Sample records for high viscosity liquids

  1. Viscosity Measurement of Highly Viscous Liquids Using Drop Coalescence in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin; Maxwell, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    The method of drop coalescence is being investigated for use as a method for determining the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids. Low gravity environment is necessary in this case to minimize the undesirable effects of body forces and liquid motion in levitated drops. Also, the low gravity environment will allow for investigating large liquid volumes which can lead to much higher accuracy for the viscosity calculations than possible under 1 - g conditions. The drop coalescence method is preferred over the drop oscillation technique since the latter method can only be applied for liquids with vanishingly small viscosities. The technique developed relies on both the highly accurate solution of the Navier-Stokes equations as well as on data from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment. In the analytical aspect of the method two liquid volumes are brought into contact which will coalesce under the action of surface tension alone. The free surface geometry development as well as its velocity during coalescence which are obtained from numerical computations are compared with an analogous experimental model. The viscosity in the numerical computations is then adjusted to bring into agreement of the experimental results with the calculations. The true liquid viscosity is the one which brings the experiment closest to the calculations. Results are presented for method validation experiments performed recently on board the NASA/KC-135 aircraft. The numerical solution for this validation case was produced using the Boundary Element Method. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, in this case glycerine at room temperature, was determined to high degree of accuracy using the liquid coalescence method. These experiments gave very encouraging results which will be discussed together with plans for implementing the method in a shuttle flight experiment.

  2. An accurate estimation method of kinematic viscosity for standard viscosity liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurano, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Yoshida, K.; Imai, H.

    1992-07-01

    Deming's method of least squares is introduced to make an accurate kinematic viscosity estimation for a series of 13 standard-viscosity liquids at any desired temperature. The empirical ASTM kinematic viscosity-temperature equation is represented in the form loglog( v+c)=a-b log T, where v (in mm2. s-1) is the kinematic viscosity at temperature T (in K), a and b are the constants for a given liquid, and c has a variable value. In the present application, however, c is assumed to have a constant value for each standard-viscosity liquid, as do a and b in the ASTM equation. This assumption has since been verified experimentally for all standard-viscosity liquids. The kinematic viscosities for the 13 standard-viscosity liquids have been measured with a high accuracy in the temperature range of 20 40°C using a series of the NRLM capillary master viscometers with an automatic flow time detection system. The deviations between measured and estimated kinematic viscosities were less than ±0.04% for the 10 standard-viscosity liquids JS2.5 to JS2000 and ±0.11% for the 3 standard-viscosity liquids JS15H to JS200H, respectively. From the above investigation, it was revealed that the uncertainty in the present estimation method is less than one-third that in the usual ASTM method.

  3. Viscosity of komatiite liquid at high pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O Dwyer, L.; Lesher, C. E.; Wang, Y.

    2006-12-01

    The viscosities of komatiite liquids at high pressures and temperatures are being investigated by the in-situ falling sphere technique, using the T-25 multianvil apparatus at the GSECARS 13 ID-D beamline at the Advanced Photon Source, ANL. The refractory and fluid nature of komatiite and other ultramafic liquids relevant to the Earth's deep interior, presents unique challenges for this approach. To reach superliquidus temperatures we use a double reservoir configuration, where marker spheres are placed at the top of both a main melt reservoir and an overlying reservoir containing a more refractory composition. Using this approach, we have successfully measured the viscosity of a komatiite from Gorgona Island (GOR-94-29; MgO - 17.8 wt.%; NBO/T = 1.6) up to 6 GPa and 1900 K. Under isothermal conditions, viscosity increases with pressure, consistent with the depolymerized nature of the komatiite. At 1900 K, viscosity increases from 1.5 (+- 0.3) Pa s at 3.5 GPa to 3.4 (+- 0.3) Pa s at 6 GPa, corresponding to an activation volume of 2.2 cm3/mol. At high pressures, the viscosities of Gorgona Island komatiite melt are an order of magnitude higher than those measured by Liebske et al. (2005, EPSL, v. 240) for peridotite melt (MgO 37.1 wt.%; NBO/T = 2.5), and similar in magnitude to molten diopside (NBO/T = 2) (Reid et al. 2003, PEPI, v. 139). The positive pressure dependence is consistent with the reduction in interatomic space diminishing the free volume of the liquid as it is compressed. Above 6 GPa the free volume reduction may become less important with the production of high-coordinated network formers, as attributed to the reversal of the pressure dependence of viscosity for peridotite melt at ~8.5 GPa and diopside melt at ~10 GPa. Experiments at higher pressures are underway to determine if a similar viscosity maximum occurs for komatiite melt and whether its pressure is greater than 10 GPa, as suggested by the data for peridotite and diopside melts.

  4. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations on Viscosity of Fe-Ni-C Liquids at High Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Lai, X.; Wang, J.; Zhu, F.; Liu, J.; Kono, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding and modeling of Earth's core processes such as geodynamo and heat flow via convection in liquid outer cores hinges on the viscosity of candidate liquid iron alloys under core conditions. Viscosity estimates from various methods of the metallic liquid of the outer core, however, span up to 12 orders of magnitude. Due to experimental challenges, viscosity measurements of iron liquids alloyed with lighter elements are scarce and conducted at conditions far below those expected for the outer core. In this study, we adopt a synergistic approach by integrating experiments at experimentally-achievable conditions with computations up to core conditions. We performed viscosity measurements based on the modified Stokes' floating sphere viscometry method for the Fe-Ni-C liquids at high pressures in a Paris-Edinburgh press at Sector 16 of the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. Our results show that the addition of 3-5 wt.% carbon to iron-nickel liquids has negligible effect on its viscosity at pressures lower than 5 GPa. The viscosity of the Fe-Ni-C liquids, however, becomes notably higher and increases by a factor of 3 at 5-8 GPa. Similarly, our first-principles molecular dynamics calculations up to Earth's core pressures show a viscosity change in Fe-Ni-C liquids at 5 GPa. The significant change in the viscosity is likely due to a liquid structural transition of the Fe-Ni-C liquids as revealed by our X-ray diffraction measurements and first-principles molecular dynamics calculations. The observed correlation between structure and physical properties of liquids permit stringent benchmark test of the computational liquid models and contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of liquid properties under high pressures. The interplay between experiments and first-principles based modeling is shown to be a practical and effective methodology for studying liquid properties under outer core conditions that are difficult to reach with the current

  5. Communication: Simple liquids' high-density viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costigliola, Lorenzo; Pedersen, Ulf R.; Heyes, David M.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2018-02-01

    This paper argues that the viscosity of simple fluids at densities above that of the triple point is a specific function of temperature relative to the freezing temperature at the density in question. The proposed viscosity expression, which is arrived at in part by reference to the isomorph theory of systems with hidden scale invariance, describes computer simulations of the Lennard-Jones system as well as argon and methane experimental data and simulation results for an effective-pair-potential model of liquid sodium.

  6. Mosapride Accelerates the Delayed Gastric Emptying of High-Viscosity Liquids: A Crossover Study Using Continuous Real-Time 13C Breath Test (BreathID System)

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Yasunari; Sekino, Yusuke; Yamada, Eiji; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Higurashi, Takuma; Sakai, Eiji; Iida, Hiroshi; Hosono, Kunihiro; Endo, Hiroki; Nonaka, Takashi; Ikeda, Tamon; Fujita, Koji; Yoneda, Masato; Koide, Tomoko; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Goto, Ayumu; Abe, Yasunobu; Gotoh, Eiji; Maeda, Shin; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims The administration of liquid nutrients to patients is often accompanied by complications such as gastroesophageal reflux. To prevent gastroesophageal reflux, high-viscosity liquid meals are used widely, however, it still remains controversial whether high-viscosity liquid meals have any effect on the rate of gastric emptying. The present study was conducted with the aim of determining whether high-viscosity liquid meals had any effect on the rate of gastric emptying and mosapride might accelerate the rate of gastric emptying of high-viscosity liquid meals. Methods Six healthy male volunteers underwent 3 tests at intervals of > 1 week. After fasting for > 8 hours, each subject received one of three test meals (liquid meal only, high-viscosity liquid meal [liquid meal plus pectin] only, or high-viscosity liquid meal 30 minutes after intake of mosapride). A 13C-acetic acid breath test was performed, which monitored the rate of gastric emptying for 4 hours. Using the Oridion Research Software (β version), breath test parameters were calculated. The study parameters were examined for all the 3 test conditions and compared using the Freidman test. Results Gastric emptying was significantly delayed following intake of a high-viscosity liquid meal alone as compared with a liquid meal alone; however, intake of mosapride prior to a high-viscosity liquid meal was associated with a significantly accelerated rate of gastric emptying as compared with a high-viscosity liquid meal alone. Conclusions This study showed that high-viscosity liquid meals delayed gastric emptying: however, mosapride recovered the delayed rate of gastric emptying by high-viscosity liquid meals. PMID:22148109

  7. Utilization of Low Gravity Environment for Measuring Liquid Viscosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The method of drop coalescence is used for determining the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids. Low gravity environment is necessary in order to allow for examining large volumes affording much higher accuracy for the viscosity calculations than possible for smaller volumes available under 1 - g conditions. The drop coalescence method is preferred over the drop oscillation technique since the latter method can only be applied for liquids with vanishingly small viscosities. The technique developed relies on both the highly accurate solution of the Navier-Stokes equations as well as on data from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment. Results are presented for method validation experiments recently performed on board the NASA/KC-135 aircraft. While the numerical solution was produced using the Boundary Element Method. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, glycerine at room temperature, was determined using the liquid coalescence method. The results from these experiments will be discussed.

  8. Density and Viscosity Measurement of Liquid FeS at High Pressure and High Temperature Using Synchrotron X-ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, T.; Long, H.; Young, C.; Wang, L.; Chen, J.

    2005-12-01

    From previous experimental and theoretical studies, sulfur has been considered one of the possible light elements in the core that might be responsible for the large density deficit when compared with the theoretical pure Fe core (Ganapathy and Anders, 1974; Ahrens and Jeanloz, 1987). Therefore, understanding the physical properties of liquid FeS will help us reveal the details of the Earth?|s core. This study focused on the liquid state of sulfur in iron due to sulfur?|s lack of amount in the mantle; easiness to alloy with iron; and the predicted 5 wt% ~10 wt% amount of this light element in the core (Ahrens, 1979; Sherman, 1997). Modern development of the multi-anvil high pressure apparatus limits the pressure range of the experiments (<30 GPa). It is somewhat low if comparing with the outer core pressure condition. Therefore, extrapolation of data derived at low pressure range to the condition of the outer core (>130 GPa) has to be applied, and may produce results that are far from the true numbers. However, at the point while the techniques are limited, studying the physical properties of the liquid-phase FeS at relatively low pressures still provides us a better picture of the physical behavior of the outer core comparing with data derived from solid state FeS experiments. Pervious studies on the viscosity of the Fe-FeS system (LeBlanc and Secco, 1996; Dobson et al., 2000; Urakawa et al., 2001; Secco et al., 2002) have presented different values of viscosity numbers with a maximum difference of two orders of magnitude. We have conducted the density measurements of liquid FeS (~36 wt% of S) up to 5.6 GPa in pressure and 1673K in temperature using the in-situ synchrotron-source x-ray absorption setup at Beamline X17B2, NSLS. The viscosity measurements were conducted by the x-ray radiograph technique combined with the falling sphere method. The falling sphere method applied at the experiment is suitable for liquids with viscosities between 10-3 Pa-s and 105 Pa

  9. Toward comprehensive studies of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures: Combined structure, elastic wave velocity, and viscosity measurements in the Paris-Edinburgh cell

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kono, Yoshio; Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis

    2014-08-19

    Techniques for measuring liquid structure, elastic wave velocity, and viscosity under high pressure have been integrated using a Paris–Edinburgh cell at Beamline 16-BM-B, HPCAT of the Advanced Photon Source. The Paris–Edinburgh press allows for compressing large volume samples (up to 2 mm in both diameter and length) up to ~7 GPa and 2000 °C. Multi-angle energy dispersive X-ray diffraction provides structure factors of liquid to a large Q of ~19 Å. Ultrasonic techniques have been developed to investigate elastic wave velocity of liquids combined with the X-ray imaging. Falling sphere viscometry, using high-speed X-ray radiography (>1000 frames/s), enables us tomore » investigate a wide range of viscosity, from those of high viscosity silicates or oxides melts to low viscosity (<1 mPa s) liquids and fluids such as liquid metals or salts. The integration of these multiple techniques has promoted comprehensive studies of structure and physical properties of liquids as well as amorphous materials at high pressures and high temperatures, making it possible to investigate correlations between structure and physical properties of liquids in situ.« less

  10. Effects of surface tension and viscosity on gold and silver sputtered onto liquid substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luna, Mark M.; Gupta, Malancha

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we study DC magnetron sputtering of gold and silver onto liquid substrates of varying viscosities and surface tensions. We were able to separate the effects of viscosity from surface tension by depositing the metals onto silicone oils with a range of viscosities. The effects of surface tension were studied by depositing the metals onto squalene, poly(ethylene glycol), and glycerol. It was found that dispersed nanoparticles were formed on liquids with low surface tension and low viscosity whereas dense films were formed on liquids with low surface tension and high viscosity. Nanoparticles were formed on both the liquid surface and within the bulk liquid for high surface tension liquids. Our results can be used to tailor the metal and liquid interaction to fabricate particles and films for various applications in optics, electronics, and catalysis.

  11. Drop splashing: the role of surface wettability and liquid viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almohammadi, Hamed; Amirfazli, Alidad; -Team

    2017-11-01

    There are seemingly contradictory results in the literature about the role of surface wettability and drop viscosity for the splashing behavior of a drop impacting onto a surface. Motivated by such issues, we conducted a systematic experimental study where splashing behavior for a wide range of the liquid viscosity (1-100 cSt) and surface wettability (hydrophilic to hydrophobic) are examined. The experiments were performed for the liquids with both low and high surface tensions ( 20 and 72 mN/m). We found that the wettability affects the splashing threshold at high or low contact angle values. At the same drop velocity, an increase of the viscosity (up to 4 cSt) promotes the splashing; while, beyond such value, any increase in viscosity shows the opposite effect. It is also found that at a particular combination of liquid surface tension and viscosity (e.g. silicone oil, 10 cSt), an increase in the drop velocity changes the splashing to spreading. We relate such behaviors to the thickness, shape, and the velocity of the drop's lamella. Finally, to predict the splashing, we developed an empirical correlation which covers all of the previous reported data, hence clarifying the ostensible existing contradictions.

  12. Investigation of the impact of high liquid viscosity on jet atomization in crossflow via high-fidelity simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyi; Gao, Hui; Soteriou, Marios C.

    2017-08-01

    Atomization of extremely high viscosity liquid can be of interest for many applications in aerospace, automotive, pharmaceutical, and food industries. While detailed atomization measurements usually face grand challenges, high-fidelity numerical simulations offer the advantage to comprehensively explore the atomization details. In this work, a previously validated high-fidelity first-principle simulation code HiMIST is utilized to simulate high-viscosity liquid jet atomization in crossflow. The code is used to perform a parametric study of the atomization process in a wide range of Ohnesorge numbers (Oh = 0.004-2) and Weber numbers (We = 10-160). Direct comparisons between the present study and previously published low-viscosity jet in crossflow results are performed. The effects of viscous damping and slowing on jet penetration, liquid surface instabilities, ligament formation/breakup, and subsequent droplet formation are investigated. Complex variations in near-field and far-field jet penetrations with increasing Oh at different We are observed and linked with the underlying jet deformation and breakup physics. Transition in breakup regimes and increase in droplet size with increasing Oh are observed, mostly consistent with the literature reports. The detailed simulations elucidate a distinctive edge-ligament-breakup dominated process with long surviving ligaments for the higher Oh cases, as opposed to a two-stage edge-stripping/column-fracture process for the lower Oh counterparts. The trend of decreasing column deflection with increasing We is reversed as Oh increases. A predominantly unimodal droplet size distribution is predicted at higher Oh, in contrast to the bimodal distribution at lower Oh. It has been found that both Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz linear stability theories cannot be easily applied to interpret the distinct edge breakup process and further study of the underlying physics is needed.

  13. Effect of pressure on viscosity of liquid Fe-alloys up to 16 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasaki, H.; Ohtani, E.; Suzuki, A.; Nishida, K.; Sakamaki, T.; Shindo, S.; Funakoshi, K.

    2005-12-01

    Viscosity of liquid Fe-alloy is closely related to a convection behavior of the Earth's liquid outer core and also time scale of planetary core formation. In previous studies, viscosity of liquid Fe-S has been measured up to 7 GPa using X-ray radiography falling sphere method [Terasaki et al. 2001]. However, some technical problems, such as chemical reaction between the metal marker sphere and the Fe-alloy sample and insufficient image recording time for less viscous material, have been suggested. In this study, we have measured the viscosity of Fe-S and Fe-C liquids without those problems by using novel techniques combined with in situ X-ray radiography falling sphere method and extended the pressure range to 16 GPa. Falling sphere viscometry was carried out under high pressure and temperature using high speed CCD camera with 1500 ton Kawai-type multi-anvil device at BL04B1, SPring-8 in Japan. Starting compositions of Fe-alloy were Fe78S22 and Fe86C14 which correspond to near eutectic compositions at the experimental pressures. Viscosity marker sphere, which was made of Re or Pt, was coated by alumina in order to prevent the reaction between the sphere and the Fe-alloy sample. Falling sphere images were obtained with recording rate of 50 - 125 frame/second. Viscosity of liquid Fe-S was measured up to 16.1 GPa and 1763 K. Measured viscosity coefficients were in the range of 8.8 - 9.2 mPa-s which indicates that the activation volume of viscous flow is approximately a half of the previous estimations (1.5 cm3/mol). Viscosity of liquid Fe-C was measured up to 5 GPa and 1843 K. Viscosity coefficients are 4.7 - 4.9 mPa-s. Activation volume of Fe-C liquid is estimated to be 0.8 cm3/mol. This pressure dependence is consistent with the result of Lucas (1964) measured at ambient pressure. Consequently, viscosity of Fe-alloy liquids are likely to stay small in the Earth's interior and there is no large difference in viscosity coefficient and activation volume between Fe

  14. Screening for High Conductivity/Low Viscosity Ionic Liquids Using Product Descriptors.

    PubMed

    Martin, Shawn; Pratt, Harry D; Anderson, Travis M

    2017-07-01

    We seek to optimize Ionic liquids (ILs) for application to redox flow batteries. As part of this effort, we have developed a computational method for suggesting ILs with high conductivity and low viscosity. Since ILs consist of cation-anion pairs, we consider a method for treating ILs as pairs using product descriptors for QSPRs, a concept borrowed from the prediction of protein-protein interactions in bioinformatics. We demonstrate the method by predicting electrical conductivity, viscosity, and melting point on a dataset taken from the ILThermo database on June 18 th , 2014. The dataset consists of 4,329 measurements taken from 165 ILs made up of 72 cations and 34 anions. We benchmark our QSPRs on the known values in the dataset then extend our predictions to screen all 2,448 possible cation-anion pairs in the dataset. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Screening for High Conductivity/Low Viscosity Ionic Liquids Using Product Descriptors

    DOE PAGES

    Martin, Shawn; Pratt, III, Harry D.; Anderson, Travis M.

    2017-02-21

    We seek to optimize Ionic liquids (ILs) for application to redox flow batteries. As part of this effort, we have developed a computational method for suggesting ILs with high conductivity and low viscosity. Since ILs consist of cation-anion pairs, we consider a method for treating ILs as pairs using product descriptors for QSPRs, a concept borrowed from the prediction of protein-protein interactions in bioinformatics. We demonstrate the method by predicting electrical conductivity, viscosity, and melting point on a dataset taken from the ILThermo database on June 18th, 2014. The dataset consists of 4,329 measurements taken from 165 ILs made upmore » of 72 cations and 34 anions. In conclusion, we benchmark our QSPRs on the known values in the dataset then extend our predictions to screen all 2,448 possible cation-anion pairs in the dataset.« less

  16. Screening for High Conductivity/Low Viscosity Ionic Liquids Using Product Descriptors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Martin, Shawn; Pratt, III, Harry D.; Anderson, Travis M.

    We seek to optimize Ionic liquids (ILs) for application to redox flow batteries. As part of this effort, we have developed a computational method for suggesting ILs with high conductivity and low viscosity. Since ILs consist of cation-anion pairs, we consider a method for treating ILs as pairs using product descriptors for QSPRs, a concept borrowed from the prediction of protein-protein interactions in bioinformatics. We demonstrate the method by predicting electrical conductivity, viscosity, and melting point on a dataset taken from the ILThermo database on June 18th, 2014. The dataset consists of 4,329 measurements taken from 165 ILs made upmore » of 72 cations and 34 anions. In conclusion, we benchmark our QSPRs on the known values in the dataset then extend our predictions to screen all 2,448 possible cation-anion pairs in the dataset.« less

  17. Bouncing-to-Merging Transition in Drop Impact on Liquid Film: Role of Liquid Viscosity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoyu; Saha, Abhishek; Law, Chung K; Sun, Chao

    2018-02-27

    When a drop impacts on a liquid surface, it can either bounce back or merge with the surface. The outcome affects many industrial processes, in which merging is preferred in spray coating to generate a uniform layer and bouncing is desired in internal combustion engines to prevent accumulation of the fuel drop on the wall. Thus, a good understanding of how to control the impact outcome is highly demanded to optimize the performance. For a given liquid, a regime diagram of bouncing and merging outcomes can be mapped in the space of Weber number (ratio of impact inertia and surface tension) versus film thickness. In addition, recognizing that the liquid viscosity is a fundamental fluid property that critically affects the impact outcome through viscous dissipation of the impact momentum, here we investigate liquids with a wide range of viscosity from 0.7 to 100 cSt, to assess its effect on the regime diagram. Results show that while the regime diagram maintains its general structure, the merging regime becomes smaller for more viscous liquids and the retraction merging regime disappears when the viscosity is very high. The viscous effects are modeled and subsequently the mathematical relations for the transition boundaries are proposed which agree well with the experiments. The new expressions account for all the liquid properties and impact conditions, thus providing a powerful tool to predict and manipulate the outcome when a drop impacts on a liquid film.

  18. Computing the Viscosity of Supercooled Liquids: Markov Network Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ju; Kushima, Akihiro; Eapen, Jacob; Lin, Xi; Qian, Xiaofeng; Mauro, John C.; Diep, Phong; Yip, Sidney

    2011-01-01

    The microscopic origin of glass transition, when liquid viscosity changes continuously by more than ten orders of magnitude, is challenging to explain from first principles. Here we describe the detailed derivation and implementation of a Markovian Network model to calculate the shear viscosity of deeply supercooled liquids based on numerical sampling of an atomistic energy landscape, which sheds some light on this transition. Shear stress relaxation is calculated from a master-equation description in which the system follows a transition-state pathway trajectory of hopping among local energy minima separated by activation barriers, which is in turn sampled by a metadynamics-based algorithm. Quantitative connection is established between the temperature variation of the calculated viscosity and the underlying potential energy and inherent stress landscape, showing a different landscape topography or “terrain” is needed for low-temperature viscosity (of order 107 Pa·s) from that associated with high-temperature viscosity (10−5 Pa·s). Within this range our results clearly indicate the crossover from an essentially Arrhenius scaling behavior at high temperatures to a low-temperature behavior that is clearly super-Arrhenius (fragile) for a Kob-Andersen model of binary liquid. Experimentally the manifestation of this crossover in atomic dynamics continues to raise questions concerning its fundamental origin. In this context this work explicitly demonstrates that a temperature-dependent “terrain” characterizing different parts of the same potential energy surface is sufficient to explain the signature behavior of vitrification, at the same time the notion of a temperature-dependent effective activation barrier is quantified. PMID:21464988

  19. Viscosity Difference Measurements for Normal and Para Liquid Hydrogen Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webeler, R.; Bedard, F.

    1961-01-01

    The absence of experimental data in the literature concerning a viscosity difference for normal and equilibrium liquid hydrogen may be attributed to the limited reproducibility of "oscillating disk" measurements in a liquid-hydrogen environment. Indeed, there is disagreement over the viscosity values for equilibrium liquid hydrogen even without proton spin considerations. Measurements presented here represent the first application of the piezoelectric alpha quartz torsional oscillator technique to liquid-hydrogen viscosity measurements.

  20. Shear viscosity coefficient of liquid lanthanides

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Patel, H. P., E-mail: patel.harshal2@gmail.com; Thakor, P. B., E-mail: pbthakore@rediffmail.com; Prajapati, A. V., E-mail: anand0prajapati@gmail.com

    2015-05-15

    Present paper deals with the computation of shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides. The effective pair potential v(r) is calculated through our newly constructed model potential. The Pair distribution function g(r) is calculated from PYHS reference system. To see the influence of local field correction function, Hartree (H), Tailor (T) and Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function are used. Present results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical data. Lastly, we found that our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides.

  1. Shear viscosity coefficient of liquid lanthanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, H. P.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Thakor, P. B.; Prajapati, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    Present paper deals with the computation of shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides. The effective pair potential v(r) is calculated through our newly constructed model potential. The Pair distribution function g(r) is calculated from PYHS reference system. To see the influence of local field correction function, Hartree (H), Tailor (T) and Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function are used. Present results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical data. Lastly, we found that our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides.

  2. Effect of Viscosity on the Crystallization of Undercooled Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    There have been numerous studies of glasses indicating that low-gravity processing enhances glass formation. NASA PI s are investigating the effect of low-g processing on the nucleation and crystal growth rates. Dr. Ethridge is investigating a potential mechanism for glass crystallization involving shear thinning of liquids in 1-g. For shear thinning liquids, low-g (low convection) processing will enhance glass formation. The study of the viscosity of glass forming substances at low shear rates is important to understand these new crystallization mechanisms. The temperature dependence of the viscosity of undercooled liquids is also very important for NASA s containerless processing studies. In general, the viscosity of undercooled liquids is not known, yet knowledge of viscosity is required for crystallization calculations. Many researchers have used the Turnbull equation in error. Subsequent nucleation and crystallization calculations can be in error by many orders of magnitude. This demonstrates the requirement for better methods for interpolating and extrapolating the viscosity of undercooled liquids. This is also true for undercooled water. Since amorphous water ice is the predominant form of water in the universe, astrophysicists have modeled the crystallization of amorphous water ice with viscosity relations that may be in error by five orders-of-magnitude.

  3. Estimation of the viscosities of liquid binary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Min; Su, Xiang-Yu

    2018-01-01

    As one of the most important physical and chemical properties, viscosity plays a critical role in physics and materials as a key parameter to quantitatively understanding the fluid transport process and reaction kinetics in metallurgical process design. Experimental and theoretical studies on liquid metals are problematic. Today, there are many empirical and semi-empirical models available with which to evaluate the viscosity of liquid metals and alloys. However, the parameter of mixed energy in these models is not easily determined, and most predictive models have been poorly applied. In the present study, a new thermodynamic parameter Δ G is proposed to predict liquid alloy viscosity. The prediction equation depends on basic physical and thermodynamic parameters, namely density, melting temperature, absolute atomic mass, electro-negativity, electron density, molar volume, Pauling radius, and mixing enthalpy. Our results show that the liquid alloy viscosity predicted using the proposed model is closely in line with the experimental values. In addition, if the component radius difference is greater than 0.03 nm at a certain temperature, the atomic size factor has a significant effect on the interaction of the binary liquid metal atoms. The proposed thermodynamic parameter Δ G also facilitates the study of other physical properties of liquid metals.

  4. Pressure Dependence of Komatiite Liquid Viscosity and Implications for Magma Ocean Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dwyer Brown, L.; Lesher, C. E.; Terasaki, H. G.; Yamada, A.; Sakamaki, T.; Shibazaki, Y.; Ohtani, E.

    2009-12-01

    The viscosities of komatiite liquids at high pressures and temperatures were investigated using the in-situ falling sphere technique at BL04B1, SPring-8. Komatiites are naturally occurring magmas, rich in network modifying cations. Despite the refractory and fluid nature of komatiite, we successfully measured the viscosity of molten komatiites from Gorgona Island, Colombia (MgO = 17.8 wt.%; NBO/T = 1.5) between 11 and 13 GPa at 2000 C, and from Belingwe, Zimbabwe (MgO = 28.14 wt.%; NBO/T = 2.1) from 12 to 14 GPa at 2000 C. Under isothermal conditions, the viscosity of Gorgona Island komatiite melt increased with pressure, consistent with our previous measurements at lower pressures for this composition. We interpreted this positive pressure dependence as the result of reductions in interatomic space diminishing the free volume of the liquid when compressed. The viscosity of molten komatiite from Belingwe also increased up to 12 GPa, however between 12 and 14 GPa the viscosity is nearly constant. In previous studies of depolymerized silicate liquids, the pressure dependence of viscosity has been shown to reverse from positive to negative between 8 and 10 GPa with corresponding changes in activation volume [1] [2]. In contrast, the activation volume for Belingwe liquid decreases to near zero, but does not become negative above 11 GPa. Similarly, the activation volume for Gorgona Island komatiite remains positive throughout the pressure range investigated. Molecular dynamics simulations of simple MgO-SiO2 liquids with NBO/T > 2 also show a positive pressure dependence, reflecting the dominant control of free-volume reduction on the viscosity of depolymerized melts. However, the more rapid reduction in activation volume with pressure in komatiite liquids may be related to the presence of Al, Ti and other cations that interact and undergo coordination changes unavailable in simple silicate liquids. Along Hadean and post-Hadean mantle adiabats the net effect of

  5. Understanding the Viscosity of Liquids used in Infant Dysphagia Management

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Jackie; Chestnut, Amanda; Jackson, Arwen; Barbon, Carly E. A.; Steele, Catriona M.; Pickler, Laura

    2016-01-01

    When assessing swallowing in infants, it is critical to have confidence that the liquids presented during the swallow study closely replicate the viscosity of liquids in the infant's typical diet. However, we lack research on rheological properties of frequently used infant formulas or breastmilk, and various forms of barium contrast media used in swallow studies. The aim of the current study was to provide objective viscosity measurements for typical infant liquid diet options and barium contrast media. A TA-Instruments AR2000 Advanced Rheometer was used to measure the viscosity, five standard infant formulas, three barium products and two breastmilk samples. Additionally, this study measured the viscosity of infant formulas and breastmilk when mixed with powdered barium contrast in a 20% weight-to-volume (w/v) concentration. Study findings determined that standard infant formulas and the two breastmilk samples had low viscosities, at the lower end of the National Dysphagia Diet (NDD) thin liquid range. Two specialty formulas tested had much thicker viscosities, close to the NDD nectar-thick liquid range lower boundary. The study showed differences in viscosity between two 60% w/v barium products (Liquid E-Z-Paque® and E-Z-Paque® powder); the powdered product had a much lower viscosity, despite identical barium concentration. When E-Z-Paque® powdered barium was mixed in a 20% w/v concentration using water, standard infant formulas or breastmilk, the resulting viscosities were at the lower end of the NDD thin range, and only slightly thicker than the non-barium comparator liquids. When E-Z-Paque® powdered barium was mixed in a 20% w/v concentration with the two thicker specialty formulas (Enfamil AR 20kcal and 24 kcal), unexpected alterations in their original viscosity occurred. These findings highlight the clinical importance of objective measures of viscosity as well as objective data on how infant formulas or breastmilk may change in consistency when mixed

  6. Understanding the Viscosity of Liquids used in Infant Dysphagia Management.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Jacqueline; Chestnut, Amanda H; Jackson, Arwen; Barbon, Carly E A; Steele, Catriona M; Pickler, Laura

    2016-10-01

    When assessing swallowing in infants, it is critical to have confidence that the liquids presented during the swallow study closely replicate the viscosity of liquids in the infant's typical diet. However, we lack research on rheological properties of frequently used infant formulas or breastmilk, and various forms of barium contrast media used in swallow studies. The aim of the current study was to provide objective viscosity measurements for typical infant liquid diet options and barium contrast media. A TA-Instruments AR2000 Advanced Rheometer was used to measure the viscosity of five standard infant formulas, three barium products, and two breastmilk samples. Additionally, this study measured the viscosity of infant formulas and breastmilk when mixed with powdered barium contrast in a 20 % weight-to-volume (w/v) concentration. The study findings determined that standard infant formulas and the two breastmilk samples had low viscosities, at the lower end of the National Dysphagia Diet (NDD) thin liquid range. Two specialty formulas tested had much thicker viscosities, close to the lower boundary of the NDD nectar-thick liquid range. The study showed differences in viscosity between 60 % w/v barium products (Liquid E-Z-Paque(®) and E-Z-Paque(®) powder); the powdered product had a much lower viscosity, despite identical barium concentration. When E-Z-Paque(®) powdered barium was mixed in a 20 % w/v concentration using water, standard infant formulas, or breastmilk, the resulting viscosities were at the lower end of the NDD thin range and only slightly thicker than the non-barium comparator liquids. When E-Z-Paque(®) powdered barium was mixed in a 20 % w/v concentration with the two thicker specialty formulas (Enfamil AR 20 and 24 kcal), unexpected alterations in their original viscosity occurred. These findings highlight the clinical importance of objective measures of viscosity as well as objective data on how infant formulas or breastmilk may change in

  7. Separation of density and viscosity influence on liquid-loaded surface acoustic wave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, F.; Hahn, D.; Büttgenbach, S.

    1999-05-01

    Love-mode sensors are reported for separate measurement of liquid density and viscosity. They combine the general merits of Love-mode devices, e.g., ease of sensitivity adjustment and robustness, with a highly effective procedure of separate determination of liquid density and viscosity. A model is proposed to describe the frequency response of the devices to liquid loading. Moreover, design rules are given for further optimization and sensitivity enhancement.

  8. Effects of surface wettability and liquid viscosity on the dynamic wetting of individual drops.

    PubMed

    Chen, Longquan; Bonaccurso, Elmar

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we experimentally investigated the dynamic spreading of liquid drops on solid surfaces. Drop of glycerol water mixtures and pure water that have comparable surface tensions (62.3-72.8 mN/m) but different viscosities (1.0-60.1 cP) were used. The size of the drops was 0.5-1.2 mm. Solid surfaces with different lyophilic and lyophobic coatings (equilibrium contact angle θ(eq) of 0°-112°) were used to study the effect of surface wettability. We show that surface wettability and liquid viscosity influence wetting dynamics and affect either the coefficient or the exponent of the power law that describes the growth of the wetting radius. In the early inertial wetting regime, the coefficient of the wetting power law increases with surface wettability but decreases with liquid viscosity. In contrast, the exponent of the power law does only depend on surface wettability as also reported in literature. It was further found that surface wettability does not affect the duration of inertial wetting, whereas the viscosity of the liquid does. For low viscosity liquids, the duration of inertial wetting corresponds to the time of capillary wave propagation, which can be determined by Lamb's drop oscillation model for inviscid liquids. For relatively high viscosity liquids, the inertial wetting time increases with liquid viscosity, which may due to the viscous damping of the surface capillary waves. Furthermore, we observed a viscous wetting regime only on surfaces with an equilibrium contact angle θ(eq) smaller than a critical angle θ(c) depending on viscosity. A scaling analysis based on Navier-Stokes equations is presented at the end, and the predicted θ(c) matches with experimental observations without any additional fitting parameters.

  9. New correlation for the temperature-dependent viscosity for saturated liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jianxiang; Zhang, Laibin

    2016-11-01

    Based on the recent progress on both the temperature dependence of surface tension [H. L. Yi, J. X. Tian, A. Mulero and I. Cachading, J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 126 (2016) 1603, and the correlation between surface tension and viscosity of liquids [J. X. Tian and A. Mulero, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 53 (2014) 9499], we derived a new multiple parameter correlation to describe the temperature-dependent viscosity of liquids. This correlation is verified by comparing with data from NIST Webbook for 35 saturated liquids including refrigerants, hydrocarbons and others, in a wide temperature range from the triple point temperature to the one very near to the critical temperature. Results show that this correlation predicts the NIST data with high accuracy with absolute average deviation (AAD) less than 1% for 21 liquids and more than 3% for only four liquids, and is clearly better than the popularly used Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) correlation.

  10. Application of SH surface acoustic waves for measuring the viscosity of liquids in function of pressure and temperature.

    PubMed

    Kiełczyński, P; Szalewski, M; Balcerzak, A; Rostocki, A J; Tefelski, D B

    2011-12-01

    Viscosity measurements were carried out on triolein at pressures from atmospheric up to 650 MPa and in the temperature range from 10°C to 40°C using ultrasonic measuring setup. Bleustein-Gulyaev SH surface acoustic waves waveguides were used as viscosity sensors. Additionally, pressure changes occurring during phase transition have been measured over the same temperature range. Application of ultrasonic SH surface acoustic waves in the liquid viscosity measurements at high pressure has many advantages. It enables viscosity measurement during phase transitions and in the high-pressure range where the classical viscosity measurement methods cannot operate. Measurements of phase transition kinetics and viscosity of liquids at high pressures and various temperatures (isotherms) is a novelty. The knowledge of changes in viscosity in function of pressure and temperature can help to obtain a deeper insight into thermodynamic properties of liquids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Comparison of the Viscosities of Thickened Liquids for Pediatric Dysphagia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesinghe, Ranjith; Clifton, Mekale; Tarlton, Morgan; Heinsohn, Erica; Ewing, Mary

    It has been reported that Speech Language Pathologists in different facilities across the nation use a variety of thickening agents and recipes as therapeutic measures for infants and children diagnosed with dysphagia. Limited research has been completed in this area. Viscosity was tested to determine the thickness of each thickening agent mixed with infant formula. The values were then compared to the National Dysphagia Diet liquid levels to determine which thickening agent resulted in the desired viscosity levels. The thickeners were mixed with common infant formulas and soy formulas to determine if the type of formula impacted the viscosity. The main goal was to determine if the assumed thickness level (viscosity) of prescribed thickened liquids was actually being met. This topic is of high concern because of its impact on the safety and well-being of clients with dysphagia. A viscometer was used to collect the viscosity levels. Commercially available formulas selected for this study. The final results of our investigation will be presented during the APS meeting. This work is supported by a Ball State University Immersive Learning Grant.

  12. Shear Viscosity Coefficient of 5d Liquid Transition Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakor, P. B.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Gajjar, P. N.; Jani, A. R.

    2011-07-01

    In the present paper we have calculated shear viscosity coefficient (η) of 5 d liquid transition metals. To calculate effective pair potential ν(r) and pair distribution function g(r) we have used our own newly constructed model potential and Percus- Yevick hard sphere (PYHS) structure factor S(q) respectively. We have also investigated the effect of different correction function like Hartree (H), Taylor (T) and Sarkar et al. (S) on shear viscosity coefficient (η). Our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (η) of 5 d liquid transition metals.

  13. Sensitivity of viscosity Arrhenius parameters to polarity of liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacem, R. B. H.; Alzamel, N. O.; Ouerfelli, N.

    2017-09-01

    Several empirical and semi-empirical equations have been proposed in the literature to estimate the liquid viscosity upon temperature. In this context, this paper aims to study the effect of polarity of liquids on the modeling of the viscosity-temperature dependence, considering particularly the Arrhenius type equations. To achieve this purpose, the solvents are classified into three groups: nonpolar, borderline polar and polar solvents. Based on adequate statistical tests, we found that there is strong evidence that the polarity of solvents affects significantly the distribution of the Arrhenius-type equation parameters and consequently the modeling of the viscosity-temperature dependence. Thus, specific estimated values of parameters for each group of liquids are proposed in this paper. In addition, the comparison of the accuracy of approximation with and without classification of liquids, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, shows a significant discrepancy of the borderline polar solvents. For that, we suggested in this paper new specific coefficient values of the simplified Arrhenius-type equation for better estimation accuracy. This result is important given that the accuracy in the estimation of the viscosity-temperature dependence may affect considerably the design and the optimization of several industrial processes.

  14. The Relation between Vaporization Enthalpies and Viscosities: Eyring's Theory Applied to Selected Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Bonsa, Anne-Marie; Paschek, Dietmar; Zaitsau, Dzmitry H; Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N; Verevkin, Sergey P; Ludwig, Ralf

    2017-05-19

    Key properties for the use of ionic liquids as electrolytes in batteries are low viscosities, low vapor pressure and high vaporization enthalpies. Whereas the measurement of transport properties is well established, the determination of vaporization enthalpies of these extremely low volatile compounds is still a challenge. At a first glance both properties seem to describe different thermophysical phenomena. However, eighty years ago Eyring suggested a theory which related viscosities and vaporization enthalpies to each other. The model is based on Eyring's theory of absolute reaction rates. Recent attempts to apply Eyring's theory to ionic liquids failed. The motivation of our study is to show that Eyring's theory works, if the assumptions specific for ionic liquids are fulfilled. For that purpose we measured the viscosities of three well selected protic ionic liquids (PILs) at different temperatures. The temperature dependences of viscosities were approximated by the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamann (VFT) relation and extrapolated to the high-temperature regime up to 600 K. Then the VFT-data could be fitted to the Eyring-model. The values of vaporization enthalpies for the three selected PILs predicted by the Eyring model have been very close to the experimental values measured by well-established techniques. We conclude that the Eyring theory can be successfully applied to the chosen set of PILs, if the assumption that ionic pairs of the viscous flow in the liquid and the ionic pairs in the gas phase are similar is fulfilled. It was also noticed that proper transfer of energies can be only derived if the viscosities and the vaporization energies are known for temperatures close to the liquid-gas transition temperature. The idea to correlate easy measurable viscosities of ionic liquids with their vaporization enthalpies opens a new way for a reliable assessment of these thermodynamic properties for a broad range of ionic liquids. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGa

  15. The viscosity of magmatic silicate liquids: A model for calculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bottinga, Y.; Weill, D. F.

    1971-01-01

    A simple model has been designed to allow reasonably accurate calculations of viscosity as a function of temperature and composition. The problem of predicting viscosities of anhydrous silicate liquids has been investigated since such viscosity numbers are applicable to many extrusive melts and to nearly dry magmatic liquids in general. The fluidizing action of water dissolved in silicate melts is well recognized and it is now possible to predict the effect of water content on viscosity in a semiquantitative way. Water was not incorporated directly into the model. Viscosities of anhydrous compositions were calculated, and, where necessary, the effect of added water and estimated. The model can be easily modified to incorporate the effect of water whenever sufficient additional data are accumulated.

  16. CFD study of mixing miscible liquid with high viscosity difference in a stirred tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhania, S.; Cahyani, A. B.; Nurtono, T.; Muharam, Y.; Winardi, S.; Purwanto, W. W.

    2018-03-01

    The mixing process of miscible liquids with high viscosity difference is crucial role even though the solution mutually dissolved. This paper describes the mixing behaviour of the water-molasses system in a conical-bottomed cylindrical stirred tank (D = 0.28 m and H = 0.395 m) equipped with a side-entry Marine propeller (d = 0.036 m) under the turbulence regime using a three-dimensional and transient CFD-simulation. The objective of this work is to compare the solution strategies was applied in the computational analysis to capture the detail phenomena of mixing two miscible liquid with high viscosity difference. Four solution strategies that have been used are the RANS Standards k-ε (SKE) model as the turbulence model coupled with the Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) method for impeller motion, the RANS Realizable k-ε (RKE) combine with the MRF, the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) coupled with the Sliding Mesh (SM) method and the LES-MRF combination. The transient calculations were conducted with Ansys Fluent 17.1 version. The mixing behaviour and the propeller characteristic are to be compared and discussed in this work. The simulation results show the differences of flow pattern and the molasses distribution profile for every solution strategy. The variation of the flow pattern which happened in each solution strategy showing an instability of the mixing process in stirred tank. The LES-SM strategy shows the realistic direction of flow than another solution strategies.

  17. Gas transport and vesicularity in low-viscosity liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioli, Laura; Bonadonna, Costanza; Abdulkareem, Lokman; Azzopardi, Barry; Phillips, Jeremy

    2010-05-01

    Vesicle textures of basaltic scoria preserve information on magma bubble content at fragmentation and are commonly used to constrain degassing, vesiculation and magma permeability. These studies are based on the assumption that microscale textures are representative of the conduit-scale structures and processes. However, the conditions for which this assumption is valid have not been investigated in detail. We have investigated conduit-scale structures by performing a series of experiments of separate two-phase flows in a 6.5-m high cylindrical bubble column using a combination of air with pure glucose syrup, water-syrup mixtures and pure water to reproduce open-system degassing and strombolian activity conditions in the upper volcanic conduit (i.e. at very low or zero liquid fluxes). We have varied gas fluxes, initial liquid height, gas inlet configuration and liquid viscosity and analyzed flow regimes and properties. Temperature and pressure were measured at several heights along the pipe and vesicularity was calculated using pressure data, liquid level measurements and an Electrical Capacitance tomography (ECT) system, which measures instantaneous vesicularity and phase distribution from capacitance measurements between pairs of electrodes placed uniformly around the pipe circumference. The aim of the experiments was to identify the effect of gas-flow rates on the flow regimes (i.e. bubbly, slug, churn and annular), the main degassing structures and the total gas content of the column. The effect of increasing and decreasing gas flow rates was also studied to check hysteresis effects. Results indicate that the vesicularity of the liquid column depends primarily on gas flux, whereas flow regimes exert a minor control. In fact, vesicularity increases with gas flux following a power-law trend whose exponent depends on the viscosity of the liquid. In addition, distributions of instantaneous gas fraction in the column cross section during syrup experiments have shown

  18. Viscosity and compressibility of diacylglycerol under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malanowski, Aleksander; Rostocki, A. J.; Kiełczyński, P.; Szalewski, M.; Balcerzak, A.; Kościesza, R.; Tarakowski, R.; Ptasznik, S.; Siegoczyński, R. M.

    2013-03-01

    The influence of high pressure on viscosity and compressibility of diacylglycerol (DAG) oil has been presented in this paper. The investigated DAG oil was composed of 82% of DAGs and 18% TAGs (triacylglycerols). The dynamic viscosity of DAG was investigated as a function of the pressure up to 400 MPa. The viscosity was measured by means of the surface acoustic wave method, where the acoustic waveguides were used as sensing elements. As the pressure was rising, the larger ultrasonic wave attenuation was observed, whereas amplitude decreased with the liquid viscosity augmentation. Measured changes of physical properties were most significant in the pressure range near the phase transition. Deeper understanding of DAG viscosity and compressibility changes versus pressure could shed more light on thermodynamic properties of edible oils.

  19. Effect of oil liquid viscosity on hysteresis in double-liquid variable-focus lens based on electrowetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhi; Peng, Runling; He, Mei

    2017-02-01

    The double-liquid variable-focus lens based on the electrowetting has the characteristics of small size, light weight, fast response, and low price and so on. In this paper, double-liquid variable-focus lens's Principle and structure are introduced. The reasons for the existence and improvement of contact angle hysteresis are given according improved Young's equation. At last, 1-Bromododecane with silicone oil are mixed to get oil liquid with different viscosity and proportion liquid as insulating liquid. External voltages are applied to these three liquid lens and focal lengths of the lenses versus applied voltage are investigated. Experiments show that, the decreasing of oil liquid viscosity can reduce focal length hysteresis.

  20. Electro-optical properties of low viscosity driven holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, K. R.; Bae, S. Y.; Kim, B. K.

    2015-04-01

    Relative diffraction efficiency (RDE), operating voltage, and response times are most important performance characteristics of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLC). Two types of triallyl isocyanurate (TI) having different structures were incorporated into the conventional transmission grating of HPDLC. Premix viscosity decreased by 13-18% with up to 3% TI, beyond which it increased. TI eliminated induction period and augmented initial grating formation rate at all contents. Saturation RDE increased over 200% while threshold voltage and rise time decreased to about half and 2/3, respectively up to 3% TI, beyond which the tendencies were reversed. Among the two TIs, low viscosity monomer (TA) showed high RDE, while high miscibility monomer (TE) low characteristic voltages and short response times. It is concluded that grating formation is largely favored by low viscosity, while interface tensions and electro-optical performances by miscibility at similar viscosities.

  1. Effect of Liquid Viscosity on Dispersion of Quasi-Lamb Waves in an Elastic-Layer-Viscous-Liquid-Layer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guz, A. N.; Bagno, A. M.

    2017-07-01

    The dispersion curves are constructed and propagation of quasi-Lamb waves are studied for wide range of frequencies based on the Navier -Stokes three-dimensional linearized equations for a viscous liquid and linear equations of the classical theory of elasticity for an elastic layer. For a thick liquid layer, the effect of the viscosity of the liquid and the thickness of elastic and liquid layers on the phase velocities and attenuation coefficients of quasi-Lamb modes is analyzed. It is shown that in the case of a thick liquid layer for all modes, there are elastic layers of certain thickness with minimal effect of liquid viscosity on the phase velocities and attenuation coefficients of modes. It is also discovered that for some modes, there are both certain thicknesses and certain ranges of thickness where the effect of liquid viscosity on the phase velocities and attenuation coefficients of these modes is considerable. We ascertain that liquid viscosity promotes decrease of the penetration depth of the lowest quasi-Lamb mode into the liquid. The developed approach and the obtained results make it possible to ascertain for wave processes the limits of applicability of the model of ideal compressible fluid. Numerical results in the form of graphs are adduced and analyzed.

  2. Determining the Viscosity of Liquids Using an Extended Falling Ball Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houari, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I will extend the falling ball method to measure the viscosity of liquids regardless of the degree of their viscosity. For this, I will show that one can obtain a measurement of the terminal velocity of a falling spherical ball in a viscous liquid by solving numerically the equation of motion which describes the dynamics of the…

  3. Surrogate immiscible liquid pairs with refractive indexes matchable over a wide range of density and viscosity ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saksena, Rajat; Christensen, Kenneth T.; Pearlstein, Arne J.

    2015-08-01

    In liquid-liquid flows, use of optical diagnostics is limited by interphase refractive index mismatch, which leads to optical distortion and complicates data interpretation, and sometimes also by opacity. Both problems can be eliminated using a surrogate pair of immiscible index-matched transparent liquids, whose density and viscosity ratios match corresponding ratios for the original liquid pair. We show that a wide range of density and viscosity ratios is accessible using aqueous solutions of 1,2-propanediol and CsBr (for which index, density, and viscosity are available), and solutions of light and heavy silicone oils and 1-bromooctane (for which we measured the same properties at 119 compositions). For each liquid phase, polynomials in the composition variables, least-squares fitted to index and density and to the logarithm of kinematic viscosity, were used to determine accessible density and viscosity ratios for each matchable index. Index-matched solution pairs can be prepared with density and viscosity ratios equal to those for water-liquid CO2 at 0 °C over a range of pressure (allowing water-liquid CO2 behavior at inconveniently high pressure to be simulated by 1-bar experiments), and for water-crude oil and water-trichloroethylene (avoiding opacity and toxicity problems, respectively), each over a range of temperature. For representative index-matched solutions, equilibration changes index, density, and viscosity only slightly, and mass spectrometry and elemental analysis show that no component of either phase has significant interphase solubility. Finally, procedures are described for iteratively reducing the residual index mismatch in surrogate solution pairs prepared on the basis of approximate polynomial fits to experimental data, and for systematically dealing with nonzero interphase solubility.

  4. The determination of viscosity at liquid mixtures - Comparison of approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michal, Schmirler; Hana, Netřebská; Jan, Kolínský

    2017-09-01

    The research of flow field parameters for non-stationary flow of non-Newtonian fluids carried out at the Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of CTU showed the need for knowledge of determination of the resulting viscosity of a mixture of several liquids. There are several sources for determining viscosity of mixtures. It is possible either to find theoretical relations in the literature or use technical tables based on experimentally measured data. This article focuses on comparing these approaches with an experiment. The experiment was performed by a Rheotest RN 4.1 rotating viscometer produced by the company RHEOTEST Medingen. The research was carried out using a solution of glycerol and water. The research has shown great differences in results in different approaches for determining the viscosity of the liquid mixtures. The result of this paper is to determine the method of viscosity calculation that is closest to the experimental data.

  5. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Wittmer, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  6. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, T.N.; Wittmer, D.E.

    1995-10-10

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  7. Effects of Viscosity on the Performance of Air-Powered Liquid Jet Injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portaro, Rocco; Jaber, Hadi; Ng, Hoi Dick

    2017-11-01

    Drug delivery without the use of hypodermic needles has been a long-term objective within the medical field. This study focuses on observing the effects of drug viscosity on injector performance for air-powered liquid jet injectors, as well as the viability of using this technology for delivering viscous-type medications such as monoclonal antibodies. The experiments are conducted through the use of a prototype injector which allows key parameters such as driver pressure, injection volume and nozzle size to be varied. Different viscosities which range from 0.9 cP to 87 cP are obtained by using a water-glycerol mix. The liquid jets emanating from the injector are assessed using high speed photography as well as a pressure transducer. Experimental findings are then compared to a CFD model which considered experimental geometry and parameters. The results of this study highlight the effect of viscosity on the operating pressure of the injector and the reduction in jet stagnation pressure. It also illustrates improved jet confinement as viscosity is increased, a finding which is in line with the numerical model, and should play a key role in improving the device's characteristics for puncturing skin.

  8. Thermophysical Properties of Liquid Te: Density, Electrical Conductivity, and Viscosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C.; Su, C.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Scripa, R. N.; Ban, H.; Lin, B.

    2004-01-01

    The thermophysical properties of liquid Te, namely, density, electrical conductivity, and viscosity, were determined using the pycnometric and transient torque methods from the melting point of Te (723 K) to approximately 1150 K. A maximum was observed in the density of liquid Te as the temperature was increased. The electrical conductivity of liquid Te increased to a constant value of 2.89 x 10(exp 5 OMEGA-1m-1) as the temperature was raised above 1000 K. The viscosity decreased rapidly upon heating the liquid to elevated temperatures. The anomalous behaviors of the measured properties are explained as caused by the structural transitions in the liquid and discussed in terms of Eyring's and Bachiskii's predicted behaviors for homogeneous liquids. The Properties were also measured as a function of time after the liquid was coded from approximately 1173 or 1123 to 823 K. No relaxation phenomena were observed in the properties after the temperature of liquid Te was decreased to 823 K, in contrast to the relaxation behavior observed for some of the Te compounds.

  9. Proposal for Universality in the Viscosity of Metallic Liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Blodgett, M. E.; Egami, Takeshi; Nussinov, Z.; ...

    2015-09-09

    The range of magnitude of the liquid viscosity, η, as a function of temperature is one of the most impressive of any physical property, changing by approximately 17 orders of magnitude from its extrapolated value at infinite temperature (η o) to that at the glass transition temperature, T g. We present experimental measurements of containerlessly processed metallic liquids that suggest that log(η/η o) as a function of T A/T is a potentially universal scaled curve. In stark contrast to previous approaches, the scaling requires only two fitting parameters, which are on average predictable. The temperature T A corresponds to themore » onset of cooperative motion and is strongly correlated with T g, suggesting that the processes underlying the glass transition first appear in the high temperature liquid.« less

  10. Capillary pumping independent of the liquid surface energy and viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Weijin; Hansson, Jonas; van der Wijngaart, Wouter

    2018-03-01

    Capillary pumping is an attractive means of liquid actuation because it is a passive mechanism, i.e., it does not rely on an external energy supply during operation. The capillary flow rate generally depends on the liquid sample viscosity and surface energy. This poses a problem for capillary-driven systems that rely on a predictable flow rate and for which the sample viscosity or surface energy are not precisely known. Here, we introduce the capillary pumping of sample liquids with a flow rate that is constant in time and independent of the sample viscosity and sample surface energy. These features are enabled by a design in which a well-characterized pump liquid is capillarily imbibed into the downstream section of the pump and thereby pulls the unknown sample liquid into the upstream pump section. The downstream pump geometry is designed to exert a Laplace pressure and fluidic resistance that are substantially larger than those exerted by the upstream pump geometry on the sample liquid. Hence, the influence of the unknown sample liquid on the flow rate is negligible. We experimentally tested pumps of the new design with a variety of sample liquids, including water, different samples of whole blood, different samples of urine, isopropanol, mineral oil, and glycerol. The capillary filling speeds of these liquids vary by more than a factor 1000 when imbibed to a standard constant cross-section glass capillary. In our new pump design, 20 filling tests involving these liquid samples with vastly different properties resulted in a constant volumetric flow rate in the range of 20.96-24.76 μL/min. We expect this novel capillary design to have immediate applications in lab-on-a-chip systems and diagnostic devices.

  11. Dewetting of low-viscosity films at solid/liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Péron, Nicolas; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise; Duval, Hervé

    2012-11-13

    We report new experimental results on the dewetting of a mercury film (A) intercalated between a glass slab and an external nonmiscible liquid phase (B) under conditions of a large equilibrium contact angle. The viscosity of the external phase, ηB, was varied over 7 orders of magnitude. We observe a transition between two regimes of dewetting at a threshold viscosity of η(B)* ≈ (ρ(A)e|S̃|)(1/2), where ρ(A) is the mercury density, e is the film thickness, and |S̃| is the effective spreading coefficient. For η(B) < η(B)*, the regime is inertial. The velocity of dewetting is constant and ruled by Culick’s law, V ≈ (|S̃|/(ρ(A)e))(1/2). Capillary waves were observed at high dewetting velocities: they are a signature of hydraulic shock. For η(B) > η(B)*, the regime is viscous. The dewetting velocity is constant and scales as V ≈ |S̃|/η(B) in the limit of large η(B). We interpret this regime by a balance between the surface energy released during dewetting and the viscous dissipation in the surrounding liquid.

  12. Temperature Dependence of the Viscosity of Isotropic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadzyn, J.; Czechowski, G.; Lech, T.

    1999-04-01

    Temperature dependence of the shear viscosity measured for isotropic liquids belonging to the three homologous series: 4-(trans-4'-n-alkylcyclohexyl) isothiocyanatobenzenes (Cn H2n+1 CyHx Ph NCS; nCHBT, n=0-12), n-alkylcyanobiphenyls (CnH2n+1 Ph Ph CN; nCB, n=2-12) and 1,n-alkanediols (HO(CH2)nOH; 1,nAD, n=2-10) were analysed with the use of Arrhenius equation and its two modifications: Vogel--Fulcher and proposed in this paper. The extrapolation of the isothermal viscosity of 1,n-alkanediols (n=2-10) to n=1 leads to an interesting conclusion concerning the expected viscosity of methanediol, HOCH2OH, the compound strongly unstable in a pure state.

  13. Dynamic acid/base equilibrium in single component switchable ionic liquids and consequences on viscosity

    DOE PAGES

    Cantu, David C.; Lee, Juntaek; Lee, Mal -Soon; ...

    2016-03-28

    The deployment of transformational non-aqueous CO 2-capture solvent systems is encumbered by high viscosity even at intermediate uptakes. Using single-molecule CO 2 binding organic liquids as a prototypical example, we identify the key molecular features controlling bulk liquid viscosity and CO 2 uptake kinetics. Fast uptake kinetics arise from close proximity of the alcohol and amine sites that are involved in CO 2 binding. This process results in the concerted formation of a Zwitterion containing both an alkylcarbonate and a protonated amine. The hydrogen bonding between the two functional groups ultimately determines the solution viscosity. Based on molecular simulation, thismore » work reveals options to significantly reduce viscosity with molecular modifications that shift the proton transfer equilibrium towards a neutral acid/amine species as opposed to the ubiquitously accepted Zwitterionic state. Lastly, the molecular design concepts proposed here, for the alkyl-carbonate systems, are readily extensible to other CO 2 capture technologies, such as the carbamate- or imidazole-based solvent chemistries.« less

  14. Laboratory Procedures in Thermal Expansion and Viscosity of Liquids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Paul Dow

    1974-01-01

    Describes the laboratory procedures for the measurement of thermal expansion and viscosity of liquids. These experiments require inexpensive equipment and are suitable for secondary school physical science classes. (JR)

  15. Shear viscosity in monatomic liquids: a simple mode-coupling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balucani, Umberto

    The value of the shear-viscosity coefficient in fluids is controlled by the dynamical processes affecting the time decay of the associated Green-Kubo integrand, the stress autocorrelation function (SACF). These processes are investigated in monatomic liquids by means of a microscopic approach with a minimum use of phenomenological assumptions. In particular, mode-coupling effects (responsible for the presence in the SACF of a long-lasting 'tail') are accounted for by a simplified approach where the only requirement is knowledge of the structural properties. The theory readily yields quantitative predictions in its domain of validity, which comprises ordinary and moderately supercooled 'simple' liquids. The framework is applied to liquid Ar and Rb near their melting points, and quite satisfactory agreement with the simulation data is found for both the details of the SACF and the value of the shear-viscosity coefficient.

  16. Transparent, immiscible, surrogate liquids with matchable refractive indexes: Increased range of density and viscosity ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadillon, Jérémy; Saksena, Rajat; Pearlstein, Arne J.

    2016-12-01

    By replacing the "heavy" silicone oil used in the oil phase of Saksena, Christensen, and Pearlstein ["Surrogate immiscible liquid pairs with refractive indexes matchable over a wide range of density and viscosity ratios," Phys. Fluids 27, 087103 (2015)] by one with a twentyfold higher viscosity, and replacing the "light" silicone oil in that work by one with a viscosity fivefold lower and a density about 10% lower, we have greatly extended the range of viscosity ratio accessible by index-matching the adjustable-composition oil phase to an adjustable-composition 1,2-propanediol + CsBr + H2O aqueous phase and have also extended the range of accessible density ratios. The new system of index-matchable surrogate immiscible liquids is capable of achieving the density and viscosity ratios for liquid/liquid systems consisting of water with the entire range of light or medium crude oils over the temperature range from 40 °F (4.44 °C) to 200 °F (93.3 °C) and can access the density and viscosity ratios for water with some heavy crude oils over part of the same temperature range. It also provides a room-temperature, atmospheric-pressure surrogate for the liquid CO2 + H2O system at 0 °C over almost all of the pressure range of interest in sub-seabed CO2 sequestration.

  17. Research on viscosity of metal at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Liu, F.; Ma, X.; Zhang, M.

    2016-11-01

    A new experimental technique, the flyer-impact method, is proposed in this article to investigate the viscosity coefficient of shocked metals. In this technique, a shock wave with a sinusoidal perturbation on the front is induced by the sinusoidal profile of the impact surface of the sample by use of a two-stage light-gas gun, and the oscillatory damping process of the perturbation amplitude is monitored by electric pins. The damping processes of aluminum at 78 and 101 GPa and iron at 159 and 103 GPa are obtained by this technique, which supplement the existing data by measuring the viscosity coefficient via a dynamic high-pressure method. Applying the formula of Miller and Ahrens to fit the experimental data, the shear viscosity coefficients of aluminum at 78 and 101 GPa are 1350 ± 500 and 1200 ± 500 Pa s, respectively, and those of iron at 159 and 103 GPa are 1150 ± 1000 and 4800 ± 1000 Pa s, respectively. The values measured by the flyer-impact method, approximately 103 Pa s, are consistent with those measured by Sakharov's method, while still greatly differing from those measured by static high-pressure methods. In dynamic high-pressure experiments, the shear viscosity is related to dislocation motion in the solid material, while that in static high-pressure experiments is related to the diffusion motion of atoms or molecules in liquids. Therefore, there are different physical meanings of shear viscosity in dynamic and static high-pressure experiments, and there is no comparability among these results.

  18. Viscosity minima in binary mixtures of ionic liquids + molecular solvents.

    PubMed

    Tariq, M; Shimizu, K; Esperança, J M S S; Canongia Lopes, J N; Rebelo, L P N

    2015-05-28

    The viscosity (η) of four binary mixtures (ionic liquids plus molecular solvents, ILs+MSs) was measured in the 283.15 < T/K < 363.15 temperature range. Different IL/MS combinations were selected in such a way that the corresponding η(T) functions exhibit crossover temperatures at which both pure components present identical viscosity values. Consequently, most of the obtained mixture isotherms, η(x), exhibit clear viscosity minima in the studied T-x range. The results are interpreted using auxiliary molecular dynamics (MD) simulation data in order to correlate the observed η(T,x) trends with the interactions in each mixture, including the balance between electrostatic forces and hydrogen bonding.

  19. Surrogate Immiscible Liquid Solution Pairs with Refractive Indexes Matchable Over a Wide Range of Density and Viscosity Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saksena, Rajat; Christensen, Kenneth T.; Pearlstein, Arne J.

    2014-11-01

    Use of laser diagnostics in liquid-liquid flows is limited by refractive index mismatch. This can be avoided using a surrogate pair of immiscible index-matched liquids, with density and viscosity ratios matching those of the original liquid pair. We demonstrate that a wide range of density and viscosity ratios is accessible using aqueous solutions of 1,2-propanediol and CsBr (for which index, density, and viscosity are available), and solutions of light and heavy silicone oils and 1-bromooctane (for which we measured the same properties at 119 compositions). For each liquid phase, polynomials in the composition variables were fitted to index and density and to the logarithm of kinematic viscosity, and the fits were used to determine accessible density and viscosity ratios for each matchable index. Index-matched solution pairs can be prepared with density and viscosity ratios equal to those for water-liquid CO2 at 0oC over a range of pressure, and for water-crude oil and water-trichloroethylene, each over a range of temperature. For representative index-matched solutions, equilibration changes index, density, and viscosity only slightly, and chemical analysis show that no component of either solution has significant interphase solubility. Partially supported by Intl. Inst. for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research.

  20. Viscosity Measurement Using Drop Coalescence in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin C.; Maxwell, Daniel; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present in here validation studies of a new method for application in microgravity environment which measures the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids using drop coalescence. The method has the advantage of avoiding heterogeneous nucleation at container walls caused by crystallization of undercooled liquids during processing. Homogeneous nucleation can also be avoided due to the rapidity of the measurement using this method. The technique relies on measurements from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment as well as highly accurate analytical formulation for the coalescence process. The viscosity of the liquid is determined by allowing the computed free surface shape relaxation time to be adjusted in response to the measured free surface velocity for two coalescing drops. Results are presented from two sets of validation experiments for the method which were conducted on board aircraft flying parabolic trajectories. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, namely glycerin, was determined at different temperatures using the drop coalescence method described in here. The experiments measured the free surface velocity of two glycerin drops coalescing under the action of surface tension alone in low gravity environment using high speed photography. The liquid viscosity was determined by adjusting the computed free surface velocity values to the measured experimental data. The results of these experiments were found to agree reasonably well with the known viscosity for the test liquid used.

  1. Room-temperature ionic liquids: slow dynamics, viscosity, and the red edge effect.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhonghan; Margulis, Claudio J

    2007-11-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have recently attracted significant attention from academic and industrial sources. This is because, while their vapor pressures are negligible, many of them are liquids at room temperature and can dissolve a wide range of polar and nonpolar organic and inorganic molecules. In this Account, we discuss the progress of our laboratory in understanding the dynamics, spectroscopy, and fluid dynamics of selected imidazolium-based ILs using computational and analytical tools that we have recently developed. Our results indicate that the red edge effect, the non-Newtonian behavior, and the existence of locally heterogeneous environments on a time scale relevant to chemical and photochemical reactivity are closely linked to the viscosity and highly structured character of these liquids.

  2. High viscosity environments: an unexpected route to obtain true atomic resolution with atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Weber, Stefan A L; Kilpatrick, Jason I; Brosnan, Timothy M; Jarvis, Suzanne P; Rodriguez, Brian J

    2014-05-02

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is widely used in liquid environments, where true atomic resolution at the solid-liquid interface can now be routinely achieved. It is generally expected that AFM operation in more viscous environments results in an increased noise contribution from the thermal motion of the cantilever, thereby reducing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Thus, viscous fluids such as ionic and organic liquids have been generally avoided for high-resolution AFM studies despite their relevance to, e.g. energy applications. Here, we investigate the thermal noise limitations of dynamic AFM operation in both low and high viscosity environments theoretically, deriving expressions for the amplitude, phase and frequency noise resulting from the thermal motion of the cantilever, thereby defining the performance limits of amplitude modulation, phase modulation and frequency modulation AFM. We show that the assumption of a reduced SNR in viscous environments is not inherent to the technique and demonstrate that SNR values comparable to ultra-high vacuum systems can be obtained in high viscosity environments under certain conditions. Finally, we have obtained true atomic resolution images of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite and mica surfaces, thus revealing the potential of high-resolution imaging in high viscosity environments.

  3. High viscosity environments: an unexpected route to obtain true atomic resolution with atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Stefan A. L.; Kilpatrick, Jason I.; Brosnan, Timothy M.; Jarvis, Suzanne P.; Rodriguez, Brian J.

    2014-05-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is widely used in liquid environments, where true atomic resolution at the solid-liquid interface can now be routinely achieved. It is generally expected that AFM operation in more viscous environments results in an increased noise contribution from the thermal motion of the cantilever, thereby reducing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Thus, viscous fluids such as ionic and organic liquids have been generally avoided for high-resolution AFM studies despite their relevance to, e.g. energy applications. Here, we investigate the thermal noise limitations of dynamic AFM operation in both low and high viscosity environments theoretically, deriving expressions for the amplitude, phase and frequency noise resulting from the thermal motion of the cantilever, thereby defining the performance limits of amplitude modulation, phase modulation and frequency modulation AFM. We show that the assumption of a reduced SNR in viscous environments is not inherent to the technique and demonstrate that SNR values comparable to ultra-high vacuum systems can be obtained in high viscosity environments under certain conditions. Finally, we have obtained true atomic resolution images of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite and mica surfaces, thus revealing the potential of high-resolution imaging in high viscosity environments.

  4. Inverse procedure for simultaneous evaluation of viscosity and density of Newtonian liquids from dispersion curves of Love waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiełczyński, P.; Szalewski, M.; Balcerzak, A.

    2014-07-01

    Simultaneous determination of the viscosity and density of liquids is of great importance in the monitoring of technological processes in the chemical, petroleum, and pharmaceutical industry, as well as in geophysics. In this paper, the authors present the application of Love waves for simultaneous inverse determination of the viscosity and density of liquids. The inversion procedure is based on measurements of the dispersion curves of phase velocity and attenuation of ultrasonic Love waves. The direct problem of the Love wave propagation in a layered waveguide covered by a viscous liquid was formulated and solved. Love waves propagate in an elastic layered waveguide covered on its surface with a viscous (Newtonian) liquid. The inverse problem is formulated as an optimization problem with appropriately constructed objective function that depends on the material properties of an elastic waveguide of the Love wave, material parameters of a liquid (i.e., viscosity and density), and the experimental data. The results of numerical calculations show that Love waves can be efficiently applied to determine simultaneously the physical properties of liquids (i.e., viscosity and density). Sensors based on this method can be very attractive for industrial applications to monitor on-line the parameters (density and viscosity) of process liquid during the course of technological processes, e.g., in polymer industry.

  5. Structure–property reduced order model for viscosity prediction in single-component CO 2 -binding organic liquids

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cantu, David C.; Malhotra, Deepika; Koech, Phillip K.

    2016-01-01

    CO2 capture from power generation with aqueous solvents remains energy intensive due to the high water content of the current technology, or the high viscosity of non-aqueous alternatives. Quantitative reduced models, connecting molecular structure to bulk properties, are key for developing structure-property relationships that enable molecular design. In this work, we describe such a model that quantitatively predicts viscosities of CO2 binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) based solely on molecular structure and the amount of bound CO2. The functional form of the model correlates the viscosity with the CO2 loading and an electrostatic term describing the charge distribution between the CO2-bearingmore » functional group and the proton-receiving amine. Molecular simulations identify the proton shuttle between these groups within the same molecule to be the critical indicator of low viscosity. The model, developed to allow for quick screening of solvent libraries, paves the way towards the rational design of low viscosity non-aqueous solvent systems for post-combustion CO2 capture. Following these theoretical recommendations, synthetic efforts of promising candidates and viscosity measurement provide experimental validation and verification.« less

  6. Apparatus and method for high temperature viscosity and temperature measurements

    DOEpatents

    Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Shah, Vimal; Costley, R. Daniel; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2001-01-01

    A probe for measuring the viscosity and/or temperature of high temperature liquids, such as molten metals, glass and similar materials comprises a rod which is an acoustical waveguide through which a transducer emits an ultrasonic signal through one end of the probe, and which is reflected from (a) a notch or slit or an interface between two materials of the probe and (b) from the other end of the probe which is in contact with the hot liquid or hot melt, and is detected by the same transducer at the signal emission end. To avoid the harmful effects of introducing a thermally conductive heat sink into the melt, the probe is made of relatively thermally insulative (non-heat-conductive) refractory material. The time between signal emission and reflection, and the amplitude of reflections, are compared against calibration curves to obtain temperature and viscosity values.

  7. Viscosity, conductivity, and electrochemical property of dicyanamide ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wen-Li; Yang, Xiao; He, Ling; Xue, Ying; Qin, Song; Tao, Guo-Hong

    2018-03-01

    The instructive structure-property relationships of ionic liquids (ILs) can be put to task-specific design of new functionalized ILs. The dicyanamide (DCA) ILs are typical CHN type ILs which are halogen free, chemical stable, low-viscous and fuel-rich. The transport properties of DCA ionic liquids are significant for their applications as solvents, electrolytes and hypergolic propellants. This work systematically investigates several important transport properties of four DCA ILs ([C4mim][N(CN)2], [C4m2im][N(CN)2], N4442[N(CN)2], and N8444[N(CN)2]) including viscosity, conductivity, and electrochemical property at different temperatures. The melting points, temperature-dependent viscosities and conductivities reveal the structure-activity relationship of four DCA ILs. From the Walden plots, the imidazolium cations exhibit stronger cation–anion attraction than the ammonium cations. DCA ILs have relatively high values of electrochemical windows (EWs), which indicates that the DCA ILs are potential candidates for electrolytes in electrochemical applications. The cyclic voltammograms of Eu(III) in these DCA ILs at GC working electrode at various temperatures 303–333 K consists of quasi-reversible waves. The electrochemical properties of the DCA ILs are also dominated by the cationic structures. The current intensity (ip), the diffusion coefficients (Do), the charge transfer rate constants (ks) of Eu(III) in DCA ILs all increased with the molar conductivities increased. The cationic structure-transport property relationships of DCA ILs were constructed for designing novel functionalized ILs to fulfill specific demands.

  8. Viscosity, Conductivity, and Electrochemical Property of Dicyanamide Ionic Liquids

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wen-Li; Yang, Xiao; He, Ling; Xue, Ying; Qin, Song; Tao, Guo-Hong

    2018-01-01

    The instructive structure-property relationships of ionic liquids (ILs) can be put to task-specific design of new functionalized ILs. The dicyanamide (DCA) ILs are typical CHN type ILs which are halogen free, chemical stable, low-viscous, and fuel-rich. The transport properties of DCA ionic liquids are significant for their applications as solvents, electrolytes, and hypergolic propellants. This work systematically investigates several important transport properties of four DCA ILs ([C4mim][N(CN)2], [C4m2im][N(CN)2], N4442[N(CN)2], and N8444[N(CN)2]) including viscosity, conductivity, and electrochemical property at different temperatures. The melting points, temperature-dependent viscosities and conductivities reveal the structure-activity relationship of four DCA ILs. From the Walden plots, the imidazolium cations exhibit stronger cation–anion attraction than the ammonium cations. DCA ILs have relatively high values of electrochemical windows (EWs), which indicates that the DCA ILs are potential candidates for electrolytes in electrochemical applications. The cyclic voltammograms of Eu(III) in these DCA ILs at GC working electrode at various temperatures 303–333 K consists of quasi-reversible waves. The electrochemical properties of the DCA ILs are also dominated by the cationic structures. The current intensity (ip), the diffusion coefficients (Do), the charge transfer rate constants (ks) of Eu(III) in DCA ILs all increased with the molar conductivities increased. The cationic structure-transport property relationships of DCA ILs were constructed for designing novel functionalized ILs to fulfill specific demands. PMID:29600245

  9. Computational comparison of high and low viscosity micro-scale droplets splashing on a dry surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boelens, Arnout; Latka, Andrzej; de Pablo, Juan

    2015-11-01

    Depending on viscosity, a droplet splashing on a dry surface can splash immediately upon impact, a so called prompt splash, or after initially spreading on the surface, a late splash. One of the open questions in splashing is whether the mechanism behind both kinds of splashing is the same or not. Simulation results are presented comparing splashing of low viscosity ethanol with high viscosity silicone oil in air. The droplets are several hundred microns large. The simulations are 2D, and are performed using a Volume Of Fluid approach with a Finite Volume technique. The contact line is described using the Generalized Navier Boundary Condition. Both the gas phase and the liquid phase are assumed to be incompressible. The results of the simulations show good agreement with experiments. Observations that are reproduced include the effect of reduced ambient pressure suppressing splashing, and the details of liquid sheet formation and breakup. While the liquid sheet ejected in an early splash breaks up at its far edge, the liquid sheet ejected in a late splash breaks up close to the droplet.

  10. Viscosity Measurement using Drop Coalescence in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin; Maxwell, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    We present in here details of a new method, using drop coalescence, for application in microgravity environment for determining the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids. The method has the advantage of eliminating heterogeneous nucleation at container walls caused by crystallization of undercooled liquids during processing. Also, due to the rapidity of the measurement, homogeneous nucleation would be avoided. The technique relies on both a highly accurate solution to the Navier-Stokes equations as well as on data gathered from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment. The liquid viscosity is determined by allowing the computed free surface shape relaxation time to be adjusted in response to the measured free surface velocity of two coalescing drops. Results are presented from two validation experiments of the method which were conducted recently on board the NASA KC-135 aircraft. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, such as glycerine at different temperatures, was determined to reasonable accuracy using the liquid coalescence method. The experiments measured the free surface velocity of two glycerine drops coalescing under the action of surface tension alone in low gravity environment using high speed photography. The free surface velocity was then compared with the computed values obtained from different viscosity values. The results of these experiments were found to agree reasonably well with the calculated values.

  11. A Classical Phase Space Framework For the Description of Supercooled Liquids and an Apparent Universal Viscosity Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingartner, Nicholas; Pueblo, Chris; Nogueira, Flavio; Kelton, Kenneth; Nussinov, Zohar

    A fundamental understanding of the phenomenology of the metastable supercooled liquid state remains elusive. Two of the most pressing questions in this field are how to describe the temperature dependence of the viscosity, and determine whether or not the dynamical behaviors are universal. To address these questions, we have devised a simple first-principles classical phase space description of supercooled liquids that (along with a complementary quantum approach) predicts a unique functional form for the viscosity which relies on only a single parameter. We tested this form for 45 liquids of all types and fragilities, and have demonstrated that it provides a statistically significant fit to all liquids. Additionally, by scaling the viscosity of all studied liquids using the single parameter, we have observed a complete collapse of the data of all 45 liquids to a single scaling curve over 16 decades, suggesting an underlying universality in the dynamics of supercooled liquids. In this talk I will outline the basic approach of our model, as well as demonstrate the quality of the model performance and collapse of the data.

  12. Liquid Droplet Dynamics in Gravity Compensating High Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bojarevics, V.; Easter, S.; Pericleous, K.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical models are used to investigate behavior of liquid droplets suspended in high DC magnetic fields of various configurations providing microgravity-like conditions. Using a DC field it is possible to create conditions with laminar viscosity and heat transfer to measure viscosity, surface tension, electrical and thermal conductivities, and heat capacity of a liquid sample. The oscillations in a high DC magnetic field are quite different for an electrically conducting droplet, like liquid silicon or metal. The droplet behavior in a high magnetic field is the subject of investigation in this paper. At the high values of magnetic field some oscillation modes are damped quickly, while others are modified with a considerable shift of the oscillating droplet frequencies and the damping constants from the non-magnetic case.

  13. High Resolution Viscosity Measurement by Thermal Noise Detection

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar Sandoval, Felipe; Sepúlveda, Manuel; Bellon, Ludovic; Melo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    An interferometric method is implemented in order to accurately assess the thermal fluctuations of a micro-cantilever sensor in liquid environments. The power spectrum density (PSD) of thermal fluctuations together with Sader’s model of the cantilever allow for the indirect measurement of the liquid viscosity with good accuracy. The good quality of the deflection signal and the characteristic low noise of the instrument allow for the detection and corrections of drawbacks due to both the cantilever shape irregularities and the uncertainties on the position of the laser spot at the fluctuating end of the cantilever. Variation of viscosity below 0.03 mPa·s was detected with the alternative to achieve measurements with a volume as low as 50 μL. PMID:26540061

  14. High Resolution Viscosity Measurement by Thermal Noise Detection.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Felipe Aguilar; Sepúlveda, Manuel; Bellon, Ludovic; Melo, Francisco

    2015-11-03

    An interferometric method is implemented in order to accurately assess the thermal fluctuations of a micro-cantilever sensor in liquid environments. The power spectrum density (PSD) of thermal fluctuations together with Sader's model of the cantilever allow for the indirect measurement of the liquid viscosity with good accuracy. The good quality of the deflection signal and the characteristic low noise of the instrument allow for the detection and corrections of drawbacks due to both the cantilever shape irregularities and the uncertainties on the position of the laser spot at the fluctuating end of the cantilever. Variation of viscosity below 0:03mPa·s was detected with the alternative to achieve measurements with a volume as low as 50 µL.

  15. Clinical diagnostic of pleural effusions using a high-speed viscosity measurement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurth, Cedric; Klein, Katherine; van Nimwegen, Lena; Korn, Ronald; Vijayaraghavan, Krishnaswami; Zenhausern, Frederic

    2011-08-01

    We present a novel bio-analytical method to discriminate between transudative and exudative pleural effusions based on a high-speed video analysis of a solid glass sphere impacting a liquid. Since the result depends on the solution viscosity, it can ultimately replace the battery of biochemical assays currently used. We present results obtained on a series of 7 pleural effusions obtained from consenting patients by analyzing both the splash observed after the glass impactor hits the liquid surface, and in a configuration reminiscent of the drop ball viscometer with added sensitivity and throughput provided by the high-speed camera. The results demonstrate distinction between the pleural effusions and good correlation with the fluid chemistry analysis to accurately differentiate exudates and transudates for clinical purpose. The exudative effusions display a viscosity around 1.39 ± 0.08 cP whereas the transudative effusion was measured at 0.89 ± 0.09 cP, in good agreement with previous reports.

  16. Transient Torque Technique for Viscosity and Electrical Conductivity Determination of Semiconducting Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C.; Scripa, R. N.; Ban, H.; Lin, B.; Su, C.-H.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Feth, S.; Zhu, S.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A novel apparatus based on transient torque technique is constructed in MSFC/NASA. The apparatus uses a 125um diameter quartz fiber as torsion wire. A high sensitive angular detector is implemented to measure the deflection angle of the crucible containing the liquid. A rotating magnetic field (RMF) is used to induce a rotating flow of a conducting or semiconducting melts. By measuring the magnitude and transient behavior of the induced deflection angle, the electrical conductivity and viscosity of the melt can be measured simultaneously. High purity elements namely Hg, Ga, Zn and Te are tested at room temperature and high temperature up to 900 C.

  17. Viscosity Measurement via Drop Coalescence: A Space Station Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil; Ethridge, Edwin C.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of using low gravity experimental data together with CFD simulations for measuring the viscosity of highly viscous liquids was recently validated on onboard the International Space Station (ISS). A series of microgravity tests were conducted for this purpose on the ISS in July, 2004 and in May of 2005. In these experiments two liquid drops were brought manually together until they touched and were allowed to coalesce under the action of the capillary force alone. The coalescence process was recorded photographically from which the contact radius speed of the merging drops was measured. The liquid viscosity was determined by fitting the measured data with accurate numerical simulation of the coalescence process. Several liquids were tested and for each liquid several drop diameters were employed. Experimental and numerical results will be presented in which the viscosity of several highly viscous liquids were determined using this technique.

  18. Resolution in QCM sensors for the viscosity and density of liquids: application to lead acid batteries.

    PubMed

    Cao-Paz, Ana María; Rodríguez-Pardo, Loreto; Fariña, José; Marcos-Acevedo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In battery applications, particularly in automobiles, submarines and remote communications, the state of charge (SoC) is needed in order to manage batteries efficiently. The most widely used physical parameter for this is electrolyte density. However, there is greater dependency between electrolyte viscosity and SoC than that seen for density and SoC. This paper presents a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor for electrolyte density-viscosity product measurements in lead acid batteries. The sensor is calibrated in H(2)SO(4) solutions in the battery electrolyte range to obtain sensitivity, noise and resolution. Also, real-time tests of charge and discharge are conducted placing the quartz crystal inside the battery. At the same time, the present theoretical "resolution limit" to measure the square root of the density-viscosity product [Formula: see text] of a liquid medium or best resolution achievable with a QCM oscillator is determined. Findings show that the resolution limit only depends on the characteristics of the liquid to be studied and not on frequency. The QCM resolution limit for [Formula: see text] measurements worsens when the density-viscosity product of the liquid is increased, but it cannot be improved by elevating the work frequency.

  19. Resolution in QCM Sensors for the Viscosity and Density of Liquids: Application to Lead Acid Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Cao-Paz, Ana María; Rodríguez-Pardo, Loreto; Fariña, José; Marcos-Acevedo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In battery applications, particularly in automobiles, submarines and remote communications, the state of charge (SoC) is needed in order to manage batteries efficiently. The most widely used physical parameter for this is electrolyte density. However, there is greater dependency between electrolyte viscosity and SoC than that seen for density and SoC. This paper presents a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor for electrolyte density-viscosity product measurements in lead acid batteries. The sensor is calibrated in H2SO4 solutions in the battery electrolyte range to obtain sensitivity, noise and resolution. Also, real-time tests of charge and discharge are conducted placing the quartz crystal inside the battery. At the same time, the present theoretical “resolution limit” to measure the square root of the density-viscosity product (ρη) of a liquid medium or best resolution achievable with a QCM oscillator is determined. Findings show that the resolution limit only depends on the characteristics of the liquid to be studied and not on frequency. The QCM resolution limit for ρη measurements worsens when the density-viscosity product of the liquid is increased, but it cannot be improved by elevating the work frequency. PMID:23112618

  20. Gravimetric capillary method for kinematic viscosity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Iwan, J.; Alexander, D.; Jin, Wei-Qing

    1992-01-01

    A novel version of the capillary method for viscosity measurements of liquids is presented. Viscosity data can be deduced in a straightforward way from mass transfer data obtained by differential weighing during the gravity-induced flow of the liquid between two cylindrical chambers. Tests of this technique with water, carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol suggest that this arrangement provides an accuracy of about +/- 1 percent. The technique facilitates operation under sealed, isothermal conditions and, thus can readily be applied to reactive and/or high vapor pressure liquids.

  1. Novel submicronized rebamipide liquid with moderate viscosity: significant effects on oral mucositis in animal models.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Takako; Sako, Nobutomo; Matsuda, Takakuni; Uematsu, Naoya; Sakurai, Kazushi; Ishida, Tatsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at developing a novel rebamipide liquid for an effective treatment of oral mucositis. The healing effects of a variety of liquids comprising submicronized rebamipide crystals were investigated using a rat cauterization-induced oral ulcer model. Whereas 2% rebamipide liquid comprising micro-crystals did not exhibit significant curative effect, 2% rebamipide liquids comprising submicronized crystals with moderate viscosities exhibited healing effects following intra-oral administration. The 2% and 4% optimized rebamipide liquids showed significant healing effects in the rat oral ulcer model (p<0.01). In addition, in the rat radiation-induced glossitis model, whereby the injury was caused to the tongue by exposing only around the rat's snout to a 15 Gy of X-irradiation, the 2% optimized rebamipide liquid significantly reduced the percent area of ulcerated injury (p<0.05). In conclusion, the submicronized rebamipide liquid with moderate viscosity following intra-oral administration showed better both healing effect in the rat oral ulcer model and preventive effect in the rat irradiation-induced glossitis model.

  2. The role of viscosity in TATB hot spot ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Laurence E.; Zepeda-Ruis, Luis; Howard, W. Michael; Najjar, Fady; Reaugh, John E.

    2012-03-01

    The role of dissipative effects, such as viscosity, in the ignition of high explosive pores is investigated using a coupled chemical, thermal, and hydrodynamic model. Chemical reactions are tracked with the Cheetah thermochemical code coupled to the ALE3D hydrodynamic code. We perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine the viscosity of liquid TATB. We also analyze shock wave experiments to obtain an estimate for the shock viscosity of TATB. Using the lower bound liquid-like viscosities, we find that the pore collapse is hydrodynamic in nature. Using the upper bound viscosity from shock wave experiments, we find that the pore collapse is closest to the viscous limit.

  3. Effect of surface viscosity, anchoring energy, and cell gap on the response time of nematic liquid crystals

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Souza, R.F. de; Yang, D.-Ke; Lenzi, E.K.

    2014-07-15

    An analytical expression for the relaxation time of a nematic liquid crystal is obtained for the first time by considering the influence of surface viscosity, anchoring energy strength and cell gap, validated numerically by using the so-called relaxation method. This general equation for the molecular response time (τ{sub 0}) was derived for a vertical aligned cell and by solving an eigenvalue equation coming from the usual balance of torque equation in the Derzhanskii and Petrov formulation, recovering the usual equations in the appropriate limit. The results show that τ∼d{sup b}, where b=2 is observed only for strongly anchored cells, whilemore » for moderate to weak anchored cells, the exponent lies between 1 and 2, depending on both, surface viscosity and anchoring strength. We found that the surface viscosity is important when calculating the response time, specially for thin cells, critical for liquid crystal devices. The surface viscosity’s effect on the optical response time with pretilt is also explored. Our results bring new insights about the role of surface viscosity and its effects in applied physics. - Highlights: • The relaxation of nematic liquid crystals is calculated by taking the surface viscosity into account. • An analytical expression for the relaxation time depending on surface viscosity, anchoring strength and cell gap is obtained. • The results are numerically verified. • Surface viscosity is crucial for thin and weak anchored cells. • The effect on optical time and pretilt angle is also studied.« less

  4. Liquid films on shake flask walls explain increasing maximum oxygen transfer capacities with elevating viscosity.

    PubMed

    Giese, Heiner; Azizan, Amizon; Kümmel, Anne; Liao, Anping; Peter, Cyril P; Fonseca, João A; Hermann, Robert; Duarte, Tiago M; Büchs, Jochen

    2014-02-01

    In biotechnological screening and production, oxygen supply is a crucial parameter. Even though oxygen transfer is well documented for viscous cultivations in stirred tanks, little is known about the gas/liquid oxygen transfer in shake flask cultures that become increasingly viscous during cultivation. Especially the oxygen transfer into the liquid film, adhering on the shake flask wall, has not yet been described for such cultivations. In this study, the oxygen transfer of chemical and microbial model experiments was measured and the suitability of the widely applied film theory of Higbie was studied. With numerical simulations of Fick's law of diffusion, it was demonstrated that Higbie's film theory does not apply for cultivations which occur at viscosities up to 10 mPa s. For the first time, it was experimentally shown that the maximum oxygen transfer capacity OTRmax increases in shake flasks when viscosity is increased from 1 to 10 mPa s, leading to an improved oxygen supply for microorganisms. Additionally, the OTRmax does not significantly undermatch the OTRmax at waterlike viscosities, even at elevated viscosities of up to 80 mPa s. In this range, a shake flask is a somehow self-regulating system with respect to oxygen supply. This is in contrary to stirred tanks, where the oxygen supply is steadily reduced to only 5% at 80 mPa s. Since, the liquid film formation at shake flask walls inherently promotes the oxygen supply at moderate and at elevated viscosities, these results have significant implications for scale-up. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Superparamagnetic nanoparticle-based viscosity test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kai; Liu, Jinming; Wang, Yi; Ye, Clark; Feng, Yinglong; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2015-08-01

    Hyperviscosity syndrome is triggered by high blood viscosity in the human body. This syndrome can result in retinopathy, vertigo, coma, and other unanticipated complications. Serum viscosity is one of the important factors affecting whole blood viscosity, which is regarded as an indicator of general health. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate a Brownian relaxation-based mixing frequency method to test human serum viscosity. This method uses excitatory and detection coils and Brownian relaxation-dominated superparamagnetic nanoparticles, which are sensitive to variables of the liquid environment such as viscosity and temperature. We collect the harmonic signals produced by magnetic nanoparticles and estimate the viscosity of unknown solutions by comparison to the calibration curves. An in vitro human serum viscosity test is performed in less than 1.5 min.

  6. Viscosity of the saturated liquid phase of three fluorinated ethanes: R152a, R143a, and R125

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ripple, D.; Defibaugh, D.

    1997-03-01

    Data are reported for the viscosity of three saturated liquids over a temperature range from 255 K to 323 K. The liquids studied are the fluorinated compounds 1,1-difluoroethane (R152a), 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (R143a), and pentafluoroethane (R125). A capillary viscometer constructed of stainless steel and sapphire was used to obtain the data. The viscosity measurements have an expanded uncertainty of 2.4%. A free volume model of viscosity was used to correlate the data.

  7. The Role of Viscosity in TATB Hot Spot Ignition

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fried, L E; Zepeda-Ruis, L; Howard, W M

    2011-08-02

    The role of dissipative effects, such as viscosity, in the ignition of high explosive pores is investigated using a coupled chemical, thermal, and hydrodynamic model. Chemical reactions are tracked with the Cheetah thermochemical code coupled to the ALE3D hydrodynamic code. We perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine the viscosity of liquid TATB. We also analyze shock wave experiments to obtain an estimate for the shock viscosity of TATB. Using the lower bound liquid-like viscosities, we find that the pore collapse is hydrodynamic in nature. Using the upper bound viscosity from shock wave experiments, we find that the pore collapse ismore » closest to the viscous limit.« less

  8. Numerical solution of problems concerning the thermal convection of a variable-viscosity liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherebiatev, I. F.; Lukianov, A. T.; Podkopaev, Iu. L.

    A stabilizing-correction scheme is constructed for integrating the fourth-order equation describing the dynamics of a viscous incompressible liquid. As an example, a solution is obtained to the problem of the solidification of a liquid in a rectangular region with allowance for convective energy transfer in the liquid phase as well as temperature-dependent changes of viscosity. It is noted that the proposed method can be used to study steady-state problems of thermal convection in ingots obtained through continuous casting.

  9. Acidic pH increases airway surface liquid viscosity in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiao Xiao; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Hoegger, Mark J.; Moninger, Thomas O.; Karp, Philip H.; McMenimen, James D.; Choudhury, Biswa; Varki, Ajit; Stoltz, David A.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) disrupts respiratory host defenses, allowing bacterial infection, inflammation, and mucus accumulation to progressively destroy the lungs. Our previous studies revealed that mucus with abnormal behavior impaired mucociliary transport in newborn CF piglets prior to the onset of secondary manifestations. To further investigate mucus abnormalities, here we studied airway surface liquid (ASL) collected from newborn piglets and ASL on cultured airway epithelia. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed that the viscosity of CF ASL was increased relative to that of non-CF ASL. CF ASL had a reduced pH, which was necessary and sufficient for genotype-dependent viscosity differences. The increased viscosity of CF ASL was not explained by pH-independent changes in HCO3– concentration, altered glycosylation, additional pH-induced disulfide bond formation, increased percentage of nonvolatile material, or increased sulfation. Treating acidic ASL with hypertonic saline or heparin largely reversed the increased viscosity, suggesting that acidic pH influences mucin electrostatic interactions. These findings link loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator–dependent alkalinization to abnormal CF ASL. In addition, we found that increasing Ca2+ concentrations elevated ASL viscosity, in part, independently of pH. The results suggest that increasing pH, reducing Ca2+ concentration, and/or altering electrostatic interactions in ASL might benefit early CF. PMID:26808501

  10. Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM) Experiment on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin; Lehman, Daniel; Kaukler, William

    2007-01-01

    The concept of using low gravity experimental data together with fluid dynamical numerical simulations for measuring the viscosity of highly viscous liquids was recently validated on the International Space Station (ISS). After testing the proof of concept for this method with parabolic flight experiments, an ISS experiment was proposed and later conducted onboard the ISS in July, 2004 and subsequently in May of 2005. In that experiment a series of two liquid drops were brought manually together until they touched and then were allowed to merge under the action of capillary forces alone. The merging process was recorded visually in order to measure the contact radius speed as the merging proceeded. Several liquids were tested and for each liquid several drop diameters were used. It has been shown that when the coefficient of surface tension for the liquid is known, the contact radius speed can then determine the coefficient of viscosity for that liquid. The viscosity is determined by fitting the experimental speed to theoretically calculated contact radius speed for the same experimental parameters. Experimental and numerical results will be presented in which the viscosity of different highly viscous liquids were determined, to a high degree of accuracy, using this technique.

  11. Shear-rate dependence of the viscosity of the Lennard-Jones liquid at the triple point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrario, M.; Ciccotti, G.; Holian, B. L.; Ryckaert, J. P.

    1991-11-01

    High-precision molecular-dynamics (MD) data are reported for the shear viscosity η of the Lennard-Jones liquid at its triple point, as a function of the shear rate ɛ˙ for a large system (N=2048). The Green-Kubo (GK) value η(ɛ˙=0)=3.24+/-0.04 is estimated from a run of 3.6×106 steps (40 nsec). We find no numerical evidence of a t-3/2 long-time tail for the GK integrand (stress-stress time-correlation function). From our nonequilibrium MD results, obtained both at small and large values of ɛ˙, a consistent picture emerges that supports an analytical (quadratic at low shear rate) dependence of the viscosity on ɛ˙.

  12. Liquid Aluminum: Atomic diffusion and viscosity from ab initio molecular dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jakse, Noel; Pasturel, Alain

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of dynamic properties of liquid aluminum using density-functional theory within the local-density (LDA) and generalized gradient (GGA) approximations. We determine the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient as well the viscosity using direct methods. Comparisons with experimental data favor the LDA approximation to compute dynamic properties of liquid aluminum. We show that the GGA approximation induce more important backscattering effects due to an enhancement of the icosahedral short range order (ISRO) that impact directly dynamic properties like the self-diffusion coefficient. All these results are then used to test the Stokes-Einstein relation and the universal scaling law relating the diffusion coefficient and the excess entropy of a liquid. PMID:24190311

  13. Green-Kubo relations for the viscosity of biaxial nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarman, Sten

    1996-09-01

    We derive Green-Kubo relations for the viscosities of a biaxial nematic liquid crystal. In this system there are seven shear viscosities, three twist viscosities, and three cross coupling coefficients between the antisymmetric strain rate and the symmetric traceless pressure tensor. According to the Onsager reciprocity relations these couplings are equal to the cross couplings between the symmetric traceless strain rate and the antisymmetric pressure. Our method is based on a comparison of the microscopic linear response generated by the SLLOD equations of motion for planar Couette flow (so named because of their close connection to the Doll's tensor Hamiltonian) and the macroscopic linear phenomenological relations between the pressure tensor and the strain rate. In order to obtain simple Green-Kubo relations we employ an equilibrium ensemble where the angular velocities of the directors are identically zero. This is achieved by adding constraint torques to the equations for the molecular angular accelerations. One finds that all the viscosity coefficients can be expressed as linear combinations of time correlation function integrals (TCFIs). This is much simpler compared to the expressions in the conventional canonical ensemble, where the viscosities are complicated rational functions of the TCFIs. The reason for this is, that in the constrained angular velocity ensemble, the thermodynamic forces are given external parameters whereas the thermodynamic fluxes are ensemble averages of phase functions. This is not the case in the canonical ensemble. The simplest way of obtaining numerical estimates of viscosity coefficients of a particular molecular model system is to evaluate these fluctuation relations by equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations.

  14. Study on the temperature-dependent coupling among viscosity, conductivity and structural relaxation of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yonezawa, Takuya; Koda, Shinobu

    2015-07-15

    The frequency-dependent viscosity and conductivity of three imidazolium-based ionic liquids were measured at several temperatures in the MHz region, and the results are compared with the intermediate scattering functions determined by neutron spin echo spectroscopy. The relaxations of both the conductivity and the viscosity agree with that of the intermediate scattering function at the ionic correlation when the relaxation time is short. As the relaxation time increases, the relaxations of the two transport properties deviate to lower frequencies than that of the ionic structure. The deviation begins at a shorter relaxation time for viscosity than for conductivity, which explains the fractional Walden rule between the zero-frequency values of the shear viscosity and the molar conductivity.

  15. Modified free volume theory of self-diffusion and molecular theory of shear viscosity of liquid carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Nasrabad, Afshin Eskandari; Laghaei, Rozita; Eu, Byung Chan

    2005-04-28

    In previous work on the density fluctuation theory of transport coefficients of liquids, it was necessary to use empirical self-diffusion coefficients to calculate the transport coefficients (e.g., shear viscosity of carbon dioxide). In this work, the necessity of empirical input of the self-diffusion coefficients in the calculation of shear viscosity is removed, and the theory is thus made a self-contained molecular theory of transport coefficients of liquids, albeit it contains an empirical parameter in the subcritical regime. The required self-diffusion coefficients of liquid carbon dioxide are calculated by using the modified free volume theory for which the generic van der Waals equation of state and Monte Carlo simulations are combined to accurately compute the mean free volume by means of statistical mechanics. They have been computed as a function of density along four different isotherms and isobars. A Lennard-Jones site-site interaction potential was used to model the molecular carbon dioxide interaction. The density and temperature dependence of the theoretical self-diffusion coefficients are shown to be in excellent agreement with experimental data when the minimum critical free volume is identified with the molecular volume. The self-diffusion coefficients thus computed are then used to compute the density and temperature dependence of the shear viscosity of liquid carbon dioxide by employing the density fluctuation theory formula for shear viscosity as reported in an earlier paper (J. Chem. Phys. 2000, 112, 7118). The theoretical shear viscosity is shown to be robust and yields excellent density and temperature dependence for carbon dioxide. The pair correlation function appearing in the theory has been computed by Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. Temperature-viscosity models reassessed.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Micha

    2017-05-04

    The temperature effect on viscosity of liquid and semi-liquid foods has been traditionally described by the Arrhenius equation, a few other mathematical models, and more recently by the WLF and VTF (or VFT) equations. The essence of the Arrhenius equation is that the viscosity is proportional to the absolute temperature's reciprocal and governed by a single parameter, namely, the energy of activation. However, if the absolute temperature in K in the Arrhenius equation is replaced by T + b where both T and the adjustable b are in °C, the result is a two-parameter model, which has superior fit to experimental viscosity-temperature data. This modified version of the Arrhenius equation is also mathematically equal to the WLF and VTF equations, which are known to be equal to each other. Thus, despite their dissimilar appearances all three equations are essentially the same model, and when used to fit experimental temperature-viscosity data render exactly the same very high regression coefficient. It is shown that three new hybrid two-parameter mathematical models, whose formulation bears little resemblance to any of the conventional models, can also have excellent fit with r 2 ∼ 1. This is demonstrated by comparing the various models' regression coefficients to published viscosity-temperature relationships of 40% sucrose solution, soybean oil, and 70°Bx pear juice concentrate at different temperature ranges. Also compared are reconstructed temperature-viscosity curves using parameters calculated directly from 2 or 3 data points and fitted curves obtained by nonlinear regression using a larger number of experimental viscosity measurements.

  17. Viscosity effects in wind wave generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquier, A.; Moisy, F.; Rabaud, M.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate experimentally the influence of the liquid viscosity on the problem of the generation of waves by a turbulent wind at the surface of a liquid, extending the results of Paquier et al. [A. Paquier et al., Phys. Fluids 27, 122103 (2015), 10.1063/1.4936395] over nearly three decades of viscosity. The surface deformations are measured with micrometer accuracy using the free-surface synthetic schlieren method. We recover the two regimes of surface deformations previously identified: the wrinkle regime at small wind velocity, resulting from the viscous imprint on the liquid surface of the turbulent fluctuations in the boundary layer, and the regular wave regime at large wind velocity. Below the wave threshold, we find that the characteristic amplitude of the wrinkles scales as ν-1 /2u*3 /2 over nearly the whole range of viscosities, whereas their size is essentially unchanged. We propose a simple model for this scaling, which compares well with the data. We show that the critical friction velocity u* for the onset of regular waves slowly increases with viscosity as ν0.2. Whereas the transition between wrinkles and waves is smooth at low viscosity, including for water, it becomes rather abrupt at high viscosity. A third wave regime is found at ν >(100 -200 ) ×10-6m2s-1 , characterized by a slow, nearly periodic emission of large-amplitude isolated fluid bumps.

  18. Quartz resonator fluid density and viscosity monitor

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Stephen J.; Wiczer, James J.; Cernosek, Richard W.; Frye, Gregory C.; Gebert, Charles T.; Casaus, Leonard; Mitchell, Mary A.

    1998-01-01

    A pair of thickness-shear mode resonators, one smooth and one with a textured surface, allows fluid density and viscosity to be independently resolved. A textured surface, either randomly rough or regularly patterned, leads to trapping of liquid at the device surface. The synchronous motion of this trapped liquid with the oscillating device surface allows the device to weigh the liquid; this leads to an additional response that depends on liquid density. This additional response enables a pair of devices, one smooth and one textured, to independently resolve liquid density and viscosity; the difference in responses determines the density while the smooth device determines the density-viscosity product, and thus, the pair determines both density and viscosity.

  19. Effect of two viscosity models on lethality estimation in sterilization of liquid canned foods.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Alvarado, M P; Alvarado-Orozco, J M; Herrera-Hernández, E C; Martínez-González, G M; Miranda-López, R; Jiménez-Islas, H

    2016-09-01

    A numerical study on 2D natural convection in cylindrical cavities during the sterilization of liquid foods was performed. The mathematical model was established on momentum and energy balances and predicts both the heating dynamics of the slowest heating zone (SHZ) and the lethal rate achieved in homogeneous liquid canned foods. Two sophistication levels were proposed in viscosity modelling: 1) considering average viscosity and 2) using an Arrhenius-type model to include the effect of temperature on viscosity. The remaining thermodynamic properties were kept constant. The governing equations were spatially discretized via orthogonal collocation (OC) with mesh size of 25 × 25. Computational simulations were performed using proximate and thermodynamic data for carrot-orange soup, broccoli-cheddar soup, tomato puree, and cream-style corn. Flow patterns, isothermals, heating dynamics of the SHZ, and the sterilization rate achieved for the cases studied were compared for both viscosity models. The dynamics of coldest point and the lethal rate F0 in all food fluids studied were approximately equal in both cases, although the second sophistication level is closer to physical behavior. The model accuracy was compared favorably with reported sterilization time for cream-style corn packed at 303 × 406 can size, predicting 66 min versus an experimental time of 68 min at retort temperature of 121.1 ℃. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Reference Correlation for the Density and Viscosity of Eutectic Liquid Alloys Al+Si, Pb+Bi, and Pb+Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assael, M. J.; Mihailidou, E. K.; Brillo, J.; Stankus, S. V.; Wu, J. T.; Wakeham, W. A.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, the available experimental data for the density and viscosity of eutectic liquid alloys Al+Si, Pb+Bi, and Pb+Sn have been critically examined with the intention of establishing a reference standard representation of both density and viscosity. All experimental data have been categorized as primary or secondary according to the quality of measurement, the technique employed, and the presentation of the data, as specified by a series of carefully defined criteria. The proposed standard reference correlations for the density of liquid Al+Si, Pb+Bi, and Pb+Sn are, respectively, characterized by deviations of 2.0%, 2.9%, and 0.5% at the 95% confidence level. The standard reference correlations for the viscosity of liquid Al+Si, Pb+Bi, and Pb+Sn are, respectively, characterized by deviations of 7.7%, 14.2%, and 12.4% at the 95% confidence level.

  1. X-ray imaging for studying behavior of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures using Paris-Edinburgh press

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Park, Changyong

    2015-07-15

    Several X-ray techniques for studying structure, elastic properties, viscosity, and immiscibility of liquids at high pressures have been integrated using a Paris-Edinburgh press at the 16-BM-B beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. Here, we report the development of X-ray imaging techniques suitable for studying behavior of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures. White X-ray radiography allows for imaging phase separation and immiscibility of melts at high pressures, identified not only by density contrast but also by phase contrast imaging in particular for low density contrast liquids such as silicate and carbonate melts. In addition, ultrafast X-ray imaging, at framemore » rates up to ∼10{sup 5} frames/second (fps) in air and up to ∼10{sup 4} fps in Paris-Edinburgh press, enables us to investigate dynamics of liquids at high pressures. Very low viscosities of melts similar to that of water can be reliably measured. These high-pressure X-ray imaging techniques provide useful tools for understanding behavior of liquids or melts at high pressures and high temperatures.« less

  2. X-ray imaging for studying behavior of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures using Paris-Edinburgh press.

    PubMed

    Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Shibazaki, Yuki; Park, Changyong; Wang, Yanbin; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-07-01

    Several X-ray techniques for studying structure, elastic properties, viscosity, and immiscibility of liquids at high pressures have been integrated using a Paris-Edinburgh press at the 16-BM-B beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. Here, we report the development of X-ray imaging techniques suitable for studying behavior of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures. White X-ray radiography allows for imaging phase separation and immiscibility of melts at high pressures, identified not only by density contrast but also by phase contrast imaging in particular for low density contrast liquids such as silicate and carbonate melts. In addition, ultrafast X-ray imaging, at frame rates up to ∼10(5) frames/second (fps) in air and up to ∼10(4) fps in Paris-Edinburgh press, enables us to investigate dynamics of liquids at high pressures. Very low viscosities of melts similar to that of water can be reliably measured. These high-pressure X-ray imaging techniques provide useful tools for understanding behavior of liquids or melts at high pressures and high temperatures.

  3. Mesoscopic model for the viscosities of nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Chrzanowska, A; Kröger, M; Sellers, S

    1999-10-01

    Based on the definition of the mesoscopic concept by Blenk et al. [Physica A 174, 119 (1991); J. Noneq. Therm. 16, 67 (1991); Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 204, 133 (1991)] an approach to calculate the Leslie viscosity coefficients for nematic liquid crystals is presented. The approach rests upon the mesoscopic stress tensor, whose structure is assumed similar to the macroscopic Leslie viscous stress. The proposed form is also the main dissipation part of the mesoscopic Navier-Stokes equation. On the basis of the correspondence between microscopic and mesoscopic scales a mean-field mesoscopic potential is introduced. It allows us to obtain the stress tensor angular velocity of the free rotating molecules with the help of the orientational Fokker-Planck equation. The macroscopic stress tensor is calculated as an average of the mesoscopic counterpart. Appropriate relations among mesoscopic viscosities have been found. The mesoscopic analysis results are shown to be consistent with the diffusional model of Kuzuu-Doi and Osipov-Terentjev with the exception of the shear viscosity alpha(4). In the nematic phase alpha(4) is shown to have two contributions: isotropic and nematic. There exists an indication that the influence of the isotropic part is dominant over the nematic part. The so-called microscopic stress tensor used in the microscopic theories is shown to be the mean-field potential-dependent representation of the mesoscopic stress tensor. In the limiting case of total alignment the Leslie coefficients are estimated for the diffusional and mesoscopic models. They are compared to the results of the affine transformation model of the perfectly ordered systems. This comparison shows disagreement concerning the rotational viscosity, whereas the coefficients characteristic for the symmetric part of the viscous stress tensor remain the same. The difference is caused by the hindered diffusion in the affine model case.

  4. Mass-controlled capillary viscometer for a Newtonian liquid: Viscosity of water at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digilov, Rafael M.; Reiner, M.

    2007-03-01

    The operation principle of the mass-controlled capillary viscometer is presented for a Newtonian liquid. The derived equation for the temporal changes of the mass in a liquid column draining under gravity through a discharge capillary tube accounts self-consistently for the inertial convective term associated with the acceleration effect. The viscosity of water measured at different temperatures using the new approach is in good agreement with literature data.

  5. Unveiling the relationships among the viscosity equations of glass liquids and colloidal suspensions for obtaining universal equations with the generic free volume concept.

    PubMed

    Hao, Tian

    2015-09-14

    The underlying relationships among viscosity equations of glass liquids and colloidal suspensions are explored with the aid of free volume concept. Viscosity equations of glass liquids available in literature are focused and found to have a same physical basis but different mathematical expressions for the free volume. The glass transitions induced by temperatures in glass liquids and the percolation transition induced by particle volume fractions in colloidal suspensions essentially are a second order phase transition: both those two transitions could induce the free volume changes, which in turn determines how the viscosities are going to change with temperatures and/or particle volume fractions. Unified correlations of the free volume to both temperatures and particle volume fractions are thus proposed. The resulted viscosity equations are reducible to many popular viscosity equations currently widely used in literature; those equations should be able to cover many different types of materials over a wide temperature range. For demonstration purpose, one of the simplified versions of those newly developed equations is compared with popular viscosity equations and the experimental data: it can well fit the experimental data over a wide temperature range. The current work reveals common physical grounds among various viscosity equations, deepening our understanding on viscosity and unifying the free volume theory across many different systems.

  6. Reinventing Design Principles for Developing Low-Viscosity Carbon Dioxide-Binding Organic Liquids for Flue Gas Clean Up.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Deepika; Koech, Phillip K; Heldebrant, David J; Cantu, David C; Zheng, Feng; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra; Rousseau, Roger

    2017-02-08

    Anthropogenic CO 2 emissions from point sources (e.g., coal fired-power plants) account for the majority of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Water-lean solvent systems such as CO 2 -binding organic liquids (CO 2 BOLs) are being developed to reduce the energy requirement for CO 2 capture. Many water-lean solvents such as CO 2 BOLs are currently limited by the high viscosities of concentrated electrolyte solvents, thus many of these solvents have yet to move toward commercialization. Conventional standard trial-and-error approaches for viscosity reduction, while effective, are time consuming and economically expensive. We rethink the metrics and design principles of low-viscosity CO 2 -capture solvents using a combined synthesis and computational modeling approach. We critically study the effects of viscosity reducing factors such as orientation of hydrogen bonding, introduction of higher degrees of freedom, and cation or anion charge solvation, and assess whether or how each factor affects viscosity of CO 2 BOL CO 2 capture solvents. Ultimately, we found that hydrogen bond orientation and strength is the predominant factor influencing the viscosity in CO 2 BOL solvents. With this knowledge, a new CO 2 BOL variant, 1-MEIPADM-2-BOL, was synthesized and tested, resulting in a solvent that is approximately 60 % less viscous at 25 mol % CO 2 loading than our base compound 1-IPADM-2-BOL. The insights gained from the current study redefine the fundamental concepts and understanding of what influences viscosity in concentrated organic CO 2 -capture solvents. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Surface Tension and Viscosity Measurements of Liquid and Undercooled Alumina by Containerless Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradis, Paul-François; Ishikawa, Takehiko

    2005-07-01

    Electrostatic levitation and multi-beam radiative heating overcame contamination and sample position instability problems associated with handling of liquid alumina. This allowed the measurements of the surface tension and viscosity in the superheated and undercooled states using the oscillation drop method. Over the 2190-2500 K interval, the surface tension of alumina was measured as σ(T)=0.64--8.2× 10-5 (T-Tm) (N/m), where Tm, the melting temperature, is 2327 K. Similarly, on the same temperature range, the viscosity was determined as η(T)=3.2\\exp[43.2× 103/(RT)] (mPa\\cdots). Both sets of data agree well with the literature values.

  8. Reference Data for the Density and Viscosity of Liquid Cadmium, Cobalt, Gallium, Indium, Mercury, Silicon, Thallium, and Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assael, Marc J.; Armyra, Ivi J.; Brillo, Juergen; Stankus, Sergei V.; Wu, Jiangtao; Wakeham, William A.

    2012-09-01

    The available experimental data for the density and viscosity of liquid cadmium, cobalt, gallium, indium, mercury, silicon, thallium, and zinc have been critically examined with the intention of establishing both a density and a viscosity standard. All experimental data have been categorized into primary and secondary data according to the quality of measurement, the technique employed and the presentation of the data, as specified by a series of criteria. The proposed standard reference correlations for the density of liquid cadmium, cobalt, gallium, indium, silicon, thallium, and zinc are characterized by percent deviations at the 95% confidence level of 0.6, 2.1, 0.4, 0.5, 2.2, 0.9, and 0.7, respectively. In the case of mercury, since density reference values already exist, no further work was carried out. The standard reference correlations for the viscosity of liquid cadmium, cobalt, gallium, indium, mercury, silicon, thallium, and zinc are characterized by percent deviations at the 95% confidence level of 9.4, 14.0, 13.5, 2.1, 7.3, 15.7, 5.1, and 9.3, respectively.

  9. The calculation of viscosity of liquid n-decane and n-hexadecane by the Green-Kubo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, S. T.; Cummings, P. T.; Cochran, H. D.

    This short commentary presents the result of long molecular dynamics simulation calculations of the shear viscosity of liquid n-decane and n-hexadecane using the Green-Kubo integration method. The relaxation time of the stress-stress correlation function is compared with those of rotation and diffusion. The rotational and diffusional relaxation times, which are easy to calculate, provide useful guides for the required simulation time in viscosity calculations. Also, the computational time required for viscosity calculations of these systems by the Green-Kubo method is compared with the time required for previous non-equilibrium molecular dynamics calculations of the same systems. The method of choice for a particular calculation is determined largely by the properties of interest, since the efficiencies of the two methods are comparable for calculation of the zero strain rate viscosity.

  10. Viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients of gaseous and liquid oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, H. J. M.; Mccarty, R. D.; Sengers, J. V.

    1974-01-01

    Equations and tables are presented for the viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients of gaseous and liquid oxygen at temperatures between 80 K and 400 K for pressures up to 200 atm. and at temperatures between 80 K and 2000 K for the dilute gas. A description of the anomalous behavior of the thermal conductivity in the critical region is included. The tabulated coefficients are reliable to within about 15% except for a region in the immediate vicinity of the critical point. Some possibilities for future improvements of this reliability are discussed.

  11. Textured-surface quartz resonator fluid density and viscosity monitor

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Stephen J.; Wiczer, James J.; Cernosek, Richard W.; Frye, Gregory C.; Gebert, Charles T.; Casaus, Leonard; Mitchell, Mary A.

    1998-08-25

    A pair of thickness-shear mode resonators, one smooth and one with a textured surface, allows fluid density and viscosity to be independently resolved. A textured surface, either randomly rough or regularly patterned, leads to trapping of liquid at the device surface. The synchronous motion of this trapped liquid with the oscillating device surface allows the device to weigh the liquid; this leads to an additional response that depends on liquid density. This additional response enables a pair of devices, one smooth and one textured, to independently resolve liquid density and viscosity; the difference in responses determines the density while the smooth device determines the density-viscosity product, and thus, the pair determines both density and viscosity.

  12. Impact of Types of Moisturizer and Humidity on the Residual Weight and Viscosity of Liquid and Gel Oral Moisturizers.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Mamoru; Nishi, Yasuhiro; Fujishima, Kei; Nishio, Misaki; Minemoto, Yoko; Kanie, Takahito; Nishimura, Masahiro

    2016-10-01

    Oral moisturizers need to be selected based on their material properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of moisturizer type and humidity on the residual weight and viscosity of oral moisturizers. The weight and viscosity of 17 oral moisturizers (7 liquid and 10 gel) at baseline and after 8 hours were measured using an incubator maintained at 37°C at either 85% or 40% relative humidity (RH). The rate of change in weight (RCW) and the rate of change in viscosity (RCV) were calculated. Data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe's test to evaluate the effect of the type of moisturizer (liquid or gel) and humidity (85% or 40% RH) on RCW and RCV. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the relationship between RCW and RCV. Two-way ANOVA results indicated that the type of moisturizer and RH had a significant effect on RCW and RCV (p < 0.05); however, the interaction between them was not significant. The results of multiple comparisons showed that gel moisturizers had a significantly lower RCW and higher RCV than liquid moisturizers (p < 0.05). The RCW and RCV at 40% RH were significantly higher than those at 85% RH (p < 0.05). There was no correlation between RCW and RCV in the liquid moisturizer group, but a significant negative correlation was found in the gel moisturizer group (pp = 0.01). Because viscosity of gel moisturizers increases as weight decreases, selecting gel moisturizers with a minimal change in weight and viscosity would be preferable in the case of a long-time application and severe dry mouth. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  13. Anion-Functionalized Task-Specific Ionic Liquids: Molecular Origin of Change in Viscosity upon CO2 Capture.

    PubMed

    Li, Ailin; Tian, Ziqi; Yan, Tianying; Jiang, De-en; Dai, Sheng

    2014-12-26

    The structure and dynamics of a task-specific ionic liquid (TSIL), trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium imidazolate, before and after absorbing CO(2) were studied with a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. This particular ionic liquid is one of several newly discovered azole-based TSILs for equimolar CO(2) capture. Unlike other TSILs whose viscosity increases drastically upon reaction with CO(2), its viscosity decreases after CO(2) absorption. This unique behavior was confirmed in our MD simulation. We find that after CO(2) absorption the translational dynamics of the whole system is accelerated, accompanied by an accelerated rotational dynamics of the cations. Radial distribution function and spatial distribution function analyses show that the anions become asymmetric after reaction with CO(2), and this causes the imbalance of the interaction between the positive and negative regions of the ions. The interaction between the phosphorus atom of the cation and oxygen atoms of the carboxyl group on the anion is enhanced, while that between the phosphorus atom and the naked nitrogen atom of the anion is weakened. The ion-pair correlation functions further support that the weakened interaction leads to faster dissociation of cation-anion pairs, thereby causing an accelerated dynamics. Hence, the asymmetry of anions influences the dynamics of the system and affects the viscosity. This insight may help design better TSILs with decreased viscosity for CO(2) capture.

  14. Experimental study on the pressure and pulse wave propagation in viscoelastic vessel tubes-effects of liquid viscosity and tube stiffness.

    PubMed

    Ikenaga, Yuki; Nishi, Shohei; Komagata, Yuka; Saito, Masashi; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Asada, Takaaki; Matsukawa, Mami

    2013-11-01

    A pulse wave is the displacement wave which arises because of ejection of blood from the heart and reflection at vascular bed and distal point. The investigation of pressure waves leads to understanding the propagation characteristics of a pulse wave. To investigate the pulse wave behavior, an experimental study was performed using an artificial polymer tube and viscous liquid. A polyurethane tube and glycerin solution were used to simulate a blood vessel and blood, respectively. In the case of the 40 wt% glycerin solution, which corresponds to the viscosity of ordinary blood, the attenuation coefficient of a pressure wave in the tube decreased from 4.3 to 1.6 dB/m because of the tube stiffness (Young's modulus: 60 to 200 kPa). When the viscosity of liquid increased from approximately 4 to 10 mPa·s (the range of human blood viscosity) in the stiff tube, the attenuation coefficient of the pressure wave changed from 1.6 to 3.2 dB/m. The hardening of the blood vessel caused by aging and the increase of blood viscosity caused by illness possibly have opposite effects on the intravascular pressure wave. The effect of the viscosity of a liquid on the amplitude of a pressure wave was then considered using a phantom simulating human blood vessels. As a result, in the typical range of blood viscosity, the amplitude ratio of the waves obtained by the experiments with water and glycerin solution became 1:0.83. In comparison with clinical data, this value is much smaller than that seen from blood vessel hardening. Thus, it can be concluded that the blood viscosity seldom affects the attenuation of a pulse wave.

  15. Viscosity of a Suspension with Internal Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elisabeth, Lemaire; Laurent, Lobry; François, Peters

    2008-07-01

    When an insulating particle immersed into a low conducting liquid is submitted to a sufficiently high DC field, E, it can rotate spontaneously around itself along any axis perpendicular to the electric field. This symmetry break is known as Quincke rotation and could have important consequences on the rheology of such a suspension of particles (insulating particles dispersed in a slightly conducting liquid). Indeed, if the suspension is subject to a shear rate, and a DC electric field is applied in the velocity gradient direction, the spin rate of the particles is greater than in the absence of an E field, so that the macroscopic spin rate of the particles drives the suspending liquid and thus leads to a decrease of the apparent viscosity of the suspension. The purpose of this paper is to provide a relation between the apparent viscosity of the suspension, the spin rate of the particles and the E field intensity. The predictions of the model are compared to experimental data which have been obtained on a suspension of PMMA particles dispersed in a low polar dielectric liquid. The agreement between experiments and theory is rather good even if the model overestimates the viscosity decrease induced by the field.

  16. Thermophysical Properties Measurement of High-Temperature Liquids Under Microgravity Conditions in Controlled Atmospheric Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, Masahito; Ozawa, Shumpei; Mizuno, Akotoshi; Hibiya, Taketoshi; Kawauchi, Hiroya; Murai, Kentaro; Takahashi, Suguru

    2012-01-01

    Microgravity conditions have advantages of measurement of surface tension and viscosity of metallic liquids by the oscillating drop method with an electromagnetic levitation (EML) device. Thus, we are preparing the experiments of thermophysical properties measurements using the Materials-Science Laboratories ElectroMagnetic-Levitator (MSL-EML) facilities in the international Space station (ISS). Recently, it has been identified that dependence of surface tension on oxygen partial pressure (Po2) must be considered for industrial application of surface tension values. Effect of Po2 on surface tension would apparently change viscosity from the damping oscillation model. Therefore, surface tension and viscosity must be measured simultaneously in the same atmospheric conditions. Moreover, effect of the electromagnetic force (EMF) on the surface oscillations must be clarified to obtain the ideal surface oscillation because the EMF works as the external force on the oscillating liquid droplets, so extensive EMF makes apparently the viscosity values large. In our group, using the parabolic flight levitation experimental facilities (PFLEX) the effect of Po2 and external EMF on surface oscillation of levitated liquid droplets was systematically investigated for the precise measurements of surface tension and viscosity of high temperature liquids for future ISS experiments. We performed the observation of surface oscillations of levitated liquid alloys using PFLEX on board flight experiments by Gulfstream II (G-II) airplane operated by DAS. These observations were performed under the controlled Po2 and also under the suitable EMF conditions. In these experiments, we obtained the density, the viscosity and the surface tension values of liquid Cu. From these results, we discuss about as same as reported data, and also obtained the difference of surface oscillations with the change of the EMF conditions.

  17. Nonequilibrium viscosity of glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauro, John C.; Allan, Douglas C.; Potuzak, Marcel

    2009-09-01

    Since glass is a nonequilibrium material, its properties depend on both composition and thermal history. While most prior studies have focused on equilibrium liquid viscosity, an accurate description of nonequilibrium viscosity is essential for understanding the low temperature dynamics of glass. Departure from equilibrium occurs as a glass-forming system is cooled through the glass transition range. The glass transition involves a continuous breakdown of ergodicity as the system gradually becomes trapped in a subset of the available configurational phase space. At very low temperatures a glass is perfectly nonergodic (or “isostructural”), and the viscosity is described well by an Arrhenius form. However, the behavior of viscosity during the glass transition range itself is not yet understood. In this paper, we address the problem of glass viscosity using the enthalpy landscape model of Mauro and Loucks [Phys. Rev. B 76, 174202 (2007)] for selenium, an elemental glass former. To study a wide range of thermal histories, we compute nonequilibrium viscosity with cooling rates from 10-12 to 1012K/s . Based on these detailed landscape calculations, we propose a simplified phenomenological model capturing the essential physics of glass viscosity. The phenomenological model incorporates an ergodicity parameter that accounts for the continuous breakdown of ergodicity at the glass transition. We show a direct relationship between the nonequilibrium viscosity parameters and the fragility of the supercooled liquid. The nonequilibrium viscosity model is validated against experimental measurements of Corning EAGLE XG™ glass. The measurements are performed using a specially designed beam-bending apparatus capable of accurate nonequilibrium viscosity measurements up to 1016Pas . Using a common set of parameters, the phenomenological model provides an accurate description of EAGLE XG™ viscosity over the full range of measured temperatures and fictive temperatures.

  18. Viscosity and Structure of a Late Lunar Magma Ocean Liquid: Implications for the Purity of Ferroan Anorthosites and the Dynamics of a Crystallizing Magma Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dygert, N. J.; Lin, J. F.; Marshall, E. W., IV; Kono, Y.; Gardner, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    The current paradigm argues the Moon formed after a giant impact that produced a deep lunar magma ocean (LMO). After a period of turbulent convection, the LMO experienced fractional crystallization, causing the initially peridotitic liquid to evolve to a plagioclase-saturated ferrobasalt. The lunar crust, much of which comprises 93-98% pure anorthosite [1,2], formed by flotation of positively buoyant plagioclase on the residual liquid. A flotation crust would contain some trapped melt; compaction of the melt out of the crust before solidification may be necessary to generate a very pure anorthitic crust. The efficiency of this process depends on the previously unmeasured viscosity of the residual liquid [3]. To characterize the viscosity and thermal equation of state of a late LMO liquid, we conducted experiments at the Advanced Photon Source, Beamline 16-BM-B, Argonne National Laboratory on a nominally anhydrous Ti-rich ferrobasalt [4]. X-ray radiography and diffuse scattering experiments were conducted in a Paris-Edinburgh apparatus in graphite-lined BN capsules, allowing in-situ observation of viscosity and derivation of thermal EoS at P-T conditions relevant to the Moon (1300-1600°C, 0.1-4.4GPa). We calculated viscosities of 0.23-1.45 Pa·s for the melt; based on 11 observations, we find that viscosity is pressure insensitive under the conditions explored. Viscosity can be modeled by an Arrhenius relation with an activation enthalpy of 66 kJ/mol. Composition-dependent predictive models [5] overestimate our observations by roughly a factor of 2. Preliminary analysis suggests no pressure-dependent structural transition over the conditions explored. Late LMO liquids brought to the lunar core-mantle boundary by cumulate mantle overturn may be positively buoyant, implying the seismically attenuating layer around the lunar core contains a denser, higher-Ti melt. Our results suggest that efficient phase segregation in the lunar magma ocean and compaction in the

  19. Comparison the clinical outcomes and complications of high-viscosity versus low-viscosity in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhao; Wang, Wei; Gao, Wen-Shan; Gao, Fei; Wang, Hui; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2017-12-01

    To compare the clinical outcomes and complications of high viscosity and low viscosity bone cement percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCF).From September 2009 to September 2015, 100 patients with OVCF were randomly divided into 2 groups: group H, using high viscosity cement (n = 50) or group L, using low viscosity cement (n = 50). The clinical outcomes were assessed by the visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), kyphosis Cobb angle, vertebral height, and complications.Significant improvements in the VAS, ODI, kyphosis Cobb angle, and vertebral height were noted in both groups, and the VAS score in the H group showed greater benefit than in the L group. Cement leakage was observed less in group H. Postoperative assessment using computed tomography identified cement leakage in 27 of 98 (27.6%) vertebrae in group H and in 63 of 86 (73.3%) vertebrae in group L (P = .025).Compared with PVP using low viscosity bone cement, PVP using high viscosity bone cement can provide the same clinical outcomes with fewer complications and is recommended for routine clinical use.

  20. Comparison the clinical outcomes and complications of high-viscosity versus low-viscosity in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhao; Wang, Wei; Gao, Wen-shan; Gao, Fei; Wang, Hui; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To compare the clinical outcomes and complications of high viscosity and low viscosity bone cement percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCF). From September 2009 to September 2015, 100 patients with OVCF were randomly divided into 2 groups: group H, using high viscosity cement (n = 50) or group L, using low viscosity cement (n = 50). The clinical outcomes were assessed by the visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), kyphosis Cobb angle, vertebral height, and complications. Significant improvements in the VAS, ODI, kyphosis Cobb angle, and vertebral height were noted in both groups, and the VAS score in the H group showed greater benefit than in the L group. Cement leakage was observed less in group H. Postoperative assessment using computed tomography identified cement leakage in 27 of 98 (27.6%) vertebrae in group H and in 63 of 86 (73.3%) vertebrae in group L (P = .025). Compared with PVP using low viscosity bone cement, PVP using high viscosity bone cement can provide the same clinical outcomes with fewer complications and is recommended for routine clinical use. PMID:29310386

  1. Perfluoroalkyltricyanoborate and Perfluoroalkylcyanofluoroborate Anions: Building Blocks for Low-Viscosity Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Landmann, Johannes; Sprenger, Jan A P; Hennig, Philipp T; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Grüne, Matthias; Würthner, Frank; Ignat'ev, Nikolai V; Finze, Maik

    2018-01-12

    The potassium perfluoroalkyltricyanoborates K[C n F 2 n+1 B(CN) 3 ] [n=1 (1 d), 2 (2 d)] and the potassium mono(perfluoroalkyl)cyanofluoroborates K[C n F 2 n+1 BF(CN) 2 ] [n=1 (1 c), 2 (2 c)] and [C n F 2 n+1 BF 2 (CN)] - [n=1 (1 b), 2 (2 b), 3 (3 b), 4 (4 b)] are accessible with perfect selectivities on multi-gram scales starting from K[C n F 2 n+1 BF 3 ] and Me 3 SiCN. The K + salts are starting materials for the preparation of salts with organic cations, for example, [EMIm] + (EMIm=1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium). These [EMIm] + salts are hydrophobic room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) that are thermally, chemically and electrochemically very robust, offering electrochemical windows up to 5.8 V. The RTILs described herein, exhibit very low viscosities with a minimum of 14.0 mPa s at 20 °C for [EMIm]1 c, low melting points down to -57 °C for [EMIm]2 b and extraordinary high conductivities up to 17.6 mS cm -1 at 20 °C for [EMIm]1 c. The combination of these properties makes these ILs promising materials for electrochemical devices as exemplified by the application of selected RTILs as component of electrolytes in dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSCs, Grätzel cells). The efficiency of the DSSCs was found to increase with a decreasing viscosity of the neat ionic liquid. In addition to the spectroscopic characterisation, single crystals of the potassium salts of the anions 1 b-d, 2 d, 3 b and 4 c as well as of [nBu 4 N]2 c have been studied by X-ray diffraction. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. LiTaO3 Shear Wave Resonator for Viscosity Measurement of Polymer Liquid in MHz Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannai, Mai; Wakatsuki, Noboru

    2004-05-01

    We are studying the response of a strip-type LiTaO3 shear wave resonator in polymer liquid in MHz range. The element size is small (1.0× 7.4× 0.49 mm3). The side surfaces of the resonator were covered with a highly viscous silicone rubber material. Using Newton fluid theory, the characteristic mechanical impedance of the shear wave in the liquid was derived for the equivalent circuit of the resonator. The analytical values of glycerin were roughly consistent with the experiment using only 0.1 cm3. The polymer liquid used for the measurement was silicone oil. The static viscosity was from 9.8 to 94,720 mPa\\cdots. The resonance frequency change was from 0.05% to 0.07%. The resonance resistance change was from 57 Ω to 190 Ω. The experiment results were examined using Mason’s equivalent circuit with Maxwell model of a viscoelastic polymer.

  3. Divergent trend in density versus viscosity of ionic liquid/water mixtures: a molecular view from guanidinium ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akhil Pratap; Gardas, Ramesh L; Senapati, Sanjib

    2015-10-14

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have shown great potential in the dissolution and stability of biomolecules when a low-to-moderate quantity of water is added. Hence, determining the thermophysical properties and understanding these novel mixtures at the molecular level are of both fundamental and practical importance. In this context, here we report the synthesis of two nontoxic guanidinium cation based ILs, tetramethylguanidinium benzoate [TMG][BEN] and tetramethylguanidinium salicylate [TMG][SAL], and present a detailed comparison of their thermophysical properties in the presence of water. The results show that the [TMG][SAL]/water mixtures have higher density and higher apparent molar volume, but a lower viscosity and higher compressibility than the [TNG][BEN]/water mixtures. The measured viscosity and compressibility data are explained from ab initio quantum mechanical calculations and liquid-phase molecular dynamics simulations, where salicylate anions of denser [TMG][SAL]/water were found to exist as isolated ions due to intramolecular H-bonding. On the contrary, intermolecular H-bonding among the benzoate anions and their strong tendency to form an extended H-bonding network with water made [TMG][BEN]/water solutions more viscous and less compressible. This study shows the importance of probing these emerging solvents at the molecular-to-atomic level, which could be helpful in their optimal usage for task-specific applications.

  4. Significant viscosity dependent deviations from classical van Deemter theory in liquid chromatography with porous silica monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Nesterenko, Pavel N; Rybalko, Marina A; Paull, Brett

    2005-06-01

    Significant deviations from classical van Deemter behaviour, indicative of turbulent flow liquid chromatography, has been recorded for mobile phases of varying viscosity on porous silica monolithic columns at elevated mobile phase flow rates.

  5. Flow pattern changes influenced by variation of viscosities of a heterogeneous gas-liquid mixture flow in a vertical channel

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Keska, Jerry K.; Hincapie, Juan; Jones, Richard

    In the steady-state flow of a heterogeneous mixture such as an air-liquid mixture, the velocity and void fraction are space- and time-dependent parameters. These parameters are the most fundamental in the analysis and description of a multiphase flow. The determination of flow patterns in an objective way is extremely critical, since this is directly related to sudden changes in spatial and temporal changes of the random like characteristic of concentration. Flow patterns can be described by concentration signals in time, amplitude, and frequency domains. Despite the vital importance and countless attempts to solve or incorporate the flow pattern phenomena intomore » multiphase models, it has still been a very challenging topic in the scientific community since the 1940's and has not yet reached a satisfactory solution. This paper reports the experimental results of the impact of fluid viscosity on flow patterns for two-phase flow. Two-phase flow was created in laboratory equipment using air and liquid as phase medium. The liquid properties were changed by using variable concentrations of glycerol in water mixture which generated a wide-range of dynamic viscosities ranging from 1 to 1060 MPa s. The in situ spatial concentration vs. liquid viscosity and airflow velocity of two-phase flow in a vertical ID=50.8 mm pipe were measured using two concomitant computer-aided measurement systems. After acquiring data, the in situ special concentration signals were analyzed in time (spatial concentration and RMS of spatial concentration vs. time), amplitude (PDF and CPDF), and frequency (PSD and CPSD) domains that documented broad flow pattern changes caused by the fluid viscosity and air velocity changes. (author)« less

  6. Viscosity of two-dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasma modified by a perpendicular magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yan; Lin, Wei; Murillo, M. S.

    2017-11-01

    Transport properties of two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled dusty plasmas have been investigated in detail, but never for viscosity with a strong perpendicular magnetic field; here, we examine this scenario using Langevin dynamics simulations of 2D liquids with a binary Yukawa interparticle interaction. The shear viscosity η of 2D liquid dusty plasma is estimated from the simulation data using the Green-Kubo relation, which is the integration of the shear stress autocorrelation function. It is found that, when a perpendicular magnetic field is applied, the shear viscosity of 2D liquid dusty plasma is modified substantially. When the magnetic field is increased, its viscosity increases at low temperatures, while at high temperatures its viscosity diminishes. It is determined that these different variational trends of η arise from the different behaviors of the kinetic and potential parts of the shear stress under external magnetic fields.

  7. Microgravity Studies of Liquid-Liquid Phase Transitions in Alumina-Yttria Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynes, Buddy (Technical Monitor); Weber, Richard; Nordine, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The scientific objective of this research is to increase the fundamental knowledge base for liquid- phase processing of technologically important oxide materials. The experimental objective is to define conditions and hardware requirements for microgravity flight experiments to test and expand the experimental hypotheses that: 1. Liquid phase transitions can occur in undercooled melts by a diffusionless process. 2. Onset of the liquid phase transition is accompanied by a large change in the temperature dependence of melt viscosity. Experiments on undercooled YAG (Y3A15012)- and rare earth oxide aluminate composition liquids demonstrated a large departure from an Arrhenian temperature dependence of viscosity. Liquid YAG is nearly inviscid at its 2240 K melting point. Glass fibers were pulled from melts undercooled by ca. 600 K indicating that the viscosity is on the order of 100 Pans (1000 Poise) at 1600 K. This value of viscosity is 500 times greater than that obtained by extrapolation of data for temperatures above the melting point of YAG. These results show that the liquids are extremely fragile and that the onset of the highly non-Arrhenian viscosity-temperature relationship occurs at a temperature considerably below the equilibrium melting point of the solid phases. Further results on undercooled alumina-yttria melts containing 23-42 mole % yttrium oxide indicate that a congruent liquid-liquid phase transition occurs in the undercooled liquids. The rates of transition are inconsistent with a diffusion-limited process. This research is directed to investigation of the scientifically interesting phenomena of polyamorphism and fragility in undercooled rare earth oxide aluminum oxide liquids. The results bear on the technologically important problem of producing high value rare earth-based optical materials.

  8. Development of a miniaturized optical viscosity sensor with an optical surface tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, H.; Nagamachi, R.; Taguchi, Y.; Nagasaka, Y.

    2010-02-01

    A new viscosity sensor enabling non-contact measurement at high speed, with less sample volume and high stability is required in a broad field. For example, in the industrial field, process control by real time monitoring of viscosity can enhance the quality of coating films and the process yield such as conductive films and optical films. Therefore, we have developed a new miniaturized optical viscosity sensor, namely MOVS (Miniaturized Optical Viscosity Sensor), based on a laser-induced capillary wave (LiCW) method which can meet the requirements above. In the MOVS, viscosity is estimated by observing the damping oscillation of LiCW, which is generated by an interference of two excitation laser beams on a liquid surface. By irradiating a probing laser on LiCW, a first order diffracted beam containing information of sample viscosity, is generated. The intensity of the reflected beam is utilized to control the distance between liquid-level and the sensor. The newly integrated optical surface tracking system makes possible the stable viscosity measurement in the presence of disturbance such as evaporation and external vibration. MOVS consists of five U-grooves fabricated by MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) process to possess the optical fibers (photonic crystal fibers and fusion-spliced lensed fibers). In this study, by integrating the optical surface tracking system on the chip, nanosecond order damping oscillation of LiCW is successfully observed in the presence of external forced vibration, high speed evaporation (speed of 1 micrometer per second) and drying process of a liquid film (thickness of hundreds micrometer order).

  9. Estimating the Kinematic Viscosity of Petroleum Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlMulla, Hessa A.; Albahri, Tareq A.

    2017-04-01

    Kinematic viscosity correlation has been developed for liquid petroleum fractions at 37.78°C and 98.89°C (100 and 210°F) standard temperatures using a large variety of experimental data. The only required inputs are the specific gravity and the average boiling point temperature. The accuracy of the correlation was compared with several other correlations available in the literature. The proposed correlations proved to be more accurate in predicting the viscosity at 37.78°C and 98.89°C with average absolute deviations of 0.39 and 0.72 mm2/s, respectively. Another objective was to develop a relation for the variation of viscosity with temperature to predict the viscosity of petroleum fraction at a certain temperature from the knowledge of the viscosity for the same liquid at two other temperatures. The newly developed correlation represents a wide array of temperatures from 20°C to 150°C and viscosities from 0.14 mm2/s to 343.64 mm2/s. The results have been validated with experimental data consisting of 9558 data points, yielding an overall deviation of 0.248 mm2/s and R2 of 0.998. In addition, new formulas were developed to interconvert the viscosity of petroleum fractions from one unit of measure to another based on finding the best fit for a set of experimental data from the literature with R2 as high as 1.0 for many cases. Detailed analysis showed good agreement between the predicted values and the experimental data.

  10. Apparatus and method for measuring viscosity

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, R.J. Jr.

    1986-02-25

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for measuring the viscosity of a fluid. This apparatus and method is particularly useful for the measurement of the viscosity of a liquid in a harsh environment characterized by high temperature and the presence of corrosive or deleterious gases and vapors which adversely affect conventional ball or roller bearings. The apparatus and method of the present invention employ one or more flexural or torsional bearings to suspend a bob capable of limited angular motion within a rotatable sleeve suspended from a stationary frame. 7 figs.

  11. Apparatus and method for measuring viscosity

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Jr., Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for measuring the viscosity of a fluid. This apparatus and method is particularly useful for the measurement of the viscosity of a liquid in a harsh environment characterized by high temperature and the presence of corrosive or deleterious gases and vapors which adversely affect conventional ball or roller bearings. The apparatus and method of the present invention employ one or more flexural or torsional bearings to suspend a bob capable of limited angular motion within a rotatable sleeve suspended from a stationary frame.

  12. The Larger the Viscosity, the Higher the Bounce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Menachem; Klein Schaarsberg, Martin; Peters, Ivo; Dodge, Kevin; Zhang, Wendy; Jaeger, Heinrich

    A low-viscosity liquid drop can bounce upon impact onto a solid. A high-viscosity drop typically just flattens, i.e., it splats. Surprisingly, our experiments with a droplet made of densely packed glass beads in silicone oil display the opposite behavior: the low-viscosity oil suspension drop splats. The high-viscosity oil suspension bounces. Increasing solvent viscosity increases the rebound energy. To gain insight into the underlying mechanism, we model the suspension as densely packed elastic spheres experiencing viscous lubrication drag between neighbors. The model reproduces the observed trends. Plots of elastic compression and drag experienced by the particles show that rebounds are made possible by (1) a fraction of the impact energy being stored during initial contact via elastic compression, (2) a rapid broadening of local lubrication drag interactions at the initial impact site into a spatially uniform upward force throughout the drop. Including finite wall drag due to the presence of ambient air into the numerical model diminishes and eventually cuts off the rebound.

  13. Effect of the viscosity of the liquid on the angle of inclination of a wet sandpile*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadani, Azadeh; Kudrolli, Arshad

    2002-03-01

    We study the effect of liquids on the angle of inclination of a wet sandpile in a rotating drum system. In this system, the surface exhibits stick slip motion for slow rotation rates omega, and continuos avalanching above a critical omega. We will focus on the stick-slip regime, where the angle of inclination of the pile oscillates between the maximum angle of stability before an avalanche, and the angle of repose after the avalanche. Both angles are observed to increase and saturate as a function of the volume fraction of the fluid. Furthermore, by changing the viscosity of the fluid using water-glycerol mixtures, we observe that both the maximum angle of stability and the angle of repose increase with the viscosity of the fluid. There are two possible explanations for the increase of the angle of stability of the pile. First, there may be creep motion between the particles giving rise to viscous forces before an avalanche, that are too small to observe visually. The creep motion is also slower than the rate of increase of the surface due to rotation. Second, the average number of liquid bridges between particles may increase with viscosity. We will comment on both possibilities using experimental data and scaling arguments.

  14. The performance of bioinspired valveless piezoelectric micropump with respect to viscosity change.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Chul; Hur, Sunghoon; Kang, Dooho; Kim, Bo Heum; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-04-29

    This study investigated the effect of the serial connection of two pumping chambers on transport of liquid with increased viscosity. A serially connected valveless piezoelectric micropump was fabricated inspired by the liquid-feeding strategy of a female mosquito drinking liquid with a wide range of viscosities, from nectar to blood. The performance of the micropump was investigated by varying the viscosity of working liquid. Results showed that the optimal phase difference between the two chambers was 180° out-of-phase for all viscosity conditions. The two chambers operating at 180° out-of-phase exhibited higher pumping performance compared with the sum of each single chamber solely actuated, when viscosity increased. The flow patterns in the micropump showed that the rectification efficiency improved with the increase in viscosity. Results indicated that the serially connected valveless piezoelectric micropump is more robust to the increase of viscosity than a single-chamber piezoelectric micropump. This study would be helpful in the design of microfluidic devices for transporting liquids with a wide range of viscosities.

  15. Torque Transient of Magnetically Drive Flow for Viscosity Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ban, Heng; Li, Chao; Su, Ching-Hua; Lin, Bochuan; Scripa, Rosalia N.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    2004-01-01

    Viscosity is a good indicator of structural changes for complex liquids, such as semiconductor melts with chain or ring structures. This paper discusses the theoretical and experimental results of the transient torque technique for non-intrusive viscosity measurement. Such a technique is essential for the high temperature viscosity measurement of high pressure and toxic semiconductor melts. In this paper, our previous work on oscillating cup technique was expanded to the transient process of a magnetically driven melt flow in a damped oscillation system. Based on the analytical solution for the fluid flow and cup oscillation, a semi-empirical model was established to extract the fluid viscosity. The analytical and experimental results indicated that such a technique has the advantage of short measurement time and straight forward data analysis procedures

  16. A comparative study of high-viscosity cement percutaneous vertebroplasty vs. low-viscosity cement percutaneous kyphoplasty for treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kai; Liu, Yang; Peng, Hao; Tan, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Mi; Zheng, Xian-Nian; Chen, Fang-Zhou; Li, Ming-Hui

    2016-06-01

    The clinical effects of two different methods-high-viscosity cement percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and low-viscosity cement percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) were investigated. From June 2010 to August 2013, 98 cases of OVCFs were included in our study. Forty-six patients underwent high-viscosity PVP and 52 patients underwent low-viscosity PKP. The occurrence of cement leakage was observed. Pain relief and functional activity were evaluated using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), respectively. Restoration of the vertebral body height and angle of kyphosis were assessed by comparing preoperative and postoperative measurements of the anterior heights, middle heights and the kyphotic angle of the fractured vertebra. Nine out of the 54 vertebra bodies and 11 out of the 60 vertebra bodies were observed to have cement leakage in the high-viscosity PVP and low-viscosity PKP groups, respectively. The rate of cement leakage, correction of anterior vertebral height and kyphotic angles showed no significant differences between the two groups (P>0.05). Low-viscosity PKP had significant advantage in terms of the restoration of middle vertebral height as compared with the high-viscosity PVP (P<0.05). Both groups showed significant improvements in pain relief and functional capacity status after surgery (P<0.05). It was concluded that high-viscosity PVP and low-viscosity PKP have similar clinical effects in terms of the rate of cement leakage, restoration of the anterior vertebral body height, changes of kyphotic angles, functional activity, and pain relief. Low-viscosity PKP is better than high-viscosity PVP in restoring the height of the middle vertebra.

  17. The Specific Volumes and Viscosities of the Ni-Zr Liquid Alloys and their Correlation with the Glass Formability of the Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohsaka, K.; Chung, S. K.; Rhim, W. K.

    1997-01-01

    The specific volumes and viscosities of the Ni-Zr liquid alloys as a function of temperature are determined by employing a digitizing technique and numeric analysis methods applied to the optical images of the electrostatically levitated liquid alloys.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of low viscosity carbon dioxide binding organic liquids for flue gas clean up

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Koech, Phillip K.; Malhotra, Deepika; Heldebrant, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is partly attributed to global anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emission to the atmosphere. These environmental effects can be mitigated by CO2 capture, utilization and storage. Alkanolamine solvents, such as monoethanolamine (MEA), which bind CO2 as carbamates or bicarbonate salts are used for CO2 capture in niche applications. These solvents consist of approximately 30 wt% of MEA in water, exhibiting a low, CO2-rich viscosity, fast kinetics and favorable thermodynamics. However, these solvents have low CO2 capacity and high heat capacity of water, resulting in prohibitively high costs of thermal solvent regeneration. Effective capture of the enormous amounts of CO2more » produced by coal-fired plants requires a material with high CO2 capacity and low regeneration energy requirements. To this end, several water-lean transformational solvents systems have been developed in order to reduce these energy penalties. These technologies include nano-material organic hybrids (NOHMs), task-specific, protic and conventional ionic liquids, phase change solvents. As part of an ongoing program in our group, we have developed new water lean transformational solvents known as CO2 binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) which have the potential to be energy efficient CO2 capture solvents. These solvents, also known as switchable ionic liquids meaning, are organic solvents that can reversibly transform from non- ionic to ionic form and back. The zwitterionic state in these liquids is formed when low polarity non-ionic alkanolguanidines or alkanolamidines react with CO2 or SO2 to form ionic liquids with high polarity. These polar ionic liquids can be thermally converted to the less polar non-ionic solvent by releasing CO2.« less

  19. Densities, Viscosities and Derived Thermophysical Properties of Water-Saturated Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Martins, Mónia A R; Neves, Catarina M S S; Kurnia, Kiki A; Carvalho, Pedro J; Rocha, Marisa A A; Santos, Luís M N B F; Pinho, Simão P; Freire, Mara G

    2016-01-15

    In order to evaluate the impact of the alkyl side chain length and symmetry of the cation on the thermophysical properties of water-saturated ionic liquids (ILs), densities and viscosities as a function of temperature were measured at atmospheric pressure and in the (298.15 to 363.15) K temperature range, for systems containing two series of bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-based compounds: the symmetric [C n C n im][NTf 2 ] (with n = 1-8 and 10) and asymmetric [C n C 1 im][NTf 2 ] (with n = 2-5, 7, 9 and 11) ILs. For water-saturated ILs, the density decreases with the increase of the alkyl side chain length while the viscosity increases with the size of the aliphatic tails. The saturation water solubility in each IL was further estimated with a reasonable agreement based on the densities of water-saturated ILs, further confirming that for the ILs investigated the volumetric mixing properties of ILs and water follow a near ideal behaviour. The water-saturated symmetric ILs generally present lower densities and viscosities than their asymmetric counterparts. From the experimental data, the isobaric thermal expansion coefficient and energy barrier were also estimated. A close correlation between the difference in the energy barrier values between the water-saturated and pure ILs and the water content in each IL was found, supporting that the decrease in the viscosity of ILs in presence of water is directly related with the decrease of the energy barrier.

  20. Viscosity of particle laden films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timounay, Yousra; Rouyer, Florence

    2017-06-01

    We perform retraction experiments on soap films where large particles bridge the two interfaces. Local velocities are measured by PIV during the unstationnary regime. The velocity variation in time and space can be described by a continuous fluid model from which effective viscosity (shear and dilatational) of particulate films is measured. The 2D effective viscosity of particulate films η2D increases with particle surface fraction ϕ: at low ϕ, it tends to the interfacial dilatational viscosity of the liquid/air interfaces and it diverges at the critical particle surface fraction ϕc ≃ 0.84. Experimental data agree with classical viscosity laws of hard spheres suspensions adapted to the 2D geometry, assuming viscous dissipation resulting from the squeeze of the liquid/air interfaces between the particles. Finally, we show that the observed viscous dissipation in particulate films has to be considered to describe the edge velocity during a retraction experiment at large particle coverage.

  1. Results of the Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement International Space Station Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaukler, William; Antar, Basil

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of FMVM is to measure the rate of coalescence of two highly viscous liquid drops and correlate the results with the liquid viscosity and surface tension. The experiment takes advantage of the low gravitational free floating conditions in space to permit the unconstrained coalescence of two nearly spherical drops. The merging of the drops is accomplished by deploying them from a syringe and suspending them on Nomex threads followed by the astronaut s manipulation of one of the drops toward a stationary droplet till contact is achieved. Coalescence and merging occurs due to shape relaxation and reduction of surface energy, being resisted by the viscous drag within the liquid. Experiments were conducted onboard the International Space Station in July of 2004 and subsequently in May of 2005. The coalescence was recorded on video and down-linked near real-time. When the coefficient of surface tension for the liquid is known, the increase in contact radius can be used to determine the coefficient of viscosity for that liquid. The viscosity is determined by fitting the experimental speed to theoretically calculated contact radius speed for the same experimental parameters. Recent fluid dynamical numerical simulations of the coalescence process will be presented. The results are important for a better understanding of the coalescence process. The experiment is also relevant to liquid phase sintering, free form in-situ fabrication, and as a potential new method for measuring the viscosity of viscous glass formers at low shear rates.

  2. AsS melt under pressure: one substance, three liquids.

    PubMed

    Brazhkin, V V; Katayama, Y; Kondrin, M V; Hattori, T; Lyapin, A G; Saitoh, H

    2008-04-11

    An in situ high-temperature--high-pressure study of liquid chalcogenide AsS by x-ray diffraction, resistivity measurements, and quenching from melt is presented. The obtained data provide direct evidence for the existence in the melt under compression of two transformations: one is from a moderate-viscosity molecular liquid to a high-viscosity nonmetallic polymerized liquid at P approximately 1.6-2.2 GPa; the other is from the latter to a low-viscosity metallic liquid at P approximately 4.6-4.8 GPa. Upon rapid cooling, molecular and metallic liquids crystallize to normal and high-pressure phases, respectively, while a polymerized liquid is easily quenched to a new AsS glass. General aspects of multiple phase transitions in liquid AsS, including relations to the phase diagram of the respective crystalline, are discussed.

  3. Liquid Dynamics in high melting materials studied by inelastic X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinn, Harald; Alatas, Ahmet; Said, Ayman; Alp, Esen E.; Price, David L.; Saboungi, Marie Louis; Scheunemann, Richard

    2004-03-01

    The transport properties of high melting materials are of interest for a variety of applications, including geo-sciences, nuclear waste confinement and aerospace technology. While traditional methods of measuring transport properties are often extremely difficult due to the high reactivity of the melts, the combination of containerless levitation and inelastic X-ray scattering offers new insights in the microscopic dynamics of these liquids. Data on the dynamic structure factor of liquid aluminum oxide and liquid boron between 2000-2800 degree Celsius are discussed and related to several macroscopic quantities like sound velocity, viscosity and diffusion.

  4. Development of Maximum Bubble Pressure Method for Surface Tension Measurement of High Viscosity Molten Silicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Osamu; Iwamoto, Hirone; Sakashita, Ryota; Iseki, Chiaki; Zhu, Hongmin

    2017-07-01

    A surface tension measurement method based on the maximum bubble pressure (MBP) method was developed in order to precisely determine the surface tension of molten silicates in this study. Specifically, the influence of viscosity on surface tension measurements was quantified, and the criteria for accurate measurement were investigated. It was found that the MBP apparently increased with an increase in viscosity. This was because extra pressure was required for the flowing liquid inside the capillary due to viscous resistance. It was also expected that the extra pressure would decrease by decreasing the fluid velocity. For silicone oil with a viscosity of 1000 \\hbox {mPa}{\\cdot }\\hbox {s}, the error on the MBP could be decreased to +1.7 % by increasing the bubble detachment time to 300 \\hbox {s}. However, the error was still over 1 % even when the bubble detachment time was increased to 600 \\hbox {s}. Therefore, a true value of the MBP was determined by using a curve-fitting technique with a simple relaxation function, and that was succeeded for silicone oil at 1000 \\hbox {mPa}{\\cdot } \\hbox {s} of viscosity. Furthermore, for silicone oil with a viscosity as high as 10 000 \\hbox {mPa}{\\cdot }\\hbox {s}, the apparent MBP approached a true value by interrupting the gas introduction during the pressure rising period and by re-introducing the gas at a slow flow rate. Based on the fundamental investigation at room temperature, the surface tension of the \\hbox {SiO}2-40 \\hbox {mol}%\\hbox {Na}2\\hbox {O} and \\hbox {SiO}2-50 \\hbox {mol}%\\hbox {Na}2\\hbox {O} melts was determined at a high temperature. The obtained value was slightly lower than the literature values, which might be due to the influence of viscosity on surface tension measurements being removed in this study.

  5. Exploring the structure of high temperature, iron-bearing liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Wilding, Martin; Benmore, Chris; Weber, Rick; ...

    2015-06-25

    This paper describes the direct measurements of the structure of iron-bearing liquids using a combination of containerless techniques and in–situ high energy x-ray diffraction. These capabilities provide data that is important to help model and optimize processes such as smelting, steel making, and controlling slag chemistry. A successful programme of liquid studies has been undertaken and the Advanced Photon Source using these combined techniques which include the provision of gas mixing and the control of pO₂ and the changing influence of mixed valance elements. It is possible to combine rapid image acquisition with quenching of liquids to obtain the fullmore » diffraction patterns of deeply supercooled liquids and the metastable supercooled liquid regime, where the liquid structures and viscosity change most dramatically, can also be explored.« less

  6. A comparison of high viscosity bone cement and low viscosity bone cement vertebroplasty for severe osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Jingcheng; Feng, Xinmin; Tao, Yuping; Yang, Jiandong; Wang, Yongxiang; Zhang, Shengfei; Cai, Jun; Huang, Jijun

    2015-02-01

    To compare the clinical outcome and complications of high viscosity and low viscosity poly-methyl methacrylate bone cement PVP for severe OVCFs. From December 2010 to December 2012, 32 patients with severe OVCFs were randomly assigned to either group H using high viscosity cement (n=14) or group L using low viscosity cement (n=18). The clinical outcomes were assessed by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form-36 General Health Survey (SF-36), kyphosis Cobb's angle, vertebral height, and complications. Significant improvement in the VAS, ODI, SF-36 scores, kyphosis Cobb's angle, and vertebral height were noted in both the groups, and there were no significant differences between the two groups. Cement leakage was seen less in group H. Postoperative assessment using computed tomography identified cement leakage in 5 of 17 (29.4%) vertebrae in group H and in 15 of 22 (68.2%) vertebrae in group L (P=0.025). The PVP using high viscosity bone cement can provide the same clinical outcome and fewer complications compared with PVP using low viscosity bone cement. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Laser performance of Coumarin 540A dye molecules in polymeric host media with different viscosities: From liquid solution to solid polymer matrix

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Costela, A.; Garcia-Moreno, I.; Barroso, J.

    1998-01-01

    Photophysical parameters and lasing properties of Coumarin 540A dye molecules are studied in solutions of increasing viscosity, from liquid solutions in 1,4-dioxane to solid solutions in poly(methyl methacrylate). The fluorescence quantum yield and lasing efficiencies decrease as the viscosity of the solution increases, reflecting the strong influence of the rigidity of the medium on the radiative processes. The photodegradation mechanisms acting on the fluorophores are analyzed by following the dependence of laser induced fluorescence and laser output on the number of pump laser pulses. The fluorescence redistribution after pattern photobleaching technique is used, and Fick{close_quote}s second law is applied tomore » study the diffusion of dye molecules in the highly viscous polymer solutions. The diffusion coefficients of the dye molecules as a function of the increased viscosity of the medium are determined. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}« less

  8. Experimental study on the viscosity and adhesive performance of exogenous liquid fibrin glue.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takuro; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Inamasu, Joji; Adachi, Kazuhide; Nagahisa, Shinya; Hirose, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Exogenous fibrin glue (FG) is highly suitable for neurosurgical procedures, because of its viscosity and adhesive properties. Several FGs are commercially available, but only few reports detail their differences. In the present study, we investigated the viscosity and adhesive performance of two types of FG: one is derived from blood donated in Europe and the United States (CSL Behring's Beriplast(®), BP) and the other is derived from blood donated in Japan (the Chemo-Sero-Therapeutic Research Institute's Bolheal(®), BH). The viscosity test that measured fibrinogen viscosity revealed that BP had significantly higher viscosity than BH. Similarly, the dripping test showed that BP traveled a significantly shorter drip distance in the vertical direction than BH, although the transverse diameter of the coagulated FG did not differ statistically significantly. In the tensile strength test, BP showed superior adhesion performance over BH. The histological study of the hematoxylin-eosin-stained specimens in both groups showed favorable adhesion. Although further studies are required on its manufacturing and usage methods, FG shows differences in viscosity and adhesive performance according to the blood from which it is derived. We conclude that it is desirable to select the type and usage method of FG according to the characteristics of the surgical operation in question. Our findings suggest that FG produced from the blood donated in Europe and the United States might be more suitable for use in surgical procedures that demand an especially high degree of viscosity and rapid adhesive performance.

  9. Therapeutic Antibody Engineering To Improve Viscosity and Phase Separation Guided by Crystal Structure.

    PubMed

    Chow, Chi-Kin; Allan, Barrett W; Chai, Qing; Atwell, Shane; Lu, Jirong

    2016-03-07

    Antibodies at high concentrations often reveal unanticipated biophysical properties suboptimal for therapeutic development. The purpose of this work was to explore the use of point mutations based on crystal structure information to improve antibody physical properties such as viscosity and phase separation (LLPS) at high concentrations. An IgG4 monoclonal antibody (Mab4) that exhibited high viscosity and phase separation at high concentration was used as a model system. Guided by the crystal structure, four CDR point mutants were made to evaluate the role of hydrophobic and charge interactions on solution behavior. Surprisingly and unpredictably, two of the charge mutants, R33G and N35E, showed a reduction in viscosity and a lower propensity to form LLPS at high concentration compared to the wild-type (WT), while a third charge mutant S28K showed an increased propensity to form LLPS compared to the WT. A fourth mutant, F102H, had reduced hydrophobicity, but unchanged viscosity and phase separation behavior. We further evaluated the correlation of various biophysical measurements including second virial coefficient (A2), interaction parameter (kD), weight-average molecular weight (WAMW), and hydrodynamic diameters (DH), at relatively low protein concentration (4 to 15 mg/mL) to physical properties, such as viscosity and liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), at high concentration. Surprisingly, kD measured using dynamic light scattering (DLS) at low antibody concentration correlated better with viscosity and phase separation than did A2 for Mab4. Our results suggest that the high viscosity and phase separation observed at high concentration for Mab4 are mainly driven by charge and not hydrophobicity.

  10. Nano-viscosity of supercooled liquid measured by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: Pressure and temperature dependence and the density scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, G.; Gapinski, J.; Ratajczyk, M.; Lettinga, M. P.; Hirtz, K.; Banachowicz, E.; Patkowski, A.

    2018-03-01

    The Stokes-Einstein relation allows us to calculate apparent viscosity experienced by tracers in complex media on the basis of measured self-diffusion coefficients. Such defined nano-viscosity values can be obtained through single particle techniques, like fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and particle tracking (PT). In order to perform such measurements, as functions of pressure and temperature, a new sample cell was designed and is described in this work. We show that this cell in combination with a long working distance objective of the confocal microscope can be used for successful FCS, PT, and confocal imaging experiments in broad pressure (0.1-100 MPa) and temperature ranges. The temperature and pressure dependent nano-viscosity of a van der Waals liquid obtained from the translational diffusion coefficient measured in this cell by means of FCS obeys the same scaling as the rotational relaxation and macro-viscosity of the system.

  11. Effects of polymers on the rotational viscosities of nematic liquid crystals and dynamics of field alignment

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kim, D.

    Many of the important physical phenomena exhibited by the nematic phase, such as its unusual flow properties and its responses to the electric and the magnetic fields, can be discussed regarding it as a continous medium. The Leslie-Erickson dynamic theory has the six dissipative coefficients from continuum model of liquid crystal. Parodi showed that only five of them are independent, when Onsagar`s reciprocal relations are used. One of these, which has no counterpart in the isotropic liquids, is the rotational viscosity co-efficient, {gamma}{sub 1}. The main objective of this project is to study the rotational viscosities of selected micellar nematicmore » systems and the effect of dissolved polymers in micellar and thermotropic liqud crystals. We used rotating magnetic field method which allows one to determine {gamma}{sub 1} and the anisotropic magnetic susceptibility, {chi}{sub a}. For the ionic surfactant liquid crystals of SDS and KL systems used in this study, the rotational viscosity exhibited an extraordinary drop after reaching the highest values {gamma}{sub 1} as the temperature was lowered. This behavior is not observed in normal liquid crystals. But this phenomena can be attributed to the existence of nematic biaxial phase below the rod-like nematic N{sub c} phase. The pretransitional increase in {gamma}{sub 1} near the disk-like nematic to smectic-A phase transition of the pure CsPFO/H{sub 2}O systems are better understood with the help of mean-field models of W.L. McMillan. He predicted a critical exponent {nu} = {1/2} for the divergence of {gamma}{sub 1}. The polymer (PEO, molecular weight = 10{sup 5}) dissolved in CsPFO/H{sub 2}O system (which has 0.6% critical polymer concentration), suppressed the nematic to lamellar smectic phase transition in concentrated polymer solutions (0.75% and higher). In dilute polymer solutions with lower than 0.3% polyethylene-oxide, a linear increase of {gamma}{sub 1} is observed, which agrees with Brochard theory.« less

  12. Surfactant-Influenced Gas-Liquid Interfaces: Nonlinear Equation of State and Finite Surface Viscosities.

    PubMed

    Lopez; Hirsa

    2000-09-15

    A canonical flow geometry was utilized for a fundamental study of the coupling between bulk flow and a Newtonian gas-liquid interface in the presence of an insoluble surfactant. We develop a Navier-Stokes numerical model of the flow in the deep-channel surface viscometer geometry, which consists of stationary inner and outer cylinders, a floor rotating at a constant angular velocity, and an interface covered initially by a uniformly distributed surfactant. Here, the floor of the annular channel is rotated fast enough so the flow is nonlinear and drives the film toward the inner cylinder. The boundary conditions at the interface are functions of the surface tension, surface shear viscosity, and surface dilatational viscosity, as described by the Boussinesq-Scriven surface model. A physical surfactant system, namely hemicyanine, an insoluble monolayer on an air-water interface, with measured values of surface tension and surface shear viscosity versus concentration, was used in this study. We find that a surfactant front can form, depending on the Reynolds number and the initial surfactant concentration. The stress balance in the radial direction was found to be dominated by the Marangoni stress, but the azimuthal stress was only due to the surface shear viscosity. Numerical studies are presented comparing results of surfactant-influenced interface cases implementing the derived viscoelastic interfacial stress balance with those using a number of idealized stress balances, as well as a rigid no-slip surface, providing added insight into the altered dynamics that result from the presence of a surfactant monolayer. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  13. Simultaneous measurement of surface tension and viscosity using freely decaying oscillations of acoustically levitated droplets.

    PubMed

    Kremer, J; Kilzer, A; Petermann, M

    2018-01-01

    Oscillations of small liquid drops around a spherical shape have been of great interest to scientists measuring physical properties such as interfacial tension and viscosity, over the last few decades. A powerful tool for contactless positioning is acoustic levitation, which has been used to simultaneously determine the surface tension and viscosity of liquids at ambient pressure. In order to extend this acoustic levitation measurement method to high pressure systems, the method is first evaluated under ambient pressure. To measure surface tension and viscosity using acoustically levitated oscillating drops, an image analysis method has to be developed and factors which may affect measurement, such as sound field or oscillation amplitude, have to be analyzed. In this paper, we describe the simultaneous measurement of surface tension and viscosity using freely decaying shape oscillations of acoustically levitated droplets of different liquids (silicone oils AK 5 and AK 10, squalane, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, and 1-octanol) in air. These liquids vary in viscosity from 2 to about 30 mPa s. An acoustic levitation system, including an optimized standing wave acoustic levitator and a high-speed camera, was used for this study. An image analysis was performed with a self-written Matlab® code. The frequency of oscillation and the damping constant, required for the determination of surface tension and viscosity, respectively, were calculated from the evolution of the equatorial and polar radii. The results and observations are compared to data from the literature in order to analyze the accuracy of surface tension and viscosity determination, as well as the effect of non-spherical drop shape or amplitude of oscillation on measurement.

  14. Simultaneous measurement of surface tension and viscosity using freely decaying oscillations of acoustically levitated droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, J.; Kilzer, A.; Petermann, M.

    2018-01-01

    Oscillations of small liquid drops around a spherical shape have been of great interest to scientists measuring physical properties such as interfacial tension and viscosity, over the last few decades. A powerful tool for contactless positioning is acoustic levitation, which has been used to simultaneously determine the surface tension and viscosity of liquids at ambient pressure. In order to extend this acoustic levitation measurement method to high pressure systems, the method is first evaluated under ambient pressure. To measure surface tension and viscosity using acoustically levitated oscillating drops, an image analysis method has to be developed and factors which may affect measurement, such as sound field or oscillation amplitude, have to be analyzed. In this paper, we describe the simultaneous measurement of surface tension and viscosity using freely decaying shape oscillations of acoustically levitated droplets of different liquids (silicone oils AK 5 and AK 10, squalane, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, and 1-octanol) in air. These liquids vary in viscosity from 2 to about 30 mPa s. An acoustic levitation system, including an optimized standing wave acoustic levitator and a high-speed camera, was used for this study. An image analysis was performed with a self-written Matlab® code. The frequency of oscillation and the damping constant, required for the determination of surface tension and viscosity, respectively, were calculated from the evolution of the equatorial and polar radii. The results and observations are compared to data from the literature in order to analyze the accuracy of surface tension and viscosity determination, as well as the effect of non-spherical drop shape or amplitude of oscillation on measurement.

  15. High-Resolution Lithosphere Viscosity and Dynamics Revealed by Magnetotelluric Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Hasterok, D. P.

    2016-12-01

    An accurate viscosity structure is critical to truthfully modeling continental lithosphere dynamics, especially at spatial scales of <200 km where active tectonic deformation and volcanism occur. However, the effective viscosity structure of the lithosphere remains a key challenge in geodynamics due to the intimate involvement of viscosity with time and its dependence on many factors including strain rate, plastic failure, composition, and grain size. Current efforts on inferring the detailed lithosphere viscosity structure are sparse and large uncertainties and discrepancies still exist. Here we report an attempt to infer the effective lithospheric viscosity from a high-resolution magnetotelluric (MT) survey across the western United States. The high sensitivity of MT fields to the presence of electrically conductive fluids makes it a promising proxy for determining mechanical strength variations throughout the lithosphere. We demonstrate how a viscosity structure, approximated from electrical resistivity, results in a geodynamic model that successfully predicts short-wavelength surface topography, lithospheric deformation, and mantle upwelling beneath recent volcanism. The results indicate that lithosphere viscosity structure rather than the buoyancy structure is the dominant controlling factor for short-wavelength topography and intra-plate deformation in tectonically active regions. We further show that this viscosity is consistent with and more effective than that derived from laboratory-based rheology. We therefore propose that MT imaging provides a practical observational constraint for quantifying the dynamic evolution of the continental lithosphere.

  16. Reinventing Design Principles for Developing Low-Viscosity Carbon Dioxide-Binding Organic Liquids for Flue Gas Clean Up

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    None, None

    2017-01-11

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2) emission from point sources, such as coal fired-power plants, account for the majority of the green houses gasses in the atmosphere. Capture, storage and utilization are required to mitigate adverse environmental effects. Aqueous amine-based CO 2 capture solvents are currently considered the industry standard, but deployment to market is limited by their high regeneration energy demand. In that context, energy efficient and less-viscous water-lean transformational solvent systems known as CO 2 Binding Organic Liquids (CO 2BOLs) are being developed in our group to advance this technology to commercialization. Herein, we present a logical design approachmore » based on fundamental concepts of organic chemistry and computer simulations aimed at lowering solvent viscosity. Conceptually, viscosity reduction would be achieved by systemmatic methods such as introduction of steric hindrance on the anion to minimize the intermolecular cation-anion interactions, fine tuning the electronics, hydrogen bonding orientation and strength, and charge solvation. Conventional standard trial-and-error approaches while effective, are time consuming and economically expensive. Herein, we rethink the metrics and design principles of low-viscosity CO 2 capture solvents using a combined synthesis and computational modeling approach. We critically study the impacts of modyfying factors such as as orientation of hydrogen bonding, introduction of higher degrees of freedom and cation or anion charge solvation and assess if or how each factor impacts viscosity of CO 2BOL CO 2 capture solvents. Ultimately, we found that hydrogen bond orientation and strength is predominantly influencing the viscosity in CO 2BOL solvents. With this knowledge, a new 1-MEIPADM-2-BOL CO 2BOL variant was synthesized and tested, resulting in a solvent that is approximately 60% less viscous at 25 mol% CO 2 loading with respect to our base compound 1-IPADM-2-BOL. The insights gained

  17. Experimental Study on the Viscosity and Adhesive Performance of Exogenous Liquid Fibrin Glue

    PubMed Central

    HAYASHI, Takuro; HASEGAWA, Mitsuhiro; INAMASU, Joji; ADACHI, Kazuhide; NAGAHISA, Shinya; HIROSE, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Exogenous fibrin glue (FG) is highly suitable for neurosurgical procedures, because of its viscosity and adhesive properties. Several FGs are commercially available, but only few reports detail their differences. In the present study, we investigated the viscosity and adhesive performance of two types of FG: one is derived from blood donated in Europe and the United States (CSL Behring's Beriplast®, BP) and the other is derived from blood donated in Japan (the Chemo-Sero-Therapeutic Research Institute's Bolheal®, BH). The viscosity test that measured fibrinogen viscosity revealed that BP had significantly higher viscosity than BH. Similarly, the dripping test showed that BP traveled a significantly shorter drip distance in the vertical direction than BH, although the transverse diameter of the coagulated FG did not differ statistically significantly. In the tensile strength test, BP showed superior adhesion performance over BH. The histological study of the hematoxylin-eosin-stained specimens in both groups showed favorable adhesion. Although further studies are required on its manufacturing and usage methods, FG shows differences in viscosity and adhesive performance according to the blood from which it is derived. We conclude that it is desirable to select the type and usage method of FG according to the characteristics of the surgical operation in question. Our findings suggest that FG produced from the blood donated in Europe and the United States might be more suitable for use in surgical procedures that demand an especially high degree of viscosity and rapid adhesive performance. PMID:25367586

  18. Surface-bonded ionic liquid stationary phases in high-performance liquid chromatography--a review.

    PubMed

    Pino, Verónica; Afonso, Ana M

    2012-02-10

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are a class of ionic, nonmolecular solvents which remain in liquid state at temperatures below 100°C. ILs possess a variety of properties including low to negligible vapor pressure, high thermal stability, miscibility with water or a variety of organic solvents, and variable viscosity. IL-modified silica as novel high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) stationary phases have attracted considerable attention for their differential behavior and low free-silanol activity. Indeed, around 21 surface-confined ionic liquids (SCIL) stationary phases have been developed in the last six years. Their chromatographic behavior has been studied, and, despite the presence of a positive charge on the stationary phase, they showed considerable promise for the separation of neutral solutes (not only basic analytes), when operated in reversed phase mode. This aspect points to the potential for truly multimodal stationary phases. This review attempts to summarize the state-of-the-art about SCIL phases including their preparation, chromatographic behavior, and analytical performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Studies on transport behaviour of a binary liquid mixture of ethanol and toluene at 298.15K in terms of viscosity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, Suresh; Suthar, Shyam Sunder; Vyas, Mahendra; Beniwal, Ram Chandra

    2018-05-01

    The main transport properties of liquid or liquid mixtures are viscosity, diffusion, transference and electrical conductance. Viscosities of various liquid mixtures have been studied and their analyses have also been done by the help of some parameters. For each solution, the excess thermodynamic properties (YE) have been investigated. These excess thermodynamic properties are excess molar volume (VE), viscosity deviation (Δη) and excess Gibbs free energy of activation of viscous flow (ΔG*E). These parameters provide us the important information about interaction between molecules. For example, the negative value of VE and positive value of Δη shows the strong interaction between the solute and solvent molecules while positive value of VE and negative value of Δη shows the weak interaction between solute and solvent molecules. Above parameters and their discussion have been made in our earlier paper. In the present research paper, the viscosity data have been correlated with the equations of Grunberg and Nissan, Hind et al., Tamura and Kurata Katti. The excess values have been correlated using Redlich-Kister polynomial equation to obtain their coefficients and standard deviations. It has been found that in all cases, the data obtained fitted with the values correlated by the corresponding models very well. The results are interpreted in terms of molecular interactions occurring in the solution.

  20. Experimental understanding of the viscosity reduction ability of TLCPs with different PEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Youhong; Zuo, Min; Gao, Ping

    2014-08-01

    In this study, two thermotropic liquid crystalline polyesters (TLCPs) synthesized by polycondensation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid /hydroquinone/ poly dicarboxylic acid were used as viscosity reduction agents for polyethylene (PE). The TLCPs had different thermal, rheological and other physical properties that were quantitatively characterized. The two TLCPs were blended with high density PE (HDPE) and high molecular mass PE (HMMPE) by simple twin screw extrusion under the same weight ratio of 1.0 wt% and were each rheologically characterized at 190°C. The TLCPs acted as processing modifiers for the PEs and the bulk viscosity of the blends decreased dramatically. However, the viscosity reduction ability was not identical: one TLCP had obviously higher viscosity reduction ability on the HDPE, with a maximum viscosity reduction ratio of 68.1%, whereas the other TLCP had higher viscosity reduction ability on the HMMPE, with a maximum viscosity reduction ratio of 98.7%. Proposed explanations for these differences are evaluated.

  1. Viscosity and Wetting Property of Water Confined in Extended Nanospace Simultaneously Measured from Highly-Pressurized Meniscus Motion.

    PubMed

    Li, Lixiao; Kazoe, Yutaka; Mawatari, Kazuma; Sugii, Yasuhiko; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2012-09-06

    Understanding fluid and interfacial properties in extended nanospace (10-1000 nm) is important for recent advances of nanofluidics. We studied properties of water confined in fused-silica nanochannels of 50-1500 nm sizes with two types of cross-section: (1) square channel of nanoscale width and depth, and (2) plate channel of microscale width and nanoscale depth. Viscosity and wetting property were simultaneously measured from capillary filling controlled by megapascal external pressure. The viscosity increased in extended nanospace, while the wetting property was almost constant. Especially, water in the square nanochannels had much higher viscosity than the plate channel, which can be explained considering loosely coupled water molecules by hydrogen bond on the surface within 24 nm. This study suggests specificity of fluids two-dimensionally confined in extended nanoscale, in which the liquid is highly viscous by the specific water phase, while the wetting dynamics is governed by the well-known adsorbed water layer of several-molecules thickness.

  2. The influence of tongue strength on oral viscosity discrimination acuity.

    PubMed

    Steele, Catriona M

    2018-06-01

    The ability to generate tongue pressures is widely considered to be critical for liquid bolus propulsion in swallowing. It has been proposed that the application of tongue pressure may also serve the function of collecting sensory information regarding bolus viscosity (resistance to flow). In this study, we explored the impact of age-related reductions in tongue strength on oral viscosity discrimination acuity. The experiment employed a triangle test discrimination protocol with an array of xanthan-gum thickened liquids in the mildly to moderately thick consistency range. A sample of 346 healthy volunteers was recruited, with age ranging from 12 to 86 (164 men, 182 women). On average, participants were able to detect a 0.29-fold increase in xanthan-gum concentration, corresponding to a 0.5-fold increase in viscosity at 50/s. Despite having significantly reduced tongue strength on maximum isometric tongue-palate pressure tasks, and regardless of sex, older participants in this study showed no reductions in viscosity discrimination acuity. In this article, the relationship between tongue strength and the ability to discriminate small differences in liquid viscosity during oral processing is explored. Given that tongue strength declines with age in healthy adults and is also reduced in individuals with dysphagia, it is interesting to determine whether reduced tongue strength might contribute to difficulties in evaluating liquid viscosity during the oral stage of swallowing. Using an array of mildly to moderately thick xanthan-gum thickened liquids, this experiment failed to find any evidence that reductions in tongue strength influence oral viscosity discrimination acuity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effects of viscosity, taste, and bolus volume on swallowing apnea duration of normal adults.

    PubMed

    Butler, Susan G; Postma, Gregory N; Fischer, Eileen

    2004-12-01

    The effects of viscosity, taste, and nectar-thick liquid bolus volume on swallowing apnea duration (SAD) were examined. Twenty-two adults, comprised of 10 males and 12 females, participated. SAD was assessed via nasal airflow during swallow conditions of viscosity (thin liquid, thick liquid, and puree), taste (water, apple juice, lemon concentrate), and nectar-thick liquid bolus volumes (5, 10, 15, and 20 mL) across three trials. A significant main effect of nectar-thick liquid bolus volume was found (P < 0.05). Viscosity and taste were not significant. SAD increased with increases in bolus volume; however, neither changes in bolus viscosity nor changes in taste affected SAD. These findings indicate that since viscosity was not significant, the normative data previously published (by this PI) with 60 healthy adults stratified by age and gender can be utilized for comparison to disordered swallowing without regard to the bolus viscosity being used. D.

  4. Viscosity of high-temperature iodine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Steve H.; Kunc, Joseph A.

    1991-01-01

    The viscosity coefficient of iodine in the temperature range 500 - 3000 K is calculated. Because of the low dissociation energy of the I2 molecules, the dissociation degree of the gas increases quickly with temperature, and I + I2 and I + I collisions must be taken into account in calculation of viscosity at temperatures greater than 1000 deg. Several possible channels for atom-atom interaction are considered, and the resulting collision integrals are averaged over all the important channels. It is also shown that the rigid-sphere model is inaccurate in predictions of the viscosity.

  5. Reducing the Viscosity of Blood by Pulsed Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.; Huang, K.

    2010-03-01

    Blood viscosity is a major player in heart disease. When blood is viscous, in addition to a high blood pressure required for the blood circulation, blood vessel walls are also easy to be damaged. While this issue is very important, currently the only method to reduce the blood viscosity is to take medicine, such as aspirin. Here we report our new finding that the blood viscosity can be reduced by pulsed magnetic field. Blood is a suspension of red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes) and platelets in plasma, a complex solution of gases, salts, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. The base liquid, plasma, has low viscosity. The effective viscosity of whole blood increases mainly due to the red blood cells, which have a volume fraction about 40% or above. Red blood cells contain iron and are sensitive to magnetic field. Therefore, when we apply a strong magnetic field, the red cells make their diameters align in the field direction to form short chains. This change in rheology reduces the effective viscosity as high as 20-30%. While this reduction is not permanent, it lasts for several hours and repeatable. The reduction rate can be controlled by selecting suitable magnetic field and duration of field application to make blood viscosity within the normal range.

  6. Containerless measurements on liquids at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The application of containerless techniques for measurements of the thermophysical properties of high temperature liquids is reviewed. Recent results obtained in the materials research laboratories at Intersonics are also presented. Work to measure high temperature liquid properties is motivated by both the need for reliable property data for modeling of industrial processes involving molten materials and generation of data form basic modeling of materials behavior. The motivation for this work and examples of variations in thermophysical property values from the literature are presented. The variations may be attributed to changes in the specimen properties caused by chemical changes in the specimen and/or to measurement errors. The two methods used to achieve containerless conditions were aeroacoustic levitation and electromagnetic levitation. Their qualities are presented. The accompanying slides show the layout of levitation equipment and present examples of levitated metallic and ceramic specimens. Containerless techniques provide a high degree of control over specimen chemistry, nucleation and allow precise control of liquid composition to be achieved. Effects of minor additions can thus be measured in a systematic way. Operation in reduced gravity enables enhanced control of liquid motion which can allow measurement of liquid transport properties. Examples of nucleation control, the thermodynamics of oxide contamination removal, and control of the chromium content of liquid aluminum oxide by high temperature containerless processes are presented. The feasibility of measuring temperature, emissivity, liquidus temperature, enthalpy, surface tension, density, viscosity, and thermal diffusivity are discussed in the final section of the paper.

  7. The micromechanics model analysis of the viscosity regulation of ultra-high strength concrete with low viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, M.; Wang, F. G.; Wang, F. Z.; Liu, Y. P.

    2017-02-01

    The plastic viscosity of mortar and concrete with different binder content, sand ratio, water-binder ratio, microbead dosage and different class and dosage of fly ash were tested and calculated according tomicromechanics model proposed by A. Ghanbari and B.L. Karihaloo, The correlations between these parameters and fresh concrete workability were also investigated, which showed i. high consistence with the objective reality. When binder content, microbead dosage, fly ash dosage or the water-binder ratio was increased or sand ratio was reduced, the fresh concrete viscosity would decrease correspondingly. However their effects were not that same. The relationships between T50 a, V-funnel and inverted slump time with fresh concrete viscosity were established, respectively.

  8. Simultaneous viscosity and density measurement of small volumes of liquids using a vibrating microcantilever† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6an02674e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Payam, A. F.; Trewby, W.

    2017-01-01

    Many industrial and technological applications require precise determination of the viscosity and density of liquids. Such measurements can be time consuming and often require sampling substantial amounts of the liquid. These problems can partly be overcome with the use of microcantilevers but most existing methods depend on the specific geometry and properties of the cantilever, which renders simple, accurate measurement difficult. Here we present a new approach able to simultaneously quantify both the density and the viscosity of microliters of liquids. The method, based solely on the measurement of two characteristic frequencies of an immersed microcantilever, is completely independent of the choice of a cantilever. We derive analytical expressions for the liquid's density and viscosity and validate our approach with several simple liquids and different cantilevers. Application of our model to non-Newtonian fluids shows that the calculated viscosities are remarkably robust when compared to measurements obtained from a standard rheometer. However, the results become increasingly dependent on the cantilever geometry as the frequency-dependent nature of the liquid's viscosity becomes more significant. PMID:28352874

  9. Intermolecular Interactions and the Viscosity of Highly Concentrated Monoclonal Antibody Solutions.

    PubMed

    Binabaji, Elaheh; Ma, Junfen; Zydney, Andrew L

    2015-09-01

    The large increase in viscosity of highly concentrated monoclonal antibody solutions can be challenging for downstream processing, drug formulation, and delivery steps. The objective of this work was to examine the viscosity of highly concentrated solutions of a high purity IgG1 monoclonal antibody over a wide range of protein concentrations, solution pH, ionic strength, and in the presence / absence of different excipients. Experiments were performed with an IgG1 monoclonal antibody provided by Amgen. The steady-state viscosity was evaluated using a Rheometrics strain-controlled rotational rheometer with a concentric cylinder geometry. The viscosity data were well-described by the Mooney equation. The data were analyzed in terms of the antibody virial coefficients obtained from osmotic pressure data evaluated under the same conditions. The viscosity coefficient in the absence of excipients was well correlated with the third osmotic virial coefficient, which has a negative value (corresponding to short range attractive interactions) at the pH and ionic strength examined in this work. These results provide important insights into the effects of intermolecular protein-protein interactions on the behavior of highly concentrated antibody solutions.

  10. Viscosity of fiber preloads affects food intake in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vuksan, V; Panahi, S; Lyon, M; Rogovik, A L; Jenkins, A L; Leiter, L A

    2009-09-01

    Dietary fiber that develops viscosity in the gastrointestinal tract is capable of addressing various aspects of food intake control. The aim of this study was to assess subsequent food intake and appetite in relation to the level of viscosity following three liquid preloads each containing 5 g of either a high (novel viscous polysaccharide; NVP), medium (glucomannan; GLM), or low (cellulose; CE) viscosity fiber. In this double-blind, randomized, controlled and crossover trial, 31 healthy weight adolescents (25 F:6 M; age 16.1+/-0.6 years; BMI 22.2+/-3.7 kg/m(2)) consumed one of the three preloads 90 min prior to an ad libitum pizza meal. Preloads were identical in taste, appearance, nutrient content and quantity of fiber, but different in their viscosities (10, 410, and 700 poise for CE, GLM, and NVP, respectively). Pizza intake was significantly lower (p=0.008) after consumption of the high-viscosity NVP (278+/-111 g) compared to the medium-viscosity GLM (313+/-123 g) and low-viscosity CE (316+/-138 g) preloads, with no difference between the GLM and CE preloads. Appetite scores, physical symptoms and 24-h intake did not differ among treatment groups. A highly viscous NVP preload leads to reduced subsequent food intake, in terms of both gram weight and calories, in healthy weight adolescents. This study provides preliminary evidence of an independent contribution of viscosity on food intake and may form a basis for further studies on factors influencing food intake in adolescents.

  11. A macroscopic model that connects the molar excess entropy of a supercooled liquid near its glass transition temperature to its viscosity.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Hiroshi

    2012-11-28

    For a deeply supercooled liquid near its glass transition temperature, we suggest a possible way to connect the temperature dependence of its molar excess entropy to that of its viscosity by constructing a macroscopic model, where the deeply supercooled liquid is assumed to be a mixture of solid-like and liquid-like micro regions. In this model, we assume that the mole fraction x of the liquid-like micro regions tends to zero as the temperature T of the liquid is decreased and extrapolated to a temperature T(g)(*), which we assume to be below but close to the lowest glass transition temperature T(g) attainable with the slowest possible cooling rate for the liquid. Without referring to any specific microscopic nature of the solid-like and liquid-like micro regions, we also assume that near T(g), the molar enthalpy of the solid-like micro regions is lower than that of the liquid-like micro regions. We then show that the temperature dependence of x is directly related to that of the molar excess entropy. Close to T(g), we assume that an activated motion of the solid-like micro regions controls the viscosity and that this activated motion is a collective motion involving practically all of the solid-like micro-regions so that the molar activation free energy Δg(a) for the activated motion is proportional to the mole fraction, 1 - x, of the solid-like micro regions. The temperature dependence of the viscosity is thus connected to that of the molar excess entropy s(e) through the temperature dependence of the mole fraction x. As an example, we apply our model to a class of glass formers for which s(e) at temperatures near T(g) is well approximated by s(e) ∝ 1 - T(K)∕T with T(K) < T(g) ≅ T(g)(*) and find their viscosities to be well approximated by the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman equation for temperatures very close to T(g). We also find that a parameter a appearing in the temperature dependence of x for a glass former in this class is a measure for its fragility. As this

  12. Bubbling at high flow rates in inviscid and viscous liquids (slags)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engh, T. Abel; Nilmani, M.

    1988-02-01

    The behavior of gas discharging into melts at high velocities but still in the bubbling regime has been investigated in a laboratory modeling study for constant flow conditions. Air or helium was injected through a vertical tuyere into water, zinc-chloride, and aqueous glycerol solutions. High speed cinematography and pressure measurements in the tuyere have been carried out simultaneously. Pressure fluctuations at the injection point were monitored and correlated to the mode of bubble formation. The effects of high gas flow rates and high liquid viscosities have been examined in particular. Flow rates were employed up to 10-3 m3/s and viscosity to 0.5 Ns/m2. In order to attain a high gas momentum, the tuyere diameter was only 3 x 10-3 m. The experimental conditions and modeling liquids were chosen with special reference to the established practice of submerged gas injection to treat nonferrous slags. Such slags can be highly viscous. Bubble volume is smaller than that calculated from existing models such as those given by Davidson and Schüler10,11 due to the effect of gas momentum elongating the bubbles. On the other hand, viscosity tends to retard the bubble rise velocity, thus increasing volumes. To take elongation into account, a mathematical model is presented that assumes a prolate ellipsoidal shape of the bubbles. The unsteady potential flow equations for the liquid are solved for this case. Viscous effects are taken into account by noting that flow deviates from irrotational motion only in a thin boundary layer along the surface of the bubble. Thus, drag on the bubble can be obtained by calculating the viscous energy dissipation for potential flow past an ellipse. The time-dependent inertia coefficient for the ellipsoid is found by equating the vertical pressure increase inside and outside the bubble. This pressure change in the bubble is obtained by assuming that gas enters as a homogeneous jet and then calculating the stagnation pressure at the apex of

  13. Ab initio calculation of the shear viscosity of neon in the liquid and hypercritical state over a wide pressure and temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggenberger, Rolf; Gerber, Stefan; Huber, Hanspeter; Searles, Debra; Welker, Marc

    1992-08-01

    The shear viscosity is calculated ab initio for the liquid and hypercritical state, i.e. a previously published potential for Ne 2, obtained from ab initio calculations including electron correlation, is used in classical equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to obtain the shear viscosity from a Green-Kubo integral. The quality of the results is quite uniform over a large pressure range up to 1000 MPa and a wide temperature range from 26 to 600 K. In most cases the calculated shear viscosity deviates by less than 10% from the experimental value, in general the error being only a few percent.

  14. Bulk viscosity of molecular fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Frederike; Matar, Omar K.; Müller, Erich A.

    2018-05-01

    The bulk viscosity of molecular models of gases and liquids is determined by molecular simulations as a combination of a dilute gas contribution, arising due to the relaxation of internal degrees of freedom, and a configurational contribution, due to the presence of intermolecular interactions. The dilute gas contribution is evaluated using experimental data for the relaxation times of vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom. The configurational part is calculated using Green-Kubo relations for the fluctuations of the pressure tensor obtained from equilibrium microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations. As a benchmark, the Lennard-Jones fluid is studied. Both atomistic and coarse-grained force fields for water, CO2, and n-decane are considered and tested for their accuracy, and where possible, compared to experimental data. The dilute gas contribution to the bulk viscosity is seen to be significant only in the cases when intramolecular relaxation times are in the μs range, and for low vibrational wave numbers (<1000 cm-1); This explains the abnormally high values of bulk viscosity reported for CO2. In all other cases studied, the dilute gas contribution is negligible and the configurational contribution dominates the overall behavior. In particular, the configurational term is responsible for the enhancement of the bulk viscosity near the critical point.

  15. High-Temperature Viscosity Of Commercial Glasses

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hrma, Pavel R; See, Clem A; Lam, Oanh P

    2005-01-01

    Viscosity was measured for six types of commercial glasses: low-expansion-borosilicate glasses, E glasses, fiberglass wool glasses, TV panel glasses, container glasses, and float glasses. Viscosity data were obtained with rotating spindle viscometers within the temperature range between 900°C and 1550°C; the viscosity varied from 1 Pa∙s to 750 Pa∙s. Arrhenius coefficients were calculated for individual glasses and linear models were applied to relate them to the mass fractions of 11 major components (SiO2, CaO, Na2O, Al2O3, B2O3, BaO, SrO, K2O, MgO, PbO, and ZrO2) and 12 minor components (Fe2O3, ZnO, Li2O, TiO2, CeO2, F, Sb2O3, Cr2O3, As2O3, MnO2, SO3, andmore » Co3O4). The models are recommended for glasses containing 42 to 84 mass% SiO2 to estimate viscosities or temperatures at a constant viscosity for melts within both the temperature range from 1100°C to 1550°C and viscosity range from 10 to 400 Pas.« less

  16. Solitary traveling wave solutions of pressure equation of bubbly liquids with examination for viscosity and heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khater, Mostafa M. A.; Seadawy, Aly R.; Lu, Dianchen

    2018-03-01

    In this research, we investigate one of the most popular model in nature and also industrial which is the pressure equation of bubbly liquids with examination for viscosity and heat transfer which has many application in nature and engineering. Understanding the physical meaning of exact and solitary traveling wave solutions for this equation gives the researchers in this field a great clear vision of the pressure waves in a mixture liquid and gas bubbles taking into consideration the viscosity of liquid and the heat transfer and also dynamics of contrast agents in the blood flow at ultrasonic researches. To achieve our goal, we apply three different methods which are extended tanh-function method, extended simple equation method and a new auxiliary equation method on this equation. We obtained exact and solitary traveling wave solutions and we also discuss the similarity and difference between these three method and make a comparison between results that we obtained with another results that obtained with the different researchers using different methods. All of these results and discussion explained the fact that our new auxiliary equation method is considered to be the most general, powerful and the most result-oriented. These kinds of solutions and discussion allow for the understanding of the phenomenon and its intrinsic properties as well as the ease of way of application and its applicability to other phenomena.

  17. Bulk Viscosity of Bubbly Magmas and the Amplification of Pressure Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navon, O.; Lensky, N. G.; Neuberg, J. W.; Lyakhovsky, V.

    2001-12-01

    The bulk viscosity of magma is needed in order to describe the dynamics of a compressible bubbly magma flowing in conduits and to follow the attenuation of pressure waves travelling through a compressible magma. We developed a model for the bulk viscosity of a suspension of gas bubbles in an incompressible Newtonian liquid that exsolves volatiles (e.g. magma). The suspension is modeled as a close pack of spherical cells, consisting of gas bubbles centered in spherical shells of a volatile-bearing liquid. Following a drop in the ambient pressure the resulting dilatational motion and driving pressure are obtained in terms of the two-phase cell parameters, i.e. bubble radius and gas pressure. By definition, the bulk viscosity of a fluid is the relation between changes of the driving pressure with respect to changes in the resulted expansion strain-rate. Thus, we can use the two-phase solution to define the bulk viscosity of a hypothetical cell, composed of a homogeneously compressible, one-phase, continuous fluid. The resulted bulk viscosity is highly non-linear. At the beginning of the expansion process, when gas exsolution is efficient, the expansion rate grows exponentially while the driving pressure decreases slightly. That means that bulk viscosity is formally negative. The negative value reflects the release of the energy stored in the supersaturated liquid (melt) and its conversion to mechanical work during exsolution. Later, when bubbles are large enough and the gas influx decreases significantly, the strain rate decelerates and the bulk viscosity becomes positive as expected in a dissipative system. We demonstrate that amplification of seismic wave travelling through a volcanic conduit filled with a volatile saturated magma may be attributed to the negative bulk viscosity of the compressible magma. Amplification of an expansion wave may, at some level in the conduit, damage the conduit walls and initiate opening of new pathways for magma to erupt.

  18. Effects of Metal Ions on Viscosity of Aqueous Sodium Carboxylmethylcellulose Solution and Development of Dropping Ball Method on Viscosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Set, Seng; Ford, David; Kita, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    This research revealed that metal ions with different charges could significantly affect the viscosity of aqueous sodium carboxylmethylcellulose (CMC) solution. On the basis of an Ostwald viscometer, an improvised apparatus using a dropping ball for examining the viscosity of liquids/solutions has been developed. The results indicate that the…

  19. Characterization of oscillator circuits for monitoring the density-viscosity of liquids by means of piezoelectric MEMS microresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, J.; Ruiz-Díez, V.; Pfusterschmied, G.; Schmid, U.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.

    2017-06-01

    Real-time monitoring of the physical properties of liquids, such as lubricants, is a very important issue for the automotive industry. For example, contamination of lubricating oil by diesel soot has a significant impact on engine wear. Resonant microstructures are regarded as a precise and compact solution for tracking the viscosity and density of lubricant oils. In this work, we report a piezoelectric resonator, designed to resonate with the 4th order out-of-plane modal vibration, 15-mode, and the interface circuit and calibration process for the monitoring of oil dilution with diesel fuel. In order to determine the resonance parameters of interest, i.e. resonant frequency and quality factor, an interface circuit was implemented and included within a closed-loop scheme. Two types of oscillator circuits were tested, a Phase-Locked Loop based on instrumentation, and a more compact version based on discrete electronics, showing similar resolution. Another objective of this work is the assessment of a calibration method for piezoelectric MEMS resonators in simultaneous density and viscosity sensing. An advanced calibration model, based on a Taylor series of the hydrodynamic function, was established as a suitable method for determining the density and viscosity with the lowest calibration error. Our results demonstrate the performance of the resonator in different oil samples with viscosities up to 90 mPa•s. At the highest value, the quality factor measured at 25°C was around 22. The best resolution obtained was 2.4•10-6 g/ml for the density and 2.7•10-3 mPa•s for the viscosity, in pure lubricant oil SAE 0W30 at 90°C. Furthermore, the estimated density and viscosity values with the MEMS resonator were compared to those obtained with a commercial density-viscosity meter, reaching a mean calibration error in the best scenario of around 0.08% for the density and 3.8% for the viscosity.

  20. Melting properties of Pt and its transport coefficients in liquid states under high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pan-Pan; Shao, Ju-Xiang; Cao, Qi-Long

    2016-11-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the melting and transport properties in liquid states of platinum for the pressure range (50-200 GPa) are reported. The melting curve of platinum is consistent with previous ab initio MD simulation results and the first-principles melting curve. Calculated results for the pressure dependence of fusion entropy and fusion volume show that the fusion entropy and the fusion volume decrease with increasing pressure, and the ratio of the fusion volume to fusion entropy roughly reproduces the melting slope, which has a moderate decrease along the melting line. The Arrhenius law well describes the temperature dependence of self-diffusion coefficients and viscosity under high pressure, and the diffusion activation energy decreases with increasing pressure, while the viscosity activation energy increases with increasing pressure. In addition, the entropy-scaling law, proposed by Rosenfeld under ambient pressure, still holds well for liquid Pt under high pressure conditions.

  1. Diffusion and viscosity of liquid tin: Green-Kubo relationship-based calculations from molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouas, Mohamed; Gasser, Jean-Georges; Hellal, Slimane; Grosdidier, Benoît; Makradi, Ahmed; Belouettar, Salim

    2012-03-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of liquid tin between its melting point and 1600 °C have been performed in order to interpret and discuss the ionic structure. The interactions between ions are described by a new accurate pair potential built within the pseudopotential formalism and the linear response theory. The calculated structure factor that reflects the main information on the local atomic order in liquids is compared to diffraction measurements. Having some confidence in the ability of this pair potential to give a good representation of the atomic structure, we then focused our attention on the investigation of the atomic transport properties through the MD computations of the velocity autocorrelation function and stress autocorrelation function. Using the Green-Kubo formula (for the first time to our knowledge for liquid tin) we determine the macroscopic transport properties from the corresponding microscopic time autocorrelation functions. The selfdiffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity as functions of temperature are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Viscosity of confined two-dimensional Yukawa liquids: A nonequilibrium method

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Landmann, S.; Kählert, H.; Thomsen, H.

    2015-09-15

    We present a nonequilibrium method that allows one to determine the viscosity of two-dimensional dust clusters in an isotropic confinement. By applying a tangential external force to the outer parts of the cluster (e.g., with lasers), a sheared velocity profile is created. The decay of the angular velocity towards the center of the confinement potential is determined by a balance between internal (viscosity) and external friction (neutral gas damping). The viscosity can then be calculated from a fit of the measured velocity profile to a solution of the Navier-Stokes equation. Langevin dynamics simulations are used to demonstrate the feasibility ofmore » the method. We find good agreement of the measured viscosity with previous results for macroscopic Yukawa plasmas.« less

  3. Glass transition and viscosity of P/sub 2/O/sub 5/

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Martin, S.W.; Angell, C.A.

    1986-12-04

    The calorimetric glass transition temperature T/sub g/ for pure anhydrous P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ melted in sealed SiO/sub 2/ ampules at 1000 /sup 0/C has been obtained directly for the first time with differential scanning calorimetry, and the increase in heat capacity at T/sub g/ has been determined. T/sub g/ measured in this way is 57 K higher than the value quoted in the literature, which is probably based on an Arrhenius law extrapolation of viscosity data to eta = 10/sup 13/ P. Combining the high-temperature viscosity data with the common observation that, for oxide glasses, eta = 10/sup 12/ Pmore » at the DSC T/sub g/, the authors find that the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ viscosity obeys an Arrhenius law over at least 6 decades of eta. Furthermore, the intercept at 1/T = 0 coincides with the common point of T/sub g/ - reduced viscosity plots for a wide variety of liquids recently used in establishing the strong vs. fragile classification of glass-forming liquids. On this basis, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ behaves as the archetypal strong liquid. However, the value of C/sub p/(liquid)/C/sub p/(glass) at T/sub g/, 1.27, is larger than expected on this basis since other strong liquids show smaller values, e.g., GeO/sub 2/ (1.09) and BeF/sub 2/ (no ..delta..C/sub p/ detected). The dependence of T/sub g/ on heating rate has been determined and shows that enthalpy relaxation in the transition region has, within error, the same activation energy (43.9 kcal/mol) as for viscous flow.« less

  4. Highly branched polyethylenes as lubricant viscosity and friction modifiers

    DOE PAGES

    Robinson, Joshua W.; Zhou, Yan; Qu, Jun; ...

    2016-10-08

    A series of highly branched polyethylene (BPE) were prepared and evaluated in a Group I base oil as potential viscosity and friction modifiers. The performance of these BPEs supports the expected dual functionality. Changes in polarity, topology, and molecular weight of the BPEs showed significant effects on the lubricants' performance with respect to viscosity index and friction reduction. In conclusion, this study provides scientific insights into polymer design for future lubricant development activities.

  5. Reliable Viscosity Calculation from Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Simulations: A Time Decomposition Method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Otani, Akihito; Maginn, Edward J

    2015-08-11

    Equilibrium molecular dynamics is often used in conjunction with a Green-Kubo integral of the pressure tensor autocorrelation function to compute the shear viscosity of fluids. This approach is computationally expensive and is subject to a large amount of variability because the plateau region of the Green-Kubo integral is difficult to identify unambiguously. Here, we propose a time decomposition approach for computing the shear viscosity using the Green-Kubo formalism. Instead of one long trajectory, multiple independent trajectories are run and the Green-Kubo relation is applied to each trajectory. The averaged running integral as a function of time is fit to a double-exponential function with a weighting function derived from the standard deviation of the running integrals. Such a weighting function minimizes the uncertainty of the estimated shear viscosity and provides an objective means of estimating the viscosity. While the formal Green-Kubo integral requires an integration to infinite time, we suggest an integration cutoff time tcut, which can be determined by the relative values of the running integral and the corresponding standard deviation. This approach for computing the shear viscosity can be easily automated and used in computational screening studies where human judgment and intervention in the data analysis are impractical. The method has been applied to the calculation of the shear viscosity of a relatively low-viscosity liquid, ethanol, and relatively high-viscosity ionic liquid, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonyl)imide ([BMIM][Tf2N]), over a range of temperatures. These test cases show that the method is robust and yields reproducible and reliable shear viscosity values.

  6. High-pressure Experimental Studies on Geo-liquids Using Synchrotron Radiation at the Advanced Photon Source

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wang, Yanbin; Shen, Guoyin

    2014-12-23

    Here, we review recent progress in studying silicate, carbonate, and metallic liquids of geological and geophysical importance at high pressure and temperature, using the large-volume high-pressure devices at the third-generation synchrotron facility of the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. These integrated high-pressure facilities now offer a unique combination of experimental techniques that allow researchers to investigate structure, density, elasticity, viscosity, and interfacial tension of geo-liquids under high pressure, in a coordinated and systematic fashion. Moreover, we describe experimental techniques, along with scientific highlights. Future developments are also discussed.

  7. Dynamic Nucleation of Supercooled Melts and Measurement of the Surface Tension and Viscosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Ohsaka, K.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the phenomenon of acoustic pressure-induced nucleation by using a novel approach involving the large amplitude resonant radial oscillations and collapse of a single bubble intentionally injected into a supercooled liquid. Using a combination of previously developed and proven techniques, the bubble is suspended in a fluid host by an ultrasonic field which supplies both the levitation capability as well as the forcing of the radial oscillations. We observe the effects of an increase in pressure (due to bubble collapse) in a region no larger than 100 microns within the supercooled melt to rigorously probe the hypothesis of pressure-induced nucleation of the solid phase. The use of single bubbles operating in narrow temporal and spatial scales will allow the direct and unambiguous correlation between the origin and location of the generation of the disturbance and the location and timing of the nucleation event. In a companion research effort, we are developing novel techniques for the non-contact measurements of the surface tension and viscosity of highly viscous supercooled liquids. Currently used non-invasive methods of surface tension measurement for the case of undercooled liquids generally rely of the quantitative determination of the resonance frequencies of drop shape oscillations, of the dynamics of surface capillary waves, or of the velocity of streaming flows. These methods become quickly ineffective when the liquid viscosity rises to a significant value. An alternate and accurate method which would be applicable to liquids of significant viscosity is therefore needed. We plan to develop such a capability by measuring the equilibrium shape of levitated undercooled melt droplets as they undergo solid-body rotation. The experimental measurement of the characteristic point of transition (bifurcation point) between axisymmetric and two-lobed shapes will be used to calculate the surface tension of the liquid. Such an approach has already been

  8. Bio-inspired multistructured conical copper wires for highly efficient liquid manipulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qianbin; Meng, Qingan; Chen, Ming; Liu, Huan; Jiang, Lei

    2014-09-23

    Animal hairs are typical structured conical fibers ubiquitous in natural system that enable the manipulation of low viscosity liquid in a well-controlled manner, which serves as the fundamental structure in Chinese brush for ink delivery in a controllable manner. Here, drawing inspiration from these structure, we developed a dynamic electrochemical method that enables fabricating the anisotropic multiscale structured conical copper wire (SCCW) with controllable conicity and surface morphology. The as-prepared SCCW exhibits a unique ability for manipulating liquid with significantly high efficiency, and over 428 times greater than its own volume of liquid could be therefore operated. We propose that the boundary condition of the dynamic liquid balance behavior on conical fibers, namely, steady holding of liquid droplet at the tip region of the SCCW, makes it an excellent fibrous medium to manipulate liquid. Moreover, we demonstrate that the titling angle of the SCCW can also affect its efficiency of liquid manipulation by virtue of its mechanical rigidity, which is hardly realized by flexible natural hairs. We envision that the bio-inspired SCCW could give inspiration in designing materials and devices to manipulate liquid in a more controllable way and with high efficiency.

  9. Factors affecting the viscosity in high concentration solutions of different monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sandeep; Shire, Steven J; Kalonia, Devendra S

    2010-12-01

    The viscosity profiles of four different IgG(1) molecules were studied as a function of concentration at pH 6.0. At high concentrations, MAb-H and -A showed significantly higher viscosities as compared to MAb-G and -E. Zeta Potential (ξ) measurements showed that all the IgG(1) molecules carried a net positive charge at this pH. MAb-G showed the highest positive zeta potential followed by MAb-E, -H, and -A. A consistent interpretation of the impact of net charge on viscosity for these MAbs is not possible, suggesting that electroviscous effects cannot explain the differences in viscosity. Values of k(D) (dynamic light scattering) indicated that the intermolecular interactions were repulsive for MAb-E and -G; and attractive for MAb-H and -A. Solution storage modulus (G') in high concentration solutions was consistent with attractive intermolecular interactions for MAb-H and -A, and repulsive interactions for MAb-G and -E. Effect of salt addition on solution G' and k(D) indicated that the interactions were primarily electrostatic in nature. The concentration dependent viscosity data were analyzed using a modified Ross and Minton equation. The analysis explicitly differentiates between the effect of molecular shape, size, self-crowding, and electrostatic intermolecular interactions in governing high concentration viscosity behavior. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  10. A Liquid-Liquid Transition in an Undercooled Ti-Zr-Ni Liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, G. W.; Gangopadhyay, A. K.; Kelton, K. F.; Hyers, R. W.; Rathz, T. J.; Rogers, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    If crystallization can be avoided, liquids enter a metastable (undercooled) state below their equilibrium liquidus temperatures, TI, finally freezing into a glass below a characteristic temperature called the glass transition temperature, T,. In rare cases, the undercooled liquid may undergo a liquid-liquid phase transition (liquid polymorphism) before entering the glassy state. This has been suggested from experimental studies of HzO and Si4. Such phase transitions have been predicted in some stable liquids, i.e. above TI at atmospheric pressure, for Si02 and BeF;, but these have not been verified experimentally. They have been observed in liquids of P7, Sis and C9, but only under high pressure. All of these transitions are driven by an anomalous density change, i.e. change in local structure, with temperature or pressure. In this letter we present the first experimental evidence for a phase transition in a low viscosity liquid that is not driven by an anomalous density change, but by an approach to a constant configuration state. A maximum in the specific heat at constant pressure, similar to what is normally observed near T,, is reported here for undercooled low viscosity liquids of quasicrystal- forming Ti-Zr-Ni alloys. that includes cooperativity, by incorporating a temperature dependent excitation energy fits the data well, signaling a phase transition.

  11. Experimental Investigation of the Viscosity of Iron-rich Silicate Melts under Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, P. M.; Lesher, C. E.; Pommier, A.; O'Dwyer Brown, L.

    2017-12-01

    The transport properties of silicate melts govern diffusive flow of momentum, heat, and mass in the interior of terrestrial planets. In particular, constraining melt viscosity is critical for dynamic modeling of igneous processes and is thus key to our understanding of magma convection and mixing, melt migration in the mantle, and crystal-liquid fractionation. Among the different constituents of silicate melts, iron is of significant importance as it highly influences some of their properties, such as surface tension, compressibility, and density. We present an experimental study of the viscosity of natural and synthetic iron-rich silicate melts under pressure. In situ falling-sphere measurements of viscosity have been conducted on hedenbergite (CaFeSi2O6) and iron-rich peridotite melts from 1 to 7 GPa and at temperatures between 1750 and 2100 K, using the multi-anvil apparatus at the GSECARS beamline at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Lab. We used double reservoir capsules, with the bottom reservoir containing the sample, while a more refractory material is placed in the upper reservoir (e.g., diopside, enstatite, forsterite). This configuration allows the fall of two rhenium spheres across the sample at different temperatures. Melt viscosity is calculated using Stokes' law and the terminal velocity of the spheres. We observe that melt viscosity slightly decreases with increasing temperature and increasing pressure: for instance, the viscosity of the hedenbergite melt decreases from 1.26 Pa•s to 0.43 Pa•s over the 1 - 3.5 GPa pressure range and between 1820 and 1930 K. Our experimental data are used to develop a viscosity model of iron-rich silicate melts under pressure. Results will be compared with previous viscosity works on iron-free and iron-bearing silicate liquids in order to discuss the effect of iron on melt viscosity and structure at pressure and temperature conditions relevant to terrestrial mantles.

  12. Viscosity and diffusivity in melts: from unary to multicomponent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weimin; Zhang, Lijun; Du, Yong; Huang, Baiyun

    2014-05-01

    Viscosity and diffusivity, two important transport coefficients, are systematically investigated from unary melt to binary to multicomponent melts in the present work. By coupling with Kaptay's viscosity equation of pure liquid metals and effective radii of diffusion species, the Sutherland equation is modified by taking the size effect into account, and further derived into an Arrhenius formula for the convenient usage. Its reliability for predicting self-diffusivity and impurity diffusivity in unary liquids is then validated by comparing the calculated self-diffusivities and impurity diffusivities in liquid Al- and Fe-based alloys with the experimental and the assessed data. Moreover, the Kozlov model was chosen among various viscosity models as the most reliable one to reproduce the experimental viscosities in binary and multicomponent melts. Based on the reliable viscosities calculated from the Kozlov model, the modified Sutherland equation is utilized to predict the tracer diffusivities in binary and multicomponent melts, and validated in Al-Cu, Al-Ni and Al-Ce-Ni melts. Comprehensive comparisons between the calculated results and the literature data indicate that the experimental tracer diffusivities and the theoretical ones can be well reproduced by the present calculations. In addition, the vacancy-wind factor in binary liquid Al-Ni alloys with the increasing temperature is also discussed. What's more, the calculated inter-diffusivities in liquid Al-Cu, Al-Ni and Al-Ag-Cu alloys are also in excellent agreement with the measured and theoretical data. Comparisons between the simulated concentration profiles and the measured ones in Al-Cu, Al-Ce-Ni and Al-Ag-Cu melts are further used to validate the present calculation method.

  13. Thermophysical properties of Cu-In-Sn liquid Pb-free alloys: viscosity and surface tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Ali; Arslan, Hüseyin

    2018-01-01

    The viscosity of a few Cu-In-Sn liquid alloys has been investigated by a number of geometric (Muggianu, Kohler, Toop) and physical thermodynamic models (Kozlov-Romanov-Petrov, Budai-Benko-Kaptay, Schick et al.) and GSM for the cross section (z/y = 1/3) in Pb-free liquid alloy Cux-Iny-Snz at 1073 K. Moreover, the surface tensions of the same liquid alloys have been investigated by a number of geometric models and the Butler model for the cross section Cux-Iny-Snz (z/(y + z) = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1) at the same temperature. The best agreement of the surface tensions was obtained in the Kohler model for xCu = 10 at % and the Butler model for xCu = 20 at % and xCu = 30 at.%, respectively. The best agreement among chosen geometric and physical models and experiment for these selected sections Cu80In15Sn5, Cu75In15Sn10, Cu55In7Sn38, Cu33In50Sn17 and Cu26In55Sn19 at 1073 K was obtained for the Budai-Benkö-Kaptay model.

  14. Properties of bioadhesive ketoprofen liquid suppositories: preparation, determination of gelation temperature, viscosity studies and evaluation of mechanical properties using texture analyzer by 4 × 4 factorial design.

    PubMed

    Ozgüney, Işık; Kardhiqi, Anita

    2014-12-01

    Development and evaluation of thermosensitive and bioadhesive liquid suppositories containing ketoprofen (KP). This study was conducted to develope thermosensitive and bioadhesive liquid suppositories containing KP using poloxamer and different bioadhesive polymers and to investigate their gelation temperature, viscosity and mechanical properties. Bioadhesive liquid suppositories were prepared by the cold method using poloxamer 407 (P 407), Poloxamer 188 (P 188) and various amounts of different bioadhesive polymers. Their gelation temperatures, viscosity values and mechanical properties were determined using texture analyzer by 4 × 4 factorial design. It was seen that in presence of KP, gelation temperature of formulation P 407/P 188 (4/20%) significantly decreased from 64 to 37.1 °C. It is to be noted that addition of increasing concentrations of bioadhesive polymers lowered gelation temperature and its decrease was highest with addition of Carbopol 934 P (C). Results of texture profile analysis (TPA) showed that formulations containing C have significantly higher hardness and adhesiveness values than other bioadhesive formulations. According to TPA, gel structure of liquid suppository formulation F5, containing P 407/P 188/KP/C (4/20/2.5/0.8%), exhibited the greatest hardness, compressibilty, adhesiveness and besides greatest viscosity. According to mechanical properties and viscosity values, it was concluded that F5 could be a promising formulation.

  15. High Resolution NMR Studies of Encapsulated Proteins In Liquid Ethane

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Ronald W.; Lefebvre, Brian G.; Wand, A. Joshua

    2005-01-01

    Many of the difficulties presented by large, aggregation-prone, and membrane proteins to modern solution NMR spectroscopy can be alleviated by actively seeking to increase the effective rate of molecular reorientation. An emerging approach involves encapsulating the protein of interest within the protective shell of a reverse micelle, and dissolving the resulting particle in a low viscosity fluid, such as the short chain alkanes. Here we present the encapsulation of proteins with high structural fidelity within reverse micelles dissolved in liquid ethane. The addition of appropriate co-surfactants can significantly reduce the pressure required for successful encapsulation. At these reduced pressures, the viscosity of the ethane solution is low enough to provide sufficiently rapid molecular reorientation to significantly lengthen the spin-spin NMR relaxation times of the encapsulated protein. PMID:16028922

  16. Canine gastric emptying of fiber meals: influence of meal viscosity and antroduodenal motility.

    PubMed

    Russell, J; Bass, P

    1985-12-01

    Dietary fibers such as psyllium and guar gum have been shown to delay the gastric emptying of liquids and solids, presumably due to an increase in meal viscosity. For liquid test meals containing fats, delayed gastric emptying is associated with a reversal of the usual antral-to-duodenal contractile gradient. The present studies were performed to determine whether the gastric emptying of increasingly viscous psyllium and guar gum meals was associated with antroduodenal motility changes. Dogs were surgically fitted with mid-duodenal cannulas for the measurement of gastric emptying. Strain-gauge force transducers were used to monitor antral and duodenal contractile responses to the test meals. Low-viscosity fiber meals emptied from the stomach rapidly (E 1/2 approximately 10 min) compared with the high-viscosity meals (E 1/2 approximately 40 min). None of the test meals stimulated antral or duodenal motility despite differences in gastric emptying time. Other motor parameters such as the time of reappearance and the duration of the burst interval were also unchanged. We conclude a) as test meals' fiber content and viscosity increase, gastric emptying is slowed; and b) viscosity-related delays in gastric emptying are not due to an effect on postprandial antroduodenal motility.

  17. An exploration of viscosity models in the realm of kinetic theory of liquids originated fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Azad; Ghafoor, Saadia; Malik, M. Y.; Jamal, Sarmad

    The preeminent perspective of this article is to study flow of an Eyring Powell fluid model past a penetrable plate. To find the effects of variable viscosity on fluid model, continuity, momentum and energy equations are elaborated. Here, viscosity is taken as function of temperature. To understand the phenomenon, Reynold and Vogel models of variable viscosity are incorporated. The highly non-linear partial differential equations are transfigured into ordinary differential equations with the help of suitable similarity transformations. The numerical solution of the problem is presented. Graphs are plotted to visualize the behavior of pertinent parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles.

  18. Shear and bulk viscosity of high-temperature gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Le; Hou, De-Fu

    2018-05-01

    We calculate the shear viscosity (η) and bulk viscosity (ζ) to entropy density (s) ratios η/s and ζ/s of a gluon plasma system in kinetic theory, including both the elastic {gg}≤ftrightarrow {gg} forward scattering and the inelastic soft gluon bremsstrahlung {gg}≤ftrightarrow {ggg} processes. Due to the suppressed contribution to η and ζ in the {gg}≤ftrightarrow {gg} forward scattering and the effective g≤ftrightarrow {gg} gluon splitting, Arnold, Moore and Yaffe (AMY) and Arnold, Dogan and Moore (ADM) have got the leading order computations for η and ζ in high-temperature QCD matter. In this paper, we calculate the correction to η and ζ in the soft gluon bremsstrahlung {gg}≤ftrightarrow {ggg} process with an analytic method. We find that the contribution of the collision term from the {gg}≤ftrightarrow {ggg} soft gluon bremsstrahlung process is just a small perturbation to the {gg}≤ftrightarrow {gg} scattering process and that the correction is at ∼5% level. Then, we obtain the bulk viscosity of the gluon plasma for the number-changing process. Furthermore, our leading-order result for bulk viscosity is the formula \\zeta \\propto \\tfrac{{α }s2{T}3}{ln}{α }s-1} in high-temperature gluon plasma. Supported by Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MSTC) under the “973” Project (2015CB856904(4)) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11735007, 11521064)

  19. The effect of shear and extensional viscosity on atomization in medical inhaler.

    PubMed

    Broniarz-Press, L; Ochowiak, M; Matuszak, M; Włodarczak, S

    2014-07-01

    The paper contains the results of experimental studies of water, aqueous solutions of glycerol and aqueous solutions of glycerol-polyethylene oxide (PEO) atomization process in a medical inhaler obtained by the use of the digital microphotography method. The effect of the shear and extensional viscosity on the drop size, drop size histogram and mean drop diameter has been analyzed. The obtained results have shown that the drop size increases with the increase in shear and extensional viscosity of liquid atomized. Extensional viscosity has a greater impact on the spraying process. It has been shown that the change in liquid viscosity leads to significant changes in drop size distribution. The correlation for Sauter mean diameter as function of the shear and extensional viscosity was proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid three-dimensional microfluidic mixer for high viscosity solutions to unravel earlier folding kinetics of G-quadruplex under molecular crowding conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Li, Ying; Li, Yiwei; Chen, Peng; Feng, Xiaojun; Du, Wei; Liu, Bi-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Rapid mixing of highly viscous solutions is a great challenge, which helps to analyze the reaction kinetics in viscous liquid phase, particularly to discover the folding kinetics of macromolecules under molecular crowding conditions mimicking the conditions inside cells. Here, we demonstrated a novel microfluidic mixer based on Dean flows with three-dimensional (3D) microchannel configuration for fast mixing of high-viscosity fluids. The main structure contained three consecutive subunits, each consisting of a "U"-type channel followed by a chamber with different width and height. Thus, the two solutions injected from the two inlets would undergo a mixing in the first "U"-type channel due to the Dean flow effect, and simultaneous vortices expansions in both horizontal and vertical directions in the following chamber. Numerical simulations and experimental characterizations confirmed that the micromixer could achieve a mixing time of 122.4μs for solutions with viscosities about 33.6 times that of pure water. It was the fastest micromixer for high viscosity solutions compared with previous reports. With this highly efficient 3D microfluidic mixer, we further characterized the early folding kinetics of human telomere G-quadruplex under molecular crowding conditions, and unravelled a new folding process within 550μs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Method for measuring liquid viscosity and ultrasonic viscometer

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Lawrence, William P.; Chien, Hual-Te; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1994-01-01

    An ultrasonic viscometer and method for measuring fluid viscosity are provided. Ultrasonic shear and longitudinal waves are generated and coupled to the fluid. Reflections from the generated ultrasonic shear and longitudinal waves are detected. Phase velocity of the fluid is determined responsive to the detected ultrasonic longitudinal waves reflections. Viscosity of the fluid is determined responsive to the detected ultrasonic shear waves reflections. Unique features of the ultrasonic viscometer include the use of a two-interface fluid and air transducer wedge to measure relative signal change and to enable self calibration and the use of a ratio of reflection coefficients for two different frequencies to compensate for environmental changes, such as temperature.

  2. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Universal viscosity growth in metallic melts at megabar pressures: the vitreous state of the Earth's inner core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazhkin, Vadim V.; Lyapin, A. G.

    2000-05-01

    Experimental data on and theoretical models for the viscosity of various types of liquids and melts under pressure are reviewed. Experimentally, the least studied melts are those of metals, whose viscosity is considered to be virtually constant along the melting curve. The authors' new approach to the viscosity of melts involves the measurement of the grain size in solidified samples. Measurements on liquid metals at pressures up to 10 GPa using this method show, contrary to the empirical approach, that the melt viscosity grows considerably along the melting curves. Based on the experimental data and on the critical analysis of current theories, a hypothesis of a universal viscosity behavior is introduced for liquids under pressure. Extrapolating the liquid iron results to the pressures and temperatures at the Earth's core reveals that the Earth's outer core is a very viscous melt with viscosity values ranging from 102 Pa s to 1011 Pa s depending on the depth. The Earth's inner core is presumably an ultraviscous (>1011 Pa s) glass-like liquid — in disagreement with the current idea of a crystalline inner core. The notion of the highly viscous interior of celestial bodies sheds light on many mysteries of planetary geophysics and astronomy. From the analysis of the pressure variation of the melting and glass-transition temperatures, an entirely new concept of a stable metallic vitreous state arises, calling for further experimental and theoretical study.

  3. Motion of Molecular Probes and Viscosity Scaling in Polyelectrolyte Solutions at Physiological Ionic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Sozanski, Krzysztof; Wisniewska, Agnieszka; Kalwarczyk, Tomasz; Sznajder, Anna; Holyst, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We investigate transport properties of model polyelectrolyte systems at physiological ionic strength (0.154 M). Covering a broad range of flow length scales—from diffusion of molecular probes to macroscopic viscous flow—we establish a single, continuous function describing the scale dependent viscosity of high-salt polyelectrolyte solutions. The data are consistent with the model developed previously for electrically neutral polymers in a good solvent. The presented approach merges the power-law scaling concepts of de Gennes with the idea of exponential length scale dependence of effective viscosity in complex liquids. The result is a simple and applicable description of transport properties of high-salt polyelectrolyte solutions at all length scales, valid for motion of single molecules as well as macroscopic flow of the complex liquid. PMID:27536866

  4. Viscosity of thickened fluids that relate to the Australian National Standards.

    PubMed

    Karsten Hadde, Enrico; Ann Yvette Cichero, Julie; Michael Nicholson, Timothy

    2016-08-01

    In 2007, Australia published standardized terminology and definitions for three levels of thickened fluids used in the management of dysphagia. This study examined the thickness of the current Australian National Fluid Standards rheologically (i.e. viscosity, yield stress) and correlated these results with the "fork test", as described in the national standards. Clinicians who prescribe or work with thickened liquids and laypersons were recruited to categorize 15 different thickened fluids of known viscosities using the fork test. The mean apparent viscosity and the yield stress for each fluid category were calculated. Clear responses were obtained by both clinicians and laypersons for very thin fluids (< 90 mPa.s) and very thick fluids (> 1150 mPa.s), but large variations of responses were seen for intermediate viscosities. Measures of viscosity and yield stress were important in allocating liquids to different categories. Three bands of fluid viscosity with distinct intermediate band gaps and associated yield stress measures were clearly identifiable and are proposed as objective complements to the Australian National Standards. The "fork test" provides rudimentary information about both viscosity and yield stress, but is an inexact measure of both variables.

  5. Estimation of the Viscosities of Liquid Sn-Based Binary Lead-Free Solder Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Min; Li, Jinquan

    2018-01-01

    The viscosity of a binary Sn-based lead-free solder alloy was calculated by combining the predicted model with the Miedema model. The viscosity factor was proposed and the relationship between the viscosity and surface tension was analyzed as well. The investigation result shows that the viscosity of Sn-based lead-free solders predicted from the predicted model shows excellent agreement with the reported values. The viscosity factor is determined by three physical parameters: atomic volume, electronic density, and electro-negativity. In addition, the apparent correlation between the surface tension and viscosity of the binary Sn-based Pb-free solder was obtained based on the predicted model.

  6. Viscosity of nonelectrolyte liquid mixtures. IV. Binary mixtures containing p-Dioxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswal, S. L.; Oswal, P.; Phalak, R. P.

    1996-11-01

    Measurements of the viscosity η and density p are reported for eight binary mixtures of p-dioxane with methylcyclohexane, l-chlorohexane, l-bromohexane, p-xylene, propylbenzene, methyl acetate, butyl acetate. anyl acetate at 303.15 K. The viscosity data haw been correlated with the equations of Grunbeng Nissan. of McAllister, and of Auslaendcr. The relation among the excess viscosity Δ In η, excess Gibbs energy of activation ΔG* E of viscous flow. and intermolecular interaction in these mixtures is discussed.

  7. High-Performance Polymers Having Low Melt Viscosities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    High-performance polymers that have improved processing characteristics, and a method of making them, have been invented. One of the improved characteristics is low (relative to corresponding prior polymers) melt viscosities at given temperatures. This characteristic makes it possible to utilize such processes as resin-transfer molding and resin-film infusion and to perform autoclave processing at lower temperatures and/or pressures. Another improved characteristic is larger processing windows that is, longer times at low viscosities. Other improved characteristics include increased solubility of uncured polymer precursors that contain reactive groups, greater densities of cross-links in cured polymers, improved mechanical properties of the cured polymers, and greater resistance of the cured polymers to chemical attack. The invention is particularly applicable to poly(arylene ether)s [PAEs] and polyimides [PIs] that are useful as adhesives, matrices of composite materials, moldings, films, and coatings. PAEs and PIs synthesized according to the invention comprise mixtures of branched, linear, and star-shaped molecules. The monomers of these polymers can be capped with either reactive end groups to obtain thermosets or nonreactive end groups to obtain thermoplastics. The synthesis of a polymeric mixture according to the invention involves the use of a small amount of a trifunctional monomer. In the case of a PAE, the trifunctional monomer is a trihydroxy- containing compound for example, 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene (THB). In the case of a PI, the trifunctional monomer is a triamine for example, triamino pyrimidine or melamine. In addition to the aforementioned trifunctional monomer, one uses the difunctional monomers of the conventional formulation of the polymer in question (see figure). In cases of nonreactive end caps, the polymeric mixtures of the invention have melt viscosities and melting temperatures lower than those of the corresponding linear polymers of equal

  8. Measuring the Viscosity of the Escherichia coli Plasma Membrane Using Molecular Rotors.

    PubMed

    Mika, Jacek T; Thompson, Alexander J; Dent, Michael R; Brooks, Nicholas J; Michiels, Jan; Hofkens, Johan; Kuimova, Marina K

    2016-10-04

    The viscosity is a highly important parameter within the cell membrane, affecting the diffusion of small molecules and, hence, controlling the rates of intracellular reactions. There is significant interest in the direct, quantitative assessment of membrane viscosity. Here we report the use of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of the molecular rotor BODIPY C10 in the membranes of live Escherichia coli bacteria to permit direct quantification of the viscosity. Using this approach, we investigated the viscosity in live E. coli cells, spheroplasts, and liposomes made from E. coli membrane extracts. For live cells and spheroplasts, the viscosity was measured at both room temperature (23°C) and the E. coli growth temperature (37°C), while the membrane extract liposomes were studied over a range of measurement temperatures (5-40°C). At 37°C, we recorded a membrane viscosity in live E. coli cells of 950 cP, which is considerably higher than that previously observed in other live cell membranes (e.g., eukaryotic cells, membranes of Bacillus vegetative cells). Interestingly, this indicates that E. coli cells exhibit a high degree of lipid ordering within their liquid-phase plasma membranes. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vortex lattices and defect-mediated viscosity reduction in active liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slomka, Jonasz; Dunkel, Jorn

    2016-11-01

    Generic pattern-formation and viscosity-reduction mechanisms in active fluids are investigated using a generalized Navier-Stokes model that captures the experimentally observed bulk vortex dynamics in microbial suspensions. We present exact analytical solutions including stress-free vortex lattices and introduce a computational framework that allows the efficient treatment of previously intractable higher-order shear boundary conditions. Large-scale parameter scans identify the conditions for spontaneous flow symmetry breaking, defect-mediated low-viscosity phases and negative-viscosity states amenable to energy harvesting in confined suspensions. The theory uses only generic assumptions about the symmetries and long-wavelength structure of active stress tensors, suggesting that inviscid phases may be achievable in a broad class of non-equilibrium fluids by tuning confinement geometry and pattern scale selection.

  10. Supplementary comparisons of COOMET in the field of measurements of liquids kinematical viscosity COOMET.M.V-S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demyanov, A. A.; Tsurko, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    In the comparisons three Newtonian liquid samples were used with nominal values of 20 mm2/s 100 mm2/s and 1000 mm2/s ('20', '100' and '1000' respectively) at 20 °C. Each NMI presented results of measurements values kinematic viscosity samples, uncertainty and uncertainty budget. The purpose of these comparisons was confirmation of measurement and calibration capabilities (CMC) of the relevant NMI. As a reference the values of kinematic viscosity reference samples were taken as average values of measurement results obtained in the research laboratory of the national standards and research in the field of measurements of viscosity and density of the D I Mendeleev Institute for Metrology (VNIIM, RF), as a participant in international comparisons CCM.V-K1, BIPM. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  11. Supplementary comparisons of COOMET in the field of measurements of liquids kinematical viscosity COOMET.M.V-S2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demyanov, A. A.; Tsurko, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    In the comparisons three Newtonian liquid samples were used with nominal values of 20 mm2/s 100 mm2/s and 1000 mm2/s ('20', '100' and '1000', respectively) at 20 °C. Each NMI presented results of measurements values kinematic viscosity samples, uncertainty and uncertainty budget. The purpose of these comparisons was confirmation of measurement and calibration capabilities (CMC) of the relevant NMI. As a reference the values of kinematic viscosity reference samples were taken as average values of measurement results obtained in the research laboratory of the national standards and research in the field of measurements of viscosity and density of the D I Mendeleev Institute for Metrology (VNIIM, RF), as a participant in international comparisons CCM.V-K1, BIPM. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  12. Hall viscosity and electromagnetic response of electrons in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherafati, Mohammad; Principi, Alessandro; Vignale, Giovanni

    The Hall viscosity is a dissipationless component of the viscosity tensor of an electron liquid with broken time- reversal symmetry, such as a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the quantum Hall state. Similar to the Hall conductivity, the Hall viscosity is an anomalous transport coefficient; however, while the former is connected with the current response, the latter stems from the stress response to a geometric deformation. For a Galilean-invariant system such as 2DEG, the current density is indeed the generator of the geometric deformation: therefore a connection between the Hall connectivity and viscosity is expected and by now well established. In the case of graphene, a non-Galilean-invariant system, the existence of such a connection is far from obvious, as the current operator is essentially different from the momentum operator. In this talk, I will first present our results of the geometric Hall viscosity of electrons in single-layer graphene. Then, from the expansion of the nonlocal Hall conductivity for small wave vectors, I demonstrate that, in spite of the lack of Galilean invariance, an effective mass can be defined such that the relationship between the Hall conductivity and the viscosity retains the form it has in Galilean-invariant systems, not only for a large number of occupied Landau levels, but also, with very high accuracy, for the undoped system.

  13. Molecular basis of high viscosity in concentrated antibody solutions: Strategies for high concentration drug product development.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Dheeraj S; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Satish K; Goswami, Sumit; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    Effective translation of breakthrough discoveries into innovative products in the clinic requires proactive mitigation or elimination of several drug development challenges. These challenges can vary depending upon the type of drug molecule. In the case of therapeutic antibody candidates, a commonly encountered challenge is high viscosity of the concentrated antibody solutions. Concentration-dependent viscosity behaviors of mAbs and other biologic entities may depend on pairwise and higher-order intermolecular interactions, non-native aggregation, and concentration-dependent fluctuations of various antibody regions. This article reviews our current understanding of molecular origins of viscosity behaviors of antibody solutions. We discuss general strategies and guidelines to select low viscosity candidates or optimize lead candidates for lower viscosity at early drug discovery stages. Moreover, strategies for formulation optimization and excipient design are also presented for candidates already in advanced product development stages. Potential future directions for research in this field are also explored.

  14. Synthesis of high-temperature viscosity stabilizer used in drilling fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanna; Luo, Huaidong; Shi, Libao; Huang, Hongjun

    2018-02-01

    Abstract For a well performance drilling fluid, when it operates in deep wells under high temperature, the most important property required is the thermal stability. The drilling fluid properties under high temperature can be controlled by proper selection of viscosity stabilizer, which can capture oxygen to protect polymer agent in the drilling fluid. In this paper a viscosity stabilizer PB-854 is described, which was synthesized by 4-phenoxybutyl bromide, paraformaldehyde, and phloroglucinol using etherification method and condensation reaction. We studied the effect of catalyst dosage, temperature, time, and stirring rate on the synthetic yield. Under this condition: molar ratio of 2-tert-Butylphenol, paraformaldehyde and phloroglucinol of 2:1:2.5, reacting temperature of 100 °C, stirring rate of 100 r min-1, and mass content of catalyst of 15 %, char yield of 5-bromine-3-tert-butyl salicylaldehyde reached 86 %. Under this condition: molar ratio of 5-bromine-3-tert-butyl salicylaldehyde and phloroglucinol of 4, reacting temperature of 60 °C, reacting time of 30 min, volume content of sulphuric acid of 80 %, char yield of the target product viscosity stabilizer PB-854 is 86%. Finally, in this paper, infrared spectroscopy is adopted to analyse the structure of the synthetic product PB-854.The improvement in the stability of drilling fluid was further shown after adding the viscosity stabilizer in the common polymer drilling fluid under high temperature conditions of 120 °C ˜ 180 °C. The results show significant change in terms of fluid stability in the presence of this new stabilizer as it provides better stability.

  15. Demonstration and Assessment of a Simple Viscosity Experiment for High School Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd­-Smith, T. M.; Kwon, K. C.; Burmester, J. A.; Dale, F. F.; Vahdat, N.; Jones, P.

    2006-01-01

    The demonstration of a simple viscosity experiment for high school classes was conducted and assessed. The purpose of the demonstration was to elicit the interest of high school juniors and seniors in the field of chemical engineering. The demonstration consisted of a discussion on both engineering and the concept of viscosity as well as a…

  16. Modelling droplet collision outcomes for different substances and viscosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommerfeld, Martin; Kuschel, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    The main objective of the present study is the derivation of models describing the outcome of binary droplet collisions for a wide range of dynamic viscosities in the well-known collision maps (i.e. normalised lateral droplet displacement at collision, called impact parameter, versus collision Weber number). Previous studies by Kuschel and Sommerfeld (Exp Fluids 54:1440, 2013) for different solution droplets having a range of solids contents and hence dynamic viscosities (here between 1 and 60 mPa s) revealed that the locations of the triple point (i.e. coincidence of bouncing, stretching separation and coalescence) and the critical Weber number (i.e. condition for the transition from coalescence to separation for head-on collisions) show a clear dependence on dynamic viscosity. In order to extend these findings also to pure liquids and to provide a broader data basis for modelling the viscosity effect, additional binary collision experiments were conducted for different alcohols (viscosity range 1.2-15.9 mPa s) and the FVA1 reference oil at different temperatures (viscosity range 3.0-28.2 mPa s). The droplet size for the series of alcohols was around 365 and 385 µm for the FVA1 reference oil, in each case with fixed diameter ratio at Δ= 1. The relative velocity between the droplets was varied in the range 0.5-3.5 m/s, yielding maximum Weber numbers of around 180. Individual binary droplet collisions with defined conditions were generated by two droplet chains each produced by vibrating orifice droplet generators. For recording droplet motion and the binary collision process with good spatial and temporal resolution high-speed shadow imaging was employed. The results for varied relative velocity and impact angle were assembled in impact parameter-Weber number maps. With increasing dynamic viscosity a characteristic displacement of the regimes for the different collision scenarios was also observed for pure liquids similar to that observed for solutions. This

  17. Molecular basis of high viscosity in concentrated antibody solutions: Strategies for high concentration drug product development

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, Dheeraj S.; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Satish K.; Goswami, Sumit; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Effective translation of breakthrough discoveries into innovative products in the clinic requires proactive mitigation or elimination of several drug development challenges. These challenges can vary depending upon the type of drug molecule. In the case of therapeutic antibody candidates, a commonly encountered challenge is high viscosity of the concentrated antibody solutions. Concentration-dependent viscosity behaviors of mAbs and other biologic entities may depend on pairwise and higher-order intermolecular interactions, non-native aggregation, and concentration-dependent fluctuations of various antibody regions. This article reviews our current understanding of molecular origins of viscosity behaviors of antibody solutions. We discuss general strategies and guidelines to select low viscosity candidates or optimize lead candidates for lower viscosity at early drug discovery stages. Moreover, strategies for formulation optimization and excipient design are also presented for candidates already in advanced product development stages. Potential future directions for research in this field are also explored. PMID:26736022

  18. Arginine and lysine reduce the high viscosity of serum albumin solutions for pharmaceutical injection.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Naoto; Takai, Eisuke; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2014-05-01

    Therapeutic protein solutions for subcutaneous injection must be very highly concentrated, which increases their viscosity through protein-protein interactions. However, maintaining a solution viscosity below 50 cP is important for the preparation and injection of therapeutic protein solutions. In this study, we examined the effect of various amino acids on the solution viscosity of very highly concentrated bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) at a physiological pH. Among the amino acids tested, l-arginine hydrochloride (ArgHCl) and l-lysine hydrochloride (LysHCl) (50-200 mM) successfully reduced the viscosity of both BSA and HSA solutions; guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl), NaCl, and other sodium salts were equally as effective, indicating the electrostatic shielding effect of these additives. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that BSA is in its native state even in the presence of ArgHCl, LysHCl, and NaCl at high protein concentrations. These results indicate that weakened protein-protein interactions play a key role in reducing solution viscosity. ArgHCl and LysHCl, which are also non-toxic compounds, will be used as additives to reduce the solution viscosity of concentrated therapeutic proteins. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative characterization of the viscosity of a microemulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.; Huang, John S.

    1987-01-01

    The viscosity of the three-component microemulsion water/decane/AOT has been measured as a function of temperature and droplet volume fraction. At temperatures well below the phase-separation temperature the viscosity is described by treating the droplets as hard spheres suspended in decane. Upon approaching the two-phase region from low temperature, there is a large (as much as a factor of four) smooth increase of the viscosity which may be related to the percolation-like transition observed in the electrical conductivity. This increase in viscosity is not completely consistent with either a naive electroviscous model or a simple clustering model. The divergence of the viscosity near the critical point (39 C) is superimposed upon the smooth increase. The magnitude and temperature dependence of the critical divergence are similar to that seen near the critical points of binary liquid mixtures.

  20. Correlation of the fragility of metallic liquids with the high temperature structure, volume, and cohesive energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, A. K.; Pueblo, C. E.; Dai, R.; Johnson, M. L.; Ashcraft, R.; Van Hoesen, D.; Sellers, M.; Kelton, K. F.

    2017-04-01

    The thermal expansion coefficients, structure factors, and viscosities of twenty-five equilibrium and supercooled metallic liquids have been measured using an electrostatic levitation (ESL) facility. The structure factor was measured at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne, using the ESL. A clear connection between liquid fragility and structural and volumetric changes at high temperatures is established; the observed changes are larger for the more fragile liquids. It is also demonstrated that the fragility of metallic liquids is determined to a large extent by the cohesive energy and is, therefore, predictable. These results are expected to provide useful guidance in the future design of metallic glasses.

  1. Influence of solution properties in the laser forward transfer of liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinca, V.; Patrascioiu, A.; Fernández-Pradas, J. M.; Morenza, J. L.; Serra, P.

    2012-09-01

    The influence of the viscosity of the printed solution on the laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) of liquids is investigated. A set of water and glycerol mixtures with different glycerol content are prepared with the aim of having a collection of solutions covering a wide range of viscosities, from 1.9 to 850 mPa s. Arrays of micrometric droplets of those solutions are spotted through LIFT and characterized by means of optical microscopy, revealing that for all the analyzed solutions there always exists a range of laser fluences leading to the formation of regular circular droplets, with that range increasing and widening with viscosity. The dynamics of liquid ejection is investigated through time-resolved imaging with the aim of understanding the role of viscosity in the process, and its influence on the morphology of the deposited droplets. The acquired stop-action movies reveal that liquid transfer proceeds mainly through jetting, with the exception of LIFT at low viscosities and high laser fluences, in which bursting develops. From this study it is concluded that viscosity plays an important role in the stabilization of liquid ejection and transport, which contributes to the uniformity of the deposited droplets.

  2. Rheology and tribology of lubricants with polymeric viscosity modifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babak, LotfizadehDehkordi

    Elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) theory has been used to model the lubrication state of antifriction machine elements, where initial viscosity and pressure viscosity coefficients are essential parameters in film thickness modeling. Since the pressures of lubricants in the contact zone can be very high, it is important to know the rheological properties of lubricants in these pressure and temperature regimes. The characteristics of viscosity behavior as a function of pressure are also essential for a universal definition of the pressure viscosity coefficient in order to estimate film thickness in an EHL regime. In this study, viscosities and pressure-viscosity coefficients of ten commercial engine and gear oils and seventeen laboratory-produced oil/polymer viscosity modifiers (VM) additives are measured up to 1.3 GPa at 40, 75 and 100 °C. For the first time, a sharp increase in the viscosity and piezoviscous factor is observed in both mineral-based and synthetic-based oils with different VMs. Analysis of the experimental results indicates that sharp increase in viscosity observed in these experiments are believed to arise from physical changes in the VMs, that is liquid-solid phase transition. Evidence is offered that polymer properties such as molecular weight, concentration and structure influence the onset of the phase transitions. A modified Yasutomi model, which normally describes the pressure dependence of the viscosity of lubricants very well, fails to predict the viscosity of the specimens above the onset of sharp increase in viscosity. A design of experiment (DOE) analysis using Design-Expert software indicates that pressure and temperature are the most critical parameters in the viscosity variation. Tribological tests demonstrate that wear in the contact, zone occurs at temperatures and stresses that coincides with the VM phase transitions in both commercial and laboratory synthesized oil/VMs. Tribological results also indicate that the onset of the

  3. Liquid Viscosity and Density Measurement with Flexural-Plate-Wave Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-04-01

    capillary-viscometer-measured viscosity in Fig. 4. "The data from solutions of poly(ethylene glycol), having average molecular weights 3350 and 15,000...have seen similar results for the FPW-measured viscosity of salmon-sperm DNA solutions. 25 glycerol WA " PEG 3,350 H-4 . e! 2 PEG 15,000 IK- ,,,," HEC...number of aqueous solutions of the polymers poly(ethylene glycol) ( PEG ) and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC). The response of the FPW sensor (vertical axis

  4. Control of binder viscosity and hygroscopicity on particle aggregation efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Sebastian B.; Kueppers, Ulrich; Ayris, Paul M.; Jacob, Michael; Delmelle, Pierre; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-04-01

    In the course of explosive volcanic eruptions, large amounts of ash are released into the atmosphere and may subsequently pose a threat to infrastructure, such as aviation industry. Ash plume forecasting is therefore a crucial tool for volcanic hazard mitigation but may be significantly affected by aggregation, altering the aerodynamic properties of particles. Models struggle with the implementation of aggregation since external conditions promoting aggregation have not been completely understood; in a previous study we have shown the rapid generation of ash aggregates through liquid bonding via the use of fluidization bed technology and further defined humidity and temperature ranges necessary to trigger aggregation. Salt (NaCl) was required for the recovery of stable aggregates, acting as a cementation agent and granting aggregate cohesion. A numerical model was used to explain the physics behind particle aggregation mechanisms and further predicted a dependency of aggregation efficiency on liquid binder viscosity. In this study we proof the effect of viscosity on particle aggregation. HCl and H2SO4 solutions were diluted to various concentrations resulting in viscosities between 1 and 2 mPas. Phonolitic and rhyolitic ash samples as well as soda-lime glass beads (serving as analogue material) were fluidized in the ProCell Lab® of Glatt Ingenieurtechnik GmbH and treated with the acids via a bottom-spray technique. Chemically driven interaction between acid liquids and surfaces of the three used materials led to crystal precipitation. Salt crystals (e.g. NaCl) have been confirmed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and leachate analysis. Both volcanic ash samples as well as the glass beads showed a clear dependency of aggregation efficiency on viscosity of the sprayed HCl solution. Spraying H2SO4 provoked a collapse of the fluidized bed and no aggregation has been observed. This is accounted by the high hygroscopicity of H2SO4. Dissolving CaCl2 (known to be

  5. Connecting thermodynamic and dynamical anomalies of water-like liquid-liquid phase transition in the Fermi-Jagla model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Saki; Kato, Daiki; Awaji, Daisuke; Kim, Kang

    2018-03-01

    We present a study using molecular dynamics simulations based on the Fermi-Jagla potential model, which is the continuous version of the mono-atomic core-softened Jagla model [J. Y. Abraham, S. V. Buldyrev, and N. Giovambattista, J. Phys. Chem. B 115, 14229 (2011)]. This model shows the water-like liquid-liquid phase transition between high-density and low-density liquids at the liquid-liquid critical point. In particular, the slope of the coexistence line becomes weakly negative, which is expected to represent one of the anomalies of liquid polyamorphism. In this study, we examined the density, dynamic, and thermodynamic anomalies in the vicinity of the liquid-liquid critical point. The boundaries of density, self-diffusion, shear viscosity, and excess entropy anomalies were characterized. Furthermore, these anomalies are connected according to Rosenfeld's scaling relationship between the excess entropy and the transport coefficients such as diffusion and viscosity. The results demonstrate the hierarchical and nested structures regarding the thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies of the Fermi-Jagla model.

  6. Development of viscosity sensor with long period fiber grating technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jyh-Dong; Wang, Jian-Neng; Chen, Shih-Huang; Wang, Juei-Mao

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of a viscosity sensing system using a simple and low-cost long-period fiber grating (LPFG) sensor. The LPFG sensor was extremely sensitive to the refractive index of the medium surrounding the cladding surface of the sensing grating, thus allowing it to be used as an ambient index sensor or chemical concentration indicator. Viscosity can be simply defined as resistance to flow of a liquid. We have measured asphalt binder, 100-190000 centistokes, in comparison with optical sensing results. The system sensing asphalt binders exhibited increase trend in the resonance wavelength shift when the refractive index of the medium changed. The prototype sensor consisted of a LPFG sensing component and a cone-shaped reservoir where gravitational force can cause asphalt binders flow through the capillary. Thus the measured time for a constant volume of asphalt binders can be converted into either absolute or kinematic viscosity. In addition, a rotational viscometer and a dynamic shear rheometer were also used to evaluate the viscosity of this liquid, the ratio between the applied shear stress and rate of shear, as well as the viscoelastic property including complex shear modulus and phase angle. The measured time could be converted into viscosity of asphalt binder based on calculation. This simple LPFG viscosity sensing system is hopefully expected to benefit the viscosity measurement for the field of civil, mechanical and aerospace engineering.

  7. A Study of Oil Viscosity Mental Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albaiti; Liliasari; Sumarna, Omay; Abdulkadir Martoprawiro, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    There is no study regarding on how to learn viscosity of the liquid (e.g. oil) by interconnecting macroscopic, sub-microscopic and symbolic levels. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to study the mental model of the oil viscosity. Intermolecular attractive force of oil constituent on the sub-microscopic level is depicted in the form of mental models. In this research, the viscosity data for some types of oil was measured by using Hoppler method. Viscosity of mineral oil SAE 20W-50, mineral oil SAE 15W-40 and synthetic oil SAE 10W-40 were 1.75, 1.31, and 1.03 Pa s, and the densities of these oils were 908.64, 885.04, and 877.02 kg/m3, respectively. The results showed that the greater density of the mineral oil that is assumed to be composed of linear chains of hydrocarbons, the longer the chain of hydrocarbon linear. Consequently, there are stronger the London force and greater the oil viscosity. The density and viscosity of synthetic oil are lower than that of both mineral oils. Synthetic oil structurally forms polymers with large branching. This structure affects a lower synthetic oil viscosity. This study contributes to construct a mental model of pre-service chemistry teachers.

  8. Effect of viscosity on steady-state voltammetry and scanning electrochemical microscopy in room temperature ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Lovelock, Kevin R J; Cowling, Frances N; Taylor, Alasdair W; Licence, Peter; Walsh, Darren A

    2010-04-08

    The electrochemical properties of a series of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) were studied using voltammetric methods and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The RTILs consisted of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations, [C(n)C(1)Im](+), and either bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide anions, [Tf(2)N](-), or hexafluorophosphate anions, [PF(6)](-). The effect of RTIL viscosity on mass transfer dynamics within each RTIL was studied electrochemically using ferrocene as a redox probe. In the case of the [C(n)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N] RTILs, the viscosity was altered by changing the alkyl chain length. [C(4)C(1)Im][PF(6)] was used for comparison as its viscosity is significantly higher than that of the [C(n)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N] RTILs. The RTIL viscosity affected the ability to record steady-state voltammograms at ultramicroelectrodes (UMEs). For example, it was possible to record steady-state voltammograms at scan rates up to 10 mV s(-1) in [C(2)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N] using 1.5 mum radius disk UMEs, but non-steady-state behavior was observed at 50 mV s(-1). However, at 12.5 microm radius UMEs, steady-state voltammetry was only observed at 1 mV s(-1) in [C(2)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N]. The RTIL viscosity also affected the ability to record SECM feedback approach curves that agreed with conventional SECM theory. In the most viscous [C(n)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N] RTILs, feedback approach curves agreed with conventional theory only when very slow tip approach speeds were used (0.1 microm s(-1)). These observations were interpreted using the Peclet number, which describes the relative contributions of convective and diffusive mass transfer to the tip surface. By recording feedback approach curves in each RTIL at a range of tip approach speeds, we describe the experimental conditions that must be met to perform SECM in imidazolium-based RTILs. The rate of heterogeneous electron transfer across the RTIL/electrode interface was also studied using SECM and the standard heterogeneous electron transfer rate

  9. 46 CFR 153.1108 - Heated prewash for solidifying NLS, high viscosity NLS and required prewashes of NLS whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Heated prewash for solidifying NLS, high viscosity NLS and required prewashes of NLS whose viscosity exceeds 25 mPa sec at 20 °C: Categories A, B, and C... Heated prewash for solidifying NLS, high viscosity NLS and required prewashes of NLS whose viscosity...

  10. 46 CFR 153.1108 - Heated prewash for solidifying NLS, high viscosity NLS and required prewashes of NLS whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Heated prewash for solidifying NLS, high viscosity NLS and required prewashes of NLS whose viscosity exceeds 25 mPa sec at 20 °C: Categories A, B, and C... Heated prewash for solidifying NLS, high viscosity NLS and required prewashes of NLS whose viscosity...

  11. 46 CFR 153.1108 - Heated prewash for solidifying NLS, high viscosity NLS and required prewashes of NLS whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heated prewash for solidifying NLS, high viscosity NLS and required prewashes of NLS whose viscosity exceeds 25 mPa sec at 20 °C: Categories A, B, and C... Heated prewash for solidifying NLS, high viscosity NLS and required prewashes of NLS whose viscosity...

  12. 46 CFR 153.1108 - Heated prewash for solidifying NLS, high viscosity NLS and required prewashes of NLS whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heated prewash for solidifying NLS, high viscosity NLS and required prewashes of NLS whose viscosity exceeds 25 mPa sec at 20 °C: Categories A, B, and C... Heated prewash for solidifying NLS, high viscosity NLS and required prewashes of NLS whose viscosity...

  13. 46 CFR 153.1108 - Heated prewash for solidifying NLS, high viscosity NLS and required prewashes of NLS whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heated prewash for solidifying NLS, high viscosity NLS and required prewashes of NLS whose viscosity exceeds 25 mPa sec at 20 °C: Categories A, B, and C... Heated prewash for solidifying NLS, high viscosity NLS and required prewashes of NLS whose viscosity...

  14. Numerical simulation of three-component multiphase flows at high density and viscosity ratios using lattice Boltzmann methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghani Hassan Abadi, Reza; Fakhari, Abbas; Rahimian, Mohammad Hassan

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a multiphase lattice Boltzmann model for numerical simulation of ternary flows at high density and viscosity ratios free from spurious velocities. The proposed scheme, which is based on the phase-field modeling, employs the Cahn-Hilliard theory to track the interfaces among three different fluid components. Several benchmarks, such as the spreading of a liquid lens, binary droplets, and head-on collision of two droplets in binary- and ternary-fluid systems, are conducted to assess the reliability and accuracy of the model. The proposed model can successfully simulate both partial and total spreadings while reducing the parasitic currents to the machine precision.

  15. Reference Data for the Density, Viscosity, and Surface Tension of Liquid Al-Zn, Ag-Sn, Bi-Sn, Cu-Sn, and Sn-Zn Eutectic Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobosz, Alexandra; Gancarz, Tomasz

    2018-03-01

    The data for the physicochemical properties viscosity, density, and surface tension obtained by different experimental techniques have been analyzed for liquid Al-Zn, Ag-Sn, Bi-Sn, Cu-Sn, and Sn-Zn eutectic alloys. All experimental data sets have been categorized and described by the year of publication, the technique used to obtain the data, the purity of the samples and their compositions, the quoted uncertainty, the number of data in the data set, the form of data, and the temperature range. The proposed standard deviations of liquid eutectic Al-Zn, Ag-Sn, Bi-Sn, Cu-Sn, and Sn-Zn alloys are 0.8%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.1% for the density, 8.7%, 4.1%, 3.6%, 5.1%, and 4.0% for viscosity, and 1.0%, 0.5%, 0.3%, N/A, and 0.4% for surface tension, respectively, at a confidence level of 95%.

  16. Low-temperature heat capacity of diopside glass (CaMgSi2O6): A calorimetric test of the configurational-entropy theory applied to the viscosity of liquid silicates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richet, P.; Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1986-01-01

    Heat-capacity measurements have been made between 8 and 370 K on an annealed and a rapidly quenched diopside glass. Between 15 and 200 K, Cp does not depend significantly on the thermal history of the glass. Below 15 K Cp is larger for the quenched than for the annealed specimen. The opposite is true above 200 K as a result of what is interpreted as a secondary relaxation around room temperature. The magnitude of these effects, however, is small enough that the relative entropies S(298)-S(0) of the glasses differ by only 0.5 J/mol K, i.e., a figure within the combined experimental uncertainties. The insensitivity of relative entropies to thermal history supports the assumption that the configurational heat capacity of the liquid may be taken as the heat capacity difference between the liquid and the glass (??Cp). Furthermore, this insensitivity allows calculation of the residual entropies at 0 K of diopside glasses as a function of the fictive temperature from the entropy of fusion of diopside and the heat capacities of the crystalline, glassy and liquid phases. For a glass with a fictive temperature of 1005 K, for example, this calorimetric residual entropy is 24.3 ?? 3 J/mol K, in agreement with the prediction made by RICHET (1984) from an analysis of the viscosity data with the configurational-entropy theory of relaxation processes of Adam and Gibbs (1965). In turn, all the viscosity measurements for liquid diopside, which span the range 0.5-4?? 1013 poise, can be quantitatively reproduced through this theory with the calorimetrically determined entropies and ??Cp data. Finally, the unclear significance of "activation energies" for structural interpretations of viscosity data is emphasized, and the importance of ??Cp and glass-transition temperature systematics for determining the composition and temperature dependences of the viscosity is pointed out. ?? 1986.

  17. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of liquid xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Resembling a tiny bit of window screen, the oscillator at the heart of CVX-2 will vibrate between two pairs of paddle-like electrodes. The slight bend in the shape of the mesh has no effect on the data. What counts are the mesh's displacement in the xenon fluid and the rate at which the displacement dampens. The unit shown here is encased in a small test cell and capped with a sapphire windown to contain the xenon at high pressure.

  18. Depth of cure, flexural properties and volumetric shrinkage of low and high viscosity bulk-fill giomers and resin composites.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2017-03-31

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the depth of cure, flexural properties and volumetric shrinkage of low and high viscosity bulk-fill giomers and resin composites. Depth of cure and flexural properties were determined according to ISO 4049, and volumetric shrinkage was measured using a dilatometer. The depths of cure of giomers were significantly lower than those of resin composites, regardless of photo polymerization times. No difference in flexural strength and modulus was found among either high or low viscosity bulk fill materials. Volumetric shrinkage of low and high viscosity bulk-fill resin composites was significantly less than low and high viscosity giomers. Depth of cure of both low and high viscosity bulk-fill materials is time dependent. Flexural strength and modulus of high viscosity or low viscosity bulk-fill giomer or resin composite materials are not different for their respective category. Resin composites exhibited less polymerization shrinkage than giomers.

  19. Enhanced removal of NAPL constituent from aquifer during surfactant flushing with aqueous hydraulic barriers of high viscosity.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dayoung; Choi, Jae-Kyeong; Kim, Heonki

    2017-06-07

    This study examines the effect of controlled groundwater flow paths induced by hydraulic barriers on the removal of NAPL constituent. An aqueous solution of thickener [0.05% (w/v) sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, SCMC] was continuously injected into a horizontally set two-dimensional physical model (sand-packed), forming aqueous plume(s) of high viscosity. The water flux at the down gradient of the model was measured using a flux tracer (n-octanol) and passive flux meter (PFM, packs of granular activated carbon). A non-reactive tracer (pentafluorobenzoic acid, PFBA) was used to identify the plume of high viscosity (hydraulic barrier) and ambient groundwater. When the barrier of high viscosity was formed, the plume was separated from the background water with little mixing, which was confirmed by the concentration profile of PFBA; whereas, the measured flux of ambient groundwater showed a distinctive distribution, due to the hydraulic barrier. When two barriers were set, the ambient water flux was enhanced in the middle, and the removal rate of PCE from the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL), measured by PFM, was found to improve by 26% during three hours of water flushing. When an aqueous solution of surfactant [0.37% (w/v), sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS] was applied instead of water into the domain with two barriers set around the NAPL-contaminated spot, the removal of PCE from the NAPL increased by 101% for a three-hour time period. Based on the observations made in this study, hydraulic barriers formed by continuous injection of thickener solution change the flow direction of groundwater, and may increase the flux of groundwater (or aqueous solution of remediation agent) through a NAPL-contaminated region, improving the removal of NAPL.

  20. Viscosity of saturated R152a measured with a vibrating wire viscometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Gulik, P. S.

    1995-07-01

    Earlier reported values of the viscosity coefficient of the refrigerant R152a (1,1-difluoroethane) have been recalculated with an improved value for the mechanical damping of the vibrating wire viscometer. The measurements were taken along the saturation line both in the saturated liquid and in the saturated vapor every 10 K from 243 up to 393 K by means of a vibrating wire viscometer The damping of the vibration of the wire is a measure for the viscosity provided that the mechanical damping is subtracted. The latter is usually measured in vacuum. It turns out that the damping value measured in this way depends on the vacuum pressure and on the way the wire has been handled before. It appeared that the damping applied previously, measured after 6 days of pumping, is too small, resulting in values of the viscosity coefficient which are too large. The effect on the data for the saturated-liquid viscosity is small, but the new saturated-vapor viscosity data agree much better with the unsaturated-vapor data reported by Takahashi et al.

  1. Experimental and Theoretical Studies on the Viscosity-Structure Correlation for High Alumina-Silicate Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talapaneni, Trinath; Yedla, Natraj; Pal, Snehanshu; Sarkar, Smarajit

    2017-06-01

    Blast furnaces are encountering high Alumina (Al2O3 > 25 pct) in the final slag due to the charging of low-grade ores. To study the viscosity behavior of such high alumina slags, synthetic slags are prepared in the laboratory scale by maintaining a chemical composition of Al2O3 (25 to 30 wt pct) CaO/SiO2 ratio (0.8 to 1.6) and MgO (8 to 16 wt pct). A chemical thermodynamic software FactSage 7.0 is used to predict liquidus temperature and viscosity of the above slags. Experimental viscosity measurements are performed above the liquidus temperature in the range of 1748 K to 1848 K (1475 °C to 1575 °C). The viscosity values obtained from FactSage closely fit with the experimental values. The viscosity and the slag structure properties are intent by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. It is observed that increase in CaO/SiO2 ratio and MgO content in the slag depolymerizes the silicate structure. This leads to decrease in viscosity and activation energy (167 to 149 kJ/mol) of the slag. Also, an addition of Al2O3 content increases the viscosity of slag by polymerization of alumino-silicate structure and activation energy from 154 to 161 kJ/mol. It is witnessed that the activation energy values obtained from experiment closely fit with the Shankar model based on Arrhenius equation.

  2. Imaging aerosol viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Francis; Athanasiadis, Thanos; Botchway, Stan; Davdison, Nicholas; Fitzgerald, Clare; Gallimore, Peter; Hosny, Neveen; Kalberer, Markus; Kuimova, Marina; Vysniauskas, Aurimas; Ward, Andy

    2017-04-01

    Organic aerosol particles play major roles in atmospheric chemistry, climate, and public health. Aerosol particle viscosity is important since it can determine the ability of chemical species such as oxidants, organics or water to diffuse into the particle bulk. Recent measurements indicate that OA may be present in highly viscous states; however, diffusion rates of small molecules such as water appear not to be limited by these high viscosities. We have developed a technique for measuring viscosity that allows for the imaging of aerosol viscosity in micron sized aerosols through use of fluorescence lifetime imaging of viscosity sensitive dyes which are also known as 'molecular rotors'. These rotors can be introduced into laboratory generated aerosol by adding minute quantities of the rotor to aerosol precursor prior to aerosolization. Real world aerosols can also be studied by doping them in situ with the rotors. The doping is achieved through generation of ultrafine aerosol particles that contain the rotors; the ultrafine aerosol particles deliver the rotors to the aerosol of interest via impaction and coagulation. This work has been conducted both on aerosols deposited on microscope coverslips and on particles that are levitated in their true aerosol phase through the use of a bespoke optical trap developed at the Central Laser Facility. The technique allows for the direct observation of kinetic barriers caused by high viscosity and low diffusivity in aerosol particles. The technique is non-destructive thereby allowing for multiple experiments to be carried out on the same sample. It can dynamically quantify and track viscosity changes during atmospherically relevant processes such oxidation and hygroscopic growth (1). This presentation will focus on the oxidation of aerosol particles composed of unsaturated and saturated organic species. It will discuss how the type of oxidant, oxidation rate and the composition of the oxidized products affect the time

  3. Effects of Environmental Oxygen Content and Dissolved Oxygen on the Surface Tension and Viscosity of Liquid Nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SanSoucie, M. P.; Rogers, J. R.; Kumar, V.; Rodriguez, J.; Xiao, X.; Matson, D. M.

    2016-07-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory has recently added an oxygen partial pressure controller. This system allows the oxygen partial pressure within the vacuum chamber to be measured and controlled in the range from approximately 10^{-28} {to} 10^{-9} bar, while in a vacuum atmosphere. The oxygen control system installed in the ESL laboratory's main chamber consists of an oxygen sensor, oxygen pump, and a control unit. The sensor is a potentiometric device that determines the difference in oxygen activity in two gas compartments (inside the chamber and the air outside of the chamber) separated by an electrolyte. The pump utilizes coulometric titration to either add or remove oxygen. The system is controlled by a desktop control unit, which can also be accessed via a computer. The controller performs temperature control for the sensor and pump, has a PID-based current loop and a control algorithm. Oxygen partial pressure has been shown to play a significant role in the surface tension of liquid metals. Oxide films or dissolved oxygen may lead to significant changes in surface tension. The effects on surface tension and viscosity by oxygen partial pressure in the surrounding environment and the melt dissolved oxygen content will be evaluated, and the results will be presented. The surface tension and viscosity will be measured at several different oxygen partial pressures while the sample is undercooled. Surface tension and viscosity will be measured using the oscillating droplet method.

  4. Accurate high-speed liquid handling of very small biological samples.

    PubMed

    Schober, A; Günther, R; Schwienhorst, A; Döring, M; Lindemann, B F

    1993-08-01

    Molecular biology techniques require the accurate pipetting of buffers and solutions with volumes in the microliter range. Traditionally, hand-held pipetting devices are used to fulfill these requirements, but many laboratories have also introduced robotic workstations for the handling of liquids. Piston-operated pumps are commonly used in manually as well as automatically operated pipettors. These devices cannot meet the demands for extremely accurate pipetting of very small volumes at the high speed that would be necessary for certain applications (e.g., in sequencing projects with high throughput). In this paper we describe a technique for the accurate microdispensation of biochemically relevant solutions and suspensions with the aid of a piezoelectric transducer. It is suitable for liquids of a viscosity between 0.5 and 500 milliPascals. The obtainable drop sizes range from 5 picoliters to a few nanoliters with up to 10,000 drops per second. Liquids can be dispensed in single or accumulated drops to handle a wide volume range. The system proved to be excellently suitable for the handling of biological samples. It did not show any detectable negative impact on the biological function of dissolved or suspended molecules or particles.

  5. Progress on Acoustic Measurements of the Bulk Viscosity of Near-Critical Xenon (BVX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, Keith A.; Shinder, Iosif I.; Moldover, Michael R.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    2004-01-01

    We plan to determine the bulk viscosity of xenon 10 times closer [in reduced temperature tau = (T-Tc)/Tc] to its liquid-vapor critical point than ever before. (Tc is the critical temperature.) To do so, we must measure the dispersion and attenuation of sound at frequencies 1/100 of those used previously. In general, sound attenuation has contributions from the bulk viscosity acting throughout the volume of the xenon as well as contributions from the thermal conductivity and the shear viscosity acting within thin thermoacoustic boundary layers at the interface between the xenon and the solid walls of the resonator. Thus, we can determine the bulk viscosity only when the boundary layer attenuation is small and well understood. We present a comparison of calculations and measurements of sound attenuation in the acoustic boundary layer of xenon near its liquid-vapor critical point.

  6. Liquid-liquid phase separation causes high turbidity and pressure during low pH elution process in Protein A chromatography.

    PubMed

    Luo, Haibin; Lee, Nacole; Wang, Xiangyang; Li, Yuling; Schmelzer, Albert; Hunter, Alan K; Pabst, Timothy; Wang, William K

    2017-03-10

    Turbid elution pools and high column back pressure are common during elution of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by acidic pH in Protein A chromatography. This phenomenon has been historically attributed to acid-induced precipitation of incorrectly folded or pH-sensitive mAbs and host cell proteins (HCPs). In this work, we propose a new mechanism that may account for some observations of elution turbidity in Protein A chromatography. We report several examples of turbidity and high column back pressure occurring transiently under a short course of neutral conditions during Protein A elution. A systematic study of three mAbs displaying this behavior revealed phase separation characterized by liquid drops under certain conditions including neutral pH, low ionic strength, and high protein concentration. These liquid droplets caused solution turbidity and exhibited extremely high viscosity, resulting in high column back pressure. We found out that the droplets were formed through liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) as a result of protein self-association. We also found multiple factors, including pH, temperature, ionic strength, and protein concentration can affect LLPS behaviors. Careful selection of process parameters during protein A elution, including temperature, flow rate, buffer, and salt can inhibit formation of a dense liquid phase, reducing both turbidity (by 90%) and column back pressure (below 20 pounds per square inch). These findings provide both mechanistic insight and practical mitigation strategies for Protein A chromatography induced LLPS. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Numerical viscosity and resolution of high-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory schemes for compressible flows with high Reynolds numbers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Tao; Shi, Jing; Shu, Chi-Wang; Zhou, Ye

    2003-10-01

    A quantitative study is carried out in this paper to investigate the size of numerical viscosities and the resolution power of high-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory (WENO) schemes for solving one- and two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for compressible gas dynamics with high Reynolds numbers. A one-dimensional shock tube problem, a one-dimensional example with parameters motivated by supernova and laser experiments, and a two-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor instability problem are used as numerical test problems. For the two-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor instability problem, or similar problems with small-scale structures, the details of the small structures are determined by the physical viscosity (therefore, the Reynolds number) in the Navier-Stokes equations. Thus, to obtain faithful resolution to these small-scale structures, the numerical viscosity inherent in the scheme must be small enough so that the physical viscosity dominates. A careful mesh refinement study is performed to capture the threshold mesh for full resolution, for specific Reynolds numbers, when WENO schemes of different orders of accuracy are used. It is demonstrated that high-order WENO schemes are more CPU time efficient to reach the same resolution, both for the one-dimensional and two-dimensional test problems.

  8. Viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity of aluminum oxide and zinc oxide nanolubricants

    PubMed Central

    Kedzierski, M.A.; Brignoli, R.; Quine, K.T.; Brown, J.S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents liquid kinematic viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity measurements of eleven different synthetic polyolester-based nanoparticle nanolubricants (dispersions) at atmospheric pressure over the temperature range 288 K to 318 K. Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles with nominal diameters of 127 nm and 135 nm, respectively, were investigated. A good dispersion of the spherical and non-spherical nanoparticles in the lubricant was maintained with a surfactant. Viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity measurements were made for the neat lubricant along with eleven nanolubricants with differing nanoparticle and surfactant mass fractions. Existing models were used to predict kinematic viscosity (±20%), thermal conductivity (±1%), and specific volume (±6%) of the nanolubricant as a function of temperature, nanoparticle mass fraction, surfactant mass fraction, and nanoparticle diameter. The liquid viscosity, density and thermal conductivity were shown to increase with respect to increasing nanoparticle mass fraction. PMID:28736463

  9. A Low Viscosity Lunar Magma Ocean Forms a Stratified Anorthitic Flotation Crust With Mafic Poor and Rich Units: Lunar Magma Ocean Viscosity

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dygert, Nick; Lin, Jung-Fu; Marshall, Edward W.

    Much of the lunar crust is monomineralic, comprising >98% plagioclase. The prevailing model argues the crust accumulated as plagioclase floated to the surface of a solidifying lunar magma ocean (LMO). Whether >98% pure anorthosites can form in a flotation scenario is debated. An important determinant of the efficiency of plagioclase fractionation is the viscosity of the LMO liquid, which was unconstrained. Here we present results from new experiments conducted on a late LMO-relevant ferrobasaltic melt. The liquid has an exceptionally low viscosity of 0.22more » $$+0.11\\atop{-0.19}$$to 1.45 $$+0.46\\atop{-0.82}$$ Pa s at experimental conditions (1,300–1,600°C; 0.1–4.4 GPa) and can be modeled by an Arrhenius relation. Extrapolating to LMO-relevant temperatures, our analysis suggests a low viscosity LMO would form a stratified flotation crust, with the oldest units containing a mafic component and with very pure younger units. Old, impure crust may have been buried by lower crustal diapirs of pure anorthosite in a serial magmatism scenario.« less

  10. Theory and Simulation of A Novel Viscosity Measurement Method for High Temperature Semiconductor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bochuan; Li, Chao; Ban, Heng; Scripa, Rose; Zhu, Shen; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, S. L.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The properties of molten semiconductors are good indicators for material structure transformation and hysteresis under temperature variations. Viscosity, as one of the most important properties, is difficult to measure because of high temperature, high pressure, and vapor toxicity of melts. Recently, a novel method was developed by applying a rotating magnetic field to the melt sealed in a suspended quartz ampoule, and measuring the transient torque exerted by rotating melt flow on the ampoule wall. The method was designed to measure viscosity in short time period, which is essential for evaluating temperature hysteresis. This paper compares the theoretical prediction of melt flow and ampoule oscillation with the experimental data. A theoretical model was established and the coupled fluid flow and ampoule torsional vibration equations were solved numerically. The simulation results showed a good agreement with experimental data. The results also showed that both electrical conductivity and viscosity could be calculated by fitting the theoretical results to the experimental data. The transient velocity of the melt caused by the rotating magnetic field was found reach equilibrium in about half a minute, and the viscosity of melt could be calculated from the altitude of oscillation. This would allow the measurement of viscosity in a minute or so, in contrast to the existing oscillation cup method, which requires about an hour for one measurement.

  11. Viscous Dissipation in One-Dimensional Quantum Liquids

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Matveev, K. A.; Pustilnik, M.

    We develop a theory of viscous dissipation in one-dimensional single-component quantum liquids at low temperatures. Such liquids are characterized by a single viscosity coefficient, the bulk viscosity. We show that for a generic interaction between the constituent particles this viscosity diverges in the zerotemperature limit. In the special case of integrable models, the viscosity is infinite at any temperature, which can be interpreted as a breakdown of the hydrodynamic description. In conclusion, our consideration is applicable to all single-component Galilean- invariant one-dimensional quantum liquids, regardless of the statistics of the constituent particles and the interaction strength.

  12. Viscous Dissipation in One-Dimensional Quantum Liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Matveev, K. A.; Pustilnik, M.

    2017-07-20

    We develop a theory of viscous dissipation in one-dimensional single-component quantum liquids at low temperatures. Such liquids are characterized by a single viscosity coefficient, the bulk viscosity. We show that for a generic interaction between the constituent particles this viscosity diverges in the zerotemperature limit. In the special case of integrable models, the viscosity is infinite at any temperature, which can be interpreted as a breakdown of the hydrodynamic description. In conclusion, our consideration is applicable to all single-component Galilean- invariant one-dimensional quantum liquids, regardless of the statistics of the constituent particles and the interaction strength.

  13. Liquid-Crystal Thermosets, a New Generation of High-Performance Liquid-Crystal Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dingemans, Theo; Weiser, Erik; Hou, Tan; Jensen, Brian; St. Clair, Terry

    2004-01-01

    One of the major challenges for NASA's next-generation reusable-launch-vehicle (RLV) program is the design of a cryogenic lightweight composite fuel tank. Potential matrix resin systems need to exhibit a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), good mechanical strength, and excellent barrier properties at cryogenic temperatures under load. In addition, the resin system needs to be processable by a variety of non-autoclavable techniques, such as vacuum-bag curing, resin-transfer molding (RTM), vacuum-assisted resin-transfer molding (VaRTM), resin-film infusion (RFI), pultrusion, and advanced tow placement (ATP). To meet these requirements, the Advanced Materials and Processing Branch (AMPB) at NASA Langley Research Center developed a new family of wholly aromatic liquid-crystal oligomers that can be processed and thermally cross-linked while maintaining their liquid-crystal order. All the monomers were polymerized in the presence of a cross-linkable unit by use of an environmentally benign melt-condensation technique. This method does not require hazardous solvents, and the only side product is acetic acid. The final product can be obtained as a powder or granulate and has an infinite shelf life. The obtained oligomers melt into a nematic phase and do not exhibit isotropization temperatures greater than the temperatures of decomposition (Ti > T(sub dec)). Three aromatic formulations were designed and tested and included esters, ester-amides, and ester-imides. One of the major advantages of this invention, named LaRC-LCR or Langley Research Center-Liquid Crystal Resin, is the ability to control a variety of resin characteristics, such as melting temperature, viscosity, and the cross-link density of the final part. Depending on the formulation, oligomers can be prepared with melt viscosities in the range of 10-10,000 poise (100 rad/s), which can easily be melt-processed using a variety of composite-processing techniques. This capability provides NASA with custom

  14. Viscosity and Solvation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses theories underlying the phenomena of solution viscosities, involving the Jones and Dole equation, B-coefficient determination, and flickering cluster model. Indicates that viscosity measurements provide a basis for the study of the structural effects of ions in aqueous solutions and are applicable in teaching high school chemistry. (CC)

  15. Automation of a high-speed imaging setup for differential viscosity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurth, C.; Duane, B.; Whitfield, D.; Smith, S.; Nordquist, A.; Zenhausern, F.

    2013-12-01

    We present the automation of a setup previously used to assess the viscosity of pleural effusion samples and discriminate between transudates and exudates, an important first step in clinical diagnostics. The presented automation includes the design, testing, and characterization of a vacuum-actuated loading station that handles the 2 mm glass spheres used as sensors, as well as the engineering of electronic Printed Circuit Board (PCB) incorporating a microcontroller and their synchronization with a commercial high-speed camera operating at 10 000 fps. The hereby work therefore focuses on the instrumentation-related automation efforts as the general method and clinical application have been reported earlier [Hurth et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 034701 (2011)]. In addition, we validate the performance of the automated setup with the calibration for viscosity measurements using water/glycerol standard solutions and the determination of the viscosity of an "unknown" solution of hydroxyethyl cellulose.

  16. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    DOEpatents

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  17. Dynamic melting of metals in the diamond cell: Clues for melt viscosity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehler, R.; Karandikar, A.; Yang, L.

    2011-12-01

    From the observed decreasing mobility of liquid iron at high pressure in the laser-heated diamond cell and the gradual decrease in the shear modulus in shock experiments, one may derive high viscosity in the liquid outer core of the Earth. A possible explanation could be the presence of local structures in the liquid as has been observed for several transition metals. In order to bridge the large gap in the timescales between static and dynamic melting experiments, we have developed new experimental techniques to solve the large discrepancies in the melting curves of transition metals (Fe, W, Ta, Mo) measured statically in the laser-heated diamond cell and in shock experiments. The new methods employ "single-shot" laser heating in order to reduce problems associated with mechanical instabilities and chemical reactions of the samples subjected to several thousand degrees at megabar pressures. For melt detection, both synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) on recovered samples are used. A third approach is the measurement of latent heat effects associated with melting or freezing. This method employs simultaneous CW and pulse laser heating and monitoring the temperature-time history with fast photomultipliers. Using the SEM recovery method, we measured first melting temperatures of rhenium, which at high pressure may be one of the most refractory materials. From the melt textures of Re, we did not observe a significant pressure dependence of viscosity.

  18. High-Pressure-High-Temperature Processing Reduces Maillard Reaction and Viscosity in Whey Protein-Sugar Solutions.

    PubMed

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Xi, Bingyan; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; van Boekel, Martinus; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Stieger, Markus

    2016-09-28

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of pressure in high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) processing on Maillard reactions and protein aggregation of whey protein-sugar solutions. Solutions of whey protein isolate containing either glucose or trehalose at pH 6, 7, and 9 were treated by HPHT processing or conventional high-temperature (HT) treatments. Browning was reduced, and early and advanced Maillard reactions were retarded under HPHT processing at all pH values compared to HT treatment. HPHT induced a larger pH drop than HT treatments, especially at pH 9, which was not associated with Maillard reactions. After HPHT processing at pH 7, protein aggregation and viscosity of whey protein isolate-glucose/trehalose solutions remained unchanged. It was concluded that HPHT processing can potentially improve the quality of protein-sugar-containing foods, for which browning and high viscosities are undesired, such as high-protein beverages.

  19. Viscosity of Xenon Examined in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerli, Gregory A.; Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.

    1999-01-01

    Why does water flow faster than honey? The short answer, that honey has a greater viscosity, merely rephrases the question. The fundamental answer is that viscosity originates in the interactions between a fluid s molecules. These interactions are so complicated that, except for low-density gases, the viscosity of a fluid cannot be accurately predicted. Progress in understanding viscosity has been made by studying moderately dense gases and, more recently, fluids near the critical point. Modern theories predict a universal behavior for all pure fluids near the liquid-vapor critical point, and they relate the increase in viscosity to spontaneous fluctuations in density near this point. The Critical Viscosity of Xenon (CVX) experiment tested these theories with unprecedented precision when it flew aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-85) in August 1997. Near the critical point, xenon is a billion times more compressible than water, yet it has about the same density. Because the fluid is so "soft," it collapses under its own weight when exposed to the force of Earth s gravity - much like a very soft spring. Because the CVX experiment is conducted in microgravity, it achieves a very uniform fluid density even very close to the critical point. At the heart of the CVX experiment is a novel viscometer built around a small nickel screen. An oscillating electric field forces the screen to oscillate between pairs of electrodes. Viscosity, which dampens the oscillations, can be calculated by measuring the screen motion and the force applied to the screen. So that the fluid s delicate state near the critical point will not be disrupted, the screen oscillations are set to be both slow and small.

  20. Viscosity Measurement: A Virtual Experiment - Abstract of Issues 9907W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, N.; Pitta, A. T.; Markopoulos, N.; Limniou, M.; Lemos, M. A. N. D. A.; Lemos, F.; Freire, F. G.

    1999-11-01

    Viscosity Measurement: A Virtual Experiment simulates a series of viscosity experiments. Viscosity is an important subject in chemistry and chemical engineering. It is important when dealing with intermolecular forces in liquids and gases and it has enormous relevance in all technological aspects of equipment dealing with liquids or gases. Most university-level chemistry courses include viscosity to some extent. Viscosity Measurement includes three virtual experiments: an Ostwald viscometer simulator, a falling-ball viscometer simulator, and a balance simulator for a simple determination of the density of a liquid. The Ostwald viscometer simulator and the balance simulator allow the student to find out how composition and temperature influence the density and viscosity of an ethanol-water mixture. The falling-ball viscometer simulator allows the student to determine experimentally the size and density of the ball required to measure viscosity of various liquids. Each virtual experiment includes a corresponding theoretical section. Support from the program is sufficient to enable the students to carry out a virtual experiment sensibly and on their own. Preparation is not essential. Students can use the program unsupervised, thus saving staff time and allowing flexibility in students' time. The design of the program interface plays a key role in the success of a simulated experiment. Direct manipulation has greater intuitive appeal than alternative interface forms such as menus and has been observed to provide performance and learning advantages (1). We tried to design an interface that is visually attractive, is user friendly with simple and intuitive navigation, and provides appropriate schematic animations to clarify the principles of the laboratory procedures. The opening screen presents the virtual experiments that can be selected. Clicking an icon takes the student to the appropriate section. Viscosity Measurement allows the student to concentrate on the

  1. High pressure study of viscosity and temperature effects on tetracyanobenzene EDA complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Michele Moisio; Drickamer, H. G.

    1981-12-01

    High pressure fluorescence studies from 0-10 kbar have been performed on electron donor-acceptor (EDA) complexes of s-tetracyanobenzene (TCNB) with a series of aromatic hydrocarbons. Four solvents were used: 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN), methylcyclohexane (MCH), 2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane (TMPD), and a mixture of MCH and HMN. A viscosity range from 0.006 to 10 000 P was covered at two temperatures: 0 and 25 °C. As pressure (viscosity) increased the fluorescence spectrum shifted from one dominated by emission from the equilibrium (EQ) excited singlet state to one dominated by Franck-Condon (FC) singlet emission. Lifetime measurements for the complexes of o-xylene and p-xylene with TCNB yielded the two radiative rates (kEQ and kFC) as well as the rate of relaxation from FC to the EQ excited state (kRE). kRE was found to correlate well with viscosity and to be independent of temperature at constant viscosity, indicating that the relaxation process is diffusion controlled.

  2. Viscosities of nonelectrolyte liquid mixtures. III. Selected binary and quaternary mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakefield, D. L.

    1988-05-01

    This paper is the final in a series of three viscosity and density studies of pure n-alkanes and selected binary and quaternary mixtures. A standard U-tube viscometer was used for viscosity measurements, and a Pyrex flask-type pycnometer was used for density determinations. Results are given here for pure alkane and selected binary mixtures of n-tetradecane + n-octane, for selected quaternary mixtures of n-hexadecane + n-dodecane + n-decane + n-hexane, and for pure and selected quaternary mixtures of n-hexadecane + n-dodecane + n-nonane + n-heptane at 303.16 and 308.16 K. The principle of congruence was tested, as was the Grunberg and Nissan equation, as they have been shown to be useful as prediction techniques for other n-alkane binary mixtures. Comparisons were made between the two groups of quaternary alkane mixtures and the binary n-tetradecane + n-octane mixtures of the same “pseudo” composition to understand better the dependence of mixture viscosities on the composition parameter.

  3. Viscosity measurements of metallic melts using the oscillating drop technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintzmann, P.; Yang, F.; Schneider, S.; Lohöfer, G.; Meyer, A.

    2016-06-01

    By means of benchmarking reduced gravity experiments, we have verified the measured viscosity of binary Zr-Ni glass forming liquids utilizing the oscillating drop technique combined with ground-based electrostatic levitation (ESL). Reliable viscosity data can be obtained as long as internal viscous damping of a single oscillation mode of a levitated drop dominates external perturbations. This can be verified by the absence of a sample mass dependence of the results. Hence, ESL is an excellent tool for studying the viscosity of metallic glass forming melts in the range of about 10-250 mPa s, with sample masses below 100 mg. To this end, we show that, for binary Zr-Ni melts, the viscosity is qualitatively controlled by the packing density.

  4. Automation of a high-speed imaging setup for differential viscosity measurements

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hurth, C.; Duane, B.; Whitfield, D.

    We present the automation of a setup previously used to assess the viscosity of pleural effusion samples and discriminate between transudates and exudates, an important first step in clinical diagnostics. The presented automation includes the design, testing, and characterization of a vacuum-actuated loading station that handles the 2 mm glass spheres used as sensors, as well as the engineering of electronic Printed Circuit Board (PCB) incorporating a microcontroller and their synchronization with a commercial high-speed camera operating at 10 000 fps. The hereby work therefore focuses on the instrumentation-related automation efforts as the general method and clinical application have beenmore » reported earlier [Hurth et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 034701 (2011)]. In addition, we validate the performance of the automated setup with the calibration for viscosity measurements using water/glycerol standard solutions and the determination of the viscosity of an “unknown” solution of hydroxyethyl cellulose.« less

  5. Non-Newtonian flow of an ultralow-melting chalcogenide liquid in strongly confined geometry

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wang, Siyuan; Jain, Chhavi; Wondraczek, Katrin

    2015-05-18

    The flow of high-viscosity liquids inside micrometer-size holes can be substantially different from the flow in the bulk, non-confined state of the same liquid. Such non-Newtonian behavior can be employed to generate structural anisotropy in the frozen-in liquid, i.e., in the glassy state. Here, we report on the observation of non-Newtonian flow of an ultralow melting chalcogenide glass inside a silica microcapillary, leading to a strong deviation of the shear viscosity from its value in the bulk material. In particular, we experimentally show that the viscosity is radius-dependent, which is a clear indication that the microscopic rearrangement of the glassmore » network needs to be considered if the lateral confinement falls below a certain limit. The experiments have been conducted using pressure-assisted melt filling, which provides access to the rheological properties of high-viscosity melt flow under previously inaccessible experimental conditions. The resulting flow-induced structural anisotropy can pave the way towards integration of anisotropic glasses inside hybrid photonic waveguides.« less

  6. Optimization of high solids fed-batch saccharification of sugarcane bagasse based on system viscosity changes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunyun; Xu, Jingliang; Zhang, Yu; Yuan, Zhenhong; Xie, Jun

    2015-10-10

    Viscosity trends in alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) slurries undergoing high solids fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis were measured for a range of solids loading from 15% to 36%. Solids liquefaction times were related to system viscosity changes. The viscosity decreased quickly for low solids loading, and increased with increasing solids content. Fed-batch hydrolysis was initiated with 15% solids loading, and an additional 8%, 7% and 6% were successively added after the system viscosity decreased to stable values to achieve a final solids content of 36%. Two enzyme-adding modes with 8.5FPU/g solid were investigated. The batch mode with all enzyme being added at the beginning of the reaction produced the highest yields, with approximately 231.7g/L total sugars and 134.9g/L glucose being obtained after 96h with nearly 60% of the final glucan conversion rate. This finding indicates that under the right conditions, the fed-batch strategy might be a plausible way to produce high sugars under high solids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Highly Branched Polyethylenes as Lubricant Viscosity and Friction Modifiers

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Robinson, Joshua W.; Zhou, Yan; Qu, Jun

    2016-10-08

    A series of highly branched polyethylenes (BPE) were prepared and used in a Group I base oil as potential viscosity and friction modifiers. The lubricating performance of these BPEs supports the expected dual functionality. Changes in polarity, topology, and molecular weight of the BPEs showed significant effects on the lubricants’ performance, which provide scientific insights for polymer design in future lubricant development.

  8. Ionic liquid electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gorlov, Mikhail; Kloo, Lars

    2008-05-28

    The potential of room-temperature molten salts (ionic liquids) as solvents for electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells has been investigated during the last decade. The non-volatility, good solvent properties and high electrochemical stability of ionic liquids make them attractive solvents in contrast to volatile organic solvents. Despite this, the relatively high viscosity of ionic liquids leads to mass-transport limitations. Here we review recent developments in the application of different ionic liquids as solvents or components of liquid and quasi-solid electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

  9. Reference Correlation for the Viscosity of Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laesecke, Arno; Muzny, Chris D.

    2017-03-01

    A comprehensive database of experimental and computed data for the viscosity of carbon dioxide (CO2) was compiled and a new reference correlation was developed. Literature results based on an ab initio potential energy surface were the foundation of the correlation of the viscosity in the limit of zero density in the temperature range from 100 to 2000 K. Guided symbolic regression was employed to obtain a new functional form that extrapolates correctly to 0 and to 10 000 K. Coordinated measurements at low density made it possible to implement the temperature dependence of the Rainwater-Friend theory in the linear-in-density viscosity term. The residual viscosity could be formulated with a scaling term ργ/T, the significance of which was confirmed by symbolic regression. The final viscosity correlation covers temperatures from 100 to 2000 K for gaseous CO2 and from 220 to 700 K with pressures along the melting line up to 8000 MPa for compressed and supercritical liquid states. The data representation is more accurate than with the previous correlations, and the covered pressure and temperature range is significantly extended. The critical enhancement of the viscosity of CO2 is included in the new correlation.

  10. Determination of Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids Using Molecular Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-20

    That is, most groups rely on relatively short (100-500 ps) simulations and evaluate the viscosity via conventional Green - Kubo integration . In this...and can contribute to higher than expected viscosities . The liquid structure of the energetic ionic liquid 2-hydroxyethylhydrizinium nitrate was...claimed previously that neglect of polarizability leads to inaccuracies in the computed transport properties of ionic liquids such as viscosities

  11. Pressure dependence of viscosity in supercooled water and a unified approach for thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies of water

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Lokendra P.; Issenmann, Bruno; Caupin, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    The anomalous decrease of the viscosity of water with applied pressure has been known for over a century. It occurs concurrently with major structural changes: The second coordination shell around a molecule collapses onto the first shell. Viscosity is thus a macroscopic witness of the progressive breaking of the tetrahedral hydrogen bond network that makes water so peculiar. At low temperature, water at ambient pressure becomes more tetrahedral and the effect of pressure becomes stronger. However, surprisingly, no data are available for the viscosity of supercooled water under pressure, in which dramatic anomalies are expected based on interpolation between ambient pressure data for supercooled water and high pressure data for stable water. Here we report measurements with a time-of-flight viscometer down to 244K and up to 300MPa, revealing a reduction of viscosity by pressure by as much as 42%. Inspired by a previous attempt [Tanaka H (2000) J Chem Phys 112:799–809], we show that a remarkably simple extension of a two-state model [Holten V, Sengers JV, Anisimov MA (2014) J Phys Chem Ref Data 43:043101], initially developed to reproduce thermodynamic properties, is able to accurately describe dynamic properties (viscosity, self-diffusion coefficient, and rotational correlation time) as well. Our results support the idea that water is a mixture of a high density, “fragile” liquid, and a low density, “strong” liquid, the varying proportion of which explains the anomalies and fragile-to-strong crossover in water. PMID:28404733

  12. Study of high viscous multiphase phase flow in a horizontal pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Yahaya D.; Aliyu, Aliyu M.; Archibong, Archibong-Eso; Almabrok, Almabrok A.; Igbafe, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    Heavy oil accounts for a major portion of the world's total oil reserves. Its production and transportation through pipelines is beset with great challenges due to its highly viscous nature. This paper studies the effects of high viscosity on heavy oil two-phase flow characteristics such as pressure gradient, liquid holdup, slug liquid holdup, slug frequency and slug liquid holdup using an advanced instrumentation (i.e. Electrical Capacitance Tomography). Experiments were conducted in a horizontal flow loop with a pipe internal diameter (ID) of 0.0762 m; larger than most reported in the open literature for heavy oil flow. Mineral oil of 1.0-5.0 Pa.s viscosity range and compressed air were used as the liquid and gas phases respectively. Pressure gradient (measured by means differential pressure transducers) and mean liquid holdup was observed to increase as viscosity of oil is increased. Obtained results also revealed that increase in liquid viscosity has significant effects on flow pattern and slug flow features.

  13. Nanoscale Origin of the Dichotimous Viscosity-Pressure Behavior in Silicate Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Sakamaki, T.; Skiner, L.; Jing, Z.; Yu, T.; Kono, Y.; Park, C.; Shen, G.; Rivers, M. L.; Sutton, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    A defining characteristic of silicate melts is the degree of polymerization (tetrahedral connectivity), which dictates physical properties such as viscosity and density. While viscosity of depolymerized silicate melts increases with pressure consistent with free volume theory, isothermal viscosity of polymerized melts decreases with pressure up to ~3 - 5 GPa, above which it turns over to normal (positive) pressure dependence. We conducted high-pressure melt structure studies along the jadeite (Jd) - diopside (Di) join, using a Paris-Edinburgh Press at the HPCAT beamline 16-BM-B and measured Jd melt density using a DIA type apparatus based on x-ray absorption at GSECARS beamline 13-BM-D. Structures of polymerized (Jd and Jd50Di50) and depolymerized (Di) melts show distinct responses to pressure. For Jd melt, T-O, T-T bond lengths (where T denotes tetrahedrally coordinated Al and Si) and T-O-T angle all exhibit rapid, sometimes non-linear decrease with increasing pressure to ~3 GPa. For Di melt, these parameters vary linearly with pressure and change very little. Molecular dynamics calculations, constrained by the x-ray structural data, were employed to examine details of structural evolution in polymerized and depolymerized liquids. A structural model is developed to link structural evolution to changes in melt properties, such as density and viscosity, with pressure. We show that the pressure of the viscosity turnover corresponds to the tetrahedral packing limit, below which the structure is compressed through tightening of the inter-tetrahedral bond angle, resulting in continual breakup of tetrahedral connectivity and viscosity decrease. Above the turnover pressure, Si and Al coordination increases to allow further packing, with increasing viscosity. This structural response prescribes the distribution of melt viscosity and density with depth, and may be the main controlling factor for magma transport rates in terrestrial planetary interiors.

  14. High-throughput microarray mapping of cell wall polymers in roots and tubers during the viscosity-reducing process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuhong; Willats, William G; Lange, Lene; Jin, Yanling; Fang, Yang; Salmeán, Armando A; Pedersen, Henriette L; Busk, Peter Kamp; Zhao, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Viscosity reduction has a great impact on the efficiency of ethanol production when using roots and tubers as feedstock. Plant cell wall-degrading enzymes have been successfully applied to overcome the challenges posed by high viscosity. However, the changes in cell wall polymers during the viscosity-reducing process are poorly characterized. Comprehensive microarray polymer profiling, which is a high-throughput microarray, was used for the first time to map changes in the cell wall polymers of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), cassava (Manihot esculenta), and Canna edulis Ker. over the entire viscosity-reducing process. The results indicated that the composition of cell wall polymers among these three roots and tubers was markedly different. The gel-like matrix and glycoprotein network in the C. edulis Ker. cell wall caused difficulty in viscosity reduction. The obvious viscosity reduction of the sweet potato and the cassava was attributed to the degradation of homogalacturonan and the released 1,4-β-d-galactan and 1,5-α-l-arabinan. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Application of ionic liquid in liquid phase microextraction technology.

    PubMed

    Han, Dandan; Tang, Baokun; Lee, Yu Ri; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-11-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are novel nonmolecular solvents. Their unique properties, such as high thermal stability, tunable viscosity, negligible vapor pressure, nonflammability, and good solubility for inorganic and organic compounds, make them excellent candidates as extraction media for a range of microextraction techniques. Many physical properties of ILs can be varied, and the structural design can be tuned to impart the desired functionality and enhance the analyte extraction selectivity, efficiency, and sensitivity. This paper provides an overview of the applications of ILs in liquid phase microextraction technology, such as single-drop microextraction, hollow fiber based liquid phase microextraction, and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. The sensitivity, linear calibration range, and detection limits for a range of target analytes in the methods were analyzed to determine the advantages of ILs in liquid phase microextraction. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Use of ammonia to reduce the viscosity of bottoms streams produced in hydroconversion processes

    DOEpatents

    Zaczepinski, Sioma; Billimoria, Rustom M.; Tao, Frank; Lington, Christopher G.; Plumlee, Karl W.

    1984-01-01

    Coal, petroleum residuum and similar carbonaceous feed materials are subjected to hydroconversion in the presence of molecular hydrogen to produce a hydroconversion effluent which is then subjected to one or more separation steps to remove lower molecular weight liquids and produce a heavy bottoms stream containing high molecular weight liquids and unconverted carbonaceous material. The viscosity of the bottoms streams produced in the separation step or steps is prevented from increasing rapidly by treating the feed to the separation step or steps with ammonia gas prior to or during the separation step or steps. The viscosity of the heavy bottoms stream produced in the final separation step is also controlled by treating these bottoms with ammonia gas. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the effluent from the hydroconversion reactor is subjected to an atmospheric distillation followed by a vacuum distillation and the feeds to these distillations are contacted with ammonia during the distillations.

  17. Design of a high-pressure circulating pump for viscous liquids.

    PubMed

    Seifried, Bernhard; Temelli, Feral

    2009-07-01

    The design of a reciprocating dual action piston pump capable of circulating viscous fluids at pressures of up to 34 MPa (5000 psi) and temperatures up to 80 degrees C is described. The piston of this pump is driven by a pair of solenoids energized alternatively by a 12 V direct current power supply controlled by an electronic controller facilitating continuously adjustable flow rates. The body of this seal-less pump is constructed using off-the-shelf parts eliminating the need for custom made parts. Both the electronic controller and the pump can be assembled relatively easily. Pump performance has been evaluated at room temperature (22 degrees C) and atmospheric pressure using liquids with low and moderately high viscosities, such as ethanol and corn oil, respectively. At ambient conditions, the pump delivered continuous flow of ethanol and corn oil at a flow rate of up to 170 and 17 cm3/min, respectively. For pumping viscous fluids comparable to corn oil, an optimum reciprocation frequency was ascertained to maximize flow rate. For low viscosity liquids such as ethanol, a linear relationship between the flow rate and reciprocation frequency was determined up to the maximum reciprocation frequency of the pump. Since its fabrication, the pump has been used in our laboratory for circulating triglycerides in contact with supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures of up to 25 MPa (3600 psi) and temperatures up to 70 degrees C on a daily basis for a total of more than 1500 h of operation functioning trouble free.

  18. Effect of temperature, viscosity and surface tension on gelatine structures produced by modified 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkandelen, C.; Ozbek, B.; Ergul, N. M.; Akyol, S.; Moukbil, Y.; Oktar, F. N.; Ekren, N.; Kılıc, O.; Kılıc, B.; Gunduz, O.

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, gelatine scaffolds were manufactured by using modified 3D (3 Dimensional) printing machine and the effect of different parameters on scaffold structure were investigated. Such as; temperature, viscosity and surface tension of the gelatine solutions. The varying of gelatine solutions (1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt.%) were prepared and characterized. It has been detected that, viscosity of those solutions were highly influenced by temperature and gelatine concentration. Specific CAD (Computer Assistant Design) model which has 67% porosity and original design were created via computer software. However, at high temperatures gelatine solutions caused like liquid but at the lower temperatures were observed the opposite behaviour. In addition to that, viscosity of 1,3,5 wt.% solutions were not enough to build a structure and 20 wt.% gelatine solution too hard to handle, because of the sudden viscosity changes with temperature. Even though, scaffold of the 20 wt.% gelatine solution printed hardly but it was observed the best printed solutions, which were 10 and 15 wt.% gelatine solutions. As a result, 3D printing of gelatine were found the values of the best temperature, viscosity, surface tension and gelatine concentration such as 25-35 °C, 36-163 cP, 46-59 mN/m and 15 wt.% gelatine concentration respectively.

  19. A possible structural signature of the onset of cooperativity in metallic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, R.; Ashcraft, R.; Kelton, K. F.

    2018-05-01

    It is widely, although not universally, believed that there must be a connection between liquid dynamics and the structure. Previous supporting studies, for example, have demonstrated a link between the structural evolution in the liquid and kinetic fragility. Here, new results are presented that strengthen the evidence for a connection. By combining the results from high-energy synchrotron X-ray scattering studies of containerlessly processed supercooled liquids with viscosity measurements, an accelerated rate of structural ordering beyond the nearest neighbors in the liquid is demonstrated to correlate with the temperature at which the viscosity transitions from Arrhenius to super-Arrhenius behavior. This is the first confirmation of predictions from several recent molecular dynamics studies.

  20. Densities and viscosities of solutions of monoethanolamine + N-Methyldiethanolamine + water and monoethanolamine + 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol + water

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Li, M.H.; Lie, Y.C.

    1994-07-01

    The densities and viscosities of aqueous mixtures of monoethanolamine (MEA) with N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and MEA with 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) have been studied at temperatures from 30 to 80 C. For density measurements, four MEA + MDEA (a total of 20 mass %) + H[sub 2]O mixtures and eight MEA + AMP (20 and 30 mass %) + H[sub 2]O mixtures were studied. For viscosity measurements, ten MEA + MDEA + H[sub 2]O mixtures and eight MEA + AMP + H[sub 2]O mixtures were measured. A Redlich-Kister equation of the excess volume was applied to represent the density of the liquid mixtures.more » The equation of Grunberg and Nissan of liquid viscosity was used to correlate the viscosity data. Both density and viscosity calculations show satisfactory results.« less

  1. Reference Correlation for the Viscosity of Carbon Dioxide1

    PubMed Central

    Laesecke, Arno; Muzny, Chris D.

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive database of experimental and computed data for the viscosity of carbon dioxide (CO2) was compiled and a new reference correlation was developed. Literature results based on an ab initio potential energy surface were the foundation of the correlation of the viscosity in the limit of zero density in the temperature range from 100 K to 2000 K. Guided symbolic regression was employed to obtain a new functional form that extrapolates correctly to T → 0 K and to 10 000 K. Coordinated measurements at low density made it possible to implement the temperature dependence of the Rainwater-Friend theory in the linear-in-density viscosity term. The residual viscosity could be formulated with a scaling term ργ/T the significance of which was confirmed by symbolic regression. The final viscosity correlation covers temperatures from 100 K to 2000 K for gaseous CO2, and from 220 K to 700 K with pressures along the melting line up to 8000 MPa for compressed and supercritical liquid states. The data representation is more accurate than with the previous correlations, and the covered pressure and temperature range is significantly extended. The critical enhancement of the viscosity of CO2 is included in the new correlation. PMID:28736460

  2. Noncontact surface tension and viscosity measurements of molten oxides with a pressurized hybrid electrostatic-aerodynamic levitator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Takehiko; Yu, Jianding; Paradis, Paul-François

    2006-05-01

    In order to measure the surface tension and the viscosity of molten oxides, the oscillation drop technique has been applied on a pressurized hybrid electrostatic-aerodynamic levitator. To suppress the electrical discharge between the top and bottom electrodes, the drop excitation method which has been used with high vacuum electrostatic levitators has been modified. As a demonstration, the surface tension and viscosity of liquid BaTiO3 were measured using this new method. Over the 1500-2000K interval, the surface tension was measured as γ(T )=349-0.03 (T-Tm) (10-3N/m), where Tm=1893K is the melting temperature. Similarly, the viscosity was determined as η(T )=0.53exp[5.35×104/(RT)](10-3Pas) over the same temperature interval.

  3. Dynamics of liquid films exposed to high-frequency surface vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manor, Ofer; Rezk, Amgad R.; Friend, James R.; Yeo, Leslie Y.

    2015-05-01

    We derive a generalized equation that governs the spreading of liquid films under high-frequency (MHz-order) substrate vibration in the form of propagating surface waves and show that this single relationship is universally sufficient to collectively describe the rich and diverse dynamic phenomena recently observed for the transport of oil films under such substrate excitation, in particular, Rayleigh surface acoustic waves. In contrast to low-frequency (Hz- to kHz-order) vibration-induced wetting phenomena, film spreading at such high frequencies arises from convective drift generated by the viscous periodic flow localized in a region characterized by the viscous penetration depth β-1≡(2μ /ρ ω ) 1 /2 adjacent to the substrate that is invoked directly by its vibration; μ and ρ are the viscosity and the density of the liquid, respectively, and ω is the excitation frequency. This convective drift is responsible for driving the spreading of thin films of thickness h ≪kl-1 , which spread self-similarly as t1 /4 along the direction of the drift corresponding to the propagation direction of the surface wave, kl being the wave number of the compressional acoustic wave that forms in the liquid due to leakage of the surface wave energy from the substrate into the liquid and t the time. Films of greater thicknesses h ˜kl-1≫β-1 , in contrast, are observed to spread with constant velocity but in a direction that opposes the drift and surface wave propagation due to the attenuation of the acoustic wave in the liquid. The universal equation derived allows for the collective prediction of the spreading of these thin and thick films in opposing directions.

  4. Modification of Encapsulation Pressure of Reverse Micelles in Liquid Ethane

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Ronald W.; Nucci, Nathaniel V.; Wand, A. Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Encapsulation of within reverse micelles dissolved in low viscosity fluids offers a potential solution to the slow tumbling problem presented by large soluble macromolecules to solution NMR spectroscopy. The reduction in effective macromolecular tumbling is directly dependent upon the viscosity of the solvent. Liquid ethane is of sufficiently low viscosity at pressures below 5,000 p.s.i. to offer a significant advantage. Unfortunately, the viscosity of liquid ethane shows appreciable pressure dependence. Reverse micelle encapsulation in liquid ethane often requires significantly higher pressures, which obviates the potential advantages offered by liquid ethane over liquid propane. Addition of co-surfactants or co-solvents can be used to manipulate the minimum pressure required to obtain stable, well-behaved solutions of reverse micelles prepared in liquid ethane. A library of potential additives is examined and several candidates suitable for use with encapsulated proteins are described. PMID:21764613

  5. Modification of encapsulation pressure of reverse micelles in liquid ethane.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Ronald W; Nucci, Nathaniel V; Wand, A Joshua

    2011-09-01

    Encapsulation within reverse micelles dissolved in low viscosity fluids offers a potential solution to the slow tumbling problem presented by large soluble macromolecules to solution NMR spectroscopy. The reduction in effective macromolecular tumbling is directly dependent upon the viscosity of the solvent. Liquid ethane is of sufficiently low viscosity at pressures below 5000 psi to offer a significant advantage. Unfortunately, the viscosity of liquid ethane shows appreciable pressure dependence. Reverse micelle encapsulation in liquid ethane often requires significantly higher pressures, which obviates the potential advantages offered by liquid ethane over liquid propane. Addition of co-surfactants or co-solvents can be used to manipulate the minimum pressure required to obtain stable, well-behaved solutions of reverse micelles prepared in liquid ethane. A library of potential additives is examined and several candidates suitable for use with encapsulated proteins are described. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Highly resolved fluid flows: "liquid plasmas" at the kinetic level.

    PubMed

    Morfill, Gregor E; Rubin-Zuzic, Milenko; Rothermel, Hermann; Ivlev, Alexei V; Klumov, Boris A; Thomas, Hubertus M; Konopka, Uwe; Steinberg, Victor

    2004-04-30

    Fluid flow around an obstacle was observed at the kinetic (individual particle) level using "complex (dusty) plasmas" in their liquid state. These "liquid plasmas" have bulk properties similar to water (e.g., viscosity), and a comparison in terms of similarity parameters suggests that they can provide a unique tool to model classical fluids. This allows us to study "nanofluidics" at the most elementary-the particle-level, including the transition from fluid behavior to purely kinetic transport. In this (first) experimental investigation we describe the kinetic flow topology, discuss our observations in terms of fluid theories, and follow this up with numerical simulations.

  7. Stirring Up an Elastic Fluid: Critical Viscosity of Xenon-2 (CVX-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    2002-12-01

    Whipped cream stays in place even when turned upside down. Yet it readily flows through the nozzle of a spray can to reach the dessert plate. This demonstrates the phenomenon of shear thinning that is important to many industrial and physical processes. Paints, film emulsions, and other complex solutions that are highly viscous under normal conditions but become thin and flow easily under shear forces. A simple fluid, such as water, does not exhibit shear thinning under normal conditions. Very close to the liquid-vapor critical point, where the distinction between liquid and vapor disappears, the fluid becomes more complex and is predicted to display shear thinning. At the critical point, xenon atoms interact over long distances in a classical model of cooperative phenomena. Physicists rely on this system to learn how long-range order arises. The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Although it does not easily combine with other chemicals, its viscosity at the critical point can be used as a model for a range of fluids. Viscosity originates from the interactions of individual molecules. It is so complicated that, except for the simplest gas, it cannot be calculated accurately from theory. Tests with critical fluids can provide key data, but are limited on Earth because critical fluids are highly compressed by gravity. CVX-2 employs a tiny metal screen vibrating between two electrodes in a bath of critical xenon. The vibrations and how they dampen are used to measure viscosity. CVX flew on STS-85 (1997), where it revealed that, close to the critical point, the xenon is partly elastic: it can 'stretch' as well as flow. For STS-107, the hardware has been enhanced to determine if critical xenon is a shear-thinning fluid.

  8. Stirring Up an Elastic Fluid: Critical Viscosity of Xenon-2 (CVX-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.; Motil, Susan M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Whipped cream stays in place even when turned upside down. Yet it readily flows through the nozzle of a spray can to reach the dessert plate. This demonstrates the phenomenon of shear thinning that is important to many industrial and physical processes. Paints, film emulsions, and other complex solutions that are highly viscous under normal conditions but become thin and flow easily under shear forces. A simple fluid, such as water, does not exhibit shear thinning under normal conditions. Very close to the liquid-vapor critical point, where the distinction between liquid and vapor disappears, the fluid becomes more complex and is predicted to display shear thinning. At the critical point, xenon atoms interact over long distances in a classical model of cooperative phenomena. Physicists rely on this system to learn how long-range order arises. The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Although it does not easily combine with other chemicals, its viscosity at the critical point can be used as a model for a range of fluids. Viscosity originates from the interactions of individual molecules. It is so complicated that, except for the simplest gas, it cannot be calculated accurately from theory. Tests with critical fluids can provide key data, but are limited on Earth because critical fluids are highly compressed by gravity. CVX-2 employs a tiny metal screen vibrating between two electrodes in a bath of critical xenon. The vibrations and how they dampen are used to measure viscosity. CVX flew on STS-85 (1997), where it revealed that, close to the critical point, the xenon is partly elastic: it can 'stretch' as well as flow. For STS-107, the hardware has been enhanced to determine if critical xenon is a shear-thinning fluid.

  9. Effect of Rheological Properties on Liquid Curtain Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad Karim, Alireza; Suszynski, Wieslaw; Griffith, William; Pujari, Saswati; Carvalho, Marcio; Francis, Lorraine; Dow Chemical Company Collaboration; PUC-Rio Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    Curtain coating is one of the preferred methods for high-speed precision application of single-layer and multi-layer coatings in technology. However, uniform coatings are only obtained in a certain range of operating parameters, called coating window. The two main physical mechanisms that limit successful curtain coating are liquid curtain breakup and air entrainment. The rheological properties of the liquid play an important role on these mechanisms, but the fundamental understanding of these relations is still not complete. The effect of rate-dependent shear and extensional viscosities on the stability of viscoelastic and shear thinning liquid curtains were explored by high-speed visualization. Aqueous solutions of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were used as viscoelastic liquids. Xanthan Gum in water and glycerol solutions with a range of compositions were used as shear thinning liquids. The critical condition was determined by examining flow rate below which curtain broke. In this work, we also analyze relative importance of rate-dependent shear and extensional viscosity on both curtain breakup and air entrainment. We would like to acknowledge the financial support from the Dow Chemical Company.

  10. Inorganic/organic nanocomposites: Reaching a high filler content without increasing viscosity using core-shell structured nanoparticles

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Benhadjala, W., E-mail: warda.benhadjala@cea.fr; CEA, LETI, Minatec Campus, 38000 Grenoble; Gravoueille, M.

    2015-11-23

    Extensive research is being conducted on the development of inorganic/organic nanocomposites for a wide variety of applications in microelectronics, biotechnologies, photonics, adhesives, or optical coatings. High filler contents are usually required to fully optimize the nanocomposites properties. However, numerous studies demonstrated that traditional composite viscosity increases with increasing the filler concentration reducing therefore significantly the material processability. In this work, we synthesized inorganic/organic core-shell nanocomposites with different shell thicknesses. By reducing the shell thickness while maintaining a constant core size, the nanoparticle molecular mass decreases but the nanocomposite filler fraction is correlatively increased. We performed viscosity measurements, which clearly highlightedmore » that intrinsic viscosity of hybrid nanoparticles decreases as the molecular mass decreases, and thus, as the filler fraction increases, as opposed to Einstein predictions about the viscosity of traditional inorganic/polymer two-phase mixtures. This exceptional behavior, modeled by Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation, proves to be a significant breakthrough for the development of industrializable nanocomposites with high filler contents.« less

  11. Whole-blood viscosity and the insulin-resistance syndrome.

    PubMed

    Høieggen, A; Fossum, E; Moan, A; Enger, E; Kjeldsen, S E

    1998-02-01

    In a previous study we found that elevated blood viscosity was linked to the insulin resistance syndrome, and we proposed that high blood viscosity may increase insulin resistance. That study was based on calculated viscosity. To determine whether directly measured whole-blood viscosity was related to the insulin-resistance syndrome in the same way as calculated viscosity had been found to be. Healthy young men were examined with the hyperinsulinemic isoglycemic glucose clamp technique, and we related insulin sensitivity (glucose disposal rate) to other metabolic parameters and to blood viscosity. We established a technique for direct measurement of whole-blood viscosity. There were statistically significant negative correlations between glucose disposal rate and whole-blood viscosity at low and high shear rates (r = -0.41, P = 0.007 for both, n = 42). Whole-blood viscosity was correlated positively (n = 15) to serum triglyceride (r = 0.54, P = 0.04) and total cholesterol (r = 0.52, P = 0.05), and negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.53, P = 0.04) concentrations. Insulin sensitivity index was correlated positively to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.54, P = 0.04) and negatively to serum triglyceride (r = -0.69, P = 0.005) and to total cholesterol (r = -0.81, P = 0.0003) concentrations. The present results demonstrate for the first time that there is a negative relationship between directly measured whole-blood viscosity and insulin sensitivity as a part of the insulin-resistance syndrome. Whole-blood viscosity contributes to the total peripheral resistance, and these results support the hypothesis that insulin resistance has a hemodynamic basis.

  12. A technique for evaluating the oil/heavy-oil viscosity changes under ultrasound in a simulated porous medium.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Hossein; Mohammadian, Erfan; Junin, Radzuan; Rafati, Roozbeh; Manan, Mohammad; Azdarpour, Amin; Junid, Mundzir

    2014-02-01

    Theoretically, Ultrasound method is an economical and environmentally friendly or "green" technology, which has been of interest for more than six decades for the purpose of enhancement of oil/heavy-oil production. However, in spite of many studies, questions about the effective mechanisms causing increase in oil recovery still existed. In addition, the majority of the mechanisms mentioned in the previous studies are theoretical or speculative. One of the changes that could be recognized in the fluid properties is viscosity reduction due to radiation of ultrasound waves. In this study, a technique was developed to investigate directly the effect of ultrasonic waves (different frequencies of 25, 40, 68 kHz and powers of 100, 250, 500 W) on viscosity changes of three types of oil (Paraffin oil, Synthetic oil, and Kerosene) and a Brine sample. The viscosity calculations in the smooth capillary tube were based on the mathematical models developed from the Poiseuille's equation. The experiments were carried out for uncontrolled and controlled temperature conditions. It was observed that the viscosity of all the liquids was decreased under ultrasound in all the experiments. This reduction was more significant for uncontrolled temperature condition cases. However, the reduction in viscosity under ultrasound was higher for lighter liquids compare to heavier ones. Pressure difference was diminished by decreasing in the fluid viscosity in all the cases which increases fluid flow ability, which in turn aids to higher oil recovery in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. Higher ultrasound power showed higher liquid viscosity reduction in all the cases. Higher ultrasound frequency revealed higher and lower viscosity reduction for uncontrolled and controlled temperature condition experiments, respectively. In other words, the reduction in viscosity was inversely proportional to increasing the frequency in temperature controlled experiments. It was concluded that cavitation

  13. Pendulum Underwater--An Approach for Quantifying Viscosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leme, José Costa; Oliveira, Agostinho

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the experiment presented in this paper is to quantify the viscosity of a liquid. Viscous effects are important in the flow of fluids in pipes, in the bloodstream, in the lubrication of engine parts, and in many other situations. In the present paper, the authors explore the oscillations of a physical pendulum in the form of a long…

  14. Pulsating gliding transition in the dynamics of levitating liquid nitrogen droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snezhko, Alexey; Ben Jacob, Eshel; Aranson, Igor S.

    2008-04-01

    Hot surfaces can cause levitation of small liquid droplets if the temperature is kept above the Leidenfrost point (220 °C for water) due to the pressure formed because of rapid evaporation. Here, we demonstrate a new class of pulsating-gliding dynamic transitions in a special setting of the Leidenfrost effect at room temperatures and above a viscous fluid for droplets of liquid nitrogen. A whole range of highly dynamic patterns unfolds when droplets of liquid nitrogen are poured on the surface of another, more viscous liquid at room temperature. We also discovered that the levitating droplets induce vortex motion in the supporting viscous liquid. Depending on the viscosity of the supporting liquid, the nitrogen droplets either adopt an oscillating (pulsating) star-like shape with different azimuthal symmetries (from 2-9 petals) or glide on the surface with random trajectories. Thus, by varying the viscosity of the supporting liquid, we achieve controlled morphology and dynamics of Leidenfrost droplets.

  15. Comparison of liquid-state anomalies in Stillinger-Weber models of water, silicon, and germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhabal, Debdas; Chakravarty, Charusita; Molinero, Valeria; Kashyap, Hemant K.

    2016-12-01

    universal scaling of the reduced property with excess entropy for the whole range of temperatures and densities. Instead, Rosenfeld's scaling holds for all the three liquids at high densities and high temperatures, although deviations from simple exponential dependence are observed for diffusivity and viscosity at lower temperatures and intermediate densities. The slope of the scaling of transport properties obtained for Ge is comparable to that obtained for simple liquids, suggesting that this low tetrahedrality liquid, although it stabilizes a diamond crystal, is already close to simple liquid behavior for certain properties.

  16. Comparison of liquid-state anomalies in Stillinger-Weber models of water, silicon, and germanium.

    PubMed

    Dhabal, Debdas; Chakravarty, Charusita; Molinero, Valeria; Kashyap, Hemant K

    2016-12-07

    universal scaling of the reduced property with excess entropy for the whole range of temperatures and densities. Instead, Rosenfeld's scaling holds for all the three liquids at high densities and high temperatures, although deviations from simple exponential dependence are observed for diffusivity and viscosity at lower temperatures and intermediate densities. The slope of the scaling of transport properties obtained for Ge is comparable to that obtained for simple liquids, suggesting that this low tetrahedrality liquid, although it stabilizes a diamond crystal, is already close to simple liquid behavior for certain properties.

  17. Viscosity Relaxation in Molten HgZnTe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, S. L.; Kim, Yeong Woo; Baird, James K.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Rotating cup measurements of the viscosity of the pseudo-binary melt, HgZnTe have shown that the isothermal liquid with zinc mole fraction 0.16 requires tens of hours of equilibration time before a steady viscous state can be achieved. Over this relaxation period, the viscosity at 790 C increases by a factor of two, while the viscosity at 810 C increases by 40%. Noting that the Group VI elements tend to polymerize when molten, we suggest that the viscosity of the melt is enhanced by the slow formation of Te atom chains. To explain the build-up of linear Te n-mers, we propose a scheme, which contains formation reactions with second order kinetics that increase the molecular weight, and decomposition reactions with first order kinetics that inactivate the chains. The resulting rate equations can be solved for the time dependence of each molecular weight fraction. Using these molecular weight fractions, we calculate the time dependence of the average molecular weight. Using the standard semi-empirical relation between polymer average molecular weight and viscosity, we then calculate the viscosity relaxation curve. By curve fitting, we find that the data imply that the rate constant for n-mer formation is much smaller than the rate constant for n-mer deactivation, suggesting that Te atoms only weakly polymerize in molten HgZnTe. The steady state toward which the melt relaxes occurs as the rate of formation of an n-mer becomes exactly balanced by the sum of the rate for its deactivation and the rate for its polymerization to form an (n+1)-mer.

  18. Determination of Fluid Density and Viscosity by Analyzing Flexural Wave Propagations on the Vibrating Micro-Cantilever

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deokman; Hong, Seongkyeol; Park, Junhong

    2017-01-01

    The determination of fluid density and viscosity using most cantilever-based sensors is based on changes in resonant frequency and peak width. Here, we present a wave propagation analysis using piezoelectrically excited micro-cantilevers under distributed fluid loading. The standing wave shapes of microscale-thickness cantilevers partially immersed in liquids (water, 25% glycerol, and acetone), and nanoscale-thickness microfabricated cantilevers fully immersed in gases (air at three different pressures, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen) were investigated to identify the effects of fluid-structure interactions to thus determine the fluid properties. This measurement method was validated by comparing with the known fluid properties, which agreed well with the measurements. The relative differences for the liquids were less than 4.8% for the densities and 3.1% for the viscosities, and those for the gases were less than 6.7% for the densities and 7.3% for the viscosities, showing better agreements in liquids than in gases. PMID:29077005

  19. Development of Viscosity Model for Petroleum Industry Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motahhari, Hamed reza

    Heavy oil and bitumen are challenging to produce and process due to their very high viscosity, but their viscosity can be reduced either by heating or dilution with a solvent. Given the key role of viscosity, an accurate viscosity model suitable for use with reservoir and process simulators is essential. While there are several viscosity models for natural gases and conventional oils, a compositional model applicable to heavy petroleum and diluents is lacking. The objective of this thesis is to develop a general compositional viscosity model that is applicable to natural gas mixtures, conventional crudes oils, heavy petroleum fluids, and their mixtures with solvents and other crudes. The recently developed Expanded Fluid (EF) viscosity correlation was selected as a suitable compositional viscosity model for petroleum applications. The correlation relates the viscosity of the fluid to its density over a broad range of pressures and temperatures. The other inputs are pressure and the dilute gas viscosity. Each fluid is characterized for the correlation by a set of fluid-specific parameters which are tuned to fit data. First, the applicability of the EF correlation was extended to asymmetric mixtures and liquid mixtures containing dissolved gas components. A new set of mass-fraction based mixing rules was developed to calculate the fluid-specific parameters for mixtures. The EF correlation with the new set of mixing rules predicted the viscosity of over 100 mixtures of hydrocarbon compounds and carbon dioxide with overall average absolute relative deviations (AARD) of less than 10% either with measured densities or densities estimated by Advanced Peng-Robinson equation of state (APR EoS). To improve the viscosity predictions with APR EoS-estimated densities, general correlations were developed for non-zero viscosity binary interaction parameters. The EF correlation was extended to non-hydrocarbon compounds typically encountered in natural gas industry. It was

  20. Relationship between the Macroscopic and Quantum Characteristics of Dynamic Viscosity for Hydrocarbons upon the Compensation Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolomatov, M. Yu.; Kovaleva, E. A.; Khamidullina, D. A.

    2018-05-01

    An approach that allows the calculation of dynamic viscosity for liquid hydrocarbons from quantum (ionization energies) and molecular (Wiener topological indices) parameters is proposed. A physical relationship is revealed between ionization and the energies of viscous flow activation. This relationship is due to the contribution from the dispersion component of Van der Waals forces to intermolecular interaction. A two-parameter dependence of the energy of viscous flow activation, energy of ionization, and Wiener topological indices is obtained. The dynamic viscosities of liquid hydrocarbons can be calculated from the kinetic compensation effect of dynamic viscosity, which indicates a relationship between the energy of activation and the Arrhenius pre-exponental factor of the Frenkel-Eyring hole model. Calculation results are confirmed through statistical processing of the experimental data.

  1. Mitigation of reversible self-association and viscosity in a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody by rational, structure-guided Fv engineering

    PubMed Central

    Geoghegan, James C.; Fleming, Ryan; Damschroder, Melissa; Bishop, Steven M.; Sathish, Hasige A.; Esfandiary, Reza

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Undesired solution behaviors such as reversible self-association (RSA), high viscosity, and liquid-liquid phase separation can introduce substantial challenges during development of monoclonal antibody formulations. Although a global mechanistic understanding of RSA (i.e., native and reversible protein-protein interactions) is sufficient to develop robust formulation controls, its mitigation via protein engineering requires knowledge of the sites of protein-protein interactions. In the study reported here, we coupled our previous hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry findings with structural modeling and in vitro screening to identify the residues responsible for RSA of a model IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb-C), and rationally engineered variants with improved solution properties (i.e., reduced RSA and viscosity). Our data show that mutation of either solvent-exposed aromatic residues within the heavy and light chain variable regions or buried residues within the heavy chain/light chain interface can significantly mitigate RSA and viscosity by reducing the IgG's surface hydrophobicity. The engineering strategy described here highlights the utility of integrating complementary experimental and in silico methods to identify mutations that can improve developability, in particular, high concentration solution properties, of candidate therapeutic antibodies. PMID:27050875

  2. Is the boundary layer of an ionic liquid equally lubricating at higher temperature?

    PubMed

    Hjalmarsson, Nicklas; Atkin, Rob; Rutland, Mark W

    2016-04-07

    Atomic force microscopy has been used to study the effect of temperature on normal forces and friction for the room temperature ionic liquid (IL) ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), confined between mica and a silica colloid probe at 25 °C, 50 °C, and 80 °C. Force curves revealed a strong fluid dynamic influence at room temperature, which was greatly reduced at elevated temperatures due to the reduced liquid viscosity. A fluid dynamic analysis reveals that bulk viscosity is manifested at large separation but that EAN displays a nonzero slip, indicating a region of different viscosity near the surface. At high temperatures, the reduction in fluid dynamic force reveals step-like force curves, similar to those found at room temperature using much lower scan rates. The ionic liquid boundary layer remains adsorbed to the solid surface even at high temperature, which provides a mechanism for lubrication when fluid dynamic lubrication is strongly reduced. The friction data reveals a decrease in absolute friction force with increasing temperature, which is associated with increased thermal motion and reduced viscosity of the near surface layers but, consistent with the normal force data, boundary layer lubrication was unaffected. The implications for ILs as lubricants are discussed in terms of the behaviour of this well characterised system.

  3. Experimental study of hydraulic ram effects on a liquid storage tank: Analysis of overpressure and cavitation induced by a high-speed projectile.

    PubMed

    Lecysyn, Nicolas; Bony-Dandrieux, Aurélia; Aprin, Laurent; Heymes, Frédéric; Slangen, Pierre; Dusserre, Gilles; Munier, Laurent; Le Gallic, Christian

    2010-06-15

    This work is part of a project for evaluating catastrophic tank failures caused by impacts with a high-speed solid body. Previous studies on shock overpressure and drag events have provided analytical predictions, but they are not sufficient to explain ejection of liquid from the tank. This study focuses on the hydrodynamic behavior of the liquid after collision to explain subsequent ejection of liquid. The study is characterized by use of high-velocity projectiles and analysis of projectile dynamics in terms of energy loss to tank contents. New tests were performed at two projectile velocities (963 and 1255 m s(-1)) and over a range of viscosities (from 1 to 23.66 mPa s) of the target liquid. Based on data obtained from a high-speed video recorder, a phenomenological description is proposed for the evolution of intense pressure waves and cavitation in the target liquids. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduced viscosity for flagella moving in a solution of long polymer chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Li, Gaojin; Ardekani, Arezoo M.

    2018-02-01

    The bacterial flagellum thickness is smaller than the radius of gyration of long polymer chain molecules. The flow velocity gradient over the length of polymer chains can be nonuniform and continuum models of polymeric liquids break in this limit. In this work, we use Brownian dynamics simulations to study a rotating helical flagellum in a polymer solution and overcome this limitation. As the polymer size increases, the viscosity experienced by the flagellum asymptotically reduces to the solvent viscosity. The contribution of polymer molecules to the local viscosity in a solution of long polymer chains decreases with the inverse of polymer size to the power 1/2. The difference in viscosity experienced by the bacterial cell body and flagella can predict the nonmonotonic swimming speed of bacteria in polymer solutions.

  5. Investigation of the capture of magnetic particles from high-viscosity fluids using permanent magnets

    PubMed Central

    Garraud, A.; Velez, C.; Shah, Y.; Garraud, N.; Kozissnik, B.; Yarmola, E. G.; Allen, K. D.; Dobson, J.; Arnold, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Goal This paper investigates the practicality of using a small, permanent magnet to capture magnetic particles out of high-viscosity biological fluids, such as synovial fluid. Methods Numerical simulations are used to predict the trajectory of magnetic particles toward the permanent magnet. The simulations are used to determine a “collection volume” with a time-dependent size and shape, which determines the number of particles that can be captured from the fluid in a given amount of time. Results The viscosity of the fluid strongly influences the velocity of the magnetic particles towards the magnet, hence the collection volume after a given time. In regards to the design of the magnet, the overall size is shown to most strongly influence the collection volume in comparison to the magnet shape or aspect ratio. Conclusion Numerical results showed good agreement with in vitro experimental magnetic collection results. Significance In the long-term, this work aims to facilitate optimization of the collection of magnetic particle-biomarker conjugates from high-viscosity biological fluids without the need to remove the fluid from a patient. PMID:26208261

  6. Investigation of the Capture of Magnetic Particles From High-Viscosity Fluids Using Permanent Magnets.

    PubMed

    Garraud, Alexandra; Velez, Camilo; Shah, Yash; Garraud, Nicolas; Kozissnik, Bettina; Yarmola, Elena G; Allen, Kyle D; Dobson, Jon; Arnold, David P

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the practicality of using a small, permanent magnet to capture magnetic particles out of high-viscosity biological fluids, such as synovial fluid. Numerical simulations are used to predict the trajectory of magnetic particles toward the permanent magnet. The simulations are used to determine a "collection volume" with a time-dependent size and shape, which determines the number of particles that can be captured from the fluid in a given amount of time. The viscosity of the fluid strongly influences the velocity of the magnetic particles toward the magnet, hence, the collection volume after a given time. In regards to the design of the magnet, the overall size is shown to most strongly influence the collection volume in comparison to the magnet shape or aspect ratio. Numerical results showed good agreement with in vitro experimental magnetic collection results. In the long term, this paper aims to facilitate optimization of the collection of magnetic particle-biomarker conjugates from high-viscosity biological fluids without the need to remove the fluid from a patient.

  7. Exploring the Use of Ionic Liquid Mixtures to Enhance the Performance of Dicationic Ionic Liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Lall-Ramnarine, Sharon I.; Suarez, Sophia N.; Fernandez, Eddie D.; ...

    2017-05-06

    Dicationic ionic liquids (DILs) of diverse structural architectures (including symmetrical and asymmetrical ammonium, phosphonium and heterodications and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (NTf 2 -) anion) have been prepared and used as additives to N-methyl-N-ethoxyethylpyrrolidinium (P 1EOE) NTf 2, a relatively high-performing IL in terms of its transport properties (viscosity 53 mPa s). The three-ion, binary IL mixtures were characterized for their thermal and transport properties using differential scanning calorimetry, temperature dependent viscosity, conductivity and Pulsed Gradient Spin Echo (PGSE) NMR. Variable temperature 1H, 19F and 31P self-diffusion coefficients were determined at 25, 60 and 75°C. The order of the diffusion coefficients wasmore » D(P 1EOE +) > D(anion) > D(dication), and the composition of the dication had a strong effect on the degree to which diffusion of all three species is more or less coupled. IL mixtures containing about 30 mol % of the dicationic NTf 2 and 70 mol % of P 1EOE NTf 2 resulted in a significant decrease in glass transition temperatures and viscosities compared to the pure DIL. The mixtures extended the liquid range and potential for practical applications significantly. Finally, the data obtained here provides insight into the future design of dicationic salts tailored to exhibit lower viscosity and higher conductivities.« less

  8. Bubbling in unbounded coflowing liquids.

    PubMed

    Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M; Herrada, Miguel A; Garstecki, Piotr

    2006-03-31

    An investigation of the stability of low density and viscosity fluid jets and spouts in unbounded coflowing liquids is presented. A full parametrical analysis from low to high Weber and Reynolds numbers shows that the presence of any fluid of finite density and viscosity inside the hollow jet elicits a transition from an absolute to a convective instability at a finite value of the Weber number, for any value of the Reynolds number. Below that critical value of the Weber number, the absolute character of the instability leads to local breakup, and consequently to local bubbling. Experimental data support our model.

  9. Viscosity of carbonate-rich melts under different oxygen fugacity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Genova, Danilo; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-04-01

    Viscosity is a fundamental property of many materials and its changes affects the fluid dynamics of natural system as well as industrial processes. The mobility of carbonatitic melts, which are carbonate-rich and very fluid melts, has attracted renewed interest in both earth science and industry. In fact, these melts are considered the main transport agent of carbon from the mantle to the crust and may be intimately linked to the generation of kimberlites. At the same time lithium, potassium and sodium carbonate are used as electrolytes in molten carbonate fuel cells which operate at high temperatures (~650° C) for the production of electricity without CO2 emissions. Accurate measurement of the transport property (i.e. viscosity) of carbonatitic melts is a priority in order to understand the carbonatite mobility and reaction rates. Additionally, obtaining accurate viscosity measurements of such low viscosity melts is however an experimental challenge due to volatility, very low torques and chemical melt instability in the viscometer. To overcome these limitations we have customized a Modular Compact Rheometer (MCR 502 from Anton Paar) ad hoc equipped with 2 narrow gap concentric-cylinder geometries of steel and Pt-Au. The rheometer is characterized by an air-bearing-supported synchronous motor with torque ranging between 0.01 μNm and 230 mNm (resolution of 0.1 nNm), achieving very low viscosity measurements in the order of mPa s, temperatures up to 1000° C and shear rates ranging between 1 and 100 sec-1. These experimental conditions well match the temperature-viscosity-shear rate window relevant for carbonate melts. Here we present the calibration of the rheometer and the results of a rheological characterization study on a series of very low viscous synthetic and natural carbonatitic melts at different oxygen fugacity (air and CO2 saturated atmosphere). Viscosity measurements on carbonate melts have been performed in the temperature range between ~650 and 1000

  10. Viscosity of diluted suspensions of vegetal particles in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szydłowska, Adriana; Hapanowicz, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    Viscosity and rheological behaviour of sewage as well as sludge are essential while designing apparatuses and operations employed in the sewage treatment process and its processing. With reference to these substances, the bio-suspensions samples of three size fractions ((i) 150÷212 μm, (ii) 106÷150 μm and (iii) below106 μm) of dry grass in water with solid volume fraction 8%, 10% and 11% were prepared. After twenty four hours prior to their preparation time, the suspension samples underwent rheometeric measurements with the use of a rotational rheometer with coaxial cylinders. On the basis of the obtained results, flow curves were plotted and described with both the power model and Herschel-Bulkley model. Moreover, the viscosity of the studied substances was determined that allowed to conclude that the studied bio-suspensions display features of viscoelastic fluids. The experimentally established viscosity was compared to the calculated one according to Manley and Manson equation, recommended in the literature. It occurred that the measured viscosity values substantially exceed the calculation viscosity values, even by 105 times. The observations suggest that it stems from water imbibition of fibrous vegetal particles, which causes their swelling and decreases the amount of liquid phase in the suspension.

  11. Enhancement of Hydrodynamic Processes in Oil Pipelines Considering Rheologically Complex High-Viscosity Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konakhina, I. A.; Khusnutdinova, E. M.; Khamidullina, G. R.; Khamidullina, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model of flow-related hydrodynamic processes for rheologically complex high-viscosity bitumen oil and oil-water suspensions and presents methods to improve the design and performance of oil pipelines.

  12. Viscosity of particulate soap films: approaching the jamming of 2D capillary suspensions.

    PubMed

    Timounay, Yousra; Rouyer, Florence

    2017-05-14

    We compute the effective viscosity of particulate soap films thanks to local velocity fields obtained by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) during film retraction experiments. We identify the jamming of these 2D capillary suspensions at a critical particle surface fraction (≃0.84) where effective viscosity diverges. Pair correlation function and number of neighbors in contact or close to contact reveal the cohesive nature of this 2D capillary granular media. The experimental 2D dynamic viscosities can be predicted by a model considering viscous dissipation at the liquid interfaces induced by the motion of individual particles.

  13. The viscosity of the refrigerant 1,1-difluoroethane along the saturation line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Gulik, P. S.

    1993-07-01

    The viscosity coefficient of the refrigerant R152a (1,1-difluoroethane) has been measured along the saturation line both in the saturated liquid and in the saturated vapor. The data have been obtained every 10 K from 243 up to 393 K by means of a vibrating-wire viscometer using the free damped oscillation method. The density along the saturation line was calculated from the equation of state given by Tamatsu et al. with application of the saturated vapor-pressure correlation given by Higashi et al. An interesting result is that in the neighborhood of the critical point, the kinematic viscosity of the saturated liquid seems to coincide with that of the saturated vapor. The results for the saturated liquid are in satisfying agreement with those of Kumagai and Takahashi and of Phillips and Murphy. A comparison of the saturatedvaport data with the unsaturated-vapor data of Takahashi et al. shows some discrepancies.

  14. Correlation between the critical viscosity and ash fusion temperatures of coal gasifier ashes

    DOE PAGES

    Hsieh, Peter Y.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James

    2015-09-27

    Coal gasification yields synthesis gas, an important intermediate in chemical manufacturing. It is also vital to the production of liquid fuels through the Fischer-Tropsch process and electricity in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power generation. Minerals naturally present in coal become molten in entrained-flow slagging gasifiers. Molten coal ash slag penetrates and dissolves refractory bricks, leading to costly plant shutdowns. The extent of coal ash slag penetration and refractory brick dissolution depends on the slag viscosity, the gasification temperature, and the composition of slag and bricks. We measured the viscosity of several synthetic coal ash slags with a high-temperature rotary viscometermore » and their ash fusion temperatures through optical image analysis. All measurements were made in a carbon monoxide-carbon dioxide reducing atmosphere that approximates coal gasification conditions. Empirical correlation models based on ash fusion temperatures were used to calculate critical viscosity temperatures based on the coal ash compositions. These values were then compared with those obtained from thermodynamic phase-transition models. An understanding of slag viscosity as a function of ash composition is important to reducing refractory wear in slagging coal gasifiers, which would help to reduce the cost and environmental impact of coal for chemical and electricity production.« less

  15. Correlation between the critical viscosity and ash fusion temperatures of coal gasifier ashes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hsieh, Peter Y.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James

    Coal gasification yields synthesis gas, an important intermediate in chemical manufacturing. It is also vital to the production of liquid fuels through the Fischer-Tropsch process and electricity in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power generation. Minerals naturally present in coal become molten in entrained-flow slagging gasifiers. Molten coal ash slag penetrates and dissolves refractory bricks, leading to costly plant shutdowns. The extent of coal ash slag penetration and refractory brick dissolution depends on the slag viscosity, the gasification temperature, and the composition of slag and bricks. We measured the viscosity of several synthetic coal ash slags with a high-temperature rotary viscometermore » and their ash fusion temperatures through optical image analysis. All measurements were made in a carbon monoxide-carbon dioxide reducing atmosphere that approximates coal gasification conditions. Empirical correlation models based on ash fusion temperatures were used to calculate critical viscosity temperatures based on the coal ash compositions. These values were then compared with those obtained from thermodynamic phase-transition models. An understanding of slag viscosity as a function of ash composition is important to reducing refractory wear in slagging coal gasifiers, which would help to reduce the cost and environmental impact of coal for chemical and electricity production.« less

  16. Aging of SRC liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, T.; Jones, L.; Tewari, K. C.; Li, N. C.

    1981-02-01

    The viscosity of SRC-LL liquid increases when subjected to accelerated aging by bubbling oxygen in the presence of copper strip at 62°C. Precipitates are formed and can be separated from the aged liquid by Soxhlet extraction with pentane. A 30-70 blend of SRC-I with SRC-LL was subjected to oxygen aging in the absence of copper, and the viscosity increased dramatically after 6 days at 62°. The content of preasphaltene and its molecular size increase with time of aging, accompanied by decrease of asphaltene and pentane-soluble contents. For the preasphaltene fraction on aging, gel permeation chromatography shows formation of larger particles. ESR experiments show that with oxygen aging, spin concentration in the preasphaltene fraction decreases. Perhaps some semiquinone, together with di- and tri-substituted phenoxy radicals, generated by oxygen aging of the coal liquid, interact with the free radicals already present in coal to yield larger particles and reduce free radical concentration. We are currently using the very high-field (600-MHz) NMR spectrometer at Mellon Institute to determine changes in structural parameters before and after aging of SRC-II and its chromatographically separated fractions.

  17. Viscosity-Lowering Effect of Amino Acids and Salts on Highly Concentrated Solutions of Two IgG1 Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujing; Zhang, Ning; Hu, Tao; Dai, Weiguo; Feng, Xiuying; Zhang, Xinyi; Qian, Feng

    2015-12-07

    Monoclonal antibodies display complicated solution properties in highly concentrated (>100 mg/mL) formulations, such as high viscosity, high aggregation propensity, and low stability, among others, originating from protein-protein interactions within the colloidal protein solution. These properties severely hinder the successful development of high-concentration mAb solution for subcutaneous injection. We hereby investigated the effects of several small-molecule excipients with diverse biophysical-chemical properties on the viscosity, aggregation propensity, and stability on two model IgG1 (JM1 and JM2) mAb formulations. These excipients include nine amino acids or their salt forms (Ala, Pro, Val, Gly, Ser, HisHCl, LysHCl, ArgHCl, and NaGlu), four representative salts (NaCl, NaAc, Na2SO4, and NH4Cl), and two chaotropic reagents (urea and GdnHCl). With only salts or amino acids in their salt-forms, significant decrease in viscosity was observed for JM1 (by up to 30-40%) and JM2 (by up to 50-80%) formulations, suggesting charge-charge interaction between the mAbs dictates the high viscosity of these mAbs formulations. Most of these viscosity-lowering excipients did not induce substantial protein aggregation or changes in the secondary structure of the mAbs, as evidenced by HPLC-SEC, DSC, and FT-IR analysis, even in the absence of common protein stabilizers such as sugars and surfactants. Therefore, amino acids in their salt-forms and several common salts, such as ArgHCl, HisHCl, LysHCl, NaCl, Na2SO4, and NaAc, could potentially serve as viscosity-lowering excipients during high-concentration mAb formulation development.

  18. High-Viscosity Oil Filtration in the Pool Under Thermal Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shagapov, V. Sh.; Yumagulova, Yu. A.; Gizzatullina, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    We have developed a mathematical model and constructed numerical solutions of the problem of heating a high-viscosity oil pool through one horizontal well or a system of wells and have shown the possibility of their further operation until the limiting profitable discharge of oil is attained. The expenditure of heat in heating the oil pool, the evolution of discharge of oil, and the mass of extracted oil over the considered period have been considered.

  19. High thermal conductivity liquid metal pad for heat dissipation in electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zuoye; Liu, Huiqiang; Li, Qiuguo; Liu, Han; Chu, Sheng; Yang, Yuhua; Chu, Guang

    2018-05-01

    Novel thermal interface materials using Ag-doped Ga-based liquid metal were proposed for heat dissipation of electronic packaging and precision equipment. On one hand, the viscosity and fluidity of liquid metal was controlled to prevent leakage; on the other hand, the thermal conductivity of the Ga-based liquid metal was increased up to 46 W/mK by incorporating Ag nanoparticles. A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the heat dissipation performance on a CPU of smart-phone. The results demonstrated that the Ag-doped Ga-based liquid metal pad can effectively decrease the CPU temperature and change the heat flow path inside the smart-phone. To understand the heat flow path from CPU to screen through the interface material, heat dissipation mechanism was simulated and discussed.

  20. Validity of Eucken formula and Stokes’ viscosity relation in high-temperature electronically excited gases

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Istomin, V. A.; Kustova, E. V.; Mekhonoshina, M. A.

    2014-12-09

    In the present work we evaluate the accuracy of the Eucken formula and Stokes’ viscosity relation in high temperature non-equilibrium air species with electronic excitation. The thermal conductivity coefficient calculated using the exact kinetic theory methods is compared with that obtained applying approximate formulas in the temperature range 200–20000 K. A modification of the Eucken formula providing a good agreement with exact calculations is proposed. It is shown that the Stokes viscosity relation is not valid in electronically excited monoatomic gases at temperatures higher than 2000 K.

  1. Localization of toroidal motion and shear heating in 3-D high Rayleigh number convection with temperature-dependent viscosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balachandar, S.; Yuen, D. A.; Reuteler, D. M.

    1995-01-01

    We have applied spectral-transform methods to study three-dimensional thermal convection with temperature-dependent viscosity. The viscosity varies exponentially with the form exp(-BT), where B controls the viscosity contrast and T is temperature. Solutions for high Rayleigh numbers, up to an effective Ra of 6.25 x 10(exp 6), have been obtained for an aspect-ratio of 5x5x1 and a viscosity contrast of 25. Solutions show the localization of toroidal velocity fields with increasing vigor of convection to a coherent network of shear-zones. Viscous dissipation increases with Rayleigh number and is particularly strong in regions of convergent flows and shear deformation. A time-varying depth-dependent mean-flow is generated because of the correlation between laterally varying viscosity and velocity gradients.

  2. Viscosity Control Experiment Feasibility Study

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Morris, Heidi E.; Bradley, Paul Andrew

    Turbulent mix has been invoked to explain many results in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High Energy Density (HED) physics, such as reduced yield in capsule implosions. Many ICF capsule implosions exhibit interfacial instabilities seeded by the drive shock, but it is not clear that fully developed turbulence results from this. Many simulations use turbulent mix models to help match simulation results to data, but this is not appropriate if turbulence is not present. It would be useful to have an experiment where turbulent mixing could be turned on or off by design. The use of high-Z dopants to modifymore » viscosity and the resulting influence on turbulence is considered here. A complicating factor is that the plasma in some implosions can become strongly coupled, which makes the Spitzer expression for viscosity invalid. We first consider equations that cover a broad parameter space in temperature and density to address regimes for various experimental applications. Next, a previous shock-tube and other ICF experiments that investigate viscosity or use doping to examine the effects on yield are reviewed. How viscosity and dopants play a role in capsule yield depends on the region and process under consideration. Experiments and simulations have been performed to study the effects of viscosity on both the hot spot and the fuel/ablator mix. Increases in yield have been seen for some designs, but not all. We then discuss the effect of adding krypton dopant to the gas region of a typical OMEGA and a 2-shock NIF implosion to determine approximately the effect of adding dopant on the computed Reynolds number. Recommendations for a path forward for possible experiments using high-Z dopants to affect viscosity and turbulence are made.« less

  3. Empirical equations for viscosity and specific heat capacity determination of paraffin PCM and fatty acid PCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreneche, C.; Ferrer, G.; Palacios, A.; Solé, A.; Inés Fernández, A.; Cabeza, L. F.

    2017-10-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) used in thermal energy storage (TES) systems have been presented, over recent years, as one of the most effective options in energy storage. Paraffin and fatty acids are some of the most used PCM in TES systems, as they have high phase change enthalpy and in addition they do not present subcooling nor hysteresis and have proper cycling stability. The simulations and design of TES systems require the knowledge of the thermophysical properties of PCM. Thermal conductivity, viscosity, specific heat capacity (Cp) can be experimentally determined, but these are material and time consuming tasks. To avoid or to reduce them, and to have reliable data without the need of experimentation, thermal properties can be calculated by empirical equations. In this study, five different equations are given to calculate the viscosity and specific heat capacity of fatty acid PCM and paraffin PCM. Two of these equations concern, respectively, the empirical calculation of the viscosity and liquid Cp of the whole paraffin PCM family, while the other three equations presented are for the corresponding calculation of viscosity, solid Cp, liquid Cp of the whole fatty acid family of PCM. Therefore, this study summarize the work performed to obtain the main empirical equations to measure the above mentioned properties for whole fatty acid PCM family and whole paraffin PCM family. Moreover, empirical equations have been obtained to calculate these properties for other materials of these PCM groups and these empirical equations can be extrapolated for PCM with higher or lower phase change temperatures within a lower relative error 4%.

  4. Development, implementation, and characterization of a standalone embedded viscosity measurement system based on the impedance spectroscopy of a vibrating wire sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, José; Janeiro, Fernando M.; Ramos, Pedro M.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents an embedded liquid viscosity measurement system based on a vibrating wire sensor. Although multiple viscometers based on different working principles are commercially available, there is still a market demand for a dedicated measurement system capable of performing accurate, fast measurements and requiring little or no operator training for simple systems and solution monitoring. The developed embedded system is based on a vibrating wire sensor that works by measuring the impedance response of the sensor, which depends on the viscosity and density of the liquid in which the sensor is immersed. The core of the embedded system is a digital signal processor (DSP) which controls the waveform generation and acquisitions for the measurement of the impedance frequency response. The DSP also processes the acquired waveforms and estimates the liquid viscosity. The user can interact with the measurement system through a keypad and an LCD or through a computer with a USB connection for data logging and processing. The presented system is tested on a set of viscosity standards and the estimated values are compared with the standard manufacturer specified viscosity values. A stability study of the measurement system is also performed.

  5. ARRHENIUS MODEL FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE GLASS VISCOSITY WITH A CONSTANT PRE-EXPONENTIAL FACTOR

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2008-04-15

    A simplified form of the Arrhenius equation, ln η = A + B(x)/T, where η is the viscosity, T the temperature, x the composition vector, and A and B the Arrhenius coefficients, was fitted to glass-viscosity data for the processing temperature range (the range at which the viscosity is within 1 to 103 Pa.s) while setting A = constant and treating B(x) as a linear function of mass fractions of major components. Fitting the Arrhenius equation to over 550 viscosity data of commercial glasses and approximately 1000 viscosity data of glasses for nuclear-waste glasses resulted in the A values ofmore » -11.35 and -11.48, respectively. The R2 value ranged from 0.92 to 0.99 for commercial glasses and was 0.98 for waste glasses. The Arrhenius models estimate viscosities for melts of commercial glasses containing 42 to 84 mass% SiO2 within the temperature range of 1100 to 1550°C and viscosity range of 5 to 400 Pa.s and for waste glasses containing 32 to 60 mass% SiO2 within the temperature range of 850 to 1450°C and viscosity range of 0.4 to 250 Pa.s.« less

  6. A Model for Hydrogen Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity Including the Critical Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Howard A.; Tunc, Gokturk; Bayazitoglu, Yildiz

    2001-01-01

    In order to conduct a thermal analysis of heat transfer to liquid hydrogen near the critical point, an accurate understanding of the thermal transport properties is required. A review of the available literature on hydrogen transport properties identified a lack of useful equations to predict the thermal conductivity and viscosity of liquid hydrogen. The tables published by the National Bureau of Standards were used to perform a series of curve fits to generate the needed correlation equations. These equations give the thermal conductivity and viscosity of hydrogen below 100 K. They agree with the published NBS tables, with less than a 1.5 percent error for temperatures below 100 K and pressures from the triple point to 1000 KPa. These equations also capture the divergence in the thermal conductivity at the critical point

  7. Mixing high-viscosity fluids via acoustically driven bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orbay, Sinem; Ozcelik, Adem; Lata, James; Kaynak, Murat; Wu, Mengxi; Huang, Tony Jun

    2017-01-01

    We present an acoustofluidic micromixer which can perform rapid and homogeneous mixing of highly viscous fluids in the presence of an acoustic field. In this device, two high-viscosity polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions were co-injected into a three-inlet PDMS microchannel with the center inlet containing a constant stream of nitrogen flow which forms bubbles in the device. When these bubbles were excited by an acoustic field generated via a piezoelectric transducer, the two solutions mixed homogenously due to the combination of acoustic streaming, droplet ejection, and bubble eruption effects. The mixing efficiency of this acoustofluidic device was evaluated using PEG-700 solutions which are ~106 times more viscous than deionized (DI) water. Our results indicate homogenous mixing of the PEG-700 solutions with a ~0.93 mixing index. The acoustofluidic micromixer is compact, inexpensive, easy to operate, and has the capacity to mix highly viscous fluids within 50 ms.

  8. Recombinant Human DNase I Reduces the Viscosity of Cystic Fibrosis Sputum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shak, Steven; Capon, Daniel J.; Hellmiss, Renate; Marsters, Scot A.; Baker, Carrie L.

    1990-12-01

    Respiratory distress and progressive lung destruction in cystic fibrosis can be attributed to bacterial persistence and the accumulation of viscous purulent secretions in the airways. More than 30 yr ago it was suggested that the large amounts of DNA in purulent secretions contribute to its viscosity and that bovine pancreatic DNase I could reduce the viscosity. To evaluate the potential clinical utility of recombinant human DNase I (rhDNase) in the treatment of cystic fibrosis, we have cloned, sequenced, and expressed rhDNase. Catalytic amounts of rhDNase greatly reduce the viscosity of purulent cystic fibrosis sputum, transforming it within minutes from a nonflowing viscous gel to a flowing liquid. The reduction in viscosity is associated with a decrease in size of DNA in the sputum. Inhalation of a rhDNase aerosol may be a simple direct approach that will help individuals with cystic fibrosis and other patients with pneumonia or bronchitis to clear their airways of purulent secretions.

  9. Recombinant human DNase I reduces the viscosity of cystic fibrosis sputum.

    PubMed

    Shak, S; Capon, D J; Hellmiss, R; Marsters, S A; Baker, C L

    1990-12-01

    Respiratory distress and progressive lung destruction in cystic fibrosis can be attributed to bacterial persistence and the accumulation of viscous purulent secretions in the airways. More than 30 yr ago it was suggested that the large amounts of DNA in purulent secretions contribute to its viscosity and that bovine pancreatic DNase I could reduce the viscosity. To evaluate the potential clinical utility of recombinant human DNase I (rhDNase) in the treatment of cystic fibrosis, we have cloned, sequenced, and expressed rhDNase. Catalytic amounts of rhDNase greatly reduce the viscosity of purulent cystic fibrosis sputum, transforming it within minutes from a nonflowing viscous gel to a flowing liquid. The reduction in viscosity is associated with a decrease in size of DNA in the sputum. Inhalation of a rhDNase aerosol may be a simple direct approach that will help individuals with cystic fibrosis and other patients with pneumonia or bronchitis to clear their airways of purulent secretions.

  10. Improved High Resolution Models of Subduction Dynamics: Use of transversely isotropic viscosity with a free-surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Gurnis, M.; Stadler, G.; Rudi, J.; Ratnaswamy, V.; Ghattas, O.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic topography, or uncompensated topography, is controlled by internal dynamics, and provide constraints on the buoyancy structure and rheological parameters in the mantle. Compared with other surface manifestations such as the geoid, dynamic topography is very sensitive to shallower and more regional mantle structure. For example, the significant dynamic topography above the subduction zone potentially provides a rich mine for inferring the rheological and mechanical properties such as plate coupling, flow, and lateral viscosity variations, all critical in plate tectonics. However, employing subduction zone topography in the inversion study requires that we have a better understanding of the topography from forward models, especially the influence of the viscosity formulation, numerical resolution, and other factors. One common approach to formulating a fault between the subducted slab and the overriding plates in viscous flow models assumes a thin weak zone. However, due to the large lateral variation in viscosity, topography from free-slip numerical models typically has artificially large magnitude as well as high-frequency undulations over subduction zone, which adds to the difficulty in making comparisons between model results and observations. In this study, we formulate a weak zone with the transversely isotropic viscosity (TI) where the tangential viscosity is much smaller than the viscosity in the normal direction. Similar with isotropic weak zone models, TI models effectively decouple subducted slabs from the overriding plates. However, we find that the topography in TI models is largely reduced compared with that in weak zone models assuming an isotropic viscosity. Moreover, the artificial `tooth paste' squeezing effect observed in isotropic weak zone models vanishes in TI models, although the difference becomes less significant when the dip angle is small. We also implement a free-surface condition in our numerical models, which has a smoothing

  11. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Kevin; Riedel, Marco; Eichert, Helmut

    For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure exactly. The pulsating air, which flows through the pipelines, should be analysed at a test station. For examinations at this test station it is important to find another substitute fluid because liquid manure smells strong, is not transparent and is also not homogeneous enough for scientific investigations. Furthermore it is important to ensure that the substitute fluid is, like liquid manure, a non-Newtonian fluid. The substitute fluid must be a shear-thinning substance - this means the viscosity decrease at higher shear rate. Many different samples like soap-water-farragoes, jelly-water-farragoes, agar-water-farragoes, soap-ethanol-farragoes and more are, for the project, examined in regard of their physical properties to find the best substitute fluid. The samples are examined at the rotational viscometer for viscosity at various shear rates and then compared with the viscosity values of liquid manure.

  12. Contribution to viscosity from the structural relaxation via the atomic scale Green-Kubo stress correlation function.

    PubMed

    Levashov, V A

    2017-11-14

    We studied the connection between the structural relaxation and viscosity for a binary model of repulsive particles in the supercooled liquid regime. The used approach is based on the decomposition of the macroscopic Green-Kubo stress correlation function into the correlation functions between the atomic level stresses. Previously we used the approach to study an iron-like single component system of particles. The role of vibrational motion has been addressed through the demonstration of the relationship between viscosity and the shear waves propagating over large distances. In our previous considerations, however, we did not discuss the role of the structural relaxation. Here we suggest that the contribution to viscosity from the structural relaxation can be taken into account through the consideration of the contribution from the atomic stress auto-correlation term only. This conclusion, however, does not mean that only the auto-correlation term represents the contribution to viscosity from the structural relaxation. Previously the role of the structural relaxation for viscosity has been addressed through the considerations of the transitions between inherent structures and within the mode-coupling theory by other authors. In the present work, we study the structural relaxation through the considerations of the parent liquid and the atomic level stress correlations in it. The comparison with the results obtained on the inherent structures also is made. Our current results suggest, as our previous observations, that in the supercooled liquid regime, the vibrational contribution to viscosity extends over the times that are much larger than the Einstein's vibrational period and much larger than the times that it takes for the shear waves to propagate over the model systems. Besides addressing the atomic level shear stress correlations, we also studied correlations between the atomic level pressure elements.

  13. Contribution to viscosity from the structural relaxation via the atomic scale Green-Kubo stress correlation function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levashov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    We studied the connection between the structural relaxation and viscosity for a binary model of repulsive particles in the supercooled liquid regime. The used approach is based on the decomposition of the macroscopic Green-Kubo stress correlation function into the correlation functions between the atomic level stresses. Previously we used the approach to study an iron-like single component system of particles. The role of vibrational motion has been addressed through the demonstration of the relationship between viscosity and the shear waves propagating over large distances. In our previous considerations, however, we did not discuss the role of the structural relaxation. Here we suggest that the contribution to viscosity from the structural relaxation can be taken into account through the consideration of the contribution from the atomic stress auto-correlation term only. This conclusion, however, does not mean that only the auto-correlation term represents the contribution to viscosity from the structural relaxation. Previously the role of the structural relaxation for viscosity has been addressed through the considerations of the transitions between inherent structures and within the mode-coupling theory by other authors. In the present work, we study the structural relaxation through the considerations of the parent liquid and the atomic level stress correlations in it. The comparison with the results obtained on the inherent structures also is made. Our current results suggest, as our previous observations, that in the supercooled liquid regime, the vibrational contribution to viscosity extends over the times that are much larger than the Einstein's vibrational period and much larger than the times that it takes for the shear waves to propagate over the model systems. Besides addressing the atomic level shear stress correlations, we also studied correlations between the atomic level pressure elements.

  14. Effect of viscosity on food transport and swallow initiation during eating of two-phase food in normal young adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Koichiro; Kawase, Soichiro; Wakimoto, Nina; Iwatani, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Yuji; Ogasawara, Tadashi

    2013-03-01

    When eating food containing both liquid and solid phases (two-phase food), the liquid component frequently enters the hypopharynx before swallowing, which may increase the risk of aspiration. We therefore tested whether preswallow bolus transport and swallow initiation would change as the viscosity of two-phase food was increased. Fiberoptic endoscopy was recorded while 18 adult subjects ate 5 g of steamed rice with 3 ml of blue-dye water. Liquid viscosity was set at four levels by adding a thickening agent (0, 1, 2, and 4 wt%, respectively). We measured the timing of the leading edge of the food reaching the base of the epiglottis, as well as the location of the leading edge at swallow initiation. As viscosity increased, the leading edge of the food reached the epiglottis significantly later during chewing and was higher in the pharynx at swallow onset. The time after the leading edge reached the epiglottis did not vary among the viscosities of the two-phase food. This study found that the initial viscosity of two-phase food significantly altered oropharyngeal bolus flow and the timing of swallow initiation. Accordingly, increased two-phase food viscosity may delay food entry into the pharynx and be of use in dysphagic diets.

  15. High pressure study of viscosity effects on the luminescence of tetracyanobenzene EDA complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Michele Moisio; Drickamer, H. G.

    1981-03-01

    High pressure fluorescence studies fron 0-10 kbar have been performed on electron donor-acceptor (EDA) complexes of s-tetracyanobenzene (TCNB) with a series of aromatic hydrocarbons. Four solvents were used, 2,2,4,4,6,8,8 heptamethylnonane (HMN), methylcyclohexane (MCH), 2,6,10,14 tetramethylpentadecane (TMPD), and a mixture of MCH and HMN. A viscosity range from 0.006 to 10 000 poise was covered at constant temperature. As pressure (viscosity) increased the fluorescence spectrum shifted from one dominated by emission from the equilibrium (EQ) excited singlet state to one dominated by Franck-Condon (FC) singlet emission. Lifetime measurements for the complexes of o-xylene and p-xylene with TCNB as well as one mesitylene complex yielded the two radiative rates (kEQ and kFC) as well as the rate of internal conversion from FC to the EQ excited state to (kIC). The results are discussed in terms of the rate of relaxation of the solvent compared with the rate kFC. It was found that kIC correlated very well with the solvent viscosity.

  16. On the mesoscopic origins of high viscosities in some polyelectrolyte-surfactant mixtures

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hoffmann, Ingo, E-mail: ingo.hoffmann@tu-berlin.de; Institut Max von Laue-Paul Langevin; Farago, Bela

    Oppositely charged polyelectrolyte (PE) surfactant mixtures allow the control of rheological parameters of a solution even at fairly low concentrations. For example, addition of 0.3 wt. % of anionic surfactant to a 1 wt. % solution of the polycation JR 400 increases the viscosity by 4 orders of magnitude. Recently, we could show that this increase is related to the formation of mixed, rod-like PE/surfactant aggregates which interconnect several polyelectrolyte chains [Hoffmann et al., Europhys. Lett. 104, 28001 (2013)]. In this paper, we refine our structural model of the aggregates to obtain a more consistent picture of their internal structure for differentmore » anionic surfactants. Combining small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and neutron spin-echo (NSE) allows us to determine the size of the aggregates. By comparing different contrasts, the internal structure of the aggregates can be elucidated and it is seen that the PE in the aggregates retains a relatively high freedom of movement. We proceeded to investigate the influence of the surfactant concentration and the surfactant type on structure and dynamics of the mixed aggregates. It is seen that the structural parameters of the aggregates depend very little on the surfactant concentration and headgroup. However, it is crucial to incorporate a sufficient amount of PE in the aggregates to increase the viscosity of the aggregates. By comparing viscous samples at 1 wt. % PE concentration with samples at a PE concentration of 0.3 wt. %, where no significant increase in viscosity is observed, we find that similar aggregates are formed already at this lower PE concentrations. However, the amount of PE incorporated in them is insufficient to interconnect several PE chains and therefore, they do not increase viscosity. So, our detailed investigation combining contrast variation SANS and NSE does not only allow to explain the viscosity behavior but also to deduced detailed information regarding the

  17. Solvent viscosity mismatch between the solute plug and the mobile phase: Considerations in the applications of two-dimensional HPLC

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Shalliker, R. Andrew; Guiochon, Georges A

    Understanding the nature of viscosity contrast induced flow instabilities is an important aspect in the design of two-dimensional HPLC separations. When the viscosity contrast between the sample plug and the mobile phase is sufficiently large, the phenomenon known as viscous fingering can be induced. Viscous fingering is a flow instability phenomenon that occurs at the interface between two fluids with different viscosities. In liquid chromatography, viscous fingering results in the solute band undergoing a change in form as it enters into the chromatography column. Moreover, even in the absence of viscous fingering, band shapes change shape at low viscosity contrasts.more » These changes can result in a noticeable change in separation performance, with the result depending on whether the solvent pushing the solute plug has a higher or lower viscosity than the solute plug. These viscosity induced changes become more important as the solute injection volume increases and hence understanding the process becomes critical in the implementation of multidimensional HPLC techniques, since in these techniques the sample injection plug into the second dimension is an order of magnitude greater than in one-dimensional HPLC. This review article assesses the current understanding of the viscosity contrast induced processes as they relate to liquid chromatographic separation behaviour.« less

  18. A method for matching the refractive index and kinematic viscosity of a blood analog for flow visualization in hydraulic cardiovascular models.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T T; Biadillah, Y; Mongrain, R; Brunette, J; Tardif, J C; Bertrand, O F

    2004-08-01

    In this work, we propose a simple method to simultaneously match the refractive index and kinematic viscosity of a circulating blood analog in hydraulic models for optical flow measurement techniques (PIV, PMFV, LDA, and LIF). The method is based on the determination of the volumetric proportions and temperature at which two transparent miscible liquids should be mixed to reproduce the targeted fluid characteristics. The temperature dependence models are a linear relation for the refractive index and an Arrhenius relation for the dynamic viscosity of each liquid. Then the dynamic viscosity of the mixture is represented with a Grunberg-Nissan model of type 1. Experimental tests for acrylic and blood viscosity were found to be in very good agreement with the targeted values (measured refractive index of 1.486 and kinematic viscosity of 3.454 milli-m2/s with targeted values of 1.47 and 3.300 milli-m2/s).

  19. Gibbs Energy Additivity Approaches in Estimation of Dynamic Viscosities of n-Alkane-1-ol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phankosol, S.; Krisnangkura, K.

    2017-09-01

    Alcohols are solvents for organic and inorganic substances. Dynamic viscosity of liquid is important transport properties. In this study models for estimating n-alkan-1-ol dynamic viscosities are correlated to the Martin’s rule of free energy additivity. Data available in literatures are used to validate and support the proposed equations. The dynamic viscosities of n-alkan-1-ol can be easily estimated from its carbon numbers (nc) and temperatures (T). The bias, average absolute deviation and coefficient of determination (R2) in estimating of n-alkan-1-ol are -0.17%, 1.73% and 0.999, respectively. The dynamic viscosities outside temperature between 288.15 and 363.15 K may be possibly estimated by this model but accuracy may be lower.

  20. Studies of Nucleation and Growth, Specific Heat and Viscosity of Undercooled Melts of Quasicrystals and Polytetrehedral-Phase-Forming Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    By investigating the properties of quasicrystals and quasicrystal-forming liquid alloys, we may determine the role of ordering of the liquid phase in the formation of quasicrystals, leading to a better fundamental understanding of both the quasicrystal and the liquid. A quasicrystal is solid characterized by a symmetric but non-periodic arrangement of atoms, usually in the form of an icosahedron (12 atoms, 20 triangular faces). It is theorized that the short-range order in liquids takes this same form. The degree of ordering depends on the temperature of the liquid, and affects many of the liquid s properties, including specific heat, viscosity, and electrical resistivity. The MSFC role in this project includes solidification studies, phase diagram determination, and thermophysical property measurements on the liquid quasicrystal-forming alloys, all by electrostatic levitation (ESL). The viscosity of liquid quasicrystal-forming alloys is measured by the oscillating drop method, both in the stable and undercooled liquid state. The specific heat of solid, undercooled liquid, and stable liquid are measured by the radiative cooling rate of the droplets.

  1. DWPF STARTUP FRIT VISCOSITY MEASUREMENT ROUND ROBIN RESULTS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Edwards, Tommy B.; Russell, Renee L.

    2012-07-31

    A viscosity standard is needed to replace the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) glasses currently being used to calibrate viscosity measurement equipment. The current NIST glasses are either unavailable or less than ideal for calibrating equipment to measure the viscosity of high-level waste glasses. This report documents the results of a viscosity round robin study conducted on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) startup frit. DWPF startup frit was selected because its viscosity-temperature relationship is similar to most DWPF and Hanford high-level waste glass compositions. The glass underwent grinding and blending to homogenize the large (100 lb) batch.more » Portions of the batch were supplied to the laboratories (named A through H) for viscosity measurements following a specified temperature schedule with a temperature range of 1150 C to 950 C and with an option to measure viscosity at lower temperatures if their equipment was capable of measuring at the higher viscosities. Results were used to fit the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher and Arrhenius equations to viscosity as a function of temperature for the entire temperature range of 460 C through 1250 C as well as the limited temperature interval of approximately 950 C through 1250 C. The standard errors for confidence and prediction were determined for the fitted models.« less

  2. Amorphous SiC/c-ZnO-Based Quasi-Lamb Mode Sensor for Liquid Environments.

    PubMed

    Caliendo, Cinzia; Hamidullah, Muhammad; Laidoudi, Farouk

    2017-05-25

    The propagation of the quasi-Lamb modes along a-SiC/ZnO thin composite plates was modeled and analysed with the aim to design a sensor able to detect the changes in parameters of a liquid environment, such as added mass and viscosity changes. The modes propagation was modeled by numerically solving the system of coupled electro-mechanical field equations in three media. The mode shape, the power flow, the phase velocity, and the electroacoustic coupling efficiency (K²) of the modes were calculated, specifically addressing the design of enhanced-coupling, microwave frequency sensors for applications in probing the solid/liquid interface. Three modes were identified that have predominant longitudinal polarization, high phase velocity, and quite good K²: the fundamental quasi symmetric mode (qS₀) and two higher order quasi-longitudinal modes (qL₁ and qL₂) with a dominantly longitudinal displacement component in one plate side. The velocity and attenuation of these modes were calculated for different liquid viscosities and added mass, and the gravimetric and viscosity sensitivities of both the phase velocity and attenuation were theoretically calculated. The present study highlights the feasibility of the a-SiC/ZnO acoustic waveguides for the development of high-frequency, integrated-circuit compatible electroacoustic devices suitable for working in a liquid environment.

  3. Investigation of damping liquids for aircraft instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keulegan, G H

    1929-01-01

    This report covers the results of an investigation carried on at the Bureau of Standards under a research authorization from, and with the financial assistance of, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The choice of a damping liquid for aircraft instruments is difficult owing to the range of temperature at which aircraft operate. Temperature changes affect the viscosity tremendously. The investigation was undertaken with the object of finding liquids of various viscosities otherwise suitable which had a minimum change in viscosity with temperature. The new data relate largely to solutions. The effect of temperature on the kinematic viscosity of the following liquids and solutions was determined in the temperature interval -18 degrees to +30 degrees C. (1) solutions of animal and vegetable oils in xylene. These were poppy-seed oil, two samples of neat's-foot oils, castor oil, and linseed oil. (2) solutions of mineral oil in xylene. These were Squibb's petrolatum of naphthene base and transformer oil. (3) glycerine solutions in ethyl alcohol and in mixture of 50-50 ethyl alcohol and water. (4) mixtures of normal butyl alcohol with methyl alcohol. (5) individual liquids, kerosene, mineral spirits, xylene, recoil oil. The apparatus consisted of four capillary-tube viscometers, which were immersed in a liquid bath in order to secure temperature control. The method of calibration and the related experimental data are presented.

  4. Viscosity Measurement for Tellurium Melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bochuan; Li, Chao; Ban, Heng; Scripa, Rosalia N.; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    2006-01-01

    The viscosity of high temperature Te melt was measured using a new technique in which a rotating magnetic field was applied to the melt sealed in a suspended ampoule, and the torque exerted by rotating melt flow on the ampoule wall was measured. Governing equations for the coupled melt flow and ampoule torsional oscillation were solved, and the viscosity was extracted from the experimental data by numerical fitting. The computational result showed good agreement with experimental data. The melt velocity transient initiated by the rotating magnetic field reached a stable condition quickly, allowing the viscosity and electrical conductivity of the melt to be determined in a short period.

  5. Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronaut Mike Fincke places droplets of honey onto the strings for the Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM) investigation onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The FMVM experiment measures the time it takes for two individual highly viscous fluid droplets to coalesce or merge into one droplet. Different fluids and droplet size combinations were tested in the series of experiments. By using the microgravity environment, researchers can measure the viscosity or 'thickness' of fluids without the influence of containers and gravity using this new technique. Understanding viscosity could help scientists understand industrially important materials such as paints, emulsions, polymer melts and even foams used to produce pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic products.

  6. Analysis of spatial and temporal spectra of liquid film surface in annular gas-liquid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, Sergey; Cherdantsev, Andrey; Heinz, Oksana; Kharlamov, Sergey; Markovich, Dmitriy

    2013-09-01

    Wavy structure of liquid film in annular gas-liquid flow without liquid entrainment consists of fast long-living primary waves and slow short-living secondary waves. In present paper, results of spectral analysis of this wavy structure are presented. Application of high-speed LIF technique allowed us to perform such analysis in both spatial and temporal domains. Power spectra in both domains are characterized by one-humped shape with long exponential tail. Influence of gas velocity, liquid Reynolds number, liquid viscosity and pipe diameter on frequency of the waves is investigated. When gravity effect is much lesser than the shear stress, similarity of power spectra at different gas velocities is observed. Using combination of spectral analysis and identification of characteristic lines of primary waves, frequency of generation of secondary waves by primary waves is measured.

  7. Elementary excitations and crossover phenomenon in liquids.

    PubMed

    Iwashita, T; Nicholson, D M; Egami, T

    2013-05-17

    The elementary excitations of vibration in solids are phonons. But in liquids phonons are extremely short lived and marginalized. In this Letter through classical and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of the liquid state of various metallic systems we show that different excitations, the local configurational excitations in the atomic connectivity network, are the elementary excitations in high temperature metallic liquids. We also demonstrate that the competition between the configurational excitations and phonons determines the so-called crossover phenomenon in liquids. These discoveries open the way to the explanation of various complex phenomena in liquids, such as fragility and the rapid increase in viscosity toward the glass transition, in terms of these excitations.

  8. Exploring inclusion complexes of ionic liquids with α- and β- cyclodextrin by NMR, IR, mass, density, viscosity, surface tension and conductance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Biraj Kumar; Rajbanshi, Biplab; Yasmin, Ananya; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2018-05-01

    The formation of the host-guest inclusion complexes of ionic liquids namely [BMIm]Cl and [HMIm]Cl with α-CD and β-CD were studied by means of physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. Conductivity and surface tension study were in good agreement with the 1H NMR and FT-IR studies which confirm the formation of the inclusion complexes. The Density and viscosity study also supported the formation of the ICs. Further the stoichiometry was determined 1:1 for each case and the association constants and thermodynamic parameters derived supported the most feasible formation of the [BMIm]Cl- β-CD inclusion complex.

  9. Effect of high pressure treatment on liquid whole egg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Németh, Csaba; Dalmadi, István; Mráz, Balázs; Friedrich, László; Zeke, Ildikó; Juhász, Réka; Suhajda, Ágnes; Balla, Csaba

    2012-06-01

    In our tests, we artificially infected liquid whole egg samples with Salmonella enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, and then treated the samples in "Food Lab900" high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) instrument for 3-17 min at 200-400 MPa. Subsequently, the change of the viable cell count of the specific bacteria has been tested. In addition to the samples infected with various bacteria, non-infected samples were also treated in each test and the change in viable cell count, colour and viscosity of the samples upon the effect of the treatment. In summary, it can be concluded that in each test of our investigations, the viable cell count of S. enteritidis critical for egg products is reduced significantly, while the reduction of the total viable cell count was around two magnitudes. Additionally, based on our results, microbial destruction, reduction of enthalpy (denaturation of egg white) caused by the treatment at HPP, and colour change are primarily affected by the pressure level, while the changes in rheological properties are also significantly affected by the duration of high pressure treatment (p<0.05).

  10. Beamline Electrostatic Levitator (BESL) for in-situ High Energy K-Ray Diffraction Studies of Levitated Solids and Liquids at High Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangopadhyay, A. K.; Lee, G. W.; Kelton, K. F.; Rogers, J. R.; Goldman, A. I.; Robinson, D. S.; Rathz, T. J.; Hyers, R. W.

    2005-01-01

    Determinations of the phase formation sequence, the crystal structures and the thermodynamic properties of materials at high temperatures are difficult because of contamination from the sample container and environment. Containerless processing techniques, such as electrostatic (ESL), electromagnetic (EML), aerodynamic, and acoustic levitation, are most suitable these studies. An adaptation of ESL for in-situ structural studies of a wide range of materials, including metals, semiconductors, insulators using high energy (125 keV) synchrotron x-rays is described here. This beamline ESL (BESL) allows the in-situ determination of the atomic structures of equilibrium solid and liquid phases, including undercooled liquids, as well as real-time studies of solid-solid and liquid-solid phase transformations. The use of image plate (MAR345) or GE-Angio detectors enables fast (30 ms - 1s) acquisition of complete diffraction patterns over a wide q-range (4 - 140/mm). The wide temperature range (300 - 2500 K), containerless processing under high vacuum (10(exp -7) - 10(exp -8) torr), and fast data acquisition, make BESL particularly suitable for phase diagram studies of high temperature materials. An additional, critically important, feature of BESL is the ability to also make simultaneous measurement of a host of thermo-physical properties, including the specific heat, enthalpy of transformation, solidus and liquidus temperatures, density, viscosity, and surface tension; all on the same sample and simultaneous with the structural measurements.

  11. Effect of electrolyzed high-pH alkaline water on blood viscosity in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Weidman, Joseph; Holsworth, Ralph E; Brossman, Bradley; Cho, Daniel J; St Cyr, John; Fridman, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown fluid replacement beverages ingested after exercise can affect hydration biomarkers. No specific hydration marker is universally accepted as an ideal rehydration parameter following strenuous exercise. Currently, changes in body mass are used as a parameter during post-exercise hydration. Additional parameters are needed to fully appreciate and better understand rehydration following strenuous exercise. This randomized, double-blind, parallel-arm trial assessed the effect of high-pH water on four biomarkers after exercise-induced dehydration. One hundred healthy adults (50 M/50 F, 31 ± 6 years of age) were enrolled at a single clinical research center in Camden, NJ and completed this study with no adverse events. All individuals exercised in a warm environment (30 °C, 70% relative humidity) until their weight was reduced by a normally accepted level of 2.0 ± 0.2% due to perspiration, reflecting the effects of exercise in producing mild dehydration. Participants were randomized to rehydrate with an electrolyzed, high-pH (alkaline) water or standard water of equal volume (2% body weight) and assessed for an additional 2-h recovery period following exercise in order to assess any potential variations in measured parameters. The following biomarkers were assessed at baseline and during their recovery period: blood viscosity at high and low shear rates, plasma osmolality, bioimpedance, and body mass, as well as monitoring vital signs. Furthermore, a mixed model analysis was performed for additional validation. After exercise-induced dehydration, consumption of the electrolyzed, high-pH water reduced high-shear viscosity by an average of 6.30% compared to 3.36% with standard purified water ( p  = 0.03). Other measured biomarkers (plasma osmolality, bioimpedance, and body mass change) revealed no significant difference between the two types of water for rehydration. However, a mixed model analysis validated the effect of high

  12. Investigation of Damping Liquids for Aircraft Instruments : II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, M R; Keulegan, G H

    1932-01-01

    Data are presented on the kinematic viscosity, in the temperature range -50 degrees to +30 degrees C. of pure liquids and of solutions of animal oils, vegetable oils, mineral oils, glycerine, and ethylene glycol in various low freezing point solvents. It is shown that the thermal coefficient of kinematic viscosity as a function of the kinematic viscosity of the solutions of glycerine and ethylene glycol in alcohols is practically independent of the temperature and the chemical composition of the individual liquids. This is similarly true for the mineral oil group and, for a limited temperature interval, for the pure animal and vegetable oils. The efficiency of naphthol, hydroquinone, and diphenylamine to inhibit the change of viscosity of poppyseed and linseed oils was also investigated.

  13. Flow properties of liquid crystal phases of the Gay-Berne fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarman, Sten

    1998-05-01

    We have calculated the viscosities of a variant of the Gay-Berne fluid as a function of the temperature by performing molecular dynamics simulations. We have evaluated the Green-Kubo relations for the various viscosity coefficients. The results have been cross-checked by performing shear flow simulations. At high temperatures there is a nematic phase that is transformed to a smectic A phase as the temperature is decreased. The nematic phase is found to be flow stable. Close to the nematic-smectic transition point the liquid crystal model system becomes flow unstable. This is in agreement with the theoretical predictions by Jähnig and Brochard [F. Jähnig and F. Brochard, J. Phys. 35, 301 (1974)]. In a planar Couette flow one can define the three Miesowicz viscosities or effective viscosities η1, η2, and η3. The coefficient η1 is the viscosity when the director is parallel to the streamlines, η2 is the viscosity when the director is perpendicular to the shear plane, and η3 is the viscosity when the director is perpendicular to the vorticity plane. In the smectic phase η1 is undefined because the strain rate field is incommensurate with the smectic layer structure when the director is parallel to the streamlines. The viscosity η3 is found to be fairly independent of the temperature. The coefficient η2 increases with the temperature. This is unusual because the viscosity of most isotropic liquids decreases with the temperature. This anomaly is due to the smectic layer structure that is present at low temperatures. This lowers the friction because the layers can slide past each other fairly easily.

  14. Molecular dynamics of liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarman, Sten

    1997-02-01

    We derive Green-Kubo relations for the viscosities of a nematic liquid crystal. The derivation is based on the application of a Gaussian constraint algorithm that makes the director angular velocity of a liquid crystal a constant of motion. Setting this velocity equal to zero means that a director-based coordinate system becomes an inertial frame and that the constraint torques do not do any work on the system. The system consequently remains in equilibrium. However, one generates a different equilibrium ensemble. The great advantage of this ensemble is that the Green-Kubo relations for the viscosities become linear combinations of time correlation function integrals, whereas they are complicated rational functions in the conventional canonical ensemble. This facilitates the numerical evaluation of the viscosities by molecular dynamics simulations.

  15. Quantitative Correlation between Viscosity of Concentrated MAb Solutions and Particle Size Parameters Obtained from Small-Angle X-ray Scattering.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Masakazu; Moriyama, Chifumi; Yamazaki, Tadao; Imaeda, Yoshimi; Koga, Akiko

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between viscosity of concentrated MAb solutions and particle size parameters obtained from small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The viscosity of three MAb solutions (MAb1, MAb2, and MAb3; 40-200 mg/mL) was measured by electromagnetically spinning viscometer. The protein interactions of MAb solutions (at 60 mg/mL) was evaluated by SAXS. The phase behavior of 60 mg/mL MAb solutions in a low-salt buffer was observed after 1 week storage at 25°C. The MAb1 solutions exhibited the highest viscosity among the three MAbs in the buffer containing 50 mM NaCl. Viscosity of MAb1 solutions decreased with increasing temperature, increasing salt concentration, and addition of amino acids. Viscosity of MAb1 solutions was lowest in the buffer containing histidine, arginine, and aspartic acid. Particle size parameters obtained from SAXS measurements correlated very well with the viscosity of MAb solutions at 200 mg/mL. MAb1 exhibited liquid-liquid phase separation at a low salt concentration. Simultaneous addition of basic and acidic amino acids effectively suppressed intermolecular attractive interactions and decreased viscosity of MAb1 solutions. SAXS can be performed using a small volume of samples; therefore, the particle size parameters obtained from SAXS at intermediate protein concentration could be used to screen for low viscosity antibodies in the early development stage.

  16. Viscosity of nonelectrolyte liquid mixtures. III Binary mixtures of methyl methacrylate with hydrocarbons, haloalkanes, and alkylamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswal, S. L.; Patel, B. M.; Shah, H. R.; Oswal, P.

    1994-07-01

    Measurements of the viscosity η and the density ϱ are reported for 14 binary mixtures of methyl methacrylate (MMA) with hydrocarbons, haloalkanes, and alkylamines at 303.15 K. The viscosity data have been correlated with equations of Grunberg and Nissan, of McAllister, and of Auslaender. Furthermore, excess viscosity Δ In η and excess Gibbs energy of activation ΔG* E of viscous flow have been calculated and have been used to predict molecular interactions occurring in present binary mixtures. The results show the existence of specific interactions in MMA + aromatic hydrocarbons, MMA + haloalkanes, and MMA + primary amines.

  17. Ionic liquids as novel solvents for ionic polymer transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Matthew D.; Leo, Donald J.

    2004-07-01

    The use of ionic liquids as solvents for ionic polymer (specifically, Nafion) transducers is demonstrated. Ionic liquids are attractive for this application because of their high inherent stability. Ionic liquids are salts that exist as liquids at room temperature and have no measureable vapor pressure. Therefore, the use of ionic liquids as solvents for ionic polymer transducers can eliminate the traditional problem of water evaporation in these devices. Another benefit of the use of ionic liquids in this way is the reduction or elimination of the characteristic back-relaxation common in water-solvated ionic polymer actuators. The results demonstrate that the viscosity of the ionic liquid and the degree to which the ionic liquid swells the membrane are the important physical parameters to consider. Five ionic liquids were studied, based on substituted pyrrolidinium, phosphonium, or imidazolium cations and fluoroanions. Of these five ionic liquids, transduction is demonstrated in three of them and the best results are obtained with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ionic liquid. This substance has an electrochemical stability window of 4.1 V, a melting point of -10 °C, and a viscosity of 35-45 cP [19]. Results demonstrate that platinum-plated Nafion transducers solvated with this ionic liquid exhibit sensing and actuation responses and that these transducers are stable in air. Endurance testing of this sample reveals a decrease in the free strain of only 25 % after 250,000 actuation cycles in air.

  18. Viscosity of alkaline suspensions of ground black and white pepper samples: An indication or an identification of high dose radiation treatment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, G. A.; Leffke, A.; Mager, M.; Helle, N.; Bögl, K. W.

    1994-11-01

    Forty-nine pepper samples were taken from retail food stores of different cities in Germany. Most of the black and all white pepper samples showed high viscosity values after jellification in alkaline solution. After irradiation with a γ-ray dose of 6 kGy, viscosity was largely reduced in each case. Some black pepper samples showed a low viscosity level already before irradiation. However, thermoluminescence analysis did not reveal any sign for irradiation treatment prior to examination. Furthermore, the low viscosity level of these samples could not be correlated with a low starch content. It is concluded that the viscosity levels of irradiated white pepper samples clearly reveal high dose irradiation treatment. In case of black peppers it is judged that the method can be used to screen for irradiated samples since it is fast, easy and cheap. However, a positive result should be confirmed by another technique, e.g. thermoluminescence.

  19. Investigating the origin of acoustic attenuation in liquid foams.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Juliette; Gaulon, Camille; Derec, Caroline; Elias, Florence; Leroy, Valentin

    2017-08-01

    Liquid foams are known to be highly efficient to absorb acoustic waves but the origin of the sound dissipation remains unknown. In this paper, we present low frequency (0.5-4kHz) experimental results measured with an impedance tube and we confront the recorded attenuations with a simple model that considers the foam as a concentrate bubbly liquid. In order to identify the influence of the different parameters constituting the foams we probe samples with different gases, and various liquid fractions and bubble size distributions. We demonstrate that the intrinsic acoustic attenuation in the liquid foam is due to both thermal and viscous losses. The physical mechanism of the viscous term is not elucidated but the microscopic effective viscosity evidenced here can be described by a phenomenological law scaling with the bubble size and the gas density. In our experimental configuration a third dissipation term occurs. It comes from the viscous friction on the wall of the impedance tube and it is well described by the Kirchhoff law considering the macroscopic effective viscosity classically measured in rheology experiments.

  20. The Effect of Lengthening Cation Ether Tails on Ionic Liquid Properties

    DOE PAGES

    Lall-Ramnarine, S.; Rodriguez, C.; Fernandez, R.; ...

    2016-08-30

    In order to explore the effect of multiple ether functionalities on ionic liquid properties, a series of ten pyrrolidinium ionic liquids and ten imidazolium ionic liquids bearing ether and alkyl side chains of varying lengths (4 to 10 atoms in length) were prepared for this study. Their physical properties, such as viscosity, conductivity and thermal profile were measured and compared. Consistent with earlier literature, a single ether substituent substantially decreases the viscosity of pyrrolidinium and imidazolium ILs compared to their alkyl congeners. Remarkably, as the number of ether units in the pyrrolidinium ILs increases there is hardly any increase inmore » the viscosity, in contrast to alkylpyrrolidinium ILs where the viscosity increases steadily with chain length. Viscosities of imidazolium ether ILs increase with chain length but always remain well below their alkyl congeners. These results provide significant insight on the choice of starting materials for researchers designing ILs for specific applications.« less

  1. Challenges in Determining Intrinsic Viscosity Under Low Ionic Strength Solution Conditions.

    PubMed

    Pindrus, Mariya A; Shire, Steven J; Yadav, Sandeep; Kalonia, Devendra S

    2017-04-01

    To determine the intrinsic viscosity of several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) under varying pH and ionic strength solution conditions. An online viscosity detector attached to HPLC (Viscotek®) was used to determine the intrinsic viscosity of mAbs. The Ross and Minton equation was used for viscosity prediction at high protein concentrations. Bulk viscosity was determined by a Cambridge viscometer. At 15 mM ionic strength, intrinsic viscosity of the mAbs determined by the single-point approach varied from 5.6 to 6.4 mL/g with changes in pH. High ionic strength did not significantly alter intrinsic viscosity, while a significant increase (up to 24.0 mL/g) was observed near zero mM. No difference in bulk viscosity of mAb3 was observed around pH 6 as a function of ionic strength. Data analysis revealed that near zero mM ionic strength limitations of the single-point technique result in erroneously high intrinsic viscosity. Intrinsic viscosity is a valuable tool that can be used to model baseline viscosity at higher protein concentrations. However, it is not predictive of solution non-ideality at higher protein concentrations. Furthermore, breakdown of numerous assumptions limits the applicability of experimental techniques near zero mM ionic strength conditions. For molecules and conditions studied, the single-point approach produced reliable intrinsic viscosity results at 15 mM. However, this approach must be used with caution near zero mM ionic strength. Data analysis can be used to reveal whether determined intrinsic viscosity is reliable or erroneously high.

  2. A Novel Liquid-Liquid Transition in Undercooled Ti-Zr-Ni Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, G. W.; Gangopadhyay, A. K.; Kelton, K. F.; Bradshaw, R. C.; Hyers, R. W.; Rathz, T. J.; Rogers, J. R.

    2004-01-01

    If crystallization can be avoided, liquids enter a metastable (undercooled) state below their equilibrium liquidus temperatures, T(sub l), finally 'freezing' into a glass below a characteristic temperature called the glass transition temperature, T(sub g). In rare cases, the undercooled liquid may undergo a liquid-liquid phase transition (liquid polymorphism) before entering the glassy state. This has been suggested from experimental studies of H2O and Si. Such phase transitions have been predicted in some stable liquids, ie. above T(sub l) at atmospheric pressure, for SiO2 and BeF2, but these have not been verified experimentally. They have been observed in liquids of P, Si and C, but only under high pressure. In this letter we present the first experimental evidence for a phase transition in a low viscosity metallic liquid that is driven by an approach to a constant entropy configuration state and correlated with a growing icosahedral order in the liquid. A maximum in the specific heat at constant pressure, similar to what is normally observed near T(sub g), is reported for undercooled liquids of quasicrystal-forming Ti-Zr-Ni alloys. A two-state excitation model that includes cooperativity by incorporating a temperature-dependent excitation energy, fits the specific heat data well, signaling a phase transition. An inflection in the liquid density with decreasing temperature instead of a discontinuity indicates that this is not a typical first order phase transition; it could be a weakly first order or higher order transition. While showing many similarities to a glass transition, this liquid-liquid phase transition occurs in a mobile liquid, making it novel.

  3. Drop impact on thin liquid films using TIRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pack, Min; Ying Sun Team

    2015-11-01

    Drop impact on thin liquid films is relevant to a number of industrial processes such as pesticide spraying and repellent surface research such as self-cleaning applications. In this study, we systematically investigate the drop impact dynamics on thin liquid films on plain glass substrates by varying the film thickness, viscosity and impact velocity. High speed imaging is used to track the droplet morphology and trajectory over time as well as observing instability developments at high Weber number impacts. Moreover, the air layer between the drop and thin film upon drop impact is probed by total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM) where the grayscale intensity is used to measure the air layer thickness and spreading radius over time. For low We impact on thick films (We ~ 10), the effect of the air entrainment is pronounced where the adhesion of the droplet to the wall is delayed by the air depletion and liquid film drainage, whereas for high We impact (We >100) the air layer is no longer formed and instead, the drop contact with the wall is limited only to the film drainage for all film thicknesses. In addition, the maximum spreading radius of the droplet is analyzed for varying thin film thickness and viscosity.

  4. Viscous magnetoresistance of correlated electron liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchenko, Alex; Xie, Hong-Yi; Andreev, A. V.

    2017-03-01

    We develop a theory of magnetoresistance of two-dimensional electron systems in a smooth disorder potential in the hydrodynamic regime. Our theory applies to two-dimensional semiconductor structures with strongly correlated carriers when the mean free path due to electron-electron collisions is sufficiently short. The dominant contribution to magnetoresistance arises from the modification of the flow pattern by the Lorentz force, rather than the magnetic field dependence of the kinetic coefficients of the electron liquid. The resulting magnetoresistance is positive and quadratic at weak fields. Although the resistivity is governed by both the viscosity and thermal conductivity of the electron fluid, the magnetoresistance is controlled by the viscosity only. This enables the extraction of viscosity of the electron liquid from magnetotransport measurements.

  5. A Method To Determine the Kinetics of Solute Mixing in Liquid/Liquid Formulation Dual-Chamber Syringes.

    PubMed

    Werk, Tobias; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Ludwig, Imke Sonja; Luemkemann, Joerg; Huwyler, Joerg; Hafner, Mathias

    Dual-chamber syringes were originally designed to separate a solid substance and its diluent. However, they can also be used to separate liquid formulations of two individual drug products, which cannot be co-formulated due to technical or regulatory issues. A liquid/liquid dual-chamber syringe can be designed to achieve homogenization and mixing of both solutions prior to administration, or it can be used to sequentially inject both solutions. While sequential injection can be easily achieved by a dual-chamber syringe with a bypass located at the needle end of the syringe barrel, mixing of the two fluids may provide more challenges. Within this study, the mixing behavior of surrogate solutions in different dual-chamber syringes is assessed. Furthermore, the influence of parameters such as injection angle, injection speed, agitation, and sample viscosity were studied. It was noted that mixing was poor for the commercial dual-chamber syringes (with a bypass designed as a longitudinal ridge) when the two liquids significantly differ in their physical properties (viscosity, density). However, an optimized dual-chamber syringe design with multiple bypass channels resulted in improved mixing of liquids. Dual-chamber syringes were originally designed to separate a solid substance and its diluent. However, they can also be used to separate liquid formulations of two individual drug products. A liquid/liquid dual-chamber syringe can be designed to achieve homogenization and mixing of both solutions prior to administration, or it can be used to sequentially inject both solutions. While sequential injection can be easily achieved by a dual-chamber syringe with a bypass located at the needle end of the syringe barrel, mixing of the two fluids may provide more challenges. Within this study, the mixing behavior of surrogate solutions in different dual-chamber syringes is assessed. Furthermore, the influence of parameters such as injection angle, injection speed, agitation, and

  6. Transport properties of liquid metal hydrogen under high pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. C.; March, N. H.

    1972-01-01

    A theory is developed for the compressibility and transport properties of liquid metallic hydrogen, near to its melting point and under high pressure. The interionic force law is assumed to be of the screened Coulomb type, because hydrogen has no core electrons. The random phase approximation is used to obtain the structure factor S(k) of the system in terms of the Fourier transform of this force law. The long wavelenth limit of the structure factor S(o) is related to the compressibility, which is much lower than that of alkali metals at their melting points. The diffusion constant at the melting point is obtained in terms of the Debye frequency, using a frequency spectrum analogous with the phonon spectrum of a solid. A similar argument is used to obtain the combined shear and bulk viscosities, but these depend also on S(o). The transport coefficients are found to be about the same size as those of alkali metals at their melting points.

  7. Ionic liquid stationary phases for gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Poole, Colin F; Poole, Salwa K

    2011-04-01

    This article provides a summary of the development of ionic liquids as stationary phases for gas chromatography beginning with early work on packed columns that established details of the retention mechanism and established working methods to characterize selectivity differences compared with molecular stationary phases through the modern development of multi-centered cation and cross-linked ionic liquids for high-temperature applications in capillary gas chromatography. Since there are many reviews on ionic liquids dealing with all aspects of their chemical and physical properties, the emphasis in this article is placed on the role of gas chromatography played in the design of ionic liquids of low melting point, high thermal stability, high viscosity, and variable selectivity for separations. Ionic liquids provide unprecedented opportunities for extending the selectivity range and temperature-operating range of columns for gas chromatography, an area of separation science that has otherwise been almost stagnant for over a decade. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Elasticity modulated Electrowetting of a sessile liquid droplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sumit; Subramanian, Sri Ganesh; Dasgupta, Sunando; Chakraborty, Suman

    2017-11-01

    The sessile liquid droplets on the elastic and soft deformable surface produce strong deformation near the three-phase contact line (TPCL). The capillary and elastic forces play an important role during this deformation, and deteriorate the wetting behaviour of a sessile drop. The present work combines the effects of liquid viscosity and substrate elasticity on the dynamics of EWOD. The influence of decreasing film elasticity and viscosity on the electrowetting response of a sessile drop is experimentally investigated by delineating the changes in equilibrium apparent contact angles on substrates with varying Young's modulus of elasticity. The increase in viscosity of the liquid leads to greater electrowetting for non-deformable substrates whereas; the dynamics are not greatly affected in case of soft substrates. Although the viscosity appears to be an influential factor, the dynamics are more skewed towards the substrate rigidity. The vertical component of Young's force creates a wetting ridge at the three-phase contact line, the height of which is a direct function of the substrate rigidity. The produced ridges reduce the overall wettability of the droplet.

  9. Effects of nonuniform viscosity on ciliary locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoele, Kourosh; Eastham, Patrick S.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of nonuniform viscosity on the swimming velocity of a free swimmer at zero Reynolds number is examined. Using the generalized reciprocal relation for Stokes flow with nonuniform viscosity, we formulate the locomotion problem in a fluid medium with spatially varying viscosity. Assuming the limit of small variation in the viscosity of the fluid as a result of nonuniform distribution of nutrients around a swimmer, we derive a perturbation model to calculate the changes in the swimming performance of a spherical swimmer as a result of position-dependent viscosity. The swimmer is chosen to be a spherical squirmer with a steady tangential motion on its surface modeling ciliary motion. The nutrient concentration around the body is described by an advection-diffusion equation. The roles of the surface stroke pattern, the specific relationship between the nutrient and viscosity, and the Péclet number of the nutrient in the locomotion velocity of the squirmer are investigated. Our results show that for a pure treadmill stroke, the velocity change is maximum at the limit of zero Péclet number and monotonically decreases toward zero at very high Péclet number. When higher surface stroke modes are present, larger modification in swimming velocity is captured at high Péclet number where two mechanisms of thinning the nutrient boundary layer and appearance of new stagnation points along the surface of squirmer are found to be the primary reasons behind the swimming velocity modifications. It is observed that the presence of nonuniform viscosity allows for optimal swimming speed to be achieved with stroke combinations other than pure treadmill.

  10. Mixing Silicate Melts with High Viscosity Contrast by Chaotic Dynamics: Results from a New Experimental Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos, Cristina; Perugini, Diego; Ertel-Ingrisch, Werner; Dingwell, Donald B.; Poli, Giampiero

    2010-05-01

    A new experimental device has been developed to perform chaotic mixing between high viscosity melts under controlled fluid-dynamic conditions. The apparatus is based on the Journal Bearing System (JBS). It consists of an outer cylinder hosting the melts of interest and an inner cylinder, which is eccentrically located. Both cylinders can be independently moved to generate chaotic streamlines in the mixing system. Two experiments were performed using as end-members different proportions of a peralkaline haplogranite and a mafic melt, corresponding to the 1 atm eutectic composition in the An-Di binary system. The two melts were stirred together in the JBS for ca. two hours, at 1,400° C and under laminar fluid dynamic condition (Re of the order of 10-7). The viscosity ratio between the two melts, at the beginning of the experiment, was of the order of 103. Optical analyses of experimental samples revealed, at short length scale (of the order of μm), a complex pattern of mixed structures. These consisted of an intimate distribution of filaments; a complex inter-fingering of the two melts. Such features are typically observed in rocks thought to be produced by magma mixing processes. Stretching and folding dynamics between the melts induced chaotic flow fields and generated wide compositional interfaces. In this way, chemical diffusion processes become more efficient, producing melts with highly heterogeneous compositions. A remarkable modulation of compositional fields has been obtained by performing short time-scale experiments and using melts with a high viscosity ratio. This indicates that chaotic mixing of magmas can be a very efficient process in modulating compositional variability in igneous systems, especially under high viscosity ratios and laminar fluid-dynamic regimes. Our experimental device may replicate magma mixing features, observed in natural rocks, and therefore open new frontiers in the study of this important petrologic and volcanological process.

  11. Pendulum Underwater - An Approach for Quantifying Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leme, José Costa; Oliveira, Agostinho

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the experiment presented in this paper is to quantify the viscosity of a liquid. Viscous effects are important in the flow of fluids in pipes, in the bloodstream, in the lubrication of engine parts, and in many other situations. In the present paper, the authors explore the oscillations of a physical pendulum in the form of a long and lightweight wire that carries a ball at its lower end, which is totally immersed in water, so as to determine the water viscosity. The system used represents a viscous damped pendulum and we tried different theoretical models to describe it. The experimental part of the present paper is based on a very simple and low-cost image capturing apparatus that can easily be replicated in a physics classroom. Data on the pendulum's amplitude as a function of time were acquired using digital video analysis with the open source software Tracker.

  12. [Effects of refined konjac meal on lipid metabolism and blood viscosity of rats fed by high fat forage].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongxia; Yang, Lili; Liu, Hong; Tan, Xiutao

    2002-04-01

    Male SD rats are fed by high fat diet supplemented with refined konjac meal for 6 weeks and the effect of refined konjac meal on the serum lipid peroxides (LPO) and blood viscosity are observed. The results showed that the refined konjac meal can obviously decrease serum cholesterol, triglyceride and serum LPO of rats in comparison with those of rats fed only by high fat forage, and can elevate, at the same time, the high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol/triglyceride value. It is also shown that the refined konjac meal can decrease the blood viscosity, but has no effect on forage intake and weight gain of rats.

  13. Ditetraalkylammonium amino acid ionic liquids as CO₂ absorbents of high capacity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing-Wen; Zhou, Zheng; Zhang, Feng; Fang, Cheng-Gang; Wu, You-Ting; Zhang, Zhi-Bing; Li, Ai-Min

    2011-12-15

    By grafting butyl or ethyl onto tetramethylethylenediamine, quaternary ammonium salts with two positive charge centers were formed at the first step. Metathesis with Ag(2)O followed. Through neutralization with glycine, l-alanine, or valine, a series of new ditetraalkylammonium amino acid ionic liquids (DILs) for CO(2) capture were generated. The structures of DILs, as shown in Figure 1, were verified by using (1)H NMR and EA. These DILs were found to be of quite high viscosity which militated against their industrial application in CO(2) removal. Drawing on the experience of mixed amines' aqueous solutions, these DILs were blended with water or N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) aqueous solutions to act as special absorbents of CO(2). Using a Double-Tank Absorption System, the absorption performance of these DIL solutions was investigated in detail. The experimental results indicated that among the three aqueous solutions of DILs (20%, 40%, and 80 wt %), the solution of 40% DIL had a higher absorption rate of CO(2) than the other two, demonstrating the different effects of concentration and viscosity on the absorption. The solution of 40% DIL or the 15% DIL + 15% MDEA had much higher capacity for CO(2) than the corresponding monocation tetraalkylammonium AAILs, due to the special structure of the dication which could influence the solubility of CO(2) in the aqueous solution.

  14. Contrasting the Influence of Cationic Amino Acids on the Viscosity and Stability of a Highly Concentrated Monoclonal Antibody.

    PubMed

    Dear, Barton J; Hung, Jessica J; Truskett, Thomas M; Johnston, Keith P

    2017-01-01

    To explain the effects of cationic amino acids and other co-solutes on the viscosity, stability and protein-protein interactions (PPI) of highly concentrated (≥200 mg/ml) monoclonal antibody (mAb) solutions to advance subcutaneous injection. The viscosities of ≥200 mg/ml mAb1 solutions with various co-solutes and pH were measured by capillary rheometry in some cases up to 70,000 s -1 . The viscosities are analyzed in terms of dilute PPI characterized by diffusion interaction parameters (k D ) from dynamic light scattering (DLS). MAb stability was measured by turbidity and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) after 4 weeks of 40°C storage. Viscosity reductions were achieved by reducing the pH, or adding histidine, arginine, imidazole or camphorsulfonic acid, each of which contains a hydrophobic moiety. The addition of inorganic electrolytes or neutral osmolytes only weakly affected viscosity. Systems with reduced viscosities also tended to be Newtonian, while more viscous systems were shear thinning. Viscosity reduction down to 20 cP at 220 mg/ml mAb1 was achieved with co-solutes that are both charged and contain a hydrophobic interaction domain for sufficient binding to the protein surface. These reductions are related to the DLS diffusion interaction parameter, k D , only after normalization to remove the effect of charge screening. Shear rate profiles demonstrate that select co-solutes reduce protein network formation.

  15. Correlation range in a supercooled liquid via Green-Kubo expression for viscosity, local atomic stresses, and MD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levashov, Valentin A.; Egami, Takeshi; Morris, James R.

    2009-03-01

    We present a new approach to the issue of correlation range in supercooled liquids based on Green-Kubo expression for viscosity. The integrand of this expression is the average stress-stress autocorrelation function. This correlation function could be rewritten in terms of correlations among local atomic stresses at different times and distances. The features of the autocorrelation function decay with time depend on temperature and correlation range. Through this approach we can study the development of spatial correlation with time, thus directly addressing the question of dynamic heterogeneity. We performed MD simulations on a single component system of particles interacting through short range pair potential. Our results indicate that even above the crossover temperature correlations extend well beyond the nearest neighbors. Surprisingly we found that the system size effects exist even on relatively large systems. We also address the role of diffusion in decay of stress-stress correlation function.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on viscosity reduction of cereal porridges for improving energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Oh, Sang-Hee; Byun, Eui-Hong; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Mee-Ree; Kim, Kwan-Soo; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2008-03-01

    Cereal porridges have low energy and nutrient density because of its viscosity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the reduction of viscosity and on the increasing solid content of cereal porridge. Four cereals, wheat, rice, maize (the normal starchy type) and waxy rice, were used in this study. The porridge with 3000 cP was individually prepared from cereal flour, gamma-irradiated at 20 kGy and tested. Gamma irradiation of 20 kGy was allowed that the high viscous and rigid cereal porridges turned into semi-liquid consistencies. The solid contents of all porridges could increase by irradiation, compared with non-irradiated ones. No significant differences of starch digestibility were observed in all cereal porridge samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation might be helpful for improving energy density of cereal porridge with acceptable consistency.

  17. Electron treatment of wood pulp for the viscose process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanik, T. M.; Ewing, D. E.; Whitehouse, R.

    2000-03-01

    Electron processing is currently being evaluated by several viscose producers for integration into their process. The viscose industry converts dissolving wood pulp into products such as staple fibre, filament, cord, film, packaging, and non-edible sausage casings. These materials are used in the clothing, drapery, hygiene, automobile, food, and packaging industries. Viscose producers are facing increasingly high production costs and stringent environmental regulations that have forced some plants to close. Electron treatment of wood pulp can significantly reduce the amounts of chemicals used for producing viscose and the production of hazardous pollutants. Acsion Industries has worked with companies worldwide to demonstrate the benefits of using electron treated pulp for producing viscose (rayon). This paper describes the viscose process, the benefits of using electron treatment in the viscose process, and Acsion's efforts in developing this technology.

  18. Analysis of High Speed Jets Produced by a Servo Tube Driven Liquid Jet Injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portaro, Rocco; Ng, Hoi Dick

    2017-11-01

    In today's healthcare environment many types of medication must be administered through the use of hypodermic needles. Although this practice has been in use for many years, drawbacks such as accidental needle stick injuries, transmission of deadly viruses and bio-hazardous waste are still present. This study focuses on improving a needle free technology known as liquid jet injection, through the implementation of a linear servo tube actuator for the construction of a fully closed loop liquid jet injection system. This device has the ability to deliver both micro- and macro- molecules, high viscosity fluids whilst providing real time control of the jet pressure profile for accurate depth and dispersion control. The experiments are conducted using a prototype that consists of a 3 kW servo tube actuator, coupled to a specially designed injection head allowing nozzle size and injection volume to be varied. The device is controlled via a high speed servo amplifier and FPGA. The high speed jets emanating from the injector are assessed via high speed photography and through the use of a force transducer. Preliminary results indicate that the system allows for accurate shaping of the jet pressure profile, making it possible to target different tissue depths/types accurately.

  19. Surface oscillation of levitated liquid droplets under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Masahito; Hibiya, Taketoshi; Ozawa, Shumpei; Mizuno, Akitoshi

    2012-07-01

    Microgravity conditions have advantages of measurement of surface tension and viscosity of metallic liquids by the oscillating drop method with an electromagnetic levitation (EML) device. Thus, we are now planning the thermophysical properties, the surface tension, viscosity, density and etc., measurements of liquid alloys using the electromagnetic levitator named MSL-EML (Materials Science Laboratory Electromagnetic Levitator), which ahs been developed by the European Space Agency (ESA), installed in the International Space Station (ISS). The surface tension and the viscosity of liquid samples by the oscillating drop method are obtained from the surface oscillation frequency and damping time of surface oscillation respectively. However, analysis of oscillating drop method in EML must be improved even in the microgravity conditions, because on the EML conditions the electromagnetic force (EMF) cannot generate the surface oscillation with discretely oscillation mode. Since under microgravity the levitated droplet shape is completely spherical, the surface oscillation frequency with different oscillation modes degenerates into the single frequency. Therefore, surface tension will be not affected the EML condition under microgravity, but viscosity will be affected on the different oscillation mode of surface oscillations. Because dumping time of surface oscillation of liquid droplets depends on the oscillation modes, the case of surface oscillation including multi oscillation modes the viscosity values obtained from dumping time will be modified from the correct viscosity. Therefore, we investigate the dumping time of surface oscillation of levitated droplets with different oscillation modes and also with including multi oscillation modes using the electrostatic levitation (ESL) on ground and EML under microgravity conditions by the parabolic flight of airplane. The ESL can discretely generate the surface oscillation with different oscillation modes by the change of

  20. Measurement and reduction of micro-bubble formation in high-viscosity fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tom, Glenn; Liu, Wei

    2012-03-01

    Gases at high drive pressure can initially dissolve into the fluids used in lithography and other critical processes during the fabrication of integrated circuits. In the low pressure portion of the dispense train, the dissolved gases can revert to bubbles. These bubbles can: 1. Affect the compressibility of the working fluid and change the flow characteristics of the dispense heads which require frequent re-tuning of the coating tools. 2. Contribute to defect formation if the bubbles are trapped on the surface of the wafer. Photosensitive Polyimides (PI) have high viscosities (1000 to 20,000 cP). Because of the high viscosity, high-powered, expensive pumps are needed to effectively remove the fluid from its container. Suction from the pump filling cycle easily causes cavitation, which can create flow rate variability, and micro-bubble formation. It is a common practice to apply pressure to the PI resists to minimize cavitation in the pump. The trade-off to this practice is the entrainment (dissolution) of the drive gas into the resist and the risk of micro-bubbles forming later in the dispense train. In the current study, ATMI measured the effects of two methods of pressure dispense from the container on the amount of gas entrained in a viscous fluid: (1) indirect pressure dispense and (2) direct pressure dispense. The main analytical method employed to measure the amount of dissolved gases is a gas chromatograph (GC), which can measure the concentration of gases dissolved in a volatile fluid. It is not suitable to measure gases in low volatility fluids. The new test method developed, however, is capable of measuring dissolved gases in low volatility fluids.

  1. Individual behavior and pairwise interactions between microswimmers in anisotropic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Andrey; Zhou, Shuang; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Aranson, Igor S.

    2015-01-01

    A motile bacterium swims by generating flow in its surrounding liquid. Anisotropy of the suspending liquid significantly modifies the swimming dynamics and corresponding flow signatures of an individual bacterium and impacts collective behavior. We study the interactions between swimming bacteria in an anisotropic environment exemplified by lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal. Our analysis reveals a significant localization of the bacteria-induced flow along a line coaxial with the bacterial body, which is due to strong viscosity anisotropy of the liquid crystal. Despite the fact that the average viscosity of the liquid crystal is two to three orders of magnitude higher than the viscosity of pure water, the speed of bacteria in the liquid crystal is of the same order of magnitude as in water. We show that bacteria can transport a cargo (a fluorescent particle) along a predetermined trajectory defined by the direction of molecular orientation of the liquid crystal. We demonstrate that while the hydrodynamic interaction between flagella of two close-by bacteria is negligible, the observed convergence of the swimming speeds as well as flagella waves' phase velocities may occur due to viscoelastic interaction between the bacterial bodies.

  2. Excimer Formation Dynamics of Dipyrenyldecane in Structurally Different Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Anita; Pandey, Siddharth

    2017-12-07

    Ionic liquids, being composed of ions alone, may offer alternative pathways for molecular aggregation. These pathways could be controlled by the chemical structure of the cation and the anion of the ionic liquids. Intramolecular excimer formation dynamics of a bifluorophoric probe, 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)decane [1Py(10)1Py], where the fluorophoric pyrene moieties are separated by a long decyl chain, is investigated in seven different ionic liquids in 10-90 °C temperature range. The long alkyl separator allows for ample interaction with the solubilizing milieu prior to the formation of the excimer. The ionic liquids are composed of two sets, one having four ionic liquids of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation ([bmim + ]) with different anions and the other having four ionic liquids of bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion ([Tf 2 N - ]) with different cations. The excimer-to-monomer emission intensity ratio (I E /I M ) is found to increase with increasing temperature in sigmoidal fashion. Chemical structure of the ionic liquid controls the excimer formation efficiency, as I E /I M values within ionic liquids with the same viscosities are found to be significantly different. The excited-state intensity decay kinetics of 1Py(10)1Py in ionic liquids do not adhere to a simplistic Birk's scheme, where only one excimer conformer forms after excitation. The apparent rate constants of excimer formation (k a ) in highly viscous ionic liquids are an order of magnitude lower than those reported in organic solvents. In general, the higher the viscosity of the ionic liquid, the more sensitive is the k a to the temperature with higher activation energy, E a . The trend in E a is found to be similar to that for activation energy of the viscous flow (E a,η ). Stokes-Einstein relationship is not followed in [bmim + ] ionic liquids; however, with the exception of [choline][Tf 2 N], it is found to be followed in [Tf 2 N - ] ionic liquids suggesting the cyclization dynamics of 1Py(10)1Py

  3. Microjet Generator for Highly Viscous Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuki, Hajime; Oi, Yuto; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a simple system for generating a highly viscous microjet. The jet is produced inside a wettable thin tube partially submerged in a liquid. The gas-liquid interface inside the tube, which is initially concave, is kept much deeper than that outside the tube. An impulsive force applied at the bottom of a liquid container leads to significant acceleration of the liquid inside the tube followed by flow focusing due to the concave interface. The jet generation process can be divided into two parts that occur in different time scales, i.e., the impact interval [impact duration ≤O (10-4) s ] and the focusing interval [focusing duration ≫O (10-4) s ]. During the impact interval, the liquid accelerates suddenly due to the impact. During the focusing interval, the microjet emerges due to flow focusing. In order to explain the sudden acceleration inside the tube during the impact interval, we develop a physical model based on a pressure impulse approach. Numerical simulations confirm the proposed model, indicating that the basic mechanism of the acceleration of the liquid due to the impulsive force is elucidated. Remarkably, the viscous effect is negligible during the impact interval. In contrast, during the focusing interval, the viscosity plays an important role in the microjet generation. We experimentally and numerically investigate the velocity of microjets with various viscosities. We find that higher viscosities lead to reduction of the jet velocity, which can be described by using the Reynolds number (the ratio between the inertia force and the viscous force). This device may be a starting point for next-generation technologies, such as high-viscosity inkjet printers including bioprinters and needle-free injection devices for minimally invasive medical treatments.

  4. Comparative study between the radiopacity levels of high viscosity and of flowable composite resins, using digital imaging.

    PubMed

    Arita, Emiko S; Silveira, Gilson P; Cortes, Arthur R; Brucoli, Henrique C

    2012-01-01

    The development of countless types and trends of high viscosite and flowable composite resins, with different physical and chemical properties applicable to their broad use in dental clinics calls for further studies regarding their radiopacity level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity levels of high viscosity and the flowable composite resins, using digital imaging. 96 composite resin discs 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick were radiographed and analyzed. The image acquisition system used was the Digora® Phosphor Storage System and the images were analyzed with the Digora software for Windows. The exposure conditions were: 70 kVp, 8 mA, and 0.2 s. The focal distance was 40 cm. The image densities were obtained with the pixel values of the materials in the digital image. Most of the high viscosity composite resins presented higher radiopacity levels than the flowable composite resins, with statistically significant differences between the trends and groups analyzed (P < 0.05). Among the high viscosity composite resins, Tetric®Ceram presented the highest radiopacity levels and Glacier® presented the lowest. Among the flowable composite resins, Tetric®Flow presented the highest radiopacity levels and Wave® presented the lowest.

  5. The electrorheological performance of polyaniline-based hybrid particles suspensions in silicone oil: influence of the dispersing medium viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, C.; García-Morales, M.; Goswami, S.; Marques, A. C.; Cidade, M. T.

    2018-07-01

    The potential of electrorheological (ER) suspensions based on polarizable particles in simple liquids relies on the particles arrangements which turn their quasi Newtonian behavior into gel-like. However, minor attention has been paid to the effect provoked by the liquid viscosity on the ease of orientation and assembly of the particles. With this aim, a study on the ER behavior, at 25 °C, of 1 wt% suspensions of polyaniline (PANI)-based hybrid particles (—graphene or —tungstene oxide) in silicone oil with varying viscosities (20, 50 and 100 cSt) was carried out. The electric field effect was higher for the PANI-graphene particles suspension in the less viscous silicone oil. However, two drawbacks were observed: (a) higher leakage current flows; and (b) reduced reversibility upon the electric field was turned off. The use of silicone oil with higher viscosity solved these issues.

  6. Weak Interactions Govern the Viscosity of Concentrated Antibody Solutions: High-Throughput Analysis Using the Diffusion Interaction Parameter

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Brian D.; Petry, Chris; Yadav, Sandeep; Demeule, Barthélemy; Ciaccio, Natalie; Moore, Jamie M.R.; Shire, Steven J.; Gokarn, Yatin R.

    2012-01-01

    Weak protein-protein interactions are thought to modulate the viscoelastic properties of concentrated antibody solutions. Predicting the viscoelastic behavior of concentrated antibodies from their dilute solution behavior is of significant interest and remains a challenge. Here, we show that the diffusion interaction parameter (kD), a component of the osmotic second virial coefficient (B2) that is amenable to high-throughput measurement in dilute solutions, correlates well with the viscosity of concentrated monoclonal antibody (mAb) solutions. We measured the kD of 29 different mAbs (IgG1 and IgG4) in four different solvent conditions (low and high ion normality) and found a linear dependence between kD and the exponential coefficient that describes the viscosity concentration profiles (|R| ≥ 0.9). Through experimentally measured effective charge measurements, under low ion normality where the electroviscous effect can dominate, we show that the mAb solution viscosity is poorly correlated with the mAb net charge (|R| ≤ 0.6). With this large data set, our results provide compelling evidence in support of weak intermolecular interactions, in contrast to the notion that the electroviscous effect is important in governing the viscoelastic behavior of concentrated mAb solutions. Our approach is particularly applicable as a screening tool for selecting mAbs with desirable viscosity properties early during lead candidate selection. PMID:22828333

  7. Cellular Viscosity in Prokaryotes and Thermal Stability of Low Molecular Weight Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Cuecas, Alba; Cruces, Jorge; Galisteo-López, Juan F; Peng, Xiaojun; Gonzalez, Juan M

    2016-08-23

    Some low molecular weight biomolecules, i.e., NAD(P)H, are unstable at high temperatures. The use of these biomolecules by thermophilic microorganisms has been scarcely analyzed. Herein, NADH stability has been studied at different temperatures and viscosities. NADH decay increased at increasing temperatures. At increasing viscosities, NADH decay rates decreased. Thus, maintaining relatively high cellular viscosity in cells could result in increased stability of low molecular weight biomolecules (i.e., NADH) at high temperatures, unlike what was previously deduced from studies in diluted water solutions. Cellular viscosity was determined using a fluorescent molecular rotor in various prokaryotes covering the range from 10 to 100°C. Some mesophiles showed the capability of changing cellular viscosity depending on growth temperature. Thermophiles and extreme thermophiles presented a relatively high cellular viscosity, suggesting this strategy as a reasonable mechanism to thrive under these high temperatures. Results substantiate the capability of thermophiles and extreme thermophiles (growth range 50-80°C) to stabilize and use generally considered unstable, universal low molecular weight biomolecules. In addition, this study represents a first report, to our knowledge, on cellular viscosity measurements in prokaryotes and it shows the dependency of prokaryotic cellular viscosity on species and growth temperature. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Viscosity of ammonia at high temperature and pressure

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sun, S.B.K.; Storvick, T.S.

    1979-04-01

    The viscosity of ammonia on five isotherms in the temperature range 448 to 598 K and pressures to 121 bar are reported. The measurements were made in a steady-state, capillary flow viscometer. The measurements are estimated to be accurate to better than 0.4% over the full range. 5 figures, 1 table.

  9. Viscosity of Common Seed and Vegetable Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wes Fountain, C.; Jennings, Jeanne; McKie, Cheryl K.; Oakman, Patrice; Fetterolf, Monty L.

    1997-02-01

    Viscosity experiments using Ostwald-type gravity flow viscometers are not new to the physical chemistry laboratory. Several physical chemistry laboratory texts (1 - 3) contain at least one experiment studying polymer solutions or other well-defined systems. Several recently published articles (4 - 8) indicated the continued interest in using viscosity measurements in the teaching lab to illustrate molecular interpretation of bulk phenomena. Most of these discussions and teaching experiments are designed around an extensive theory of viscous flow and models of molecular shape that allow a full data interpretation to be attempted. This approach to viscosity experiments may not be appropriate for all teaching situations (e.g., high schools, general chemistry labs, and nonmajor physical chemistry labs). A viscosity experiment is presented here that is designed around common seed and vegetable oils. With the importance of viscosity to foodstuffs (9) and the importance of fatty acids to nutrition (10), an experiment using these common, recognizable oils has broad appeal.

  10. Reference Correlation for the Viscosity of Ethane

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Vogel, Eckhard, E-mail: eckhard.vogel@uni-rostock.de; Span, Roland; Herrmann, Sebastian

    2015-12-15

    A new representation of the viscosity for the fluid phase of ethane includes a zero-density correlation and a contribution for the critical enhancement, initially both developed separately, but based on experimental data. The higher-density contributions are correlated as a function of the reduced density δ = ρ/ρ{sub c} and of the reciprocal reduced temperature τ = T{sub c}/T (ρ{sub c}—critical density and T{sub c}—critical temperature). The final formulation contains 14 coefficients obtained using a state-of-the-art linear optimization algorithm. The evaluation and choice of the selected primary data sets is reviewed, in particular with respect to the assessment used in earliermore » viscosity correlations. The new viscosity surface correlation makes use of the reference equation of state for the thermodynamic properties of ethane by Bücker and Wagner [J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 35, 205 (2006)] and is valid in the fluid region from the melting line to temperatures of 675 K and pressures of 100 MPa. The viscosity in the limit of zero density is described with an expanded uncertainty of 0.5% (coverage factor k = 2) for temperatures 290 < T/K < 625, increasing to 1.0% at temperatures down to 212 K. The uncertainty of the correlated values is 1.5% in the range 290 < T/K < 430 at pressures up to 30 MPa on the basis of recent measurements judged to be very reliable as well as 4.0% and 6.0% in further regions. The uncertainty in the near-critical region (1.001 < 1/τ < 1.010 and 0.8 < δ < 1.2) increases with decreasing temperature up to 3.0% considering the available reliable data. Tables of the viscosity calculated from the correlation are listed in an appendix for the single-phase region, for the vapor–liquid phase boundary, and for the near-critical region.« less

  11. Nonlinear Gravitational and Radiation Aspects in Nanoliquid with Exponential Space Dependent Heat Source and Variable Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gireesha, B. J.; Kumar, P. B. Sampath; Mahanthesh, B.; Shehzad, S. A.; Abbasi, F. M.

    2018-05-01

    The nonlinear convective flow of kerosene-Alumina nanoliquid subjected to an exponential space dependent heat source and temperature dependent viscosity is investigated here. This study is focuses on augmentation of heat transport rate in liquid propellant rocket engine. The kerosene-Alumina nanoliquid is considered as the regenerative coolant. Aspects of radiation and viscous dissipation are also covered. Relevant nonlinear system is solved numerically via RK based shooting scheme. Diverse flow fields are computed and examined for distinct governing variables. We figured out that the nanoliquid's temperature increased due to space dependent heat source and radiation aspects. The heat transfer rate is higher in case of changeable viscosity than constant viscosity.

  12. Nonlinear Gravitational and Radiation Aspects in Nanoliquid with Exponential Space Dependent Heat Source and Variable Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gireesha, B. J.; Kumar, P. B. Sampath; Mahanthesh, B.; Shehzad, S. A.; Abbasi, F. M.

    2018-02-01

    The nonlinear convective flow of kerosene-Alumina nanoliquid subjected to an exponential space dependent heat source and temperature dependent viscosity is investigated here. This study is focuses on augmentation of heat transport rate in liquid propellant rocket engine. The kerosene-Alumina nanoliquid is considered as the regenerative coolant. Aspects of radiation and viscous dissipation are also covered. Relevant nonlinear system is solved numerically via RK based shooting scheme. Diverse flow fields are computed and examined for distinct governing variables. We figured out that the nanoliquid's temperature increased due to space dependent heat source and radiation aspects. The heat transfer rate is higher in case of changeable viscosity than constant viscosity.

  13. Exploratory Characterization of a Perfluoropolyether Oil as a Possible Viscosity Standard at Deepwater Production Conditions of 533 K and 241 MPa

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Baled, Hseen O.; Tapriyal, Deepak; Morreale, Bryan D.

    2013-08-29

    DuPont’s perfluoropolyether oil Krytox® GPL 102 is a promising candidate for the high-temperature, high-pressure Deepwater viscosity standard (DVS). The preferred DVS is a thermally stable liquid that exhibits a viscosity of roughly 20 mPa∙s at 533 K and 241 MPa; a viscosity value representative of light oils found in ultra-deep formations beneath the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico. A windowed rolling-ball viscometer designed by our team is used to determine the Krytox® GPL 102 viscosity at pressures to 245 MPa and temperatures of 311 K, 372 K, and 533 K. At 533 K and 243 MPa, the Krytox®more » GPL 102 viscosity is (27.2±1.3)mPa∙s. The rolling-ball viscometer viscosity results for Krytox® GPL 102 are correlated with an empirical 10-parameter surface fitting function that yields an MAPD of 3.9 %. A Couette rheometer is also used to measure the Krytox® GPL 102 viscosity, yielding a value of (26.2±1)mPa∙s at 533 K and 241 MPa. The results of this exploratory study suggest that Krytox®GPL 102 is a promising candidate for the DVS, primarily because this fluoroether oil is thermally stable and exhibits a viscosity closer to the targeted value of 20 mPa ∙ s at 533 K and 241 MPa than any other fluid reported to date. Finally and nonetheless, further studies must be conducted by other researcher groups using various types of viscometers and rheometers on samples of Krytox GPL® 102 from the same lot to further establish the properties of Krytox GPL® 102.« less

  14. Experiments and High-resolution Simulations of Density and Viscosity Feedbacks on Convective Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Juan J.; Fe, Jaime; MacMinn, Christopher W.; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis; Juanes, Ruben

    2011-11-01

    Dissolution by convective mixing is one of the main trapping mechanisms during CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers. Initially, the buoyant CO2 dissolves into the underlying brine by diffusion. The CO2-brine mixture is denser than the two initial fluids, leading to a Rayleigh-Bénard-type instability known as convective mixing, which greatly accelerates CO2 dissolution. Although this is a well-known process, it remains unclear how convective mixing scales with the governing parameters of the system and its impact on the actual mixing of CO2 and brine. We explore the dependence of the CO2 dissolution flux on the nonlinearity of the density and viscosity of the fluid mixture by means of high-resolution numerical simulations and laboratory experiments with an analogue fluid system (water and propylene glycol). We find that the value of the concentration for which the density of the mixture is maximum, and the viscosity contrast between the fluids, both exert a powerful control on the convective flux. From the experimental and simulation results, we obtain the scaling behavior of convective mixing, and clarify the role of nonlinear density and viscosity feedbacks. JJH acknowledges the support from the FP7 Marie Curie Actions of the European Commission, via the CO2-MATE project (PIOF-GA-2009-253678).

  15. Measurement of viscosity and elasticity of lubricants at high pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rein, R. G., Jr.; Charng, T. T.; Sliepcevich, C. M.; Ewbank, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    The oscillating quartz crystal viscometer has been used to investigate possible viscoelastic behavior in synthetic lubricating fluids and to obtain viscosity-pressure-temperature data for these fluids at temperatures to 300 F and pressures to 40,000 psig. The effect of pressure and temperature on the density of the test fluids was measured concurrently with the viscosity measurements. Viscoelastic behavior of one fluid, di-(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate, was observed over a range of pressures. These data were used to compute the reduced shear elastic (storage) modulus and reduced loss modulus for this fluid at atmospheric pressure and 100 F as functions of reduced frequency.

  16. Low Melt Viscosity Resins for Resin Transfer Molding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, resin transfer molding (RTM) has become one of the methods of choice for high performance composites. Its cost effectiveness and ease of fabrication are major advantages of RTM. RTM process usually requires resins with very low melt viscosity (less than 10 Poise). The optimum RTM resins also need to display high thennal-oxidative stability, high glass transition temperature (T(sub g)), and good toughness. The traditional PMR-type polyimides (e.g. PMR-15) do not fit this requirement, because the viscosities are too high and the nadic endcap cures too fast. High T(sub g), low-melt viscosity resins are highly desirable for aerospace applications and NASA s Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. The objective of this work is to prepare low-melt viscosity polyimide resins for RTM or resin film infusion (RFI) processes. The approach involves the synthesis of phenylethynyl-terminated imide oligomers. These materials have been designed to minimize their melt viscosity so that they can be readily processed. During the cure, the oligomers undergo both chain extension and crosslinking via the thermal polymerization of the phenylethynyl groups. The Phenylethynyl endcap is preferred over the nadic group due to its high curing temperature, which provides broader processing windows. This work involved the synthesis and polymerization of oligomers containing zig-zag backbones and twisted biphenyl structures. Some A-B type precursors which possessed both nitro and anhydride functionality, or both nitro and amine functionality, were also synthesized in order to obtain the well defined oligomers. The resulting zig-zag structured oligomers were then end-capped with 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride (PEPA) for further cure. The properties of these novel imide oligomers are evaluated.

  17. Transient Torque Method: A Fast and Nonintrusive Technique to Simultaneously Determine Viscosity and Electrical Conductivity of Semiconducting and Metallic Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C.; Ban, H.; Lin, B.; Scripa, R. N.; Su, C.-H.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Zhu, S.

    2004-01-01

    A transient torque method was developed to rapidly and simultaneously determine the viscosity and electrical conductivity of liquid metals and molten semiconductors. The experimental setup of the transient torque method is similar to that of the oscillation cup method. The melt sample is sealed inside a fused silica ampoule, and the ampoule is suspended by a long quartz fiber to form a torsional oscillation system. A rotating magnetic field is used to induce a rotating flow in the conductive melt, which causes the ampoule to rotate around its vertical axis. A sensitive angular detector is used to measure the deflection angle of the ampoule. Based on the transient behavior of the deflection angle as the rotating magnetic field is applied, the electrical conductivity and viscosity of the melt can be obtained simultaneously by numerically fitting the data to a set of governing equations. The transient torque viscometer was applied successfully to measure the viscosity and electrical conductivity of high purity mercury at 53.4 C. The results were in excellent agreement with published data. The method is nonintrusive; capable of rapid measurement of the viscosity of toxic, high vapor pressure melts at elevated temperatures. In addition, the transient torque viscometer can also be operated as an oscillation cup viscometer to measure just the viscosity of the melt or as a rotating magnetic field method to determine the electrical conductivity of a melt or a solid if desired.

  18. The Particle Distribution in Liquid Metal with Ceramic Particles Mould Filling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Qi; Xing, Shu-ming

    2017-09-01

    Adding ceramic particles in the plate hammer is an effective method to increase the wear resistance of the hammer. The liquid phase method is based on the “with the flow of mixed liquid forging composite preparation of ZTA ceramic particle reinforced high chromium cast iron hammer. Preparation method for this system is using CFD simulation analysis the particles distribution of flow mixing and filling process. Taking the 30% volume fraction of ZTA ceramic composite of high chromium cast iron hammer as example, by changing the speed of liquid metal viscosity to control and make reasonable predictions of particles distribution before solidification.

  19. The impact of food viscosity on eating rate, subjective appetite, glycemic response and gastric emptying rate.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong; Hsu, Walter H; Hollis, James H

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV) and a high viscosity (HV) semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P = 0.020), with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P = 0.019 and P<0.001 respectively) while fullness was higher (P<0.001). In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001), higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001) and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001). However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods.

  20. The Impact of Food Viscosity on Eating Rate, Subjective Appetite, Glycemic Response and Gastric Emptying Rate

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Hsu, Walter H.; Hollis, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV) and a high viscosity (HV) semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P = 0.020), with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P = 0.019 and P<0.001 respectively) while fullness was higher (P<0.001). In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001), higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001) and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001). However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods. PMID:23818981

  1. Shear flow simulations of biaxial nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarman, Sten

    1997-08-01

    We have calculated the viscosities of a biaxial nematic liquid crystal phase of a variant of the Gay-Berne fluid [J. G. Gay and B. J. Berne, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3316 (1981)] by performing molecular dynamics simulations. The equations of motion have been augmented by a director constraint torque that fixes the orientation of the directors. This makes it possible to fix them at different angles relative to the stream lines in shear flow simulations. In equilibrium simulations the constraints generate a new ensemble. One finds that the Green-Kubo relations for the viscosities become linear combinations of time correlation function integrals in this ensemble whereas they are complicated rational functions in the conventional canonical ensemble. We have evaluated these Green-Kubo relations for all the shear viscosities and all the twist viscosities. We have also calculated the alignment angles, which are functions of the viscosity coefficients. We find that there are three real alignment angles but a linear stability analysis shows that only one of them corresponds to a stable director orientation. The Green-Kubo results have been cross checked by nonequilibrium shear flow simulations. The results from the different methods agree very well. Finally, we have evaluated the Miesowicz viscosities [D. Baalss, Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 45, 7 (1990)]. They vary by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The viscosity is consequently highly orientation dependent.

  2. Shock wave viscosity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celliers, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Several decades ago a method was proposed and demonstrated to measure the viscosity of fluids at high pressure by observing the oscillatory damping of sinusoidal perturbations on a shock front. A detailed mathematical analysis of the technique carried out subsequently by Miller and Ahrens revealed its potential, as well as a deep level of complexity in the analysis. We revisit the ideas behind this technique in the context of a recent experimental development: two-dimensional imaging velocimetry. The new technique allows one to capture a broad spectrum of perturbations down to few micron scale-lengths imposed on a shock front from an initial perturbation. The detailed evolution of the perturbation spectrum is sensitive to the viscosity in the fluid behind the shock front. Initial experiments are aimed at examining the viscosity of shock compressed SiO2 just above the shock melting transition. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Dynamic viscosity mapping of the oxidation of squalene aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Athanasiadis, Athanasios; Fitzgerald, Clare; Davidson, Nicholas M; Giorio, Chiara; Botchway, Stanley W; Ward, Andrew D; Kalberer, Markus; Pope, Francis D; Kuimova, Marina K

    2016-11-09

    Organic aerosols (OAs) play important roles in multiple atmospheric processes, including climate change, and can impact human health. The physico-chemical properties of OAs are important for all these processes and can evolve through reactions with various atmospheric components, including oxidants. The dynamic nature of these reactions makes it challenging to obtain a true representation of their composition and surface chemistry. Here we investigate the microscopic viscosity of the model OA composed of squalene, undergoing chemical aging. We employ Fluorescent Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) in conjunction with viscosity sensitive probes termed molecular rotors, in order to image the changes in microviscosity in real time during oxidation with ozone and hydroxyl radicals, which are two key oxidising species in the troposphere. We also recorded the Raman spectra of the levitated particles to follow the reactivity during particle ozonolysis. The levitation of droplets was achieved via optical trapping that enabled simultaneous levitation and measurement via FLIM or Raman spectroscopy and allowed the true aerosol phase to be probed. Our data revealed a very significant increase in viscosity of the levitated squalene droplets upon ozonolysis, following their transformation from the liquid to solid phase that was not observable when the oxidation was carried out on coverslip mounted droplets. FLIM imaging with sub-micron spatial resolution also revealed spatial heterogeneity in the viscosity distribution of oxidised droplets. Overall, a combination of molecular rotors, FLIM and optical trapping is able to provide powerful insights into OA chemistry and the microscopic structure that enables the dynamic monitoring of microscopic viscosity in aerosol particles in their true phase.

  4. Specific decrease in solution viscosity of antibodies by arginine for therapeutic formulations.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Naoto; Takai, Eisuke; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2014-06-02

    Unacceptably high viscosity is observed in high protein concentration formulations due to extremely large therapeutic dose of antibodies and volume restriction of subcutaneous route of administration. Here, we show that a protein aggregation suppressor, arginine hydrochloride (ArgHCl), specifically decreases viscosity of antibody formulations. The viscosities of bovine gamma globulin (BGG) solution at 250 mg/mL and human gamma globulin (HGG) solution at 292 mg/mL at a physiological pH were too high for subcutaneous injections, but decreased to an acceptable level (below 50 cP) in the presence of 1,000 mM ArgHCl. ArgHCl also decreased the viscosity of BGG solution at acidic and alkaline pHs. Interestingly, ArgHCl decreased the viscosity of antibody solutions (BGG, HGG, and human immunoglobulin G) but not globular protein solutions (α-amylase and α-chymotrypsin). These results indicate not only high potency of ArgHCl as an excipient to decrease the solution viscosity of high concentration antibodies formulations but also specific interactions between ArgHCl and antibodies.

  5. Estimated Viscosities and Thermal Conductivities of Gases at High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svehla, Roger A.

    1962-01-01

    Viscosities and thermal conductivities, suitable for heat-transfer calculations, were estimated for about 200 gases in the ground state from 100 to 5000 K and 1-atmosphere pressure. Free radicals were included, but excited states and ions were not. Calculations for the transport coefficients were based upon the Lennard-Jones (12-6) potential for all gases. This potential was selected because: (1) It is one of the most realistic models available and (2) intermolecular force constants can be estimated from physical properties or by other techniques when experimental data are not available; such methods for estimating force constants are not as readily available for other potentials. When experimental viscosity data were available, they were used to obtain the force constants; otherwise the constants were estimated. These constants were then used to calculate both the viscosities and thermal conductivities tabulated in this report. For thermal conductivities of polyatomic gases an Eucken-type correction was made to correct for exchange between internal and translational energies. Though this correction may be rather poor at low temperatures, it becomes more satisfactory with increasing temperature. It was not possible to obtain force constants from experimental thermal conductivity data except for the inert atoms, because most conductivity data are available at low temperatures only (200 to 400 K), the temperature range where the Eucken correction is probably most in error. However, if the same set of force constants is used for both viscosity and thermal conductivity, there is a large degree of cancellation of error when these properties are used in heat-transfer equations such as the Dittus-Boelter equation. It is therefore concluded that the properties tabulated in this report are suitable for heat-transfer calculations of gaseous systems.

  6. Feedbacks of Density and Viscosity Nonlinearities on Convective Mixing: Experiments and High-resolution Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, J. J.; MacMinn, C. W.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; Fe, J.

    2011-12-01

    Dissolution by convective mixing is one of the main trapping mechanisms during CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers. The free-phase CO2 tends to rise due to buoyancy, accumulate beneath the caprock and dissolve into the brine, initially by diffusion. The CO2-brine mixture, however, is denser than the two initial fluids, leading to a Rayleigh-Bénard-type instability known as convective mixing, which greatly accelerates CO2 dissolution. Although this is a well-known process, it remains unclear how convective mixing scales with the governing parameters of the system and its impact on the actual mixing of CO2 and brine. Here, we perform high-resolution numerical simulations and laboratory experiments with an analogue fluid system (water and propylene glycol) to explore the dependence of the CO2 dissolution flux on the nonlinearity of the density and viscosity of the fluid mixture. We find that the convective flux depends strongly on the value of the concentration for which the density of the mixture is maximum, and on the viscosity contrast between the fluids. From the experimental and simulation results we elucidate the scaling behavior of convective mixing, and clarify the role of nonlinear density and viscosity feedbacks in the interpretation of the analogue-fluid experiments.

  7. A Simple BODIPY-Based Viscosity Probe for Imaging of Cellular Viscosity in Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Su, Dongdong; Teoh, Chai Lean; Gao, Nengyue; Xu, Qing-Hua; Chang, Young-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular viscosity is a fundamental physical parameter that indicates the functioning of cells. In this work, we developed a simple boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY)-based probe, BTV, for cellular mitochondria viscosity imaging by coupling a simple BODIPY rotor with a mitochondria-targeting unit. The BTV exhibited a significant fluorescence intensity enhancement of more than 100-fold as the solvent viscosity increased. Also, the probe showed a direct linear relationship between the fluorescence lifetime and the media viscosity, which makes it possible to trace the change of the medium viscosity. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that BTV could achieve practical applicability in the monitoring of mitochondrial viscosity changes in live cells through fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). PMID:27589762

  8. A Simple BODIPY-Based Viscosity Probe for Imaging of Cellular Viscosity in Live Cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Dongdong; Teoh, Chai Lean; Gao, Nengyue; Xu, Qing-Hua; Chang, Young-Tae

    2016-08-31

    Intracellular viscosity is a fundamental physical parameter that indicates the functioning of cells. In this work, we developed a simple boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY)-based probe, BTV, for cellular mitochondria viscosity imaging by coupling a simple BODIPY rotor with a mitochondria-targeting unit. The BTV exhibited a significant fluorescence intensity enhancement of more than 100-fold as the solvent viscosity increased. Also, the probe showed a direct linear relationship between the fluorescence lifetime and the media viscosity, which makes it possible to trace the change of the medium viscosity. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that BTV could achieve practical applicability in the monitoring of mitochondrial viscosity changes in live cells through fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM).

  9. Advances in liquid metals for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Yan, Junjie; Lu, Yue; Chen, Guojun; Yang, Min; Gu, Zhen

    2018-04-23

    To date, liquid metals have been widely applied in many fields such as electronics, mechanical engineering and energy. In the last decade, with a better understanding of the physicochemical properties such as low viscosity, good fluidity, high thermal/electrical conductivity and good biocompatibility, gallium and gallium-based low-melting-point (near or below physiological temperature) alloys have attracted considerable attention in bio-related applications. This tutorial review introduces the common performances of liquid metals, highlights their featured properties, as well as summarizes various state-of-the-art bio-applications involving carriers for drug delivery, molecular imaging, cancer therapy and biomedical devices. Challenges for the clinical translation of liquid metals are also discussed.

  10. Viscosities of nonelectrolyte liquid mixtures. II. Binary and quaternary systems of some n-alkanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakefield, D. L.; Marsh, K. N.; Zwolinski, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series of viscosity and density studies on multicomponent mixtures of n-alkanes from 303 to 338 K. Reported here are the results of binary mixtures of n-tetracosane + n-octane as well as quaternary mixtures of n-tetracosane + n-octane + n-decane + n-hexane at 318.16, 328.16, and 338.16 K. Viscosities were determined using a standard U-tube Ostwald viscometer, and densities were determined using a flask-type pycnometer. Empirical relations tested include the Grunberg and Nissan equation and the method of corresponding states. In addition, comparisons were made regarding the behavior of this quaternary system and homologous binary mixtures of n-hexadecane + n-octane and n-tetracosane + n-octane at the same temperatures.

  11. Viscous liquid film flow on dune slopes of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möhlmann, Diedrich; Kereszturi, Akos

    2010-06-01

    It is shown that viscous liquid film flow (VLF-flow) on the surfaces of slopes of martian dunes can be a low-temperature rheological phenomenon active today on high latitudes. A quantitative model indicates that the VLF-flows are consistent with the flow of liquid brines similar to that observed by imaging at the Phoenix landing site. VLF-flows depend on the viscosity, dynamics, and energetics of temporary darkened liquid brines. The darkening of the flowing brine is possibly, at least partially, attributed to non-volatile ingredients of the liquid brines. Evidence of previous VLF-flows can also be seen on the dunes, suggesting that it is an ongoing process that also occurred in the recent past.

  12. Science Requirements for a Space Flight Experiment Entitled Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    We propose to measure in low gravity the viscosity of xenon close to its critical point. The accuracy will be sufficient to eliminate uncertainties currently associated with the analysis of l-g experiments. The measurements will provide the first direct observation of the predicted power-law divergence of viscosity in a pure fluid. The measurements will also strengthen Zeno's test of mode coupling theory by greatly increasing the reliability of the extrapolation of viscosity to low reduced temperatures. Our scientific objectives are described in more detail in one of the attached reports. The low-gravity experiment will be the final stage of a program whose completed ground-based stages are: (1) theoretical studies by one of the principal investigators (MRM) and coworkers, (2) critical viscosity measurements of binary liquid mixtures, (3) critical viscosity measurements of pure fluids in l-g, and development of a suitable vibration-insensitive viscometer. Our technical approach is described in the draft Science Requirements Document. One of us (MRM) has reviewed opportunities for critical phenomena research in low gravity. Both of us were co-principal investigators in the Thermal Equilibration Experiment in the Critical Point Facility, flown on IML-1 in 1992. From this experience, and from the technical maturity of our ground-based work, we believe our critical point viscometer is ready for development as a flight experiment.

  13. Survismeter, 2-IN-1 for Viscosity and Surface Tension Measurement, AN Excellent Invention for Industrial Proliferation of Surface Forces in Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Man

    Viscosities (η, N s m-2) and surface tensions (γ, N m-1) of methanol, ethanol, glycerol, ethyl acetate, n-hexane, diethyl ether, chloroform, benzene, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), tetrahydrofuran (THF), dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), acetonitrile, and formic acid have been measured with survismeter and compared with the data obtained by Ubbehold viscometer and stalagmometer, respectively. The ±1.1 × 10-5 N s m-2 and ±1.3 × 10-6 N m-1 deviations are noted in the data, in fact literature data of surface tension and viscosity are available to 2nd and 3rd place of decimals, respectively, while the survismeter measures them to 3rd and 4th place of decimals, respectively. The survismeter is 2-in-1 for viscosity and surface tension measurements together with high accuracies several times better than those of the separately measured data. Viscosities and surface tensions of aqueous DMSO, THF, DMF, and acetonitrile from 0.01 to 0.20 mol kg-1 and mannitol from 0.005 to 0.02 mol kg-1 have been measured with survismeter with ±1.2 × 10-5 N s m-2 and ±1.3 × 10-6 N m-1 deviations, respectively. The data are used for friccohesity and dipole moment determination, the lower viscosities, surface tension, and friccohesity values are noted for mannitol as compared to DMSO, THF, DMF, and acetonitrile solutions. The weaker molecular interactions are noted for mannitol. As compared to viscometer and stalagmometer individually, it is inexpensive and minimizes 2/3rd of consumables, human efforts, and infrastructure with 10 times better accuracies.

  14. Accuracy of the volume-viscosity swallow test for clinical screening of oropharyngeal dysphagia and aspiration.

    PubMed

    Clavé, Pere; Arreola, Viridiana; Romea, Maise; Medina, Lucía; Palomera, Elisabet; Serra-Prat, Mateu

    2008-12-01

    To determine the accuracy of the bedside volume-viscosity swallow test (V-VST) for clinical screening of impaired safety and efficacy of deglutition. We studied 85 patients with dysphagia and 12 healthy subjects. Series of 5-20 mL nectar (295.02 mPa.s), liquid (21.61 mPa.s) and pudding (3682.21 mPa.s) bolus were administered during the V-VST and videofluoroscopy. Cough, fall in oxygen saturation > or =3%, and voice changes were considered signs of impaired safety, and piecemeal deglutition and oropharyngeal residue, signs of impaired efficacy. Videofluoroscopy showed patients had prolonged swallow response (> or =1064 ms); 52.1% had safe swallow at nectar, 32.9%, at liquid (p<0.05), and 80.6% at pudding viscosity (p<0.05); 29.4% had aspirations, and 45.8% oropharyngeal residue. The V-VST showed 83.7% sensitivity and 64.7% specificity for bolus penetration into the larynx and 100% sensitivity and 28.8% specificity for aspiration. Sensitivity of V-VST was 69.2% for residue, 88.4% for piecemeal deglutition, and 84.6% for identifying patients whose deglutition improved by enhancing bolus viscosity. Specificity was 80.6%, 87.5%, and 73.7%, respectively. The V-VST is a sensitive clinical method to identify patients with dysphagia at risk for respiratory and nutritional complications, and patients whose deglutition could be improved by enhancing bolus viscosity. Patients with a positive test should undergo videofluoroscopy.

  15. Synthesis and properties of a bio-based epoxy resin with high epoxy value and low viscosity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Songqi; Liu, Xiaoqing; Fan, Libo; Jiang, Yanhua; Cao, Lijun; Tang, Zhaobin; Zhu, Jin

    2014-02-01

    A bio-based epoxy resin (denoted TEIA) with high epoxy value (1.16) and low viscosity (0.92 Pa s, 258C) was synthesized from itaconic acid and its chemical structure was confirmed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Its curing reaction with poly(propylene glycol) bis(2-aminopropyl ether) (D230) and methyl hexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA) was investigated. For comparison, the commonly used diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) was also cured with the same curing agents. The results demonstrated that TEIA showed higher curing reactivity towards D230/MHHPA and lower viscosity compared with DGEBA, resulting in the better processability. Owing to its high epoxy value and unique structure, comparable or better glass transition temperature as well as mechanical properties could be obtained for the TEIA-based network relative to the DGEBA-based network. The results indicated that itaconic acid is a promising renewable feedstock for the synthesis of bio-based epoxy resin with high performance.

  16. Atmospheric negative corona discharge using a Taylor cone as liquid electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Ryuto; Shirai, Naoki; Uchida, Satoshi; Tochikubo, Fumiyoshi

    2012-10-01

    We examined characteristics of atmospheric negative corona discharge using liquid needle cathode. As a liquid needle cathode, we adopted Taylor cone with conical shape. A nozzle with inner diameter of 10 mm is filled with liquid, and a plate electrode is placed at 10 mm above the nozzle. By applying a dc voltage between electrodes, Taylor cone is formed. To change the liquid property, we added sodium dodecyl sulfate to reduce the surface tension, sodium sulfate to increase the conductivity, and polyvinyl alcohol to increase the viscosity, in distilled water. The liquid, with high surface tension such as pure water could not form a Taylor cone. When we reduced surface tension, a Taylor cone was formed and the stable corona discharge was observed at the tip of the cone. When we increased viscosity, a liquid filament protruded from the solution surface was formed and corona discharge was observed along the filament at position 0.7-1.0 mm above from the tip of the cone. Increasing the conductivity resulted in the higher light intensity of corona and the lower corona onset voltage. When we use the metal needle electrode, the corona discharge depends on the voltage and the gap length. Using Taylor cone, different types of discharges were observed by changing the property of the liquid.

  17. Equation of State and Viscosity of Tantalum and Iron from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miljacic, Ljubomir; Demers, Steven; van de Walle, Axel

    2011-03-01

    To understand and model at continuum level the high-energy-density dynamic response in transition metals like Tantalum and Iron, as it arises in hypervelocity impact experiments, an accurate prediction of the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic properties for a range of temperatures and pressures is of critical importance. The relevant time scale of atomic motion in a dense gas, liquid, and solid is accessible with ab-initio Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. We calculate EoS for Ta and Fe via Thermodynamical Integration in 2D (V,T) phase space throughout different single and two-component phases. To reduce the ab-initio demand in selected regions of the space, we fit available gas-liquid data to the Peng-Robinson model and treat the solid phase within the Boxed-quasi-harmonic approximation. In the fluid part of the 2D phase space, we calculate shear viscosity via Green-Kubo relations, as time integration of the stress autocorrelation function.

  18. Liquid Crystalline Thermosets from Ester, Ester-imide, and Ester-amide Oligomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dingemans, Theodorus J. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St. Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Main chain thermotropic liquid crystal esters, ester-imides, and ester-amides were prepared from AA, BB, and AB type monomeric materials and end-capped with phenylacetylene, phenylmaleimide, or nadimide reactive end-groups. The end-capped liquid crystal oligomers are thermotropic and have, preferably, molecular weights in the range of approximately 1000-15,000 grams per mole. The end-capped liquid crystaloligomers have broad liquid crystalline melting ranges and exhibit high melt stability and very low melt viscosities at accessible temperatures. The end-capped liquid crystal oli-gomers are stable forup to an hour in the melt phase. They are highly processable by a variety of melt process shape forming and blending techniques. Once processed and shaped, the end-capped liquid crystal oigomers were heated to further polymerize and form liquid crystalline thermosets (LCT). The fully cured products are rubbers above their glass transition temperatures.

  19. Accelerating dewetting on deformable substrates by adding a liquid underlayer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Reiter, Günter; Shi, Tongfei; An, Lijia

    2010-05-18

    We investigated the dependence of the dewetting velocity of a thin, low-viscosity polystyrene (PS) top film on a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) double layer consisting of a low-viscosity underlayer of thickness h(L) coated with a high-viscosity middle layer of thickness h(M). The addition of the liquid underlayer generated complex nonmonotonic behavior of the dewetting velocity as a function of increasing h(M). In particular, we observed an acceleration of dewetting for an intermediate range of h(M). This phenomenon has been interpreted by a combination deformation of the middle elastic layer and a concurrent change in the contact angle. On one hand, deformation led to the formation of a trench that dissipated energy during its movement through the liquid underlayer and thus caused a slowing down of dewetting. However, with an increase in the thickness of the elastic middle layer, the size of the trench decreased and its influence on the dewetting velocity also decreased. On the other hand, the deformation of the elastic layer also led to an increase in the contact angle. This increase in the driving capillary forces caused an increase in the dewetting velocity.

  20. In situ droplet surface tension and viscosity measurements in gas metal arc welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, B.; Siewert, E.; Schein, J.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we present an adaptation of a drop oscillation technique that enables in situ measurements of thermophysical properties of an industrial pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. Surface tension, viscosity, density and temperature were derived expanding the portfolio of existing methods and previously published measurements of surface tension in pulsed GMAW. Natural oscillations of pure liquid iron droplets are recorded during the material transfer with a high-speed camera. Frame rates up to 30 000 fps were utilized to visualize iron droplet oscillations which were in the low kHz range. Image processing algorithms were employed for edge contour extraction of the droplets and to derive parameters such as oscillation frequencies and damping rates along different dimensions of the droplet. Accurate surface tension measurements were achieved incorporating the effect of temperature on density. These are compared with a second method that has been developed to accurately determine the mass of droplets produced during the GMAW process which enables precise surface tension measurements with accuracies up to 1% and permits the study of thermophysical properties also for metals whose density highly depends on temperature. Thermophysical properties of pure liquid iron droplets formed by a wire with 1.2 mm diameter were investigated in a pulsed GMAW process with a base current of 100 A and a pulse current of 600 A. Surface tension and viscosity of a sample droplet were 1.83 ± 0.02 N m-1 and 2.9 ± 0.3 mPa s, respectively. The corresponding droplet temperature and density are 2040 ± 50 K and 6830 ± 50 kg m-3, respectively.

  1. Phenomenological constraints on the bulk viscosity of QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquet, Jean-François; Shen, Chun; Denicol, Gabriel; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2017-11-01

    While small at very high temperature, the bulk viscosity of Quantum Chromodynamics is expected to grow in the confinement region. Although its precise magnitude and temperature-dependence in the cross-over region is not fully understood, recent theoretical and phenomenological studies provided evidence that the bulk viscosity can be sufficiently large to have measurable consequences on the evolution of the quark-gluon plasma. In this work, a Bayesian statistical analysis is used to establish probabilistic constraints on the temperature-dependence of bulk viscosity using hadronic measurements from RHIC and LHC.

  2. Free volume dependence of an ionic molecular rotor in Fluoroalkylphosphate (FAP) based ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Prabhat K.; Mora, Aruna K.; Nath, Sukhendu

    2016-01-01

    The emission properties of Thioflavin-T (ThT), a cationic molecular rotor, have been investigated in two fluoroalkylphosphate ([FAP]) anion based ionic liquids, namely, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate and 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate, over a wide temperature range. The micro-viscosities of ionic liquids around ThT, measured from the emission quantum yield, are found to be quite different from their bulk viscosities. The temperature dependence of the viscosity and the emission quantum yield reveals that, despite the very low shear viscosity of these ILs, the non-radiative torsional relaxation has a strong dependence on the free volume of these [FAP] anion based ILs.

  3. Ultra high pressure liquid chromatography. Column permeability and changes of the eluent properties.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2008-04-11

    The behavior of four similar liquid chromatography columns (2.1mm i.d. x 30, 50, 100, and 150 mm, all packed with fine particles, average d(p) approximately 1.7 microm, of bridged ethylsiloxane/silica hybrid-C(18), named BEH-C(18)) was studied in wide ranges of temperature and pressure. The pressure and the temperature dependencies of the viscosity and the density of the eluent (pure acetonitrile) along the columns were also derived, using the column permeabilities and applying the Kozeny-Carman and the heat balance equations. The heat lost through the external surface area of the chromatographic column was directly derived from the wall temperature of the stainless steel tube measured with a precision of +/-0.2 degrees C in still air and +/-0.1 degrees C in the oven compartment. The variations of the density and viscosity of pure acetonitrile as a function of the temperature and pressure was derived from empirical correlations based on precise experimental data acquired between 298 and 373 K and at pressures up to 1.5 kbar. The measurements were made with the Acquity UPLC chromatograph that can deliver a maximum flow rate of 2 mL/min and apply a maximum column inlet pressure of 1038 bar. The average Kozeny-Carman permeability constant of the columns was 144+/-3.5%. The temperature hence the viscosity and the density profiles of the eluent along the column deviate significantly from linear behavior under high-pressure gradients. For a 1000 bar pressure drop, we measured DeltaT=25-30 K, (Deltaeta/eta) approximately 100%, and (Deltarho/rho) approximately 10%. These results show that the radial temperature profiles are never fully developed within 1% for any of the columns, even under still-air conditions. This represents a practical advantage regarding the apparent column efficiency at high flow rates, since the impact of the differential analyte velocity between the column center and the column wall is not maximum. The interpretation of the peak profiles recorded in

  4. Viscosities of nonelectrolyte liquid mixtures. II. Binary mixtures of n-hexane with alkanoates and bromoalkanoates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswal, S. L.; Dave, J. P.

    1992-11-01

    Viscosity measurements are reported for mixtures of ethyl ethanoate, ethyl propionate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl-2-bromopropionate, ethyl-3-bromopropionate, ethyl-2-bromobutyrate, and ethyl-4-bromobutyrate with n-hexane at 303.15 K. The viscosity data have been correlated with equations of Grunberg and Nissan, of McAllister, and of Auslaender. Furthermore, excess Gibbs energies of activation ΔG * E of viscous flow have been calculated with Eyring's theory of absolute reaction rates and values of ΔG * E for the present binary mixtures have been explained in terms of the dipole-dipole interaction in alkanoates and the intramolecular Br...O interaction in bromoalkanoates.

  5. Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals: From viscoelastic properties to living liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shuang

    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal (LCLC) represents a broad range of molecules, from organic dyes and drugs to DNA, that self-assemble into linear aggregates in water through face-to-face stacking. These linear aggregates of high aspect ratio are capable of orientational order, forming, for example nematic phase. Since the microscopic properties (such as length) of the chromonic aggregates are results of subtle balance between energy and entropy, the macroscopic viscoelastic properties of the nematic media are sensitive to change of external factors. In the first part of this thesis, by using dynamic light scattering and magnetic Frederiks transition techniques, we study the Frank elastic moduli and viscosity coefficients of LCLC disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and sunset yellow (SSY) as functions of concentration c , temperature T and ionic contents. The elastic moduli of splay (K1) and bend (K3) are in the order of 10pN, about 10 times larger than the twist modulus (K2). The splay modulus K1 and the ratio K1/K3 both increase substantially as T decreases or c increases, which we attribute to the elongation of linear aggregates at lower T or higher c . The bend viscosity is comparable to that of thermotropic liquid crystals, while the splay and twist viscosities are several orders of magnitude larger, changing exponentially with T . Additional ionic additives into the system influence the viscoelastic properties of these systems in a dramatic and versatile way. For example, monovalent salt NaCl decreases bend modulus K3 and increases twist viscosity, while an elevated pH decreases all the parameters. We attribute these features to the ion-induced changes in length and flexibility of building units of LCLC, the chromonic aggregates, a property not found in conventional thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals form by covalently bound units of fixed length. The second part of the thesis studies a new active bio-mechanical hybrid system called living liquid crystal

  6. Treating osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with intraosseous vacuum phenomena using high-viscosity bone cement via bilateral percutaneous vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dan; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Shengfei; Zhang, Liang; Feng, Xinmin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with intraosseous vacuum phenomena could cause persistent back pains in patients, even after receiving conservative treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using high-viscosity bone cement via bilateral percutaneous vertebroplasty in treating patients who have osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with intraosseous vacuum phenomena. Twenty osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture patients with intraosseous vacuum phenomena, who received at least 2 months of conservative treatment, were further treated by injecting high-viscosity bone cement via bilateral percutaneous vertebroplasty due to failure of conservative treatment. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by determining the anterior vertebral compression rates, visual analog scale (VAS) scores, and Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores at 1 day before the operation, on the first day of postoperation, at 1-month postoperation, and at 1-year postoperation. Three of 20 patients had asymptomatic bone cement leakage when treated via percutaneous vertebroplasty; however, no serious complications related to these treatments were observed during the 1-year follow-up period. A statistically significant improvement on the anterior vertebral compression rates, VAS scores, and ODI scores were achieved after percutaneous vertebroplasty. However, differences in the anterior vertebral compression rate, VAS score, and ODI score in the different time points during the 1-year follow-up period was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, the injection of high-viscosity bone cement via bilateral percutaneous vertebroplasty for patients who have osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with intraosseous vacuum phenomena significantly relieved their back pains and improved their daily life activities shortly after the operation, thereby improving their life quality. In this study, the use of high-viscosity

  7. The Drainage of Thin, Vertical, Model Polyurethane Liquid Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Steven; Pernisz, Udo; Braun, Richard; Naire, Shailesh

    1999-11-01

    We have successfully measured the drainage rate of thin, vertically-aligned, liquid films prepared from model polyurethane foam formulations. The pattern of interference fringes in these films was consistent with a wedge-shaped film profile. The time evolution of this wedge shape (the ``collapsing wedge") obeyed a power law relationship between fringe density s and time t of s = k t^m. Experimentally, m ranged from -0.47 to -0.92. The lower bound for m represented a case where the surface viscosity of the film was very high (a ``rigid" surface). Theoretical modeling of this case yielded m = -0.5, in excellent agreement with experiment. Instantaneous film drainage rate (dV/dt) could be extracted from the ``Collapsing Wedge" model. As expected, dV/dt scaled inversely with bulk viscosity. As surfactant concentration was varied at constant bulk viscosity, dV/dt passed through a maximum value, consistent with a model where the rigidity of the surface was a function of both the intensity of surface tension gradients and the surface viscosity of the film. The influence of surface viscosity on dV/dt was also modeled theoretically.

  8. Laryngeal mucosa elasticity and viscosity in high and low relative air humidity.

    PubMed

    Hemler, R J; Wieneke, G H; Lebacq, J; Dejonckere, P H

    2001-03-01

    In earlier work we showed that low relative humidity (RH) of inhaled air causes acoustic voice parameters such as jitter and shimmer to deteriorate. Other authors have shown negative effects on vocal efficiency. To explain these changes in the mechanical properties of the vocal folds, the effects of changes in RH of the air passing over microdissected mucosa of sheep larynges were studied. The dissected surface of the tissue specimen just touched Ringer solution and air of varying RH was blown over the specimen. The mucosa specimen was subjected to sinusoidal oscillations of length (strain) and the resulting force (stress) was measured. The gain and phase angle between the imposed strain and resulting stress were measured, and elasticity and viscosity were calculated. Two different air conditions were tested: air with high RH (100%) vs air with low RH (0%). Viscosity and stiffness increased significantly in both ambient conditions (P < 0.01). Dry dehydrating air resulted in a stiffer and more viscous cover than humid air (P < 0.001). These changes in mechanical characteristics may contribute to the effects on voice parameters described in earlier work.

  9. Comparison and experimental validation of two potential resonant viscosity sensors in the kilohertz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, Etienne; Heinisch, Martin; Caillard, Benjamin; Jakoby, Bernhard; Dufour, Isabelle

    2013-08-01

    Oscillating microstructures are well established and find application in many fields. These include force sensors, e.g. AFM micro-cantilevers or accelerometers based on resonant suspended plates. This contribution presents two vibrating mechanical structures acting as force sensors in liquid media in order to measure hydrodynamic interactions. Rectangular cross section microcantilevers as well as circular cross section wires are investigated. Each structure features specific benefits, which are discussed in detail. Furthermore, their mechanical parameters and their deflection in liquids are characterized. Finally, an inverse analytical model is applied to calculate the complex viscosity near the resonant frequency for both types of structures. With this approach it is possible to determine rheological parameters in the kilohertz range in situ within a few seconds. The monitoring of the complex viscosity of yogurt during the fermentation process is used as a proof of concept to qualify at least one of the two sensors in opaque mixtures.

  10. Thermophysical Properties of Matter - the TPRC Data Series. Volume 11. Viscosity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    he monumental accomplishment in themselves, re- has spent enough time looking. Now with the quiring for their production the combined knowledge...Thodos for naphthenic hydrocarbons Thodos [1201] have represented the reduced viscosity (701], aromatic hydrocarbons (702], and unsaturated integral by...thefluidatoneatmospherepressureat thetemperature mixtures of liquids, and examined the case of caustic of interest, and p, is the value of p at the critical soda

  11. Homogeneous Liquid–Liquid Extraction of Rare Earths with the Betaine—Betainium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Ionic Liquid System

    PubMed Central

    Hoogerstraete, Tom Vander; Onghena, Bieke; Binnemans, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Several fundamental extraction parameters such as the kinetics and loading were studied for a new type of metal solvent extraction system with ionic liquids. The binary mixture of the ionic liquid betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and water shows thermomorphic behavior with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST), which can be used to avoid the slower mass transfer due to the generally higher viscosity of ionic liquids. A less viscous homogeneous phase and mixing on a molecular scale are obtained when the mixture is heated up above 55 °C. The influence of the temperature, the heating and cooling times, were studied for the extraction of neodymium(III) with betaine. A plausible and equal extraction mechanism is proposed in bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, nitrate, and chloride media. After stripping of the metals from the ionic liquid phase, a higher recovery of the ionic liquid was obtained by salting-out of the ionic liquid fraction lost by dissolution in the aqueous phase. The change of the upper critical solution temperature by the addition of HCl or betaine was investigated. In addition, the viscosity was measured below and above the UCST as a function of the temperature. PMID:24169434

  12. Melter feed viscosity during conversion to glass: Comparison between low-activity waste and high-level waste feeds

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jin, Tongan; Chun, Jaehun; Dixon, Derek R.

    During nuclear waste vitrification, a melter feed (generally a slurry-like mixture of a nuclear waste and various glass forming and modifying additives) is charged into the melter where undissolved refractory constituents are suspended together with evolved gas bubbles from complex reactions. Knowledge of flow properties of various reacting melter feeds is necessary to understand their unique feed-to-glass conversion processes occurring within a floating layer of melter feed called a cold cap. The viscosity of two low-activity waste (LAW) melter feeds were studied during heating and correlated with volume fractions of undissolved solid phase and gas phase. In contrast to themore » high-level waste (HLW) melter feed, the effects of undissolved solid and gas phases play comparable roles and are required to represent the viscosity of LAW melter feeds. This study can help bring physical insights to feed viscosity of reacting melter feeds with different compositions and foaming behavior in nuclear waste vitrification.« less

  13. Variation of the apparent viscosity of thickened drinks.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Mark; Hanson, Ben; Smith, Christina H

    2011-01-01

    In dysphagia care, thickening powders are widely added to drinks to slow their flow speed by increasing their viscosity. Current practice relies on subjective evaluation of viscosity using verbal descriptors. Several brands of thickener are available, with differences in constituent ingredients and instructions for use. Some thickened fluids have previously been shown to exhibit time-varying non-Newtonian flow behaviour, which may complicate attempts at subjective viscosity judgement. The aims were to quantify the apparent viscosity over time produced by thickeners having a range of constituent ingredients, and to relate the results to clinical practice. A comparative evaluation of currently available thickener products, including two which have recently been reformulated, was performed. Their subjective compliance to the National Descriptors standards was assessed, and their apparent viscosity was measured using a rheometer at shear rates representative of situations from slow tipping in a beaker (0.1 s⁻¹) to a fast swallow (100 s⁻¹). Testing was performed repeatedly up to 3 h from mixing. When mixed with water, it was found that most products compared well with subjective National Descriptors at three thickness levels. The fluids were all highly non-Newtonian; their apparent viscosity was strongly dependent on the rate of testing, typically decreasing by a factor of almost 100 as shear rate increased. All fluids showed some change in viscosity with time from mixing; this varied between products from -34% to 37% in the tests. This magnitude was less than the difference between thickness levels specified by the National Descriptors. The apparent viscosity of thickened fluids depends strongly on the shear rate at which it is examined. This inherent behaviour is likely to hinder subjective evaluation of viscosity. If quantitative measures of viscosity are required (for example, for standardization purposes), they must therefore be qualified with information of

  14. Transport properties of nonelectrolyte liquid mixtures—IV. Viscosity coefficients for benzene, perdeuterobenzene, hexafluorobenzene, and an equimolar mixture of benzene + hexafluorobenzene from 25 to 100°c at pressures up to the freezing pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymond, J. H.; Robertson, J.; Isdale, J. D.

    1981-09-01

    Viscosity coefficient measurements made with an estimated accuracy of ±2% using a self-centering falling body viscometer are reported for benzene, perdeuterobenzene, hexafluorobenzene and an equimolar mixture of benzene + hexafluorobenzene at 25, 50, 75 and 100°C at pressures up to the freezing pressure. The data for each liquid at different temperatures and pressures are correlated very satisfactorily by a graphical method based on plots of 9.118×107 ηV 2/3/(MRT)1/2 versus logV, and are reproduced to within the experimental uncertainty by a free-volume form of equation. Application of the empirical Grunberg and Nissan equation to the mixture viscosity coefficient data shows that the characteristic constant G is practically temperature- and pressure-independent for this system.

  15. A Low Viscosity Lunar Magma Ocean Forms a Stratified Anorthitic Flotation Crust With Mafic Poor and Rich Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dygert, Nick; Lin, Jung-Fu; Marshall, Edward W.; Kono, Yoshio; Gardner, James E.

    2017-11-01

    Much of the lunar crust is monomineralic, comprising >98% plagioclase. The prevailing model argues the crust accumulated as plagioclase floated to the surface of a solidifying lunar magma ocean (LMO). Whether >98% pure anorthosites can form in a flotation scenario is debated. An important determinant of the efficiency of plagioclase fractionation is the viscosity of the LMO liquid, which was unconstrained. Here we present results from new experiments conducted on a late LMO-relevant ferrobasaltic melt. The liquid has an exceptionally low viscosity of 0.22-0.19+0.11 to 1.45-0.82+0.46 Pa s at experimental conditions (1,300-1,600°C; 0.1-4.4 GPa) and can be modeled by an Arrhenius relation. Extrapolating to LMO-relevant temperatures, our analysis suggests a low viscosity LMO would form a stratified flotation crust, with the oldest units containing a mafic component and with very pure younger units. Old, impure crust may have been buried by lower crustal diapirs of pure anorthosite in a serial magmatism scenario.

  16. Computational tool for the early screening of monoclonal antibodies for their viscosities

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Neeraj J; Helk, Bernhard; Kumar, Sandeep; Mody, Neil; Sathish, Hasige A.; Samra, Hardeep S.; Buck, Patrick M; Li, Li; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2016-01-01

    Highly concentrated antibody solutions often exhibit high viscosities, which present a number of challenges for antibody-drug development, manufacturing and administration. The antibody sequence is a key determinant for high viscosity of highly concentrated solutions; therefore, a sequence- or structure-based tool that can identify highly viscous antibodies from their sequence would be effective in ensuring that only antibodies with low viscosity progress to the development phase. Here, we present a spatial charge map (SCM) tool that can accurately identify highly viscous antibodies from their sequence alone (using homology modeling to determine the 3-dimensional structures). The SCM tool has been extensively validated at 3 different organizations, and has proved successful in correctly identifying highly viscous antibodies. As a quantitative tool, SCM is amenable to high-throughput automated analysis, and can be effectively implemented during the antibody screening or engineering phase for the selection of low-viscosity antibodies. PMID:26399600

  17. Spiders Tune Glue Viscosity to Maximize Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Amarpuri, Gaurav; Zhang, Ci; Diaz, Candido; Opell, Brent D; Blackledge, Todd A; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2015-11-24

    Adhesion in humid conditions is a fundamental challenge to both natural and synthetic adhesives. Yet, glue from most spider species becomes stickier as humidity increases. We find the adhesion of spider glue, from five diverse spider species, maximizes at very different humidities that matches their foraging habitats. By using high-speed imaging and spreading power law, we find that the glue viscosity varies over 5 orders of magnitude with humidity for each species, yet the viscosity at maximal adhesion for each species is nearly identical, 10(5)-10(6) cP. Many natural systems take advantage of viscosity to improve functional response, but spider glue's humidity responsiveness is a novel adaptation that makes the glue stickiest in each species' preferred habitat. This tuning is achieved by a combination of proteins and hygroscopic organic salts that determines water uptake in the glue. We therefore anticipate that manipulation of polymer-salts interaction to control viscosity can provide a simple mechanism to design humidity responsive smart adhesives.

  18. Highly stable liquid metal-based pressure sensor integrated with a microfluidic channel.

    PubMed

    Jung, Taekeon; Yang, Sung

    2015-05-21

    Pressure measurement is considered one of the key parameters in microfluidic systems. It has been widely used in various fields, such as in biology and biomedical fields. The electrical measurement method is the most widely investigated; however, it is unsuitable for microfluidic systems because of a complicated fabrication process and difficult integration. Moreover, it is generally damaged by large deflection. This paper proposes a thin-film-based pressure sensor that is free from these limitations, using a liquid metal called galinstan. The proposed pressure sensor is easily integrated into a microfluidic system using soft lithography because galinstan exists in a liquid phase at room temperature. We investigated the characteristics of the proposed pressure sensor by calibrating for a pressure range from 0 to 230 kPa (R2 > 0.98) using deionized water. Furthermore, the viscosity of various fluid samples was measured for a shear-rate range of 30-1000 s(-1). The results of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids were evaluated using a commercial viscometer and normalized difference was found to be less than 5.1% and 7.0%, respectively. The galinstan-based pressure sensor can be used in various microfluidic systems for long-term monitoring with high linearity, repeatability, and long-term stability.

  19. Highly Stable Liquid Metal-Based Pressure Sensor Integrated with a Microfluidic Channel

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Taekeon; Yang, Sung

    2015-01-01

    Pressure measurement is considered one of the key parameters in microfluidic systems. It has been widely used in various fields, such as in biology and biomedical fields. The electrical measurement method is the most widely investigated; however, it is unsuitable for microfluidic systems because of a complicated fabrication process and difficult integration. Moreover, it is generally damaged by large deflection. This paper proposes a thin-film-based pressure sensor that is free from these limitations, using a liquid metal called galinstan. The proposed pressure sensor is easily integrated into a microfluidic system using soft lithography because galinstan exists in a liquid phase at room temperature. We investigated the characteristics of the proposed pressure sensor by calibrating for a pressure range from 0 to 230 kPa (R2 > 0.98) using deionized water. Furthermore, the viscosity of various fluid samples was measured for a shear-rate range of 30–1000 s−1. The results of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids were evaluated using a commercial viscometer and normalized difference was found to be less than 5.1% and 7.0%, respectively. The galinstan-based pressure sensor can be used in various microfluidic systems for long-term monitoring with high linearity, repeatability, and long-term stability. PMID:26007732

  20. Probing the shear viscosity of an active nematic film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillamat, Pau; Ignés-Mullol, Jordi; Shankar, Suraj; Marchetti, M. Cristina; Sagués, Francesc

    2016-12-01

    In vitro reconstituted active systems, such as the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-driven microtubule bundle suspension developed by the Dogic group [T. Sanchez, D. T. Chen, S. J. DeCamp, M. Heymann, and Z. Dogic, Nature (London) 491, 431 (2012), 10.1038/nature11591], provide a fertile testing ground for elucidating the phenomenology of active liquid crystalline states. Controlling such novel phases of matter crucially depends on our knowledge of their material and physical properties. In this Rapid Communication, we show that the shear viscosity of an active nematic film can be probed by varying its hydrodynamic coupling to a bounding oil layer. Using the motion of disclinations as intrinsic tracers of the flow field and a hydrodynamic model, we obtain an estimate for the shear viscosity of the nematic film. Knowing this now provides us with an additional handle for robust and precision tunable control of the emergent dynamics of active fluids.

  1. Highly efficient and ultra-small volume separation by pressure-driven liquid chromatography in extended nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Ryo; Mawatari, Kazuma; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2012-04-23

    The rapidly developing interest in nanofluidic analysis, which is used to examine liquids ranging in amounts from the attoliter to the femtoliter scale, correlates with the recent interest in decreased sample amounts, such as in the field of single-cell analysis. For general nanofluidic analysis, the fact that a pressure-driven flow does not limit the choice of solvents (aqueous or organic) is important. This study shows the first pressure-driven liquid chromatography technique that enables separation of atto- to femtoliter sample volumes, with a high separation efficiency within a few seconds. The apparent diffusion coefficient measurement of the unretentive sample suggests that there is no increase in the viscosity of toluene in the extended nanospace, unlike in aqueous solvents. Evaluation of the normal phase separation, therefore, should involve only the examination of the effect of the small size of the extended nanospace. Compared to a conventionally packed high-performance liquid chromatography column, the separation here results in a faster separation (4 s) by 2 orders of magnitude, a smaller injection volume (10(0) fL) by 9 orders, and a higher separation efficiency (440,000 plates/m) by 1 order. Moreover, the separation behavior agrees with the theory showing that this high efficiency was due to the small and controlled size of the separation channel, where the diffusion through the channel depth direction is fast enough to be neglected. Our chip-based platform should allow direct and real-time analysis or screening of ultralow volume of sample. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Investigating high-concentration monoclonal antibody powder suspension in nonaqueous suspension vehicles for subcutaneous injection.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Mayumi; Armstrong, Nick; Maa, Yuh-Fun

    2012-12-01

    Developing high-concentration monoclonal antibody (mAb) liquid formulations for subcutaneous (s.c.) administration is challenging because increased viscosity makes injection difficult. To overcome this obstacle, we investigated a nonaqueous powder suspension approach. Three IgG1 mAbs were spray dried and suspended at different concentrations in Miglyol® 840, benzyl benzoate, or ethyl lactate. Suspensions were characterized for viscosity, particle size, and syringeability; physical stability was visually inspected. Suspensions generally outperformed liquid solutions for injectability despite higher viscosity at the same mAb concentrations. Powder formulations and properties had little effect on viscosity or injectability. Ethyl lactate suspensions had lowest viscosity (<20 cP) and lowest syringe injection glide force (<15 N) at mAb concentrations as high as 333 mg/mL (500 mg powder/mL). Inverse gas chromatography analysis indicated that the vehicle was the most important factor impacting suspension performance. Ethyl lactate rendered greater heat of sorption (suggesting strong particle-suspension vehicle interaction may reduce particle-particle self-association, leading to low suspension viscosity and glide force) but lacked the physical suspension stability exhibited by the other vehicles. Specific mixtures of ethyl lactate and Miglyol® 840 improved overall performance in high mAb concentration suspensions. This study demonstrated the viability of high mAb concentration (>300 mg/mL) in suspension formulations for s.c. administration. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Liquid bridges at the root-soil interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carminati, Andrea; Benard, Pascal; Ahmed, Mutez; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen

    2017-04-01

    The role of the root-soil interface on soil-plant water relations is unclear. Despite many experimental studies proved that the soil close to the root surface, the rhizosphere, has different properties compared to the adjacent bulk soil, the mechanisms underlying such differences are poorly understood and the implications for plant-water relations remain largely speculative. The objective of this contribution is to discuss the key elements affecting water dynamics in the rhizosphere. Special attention is dedicated to the role of mucilage exuded by roots in shaping the hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere. We identified three key properties: 1) mucilage adsorbs water decreasing its water potential; 2) mucilage decreases the surface tension of the soil solution; 3) mucilage increases the viscosity of the soil solution. These three properties determine the retention and spatial configuration of the liquid phase in porous media. The increase in viscosity and the decrease in surface tension (quantified by the Ohnesorge number) allow the persistence of long liquid filaments even at very negative water potentials. At high mucilage concentrations these filaments form a network that creates an additional matric potential and maintains the continuity of the liquid phase during drying. The biophysical interactions between mucilage and the pore space determine the physical properties of the rhizosphere. Mucilage forms a network that provides mechanical stability to soils upon drying and that maintains the continuity of the liquid phase across the soil-root interface. Such biophysical properties are functional to create an interconnected matrix that maintains the roots in contact with the soil, which is of particular importance when the soil is drying and the transpiration rate is high.

  4. Gas slug ascent through changes in conduit diameter: Laboratory insights into a volcano-seismic source process in low-viscosity magmas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, M.R.; Lane, S.J.; Chouet, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    Seismic signals generated during the flow and degassing of low-viscosity magmas include long-period (LP) and very-long-period (VLP) events, whose sources are often attributed to dynamic fluid processes within the conduit. We present the results of laboratory experiments designed to investigate whether the passage of a gas slug through regions of changing conduit diameter could act as a suitable source mechanism. A vertical, liquid-filled glass tube featuring a concentric diameter change was used to provide canonical insights into potentially deep or shallow seismic sources. As gas slugs ascend the tube, we observe systematic pressure changes varying with slug size, liquid depth, tube diameter, and liquid viscosity. Gas slugs undergoing an abrupt flow pattern change upon entering a section of significantly increased tube diameter induce a transient pressure decrease in and above the flare and an associated pressure increase below it, which stimulates acoustic and inertial resonant oscillations. When the liquid flow is not dominantly controlled by viscosity, net vertical forces on the apparatus are also detected. The net force is a function of the magnitude of the pressure transients generated and the tube geometry, which dictates where, and hence when, the traveling pressure pulses can couple into the tube. In contrast to interpretations of related volcano-seismic data, where a single downward force is assumed to result from an upward acceleration of the center of mass in the conduit, our experiments suggest that significant downward forces can result from the rapid deceleration of relatively small volumes of downward-moving liquid. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. New Formulation for the Viscosity of n-Butane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Sebastian; Vogel, Eckhard

    2018-03-01

    A new viscosity formulation for n-butane, based on the residual quantity concept, uses the reference equation of state by Bücker and Wagner [J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 35, 929 (2006)] and is valid in the fluid region from the triple point to 650 K and to 100 MPa. The contributions for the zero-density viscosity and for the initial-density dependence were separately developed, whereas those for the critical enhancement and for the higher-density terms were pretreated. All contributions were given as a function of the reciprocal reduced temperature τ, while the last two contributions were correlated as a function of τ and of the reduced density δ. The different contributions were based on specific primary data sets, whose evaluation and choice were discussed in detail. The final formulation incorporates 13 coefficients derived employing a state-of-the-art linear optimization algorithm. The viscosity at low pressures p ≤ 0.2 MPa is described with an expanded uncertainty of 0.5% (coverage factor k = 2) for temperatures 293 ≤ T/K ≤ 626. The expanded uncertainty in the vapor phase at subcritical temperatures T ≥ 298 K as well as in the supercritical thermodynamic region T ≤ 448 K at pressures p ≤ 30 MPa is estimated to be 1.5%. It is raised to 4.0% in regions where only less reliable primary data sets are available and to 6.0% in ranges without any primary data, but in which the equation of state is valid. A weakness of the reference equation of state in the near-critical region prevents estimation of the expanded uncertainty in this region. Viscosity tables for the new formulation are presented in Appendix B for the single-phase region, for the vapor-liquid phase boundary, and for the near-critical region.

  6. Behavior of a supercooled chalcogenide liquid in the non-Newtonian regime under steady vs. oscillatory shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, S.; Zhu, W.; Aitken, B. G.

    2017-07-01

    The steady and oscillatory shear rate dependence of viscosity of a supercooled chalcogenide liquid of composition As10Se90 is measured at Newtonian viscosities ranging between 103 and 107 Pa s using capillary and parallel plate rheometry. The liquid displays strong violation of the Cox-Merz rule in the non-Newtonian regime where the viscosity under steady shear is nearly an order of magnitude lower than that under oscillatory shear. This behavior is argued to be related to the emergence of unusually large (6-8 nm) cooperatively rearranging regions with long relaxation times in the liquid that result from significant structural rearrangements under steady shear.

  7. Inference of viscosity jump at 670 km depth and lower mantle viscosity structure from GIA observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Masao; Okuno, Jun'ichi; Irie, Yoshiya

    2018-03-01

    A viscosity model with an exponential profile described by temperature (T) and pressure (P) distributions and constant activation energy (E_{{{um}}}^{{*}} for the upper mantle and E_{{{lm}}}^* for the lower mantle) and volume (V_{{{um}}}^{{*}} and V_{{{lm}}}^*) is employed in inferring the viscosity structure of the Earth's mantle from observations of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). We first construct standard viscosity models with an average upper-mantle viscosity ({\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}}) of 2 × 1020 Pa s, a typical value for the oceanic upper-mantle viscosity, satisfying the observationally derived three GIA-related observables, GIA-induced rate of change of the degree-two zonal harmonic of the geopotential, {\\dot{J}_2}, and differential relative sea level (RSL) changes for the Last Glacial Maximum sea levels at Barbados and Bonaparte Gulf in Australia and for RSL changes at 6 kyr BP for Karumba and Halifax Bay in Australia. Standard viscosity models inferred from three GIA-related observables are characterized by a viscosity of ˜1023 Pa s in the deep mantle for an assumed viscosity at 670 km depth, ηlm(670), of (1 - 50) × 1021 Pa s. Postglacial RSL changes at Southport, Bermuda and Everglades in the intermediate region of the North American ice sheet, largely dependent on its gross melting history, have a crucial potential for inference of a viscosity jump at 670 km depth. The analyses of these RSL changes based on the viscosity models with {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} ≥ 2 × 1020 Pa s and lower-mantle viscosity structures for the standard models yield permissible {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} and ηlm (670) values, although there is a trade-off between the viscosity and ice history models. Our preferred {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} and ηlm (670) values are ˜(7 - 9) × 1020 and ˜1022 Pa s, respectively, and the {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} is higher than that for the typical value of oceanic upper mantle, which may reflect a moderate laterally heterogeneous upper

  8. Study on improving viscosity of polymer solution based on complex reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, G.; Li, D.; Zhang, D.; Xu, T. H.

    2018-05-01

    The current status of polymer flooding Technology on high salinity oil reservoir is not ideal. A method for increasing the viscosity of polymer solutions is urgently needed. This paper systematically studied the effect of ions with different mass concentrations on the viscosity of polymer solutions. Based on the theory of complex reaction, a countermeasure of increasing viscosity of polymer solution under conditions of high salinity reservoir was proposed. The results show that Ca2+ and Mg2+ have greater influence on the solution viscosity than K+ and Na+. When the concentration of divalent ions increases from 0 mg/L to 80 mg/L, the viscosity of the polymer solution decreases from 210 mPa·s to 38.6 mPa·s. The viscosity of the polymer solution prepared from the sewage treated with the Na2C2O4 increased by 25.3%. Atomic force microscopy test results show that Na2C2O4 can effectively shield the divalent metal ions, so that the polymer molecules in the solution stretch more, thereby increasing the solution viscosity. Atomic force microscopy test results show that Na2C2O4 can effectively shield the divalent metal ions, so that the polymer molecules in the solution stretch more, thereby increasing the solution viscosity.

  9. Explicit expressions of self-diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, and the Stokes-Einstein relation for binary mixtures of Lennard-Jones liquids

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ohtori, Norikazu, E-mail: ohtori@chem.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp; Ishii, Yoshiki

    Explicit expressions of the self-diffusion coefficient, D{sub i}, and shear viscosity, η{sub sv}, are presented for Lennard-Jones (LJ) binary mixtures in the liquid states along the saturated vapor line. The variables necessary for the expressions were derived from dimensional analysis of the properties: atomic mass, number density, packing fraction, temperature, and the size and energy parameters used in the LJ potential. The unknown dependence of the properties on each variable was determined by molecular dynamics (MD) calculations for an equimolar mixture of Ar and Kr at the temperature of 140 K and density of 1676 kg m{sup −3}. The scalingmore » equations obtained by multiplying all the single-variable dependences can well express D{sub i} and η{sub sv} evaluated by the MD simulation for a whole range of compositions and temperatures without any significant coupling between the variables. The equation for D{sub i} can also explain the dual atomic-mass dependence, i.e., the average-mass and the individual-mass dependence; the latter accounts for the “isotope effect” on D{sub i}. The Stokes-Einstein (SE) relation obtained from these equations is fully consistent with the SE relation for pure LJ liquids and that for infinitely dilute solutions. The main differences from the original SE relation are the presence of dependence on the individual mass and on the individual energy parameter. In addition, the packing-fraction dependence turned out to bridge another gap between the present and original SE relations as well as unifying the SE relation between pure liquids and infinitely dilute solutions.« less

  10. Stokes-Einstein relation in liquid iron-nickel alloy up to 300 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Q.-L.; Wang, P.-P.

    2017-05-01

    Molecular dynamic simulations were applied to investigate the Stokes-Einstein relation (SER) and the Rosenfeld entropy scaling law (ESL) in liquid Fe0.9Ni0.1 over a sufficiently broad range of temperatures (0.70 < T/Tm < 1.85 Tm is melting temperature) and pressures (from 50 GPa to 300 GPa). Our results suggest that the SER and ESL hold well in the normal liquid region and break down in the supercooled region under high-pressure conditions, and the deviation becomes larger with decreasing temperature. In other words, the SER can be used to calculate the viscosity of liquid Earth's outer core from the self-diffusion coefficients of iron/nickel and the ESL can be used to predict the viscosity and diffusion coefficients of liquid Earth's outer core form its structural properties. In addition, the pressure dependence of effective diameters cannot be ignored in the course of using the SER. Moreover, ESL provides a useful, structure-based probe for the validity of SER, while the ratio of the self-diffusion coefficients of the components cannot be used as a probe for the validity of SER.

  11. Synthesis and properties of alkoxy- and alkenyl-substituted peralkylated imidazolium ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Maton, Cedric; Brooks, Neil R; Van Meervelt, Luc; Binnemans, Koen; Schaltin, Stijn; Fransaer, Jan; Stevens, Christian V

    2013-10-21

    Novel peralkylated imidazolium ionic liquids bearing alkoxy and/or alkenyl side chains have been synthesized and studied. Different synthetic routes towards the imidazoles and the ionic liquids comprising bromide, iodide, methanesulfonate, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([NTf2](-)), and dicyanamide {[N(CN)2](-)} as the anion were evaluated, and this led to a library of analogues, for which the melting points, viscosities, and electrochemical windows were determined. Incorporation of alkenyl moieties hindered solidification, except for cations with high symmetry. The alkoxy-derivatized ionic liquids are often crystalline; however, room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) were obtained with the weakly coordinating anions [NTf2](-) and [N(CN)2](-). For the viscosities of the peralkylated RTILs, an opposite trend was found, that is, the alkoxy derivatives are less viscous than their alkenyl-substituted analogues. Of the crystalline compounds, X-ray diffraction data were recorded and related to their molecular properties. Upon alkoxy substitution, the electrochemical cathodic limit potential was found to be more positive, whereas the complete electrochemical window of the alkenyl-substituted imidazolium salts was shifted to somewhat more positive potentials. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Self-focused acoustic ejectors for viscous liquids.

    PubMed

    Hon, S F; Kwok, K W; Li, H L; Ng, H Y

    2010-06-01

    Self-focused acoustic ejectors using the Fresnel zone plate (FZP) have been developed for ejecting viscous liquids, without nozzle, in the drop-on-demand mode. The FZP is composed of a lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric plate patterned with a series of annular electrodes, with the unelectroded region of the plate removed. Our results show that the acoustic waves are effectively self-focused by constructive interference in glycerin (with a viscosity of 1400 mPa s), giving small focal points with a high pressure. Due to the high attenuation, the wave pressure decreases significantly with the distance from the FZP. Nevertheless, the pressure at the focal points 2.5 and 6.5 mm from the FZP is high enough to eject glycerin droplets in the drop-on-demand mode. Driven by a simple wave train comprising a series of sinusoidal voltages with an amplitude of 35 V, a frequency of 4.28 MHz, and a duration of 2 ms, the ejector can eject fine glycerin droplets with a diameter of 0.4 mm at a repetition frequency of 120 Hz in a downward direction. Droplets of other viscous liquids, such as the prepolymer of an epoxy with a viscosity of 2000 mPa s, can also be ejected in the drop-on-demand mode under similar conditions.

  13. Glass dynamics and anomalous aging in a family of ionic liquids above the glass transition temperature.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Nabila; McKenna, Gregory B

    2010-12-09

    The present paper reports the results of a systematic rheological study of the dynamic moduli of 1-butyl 3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF(4)]), 1-butyl 3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([Bmim][PF(6)]), and 1-ethyl 3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate ([Emim][EtSO(4)]) in the vicinity of their respective glass transition temperatures. The results show an anomalous aging in that the dynamic and the low shear rate viscosities decrease with time at temperatures near to, but above, the glass transition temperature, and this is described. The samples that are aged into equilibrium obey the time-temperature superposition principle, and the shift factors and the viscosities follow classic super-Arrhenius behaviors with intermediate fragility values as the glass transition is approached. Similar experiments using a high-purity [Bmim][BF(4)] show that using a higher purity of the ionic liquid, while changing absolute values of the properties, does not eliminate the anomalous aging response. The data are also analyzed in a fashion similar to that used for polymer melts, and we find that these ionic liquids do not follow, for example, the Cox-Merz relationship between the steady shear viscosity and the dynamic viscosity.

  14. Ionic Liquids as Electrolytes for Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors: Structures that Optimize Specific Energy.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Maral P S; Wilson, Benjamin E; Kashefolgheta, Sadra; Anderson, Evan L; He, Siyao; Bühlmann, Philippe; Stein, Andreas

    2016-02-10

    Key parameters that influence the specific energy of electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are the double-layer capacitance and the operating potential of the cell. The operating potential of the cell is generally limited by the electrochemical window of the electrolyte solution, that is, the range of applied voltages within which the electrolyte or solvent is not reduced or oxidized. Ionic liquids are of interest as electrolytes for EDLCs because they offer relatively wide potential windows. Here, we provide a systematic study of the influence of the physical properties of ionic liquid electrolytes on the electrochemical stability and electrochemical performance (double-layer capacitance, specific energy) of EDLCs that employ a mesoporous carbon model electrode with uniform, highly interconnected mesopores (3DOm carbon). Several ionic liquids with structurally diverse anions (tetrafluoroborate, trifluoromethanesulfonate, trifluoromethanesulfonimide) and cations (imidazolium, ammonium, pyridinium, piperidinium, and pyrrolidinium) were investigated. We show that the cation size has a significant effect on the electrolyte viscosity and conductivity, as well as the capacitance of EDLCs. Imidazolium- and pyridinium-based ionic liquids provide the highest cell capacitance, and ammonium-based ionic liquids offer potential windows much larger than imidazolium and pyridinium ionic liquids. Increasing the chain length of the alkyl substituents in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonimide does not widen the potential window of the ionic liquid. We identified the ionic liquids that maximize the specific energies of EDLCs through the combined effects of their potential windows and the double-layer capacitance. The highest specific energies are obtained with ionic liquid electrolytes that possess moderate electrochemical stability, small ionic volumes, low viscosity, and hence high conductivity, the best performing ionic liquid tested being 1-ethyl-3

  15. Surface nanodroplets for highly efficient liquid-liquid microextraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Miaosi; Lu, Ziyang; Yu, Haitao; Zhang, Xuehua

    2016-11-01

    Nanoscale droplets on a substrate are an essential element for a wide range of applications, such as laboratory-on-chip devices, simple and highly efficient miniaturized reactors for concentrating products, high-throughput single-bacteria or single-biomolecular analysis, encapsulation, and high-resolution imaging techniques. The solvent exchange process is a simple bottom-up approach for producing droplets at solid-liquid interfaces that are only several tens to hundreds of nanometers in height, or a few femtoliters in volume Oil nanodroplets can be produced on a substrate by solvent exchange in which a good solvent of oil is displaced by a poor solvent. Our previous work has significantly advanced understanding of the principle of solvent exchange, and the droplet size can be well-controlled by several parameters, including flow rates, flow geometry, gravitational effect and composition of solutions. In this work, we studied the microextraction effect of surface nanodroplets. Oil nanodroplets have been demonstrated to provide highly-efficient liquid-liquid microextraction of hydrophobic solute in a highly diluted solution. This effect proved the feasibility of nanodroplets as a platform for preconcentrating compounds for in situ highly sensitive microanalysis without further separation. Also the long lifetime and temporal stability of surface nanodroplets allow for some long-term extraction process and extraction without addition of stabilisers.

  16. X-ray Imaging of Transplanar Liquid Transport Mechanisms in Single Layer Textiles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gannian; Parwani, Rachna; Stone, Corinne A; Barber, Asa H; Botto, Lorenzo

    2017-10-31

    Understanding the penetration of liquids within textile fibers is critical for the development of next-generation smart textiles. Despite substantial research on liquid penetration in the plane of the textile, little is known about how the liquid penetrates in the thickness direction. Here we report a time-resolved high-resolution X-ray measurement of the motion of the liquid-air interface within a single layer textile, as the liquid is transported across the textile thickness following the deposition of a droplet. The measurement of the time-dependent position of the liquid meniscus is made possible by the use of ultrahigh viscosity liquids (dynamic viscosity from 10 5 to 2.5 × 10 6  times larger than water). This approach enables imaging due to the slow penetration kinetics. Imaging results suggest a three-stage penetration process with each stage being associated with one of the three types of capillary channels existing in the textile geometry, providing insights into the effect of the textile structure on the path of the three-dimensional liquid meniscus. One dimensional kinetics studies show that our data for the transplanar penetration depth Δx L vs time do not conform to a power law, and that the measured rate of penetration for long times is smaller than that predicted by Lucas-Washburn kinetics, challenging commonly held assumptions regarding the validity of power laws when applied to relatively thin textiles.

  17. Resin Viscosity Influence on Fiber Compaction in Tapered Resin Injection Pultrusion Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuram, N. B.; Roux, J. A.; Jeswani, A. L.

    2018-06-01

    Viscosity of the liquid resin effects the chemical and mechanical properties of the pultruded composite. In resin injection pultrusion manufacturing the liquid resin is injected into a specially designed tapered injection chamber through the injection slots present on top and bottom of the chamber. The resin is injected at a pressure so as to completely wetout the fiber reinforcements inside the tapered injection chamber. As the resin penetrates through the fibers, the resin also pushes the fibers away from the wall towards the center of chamber causing compaction of the fiber reinforcements. The fibers are squeezed together due to compaction, making resin penetration more difficult; thus higher resin injection pressures are required to efficaciously penetrate through the compacted fibers and achieve complete wetout. The impact of resin viscosity on resin flow, fiber compaction, wetout and on the final product is further discussed. Injection chamber design predominantly effects the resin flow inside the chamber and the minimum injection pressure required to completely wet the fibers. Therefore, a desirable injection chamber design is such that wetout occurs at lower injection pressures and at low internal pressures inside the injection chamber.

  18. Resin Viscosity Influence on Fiber Compaction in Tapered Resin Injection Pultrusion Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuram, N. B.; Roux, J. A.; Jeswani, A. L.

    2017-08-01

    Viscosity of the liquid resin effects the chemical and mechanical properties of the pultruded composite. In resin injection pultrusion manufacturing the liquid resin is injected into a specially designed tapered injection chamber through the injection slots present on top and bottom of the chamber. The resin is injected at a pressure so as to completely wetout the fiber reinforcements inside the tapered injection chamber. As the resin penetrates through the fibers, the resin also pushes the fibers away from the wall towards the center of chamber causing compaction of the fiber reinforcements. The fibers are squeezed together due to compaction, making resin penetration more difficult; thus higher resin injection pressures are required to efficaciously penetrate through the compacted fibers and achieve complete wetout. The impact of resin viscosity on resin flow, fiber compaction, wetout and on the final product is further discussed. Injection chamber design predominantly effects the resin flow inside the chamber and the minimum injection pressure required to completely wet the fibers. Therefore, a desirable injection chamber design is such that wetout occurs at lower injection pressures and at low internal pressures inside the injection chamber.

  19. Estimation of viscosity based on transverse momentum correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Monika

    2010-02-01

    The heavy ion program at RHIC created a paradigm shift in the exploration of strongly interacting hot and dense matter. An important milestone achieved is the discovery of the formation of strongly interacting matter which seemingly flows like a perfect liquid at temperatures on the scale of T ˜ 2 x10^12 K [1]. As a next step, we consider measurements of transport coefficients such as kinematic, shear or bulk viscosity? Many calculations based on event anisotropy measurements indicate that the shear viscosity to the entropy density ratio (η/s) of the fluid formed at RHIC is significantly below that of all known fluids including the superfluid ^4He [2]. Precise determination of η/s ratio is currently a subject of extensive study. We present an alternative technique for the determination of medium viscosity proposed by Gavin and Aziz [3]. Preliminary results of measurements of the evolution of the transverse momentum correlation function with collision centrality of Au + Au interactions at √sNN = 200 GeV will be shown. We present results on differential version of the correlation measure and describe its use for the experimental determination of η/s.[4pt] [1] J. Adams et al., [STAR Collaboration], Nucl. Phys. A 757 (2005) 102.[0pt] [2] R. A. Lacey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 (2007) 092301.[0pt] [3] S. Gavin and M. Abdel-Aziz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 (2006) 162302. )

  20. Effect of Qingnao tablet on blood viscosity of rat model of blood stasis induced by epinephrine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Guoqi; Hao, Shaojun; Ma, Zhenzhen; Liu, Xiaobin; Li, Jun; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To establish a rat model of blood stasis with adrenaline (Adr) subcutaneous injection and ice bath stimulation. The effects of different doses on the blood viscosity of blood stasis model rats were observed. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: blank control group (no model), model group, positive control group, high, middle and low dose group. The whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity were detected by blood viscosity instrument. Compared with the blank group, model group, high shear, low shear whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity were significantly increased, TT PT significantly shortened, APTT was significantly prolonged, FIB increased significantly, indicating that the model was successful. Compared with the model group, can significantly reduce the Naoluotong group (cut, low cut). Qingnaopian high dose group (low cut), middle dose group (cut, low shear blood viscosity) (P<0.01), Can significantly reduce Naoluotong qingnaopian group, high dose group (P<0.01), plasma viscosity decreased qingnaopian plasma viscosity in low dose group (P<0.05). Conclusion: qingnaopian could improve the blood rheology of blood stasis mice abnormal index, decrease the blood viscosity, blood stasis has certain hemostatic effect.

  1. Atomic and electronic structures of an extremely fragile liquid.

    PubMed

    Kohara, Shinji; Akola, Jaakko; Patrikeev, Leonid; Ropo, Matti; Ohara, Koji; Itou, Masayoshi; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Yahiro, Jumpei; Okada, Junpei T; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Mizuno, Akitoshi; Masuno, Atsunobu; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Usuki, Takeshi

    2014-12-18

    The structure of high-temperature liquids is an important topic for understanding the fragility of liquids. Here we report the structure of a high-temperature non-glass-forming oxide liquid, ZrO2, at an atomistic and electronic level. The Bhatia-Thornton number-number structure factor of ZrO2 does not show a first sharp diffraction peak. The atomic structure comprises ZrO5, ZrO6 and ZrO7 polyhedra with a significant contribution of edge sharing of oxygen in addition to corner sharing. The variety of large oxygen coordination and polyhedral connections with short Zr-O bond lifetimes, induced by the relatively large ionic radius of zirconium, disturbs the evolution of intermediate-range ordering, which leads to a reduced electronic band gap and increased delocalization in the ionic Zr-O bonding. The details of the chemical bonding explain the extremely low viscosity of the liquid and the absence of a first sharp diffraction peak, and indicate that liquid ZrO2 is an extremely fragile liquid.

  2. Atomic and electronic structures of an extremely fragile liquid

    PubMed Central

    Kohara, Shinji; Akola, Jaakko; Patrikeev, Leonid; Ropo, Matti; Ohara, Koji; Itou, Masayoshi; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Yahiro, Jumpei; Okada, Junpei T.; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Mizuno, Akitoshi; Masuno, Atsunobu; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Usuki, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    The structure of high-temperature liquids is an important topic for understanding the fragility of liquids. Here we report the structure of a high-temperature non-glass-forming oxide liquid, ZrO2, at an atomistic and electronic level. The Bhatia–Thornton number–number structure factor of ZrO2 does not show a first sharp diffraction peak. The atomic structure comprises ZrO5, ZrO6 and ZrO7 polyhedra with a significant contribution of edge sharing of oxygen in addition to corner sharing. The variety of large oxygen coordination and polyhedral connections with short Zr–O bond lifetimes, induced by the relatively large ionic radius of zirconium, disturbs the evolution of intermediate-range ordering, which leads to a reduced electronic band gap and increased delocalization in the ionic Zr–O bonding. The details of the chemical bonding explain the extremely low viscosity of the liquid and the absence of a first sharp diffraction peak, and indicate that liquid ZrO2 is an extremely fragile liquid. PMID:25520236

  3. The reality of artificial viscosity

    DOE PAGES

    Margolin, L. G.

    2018-02-24

    Artificial viscosity is used in the computer simulation of high Reynolds number flows and is one of the oldest numerical artifices. In this work, I will describe the origin and the interpretation of artificial viscosity as a physical phenomenon. The basis of this interpretation is the finite scale theory, which describes the evolution of integral averages of the fluid solution over finite (length) scales. I will outline the derivation of finite scale Navier–Stokes equations and highlight the particular properties of the equations that depend on the finite scales. Those properties include enslavement, inviscid dissipation, and a law concerning the partitionmore » of total flux of conserved quantities into advective and diffusive components.« less

  4. The reality of artificial viscosity

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Margolin, L. G.

    Artificial viscosity is used in the computer simulation of high Reynolds number flows and is one of the oldest numerical artifices. In this work, I will describe the origin and the interpretation of artificial viscosity as a physical phenomenon. The basis of this interpretation is the finite scale theory, which describes the evolution of integral averages of the fluid solution over finite (length) scales. I will outline the derivation of finite scale Navier–Stokes equations and highlight the particular properties of the equations that depend on the finite scales. Those properties include enslavement, inviscid dissipation, and a law concerning the partitionmore » of total flux of conserved quantities into advective and diffusive components.« less

  5. Viscosity and stability of ultra-high internal phase CO2-in-water foams stabilized with surfactants and nanoparticles with or without polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zheng; Worthen, Andrew; Qajar, Ali; Robert, Isaiah; Bryant, Steven L; Huh, Chun; Prodanović, Maša; Johnston, Keith P

    2016-01-01

    To date, relatively few examples of ultra-high internal phase supercritical CO2-in-water foams (also referred to as macroemulsions) have been observed, despite interest in applications including "waterless" hydraulic fracturing in energy production. The viscosities and stabilities of foams up to 0.98 CO2 volume fraction were investigated in terms of foam bubble size, interfacial tension, and bulk and surface viscosity. The foams were stabilized with laurylamidopropyl betaine (LAPB) surfactant and silica nanoparticles (NPs), with and without partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM). For foams stabilized with mixture of LAPB and NPs, fine ∼70 μm bubbles and high viscosities on the order of 100 cP at>0.90 internal phase fraction were stabilized for hours to days. The surfactant reduces interfacial tension, and thus facilitates bubble generation and decreases the capillary pressure to reduce the drainage rate of the lamella. The LAPB, which is in the cationic protonated form, also attracts anionic NPs (and anionic HPAM in systems containing polymer) to the interface. The adsorbed NPs at the interface are shown to slow down Ostwald ripening (with or without polymer added) and increase foam stability. In systems with added HPAM, the increase in the bulk and surface viscosity of the aqueous phase further decreases the lamella drainage rate and inhibits coalescence of foams. Thus, the added polymer increases the foam viscosity by threefold. Scaling law analysis shows the viscosity of 0.90 volume fraction foams is inversely proportional to the bubble size. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Creation of energetic biothermite inks using ferritin liquid protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slocik, Joseph M.; McKenzie, Ruel; Dennis, Patrick B.; Naik, Rajesh R.

    2017-04-01

    Energetic liquids function mainly as fuels due to low energy densities and slow combustion kinetics. Consequently, these properties can be significantly increased through the addition of metal nanomaterials such as aluminium. Unfortunately, nanoparticle additives are restricted to low mass fractions in liquids because of increased viscosities and severe particle agglomeration. Nanoscale protein ionic liquids represent multifunctional solvent systems that are well suited to overcoming low mass fractions of nanoparticles, producing stable nanoparticle dispersions and simultaneously offering a source of oxidizing agents for combustion of reactive nanomaterials. Here, we use iron oxide-loaded ferritin proteins to create a stable and highly energetic liquid composed of aluminium nanoparticles and ferritin proteins for printing and forming 3D shapes and structures. In total, this bioenergetic liquid exhibits increased energy output and performance, enhanced dispersion and oxidation stability, lower activation temperatures, and greater processability and functionality.

  7. Long range stress correlations in the inherent structures of liquids at rest

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chowdhury, Sadrul; Abraham, Sneha; Hudson, Toby

    2016-03-28

    Simulation studies of the atomic shear stress in the local potential energy minima (inherent structures) are reported for binary liquid mixtures in 2D and 3D. These inherent structure stresses are fundamental to slow stress relaxation and high viscosity in supercooled liquids. We find that the atomic shear stress in the inherent structures (IS’s) of both liquids at rest exhibits slowly decaying anisotropic correlations. We show that the stress correlations contribute significantly to the variance of the total shear stress of the IS configurations and consider the origins of the anisotropy and spatial extent of the stress correlations.

  8. Ground Based Studies of Gas-Liquid Flows in Microgravity Using Learjet Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, W. S.; Dukler, A. E.

    1994-01-01

    A 1.27 cm diameter two phase gas-liquid flow experiment has been developed with the NASA Lewis Research Center to study two-phase flows in microgravity. The experiment allows for the measurement of void fraction, pressure drop, film thickness and bubble and wave velocities as well as for high speed photography. Three liquids were used to study the effects of liquid viscosity and surface tension, and flow pattern maps are presented for each. The experimental results are used to develop mechanistically based models to predict void fraction, bubble velocity, pressure drop and flow pattern transitions in microgravity.

  9. Rheological Studies of Komatiite Liquids by In-Situ Falling Sphere Viscometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O Dwyer, L.; Lesher, C. E.; Baxter, G.; Clark, A.; Fuss, T.; Tangeman, J.; Wang, Y.

    2005-12-01

    The rheological properties of komatiite liquids at high pressures and temperatures are being investigated by the in situ falling sphere technique, using the T-25 multianvil apparatus at the GSECARS 13 ID-D-D beamline at the Advanced Photon Source, ANL. The refractory and fluid nature of komatiite and other ultramafic liquids relevant to the Earth's deep interior, presents unique challenges for this approach. To reduce the density contrast between the melt and the marker sphere, and thus increase the Stoke's travel time, we have begun testing various composite spheres composed of refractory silicates and metals. Two successful custom designs are zirconia silicate mantled by Pt and Pt mantled by forsterite. These custom spheres contain sufficient Pt to absorb x-rays, while containing sufficient low-density refractory silicate so that marker sphere densities are in the range of 4-6 g/cc. These relatively more buoyant spheres increase travel time. These custom spheres, together with Re or Pt marker spheres, have been used to determine the viscosity of Gorgona anhydrous komatiite around 1600 ° C between 3.5 and 6 GPa. Initial experiments yield viscosities of 2.8 Pa s at 3.5 GPa, 5.3 Pa s at 4.6 GPa and 7.6 Pa s at 6 GPa. The observed positive pressure dependence of viscosity is consistent with recent results on pyrolite composition liquids and suggests that the activation volume for highly depolymerized melts will be positive for at least upper mantle conditions. The development of low-density, x-ray detectable marker spheres has applications in studies of melt density, whereby in situ detection of sink-float behavior during heating and compression cycles may be possible.

  10. Exceptionally Slow Movement of Gold Nanoparticles at a Solid/Liquid Interface Investigated by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Verch, Andreas; Pfaff, Marina; de Jonge, Niels

    2015-06-30

    Gold nanoparticles were observed to move at a liquid/solid interface 3 orders of magnitude slower than expected for the movement in a bulk liquid by Brownian motion. The nanoscale movement was studied with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using a liquid enclosure consisting of microchips with silicon nitride windows. The experiments involved a variation of the electron dose, the coating of the nanoparticles, the surface charge of the enclosing membrane, the viscosity, and the liquid thickness. The observed slow movement was not a result of hydrodynamic hindrance near a wall but instead explained by the presence of a layer of ordered liquid exhibiting a viscosity 5 orders of magnitude larger than a bulk liquid. The increased viscosity presumably led to a dramatic slowdown of the movement. The layer was formed as a result of the surface charge of the silicon nitride windows. The exceptionally slow motion is a crucial aspect of electron microscopy of specimens in liquid, enabling a direct observation of the movement and agglomeration of nanoscale objects in liquid.

  11. Measurement and correlation of jet fuel viscosities at low temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schruben, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and procedures were developed to measure jet fuel viscosity for eight current and future jet fuels at temperatures from ambient to near -60 C by shear viscometry. Viscosity data showed good reproducibility even at temperatures a few degrees below the measured freezing point. The viscosity-temperature relationship could be correlated by two linear segments when plotted as a standard log-log type representation (ASTM D 341). At high temperatures, the viscosity-temperature slope is low. At low temperatures, where wax precipitation is significant, the slope is higher. The breakpoint between temperature regions is the filter flow temperature, a fuel characteristic approximated by the freezing point. A generalization of the representation for the eight experimental fuels provided a predictive correlation for low-temperature viscosity, considered sufficiently accurate for many design or performance calculations.

  12. Electron-processing technology: A promising application for the viscose industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanik, T. M.; Rajagopal, S.; Ewing, D.; Whitehouse, R.

    1998-06-01

    In marketing its IMPELA ® line of high power, high-throughput industrial accelerators, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is working with viscose (rayon) companies world-wide to integrate electron-processing technology as part of the viscose manufacturing process. The viscose industry converts cellulose wood pulp into products such as staple fiber, filament, cord, film, packaging, and non-edible sausage casings. This multibillion dollar industry is currently suffering from high production costs, and is facing increasingly stringent environmental regulations. The use of electron-treated pulp can significantly lower production costs and can provide equally significant environmental benefits. This paper describes our current understanding of the benefits of using electron-treated pulp in this process, and AECL's efforts in developing this technology.

  13. High-pressure liquid-monopropellant strand combustion.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    Examination of the influence of dissolved gases on the state of the liquid surface during high-pressure liquid-monopropellant combustion through the use of a strand burning experiment. Liquid surface temperatures were measured, using fine-wire thermocouples, during the strand combustion of ethyl nitrate, normal propyl nitrate, and propylene glycol dinitrate at pressures up to 81 atm. These measurements were compared with the predictions of a variable-property gas-phase analysis assuming an infinite activation energy for the decomposition reaction. The state of the liquid surface was estimated using a conventional low-pressure phase equilibrium model, as well as a high-pressure version that considered the presence of dissolved combustion-product gases in the liquid phase. The high-pressure model was found to give a superior prediction of measured liquid surface temperatures. Computed total pressures required for the surface to reach its critical mixing point during strand combustion were found to be in the range from 2.15 to 4.62 times the critical pressure of the pure propellant. Computed dissolved gas concentrations at the liqui