Cr(III) in a high ...AP-4i91 140 Crn7ISi I xU ~ 3U ’h u UNCLSUFID nA*VI..R~L,! 5 i520 IIIJIL25 1. -S-o 0 MflC ILEz COPYT TRANSPARENT GLASS CERAMICS DOPED BY CHROMIUM(III...first two years of the research we have shown that spectroscopic properties of Cr(III) in several singly doped glass- ceramics are comparable to those

  10. Negative effect of rapidly resorbing properties of bioactive glass-ceramics as bone graft substitute in a rabbit lumbar fusion model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Ryu, Hyun-Seung; Seo, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Do-Yoon; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki

    2014-03-01

    Bioactive glass-ceramics have the ability to directly bind to bones and have been widely used as bone graft substitutes due to their high osteoconductivity and biocompatibility. CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics are known to have good osteoconductivity and are used as bone graft extenders. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the resorbing properties of glass-ceramics in bone fusion after producing and analyzing three types of CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics with high osteoconductivity that had enhanced resorption by having an increased B2O3 content. The three types of CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics with B2O3 contents of 8.0, 9.0, and 9.5 weight % were designated and grouped as P20B80, P10B90, and P5B95, respectively. Glass-ceramic types were tested for fusion rates and bone formation by employing the lumbar 5-6 intertransverse process fusion model in 51 New Zealand male rabbits. Bioactivity was assessed by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). In vitro study results showed sufficient hydroxycarbonate apatite layer formation occurred for P20B80 in1 day, for P10B90 in 3 days, and for P5B95 in 5 days after soaking in SBF. For the rabbit lumbar spine posterolateral fusion model, the autograft group recorded a 100% fusion rate with levels significantly higher than those of P20B80 (29.4%), P10B90 (0%), and P5B95 (14.3%), with high resorbing properties. Resorbing property differences among the three glass-ceramic groups were not significant. Histological results showed new bone formation confirming osteoconductivity in all three types of glass-ceramics. Radiomorphometric results also confirmed the resorbing properties of the three glass-ceramic types. The high resorbing properties and osteoconductivity of porous glass-ceramics can be advantageous as no glass-ceramics remain in the body. However, their relatively fast rate of resorption in the body negatively affects their role as an osteoconductive scaffold as glass-ceramics are resorbed before bony fusion.

  11. Negative Effect of Rapidly Resorbing Properties of Bioactive Glass-Ceramics as Bone Graft Substitute in a Rabbit Lumbar Fusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Ryu, Hyun-Seung; Seo, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Do-Yoon; Chang, Bong-Soon

    2014-01-01

    Background Bioactive glass-ceramics have the ability to directly bind to bones and have been widely used as bone graft substitutes due to their high osteoconductivity and biocompatibility. CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics are known to have good osteoconductivity and are used as bone graft extenders. Methods This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the resorbing properties of glass-ceramics in bone fusion after producing and analyzing three types of CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics with high osteoconductivity that had enhanced resorption by having an increased B2O3 content. The three types of CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics with B2O3 contents of 8.0, 9.0, and 9.5 weight % were designated and grouped as P20B80, P10B90, and P5B95, respectively. Glass-ceramic types were tested for fusion rates and bone formation by employing the lumbar 5-6 intertransverse process fusion model in 51 New Zealand male rabbits. Bioactivity was assessed by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). Results In vitro study results showed sufficient hydroxycarbonate apatite layer formation occurred for P20B80 in1 day, for P10B90 in 3 days, and for P5B95 in 5 days after soaking in SBF. For the rabbit lumbar spine posterolateral fusion model, the autograft group recorded a 100% fusion rate with levels significantly higher than those of P20B80 (29.4%), P10B90 (0%), and P5B95 (14.3%), with high resorbing properties. Resorbing property differences among the three glass-ceramic groups were not significant. Histological results showed new bone formation confirming osteoconductivity in all three types of glass-ceramics. Radiomorphometric results also confirmed the resorbing properties of the three glass-ceramic types. Conclusions The high resorbing properties and osteoconductivity of porous glass-ceramics can be advantageous as no glass-ceramics remain in the body. However, their relatively fast rate of resorption in the body negatively affects their role as an osteoconductive scaffold as glass-ceramics

  12. Mechanical properties of a new mica-based machinable glass ceramic for CAD/CAM restorations.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J Y; Bayne, S C; Heymann, H O

    1996-12-01

    Machinable ceramics (Vita Mark II and Dicor MGC) exhibit good short-term clinical performance, but long-term in vivo fracture resistance is still being monitored. The relatively low fracture toughness of currently available machinable ceramics restricts their use to conservative inlays and onlays. A new machinable glass ceramic (MGC-F) has been developed (Corning Inc.) with enhanced fluorescence and machinability. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare key mechanical properties of MGC-F to Dicor MGC-Light, Dicor MGC-Dark, and Vita Mark II glass ceramics. The mean fracture toughness and indented biaxial flexure strength of MGC-F were each significantly greater (p < or = 0.01) than that of Dicor MGC-Light, Dicor MGC-Dark, and Vita Mark II ceramic materials. The results of this study indicate the potential for better in vivo fracture resistance of MGC-F compared with existing machinable ceramic materials for CAD/CAM restorations.

  13. Influence of heat treatments upon the mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity of ZrO2-toughened MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan-Cai; Wang, Dian-Gang; Meng, Xiang-Guo; Chen, Chuan-Zhong

    2014-09-01

    Zirconia-toughened MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass-ceramics are prepared using sintering techniques, and a series of heat treatment procedures are designed to obtain a glass-ceramic with improved properties. The crystallization behavior, phase composition, and morphology of the glass-ceramics are characterized. The bending strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, and microhardness of the glass-ceramics are investigated, and the effect mechanism of heat treatments upon the mechanical properties is discussed. The bioactivity of glass-ceramics is then evaluated using the in vitro simulated body fluid (SBF) soaking test, and the mechanism whereby apatite forms on the glass-ceramic surfaces in the SBF solution is discussed. The results indicate that the main crystal phase of the G-24 sample undergoing two heat treatment procedures is Ca5(PO4)3F (fluorapatite), and those of the G-2444 sample undergoing four heat treatment procedures are Ca5(PO4)3F and β-CaSiO3 (β-wollastonite). The heat treatment procedures are found to greatly influence the mechanical properties of the glass-ceramic, and an apatite layer is induced on the glass-ceramic surface after soaking in the SBF solution.

  14. Experimental Study of the Aging and Self-Healing of Glass/Ceramic Sealant Used in SOFCs

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Koeppel, Brian J.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-01-01

    High operating temperatures of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) require that sealant must function at a high temperature between 600oC and 900oC and in the oxidizing and reducing environments of fuel and air. This paper describes tests to investigate the temporal evolution of the volume fraction of ceramic phases, the evolution of micro-damage, and the self-healing behavior of the glass ceramic sealant used in SOFCs. It was found that after the initial sintering process, further crystallization of the glass ceramic sealant does not stop, but slows down and reduces the residual glass content while boosting the ceramic crystalline content. Under the long-term operating environment, distinct fibrous and needle-like crystals in the amorphous phase disappeared, and smeared/diffused phase boundaries between the glass phase and ceramic phase were observed. Meanwhile, the micro-damage was induced by the cooling-down process from the operating temperature to the room temperature, which can potentially degrade the mechanical properties of the glass/ceramic sealant. The glass/ceramic sealant self-healed upon reheating to the SOFC operating temperature, which can restore the mechanical performance of the glass/ceramic sealant.

  15. Preparation and luminescence of new Nd 3+ doped chloro-sulphide glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seznec, Vincent; Ma, Hong Li; Zhang, Xiang Hua; Nazabal, Virginie; Adam, Jean-Luc; Qiao, X. S.; Fan, X. P.

    2006-12-01

    Chalcogenide glass-ceramics containing rare earth have been studied. A reproducible process has been established for making transparent glass-ceramics. The presence of micro-crystals inside the chalco-halide glass-ceramics induces scattering at the short wavelengths. Photoluminescence of rare earth has been greatly increased in glass-ceramics. To our best knowledge, this is the first paper on rare-earth-doped glass-ceramics based on chalcogenide.

  16. Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramics are calculated from available fracture mechanics data. It is shown that the environment has a large effect on minimum time-to-failure as predicted by proof test diagrams.

  17. Distribution of Nd3+ ions in oxyfluoride glass ceramics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    It has been an open question whether Nd3+ ions are incorporated into the crystalline phase in oxyfluoride glass ceramics or not. Moreover, relative research has indicated that spectra characters display minor differences between before and after heat treatment in oxyfluoride glass compared to similar Er3+-, Yb3+-, Tm3+-, Eu3+-, etc.-doped materials. Here, we have studied the distribution of Nd3+ ions in oxyfluoride glass ceramics by X-ray diffraction quantitative analysis and found that almost none of the Nd3+ ions can be incorporated into the crystalline phase. In order to confirm the rationality of the process, the conventional mathematical calculation and energy-dispersive spectrometry line scanning are employed, which show good consistency. The distribution of Nd3+ ions in oxyfluoride glass ceramics reported here is significant for further optical investigations and applications of rare-earth doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics. PMID:22647385

  18. The Structure, Dielectric and Energy Storage Properties of Strontium Barium Niobate-Based Glass-Ceramics Doped with La2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu, Shaomei; Xiao, Shi; Shen, Bo; Zhai, Jiwei

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the effect of La2O3 content on the phase evolution, microstructure, dielectric properties and energy storage properties of the strontium barium niobate (SBN)-based glass-ceramics were studied. The results show that the La3+ is easily incorporated into the tetragonal tungsten bronze structured phase, and La2O3 doped into the BSN-glass-ceramics, as a grain growth inhibitor, can have an evident effect on the grain size reduction and crystallization. The microstructure of the SBN-glass-ceramics becomes denser and more uniform with increasing La2O3 content. The remanent polarization of all samples is extremely low. The dielectric constant of the SBN-glass-ceramics obviously is decreased, while the breakdown strength is increased with the increment of La2O3 content. When La2O3 content in the SBN-glass-ceramics is 0.2 mol.%, the theoretical energy storage density is at the maximal level of 7.2 J/cm3. In addition, the energy discharging efficiency and discharging speed of the SBN-glass-ceramics with different La2O3 content were evaluated. With La2O3 content increasing, the energy discharging efficiency gradually increased.

  19. Photocatalytic activity of glass ceramics containing Nasicon-type crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Jie

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Glass ceramics containing Nasicon-type crystals were prepared. ► The glass ceramics showed photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation. ► Higher activity was observed in the MgTi{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}- and CaTi{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}-containing glass ceramics. -- Abstract: Glass ceramics were prepared by heat-treating MO–TiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (M = Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) and R{sub 2}O–TiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–SiO{sub 2} (R = Li, Na and K) glasses, and their photocatalytic activity was investigated. The crystalline phases precipitated in the glasses were only Nasicon-type crystals, MTi{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6} or RTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. Decomposition experiments of both methylene blue (MB) and acetaldehyde showed that the glass ceramics exhibited effective photocatalytic activity. The activity did not depend on the radius of the M{sup 2+} or R{sup +} ion, and higher activity was observed in the MgTi{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6} and CaTi{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6} precipitated glass ceramics.

  20. Apatite glass-ceramics: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duminis, Tomas; Shahid, Saroash; Hill, Robert Graham

    2016-12-01

    This article is a review of the published literature on apatite glass-ceramics (GCs). Topics covered include crystallization mechanisms of the various families of the apatite GCs and an update on research and development on apatite GCs for applications in orthopedics, dentistry, optoelectronics and nuclear waste management. Most apatite GCs crystallize through a homogenous nucleation and crystallization mechanism, which is aided by a prior liquid-liquid phase separation. Careful control of the base glass composition and heat-treatment conditions, which determine the nature and morphology of the crystal phases in the GC can produce GC materials with exceptional thermal, mechanical, optical and biological properties. The GCs reviewed for orthopedic applications exhibit suitable mechanical properties and can chemically bond to bone and stimulate its regeneration. The most commercially successful apatite GCs are those developed for dental veneering. These materials exhibit excellent translucency and clinical esthetics, and mimic the natural tooth mineral. Due to the ease of solid solution of the apatite lattice, rare earth doped apatite GCs are discussed for potential applications in optoelectronics and nuclear waste management. One of the drawbacks of the commercial apatite GCs used in orthopedics is the lack of resorbability, therefore the review provides a direction for future research in the field.

  1. Glass ceramic ZERODUR enabling nanometer precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Kunisch, Clemens; Nieder, Johannes; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The IC Lithography roadmap foresees manufacturing of devices with critical dimension of < 20 nm. Overlay specification of single digit nanometer asking for nanometer positioning accuracy requiring sub nanometer position measurement accuracy. The glass ceramic ZERODUR® is a well-established material in critical components of microlithography wafer stepper and offered with an extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), the tightest tolerance available on market. SCHOTT is continuously improving manufacturing processes and it's method to measure and characterize the CTE behavior of ZERODUR® to full fill the ever tighter CTE specification for wafer stepper components. In this paper we present the ZERODUR® Lithography Roadmap on the CTE metrology and tolerance. Additionally, simulation calculations based on a physical model are presented predicting the long term CTE behavior of ZERODUR® components to optimize dimensional stability of precision positioning devices. CTE data of several low thermal expansion materials are compared regarding their temperature dependence between - 50°C and + 100°C. ZERODUR® TAILORED 22°C is full filling the tight CTE tolerance of +/- 10 ppb / K within the broadest temperature interval compared to all other materials of this investigation. The data presented in this paper explicitly demonstrates the capability of ZERODUR® to enable the nanometer precision required for future generation of lithography equipment and processes.

  2. Sealing glass-ceramics with near-linear thermal strain, Part II: Sequence of crystallization and phase stability

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Mark A.; Griego, James J. M.; Dai, Steve

    2016-08-22

    The sequence of crystallization in a recrystallizable lithium silicate sealing glass-ceramic Li2O–SiO2–Al2O3–K2O–B2O3–P2O5–ZnO was analyzed by in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD). Glass-ceramic specimens have been subjected to a two-stage heat-treatment schedule, including rapid cooling from sealing temperature to a first hold temperature 650°C, followed by heating to a second hold temperature of 810°C. Notable growth and saturation of Quartz was observed at 650°C (first hold). Cristobalite crystallized at the second hold temperature of 810°C, growing from the residual glass rather than converting from the Quartz. The coexistence of quartz and cristobalite resulted in a glass-ceramic having a near-linear thermal strain, as opposed to the highly nonlinear glass-ceramic where the cristobalite is the dominant silica crystalline phase. HTXRD was also performed to analyze the inversion and phase stability of the two types of fully crystallized glass-ceramics. While the inversion in cristobalite resembles the character of a first-order displacive phase transformation, i.e., step changes in lattice parameters and thermal hysteresis in the transition temperature, the inversion in quartz appears more diffuse and occurs over a much broader temperature range. Furthermore, localized tensile stresses on quartz and possible solid-solution effects have been attributed to the transition behavior of quartz crystals embedded in the glass-ceramics.

  3. Sealing glass-ceramics with near-linear thermal strain, Part II: Sequence of crystallization and phase stability

    DOE PAGES

    Rodriguez, Mark A.; Griego, James J. M.; Dai, Steve

    2016-08-22

    The sequence of crystallization in a recrystallizable lithium silicate sealing glass-ceramic Li2O–SiO2–Al2O3–K2O–B2O3–P2O5–ZnO was analyzed by in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD). Glass-ceramic specimens have been subjected to a two-stage heat-treatment schedule, including rapid cooling from sealing temperature to a first hold temperature 650°C, followed by heating to a second hold temperature of 810°C. Notable growth and saturation of Quartz was observed at 650°C (first hold). Cristobalite crystallized at the second hold temperature of 810°C, growing from the residual glass rather than converting from the Quartz. The coexistence of quartz and cristobalite resulted in a glass-ceramic having a near-linear thermal strain,more » as opposed to the highly nonlinear glass-ceramic where the cristobalite is the dominant silica crystalline phase. HTXRD was also performed to analyze the inversion and phase stability of the two types of fully crystallized glass-ceramics. While the inversion in cristobalite resembles the character of a first-order displacive phase transformation, i.e., step changes in lattice parameters and thermal hysteresis in the transition temperature, the inversion in quartz appears more diffuse and occurs over a much broader temperature range. Furthermore, localized tensile stresses on quartz and possible solid-solution effects have been attributed to the transition behavior of quartz crystals embedded in the glass-ceramics.« less

  4. Sealing glass-ceramics with near-linear thermal strain, Part II: Sequence of crystallization and phase stability

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Mark A.; Griego, James J. M.; Dai, Steve

    2016-08-22

    The sequence of crystallization in a recrystallizable lithium silicate sealing glass-ceramic Li2O–SiO2–Al2O3–K2O–B2O3–P2O5–ZnO was analyzed by in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD). Glass-ceramic specimens have been subjected to a two-stage heat-treatment schedule, including rapid cooling from sealing temperature to a first hold temperature 650°C, followed by heating to a second hold temperature of 810°C. Notable growth and saturation of Quartz was observed at 650°C (first hold). Cristobalite crystallized at the second hold temperature of 810°C, growing from the residual glass rather than converting from the Quartz. The coexistence of quartz and cristobalite resulted in a glass-ceramic having a near-linear thermal strain, as opposed to the highly nonlinear glass-ceramic where the cristobalite is the dominant silica crystalline phase. HTXRD was also performed to analyze the inversion and phase stability of the two types of fully crystallized glass-ceramics. While the inversion in cristobalite resembles the character of a first-order displacive phase transformation, i.e., step changes in lattice parameters and thermal hysteresis in the transition temperature, the inversion in quartz appears more diffuse and occurs over a much broader temperature range. Furthermore, localized tensile stresses on quartz and possible solid-solution effects have been attributed to the transition behavior of quartz crystals embedded in the glass-ceramics.

  5. Thermal insulation of pipelines by foamed glass-ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apkaryan, A. S.; Kudyakov, A. I.

    2015-01-01

    Based on broken glass, clay and organic additives granular insulating glass crystalline material and technology of its receipt are developed. The regularities of the effect of composition and firing temperature on the properties of the granules are specified. The resulting granular thermally insulating material is produced with a bulk density of 260-280 kg/m3 pellet strength - 1.74 MPa, thermal conductivity - 0.075 W/m °C, water absorption - 2.6 % by weight. The effect of the basic physical characteristics of the components of the charge on the process of pore formation is studied. According to the research results, basic parameters affecting the sustainability of the swelling glass are specified. Rational charge composition, thermal and gas synthesis mode are chosen so that the partial pressure of gases is below the surface tension of the melt. This enables the formation of granules with small closed pores and vitrified surface. The article is the result of studies on the application of materials for pipe insulation of heating mains with foamed glass ceramics.

  6. Glass ceramics containment matrix for insoluble residues coming from spent fuel reprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinet, O.; Boën, R.

    2014-04-01

    Spent fuel reprocessing by hydrometallurgical process generates insoluble residues waste streams called fines solution. Considering their radioactivity, fines solution could be considered as Intermediate Level Waste. This waste stream is usually mixed with fission products stream before vitrification. Thus fines are incorporated in glass matrix designed for High Level Waste. The withdrawal of fines from high level glass could decrease the volume of high level waste after conditioning. It could also decrease the reaction time between high level waste and additives to obtain a homogeneous melt and then increase the vitrification process capacity. Separated conditioning of fines in glass matrices has been tested. The fines content targeted value is 16 wt%. To achieve this objective, two types of glass ceramic formulations have been tested. 700 g of the two selected glass ceramics have been prepared using simulated fines. Additives used were ground glass. Melting is achieved at 1100 °C. According to the type of glass ceramic, reducing or oxidizing conditions have been performed during melting. Due to their composition and the melting redox conditions, different phases have been observed. These crystalline phases are typically RuO2, metallic Ru, metallic Pd, MoO2 and CaMoO4. In view of melting these matrices in an in can process the corrosiveness of one of the most oxidizing borosilicate glass ceramic formulation has been tested. This one has been remelted at 1100 °C in inconel 601 pot for 3 days. The oxygen fugacity measurement performed in the remelted glass leads to an oxidizing value, indicating that no significant reaction occurred between the inconel pot and the glass melt had occurred.

  7. Effect of heat treatment time on microstructure and electrical conductivity in LATP glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonigra, Dhiren; Soman, Swati; Kulkarni, Ajit R.

    2014-04-01

    Glass-ceramic is prepared by heat treatment of melt quenched 14Li2O-9Al2O3-38TiO2-39P2O5 glass in the vicinity of crystallization temperature. Growth of ceramic phase is controlled by tuning heat treatment time at fixed temperature. Ceramic phase was identified to be LiTi2(PO4)3 from X Ray Diffraction analysis. Microstructural evolution of this phase with hold time was observed under high resolution Scanning Electron Microscope. DC conductivity is observed to increase by 4-5 orders of magnitude in this glass-ceramic compared to parent glass. However, formation of pores and cracks with very large heat treatment time seem to hinder further increase of conductivity.

  8. Spectroscopic investigations on glasses, glass-ceramics and ceramics developed for nuclear waste immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caurant, D.

    2014-05-01

    Highly radioactive nuclear waste must be immobilized in very durable matrices such as glasses, glass-ceramics and ceramics in order to avoid their dispersion in the biosphere during their radioactivity decay. In this paper, we present various examples of spectroscopic investigations (optical absorption, Raman, NMR, EPR) performed to study the local structure of different kinds of such matrices used or envisaged to immobilize different kinds of radioactive wastes. A particular attention has been paid on the incorporation and the structural role of rare earths—both as fission products and actinide surrogates—in silicate glasses and glass-ceramics. An example of structural study by EPR of a ceramic (hollandite) irradiated by electrons (to simulate the effect of the β-irradiation of radioactive cesium) is also presented.

  9. Dimensional stability. [of glass and glass-ceramic materials in diffraction telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochen, R.; Justie, B.

    1976-01-01

    The temporal stability of glass and glass-ceramic materials is important to the success of a large diffraction-limited telescope. The results are presented of an experimental study of the dimensional stability of glasses and glass ceramics being considered for substrates of massive diffraction-limited mirrors designed for several years of service in earth orbit. The purpose of the study was to measure the relative change in length of the candidate substrate materials, to the order of 5 parts in 10 to the 8th power, as a function of several years time. The development of monolithic test etalons, the development and improvement of two types of ultra-high precision interferometers, and certain aspects of tests data presently achieved are discussed.

  10. Effect of heat treatment time on microstructure and electrical conductivity in LATP glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Sonigra, Dhiren E-mail: ajit.kulkarni@iitb.ac.in; Soman, Swati E-mail: ajit.kulkarni@iitb.ac.in; Kulkarni, Ajit R. E-mail: ajit.kulkarni@iitb.ac.in

    2014-04-24

    Glass-ceramic is prepared by heat treatment of melt quenched 14Li{sub 2}O−9Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}−38TiO{sub 2}−39P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass in the vicinity of crystallization temperature. Growth of ceramic phase is controlled by tuning heat treatment time at fixed temperature. Ceramic phase was identified to be LiTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} from X Ray Diffraction analysis. Microstructural evolution of this phase with hold time was observed under high resolution Scanning Electron Microscope. DC conductivity is observed to increase by 4-5 orders of magnitude in this glass-ceramic compared to parent glass. However, formation of pores and cracks with very large heat treatment time seem to hinder further increase of conductivity.

  11. Study of the interfacial reactions between a bioactive apatite-mullite glass-ceramic coating and titanium substrates using high angle annular dark field transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Kenneth T; O'Flynn, Kevin P; Nakahara, Shohei; Vanhumbeeck, Jean-François; Delucca, John M; Hooghan, Bobby

    2009-04-01

    Glass of generic composition SiO(2) . Al(2)O(3) . P(2)O(5) . CaO . CaF(2) will crystallise predominantly to apatite and mullite upon heat-treatment. Such ceramics are bioactive, osseoconductive, and have a high resistance to fracture. As a result, they are under investigation for use as biomedical device coatings, and in particular for orthopaedic implants. Previous work has shown that the material can be successfully enamelled to titanium with an interfacial reaction zone produced during heat treatment. The present study uses high angle annular dark field transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-TEM) to conduct a detailed examination of this region. Results show evidence of complex interfacial reactions following the diffusion of titanium into an intermediate layer and the production of titanium silicides and titanium phosphides. These results confirm previously hypothesised mechanisms for the bonding of silicate bioceramics with titanium alloys.

  12. Crystallization evolution, microstructure and properties of sewage sludge-based glass-ceramics prepared by microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Zuo, Wei; Chen, Dongdong

    2011-11-30

    A Microwave Melting Reactor (MMR) was designed in this study which improved the microwave adsorption of sewage sludge to prepare glass-ceramics. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for the study of crystallization behavior and microstructure of the developed glass-ceramics. DSC and XRD analysis revealed that crystallization of the nucleated specimen in the region of 900-1000°C resulted in the formation of two crystalline phases: anorthite and wollastonite. When the crystallization temperature increased from 900 to 1000°C, the tetragonal wollastonite grains were subjected to tensile microstresses, causing the cracking of crystal. Al ions substituted partially Si ions and occupied tetrahedral sites, giving rise to the formation of anorthite. The relationship between microwave irradiation and crystal growth was studied and the result indicated that the microwave selective heating suppressed the crystal growth, giving apparent improvements in the properties of the glass-ceramics. The glass-ceramics products exhibited bending strength of 86.5-93.4 MPa, Vickers microhardness of 6.12-6.54 GPa and thermal expansion coefficient of 5.29-5.75 × 10(-6)/°C. The best chemical durability in acid and alkali solutions was 1.32-1.61 and 0.41-0.58 mg/cm(2), respectively, showing excellent durability in alkali solution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of host glass matrix on structural and optical behavior of glass-ceramic nanocomposite scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke Barta, M.; Nadler, Jason H.; Kang, Zhitao; Wagner, Brent K.; Rosson, Robert; Kahn, Bernd

    2013-12-01

    Composite scintillator systems have received increased attention in recent years due to their promise for merging the radioisotope discrimination capabilities of single crystal scintillators with the high throughput scanning capabilities of portal monitors. However, producing the high light yield required for good energy resolution has proven challenging as scintillation photons are often scattered by variations in refractive index and agglomerated scintillator crystals within the composite. This investigation sought to mitigate these common problems by using glass-ceramic nanocomposite materials systems in which nanoscale scintillating crystallites are precipitated in a controlled manner from a transparent glass matrix. Precipitating crystallites in situ precludes nanoparticle agglomeration, and limiting crystallite size to 50 nm or less mitigates the effect of refractive index mismatch between the crystals and host glass. Cerium-doped gadolinium bromide (GdBr3(Ce)) scintillating crystals were incorporated into sodium-aluminosilicate (NAS) and alumino-borosilicate (ABS) host glass matrices, and the resulting glass-ceramic structures and luminescence behavior were characterized. The as-cast glass from the ABS system displayed a highly ordered microstructure that produced the highest luminescence intensity (light yield) of the samples studied. However, heat treating to form the glass-ceramic precipitated rare-earth oxide crystallites rather than rare-earth halides. This degraded light yield relative to the unaged sample.

  14. Transparent BaCl II:Eu 2+ glass-ceramic scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Johnson, Jacqueline; Schweizer, Stefan; Woodford, John; Newman, Peter; MacFarlane, Douglas

    2006-03-01

    Scintillators are the backbone of high-energy radiation detection devices. Most scintillators are based on inorganic crystals that have applications in medical radiography, nuclear medicine, security inspection, dosimetry, and high-energy physics. In this paper, we present a new type of scintillator that is based on glass ceramics (composites of glasses and crystals). These scintillators are made from Eu 2+-activated fluorozirconate glasses that are co-doped with Ba 2+, La 3+, Al 3+, Na +, and Cl -. Subsequent heat treatment of the glasses forms BaCl II nano-crystals (10-20 nm in size) that are embedded in the glass matrix. The resulting scintillators are transparent, efficient, inexpensive to fabricate, and easy to scale up. The physical structure and x-ray imaging performance of these glass-ceramic scintillators are presented, and an application of these materials to micro-computed tomography is demonstrated. Our study suggests that these glass-ceramic scintillators have high potential for medical x-ray imaging.

  15. Creep Behavior of Glass/Ceramic Sealant Used in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Koeppel, Brian J.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-01-02

    High operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells require that sealant must function at high temperature between 600o and 900oC and in the oxidizing and reducing environments of fuel and air. It should be noted that creep deformation becomes relevant for a material when the operating temperature is near or exceeds half of its melting temperature (in degrees of Kelvin). The operating temperatures for most of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) under development in the SECA program are around 800oC, which exceeds the glass transition temperature Tg for most glass ceramic materials. The goal of the study is to develop a creep model to capture the creep behavior of glass ceramic materials at high temperature and to investigate the effect of creep of glass ceramic sealant materials on stresses in glass seal and on the various interfaces of glass seal with other layers. The self-consistent creep models were incorporated into SOFC-MP and Mentat FC, and finite element analyses were performed to quantify the stresses in various parts. The stress in glass seals were released due to its creep behavior during the operating environments.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and bioactivity of a calcium-phosphate glass-ceramics obtained by the sol-gel processing method.

    PubMed

    Jmal, Nouha; Bouaziz, Jamel

    2017-02-01

    In this work, a calcium-phosphate glass-ceramics was successfully obtained by heat treatment of a mixture of 26.52 in wt.% of fluorapatite (Fap) and 73.48 in wt.% of 77S (77 SiO214 CaO9 P2O5 in wt.%) gel. The calcium phosphate-glass-ceramics was prepared by sol-gel process with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), triethyl phosphate (TEP), calcium nitrate and fluorapatite. The synthesized powders were characterized by some commonly used tools such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), (31)P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and thin-film X-ray diffraction (TF-XRD). The obtained results seemed to confirm the nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite (Hap) nano-phase in the glass. Moreover, an in-vitro evaluation of the glass-ceramic was performed. In addition, to assess its bioactive capacity, it was soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) at different time intervals. The SEM, EDS and TF-XRD analyses showed the deposition of hydroxyapatite on the surface of the specimens after three days of immersion in SBF solution. The mechanical properties of the obtained material such as rupture strength, Vickers hardness and elastic modulus were measured. In addition, the friction coefficient of calcium phosphate-glass-ceramics was tested. The values of the composite of rupture strength (24MPa), Vickers hardness (214Hv), Young's modulus (52.3GPa), shear modulus (19GPa) and friction coefficient (0.327) were obtained. This glass-ceramics can have useful applications in dental prostheses. Indeed, this material may have promising applications for implants because of its content of fluorine, the effective protector against dental caries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Floor tile glass-ceramic glaze for improvement of the resistance to surface abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajek, M.; Lis, J.; Partyka, J.; Wójczyk, M.

    2011-10-01

    The results of research aimed at the study on frits and glass-ceramic glazes for floor tiles, based on compositions located in the primary field of cordierite crystallization within the system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2, have been presented. The results comprise investigations on the frits crystallization abilities, stability of the crystallizing phase under conditions of single-stage a fast firing cycle (time below 60 minutes) depending on their chemical composition and the influence of the nucleation agents. The influence of the nucleating agents namely TiO2, ZrO2, V2O5 on phase composition of obtained crystalline glazes, mechanical parameters and microstructure, has been examined. The strength tests proved increased mechanical resistance of crystalline glazes. Obtained glazes are characterized by high microhardness in range 6~8 GPa, as well as the increased wear resistance measured by the loss of weight below 100 mg / 55 cm2 (PN-EN ISO 10545-7). Significant increase of these parameters as compared with non-crystalline glazes, where micro-hardness values range between 5~6 GPa and the wear resistance values range from 120 to 200 mg, has been proved. Starting glasses (frits) and glazes of the ternary system MgO-SiO2-Al2O3, were examined with use of DTA, XRD and SEM methods.

  18. Bioactive Glass-Ceramic Scaffolds from Novel ‘Inorganic Gel Casting’ and Sinter-Crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Elsayed, Hamada; Rincón Romero, Acacio; Ferroni, Letizia; Gardin, Chiara; Zavan, Barbara; Bernardo, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Highly porous wollastonite-diopside glass-ceramics have been successfully obtained by a new gel-casting technique. The gelation of an aqueous slurry of glass powders was not achieved according to the polymerization of an organic monomer, but as the result of alkali activation. The alkali activation of a Ca-Mg silicate glass (with a composition close to 50 mol % wollastonite—50 mol % diopside, with minor amounts of Na2O and P2O5) allowed for the obtainment of well-dispersed concentrated suspensions, undergoing progressive hardening by curing at low temperature (40 °C), owing to the formation of a C–S–H (calcium silicate hydrate) gel. An extensive direct foaming was achieved by vigorous mechanical stirring of partially gelified suspensions, comprising also a surfactant. The open-celled structure resulting from mechanical foaming could be ‘frozen’ by the subsequent sintering treatment, at 900–1000 °C, causing substantial crystallization. A total porosity exceeding 80%, comprising both well-interconnected macro-pores and micro-pores on cell walls, was accompanied by an excellent compressive strength, even above 5 MPa. PMID:28772531

  19. Electrophoretic deposition of mesoporous bioactive glass on glass-ceramic foam scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Fiorilli, Sonia; Baino, Francesco; Cauda, Valentina; Crepaldi, Marco; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Demarchi, Danilo; Onida, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the coating of 3-D foam-like glass-ceramic scaffolds with a bioactive mesoporous glass (MBG) was investigated. The starting scaffolds, based on a non-commercial silicate glass, were fabricated by the polymer sponge replica technique followed by sintering; then, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was applied to deposit a MBG layer on the scaffold struts. EPD was also compared with other techniques (dipping and direct in situ gelation) and it was shown to lead to the most promising results. The scaffold pore structure was maintained after the MBG coating by EPD, as assessed by SEM and micro-CT. In vitro bioactivity of the scaffolds was assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid and subsequent evaluation of hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. The deposition of a MBG coating can be a smart strategy to impart bioactive properties to the scaffold, allowing the formation of nano-structured HA agglomerates within 48 h from immersion, which does not occur on uncoated scaffold surfaces. The mechanical properties of the scaffold do not vary after the EPD (compressive strength ~19 MPa, fracture energy ~1.2 × 10(6) J m(-3)) and suggest the suitability of the prepared highly bioactive constructs as bone tissue engineering implants for load-bearing applications.

  20. Radiation stability test on multiphase glass ceramic and crystalline ceramic waste forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna; Jarvinen, Gordon; Crum, Jarrod; Turo, Laura; Riley, Brian; Brinkman, Kyle; Fox, Kevin; Amoroso, Jake; Marra, James

    2014-05-01

    A radiation stability study was performed on glass ceramic and crystalline ceramic waste forms. These materials are candidate host materials for immobilizing alkali/alkaline earth (Cs/Sr-CS) + lanthanide (LN) + transition metal (TM) fission product waste streams from nuclear fuel reprocessing. In this study, glass ceramics were fabricated using a borosilicate glass as a matrix in which to incorporate CS/LN/TM combined waste streams. The major phases in these multiphase materials are powellite, oxyaptite, pollucite, celsian, and durable residual glass phases. Al2O3 and TiO2 were combined with these waste components to produce multiphase crystalline ceramics containing hollandite-type phases, perovskites, pyrochlores and other minor metal titanate phases. For the radiation stability test, selected glass ceramic and crystalline ceramic samples were exposed to different irradiation environments including low fluxes of high-energy (∼1-5 MeV) protons and alpha particles generated by an ion accelerator, high fluxes of low-energy (hundreds of keV) krypton particles generated by an ion implanter, and in-situ electron irradiations in a transmission electron microscope. These irradiation experiments were performed to simulate self-radiation effects in a waste form. Ion irradiation-induced microstructural modifications were examined using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Our preliminary results reveal different radiation tolerance in different crystalline phases under various radiation damage environments. However, their stability may be rate dependent which may limit the waste loading that can be achieved.

  1. Improved ionic conductivity of lithium-zinc-tellurite glass-ceramic electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widanarto, W.; Ramdhan, A. M.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Effendi, M.; Cahyanto, W. T.; Warsito

    An enhancement in the secondary battery safety demands the optimum synthesis of glass-ceramics electrolytes with modified ionic conductivity. To achieve improved ionic conductivity and safer operation of the battery, we synthesized Li2O included zinc-tellurite glass-ceramics based electrolytes of chemical composition (85-x)TeO2·xLi2O·15ZnO, where x = 0, 5, 10, 15 mol%. Samples were prepared using the melt quenching method at 800 °C followed by thermal annealing at 320 °C for 3 h and characterized. The effects of varying temperature, alternating current (AC) frequency and Li2O concentration on the structure and ionic conductivity of such glass-ceramics were determined. The SEM images of the annealed glass-ceramic electrolytes displayed rough surface with a uniform distribution of nucleated crystal flakes with sizes less than 1 μm. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the well crystalline nature of achieved electrolytes. Incorporation of Li2O in the electrolytes was found to generate some new crystalline phases including hexagonal Li6(TeO6), monoclinic Zn2Te3O8 and monoclinic Li2Te2O5. The estimated crystallite size of the electrolyte was ranged from ≈40 to 80 nm. AC impedance measurement revealed that the variation in the temperatures, Li2O contents, and high AC frequencies have a significant influence on the ionic conductivity of the electrolytes. Furthermore, electrolyte doped with 15 mol% of Li2O exhibited the optimum performance with an ionic conductivity ≈2.4 × 10-7 S cm-1 at the frequency of 54 Hz and in the temperature range of 323-473 K. This enhancement in the conductivity was attributed to the sizable alteration in the ions vibration and ruptures of covalent bonds in the electrolytes network structures.

  2. Interaction of HEPES buffer with glass-ceramic scaffold: Can HEPES replace TRIS in SBF?

    PubMed

    Rohanová, Dana; Horkavcová, Diana; Paidere, Laine; Boccaccini, Aldo Roberto; Bozděchová, Pavlína; Bezdička, Petr

    2016-11-27

    An international standard (ISO: 23317:2014) exists for the in vitro testing of inorganic biomaterials in simulated body fluid (SBF). This standard uses TRIS buffer to maintain neutral pH in SBF, but in our previous paper, we showed that the interaction of a tested glass-ceramic material with TRIS can produce false-positive results. In this study, we evaluated whether the HEPES buffer, which also belongs to the group of Good's buffers, would be more suitable for SBF. We compared its suitability in two media: SBF with HEPES and demineralized water with HEPES. The tested scaffold (45S5 bioactive glass-based) was exposed to the media under a static-dynamic arrangement (solutions were replaced on a daily basis) for 15 days. Leachate samples were collected daily for the analysis of Ca(2+) ions and Si (AAS), (PO4 )(3-) ions (UV-VIS), and to measure pH. The glass-ceramic scaffold was analyzed by SEM/EDS, XRD, and WD-XRF before and after 0.3, 1, 3, 7, 11, and 15 days of exposure. Our results confirmed the rapid selective dissolution of the glass-ceramic crystalline phase (Combeite) containing Ca(2+) ions due to the presence of HEPES, hydroxyapatite supersaturation being reached within 24 h in both solutions. These new results suggest that, like TRIS, HEPES buffer is not suitable for the in vitro testing of highly reactive inorganic biomaterials (glass, glass-ceramics). The ISO standard for such tests requires revision, but HEPES is not a viable alternative to TRIS buffer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

  3. Glass ceramic obtained by tailings and tin mine waste reprocessing from Llallagua, Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arancibia, Jony Roger Hans; Villarino, Cecilia; Alfonso, Pura; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Martinez, Salvador; Parcerisa, David

    2014-05-01

    In Bolivia Sn mining activity produces large tailings of SiO2-rich residues. These tailings contain potentially toxic elements that can be removed into the surface water and produce a high environmental pollution. This study determines the thermal behaviour and the viability of the manufacture of glass-ceramics from glass. The glass has been obtained from raw materials representative of the Sn mining activities from Llallagua (Bolivia). Temperatures of maximum nucleation rate (Tn) and crystallization (Tcr) were calculated from the differential thermal analyses. The final mineral phases were determined by X-ray diffraction and textures were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Crystalline phases are nefeline occurring with wollastonite or plagioclase. Tn for nepheline is between 680 ºC and 700 ºC, for wollastonite, 730 ºC and for plagioclase, 740 ºC. Tcr for nefeline is between 837 and 965 ºC; for wollastonite, 807 ºC and for plagioclase, 977 ºC. In order to establish the mechanical characteristics and efficiency of the vitrification process in the fixation of potentially toxic elements the resistance to leaching and micro-hardness were determined. The obtained contents of the elements leached from the glass ceramic are well below the limits established by the European legislation. So, these analyses confirm that potentially toxic elements remain fixed in the structure of mineral phases formed in the glass-ceramic process. Regarding the values of micro-hardness results show that they are above those of a commercial glass. The manufacture of glass-ceramics from mining waste reduces the volume of tailings produced for the mining industry and, in turn enhances the waste, transforming it into a product with industrial application. Acknowledgements: This work was partly financed by the project AECID: A3/042750/11, and the SGR 2009SGR-00444.

  4. Praseodymium doped NaYF4 nanocrystals in oxyfluoride glass-ceramics; morphological and spectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Dominiak-Dzik, G

    2009-04-01

    The synthesis, morphology, optical properties and excited state dynamics of the Pr-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals in glass-ceramics are presented. The crystalline cubic NaYF4:Pr were synthesized by the controlled heat-treatment of multicomponent oxyfluoride glass based on silica and YF3. A series of the two-hour heat treatments at 620-660 degrees C were carried out yielding visually transparent materials. Above 660 degrees C an opaque material was obtained. The crystalline phase was characterized by the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The effect of ceramming temperature on the NaYF4:Pr cell parameter (a = 5.470 A for NaYF4 and 5.4899 A, 5.4979 A and 5.5378 A in glass-ceramics) and particle average size (15-40 nm) was observed. Optical characteristics of formed glass-ceramics were favorably affected by the Pr3+ ions in well-defined sites of NaYF4; emission intensities increased and luminescence decay curves become single exponential with the longer corresponding lifetimes.

  5. Fabrication of transparent lead-free KNN glass ceramics by incorporation method.

    PubMed

    Yongsiri, Ploypailin; Eitssayeam, Sukum; Rujijanagul, Gobwut; Sirisoonthorn, Somnuk; Tunkasiri, Tawee; Pengpat, Kamonpan

    2012-02-16

    The incorporation method was employed to produce potassium sodium niobate [KNN] (K0.5Na0.5NbO3) glass ceramics from the KNN-SiO2 system. This incorporation method combines a simple mixed-oxide technique for producing KNN powder and a conventional melt-quenching technique to form the resulting glass. KNN was calcined at 800°C and subsequently mixed with SiO2 in the KNN:SiO2 ratio of 75:25 (mol%). The successfully produced optically transparent glass was then subjected to a heat treatment schedule at temperatures ranging from 525°C -575°C for crystallization. All glass ceramics of more than 40% transmittance crystallized into KNN nanocrystals that were rectangular in shape and dispersed well throughout the glass matrix. The crystal size and crystallinity were found to increase with increasing heat treatment temperature, which in turn plays an important role in controlling the properties of the glass ceramics, including physical, optical, and dielectric properties. The transparency of the glass samples decreased with increasing crystal size. The maximum room temperature dielectric constant (εr) was as high as 474 at 10 kHz with an acceptable low loss (tanδ) around 0.02 at 10 kHz.

  6. Fabrication of transparent lead-free KNN glass ceramics by incorporation method

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The incorporation method was employed to produce potassium sodium niobate [KNN] (K0.5Na0.5NbO3) glass ceramics from the KNN-SiO2 system. This incorporation method combines a simple mixed-oxide technique for producing KNN powder and a conventional melt-quenching technique to form the resulting glass. KNN was calcined at 800°C and subsequently mixed with SiO2 in the KNN:SiO2 ratio of 75:25 (mol%). The successfully produced optically transparent glass was then subjected to a heat treatment schedule at temperatures ranging from 525°C -575°C for crystallization. All glass ceramics of more than 40% transmittance crystallized into KNN nanocrystals that were rectangular in shape and dispersed well throughout the glass matrix. The crystal size and crystallinity were found to increase with increasing heat treatment temperature, which in turn plays an important role in controlling the properties of the glass ceramics, including physical, optical, and dielectric properties. The transparency of the glass samples decreased with increasing crystal size. The maximum room temperature dielectric constant (εr) was as high as 474 at 10 kHz with an acceptable low loss (tanδ) around 0.02 at 10 kHz. PMID:22340426

  7. Evaluation of a Fluorochlorozirconate Glass-Ceramic Storage Phosphor Plate for Gamma-Ray Computed Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, Russell L.; Gray, Sharon K.; Alvarez, Carlos J.; Moses, Alex K.; Arrowood, Lloyd F.; Lubinsky, Anthony R.; Petford-Long, Amanda K.; Johnson, Jacqueline A.

    2015-05-21

    In this paper, a fluorochlorozirconate (FCZ) glass-ceramic containing orthorhombic barium chloride crystals doped with divalent europium was evaluated for use as a storage phosphor in gamma-ray imaging. X-ray diffraction and phosphorimetry of the glass-ceramic sample showed the presence of a significant amount of orthorhombic barium chloride crystals in the glass matrix. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to identify crystal size, structure, and morphology. The size of the orthorhombic barium chloride crystals in the FCZ glass matrix was very large, ~0.5–0.7 μm, which can limit image resolution. The FCZ glass-ceramic sample was exposed to 1 MeV gamma rays to determine its photostimulated emission characteristics at high energies, which were found to be suitable for imaging applications. Test images were made at 2 MeV energies using gap and step wedge phantoms. Gaps as small as 101.6 μm in a 440 stainless steel phantom were imaged using the sample imaging plate. Analysis of an image created using a depleted uranium step wedge phantom showed that emission is proportional to incident energy at the sample and the estimated absorbed dose. Finally, the results showed that the sample imaging plate has potential for gamma-ray-computed radiography and dosimetry applications.

  8. Evaluation of a Fluorochlorozirconate Glass-Ceramic Storage Phosphor Plate for Gamma-Ray Computed Radiography

    DOE PAGES

    Leonard, Russell L.; Gray, Sharon K.; Alvarez, Carlos J.; ...

    2015-05-21

    In this paper, a fluorochlorozirconate (FCZ) glass-ceramic containing orthorhombic barium chloride crystals doped with divalent europium was evaluated for use as a storage phosphor in gamma-ray imaging. X-ray diffraction and phosphorimetry of the glass-ceramic sample showed the presence of a significant amount of orthorhombic barium chloride crystals in the glass matrix. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to identify crystal size, structure, and morphology. The size of the orthorhombic barium chloride crystals in the FCZ glass matrix was very large, ~0.5–0.7 μm, which can limit image resolution. The FCZ glass-ceramic sample was exposed to 1 MeV gammamore » rays to determine its photostimulated emission characteristics at high energies, which were found to be suitable for imaging applications. Test images were made at 2 MeV energies using gap and step wedge phantoms. Gaps as small as 101.6 μm in a 440 stainless steel phantom were imaged using the sample imaging plate. Analysis of an image created using a depleted uranium step wedge phantom showed that emission is proportional to incident energy at the sample and the estimated absorbed dose. Finally, the results showed that the sample imaging plate has potential for gamma-ray-computed radiography and dosimetry applications.« less

  9. Glass-ceramic materials from electric arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Kavouras, P; Kehagias, T; Tsilika, I; Kaimakamis, G; Chrissafis, K; Kokkou, S; Papadopoulos, D; Karakostas, Th

    2007-01-31

    Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) was vitrified with SiO2, Na2CO3 and CaCO3 powders in an electric furnace at ambient atmosphere. Vitreous products were transformed into glass-ceramic materials by two-stage heat treatment, at temperatures determined by differential thermal analysis. Both vitreous and glass-ceramic materials were chemically stable. Wollastonite (CaSiO3) was separated from the parent matrix as the dominant crystalline phase, verified by X-ray diffraction analysis and energy dispersive spectrometry. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that wollastonite crystallizes mainly in its monoclinic form. Knoop microhardness was measured with the static indentation test method in all initial vitreous products and the microhardness values were in the region of 5.0-5.5 GPa. Devitrification resulted in glass-ceramic materials with microhardness values strongly dependent on the morphology and orientation of the separated crystal phase.

  10. Valorization of sugarcane bagasse ash: producing glass-ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, S R; Magalhães, R S; Arenales, A; Souza, A E; Romero, M; Rincón, J M

    2014-02-15

    Some aluminosilicates, for example mullite and wollastonite, are very important in the ceramic and construction industries. The most significant glass-ceramic for building applications has wollastonite as the main crystal phase. In this work we report on the use of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce glass-ceramics with silicates as the major crystalline phases. The glasses (frits) were prepared by mixing ash, limestone (calcium and magnesium carbonates) and potassium carbonate as the fluxing agent. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the chemical composition of the glasses and their crystallization was assessed by using thermal analysis (DTA/DSC/TGA) and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that glass-ceramic material can be produced with wollastonite as the major phase, at a temperature lower than 900 °C.

  11. The research on conformal acid etching process of glass ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kepeng; Guo, Peiji

    2014-08-01

    A series of experiments have been done to explore the effect of different conditions on the hydrofluoric acid etching. The hydrofluoric acid was used to etch the glass ceramic called "ZERODUR", which is invented by SCHOTT in Germany. The glass ceramic was processed into cylindrical samples. The hydrofluoric acid etching was done in a plastic beaker. The concentration of hydrofluoric acid and the etching time were changed to measure the changes of geometric tolerance and I observed the surface using a microscope in order to find an appropriate condition of hydrofluoric acid etching.

  12. A small angle neutron scattering study of mica based glass-ceramics with applications in dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilcoyne, S. H.; Bentley, P. M.; Al-Jawad, M.; Bubb, N. L.; Al-Shammary, H. A. O.; Wood, D. J.

    2004-07-01

    We are currently developing machinable and load-bearing mica-based glass-ceramics for use in restorative dental surgery. In this paper we present the results of an ambient temperature small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of several such ceramics with chemical compositions chosen to optimise machinability and strength. The SANS spectra are all dominated by scattering from the crystalline-amorphous phase interface and exhibit Q-4 dependence (Porod scattering) indicating that, on a 100Å scale, the surface of the crystals is smooth.

  13. Study on surface modification of porous apatite-wollastonite bioactive glass ceramic scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Bin; Zhou, Dali; Xue, Ming; Li, Guangda; Yang, Weizhong; Long, Qin; Ji, Li

    2008-11-01

    Chitosan (CS) was used to modify the surface of apatite-wollastonite bioactive glass ceramic (AW GC) scaffold to prepare AW/CS composite scaffold. The in vitro bioactivity of the AW/CS composite scaffold was investigated by simulated body fluid (SBF) soaking experiment. Cell growth on the surface of the material was evaluated by co-culturing osteogenic marrow stromal cells (MSCs) of rabbits with the scaffold. The results showed that the compressive strength of AW GC scaffold was improved dramatically after being modified by CS, whereas the mineralization rate was delayed. MSCs can attach well on the surface of the composite scaffold.

  14. Glass-ceramics from vitrified sewage sludge pyrolysis residues and recycled glasses.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, E; Dal Maschio, R

    2011-11-01

    Pyrolysis of urban plant sewage sludge has been demonstrated to be an effective way to produce fuel gas. However, a complete disposal of this particular waste is not achieved if the solid residues from the treatment are not considered. In this paper we discuss the feasibility an integrated pyrolysis/vitrification/sintering approach, aimed at a "full" disposal: the pyrolysis residues are first converted into a glass, then transformed into glass-ceramics, by simple viscous flow sintering treatments, with or without additions of inexpensive recycled glasses and kaolin clay. The obtained products were demonstrated to constitute an alternative to natural stones, in terms of both mechanical strength and chemical stability.

  15. Dilute condition corrosion behavior of glass-ceramic waste form

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Neeway, James J.; Riley, Brian J.; Zhu, Zihua; Olszta, Matthew J.; Tang, Ming

    2016-08-11

    Borosilicate glass-ceramics are being developed to immobilize high-level waste generated by aqueous reprocessing into a stable waste form. The corrosion behavior of this multiphase waste form is expected to be complicated by multiple phases and crystal-glass interfaces. A modified single-pass flow-through test was performed on polished monolithic coupons at a neutral pH (25 °C) and 90 °C for 33 d. The measured glass corrosion rates by micro analysis in the samples ranged from 0.019 to 0.29 g m-2 d-1 at a flow rate per surface area = 1.73 × 10-6 m s-1. The crystal phases (oxyapatite and Ca-rich powellite) corroded below quantifiable rates, by micro analysis. While, Ba-rich powellite corroded considerably in O10 sample. The corrosion rates of C1 and its replicate C20 were elevated an order of magnitude by mechanical stresses at crystal-glass interface caused by thermal expansion mismatch during cooling and unique morphology (oxyapatite clustering).

  16. Dilute condition corrosion behavior of glass-ceramic waste form

    DOE PAGES

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Neeway, James J.; Riley, Brian J.; ...

    2016-08-11

    Borosilicate glass-ceramics are being developed to immobilize high-level waste generated by aqueous reprocessing into a stable waste form. The corrosion behavior of this multiphase waste form is expected to be complicated by multiple phases and crystal-glass interfaces. A modified single-pass flow-through test was performed on polished monolithic coupons at a neutral pH (25 °C) and 90 °C for 33 d. The measured glass corrosion rates by micro analysis in the samples ranged from 0.019 to 0.29 g m-2 d-1 at a flow rate per surface area = 1.73 × 10-6 m s-1. The crystal phases (oxyapatite and Ca-rich powellite) corrodedmore » below quantifiable rates, by micro analysis. While, Ba-rich powellite corroded considerably in O10 sample. The corrosion rates of C1 and its replicate C20 were elevated an order of magnitude by mechanical stresses at crystal-glass interface caused by thermal expansion mismatch during cooling and unique morphology (oxyapatite clustering).« less

  17. Factors controlling crystallization of miserite glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Muhammed, Fenik K; Moorehead, Robert; van Noort, Richard; Pollington, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a range of variables affecting the synthesis of a miserite glass-ceramic (GC). Miserite glass was synthesized by the melt quench technique. The crystallization kinetics of the glass were determined using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). The glasses were ground with dry ball-milling and then sieved to different particle sizes prior to sintering. These particle sizes were submitted to heat treatment regimes in a high temperature furnace to form the GC. The crystal phases of the GC were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the microstructure of the cerammed glass. XRD analysis confirmed that the predominant crystalline phase of the GC was miserite along with a minor crystalline phase of cristobalite only when the particle size is <20 μm and the heat treatment at 1000°C was carried out for 4h and slowly cooled at the furnace rate. For larger particle sizes and faster cooling rates, a pseudowollastonite crystalline phase was produced. Short sintering times produced either a pseudowollastonite or xonotolite crystalline phase. The current study has shown that particle size and heat treatment schedules are major factors in controlling the synthesis of miserite GC. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Processing of glass-ceramics from lunar resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabes, B. D.; Poisl, W. H.

    1991-01-01

    The goal is to fabricate useful ceramic materials from the by-products of lunar oxygen production processes. Specifically, the crystal nucleation and growth kinetics of ilmenite-extracted lunar regolith were studied in order to produce glass-ceramics with optimal mechanical, thermal, and abrasion resistant properties. In the initial year of the program, construction and calibration of a high temperature viscometer, used for determining the viscosity of simulated lunar glasses was finished. A series of lunar simulants were also prepared, and the viscosity of each was determined over a range of temperatures. It was found that an increase in the concentration of Fe2O3 decreases the viscosity of the glass. While this may be helpful in processing the glass, Fe2O3 concentrations greater than approximately 10 wt percent resulted in uncontrolled crystallization during viscosity measurements. Impurities (such as Na2O, MnO, and K2O) in the regolith appeared to decrease the viscosity of the parent glass. These effects, as well as those of TiO2 and SiO2 on the processability of the glass, however, remain to be quantified.

  19. Dilute condition corrosion behavior of glass-ceramic waste form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Neeway, James J.; Riley, Brian J.; Zhu, Zihua; Olszta, Matthew J.; Tang, Ming

    2016-12-01

    Borosilicate glass-ceramics are being developed to immobilize high-level waste generated by aqueous reprocessing into a stable waste form. The corrosion behavior of this multiphase waste form is expected to be complicated by multiple phases and crystal-glass interfaces. A modified single-pass flow-through test was performed on polished monolithic coupons at a neutral pH (25 °C) and 90 °C for 33 d. The measured glass corrosion rates by micro analysis in the samples ranged from 0.019 to 0.29 g m-2 d-1 at a flow rate per surface area = 1.73 × 10-6 m s-1. The crystal phases (oxyapatite and Ca-rich powellite) corroded below quantifiable rates, by micro analysis. While, Ba-rich powellite corroded considerably in O10 sample. The corrosion rates of C1 and its replicate C20 were elevated an order of magnitude by mechanical stresses at crystal-glass interface caused by thermal expansion mismatch during cooling and unique morphology (oxyapatite clustering).

  20. Wear of human enamel opposing monolithic zirconia, glass ceramic, and composite resin: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Sripetchdanond, Jeerapa; Leevailoj, Chalermpol

    2014-11-01

    Demand is increasing for ceramic and composite resin posterior restorations. However, ceramics are recognized for their high abrasiveness to opposing dental structure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the wear of enamel as opposed to dental ceramics and composite resin. Twenty-four test specimens (antagonists), 6 each of monolithic zirconia, glass ceramic, composite resin, and enamel, were prepared into cylindrical rods. Enamel specimens were prepared from 24 extracted human permanent molar teeth. Enamel specimens were abraded against each type of antagonist with a pin-on-disk wear tester under a constant load of 25 N at 20 rpm for 4800 cycles. The maximum depth of wear (Dmax), mean depth of wear (Da), and mean surface roughness (Ra) of the enamel specimens were measured with a profilometer. All data were statistically analyzed by 1-way ANOVA, followed by the Tukey test (α=.05). A paired t test was used to compare the Ra of enamel at baseline and after testing. The wear of both the enamel and antagonists was evaluated qualitatively with scanning electron microscopic images. No significant differences were found in enamel wear depth (Dmax, Da) between monolithic zirconia (2.17 ±0.80, 1.83 ±0.75 μm) and composite resin (1.70 ±0.92, 1.37 ±0.81 μm) or between glass ceramic (8.54 ±2.31, 7.32 ±2.06 μm) and enamel (10.72 ±6.31, 8.81 ±5.16 μm). Significant differences were found when the enamel wear depth caused by monolithic zirconia and composite resin was compared with that of glass ceramic and enamel (P<.001). The Ra of enamel specimens increased significantly after wear tests with monolithic zirconia, glass ceramic, and enamel (P<.05); however, no difference was found among these materials. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, monolithic zirconia and composite resin resulted in less wear depth to human enamel compared with glass ceramic and enamel. All test materials except composite resin similarly increased the enamel

  1. Creep Behavior of Glass/Ceramic Sealant and its Effect on Long-term Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Koeppel, Brian J.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-10-14

    The creep behavior of glass or glass-ceramic sealant materials used in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) becomes relevant under SOFC operating temperatures. In this paper, the creep of glass-ceramic sealants was experimentally examined, and a standard linear solid model was applied to capture the creep behavior of glass ceramic sealant materials developed for planar SOFCs at high temperatures. The parameters of this model were determined based on the creep test results. Furthermore, the creep model was incorporated into finite-element software programs SOFC-MP and Mentat-FC developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for multi-physics simulation of SOFCs. The effect of creep of glass ceramic sealant materials on the long-term performance of SOFC stacks was investigated by studying the stability of the flow channels and the stress redistribution in the glass seal and on the various interfaces of the glass seal with other layers. Finite element analyses were performed to quantify the stresses in various parts. The stresses in glass seals were released because of creep behavior during operations.

  2. Optical properties of transparent cobalt-containing magnesium aluminosilicate glass-ceramics doped with gallium oxide for saturable absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiko, P. A.; Skoptsov, N. A.; Dymshits, O. S.; Malyarevich, A. M.; Yumashev, K. V.; Zhilin, A. A.; Alekseeva, I. P.

    2016-10-01

    Transparent glass-ceramic materials based on glasses of the MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-TiO2 system doped with CoO and Ga2O3 are synthesized. The secondary heat treatment of the initial glasses at temperatures of 800-950°C leads to precipitation of nanosized (6-7 nm) crystals of magnesium aluminogallium spinel doped with cobalt ions and magnesium aluminotitanate solid solutions. The optical absorption spectra of the initial glass and glass-ceramic materials are studied. It is shown that the absorption band caused by the 4 A 2(4F)→ 4 T 1(4 F) transitions of tetrahedrally coordinated Co2+ ions in glass-ceramics with nanosized Co:Mg(Al,Ga)2O4 crystals is shifted to longer wavelengths (up to 1.67 µm) compared to the position of this band in materials with Co:MgAl2O4 crystals. The synthesized glass-ceramics are characterized by a relatively low saturation fluence FS 0.5 ± 0.1 J/cm2 at a wavelength of 1.54 µm, as well as by a high radiation resistance to nanosecond laser pulses, which is no lower than 15 ± 2 J/cm2. This explains their attractiveness as materials for saturable absorbers for erbium lasers emitting in the spectral range 1.5-1.7 µm.

  3. Method of making in-situ whisker reinforced glass ceramic

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Jesse J.; Hirschfeld, Deidre A.; Lee, K. H.

    1993-02-16

    A heat processing procedure is used to create reinforcing whiskers of TiO.sub.2 in glass-ceramic materials in the LAS and MAS family. The heat processing procedure has particular application in creating TiO.sub.2 in-situ in a modified .beta.-eucryptite system.

  4. Phase evolution in zirconolite glass-ceramic wasteforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddrell, Ewan R.; Paterson, Hannah C.; May, Sarah E.; Burns, Kerry M.

    2017-09-01

    The evolution of crystalline phases in a model glass-ceramic wasteform system has been studied as a function of temperature and time. The work has shown that perovskite and sphene form as transient phases before final formation of zirconolite. The study also suggests some evidence for subtle structural transformations within the zirconolite phase.

  5. Chemical durability of Dicor and lithia-based glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Anusavice, K J; Zhang, N Z

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of a nucleation agent (P2O5) and a colorant/nucleation agent (AgNO3) on the chemical durability of Li2O-Al2O3-CaO-SiO2(LACS) glass-ceramics in 4% HAc solution, deionized-distilled water, and in pH buffer solutions of pH 1, pH 9, and pH 11. Glass powder [27.8 mol% Li2O, 2.5% Al2O3, 5.9% CaO, and 63.8% SiO2(LACS)] was melted, poured into a cylindrical graphite mold (16 mm diameter), cooled, cut into 2.2 mm thick disks, polished through 1200 grit SiC, nucleated at 510 degrees C for 3 h, and crystallized at 650 degrees C for 6 h. Dynamic corrosion tests of LACS glass-ceramic, LACS glass-ceramic containing 1.0 mol% P2O5 (LACSP), LACS glass-ceramic containing 0.78 mmol% AgNO3(LACSAg), and Dicor control specimens were performed in a shaker-bath unit at 80 degrees C at a shaker speed of 30 cycles/min for periods of up to 15 d. Differences in mean weight loss and ionic concentration were analyzed for statistical significance (p = 0.05) using ANOVA and the Tukey's Studentized Range Test. The mean weight loss over 15 d in 4% HAc increased in the following order: LACS (0.21 +/- 0.02 mg/cm2), LACSAg (0.25 +/- 0.05 mg/ cm2), and Dicor (0.27 +/- 0.05 mg/cm2). The differences in mean values were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The amounts of Li+ leached in 32 mL of pH1 and pH11 buffer solutions were 3.1 +/- 0.3 microgram/cm2/mL and 243 +/- 49.0 micrograms/cm2/mL, respectively, for the LACS group, and 3.0 +/- 0.6 microgram/cm2/mL and 166 +/- 28.0 micrograms/cm2/mL for the LACSAg group. The differences in mean values are not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The high chemical durability in acidic environments of LACS glass-ceramics without P2O5 and their decreased durability at pH values of 9 and above were confirmed by SEM observations of the exposed surfaces. The weight loss for the three glass-ceramic systems was highest in pH 11 buffer solution, which represents an unlikely in vivo environment. From a toxicological

  6. Remedial processing of oil shale fly ash (OSFA) and its value-added conversion into glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-12-01

    Recently, various solid wastes such as sewage sludge, coal fly ash and slag have been recycled into various products such as sintered bricks, ceramics and cement concrete. Application of these recycling approaches is much better and greener than conventional landfills since it can solve the problems of storage of industrial wastes and reduce exploration of natural resources for construction materials to protect the environment. Therefore, in this study, an attempt was made to recycle oil shale fly ash (OSFA), a by-product obtained from the extracting of shale oil in the oil shale industry, into a value-added glass-ceramic material via melting and sintering method. The influence of basicity (CaO/SiO2 ratio) by adding calcium oxide on the performance of glass-ceramics was studied in terms of phase transformation, mechanical properties, chemical resistances and heavy metals leaching tests. Crystallization kinetics results showed that the increase of basicity reduced the activation energies of crystallization but did not change the crystallization mechanism. When increasing the basicity from 0.2 to 0.5, the densification of sintering body was enhanced due to the promotion of viscous flow of glass powders, and therefore the compression strength and bending strength of glass-ceramics were increased. Heavy metals leaching results indicated that the produced OSFA-based glass-ceramics could be taken as non-hazardous materials. The maximum mechanical properties of compression strength of 186 ± 3 MPa, bending strength of 78 ± 6 MPa, good chemical resistances and low heavy metals leaching concentrations showed that it could be used as a substitute material for construction applications. The proposed approach will be one of the potential sustainable solutions in reducing the storage of oil shale fly ash as well as converting it into a value-added product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study on effect of poly (ethylene oxide) addition and in-situ porosity generation on poly (vinylidene fluoride)-glass ceramic composite membranes for lithium polymer batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubha, Nageswaran; Prasanth, Raghavan; Hng, Huey Hoon; Srinivasan, Madhavi

    2014-12-01

    The effect of blending polyethylene oxide with poly (vinylidene fluoride)-lithium aluminum germanium phosphate (LAGP) composite and in-situ porosity generation on the electrochemical performance of polymer electrolytes based on non-woven fibrous mats is studied. Electrospinning process parameters are controlled to get a fibrous membrane consisting of bead-free, multilayered, three dimensional network structure of ultrafine fibers. The electrospun membranes are subjected to a preferential polymer dissolution process to prepare a highly porous structure. The membranes show high surface roughness with uniformly sized and distributed pores on the fibers. The membranes with good mechanical strength, thermal stability and high porosity exhibit high swelling when activated with liquid electrolyte. The prepared composite polymer electrolytes show high ionic conductivity. The addition of the glass ceramic improves the mechanical and thermal stability, while blending and in-situ porosity generation improves the ionic conductivity, charge-discharge performance, cycling stability, interface properties and compatibility with lithium electrode.

  8. Immobilization of gadolinium in iron borophosphate glasses and iron borophosphate based glass-ceramics: Implications for the immobilization of plutonium(Ⅲ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fu; Liao, Qilong; Dai, Yunya; Zhu, Hanzhen

    2016-08-01

    Immobilization of gadolinium (Gd), a nonradioactive surrogate for Pu3+, in iron borophosphate glasses/glass-ceramics (IBP glasses/glass-ceramics) has been investigated. The IBP glass containing 4 mol% Gd2O3 is homogeneously amorphous. At higher Gd2O3 concentrations, additional Gd is retained in the glasses as crystalline inclusions of monazite GdPO4 crystalline phase detected with X-ray diffraction. Moreover, Gd2O3 addition increases the Tg of the IBP glasses in glass formation range, which is consistent with the structural modification of the glasses. The structure of the Gd2O3-loaded IBP glasses/glass-ceramics is mainly based on pyrophosphate units. The chemical durability of Gd2O3-loaded IBP glasses/glass-ceramics is comparable to widely used borosilicate glass waste forms and the existence of monazite GdPO4 crystalline phase does not degrade the aqueous chemical durability of the IBP glasses/glass-ceramics. The Gd-loading results imply that the solubility should not be a limiting factor in processing nuclide Pu3+ if the formed crystalline phase(s) have high chemical durability.

  9. Structural features of vitreous and glass-ceramic materials prepared from brown coal ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Petrakovskaya, E.A.; Pavlov, V.F.; Bayukov, O.A.

    1995-05-01

    The ESR and Moessbauer spectra for the highly porous X-ray amorphous products of processing the high-calcium ashes of brown coals are studied. The tetrahedral coordination of Fe{sup 3+} ions and octahedral coordinations of Mn{sup 2+} and Ti{sup 3+}, ions are revealed. Some of the iron centers are attributed to the extrinsic crystalline phase. The character of change in the ESR spectra is investigated in the vitreous and glass--ceramic states. The correlation between the change in the valence of Ti and the amount of octahedrally coordinated Mn is established.

  10. EPR of radiation defects in lithium-oxyfluoride glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotovs, A.; Rogulis, U.; Sarakovskis, A.; Dimitrocenko, L.

    2010-11-01

    We studied oxyfluoride composites based on lithium silicate glasses with yttrium fluorides and rare-earth dopants. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been used to obtain information about radiation induced defects in these materials. Spectra have been measured before and after X-ray irradiation at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature. Fluoride crystallites within samples were created by means of thermal treatment at specific temperatures. EPR spectra of radiation induced defects in oxyfluoride glass ceramics, in which crystallites have not been yet created, show no explicit hfs interaction of fluorine nuclei. However, in glass ceramics, which already contains fluoride crystallites, the hfs characteristic to fluorine nuclei appears in the EPR spectra. EPR hyperfine structure could be explained within a model of an F-type centre in YF3 crystalline phase.

  11. Glass-ceramic material and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Meinhardt, Kerry D [Richland, WA; Vienna, John D [West Richland, WA; Armstrong, Timothy R [Pasco, WA; Pederson, Larry R [Kennewick, WA

    2002-08-13

    The present invention is a glass-ceramic material and method of making useful for joining at least two solid ceramic parts. The seal is a blend of M.sub.A O--M.sub.B O.sub.y --SiO.sub.2 that substantially matches a coefficient of thermal expansion of the solid electrolyte. According to the present invention, a series of glass ceramics in the M.sub.A O--M.sub.B O.sub.y --SiO.sub.2 system can be used to join or seal both tubular and planar ceramic solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen electrolyzers, and membrane reactors for the production of syngas, commodity chemicals and other products.

  12. Eu oxidation state in fluorozirconate-based glass ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Henke, B.; Paßlick, C.; Keil, P.; Johnson, J. A.; Schweizer, S.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of InF3 doping and remelting on Eu-doped fluorozirconate-based glass ceramics was investigated using near-edge x-ray absorption and optical spectroscopy. It was found that the addition of InF3 to the melt decreases the Eu2+∕Eu3+ mole ratio, while remelting leads to a significant change in the Eu2+∕Eu3+ ratio in favor of Eu2+. Photoluminescence spectroscopy shows that additional annealing steps lead to the formation of BaCl2 nanoparticles in the glass. In as-made glass ceramics containing InF3, a phase transition of the nanoparticles from hexagonal to orthorhombic structure is observed. This phase transition is not observed in the remelted glasses studied here. PMID:20057931

  13. Eu oxidation state in fluorozirconate-based glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henke, B.; Paßlick, C.; Keil, P.; Johnson, J. A.; Schweizer, S.

    2009-12-01

    The influence of InF3 doping and remelting on Eu-doped fluorozirconate-based glass ceramics was investigated using near-edge x-ray absorption and optical spectroscopy. It was found that the addition of InF3 to the melt decreases the Eu2+/Eu3+ mole ratio, while remelting leads to a significant change in the Eu2+/Eu3+ ratio in favor of Eu2+. Photoluminescence spectroscopy shows that additional annealing steps lead to the formation of BaCl2 nanoparticles in the glass. In as-made glass ceramics containing InF3, a phase transition of the nanoparticles from hexagonal to orthorhombic structure is observed. This phase transition is not observed in the remelted glasses studied here.

  14. Preparation and piezoelectric properties of potassium sodium niobate glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shan; Wang, Xuan-Ming; Li, Jia-Yu; Zhang, Yong; Zheng, Tao; Lv, Jing-Wen

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes the preparation of a piezoelectric glass ceramic material from potassium sodium niobate (K0.5Na0.5NbO3; KNN) using a novel melting method. The effects of the subsequent heat-treatment on the optical, thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties of the material are carefully examined, and its crystal structure and surface morphology are characterized respectively by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. This new material has a much higher piezoelectric coefficient (163 pC·N-1) than traditional piezoelectric ceramics (131 pC·N-1). On this basis therefore, a strategy for the future study and development of lead-free KNN-based piezoelectric glass ceramics is proposed.

  15. Microstructure of Transparent Strontium Fresnoite Glass-Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Wolfgang; Takano, Kazuya; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Takumi; Rüssel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Glass-ceramics grown from a glass of the composition Sr2TiSi2.45O8.9 (STS 45) are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Oriented nucleation with the c-axes preferably perpendicular to the surface is detected. A very strong 001-texture is observed after only 10 μm of growth into the bulk, making this the first system in which an orientation preferred during nucleation prevails during growth into the bulk in glass-ceramics. Piezoelectric measurements are performed and d33-values presented and discussed. The obtained results are critically viewed with respect to the two growth models describing Sr2TiSi2O8 growth in glasses. PMID:25780988

  16. Water analysis of glass ceramics by FT-IR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Nease, A B; Hale, M D; Kramer, D P

    1983-12-15

    A method for measuring water concentration in glasses has been described and the results of the study of ten batches of glasses have been tabulated. It has been shown that infrared spectroscopy is a satisfactory tool for measuring water concentration in glass ceramics. The water concentrations of ten batches of glass have been shown to differ significantly, and these variances are associated with environmental humidity and glass preparation method.

  17. Ceramic fiber reinforced glass-ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A slurry of BSAS glass powders is cast into tapes which are cut to predetermined sizes. Mats of continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-SiC fibers are alternately stacked with these matrix tapes. This tape-mat stack is warm-pressed to produce a 'green' composite which is heated to burn out organic constituents. The remaining interim material is then hot-pressed to form a BSAS glass-ceramic fiber-reinforced composite.

  18. Optimal glass-ceramic structures: Components of giant mirror telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eschenauer, Hans A.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed investigations are carried out on optimal glass-ceramic mirror structures of terrestrial space technology (optical telescopes). In order to find an optimum design, a nonlinear multi-criteria optimization problem is formulated. 'Minimum deformation' at 'minimum weight' are selected as contradictory objectives, and a set of further constraints (quilting effect, optical faults etc.) is defined and included. A special result of the investigations is described.

  19. Research on subsurface damage of glass-ceramics mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ling-jie; Guo, Pei-ji; Chen, Xi; Wang, Zi-wu

    2016-10-01

    We discuss the depth of subsurface damage (SSD) on different processing conditions. Considering different conditions would produce different depths of SSD, this article seriously studies the depth influenced by different sizes of abrasive particles and different grinding discs. Then the depth of SSD would be detected via Three-Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) after traditional polishing. The target of this research is to provide some basic references for the choice of the glass-ceramics grinding machining process.

  20. Glass-ceramics: deterministic microgrinding, lapping, and polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambropoulos, John C.; Gillman, Birgit E.; Zhou, Yiyang; Jacobs, Stephen D.; Stevens, Harrie J.

    1997-10-01

    Glass-ceramics are composites consisting of glass and crystalline phases. We report a series of microgrinding and polishing experiments: our first goal is to correlate material mechanical properties with the quality of the resulting surface, determined by surface microroughness and surface grinding-induced residual stresses. Our second goal is to compare deterministic microgrinding and loose abrasive microgrinding in terms of material removal rates and resulting surface quality.

  1. Dynamic and static fatigue of a machinable glass ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magida, M. B.; Forrest, K. A.; Heslin, T. M.

    1984-01-01

    The dynamic and static fatigue behavior of a machinable glass ceramic was investigated to assess its susceptibility to stress corrosion-induced delayed failure. Fracture mechanics techniques were used to analyze the results so that lifetime predictions for components of this material could be made. The resistance to subcritical crack growth of this material was concluded to be only moderate and was found to be dependent on the size of its microstructure.

  2. Crystallization and Properties of Strontium Barium Niobate-Based Glass-Ceramics for Energy-Storage Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Linjiang; Wang, Wei; Shen, Bo; Zhai, Jiwei; Kong, Ling Bing

    2015-01-01

    The crystallization kinetics, phase development, and electric properties of Al2O3-SiO2-SrO-BaO-Nb2O5-ZnO glass-ceramics were investigated for potential application of the materials for energy storage. Strontium barium niobate (Ba x Sr1- x Nb2O6) with the tetragonal tungsten-bronze structure was the major crystalline phase formed by both surface and bulk crystallization. The presence of ZnO made the glasses less stable, and thus promoted their crystallization, but had no significant effect on the microstructure of the resulting glass-ceramics. All glass-ceramic samples had a uniform microstructure, with a crystal size of approximately 50 nm. Optimized energy storage density of approximately 6.0 J/cm3 was achieved for the sample containing 0.5% ZnO; the average dielectric constant was 150-180 and the breakdown strength was 950-870 kV/cm over the temperature range 850-950°C.

  3. Crystallization and Properties of Strontium Barium Niobate-Based Glass-Ceramics for Energy-Storage Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Linjiang; Wang, Wei; Shen, Bo; Zhai, Jiwei; Kong, Ling Bing

    2014-09-01

    The crystallization kinetics, phase development, and electric properties of Al2O3-SiO2-SrO-BaO-Nb2O5-ZnO glass-ceramics were investigated for potential application of the materials for energy storage. Strontium barium niobate (Ba x Sr1-x Nb2O6) with the tetragonal tungsten-bronze structure was the major crystalline phase formed by both surface and bulk crystallization. The presence of ZnO made the glasses less stable, and thus promoted their crystallization, but had no significant effect on the microstructure of the resulting glass-ceramics. All glass-ceramic samples had a uniform microstructure, with a crystal size of approximately 50 nm. Optimized energy storage density of approximately 6.0 J/cm3 was achieved for the sample containing 0.5% ZnO; the average dielectric constant was 150-180 and the breakdown strength was 950-870 kV/cm over the temperature range 850-950°C.

  4. Conversion of shale and slate wastes to glass and glass-ceramic products. Open file report 20 Oct 76-19 Sep 79

    SciTech Connect

    MacKenzie, J.D.

    1980-10-20

    Experiments were conducted to convert spent oil shale, waste slate, and copper slag into glass and glass-ceramic products. Spent oil shale was easily melted at 1,300C and converted into glass wool for insulation application. Glass-ceramics were prepared by the use of domestic chrome ore as a nucleating agent. Waste slate from Vermont was readily melted when mixed with limestone. The resultant glass fibers were highly resistant to alkali attack. Iron metal was recovered from copper slags by the use of coal powder as a reducing agent in the molten slag. The lowering of the iron content resulted ina melt that was glass-forming. Combinations of spent oil shale and copper slag also yielded useful glass and glass ceramic compositions.

  5. The microstructure of erbium-ytterbium co-doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramic optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustyn, Elżbieta; Żelechower, Michał; Stróż, Danuta; Chrapoński, Jacek

    2012-04-01

    Oxyfluoride transparent glass-ceramics combine some features of glasses (easier shaping or lower than single crystals cost of fabrication) and some advantages of rare-earth doped single crystals (narrow absorption/emission lines and longer lifetimes of luminescent levels). Since the material seems to be promising candidate for efficient fiber amplifiers, the manufacturing as well as structural and optical examination of the oxyfluoride glass-ceramic fibers doped with rare-earth ions seems to be a serious challenge. In the first stage oxyfluoride glasses of the following compositions 48SiO2-11Al2O3-7Na2CO3-10CaO-10PbO-11PbF2-3ErF3 and 48SiO2-11Al2O3-7Na2CO3-10CaO-10PbO-10PbF2-3YbF3-1ErF3 (in molar%) were fabricated from high purity commercial chemicals (Sigma-Aldrich). The fabricated glass preforms were drawn into glass fibers using the mini-tower. Finally, the transparent Er3+ doped and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramic fibers were obtained by controlled heat treatment of glass fibers. The preceding differential thermal analysis (DTA) studies allowed estimating both the fiber drawing temperature and the controlled crystallization temperature of glass fibers. X-ray diffraction examination (XRD) at each stage of the glass-ceramic fibers fabrication confirmed the undesirable crystallization of preforms and glass fibers has been avoided. The fibers shown their mixed amorphous-crystalline microstructure with nano-crystals of size even below 10 nm distributed in the glassy host. The crystal structure of the grown nano-crystals has been determined by XRD and confirmed by electron diffraction (SAED). Results obtained by both techniques seem to be compatible: Er3FO10Si3 (monoclinic; ICSD 92512), Pb5Al3F19 (triclinic; ICSD 91325) and Er4F2O11Si3 (triclinic; ICSD 51510) against to initially expected PbF2 crystals.

  6. Application of dry-polishing techniques to water-soluble glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Healey, J.T.; McAllaster, M.E.

    1981-04-01

    A dry polishing technique is presented for the preparation of glass ceramics for microstructural characterization. The technique is shown to be applicable to water soluble phosphate based glass ceramics and also to a non-water soluble zinc silicate glass ceramic. Microstructural characterization is performed primarily with composition backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscopy. Some relief is observed on the polished surface utilizing topographical backscattered electron imaging.

  7. Development of all-solid lithium-ion battery using Li-ion conducting glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inda, Yasushi; Katoh, Takashi; Baba, Mamoru

    We have developed a high performance lithium-ion conducting glass-ceramics. This glass-ceramics has the crystalline form of Li 1+ x+ yAl xTi 2- xSi yP 3- yO 12 with a NASICON-type structure, and it exhibits a high lithium-ion conductivity of 10 -3 S cm -1 or above at room temperature. Moreover, since this material is stable in the open atmosphere and even to exposure to moist air, it is expected to be applied for various uses. One of applications of this material is as a solid electrolyte for a lithium-ion battery. Batteries were developed by combining a LiCoO 2 positive electrode, a Li 4Ti 5O 12 negative electrode, and a composite electrolyte. The battery using the composite electrolyte with a higher conductivity exhibited a good charge-discharge characteristic.

  8. [Effect of temperature on the structure of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 nanocrystalline glass-ceramics studied by Raman spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Li, Bao-Wei; Ouyang, Shun-Li; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Jia, Xiao-Lin; Deng, Lei-Bo; Liu, Fang

    2014-07-01

    In the present paper, nanocrystalline glass-ceramic of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system was produced by melting method. The CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 nanocrystalline glass-ceramic was measured by Raman spectroscopy in the temperature range from -190 to 310 degrees C in order to study the effect of temperature on the structure of this system nanocrystalline glass-ceramics. The results showed that different non-bridge oxygen bond silicon-oxygen tetrahedron structural unit changes are not consistent with rising temperature. Further analyses indicated that: the SiO4 tetrahedron with 2 non-bridged oxygen (Q2), the SiO4 tetrahedron with 3 non-bridged oxygen (Q(1)), which are situated at the edge of the 3-D SiO4 tetrahedrons network, and the SiO4 tetrahedron with 4 non-bridged oxygen (Q(0)), which is situated outside the 3-D network all suffered a significant influence by the temperature change, which has been expressed as: shifts towards the high wave-number, increased bond force constants, and shortened bond lengths. This paper studied the influence of temperature on CMAS system nanocrystalline glass-ceramics using variable temperature Raman technology. It provides experiment basis to the research on external environment influence on CMAS system nanocrystalline glass-ceramics materials in terms of structure and performance. In addition, the research provides experimental basis for controlling the expansion coefficient of nanocrystalline glass-ceramic of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system.

  9. Study of fluorine losses and spectroscopic properties of Er 3+ doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses and glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lejing; Ren, Guozhong; Chen, Minpeng; Liu, Yang; Yang, Qibin

    2009-08-01

    The fluorine losses during synthesis of Er 3+ doped transparent glasses in the SiO 2-PbO-PbF 2 system were investigated. The final fluorine contents of the glasses were detected by using a fluorine ion selective electrode. The results show that high fluorine losses are occured in the normal preparation processes. With the increase of initial PbF 2 contents or melting time resulted in the increase of the fluorine losses. The thermal and spectroscopic properties of the glasses and the corresponding glass ceramics were investigated through the analysis of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), absorption and upconversion luminescence spectra. The effects of fluorine contents show a decrease of the glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the glasses and an enhancement of upconversion intensity of the corresponding glass ceramics.

  10. Sealing glass-ceramics with near linear thermal strain, Part II: Sequence of crystallization and phase stability

    DOE PAGES

    Dai, Steve Xunhu; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Griego, James M.

    2016-06-01

    Here, the sequence of crystallization in a re-crystallizable lithium silicate sealing glass-ceramic Li2O-SiO2-Al2O3-K2O-B2O3-P2O5-ZnO was analyzed by in situ high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD). Glass-ceramic specimens have been subjected to a 2-stage heat treatment schedule, including rapid cooling from sealing temperature to a 1st hold temperature 650 °C, following by heating to a 2nd hold temperature of 810 °C. Notable growth and saturation of Quartz was observed at 650 °C (1st hold).

  11. Sealing glass-ceramics with near linear thermal strain, Part II: Sequence of crystallization and phase stability

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Steve Xunhu; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Griego, James M.

    2016-06-01

    Here, the sequence of crystallization in a re-crystallizable lithium silicate sealing glass-ceramic Li2O-SiO2-Al2O3-K2O-B2O3-P2O5-ZnO was analyzed by in situ high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD). Glass-ceramic specimens have been subjected to a 2-stage heat treatment schedule, including rapid cooling from sealing temperature to a 1st hold temperature 650 °C, following by heating to a 2nd hold temperature of 810 °C. Notable growth and saturation of Quartz was observed at 650 °C (1st hold).

  12. Sealing glass-ceramics with near linear thermal strain, Part II: Sequence of crystallization and phase stability

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Steve Xunhu; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Griego, James M.

    2016-06-01

    Here, the sequence of crystallization in a re-crystallizable lithium silicate sealing glass-ceramic Li2O-SiO2-Al2O3-K2O-B2O3-P2O5-ZnO was analyzed by in situ high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD). Glass-ceramic specimens have been subjected to a 2-stage heat treatment schedule, including rapid cooling from sealing temperature to a 1st hold temperature 650 °C, following by heating to a 2nd hold temperature of 810 °C. Notable growth and saturation of Quartz was observed at 650 °C (1st hold).

  13. Electron paramagnetic resonance and photoluminescence investigation of europium local structure in oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing SrF2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antuzevics, A.; Kemere, M.; Krieke, G.; Ignatans, R.

    2017-10-01

    Different compositions of europium doped aluminosilicate oxyfluoride glass ceramics prepared in air atmosphere have been studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical spectroscopy methods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements show presence of homogenously distributed SrF2 nanocrystals after the heat treatment of the precursor glass. Efficient Eu3+ incorporation in the high symmetry environment of glass ceramics is observed from the photoluminescence spectra. EPR spectra indicate Eu3+ → Eu2+ reduction upon precipitation of crystalline phases in the glass matrix. For composition abundant with Eu2+ in the glassy state such behaviour is not detected. Local structure around europium ions is discussed based on differences in chemical compositions.

  14. New metrology stage for ion projection lithography made of glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risse, Stefan; Peschel, Thomas; Damm, Christoph; Kirschstein, Ulf Carsten

    1999-09-01

    In the next few years a new chip-generation with structure sizes well below 100 nm and high complexity will require novel, so-called 'future lithography' processes. One of these new technologies is the Ion Projection Lithography. Within the framework of a large European project lead by SIEMENS, the necessary technologies are developed and the first pilot system will be built. In this system, one of the most important units is a high precision wafer stage. The heart of the stage system is the so-called metrology - plate with integrated electrostatic wafer chuck and handling unit. The design of this novel stage system is described in this contribution. Extensive FEM-simulations from the basis of the present design. All major components are made from glass-ceramics to guarantee the highest possible thermal and mechanical stability. Not only in the field of lithography many modern precision mechanical systems require position tolerances in the sub-micrometer and seconds of arc range. Strong systems solutions can be developed by the effort of glass-ceramics and new and traditional manufacturing processes.

  15. Bioactivity and cytotoxicity of glass and glass-ceramics based on the 3CaO·P₂O₅--SiO₂--MgO system.

    PubMed

    Daguano, Juliana K M F; Rogero, Sizue O; Crovace, Murilo C; Peitl, Oscar; Strecker, Kurt; Dos Santos, Claudinei

    2013-09-01

    The mechanical strength of bioactive glasses can be improved by controlled crystallization, turning its use as bulk bone implants viable. However, crystallization may affect the bioactivity of the material. The aim of this study was to develop glass-ceramics of the nominal composition (wt%) 52.75(3CaO·P₂O₅)-30SiO₂-17.25MgO, with different crystallized fractions and to evaluate their in vitro cytotoxicity and bioactivity. Specimens were heat-treated at 700, 775 and 975 °C, for 4 h. The major crystalline phase identified was whitlockite, an Mg-substituted tricalcium phosphate. The evaluation of the cytotoxicity was carried out by the neutral red uptake methodology. Ionic exchanges with the simulated body fluid SBF-K9 acellular solution during the in vitro bioactivity tests highlight the differences in terms of chemical reactivity between the glass and the glass-ceramics. The effect of crystallinity on the rates of hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) formation was followed by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Although all glass-ceramics can be considered bioactive, the glass-ceramic heat-treated at 775 °C (V775-4) presented the most interesting result, because the onset for HCA formation is at about 24 h and after 7 days the HCA layer dominates completely the spectrum. This occurs probably due to the presence of the whitlockite phase (3(Ca,Mg)O·P₂O₅). All samples were considered not cytotoxic.

  16. Computational materials science aided design of glass ceramics and crystal properties (abstract only).

    PubMed

    Mannstadt, Wolfgang

    2008-02-13

    Today's high tech materials have in many cases highly specialized properties and designed functionalities. Materials parameters like high temperature stability, high stiffness and certain optical properties have to be optimized and in many cases an adaptation to given processes is necessary. Many materials are compounds or layered structures. Thus, surface and interface properties need to be considered as well. At the same time to some extent just a few atomic layers sometimes determine the properties of the material, as is well known in semiconductor and other thin film technologies. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the materials properties at the atomic scale becomes more and more important. In addition many high tech materials have to be of high purity or selective dopant concentrations have to be adjusted to fulfill the desired functionality. Modern materials developments successfully use computational materials science to achieve that goal. Improved software tools and continuously growing computational power allow us to predict macroscopic properties of materials on the basis of microscopic/atomic ab initio simulation approaches. At Schott, special materials, in particular glasses and glass ceramics, are produced for a variety of applications. For a glass ceramic all the above mentioned difficulties for materials development arise. The properties of a glass ceramic are determined by the interplay of crystalline phases embedded in an amorphous glass matrix. For materials development the understanding of crystal structures and their properties, surfaces and interface phenomena, and amorphous systems are necessary, likewise. Each by itself is already a challenging problem. Many crystal phases that are grown within the glass matrix do not exist as single crystals or are difficult to grow in reasonable amounts for experimental investigations. The only way to obtain the properties of these crystalline phases is through 'ab initio' simulations in the computer

  17. Optical gain by upconversion in Tm-Yb oxyfluoride glass ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haro-González, P.; Martín, I. R.; Lahoz, F.; Capuj, N. E.

    2011-07-01

    Evidence of positive optical gain is observed in Tm3+-Yb3+-codoped oxyfluoride glass ceramic in an upconversion pump and probe experiment. The 1G4 level of the Tm3+ ions is populated by an upconversion mechanism under excitation of the Yb3+ ions at 975 nm with a high-power pulsed laser and give rise to an intense emission from the 1G4 to the 3F4 levels. The 1G4→3F4 electronic transition is stimulated with a low signal at 650 nm as a probe. Under this condition, we reach the population inversion necessary between the Tm3+ levels of the transition 1G4→3F4 and we observed an increase of the emission intensity at the signal wavelength due to the stimulated emission. A positive optical gain of around 4 cm-1 (˜17 dB/cm) has been measured in Tm-Yb-codoped oxyfluoride glass ceramic.

  18. Structural and dielectric characteristics of strontium tetraborate-bismuth vanadate glass-ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, K.B.R.; Shankar, M.V.; Subbanna, G.N.

    1996-05-01

    Glasses of strontium tetraborate, containing up to 50 mole-percent bismuth vanadate [(1{minus}x)SBO-xBiV (x = 0 to 0.50)], were prepared by splat quenching method. The glassy nature of these samples was confirmed by differential thermal analysis (DTA). The glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and the crystallization temperature (T{sub cr}) of the glasses decrease with increase in bismuth vanadate, Bi{sub 2}VO{sub 5.5} (BiV) content. High resolution transmission electron microscopic studies reveal the presence of spherical particles of amorphous BiV (less than 10 nm in size) dispersed in the glassy matrix of strontium tetraborate, SrB{sub 4}O{sub 7} (SBO). The glasses of the compositions x = 0.25 to 0.50, on annealing at 500 C (T{sub g}) gave rise to crystalline BiV phase. Physical properties such as density, dielectric and optical transmission of these SBO:BiV glass-ceramics have been studied. The dielectric constant ({epsilon}{sub r}) of these glass-ceramics increases with increasing BiV content. The measured {epsilon}{sub r} values are found to be in good agreement with those predicted by the logarithmic mixture rule.

  19. Surface functionalization of 3D glass-ceramic porous scaffolds for enhanced mineralization in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraris, Sara; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Bretcanu, Oana; Cassinelli, Clara; Vernè, Enrica

    2013-04-01

    Bone reconstruction after tissue loosening due to traumatic, pathological or surgical causes is in increasing demand. 3D scaffolds are a widely studied solution for supporting new bone growth. Bioactive glass-ceramic porous materials can offer a three-dimensional structure that is able to chemically bond to bone. The ability to surface modify these devices by grafting biologically active molecules represents a challenge, with the aim of stimulating physiological bone regeneration with both inorganic and organic signals. In this research work glass ceramic scaffolds with very high mechanical properties and moderate bioactivity have been functionalized with the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The material surface was activated in order to expose hydroxyl groups. The activated surface was further grafted with ALP both via silanization and also via direct grafting to the surface active hydroxyl groups. Enzymatic activity of grafted samples were measured by means of UV-vis spectroscopy before and after ultrasonic washing in TRIS-HCl buffer solution. In vitro inorganic bioactivity was investigated by soaking the scaffolds after the different steps of functionalization in a simulated body fluid (SBF). SEM observations allowed the monitoring of the scaffold morphology and surface chemical composition after soaking in SBF. The presence of ALP enhanced the in vitro inorganic bioactivity of the tested material.

  20. In-process assessment of dental cutting of a leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Fei; Yin, Ling; Han, Yi-Gang

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports an in-process assessment of the dental cutting of a leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic with a high-speed dental handpiece under clinical operating conditions. The dental cutting was performed using a computer-controlled 2-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOF) testing regime and a coarse diamond bur of 106-125 microm grit size. Dynamic forces were monitored during the cutting process using a piezoelectric force dynamometer and a data acquisition system in both time and frequency domains. Bur speeds were found to decrease with the depth of cut and with the feed rate, by a maximum of 10.5% from the free-running speed of 322.2 krpm (1 krpm=1,000 rpm) to 288.4 krpm at the highest feed rate of 60mm/min and depth of cut of 50 microm. Both the tangential and normal forces increased with the depth of cut and the feed rate, in the ranges of 0.24-1.77 N and 0.60-2.93 N respectively. The torque increased with the depth of cut and feed rate. The specific cutting energy generally decreased with the depth of cut or the feed rate with the exception of a small-scale fluctuation at the higher depth of cut and feed rate. The dental cutting characteristics for the leucite glass-ceramic were similar to those for the feldspathic porcelain but had higher magnitudes.

  1. Cordierite glass-ceramics as glaze materials for refractory forming tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Frank Scott

    1999-11-01

    Glasses of the composition 2MgO·2Al2O 3·5SiO2 were successfully nucleated with additions of up to 8 mol% TiO2 to form fully crystalline glass-ceramic bodies. The predominant crystalline phase is a hexagonal stuffed quartz structure when the glasses are heated to temperatures near 950°C. This phase transforms to the hexagonal indialite phase at higher temperatures. The nucleating effect of the TiO2 addition results in a fine grained glass-ceramic. Both the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the melting temperature (Tm) decreased with a linear dependence on the amount of TiO 2 added to the glass. Glass of the composition 2MgO·2Al 2O3·5SiO2 + 8 mol% TiO2 was ground and air plasma sprayed onto low thermal expansion castable refractory concretes as a glaze. This glaze remained intact on the refractory concretes during crystallization. This behavior was observed during and after limited thermal cycling of the glazed refractory concretes, and also after high temperature heat treatment of the glazed refractory concretes.

  2. Glass-ceramic coated Mg-Ca alloys for biomedical implant applications.

    PubMed

    Rau, J V; Antoniac, I; Fosca, M; De Bonis, A; Blajan, A I; Cotrut, C; Graziani, V; Curcio, M; Cricenti, A; Niculescu, M; Ortenzi, M; Teghil, R

    2016-07-01

    Biodegradable metals and alloys are promising candidates for biomedical bone implant applications. However, due to the high rate of their biodegradation in human body environment, they should be coated with less reactive materials, such, for example, as bioactive glasses or glass-ceramics. Fort this scope, RKKP composition glass-ceramic coatings have been deposited on Mg-Ca(1.4wt%) alloy substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition method, and their properties have been characterized by a number of techniques. The prepared coatings consist of hydroxyapatite and wollastonite phases, having composition close to that of the bulk target material used for depositions. The 100μm thick films are characterized by dense, compact and rough morphology. They are composed of a glassy matrix with various size (from micro- to nano-) granular inclusions. The average surface roughness is about 295±30nm due to the contribution of micrometric aggregates, while the roughness of the fine-texture particulates is approximately 47±4nm. The results of the electrochemical corrosion evaluation tests evidence that the RKKP coating improves the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca (1.4wt%) alloy in Simulated Body Fluid.

  3. Formation of nanostructures in Eu3+ doped glass-ceramics: an XAS study.

    PubMed

    Pellicer-Porres, J; Segura, A; Martínez-Criado, G; Rodríguez-Mendoza, U R; Lavín, V

    2013-01-16

    We describe the results of x-ray absorption experiments carried out to deduce structural and chemical information in Eu(3+) doped, transparent, oxyfluoride glass and nanostructured glass-ceramic samples. The spectra were measured at the Pb and Eu-L(III) edges. The Eu environment in the glass samples is observed to be similar to that of EuF(3). Complementary x-ray diffraction experiments show that thermal annealing creates β-PbF(2) type nanocrystals. X-ray absorption indicates that Eu ions act as seeds in the nanocrystal formation. There is evidence of interstitial fluorine atoms around Eu ions as well as Eu dimers. X-ray absorption at the Pb-L(III) edge shows that after the thermal treatment most lead atoms form a PbO amorphous phase and that only 10% of the lead atoms remain available to form β-PbF(2) type nanocrystals. Both x-ray diffraction and absorption point to a high Eu content in the nanocrystals. Our study suggests new approaches to the oxyfluoride glass-ceramic synthesis in order to further improve their properties.

  4. Variable thermal expansion of glass-ceramics containing Ba1-xSrxZn2Si2O7.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Christian; Schlesier, Martin; Oji Dike, Eze; Rüssel, Christian

    2017-06-13

    Up to now, the thermal expansion behavior of multiphase glass-ceramics cannot be predicted reliably because of the nescience about the formation of the type and concentration of crystalline phases. In the system BaO-SrO-ZnO-SiO2, recently a new phase based on Ba1-xSrxZn2Si2O7 solid solutions was found, which exhibits unexpected low and highly anisotropic thermal expansion, which can be used for an adjustment of the thermal expansion properties. In the case of sealing materials for high-temperature reactors, the formation of this phase should be avoided. Hence, in this manuscript the concentration thresholds in which these solid solutions precipitate from glasses were determined. The phase analysis was correlated with the thermal expansion behavior of the glass-ceramics. Depending on the Ba/Sr-ratio of the glasses and the considered temperature range, the coefficients of thermal expansion of the glass-ceramics vary between 19.4·10(-6) K(-1) and 4.8·10(-6) K(-1). The concentration thresholds in which the as mentioned phases form via crystallization of glasses differ strongly from the literature values obtained via conventional ceramic mixed oxide route.

  5. Continuing the Validation of CCIM Processability for Glass Ceramic HLLW Forms: Plan for Test AFY14CCIM-GC1

    SciTech Connect

    Vince Maio

    2014-04-01

    This test plan covers test AFY14CCIM-GC1which is the first of two scheduled FY-2014 test runs involving glass ceramic waste forms in the Idaho National Laboratory’s Cold Crucible Induction Melter Pilot Plant. The test plan is based on the successes and challenges of previous tests performed in FY-2012 and FY-2013. The purpose of this test is to continue to collect data for validating the glass ceramic High Level Liquid Waste form processability advantages using Cold Crucible Induction Melter technology. The major objective of AFYCCIM-GC1 is to complete additional proposed crucible pouring and post tapping controlled cooling experiments not completed during previous tests due to crucible drain failure. This is necessary to qualify that no heat treatments in standard waste disposal canisters are necessary for the operational scale production of glass ceramic waste forms. Other objectives include the production and post-test analysis of surrogate waste forms made from separate pours into the same graphite mold canister, testing the robustness of an upgraded crucible bottom drain and drain heater assembly, testing the effectiveness of inductive melt initiation using a resistive starter ring with a square wave configuration, and observing the tapped molten flow behavior in pans with areas identical to standard High Level Waste disposal canisters. Testing conditions, the surrogate waste composition, key testing steps, testing parameters, and sampling and analysis requirements are defined.

  6. Processing and characterization of continuous fiber-reinforced glass and glass-ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shaio-Wen.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation of the processing and mechanical behavior, particularly damage evolution and failure mechanisms, of continuous fiber reinforced glass and glass-ceramic composites was conducted. The processing effort utilized a slurry infiltration/hot pressing technique to fabricate carbon fiber reinforced borosilicate glass and Nicalon SiC fiber reinforced borosilicate glass composites. A slurry infiltration prepregging setup was designed and successfully operated. Processing parameters including slurry composition, binder burnout cycle and hot pressing schedule were systematically studied and optimized. Mechanical behavior studies were conducted on Nicalon SiC/Calcium Aluminosilicate (CAS) composites. The nature and the strength of the fiber/matrix interface was first characterized using a variety of fiber indentation test methods and transmission electron microscopy.

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of factors affecting the in vitro bioactivity and antibacterial activity of bioactive glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, Madeeha; Zia, Rehana; Saleemi, Farhat

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, two novel silicate glass-ceramics having chemical composition 38SiO2-41CaO-6P2O5-(15 - x)Na2O-xCaF2 (x = 0, 0.43 mol%) were synthesized. These glass derivatives were subjected to stimulated body fluid for 24 days in SBF under static condition at 37∘C in order to evaluate the bioactive properties of specimens. The antibacterial activity of glass ceramics against three pathogenic bacteria was determined using the modified Kirby Bauer method. It was found that the antibacterial activity primarily depends on the dissolution rate; faster release of ions caused rapid increase in the pH of the solution. Antibacterial properties were found to be strongly affected by changes in the pH of supernatant. The in vitro bioactivity assays showed that both glass derivatives were capable of bonding with bone and secondly effectively inhibit bacteria. However, the glass ceramic without CaF2 (B2) showed high dissolution rate, better bioactive ability and stronger antibacterial efficacy.

  8. Structural and Microwave Properties of Silica Xerogel Glass-Ceramic Sintered by Sub-millimeter Wave Heating using a Gyrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aripin, H.; Mitsudo, S.; Prima, E. S.; Sudiana, I. N.; Tani, S.; Sako, K.; Fujii, Y.; Saito, T.; Idehara, T.; Sano, S.; Sunendar, B.; Sabchevski, S.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we present and discuss experimental results from a microwave sintering of silica glass-ceramics, produced from amorphous silica xerogel extracted from sago waste ash. As a radiation source for a microwave heating a sub-millimeter wave gyrotron (Gyrotron FU CW I) with an output frequency of 300 GHz has been used. The powders of the amorphous silica xerogel have been dry pressed and then sintered at temperatures ranging from 300 °C to 1200 °C. Microwave absorbing properties of the sintered samples were investigated by measuring the dielectric constant, the dielectric loss, and the reflection loss at different frequencies in the interval from 8.2 to 12.4 GHz. Furthermore, the characteristics of the formation process for producing silica glass-ceramics were studied using a Raman Spectroscopy and a Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that the samples sintered at 1200 °C are characterized by lower reflection losses and a better transparency due to the formation of a fully crystallized silica glass- ceramic at sufficiently high temperature.

  9. Ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1983-10-04

    A method for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwaving, mixes a slurry of glass sealing material and coupling agent and applies same to ceramic workpieces. The slurry and workpieces are placed together, insulated and then microwaved at a power, time and frequency sufficient to cause a liquid phase reaction in the slurry. The reaction of the glass sealing material forms a chemically different seal than that which would be formed by conventional heating because it is formed by a diffusion rather than by wetting of the reactants.

  10. Rare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Proton Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Ray, Hannah L.; Wang, Ruigang

    2008-12-03

    The structure and conductivity of cerium and lanthanum phosphate glasses and glass-ceramics were investigated. The effects of varying the metal to phosphate ratio in the glasses, doping LaP3O9 glasses with Ce, and recrystallization of CeP3O9 glasses, on the glasses' microstructure and total conductivity were investigated using XRD, SEM, and AC impedance techniques. Strong increases in conductivity occurred when the glasses were recrystallized: the conductivity of a cerium metaphosphate glass increased conductivity after recrystallization from 10-7.5 S/cm to 10-6 S/cm at 400oC.

  11. Ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1985-01-01

    A method for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwaving, mixes a slurry of glass sealing material and coupling agent and applies same to ceramic workpieces. The slurry and workpieces are placed together, insulated and then microwaved at a power, time and frequency sufficient to cause a liquid phase reaction in the slurry. The reaction of the glass sealing material forms a chemically different seal than that which would be formed by conventional heating because it is formed by a diffusion rather than by wetting of the reactants.

  12. History and trends of bioactive glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Montazerian, Maziar; Dutra Zanotto, Edgar

    2016-05-01

    The interest around bioactive glass-ceramics (GCs) has grown significantly over the last two decades due to their appropriate biochemical and mechanical properties. The intense research effort in this field has led to some new commercial products for biomedical applications. This review article begins with the basic concepts of GC processing and development via controlled heat treatments of monolithic pieces or sinter-crystallization of powdered glasses. We then go on to describe the processing, properties, and applications of some commercial bioactive GCs and discuss selected valuable reported researches on several promising types of bioactive GCs. The article finishes with a section on open relevant research directions for bioactive GC development.

  13. Production of glass or glass-ceramic to metal seals with the application of pressure

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Michael D.; Kramer, Daniel P.

    1987-11-10

    In a process for preparing a glass or glass-ceramic to metal seal comprising contacting the glass with the metal and heat-treating the glass and metal under conditions whereby the glass to metal seal is effected and, optionally, the glass is converted to a glass-ceramic, an improvement comprises carrying out the heat-treating step using hot isostatic pressing.

  14. Production of glass or glass-ceramic to metal seals with the application of pressure

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, M.D.; Kramer, D.P.

    1985-01-04

    In a process for preparing a glass or glass-ceramic to metal seal comprising contacting the glass with the metal and heat-treating the glass and metal under conditions whereby the glass to metal seal is effected and, optionally, the glass is converted to a glass-ceramic, an improvement comprises carrying out the heat-treating step using hot isostatic pressing.

  15. Development and characterization of basalt-glass ceramics for the immobilization of transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lokken, R.O.; Chick, L.A.; Thomas, L.E.

    1982-09-01

    Basalt-based waste forms were developed for the immobilization of transuranic (TRU) contaminated wastes. The specific waste studied is a 3:1 blend of process sludge and incinerator ash. Various amounts of TRU blended waste were melted with Pomona basalt powder. The vitreous products were subjected to a variety of heat treatment conditions to form glass ceramics. The total crystallinity of the glass ceramic, ranging from 20 to 45 wt %, was moderately dependent on composition and heat treatment conditions. Three parent glasses and four glass ceramics with varied composition and heat treatment were produced for detailed phase characterization and leaching. Both parent glasses and glass ceramics were mainly composed of a continuous, glassy matrix phase. This glass matrix entered into solution during leaching in both types of materials. The Fe-Ti rich dispersed glass phase was not significantly degraded by leaching. The glass ceramics, however, exhibited four to ten times less elemental releases during leaching than the parent glasses. The glass ceramic matrix probably contains higher Fe and Na and lower Ca and Mg relative to the parent glass matrix. The crystallization of augite in the glass ceramics is believed to contribute to the improved leach rates. Leach rates of the basalt glass ceramic are compared to those of other TRU nuclear waste forms containing /sup 239/Pu.

  16. Use of a synthetic low-fusing quartz glass-ceramic material for the fabrication of metal-ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Chu, S J

    2001-01-01

    The development of natural aesthetics has been facilitated by various innovative ceramic materials and techniques. Although metal-ceramic restorations have traditionally been the standard for durable and predictable restorations, the use of metal core materials may result in dense, opaque restorations. The incorporation of low-fusing porcelain materials has enabled the provision of translucent restorations that enable sufficient light transmission and strength. This article presents two comparative case reports that demonstrate the clinical application of a synthetic low-fusing quartz glass-ceramic material for the fabrication of aesthetic and functional metal-ceramic restorations.

  17. Strength of inorganic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkjian, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: a look at the history of glass strength; atomistic theory of fracture; surface chemistry in relation to the strength and fracture of silicate glasses; high-speed photographic investigations of the dynamic localized loading of some oxide glasses; a correction for measurements of contact area using Newton's rings; envionmentally enhanced crack growth; fatigue in glass; behavior of flaws in fused silica fibers; fracture toughness of chalcogenide glasses and glass-ceramics; fracture analysis of glass surfaces; and fracture mechanics parameters for glasses - a compilation and correlation.

  18. A modularized pulse forming line using glass-ceramic slabs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Songsong; Shu, Ting; Yang, Hanwu

    2012-08-01

    In our lab, a kind of glass-ceramic slab has been chosen to study the issues of applying solid-state dielectrics to pulse forming lines (PFLs). Limited by the manufacture of the glass-ceramic bulk with large sizes, a single ceramic slab is hard to store sufficient power for the PFL. Therefore, a modularized PFL design concept is proposed in this paper. We regard a single ceramic slab as a module to form each single Blumlein PFL. We connect ceramic slabs in series to enlarge pulse width, and stack the ceramic Blumlein PFLs in parallel to increase the output voltage amplitude. Testing results of a single Blumlein PFL indicate that one ceramic slab contributes about 11 ns to the total pulse width which has a linear relation to the number of the ceramic slabs. We have developed a prototype facility of the 2-stage stacked Blumlein PFL with a length of 2 ceramic slabs. The PFL is dc charged up to 5 kV, and the output voltage pulse of 10 kV, 22 ns is measured across an 8 Ω load. Simulation and experiment results in good agreement demonstrate that the modularized design is reasonable.

  19. Improvement of the stability of hydroxyapatite through glass ceramic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Ha, Na Ra; Yang, Zheng Xun; Hwang, Kyu Hong; Kim, Tae Suk; Lee, Jong Kook

    2010-05-01

    Hydroxyapatite has achieved significant application in orthopedic and dental implants due to its excellent biocompatibility. Sintered hydroxyapatites showed significant dissolution, however, after their immersion in water or simulated body fluid (SBF). This grain boundary dissolution, even in pure hydroxyapatites, resulted in grain separation at the surfaces, and finally, in fracture. In this study, hydroxyapatite ceramics containing apatite-wollastonite (AW) or calcium silicate (SG) glass ceramics as additives were prepared to prevent the dissolution. AW and SG glass ceramics were added at 0-7 wt% and powder-compacted uniaxially followed by firing at moisture conditions. The glass phase was incorporated into the hydroxyapatite to act as a sintering aid, followed by crystallization, to improve the mechanical properties without reducing the biocompatibility. As seen in the results of the dissolution test, a significant amount of damage was reduced even after more than 14 days. TEM and SEM showed no decomposition of HA to the secondary phase, and the fracture toughness increased, becoming even higher than that of the commercial hydroxyapatite.

  20. Nano-mechanical behaviour of lithium metasilicate glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Alao, Abdur-Rasheed; Yin, Ling

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports the first study on the mechanical behavior of lithium metasilicate glass-ceramic using nanoindentation and in situ scanning probe imaging techniques. Indentation contact hardness, Hc, and Young's modulus, E, were measured at 10 mN peak load and 0.1-2 mN/s loading rates to understand the loading rate effect on its properties. Indentation imprints were analysed with the in situ scanning probe imaging to understand indentation mechanisms. The average contact hardness increased by 112% with the loading rate (ANOVA, p<0.05) while the Young's modulus showed the loading rate independence (ANOVA, p>0.05). A strain rate sensitivity model was applied to determine the intrinsic contact hardness. Extensive discontinuities and largest maximum, contact and final depths were also observed at the lowest loading rate. These phenomena corresponded to inhomogeneous shear-band flow and densification leading to the material strain softening. The in situ scanning probe images of indentation imprints showed plastic deformation at all loading rates and shear band-induced pileups at the lowest loading rate. With the increase in loading rate, the induced pile-ups decreased. The continuum model predicted the largest densified shear zone at the lowest loading rate. Finally, these results provide scientific insights into the abrasive machining responses of lithium metasilicate glass-ceramic during dental CAD/CAM processes using sharp diamond abrasives.

  1. Glass-ceramic joint and method of joining

    DOEpatents

    Meinhardt, Kerry D [Richland, WA; Vienna, John D [West Richland, WA; Armstrong, Timothy R [Clinton, TN; Pederson, Larry R [Kennewick, WA

    2003-03-18

    The present invention is a glass-ceramic material and method of making useful for joining a solid ceramic component and at least one other solid component. The material is a blend of M1-M2-M3, wherein M1 is BaO, SrO, CaO, MgO, or combinations thereof, M2 is Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, present in the blend in an amount from 2 to 15 mol %, M3 is SiO.sub.2 with up to 50 mol % B.sub.2 O.sub.3 that substantially matches a coefficient of thermal expansion of the solid electrolyte. According to the present invention, a series of glass ceramics in the M1-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 -M3 system can be used to join or seal both tubular and planar solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen electrolyzers, and membrane reactors for the production of syngas, commodity chemicals and other products.

  2. Glass ceramics for incinerator ash immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinina, G. A.; Stefanovsky, O. I.; Stefanovsky, S. V.

    2011-09-01

    Calcined solid radioactive waste (incinerator slag) surrogate and either Na 2Si 2O 5 or Na 2B 4O 7 (borax) at various mass ratios were melted in silicon carbide crucibles in a resistive furnace at temperatures of up to 1775 K (slag without additives). Portions of the melts were poured onto a metal plate; the residues were slowly cooled in turned-off furnace. Both quenched and slowly cooled materials were composed of the same phases. At high slag contents in silicate-based materials nepheline and britholite were found to be major phases. Britholite formed at higher slag content (85 wt.%) became major phase in the vitrified slag. In the system with borax at low slag contents (25 and 50 wt.%) material are composed of predominant vitreous and minor calcium silicate larnite type phase Ca 2SiO 4 where Ca 2+ ions are replaced by different cations. The materials containing slag in amount of 75 wt.% and more are chemically durable. The changes in the structure of anionic motif of quenched samples depending on slag loading were studied by IR spectroscopy.

  3. Er-doped and Er, Yb co-doped oxyfluoride glasses and glass-ceramics, structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisiecki, Radosław; Augustyn, Elżbieta; Ryba-Romanowski, Witold; Żelechower, Michał

    2011-09-01

    The selected glasses and glass-ceramics pertinent to following chemical composition in mol%:48%SiO 2-11%Al 2O 3-7%Na 2O-10%CaO-10%PbO-11%PbF 2-3%ErF 3 and 48%SiO 2-11%Al 2O 3-7%Na 2O-10%CaO-10%PbO-10%PbF 2-1%ErF 3-3%YbF 3 have been manufactured from high purity components (Aldrich) at 1450 °C in normal atmosphere. Glass optical fibers were successfully drawn. Subsequently they were subject to the heat-treatment at 700 °C in various time periods. The preceding differential thermal analysis (DTA) studies allowed estimating both the fiber drawing temperature and the controlled crystallization temperature of glass fibers. It has been observed that the controlled heat-treatment of oxyfluoride glass fibers results in the creation of Pb 5Al 3F 19, Er 4F 2O 11Si 3 and Er 3FO 10Si 3 crystalline phases. The identified phases were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and confirmed by selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The fibers consist of mixed amorphous-crystalline microstructure with nano-crystals of size even below 10 nm distributed in the glassy host. Their morphology was investigated applying high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Optical properties and excited state relaxation dynamics of optically active ions (Er 3+, Yb 3+) in glass and glass-ceramics have been studied. Based on absorption spectra the Judd-Ofelt analysis was carried out. The main attention was directed to NIR luminescence at. 1.6 μm related to 4I 13/2 → 4I 15/2 Er 3+ and less effective emission associated with 4I 11/2 → 4I 15/2 Er 3+ and 2F 5/2 → 2F 7/2 Yb 3+ transitions. The dissimilar spectroscopic properties have been revealed for glasses and glass-ceramic samples, respectively. The reduction of emission linewidth at 1.6 and 1.0 μm combined with substantial increase of 4I 13/2 lifetimes of erbium in glass-ceramics appear to be evidences that Er 3+ ions are accommodated in crystalline phases. The structural and optical characteristics of oxyfluoride glass-ceramic

  4. Fracture Strength of Zirconia and Alumina Ceramic Crowns Supported by Implants.

    PubMed

    Traini, Tonino; Sorrentino, Roberto; Gherlone, Enrico; Perfetti, Federico; Bollero, Patrizio; Zarone, Ferdinando

    2015-07-01

    Due to the brittleness and limited tensile strength of the veneering glass-ceramic materials, the methods that combine strong core material (as zirconia or alumina) are still under debate. The present study aims to evaluate the fracture strength and the mechanism of failure through fractographic analysis of single all-ceramic crowns supported by implants. Forty premolar cores were fabricated with CAD/CAM technology using alumina (n = 20) and zirconia (n = 20). The specimens were veneered with glass-ceramic, cemented on titanium abutments, and subjected to loading test until fracture. SEM fractographic analysis was also performed. The fracture load was 1165 (±509) N for alumina and 1638 (±662) N for zirconia with a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.026). Fractographic analysis of alumina-glass-ceramic crowns, showed the presence of catastrophic cracks through the entire thickness of the alumina core; for the zirconia-glass-ceramic crowns, the cracks involved mainly the thickness of the ceramic veneering layer. The sandblast procedure of the zirconia core influenced crack path deflection. Few samples (n = 3) showed limited microcracks of the zirconia core. Zirconia showed a significantly higher fracture strength value in implant-supported restorations, indicating the role played by the high resistant cores for premolar crowns.

  5. Effect of nucleation temperature on fracture toughness (KIC) of fluorcanasite-based glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Oh, Won-Suck; Zhang, Nai-Zheng; Anusavice, Kenneth J

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that nucleation temperature significantly affects the fracture toughness of a fluorcanasite-based glass-ceramic. Sixty specimens were cut from a glass bar, polished, and randomly divided into six groups for nucleation treatment at temperatures of (1) 520 degrees C, (2) 550 degrees C, (3) 580 degrees C, (4) 610 degrees C, (5) 640 degrees C, and (6) 670 degrees C for 4 hours and a crystallization temperature of 850 degrees C for 6 hours. A precrack was produced at the center of each bar, and the prepared specimens were subjected to three-point flexural loading with the cracked surface under tension using an Instron machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Fracture toughness was calculated based on the indentation strength technique, and crystal volume fraction was determined by quantitative stereology of SEM images of each group of ceramic specimens. The mean fracture toughness and crystal volume fraction ranged from 2.6 to 3.5 MPa x m1/2 and from 65% to 81%, respectively, within the limits of the nucleation temperatures investigated. ANOVA showed statistically significant differences among the test groups. Based on Duncan's multiple comparison test, significant differences in mean fracture toughness and crystal volume fraction were found among the following statistical subsets: groups 1 to 4, group 5, and group 6. Fracture toughness and crystal volume fraction of a fluorcanasite-based glass-ceramic were strongly influenced by nucleation temperature; the crystals precipitated during thermal processing are thought to be an important factor in increasing fracture toughness.

  6. Intense 2.7 μm mid-infrared emission of Er{sup 3+} in oxyfluoride glass ceramic containing NaYF{sub 4} nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yin; Liu, Xueyun; Wang, Weichao; Yu, Ting; Zhang, Qinyuan

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics containing NaYF{sub 4}:Er{sup 3+} nanocrystals have been prepared. • Intense 2.7 μm emission of the glass-ceramics has been demonstrated. • Prolonged decay lifetimes of Er{sup 3+}:{sup 4}I{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} levels have been achieved. - Abstract: Transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing NaYF{sub 4}:Er{sup 3+} nanocrystals have been prepared by melt quenching and subsequent thermal treatment. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis confirmed the precipitation of NaYF{sub 4} nanocrystals in glass. Energy dispersive spectrometer results evidenced the preferential concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions in nanocrystals. Mid-infrared, upconversion, and near-infrared emissions were measured upon excitation with 980 nm laser diode and the luminescence mechanisms were discussed. Intense 2.7 μm emission originating from the Er{sup 3+}:{sup 4}I{sub 11/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} transition was achieved due to the incorporation of Er{sup 3+} ions into the precipitated low phonon energy fluoride nanocrystals. The results indicate that oxyfluoride glass ceramic containing NaYF{sub 4}:Er{sup 3+} nanocrystals is a promising candidate material for 2.7 μm laser.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of Er+3 doped SiO2/SnO2 glass-ceramic thin films for planar waveguide applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guddala, S.; Chiappini, A.; Armellini, C.; Turell, S.; Righini, G. C.; Ferrari, M.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2015-02-01

    Glass-ceramics are a kind of two-phase materials constituted by nanocrystals embedded in a glass matrix and the respective volume fractions of crystalline and amorphous phase determine the properties of the glass-ceramics. Among these properties transparency is crucial in particular when confined structures, such as, dielectric optical waveguides, are considered. Moreover, the segregation of dopant rare-earth ions, like erbium, in low phonon energy crystalline medium makes these structures more promising in the development of waveguide amplifiers. Here we are proposing a new class of low phonon energy tin oxide semiconductor medium doped silicate based planar waveguides. Er3+ doped (100-x) SiO2-xSnO2 (x= 10, 20, 25 and 30mol%), glass-ceramic planar waveguide thin films were fabricated by a simple sol-gel processing and dip coating technique. XRD and HRTEM studies indicates the glass-ceramic phase of the film and the dispersion of ~4nm diameter of tin oxide nanocrystals in the amorphous phase of silica. The spectroscopic assessment indicates the distribution of the dopant erbium ions in the crystalline medium of tin oxide. The observed low losses, 0.5±0.2 dB/cm, at 1.54 μm communication wavelength makes them a quite promising material for the development of high gain integrated optical amplifiers.

  8. High strength alloys

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  9. High strength alloys

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub

    2012-06-05

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  10. Crystallization, Microstructure, and Viscosity Evolutions in Lithium Aluminosilicate Glass-Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qiang; Wheaton, Bryan; Geisinger, Karen; Credle, Allen; Wang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    Lithium aluminosilicate glass-ceramics have found widespread commercial success in areas such as consumer products, telescope mirrors, fireplace windows, etc. However, there is still much to learn regarding the fundamental mechanisms of crystallization, especially related to the evolution of viscosity as a function of the crystallization (ceramming) process. In this study, the impact of phase assemblage and microstructure on the viscosity was investigated using high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD), beam bending viscometry (BBV), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results from this study provide a first direct observation of viscosity evolution as a function of ceramming time and temperature. Sharp viscosity increases due to phase separation, nucleation and phase transformation are noticed through BBV measurement. A near-net shape ceramming can be achieved in TiO2-containing compositions by keeping the glass at a high viscosity (> 109 Pa.s) throughout the whole thermal treatment.

  11. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Glass ceramic composite is prepared from oil shale fly ash and MSWI bottom ash. • A novel method for the production of glass ceramic composite is presented. • It provides simple route and lower energy consumption in terms of recycling waste. • The vitrified slag can promote the sintering densification process of glass ceramic. • The performances of products decrease with the increase of oil shale fly ash content. - Abstract: Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2 h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm{sup 3}, weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced

  12. High strength composites evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, S.M.

    1992-02-01

    A high-strength, thick-section, graphite/epoxy composite was identified. The purpose of this development effort was to evaluate candidate materials and provide LANL with engineering properties. Eight candidate materials (Samples 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, and 1700) were chosen for evaluation. The Sample 1700 thermoplastic material was the strongest overall.

  13. Er3+-doped transparent glass ceramics containing micron-sized SrF2 crystals for 2.7 μm emissions

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yiguang; Fan, Jintai; Jiang, Benxue; Mao, Xiaojian; Tang, Junzhou; Xu, Yinsheng; Dai, Shixun; Zhang, Long

    2016-01-01

    Er3+-doped transparent glass ceramics containing micron-sized SrF2 crystals were obtained by direct liquid-phase sintering of a mixture of SrF2 powders and precursor glass powders at 820 °C for 15 min. The appearance and microstructural evolution of the SrF2 crystals in the resulting glass ceramics were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission microscopy. The SrF2 crystals are ~15 μm in size and are uniformly distributed throughout the fluorophosphate glass matrix. The glass ceramics achieve an average transmittance of 75% in the visible region and more than 85% in the near-IR region. The high transmittance of the glass ceramics results from matching the refractive index of the SrF2 with that of the precursor glass. Energy dispersive spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectra, and photoluminescence lifetimes verified the incorporation of Er3+ into the micron-sized SrF2 crystals. Intense 2.7 μm emissions due to the 4I11/2 → 4I13/2 transition were observed upon excitation at 980 nm using a laser diode. The maximum value of the emission cross section of Er3+ around 2.7 μm is more than 1.2 × 10−20 cm2, which indicates the potential of using transparent glass ceramics containing micron-sized SrF2 crystals for efficient 2.7 μm lasers and amplifiers. PMID:27430595

  14. Er(3+)-doped transparent glass ceramics containing micron-sized SrF2 crystals for 2.7 μm emissions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yiguang; Fan, Jintai; Jiang, Benxue; Mao, Xiaojian; Tang, Junzhou; Xu, Yinsheng; Dai, Shixun; Zhang, Long

    2016-07-19

    Er(3+)-doped transparent glass ceramics containing micron-sized SrF2 crystals were obtained by direct liquid-phase sintering of a mixture of SrF2 powders and precursor glass powders at 820 °C for 15 min. The appearance and microstructural evolution of the SrF2 crystals in the resulting glass ceramics were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission microscopy. The SrF2 crystals are ~15 μm in size and are uniformly distributed throughout the fluorophosphate glass matrix. The glass ceramics achieve an average transmittance of 75% in the visible region and more than 85% in the near-IR region. The high transmittance of the glass ceramics results from matching the refractive index of the SrF2 with that of the precursor glass. Energy dispersive spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectra, and photoluminescence lifetimes verified the incorporation of Er(3+) into the micron-sized SrF2 crystals. Intense 2.7 μm emissions due to the (4)I11/2 → (4)I13/2 transition were observed upon excitation at 980 nm using a laser diode. The maximum value of the emission cross section of Er(3+) around 2.7 μm is more than 1.2 × 10(-20) cm(2), which indicates the potential of using transparent glass ceramics containing micron-sized SrF2 crystals for efficient 2.7 μm lasers and amplifiers.

  15. Er3+-doped transparent glass ceramics containing micron-sized SrF2 crystals for 2.7 μm emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yiguang; Fan, Jintai; Jiang, Benxue; Mao, Xiaojian; Tang, Junzhou; Xu, Yinsheng; Dai, Shixun; Zhang, Long

    2016-07-01

    Er3+-doped transparent glass ceramics containing micron-sized SrF2 crystals were obtained by direct liquid-phase sintering of a mixture of SrF2 powders and precursor glass powders at 820 °C for 15 min. The appearance and microstructural evolution of the SrF2 crystals in the resulting glass ceramics were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission microscopy. The SrF2 crystals are ~15 μm in size and are uniformly distributed throughout the fluorophosphate glass matrix. The glass ceramics achieve an average transmittance of 75% in the visible region and more than 85% in the near-IR region. The high transmittance of the glass ceramics results from matching the refractive index of the SrF2 with that of the precursor glass. Energy dispersive spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectra, and photoluminescence lifetimes verified the incorporation of Er3+ into the micron-sized SrF2 crystals. Intense 2.7 μm emissions due to the 4I11/2 → 4I13/2 transition were observed upon excitation at 980 nm using a laser diode. The maximum value of the emission cross section of Er3+ around 2.7 μm is more than 1.2 × 10‑20 cm2, which indicates the potential of using transparent glass ceramics containing micron-sized SrF2 crystals for efficient 2.7 μm lasers and amplifiers.

  16. Preparation and Mechanical Behavior of Glass-Ceramics from Feldspathic Frits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Fernanda A. N. G.; Barbato, Carla N.; França, Silvia C. A.; Silva, Ana Lúcia N.; de Andrade, Mônica C.

    2017-09-01

    Glass-ceramics were produced from frits with feldspar (79.09% wt/wt), alumina, sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, borax and cerium dioxide. Feldspathic frits obtained at 1200 °C were shaped and sintered at various temperatures. Flexural strength results were analyzed by using the Weibull statistical distribution. These materials were also characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At 600 °C, an initial leucite formation occurred as a crystalline phase, but the amorphous phase still prevailed, with low flexural strength. On the other hand, when the temperature increased to 800 °C, flexural strength also increased to approximately 70 MPa and Weibull modulus, m = 4.4 . This behavior was explained by the formation of leucite crystals dispersed within the glassy matrix, which hinders, in a certain concentration, the propagation of cracks. However, for the sintering temperature of 1000 °C, flexural strength decreased and may be associated with higher levels of this leucite crystal, in spite of the higher reliability m = 6.6.

  17. Advanced processing of the Zerodur R glass ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Thomas A.

    1991-11-01

    The Zerodur glass ceramic is an extraordinary material possessing a very low thermal expansion over a broad temperature range. Depending on the size of the castings, a continuous or a discontinuous melting technology is used in the manufacture of Zerodur. Continuous melters are being operated regularly in Germany and recently in the United States. The latest generation of discontinuous melters started production of 8.2 m spincast telescope blanks in early 1991. Zerodur fusion is a special process to generate lightweighted mirror blanks and special components. It requires glassy material and generates bonds that are as strong as the bulk material. Further process development such as waterjet cutting and insertion technologies are underway and may generate components of unique shapes and performance.

  18. Creep Properties of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Glass-Ceramic Seal G18

    SciTech Connect

    Milhans, Jacqueline; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Sun, Xin; Tehrani, Mehran; Al-Haik, Marwan; Garmestani, Hamid

    2010-11-01

    This study utilizes nanoindentation to investigate and measure creep properties of a barium calcium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic used for solid oxide fuel cell seals (SOFCs). Samples of the glassceramic seal material were aged for 5h, 50h, and 100h to obtain different degrees of crystallinity. Instrumented nanoindentation was performed on the samples with different aging times at different temperatures to investigate the strain rate sensitivity during inelastic deformation. The temperature dependent behavior is important since SOFCs operate at high temperatures (800-1000°C). Results show that the samples with higher crystallinity were more resistant to creep, and the creep compliance tended to decrease with increasing temperature, especially with further aged samples.

  19. Perfect surface crystallization and parasitic structures in nonstoichiometric glass-ceramics: Micro-/nanoscopic aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Ihara, Rie; Fujiwara, Takumi

    2013-05-01

    Uniform and highly oriented crystalline layers with submillimeter thickness have been demonstrated recently by crystallization in nonstoichiometric precursor glass, i.e., perfectly surface-crystallized glass-ceramics (PSC-GCs). Although the origin of PSC in the SrO-TiO2-SiO2 system was interpreted by the presence of SiO2-rich amorphous nanoparasites on the crystalline domains [Takahashi et al., Sci. Rep. 3, 1147 (2013)], an essential question arose: Is the parasitic structure in PSC-GCs special or natural? To answer it, we prepared PSC samples from other ternary titanosilicate systems and conducted micro- and nanoscopic observations. We found the conditions necessary for PSC by combining our results with previous PSC studies.

  20. Structures and optical properties of tellurite glasses and glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Robert Theodore, Jr.

    The structures and optical properties of (K2O)15(Nb 2O5)15(TeO2)70 glass and glass ceramic have been studied in order to understand the second harmonic generation observed from the glass ceramic. We have used 93Nb NMR, Raman spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, small angle x-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and powder x-ray and neutron scattering. We find that there is a microstructure consistent with binodal phase separation leading to spherical inclusions ˜20 nm in size. Upon heat treatment, these domains become nanocrystals of K2Te 4O9. A theory of optical heterogeneity is used to describe the observed second harmonic generation which is ˜95 times more intense that quartz. The chi(2) value for this material is 3.0 x 10-9 esu. A second project has used 125Te and 17O NMR to study alkali tellurite glasses in the system (M2O) x(TeO2)10-x, where M = Li, Na or K and x = 1, 2 or 3. The 125Te results show that complex models of network modification are needed to explain the resulting spectra that include a distribution of polyhedral tellurite units at all compositions. The 17O results show that there is a clear distinction between bridging and non-bridging oxygen sites in tellurite crystals and that sophisticated NMR experiments should be able to distinguish them in the glasses. Further, we have used Extended Huckel theory tight-binding calculations to predict the 17O NMR shifts of SiO2, GeO 2 and TeO2. We find that these calculations allow accurate predictions of the chemical shifts based solely on the trend in valence orbital size, and that expensive calculations of electron currents need not be used for this application.

  1. Indirect selective laser sintering of an apatite-mullite glass-ceramic for potential use in bone replacement applications.

    PubMed

    Goodridge, R D; Dalgarno, K W; Wood, D J

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of using indirect selective laser sintering (SLS) to produce parts from glass-ceramic materials for bone replacement applications has been investigated. A castable glass based on the system SiO2 x Al2O3 x P2O5 x CaO x CaF2 that crystallizes to a glass-ceramic with apatite and mullite phases was produced, blended with an acrylic binder, and processed by SLS. Green parts with good structural integrity were produced using a wide range of processing conditions, allowing both monolayer and multilayer components to be constructed. Following SLS the parts were post-processed to remove the binder and to crystallize fully the material, evolving the apatite and mullite phases. The parts were heated to 1200 degrees C using a number of different time-temperature profiles, following which the processed material was analysed by differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy, and tested for flexural strength. An increase in strength was achieved by infiltrating the brown parts with a resorbable phosphate glass, although this altered the crystal phases present in the material.

  2. Mechanical and in vitro performance of apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic reinforced hydroxyapatite composite fabricated by 3D-printing.

    PubMed

    Suwanprateeb, J; Sanngam, R; Suvannapruk, W; Panyathanmaporn, T

    2009-06-01

    In situ hydroxyapatite/apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic composite was fabricated by a three dimensional printing (3DP) technique and characterized. It was found that the as-fabricated mean green strength of the composite was 1.27 MPa which was sufficient for general handling. After varying sintering temperatures (1050-1300 degrees C) and times (1-10 h), it was found that sintering at 1300 degrees C for 3 h gave the greatest flexural modulus and strength, 34.10 GPa and 76.82 MPa respectively. This was associated with a decrease in porosity and increase in densification ability of the composite resulting from liquid phase sintering. Bioactivity tested by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) and In Vitro toxicity studies showed that 3DP hydroxyapatite/A-W glass ceramic composite was non-toxic and bioactive. A new calcium phosphate layer was observed on the surface of the composite after soaking in SBF for only 1 day while osteoblast cells were able to attach and attain normal morphology on the surface of the composite.

  3. Structural and magnetic properties of SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 containing BaO-Fe2O3 glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenakul, W.; Kantha, P.; Pisitpipathsin, N.; Rujijanagul, G.; Eitssayeam, S.; Pengpat, K.

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation method was employed to produce bioactive glass-ceramics from the BaFe12O19-SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 glass system. The ferrimagnetic BaFe12O19 was first prepared using a simple mixed oxide method, where the oxide precursors of 45S5 bioglass were initially mixed and then melted to form glass. The devitrification of Na3Ca6(PO4)5 and Fe3O4 was observed in all of the quenched glass samples. The glass samples were then subjected to a heat treatment schedule for further crystallization. It was found that the small traces of BaFe12O19 phases started to crystallize in high BF content samples of 20 and 40 wt%. These samples also exhibited good magnetic properties comparable to that of other magnetic glass-ceramics. The bioactivity of the BF glass-ceramics improved with increasing BF content as was evident by the formation of bone-like apatite layers on the surface of all of the glass-ceramics after soaking in SBF for 14 days. The results support the use of these bioactive glass-ceramics for hyperthermia treatment within the human body.

  4. Magnetic Glass Ceramics by Sintering of Borosilicate Glass and Inorganic Waste

    PubMed Central

    Ponsot, Inès M. M. M.; Pontikes, Yiannis; Baldi, Giovanni; Chinnam, Rama K.; Detsch, Rainer; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Bernardo, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Ceramics and glass ceramics based on industrial waste have been widely recognized as competitive products for building applications; however, there is a great potential for such materials with novel functionalities. In this paper, we discuss the development of magnetic sintered glass ceramics based on two iron-rich slags, coming from non-ferrous metallurgy and recycled borosilicate glass. The substantial viscous flow of the glass led to dense products for rapid treatments at relatively low temperatures (900–1000 °C), whereas glass/slag interactions resulted in the formation of magnetite crystals, providing ferrimagnetism. Such behavior could be exploited for applying the obtained glass ceramics as induction heating plates, according to preliminary tests (showing the rapid heating of selected samples, even above 200 °C). The chemical durability and safety of the obtained glass ceramics were assessed by both leaching tests and cytotoxicity tests. PMID:28788146

  5. Production of coloured glass-ceramics from incinerator ash using thermal plasma technology.

    PubMed

    Cheng, T W; Huang, M Z; Tzeng, C C; Cheng, K B; Ueng, T H

    2007-08-01

    Incineration is a major treatment process for municipal solid waste in Taiwan. It is estimated that over 1.5 Mt of incinerator ash are produced annually. This study proposes using thermal plasma technology to treat incinerator ash. Sintered glass-ceramics were produced using quenched vitrified slag with colouring agents added. The experimental results showed that the major crystalline phases developed in the sintered glass-ceramics were gehlenite and wollastonite, but many other secondary phases also appeared depending on the colouring agents added. The physical/mechanical properties, chemical resistance and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure of the coloured glass-ceramics were satisfactory. The glass-ceramic products obtained from incinerator ash treated with thermal plasma technology have great potential for building applications.

  6. Effect of different Er 3+ compounds doping on microstructure and photoluminescent properties of oxyfluoride glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fanqing; Ren, Guozhong; Qiu, Xiannian; Yang, Qibin

    2008-07-01

    Four different erbium compounds: Er 2O 3, ErOF, ErF 3 and ErCl 3, doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics were prepared. The microstructure and optical properties of the glasses and glass ceramics were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), absorption spectra and luminescence spectra. The influence of four different Er 3+ compounds on the microstructure and optical properties of the glasses and their corresponding glass ceramics was analyzed in detail. The results indicated that upconversion luminescence and ratios of red to green emission of all the samples have close relationship with microstructures and the variety of the Er 3+ compounds. It was concluded that the glass ceramics doped with ErF 3 was the most beneficial for the precipitation of PbF 2 crystallites and had the lowest ratio of red to green emission. The mechanisms of the observed phenomena were discussed.

  7. Non-destructive thermo-mechanical behavior assessment of glass-ceramics for dental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordatos, E. Z.; Abdulkadhim, Z.; Feteira, A. M.

    2017-05-01

    Every year millions of people seek dental treatment to either repair damaged, unaesthetic and dysfunctional teeth or replace missing natural teeth. Several dental materials have been developed to meet the stringent requirements in terms of mechanical properties, aesthetics and chemical durability in the oral environment. Glass-ceramics exhibit a suitable combination of these properties for dental restorations. This research is focused on the assessment of the thermomechanical behavior of bio-ceramics and particularly lithium aluminosilicate glass-ceramics (LAS glass-ceramics). Specifically, methodologies based on Infrared Thermography (IRT) have been applied in order the structure - property relationship to be evaluated. Non-crystallized, partially crystallized and fully crystallized glass-ceramic samples have been non-destructively assessed in order their thermo-mechanical behavior to be associated with their micro-structural features.

  8. Preparation of mica-based glass-ceramics with needle-like fluorapatite.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Qijun; Liu, Yong; Sheng, Xiaoxian; Dan, Xiaohong

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare mica-based glass-ceramics containing needle-like fluorapatites, and to understand the relationship between the composition, the microstructure and mechanical properties. The specimens were prepared by casting and subsequent heat treatment. The crystalline phases in the specimens were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microstructures of the fractured surface were examined by using a scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS). The Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were determined by the indentation method. Statistical analysis of the results was performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test. The bioactivity of the glass-ceramics was evaluated by soaking the polished specimens in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Needle-like fluorapatite crystals were successfully obtained in mica-based glass-ceramics by controlling the heat treatment process. The formation of needle-like fluorapatite crystals, instead of particle-like crystals reported in previous studies, can be attributed to the one-dimensional rapid growth of fluorapatite along the c-axis. The mechanical properties of the glass-ceramics are related to the fluorapatite content. The higher the fluorapatite content, the higher the Vickers hardness and the fracture toughness (p<0.01). The bioactivity test showed that the needle-like fluorapatite-containing glass-ceramics possess very good bioactivity. As the needle-like fluorapatite crystal has the same morphology as human bones, it endows the mica-based glass-ceramics with good bioactivity. Moreover, the needle-like fluorapatite crystal toughens the base glass-ceramics. Therefore, the mica-based glass-ceramics with needle-like fluorapatite have the potential for the restoration of bone defects and implants.

  9. ZnO glass-ceramics: An alternative way to produce semiconductor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Masai, Hirokazu; Toda, Tatsuya; Ueno, Takahiro; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Takumi

    2009-04-13

    Fabrication of transparent glass-ceramics containing ZnO nanocrystallites has been reported. The obtained material shows UV-excited photoluminescence consisting of both broad emission in the visible region and the free exciton emission at 3.28 eV. Since the observed emission depends on the precipitated state of ZnO in the glass matrix, the glass-ceramics obtained by this way will give an alternative selection of semiconductor material with unique optical and electronic functions.

  10. Opportunities for Fluorochlorozirconate and Other Glass-Ceramic Detectors in Medical Imaging Devices

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jacqueline A.; Leonard, Russell L.; Lubinsky, AR; Schweizer, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    This article gives an overview of fluorochlorozirconate glass-ceramic scintillators and storage phosphor materials: how they are synthesized, what their properties are, and how they can be used in medical imaging. Such materials can enhance imaging in x-ray radiography, especially mammography and dental imaging, computed tomography, and positron emission tomography. Although focusing on fluorochlorozirconate materials, the reader will find the discussion is relevant to other luminescent glass and glass-ceramic systems.

  11. Bone response to three different chemical compositions of fluorcanasite glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    da Rocha Barros, Valdemar Mallet; Liporaci, Jorge Luiz J; Rosa, Adalberto L; Junqueira, Marcela Caffarena; de Oliveira, Paulo Tambasco; Johnson, Anthony; van Noort, Richard

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone response to three fluorcanasite glass-ceramic compositions with different solubilities (K3, K5, and K8) after implantation in a femur rabbit model. Fluorcanasite glass-ceramic rods were implanted bilaterally in the mid-shafts rabbit femurs. Implants were harvested at 8 and 12 weeks and prepared for histological and histomorphometric analyses at the light microscope level. Bioglass 45S5 rods were used as a control material. At 8 weeks, all fluorcanasite glass-ceramics were entirely surrounded by a nonmineralized connective tissue. At 12 weeks, reduced areas of bone tissue were observed in the cortical area in direct contact with the K3 and K5 fluorcanasite glass-ceramics compared to Bioglass 45S5, whereas no bone tissue was observed in direct contact with the K8 surface. Bone-to-implant contact in the cortical area was affected by the material chemical composition and ranked as follows: Bioglass 45S5>K3>K5>K8 (p=0.001). In the bone marrow, a layer of fibrous connective tissue formed in direct contact with the fluorcanasite glass-ceramics and Bioglass 45S5, and only rarely exhibited contact osteogenesis. All the fluorcanasite glass-ceramics appeared to degrade in the biological environment. The solubility ratio did not alter significantly the biological reply of the fluorcanasite glass-ceramics in vivo. Further modifications of the chemical composition of the fluorcanasite glass-ceramic are required to increase the stability of the material in vivo.

  12. Fabrication and evaluation of osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on novel CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Seo, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung Mee; Ryu, Hyun-Seung; Baek, Hae-Ri

    2013-07-01

    Apatite-wollastonite glass-ceramics have high mechanical strength, and CaO-SiO2 -B2 O3 glass-ceramics showed excellent bioactivity and high biodegradability. A new type of CaO-SiO2 -P2 O5 -B2 O3 system of bioactive glass-ceramics (BGS-7) was fabricated, and the effect and usefulness was evaluated via bioactivity using simulated body fluid and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The purpose of this study was to compare BGS-7 and hydroxyapatite (HA) using hMSCs in order to evaluate the bioactivity of BGS-7 and its possibility as a bone graft extender. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, ALP activity, cell proliferation 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS) assay, Alizarin Red-S (AR-S) staining, calcium levels, the mRNA expression of ALP, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and runt-related transcription factor 2 (runx-2) using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the protein expression of osteocalcin and runx-2 using Western blot were measured by transplanting hMSC onto a tissue culture plate, HA, and BGS-7. The ALP staining and AR-S staining of BGS-7 was greater than that of HA and control. The ALP value of BGS-7 was significantly higher than that of HA and control. The MTS results showed that BGS-7 had a higher value than the groups transplanted onto HA and control on day 15. The calcium level was higher than the control in both HA and BGS-7, and was especially high in BGS-7. There were more mineral products on BGS-7 than on the HA when analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The mRNA expression of ALP, osteopontin, osteocalcin, and runx-2 were higher on BGS-7 than on HA and the control when analyzed by RT-PCR. The relative gene expression of osteopontin and runx-2 were found to be higher on BGS-7 than on HA and the control by Western blot. Accordingly, it is predicted that BGS-7 would have high biocompatibility and good osteoconductivity, and presents a possibility as a new

  13. Progress on glass ceramic ZERODUR enabling nanometer precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Kunisch, Clemens; Nieder, Johannes; Weber, Peter; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The Semiconductor Industry is making continuous progress in shrinking feature size developing technologies and process to achieve < 10 nm feature size. The required Overlay specification for successful production is in the range one nanometer or even smaller. Consequently, materials designed into metrology systems of exposure or inspection tools need to fulfill ever tighter specification on the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). The glass ceramic ZERODUR® is a well-established material in critical components of microlithography wafer stepper and offered with an extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion, the tightest tolerance available on market. SCHOTT is continuously improving manufacturing processes and it's method to measure and characterize the CTE behavior of ZERODUR®. This paper is focusing on the "Advanced Dilatometer" for determination of the CTE developed at SCHOTT in the recent years and introduced into production in Q1 2015. The achievement for improving the absolute CTE measurement accuracy and the reproducibility are described in detail. Those achievements are compared to the CTE measurement accuracy reported by the Physikalische Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the National Metrology Institute of Germany. The CTE homogeneity is of highest importance to achieve nanometer precision on larger scales. Additionally, the paper presents data on the short scale CTE homogeneity and its improvement in the last two years. The data presented in this paper will explain the capability of ZERODUR® to enable the extreme precision required for future generation of lithography equipment and processes.

  14. Scanning translucent glass-ceramic x-ray storage phosphors.

    PubMed

    Lubinsky, A R; Johnson, J A; Schweizer, S; Weber, J K R; Nishikawa, R M; Domenicali, P; Fantone, S D

    2010-01-01

    A simple benchtop apparatus has been built, to measure the x-ray imaging properties of fluorozirconate-based glass-ceramic x-ray storage phosphor materials. The MTF degradation due to stimulating light spreading in the plate is lower in comparison to optically turbid screens resulting in higher image MTF. In addition, the degree of transparency, or the amount of light scattering at the wavelength of the stimulating (laser) light is adjustable by means of the glass preparation process. The amount of stimulating exposure required for plate readout is generally higher than in previous systems, but well within the range of commercially available laser systems, for practical readout times. The effects of flare or unwanted readout due to back-reflection from the imaging plate is also less than in previous systems.A novel telecentric scanning system has been developed that is able to rapidly read out the latent image stored in the translucent imaging plates. This system features a reflective primary scan mirror to achieve telecentricity, optical correction for scan line bow, and the design should enable the construction of a relatively inexpensive scanner system for the translucent x-ray storage plates.

  15. Synthesis of glass ceramics from kaolin and dolomite mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudchicha, Mohamed Reda; Rubio, Fausto; Achour, Slimane

    2017-02-01

    Cordierite- and anorthite-based binary glass ceramics of the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS) system were synthesized by mixing local and abundant raw minerals (kaolin and doloma by mass ratio of 82/18). A kinetics study reveals that the activation energy of crystallization ( E a) calculated by the methods of Kissinger and Marotta are 438 kJ·mol-1 and 459 kJ·mol-1, respectively. The Avrami parameter ( n) is estimated to be approximately equal to 1, corresponding to the surface crystallization mechanism. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the anorthite and cordierite crystals are precipitated from the parent glass as major phases. Anorthite crystals first form at 850°C, whereas the μ-cordierite phase appears after heat treatment at 950°C. Thereafter, the cordierite allotropically transforms to α-cordierite at 1000°C. Complete densification is achieved at 950°C; however, the density slightly decreases at higher temperatures, reaching a stable value of 2.63 kg·m-3 between 1000°C and 1100°C. The highest Vickers hardness of 6 GPa is also obtained at 950°C. However, a substantial decrease in hardness is recorded at 1000°C; at higher sintering temperatures, it slightly increases with increasing temperature as the α-cordierite crystallizes.

  16. High strength ferritic alloy

    DOEpatents

    Hagel, William C.; Smidt, Frederick A.; Korenko, Michael K.

    1977-01-01

    A high-strength ferritic alloy useful for fast reactor duct and cladding applications where an iron base contains from about 9% to about 13% by weight chromium, from about 4% to about 8% by weight molybdenum, from about 0.2% to about 0.8% by weight niobium, from about 0.1% to about 0.3% by weight vanadium, from about 0.2% to about 0.8% by weight silicon, from about 0.2% to about 0.8% by weight manganese, a maximum of about 0.05% by weight nitrogen, a maximum of about 0.02% by weight sulfur, a maximum of about 0.02% by weight phosphorous, and from about 0.04% to about 0.12% by weight carbon.

  17. Microstructure and spectroscopic investigations of calcium zinc bismuth phosphate glass ceramics doped with manganese ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suneel Kumar, A.; Sambasiva Rao, M. V.; Chinna Ram, G.; Krishna Rao, D.

    2017-07-01

    Multi-component 10CaF2-20ZnO-(15 - x)Bi2O3-55P2O5:xMnO (0 ≤ x ≤ 2.5) glass ceramics were synthesised by melt quenching technique and heat treatment. The prepared glass ceramics were characterised by XRD, DTA, EDS and SEM. Spectroscopic studies such as optical absorption, EPR, FTIR and Raman were also carried out on these glass ceramics. The XRD and SEM studies have indicated that ceramic samples contain well defined and randomly distributed grains of different crystalline phases. The observed increase of enthalpy from DTA patterns up to 1 mol% of MnO indicates that the crystallisation starts initially from the surface of the material then gradually it is extended to the volume of the material and this influence is meagre at higher concentrations of MnO. The absorption spectra of manganese doped glass ceramics have exhibited two types of conventional bands; one due to Mn2+ ions and other due to Mn3+ ions. The EPR spectra of MnO doped glass ceramics showed a resonance signal around g2 = 2.023 with a six line hyperfine structure and another signal at about g1 = 4.314. The relative intensity and half-width of these two signals are observed to increase with the increase in the concentration of manganese ions up to 1 mol% beyond this concentration it is found to decrease. Such observation indicates the conversion of part of Mn2+ ions into Mn3+ ions in the glass ceramic matrix. The observed increase in the intensity of symmetrical structural units at the expense of asymmetrical structural units from the FTIR and Raman spectra at higher concentration of MnO indicating that Mn2+ ions occupy the network forming positions in the glass ceramic structure.

  18. In vitro biocompatibility of a ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic for hyperthermia application.

    PubMed

    Bretcanu, Oana; Miola, Marta; Bianchi, Claudia L; Marangi, Ida; Carbone, Roberta; Corazzari, Ingrid; Cannas, Mario; Verné, Enrica

    2017-04-01

    Ferrimagnetic glass-ceramics containing magnetite crystals were developed for hyperthermia applications of solid neoplastic tissue. The present work is focused on in vitro evaluation of the biocompatibility of these materials, before and after soaking in a simulated body fluid (SBF). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and pH measurements were employed in glass-ceramic characterisation. The free-radical mediated reactivity of the glass-ceramic was evaluated by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spin trapping. Cell adhesion and proliferation tests were carried out by using 3T3 murine fibroblasts. Cytotoxicity was performed by qualitative evaluation of human bone osteosarcoma cells U2OS cell line. The results show that almost two times more 3T3 cells proliferated on the samples pre-treated in SBF, compared with the untreated specimens. Moreover a decrease of confluence was observed at 48 and 72h for U2OS cells exposed to the untreated glass-ceramic, while the powder suspensions of glass-ceramic pre-treated in SBF did not influence the cell morphology up to 72h of exposition. The untreated glass-ceramic exhibited Fenton-like reactivity, as well as reactivity towards formate molecule. After pre-treatment with SBF the reactivity towards formate was completely suppressed. The concentration of iron released into the SBF solution was below 0.1ppm at 37°C, during one month of soaking. The different in vitro behaviour of the samples before and after SBF treatment has been correlated to the bioactive glass-ceramic surface modifications as detected by morphological, structural and compositional analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis and Properties of a Barium Aluminosilicate Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Glass-Ceramic Sealant

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Chou, Y. S.; Weil, K. Scott

    2008-07-15

    A series of barium aluminosilicate glasses modified with CaO and B2O3, were prepared and evaluated with respect to their suitability in sealing planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). At a target operating temperature of 750ºC, the long-term CTE of one particular composition (35 mol% BaO, 15 mol% CaO, 10 mol% B2O3, 5 mol% Al2O3, bal. SiO2) was found to be particularly stable, due to devitrification to a mixture of glass and ceramic phases. This sealant composition exhibits minimal chemical interaction with the yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte, yet forms a strong bond with this material. Interactions with metal components were found to be more extensive and depended on the composition of the metal oxide scale that formed during sealing. Generally alumina-scale formers exhibited a more compact reaction zone with the glass than chromia-scale forming alloys. Mechanical measurements conducted on the bulk glass-ceramic and on seals formed using these materials indicate that the sealant is anticipated to display adequate long-term strength for most conventional stationary SOFC applications.

  20. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER: Physical mechanisms of CO2-laser-induced rapid structural changes in glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiko, V. P.; Yakovlev, E. B.; Shakhno, E. A.

    2009-02-01

    Laser-induced local structural changes in glass-ceramics have recently been the subject of intense research interest in connection with analytical, aerospace, optical-memory and other advanced applications. In this paper, we demonstrate that important features of such processes are very high rates and unusual kinetics. These features are interpreted in terms of thermophysical kinetics and a novel view of amorphous materials as vacancy-distorted crystals.

  1. The Effects of Gravity on the Combustion Synthesis of B2O3-Al2O3-MgO Glass Ceramic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manerbino, A. R.; Yi, H. C.; Guigne, J. Y.; Moore, J. J.; Schowengerdt, F. D.

    2000-01-01

    Glass ceramic composites based on B2O3-Al2O3-MgO have been produced by combustion synthesis in a Self-propagating mode. The gravitational effects on the combustion characteristics such as combustion wave velocity (V), and combustion temperature (T(sub c)) were studied. The results showed that the gravitational effects on these parameters were inconclusive. The microstructure of this system has also been analyzed with X-ray Diffraction and light microscopy. These results showed a higher amount of divitrification occurs under both reduced gravity and high gravity conditions. The gravitational effects on formation of pores, overall porosity and apparent porosity for this family of glass-ceramics also shows to be inconclusive. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  2. Effect of Glass-Phase Design on the Dielectric Properties of PbO-SrO-Na2O-Nb2O5-SiO2 Glass-Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hao; Zhang, Qingmeng; Tang, Qun; Cui, Hang; Xu, Yaohua; Lin, Chen-guang; Du, Jun

    2015-11-01

    The effect of glass-phase design on the dielectric properties of PbO-BaO-Na2O-Nb2O5-SiO2 glass-ceramic has been investigated. The glass phase of 36Na NbO3-18(Pb0.6Sr0.4) Nb2O6-46SiO2 glass-ceramic was modified by addition of lead ions, which is expected to optimize the dielectric properties of the SiO2 glass, thus improving the performance of the glass-ceramic composite. Phase composition and dielectric behavior were systematically investigated. Dielectric properties varied as a function of the amount of PbO added. The dielectric constant increased from 515 to 648 when 10 mol.% lead ions (relative to the SiO2 glass) was added to the glass phase. Dielectric breakdown strength also increased slightly, from 5.1 to 7.8 kV/mm, suggesting glass-phase design could be an efficient way of optimizing the dielectric properties of glass-ceramic composites.

  3. The recycling of incinerated sewage sludge ash as a raw material for CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-P2O5 glass-ceramic production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Yin, Yulei; Liang, Xuanye; Li, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the recycling of incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) into glass-ceramic materials by a two-stage sintering cycle of nucleation stage and crystallization stage without any pressure and binder is presented. The parent glasses were subjected to the following nucleation/crystallization temperature and time level: (A) 790°C, 1.0 h/870°C, 1.0-3.0 h; (B) 790°C, 1.0 h/945°C, 1.0-3.0 h and (C) 790°C, 1.0 h/1065°C, 1.0-3.0 h. X-ray power diffraction analysis results revealed that multiple crystalline phases coexisted in the glass-ceramic materials and the crystalline phase compositions were more affected by crystallization temperature than crystallization time. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed an interlocking microstructure of glass phases and crystals with different sizes and spatial distribution. The glass-ceramics crystallized at 945°C for 2.0 h exhibited optimal properties of density of 2.88±0.08 g/cm3, compression strength of 247±12 MPa, bending strength of 118±14 MPa and water absorption of 0.42±0.04. The leaching concentrations of heavy metals were far lower than the limits required by the regulatory standard of EPA. This paper provides a feasible, low-cost and promising method to produce ISSA-based glass-ceramics and highlights the principal characteristics that must be taken into account to use ISSA correctly in glass-ceramics.

  4. The effect of TiO2 concentration on properties of apatite-mullite glass-ceramics for dental use.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Hawa M; Johnson, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of TiO2 concentration on the properties of apatite-mullite glass-ceramics namely strength and the chemical solubility to comply with the ISO standard recommendations for dental ceramics (BS EN ISO 6872-2008). Ten novel glass-ceramic materials were produced based on the general formula (4.5SiO2-3Al2O3-1.5P2O5-3CaO-CaF2-xTiO2) where x varied from 0.5 to 5 wt%. Glass with no TiO2 added (HG1T0.0) was used as a reference. Discs of 12 mm diameter and 1.6 mm (±0.2 mm) thickness were prepared for both biaxial flexural strength (BFS) and chemical solubility testing, in accordance with the BS EN ISO 6872-2008 for dental ceramics. All produced materials were investigated using differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) was also carried out on some samples to identify the element composition of samples. Increasing the concentration of TiO2 from 0.5 wt% to 2 wt% significantly (P<0.05) increased the chemical solubility of the material. With the material containing 2.5 wt% of TiO2, the solubility significantly reduced (P<0.05) and resulted in a solubility value of 228.3 μm/cm(2) and BFS value of 197.9 MPa. Increasing the TiO2 concentration more than 2.5 wt%, led to a significant (P<0.05) increase in solubility and a reduction in BFS. TiO2 is an effective agent for improving the durability and the mechanical properties of an apatite-mullite glass-ceramic only up to 2.5 wt% concentration. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Behavior of bioactive glass-ceramic implanted into long bone defects: a scintigraphic study.

    PubMed

    Sponer, Pavel; Urban, Karel; Urbanová, Elen; Karpas, Karel; Mathew, Pradeep George

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the long-term behavior and incorporation of the bioactive oxyhydroxyapatite glass-ceramic used to fill defects of long bones after curettage of bone cysts in 17 patients. The method of evaluation was a three-phase bone scintigraphy combined with radiographic and clinical evaluation. At a mean follow-up of 7 years, the glass-ceramic material had been completely incorporated. Mean uptake ratio was 1.31+/-0.25 after implantation of glass-ceramic in the metaphyseal region and 2.07+/-0.62 after implantation of glass-ceramic in the diaphyseal region (P<0.05). Mean uptake ratio was 1.40+/-0.30 in patients without persistent pain and 2.07+/-0.69 in patients who complained of pain in the area of synthetic filling (P<0.05). The bioactive glass-ceramic can be implanted into the metaphyseal defects of long bones, but this material is not suitable for filling the diaphyseal defects.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of PbTiO3 based glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, J.; Rani, G. Neeraja; Mamatha, B.; Deshpande, V. K.

    2017-05-01

    Glass samples with composition (50 - X) PbO - XCaO - 25 TiO2 - 25 B2O3 (where = 0, .5, 10 and 15 mol %) were prepared using conventional quenching technique. It was observed that with the addition of alkaline earth oxides to lead borate glass containing TiO2 alters the network (conversion of BO3 to BO4) increasing the rigidity of the glass which enhances the Tg. These glass samples were converted to glass ceramics by following two stage heat treatment schedule. The density values of glass ceramic samples are higher than those of corresponding glass samples. It was observed that there was good correlation between the density and CTE results of the glass-ceramics. The XRD results in the glass ceramics revealed the formation of tetragonal lead titanate as a major crystalline phase and Ca3Ti2O7 as minor crystalline phase. The ferroelectric nature of all the glass ceramic samples is confirmed by P - E hysteresis measurements.

  7. Study of an anisotropic ferrimagnetic bioactive glass ceramic for cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Saqlain A.; Hashmi, M. U.; Shamim, A.; Alam, S.

    2010-07-01

    For the hyperthermia therapy of cancer, ferrimagnetic glass ceramics are a potential candidate. Ferrimagnetic zinc-ferrite-containing bioactive glass ceramics were prepared by quenching the glass ceramics from sintering temperature. Then the samples were heated to 600°C and cooled in an aligning magnetic field of 1 Tesla to cause anisotropy. The magnetically aligned samples were compared with non-aligned samples. Vibrating sample magnetometry measurements at 10 kOe showed that the magnetic properties were enhanced by the aligning magnetic field and it led to an enhancement of the magnetic heat generation under a magnetic induction furnace operating at 500 Oe and 400 kHz for 2 min. Data showed that the maximum specific power loss and temperature increase after 2 min were 31.5 W/g and 45°C, respectively, for the aligned sample of maximum zinc-ferrite crystalline content. The glass ceramics were immersed in simulated body fluid for 3 weeks. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared and atomic absorption spectroscopy results indicated the growth of precipitated hydroxyapatite, suggesting that the ferrimagnetic glass ceramics were bioactive and could bond to living tissues in physiological environment.

  8. Effect of glass-ceramic microstructure on its in vitro bioactivity.

    PubMed

    De Aza, P N; Luklinska, Z B

    2003-10-01

    Two routes were used to obtain a glass-ceramic composed of 43.5 wt % SiO(2) - 43.5 wt % CaO - 13 wt % ZrO(2). Heat treatment of a glass monolith produced a glass-ceramic (WZ1) containing wollastonite-2M and tetragonal zirconia as crystalline phases. The WZ1 did not display bioactivity in vitro. Ceramizing the glass via powder technology routes formed a bioactive glass-ceramic (WZ2). The two glass-ceramics, WZ1 and WZ2, were composed of the same crystalline phases, but differed in microstructure. The in vitro studies carried out on WZ2 showed the formation of an apatite-like layer on its surface during exposure to a simulated body fluid. This paper examined the influence of both chemical and morphological factors on the in vitro bioactivitity. The interfacial reaction product was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Both instruments were fitted with energy-dispersive X-ray analyzers. Measurements of the pH made directly at the interface of the two glass-ceramics were important in understanding their different behavior during exposure to the same physiological environment.

  9. Sintering, crystallisation and biodegradation behaviour of Bioglass-derived glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Boccaccini, Aldo R; Chen, Qizhi; Lefebvre, Leila; Gremillard, Laurent; Chevalier, Jérôme

    2007-01-01

    Sintering and crystallisation phenomena in powders of a typical bioactive glass composition (45S5 Bioglass) have been investigated in order to gain further understanding of the processes involved in the fabrication of Bioglass, based glass-ceramic scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. In situ experiments in an environmental scanning electron microscope with a heating stage were carried out to follow the morphology of Bioglass particles during sintering and crystallisation. Optimal processing parameters for the manufacture of Bioglass based glass-ceramic scaffolds by the foam-replica technique were determined. To assess the in vitro performance and bioreactivity of Bioglass -derived glass-ceramic scaffolds, the biodegradation of samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) was investigated using various techniques, including SEM, TEM, XRD and EDX. The mechanism of interaction of the glass-ceramic surface with SBF was determined, which involves (i) preferential dissolution at glass/crystal interfaces, (ii) break-down of crystalline particles into very fine grains through preferential dissolution at crystal structural defects, and (iii) amorphisation of the crystalline structure by introduction of point defects produced during ion exchange. The present report thus offers for the first time a complete assessment of the processing parameters, microstructure, and in vitro performance of Bioglass derived glass-ceramic scaffolds intended for bone tissue engineering.

  10. A modeling study on the thermomechanical behavior of glass-ceramic and self-healing glass seals at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Govindaraju, Nirmal; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Singh, Prabhakar; Singh, R.

    2009-05-15

    Hermetic gas seals are critical components for planar solid oxide fuel cells. This article focuses on comparative evaluation of a glass-ceramic developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and a self-healing glass seal developed by the University of Cincinnati. The stress and strain levels in the Positive electrode-Electrolyte-Negative electrode (PEN) seal in one cell stack are evaluated using a multi-physics simulation package developed at PNNL. Simulations were carried out with and without consideration of clamping force and stack body force, respectively. The results indicate that the overall stress and strain levels are dominated by the thermal expansion mismatches between the different cell components. Further, compared with glass-ceramic seal, the self-healing glass seal results in much lower steady state stress due to its much lower stiffness at the operating temperature of SOFC, and also exhibits much shorter relaxation times due to high creep rate. It is also noted that the self-healing glass seal will experience continuing creep deformation under the operating temperature of SOFC therefore resulting in possible overflow of the sealing materials. Further stopper material may need to be added to maintain its geometric stability during operation.

  11. Calcium-borosilicate glass-ceramics wasteforms to immobilize rare-earth oxide wastes from pyro-processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Miae; Heo, Jong

    2015-12-01

    Glass-ceramics containing calcium neodymium(cerium) oxide silicate [Ca2Nd8-xCex(SiO4)6O2] crystals were fabricated for the immobilization of radioactive wastes that contain large portions of rare-earth ions. Controlled crystallization of alkali borosilicate glasses by heating at T ≥ 750 °C for 3 h formed hexagonal Ca-silicate crystals. Maximum lanthanide oxide waste loading was >26.8 wt.%. Ce and Nd ions were highly partitioned inside Ca-silicate crystals compared to the glass matrix; the rare-earth wastes are efficiently immobilized inside the crystalline phases. The concentrations of Ce and Nd ions released in a material characterization center-type 1 test were below the detection limit (0.1 ppb) of inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Normalized release values performed by a product consistency test were 2.64·10-6 g m-2 for Ce ion and 2.19·10-6 g m-2 for Nd ion. Results suggest that glass-ceramics containing calcium neodymium(cerium) silicate crystals are good candidate wasteforms for immobilization of lanthanide wastes generated by pyro-processing.

  12. Eu3+ and Ce3+ co-doped aluminosilicate glasses and transparent glass-ceramics containing gahnite nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dousti, M. Reza; Molla, Atiar R.; Rodrigues, Ana Candida M.; de Camargo, Andrea S. S.

    2017-07-01

    Transparent zinc-aluminosilicate glass-ceramics containing cerium and europium ions were prepared by controlled thermal heating of parent glasses. Addition of CeO2 resulted in the improved transparency of the glasses in the visible spectral region. X-ray diffraction patterns of the glass-ceramics indicate the formation of the crystalline gahnite phase and there are evidences of Ce3+ and Eu3+ occupancies in this phase, as well as co-existence in the amorphous phase. Ce3+ emission corresponding to the allowed f-d transitions is identified, as well as an anomalous emission in the red-infrared region. The characteristic luminescence of Eu3+ in the red is observed. Judd-Ofelt analysis of Eu3+-doped samples reveals enhanced site asymmetry around the ion and a high branching ratio for the 612 nm emission after ceramization. Due to enhanced Ce3+ emission and Eu3+ emission quenching, color tunability is possible in the red to blue spectral region, depending on the heat treatment duration.

  13. A modeling study on the thermomechanical behavior of glass-ceramic and self-healing glass seals at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, N.; Liu, W. N.; Sun, X.; Singh, P.; Singh, R. N.

    Hermetic gas seals are critical components of planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs). This article focuses on the comparative evaluation of a glass-ceramic seal developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and a self-healing glass seal developed by the University of Cincinnati. The stress and strain levels in the Positive electrode-Electrolyte-Negative electrode (PEN) seal in a single-cell stack are evaluated using a multi-physics simulation package developed at PNNL. Simulations were carried out with and without consideration of a clamping force and a stack body force, respectively. The results indicate that the overall stress and strain levels are dominated by the thermal expansion mismatches between the different cell components. Further, compared with the glass-ceramic, the self-healing glass results in a much lower steady state stress value due to its much lower stiffness at the operating temperature of the SOFC. It also exhibits much shorter relaxation times due to a high creep rate. It is also noted that the self-healing glass seal will experience continuing creep deformation at the operating temperature of a SOFC therefore resulting in possible overflow of the sealant material. Therefore, a stopper material may be required to maintain its geometric stability during operation.

  14. Nd3+-doped TeO2-Bi2O3-ZnO transparent glass ceramics for laser application at 1.06 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaolin; Luo, Zhiwei; Liu, Taoyong; Lu, Anxian

    2017-04-01

    The high crystallinity transparent glass ceramics based on Nd3+-doped 70TeO2-15Bi2O3-15ZnO (TBZ) compositions were successfully prepared by two-step heat treatment process. The effects of Nd2O3 content on the thermal, structural, mechanical, and optical properties of TBZ glass ceramics were studied. The incorporation of Nd2O3 enhanced the crystallization tendency in the matrix glass composition. The crystal phase and morphology of Bi2Te4O11 in the glass ceramics were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Due to precipitate more crystal phase, the hardness values increased from 3.21 to 3.66 GPa. Eight absorption peaks were observed from 400 to 900 nm and three emission bands appeared in the range of 850-1400 nm. With the increasing of Nd2O3 content from 0.5 to 2.5 wt%, the intensity of absorption peaks enhanced and the emission intensity increased up to 1.0 wt% and then fell down for further dopant concentration. The fluorescence decay lifetime decreased rapidly starting from 1.5 wt% Nd2O3 content due to the obvious energy migration among Nd3+. According to the extreme strong emission band around 1062 nm and the optimum Nd2O3 content (1.0 wt%), N10 glass ceramic was considered as a potential material for 1.06 μm laser applications.

  15. Quantification of the Partitioning Ratio of Minor Actinide Surrogates between Zirconolite and Glass in Glass-Ceramic for Nuclear Waste Disposal.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chang-Zhong; Liu, Chengshuai; Su, Minhua; Shih, Kaimin

    2017-08-21

    Zirconolite-based glass-ceramic is considered a promising wasteform for conditioning minor actinide-rich nuclear wastes. Recent studies on this wasteform have sought to enhance the partitioning ratio (PR) of minor actinides in zirconolite crystal. To optimize the PR in the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-TiO2-ZrO2 system, a novel conceptual approach, which can be derived from the chemical composition and quantity of zirconolite crystal in glass-ceramic, was introduced based on the results of Rietveld quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. To verify this new conceptual approach, the influences of the crystallization temperature, the concentration of additives, and ionic radii on the PR of various surrogates (Ce, Nd, Gd, and Yb) in zirconolite were examined. The results reveal that the PR of Nd(3+) in zirconolite can be as high as 41%, but it decreases as the crystallization temperature increases. The quantities of all phases (including crystalline and amorphous) remained nearly constant when increasing the loading of Nd2O3 in glass-ceramic products crystallized at 1050 °C for 2 h. Correspondingly, the PR of Nd(3+) decreases in a linear fashion with the loading contents of Nd2O3. The radius of ions also has a great influence on the PR, and an increase in the ionic radius leads to a decrease in the PR. This new approach will be an important tool to facilitate the exploration of a glass-ceramic matrix for the disposal of minor actinide-rich nuclear wastes.

  16. Survey and research on up-conversion emission character and energy transition of Yb3+/Er3+/Tm3+ co-doped phosphate glass and glass ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yin; Song, Feng; Ming, Chengguo; Liu, Jiadong; Li, Wei; Liu, Yanling; Zhao, Hongyan

    2012-11-01

    By conventional high-temperature melting method, Yb3+/Er3+/Tm3+ co-doped phosphate glass was synthesized. After annealing the precursor glass, the phosphate glass ceramic (GC) was obtained. By measuring the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum, it is proved that the LiYbP4O12 and Li6P6O18 nano-crystals have existed in the phosphate GC. The up-conversion (UC) emission intensity of the GC is obvious stronger compared to that of the glass. The reason is that the shorter distance between rare earth ions in the glass ceramic increases the energy transitions from the sensitized ions (Yb3+) to the luminous ions (Er3+ and Tm3+). By studying the dependence of UC emissions on the pump power, the 523 and 546 nm green emissions of Er3+ ions in the glass are two-photon processes. But in the glass ceramic, they are two/three-photon processes. The phenomenon implies that a three-photon process has participated in the population of the two green emissions. Using Dexter theory, we discuss the energy transitions of Er3+ and Tm3+. The results indicate the energy transition of Tm3+ to Er3+ is very strong in the GC, which changes the population mechanism of UC emissions of Er3+.

  17. A fruitful demonstration in sensors based on upconversion luminescence of Yb3+/Er3+codoped Sb2O3-WO3-Li2O (SWL) glass-ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad Sukul, Prasenjit; Kumar, Kaushal

    2016-07-01

    In this article, erbium and ytterbium doped lithium tungsten antimonate (Yb3+/Er3+:Sb2O3-WO3-Li2O) glass-ceramics (GC) is synthesized and its novel applications in temperature sensing and detection of latent fingerprints is studied. It is also estimated that this material could be useful as a solar cell concentrator. The upconversion emission studies on Yb3+/Er3+:SWL glass-ceramics have shown intense green emission at 525 nm (2H11/2 → 4I15/2) & 545 nm (4s3/2 → 4I15/2). The variation of UC intensities with external temperature have shown a well-fashioned pattern, which suggests that the 2H11/2 and 4S3/2 levels of Er3+ ion are thermally coupled and can act as a temperature sensor in the 300-500 K temperature range. Dry powder of Yb3+/Er3+:SWL glass-ceramic is used to develop latent fingerprint with high contrast in green color on glass slide.

  18. Microwave-assisted rapid discharge sintering of a bioactive glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    O'Flynn, Kevin P; Twomey, Barry; Breen, Aidan; Dowling, Denis P; Stanton, Kenneth T

    2011-07-01

    Bioactive glass-ceramics have been developed as successful bone graft materials. Although conventional sintering in an electrically-heated furnace is most commonly used, an alternative microwave plasma batch processing technique, known as rapid discharge sintering (RDS), is examined to crystallise the metastable base glass to form one or more ceramic phases. Apatite-mullite glass-ceramics (AMGC) were examined to elucidate the effects of RDS on the crystallization of a bioactive glass-ceramic. By increasing the fluorine content of the glass, the fluorapatite (FAp) and mullite crystallization onset temperatures can be reduced. Samples were sintered in a hydrogen and hydrogen/nitrogen discharge at temperatures of ≈800 and 1000 °C respectively with the higher sintering temperature required to form mullite. Results show that the material can be densified and crystallised using RDS in a considerably shorter time than conventional sintering due to heating and cooling rates of ≈400 °C/min.

  19. Spectral investigations on Dy{sup 3+}-doped transparent oxyfluoride glasses and nanocrystalline glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, P.; Jang, Kyoung Hyuk; Kim, Eun Sik; Shi, Liang; Seo, Hyo Jin; Rivera-Lopez, F.; Rodriguez-Mendoza, U. R.; Lavin, V.; Vijaya, R.; Jayasankar, C. K.; Rama Moorthy, L.

    2009-01-01

    Dysprosium-doped oxyfluoride glasses and nanocrystalline glass ceramics have been synthesized and studied by x-ray diffraction, absorption, and visible and near-infrared emission spectra. The samples emit intense white light when populating the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} level with a 451 nm laser light and, from the visible emission spectra, yellow to blue intensity ratios and chromaticity color coordinates have been calculated and their relative variation have been discussed based on the concentration of Dy{sup 3+} ions and the heat treatment conditions used to prepare the glass ceramics. Infrared emission has also been observed in glasses and glass ceramics after laser excitation at 800 nm, showing bands at 1.33 and 1.67 {mu}m, useful for optical amplification in fiber amplifiers.

  20. Terbium-activated lithium lanthanum aluminosilicate oxyfluoride scintillating glass and glass-ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Z.; James, K.; Cui, Y.; Burger, A.; Cherepy, N.; Payne, S. A.; Mu, R.; Morgan, S. H.

    2008-09-01

    Terbium-activated lithium-lanthanum-aluminosilicate oxyfluoride scintillating glasses, 55SiO 2·6Al 2O 3·28Li 2O·11LaF 3 doped with different TbF 3 concentrations, have been fabricated and investigated. By appropriate heat treatment of the as-prepared glasses above, transparent glass-ceramics were obtained. Differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, and luminescence under both UV and beta-particle excitation have been investigated on as-prepared glasses and glass-ceramics. It has been found that these terbium-activated lithium-lanthanum-aluminosilicate oxyfluoride scintillating glasses exhibit good UV-excited luminescence and radioluminescence. The luminescence yield increases for glass-ceramics. The efficiency of beta-induced luminescence is comparable or nearly equal to that of the Schott IQI-301 product.

  1. Spectral investigations on Dy3+-doped transparent oxyfluoride glasses and nanocrystalline glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, P.; Jang, Kyoung Hyuk; Kim, Eun Sik; Shi, Liang; Seo, Hyo Jin; Rivera-López, F.; Rodríguez-Mendoza, U. R.; Lavín, V.; Vijaya, R.; Jayasankar, C. K.; Rama Moorthy, L.

    2009-01-01

    Dysprosium-doped oxyfluoride glasses and nanocrystalline glass ceramics have been synthesized and studied by x-ray diffraction, absorption, and visible and near-infrared emission spectra. The samples emit intense white light when populating the F49/2 level with a 451 nm laser light and, from the visible emission spectra, yellow to blue intensity ratios and chromaticity color coordinates have been calculated and their relative variation have been discussed based on the concentration of Dy3+ ions and the heat treatment conditions used to prepare the glass ceramics. Infrared emission has also been observed in glasses and glass ceramics after laser excitation at 800 nm, showing bands at 1.33 and 1.67 μm, useful for optical amplification in fiber amplifiers.

  2. Cold crucible induction melter studies for making glass ceramic waste forms: A feasibility assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Jarrod; Maio, Vince; McCloy, John; Scott, Clark; Riley, Brian; Benefiel, Brad; Vienna, John; Archibald, Kip; Rodriguez, Carmen; Rutledge, Veronica; Zhu, Zihua; Ryan, Joe; Olszta, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Glass ceramics are being developed to immobilize fission products, separated from used nuclear fuel by aqueous reprocessing, into a stable waste form suitable for disposal in a geological repository. This work documents the glass ceramic formulation at bench scale and for a scaled melter test performed in a pilot-scale (∼1/4 scale) cold crucible induction melter (CCIM). Melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling were measured on a small set of compositions to select a formulation for melter testing. Property measurements also identified a temperature range for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the waste form. Bench scale and melter run results successfully demonstrate the processability of the glass ceramic using the CCIM melter technology.

  3. Crystal growth induced by Nd:YAG laser irradiation in patterning glass ceramic substrates with dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sola, D.; Escartín, A.; Cases, R.; Peña, J. I.

    2011-03-01

    In this work a glass ceramic substrate was processed by focusing a laser beam inside the said material. The crystal phase within the amorphous matrix provides mechanical properties to the glass ceramic substrate in such a way that dots can be patterned inside the fore-mentioned material without producing any cracks. These marks are made up of crystals, the growth of which has been induced by the laser beam. These inner structures can modify the optical, thermal and mechanical properties of the glass ceramic substrate. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at its fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm with pulsewidths in the nanosecond range has been used. Morphology, composition, microstructure, mechanical and thermal properties of the processed material are described.

  4. Comparison of three and four point bending evaluation of two adhesive bonding systems for glass-ceramic zirconia bi-layered ceramics.

    PubMed

    Gee, C; Weddell, J N; Swain, M V

    2017-09-01

    To quantify the adhesion of two bonding approaches of zirconia to more aesthetic glass-ceramic materials using the Schwickerath (ISO 9693-2:2016) three point bend (3PB) [1] test to determine the fracture initiation strength and strain energy release rate associated with stable crack extension with this test and the Charalamabides et al. (1989) [2] four point bend (4PB) test. Two glass-ceramic materials (VITABLOCS Triluxe forte, Vita Zahnfabrik, Germany and IPS.emax CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein) were bonded to sintered zirconia (VITA InCeram YZ). The former was resin bonded using a dual-cure composite resin (Panavia F 2.0, Kuraray Medical Inc., Osaka, Japan) following etching and silane conditioning, while the IPS.emax CAD was glass bonded (IPS e.max CAD Crystall/Connect) during crystallization of the IPS.emax CAD. Specimens (30) of the appropriate dimensions were fabricated for the Schwickerath 3PB and 4PB tests. Strength values were determined from crack initiation while strain energy release rate values were determined from the minima in the force-displacement curves with the 3PB test (Schneider and Swain, 2015) [3] and for 4PB test from the plateau region of stable crack extension. Strength values for the resin and glass bonded glass ceramics to zirconia were 22.20±6.72MPa and 27.02±3.49MPa respectively. The strain energy release rates for the two methods used were very similar and for the glass bonding, (4PB) 15.14±5.06N/m (or J/m(2)) and (3PB) 16.83±3.91N/m and resin bonding (4PB) 8.34±1.93N/m and (3PB) 8.44±2.81N/m respectively. The differences in strength and strain energy release rate for the two bonding approaches were statistically significant (p<0.05). SEM observations showed fracture occurred adhesively for the resin bonding and cohesively for the glass bonding. The present results indicate 3PB and 4PB tests have very similar values for the strain energy release rate determination. However while strength tests reveal minimal differences

  5. Detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue in spinel-based glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chang-Zhong; Tang, Yuanyuan; Lee, Po-Heng; Liu, Chengshuai; Shih, Kaimin; Li, Fangbai

    2017-01-05

    A promising strategy for the detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) in a spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix is reported in this study. In the search for a more chemically durable matrix for COPR, the most critical crystalline phase for Cr immobilization was found to be a spinel solid solution with a chemical composition of MgCr1.32Fe0.19Al0.49O4. Using Rietveld quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis, we identified this final product is with the phases of spinel (3.5wt.%), diopside (5.2wt.%), and some amorphous contents (91.2wt.%). The partitioning ratio of Cr reveals that about 77% of the Cr was incorporated into the more chemically durable spinel phase. The results of Cr K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy show that no Cr(VI) was observed after conversion of COPR into a glass-ceramic, which indicates successful detoxification of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) in the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic. The leaching performances of Cr2O3 and COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic were compared with a prolonged acid-leaching test, and the results demonstrate the superiority of the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic matrix in the immobilization of Cr. The overall results suggest that the use of affordable additives has potential in more reliably immobilizing COPR with a spinel-based glass-ceramic for safer disposal of this hazardous waste.

  6. Effect of niobium content on the microstructure and thermal properties of fluorapatite glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Denry, I L; Holloway, J A; Nakkula, R J; Walters, J D

    2005-10-01

    Niobium oxide has been shown to improve biocompatibility and promote bioactivity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of niobium oxide additions on the microstructure and thermal properties of fluorapatite glass-ceramics for biomedical applications. Four glass-ceramic compositions with increasing amounts of niobium oxide from 0 to 5 wt % were prepared. The glass compositions were melted at 1,525 degrees C for 3 h, quenched, ground, melted again at 1,525 degrees C for 3 h and furnace cooled. The coefficient of thermal expansion was measured by dilatometry. The crystallization behavior was evaluated by differential thermal analysis. The nature of the crystalline phases was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The microstructure was studied by SEM. In addition, the cytotoxicity of the ceramics was evaluated according to the ASTM standard F895--84. The results from X-ray diffraction analyses showed that fluorapatite was the major crystalline phase in all glass-ceramics. Differential thermal analyses revealed that fluorapatite crystallization occurred between 800 and 934 degrees C depending on the composition. The coefficient of thermal expansion varied from 7.6 to 9.4 x 10(-6)/ degrees C. The microstructure after heat treatment at 975 degrees C for 30 min consisted of submicroscopic fluorapatite crystals (200--300 nm) for all niobium-containing glass-ceramics, whereas the niobium-free glass-ceramic contained needle-shaped fluorapatite crystals, 2 microm in length. None of the glass-ceramics tested exhibited any cytotoxic activity as tested by ASTM standard F895--84.

  7. The Production of Advanced Glass Ceramic HLW Forms using Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Veronica J Rutledge; Vince Maio

    2013-10-01

    Cold Crucible Induction Melters (CCIMs) will favorably change how High-Level radioactive Waste (from nuclear fuel recovery) is treated in the 21st century. Unlike the existing Joule-Heated Melters (JHMs) currently in operation for the glass-based immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW), CCIMs offer unique material features that will increase melt temperatures, increase throughput, increase mixing, increase loading in the waste form, lower melter foot prints, eliminate melter corrosion and lower costs. These features not only enhance the technology for producing HLW forms, but also provide advantageous attributes to the waste form by allowing more durable alternatives to glass. This paper discusses advantageous features of the CCIM, with emphasis on features that overcome the historical issues with the JHMs presently utilized, as well as the benefits of glass ceramic waste forms over borosilicate glass waste forms. These advantages are then validated based on recent INL testing to demonstrate a first-of-a-kind formulation of a non-radioactive ceramic-based waste form utilizing a CCIM.

  8. A New Biocompatible and Antibacterial Phosphate Free Glass-Ceramic for Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabal, Belén; Alou, Luís; Cafini, Fabio; Couceiro, Ramiro; Sevillano, David; Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Guitián, Francisco; Torrecillas, Ramón; Moya, José S.

    2014-06-01

    In the attempt to find valid alternatives to classic antibiotics and in view of current limitations in the efficacy of antimicrobial-coated or loaded biomaterials, this work is focused on the development of a new glass-ceramic with antibacterial performance together with safe biocompatibility. This bactericidal glass-ceramic composed of combeite and nepheline crystals in a residual glassy matrix has been obtained using an antimicrobial soda-lime glass as a precursor. Its inhibitory effects on bacterial growth and biofilm formation were proved against five biofilm-producing reference strains. The biocompatibility tests by using mesenchymal stem cells derived from human bone indicate an excellent biocompatibility.

  9. A New Biocompatible and Antibacterial Phosphate Free Glass-Ceramic for Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cabal, Belén; Alou, Luís; Cafini, Fabio; Couceiro, Ramiro; Sevillano, David; Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Guitián, Francisco; Torrecillas, Ramón; Moya, José S.

    2014-01-01

    In the attempt to find valid alternatives to classic antibiotics and in view of current limitations in the efficacy of antimicrobial-coated or loaded biomaterials, this work is focused on the development of a new glass-ceramic with antibacterial performance together with safe biocompatibility. This bactericidal glass-ceramic composed of combeite and nepheline crystals in a residual glassy matrix has been obtained using an antimicrobial soda-lime glass as a precursor. Its inhibitory effects on bacterial growth and biofilm formation were proved against five biofilm-producing reference strains. The biocompatibility tests by using mesenchymal stem cells derived from human bone indicate an excellent biocompatibility. PMID:24961911

  10. A new biocompatible and antibacterial phosphate free glass-ceramic for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Cabal, Belén; Alou, Luís; Cafini, Fabio; Couceiro, Ramiro; Sevillano, David; Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Guitián, Francisco; Torrecillas, Ramón; Moya, José S

    2014-06-25

    In the attempt to find valid alternatives to classic antibiotics and in view of current limitations in the efficacy of antimicrobial-coated or loaded biomaterials, this work is focused on the development of a new glass-ceramic with antibacterial performance together with safe biocompatibility. This bactericidal glass-ceramic composed of combeite and nepheline crystals in a residual glassy matrix has been obtained using an antimicrobial soda-lime glass as a precursor. Its inhibitory effects on bacterial growth and biofilm formation were proved against five biofilm-producing reference strains. The biocompatibility tests by using mesenchymal stem cells derived from human bone indicate an excellent biocompatibility.

  11. Research on the residual stress of glass ceramic based on rotary ultrasonic drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lipeng; Jin, Yuzhu; Chen, Jianhua

    2016-10-01

    In the process of machining, the glass ceramic is easy to crack and damage, etc. And the residual stress in the machined surface may cause the crack to different extent in the later stage. Some may even affect the performance of the product. The residual stress of rotary ultrasonic drilling and mechanical processing is compared in different machining parameters (spindle speed, feed rate). The effects of processing parameters and methods are researched, in order to reduce the residual stress in the mechanical processing of glass ceramic, and provide guidance for the actual processing.

  12. Elastic modulus measurements of LDEF glasses and glass-ceramics using a speckle technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedlocher, D. E.; Kinser, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Elastic moduli of five glass types and the glass-ceramic Zerodur, exposed to a near-earth orbit environment on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), were compared to that of unexposed samples. A double exposure speckle photography technique utilizing 633 nm laser light was used in the production of the speckle pattern. Subsequent illumination of a double exposed negative using the same wavelength radiation produces Young's fringes from which the in-plane displacements are measured. Stresses imposed by compressive loading produced measurable strains in the glasses and glass-ceramic.

  13. Modeling of the Effective Elastic and Thermal Properties of Glass-Ceramic Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Seal Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Milhans, Jacqueline; Ahzi, Said; Garmestani, Hamid; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Sun, Xin; Koeppel, Brian J.

    2009-05-01

    In this study, the effective elastic properties and coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of a glass-ceramic were predicted using homogenization techniques. Using G18, a glass-ceramic solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sealant as an initial reference material, the effectiveness of different homogenization models was investigated for a two-phase glass-ceramic. The elastic properties and CTEs of the G18 amorphous phase are currently unknown. Thus, estimated values were used as an input to the models. The predictive model offers accurate macroscopic values on both the elastic modulus and the CTE of glass-ceramic materials, providing the estimated amorphous values are reasonable. This model can be used in designing glass-ceramic SOFC seal materials for its specific operation conditions.

  14. Superionic glass-ceramic electrolytes for room-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Akitoshi; Noi, Kousuke; Sakuda, Atsushi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2012-05-22

    Innovative rechargeable batteries that can effectively store renewable energy, such as solar and wind power, urgently need to be developed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. All-solid-state batteries with inorganic solid electrolytes and electrodes are promising power sources for a wide range of applications because of their safety, long-cycle lives and versatile geometries. Rechargeable sodium batteries are more suitable than lithium-ion batteries, because they use abundant and ubiquitous sodium sources. Solid electrolytes are critical for realizing all-solid-state sodium batteries. Here we show that stabilization of a high-temperature phase by crystallization from the glassy state dramatically enhances the Na(+) ion conductivity. An ambient temperature conductivity of over 10(-4) S cm(-1) was obtained in a glass-ceramic electrolyte, in which a cubic Na(3)PS(4) crystal with superionic conductivity was first realized. All-solid-state sodium batteries, with a powder-compressed Na(3)PS(4) electrolyte, functioned as a rechargeable battery at room temperature.

  15. Halogen Containing Gases as Lubricants for Crystallized Glass Ceramic Metal Combinations at Temperatures to 1500 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Donald H.; Johnson, Robert L.

    1960-01-01

    Pyroceram 9608 (a crystallized glass ceramic) has been considered for use in high-temperature bearing and seal applications. One of the problems encountered with Pyroceram is the lack of availability of lubricants for the temperature range in which this material becomes practical. Experiments were conducted with Pyroceram sliding on various nickel- and cobalt-base alloys using reactive halogen-containing gases as lubricants. Friction and wear data were obtained as a function of sliding velocity and temperature. Studies were made with a hemispherical rider (3/16-in. rad., Pyroceram 9608) sliding in a circumferential path on the flat surface of a rotating disk (2(1/2) in. diam., nickel- or cobalt-base alloys). The specimens were run in an atmosphere of the various gases with a load of 1200 grams, a sliding velocity of 3200 feet per minute, and temperatures from 75 to 1500 F. The gas CF2Br-CF2Br was found to be an effective lubricant for Pyroceram 9608 sliding on Hastelloy R-235 and Inconel X up to 1400 F. The gas CF2Cl-CF2Cl provided effective lubrication for Pyroceram sliding on various cobalt-base alloys at 1000 F.

  16. Recovery of heavy metals and stabilization of spent hydrotreating catalyst using a glass-ceramic matrix.

    PubMed

    Sun, D D; Tay, J H; Cheong, H K; Leung, D L; Qian, G

    2001-10-12

    Chemical analysis of spent Co/Mo/gamma Al(2)O(3) catalyst revealed the presence of carbon, molybdenum, sulfur, vanadium and cobalt at levels of 16.0, 10.9, 7.3, 4.6 and 4.0 wt.%, respectively. It was found that calcination at 500 degrees C provides an effective solution for the removal of carbon and sulfur and this generates the oxide form of the heavy metals. The removal of these heavy metals can be achieved through a two-stage leaching process. During the first stage, in which concentrated ammonia is used and it has been found that this process can be successful in removing as much as 83% (w/v) Mo. In a second stage, it was found that using 10% (v/v) of sulfuric acid, it was possible to account for up to 77% (w/v) Co and 4% (w/v) Mo removal. Leaching test results indicated that the vanadium present in the heated spent catalyst was almost stabilized but the molybdenum and cobalt were not. The combination of two solid wastes, ladle furnace slag (LFS) and treated residue of spent catalyst, could be used for making a high value-added anorthite glass-ceramic materials. Further leaching tests showed that ceramic glass materials provided a very effective method of Co, Mo and V heavy metals stabilization resulting in a product with a possible commercial value.

  17. Study of structural, electrical, and dielectric properties of phosphate-borate glasses and glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, B. M. G.; Graça, M. P. F.; Prezas, P. R.; Valente, M. A.; Almeida, A. F.; Freire, F. N. A.; Bih, L.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, phosphate-borate based glasses with molar composition 20.7P2O5-17.2Nb2O5-13.8WO3-34.5A2O-13.8B2O3, where A = Li, Na, and K, were prepared by the melt quenching technique. The as-prepared glasses were heat-treated in air at 800 °C for 4 h, which led to the formation of glass-ceramics. These high chemical and thermal stability glasses are good candidates for several applications such as fast ionic conductors, semiconductors, photonic materials, electrolytes, hermetic seals, rare-earth ion host solid lasers, and biomedical materials. The present work endorses the analysis of the electrical conductivity of the as-grown samples, and also the electrical, dielectric, and structural changes established by the heat-treatment process. The structure of the samples was analyzed using X-Ray powder Diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and density measurements. Both XRD and Raman analysis confirmed crystals formation through the heat-treatment process. The electrical ac and dc conductivities, σac and σdc, respectively, and impedance spectroscopy measurements as function of the temperature, varying from 200 to 380 K, were investigated for the as-grown and heat-treated samples. The impedance spectroscopy was measured in the frequency range of 100 Hz-1 MHz.

  18. Influence of Er{sup 3+} doping on microstructure of oxyfluoride glass-ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Bao Feng; Wang Yuansheng . E-mail: yswang@fjirsm.ac.cn; Hu Zhongjian

    2005-10-06

    Oxyfluoride glasses with composition of 45SiO{sub 2}.20Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.30PbF{sub 2}.5ZnF{sub 2} by molar ratio with a high stability against crystallization have been obtained by melt quenching. After doping with x (x = 1, 2, 4) mol% of Er{sup 3+} transparent or translucent glass-ceramics could be formed. The structural transformations of these materials were investigated by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Spherical polycrystalline aggregates comprised of many nanosized and randomly oriented {beta}-PbF{sub 2} grains were embedded separately among glassy matrix. On heating these nanosized grains merge with their neighbors to form bigger single crystals in a way like Ostwald ripening. The size modification of polycrystalline aggregates in the samples was found to be dependent on Er{sup 3+} doping.

  19. Impact Simulation and Analysis of a Glass Ceramic Spherical Dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Je-Jun; Lee, Young-Shin; Koo, Song-Hoe; Moon, Soon-Il

    The dome port cover of a ramjet engine is used to seal off the ram air inlet during booster operation. When the ramjet engine undergoes the transition leading to ramjet operation phase, the port cover is fragmented by the ram pressure. Lately, the dome port cover has been made using a MACOR glass-filled ceramic that has high heat resistance and high compression strength, as well as low density. In this study, fracture simulations of a ceramic dome under shock pressure were performed through the finite element method, using the nonlinear code LS-DYNA. The material properties of the simulations were applied to the experimental results of a tensile test for the MACOR glass-filled ceramic. The simulation was carried out on the spherical dome model using various impact pulses. The fracture strength and fracture behavior mode were compared for each case. The type-A spherical dome fractured earlier than the other kinds of domes.

  20. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-04-01

    Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm(3), weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced compared to conventional vitrification and sintering method. Chemical resistance and heavy metals leaching results of glass ceramic composites further confirmed the possibility of its engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of silane pretreatment on the immediate bonding of universal adhesives to computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing lithium disilicate glass ceramics.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chenmin; Zhou, Liqun; Yang, Hongye; Wang, Yake; Sun, Hualing; Guo, Jingmei; Huang, Cui

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of silane pretreatment on the universal adhesive bonding between lithium disilicate glass ceramic and composite resin. IPS e.max ceramic blocks etched with hydrofluoric acid were randomly assigned to one of eight groups treated with one of four universal adhesives (two silane-free adhesives and two silane-containing adhesives), each with or without silane pretreatment. Bonded specimens were stored in water for 24 h. The shear bond strength (SBS) of the ceramic-resin interface was measured to evaluate bond strength, and the debonded interface after the SBS test was analysed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy to determine failure mode. Light microscopy was performed to analyse microleakage and marginal sealing ability. Silane pretreatment significantly and positively influenced SBS and marginal sealing ability. For all the universal adhesive groups, SBS increased and the percentage of microleakage decreased after the pretreatment. Without the pretreatment, SBS and the percentage of microleakage were not significantly different between the silane-containing universal adhesive groups and the silane-free groups. Cohesive failure was the main fracture pattern. The results suggest that additional silane pretreatment can effectively improve the bonding strength and marginal sealing of adhesives to lithium disilicate glass ceramics. The bonding performance of silane-containing universal adhesives without pretreatment is similar to that of silane-free adhesives.

  2. Osteoconductivity of modified fluorcanasite glass-ceramics for bone tissue augmentation and repair.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay-Ghosh, S; Faria, P E P; Johnson, A; Felipucci, D N B; Reaney, I M; Salata, L A; Brook, I M; Hatton, P V

    2010-09-01

    Modified fluorcanasite glasses were fabricated by either altering the molar ratios of Na(2)O and CaO or by adding P(2)O(5) to the parent stoichiometric glass compositions. Glasses were converted to glass-ceramics by a controlled two-stage heat treatment process. Rods (2 mm x 4 mm) were produced using the conventional lost-wax casting technique. Osteoconductive 45S5 bioglass was used as a reference material. Biocompatibility and osteoconductivity were investigated by implantation into healing defects (2 mm) in the midshaft of rabbit femora. Tissue response was investigated using conventional histology and scanning electron microscopy. Histological and histomorphometric evaluation of specimens after 12 weeks implantation showed significantly more bone contact with the surface of 45S5 bioglass implants when compared with other test materials. When the bone contact for each material was compared between experimental time points, the Glass-Ceramic 2 (CaO rich) group showed significant difference (p = 0.027) at 4 weeks, but no direct contact at 12 weeks. Histology and backscattered electron photomicrographs showed that modified fluorcanasite glass-ceramic implants had greater osteoconductivity than the parent stoichiometric composition. Of the new materials, fluorcanasite glass-ceramic implants modified by the addition of P(2)O(5) showed the greatest stimulation of new mineralized bone tissue formation adjacent to the implants after 4 and 12 weeks implantation.

  3. Results of Mechanical Testing for Pyroceram(tm) Glass-Ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2003-01-01

    Mechanical testing for Pyroceram (trademark) 9606 glass-ceramic fabricated by Corning was conducted to determine mechanical properties of the material including slow crack growth.Valid testing was not achieved in tension, compression, and shear testing due to inappropriate test specimen configurations provided and primarily due to the existence of fortified layer( in tension).

  4. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Niobium Doped Lead-Telluride Glass-Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathish, M.; Eraiah, B.

    2015-02-01

    The basic glasses with composition (70-x) TeO2-30PbO-xNb2O5 (where x=0.1 mol % and 0.2 mol %) were prepared by melt quenching method and heat treated at 280°C for 30 min. The samples becoming glass ceramics was confirmed by SEM. The XRD parameters such as crystallite size of these glass ceramics decreases as increase the impurity and is the order of 184-109A°. However, micro strain (ε) and dislocation density (δ) increases. Glass transition and thermal stability estimated from DSC measurements and it has been found that both increase with increasing of impurity. Infrared Absorption spectra were measured for TeO2 glass and glass ceramic doped with Nb2O5. The recorded bands attributed to the different modes of vibration and stretching of Te-O band. Optical Absorption spectra of TeO2-PbO- Nb2O5 system shows that the absorption edge has a tail extending towards the lower energies and shifts towards for higher energies for rare earths-doped glass-ceramics. The degree of the edge shift was found to depend on the structural rearrangement and the relative concentrations of the glass basic units. The general appearance of the absorption spectra of these rare earth doped TeO2 glasses are similar to the spectra observed for other glasses doped with the same kind of rare earth oxides.

  5. Aspects of bonding between resin luting cements and glass ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Tsoi, James Kit-Hon; Matinlinna, Jukka P; Burrow, Michael F

    2014-07-01

    The bonding interface of glass ceramics and resin luting cements plays an important role in the long-term durability of ceramic restorations. The purpose of this systematic review is to discuss the various factors involved with the bond between glass ceramics and resin luting cements. An electronic Pubmed, Medline and Embase search was conducted to obtain laboratory studies on resin-ceramic bonding published in English and Chinese between 1972 and 2012. Eighty-three articles were included in this review. Various factors that have a possible impact on the bond between glass ceramics and resin cements were discussed, including ceramic type, ceramic crystal structure, resin luting cements, light curing, surface treatments, and laboratory test methodology. Resin-ceramic bonding has been improved substantially in the past few years. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) etching followed by silanizaiton has become the most widely accepted surface treatment for glass ceramics. However, further studies need to be undertaken to improve surface preparations without HF because of its toxicity. Laboratory test methods are also required to better simulate the actual oral environment for more clinically compatible testing. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tailored spectroscopic and optical properties in rare earth-activated glass-ceramics planar waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristic, Davor; Van Tran, Thi Thanh; Dieudonné, Belto; Cristina, Armellini; Berneschi, Simone; Chiappini, Andrea; Chiasera, Alessandro; Varas, Stefano; Carpentiero, Alessandro; Mazzola, Maurizio; Nunzi Conti, Gualtiero; Pelli, Stefano; Speranza, Giorgio; Feron, Patrice; Duverger Arfuso, Claire; Cibiel, Gilles; Turrell, Sylvia; Tran Ngoc, Khiem; Boulard, Brigitte; Righini, Giancarlo C.; Ferrari, Maurizio

    2013-03-01

    Glass ceramic activated by rare earth ions are nanocomposite systems that exhibit specific morphologic, structural and spectroscopic properties allowing to develop interesting new physical concepts, for instance the mechanism related to the transparency, as well as novel photonic devices based on the enhancement of the luminescence. At the state of art the fabrication techniques based on bottom-up and top-down approaches appear to be viable although a specific effort is required to achieve the necessary reliability and reproducibility of the preparation protocols. In particular, the dependence of the final product on the specific parent glass and on the employed synthesis still remain an important task of the research in material science. Glass-ceramic waveguides overcome some of the efficiency problems experienced with conventional waveguides. These two-phase materials are composed of nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous matrix. The respective volume fractions of the crystalline and amorphous phases determine the properties of the glass ceramic. They also represent a valid alternative to widely used glass hosts such as silica as an effective optical medium for light propagation and luminescence enhancement. Looking to application, the enhanced spectroscopic properties typical of glass ceramic in respect to those of the amorphous structures constitute an important point for the development of integrated optics devices, including optical amplifiers, monolithic waveguide laser, novel sensors, coating of spherical microresonators, and up and down converters for solar energy exploitation.

  7. Influences of CaO on Crystallization, Microstructures, and Properties of BaO-Al2O3-B2O3-SiO2 Glass-Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Tang, Bo; Xu, Mingjiang

    2015-10-01

    We have developed BaO-CaO-Al2O3-B2O3-SiO2 glass-ceramics with high thermal coefficient of expansion (TCE) to overcome thermal mismatch at board level. The crystalline phases include quartz (major), cristobalite (minor), and bazirite BaZrSi3O9 (minor). Calculations from whole-pattern fitting show that the crystallinity varies slightly within the range of 33.48% to 34.89%, while the mass fraction of the phases changes remarkably with the CaO content. This indicates that CaO cannot promote crystallization of Ba-Al-B-Si glass, but effectively suppresses the phase transformation from quartz to cristobalite, making the thermal expansion curves linear. An empirical equation for the TCE versus the temperature and the amount of CaO is established. Furthermore, the densification mechanism of Ca modifiers is revealed. Due to its higher field strength than Ba, substitution of Ca increases the glass viscosity and inhibits ion diffusion. Excessive CaO is thus harmful to the density, bending strength, and electrical properties. The sample with 10 wt.% CaO sintered at 950°C exhibited high bending strength (154.1 MPa) and high TCE (12.38 ppm/°C) as well as good electrical properties ( ɛ = 6.2, tan δ = 5 × 10-4, ρ = 3.8 × 1012 Ω cm).

  8. Comparison of fusion rate and clinical results between CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 bioactive glass ceramics spacer with titanium cages in posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Kong, Chang-Bae; Yang, Jae Jun; Shim, Hee-Jong; Koo, Ki-Hyoung; Kim, Jeehyoung; Lee, Choon-Ki; Chang, Bong-Soon

    2016-11-01

    The CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass ceramics spacer generates chemical bonding to adjacent bones with high mechanical stability to produce a union with the end plate, and ultimately stability. The authors aimed to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass ceramics with a titanium cage that is widely used for posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) surgery in the clinical field. This is a prospective, stratified randomized, multicenter, single-blinded, comparator-controlled non-inferiority trial. The present study was conducted in four hospitals and enrolled a total of 86 patients between 30 and 80 years of age who required one-level PLIF due to severe spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, or huge disc herniation. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), and pain visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed before surgery and at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. The spinal fusion rate was assessed at 6 and 12 months after surgery. The spinal fusion rate and the area of fusion, subsidence of each CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass ceramics and titanium cage, and the extent of osteolysis were evaluated using a dynamic plain radiography and a three-dimensional computed tomography at 12 months after surgery. The present study was supported by BioAlpha, and some authors (JHL, C-KL, and B-SC) have stock ownership (<10,000 US dollars). From the plain radiography results, the 6-month fusion rates for the bioactive glass ceramics group and the titanium group were 89.7% and 91.4%, respectively. In addition, the 12-month fusion rates based on CT scan were 89.7% and 91.2%, respectively, showing no significant difference. However, the bone fusion area directly attached to the end plate of either bioactive glass ceramics or the titanium cage was significantly higher in the bioactive glass ceramics group than in the titanium group. The ODI, SF-36, back pain, and lower limb pain in both groups significantly improved after surgery, with no

  9. The effect of variations in translucency and background on color differences in CAD/CAM lithium disilicate glass ceramics.

    PubMed

    Al Ben Ali, Abdulaziz; Kang, Kiho; Finkelman, Matthew D; Zandparsa, Roya; Hirayama, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of variations in translucency and background on color differences (ΔE) for different shades of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) lithium disilicate glass ceramics. A pilot study suggested n = 10 as an appropriate sample size for the number of lithium disilicate glass ceramic cylinders per group. High-transparency (HT) and low-transparency (LT) cylinders (diameter, 12 mm; length, 13 mm) were fabricated in three ceramic shades (BL1, A2, C3) using CAD/CAM technology and were cut into specimen disks (thickness, 1.2 mm; diameter, 12 mm) for placement on Natural Die (ND1 and ND4) backgrounds. Four combinations of translucency and background color were evaluated in terms of color differences for the three ceramic shades: group 1 (HT ND1, reference), group 2 (HT ND4), group 3 (LT ND1), and group 4 (LT ND4). A spectrophotometer was used to measure the color differences. Nonparametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis tests) were used to evaluate the color differences among the tested groups, and Mann-Whitney U tests with Bonferroni correction were used as post hoc tests. Furthermore, for each ceramic shade, the HT groups were compared to the LT groups using the Mann-Whitney U test. Significant differences were present among the tested groups of the same ceramic shade (p < 0.001). The highest ΔE values were observed in the HT ND4 group for BL1, while the lowest ΔE values were found in the LT ND1 group for both A2 and C3. Further, the HT groups and the groups with a darker background (ND4) showed increased ΔE values compared with the other groups (p < 0.001). Within the limitations of this study, the results suggested that the translucency and background color significantly influenced the lithium disilicate glass ceramic color among the BL1, A2, and C3 ceramic shades. Changing the underlying color from a lighter background to a darker background resulted in increased color differences. © 2013 by the

  10. In Vitro Investigation of Bioactive Glass-Ceramic Composites Based on Biogenic Hydroxyapatite or Synthetic Calcium Phosphates.

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, Nataliia; Parkhomey, Oleksandr; Sych, Olena

    2017-12-01

    This in vitro investigation of the behavior of two types of calcium phosphate glass ceramics on the basis of phosphates of biogenic or synthetic origin prepared from initial mixtures with different particle size has revealed that some different factors affect the behavior, namely the phase composition of composite, fraction of open porosity, and average diameter of pore channels. It was established that the solubility of the composites on the basis of synthetic calcium phosphates and glass after 2 and 7 days contact with saline composites is the highest among the materials under study. First of all, this fact is related to the peculiarities of their phase composition, high fraction of open porosity, and high permeability. As for biogenic hydroxyapatite/glass materials, their solubility is several times lower in spite of close total porosity. The particle size of initial mixture practically does not affect the material solubility; the latter is only slightly lower for smaller particles.

  11. In Vitro Investigation of Bioactive Glass-Ceramic Composites Based on Biogenic Hydroxyapatite or Synthetic Calcium Phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinchuk, Nataliia; Parkhomey, Oleksandr; Sych, Olena

    2017-02-01

    This in vitro investigation of the behavior of two types of calcium phosphate glass ceramics on the basis of phosphates of biogenic or synthetic origin prepared from initial mixtures with different particle size has revealed that some different factors affect the behavior, namely the phase composition of composite, fraction of open porosity, and average diameter of pore channels. It was established that the solubility of the composites on the basis of synthetic calcium phosphates and glass after 2 and 7 days contact with saline composites is the highest among the materials under study. First of all, this fact is related to the peculiarities of their phase composition, high fraction of open porosity, and high permeability. As for biogenic hydroxyapatite/glass materials, their solubility is several times lower in spite of close total porosity. The particle size of initial mixture practically does not affect the material solubility; the latter is only slightly lower for smaller particles.

  12. Summary Report: Glass-Ceramic Waste Forms for Combined Fission Products

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Riley, Brian J.; Turo, Laura A.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna

    2011-09-23

    Glass-ceramic waste form development began in FY 2010 examining two combined waste stream options: (1) alkaline earth (CS) + lanthanide (Ln), and (2) + transition metal (TM) fission-product waste streams generated by the uranium extraction (UREX+) separations process. Glass-ceramics were successfully developed for both options however; Option 2 was selected over Option 1, at the conclusion of 2010, because Option 2 immobilized all three waste streams with only a minimal decrease in waste loading. During the first year, a series of three glass (Option 2) were fabricated that varied waste loading-WL (42, 45, and 50 mass%) at fixed molar ratios of CaO/MoO{sub 3} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}/alkali both at 1.75. These glass-ceramics were slow cooled and characterized in terms of phase assemblage and preliminary irradiation stability. This fiscal year, further characterization was performed on the FY 2010 Option 2 glass-ceramics in terms of: static leach testing, phase analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and irradiation stability (electron and ion). Also, a new series of glass-ceramics were developed for Option 2 that varied the additives: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0-6 mass%), molar ratio of CaO/MoO{sub 3} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}/alkali (1.75 to 2.25) and waste loading (50, 55, and 60 mass%). Lastly, phase pure powellite and oxyapatite were synthesized for irradiation studies. Results of this fiscal year studies showed compositional flexibility, chemical stability, and radiation stability in the current glass-ceramic system. First, the phase assemblages and microstructure of all of the FY 2010 and 2011 glass-ceramics are very similar once subjected to the slow cool heat treatment. The phases identified in these glass-ceramics were oxyapatite, powellite, cerianite, and ln-borosilicate. This shows that variations in waste loading or additives can be accommodated without drastically changing the phase assemblage of the waste form, thus making the processing and performance

  13. Dopant distribution in a Tm(3+)-Yb(3+) codoped silica based glass ceramic: an infrared-laser induced upconversion study.

    PubMed

    Lahoz, F; Martin, I R; Mendez-Ramos, J; Nunez, P

    2004-04-01

    The optically active dopant distribution in a Tm(3+)-Yb(3+) doped silica based glass ceramic sample has been investigated. A systematic analysis of the upconversion fluorescence of the Tm(3+)-Yb(3+) codoped glass and glass ceramic has been performed at room temperature. Tm(3+) and Yb(3+) single doped glass and glass ceramics have also been included in the study. Upon infrared excitation at 790 nm into the (3)H(4) level of the Tm(3+) ions a blue upconversion emission is observed, which is drastically increased in the Yb(3+) codoped samples. A rate equation model confirmed the energy transfer upconversion mechanism. Based on these results, the temporal dynamic curves of the levels involved in the upconversion process, (3)H(4), (2)F(5/2), and (1)G(4) were interpreted in the glass ceramic samples. The contribution of the optically active Tm(3+) and Yb(3+) ions in the crystalline and in the vitreous phase of the glass ceramic was distinguished and the ratio of Tm(3+) ions in the crystalline phase could be quantified for the 1 mol % Tm(3+)-2.5 mol % Yb(3+) glass ceramic. A surprising result was obtained for that concentration: the main contribution to the upconversion emission of the glass ceramic is due to Tm(3+)-Yb(3+) ions in the vitreous phase.

  14. Heat treatment of pre-hydrolyzed silane increases adhesion of phosphate monomer-based resin cement to glass ceramic.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Rodrigo Furtado; Cotes, Caroline; Kimpara, Estevão Tomomitsu; Leite, Fabíola Pessoa Pereira; Özcan, Mutlu

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different forms of heat treatment on a pre-hydrolyzed silane to improve the adhesion of phosphate monomer-based (MDP) resin cement to glass ceramic. Resin and feldspathic ceramic blocks (n=48, n=6 for bond test, n=2 for microscopy) were randomly divided into 6 groups and subject to surface treatments: G1: Hydrofluoric acid (HF) 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + MDP resin cement (Panavia F); G2: HF 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + Heat Treatment (oven) + Panavia F; G3: Silane + Heat Treatment (oven) + Panavia F; G4: HF 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + Heat Treatment (hot air) + Panavia F; G5: Silane + Heat Treatment (hot air) + Panavia F; G6: Silane + Panavia F. Microtensile bond strength (MTBS) test was performed using a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). After debonding, the substrate and adherent surfaces were analyzed using stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to categorize the failure types. Data were analyzed statistically using two-way test ANOVA and Tukey's test (=0.05). Heat treatment of the silane containing MDP, with prior etching with HF (G2: 13.15 ± 0.89a; G4: 12.58 ± 1.03a) presented significantly higher bond strength values than the control group (G1: 9.16 ± 0.64b). The groups without prior etching (G3: 10.47 ± 0.70b; G5: 9.47 ± 0.32b) showed statistically similar bond strength values between them and the control group (G1). The silane application without prior etching and heat treatment resulted in the lowest mean bond strength (G6: 8.05 ± 0.37c). SEM analysis showed predominantly adhesive failures and EDS analysis showed common elements of spectra (Si, Na, Al, K, O, C) characterizing the microstructure of the glass-ceramic studied. Heat treatment of the pre-hydrolyzed silane containing MDP in an oven at 100 °C for 2 min or with hot air application at 50 ± 5 ºC for 1 min, was effective in increasing the bond strength values between the ceramic and resin cement containing MDP.

  15. Wear behavior of human enamel against lithium disilicate glass ceramic and type III gold.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ahreum; Swain, Michael; He, Lihong; Lyons, Karl

    2014-12-01

    The wear behavior of human enamel that opposes different prosthetic materials is still not clear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate and compare the friction and wear behavior of human tooth enamel that opposes 2 indirect restorative materials: lithium disilicate glass ceramic and Type III gold. Friction-wear tests on human enamel (n=5) that opposes lithium disilicate glass ceramic (n=5) and Type III gold (n=5) were conducted in a ball-on-flat configuration with a reciprocating wear testing apparatus. The wear pairs were subjected to a normal load of 9.8 N, a reciprocating amplitude of approximately 200 μm, and a reciprocating frequency of approximately 1.6 Hz for up to 1100 cycles per test under distilled water lubrication. The frictional force of each cycle was recorded, and the corresponding friction coefficient for different wear pairs was calculated. After wear testing, the wear scars on the enamel specimens were examined under a scanning electron microscope. Type III gold had a significantly lower steady-state friction coefficient (P=.009) and caused less wear damage on enamel than lithium disilicate glass ceramic. Enamel that opposed lithium disilicate glass ceramic exhibited cracks, plow furrows, and surface loss, which indicated abrasive wear as the prominent wear mechanism. In comparison, the enamel wear scar that opposed Type III gold had small patches of gold smear adhered to the surface, which indicated a predominantly adhesive wear mechanism. A lower friction coefficient and better wear resistance were observed when human enamel was opposed by Type III gold than by lithium disilicate glass ceramic in vitro. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A two-scale model for simultaneous sintering and crystallization of glass-ceramic scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Huang, R; Pan, J; Boccaccini, A R; Chen, Q Z

    2008-07-01

    Bioglass-based glass-ceramic foams have been developed recently as highly porous, mechanically competent, bioactive and degradable scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. However, the development of the material so far has been based on a trial-and-error approach, and the existing materials are far from being optimized. In this paper, a mechanism-based model is presented for sintering deformation of Bioglass foams. The porous foams consist of struts which, in turn, consist of Bioglass particles. A corresponding two-scale model is developed based on existing viscous sintering models. Crystallization plays a key role in the sintering deformation of Bioglass foams and is taken into account in the model. Qualitative comparison between the model predictions and experimental observations is presented, showing that the model is able to capture the complicated interplay between crystallization and viscous flow during the sintering process.

  17. Spectroscopic characteristics of chromium-doped mullite glass-ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtowicz, A.J.; Meng, W.; Lempicki, A.; Beall, G.H.; Hall, D.W.

    1988-06-01

    The chromium (3+) ion has been widely used as an optical activator in solid-state, tunable laser materials. High octahedral field-stabilization energy and resistance against both oxidation and reduction minimize the dependence of chromium (3+) on the solid-state host matrix. However, the high sensitivity of electronic structure on crystal field strength makes the appropriate choice of host the condition for success. Characteristics of chromium-doped mullite ceramics are discussed with reference to possible laser applications. Dominant features are attributed to large and inherent spectroscopic inhomogeneity of mullite. The spectroscopic data are analyzed using a generalized McCumber theory. The peak-stimulated emission cross section is 0.54 x 10 to the -20 sq cm. This together with preliminary single-pass measurements, indicate that gain for mullite is about 2.6 times smaller than gain for alexandrite.

  18. Chemical adhesion rather than mechanical retention enhances resin bond durability of a dental glass-ceramic with leucite crystallites.

    PubMed

    Meng, X F; Yoshida, K; Gu, N

    2010-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of chemical adhesion by a silane coupler and mechanical retention by hydrofluoric acid (HFA) etching on the bond durability of resin to a dental glass ceramic with leucite crystallites. Half of the ceramic plates were etched with 4.8% HFA (HFA group) for 60 s, and the other half were not treated (NoHFA group). The scale of their surface roughness and rough area was measured by a 3D laser scanning microscope. These plates then received one of the following two bond procedures to form four bond test groups: HFA/cement, NoHFA/cement, HFA/silane/cement and NoHFA/silane/cement. The associated micro-shear bond strength and bond failure modes were tested after 0 and 30 000 thermal water bath cycles. Four different silane/cement systems (Monobond S/Variolink II, GC Ceramic Primer/Linkmax HV, Clearfil Ceramic Primer/Clearfil Esthetic Cement and Porcelain Liner M/SuperBond C&B) were used. The data for each silane/cement system were analyzed by three-way ANOVA. HFA treatment significantly increased the surface R(a) and R(y) values and the rough area of the ceramic plates compared with NoHFA treatment. After 30 000 thermal water bath cycles, the bond strength of all the test groups except the HFA/Linkmax HV group was significantly reduced, while the HFA/Linkmax HV group showed only adhesive interface failure. The other HFA/cement groups and all NoHFA/cement groups lost bond strength completely, and all NoHFA/silane/cement groups with chemical adhesion had significantly higher bond strength and more ceramic cohesive failures than the respective HFA/cement groups with mechanical retention. The result of the HFA/silane/cement groups with both chemical adhesion and mechanical retention revealed that HFA treatment could enhance the bond durability of resin/silanized glass ceramics, which might result from the increase of the chemical adhesion area on the ceramic rough surface and subsequently reduced degradation speed of the silane coupler

  19. LED and Halogen Light Transmission through a CAD/CAM Lithium Disilicate Glass-Ceramic.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carolina Nemesio de Barros; De Magalhães, Cláudia Silami; Daleprane, Bruno; Peixoto, Rogéli Tibúrcio Ribeiro da Cunha; Ferreira, Raquel da Conceição; Cury, Luiz Alberto; Moreira, Allyson Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    The effect of thickness, shade and translucency of CAD/CAM lithium disilicate glass-ceramic on light transmission of light-emitting diode (LED) and quartz-tungsten-halogen units (QTH) were evaluated. Ceramic IPS e.max CAD shades A1, A2, A3, A3.5, high (HT) and low (LT) translucency were cut (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm). Light sources emission spectra were determined. Light intensity incident and transmitted through each ceramic sample was measured to determine light transmission percentage (TP). Statistical analysis used a linear regression model. There was significant interaction between light source and ceramic translucency (p=0.008) and strong negative correlation (R=-0.845, p<0.001) between ceramic thickness and TP. Increasing one unit in thickness led to 3.17 reduction in TP. There was no significant difference in TP (p=0.124) between shades A1 (ß1=0) and A2 (ß1=-0.45) but significant reduction occurred for A3 (ß1=-0.83) and A3.5 (ß1=-2.18). The interaction QTH/HT provided higher TP (ß1=0) than LED/HT (ß1=-2.92), QTH/LT (ß1=-3.75) and LED/LT (ß1=-5.58). Light transmission was more effective using halogen source and high-translucency ceramics, decreased as the ceramic thickness increased and was higher for the lighter shades, A1 and A2. From the regression model (R2=0.85), an equation was obtained to estimate TP value using each variable ß1 found. A maximum TP of 25% for QTH and 20% for LED was found, suggesting that ceramic light attenuation could compromise light cured and dual cure resin cements polymerization.

  20. Translucency and strength of high-translucency monolithic zirconium oxide materials.

    PubMed

    Church, Todd D; Jessup, Jeffrey P; Guillory, Villa L; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the translucency and strength of highly translucent monolithic zirconia ceramic materials recently introduced to the market. Four monolithic zirconium oxide materials promoted as having high translucency (BruxZir Shaded 16, BruxZir HT, Lava Plus, and inCoris TZI C) were compared to a high-translucency, lithium disilicate monolithic glass-ceramic material (IPS e.max CAD HT). To evaluate translucency, the materials were sectioned into 0.5-, 1.0-, 1.5-, and 2.0-mm-thick specimens; all were sintered and polished. Translucency parameters were calculated with a spectrophotometer. To evaluate flexural strength and modulus, the ceramic materials were sectioned to create beams and fractured in a universal testing machine. The lithium disilicate had significantly greater translucency than the zirconia materials at each thickness. In general, the translucencies of the zirconia materials were similar at each thickness. However, at the manufacturers' recommended minimal thicknesses, 0.5-mm specimens of BruxZir Shaded 16, inCoris TZI C, and Lava Plus were more translucent than the 1.0-mm-thick specimens of IPS e.max CAD HT. Translucency significantly decreased for each material at each increase in thickness. The flexural strengths of the zirconia materials were similar to each other and significantly greater than that of IPS e.max CAD HT. Flexural moduli were more variable. Of the zirconia materials, BruxZir Shaded 16 had an overall better combination of translucency, strength, and modulus.

  1. Heavy metal-rich wastes sequester in mineral phases through a glass-ceramic process.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Valles, M; Avila, G; Martinez, S; Terradas, R; Nogués, J M

    2007-08-01

    Certain sludges generated by industry are rich in contaminating elements and are a major environmental problem. In this study, we determine the ability of these contaminating elements to be incorporated into a glass-matrix and in various mineral phases after a crystallization process. The contaminating elements studied were obtained from sewage sludges (SS) and galvanic sludges (GS), our raw materials. The sludge samples were taken from urban wastewater treatment plant in Catalonia (NE Spain) with high levels of phosphorus oxide (P(2)O(5)). In silica glasses, P(2)O(5) acts as a network former. We determined the chemical composition of both the SS and GS, as well as their thermal behaviour by differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetric analysis (DTA-TG) to obtain their melting curves. The vitreous transition temperature of the obtained glass was established by dilatometer technique at 725 degrees C. The DTA-TG curve of the glass obtained has an exothermal wide peak at 860 degrees C corresponding to crystallization of the two phases: a spinel phase and a phosphate phase. A second exothermal wide peak at 960 degrees C was attributed to the crystallization of aluminium pyroxene, anorthite and fluor-apatite, with two exothermal phenomena attributed to the evolution of these phases. An exothermal peak at 1100 degrees C was attributed to gehlenite crystallization. Scanning electron microscope observations and energy-dispersed X-ray spectroscopy microanalyses of glass-ceramic showed that the contaminating elements were concentrated in the spinel phases, which are the first phases to crystallize during the cooling of glass. Finally, the spinel structure permits the incorporation of all the contaminating elements into it.

  2. Study of structural, electrical, and dielectric properties of phosphate-borate glasses and glass-ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Melo, B. M. G.; Graça, M. P. F. Prezas, P. R.; Valente, M. A.; Almeida, A. F.; Freire, F. N. A.; Bih, L.

    2016-08-07

    In this work, phosphate-borate based glasses with molar composition 20.7P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–17.2Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}–13.8WO{sub 3}–34.5A{sub 2}O–13.8B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, where A = Li, Na, and K, were prepared by the melt quenching technique. The as-prepared glasses were heat-treated in air at 800 °C for 4 h, which led to the formation of glass-ceramics. These high chemical and thermal stability glasses are good candidates for several applications such as fast ionic conductors, semiconductors, photonic materials, electrolytes, hermetic seals, rare-earth ion host solid lasers, and biomedical materials. The present work endorses the analysis of the electrical conductivity of the as-grown samples, and also the electrical, dielectric, and structural changes established by the heat-treatment process. The structure of the samples was analyzed using X-Ray powder Diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and density measurements. Both XRD and Raman analysis confirmed crystals formation through the heat-treatment process. The electrical ac and dc conductivities, σ{sub ac} and σ{sub dc}, respectively, and impedance spectroscopy measurements as function of the temperature, varying from 200 to 380 K, were investigated for the as-grown and heat-treated samples. The impedance spectroscopy was measured in the frequency range of 100 Hz–1 MHz.

  3. Dual-Phase Glass Ceramic: Structure, Dual-Modal Luminescence, and Temperature Sensing Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daqin; Wan, Zhongyi; Zhou, Yang; Zhou, Xiangzhi; Yu, Yunlong; Zhong, Jiasong; Ding, Mingye; Ji, Zhenguo

    2015-09-02

    Yb(3+)/Er(3+)/Cr(3+) triply doped transparent bulk glass ceramic containing orthorhombic YF3 and cubic Ga2O3 nanocrystals was fabricated by a melt-quenching route to explore its possible application in optical thermometry with high spatial and temperature resolution. It was experimentally observed that Yb(3+)/Er(3+) ions incorporated into the precipitated YF3 nanophase, while Cr(3+) ions partitioned into the crystallized Ga2O3 nanophase after glass crystallization. Importantly, such spatial isolation strategy efficiently suppressed adverse energy transfer among different active ions. As a consequence, intense green anti-Stokes luminescence originated from Er(3+): (2)H11/2,(4)S3/2 → (4)I15/2 transitions, and deep-red Stokes luminescence transitions assigned to Cr(3+): (2)E → (4)A2 radiation were simultaneously realized. Impressively, the intermediate crystal-field environment for Cr(3+) in Ga2O3 made it possible for lifetime-based temperature sensing owing to the competition of radiation transitions from the thermally coupled Cr(3+) (2)E and (4)T2 excited states. In the meantime, the low-phonon-energy environment for Er(3+) in YF3 was beneficial for upconversion fluorescence intensity ratio-based temperature sensing via thermal population between the (2)H11/2 state and (4)S3/2 state. The Boltzmann distribution theory and the two-level kinetic model were adopted to interpret these temperature-dependent luminescence of Er(3+) and Cr(3+), respectively, which gave the highest temperature sensitivities of 0.25% K(-1) at 514 K for Er(3+) and 0.59% K(-1) at 386 K for Cr(3+).

  4. Histological response of soda-lime glass-ceramic bactericidal rods implanted in the jaws of beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Moya, José S.; Martínez, Arturo; López-Píriz, Roberto; Guitián, Francisco; Díaz, Luis A.; Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Cabal, Belén; Sket, Federico; Fernández-García, Elisa; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Torrecillas, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal infections remain a major clinical challenge. Implant infections very often require complicated revision procedures that are troublesome to patients and costly to the healthcare system. Innovative approaches to tackle infections are urgently needed. We investigated the histological response of novel free P2O5 glass-ceramic rods implanted in the jaws of beagle dogs. Due to the particular percolated morphology of this glass-ceramic, the dissolution of the rods in the animal body environment and the immature bone formation during the fourth months of implantation maintained the integrity of the glass-ceramic rod. No clinical signs of inflammation took place in any of the beagle dogs during the four months of implantation. This new glass-ceramic biomaterial with inherent bactericidal and fungicidal properties can be considered as an appealing candidate for bone tissue engineering. PMID:27515388

  5. Histological response of soda-lime glass-ceramic bactericidal rods implanted in the jaws of beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Moya, José S; Martínez, Arturo; López-Píriz, Roberto; Guitián, Francisco; Díaz, Luis A; Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Cabal, Belén; Sket, Federico; Fernández-García, Elisa; Tomsia, Antoni P; Torrecillas, Ramón

    2016-08-12

    Bacterial and fungal infections remain a major clinical challenge. Implant infections very often require complicated revision procedures that are troublesome to patients and costly to the healthcare system. Innovative approaches to tackle infections are urgently needed. We investigated the histological response of novel free P2O5 glass-ceramic rods implanted in the jaws of beagle dogs. Due to the particular percolated morphology of this glass-ceramic, the dissolution of the rods in the animal body environment and the immature bone formation during the fourth months of implantation maintained the integrity of the glass-ceramic rod. No clinical signs of inflammation took place in any of the beagle dogs during the four months of implantation. This new glass-ceramic biomaterial with inherent bactericidal and fungicidal properties can be considered as an appealing candidate for bone tissue engineering.

  6. Synthesis and Luminescent Properties of Transparent Oxyfluoride Glass-Ceramics Containing Er3+:YLiF4 Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takenobu; Masaki, Shin-ichiro; Mizuno, Kento; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2010-07-01

    Transparent glass-ceramics containing YLiF4 nano-crystals were synthesized by controlled heat treatment of LiF-YF3-Al2O3-SiO2 glass. The crystallite size, estimated to be about 8 nm, was much less than the wavelength of visible light. From the fluorescent properties of the Er3+-doped precursor glass and the glass-ceramic, it was confirmed that Er3+ could be incorporated into YLiF4 nano-crystallites in the glass-ceramic. This transparent glass-ceramic containing YLiF4 nano-crystals is promising as a gain medium for rare earth-doped fiber lasers and amplifiers.

  7. Fabrication and luminescence behavior of phosphate glass ceramics co-doped with Er3+ and Yb3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaochen; Duan, Li; Ni, Lei; Wang, Zhuo

    2012-08-01

    Transparent phosphate glass ceramics co-doped with Er3+ and Yb3+ in the system P2O5Li2OCaF2TiO2 were successfully synthesized by melt-quenching and subsequent heating. Formation of the nanocrystals was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction. Judd-Ofelt analyses of Er3+ ions in the precursor glasses and glass ceramics were performed to evaluate the intensity parameters Ω2,4,6. Under 975 nm excitation, intense upconversion (UC) and infrared emission (1545 nm) were observed in the glass ceramics by efficient energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+. The luminescence processes were explained and the emission cross section was calculated by Fuchtbauer-Ladenburg (F-L) formula. The results confirm the potential applications of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped glass ceramics as laser and fiber amplifier media.

  8. Infrared Optical Properties of β-Spodumene Solid Solution Glass-Ceramic for Fiber-Optic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2006-09-01

    The IR optical properties of an opaque β-spodumene solid solution (s.s.) glass-ceramic for fiber-optic devices were studied in relation to its refractive indices in both crystalline and glass phases. We investigated the refractive indices of both phases on the basis of IR transmittance change due to the structural relaxation of the glass phase. The refractive indices of this β-spodumene s.s. glass-ceramic at a wavelength of 1550 nm in the crystalline and glass phases were first determined to be 1.530 and 1.495, respectively. It was found from the refractive index data that the optical scattering intensity of this glass-ceramic approximately follows the Rayleigh-Gans model. We also demonstrated that the inner diameter of an opaque glass-ceramic capillary used in optical fiber connectors can be optically measured with a sub-micrometer accuracy using an IR laser.

  9. Novel resorbable glass-ceramic scaffolds for hard tissue engineering: from the parent phosphate glass to its bone-like macroporous derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bretcanu, Oana; Baino, Francesco; Verné, Enrica; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara

    2014-05-01

    One of the major challenges of hard tissue engineering research focuses on the development of scaffolds that can match the mechanical properties of the host bone and resorb at the same rate as the bone is repaired. The aim of this work was the synthesis and characterization of a resorbable phosphate glass, as well as its application for the fabrication of three dimensional (3-D) scaffolds for bone regeneration. The glass microstructure and behaviour upon heating were analysed by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and hot stage microscopy. The glass solubility was investigated according to relevant ISO standards using distilled water, simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-HCl as testing media. The glass underwent progressive dissolution over time in all three media but the formation of a hydroxyapatite-like layer was also observed on the samples soaked in SBF and Tris-HCl, which demonstrated the bioactivity of the material. The glass powder was used to fabricate 3-D macroporous bone-like glass-ceramic scaffolds by adopting polyethylene particles as pore formers: during thermal treatment, the polymer additive was removed and the sintering of glass particles was allowed. The obtained scaffolds exhibited high porosity (87 vol.%) and compressive strength around 1.5 MPa. After soaking for 4 months in SBF, the scaffolds mass loss was 76 wt.% and the pH of the solution did not exceed the 7.55 value, thereby remaining in a physiological range. The produced scaffolds, being resorbable, bioactive, architecturally similar to trabecular bone and exhibiting interesting mechanical properties, can be proposed as promising candidates for bone repair applications.

  10. Oxidation of Al-containing austenitic stainless steels as related to the formation of strong glass-ceramic to metal seals

    SciTech Connect

    Moddeman, W.E.; Birkbeck, J.C.; Bowling, W.C.; Burke, A.R.; Cassidy, R.T.

    1996-08-01

    In glass-ceramic to metal seals used in pyrotechnic actuators and ignitors, Ni-based alloys and Al-containing austenitic stainless steels are used. Metal attack by the glass is severe if Ni based alloys are used, less so for the Al-containing alloys. In this paper, lithia-alumina-silica glass-ceramic was sealed to Al-containing alloys that were first oxidized prior to sealing (preoxidation). Results show that this preoxidation substantially reduces the probability of glass/metal reactions during seal formation, thus improving the overall quality of the interface without loss of seal bond strength. Mechanism of surface oxide formation of these Al- containing steels is discussed. Auger data show the composition of the resulting oxides to be a function of oxidation temperature. There are two theories on the oxidation mechanism: (1) oxidation occurring at the air/oxide interface (Abderrazik et al, 1987), and (2) oxidation taking place at the oxide/metal interface (Hindam and Smeltzer, 1980). To test the theories, oxidation of the Al-containing alloys was carried out, first in pure oxygen-16, and then followed by pure oxygen-18. SIMS showed no layered structure, but did show a mixture of oxides. Thus, the oxidation mechanism is not simple and must be allowing oxygen to have access at all stages of the oxidation process.

  11. Effect of heat treatment on fracture toughness K(IC) and microstructure of a fluorcanasite-based glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Oh, Won-Suck; Zhang, Nai-Zheng; Anusavice, Kenneth J

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the increase in fracture toughness of a fluorcanasite-based glass-ceramic is a linear function of crystal volume fraction. A total of 60 specimen bars (20 x 5 x 2 mm(3)) were cut from parent glass blocks, polished, annealed, randomly divided into six groups, nucleated at 680 degrees C/4 hr, and crystallized at the following temperatures and times: (1) 850 degrees C/0.5 hr, (2) 850 degrees C/1 hr, (3) 850 degrees C/3 hr, (4) 750 degrees C/6 hr, (5) 800 degrees C/6 hr, or (6) 850 degrees C/6 hr. Indentation flaws were produced by a microhardness indenter at the center of one surface, and the prepared specimens were subjected to three-point flexure loading with the severely flawed surface under tension at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Flexural strength and fracture toughness (K(IC)) were calculated based on the indentation-strength technique. Crystal volume fraction (V(c)) was determined by quantitative stereology of scanning electron images of each group of ceramic specimens. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Duncan's multiple comparison test (alpha= 0.05). The mean K(IC) and V(c) values ranged from 2.7 to 3.9 MPa m(1/2) and 37% to 71% within the crystallization temperature range of 750 to 850 degrees C. Five statistical subsets of groups 1, 2/4, 3, 5, and 6 were determined as a function of crystallization temperature and holding time (Duncan's multiple comparison analysis; alpha= 0.05). The lowest and highest K(IC) and V(c) values were associated with Groups 1 (850 degrees C/0.5 hr) and 6 (850 degrees C/6 hr), respectively. Fracture toughness increased linearly as a function of crystal volume fraction (correlation coefficient R(2)= 0.67). The fracture toughness increased by 45% when the crystal volume fraction increased by 92%. Mean K(IC) values increased as a linear function of crystal volume fraction in a fluorcanasite-based glass-ceramic within the crystallization temperature range of

  12. CVD silicon carbide monofilament reinforced SrO-Al2O3-2SiO2 (SAS) glass-ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1995-01-01

    Unidirectional CVD SiC fiber-reinforced SrO.Al2O3.2SiO2 (SAS) glass-ceramic matrix composites have been fabricated by hot pressing at various combinations of temperature, pressure and time. Both carbon-rich surface coated SCS-6 and uncoated SCS-0 fibers were used as reinforcements. Almost fully dense composites have been obtained. Monoclinic celsian, SrAl2Si2O8, was the only crystalline phase observed in the matrix from x-ray diffraction. During three point flexure testing of composites, a test span to thickness ratio of approximately 25 or greater was necessary to avoid sample delamination. Strong and tough SCS-6/SAS composites having a first matrix crack stress of approximately 300 MPa and an ultimate bend strength of approximately 825 MPa were fabricated. No chemical reaction between the SCS-6 fibers and the SAS matrix was observed after high temperature processing. The uncoated SCS-0 fiber-reinforced SAS composites showed only limited improvement in strength over SAS monolithic. The SCS-0/SAS composite having a fiber volume fraction of 0.24 and hot pressed at 1400 deg C exhibited a first matrix cracking stress of approximately 231 +/- 20 MPa and ultimate strength of 265 +/- 17 MPa. From fiber push-out tests, the fiber/matrix interfacial debonding strength (tau(sub debond)) and frictional sliding stress (tau(sub friction)) in the SCS-6/SAS system were evaluated to be approximately 6.7 +/- 2.3 MPa and 4.3 +/- 0.6 MPa, respectively, indicating a weak interface. However, for the SCS-0/SAS composite, much higher values of approximately 17.5 +/- 2.7 MPa for tau(sub debond) and 11.3 +/- 1.6 MPa for tau(sub friction) respectively, were observed; some of the fibers were so strongly bonded to the matrix that they could not be pushed out. Examination of fracture surfaces revealed limited short pull-out length of SCS-0 fibers. The applicability of various micromechanical models for predicting the values of first matrix cracking stress and ultimate strength of these

  13. Mechanochemically synthesized kalsilite based bioactive glass-ceramic composite for dental vaneering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pattem Hemanth; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep

    2015-08-01

    Kalsilite glass-ceramic composites have been prepared by a mechanochemical synthesis process for dental veneering application. The aim of the present study is to prepare bioactive kalsilite composite material for application in tissue attachment and sealing of the marginal gap between fixed prosthesis and tooth. Mechanochemical synthesis is used for the preparation of microfine kalsilite glass-ceramic. Low temperature frit and bioglass have been prepared using the traditional quench method. Thermal, microstructural and bioactive properties of the composite material have been examined. The feasibility of the kalsilite to be coated on the base commercial opaque as well as the bioactive behavior of the coated specimen has been confirmed. This study indicates that the prepared kalsilite-based composites show similar structural, morphological and bioactive behavior to that of commercial VITA VMK95 Dentin 1M2.

  14. Method of producing a ceramic fiber-reinforced glass-ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A fiber-reinforced composite composed of a BaO-Al2O3-2SiO2 (BAS) glass ceramic matrix is reinforced with CVD silicon carbide continuous fibers. A slurry of BAS glass powders is prepared and celsian seeds are added during ball melting. The slurry is cast into tapes which are cut to the proper size. Continuous CVD-SiC fibers are formed into mats of the desired size. The matrix tapes and the fiber mats are alternately stacked in the proper orientation. This tape-mat stack is warm pressed to produce a 'green' composite. The 'green' composite is then heated to an elevated temperature to burn out organic constituents. The remaining interim material is then hot pressed to form a silicon carbide fiber-reinforced celsian (BAS) glass-ceramic matrix composite which may be machined to size.

  15. Raman and Infrared Spectroscopy of Yttrium Aluminum Borate Glasses and Glass-ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, J.; Brooks, M.; Crenshaw, T.; Morris, A.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Morgan, S.

    1998-01-01

    Raman spectra of glasses and glass-ceramics in the Y2O3-Al2O3-B2O3 system are reported. Glasses with B2O3 contents ranging from 40 to 60 mole percent were prepared by melting 20 g of the appropriate oxide or carbonate powders in alumina crucibles at 1400 C for 45 minutes. Subsequent heat treatments of the glasses at temperatures ranging from 600 to 800 C were performed in order to induce nucleation and crystallization. It was found that Na2CO3 added to the melt served as a nucleating agent and resulted in uniform bulk crystallization. The Raman spectra of the glasses are interpreted primarily in terms of vibrations of boron - oxygen structural groups. Comparison of the Raman spectra of the glass-ceramic samples with spectra of aluminate and borate crystalline materials reveal that these glasses crystallize primarily as yttrium aluminum borate, YAl3(BO3)4.

  16. A neutron scintillator based on transparent nanocrystalline CaF{sub 2}:Eu glass ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Struebing, Christian; Kang, Zhitao; Chong, JooYun; Wagner, Brent; Lee, Gyuhyon; Ding, Yong; Zavala, Martin; Erickson, Anna; Wang, Cai-Lin; Diawara, Yacouba; Engels, Ralf

    2016-04-11

    There are no efficient Eu{sup 2+} doped glass neutron scintillators reported due to low doping concentrations of Eu{sup 2+} and the amorphous nature of the glass matrix. In this work, an efficient CaF{sub 2}:Eu glass ceramic neutron scintillator was prepared by forming CaF{sub 2}:Eu nanocrystals in a {sup 6}Li-containing glass matrix. Through appropriate thermal treatments, the scintillation light yield of the transparent glass ceramic was increased by a factor of at least 46 compared to the as-cast amorphous glass. This improvement was attributed to more efficient energy transfer from the CaF{sub 2} crystals to the Eu{sup 2+} emitting centers. Further light yield improvement is expected if the refractive index of the glass matrix can be matched to the CaF{sub 2} crystal.

  17. Ultraviolet and white photon avalanche upconversion in Ho{sup 3+}-doped nanophase glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Lahoz, F.; Martin, I.R.; Calvilla-Quintero, J.M.

    2005-01-31

    Ho{sup 3+}-doped fluoride nanophase glass ceramics have been synthesized from silica-based oxyfluoride glass. An intense white emission light is observed by the naked eye under near infrared excitation at 750 nm. This visible upconversion is due to three strong emission bands in the primary color components, red, green, and blue. Besides, ultraviolet signals are also recorded upon the same excitation wavelength. The excitation mechanism of both the ultraviolet and the visible emissions is a photon avalanche process with a relatively low pump power threshold at about 20 mW. The total upconverted emission intensity has been estimated to increase by about a factor of 20 in the glass ceramic compared to the precursor glass, in which an avalanche type mechanism is not generated.

  18. Near infrared downconversion in Pr 3+-Yb 3+ codoped oxyfluoride glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Yumiko; Tanabe, Setsuhisa

    2010-12-01

    The loss mechanism in the Pr 3+-Yb 3+ codoped glass that showed quantum cutting (QC) phenomenon was investigated and we found that the multi-phonon relaxation from Pr 3+: 1G 4 is the major loss to the quantum cutting process. To reduce the loss, Pr 3+-Yb 3+ codoped glass ceramics containing SrF 2 crystals were prepared and quantum yields (QY) of Yb 3+ emission by 440 nm excitation were measured. Only glass ceramics with the highest Yb concentration ( x = 2.9) showed higher QY than that of the as-made glass. It is considered that in low Yb concentration Pr 3+ and Yb 3+ ions were divided into different matrix possibly because of different ionic radius between Pr 3+ and Yb 3+ ions.

  19. Analysis of Mn2+ EPR spectral shapes for studies of the oxyfluoride glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotovs, A.; Berzins, Dz; Kiselova, O.; Sarakovskis, A.; Rogulis, U.

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the EPR superhyperfine structure of the Mn2+ ion in the disordered BaF2 crystalline media which tends to crystallize in the oxyfluoride glass-ceramics material. Obtained EPR spectra reveal explicit shf structure due to Mn2+ ion building into the BaF2 lattice showing its usefulness as a probe in orientationally disordered and amorphous structures. Two types with explicit shf structure of Mn2+ ion characteristic EPR spectra were obtained in BaF2 powder samples characteristic with broad (type 1) and narrow (type 2) hyperfine structure lines. Spectra of the ZnF2-BaF2 oxyfluoride glass-ceramics samples revealed explicit fine structure lines.

  20. Time resolved spectroscopy of oxyfluoride glass ceramics activated by Pr3+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozanski, M.; Środa, M.; Koepke, Cz.

    2008-06-01

    The paper presents a new glass ceramics of the SiO2-B2O3-Na2O-LaF3 system in which nanocrystallization of LaF3 could be obtained. Thermal stability of glass and the crystalline phases formed upon heat treatment were determined by DTA/DSC and XRD methods, respectively. The effect of incoming of Pr3+ to LaF3 crystals in the glassy host has been shown in the emission spectra. The 3P0 --> 3HJ emissions have been much stronger in glass-ceramics what supports the suggestion that 3P0 --> 1D2 non-radiative decay dominates the relaxation of 3P0 for Pr3+ ions in the as-made glass.

  1. Magnetic behavior of erbium-zinc-borate glasses and glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Borodi, G.; Pascuta, P.; Bosca, M.; Pop, V.; Stefan, R.; Tetean, R.; Radulescu, D.

    2013-11-13

    Glasses of the system (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub x}⋅(B{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub (60−x)}⋅(ZnO){sub 40} (3 ≤ x ≤ 15 mol%) were prepared by conventional melt quenching and subsequently converted to glass ceramics by heat treatment of glass samples at 860 °C for 2 h. The magnetic behaviour of the studied glasses and glass ceramics were investigated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and a Faraday-type magnetic balance. Magnetic data show that erbium ions are involved in negative superexchange interactions in all the investigated samples, being antiferromagnetically coupled. For all studied samples the experimental values obtained for the effective magnetic moments are lower than the value corresponding to free Er{sup 3+} ions and decrease with the increasing of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. The decrease is more pronounced in heat treated samples than untreated ones.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Niobium Doped Lead-Telluride Glass Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Sathish, M.; Eraiah, B.; Anavekar, R. V.

    2011-07-15

    Niobium-lead-telluride glass ceramics of composition xNb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-(20-x) pbO-80TeO{sub 2}(where x = 0.1 mol% to 0.5 mol%) were prepared by using conventional melt quenching method. The prepared glass samples were initially amorphous in nature after annealed at 400 deg. c all samples were crystallized. This was confined by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The particle size of these glass ceramics have been calculated by using Debye-Scherer formula and the particle size is in the order of 15 nm to 60 nm. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photograph shows the presence of needle-like crystals in these samples.

  3. Raman and Infrared Spectroscopy of Yttrium Aluminum Borate Glasses and Glass-ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, J.; Brooks, M.; Crenshaw, T.; Morris, A.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Morgan, S.

    1998-01-01

    Raman spectra of glasses and glass-ceramics in the Y2O3-Al2O3-B2O3 system are reported. Glasses with B2O3 contents ranging from 40 to 60 mole percent were prepared by melting 20 g of the appropriate oxide or carbonate powders in alumina crucibles at 1400 C for 45 minutes. Subsequent heat treatments of the glasses at temperatures ranging from 600 to 800 C were performed in order to induce nucleation and crystallization. It was found that Na2CO3 added to the melt served as a nucleating agent and resulted in uniform bulk crystallization. The Raman spectra of the glasses are interpreted primarily in terms of vibrations of boron - oxygen structural groups. Comparison of the Raman spectra of the glass-ceramic samples with spectra of aluminate and borate crystalline materials reveal that these glasses crystallize primarily as yttrium aluminum borate, YAl3(BO3)4.

  4. Green-white-yellow tunable luminescence from doped transparent glass ceramics containing nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. F.; Yan, X. H.; Xuan, Y.; Zheng, J.; He, W. Y.

    2013-10-01

    , , and doped transparent ceramics containing nanocrystals were fabricated by a melt-quenching method and subsequent heating. Tetragonal phase spheres with 20 nm size are homogeneously precipitated among a borosilicate glass matrix. The photoluminescence spectrum of single doped transparent ceramics shows white light emission under 382 nm UV excitation. The emission color of co-doped transparent glass ceramics is tuned from green to white through energy transfer from to , and the emission color of co-doped transparent ceramics is tuned from white to yellow through energy transfer from to . CIE chromaticity and color temperature measurements show that the resulting transparent glass ceramics may be a candidate as a warm-white LED material pumped by a UV InGaN chip.

  5. Transport properties of lithium- lead-vanadium-telluride glass and glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Sathish, M.; Eraiah, B.

    2014-04-24

    Glasses with the chemical composition 35Li{sub 2}O-(45-x)V{sub 2}O{sub 5−}20PbO-xTeO{sub 2} (where x = 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 mol %) have prepared by conventional melt quenching method. The electrical conductivity of Li{sup +} ion conducting lead vanadium telluride glass samples has been carried out both as a function of temperature and frequency in the temperature range 503K-563K and over frequencies 40 Hz to 10 MHz. The electronic conduction has been observed in the present systems. When these samples annealed around 400°C for 2hour become the glass ceramic, which also shows increase tendency of conductivity. SEM confines glass and glass ceramic nature of the prepared samples.

  6. Mechanochemically synthesized kalsilite based bioactive glass-ceramic composite for dental vaneering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pattem Hemanth; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep

    2017-08-01

    Kalsilite glass-ceramic composites have been prepared by a mechanochemical synthesis process for dental veneering application. The aim of the present study is to prepare bioactive kalsilite composite material for application in tissue attachment and sealing of the marginal gap between fixed prosthesis and tooth. Mechanochemical synthesis is used for the preparation of microfine kalsilite glass-ceramic. Low temperature frit and bioglass have been prepared using the traditional quench method. Thermal, microstructural and bioactive properties of the composite material have been examined. The feasibility of the kalsilite to be coated on the base commercial opaque as well as the bioactive behavior of the coated specimen has been confirmed. This study indicates that the prepared kalsilite-based composites show similar structural, morphological and bioactive behavior to that of commercial VITA VMK95 Dentin 1M2.

  7. Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence from transparent Yb3+/Ni2+ codoped silicate glass ceramics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Botao; Zhou, Shifeng; Ruan, Jian; Qiao, Yanbo; Chen, Danping; Zhu, Congshan; Qiu, Jianrong

    2008-02-04

    The near-infrared emission intensity of Ni(2+) in Yb(3+)/Ni(2+) codoped transparent MgO-Al(2)O(3)-Ga(2)O(3)-SiO(2)-TiO(2) glass ceramics could be enhanced up to 4.4 times via energy transfer from Yb(3+) to Ni(2+) in nanocrystals. The best Yb(2)O(3) concentration was about 1.00 mol%. For the Yb(3+)/Ni(2+) codoped glass ceramic with 1.00 mol% Yb(2)O(3), a broadband near-infrared emission centered at 1265 nm with full width at half maximum of about 300 nm and lifetime of about 220 mus was observed. The energy transfer mechanism was also discussed.

  8. The size effect of crystalline inclusions on the fracture modes in glass-ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Charitidis, C A; Karakasidis, T E; Kavouras, P; Karakostas, Th

    2007-07-04

    The main parameters influencing the mechanical performance of glass-ceramic materials are the shape and mean size of the ceramic phase, i.e. the crystalline inclusions. The aim of the present work is twofold: first, to study the effect of the above parameters on the modes of fracture in two kinds of glass-ceramic materials by the use of the static microindentation technique; second, to interpret the experimental results by the application of a simple physical model. It was found that reduction in the size of granularly shaped crystallite inclusions or reduction of the width of needle-like crystalline inclusions results in an increase of the extent of crack propagation, while the fracture mode shifts from intergranular to transgranular. These observations were successfully interpreted in terms of energetic arguments related to the size of the crystalline inclusions with respect to the width of a disordered zone acting as an interface between them and the amorphous matrix.

  9. Structural analysis and thermal behavior of diopside-fluorapatite-wollastonite-based glasses and glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kansal, Ishu; Tulyaganov, Dilshat U; Goel, Ashutosh; Pascual, Maria J; Ferreira, José M F

    2010-11-01

    Glass-ceramics in the diopside (CaMgSi2O6)-fluorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3F)-wollastonite (CaSiO3) system are potential candidates for restorative dental and bone implant materials. The present study describes the influence of varying SiO2/CaO and CaF2/P2O5 molar ratio on the structure and thermal behavior of glass compositions in the CaO-MgO-SiO2-P2O5-Na2O-CaF2 system. The structural features and properties of the glasses were investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared spectroscopy, density measurements and dilatometry. Sintering and crystallization behavior of the glass powders were studied by hot-stage microscopy and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The microstructure and crystalline phase assemblage in the sintered glass powder compacts were studied under non-isothermal heating conditions at 825 °C. X-ray diffraction studies combined with the Rietveld-reference intensity ratio (R.I.R) method were employed to quantify the amount of amorphous and crystalline phases in the glass-ceramics, while scanning electron microscopy was used to shed some light on the microstructure of resultant glass-ceramics. An increase in CaO/SiO2 ratio degraded the sinterability of the glass powder compacts, resulting in the formation of akermanite as the major crystalline phase. On the other hand, an increase in P2O5/CaF2 ratio improved the sintering behavior of the glass-ceramics, while varying the amount of crystalline phases, i.e. diopside, fluorapatite and wollastonite. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Differential scanning calorimetry investigations on Eu-doped fluorozirconate-based glass ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Paßlick, C.; Ahrens, B.; Henke, B.; Johnson, J. A.; Schweizer, S.

    2010-01-01

    The properties of Eu-doped fluorochlorozirconate (FCZ) glass ceramics upon thermal processing and the influence of Eu-doping on the formation of BaCl2 nanocrystals therein have been investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry indicates that higher Eu-doping shifts the crystallization peak of the nanocrystals in the glass to lower temperatures, while the glass transition temperature remains constant. The activation energy and the thermal stability parameters for the BaCl2 crystallization are determined. PMID:21286235

  11. Effect of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} dopant on electrical and optical properties of potassium sodium niobate silicate glass-ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Yongsiri, Ploypailin; Sirisoonthorn, Somnuk; Pengpat, Kamonpan

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The KNN–SiO{sub 2} doped Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass-ceramics was prepared by incorporation method. • High dielectric constant (458.41 at 100 kHz) and low loss (0.0005) could be obtained. • TEM and SEM confirmed the existence of KNN crystals embedded in glass matrix. • The Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} dopant causes insignificant effect on modifying E{sub g} value. - Abstract: In this study, transparent glass-ceramics from potassium sodium niobate (KNN)-silicate glass system doped with erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were successfully prepared by incorporation method. KNN was added in glass batches as heterogeneous nucleating agent. The KNN powder was mixed with SiO{sub 2} and Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} dopant with KNN and Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} content varied between 70–80 and 0.5–1.0 mol%, respectively. Each batch was subsequently melted at 1300 °C for 15 min in a platinum crucible using an electric furnace. The quenched glasses were then subjected to heat treatment at various temperatures for 4 h. XRD results showed that the prepared glass ceramics contained crystals of KNN solid solution. In contrary, dielectric constant (ϵ{sub r}) and dielectric loss (tan δ) were found to increase with increasing heat treatment temperature. Additionally, optical properties such as absorbance and energy band gap have been investigated.

  12. Fractographic features of glass-ceramic and zirconia-based dental restorations fractured during clinical function.

    PubMed

    Oilo, Marit; Hardang, Anne D; Ulsund, Amanda H; Gjerdet, Nils R

    2014-06-01

    Fractures during clinical function have been reported as the major concern associated with all-ceramic dental restorations. The aim of this study was to analyze the fracture features of glass-ceramic and zirconia-based restorations fractured during clinical use. Twenty-seven crowns and onlays were supplied by dentists and dental technicians with information about type of cement and time in function, if available. Fourteen lithium disilicate glass-ceramic restorations and 13 zirconia-based restorations were retrieved and analyzed. Fractographic features were examined using optical microscopy to determine crack initiation and crack propagation of the restorations. The material comprised fractured restorations from one canine, 10 incisors, four premolars, and 11 molars. One crown was not categorized because of difficulty in orientation of the fragments. The results revealed that all core and veneer fractures initiated in the cervical margin and usually from the approximal area close to the most coronally placed curvature of the margin. Three cases of occlusal chipping were found. The margin of dental all-ceramic single-tooth restorations was the area of fracture origin. The fracture features were similar for zirconia, glass-ceramic, and alumina single-tooth restorations. Design features seem to be of great importance for fracture initiation.

  13. Novel oxyfluoride glass and transparent glass-ceramics for fiber lasers and fiber amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takenobu; Masaki, Shin-ichiro; Mizuno, Kento; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2010-05-01

    Transparent glass-ceramics containing nano-crystals were prepared by controlled heat-treatment of conventionally melt-quenched NaF-YF3-Al2O3-SiO2 oxyfluoride glass. The precipitated crystallites were composed of only cubic NaYF4 and the average diameter was estimated as less than 10 nm from the X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystallites were so small that the transparency of the glass was kept after crystallization. NaYF4 has a crystal structure of a fluorite type that cation sites were randomly occupied by Na+ and Y3+. It is expected that the Y3+ sites can be substituted to other rare-earth ions which have the similar ionic radii. We have been prepared Tb3+ and Yb3+ co-doped glass and glass-ceramics. Green fluorescence was observed when the glass and glass-ceramics were excited by a 974 nm laser. The up-conversion intensity was enhanced by the crystallization.

  14. Agricultural wastes as a resource of raw materials for developing low-dielectric glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Danewalia, Satwinder Singh; Sharma, Gaurav; Thakur, Samita; Singh, K

    2016-04-18

    Agricultural waste ashes are used as resource materials to synthesize new glass and glass-ceramics. The as-prepared materials are characterized using various techniques for their structural and dielectric properties to check their suitability in microelectronic applications. Sugarcane leaves ash exhibits higher content of alkali metal oxides than rice husk ash, which reduces the melting point of the components due to eutectic reactions. The addition of sugarcane leaves ash in rice husk ash promotes the glass formation. Additionally, it prevents the cristobalite phase formation. These materials are inherently porous, which is responsible for low dielectric permittivity i.e. 9 to 40. The presence of less ordered augite phase enhances the dielectric permittivity as compared to cristobalite and tridymite phases. The present glass-ceramics exhibit lower losses than similar materials synthesized using conventional minerals. The dielectric permittivity is independent to a wide range of temperature and frequency. The glass-ceramics developed with adequately devitrified phases can be used in microelectronic devices and other dielectric applications.

  15. Development of nano-macroporous soda-lime phosphofluorosilicate bioactive glass and glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Moawad, H M M; Jain, H

    2009-07-01

    We have extended the usefulness of bioactive glass-ceramics for the repair and reconstruction of hard tissues by introducing F ions that are known to be beneficial, especially in dentistry. Nano-macro multimodal porosity in soda-lime phosphofluorosilicate bulk samples was introduced by the recently developed melt-quench-heat-etch method. The choice of starting glass composition is based on 48SiO2-2.7P2O5-xCaF2-yCaO-zNa2O where x = 0, 1, 4, 8, 10, 12, and (y + z) = 49.3-x (mol%). The effect of thermal and chemical treatment on the microstructure of samples is characterized by SEM, XRD and EDX. We find the formation of many crystalline phases, but mainly sodium calcium silicate, calcium phosphate, fluorapatite and calcium silicate. The bioactivity of soda-lime phosphofluorosilicate glass-ceramics is assessed by monitoring the formation of hydroxyl apatite (HA) layer: fluorapatite phase accelerates the rate of HA layer formation; the initial composition and multi-modal porosity are other key parameters that impact the formation of HA. The present porous glass-ceramics should be superior candidates for use in dental bone regeneration.

  16. Crack propagation and the material removal mechanism of glass-ceramics by the scratch test.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhongjun; Liu, Congcong; Wang, Haorong; Yang, Xue; Fang, Fengzhou; Tang, Junjie

    2016-12-01

    To eliminate the negative effects of surface flaws and subsurface damage of glass-ceramics on clinical effectiveness, crack propagation and the material removal mechanism of glass-ceramics were studied by single and double scratch experiments conducted using an ultra-precision machine. A self-manufactured pyramid shaped single-grit tool with a small tip radius was used as the scratch tool. The surface and subsurface crack propagations and interactions, surface morphology and material removal mechanism were investigated. The experimental results showed that the propagation of lateral cracks to the surface and the interaction between the lateral cracks and radial cracks are the two main types of material peeling, and the increase of the scratch depth increases the propagation angle of the radial cracks and the interaction between the cracks. In the case of a double scratch, the propagation of lateral cracks and radial cracks between paired scratches results in material peeling. The interaction between adjacent scratches depends on the scratch depth and separation distance. There is a critical separation distance where the normalized material removal volume reaches its peak. These findings can help reduce surface flaws and subsurface damage induced by the grinding process and improve the clinical effectiveness of glass-ceramics used as biological substitute and repair materials.

  17. XRD and FTIR structural investigation of gadolinium-zinc-borate glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Borodi, G.; Pascuta, P.; Dan, V.; Pop, V.; Stefan, R.; Radulescu, D.

    2013-11-13

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements have been employed to investigate the (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub x}⋅(B{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub (60−x)}⋅(ZnO){sub 40} glass ceramics system, with 0 ≤ x ≤ 15 mol%. After heat treatment applied at 860 °C for 2 h, some structural changes were observed and new crystalline phases appeared in the structure of the samples. In these glass ceramics four crystalline phases were identified using powder diffraction files (PDF 2), namely ZnB{sub 4}O{sub 7}, Zn{sub 4}O(B{sub 6}O{sub 12}), Zn{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} and GdBO{sub 3}. From the XRD data, the average unit-cell parameter and the quantitative ratio of the crystallographic phases in the studied samples were evaluated. FTIR data revealed that the BO{sub 3}, BO{sub 4} and ZnO{sub 4} are the main structural units of these glass ceramics network. The compositional dependence of the different structural units which appear in the studied samples was followed.

  18. Bone bonding in bioactive glass ceramics combined with a new synthesized agent TAK-778.

    PubMed

    Kato, H; Neo, M; Tamura, J; Nakamura, T

    2001-11-01

    We studied the stimulatory effects of TAK-778, a new synthetic 3-benzothiepin derivative that promotes osteoblast differentiation, in the bonding of bone to bioactive glass ceramic implants in rabbit tibiae. Smooth-surfaced, rectangular plates (15 x 10 x 2 mm) made of apatite-wollastonite-containing glass ceramic were implanted bilaterally into the proximal metaphyses of rabbit tibiae. Sustained-release microcapsules containing TAK-778 were packed into the medullary cavity in one limb and untreated microcapsules were packed into the contralateral limb to serve as a paired control. At 4, 8, and 16 weeks after implantation, bonding at the bone/implant interfaces was evaluated using a detaching test and histological examination of undecalcified specimens. The tensile failure load increased during weeks 4 to 16 in both groups; the tensile failure load in the TAK-778-treated group was significantly greater than that in the control group at each interval after implantation. Histologically, the TAK-778-treated specimens showed greater active new bone formation mainly in the medullary cavity and more extensive bonding between the implant and bone than the untreated specimens. The results of this study suggest that adding the bone formation-promoting TAK-778 to bioactive glass ceramic implants may significantly accelerate bone apposition to the implants and improve the bonding process at the interface. This would help to establish earlier and stronger bonding of orthopedic ceramic implants to the surrounding bone tissue. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. EPR and magnetic susceptibility investigation of iron-zinc-phosphate glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Popa, A.; Stefan, R.; Bosca, M.; Dan, V.; Pop, V.; Pascuta, P.

    2013-11-13

    (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub x}⋅(P{sub 2}O{sub 5}){sub 40}⋅(ZnO){sub 60−x} glass ceramics containing different concentrations of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} ranging from 1 to 20 mol% were obtained by heat treatment of glass samples at 650 °C for 2 h. The structural and magnetic properties of these glass ceramics were investigated by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The EPR spectra of the studied samples revealed absorptions centered at g ≈ 2.0 and 4.3. The compositional variations of the intensity and line width of these absorption lines was interpreted in terms of the variation in Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} ions concentration in the glass ceramics as well as the interaction between the iron ions. The magnetic susceptibility data evidenced the presence of both Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} ions, with their relative content depending on the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration. Dipolar and superexchange interactions involving iron ions were revealed depending on the iron content of the sample.

  20. Optimization of glass-ceramic crystallization based on DTA exotherm analysis.

    PubMed

    Parsell, D E; Anusavice, K J

    1994-05-01

    Crystallization of glass-ceramics is traditionally achieved through a two-stage heat treatment consisting of an isothermal nucleation stage followed by an isothermal growth stage. A method for determining a more efficient heat treatment schedule for a glass-ceramic material using a thermal analysis technique is proposed. The goal of an optimized heat treatment schedule is the production of a glass-ceramic with a desired microstructure (number of crystals per volume) in the shortest amount of time. The proposed method involves differential thermal analysis (DTA) to measure glass crystallization exotherm characteristics which are correlated with the population density of growing crystals, and therefore, to the effectiveness of any prior heat treatment. Traditional thermal processing parameters were investigated and optimized. A method for generating a more efficient heat treatment schedule composed of a series of increasing heating rates was also demonstrated. The thermal analysis method measured a significant effect upon the number density of crystals generated as a function of several experimental variables. Micrographs from samples crystallized with a more time-efficient heat treatment schedule were shown to have equivalent crystal number densities compared to those crystallized with a more time consuming, traditional schedule. This work demonstrated that a rapid thermal analysis method was capable of measuring the relative effectiveness of heat treatment schedules to generate crystalline populations. A novel heat treatment schedule was developed based on progressive adjustment of processing heating rates to generate the maximum crystal population in the shortest amount of time.

  1. Agricultural wastes as a resource of raw materials for developing low-dielectric glass-ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Danewalia, Satwinder Singh; Sharma, Gaurav; Thakur, Samita; Singh, K.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural waste ashes are used as resource materials to synthesize new glass and glass-ceramics. The as-prepared materials are characterized using various techniques for their structural and dielectric properties to check their suitability in microelectronic applications. Sugarcane leaves ash exhibits higher content of alkali metal oxides than rice husk ash, which reduces the melting point of the components due to eutectic reactions. The addition of sugarcane leaves ash in rice husk ash promotes the glass formation. Additionally, it prevents the cristobalite phase formation. These materials are inherently porous, which is responsible for low dielectric permittivity i.e. 9 to 40. The presence of less ordered augite phase enhances the dielectric permittivity as compared to cristobalite and tridymite phases. The present glass-ceramics exhibit lower losses than similar materials synthesized using conventional minerals. The dielectric permittivity is independent to a wide range of temperature and frequency. The glass-ceramics developed with adequately devitrified phases can be used in microelectronic devices and other dielectric applications. PMID:27087123

  2. Bioactivity of thermal plasma synthesized bovine hydroxyapatite/glass ceramic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoganand, C. P.; Selvarajan, V.; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Cannillo, Valeria; Sola, Antonella

    2010-02-01

    Bone injuries and failures often require the inception of implant biomaterials. Research in this area is receiving increasing attention worldwide. A variety of artificial bone materials, such as metals, polymeric materials, composites and ceramics, are being explored to replace diseased bones. Calcium phosphate ceramics are currently used as biomaterials for many applications in both dentistry and orthopedics. Bioactive silicate-based glasses show a higher bioactive behaviour than calcium phosphate materials. It is very interesting to study the mixtures of HA and silicate-based glasses. In the present study; natural bovine hydroxyapatite / SiO2-CaO-MgO glass composites were produced using the Transferred arc plasma (TAP) melting method. TAP melting route is a brisk process of preparation of glass-ceramics in which the raw materials are melted in the plasma and crystallization of the melt occurs while cooling down at a much faster rate in relatively short processing times compared to the conventional methods of manufacture of glass ceramics/composites. It is well known that; one essential step to the understanding of the biological events occurring at the bone tissue/material interface is the biological investigation by in vitro tests. Cell lines are commonly used for biocompatibility tests, and are very efficient because of their reproducibility and culture facility. In this study, we report the results of a study on the response of primary cultures of human fibroblast cells to TAP melted bioactive glass ceramics.

  3. Magnetic glass ceramics for sustained 5-fluorouracil delivery: characterization and evaluation of drug release kinetics.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hameed, S A M; El-Kady, A M; Marzouk, M A

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, magnetic glass ceramics in the system Fe2O3 ∙ TiO2 ∙ P2O5 ∙ SiO2 ∙ MO (M=Mg, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn or Ce) are prepared. The effect of adding different cations on the thermal behavior, developed phases, microstructure and magnetic properties is studied using differental thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), FT-infrared transmission (FT-IR) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) respectively. The magnetic glass ceramics are tested as delivery systems for 5-fluorouracil. Modeling and analysis of release kinetics are addressed. The application of Higuchi square root of time model and the first order release model indicated that, 5-FU is released by diffusion controlled mechanisms, and that its released rate depends greatly on the concentration of loaded drug during the loading stage. The obtained results suggested that, the prepared magnetic glass ceramics can be used for cancer treatment by hyperthermia and/or by localized delivery of therapeutic doses of 5-fluorouracil.

  4. Fractographic features of glass-ceramic and zirconia-based dental restorations fractured during clinical function

    PubMed Central

    Øilo, Marit; Hardang, Anne D; Ulsund, Amanda H; Gjerdet, Nils R

    2014-01-01

    Fractures during clinical function have been reported as the major concern associated with all-ceramic dental restorations. The aim of this study was to analyze the fracture features of glass-ceramic and zirconia-based restorations fractured during clinical use. Twenty-seven crowns and onlays were supplied by dentists and dental technicians with information about type of cement and time in function, if available. Fourteen lithium disilicate glass-ceramic restorations and 13 zirconia-based restorations were retrieved and analyzed. Fractographic features were examined using optical microscopy to determine crack initiation and crack propagation of the restorations. The material comprised fractured restorations from one canine, 10 incisors, four premolars, and 11 molars. One crown was not categorized because of difficulty in orientation of the fragments. The results revealed that all core and veneer fractures initiated in the cervical margin and usually from the approximal area close to the most coronally placed curvature of the margin. Three cases of occlusal chipping were found. The margin of dental all-ceramic single-tooth restorations was the area of fracture origin. The fracture features were similar for zirconia, glass-ceramic, and alumina single-tooth restorations. Design features seem to be of great importance for fracture initiation. PMID:24698173

  5. Ni2+-doped new silicate glass-ceramics for broadband near infrared luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jian; Cheng, Yin

    2016-12-01

    The new composite transparent spinel silicate glass-ceramics containing Ni2+-doped ZnGa2O4 and solid solution MgxZn1-xGa2O4 nanocrystals were fabricated by in situ controlled crystallization method. After heat treatment, the crystal phase content of ZnGa2O4 increase with increasing heat treatment temperature, and the Mg2+ ions could enter the crystal lattice of ZnGa2O4 to replace the Zn2+ ions and form a new solid solution MgxZn1-xGa2O4. The coordination environment of Ni2+ was changed from tetrahedral in glasses to octahedral sites in glass ceramics. The super-broadband infrared luminescence with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of about 400 nm overing 1.1-1.7 μm wavelength region and fluorescent lifetime of about 480 μs were observed from the glass ceramics containing MgxZn1-xGa2O4 nanocrystals. It is probably due to the variety of solid solution structure making Ni2+ ions enter two different octahedral sites. At the same time, the impact of heat treatment temperature and the concentration of NiO on peak position and intensity were also discussed. The results demonstrate that the method presented may be an effective way to fabricate super-broadband optical amplifiers and tunable lasers.

  6. Agricultural wastes as a resource of raw materials for developing low-dielectric glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danewalia, Satwinder Singh; Sharma, Gaurav; Thakur, Samita; Singh, K.

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural waste ashes are used as resource materials to synthesize new glass and glass-ceramics. The as-prepared materials are characterized using various techniques for their structural and dielectric properties to check their suitability in microelectronic applications. Sugarcane leaves ash exhibits higher content of alkali metal oxides than rice husk ash, which reduces the melting point of the components due to eutectic reactions. The addition of sugarcane leaves ash in rice husk ash promotes the glass formation. Additionally, it prevents the cristobalite phase formation. These materials are inherently porous, which is responsible for low dielectric permittivity i.e. 9 to 40. The presence of less ordered augite phase enhances the dielectric permittivity as compared to cristobalite and tridymite phases. The present glass-ceramics exhibit lower losses than similar materials synthesized using conventional minerals. The dielectric permittivity is independent to a wide range of temperature and frequency. The glass-ceramics developed with adequately devitrified phases can be used in microelectronic devices and other dielectric applications.

  7. Upconversion properties of Er3+-doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramics containing SrF2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesavulu, C. R.; Kiran Kumar, K.; Jayasankar, C. K.

    2014-03-01

    Er3+-doped oxyfluoride glass and glass-ceramics containing SrF2 nanocrystals have been prepared and investigated their spectroscopic and luminescence properties. The formation of SrF2 nanocrystals in glass-ceramics were confirmed by Xray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Judd-Ofelt parameters have been evaluated from absorption spectra of the Er3+-doped glass, which in turn used to predict radiative properties for the fluorescent levels of Er3+ ions. The intensities of both Stokes and upconversion (anti-Stokes) emissions significantly increase with increase of the size of the fluoride crystals in the glass matrix. The mechanism of green and red upconversion emissions have been ascribed to two photon processes. The lifetime of the 4S3/2 level of the Er3+ ions in glass-ceramics is found to be slightly higher than that of the counter glass, which may be due to the incorporation of Er3+ ions into the low phonon sites of SrF2 nanocrystals.

  8. Contributions of stress corrosion and cyclic fatigue to subcritical crack growth in a dental glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Gaurav V; Duan, Yuanyuan; Della Bona, Alvaro; Hill, Thomas J; St John, Kenneth; Griggs, Jason A

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test the following hypotheses: (1) both cyclic degradation and stress-corrosion mechanisms result in subcritical crack growth (SCG) in a fluorapatite glass-ceramic (IPS e.max ZirPress, Ivoclar-Vivadent) and (2) there is an interactive effect of stress corrosion and cyclic fatigue to accelerate subcritical crack growth. Rectangular beam specimens were fabricated using the lost-wax process. Two groups of specimens (N=30/group) with polished (15μm) or air-abraded surface were tested under rapid monotonic loading. Additional polished specimens were subjected to cyclic loading at two frequencies, 2Hz (N=44) and 10Hz (N=36), and at various stress amplitudes. All tests were performed using a fully articulated four-point flexure fixture in deionized water at 37°C. The SCG parameters were determined using the ratio of inert strength Weibull modulus to lifetime Weibull modulus. A general log-linear model was fit to the fatigue lifetime data including time to failure, frequency, peak stress, and the product of frequency and logarithm of stress in ALTA PRO software. SCG parameters determined were n=21.7 and A=4.99×10(-5) for 2Hz, and n=19.1 and A=7.39×10(-6) for 10Hz. After fitting the general log-linear model to cyclic fatigue data, the coefficients of the frequency term (α1), the stress term (α2), and the interaction term (α3) had estimates and 95% confidence intervals of α1=-3.16 (-15.1, 6.30), α2=-21.2 (-34.9, -9.73), and α3=0.820 (-1.59, 4.02). Only α2 was significantly different from zero. (1) Cyclic fatigue does not have a significant effect on SCG in the fluorapatite glass-ceramic evaluated and (2) there was no interactive effect between cyclic degradation and stress corrosion for this material. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of pre-treatment parameters on the quality of glass-ceramic wasteforms for plutonium immobilisation, consolidated by hot isostatic pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornber, Stephanie M.; Heath, Paul G.; Da Costa, Gabriel P.; Stennett, Martin C.; Hyatt, Neil C.

    2017-03-01

    Glass-ceramics with high glass fractions (70 wt%) were fabricated in stainless steel canisters by hot isostatic pressing (HIP), at laboratory scale. High (600 °C) and low (300 °C) temperature pre-treatments were investigated to reduce the canister evacuation time and to understand the effect on the phase assemblage and microstructure of the hot isostatically pressed product. Characterisation of the HIPed materials was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). This analysis showed the microstructure and phase assemblage was independent of the variation in pre-treatment parameters. It was demonstrated that a high temperature pre-treatment of batch reagents, prior to the HIP cycle, is beneficial when using oxide precursors, in order to remove volatiles and achieve high quality dense materials. Sample throughput can be increased significantly by utilising a high temperature ex-situ calcination prior to the HIP cycle. Investigation of glass-ceramic wasteform processing utilising a glass frit precursor, produced a phase assemblage and microstructure comparable to that obtained using oxide precursors. The use of a glass frit precursor should allow optimised throughput of waste packages in a production facility, avoiding the need for a calcination pre-treatment required to remove volatiles from oxide precursors.

  10. Thermal Expansion of Sintered Glass Ceramics in the System BaO-SrO-ZnO-SiO2 and Its Dependence on Particle Size.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Christian; Schlesier, Martin; Bocker, Christian; Buzatto de Souza, Gabriel; Rüssel, Christian

    2016-08-10

    The thermal expansion behavior of sintered glass-ceramics containing high concentrations of Ba1-xSrxZn2Si2O7, a phase with very low and highly anisotropic thermal expansion behavior, was investigated. The observed phase has the crystal structure of the high-temperature phase of BaZn2Si2O7, which can be stabilized by the introduction of Sr(2+) into this phase. The high anisotropy leads to microcracking within the volume of the samples, which strongly affects the dilatometric thermal expansion. However, these cracks also have an influence on the nominal thermal expansion of the as-mentioned phase, which decreases if the cracks appear. Below a grain size of approximately 80 μm, the sintered glass-ceramics have almost no cracks and show positive thermal expansion. Hence, coefficients of thermal expansion between -5.6 and 6.5 × 10(-6) K(-1) were measured. In addition to dilatometric studies, the effect of the microstructure on the thermal expansion was also measured using in situ X-ray diffraction at temperatures up to 1000 °C.

  11. Calcium phosphate invert glass-ceramic coatings joined by self-development of compositionally gradient layers on a titanium alloy.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, T; Mizuno, T; Watanabe, M; Nogami, M; Niinomi, M

    2001-03-01

    A glass-ceramic layer containing beta-Ca3(PO4)2 crystals could be joined easily with a new type of titanium alloy (Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr) consisting of a beta-titanium phase by heating the metal, on which glass powders with a composition of 60CaO x 30P2O5 7Na2O x 3TiO2 were placed, at 800 degrees C in air. Measurement of tensile bonding strength revealed that the joining between the coating layer and the substrate is very strong. Even after the large deformation (e.g., approximately 90 degrees in bending angle) of the titanium alloy, the coating layer was not peeled off from the substrate. A compositionally gradient layer in the TiO2-P2O5-Na2O-CaO system is developed automatically on the titanium alloy during the heating, resulting in the formation of the strong joining. By soaking in simulated body fluid at 37 degrees C, hydroxyapatite phase was formed newly on the surface of the coating layer.

  12. GLASS-CERAMICS IN A COLD-CRUCIBLE MELTER : THE OPTIMUM COMBINATION FOR GREATER WASTE PROCESSING EFFICIENCY

    SciTech Connect

    DAY, R.A.; FERENCZY, J.; DRABAREK, E.; ADVOCAT, T.; FILLET, C.; LACOMBE, J.; LADIRAT, C.; VEYER, C.; QUANG, R. DO; THOMASSON, J.

    2003-02-27

    Improving the efficiency of nuclear waste immobilization is constantly desired by all nuclear waste management programs world-wide. For high-level and other waste to be vitrified in traditional ceramic Joule-heated melters operated at temperatures up to 1150 C, process flexibilities including waste loadings are often restricted by this temperature limit as well as the need to consider wasteform corrosion of refractory linings and electrodes. New melter technologies, such as the cold-crucible melter (CCM), enable processing up to significantly higher temperatures free of many of the limitations of conventional melters. Higher processing temperatures open up the way for wider composition and processing envelopes to be considered for the vitrification process, including the possibility for higher waste loadings. In many instances the presence of crystals in the final cooled wasteform is not considered desirable within presently existing glass specifications. For some feed compositions in creased waste loadings can lead to the formation of large amounts of crystals, and thus to a significant departure from the ''glass'' state. Nevertheless it is recognized that, in general, increasing the acceptable volume fractions of crystals in the glass offers the best opportunity to increase waste loading, all other factors being equal. In addition, the deliberate promotion of specific crystalline phases by design may enhance the quality of the wasteform, for example by partitioning a long-lived radionuclide into a very stable crystalline phase, or by depleting the glass in detrimental elements. In order to explore the potential improvements by harnessing the higher achievable processing temperatures and immunity to refractory corrosion available with the cold-crucible melter, and after promising indications for synroc-based matrices, it was decided to investigate the feasibility of designing and producing via melting new high temperature ''glass-ceramic'' wasteforms for high

  13. Development of high strength, high temperature ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    Improvement in the high-pressure turbopumps, both fuel and oxidizer, in the Space Shuttle main engine were considered. The operation of these pumps is limited by temperature restrictions of the metallic components used in these pumps. Ceramic materials that retain strength at high temperatures and appear to be promising candidates for use as turbine blades and impellers are discussed. These high strength materials are sensitive to many related processing parameters such as impurities, sintering aids, reaction aids, particle size, processing temperature, and post thermal treatment. The specific objectives of the study were to: (1) identify and define the processing parameters that affect the properties of Si3N4 ceramic materials, (2) design and assembly equipment required for processing high strength ceramics, (3) design and assemble test apparatus for evaluating the high temperature properties of Si3N4, and (4) conduct a research program of manufacturing and evaluating Si3N4 materials as applicable to rocket engine applications.

  14. Structural and electrical properties of NASICON type solid electrolyte nanoscaled glass-ceramic powder by mechanical milling for thin film batteries.

    PubMed

    Patil, Vaishali; Patil, Arun; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Choi, Ji-Won

    2013-05-01

    During last two decades, lithium-based glasses have been studied extensively as electrolytes for solid-state secondary batteries. For practical use, solid electrolyte must have high ionic conductivity as well as chemical, thermal and electrochemical stability. Recent progresses have focused on glass electrolytes due to advantages over crystalline solid. Glass electrolytes are generally classified into two types oxide glass and sulfide glass. Oxide glasses do not react with electrode materials and this chemical inertness is advantageous for cycle performances of battery. In this study, major effort has been focused on the improvement of the ion conductivity of nanosized LiAlTi(PO4)3 oxide electrolyte prepared by mechanical milling (MM) method. After heating at 1000 degrees C the material shows good crystallinity and ionic conductivity with low electronic conductivity. In LiTi2(PO4)3, Ti4+ ions are partially substituted by Al3+ ions by heat-treatment of Li20-Al2O3-TiO2-P2O5 glasses at 1000 degrees C for 10 h. The conductivity of this material is 1.09 x 10(-3) S/cm at room temp. The glass-ceramics show fast ion conduction and low E(a) value. It is suggested that high conductivity, easy fabrication and low cost make this glass-ceramics promising to be used as inorganic solid electrolyte for all-solid-state Li rechargeable batteries.

  15. High strength high modulus ceramic fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetterolf, R. N.

    1972-01-01

    Low cost method was developed for producing high strength, high modulus, continuous ceramic oxide fibers. Process transforms inexpensive metallic salts into syrup-like liquids that can be fiberized at room temperatures. Resulting salt fibers are then converted to oxides by calcination at relatively low temperatures.

  16. Effects of B2O3 content and sintering temperature on crystallization and microstructure of CBS glass-ceramic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengyang; Wang, Shubin; Liu, Jianggao; Feng, Mengjie; Yang, Xinwang

    2015-11-01

    Borosilicate glass-ceramics precursors with varying compositional ratios in the CaO-SiO2-B2O3 (CBS) system were synthesized by sol-gel method. The precursors were calcined at 1200 °C for 2 h to form glass powders. The glass-ceramics were prepared by overlaying glass slurries on the substrates before sintering at different temperatures. The as-prepared glasses and glass-ceramics were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The crystallization activation energies (Ec) were calculated using the Kissinger method from DSC results. The morphology and crystallization behavior of the glass-ceramics were monitored by scanning electron microscopy. Both glass transition and crystallization temperatures decreased, however, the metastable zone increased. The Ec values of CBS glasses and glass-ceramics were 254.1, 173.2 and 164.4 kJ/mol with increasing B2O3 content, whereas that of the calcined G3 glass was 104.9 kJ/mol. Finally, the coatings were prepared at a low temperature (700 °C). The crystals that grew on the surface of multilayer coatings demonstrated heterogeneous surface nucleation and crystallization after heat-treatment from 700 °C to 850 °C for 4 h.

  17. Non-parametric analysis of infrared spectra for recognition of glass and glass ceramic fragments in recycling plants.

    PubMed

    Farcomeni, Alessio; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Glass ceramic detection in glass recycling plants represents a still unsolved problem, as glass ceramic material looks like normal glass and is usually detected only by specialized personnel. The presence of glass-like contaminants inside waste glass products, resulting from both industrial and differentiated urban waste collection, increases process production costs and reduces final product quality. In this paper an innovative approach for glass ceramic recognition, based on the non-parametric analysis of infrared spectra, is proposed and investigated. The work was specifically addressed to the spectral classification of glass and glass ceramic fragments collected in an actual recycling plant from three different production lines: flat glass, colored container-glass and white container-glass. The analyses, carried out in the near and mid-infrared (NIR-MIR) spectral field (1280-4480 nm), show that glass ceramic and glass fragments can be recognized by applying a wavelet transform, with a small classification error. Moreover, a method for selecting only a small subset of relevant wavelength ratios is suggested, allowing the conduct of a fast recognition of the two classes of materials. The results show how the proposed approach can be utilized to develop a classification engine to be integrated inside a hardware and software sorting architecture for fast "on-line" ceramic glass recognition and separation.

  18. Nanoparticles size effects in thermoluminescence of oxyfluoride glass-ceramics containing Sm3+-doped CaF2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secu, M.

    2011-07-01

    Oxyfluoride glass-ceramic in the system SiO2-Al2O3-CaF2-SmF3 containing Sm3+-doped CaF2 nanocrystals in the range from 15 to 150 nm size were produced by using the controlled ceramization of the precursor glass. The incorporation of the Sm3+-dopant ion in the glass ceramic creates new electron-trapping centers and thermoluminescence (TL) method has been used in order to trace their evolution during glass ceramization. The 370 °C TL peak observed in precursor glass has been assigned to the recombination of the electrons released from the Sm2+-traps in the amorphous glass network. In the glass-ceramic sample containing nanocrystals with about 15 nm size the new weak TL peaks at 270, 290, and 310 °C were attributed to the recombination of the electrons released from the Sm2+-traps located mainly at the surface of the CaF2 nanocrystals. In the glass-ceramic sample containing nanocrystals with about 150 nm size, the new TL peaks at 232, 270, and 302 °C size have been assigned to the recombination of the electrons released from the Sm2+-traps located inside the CaF2 nanocrystals.

  19. Role of SrO on the bioactivity behavior of some ternary borate glasses and their glass ceramic derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelghany, A. M.; Ouis, M. A.; Azooz, M. A.; ElBatal, H. A.; El-Bassyouni, G. T.

    2016-01-01

    Borate glasses containing SrO substituting both CaO and NaO were prepared and characterized for their bioactivity or bone bonding ability. Glass ceramic derivatives were prepared by thermal heat treatment process. FTIR, XRD and SEM measurements for the prepared glass and glass-ceramics before and after immersion in sodium phosphate solution for one and two weeks were carried out. The appearance of two IR peaks within the range 550-680 cm-1 after immersion in phosphate solution indicates the formation of hydroxyapatite or equivalent Sr phosphate layer. X-ray diffraction data agree with the FTIR spectral analysis. The solubility test was carried out for both glasses and glass ceramics derivatives in the same phosphate solution. The introduction of SrO increases the solubility for both glasses and glass ceramics and this is assumed to be due to the formation of Sr phosphate which is more soluble than calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite). SEM images reveal varying changes in the surfaces of glass ceramics after immersion according to the SrO content.

  20. Preparation and characterization of novel glass-ceramic tile with microwave absorption properties from iron ore tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Rui; Liao, SongYi; Dai, ChangLu; Liu, YuChen; Chen, XiaoYu; Zheng, Feng

    2015-03-01

    A novel glass-ceramic tile consisting of one glass-ceramic layer (GC) attaining microwave absorption properties atop ceramic substrate was prepared through quench-heat treatment route derived from iron ore tailings (IOTs) and commercial raw materials (purity range 73-99%). X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Physical property measurement system (PPMS) and Vector network analyzer (VNA) measurements were carried out to investigate phase, microstructure, magnetic and microwave absorption aspects of the glass-ceramic layer. Roughly 80.6±1.7 wt% borosilicate glass and 19.4±1.7 wt% spinel ferrite with chemical formula of (Zn2+0.17Fe3+0.83)[Fe3+1.17Fe2+0.06Ni2+0.77]O4 were found among the tested samples. Absorption of Electromagnetic wave by 3 mm thick glass-ceramic layer at frequency of 2-18 GHz reached peak reflection loss (RL) of -17.61 dB (98.27% microwave absorption) at 10.31 GHz. Altering the thickness of the glass-ceramic layer can meet the requirements of different level of microwave absorption.

  1. Role of SrO on the bioactivity behavior of some ternary borate glasses and their glass ceramic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Abdelghany, A M; Ouis, M A; Azooz, M A; ElBatal, H A; El-Bassyouni, G T

    2016-01-05

    Borate glasses containing SrO substituting both CaO and NaO were prepared and characterized for their bioactivity or bone bonding ability. Glass ceramic derivatives were prepared by thermal heat treatment process. FTIR, XRD and SEM measurements for the prepared glass and glass-ceramics before and after immersion in sodium phosphate solution for one and two weeks were carried out. The appearance of two IR peaks within the range 550-680cm(-1) after immersion in phosphate solution indicates the formation of hydroxyapatite or equivalent Sr phosphate layer. X-ray diffraction data agree with the FTIR spectral analysis. The solubility test was carried out for both glasses and glass ceramics derivatives in the same phosphate solution. The introduction of SrO increases the solubility for both glasses and glass ceramics and this is assumed to be due to the formation of Sr phosphate which is more soluble than calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite). SEM images reveal varying changes in the surfaces of glass ceramics after immersion according to the SrO content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Transparent Oxyfluoride Nano-Glass-Ceramics Doped with Pr3+ and Pr3+-Yb3+ for NIR Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorni, Giulio; Cosci, Alessandro; Pelli, Stefano; Pascual, Laura; Durán, Alicia; Pascual, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Pr3+-Yb3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glasses and glass-ceramics (GC) containing LaF3 nanocrystals have been prepared to obtain NIR emission of Yb3+ ions upon Pr3+ excitation in the blue region of the visible spectrum. Two different compositions have been tested 0.1-0.5 Pr-Yb and 0.5-1 Pr-Yb, in addition to Pr3+ singly doped samples. The crystallization mechanism of the nano-glass-ceramics was studied by DTA revealing that it occurs from a constant number of nuclei, the crystal growth being limited by diffusion. HR-TEM demonstrated that phase separation acts as precursor for LaF3 crystallization and a detailed analysis of the chemical composition (EDXS) revealed the enrichment in RE3+ ions inside the initial phase separated droplets, from which the LaF3 crystals are formed. The RE3+ ions incorporation inside LaF3 crystals was also proved by photoluminescence measurements showing Stark splitting of the RE3+ ions energy levels in the glass-ceramic samples. Lifetimes measurements showed the existence of a better energy transfer process between Pr3+ and Yb3+ ions in the glass-ceramics compared to the as made glass, and the highest value of energy transfer efficiency is 59% and the highest theoretical quantum efficiency is 159%, obtained for glass-ceramics GC0.1-0.5 Pr-Yb treated at 620 ºC-40 h.

  3. Local modification of speed of sound in lithium alumino-silicate glass/ceramic material by pulsed laser irradiation and thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y; Helvajian, H

    2013-11-21

    Glass and glass/ceramics are now used in modern devices with increasing frequency. A list of the notable material properties commonly will not include a capability to guide ultrasonic waves. The photosensitive glass ceramics (PSGCs), an old invention with recent technological rebirth, may enable this capability. The speed of sound (SoS) has been measured at an ultrasonic frequency (75 MHz) in a commercially available PSGC material. The measurements are made using a pulse echo time-of-flight (TOF) technique as a function of UV laser exposure and thermal processing. The measured increase in the SoS correlates with the density of crystalline matter present, which can be metered by controlling the exposure dose. For the Li2SiO3 crystalline phase, the results show the shear (transverse) wave mode velocity can be increased by 4.8% relative to an unexposed area where no crystalline matter exists. The maximum change in velocity for the longitudinal (compressional) wave mode is only 2%. However, by altering the thermal processing protocols to grow the high temperature Li2Si2O5 crystalline phase, the measured change in the SoS increases to 11% and 9%, respectively. These results permit the volumetric patterning of delay lines by laser direct write techniques for generating complex profile ultrasonic wave patterns. Moreover, by patterned 3D shaping (i.e., photostructuring), ultrasound energy can be harnessed and utilized to advantage.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of a BaGdF5:Tb glass ceramic as a nanocomposite scintillator for x-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Struebing, Christian; Wagner, Brent; Summers, Christopher; Ding, Yong; Bryant, Alex; Thadhani, Naresh; Shedlock, Daniel; Star-Lack, Josh; Kang, Zhitao

    2016-05-20

    Transparent glass ceramics with embedded light-emitting nanocrystals show great potential as low-cost nanocomposite scintillators in comparison to single crystal and transparent ceramic scintillators. In this study, cubic structure BaGdF5:Tb nanocrystals embedded in an aluminosilicate glass matrix are reported for potential high performance MeV imaging applications. Scintillator samples with systematically varied compositions were prepared by a simple conventional melt-quenching method followed by annealing. Optical, structural and scintillation properties were characterized to guide the design and optimization of selected material systems, aiming at the development of a system with higher crystal volume and larger crystal size for improved luminosity. It is observed that enhanced scintillation performance was achieved by tuning the glass matrix composition and using GdF3 in the raw materials, which served as a nucleation agent. A 26% improvement in light output was observed from a BaGdF5:Tb glass ceramic with addition of GdF3.

  5. Glass-Ceramic Material from the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO System Using Sugar-Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, S. R.; Romero, M.; Ma Rincón, J.; Magalhães, R. S.; Souza, A. E.; Santos, G. T. A.; Silva, R. A.

    2011-10-01

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of alcohol and sugar from sugarcane. Currently, sugarcane bagasse is burned in boilers to produce steam and electrical energy, producing a huge volume of ash. The major component of the ash is SiO2, and among the minor components there are some mineralizing agents or fluxing. Published works have shown the potential of transforming silicate-based residues into glass-ceramic products of great utility. This work reports the research results of SCBA use to produce glass-ceramics with wollastonite, rankinite and gehlenite as the major phases. These silicates have important applications as building industry materials, principally wollastonite, due to their special properties: high resistance to weathering, zero water absorption, and hardness among others. The glasses (frits) were prepared mixing ash, calcium carbonate and sodium or potassium carbonates as flux agents, in different concentrations. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the chemical composition of the glasses and their crystallization was assessed by using thermal analysis (DTA/DSC/TGA) and X-ray diffraction. The crystallization kinetics was evaluated using the Kissinger method, giving activation energies ranging from 200 to 600 kJ/mol.

  6. Selective doping of Ni(2+) in highly transparent glass-ceramics containing nano-spinels ZnGa2O4 and Zn1+x Ga2-2x Ge x O4 for broadband near-infrared fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhigang; Liu, Yinyao; Ren, Jing; Fang, Zaijin; Lu, Xiaosong; Lewis, Elfed; Farrell, Gerald; Yang, Jun; Wang, Pengfei

    2017-05-11

    Selective doping of Ni(2+) in octahedral sites provided by nanocrystals embedded in glass-ceramics (GCs) is crucial to the enhancement of broadband near-infrared (NIR) emission. In this work, a NIR emission with a full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of 288 nm is first reported from ZnGa2O4: Ni(2+) nano-spinels embedded GCs with excellent transparency. A comparison is made of the NIR luminescence properties of Ni(2+) doped GCs containing ZnGa2O4, germanium-substituted ZnGa2O4 nano-spinels (Zn1+x Ga2-2x Ge x O4), and Zn2GeO4/Li2Ge4O9 composite nanocrystals that are free of Ga(3+). The results show that ZnGa2O4: Ni(2+) GCs exhibit a significantly enhanced NIR emission. The incorporation of the nucleating agent TiO2 is favored in terms of the increased luminescence intensity and prolonged lifetime. The possible causes for the enhancement effect are identified from the crystal structure/defects viewpoint. The newly developed GCs incorporate good reproducibility to allow for a tolerance of thermal treatment temperature and hence hold great potential of fiberization via the recently proposed "melt-in-tube" method. They can be considered as promising candidates for broadband fiber amplifiers.

  7. High strength, tough alloy steel

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Gareth; Rao, Bangaru V. N.

    1979-01-01

    A high strength, tough alloy steel is formed by heating the steel to a temperature in the austenite range (1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.) to form a homogeneous austenite phase and then cooling the steel to form a microstructure of uniformly dispersed dislocated martensite separated by continuous thin boundary films of stabilized retained austenite. The steel includes 0.2-0.35 weight % carbon, at least 1% and preferably 3-4.5% chromium, and at least one other substitutional alloying element, preferably manganese or nickel. The austenite film is stable to subsequent heat treatment as by tempering (below 300.degree. C.) and reforms to a stable film after austenite grain refinement.

  8. Impact strength and indentation hardness of high-strength ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.

    1993-08-01

    Hugoniot elastic limit and indentation hardness data are provided for selected high-strength ceramics AlN, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B{sub 4}C, SiC, TiB, Zr{sub 2}. Degree of correlation of the strength data by the two test methods is examined. Influence of reformation mechanism on strength measurement, including rate sensitivity, size scale and confining pressure, is discussed.

  9. Medical imaging scintillators from glass-ceramics using mixed rare-earth halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckert, M. Brooke; Gallego, Sabrina; Ding, Yong; Elder, Eric; Nadler, Jason H.

    2016-10-01

    Recent years have seen greater interest in developing new luminescent materials to replace scintillator panels currently used in medical X-ray imaging systems. The primary areas targeted for improvement are cost and image resolution. Cost reduction is somewhat straightforward in that less expensive raw materials and processing methods will yield a less expensive product. The path to improving image resolution is more complex because it depends on several properties of the scintillator material including density, transparency, and composition, among others. The present study focused on improving image resolution using composite materials, known as glass-ceramics that contain nanoscale scintillating crystallites formed within a transparent host glass matrix. The small size of the particles and in-situ precipitation from the host glass are key to maintaining transparency of the composite scintillator, which ensures that a majority of the light produced from absorbed X-rays can actually be used to create an image of the patient. Because light output is the dominating property that determines the image resolution achievable with a given scintillator, it was used as the primary metric to evaluate performance of the glass-ceramics relative to current scintillators. Several glass compositions were formulated and then heat treated in a step known as "ceramization" to grow the scintillating nanocrystals, whose light output was measured in response to a 65 kV X-ray source. Performance was found to depend heavily on the thermal history of the glass and glass-ceramic, and so additional studies are required to more precisely determine optimal process temperatures. Of the compositions investigated, an alumino-borosilicate host glass containing 56mol% scintillating rare-earth halides (BaF2, GdF3, GdBr3, TbF3) produced the highest recorded light output at nearly 80% of the value recorded using a commercially-available GOS:Tb panel as a reference.

  10. Marginal Adaptation of Indirect Composite, Glass-Ceramic Inlays and Direct Composite: An In Vitro Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zarrati, S.; Mahboub, F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This experimental in vitro study compared marginal adaptation of indirect composite, glass-ceramic inlays and direct composite. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five recently extracted human molars were randomly divided into three groups (n=25) and mesio-occluso-distal cavities with the same dimensions were prepared in the teeth. Indirect composite and glass-ceramic inlays were fabricated following manufacturer’s instructions and the marginal gap was measured by a stereomicroscope at magnification 40× before cementation. After cementation of inlays and restoring the third group by direct composite, all the specimens were thermocycled and the marginal gaps were measured exactly as previously described. Repeated measure ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey test were used for pairwise comparison of occlusal, proximal, and gingival marginal gaps in each group. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey test were used for comparison of mean marginal gap in the three groups and for comparison of marginal gap before and after cementation in inlays, paired T-test was used. Results: The marginal gap of direct composite (19.96 μm) was significantly lower than that of indirect composite inlay (48.47 μm), which in itself was significantly lower than that of glass-ceramic inlay (60.96 μm). In all the restorations, marginal gap in the gingival margin was significantly higher than occlusal and proximal margins. The marginal gap of inlays did not change after cementation and thermocycling. Conclusion: This study indicated that the marginal gaps of the evaluated restorations are less than 100 μm, which is clinically acceptable. PMID:21998779

  11. Chemical durability of Dicor and fluorocanasite-based glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Anusavice, K J; Zhang, N Z

    1998-07-01

    Fluorocanasite (Al2O3-CaO-F-K2O-Na2O-SiO2) glass-ceramics exhibit fracture toughness values of up to 5.0 MPa x m1/2. However, their chemical durability is not adequate for dental applications. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that an increased concentration of Al2O3 can increase the chemical durability of fluorocanasite-based glass-ceramics. Glass frits containing 2 wt% (CAN2), 5 wt% (CAN5), and 10 wt% Al2O3 (CAN10) were melted individually, poured into a graphite mold, and cut into 16-mm-diam. x 2-mm-thick disks. Each disk was crystallized at 850 degrees C for 6 hrs. The disks were immersed in a solution of de-ionized-distilled water, 4% acetic acid, or a pH 1 buffer solution, and sealed in 90-mL Teflon containers. Corrosion testing was performed by means of vibrational motion at 60 cycles per min in a shaker-bath at 80 degrees C for 15 days. Solution analyses were performed by means of a pH meter, an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, and an inductively coupled plasma spectrometer. Samples exposed to 4% acetic acid solution exhibited a mean weight loss rate (WLR) for the control group (Dicor) of 0.04+/-0.01 mg/cm2 day, which was significantly lower (p < or = 0.0001) than the mean WLR of the CAN2 (1.08+/-0.02 mg/cm2 x day), CAN5 (1.31+/-0.02 mg/cm2 x day), and CAN10(1.51+/-0.05 mg/cm2 x day) groups. The reduced durability of fluorocanasite-based glass-ceramics with increasing Al2O3 concentration is most likely associated with a more uniform distribution of smaller crystals during heat treatment of the glass.

  12. Composite bone cements loaded with a bioactive and ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic: Leaching, bioactivity and cytocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Verné, Enrica; Bruno, Matteo; Miola, Marta; Maina, Giovanni; Bianco, Carlotta; Cochis, Andrea; Rimondini, Lia

    2015-08-01

    In this work, composite bone cements, based on a commercial polymethylmethacrylate matrix (Palamed®) loaded with ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic particles (SC45), were produced and characterized in vitro. The ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic belongs to the system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5-FeO-Fe2O3 and contains magnetite (Fe3O4) crystals into a residual amorphous bioactive phase. Three different formulations (containing 10, 15 and 20 wt.% of glass-ceramic particles respectively) have been investigated. These materials are intended to be applied as bone fillers for the hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors. The morphological, compositional, calorimetric and mechanical properties of each formulation have been already discussed in a previous paper. The in vitro properties of the composite bone cements described in the present paper are related to iron ion leaching test (by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer), bioactivity (i.e. the ability to stimulate the formation of a hydroxyapatite - HAp - layer on their surface after soaking in simulated body fluid SBF) and cytocompatibility toward human osteosarcoma cells (ATCC CRL-1427, Mg63). Morphological and chemical characterizations by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectrometry have been performed on the composite samples after each test. The iron release was negligible and all the tested samples showed the growth of HAp on their surface after 28 days of immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Cells showed good viability, morphology, adhesion, density and the ability to develop bridge-like structures on all investigated samples. A synergistic effect between bioactivity and cell mineralization was also evidenced.

  13. Dynamic fatigue of a lithia-alumina-silica glass-ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.

    1990-01-01

    A dynamic fatigue study was performed on a Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glass-ceramic in order to assess its susceptibility to delayed failure. Fracture mechanics techniques were used to analyze the results for the purpose of making lifetime predictions for optical elements made from this material. The material has reasonably good resistance (N = 20) to stress corrosion in ambient conditions. Analysis also indicated the elements should survive applied stresses incurred during grinding and polishing operations.

  14. Exploratory development of a glass ceramic automobile thermal reactor. [anti-pollution devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. E.; Petticrew, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    This report summarizes the design, fabrication and test results obtained for glass-ceramic (CER-VIT) automotive thermal reactors. Several reactor designs were evaluated using both engine-dynamometer and vehicle road tests. A maximum reactor life of about 330 hours was achieved in engine-dynamometer tests with peak gas temperatures of about 1065 C (1950 F). Reactor failures were mechanically induced. No evidence of chemical degradation was observed. It was concluded that to be useful for longer times, the CER-VIT parts would require a mounting system that was an improvement over those tested in this program. A reactor employing such a system was designed and fabricated.

  15. Stimulated emission in the red, green, and blue in a nanostructured glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Lahoz, F.; Haro-Gonzalez, P.; Martin, I. R.; Perez-Rodriguez, C.; Capuj, N.; Caceres, J. M.

    2011-02-15

    Red, green, and blue stimulated emissions have been achieved in Ho{sup 3+} doped oxyfluoride glass ceramic at room temperature. The material shows three emission bands at the red (650 nm), green (545 nm), and blue (488 nm) regions under infrared excitation at 750 nm. These emission bands are caused by a photon avalanche upconversion process previously reported. A pump and probe experimental setup has been designed to show stimulated emissions at the three bands. The pump power threshold for positive gain in the 490 nm band has been estimated around 2.7 kW/cm{sup 2}. Higher thresholds are expected for the other bands.

  16. Pockels effect of silicate glass-ceramics: Observation of optical modulation in Mach–Zehnder system

    PubMed Central

    Yamaoka, Kazuki; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Terakado, Nobuaki; Miyazaki, Takamichi; Fujiwara, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    Silicate glass has been used for long time because of its advantages from material’s viewpoint. In this paper, we report the observation of Pockels effect by Mach–Zehnder interferometer in polycrystalline ceramics made from a ternary silicate glass via crystallization due to heat-treatment, i.e., glass-ceramics. Since the silicate system is employed as the precursor, merits of glass material are fully utilized to fabricate the optical device component, in addition to that of functional crystalline material, leading us to provide an electro-optic device, which is introducible into glass-fiber network. PMID:26184722

  17. Silicon carbide fiber reinforced strontium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A SrO-Al2O3 - 2SrO2 (SAS) glass ceramic matrix is reinforced with CVD SiC continuous fibers. This material is prepared by casting a slurry of SAS glass powder into tapes. Mats of continuous CVD-SiC fibers are alternately stacked with the matrix tapes. This tape-mat stack is warm-pressed to produce a 'green' composite. Organic constituents are burned out of the 'green' composite, and the remaining interim material is hot pressed.

  18. Method of producing a silicon carbide fiber reinforced strontium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A SrO-Al2O3-2SrO2 (SAS) glass ceramic matrix is reinforced with CVD SiC continuous fibers. This material is prepared by casting a slurry of SAS glass powder into tapes. Mats of continuous CVD-SiC fibers are alternately stacked with the matrix tapes. This tape-mat stack is warm-pressed to produce a 'green' composite. Organic constituents are burned out of the 'green' composite, and the remaining interim material is hot pressed.

  19. Light dynamic properties of a synthetic, low-fusing, quartz glass-ceramic material.

    PubMed

    Chu, Stephen J; Ahmad, Irfan

    2003-01-01

    Significant material advancements have resulted in the increased application of porcelain materials as an ideal restorative substitute for tooth enamel and dentin. This discussion introduces a synthetic, low-fusing, quartz glass-ceramic system for the fabrication of fixed dental prostheses. This article evaluates and compares the properties of this ceramic system with regard to its applicability for use in contemporary dental practices. The theoretical aspects are supplemented by clinical case studies that highlight examples of the authentic results achievable using the low-fusing restorative material.

  20. Kramers-Kronig relations in modulation polarimetry diagnostics of glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudar, B. V.; Matyash, I. E.; Minailova, I. A.; Mishchuk, O. N.; Serdega, B. K.

    2016-10-01

    It has been found that, in an aluminosilicate glass-ceramic sample cut from a massive ingot, there is a correlation of the residual stress with the temperature gradient. The magnitude and coordinate dependence of the stress along the temperature gradient have been determined from the stress-induced linear birefringence measured by the modulation polarimetry technique. Its functional relationship has been established in the form of the Poisson equation with the heterogeneity of the composition due to the preparation conditions. It has been shown that, in the absence of a temperature gradient, the birefringence and dichroism related by the Kramers-Kronig relation play the role of thermodynamic variables.

  1. Fracture strength of ceramic monolithic crown systems of different thickness.

    PubMed

    Nordahl, Niklas; Vult von Steyern, Per; Larsson, Christel

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate fracture strength of high-translucent (HTZ) and low-translucent (LTZ) zirconia and glass-ceramic (LDS) crowns. HTZ and LTZ crowns were made with thicknesses of; 0.3 mm, 0.5 mm, 0.7 mm, 1.0 mm, and 1.5 mm; and LDS crowns of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm thicknesses. Each group consisted of 10 crowns. All crowns underwent artificial aging before loading until fracture. Mean fracture strengths varied from 450 N to 3,248 N in the LTZ group, 438 N to 3,487 N in the HTZ group, and 1,030 N to 1,431 N in the LDS group. The load at fracture of HTZ and LTZ crowns was equal. The load at fracture of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals crowns was significantly greater than LDS crowns (P = 0.000). Two types of fractures were recorded; complete and partial crack-like fracture. The crack type fracture occurred most frequently in all groups except in the thicker LTZ groups (1.0 mm and 1.5 mm). According to this study, there is no difference in strength between crowns made of high-translucent or low-translucent zirconia. At equal thickness, the strength of zirconia crowns was significantly greater than that of lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic.

  2. Effect of prolonged thermal cycling on microleakage around Class V cavities restored with glass-ceramic inserts with different coefficients of thermal expansion: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Santini, Ario; Ivanovic, Vladimir; Tan, Chuei Luan; Ibbetson, Richard

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate microleakage around Class V glass-ceramic restorations of different coefficients of thermal expansion after prolonged thermal cycling. One hundred and twenty noncarious extracted human premolars (patient age range 12-20 years) were randomly assigned to three groups. Standard Class V preparations were cut in the buccal surface using customised Cerana burs, size no. 3. Glass-ceramic inserts from two manufacturers (Cerana, Nordiska Dental AB, Helsingborg, Sweden; Beta-Quartz, Hager & Werken GmbH, Duisburg, Germany) were used to restore the cavities and were luted with a hybrid, high-viscous composite (Tetric Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and a bonding agent (Excite, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein). A control group, without inserts, was bulk-filled with the same composite used as the luting agent. In accordance with American Dental Association guidelines, half of the preparation was in enamel, half in dentine/cementum and had a mesio-distal width of 3 mm, an occluso-gingival height of 3 mm, and a depth of 2 mm. All margins had butt joints. Sixty teeth, selected at random, were not thermal cycled; the remaining 60 teeth were thermal cycled 4000 times between water baths held at 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C and the specimens prepared and examined for microleakage using 2.0% Procion Red (ICI, Slough, UK) dye, buffered at pH7, as a marker. The results were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (ANOVA) at a 95% significance level. At the occlusal margins there was no significant difference in microleakage between the three groups (P>0.5) without thermal cycling. After thermal cycling, microleakage at the occlusal margins was significantly less around cavities restored with Cerana glass-ceramic inserts versus Beta-Quartz and Tetric Ceram (P<0.05 in both cases). At the gingival margins, there was no significant difference in microleakge between the groups before thermal cycling (P>0.5). After

  3. Luminescence behavior of Ce3+ and Dy3+ codoped oxyfluoride glasses and glass ceramics containing LaF3 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qun; Qiao, Xvsheng; Fan, Xianping; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Xianghua; Cui, Shou; Wang, Ling; Wang, Gang

    2009-02-01

    The Ce3+ and Dy3+ codoped oxyfluoride glasses and glass ceramics containing LaF3 nanocrystals have been prepared in the reducing atmosphere. The emission intensity and Commission International de I'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates of the Ce3+ and Dy3+ codoped glasses significantly changed with concentration ratio of Ce3+ to Dy3+. The emission intensity of both Ce3+ ions and Dy3+ ions in the 3.0% Ce3+ and 3.0% Dy3+ codoped glass ceramics increased significantly in comparison with that in the glass. The glasses and glass ceramics could emit bright white light by adjusting the concentration ratio of Ce3+ to Dy3+.

  4. Time-dependent fracture probability of bilayer, lithium-disilicate-based, glass-ceramic, molar crowns as a function of core/veneer thickness ratio and load orientation.

    PubMed

    Anusavice, Kenneth J; Jadaan, Osama M; Esquivel-Upshaw, Josephine F

    2013-11-01

    Recent reports on bilayer ceramic crown prostheses suggest that fractures of the veneering ceramic represent the most common reason for prosthesis failure. The aims of this study were to test the hypotheses that: (1) an increase in core ceramic/veneer ceramic thickness ratio for a crown thickness of 1.6mm reduces the time-dependent fracture probability (Pf) of bilayer crowns with a lithium-disilicate-based glass-ceramic core, and (2) oblique loading, within the central fossa, increases Pf for 1.6-mm-thick crowns compared with vertical loading. Time-dependent fracture probabilities were calculated for 1.6-mm-thick, veneered lithium-disilicate-based glass-ceramic molar crowns as a function of core/veneer thickness ratio and load orientation in the central fossa area. Time-dependent fracture probability analyses were computed by CARES/Life software and finite element analysis, using dynamic fatigue strength data for monolithic discs of a lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic core (Empress 2), and ceramic veneer (Empress 2 Veneer Ceramic). Predicted fracture probabilities (Pf) for centrally loaded 1.6-mm-thick bilayer crowns over periods of 1, 5, and 10 years are 1.2%, 2.7%, and 3.5%, respectively, for a core/veneer thickness ratio of 1.0 (0.8mm/0.8mm), and 2.5%, 5.1%, and 7.0%, respectively, for a core/veneer thickness ratio of 0.33 (0.4mm/1.2mm). CARES/Life results support the proposed crown design and load orientation hypotheses. The application of dynamic fatigue data, finite element stress analysis, and CARES/Life analysis represent an optimal approach to optimize fixed dental prosthesis designs produced from dental ceramics and to predict time-dependent fracture probabilities of ceramic-based fixed dental prostheses that can minimize the risk for clinical failures. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  5. Time-dependent fracture probability of bilayer, lithium-disilicate-based glass-ceramic molar crowns as a function of core/veneer thickness ratio and load orientation

    PubMed Central

    Anusavice, Kenneth J.; Jadaan, Osama M.; Esquivel–Upshaw, Josephine

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports on bilayer ceramic crown prostheses suggest that fractures of the veneering ceramic represent the most common reason for prosthesis failure. Objective The aims of this study were to test the hypotheses that: (1) an increase in core ceramic/veneer ceramic thickness ratio for a crown thickness of 1.6 mm reduces the time-dependent fracture probability (Pf) of bilayer crowns with a lithium-disilicate-based glass-ceramic core, and (2) oblique loading, within the central fossa, increases Pf for 1.6-mm-thick crowns compared with vertical loading. Materials and methods Time-dependent fracture probabilities were calculated for 1.6-mm-thick, veneered lithium-disilicate-based glass-ceramic molar crowns as a function of core/veneer thickness ratio and load orientation in the central fossa area. Time-dependent fracture probability analyses were computed by CARES/Life software and finite element analysis, using dynamic fatigue strength data for monolithic discs of a lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic core (Empress 2), and ceramic veneer (Empress 2 Veneer Ceramic). Results Predicted fracture probabilities (Pf) for centrally-loaded 1,6-mm-thick bilayer crowns over periods of 1, 5, and 10 years are 1.2%, 2.7%, and 3.5%, respectively, for a core/veneer thickness ratio of 1.0 (0.8 mm/0.8 mm), and 2.5%, 5.1%, and 7.0%, respectively, for a core/veneer thickness ratio of 0.33 (0.4 mm/1.2 mm). Conclusion CARES/Life results support the proposed crown design and load orientation hypotheses. Significance The application of dynamic fatigue data, finite element stress analysis, and CARES/Life analysis represent an optimal approach to optimize fixed dental prosthesis designs produced from dental ceramics and to predict time-dependent fracture probabilities of ceramic-based fixed dental prostheses that can minimize the risk for clinical failures. PMID:24060349

  6. High strength and high toughness steel

    DOEpatents

    Parker, Earl R.; Zackay, Victor F.

    1979-01-01

    A structural steel which possess both high strength and high toughness and has particular application of cryogenic uses. The steel is produced by the utilization of thermally induced phase transformation following heating in a three-phase field in iron-rich alloys of the Fe-Ni-Ti system, with a preferred composition of 12% nickel, 0.5% titanium, the remainder being iron.

  7. High strength, high ductility low carbon steel

    DOEpatents

    Koo, Jayoung; Thomas, Gareth

    1978-01-01

    A high strength, high ductility low carbon steel consisting essentially of iron, 0.05-0.15 wt% carbon, and 1-3 wt% silicon. Minor amounts of other constituents may be present. The steel is characterized by a duplex ferrite-martensite microstructure in a fibrous morphology. The microstructure is developed by heat treatment consisting of initial austenitizing treatment followed by annealing in the (.alpha. + .gamma.) range with intermediate quenching.

  8. Surface treatments for repair of feldspathic, leucite - and lithium disilicate-reinforced glass ceramics using composite resin.

    PubMed

    Neis, Christian Alencar; Albuquerque, Nadine Luísa Guimarães; Albuquerque, Ivo de Souza; Gomes, Erica Alves; Souza-Filho, Celso Bernardo de; Feitosa, Victor Pinheiro; Spazzin, Aloisio Oro; Bacchi, Atais

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of different surface conditioning methods on the microtensile bond strength of a restorative composite repair in three types of dental ceramics: lithium disilicate-reinforced, leucite-reinforced and feldspathic. Twelve blocks were sintered for each type of ceramic (n=3) and stored for 3 months in distilled water at 37 °C. The bonding surface of ceramics was abraded with 600-grit SiC paper. Surface treatments for each ceramic were: GC (control) - none; GDB - diamond bur #30 µm; GHF - hydrofluoric acid (10%); GT- tribochemical silica coating (45-μm size particles). Treatments were followed by cleaning with phosphoric acid 37% for 20 s + silane + adhesive. The composite resin was used as restorative material. After repair, samples were subjected to thermocycled ageing (10,000 cycles between 5 °C and 55 °C for 30 s). Thereafter, the samples were sectioned into 1.0 mm2 sticks and tested for microtensile bond strength with 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. Data were compared by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The superficial wear with diamond bur proved to be suitable for feldspathic porcelain and for leucite-reinforced glass ceramic while hydrofluoric acid-etching is indicated for repairs in lithium disilicate-reinforced ceramic; tribochemical silica coating is applicable to leucite-reinforced ceramic. Predominance of adhesive failures was observed (>85% in all groups). In conclusion, the success of surface treatments depends on the type of ceramic to be repaired.

  9. Experimental characterization of glass-ceramic seal properties and their constitutive implementation in solid oxide fuel cell stack models

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Vetrano, John S.; Koeppel, Brian J.; Chou, Y. S.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-09-05

    This paper discusses experimental determination of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) glass-ceramic seal material properties and seal/interconnect interfacial properties to support development and optimization of SOFC designs through modeling. Material property experiments such as dynamic resonance, dilatometry, flexure, creep, tensile, and shear tests were performed on PNNL’s glass-ceramic sealant material, designated as G18, to obtain property data essential to constitutive and numerical model development. Characterization methods for the physical, mechanical, and interfacial properties of the sealing material, results, and their application to the constitutive implementation in SOFC stack modeling are described.

  10. Study of structural and spectral properties of neodymium-doped lead-yttrium oxyfluoride nano-glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibik, A. Yu.; Nuryev, R. K.; Aseev, V. A.; Kolobkova, E. V.; Nikonorov, N. V.

    2015-06-01

    Processes of nanocrystalline phase formation in transparent yttrium oxyfluoride nano-glass-ceramics doped with neodymium ions are studied. An optimal heat treatment regime for a given glass composition is determined using differential thermal analysis (DTA). Glasses are heat-treated for 30, 60, and 120 min; the sizes of crystals are calculated, and the unit cell parameters are determined. The physicochemical and spectral properties of yttrium oxyfluoride glasses doped with neodymium ions, as well as of nano-glass-ceramics based on these glasses, are studied.

  11. Er/Yb co-doped oxy-fluoride glass-ceramics core/polymer cladding optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czerska, E.; Świderska, M.

    2014-11-01

    Erbium/ytterbium co-doped glasses can be applied as NIR laser sources (1.55 μm) or optical amplifiers in this range. About hundred meters of Er/Yb co-doped oxy-fluoride glass-ceramics fibers have been drawn from a glass preform followed by controlled annealing. Processing temperatures (drawing and annealing) were selected upon thermal analysis results (DTA/DSC plots). Glass-ceramic structure was confirmed by the XRD measurements. Obtained fibers show good optical properties. As a cladding material polymer material (acrylic resin) is considered due to its low deposition temperature and suitable value of refractive index.

  12. Persistent luminescence in ZnGa2O4:Cr3+ transparent glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaing, V.; Pellerin, M.; Sontakke, A. D.; Fernández Carriónc, A. J.; Chaneac, C.; Allix, M.; Gourier, D.; Viana, B.

    2017-02-01

    Given the increasing demand for optical in vivo bioimaging materials, persistent luminescence in the red/near infrared range is receiving particular attention. Within this work, several elaboration ways of ZnGa2O4:Cr3+, respectively by solid state, by microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis and by glass crystallization have been carried out. Structural analysis shows that all methods lead to pure spinel structure. Powder micrometric material is obtained by solid state reaction while nanoparticles are obtained by the two other methods. In the case of the glass-ceramics process, the nanocrystals obtained are trapped in a glassy matrix. This kind of elaboration leads to nanoparticles with lower amount of defects, no surface contact with air and an increase signal of the persistent luminescence compared to disperse nanoparticles. These good persistent luminescence properties are well correlated to thermoluminescence glow curves analysis. Moreover, such glass ceramics can be used as a good tool to study more deeply the persistent luminescence process of nanoparticles in a transparent environment and samples are easier to characterize.

  13. Treatment of copper industry waste and production of sintered glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Coruh, Semra; Ergun, Osman Nuri; Cheng, Ta-Wui

    2006-06-01

    Copper waste is iron-rich hazardous waste containing heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Co, Pb. The results of leaching tests show that the concentration of these elements exceeds the Turkish and EPA regulatory limits. Consequently, this waste cannot be disposed of in its present form and therefore requires treatment to stabilize it or make it inert prior to disposal. Vitrification was selected as the technology for the treatment of the toxic waste under investigation. During the vitrification process significant amounts of the toxic organic and inorganic chemical compounds could be destroyed, and at the same time, the metal species are immobilized as they become an integral part of the glass matrix. The copper flotation waste samples used in this research were obtained from the Black Sea Copper Works of Samsun, Turkey. The samples were vitrified after being mixed with other inorganic waste and materials. The copper flotation waste and their glass-ceramic products were characterized by X-ray analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure test. The products showed very good chemical durability. The glass-ceramics fabricated at 850 degrees C/2 h have a large application potential especially as construction and building materials.

  14. Crystallization kinetics of magnetic glass-ceramics prepared by the processing of waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.A. . E-mail: adel_francis@hotmail.com

    2006-06-15

    The objective of the present investigation was to study the feasibility of conversion of an intimate mixture of blast furnace slag and blast furnace flue dust generated by a single industrial company into magnetic glass-ceramic product. Blast furnace slag (BFS) and blast furnace flue dust (BFD) are generated at a rate of 300,000 and 30,000 tons/year, respectively, from iron and steel factory. The crystallization mechanisms of a composition containing BFS and BFD in a 50/50 proportion were investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystallization temperature was found to vary from 900 to 1100 deg. C and two phases appeared in the crystallized samples: pyroxene Ca(Mg, Fe, Al)(Si, Al){sub 2}O{sub 6} and magnetite/maghemite. Heating rate and particle sizes effects on crystal growth of powdered samples were studied by DTA. The apparent activation energy of crystal growth using the particle size 180-315 {mu}m was determined to be 355 and 329 kJ/mol for the first and second peak, respectively. The presence of sharp and broad crystallization peaks indicate simultaneous surface and internal crystallization mechanism. Good wear resistance and chemical durability particularly in alkaline environment, combine with good hardness and magnetic properties make this glass-ceramic material potentially useful for various industrial applications.

  15. Cathodoluminescence of Terbium- and Ytterbium-Activated Oxyfluoride Glasses and Glass Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsts, E.; Rogulis, U.; Jansons, J.; Sharakovskis, A.

    2010-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra and decay times have been studied for oxyfluoride glasses and glass ceramics of the system: SiO2 - Al203 - Na2O - LaF3 - NaF, activated by terbium and ytterbium. The CL spectra of the glasses and glass ceramics show characteristic Tb3+ luminescence bands: blue (5D3 → 7FJ) and green (5D4 → 7FJ) groups. With increasing terbium concentration the blue- to green-group ratio decreases. The CL decay curves can be sufficiently well approximated by two exponents - fast and slow. Decay times for the blue-group CL bands are faster than for those of green group. As the terbium concentration increases, the lifetimes for the lines of the blue group shorten, while for the green group they remain unchanged. This could be explained by the cross-relaxation between the transitions 5D3 → 5D4 and 7F6 → 7F0 of two terbium ions.

  16. Rare-earth doped sol-gel derived oxyfluoride glass-ceramics: Structural and optical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secu, C. E.; Secu, M.; Ghica, C.; Mihut, L.

    2011-09-01

    Glass-ceramics containing RE 3+-doped BaF 2 nanocrystals (RE = Eu, Sm, Dy, Ho and Pr) with the size below 10 nm size have been made by using the controlled crystallization at higher temperatures of the RE 3+-doped SiO 2-BaF 2 xerogels. Photoluminescence measurements have indicated the incorporation of the RE 3+ ions in both silica network and in the BaF 2 nanocrystals. Thermoluminescence measurements have shown a peak whose position depends on the nature of RE 3+-dopant as it follows: 140 °C (for Ho 3+, Dy 3+), 340 °C (for Sm 3+) and 370 °C (for Eu 3+); in Eu 3+-doped SiO 2 glass the TL peak is shifted to 383 °C. The peaks in glass-ceramics were assigned to the recombination of the electrons thermal released from the RE 3+-electron traps located in both glass-matrix and BaF 2 nanocrystals. Within the series the trivalent lanthanide ions act as increasingly deeper electron trapping centres.

  17. Structural analysis of Fe–Mn–O nanoparticles in glass ceramics by small angle scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Raghuwanshi, Vikram Singh; Harizanova, Ruzha; Tatchev, Dragomir; Hoell, Armin; Rüssel, Christian

    2015-02-15

    Magnetic nanocrystals containing Fe and Mn were obtained by annealing of silicate glasses with the composition 13.6Na{sub 2}O–62.9SiO{sub 2}–8.5MnO–15.0Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3−x} (mol%) at 580 °C for different periods of time. Here, we present Small Angle Neutron Scattering using Polarized neutrons (SANSPOL) and Anomalous Small Angle X-ray Scattering (ASAXS) investigation on these glass ceramic samples. Analysis of scattering data from both methods reveals the formation of spherical core–shell type of nanoparticles with mean sizes between 10 nm and 100 nm. ASAXS investigation shows the particles have higher concentration of iron atoms and the shell like region surrounding the particles is enriched in SiO{sub 2}. SANSPOL investigation shows the particles are found to be magnetic and are surrounded by a non-magnetic shell-like region. - Graphical abstract: Magnetic spherical core–shell nanoparticles in glass ceramics: SANSPOL and ASAXS investigations. - Highlights: • Formation and growth mechanisms of magnetic nanoparticles in silicate glass. • SANSPOL and ASAXS methods employed to evaluate quantitative information. • Analyses showed formation of nanoparticles with spherical core–shell structures. • Core of the particle is magnetic and surrounded by weak magnetic shell like region.

  18. Parasitic amorphous on single-domain crystal: Structural observations of silicate glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Ihara, Rie; Fujiwara, Takumi

    2013-01-01

    Glass-ceramics (GCs) are materials obtained from the crystallisation of functional phases in glass, and have a structure that the crystallised phase embedded in the glass matrix. Glass-forming oxides are commonly added to the functional phases to improve the stability of precursor glass; however, the issue of glass-ceramics permitting the presence of residual phases resulting from addition is required to be clarified. To elucidate this issue, we prepared `perfectly surface-crystallised' GC consisting of fresnoite-type Sr2TiSi2O8 from a non-stoichiometric glass and performed texture/morphology observations. Numerous SiO2-rich binodal-like nanospheres (~10 nm) were parasitic on the fresnoite single-crystal domains. The parasitic texture is considered to form via the following process: (i) binodal-type phase separation into stoichiometric fresnoite (crystalline matrix) and SiO2-rich phases (amorphous nanoparticles) and (ii) single-domain formation by surface crystallisation in the matrix. Furthermore, in terms of texture, the resulting GC differs from the GCs reported to date, i.e., inverse GC.

  19. Effect of crystallization heat treatment on the microstructure of niobium-doped fluorapatite glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Denry, I; Holloway, J A; Gupta, P K

    2012-07-01

    Our goal was to study the effect of heat treatment temperature and heating rate on the microstructure and crystalline phases and assess the domain of existence of submicrometer fluorapatite crystals in niobium-doped fluorapatite glass-ceramics for biomedical applications. Glass-ceramic specimens were prepared by casting and heat treatment between 700 and 1200°C using a fast or a slow heating rate. The microstructure was characterized by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Crystalline phases were analyzed by x-ray diffraction. AFM of the as-cast glass revealed that amorphous phase separation occurred in this system. XRD confirmed the presence of fluorapatite in all specimens, together with forsterite and enstatite at higher temperatures. Both heating rate and heat treatment temperature strongly influenced microstructure and crystallinity. A dual microstructure with submicrometer fluorapatite crystals and polygonal forsterite crystals was obtained when slow heating rates and crystallization temperatures between 950 and 1100°C were used. Needle-shaped fluorapatite crystals appeared after heat treatment above 1100°C. Fast heating rates led to an increase in crystal size. Heat treatment temperatures should remain below 1100°C, together with slow heating rates, to prevent crystal dissolution, and preserve a dual microstructure of finely dispersed submicrometer crystals without growth of needle-shaped crystals.

  20. Nucleation and crystallization of tailing-based glass-ceramics by microwave heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bao-wei; Li, Hong-xia; Zhang, Xue-feng; Jia, Xiao-lin; Sun, Zhi-chao

    2015-12-01

    The effect of microwave radiation on the nucleation and crystallization of tailing-based glass-ceramics was investigated using a 2.45 GHz multimode microwave cavity. Tailing-based glass samples were prepared from Shandong gold tailings and Guyang iron tailings utilizing a conventional glass melting technique. For comparison, the tailing-based glass samples were crystallized using two different heat-treatment methods: conventional heating and hybrid microwave heating. The nucleation and crystallization temperatures were determined by performing a differential thermal analysis of the quenched tailing-based glass. The prepared glass-ceramic samples were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, thermal expansion coefficient measurements, and scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that hybrid microwave heating could be successfully used to crystallize the tailing-based glass, reduce the processing time, and decrease the crystallization temperature. Furthermore, the results indicated that the nucleation and crystallization mechanism of the hybrid microwave heating process slightly differs from that of the conventional heating process.