Science.gov

Sample records for high beta fusion

  1. High poloidal beta long-pulse experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesner, J.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Bell, M.; Budny, R.; Bush, C.; Fredrickson, E.; Grek, B.; Janos, A.; Johnson, D.; Mansfield, D.; McCune, D.; McGuire, K.; Park, H.; Ramsey, A.; Synakowski, E.; Taylor, G.; Zarnstorff, M.; Batha, S. H.; Levinton, F. M.

    1993-07-01

    Experiments have been performed in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor [D. M. Meade et al. in Plasma Physics Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, 1990 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1991), Vol. 1, p. 9] with neutral beam injection of up to 4 sec. duration, which is comparable to the time scale for resistive redistribution of the plasma current profile. These plasmas were created using a rapid decrease of the plasma current which initially created a plasma with enhanced stability and confinement. As the current profile evolved, a significantly reduced beta limit was observed. The high ɛβp plasmas had up to 90% of the current driven noninductively which significantly broadened the current profile during the long pulse lengths. These experiments demonstrated that high βN plasmas could not be sustained for times longer than the resistive relaxation of the outer current region which at early times after the current ramp-down carried negative current. At later times in lower βN discharges, beta collapses were sometimes observed as the current profile broadened at βN˜1.5. The appearance of disruptions was consistent with the predictions of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) stability analyses.

  2. High beta multipoles

    SciTech Connect

    Prager, S C

    1982-05-01

    Multipoles are being employed as devices to study fusion issues and plasma phenomena at high values of beta (plasma pressure/magnetic pressure) in a controlled manner. Due to their large volume, low magnetic field (low synchrotron radiation) region, they are also under consideration as potential steady state advanced fuel (low neutron yield) reactors. Present experiments are investigating neoclassical (bootstrap and Pfirsch-Schlueter) currents and plasma stability at extremely high beta.

  3. Oligomerization and toxicity of A{beta} fusion proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Caine, Joanne M.; Bharadwaj, Prashant R.; Sankovich, Sonia E.; Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D.; Streltsov, Victor A.; Varghese, Jose

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} We expressed amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) peptide as a soluble maltose binding protein fusion (MBP-A{beta}42 and MBP-A{beta}16). {yields} The full length A{beta} peptide fusion, MBP-A{beta}42, forms oligomeric species as determined by SDS-PAGE gels, gel filtration and DLS. {yields} The MBP-A{beta}42, but not MBP-A{beta}16 or MBP alone, is toxic to both yeast and mammalian cells as determined by toxicity assays. -- Abstract: This study has found that the Maltose binding protein A{beta}42 fusion protein (MBP-A{beta}42) forms soluble oligomers while the shorter MBP-A{beta}16 fusion and control MBP did not. MBP-A{beta}42, but neither MBP-A{beta}16 nor control MBP, was toxic in a dose-dependent manner in both yeast and primary cortical neuronal cells. This study demonstrates the potential utility of MBP-A{beta}42 as a reagent for drug screening assays in yeast and neuronal cell cultures and as a candidate for further A{beta}42 characterization.

  4. High Beta Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, S.

    1998-11-14

    Perhaps the ideal tokamak would have high {beta} ({beta} {approx}> 1) and classical confinement. Such a tokamak has not been found, and we do not know if one does exist. We have searched for such a possibility, so far without success. In 1990, we obtained analytic equilibrium solutions for large aspect ratio tokamaks at {beta} {approx} {Omicron}(1) [1]. These solutions and the extension at high {beta} poloidal to finite aspect ratio [2] provided a basis for the study of high {beta} tokamaks. We have shown that these configurations can be stable to short scale MHD modes [3], and that they have reduced neoclassical transport [4]. Microinstabilities (such as the {del}T{sub i} mode) seem to be stabilized at high {beta} [5] - this is due to the large local shear [3] and the magnetic well. We have some concerns about modes associated with the compressional branch which may appear at high {beta}. Bill Dorland and Mike Kotschenreuther have studied this issue and our concerns may be unfounded. It is certainly tantalizing, especially given the lowered neoclassical transport values, that these configurations could have no microinstabilities and, one could assume, no anomalous transport. Unfortunately, while this work is encouraging, the key question for high {beta} tokamaks is the stability to large scale kink modes. The MHD {beta} limit (Troyon limit) for kink modes at large aspect ratio is problematically low. There is ample evidence from computations that the limit exists. However, it is not known if stable equilibria exist at much higher {beta}--none have been found. We have explored this question in the asymptotic high {beta} poloidal limit. Unfortunately, we are unable to find stable equilibrium and also unable to show that they don't exist. The results of these calculations will be published when a more definitive answer is found.

  5. Expression of a preproinsulin-beta-galactosidase gene fusion in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, D A; Chou, J; MacKrell, A J; Casadaban, M J; Steiner, D F

    1983-01-01

    As an approach to the study of mammalian gene expression, the promoters and translation initiation regions of the rat preproinsulin II and the simian virus 40 early genes were fused to the structural gene of Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase, a sensitive probe for gene expression. These fusions were introduced into COS-7 cells, a simian virus 40 large tumor-antigen-producing monkey kidney cell line, where they directed the synthesis of enzymatically active hybrid beta-galactosidase proteins. Conditions for transfection were varied to optimize the expression of beta-galactosidase activity in the transfected cells. The pH optimum of this activity was found to be 7.0, the same as that of native E. coli beta-galactosidase and distinct from the major lysosomal "acid" beta-galactosidase. The fused preproinsulin-beta-galactosidase was further characterized by gel electrophoresis of nondenatured cell extracts stained by a fluorogenic substrate and by immunoprecipitation and gel electrophoresis of 3H-labeled cell proteins. These results all indicate that fully active tetrameric beta-galactosidase hybrids can be produced in mammalian cells. The expression of preproinsulin-beta-galactosidase activity was measured in the presence of high glucose, insulin, dexamethasone, or epidermal growth factor but no regulatory changes were observed. Images PMID:6310564

  6. Importin beta negatively regulates nuclear membrane fusion and nuclear pore complex assembly.

    PubMed

    Harel, Amnon; Chan, Rene C; Lachish-Zalait, Aurelie; Zimmerman, Ella; Elbaum, Michael; Forbes, Douglass J

    2003-11-01

    Assembly of a eukaryotic nucleus involves three distinct events: membrane recruitment, fusion to form a double nuclear membrane, and nuclear pore complex (NPC) assembly. We report that importin beta negatively regulates two of these events, membrane fusion and NPC assembly. When excess importin beta is added to a full Xenopus nuclear reconstitution reaction, vesicles are recruited to chromatin but their fusion is blocked. The importin beta down-regulation of membrane fusion is Ran-GTP reversible. Indeed, excess RanGTP (RanQ69L) alone stimulates excessive membrane fusion, leading to intranuclear membrane tubules and cytoplasmic annulate lamellae-like structures. We propose that a precise balance of importin beta to Ran is required to create a correct double nuclear membrane and simultaneously to repress undesirable fusion events. Interestingly, truncated importin beta 45-462 allows membrane fusion but produces nuclei lacking any NPCs. This reveals distinct importin beta-regulation of NPC assembly. Excess full-length importin beta and beta 45-462 act similarly when added to prefused nuclear intermediates, i.e., both block NPC assembly. The importin beta NPC block, which maps downstream of GTPgammaS and BAPTA-sensitive steps in NPC assembly, is reversible by cytosol. Remarkably, it is not reversible by 25 microM RanGTP, a concentration that easily reverses fusion inhibition. This report, using a full reconstitution system and natural chromatin substrates, significantly expands the repertoire of importin beta. Its roles now encompass negative regulation of two of the major events of nuclear assembly: membrane fusion and NPC assembly.

  7. High beta plasmas in the PBX tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Bol, K.; Buchenauer, D.; Chance, M.; Couture, P.; Fishman, H.; Fonck, R.; Gammel, G.; Grek, B.; Ida, K.; Itami, K.

    1986-04-01

    Bean-shaped configurations favorable for high ..beta.. discharges have been investigated in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) tokamak. Strongly indented bean-shaped plasmas have been successfully formed, and beta values of over 5% have been obtained with 5 MW of injected neutral beam power. These high beta discharges still lie in the first stability regime for ballooning modes, and MHD stability analysis implicates the external kink as responsible for the present ..beta.. limit.

  8. Nanoscale organization of {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor-Venus fusion protein domains on the surface of mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vobornik, Dusan; Rouleau, Yanouchka; Haley, Jennifer; Bani-Yaghoub, Mahmud; Taylor, Rod; Johnston, Linda J.; Pezacki, John Paul

    2009-04-24

    Adrenergic receptors are a key component of nanoscale multiprotein complexes that are responsible for controlling the beat rate in a mammalian heart. We demonstrate the ability of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) to visualize {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptors ({beta}{sub 2}AR) fused to the GFP analogue Venus at the nanoscale on HEK293 cells. The expression of the {beta}{sub 2}AR-Venus fusion protein was tightly controlled using a tetracycline-induced promoter. Both the size and density of the observed nanoscale domains are dependent on the level of induction and thus the level of protein expression. At concentrations between 100 and 700 ng/ml of inducer doxycycline, the size of domains containing the {beta}{sub 2}AR-Venus fusion protein appears to remain roughly constant, but the number of domains per cell increase. At 700 ng/ml doxycycline the functional receptors are organized into domains with an average diameter of 150 nm with a density similar to that observed for the native protein on primary murine cells. By contrast, larger micron-sized domains of {beta}{sub 2}AR are observed in the membrane of the HEK293 cells that stably overexpress {beta}{sub 2}AR-GFP and {beta}{sub 2}AR-eYFP. We conclude that precise chemical control of gene expression is highly advantageous for the use {beta}{sub 2}AR-Venus fusion proteins as models for {beta}{sub 2}AR function. These observations are critical for designing future cell models and assays based on {beta}{sub 2}AR, since the receptor biology is consistent with a relatively low density of nanoscale receptor domains.

  9. Nanoscale organization of beta2-adrenergic receptor-Venus fusion protein domains on the surface of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Vobornik, Dusan; Rouleau, Yanouchka; Haley, Jennifer; Bani-Yaghoub, Mahmud; Taylor, Rod; Johnston, Linda J; Pezacki, John Paul

    2009-04-24

    Adrenergic receptors are a key component of nanoscale multiprotein complexes that are responsible for controlling the beat rate in a mammalian heart. We demonstrate the ability of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) to visualize beta(2)-adrenergic receptors (beta(2)AR) fused to the GFP analogue Venus at the nanoscale on HEK293 cells. The expression of the beta(2)AR-Venus fusion protein was tightly controlled using a tetracycline-induced promoter. Both the size and density of the observed nanoscale domains are dependent on the level of induction and thus the level of protein expression. At concentrations between 100 and 700 ng/ml of inducer doxycycline, the size of domains containing the beta(2)AR-Venus fusion protein appears to remain roughly constant, but the number of domains per cell increase. At 700 ng/ml doxycycline the functional receptors are organized into domains with an average diameter of 150 nm with a density similar to that observed for the native protein on primary murine cells. By contrast, larger micron-sized domains of beta(2)AR are observed in the membrane of the HEK293 cells that stably overexpress beta(2)AR-GFP and beta(2)AR-eYFP. We conclude that precise chemical control of gene expression is highly advantageous for the use beta(2)AR-Venus fusion proteins as models for beta(2)AR function. These observations are critical for designing future cell models and assays based on beta(2)AR, since the receptor biology is consistent with a relatively low density of nanoscale receptor domains.

  10. [ital K][beta] spectra of heliumlike iron from tokomak-fusion-test-reactor plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.J. ); Bitter, M.; Hsuan, H.; Hill, K.W.; von Goeler, S.; Timberlake, J. ); Beiersdorfer, P.; Osterheld, A. )

    1993-04-01

    [ital K][beta] spectra of heliumlike iron, Fe XXV, have been observed from tokamak-fusion-test-reactor (TFTR) plasmas with a high-resolution crystal spectrometer. The wavelength range of the Fe [ital K][beta] spectrum partially overlaps the spectrum of heliumlike nickel (Ni XXVII), which is used on TFTR and the joint European torus for ion-temperature measurements. The experimental arrangement made it possible to observe the Fe XXV [ital K][beta] lines and their satellite transitions of the type 1[ital s]2[ital l][prime]3[ital l][prime][prime][r arrow]1[ital s][sup 2]2[ital l][prime], as well as the entire satellite spectrum of the Ni XXVII [ital K][alpha] line simultaneously. In order to identify the features of the [ital K][beta] spectra and to study their possible interference with the Ni XXVII spectrum, the intensity of the [ital K][beta] spectrum was enhanced by the injection of iron into the plasma. Accurate wavelengths and intensities have been obtained and compared with different theoretical calculations.

  11. Vaccinia virus recombinants expressing an 11-kilodalton beta-galactosidase fusion protein incorporate active beta-galactosidase in virus particles.

    PubMed

    Huang, C; Samsonoff, W A; Grzelecki, A

    1988-10-01

    Recombinant plasmids in which vaccinia virus transcriptional regulatory sequences were fused to the Escherichia coli lacZ gene were constructed for insertion of the lacZ gene into the vaccinia virus genome. beta-Galactosidase (beta-gal) was found in some purified recombinant vaccinia virions. By enzyme activity, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and microscopic techniques, the evidence suggested that beta-gal accounted for 5% of the total protein in the virion. These recombinant viruses were constructed so that a portion of the coding sequences of a late vaccinia virus structural polypeptide was fused to the amino terminus of beta-gal to produce the fusion protein. Removal of the coding sequences resulted in the complete loss of beta-gal activity. This demonstrated that a vaccinia virus DNA segment from a late structural gene is responsible for the incorporation of beta-gal into the virion.

  12. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  13. Interactions between TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 and their role in medial edge epithelium cell death and palatal fusion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Jorge; Maldonado, Estela; Barrio, Maria Carmen; Del Río, Aurora; López, Yamila; Martínez-Sanz, Elena; González, Ignacio; Martín, Concepción; Casado, Inmaculada; Martínez-Alvarez, Concepción

    2009-02-01

    In recent decades, studies have shown that both TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3) play an important role in the induction of medial edge epithelium (MEE) cell death and palatal fusion. Many of these experiments involved the addition or blockage of one of these growth factors in wild-type (WT) mouse palate cultures, where both TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3) are present. Few studies have addressed the existence of interactions between TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3), which could modify their individual roles in MEE cell death during palatal fusion. We carried out several experiments to test this possibility, and to investigate how this could influence TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3) actions on MEE cell death and palatal shelf fusion. We double-immunolabelled developing mouse palates with anti-TGF-beta(1) or anti-TGF-beta(3) antibodies and TUNEL, added rhTGF-beta(1) or rhTGF-beta(3) or blocked the TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3) action at different concentrations to WT or Tgf-beta(3) null mutant palate cultures, performed in situ hybridizations with Tgf-beta(1) or Tgf-beta(3) riboprobes, and measured the presence of TUNEL-positive midline epithelial seam (MES) cells and MES disappearance (palatal shelf fusion) in the different in vitro conditions. By combining all these experiments, we demonstrate great interaction between TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3) in the developing palate and confirm that TGF-beta(3) has a more active role in MES cell death than TGF-beta(1), although both are major inductors of MES disappearance. Finally, the co-localization of TGF-beta(1), but not TGF-beta(3), with TUNEL in the MES allows us to suggest a possible role for TGF-beta(1) in MES apoptotic clearance.

  14. Neoclassical transport in high [beta] tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, S.C.

    1992-12-01

    Neoclassical, transport in high [beta] large aspect ratio tokamaks is calculated. The variational method introduced by Rosenbluth, et al., is used to calculate the full Onsager matrix in the banana regime. These results are part of a continuing study of the high [beta] large aspect ratio equilibria introduced in Cowley, et al. All the neoclassical coefficients are reduced from their nominal low [beta] values by a factor ([var epsilon]/q[sup 2][beta])[sup [1/2

  15. Fusion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae leu2 gene to an Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Arias, A E; Casadaban, M J

    1983-01-01

    The promoter and translation initiation region of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae leu2 gene was fused to the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase gene. This fusion located the control region of the leu gene and orientated its direction of expression. When the fusion was placed into yeast cells, beta-galactosidase was expressed under the same regulatory pattern as the original leu2 gene product: its synthesis was repressed in the presence of leucine and threonine. Sensitive chromogenic substrates for beta-galactosidase were used to detect expression in isolated colonies growing on agar medium. Mutant yeast cells with increased beta-galactosidase activity were identified by the color of the colonies they formed. One class of mutants obtained appeared to affect ars1 plasmid maintenance, and another class appeared to affect beta-galactoside uptake. PMID:6406836

  16. High-level expression of a sweet potato sporamin gene promoter: beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion gene in the stems of transgenic tobacco plants is conferred by multiple cell type-specific regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Ohta, S; Hattori, T; Morikami, A; Nakamura, K

    1991-03-01

    Genes coding for sporamin, the most abundant protein of the tuberous root of the sweet potato, are expressed at a high levels in the stems of plantlets cultured axenically on sucrose-containing medium. Their expression is also induced in leaf-petiole explants by high concentrations of sucrose. A fusion gene comprising of the 1 kb 5' upstream region of the gSPO-A1 gene coding for the A-type sporamin and the coding sequence of bacterial beta-glucuronidase (GUS) was introduced into the tobacco genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic tobacco plants cultured axenically on sucrose-containing medium expressed GUS activity predominantly in their stems. Histochemical examination of GUS activity using a chromogenic substrate showed a distinct spatial pattern of GUS staining in the stem. Strong GUS activity was detected in the internal phloem of the vascular system and at the node, especially at the base of the axillary bud. Relatively weaker GUS activity was also detected in pith parenchyma. A 5' deletion of the promoter to nucleotide -305, relative to the transcription start site, did not alter significantly the level of GUS activity or the spatial pattern of GUS staining in the stem. However, further deletions to -237 and -192 resulted in a decrease in the level of GUS activity in the stem that occurred simultaneously with the loss of GUS staining in both the internal phloem and at the base of the axillary bud. However, plants with these deletion constructs still exhibited the predominant expression pattern of GUS activity in the stem and GUS staining in the pith parenchyma cells. Deletion to -94 completely abolished the expression of GUS activity. These results indicate that a sequence between -305 and -237 contains a cis-regulatory element(s) that is required for expression of the GUS reporter gene in both the internal phloem and at the base of the axillary bud, while a sequence between -192 and -94 contains a cis-acting element(s) that is required

  17. Expression of a mouse metallothionein-Escherichia coli. beta. -galactosidase fusion gene (MT-. beta. gal) in early mouse embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, M.E.; Meneses, J.J.; Pedersen, R.A. )

    1989-08-01

    The authors have microinjected DNA containing the inducible mouse metallothionein-I (MT-I) promoter, coupled to the structural gene for Escherichia coli {beta}-galactosidase (lacZ), into the pronuclei of one-cell mouse embryos. A qualitative histochemical assay, with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl {beta}-D-galactopyranoside (X-Gal) as a substrate, was used to detect expression of lacZ at several preimplantation stages. They observed staining indicative of exogenous {beta}-galactosidase activity in 5-17% of DNA-injected embryos assayed at preimplantation stages after 16-24 h treatment with ZnSO{sub 4}. Thus, lacZ can be used as an indicator gene for promoter function during early mouse embryogenesis, and the incorporation of the MT-I promoter into fusion genes can be a useful means of controlling the expression of exogenous genes in preimplantation mouse embryos.

  18. Fusion of platelet-derived growth receptor {beta} to a novel ets-like gene, tel, in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with t(5;12) chromosomal translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Golub, T.; Barker, G.; Gilliland, D.G.

    1994-09-01

    Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a myelodysplastic syndrome characterized by abnormal clonal myeloid proliferation, and by progression to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). A recently recognized subgroup of CMML has a t(5;12) (q33;p13) balanced translocation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) localized the translocation breakpoint near the CSF1 receptor (CSF1R) locus on chromosome 5q. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis confirmed rearrangements near CSF1R, but involvement of CSF1R itself was excluded. Southern blotting showed a rearrangement within the closely linked PDGF receptor {beta} (PDGFR{beta}) gene. Ribonuclease protection assays localized the translocation breakpoint to nucleotide 1766 in PDGFR{beta} RNA. Anchored PCR was used to identify the chromosome 12 fusion partner, a novel ets-like protein, tel. Tel contains a highly conserved carboxy terminal ets-like DNA-binding domain, and an amino terminal domain with a predicted helix-loop-helix (HLH) secondary structure. The consequence of the t(5;12) translocation is fusion of the tel HLH domain to the PDGFR{beta} transmembrane and tyrosine kinase domains. The tel HLH domain may contribute a dimerization motif which serves to constitutively activate PDGFR{beta} tyrosine kinase activity. The tel-PDGFR{beta} fusion demonstrates the oncogenic potential of PDGFR{beta}, and may provide a paradigm for early events in the pathogenesis of AML.

  19. Neoclassical transport in high {beta} tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, S.C.

    1992-12-01

    Neoclassical, transport in high {beta} large aspect ratio tokamaks is calculated. The variational method introduced by Rosenbluth, et al., is used to calculate the full Onsager matrix in the banana regime. These results are part of a continuing study of the high {beta} large aspect ratio equilibria introduced in Cowley, et al. All the neoclassical coefficients are reduced from their nominal low {beta} values by a factor ({var_epsilon}/q{sup 2}{beta}){sup {1/2}} II. This factor is the ratio of plasma volume in the boundary layer to the volume in the core. The fraction of trapped particles on a given flux surface (f{sub t}) is also reduced by this factor so that {approximately} {sub ({var_epsilon}}/q{sup 2}{beta}){sup {1/2}}. Special attention is given to the current equation, since this is thought to be relevant at low 3 and therefore may also be relevant at high {beta}. The bootstrap current term is found to exceed the actual current by a factor of the square root of the aspect ratio.

  20. Modular low aspect ratio-high beta torsatron

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.; Furth, Harold P.

    1984-02-07

    A fusion reactor device in which the toroidal magnetic field and at least a portion of the poloidal magnetic field are provided by a single set of modular coils. The coils are arranged on the surface of a low aspect ratio toroid in planes having the cylindrical coordinate relationship .phi.=.phi..sub.i +kz where k is a constant equal to each coil's pitch and .phi..sub.i is the toroidal angle at which the i'th coil intersects the z=o plane. The device may be described as a modular, high beta torsation whose screw symmetry is pointed along the systems major (z) axis. The toroid defined by the modular coils preferably has a racetrack minor cross section. When vertical field coils and preferably a toroidal plasma current are provided for magnetic field surface closure within the toroid, a vacuum magnetic field of racetrack shaped minor cross section with improved stability and beta valves is obtained.

  1. Analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica Effector Translocation into Host Cells Using Beta-lactamase Effector Fusions.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Manuel; Zobiak, Bernd; Nauth, Theresa; Aepfelbacher, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Many gram-negative bacteria including pathogenic Yersinia spp. employ type III secretion systems to translocate effector proteins into eukaryotic target cells. Inside the host cell the effector proteins manipulate cellular functions to the benefit of the bacteria. To better understand the control of type III secretion during host cell interaction, sensitive and accurate assays to measure translocation are required. We here describe the application of an assay based on the fusion of a Yersinia enterocolitica effector protein fragment (Yersinia outer protein; YopE) with TEM-1 beta-lactamase for quantitative analysis of translocation. The assay relies on cleavage of a cell permeant FRET dye (CCF4/AM) by translocated beta-lactamase fusion. After cleavage of the cephalosporin core of CCF4 by the beta-lactamase, FRET from coumarin to fluorescein is disrupted and excitation of the coumarin moiety leads to blue fluorescence emission. Different applications of this method have been described in the literature highlighting its versatility. The method allows for analysis of translocation in vitro and also in in vivo, e.g., in a mouse model. Detection of the fluorescence signals can be performed using plate readers, FACS analysis or fluorescence microscopy. In the setup described here, in vitro translocation of effector fusions into HeLa cells by different Yersinia mutants is monitored by laser scanning microscopy. Recording intracellular conversion of the FRET reporter by the beta-lactamase effector fusion in real-time provides robust quantitative results. We here show exemplary data, demonstrating increased translocation by a Y. enterocolitica YopE mutant compared to the wild type strain. PMID:26484613

  2. Tethering of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) to Beta Tricalcium Phosphate (βTCP) via Fusion to a High Affinity, Multimeric βTCP-Binding Peptide: Effects on Human Multipotent Stromal Cells/Connective Tissue Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Stockdale, Linda; Saini, Sunil; Lee, Richard T.; Griffith, Linda G.

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of freshly-aspirated autologous bone marrow, together with a scaffold, is a promising clinical alternative to harvest and transplantation of autologous bone for treatment of large defects. However, survival proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of the marrow-resident stem and progenitor cells with osteogenic potential can be limited in large defects by the inflammatory microenvironment. Previous studies using EGF tethered to synthetic polymer substrates have demonstrated that surface-tethered EGF can protect human bone marrow-derived osteogenic stem and progenitor cells from pro-death inflammatory cues and enhance their proliferation without detriment to subsequent osteogenic differentiation. The objective of this study was to identify a facile means of tethering EGF to clinically-relevant βTCP scaffolds and to demonstrate the bioactivity of EGF tethered to βTCP using stimulation of the proliferative response of human bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC) as a phenotypic metric. We used a phage display library and panned against βTCP and composites of βTCP with a degradable polyester biomaterial, together with orthogonal blocking schemes, to identify a 12-amino acid consensus binding peptide sequence, LLADTTHHRPWT, with high affinity for βTCP. When a single copy of this βTCP-binding peptide sequence was fused to EGF via a flexible peptide tether domain and expressed recombinantly in E. coli together with a maltose-binding domain to aid purification, the resulting fusion protein exhibited modest affinity for βTCP. However, a fusion protein containing a linear concatamer containing 10 repeats of the binding motif the resulting fusion protein showed high affinity stable binding to βTCP, with only 25% of the protein released after 7 days at 37oC. The fusion protein was bioactive, as assessed by its abilities to activate kinase signaling pathways downstream of the EGF receptor when presented in soluble form, and to enhance

  3. Preliminary evaluation of beta-spodumene as a fusion reactor structural material

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, P.V. Jr.; Schmunk, R.E.; Henslee, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Beta-spodumene was investigated as a candidate material for use in fusion reactor environments. Properties which support the use of beta-spodumene include good thermal shock resistance, a very low coefficient of thermal expansion, a low-Z composition which would result in minimum impact on the plasma, and flexibility in fabrication processes. Specimens were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to a fluence of 5.3 x 10/sup 22/ n/m/sup 2/, E > 0.1 MeV, and 4.9 x 10/sup 23/ n/m/sup 2/ thermal fluence in order to obtain a preliminary evaluation of the impact of irradiation on the material. Preliminary data indicate that the mechanical properties of beta-spodumene are little affected by irradiation. Gas production and release have also been investigated.

  4. Detection of the chromosome 16 CBF beta-MYH11 fusion transcript in myelomonocytic leukemias.

    PubMed

    Poirel, H; Radford-Weiss, I; Rack, K; Troussard, X; Veil, A; Valensi, F; Picard, F; Guesnu, M; Leboeuf, D; Melle, J

    1995-03-01

    Karyotypic detection of chromosomal 16 abnormalities classically associated with AML M4Eo can be difficult. Characterization of the two genes involved in the inv(16)(p13q22), CBF beta and MYH11, has allowed the detection of fusion transcripts by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We have analyzed CBF beta-MYH11 fusion transcripts by RT-PCR in myelomonocytic leukemias, with or without eosinophilia, to determine whether their presence correlates with morphology. Fifty-three cases (11 AML M4Eo; 1 AML M4 with atypical abnormal eosinophils (AML M4 "Eo"); 29 AML M4; 8 AML M5; 3 CMML; and 1 AML M2 with eosinophilia) were analyzed. All 11 typical AML M4Eo were CBF beta-MYH11 positive. The single case of AML M4 with distinctive eosinophil abnormalities was negative by karyotype, RT-PCR and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Three of 29 (10%) AML M4 without abnormal eosinophils were CBF beta-MYH11 positive, 1 of which did not show any apparent chromosome 16 abnormalities by classical metaphase analysis (2 not tested). Both cases tested also showed MYH11 genomic rearrangement. None of the other leukemias were RT-PCR positive. Follow-up of three patient showed residual positivity in apparent complete remission. These data show that CBF beta-MYH11 fusion transcripts occur not only in the vast majority of typical AML M4Eo, but also in approximately 10% of AML M4 without eosinophilic abnormalities, a much higher incidence than the sporadic reports of chromosome 16 abnormalities in AML M4 would suggest. Taken together with the detection of CBF beta-MYH11 transcripts in the absence of apparent chromosome 16 abnormalities by classical banding techniques, these data show that additional screening by either RT-PCR or FISH should be performed in all AML M4, regardless of morphologic features, to allow accurate evaluation of the prognostic importance of this fusion transcript.

  5. Electromagnetic gyrokinetic turbulence in high-beta helical plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, Akihiro

    2013-10-01

    Gyrokinetic simulation of electromagnetic turbulence in finite-beta plasmas is important for predicting the performance of fusion reactors. Whereas in low-beta tokamaks the zonal flow shear acts to regulate ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence, it has often been observed that the kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) and, at moderate-beta, the ITG mode continue to grow without reaching a physically relevant level of saturation. The corresponding problem in helical high-beta plasmas, the identification of a saturation mechanism for microturbulence in regimes where zonal flow generation is too weak, is the subject of the present work. This problem has not been previously explored because of numerical difficulties associated with complex three-dimensional magnetic structures as well as multiple spatio-temporal scales related to electromagnetic ion and electron dynamics. The present study identifies a new saturation process of the KBM turbulence originating from the spatial structure of the KBM instabilities in a high-beta Large Helical Device (LHD) plasma. Specifically, the most unstable KBM in LHD has an inclined mode structure with respect to the mid-plane of a torus, i.e. it has finite radial wave-number in flux tube coordinates, in contrast to KBMs in tokamaks as well as ITG modes in tokamaks and helical systems. The simulations reveal that the growth of KBMs in LHD is saturated by nonlinear interactions of oppositely inclined convection cells through mutual shearing, rather than by the zonal flow shear. The mechanism is quantitatively evaluated by analysis of the nonlinear entropy transfer.

  6. (High beta tokamak research and plasma theory)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Our activities on High Beta Tokamak Research during the past 12 months of the present budget period can be divided into four areas: completion of kink mode studies in HBT; completion of carbon impurity transport studies in HBT; design of HBT-EP; and construction of HBT-EP. Each of these is described briefly in the sections of this progress report.

  7. Numerical models for high beta magnetohydrodynamic flow

    SciTech Connect

    Brackbill, J.U.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamentals of numerical magnetohydrodynamics for highly conducting, high-beta plasmas are outlined. The discussions emphasize the physical properties of the flow, and how elementary concepts in numerical analysis can be applied to the construction of finite difference approximations that capture these features. The linear and nonlinear stability of explicit and implicit differencing in time is examined, the origin and effect of numerical diffusion in the calculation of convective transport is described, and a technique for maintaining solenoidality in the magnetic field is developed. Many of the points are illustrated by numerical examples. The techniques described are applicable to the time-dependent, high-beta flows normally encountered in magnetically confined plasmas, plasma switches, and space and astrophysical plasmas. 40 refs.

  8. The cytokine interleukin-1beta reduces the docking and fusion of insulin granules in pancreatic beta-cells, preferentially decreasing the first phase of exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Ohara-Imaizumi, Mica; Cardozo, Alessandra K; Kikuta, Toshiteru; Eizirik, Decio L; Nagamatsu, Shinya

    2004-10-01

    The prediabetic period in type I diabetes mellitus is characterized by the loss of first phase insulin release. This might be due to islet infiltration mediated by mononuclear cells and local release of cytokines, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. To determine the role of cytokines in insulin exocytosis, we have presently utilized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) to image and analyze the dynamic motion of single insulin secretory granules near the plasma membrane in live beta-cells exposed for 24 h to interleukin (IL)-1beta or interferon (IFN)-gamma. Immunohistochemistry observed via TIRFM showed that the number of docked insulin granules was decreased by 60% in beta-cells treated with IL-1beta, while it was not affected by exposure to IFN-gamma. This effect of IL-1beta was paralleled by a 50% reduction in the mRNA and the number of clusters of SNAP-25 in the plasma membrane. TIRF images of single insulin granule motion during a 15-min stimulation by 22 mm glucose in IL-1beta-treated beta-cells showed a marked reduction in the fusion events from previously docked granules during the first phase insulin release. Fusion from newcomers, however, was well preserved during the second phase of insulin release of IL-1beta-treated beta-cells. The present observations indicate that IL-1beta, but not IFN-gamma, has a preferential inhibitory effect on the first phase of glucose-induced insulin release, mostly via an action on previously docked granules. This suggests that beta-cell exposure to immune mediators during the course of insulitis might be responsible for the loss of first phase insulin release.

  9. High Temperature Stability of Potassium Beta Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    None. From Objectives section: Evaluate the stability of potassium beta alumina under potassium AMTEC operating conditions. Evaluate the stability regime in which potassium beta alumina can be fabricated.

  10. High beta effects and nonlinear evolution of the TAE instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spong, D. A.

    The toroidal Alfven eigenmode has recently been observed experimentally on DIII-D and TFTR when neutral beams are injected near the Alfven velocity. This instability is also of concern for future high beta D-T devices where fusion by-product alpha populations will generally be super-Alfvenic. We have developed a gyrofluid model (with Landau closure) of the TAE mode which can include most of the relevant damping mechanisms (continuum damping, ion and electron damping, ion FLR and collisional trapped electron damping) as well as reproducing analytically predicted undamped growth rates relatively accurately. An important consideration in predicting future unstable TAE regimes is the effect of finite beta in the background plasma. Due to the Shafranov shift and distortion of the flux surfaces, the location of the stable TAE root and the continuum will shift with increasing beta. The net effect of this is to generally enhance continuum damping and stabilize the TAF instability. Also, as the pressure gradient drive from the background becomes increasingly important, coupling between TAE and background driven modes can alter the TAE mode. A further application of our gyrofluid model which will be discussed is the nonlinear evolution of the TAE instability. Gyrofluid models offer a convenient reduced description which is more amenable to computational nonlinear modeling than full kinetic particle models. Our results demonstrate the rise and crash phases of TAE activity similar to experimental observations. The saturation is caused by generation of m=0 n=0 components through nonlinear beatings of the n greater than 1 modes; these cause modifications to the original equilibrium profiles in such a direction as to decrease the instability drive. This is the gyrofluid analog of direct particle losses. The peak magnetic fluctuation level increases with increasing energetic species beta, resulting in non-resonant stochastization of magnetic field lines.

  11. High Temperature Superconductivity and Cold Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinowitz, Mario

    There are numerous historical and scientific parallels between high temperature superconductivity (HTSC) and the newly emerging field of cold fusion (CF). Just as the charge carrier effective mass plays an important role in SC, the deuteron effective mass may play a vital role in CF. A new theory including effects of proximity, electron shielding, and decreased effective mass of the fusing nuclei can account for the reported CF results. A quantum-gas model that covers the range from low temperature to superhigh temperature SC indicates an increased Tc with reduced dimensionality. A reduced dimensionality effect may also enhance CF. A relation is shown between CF and the significant cluster-impact fusion experiments.

  12. Nuclear fuels for low-beta fusion reactors: Lithium resources revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Eckhartt, D.

    1995-12-01

    In searching to attain optimum conditions for the controlled release of nuclear energy by fusion processes, the stationary confinement of low-pressure ring-shaped plasmas by strong magnetic fields is now regarded as the most promising approach. The author considers a number of fuel combinations that could be operated in such low-beta reactor systems and looks upon the relevant fuel reserves. The {open_quotes}classical{close_quotes} D-T-Li cycle will be used as a standard and is extensively discussed therefore. It could supply most of mankind`s future long-term power needs - but only on condition that the required lithium fuel can be extracted from seawater at reasonable expenses. The estimated land-bound lithium reserves are too small to that end, they will last for about 500 years at most, depending on forecasts of future energy consumption and on assumptions about exploitable resources. Recovery of lithium from seawater would extend the possible range by a factor of 300 or so, provided that extraction technologies which are at present available in the laboratory, could be extended to a very large and industrial scale. Deuterium is abundant on earth but D-D fusion is difficult, if not impossible, to be achieved in the low-beta systems presently investigated for D-T fusion. The same arguments apply to so-called {open_quotes}advanced{close_quotes} concepts, such as the D-{sup 3}He and the D-{sup 6}Li cycles. 37 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Alternative Approaches to High Energy Density Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, J.

    2016-10-01

    This paper explores selected approaches to High Energy Density (HED) fusion, beginning with discussion of ignition requirements at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The needed improvements to achieve ignition are closely tied to the ability to concentrate energy in the implosion, manifested in the stagnation pressure, Pstag. The energy that must be assembled in the imploded state to ignite varies roughly as Pstag-2, so among other requirements, there is a premium on reaching higher Pstag to achieve ignition with the available laser energy. The U.S. inertial confinement fusion program (ICF) is pursuing higher Pstag on NIF through improvements to capsule stability and symmetry. One can argue that recent experiments place an approximate upper bound on the ultimate ignition energy requirement. Scaling the implosions consistently in spatial, temporal and energy scales shows that implosions of the demonstrated quality ignite robustly at 9-15 times the current energy of NIF. While lasers are unlikely to reach that bounding energy, it appears that pulsed-power sources could plausibly do so, giving a range of paths forward for ICF depending on success in improving energy concentration. In this paper, I show the scaling arguments then discuss topics from my own involvement in HED fusion. The recent Viewfactor experiments at NIF have shed light on both the observed capsule drive deficit and errors in the detailed modelling of hohlraums. The latter could be important factors in the inability to achieve the needed symmetry and energy concentration. The paper then recounts earlier work in Fast Ignition and the uses of pulsed-power for HED and fusion applications. It concludes with a description of a method for improving pulsed-power driven hohlraums that could potentially provide a factor of 10 in energy at NTF-like drive conditions and reach the energy bound for indirect drive ICF.

  14. Alternative Approaches to High Energy Density Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, J.

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores selected approaches to High Energy Density (HED) fusion, beginning with discussion of ignition requirements at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The needed improvements to achieve ignition are closely tied to the ability to concentrate energy in the implosion, manifested in the stagnation pressure, Pstag . The energy that must be assembled in the imploded state to ignite varies roughly as Pstag -2, so among other requirements, there is a premium on reaching higher Pstag to achieve ignition with the available laser energy. The U.S. inertial confinement fusion program (ICF) is pursuing higher Pstag on NIF through improvements to capsule stability and symmetry. One can argue that recent experiments place an approximate upper bound on the ultimate ignition energy requirement. Scaling the implosions consistently in spatial, temporal and energy scales shows that implosions of the demonstrated quality ignite robustly at 9-15 times the current energy of NIF. While lasers are unlikely to reach that bounding energy, it appears that pulsed-power sources could plausibly do so, giving a range of paths forward for ICF depending on success in improving energy concentration. In this paper, I show the scaling arguments then discuss topics from my own involvement in HED fusion. The recent Viewfactor experiments at NIF have shed light on both the observed capsule drive deficit and errors in the detailed modelling of hohlraums. The latter could be important factors in the inability to achieve the needed symmetry and energy concentration. The paper then recounts earlier work in Fast Ignition and the uses of pulsed- power for HED and fusion applications. It concludes with a description of a method for improving pulsed-power driven hohlraums that could potentially provide a factor of 10 in energy at NIF-like drive conditions and reach the energy bound for indirect drive ICF.

  15. The fusion diagnostic gamma experiment: A high-bandwidth fusion diagnostic of the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Diagnostics for the National Ignition Facility/inertial confinement fusion program must include good characterization of the fusion source. Ideally, diagnostics would measure the spatially resolved history of the fusion reaction rate and temperature. Existing diagnostics can satisfy this goal only partially. One class of new techniques that could play a major role in high-yield diagnostics is measurements based on fusion {gamma} rays. The fusion diagnostic gamma experiment can perform energy-resolved measurements of (D,T) fusion reaction rates. This diagnostic is based on the 16.7 MeV {gamma} rays that are produced by (D,T) fusion. The {gamma} rays are free of spectral dispersion and can be detected (via Compton recoil electrons) with a high bandwidth Cherenkov detector. A simple magnetic monochromator selects signals from the 16.7 MeV {gamma} rays and reduces background signals from nonfusion {gamma} rays. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Achieving a long-lived high-beta plasma state by energetic beam injection.

    PubMed

    Guo, H Y; Binderbauer, M W; Tajima, T; Milroy, R D; Steinhauer, L C; Yang, X; Garate, E G; Gota, H; Korepanov, S; Necas, A; Roche, T; Smirnov, A; Trask, E

    2015-04-23

    Developing a stable plasma state with high-beta (ratio of plasma to magnetic pressures) is of critical importance for an economic magnetic fusion reactor. At the forefront of this endeavour is the field-reversed configuration. Here we demonstrate the kinetic stabilizing effect of fast ions on a disruptive magneto-hydrodynamic instability, known as a tilt mode, which poses a central obstacle to further field-reversed configuration development, by energetic beam injection. This technique, combined with the synergistic effect of active plasma boundary control, enables a fully stable ultra-high-beta (approaching 100%) plasma with a long lifetime.

  17. Fudge: a high-bandwidth fusion diagnostic of the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, M. J., LLNL

    1998-06-02

    Diagnostics for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)/Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program must include good characterization of the fusion source. Ideally, diagnostics would measure the spatially-resolved history of the fusion reaction rate and temperature. Existing diagnostics can satisfy this goal only partially. One class of new techniques that could play a major role in high-yield diagnostics is measurements based on fusion {gamma} rays. The Fusion Diagnostic Gamma Experiment (FUDGE) can be used to perform energy-resolved measurements of (D,T) fusion reaction rates This diagnostic is based on the 16 7-MeV {gamma} rays that are produced by (D,T) fusion. The {gamma} rays are free of spectral dispersion and can be detected with a high bandwidth Cherenkov detector. A simple magnetic monochromator selects signals from the 16 7-MeV {gamma} rays and reduces background signals from non-fusion {gamma} rays.

  18. High-Gain High-Field Fusion Plasma.

    PubMed

    Li, Ge

    2015-01-01

    A Faraday wheel (FW)-an electric generator of constant electrical polarity that produces huge currents-could be implemented in an existing tokamak to study high-gain high-field (HGHF) fusion plasma, such as the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). HGHF plasma can be realized in EAST by updating its pulsed-power system to compress plasma in two steps by induction fields; high gains of the Lawson trinity parameter and fusion power are both predicted by formulating the HGHF plasma. Both gain rates are faster than the decrease rate of the plasma volume. The formulation is checked by earlier ATC tests. Good agreement between theory and tests indicates that scaling to over 10 T at EAST may be possible by two-step compressions with a compression ratio of the minor radius of up to 3. These results point to a quick new path of fusion plasma study, i.e., simulating the Sun by EAST. PMID:26507314

  19. High-Gain High-Field Fusion Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ge

    2015-10-01

    A Faraday wheel (FW)—an electric generator of constant electrical polarity that produces huge currents—could be implemented in an existing tokamak to study high-gain high-field (HGHF) fusion plasma, such as the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). HGHF plasma can be realized in EAST by updating its pulsed-power system to compress plasma in two steps by induction fields; high gains of the Lawson trinity parameter and fusion power are both predicted by formulating the HGHF plasma. Both gain rates are faster than the decrease rate of the plasma volume. The formulation is checked by earlier ATC tests. Good agreement between theory and tests indicates that scaling to over 10 T at EAST may be possible by two-step compressions with a compression ratio of the minor radius of up to 3. These results point to a quick new path of fusion plasma study, i.e., simulating the Sun by EAST.

  20. A cDNA cloned from Physarum polycephalum encodes new type of family 3 beta-glucosidase that is a fusion protein containing a calx-beta motif.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Akinori; Hayase, Masato; Yubisui, Toshitsugu; Minami, Yoshiko

    2006-01-01

    The microplasmodia of Physarum polycephalum express three types of beta-glucosidases: secretory enzyme, a soluble cytoplasmic enzyme and a membrane-bound enzyme. We are interested in the physiological role of three enzymes. We report the sequence of cDNA for membrane beta-glucosidase 1, which consists of 3825 nucleotides that includes an open reading frame encoding 1248 amino acids. The molecular weight of membrane beta-glucosidase 1 was calculated to be 131,843 based on the predicted amino acid composition. Glycosyl hydrolase family 3 N-terminal and C-terminal domains were found within the N-terminal half of the membrane beta-glucosidase 1 sequence and were highly homologous with the primary structures of fungal beta-glucosidases. Notably, the C-terminal half of membrane beta-glucosidase 1 contains two calx-beta motifs, which are known to be Ca(2+) binding domains in the Drosophila Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger; an RGD sequence, which is known to be a cell attachment sequence; and a transmembrane region. In this way, Physarum membrane beta-glucosidase 1 differs from all previously identified family 3 beta-glucosidases. In addition to cDNA for membrane beta-glucosidase 1, two other distinctly different mRNAs were also isolated. Two sequences were largely identical to cDNA for membrane beta-glucosidase 1, but included a long insert sequence having a stop codon, leading to truncation of their products, which could account for other beta-glucosidase forms occurred in Physarum poycephalum. Thus, the membrane beta-glucosidase is a new type family 3 enzyme fused with the Calx-beta domain. We propose that Calx-beta domain may modulate the beta-glucosidase activity in response to changes in the Ca(2+) concentration.

  1. Experimental verification of beta-decay-driven sublimation in deuterium-tritium ice held in spherical fusion targets

    SciTech Connect

    Mruzek, M.T.; Musinski, D.L.; Ankney, J.S.

    1988-04-01

    A nonuniform layer of deuterium-tritium (DT) ice inside a spherical inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target held in an isothermal cryogenic environment should be driven toward uniformity by the beta-decay heat of the tritium. Experiments have been performed at KMS fusion to verify this hypothesis. Two major conclusions may be drawn from the initial results: (1) the beta decay of the tritium does deposit energy in the target, as evidenced by melting of DT ice when the target is well insulated from its surroundings, and (2) solid layers of DT ice sublime because of beta-decay heat. Both conclusions are reinforced by companion studies with nonradioactive hydrogen-deuterium (HD) ice in similar targets held under similar experimental conditions.

  2. Alfven cascade modes at high {beta} in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, N. A.; Kubota, S.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Kramer, G. J.; Darrow, D. S.; Menard, J. E.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Bell, R. E.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Levinton, F. M.; Yuh, H.

    2008-10-15

    Alfven cascade (AC) modes are observed in the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] reversed shear plasmas over a wide range (up to {approx}25% on axis, or {approx}11% at minimum q) of {beta} (ratio of kinetic pressure to magnetic pressure). At low {beta}, the AC mode spectrum shows characteristics similar to conventional tokamaks. At higher {beta}, distinct {beta} and {nabla}{beta} effects are observed in the spectrum, including a significant reduction in the relative size of the frequency sweep and a toroidal mode number dependence in the minimum mode frequency. AC mode structure is obtained using reflectometry. Fast-ion loss associated with AC mode activity is observed. AC mode polarization at the plasma edge is consistent with expectation. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) spectroscopy is shown to be usable to determine q{sub min} at both low {beta} and high {beta}. Observed AC mode structure and frequency are found to be consistent with calculations for the same plasma conditions and geometry using the linear, ideal MHD hybrid kinetic code NOVA-K[C. Z. Cheng, Phys. Rep. 211, 1 (1992)].

  3. High temperature experiment for accelerator inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.

    1985-05-01

    The High Temperature Experiment (HTE) is intended to produce temperatures of 50 to 100 eV in solid density targets driven by heavy ion beams from a multiple beam induction linac. The fundamental variables (particle species, energy, number of beamlets, current and pulse length) must be fixed to achieve the temperature at minimum cost, subject to criteria of technical feasibility and relevance to the development of a Fusion Driver. The conceptual design begins with an assumed (radiation-limited) target temperature and uses limitations due to particle range, beamlet perveance, and target disassembly to bound the allowable values of mass number (A) and energy (E). An accelerator model is then applied to determine the minimum length accelerator, which is a guide to total cost. The accelerator model takes into account limits on transportable charge, maximum gradient, core mass per linear meter, and head-to-tail momentum variation within a pulse.

  4. Integrated modeling of high poloidal beta scenario for a next-step reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClenaghan, J.; Garofalo, A. M.; Meneghini, O.; Smith, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    In order to fill the scientific and technological gaps between ITER and a nuclear fusion power plant DEMO, a next-step integrated nuclear test facility is critical. A high poloidal beta tokamak regime investigated in recent DIII-D experiments is a promising candidate for steady state operation in such a next-step device because the large bootstrap current fraction (~ 80 %) reduces the demands on the external current drive. Despite the large values of q95 ~10, the normalized fusion performance observed in the experiments meet the target for an economically attractive fusion power plant such as ARIES-ACT2. In this work, we will project the performance for a conducting and superconducting coil next-step steady state reactor using theory-based 0-D modeling and full 1.5D transport modeling. Work supported by U.S. DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  5. High-Gain High-Field Fusion Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ge

    2015-01-01

    A Faraday wheel (FW)—an electric generator of constant electrical polarity that produces huge currents—could be implemented in an existing tokamak to study high-gain high-field (HGHF) fusion plasma, such as the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). HGHF plasma can be realized in EAST by updating its pulsed-power system to compress plasma in two steps by induction fields; high gains of the Lawson trinity parameter and fusion power are both predicted by formulating the HGHF plasma. Both gain rates are faster than the decrease rate of the plasma volume. The formulation is checked by earlier ATC tests. Good agreement between theory and tests indicates that scaling to over 10 T at EAST may be possible by two-step compressions with a compression ratio of the minor radius of up to 3. These results point to a quick new path of fusion plasma study, i.e., simulating the Sun by EAST. PMID:26507314

  6. Progress toward high-gain laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, E.

    1988-09-28

    A 1985-1986 Review of the US inertial confinement fusion program by the National Academy of Sciences concluded that five more years might be required to obtain enough data to determine the future course of the program. Since then, data from the Nova laser and from the Halite/Centurion program have resolved most of the outstanding problems identified by the NAS review. In particular, we now believe that we can produce a sufficiently uniform target; that we can keep the energy content in hot electrons and high-energy photons low enough (/approximately/1--10% of drive energy, depending on target design) and achieve enough pulse-shaping accuracy (/approximately/10%, with a dynamic range of 100:1) to keep the fuel on a near-Fermi-degenerate adiabat; that we can produce an /approximately/100-Mbar pressure pulse of sufficient uniformity (/approximately/1%), and can we control hydrodynamic instabilities so that the mix of the pusher into the hot spot is low enough to permit marginal ignition. These results are sufficiently encouraging that the US Department of Energy is planning to complete a 10-MJ laboratory microfusion facility to demonstrate high-gain ICF in the laboratory within a decade. 22 refs., 1 fig.

  7. High dynamic range fusion for enhanced vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuchi; Li, Yipeng; Dai, Qionghai

    2012-06-01

    Fusing multispectral images, Enhanced Vision (EV) has been proven helpful to improve pilot's Situation Awareness (SA) under Degraded Vision Environment (DVE), such as low visibility or adverse observation conditions, which caused by fog, dust, weak light, backlighting, etc. Numerous methods are applied to enhance and fuse optical and infrared (IR) images for visual details to provide pilot with enough information as far as possible. However, most existing optical and IR imaging devices, for their inherent defects, fail to acquire wide span of light and only generate Low Dynamic Range images (LDR, Dynamic Range: range between the lightest and darkest areas), which causes the loss of useful details. Normal display devices can't reveal HDR details as well. The proposed paper introduces and expands High Dynamic Range (HDR) technologies to fuse optical and IR images, which has rarely been involved in the study of HDR Imaging to our knowledge, for Enhanced Vision to better pilot's Situation Awareness. Two major problems should be discussed. (1) The way to generate fused image with HDR information under DVE. (2) The method to effectively display fused HDR image with normal LDR monitors. Aiming at application environment, HDR fusion scheme is proposed and relevant methods are explored. The experimental results prove that our scheme is effective and would be beneficial to enhancing pilot's Situation Awareness under DVE.

  8. Resistive MHD studies of high-. beta. -tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, V.E.; Carreras, B.A.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Garcia, L.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical calculations have been performed to study the MHD activity in high-..beta.. tokamaks such as ISX-B. These initial value calculations built on earlier low ..beta.. techniques, but the ..beta.. effects create several new numerical issues. These issues are discussed and resolved. In addition to time-stepping modules, our system of computer codes includes equilibrium solvers (used to provide an initial condition) and output modules, such as a magnetic field line follower and an X-ray diagnostic code. The transition from current driven modes at low ..beta.. to predominantly pressure driven modes at high ..beta.. is described. The nonlinear studies yield X-ray emissivity plots which are compared with experiment.

  9. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  10. Heavy ion fusion science research for high energy density physics and fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    LOGAN, B.G.; Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Greenway, W.G.; Grisham, L.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Kwan, J.W.; LaFortune, K.N.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Ni, P.; Penn, G.E.; Perkins, L.J.; Qin, H.; Roy, P.K.; Sefkow, A.B.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.; Startsev, E.A.; Varentsov, D.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Wurtele, J.S.; Welch, D.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    2007-06-25

    During the past two years, the U.S. heavy ion fusion science program has made significant experimental and theoretical progress in simultaneous transverse and longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter targets, high brightness beam transport, advanced theory and numerical simulations, and heavy ion target designs for fusion. First experiments combining radial and longitudinal compression of intense ion beams propagating through background plasma resulted in on-axis beam densities increased by 700X at the focal plane. With further improvements planned in 2007, these results will enable initial ion beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin next year at LBNL. We are assessing how these new techniques apply to low-cost modular fusion drivers and higher-gain direct-drive targets for inertial fusion energy.

  11. An efficient expression of human growth hormone (hGH) in the milk of transgenic mice using rat beta-casein/hGH fusion genes.

    PubMed

    Lee, C S; Kim, K; Yu, D Y; Lee, K K

    1996-03-01

    In order to produce human growth hormone (hGH) in the milk of transgenic mice, two expression vectors for hGH differing in their 3' flanking sequences were constructed by placing the genomic sequences of hGH gene under the control of the rat beta-casein gene promotor. The 3' flanking sequences of the expression constructs were derived from either the hGH gene (pBCN1GH) or the rat beta-casein gene (pBCN2GH). Transgenic lines bearing pBCN1GH expressed hGH more efficiently than those bearing pBCN2GH in the milk (19-5500 micrograms/mL vs 0.7-2 micrograms/mL). In particular, one of the BCN1GH lines expressed hGH as much as 5500 +/- 620 micrograms/mL. Northern blot analysis showed that the transgene expression was specifically confined to the mammary gland and developmentally regulated like the endogenous mouse beta-casein gene in the mammary gland. However, a low level of nonmammary expression was also detected with more sensitive assay methods. In conclusion, the rat beta-casein/hGH fusion gene could direct an efficient production of hGH in a highly tissue-and stage-specific manner in the transgenic mice and the 3' flanking sequences of hGH gene had an important role for the efficient expression.

  12. High poloidal beta equilibria in TFTR limited by a natural inboard poloidal field null

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbagh, S.A.; Gross, R.A.; Mauel, M.E.; Navratil, G.A. . Dept. of Applied Physics); Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Bitter, M.; Bretz, N.L.; Budny, R.V.; Bush, C.E.; Chance, M.S.; Efthimion, P.C.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Hatcher, R.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hirshman, S.P.; Janos, A.C.; Jardin, S.C.; Jassby, D.L.; Manickam, J.; McCune, D.C.; McGuire, K.M.; Medley, S.S.; Mueller, D.; Nagayama, Y.; Ow

    1991-07-01

    Recent operation of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor TFTR, has produced plasma equilibria with values of {Lambda} {triple bond} {beta}{sub p eq} + l{sub i}/2 as large as 7, {epsilon}{beta}{sub p dia} {triple bond} 2{mu}{sub 0}{epsilon}/{much lt}B{sub p}{much gt}{sup 2} as large as 1.6, and Troyon normalized diamagnetic beta, {beta}{sub N dia} {triple bond} 10{sup 8}<{beta}{sub t}{perpendicular}>aB{sub 0}/I{sub p} as large as 4.7. When {epsilon}{beta}{sub p dia} {approx gt} 1.25, a separatrix entered the vacuum chamber, producing a naturally diverted discharge which was sustained for many energy confinement times, {tau}{sub E}. The largest values of {epsilon}{beta}{sub p} and plasma stored energy were obtained when the plasma current was ramped down prior to neutral beam injection. The measured peak ion and electron temperatures were as large as 24 keV and 8.5 keV, respectively. Plasma stored energy in excess of 2.5 MJ and {tau}{sub E} greater than 130 msec were obtained. Confinement times of greater than 3 times that expected from L-mode predictions have been achieved. The fusion power gain. Q{sub DD}, reached a values of 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} in a discharge with I{sub p} = 1 MA and {epsilon}{beta}{sub p dia} = 0.85. A large, sustained negative loop voltage during the steady state portion of the discharge indicates that a substantial non-inductive component of I{sub p} exists in these plasmas. Transport code analysis indicates that the bootstrap current constitutes up to 65% of I{sup p}. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ballooning stability analysis shows that while these plasmas are near, or at the {beta}{sub p} limit, the pressure gradient in the plasma core is in the first region of stability to high-n modes. 24 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Cholesterol depletion by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin enhances myoblast fusion and induces the formation of myotubes with disorganized nuclei.

    PubMed

    Mermelstein, Cláudia S; Portilho, Débora M; Medeiros, Rommel B; Matos, Aline R; Einicker-Lamas, Marcelo; Tortelote, Giovane G; Vieyra, Adalberto; Costa, Manoel L

    2005-02-01

    The formation of a skeletal muscle fiber begins with the withdrawal of committed mononucleated precursors from the cell cycle. These myoblasts elongate while aligning with each other, guided by recognition between their membranes. This step is followed by cell fusion and the formation of long striated multinucleated myotubes. We used methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MCD) in primary cultured chick skeletal muscle cells to deplete membrane cholesterol and investigate its role during myogenesis. MCD promoted a significant increase in the expression of troponin T, enhanced myoblast fusion, and induced the formation of large multinucleated myotubes with nuclei being clustered centrally and not aligned at the cell periphery. MCD myotubes were striated, as indicated by sarcomeric alpha-actinin staining, and microtubule and desmin filament distribution was not altered. Pre-fusion MCD-treated myoblasts formed large aggregates, with cadherin and beta-catenin being accumulated in cell adhesion contacts. We also found that the membrane microdomain marker GM1 was not present as clusters in the membrane of MCD-treated myoblasts. Our data demonstrate that cholesterol is involved in the early steps of skeletal muscle differentiation.

  14. High. beta. studies in the Wisconsin Toroidal Octupole

    SciTech Connect

    Halle, J. H.; Kellman, A.; Post, R. S.; Prager, S. C.; Strait, E. J.; Zarnstorff, M. C.

    1980-09-01

    A wide range of MHD stable high ..beta.. plasmas is produced in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. At or near the single fluid regime we obtain, in the bad curvature region, ..beta.. = nk(T/sub e/ + T/sub i/)8..pi../B/sup 2/ approx. = 8%, twice the theoretical single fluid ballooning instability limit of 4%. We also obtain stable plasmas at ..beta.. approx. = 35%, 9 times the theoretical limit, in a regime in which both finite ion gyroradius and gyroviscosity effects are important.

  15. Anterior cervical fusion with a bio-resorbable composite cage (beta TCP-PLLA): clinical and radiological results from a prospective study on 20 patients.

    PubMed

    Debusscher, F; Aunoble, S; Alsawad, Y; Clement, D; Le Huec, Jean-Charles

    2009-09-01

    A resorbable composite material (40% PLLA and 60% beta TCP) with a high breaking strength and capacity to withstand plastic and elastic strain has been developed for cervical interbody fusion. This is a prospective study to evaluate clinical and radiological results of 20 patients implanted with 27 cages (mean follow-up, 27 months). Clinical (neck disability index, VAS, neurological evaluation) and radiological (anteroposterior, lateral, bending X-rays) data were assessed before and after surgery. At the end of the study, CT scan was performed to evaluate fusion, resorption of the cage and density of the new tissue substituting the cage. The mean patient age was 50.3 years (range, 18-79 years). The average improvement was 55% for neck pain, 83% for arm pain and 65% for NDI, with 85% good or excellent results at final outcomes. Radiologically, lordosis was significantly improved (mean gain of 5.4 degrees and 3.7 degrees for overall and segmental lordosis, respectively). This correction was conserved in 95% of cases. Fusion was obtained in 96% (CT evaluation). Resorption was started in all cases and completed in an average of 36 months after surgery. The mean density of tissue substituting the cage was 659 UH with a range, of 455-911 UH (compatible with bone nature). Over time, the amount of bony tissue increased and the graft remodelled with an increase in density value. This demonstrates a biological activity and changing bone mineral content of this tissue. The new composite cage under investigation provides long-term fusion without loss of correction or inflammatory reaction. The ceramic block guarantees the maintenance of the disc height and its slow resorption allows long-term fusion and stability with good and reliable clinical and radiological outcomes. PMID:19533180

  16. Anterior cervical fusion with a bio-resorbable composite cage (beta TCP–PLLA): clinical and radiological results from a prospective study on 20 patients

    PubMed Central

    Debusscher, F.; Aunoble, S.; Alsawad, Y.; Clement, D.

    2009-01-01

    A resorbable composite material (40% PLLA and 60% beta TCP) with a high breaking strength and capacity to withstand plastic and elastic strain has been developed for cervical interbody fusion. This is a prospective study to evaluate clinical and radiological results of 20 patients implanted with 27 cages (mean follow-up, 27 months). Clinical (neck disability index, VAS, neurological evaluation) and radiological (anteroposterior, lateral, bending X-rays) data were assessed before and after surgery. At the end of the study, CT scan was performed to evaluate fusion, resorption of the cage and density of the new tissue substituting the cage. The mean patient age was 50.3 years (range, 18–79 years). The average improvement was 55% for neck pain, 83% for arm pain and 65% for NDI, with 85% good or excellent results at final outcomes. Radiologically, lordosis was significantly improved (mean gain of 5.4° and 3.7° for overall and segmental lordosis, respectively). This correction was conserved in 95% of cases. Fusion was obtained in 96% (CT evaluation). Resorption was started in all cases and completed in an average of 36 months after surgery. The mean density of tissue substituting the cage was 659 UH with a range, of 455–911 UH (compatible with bone nature). Over time, the amount of bony tissue increased and the graft remodelled with an increase in density value. This demonstrates a biological activity and changing bone mineral content of this tissue. The new composite cage under investigation provides long-term fusion without loss of correction or inflammatory reaction. The ceramic block guarantees the maintenance of the disc height and its slow resorption allows long-term fusion and stability with good and reliable clinical and radiological outcomes. PMID:19533180

  17. The binding affinity of a soluble TCR-Fc fusion protein is significantly improved by crosslinkage with an anti-C{beta} antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, Tatsuhiko; Horii, Masae; Kobayashi, Eiji; Jin, Aishun; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Muraguchi, Atsushi

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel soluble TCR composed of TCR V and C regions with Ig Fc region is generated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TCR-Fc protein immobilized by an anti-C{beta} antibody bound to a p/MHC tetramer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Binding affinity of TCR-Fc was markedly increased by binding with anti-C{beta} antibody. -- Abstract: The identification and cloning of tumor antigen-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) and the production of the soluble form of the TCR (sTCR) contributed to the development of diagnostic and therapeutic tools for cancer. Recently, several groups have reported the development of technologies for the production of sTCRs. The native sTCR has a very low binding affinity for the antigenic peptide/MHC (p/MHC) complex. In this study, we established a technology to produce high affinity, functional sTCRs. We generated a novel sTCR-Fc fusion protein composed of the TCR V and C regions of the TCR linked to the immunoglobulin (Ig) Fc region. A Western blot analysis revealed that the molecular weight of the fusion protein was approximately 60 kDa under reducing conditions and approximately 100-200 kDa under non-reducing conditions. ELISAs using various antibodies showed that the structure of each domain of the TCR-Fc protein was intact. The TCR-Fc protein immobilized by an anti-C{beta} antibody effectively bound to a p/MHC tetramer. An SPR analysis showed that the TCR-Fc protein had a low binding affinity (KD; 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M) to the p/MHC monomer. Interestingly, when the TCR-Fc protein was pre-incubated with an anti-C{beta} antibody, its binding affinity for p/MHC increased by 5-fold (2.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M). We demonstrated a novel method for constructing a functional soluble TCR using the Ig Fc region and showed that the binding affinity of the functional sTCR-Fc was markedly increased by an anti-C{beta} antibody, which is probably due to the stabilization of the V{alpha}/V{beta

  18. A post-transcriptional mechanism contributes to circadian cycling of a per-beta-galactosidase fusion protein.

    PubMed Central

    Zwiebel, L J; Hardin, P E; Liu, X; Hall, J C; Rosbash, M

    1991-01-01

    The period gene (per) of Drosophila melanogaster affects circadian rhythms. Circadian fluctuations in per mRNA levels are thought to contribute to circadian fluctuations in per protein levels in the heads of adult flies. To address the mechanisms underlying these oscillatory phenomena, we have analyzed RNA and protein cycling from two per-beta-galactosidase fusion genes. These studies demonstrate that 5' noncoding sequences from per are sufficient to cause the fusion mRNA levels to cycle in a wild-type (rhythmic) background. Protein cycling requires additional sequences derived from the per coding region. The data suggest that there is a per-dependent posttranscriptional mechanism that is under circadian clock control required for per protein levels to fluctuate in a rhythmic fashion. Images PMID:1902573

  19. High-Frequency Gravitational Wave Induced Nuclear Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Giorgio; Baker, Robert M. L.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear fusion is a process in which nuclei, having a total initial mass, combine to produce a single nucleus, having a final mass less than the total initial mass. Below a given atomic number the process is exothermic; that is, since the final mass is less than the combined initial mass and the mass deficit is converted into energy by the nuclear fusion. On Earth nuclear fusion does not happen spontaneously because electrostatic barriers prevent the phenomenon. To induce controlled, industrial scale, nuclear fusion, only a few methods have been discovered that look promising, but net positive energy production is not yet possible because of low overall efficiency of the systems. In this paper we propose that an intense burst of High Frequency Gravitational Waves (HFGWs) could be focused or beamed to a target mass composed of appropriate fuel or target material to efficiently rearrange the atomic or nuclear structure of the target material with consequent nuclear fusion. Provided that efficient generation of HFGW can be technically achieved, the proposed fusion reactor could become a viable solution for the energy needs of mankind and alternatively a process for beaming energy to produce a source of fusion energy remotely — even inside solid materials.

  20. High-Frequency Gravitational Wave Induced Nuclear Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, Giorgio; Baker, Robert M. L. Jr.

    2007-01-30

    Nuclear fusion is a process in which nuclei, having a total initial mass, combine to produce a single nucleus, having a final mass less than the total initial mass. Below a given atomic number the process is exothermic; that is, since the final mass is less than the combined initial mass and the mass deficit is converted into energy by the nuclear fusion. On Earth nuclear fusion does not happen spontaneously because electrostatic barriers prevent the phenomenon. To induce controlled, industrial scale, nuclear fusion, only a few methods have been discovered that look promising, but net positive energy production is not yet possible because of low overall efficiency of the systems. In this paper we propose that an intense burst of High Frequency Gravitational Waves (HFGWs) could be focused or beamed to a target mass composed of appropriate fuel or target material to efficiently rearrange the atomic or nuclear structure of the target material with consequent nuclear fusion. Provided that efficient generation of HFGW can be technically achieved, the proposed fusion reactor could become a viable solution for the energy needs of mankind and alternatively a process for beaming energy to produce a source of fusion energy remotely - even inside solid materials.

  1. A selectable bifunctional beta-galactosidase::phleomycin-resistance fusion protein as a potential marker for eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Baron, M; Reynes, J P; Stassi, D; Tiraby, G

    1992-05-15

    The Sh ble gene, conferring phleomycin resistance (PhR), was fused in frame to both the 3' and 5' ends of the Escherichia coli lacZ gene. The bifunctionality of the resulting 130-kDa hybrid proteins was demonstrated in E. coli and in the fungus, Tolypocladium geodes. PhR transformants of both organisms could be selected for. All transformants from E. coli and most from T. geodes displayed beta Gal activity. In the fungal host, higher transformation frequencies and greater levels of beta Gal activity were observed in clones harboring the lacZ::Sh ble fusion, as compared to the Sh ble::lacZ configuration. This system appears to be a potentially useful tool for the direct selection of transformants, and the evaluation of gene expression and regulation in a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic hosts.

  2. Training The Next Generation Of Fusion Scientists And Engineers: Summer High School Fusion Science Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punjabi, Alkesh

    2005-10-01

    The goal of the education and outreach activities of the Hampton University Center for Fusion Research and Training (HU CFRT) is to create a high school-to-Ph.D. pipeline in plasma physics, fusion science, and related sciences for underrepresented minorities and female students. The HU CFRT Summer High School Fusion Research Workshop is an integral component of this pipeline. This workshop has been extraordinarily successful. The workshop participants are chosen from a national pool of young and talented minority and female high school students through the NASA SHARP program. These students come to HU from all over US and its possessions for eight weeks during the summer. Over the last ten years, these workshops have provided one-on-one high quality research experiences in fusion science to the best and the brightest minority and female high school students in the nation. Our high school students have presented over 25 contributed papers at APS/DPP annual meetings, twice reached semi-finalist positions in Siemens-Westinghouse competitions, won awards and prizes, admissions and scholarships to prestigious universities, and won high praises from the fusion research community and other educators and researchers. We wish to emphasize that we have been able to achieve these results with limited human and fiscal resources and a meager infrastructure. Here we will present the details of how this workshop has evolved over the years, the approaches, the activities, and the structure that we have used to train, motivate, and provide valuable research experiences to the next generation of our national leaders in science. We thank the U.S. DOE OFES for supporting these efforts. We also thank Dr. Allen Boozer and Dr. Thomas Simonen for their invaluable help in the workshop and in all our efforts.

  3. Galectin-1 as a fusion partner for the production of soluble and folded human {beta}-1,4-galactosyltransferase-T7 in E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Pasek, Marta; Boeggeman, Elizabeth; Ramakrishnan, Boopathy; Qasba, Pradman K.

    2010-04-09

    The expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli often leads to inactive aggregated proteins known as the inclusion bodies. To date, the best available tool has been the use of fusion tags, including the carbohydrate-binding protein; e.g., the maltose-binding protein (MBP) that enhances the solubility of recombinant proteins. However, none of these fusion tags work universally with every partner protein. We hypothesized that galectins, which are also carbohydrate-binding proteins, may help as fusion partners in folding the mammalian proteins in E. coli. Here we show for the first time that a small soluble lectin, human galectin-1, one member of a large galectin family, can function as a fusion partner to produce soluble folded recombinant human glycosyltransferase, {beta}-1,4-galactosyltransferase-7 ({beta}4Gal-T7), in E. coli. The enzyme {beta}4Gal-T7 transfers galactose to xylose during the synthesis of the tetrasaccharide linker sequence attached to a Ser residue of proteoglycans. Without a fusion partner, {beta}4Gal-T7 is expressed in E. coli as inclusion bodies. We have designed a new vector construct, pLgals1, from pET-23a that includes the sequence for human galectin-1, followed by the Tev protease cleavage site, a 6x His-coding sequence, and a multi-cloning site where a cloned gene is inserted. After lactose affinity column purification of galectin-1-{beta}4Gal-T7 fusion protein, the unique protease cleavage site allows the protein {beta}4Gal-T7 to be cleaved from galectin-1 that binds and elutes from UDP-agarose column. The eluted protein is enzymatically active, and shows CD spectra comparable to the folded {beta}4Gal-T1. The engineered galectin-1 vector could prove to be a valuable tool for expressing other proteins in E. coli.

  4. Production and study of high-beta plasma confined by a superconducting dipole magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Garnier, D.T.; Hansen, A.; Mauel, M.E.; Ortiz, E.; Boxer, A.C.; Ellsworth, J.; Karim, I.; Kesner, J.; Mahar, S.; Roach, A.

    2006-05-15

    The Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) [J. Kesner et al., in Fusion Energy 1998, 1165 (1999)] is a new research facility that is exploring the confinement and stability of plasma created within the dipole field produced by a strong superconducting magnet. Unlike other configurations in which stability depends on curvature and magnetic shear, magnetohydrodynamic stability of a dipole derives from plasma compressibility. Theoretically, the dipole magnetic geometry can stabilize a centrally peaked plasma pressure that exceeds the local magnetic pressure ({beta}>1), and the absence of magnetic shear allows particle and energy confinement to decouple. In initial experiments, long-pulse, quasi-steady-state microwave discharges lasting more than 10 s have been produced that are consistent with equilibria having peak beta values of 20%. Detailed measurements have been made of discharge evolution, plasma dynamics and instability, and the roles of gas fueling, microwave power deposition profiles, and plasma boundary shape. In these initial experiments, the high-field superconducting floating coil was supported by three thin supports. The plasma is created by multifrequency electron cyclotron resonance heating at 2.45 and 6.4 GHz, and a population of energetic electrons, with mean energies above 50 keV, dominates the plasma pressure. Creation of high-pressure, high-beta plasma is possible only when intense hot electron interchange instabilities are stabilized by sufficiently high background plasma density. A dramatic transition from a low-density, low-beta regime to a more quiescent, high-beta regime is observed when the plasma fueling rate and confinement time become sufficiently large.

  5. Physics Basis for High-Beta, Low-Aspect-Ratio Stellarator Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    A. Brooks; A.H. Reiman; G.H. Neilson; M.C. Zarnstorff; et al

    1999-11-01

    High-beta, low-aspect-ratio (compact) stellarators are promising solutions to the problem of developing a magnetic plasma configuration for magnetic fusion power plants that can be sustained in steady-state without disrupting. These concepts combine features of stellarators and advanced tokamaks and have aspect ratios similar to those of tokamaks (2-4). They are based on computed plasma configurations that are shaped in three dimensions to provide desired stability and transport properties. Experiments are planned as part of a program to develop this concept. A beta = 4% quasi-axisymmetric plasma configuration has been evaluated for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX). It has a substantial bootstrap current and is shaped to stabilize ballooning, external kink, vertical, and neoclassical tearing modes without feedback or close-fitting conductors. Quasi-omnigeneous plasma configurations stable to ballooning modes at beta = 4% have been evaluated for the Quasi-Omnigeneous Stellarator (QOS) experiment. These equilibria have relatively low bootstrap currents and are insensitive to changes in beta. Coil configurations have been calculated that reconstruct these plasma configurations, preserving their important physics properties. Theory- and experiment-based confinement analyses are used to evaluate the technical capabilities needed to reach target plasma conditions. The physics basis for these complementary experiments is described.

  6. Muon catalyzed fusion in plasma state and high intensity DT fusion neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    dt/mu/ molecular formation rates in a plasma state of DT mixture by d and t ions are, respectively, 63 and 77 times higher than the ones by electrons. High plasma oscillation frequency in a high electron density plasma enhances the formation rate in the high temperature dt mixture. The DT muon catalyzed fusion has the ability to produce much higher intensity 14 MeV neutron source (in order of 5 /times/ 10/sup 16/n/cm/sup 2//sec) than other means of stripping and spallation approaches. Such neutrons can be used for testing of first wall material candidates for magnetic fusion reactors, for incinerating fission products (e.g., Cs/sup 137/) and for creating high thermal flux neutron sources, on the order of 10/sup 17/n/cm/sup 2//sec. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  7. High beta and second stability region transport and stability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-05

    This document describes ideal and resistive MHD studies of high-beta plasmas and of the second stability region. Significant progress is reported on the resistive stability properties of high beta poloidal supershot'' discharges. For these studies initial profiles were taken from the TRANSP code which is used extensively to analyze experimental data. When an ad hoc method of removing the finite pressure stabilization of tearing modes is implemented it is shown that there is substantial agreement between MHD stability computation and experiment. In particular, the mode structures observed experimentally are consistent with the predictions of the resistive MHD model. We also report on resistive stability near the transition to the second region in TFTR. Tearing modes associated with a nearby infernal mode may explain the increase in MHD activity seen in high beta supershots and which impede the realization of Q{approximately}1. We also report on a collaborative study with PPPL involving sawtooth stabilization with ICRF.

  8. Modular low-aspect-ratio high-beta torsatron

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, G.V.

    1982-04-01

    A fusion-reactor device is described which the toroidal magnetic field and at least a portion of the poloidal magnetic field are provided by a single set of modular coils. The coils are arranged on the surface of a low-aspect-ratio toroid in planed having the cylindrical coordinate relationship phi = phi/sub i/ + kz, where k is a constant equal to each coil's pitch and phi/sub i/ is the toroidal angle at which the i'th coil intersects the z = o plane. The toroid defined by the modular coils preferably has a race track minor cross section. When vertical field coils and, preferably, a toroidal plasma current are provided for magnetic-field-surface closure within the toroid, a vacuum magnetic field of racetrack-shaped minor cross section with improved stability and beta valves is obtained.

  9. Materials integration issues for high performance fusion power systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. L.

    1998-01-14

    One of the primary requirements for the development of fusion as an energy source is the qualification of materials for the frost wall/blanket system that will provide high performance and exhibit favorable safety and environmental features. Both economic competitiveness and the environmental attractiveness of fusion will be strongly influenced by the materials constraints. A key aspect is the development of a compatible combination of materials for the various functions of structure, tritium breeding, coolant, neutron multiplication and other special requirements for a specific system. This paper presents an overview of key materials integration issues for high performance fusion power systems. Issues such as: chemical compatibility of structure and coolant, hydrogen/tritium interactions with the plasma facing/structure/breeder materials, thermomechanical constraints associated with coolant/structure, thermal-hydraulic requirements, and safety/environmental considerations from a systems viewpoint are presented. The major materials interactions for leading blanket concepts are discussed.

  10. An efficient expression of Human Growth Hormone (hGH) in the milk of transgenic mice using rat {beta}-casein/hGH fusion genes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chul-Sang; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Lee, Kyung-Kwang

    1996-03-01

    In order to produce human growth hormone (hGH) in the milk of transgenic mice, two expression vectors for hGH differing in their 3{prime} flanking sequences were constructed by placing the genomic sequences of hGH gene under the control of the rat {beta}-casein gene promotor. The 3{prime} flanking sequences of the expression constructs were derived from either the hGH gene (pBCN1GH) or the rat {beta}-casein gene (pBCN2GH). Transgenic lines bearing pBCN1GH expressed hGH more efficiently than those bearing pBCN2GH in the milk (19-5500 {mu}g/mL vs 0.7-2 {mu}g/mL). In particular, one of the BCN1GH lines expressed hGH as much as 5500 {plus_minus} 620 {mu}g/mL. Northern blot analysis showed that the transgene expression was specifically confined to the mammary gland and developmentally regulated like the endogeneous mouse {beta}-casein gene in the mammary gland. However, a low level of nonmammary expression was also detected with more sensitive assay methods. In conclusion, the rat {beta}-casein/hGH fusion gene could direct an efficient production of hGH in a highly tissue- and stage-specific manner in the transgenic mice and the 3{prime} flanking sequences of hGH gene had an important role for the efficient expression. 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  12. Internal Kink Mode Dynamics in High-{beta} NSTX Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    J.E. Menard; R.E. Bell; E.D. Fredrickson; D.A. Gates; S.M. Kaye; B.P. LeBlanc; S.S. Medley; W. Park; S.A. Sabbagh; A. Sontag; D. Stutman; K. Tritz; W. Zhu; the NSTX Research Team

    2004-12-22

    Saturated internal kink modes have been observed in many of the highest toroidal beta discharges of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). These modes often cause rotation flattening in the plasma core, can degrade energy confinement, and in some cases contribute to the complete loss of plasma angular momentum and stored energy. Characteristics of the modes are measured using soft X-ray, kinetic profile, and magnetic diagnostics. Toroidal flows approaching Alfvenic speeds, island pressure peaking, and enhanced viscous and diamagnetic effects associated with high-beta may contribute to mode nonlinear stabilization. These saturation mechanisms are investigated for NSTX parameters and compared to experimental data.

  13. Internal Kink Mode Dynamics in High-beta NSTX Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    J.E. Menard; R.E. Bell; E.D. Fredrickson; D.A. Gates; S.M. Kaye; B.P. LeBlanc; S.S. Medley; W. Park; S.A. Sabbagh; A. Sontag; D. Stutman; K. Tritz; W. Zhu; the NSTX Research Team

    2004-12-22

    Saturated internal kink modes have been observed in many of the highest toroidal {beta} discharges of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). These modes often cause rotation flattening in the plasma core, can degrade energy confinement, and in some cases contribute to the complete loss of plasma angular momentum and stored energy. Characteristics of the modes are measured using soft X-ray, kinetic profile, and magnetic diagnostics. Toroidal flows approaching Alfvenic speeds, island pressure peaking, and enhanced viscous and diamagnetic effects associated with high-{beta} may contribute to mode nonlinear stabilization. These saturation mechanisms are investigated for NSTX parameters and compared to experimental data.

  14. Plasmonic energy nanofocusing for high-efficiency laser fusion ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Katsuaki

    2016-08-01

    We propose an efficient laser fusion ignition system consisting of metal nanoparticles or nanoshells embedded in conventional deuterated polystyrene fuel targets. The incident optical energy of the heating laser is highly concentrated around the metallic particulates randomly dispersed inside imploded targets due to the electromagnetic-field-enhancement effect by surface plasmon resonance, and thus effectively triggers nuclear-fusion chain reactions. Our preliminary calculations exhibit field enhancement factors of around 50 and 1100 for spherical Ag nanoparticles and Ag/SiO2 nanoshells, respectively, in the 1-µm band.

  15. The Beta Pictoris circumstellar disk. XV - Highly ionized species near Beta Pictoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deleuil, M.; Gry, C.; Lagrange-Henri, A.-M.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Beust, H.; Ferlet, R.; Moos, H. W.; Livengood, T. A.; Ziskin, D.; Feldman, P. D.

    1993-01-01

    Temporal variations of the Fe II, Mg II, and Al III circumstellar lines towards Beta Pictoris have been detected and monitored since 1985. However, the unusual presence of Al III ions is still puzzling, since the UV stellar flux from an A5V star such as Beta Pic is insufficient to produce such an ion. In order to better define the origin of such a phenomenon, new observations have been carried out to detect faint signatures of other highly ionized species in the short UV wavelength range, where the stellar continuum flux is low. These observations reveal variations not only near the C IV doublet lines, but also in C I and Al II lines, two weakly ionized species, not clearly detectable until now. In the framework of an infalling body scenario, highly ionized species would be created in the tail, far from the comet head, by collisions with ambient gas surrounding the star, or a weak stellar wind. Spectral changes have also been detected near a CO molecular band location, which, if confirmed, would provide the first molecular signature around Beta Pictoris.

  16. High-energy krypton fluoride lasers for inertial fusion.

    PubMed

    Obenschain, Stephen; Lehmberg, Robert; Kehne, David; Hegeler, Frank; Wolford, Matthew; Sethian, John; Weaver, James; Karasik, Max

    2015-11-01

    Laser fusion researchers have realized since the 1970s that the deep UV light from excimer lasers would be an advantage as a driver for robust high-performance capsule implosions for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Most of this research has centered on the krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser. In this article we review the advantages of the KrF laser for direct-drive ICF, the history of high-energy KrF laser development, and the present state of the art and describe a development path to the performance needed for laser fusion and its energy application. We include descriptions of the architecture and performance of the multi-kilojoule Nike KrF laser-target facility and the 700 J Electra high-repetition-rate KrF laser that were developed at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. Nike and Electra are the most advanced KrF lasers for inertial fusion research and energy applications.

  17. Plasma Physics, Fusion Science, and California High School Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correll, Donald

    2004-11-01

    In order to further engage California HIgh School science teachers in plasma physics and fusion science, a collaboration was formed between LLNL's Fusion Energy Program and the University of California's Edward Teller Education Center (etec.ucdavis.edu). California's Science Content Standards for high school physics (www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/scphysics.asp) were used to create a public lecture (education.llnl.gov/sos/) that covered "students are expected to achieve" physics topics relevant to astrophysical and fusion plasma research. In addition to the lecture, a two day workshop for the Edward Teller Education Symposium, September 24 - 25, 2004 (education.llnl.gov/symposium2004) was designed around plasma spectroscopy (education.llnl.gov/symposium2004/agenda_astro.html). Plasma spectroscopy was chosen as the "anchor" to the workshop given the breadth and depth of the field to both astrophysical and fusion plasma research. Workshop participation includes lectures, tours, spectroscopic measurements, and building a 'spectroscope' for use in the teachers' respective high school classrooms. Accomplishments will be reported and future plans will be presented that include development of a one to two week expanded workshop that includes plasma research methods and advanced science skills essential to guiding students to conduct research projects.

  18. High magnetic field induced otolith fusion in the zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Pais-Roldán, Patricia; Singh, Ajeet Pratap; Schulz, Hildegard; Yu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoreception in animals illustrates the interaction of biological systems with the geomagnetic field (geoMF). However, there are few studies that identified the impact of high magnetic field (MF) exposure from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners (>100,000 times of geoMF) on specific biological targets. Here, we investigated the effects of a 14 Tesla MRI scanner on zebrafish larvae. All zebrafish larvae aligned parallel to the B0 field, i.e. the static MF, in the MRI scanner. The two otoliths (ear stones) in the otic vesicles of zebrafish larvae older than 24 hours post fertilization (hpf) fused together after the high MF exposure as short as 2 hours, yielding a single-otolith phenotype with aberrant swimming behavior. The otolith fusion was blocked in zebrafish larvae under anesthesia or embedded in agarose. Hair cells may play an important role on the MF-induced otolith fusion. This work provided direct evidence to show that high MF interacts with the otic vesicle of zebrafish larvae and causes otolith fusion in an "all-or-none" manner. The MF-induced otolith fusion may facilitate the searching for MF sensors using genetically amenable vertebrate animal models, such as zebrafish. PMID:27063288

  19. High magnetic field induced otolith fusion in the zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    Pais-Roldán, Patricia; Singh, Ajeet Pratap; Schulz, Hildegard; Yu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoreception in animals illustrates the interaction of biological systems with the geomagnetic field (geoMF). However, there are few studies that identified the impact of high magnetic field (MF) exposure from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners (>100,000 times of geoMF) on specific biological targets. Here, we investigated the effects of a 14 Tesla MRI scanner on zebrafish larvae. All zebrafish larvae aligned parallel to the B0 field, i.e. the static MF, in the MRI scanner. The two otoliths (ear stones) in the otic vesicles of zebrafish larvae older than 24 hours post fertilization (hpf) fused together after the high MF exposure as short as 2 hours, yielding a single-otolith phenotype with aberrant swimming behavior. The otolith fusion was blocked in zebrafish larvae under anesthesia or embedded in agarose. Hair cells may play an important role on the MF-induced otolith fusion. This work provided direct evidence to show that high MF interacts with the otic vesicle of zebrafish larvae and causes otolith fusion in an “all-or-none” manner. The MF-induced otolith fusion may facilitate the searching for MF sensors using genetically amenable vertebrate animal models, such as zebrafish. PMID:27063288

  20. High-energy krypton fluoride lasers for inertial fusion.

    PubMed

    Obenschain, Stephen; Lehmberg, Robert; Kehne, David; Hegeler, Frank; Wolford, Matthew; Sethian, John; Weaver, James; Karasik, Max

    2015-11-01

    Laser fusion researchers have realized since the 1970s that the deep UV light from excimer lasers would be an advantage as a driver for robust high-performance capsule implosions for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Most of this research has centered on the krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser. In this article we review the advantages of the KrF laser for direct-drive ICF, the history of high-energy KrF laser development, and the present state of the art and describe a development path to the performance needed for laser fusion and its energy application. We include descriptions of the architecture and performance of the multi-kilojoule Nike KrF laser-target facility and the 700 J Electra high-repetition-rate KrF laser that were developed at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. Nike and Electra are the most advanced KrF lasers for inertial fusion research and energy applications. PMID:26560597

  1. Bioavailability of beta-carotene (betaC) from purple carrots is the same as typical orange carrots while high-betaC carrots increase betaC stores in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Dosti, Mandy Porter; Mills, Jordan P; Simon, Philipp W; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2006-08-01

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency is a worldwide public health problem. Biofortifying existing sources of beta-carotene (betaC) and increasing dietary betaC could help combat the issue. Two studies were performed to investigate the relative betaC bioavailability of a betaC supplement to purple, high-betaC orange, and typical orange carrots using Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). In study 1, which used a traditional bioavailability design, gerbils (n 32) received a diet containing orange, purple, or white carrot powder, or white carrot powder +a betaC supplement. In study 2, which included betaC-biofortified carrots, gerbils (n 39) received orange, high-betaC orange, purple, or white carrot powder in their diet. Both studies lasted 21 d and the gerbils were killed to determine the effect of carrot type or supplement on serum and liver betaC, alpha-carotene, and VA concentrations. Liver stores of betaC or VA in the gerbils did not differ between orange and purple carrot diets when equal amounts of betaC from each of the diets were consumed (P>0.05). Both the orange and purple carrot diet resulted in higher liver VA compared with the supplement (P<0.05). High-betaC carrots resulted in more than 2-fold higher betaC and 1.1 times greater VA liver stores compared with typical orange carrots (P<0.05). These results suggest that high-betaC carrots may be an alternative source of VA to typical carrots in areas of VA deficiency. Second, phenolics including anthocyanins and phenolic acids in purple carrot do not interfere with the bioavailability of betaC from purple carrots.

  2. High-Energy Space Propulsion Based on Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. F.; Freeze, B.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.; Landrum, B.; Gerrish, H.; Schmidt, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    A conceptual study is made to explore the feasibility of applying magnetized target fusion (MTF) to space propulsion for omniplanetary travel. Plasma-jet driven MTF not only is highly amenable to space propulsion, but also has a number of very attractive features for this application: 1) The pulsed fusion scheme provides in situ a very dense hydrogenous liner capable of moderating the neutrons, converting more than 97% of the neutron energy into charged particle energy of the fusion plasma available for propulsion. 2) The fusion yield per pulse can be maintained at an attractively low level (< 1 GJ) despite a respectable gain in excess of 70. A compact, low-weight engine is the result. An engine with a jet power of 25 GW, a thrust of 66 kN, and a specific impulse of 77,000 s, can be achieved with an overall engine mass of about 41 metric tons, with a specific power density of 605 kW/kg, and a specific thrust density of 1.6 N/kg. The engine is rep-rated at 40 Hz to provide this power and thrust level. At a practical rep-rate limit of 200 Hz, the engine can deliver 128 GW jet power and 340 kN of thrust, at specific power and thrust density of 1,141 kW/kg and 3 N/kg respectively. 3) It is possible to operate the magnetic nozzle as a magnetic flux compression generator in this scheme, while attaining a high nozzle efficiency of 80% in converting the spherically radial momentum of the fusion plasma to an axial impulse. 4) A small fraction of the electrical energy generated from the flux compression is used directly to recharge the capacitor bank and other energy storage equipment, without the use of a highvoltage DC power supply. A separate electrical generator is not necessary. 5) Due to the simplicity of the electrical circuit and the components, involving mainly inductors, capacitors, and plasma guns, which are connected directly to each other without any intermediate equipment, a high rep-rate (with a maximum of 200 Hz) appears practicable. 6) All fusion related

  3. High beta plasma operation in a toroidal plasma producing device

    DOEpatents

    Clarke, John F.

    1978-01-01

    A high beta plasma is produced in a plasma producing device of toroidal configuration by ohmic heating and auxiliary heating. The plasma pressure is continuously monitored and used in a control system to program the current in the poloidal field windings. Throughout the heating process, magnetic flux is conserved inside the plasma and the distortion of the flux surfaces drives a current in the plasma. As a consequence, the total current increases and the poloidal field windings are driven with an equal and opposing increasing current. The spatial distribution of the current in the poloidal field windings is determined by the plasma pressure. Plasma equilibrium is maintained thereby, and high temperature, high beta operation results.

  4. TIRF imaging of docking and fusion of single insulin granule motion in primary rat pancreatic beta-cells: different behaviour of granule motion between normal and Goto-Kakizaki diabetic rat beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Ohara-Imaizumi, Mica; Nishiwaki, Chiyono; Kikuta, Toshiteru; Nagai, Shintaro; Nakamichi, Yoko; Nagamatsu, Shinya

    2004-07-01

    We imaged and analysed the motion of single insulin secretory granules near the plasma membrane in live pancreatic beta-cells, from normal and diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). In normal rat primary beta-cells, the granules that were fusing during the first phase originate from previously docked granules, and those during the second phase originate from 'newcomers'. In diabetic GK rat beta-cells, the number of fusion events from previously docked granules were markedly reduced, and, in contrast, the fusion from newcomers was still preserved. The dynamic change in the number of docked insulin granules showed that, in GK rat beta-cells, the total number of docked insulin granules was markedly decreased to 35% of the initial number after glucose stimulation. Immunohistochemistry with anti-insulin antibody observed by TIRFM showed that GK rat beta-cells had a marked decline of endogenous insulin granules docked to the plasma membrane. Thus our results indicate that the decreased number of docked insulin granules accounts for the impaired insulin release during the first phase of insulin release in diabetic GK rat beta-cells.

  5. High conductivity Be-Cu alloys for fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lilley, E.A.; Adachi, Takao; Ishibashi, Yoshiki

    1995-09-01

    The optimum material has not yet been identified. This will result in heat from plasma to the first wall and divertor. That is, because of cracks and melting by thermal power and shock. Today, it is considered to be some kinds of copper, alloys, however, for using, it must have high conductivity. And it is also needed another property, for example, high strength and so on. We have developed some new beryllium copper alloys with high conductivity, high strength, and high endurance. Therefore, we are introducing these new alloys as suitable materials for the heat sink in fusion reactors.

  6. Production of high intensity Beta beams at the ISOLDE facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hodak, Rastislav; Stora, Thierry; Mendonca, Tania M.

    2011-12-16

    We discuss a design study devoted to a construction of the Beta beams facility at CERN, a next generation European facility aiming for a production of pure and collimated ultra-relativistic beam of electron (anti)neutrinos with help of accelerated {beta}-decaying radioactive ions circulating in a storage decay ring. This high intense source of (anti)neutrinos directed towards a remote underground neutrino detector will allow to measure neutrino oscillations with high accuracy offering a unique chance for establishing a value of the {beta}{sub 13} mixing angle and CP violating phase. Recently, a significant progress have been achieved on the conceptual design of high power targets required for a production and an extraction of two baseline isotopes, {sup 6}He and {sup 18}Ne, at the unexampled rate of several 10{sup 13} ions/s. There is a possibility to produce these isotopes using the so-called Isotope Separation On Line (ISOL) method at the ISOLDE facility (CERN). The {sup 6}He production is realized by taking advantage of the {sup 9}Be(n,{alpha}){sup 6}He reaction and with help of spallation neutrons and porous BeO target material. The production of {sup 18}Ne through the {sup 19}F(p,2n){sup 18}Ne reaction at required intensities is even more challenging. Currently, a molten salt (NaF) loop target is proposed for a production of high rate of {sup 18}Ne required for the Beta beams project. The progress on the design study associated with new data and plans for future is briefly presented.

  7. Applications of high-speed dust injection to magnetic fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui; Li, Yangfang

    2012-08-08

    It is now an established fact that a significant amount of dust is produced in magnetic fusion devices due to plasma-wall interactions. Dust inventory must be controlled, in particular for the next-generation steady-state fusion machines like ITER, as it can pose significant safety hazards and degrade performance. Safety concerns are due to tritium retention, dust radioactivity, toxicity, and flammability. Performance concerns include high-Z impurities carried by dust to the fusion core that can reduce plasma temperature and may even induce sudden termination of the plasma. We have recognized that dust transport, dust-plasma interactions in magnetic fusion devices can be effectively studied experimentally by injection of dust with known properties into fusion plasmas. Other applications of injected dust include diagnosis of fusion plasmas and edge localized mode (ELM)'s pacing. In diagnostic applications, dust can be regarded as a source of transient neutrals before complete ionization. ELM's pacing is a promising scheme to prevent disruptions and type I ELM's that can cause catastrophic damage to fusion machines. Different implementation schemes are available depending on applications of dust injection. One of the simplest dust injection schemes is through gravitational acceleration of dust in vacuum. Experiments at Los Alamos and Princeton will be described, both of which use piezoelectric shakers to deliver dust to plasma. In Princeton experiments, spherical particles (40 micron) have been dropped in a systematic and reproducible manner using a computer-controlled piezoelectric bending actuator operating at an acoustic (0,2) resonance. The circular actuator was constructed with a 2.5 mm diameter central hole. At resonance ({approx} 2 kHz) an applied sinusoidal voltage has been used to control the flux of particles exiting the hole. A simple screw throttle located {approx}1mm above the hole has been used to set the magnitude of the flux achieved for a given

  8. Blanket options for high-efficiency fusion power

    SciTech Connect

    Usher, J L; Lazareth, O W; Fillo, J A; Horn, F L; Powell, J R

    1980-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperatures (500/sup 0/C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project two-zone blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO/sub 2/ interior (cooled by argon) utilizing Li/sub 2/O for tritium breeding. In this design, approximately 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum argon temperature is 2230/sup 0/C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case.

  9. Design issues for a laboratory high gain fusion facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, W.J.

    1987-11-02

    In an inertial fusion laboratory high gain facility, experiments will be carried out with up to 1000 MJ of thermonuclear yield. The experiment area of such a facility will include many systems and structures that will have to operate successfully in the difficult environment created by the sudden large energy release. This paper estimates many of the nuclear effects that will occur, discusses the implied design issues and suggests possible solutions so that a useful experimental facility can be built. 4 figs.

  10. Cluster observes formation of high-beta plasma blobs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerendel, G.; Georgescu, E.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Klecker, B.; Bogdanova, J.; Reme, H.; Frey, H. U.; Vaivads, A.

    2003-04-01

    Late in a sequence of four moderate substorms an 26 July 2001, Cluster observed periods of a few minutes durations of high-beta plasma events (B < 10nT, beta = 2 - 30), connected with dipolarizations of the magnetic field. Cluster was located near 02:45 MLT, at R = 19 Re and at about 5 degrees N GSM. These events began late in the recovery phase of the second and about 5 minutes before onset of the third substorm and lasted for three hours, way beyond the recovery phase of the fourth substorm. The most remarkable observation is that the onset coincided with the arrival of energetic (E ~ 7 keV) O+ ions from the ionosphere, which tended to dominate the plasma composition throughout the remaining time. The magnetic flux and the transverse plasma transport is continuously directed equator- and earthward with oscillatory east-west movements superposed. Periods of order 5 - 10 minutes and strong correlations between the magnetic elevation angle and log(beta) (correlation coefficient 0.78) are highly reminiscent of the high-beta plasma blobs discovered with Equator-S and Geotail between 9 and 11 Re in the late night/early morning sector [Haerendel et al. 1999]. Another feature in common with the Equator-S and Geotail observations is the plasma flow towards low latitudes during the magnetic field recovery. We conclude that Cluster observed the plasma blob formation in the tail plasma sheet, which seems to occur dominantly in the recovery and post-recovery phase of substorms. This is consistent with the finding of Equator-S and Geotail. The origin is a pulsed earthward plasma transport with velocity amplitudes of only several tens of km/s. It needs to be investigated whether the preceeding injection of ionospheric O+ ions into the plasma sheet plays a causal role in the process.

  11. High-Energy Space Propulsion Based on Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. F.; Landrum, D. B.; Freeze, B.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.; Gerrish, H.; Schmidt, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion is an approach in which a magnetized target plasma is compressed inertially by an imploding material wall. A high energy plasma liner may be used to produce the required implosion. The plasma liner is formed by the merging of a number of high momentum plasma jets converging towards the center of a sphere where two compact toroids have been introduced. Preliminary 3-D hydrodynamics modeling results using the SPHINX code of Los Alamos National Laboratory have been very encouraging and confirm earlier theoretical expectations. The concept appears ready for experimental exploration and plans for doing so are being pursued. In this talk, we explore conceptually how this innovative fusion approach could be packaged for space propulsion for interplanetary travel. We discuss the generally generic components of a baseline propulsion concept including the fusion engine, high velocity plasma accelerators, generators of compact toroids using conical theta pinches, magnetic nozzle, neutron absorption blanket, tritium reprocessing system, shock absorber, magnetohydrodynamic generator, capacitor pulsed power system, thermal management system, and micrometeorite shields.

  12. Measuring pion beta decay with high-energy pion beams

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, W.K. |; Hoffman, C.M.

    1993-02-01

    Improved measurements of the pion beta decay rate are possible with an intense high-energy pion beam. The rate for the decay {pi}{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}e{sup +}v{epsilon} is predicted by the Standard Model (SM) to be R({pi}{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}e{sup +}v{epsilon}) = 0.3999{plus_minus}0.0005 s{sup {minus}1}. The best experimental number, obtained using in-flight decays, is R({pi}{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}e{sup +}v{epsilon}) = 0.394 {plus_minus} 0.015 s{sup {minus}1}. A precise measurement would test the SM by testing the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix for which one analysis of the nuclear beta decay data has shown a 0.4% discrepancy. Several nuclear correction factors, needed for nuclear decay, are not present for pion beta decay, so that an experiment at the 0.2% level would be a significant one. Detailed study of possible designs will be needed, as well as extensive testing of components. The reduction of systematic errors to the 0.1% level can only be done over a period of years with a highly stable apparatus and beam. At a minimum, three years of occupancy of a beam line, with 800 hours per year, would be required.

  13. Measuring pion beta decay with high-energy pion beams

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, W.K. Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA ); Hoffman, C.M. )

    1993-01-01

    Improved measurements of the pion beta decay rate are possible with an intense high-energy pion beam. The rate for the decay [pi][sup +] [yields] [pi][sup 0]e[sup +]v[epsilon] is predicted by the Standard Model (SM) to be R([pi][sup +] [yields] [pi][sup 0]e[sup +]v[epsilon]) = 0.3999[plus minus]0.0005 s[sup [minus]1]. The best experimental number, obtained using in-flight decays, is R([pi][sup +] [yields] [pi][sup 0]e[sup +]v[epsilon]) = 0.394 [plus minus] 0.015 s[sup [minus]1]. A precise measurement would test the SM by testing the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix for which one analysis of the nuclear beta decay data has shown a 0.4% discrepancy. Several nuclear correction factors, needed for nuclear decay, are not present for pion beta decay, so that an experiment at the 0.2% level would be a significant one. Detailed study of possible designs will be needed, as well as extensive testing of components. The reduction of systematic errors to the 0.1% level can only be done over a period of years with a highly stable apparatus and beam. At a minimum, three years of occupancy of a beam line, with 800 hours per year, would be required.

  14. Fusion reactor high vacuum pumping: Charcoal cryosorber tritium exposure results

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent experiments, have shown the practically of using activated charcoal (coconut charcoal) at 4{degrees}K to pump helium and hydrogen isotopes for a fusion reactor. Both speed and capacity for deuterium/helium and tritium/helium-3 mixtures were shown to be satisfactory. The long term effects of tritium on the charcoal/cement system developed by Grumman and LLNL were not known and a program was undertaken to see what, if any, effect long term tritium exposure has on the cryosorber. Several charcoal on aluminum test samples were subjected to six months exposure of tritium at approximately 77{degrees}K. The tritium was scanned several times with a residual gas analyzer and the speed-capacity performance of the samples was measured before, approximately half way through and after the exposure. Modest effects were noted which would not seriously restrict charcoal's use as a cryosorber for fusion reactor high vacuum pumping applications. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Design considerations for achieving high vacuum integrity in fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, G.M.; Haines, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Achieving high vacuum integrity in fusion devices requires close attention to both the overall system configuration and the design details of joints and seals. This paper describes the factors in selecting the system configuration, from a vacuum standpoint, for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) DCT-8 Tokamak device. The DCT-8 (driven current tokamak) is the eighth design in a series of tokamak concepts defined to cover the magnetic confinement and development gap between the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR). Leak detection concept development is considered a vital activity, as well as the definition of a configuration that minimizes the consequences of leaks. A major part of the vacuum boundaries of the magnet system and the plasma system is common. For the major penetrations, primary and secondary seals are provided with vacuum control over the region between seals. The intent is to instrument these cavities and provide automated recordings of these measurements for leak maintenance.

  16. High-Yield Magnetized Liner Fusion Explosions and Blast Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutz, Stephen; Vesey, Roger; Cuneo, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Cylindrical liner implosions with preheated and magnetized deuterium-tritium (DT) are predicted to reach fusion conditions on present pulsed power machines [S.A. Slutz et al Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. We present simulations indicating that high yields (1-10 GJ) and gains (100-1000) may be possible at currents of about 60-70 MA if a cryogenic layer of solid DT is provided on the inside surface of the metal liner. A hot spot is formed from the central preheated magnetized low-density gas and a burn wave propagates radially into the surrounding cold dense fuel. These yields and gains are more than adequate for inertial fusion energy. However, the pulsed-power driver must be protected from the blast of these high-yield explosions. Numerical simulations are presented which show that the blast can be deflected and the fusion neutrons absorbed by a blanket that partially surrounds the liner. Thus a modest length transmission line can be used to deliver power to the liner. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  17. SUPPORT FOR HU CFRT SUMMER HIGH SCHOOL FUSION WORKSHOP

    SciTech Connect

    Punjabi, Alkesh

    2010-02-09

    Nine summer fusion science research workshops for minority and female high school students were conducted at the Hampton University Center for Fusion Research and Training from 1996 to 2005. Each workshop was of the duration of eight weeks. In all 35 high school students were mentored. The students presented 28 contributed papers at the annual meetings of the American Physical Society Division of Plasma Physics. These contributed papers were very well received by the plasma physics and fusion science research community. The students won a number of prestigious local, state, and national honors, awards, prizes, and scholarships. The notable among these are the two regional finalist positions in the 1999 Siemens-Westinghouse Science and Technology Competitions; 1st Place U.S. Army Award, 2006; 1st Place U.S. Naval Science Award, 2006; Yale Science and Engineering Association Best 11th Grade Project, 2006; Society of Physics Students Book Award, 2006; APS Corporate Minority Scholarship and others. This workshop program conducted by the HU CFRT has been an exemplary success, and served the minority and female students exceptionally fruitfully. The Summer High School Fusion Science Workshop is an immensely successful outreach activity conducted by the HU CFRT. In this workshop, we train, motivate, and provide high quality research experiences to young and talented high school scholars with emphasis on under-represented minorities and female students in fusion science and related areas. The purpose of this workshop is to expose minority and female students to the excitement of research in science at an early stage in their academic lives. It is our hope that this may lead the high school students to pursue higher education and careers in physical sciences, mathematics, and perhaps in fusion science. To our knowledge, this workshop is the first and only one to date, of fusion science for under-represented minorities and female high school students at an HBCU. The faculty

  18. Hampton University (hu) Center for Fusion Research & Training (cfrt) Summer High School Fusion Science Workshops: 1996 Through 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punjabi, Alkesh; Ali, Halima; Rhonda, Ellis; Tucker, Vincent

    2001-10-01

    The HU CFRT has conducted Summer High School Fusion Science Energy Workshops during the summers of 1996 through 2000 - a total of five summer fusion science workshops for high school students. These workshops are one of many programs and activities of the center organized and focused around the education, motivation, retention and research experiences for young scholars especially under-represented minorities and female high schoolers in fusion science and related areas. These workshops consist of a very productive curriculum and palate of exciting activities that provides the students the opportunity to experience what scientific research in fusion science is all about. These activities include an intensive program of instructions on basics of fusion energy science, modeling of tokamaks, visualization of scientific data and on how to use computers to conduct scientific research. Through experimentation and discovery based on computer simulations of chaos and other nonlinear phenomena in tokamaks, students learn and understand what are the relevant patterns and structures to look at in fusion devices, what is the underlying scientific hypothesis, and what conclusions can be reached based on results. Here we will present the highlights and the unique successes of the five workshops conducted from the Summer of 1996 through Summer of 2000. We will also discuss the fusion science workshop model, its content and scope. These workshops are funded by DOE OFES, and NASA through its SharpPlus program administered by the Quality Education for Minority Network (QEM).

  19. Ancestrally high elastic modulus of gecko setal beta-keratin.

    PubMed

    Peattie, Anne M; Majidi, Carmel; Corder, Andrew; Full, Robert J

    2007-12-22

    Typical bulk adhesives are characterized by soft, tacky materials with elastic moduli well below 1MPa. Geckos possess subdigital adhesives composed mostly of beta-keratin, a relatively stiff material. Biological adhesives like those of geckos have inspired empirical and modelling research which predicts that even stiff materials can be effective adhesives if they take on a fibrillar form. The molecular structure of beta-keratin is highly conserved across birds and reptiles, suggesting that material properties of gecko setae should be similar to that of beta-keratin previously measured in birds, but this has yet to be established. We used a resonance technique to measure elastic bending modulus in two species of gecko from disparate habitats. We found no significant difference in elastic modulus between Gekko gecko (1.6 GPa +/- 0.15s.e.; n=24 setae) and Ptyodactylus hasselquistii (1.4 GPa +/- 0.15s.e.; n=24 setae). If the elastic modulus of setal keratin is conserved across species, it would suggest a design constraint that must be compensated for structurally, and possibly explain the remarkable variation in gecko adhesive morphology.

  20. Generation and characterization of recombinant bivalent fusion protein r-Cpib for immunotherapy against Clostridium perfringens beta and iota toxemia.

    PubMed

    Das, Shreya; Majumder, Saugata; Kingston, Joseph J; Batra, Harsh V

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium perfringens beta (CPB) and iota (CPI) toxaemias result in some of the most lethal forms of haemorrhagic and necrotic enteritis and sudden death syndrome affecting especially neonates. While CPB enterotoxemia is one of the most common forms of clostridial enterotoxemia, CPI enterotoxemia though putatively considered to be rare is an emerging cause of concern. The similarities in clinical manifestation, gross and histopathology findings of both types of toxaemias coupled to the infrequency of CPI toxaemia might lead to symptomatic misidentification with Type C resulting in therapeutic failure due to habitual administration of CPB anti-toxin which is ineffective against CPI. Therefore in the present study, to generate a composite anti-toxin capable of neutralizing both toxaemias, a novel bivalent chimera r-Cpib was constructed by splicing the non-toxic C terminal binding regions of CPB and CPI, via a flexible glycine linker (G4S) by overlap-extension PCR. The fusion protein was characterized for its therapeutic abilities toward CPI and CPB toxin neutralizations. The r-Cpib was found to be non-toxic and could competitively inhibit binding of CPB to host cell receptors thereby reducing its cytotoxicity. Immunization of mice with r-Cpib generated specific antibodies capable of neutralizing the above toxaemias both in vitro and in vivo. Caco-2 cells exposed to a mixture of anti-r-Cpib sera and native CPI or CPB, displayed significantly superior protection against the respective toxins while passive challenge of mice with a similar mixture resulted in 83 and 91% protection against CPI and CPB respectively. Alternatively, mice exposed to a mixture of sham sera and native toxins died within 2-3 days. This work thus demonstrates r-Cpib as a novel bivalent fusion protein capable of efficient immunotherapy against C. perfringens CPI and CPB toxaemia. PMID:26774054

  1. Fully electromagnetic gyrokinetic eigenmode analysis of high-beta shaped plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Belli, E. A.; Candy, J.

    2010-11-15

    A new, more efficient method to compute unstable linear gyrokinetic eigenvalues and eigenvectors has been developed for drift-wave analysis of plasmas with arbitrary flux-surface shape, including both transverse and compressional magnetic perturbations. In high-beta, strongly shaped plasmas like in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)], numerous branches of closely spaced unstable eigenmodes exist. These modes are difficult and time-consuming to adequately resolve with the existing linear initial-value solvers, which are further limited to the most unstable eigenmode. The new method is based on an eigenvalue approach and is an extension of the GYRO code [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)], reusing the existing discretization schemes in both real and velocity-space. Unlike recent methods, which use an iterative solver to compute eigenvalues of the relatively large gyrokinetic response matrix, the present scheme computes the zeros of the much smaller Maxwell dispersion matrix using a direct method. In the present work, the new eigensolver is applied to gyrokinetic stability analysis of a high-beta, NSTX-like plasma. We illustrate the smooth transformation from ion-temperature-gradient (ITG)-like to kinetic-ballooning (KBM)-like modes, and the formation of hybrid ITG/KBM modes, and further demonstrate the existence of high-k Alfvenic drift-wave 'cascades' for which the most unstable mode is a higher excited state along the field line. A new compressional electron drift wave, which is driven by a combination of strong beta and pressure gradient, is also identified for the first time. Overall, we find that accurate calculation of stability boundaries and growth rates cannot, in general, ignore the compressional component {delta}B{sub ||} of the perturbation.

  2. Fully electromagnetic gyrokinetic eigenmode analysis of high-beta shaped plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belli, E. A.; Candy, J.

    2010-11-01

    A new, more efficient method to compute unstable linear gyrokinetic eigenvalues and eigenvectors has been developed for drift-wave analysis of plasmas with arbitrary flux-surface shape, including both transverse and compressional magnetic perturbations. In high-beta, strongly shaped plasmas like in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)], numerous branches of closely spaced unstable eigenmodes exist. These modes are difficult and time-consuming to adequately resolve with the existing linear initial-value solvers, which are further limited to the most unstable eigenmode. The new method is based on an eigenvalue approach and is an extension of the GYRO code [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)], reusing the existing discretization schemes in both real and velocity-space. Unlike recent methods, which use an iterative solver to compute eigenvalues of the relatively large gyrokinetic response matrix, the present scheme computes the zeros of the much smaller Maxwell dispersion matrix using a direct method. In the present work, the new eigensolver is applied to gyrokinetic stability analysis of a high-beta, NSTX-like plasma. We illustrate the smooth transformation from ion-temperature-gradient (ITG)-like to kinetic-ballooning (KBM)-like modes, and the formation of hybrid ITG/KBM modes, and further demonstrate the existence of high-k Alfvénic drift-wave "cascades" for which the most unstable mode is a higher excited state along the field line. A new compressional electron drift wave, which is driven by a combination of strong beta and pressure gradient, is also identified for the first time. Overall, we find that accurate calculation of stability boundaries and growth rates cannot, in general, ignore the compressional component δB∥ of the perturbation.

  3. High-performance inertial confinement fusion target implosions on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Meyerhofer, D. D.; McCrory, R L; Betti, R; Boehly, T R; Casey, D T; Collins, T.J.B.; Craxton, R S; Delettrez, J A; Edgell, D H; Epstein, R; Fletcher, K A; Frenje, J A; Glebov, Y Yu; Goncharov, V N; Harding, D R; Hu, S X; Igumenshchev, I V; Knauer, J P; Li, C K; Marozas, J A; Marshall, F J; McKenty, P W; Nilson, P M; Padalino, S P; Petrasso, R D; Radha, P B; Regan, S P; Sangster, T C; Seguin, F H; Seka, W; Short, R W; Shvarts, D; Skupsky, S; Soures, J M; Stoeckl, C; Theobald, W; Yaakobi, B

    2011-04-18

    The Omega Laser Facility is used to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) concepts. This paper describes progress in direct-drive central hot-spot (CHS) ICF, shock ignition (SI) and fast ignition (FI) since the 2008 IAEA FEC conference. CHS cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) target implosions on OMEGA have produced the highest DT areal densities yet measured in ICF implosions (~300 mg cm{sup -2}). Integrated FI experiments have shown a significant increase in neutron yield caused by an appropriately timed high-intensity, high-energy laser pulse.

  4. Simulation of transition dynamics to high confinement in fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, A. H.; Xu, G. S.; Madsen, J.; Naulin, V.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Wan, B. N.

    2015-12-01

    The transition dynamics from the low (L) to the high (H) confinement mode in magnetically confined plasmas is investigated using a first-principles four-field fluid model. Numerical results are in agreement with measurements from the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak - EAST. Particularly, the slow transition with an intermediate dithering phase is well reproduced at proper parameters. The model recovers the power threshold for the L-H transition as well as the decrease in power threshold switching from single to double null configuration observed experimentally. The results are highly relevant for developing predictive models of the transition, essential for understanding and optimizing future fusion power reactors.

  5. High Current Ion Sources and Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, Joe W.

    2005-02-15

    Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion requires short ion beam pulses with high current and high brightness. Depending on the beam current and the number of beams in the driver system, the injector can use a large diameter surface ionization source or merge an array of small beamlets from a plasma source. In this paper, we review the scaling laws that govern the injector design and the various ion source options including the contact ionizer, the aluminosilicate source, the multicusp plasma source, and the MEVVA source.

  6. Sensor fusion methods for high performance active vibration isolation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, C.; Matichard, F.

    2015-04-01

    Sensor noise often limits the performance of active vibration isolation systems. Inertial sensors used in such systems can be selected through a wide variety of instrument noise and size characteristics. However, the most sensitive instruments are often the biggest and the heaviest. Consequently, high-performance active isolators sometimes embed many tens of kilograms in instrumentation. The weight and size of instrumentation can add unwanted constraint on the design. It tends to lower the structures natural frequencies and reduces the collocation between sensors and actuators. Both effects tend to reduce feedback control performance and stability. This paper discusses sensor fusion techniques that can be used in order to increase the control bandwidth (and/or the stability). For this, the low noise inertial instrument signal dominates the fusion at low frequency to provide vibration isolation. Other types of sensors (relative motion, smaller but noisier inertial, or force sensors) are used at higher frequencies to increase stability. Several sensor fusion configurations are studied. The paper shows the improvement that can be expected for several case studies including a rigid equipment, a flexible equipment, and a flexible equipment mounted on a flexible support structure.

  7. Fusion with highly spin polarized HD and D sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, A. . Dept. of Physics); Kremens, R.; Skupsky, S. . Lab. for Laser Energetics)

    1991-05-05

    During the course of this grant, we succeeded in overcoming essentially all of the obstacles on the route to carrying out ICF shots with polarized deuteron fuel in plastic target shells. ICF with polarized deuterons is expected to answer the question of survival of polarization in the high temperature plasma prior to fusion, as well as to give quantitative information on anisotropic particle emissions and possible suppression of particular fusion reactions. The techniques previously developed for high D polarization in large solid HD samples have been adapted to polystyrene target shells which are cooled conductively via very thin metal wire supports. An independent NMR experiment on a normal-D{sub 2}-filled glass target shell with 2 {mu}m copper-coated spider silk supports affirmed the thermal conduction adequacy by registering very low sample temperatures in the presence of the generation of considerable D{sub 2} conversion heat. In a permeation experiment employing very pure ortho-D{sub 2}, it was demonstrated that hydrogens diffuse into polystyrene shells at room temperature without molecular dissociation, a requirement for preservation of the composition of our HD samples used for polarization. An advanced version of the permeation apparatus was designed and constructed which permits preparation of target shells loaded with very high density HD or D{sub 2} fuels. That system includes provision for cryocondensation and cold-transfer either to the dilution refrigerator for polarization or to the OMEGA fusion chamber for ICF experiments with denser unpolarized fuel targets than were heretofore realizable in plastic target shells. a major effort resulted in improvements of cold-transfer inter-apparatus mating procedures which minimize the temperature rise of the target shells over that of the helium reservoir temperature. High D polarization in solid pure 0-D{sub 2} was shown to be retained into the liquid state after rapid melting.

  8. Ignitor and the High Density Approach for Fusion*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombarda, F.; Coppi, B.

    2010-11-01

    The high plasma density regimes discovered by high magnetic field toroidal experiments have both outstanding confinement characteristics and degree of purity, and are at the basis of the Ignitor design. The main purpose of the Ignitor experiment is, in fact, that of establishing the reactor physics in regimes close to ignition, where the thermonuclear instability can set in with all its associated non linear effects. ``Extended limiter'' and double X-point configurations have been analyzed and relevant transport simulations show that similar burning plasma conditions can be attained with both, by Ohmic heating only or with modest amounts of ICRH auxiliary heating. The driving factor for the machine design (R01.32 m, a xb0.47x0.83 m^2, BT<=13 T, Ip<=11 MA) is the poloidal field pressure that can contain, under macroscopically stable conditions, the peak plasma pressures corresponding to ignition. Objectives other than ignition can be envisioned for the relatively near term, for example that of high flux neutron sources for material testing involving compact, high density fusion machines. This has been one of the incentives that have led the Ignitor Project to adopt magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconducting cables in the machine design, a first in fusion research. Accordingly, the largest coils (about 5 m diameter) of the machine will be made entirely of MgB2 cables. *Sponsored in part by ENEA of Italy and by the U.S. D.O.E.

  9. High temperature plasma in beta Lyrae, observed from Copernicus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Y.; Hack, M.; Hutchings, J. B.; Mccluskey, G. E., Jr.; Plavec, M.; Polidan, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    High-resolution UV spectrophotometry of the complex close binary system beta Lyrae was performed with a telescope spectrometer on board Copernicus. Observations were made at phases 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 with resolutions of 0.2 A (far-UV) and 0.4 A (mid-UV). The far-UV spectrum is completely dominated by emission lines indicating the existence of a high-temperature plasma in this binary. The spectrum of this object is unlike that of any other object observed from Copernicus. It is believed that this high-temperature plasma results from dynamic mass transfer taking place in the binary. The current results are compared with OAO-2 observations and other observational results. The possibility that the secondary component is a collapsed object is also discussed; the Copernicus observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the spectroscopically invisible secondary component is a black hole.

  10. High {beta} produced by neutral beam injection in the START (Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak) spherical tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Sykes, A.

    1997-05-01

    The world{close_quote}s first high-power auxiliary heating experiments in a tight aspect ratio (or spherical) tokamak have been performed on the Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokomak (START) device [Sykes {ital et al.}, Nucl. Fusion {bold 32}, 694 (1992)] at Culham Laboratory, using the 40 keV, 0.5 MW Neutral Beam Injector loaned by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Injection has been mainly of hydrogen into hydrogen or deuterium target plasmas, with a one-day campaign to explore D{r_arrow}D operation. In each case injection provides a combination of higher density operation and effective heating of both ions and electrons. The highest {beta} values achieved to date in START are volume average {beta}{sub T}{approximately}11.5{percent} and central beta {beta}{sub O}{approximately}50{percent}. Already high, these values are expected to increase further with the use of higher beam power. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Burning high-level TRU waste in fusion fission reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yaosong

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the concept of actinide burning instead of a once-through fuel cycle for disposing spent nuclear fuel seems to get much more attention. A new method of burning high-level transuranic (TRU) waste combined with Thorium-Uranium (Th-U) fuel in the subcritical reactors driven by external fusion neutron sources is proposed in this paper. The thorium-based TRU fuel burns all of the long-lived actinides via a hard neutron spectrum while outputting power. A one-dimensional model of the reactor concept was built by means of the ONESN_BURN code with new data libraries. The numerical results included actinide radioactivity, biological hazard potential, and much higher burnup rate of high-level transuranic waste. The comparison of the fusion-fission reactor with the thermal reactor shows that the harder neutron spectrum is more efficient than the soft. The Th-U cycle produces less TRU, less radiotoxicity and fewer long-lived actinides. The Th-U cycle provides breeding of 233U with a long operation time (>20 years), hence significantly reducing the reactivity swing while improving safety and burnup.

  12. Optimizing High-Z Coatings for Inertial Fusion Energy Shells

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Elizabeth H.; Nikroo, Abbas; Goodin, Daniel T.; Petzoldt, Ronald W.

    2003-05-15

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactors require shells with a high-Z coating that is both permeable, for timely filling with deuterium-tritium, and reflective, for survival in the chamber. Previously, gold was deposited on shells while they were agitated to obtain uniform, reproducible coatings. However, these coatings were rather impermeable, resulting in unacceptably long fill times. We report here on an initial study on Pd coatings on shells in the same manner. We have found that these palladium-coated shells are substantially more permeable than gold. Pd coatings on shells remained stable on exposure to deuterium. Pd coatings had lower reflectivity compared to gold that leads to a lower working temperature, and efficiency, of the proposed fusion reactor. Seeking to combine the permeability of Pd coatings and high reflectivity of gold, AuPd-alloy coatings were produced using a cosputtering technique. These alloys demonstrated higher permeability than Au and higher reflectivity than Pd. However, these coatings were still less reflective than the gold coatings. To improve the permeability of gold's coatings, permeation experiments were performed at higher temperatures. With the parameters of composition, thickness, and temperature, we have the ability to comply with a large target design window.

  13. High beta plasma in the dynamic Jovian current sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. J.; Kivelson, M. G.; Schardt, A. W.

    1978-01-01

    The equatorial current sheet, which Pioneer 10 repeatedly encountered on its outbound pass through the Jovian magnetosphere, frequently was associated with intense fluxes of energetic protons. Simultaneous observations of the changes in the energetic proton flux and in the magnetic-field magnitude demonstrate that the current sheet is embedded in a high-beta plasma in which high-energy (above 60 keV) ions frequently are the dominant constituents. Large differences in the plasma temperature and the thickness of this plasma sheet between encounters only 10 hours apart indicate that the Jovian plasma sheet is very dynamic on a time scale of hours. Occasional observations of significant temporal variations in the magnetic field and particle populations during periods within the plasma sheet may represent in situ observations of Jovian magnetic disturbances. Comparison with previous observations suggests that low-energy (not more than 5 keV) plasma contributes less than 3% to the current-sheet energy density.

  14. Beta-coupled high-frequency activity and beta-locked neuronal spiking in the subthalamic nucleus of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Andrew I; Vanegas, Nora; Lungu, Codrin; Zaghloul, Kareem A

    2014-09-17

    Beta frequency (13-30 Hz) oscillatory activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been shown to influence the temporal dynamics of high-frequency oscillations (HFOs; 200-500 Hz) and single neurons, potentially compromising the functional flexibility of the motor circuit. We examined these interactions by simultaneously recording both local field potential and single-unit activity from the basal ganglia of 15 patients with PD during deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery of the bilateral STN. Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) in the STN was specific to beta phase and HFO amplitude, and this coupling was strongest at the dorsal STN border. We found higher beta-HFO PAC near DBS lead contacts that were clinically effective compared with the remaining non-effective contacts, indicating that PAC may be predictive of response to STN DBS. Neuronal spiking was locked to the phase of 8-30 Hz oscillations, and the spatial topography of spike-phase locking (SPL) was similar to that of PAC. Comparisons of PAC and SPL showed a lack of spatiotemporal correlations. Beta-coupled HFOs and field-locked neurons had different preferred phase angles and did not co-occur within the same cycle of the modulating oscillation. Our findings provide additional support that beta-HFO PAC may be central to the pathophysiology of PD and suggest that field-locked neurons alone are not sufficient for the emergence of beta-coupled HFOs. PMID:25232117

  15. Fusion materials high energy-neutron studies. A status report

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, D.G.; Guinan, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are (1) to provide background information on the US Magnetic Fusion Reactor Materials Program, (2) to provide a framework for evaluating nuclear data needs associated with high energy neutron irradiations, and (3) to show the current status of relevant high energy neutron studies. Since the last symposium, the greatest strides in cross section development have been taken in those areas providing FMIT design data, e.g., source description, shielding, and activation. In addition, many dosimetry cross sections have been tentatively extrapolated to 40 MeV and integral testing begun. Extensive total helium measurements have been made in a variety of neutron spectra. Additional calculations are needed to assist in determining energy dependent cross sections.

  16. Total beta-globin gene deletion has high frequency in Filipinos

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, N.; Miyakawa, F.; Hunt, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    The distribution of {beta}-thalassemia [{beta}{sup Th}] mutations is unique to each ethnic group. Most mutations affect one or a few bases; large deletions have been rare. Among families screened in Hawaii, [{beta}{sup Th}] heterozygotes were diagnosed by microcytosis, absence of abnormal hemoglobins on isoelectric focusing, and raised Hb A{sub 2} by chromatography. Gene frequency for {beta}{sup Th} was 0.02 in Filipinos. In Filipinos, polymerase chain reaction [PCR] with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for {beta}{sup Th} mutations detected a mutation in only 6 of 42 {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes; an IVS2-666 C/T polymorphism showed non-heterozygosity in 37 and heterozygosity in only 5 of these {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes. One {beta}{sup Th}/{beta}{sup Th} major patient and his mother had no mutation detected by allele-specific oligomer hybridization; PCR failed to amplify any DNA from his {beta}-globin gene. After a total {beta}-globin gene deletion [{beta}{sup Del}] was found in a Filipino family in Ontario, specific PCR amplification for {beta}{sup Del} detected this in 43 of 53 {beta}{sup Th} Filipino samples tested; the above {beta}{sup Th}/{beta}{sup Th} patient was a ({beta}{sup Del}/{beta}{sup Del}) homozygote. The {beta}{sup Del} may account for over 60% of all {beta}{sup Th} alleles in Filipinos; this is the highest proportion of a deletion {beta}{sup Th} mutation reported from any population. Most but not all {beta}{sup Del} heterozygotes had high Hb F [5.13 {plus_minus} 3.94 mean {plus_minus} 1 s.d.] compared to the codon 41/42 four base deletion common in Chinese [2.30 {plus_minus} 0.86], or to {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes with normal {alpha}-globin genes [2.23 {plus_minus} 0.80].

  17. High temperature oxidation of beta-NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koychak, J. K.; Mitchell, T. E.; Smialek, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The oxidation of single crystal beta-NiAl has been studied primarily using electron microscopy. Oriented metastable Al2O3 phases form during transient oxidation at 800 C. Specific orientation relationships exist on all metal orientations studied and are a result of the small mismatch along aligned close-packed directions in the cation sublattices of the metal and oxide. Transformation of the metastable Al2O3 phases at 1100 C results in an oxide morphology described as the 'lacey' structure of alpha-Al2O3 scales. This structure results from impingement of oriented patches of alpha-Al2O3 as the transformation initiates and moves radially parallel to the surface. Scale growth occurs by diffusion along high angle grain boundaries. A drastic reduction in oxidation rate accompanies the change in oxide morphology.

  18. High convergence, indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments at Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, R.A.; Cable, M.D.; Hatchett, S.P.

    1995-06-02

    High convergence, indirect drive implosion experiments have been done at the Nova Laser Facility. The targets were deuterium and deuterium/tritium filled, glass microballoons driven symmetrically by x rays produced in a surrounding uranium hohlraum. Implosions achieved convergence ratios of 24:1 with fuel densities of 19 g/cm{sup 3}; this is equivalent to the range required for the hot spot of ignition scale capsules. The implosions used a shaped drive and were well characterized by a variety of laser and target measurements. The primary measurement was the fuel density using the secondary neutron technique (neutrons from the reaction {sup 2}H({sup 3}H,n){sup 4}He in initially pure deuterium fuel). Laser measurements include power, energy and pointing. Simultaneous measurement of neutron yield, fusion reaction rate, and x-ray images provide additional information about the implosion process. Computer models are in good agreement with measured results.

  19. Advantages of High Tolerance Measurements in Fusion Environments Applying Photogrammetry

    SciTech Connect

    T. Dodson, R. Ellis, C. Priniski, S. Raftopoulos, D. Stevens, M. Viola

    2009-02-04

    Photogrammetry, a state-of-the-art technique of metrology employing digital photographs as the vehicle for measurement, has been investigated in the fusion environment. Benefits of this high tolerance methodology include relatively easy deployment for multiple point measurements and deformation/distortion studies. Depending on the equipment used, photogrammetric systems can reach tolerances of 25 microns (0.001 in) to 100 microns (0.004 in) on a 3-meter object. During the fabrication and assembly of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) the primary measurement systems deployed were CAD coordinate-based computer metrology equipment and supporting algorithms such as both interferometer-aided (IFM) and absolute distance measurementbased (ADM) laser trackers, as well as portable Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) arms. Photogrammetry was employed at NCSX as a quick and easy tool to monitor coil distortions incurred during welding operations of the machine assembly process and as a way to reduce assembly downtime for metrology processes.

  20. High-{beta}, improved confinement reversed-field pinch plasmas at high density

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, M. D.; Chapman, B. E.; Ahn, J. W.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Ebrahimi, F.; Ennis, D. A.; Fiksel, G.; Gangadhara, S.; Goetz, J. A.; O'Connell, R.; Oliva, S. P.; Prager, S. C.; Reusch, J. A.; Sarff, J. S.; Stephens, H. D.; Bonomo, F.; Franz, P.; Brower, D. L.

    2008-01-15

    In Madison Symmetric Torus [Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] discharges where improved confinement is brought about by modification of the current profile, pellet injection has quadrupled the density, reaching n{sub e}=4x10{sup 19} m{sup -3}. Without pellet injection, the achievable density in improved confinement discharges had been limited by edge-resonant tearing instability. With pellet injection, the total beta has been increased to 26%, and the energy confinement time is comparable to that at low density. Pressure-driven local interchange and global tearing are predicted to be linearly unstable. Interchange has not yet been observed experimentally, but there is possible evidence of pressure-driven tearing, an instability usually driven by the current gradient in the reversed-field pinch.

  1. Electromagnetic effects on dynamics of high-beta filamentary structures

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Wonjae; Umansky, Maxim V.; Angus, J. R.; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.

    2015-01-12

    The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on blob dynamics are considered. Electromagnetic BOUT++ simulations on seeded high-beta blobs demonstrate that inhomogeneity of magnetic curvature or plasma pressure along the filament leads to bending of the blob filaments and the magnetic field lines due to increased propagation time of plasma current (Alfvén time). The bending motion can enhance heat exchange between the plasma facing materials and the inner SOL region. The effects of sheath boundary conditions on the part of the blob away from the boundary are also diminished by the increased Alfvén time. Using linear analysis and the BOUT++ simulation,more » it is found that electromagnetic effects in high temperature and high density plasmas reduce the growth rate of resistive drift wave turbulence when resistivity drops below some certain value. Lastly, in the course of blobs motion in the SOL its temperature is reduced, which leads to enhancement of resistive effects, so the blob can switch from electromagnetic to electrostatic regime, where resistive drift wave turbulence become important.« less

  2. Electromagnetic effects on dynamics of high-beta filamentary structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Wonjae; Umansky, Maxim V.; Angus, J. R.; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.

    2015-01-12

    The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on blob dynamics are considered. Electromagnetic BOUT++ simulations on seeded high-beta blobs demonstrate that inhomogeneity of magnetic curvature or plasma pressure along the filament leads to bending of the blob filaments and the magnetic field lines due to increased propagation time of plasma current (Alfvén time). The bending motion can enhance heat exchange between the plasma facing materials and the inner SOL region. The effects of sheath boundary conditions on the part of the blob away from the boundary are also diminished by the increased Alfvén time. Using linear analysis and the BOUT++ simulation, it is found that electromagnetic effects in high temperature and high density plasmas reduce the growth rate of resistive drift wave turbulence when resistivity drops below some certain value. Lastly, in the course of blobs motion in the SOL its temperature is reduced, which leads to enhancement of resistive effects, so the blob can switch from electromagnetic to electrostatic regime, where resistive drift wave turbulence become important.

  3. Electromagnetic effects on dynamics of high-beta filamentary structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Wonjae; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.; Umansky, Maxim V.; Angus, J. R.

    2015-01-15

    The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on blob dynamics are considered. Electromagnetic BOUT++ simulations on seeded high-beta blobs demonstrate that inhomogeneity of magnetic curvature or plasma pressure along the filament leads to bending of the blob filaments and the magnetic field lines due to increased propagation time of plasma current (Alfvén time). The bending motion can enhance heat exchange between the plasma facing materials and the inner scrape-off layer (SOL) region. The effects of sheath boundary conditions on the part of the blob away from the boundary are also diminished by the increased Alfvén time. Using linear analysis and BOUT++ simulations, it is found that electromagnetic effects in high temperature and high density plasmas reduce the growth rate of resistive drift wave instability when resistivity drops below a certain value. The blobs temperature decreases in the course of its motion through the SOL and so the blob can switch from the electromagnetic to the electrostatic regime where resistive drift waves become important again.

  4. Comparison of immune responses against foot-and-mouth disease virus induced by fusion proteins using the swine IgG heavy chain constant region or beta-galactosidase as a carrier of immunogenic epitopes.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangjin; Chen, Weizao; Yan, Weiyao; Zhao, Kai; Liu, Mingqiu; Zhang, Jun; Fei, Liang; Xu, Quanxing; Sheng, Zutian; Lu, Yonggan; Zheng, Zhaoxin

    2004-10-25

    Previously, we demonstrated that a fusion protein (Gal-FMDV) consisting of beta-galactosidase and an immunogenic peptide, amino acids (141-160)-(21-40)-(141-160), of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 protein induced protective immune responses in guinea pigs and swine. We now designed a new potential recombinant protein vaccine against FMDV in swine. The immunogenic peptide, amino acids (141-160)-(21-40)-(141-160) from the VP1 protein of serotype O FMDV, was fused to the carboxy terminus of a swine immunoglobulin G single heavy chain constant region and expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed fusion protein (IgG-FMDV) was purified and emulsified with oil adjuvant. Vaccination twice at an interval of 3 weeks with the emulsified IgG-FMDV fusion protein induced an FMDV-specific spleen proliferative T-cell response in guinea pigs and elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody in guinea pigs and swine. All of the immunized animals were efficiently protected against FMDV challenge. There was no significant difference between IgG-FMDV and Gal-FMDV in eliciting immunity after vaccination twice in swine. However, when evaluating the efficacy of a single inoculation of the fusion proteins, we found that IgG-FMDV could elicit a protective immune response in swine, while Gal-FMDV only elicited a weak neutralizing activity and could not protect the swine against FMDV challenge. Our results suggest that the IgG-FMDV fusion protein is a promising vaccine candidate for FMD in swine. PMID:15464847

  5. Soluble interleukin-15 receptor alpha (IL-15R alpha)-sushi as a selective and potent agonist of IL-15 action through IL-15R beta/gamma. Hyperagonist IL-15 x IL-15R alpha fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Mortier, Erwan; Quéméner, Agnès; Vusio, Patricia; Lorenzen, Inken; Boublik, Yvan; Grötzinger, Joachim; Plet, Ariane; Jacques, Yannick

    2006-01-20

    Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is crucial for the generation of multiple lymphocyte subsets (natural killer (NK), NK-T cells, and memory CD8 T cells), and transpresentation of IL-15 by monocytes and dendritic cells has been suggested to be the dominant activating process of these lymphocytes. We have previously shown that a natural soluble form of IL-15R alpha chain corresponding to the entire extracellular domain of IL-15R alpha behaves as a high affinity IL-15 antagonist. In sharp contrast with this finding, we demonstrate in this report that a recombinant, soluble sushi domain of IL-15R alpha, which bears most of the binding affinity for IL-15, behaves as a potent IL-15 agonist by enhancing its binding and biological effects (proliferation and protection from apoptosis) through the IL-15R beta/gamma heterodimer, whereas it does not affect IL-15 binding and function of the tripartite IL-15R alpha/beta/gamma membrane receptor. Our results suggest that, if naturally produced, such soluble sushi domains might be involved in the IL-15 transpresentation mechanism. Fusion proteins (RLI and ILR), in which IL-15 and IL-15R alpha-sushi are attached by a flexible linker, are even more potent than the combination of IL-15 plus sIL-15R alpha-sushi. After binding to IL-15R beta/gamma, RLI is internalized and induces a biological response very similar to the IL-15 high affinity response. Such hyper-IL-15 fusion proteins appear to constitute potent adjuvants for the expansion of lymphocyte subsets.

  6. Magnetized Target Fusion collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intrator, Thomas

    2004-11-01

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) may be a low cost path to fusion, in a regime that is intermediate between magnetic and inertial fusion energy. It requires compression of a magnetized target plasma and consequent heating to fusion relevant conditions inside a converging flux conserver. We hope to demonstrate the physics basis for MTF, with a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) target plasma to be translated axially to a compression region. We show recent and improved FRC formation data, example deformable liner implosions, and a conceptual design for the upcoming translation experiments, and describe a multi institution collaboration. The FRC is an elongated, compact toroid equilibrium that is extreme among magnetic configurations, and relaxed to a non force free state. There is high plasma beta, small toroidal field, cross-field diamagnetic current and flows, vanishing rotational transform, magnetic shear, helicity and anomalously large resistivity. Scientific issues include MTF with and without FRC's, and fundamental plasma physics beyond MHD, relevant to geophysical and astrophysical phenomena.

  7. The highly charged region of plant beta-type phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase is involved in membrane targeting and phospholipid binding.

    PubMed

    Lou, Ying; Ma, Hui; Lin, Wen-Hui; Chu, Zhao-Qing; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2006-03-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, two types of PI 4-kinase (PI4Ks) have been isolated and functionally characterized. The alpha-type PI4Ks (approximately 220 kDa) contain a PH domain, which is lacking in beta-type PI4Ks (approximately 120 kDa). Beta-type PI4Ks, exemplified by Arabidopsis AtPI4Kbeta and rice OsPI4K2, contain a highly charged repetitive segment designated PPC (Plant PI4K Charged) region, which is an unique domain only found in plant beta-type PI4Ks at present. The PPC region has a length of approximately 300 amino acids and harboring 11 (AtPI4Kbeta) and 14 (OsPI4K2) repeats, respectively, of a 20-aa motif. Studies employing a modified yeast-based "Sequence of Membrane-Targeting Detection" system demonstrate that the PPC(OsPI4K2) region, as well as the former 8 and latter 6 repetitive motifs within the PPC region, are able to target fusion proteins to the plasma membrane. Further detection on the transiently expressed GFP fusion proteins in onion epidermal cells showed that the PPC(OsPI4K2) region alone, as well as the region containing repetitive motifs 1-8, was able to direct GFP to the plasma membrane, while the regions containing less repetitive motifs, i.e. 6, 4, 2 or single motif(s) led to predominantly intracellular localization. Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression of PPC-GFP fusion protein further confirms the membrane-targeting capacities of PPC region. In addition, the predominant plasma membrane localization of AtPI4Kbeta was mediated by the PPC region. Recombinant PPC peptide, expressed in E. coli, strongly binds phosphatidic acid, PI and PI4P, but not phosphatidylcholine, PI5P, or PI(4,5)P2 in vitro, providing insights into potential mechanisms for regulating sub-cellular localization and lipid binding for the plant beta-type PI4Ks. PMID:16649109

  8. Proposed Approach to Stable High Beta Plasmas in ET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. J.; Carter, T. A.; Gauvreau, J.-L.; Gourdain, P.-A.; Grossman, A.; Lafonteese, D. J.; Pace, D. C.; Schmitz, L. W.

    2003-10-01

    Five second long plasmas have been produced in ET with ease. We need these long pulses to evolve high beta equilibria under controlled conditions. However, equilibrium control is lost to internal disruptions due to the development of giant sawteeth on the 1 second time scale. This time scale is approximately the central energy confinement time, while the central particle confinement time is much longer than 1 second. This persistent limitation is present in ohmic and ICRF heated discharges. MHD stable current profiles have been found using DCON(A.H. Glasser, private communication) but transport related phenomena like giant sawteeth and uncontrolled transport barrier evolution are not yet part of a simple stability study. We are advocating avoiding the evolution of giant sawtooth and conditions responsible for MHD instabilities as opposed to exploring their stabilization. This is equivalent to the statement that self-organized plasmas are in fact not welcome in long pulse tokamaks. We intend to prevent self-organization by the application of a multi-faceted ICRF strategy. The in house technology is ready but the approach needs to be artful and not preconceived. The flexibility built into the ET hardware is likely to help us to find a way to achieve global plasma control. It is essential that this work be pursued geared towards parameter performance and configuration control. Both require a significant commitment to understanding the device physics AND delivering on the engineering required for control and performance.

  9. The high current transport experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, L.R.; Baca, D.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Morse, E.

    2004-05-01

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program to explore heavy-ion beam transport at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linac driver for fusion energy production. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density {approx} 0.2 {micro}C/m) over long pulse durations (4 {micro}s) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K{sup +} ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor ({approx}80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss, even though the initial beam distribution is not ideal (but the emittance is low) nor in thermal equilibrium. We achieved good envelope control, and rematching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  10. Development and application of nonflammable, high-temperature beta fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Frederic S.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in fiber technology have contributed to the success of the U.S. space program. The inorganic fiber Beta, developed as a result of efforts begun in the early 1960's and heightened following the January 27, 1967 Apollo fire is unique among inorganic and organic fibers. It has been developed into woven, nonwoven, knitted, braided, coated and printed structures. All of these were used extensively for the Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz test project, space shuttle, Spacelab, and satellite programs. In addition to being used successfully in the space program, Beta fibers are being used commercially as firesafe fabrics in homes, hospitals, institutions, public buildings, aircraft, and public transportation, wherever total nonflammability is required. One of the most unique applications of the Beta composite structure is the roofing material for the 80,000-seat Detroit Lion's Silverdome and 5 square miles of the Jeddah International Airport in Saudi Arabia. This fiber has been successfully incorporated into 165 major public construction projects around the globe. The United States alone has used more than 12 million square yards of the material. Beta fiber has been used successfully to date and has a promising future with unlimited potential for both space and commercial application. Efforts are currently underway to improve Beta fiber to meet the requirements of extended service life for the Space Station Freedom, lunar outpost, and Mars exploration missions.

  11. Whole organism high content screening identifies stimulators of pancreatic beta-cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Naoki; Ninov, Nikolay; Delawary, Mina; Osman, Sahar; Roh, Alex S; Gut, Philipp; Stainier, Didier Y R

    2014-01-01

    Inducing beta-cell mass expansion in diabetic patients with the aim to restore glucose homeostasis is a promising therapeutic strategy. Although several in vitro studies have been carried out to identify modulators of beta-cell mass expansion, restoring endogenous beta-cell mass in vivo has yet to be achieved. To identify potential stimulators of beta-cell replication in vivo, we established transgenic zebrafish lines that monitor and allow the quantification of cell proliferation by using the fluorescent ubiquitylation-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) technology. Using these new reagents, we performed an unbiased chemical screen, and identified 20 small molecules that markedly increased beta-cell proliferation in vivo. Importantly, these structurally distinct molecules, which include clinically-approved drugs, modulate three specific signaling pathways: serotonin, retinoic acid and glucocorticoids, showing the high sensitivity and robustness of our screen. Notably, two drug classes, retinoic acid and glucocorticoids, also promoted beta-cell regeneration after beta-cell ablation. Thus, this study establishes a proof of principle for a high-throughput small molecule-screen for beta-cell proliferation in vivo, and identified compounds that stimulate beta-cell proliferation and regeneration.

  12. The Role of Plastids in the Expression of Nuclear Genes for Thylakoid Proteins Studied with Chimeric [beta]-Glucuronidase Gene Fusions.

    PubMed Central

    Bolle, C.; Sopory, S.; Lubberstedt, T.; Klosgen, R. B.; Herrmann, R. G.; Oelmuller, R.

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed plastid and nuclear gene expression in tobacco seedlings using the carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor nor-flurazon. mRNA levels for three nuclear-encoded chlorophyll-binding proteins of photosystem I and photosystem II (CAB I and II and the CP 24 apoprotein) are no longer detectable in photobleached seedlings, whereas those for other components of the thylakoid membrane (the 33- and 23-kD polypeptides and Rieske Fe/S polypeptide) accumulate to some extent. Transgenic tobacco seedlings with promoter fusions from genes for thylakoid membrane proteins exhibit a similar expression behavior: a CAB-[beta]-glucuronidase (GUS) gene fusion is not expressed in herbicide-treated seedlings, whereas PC-, FNR-, PSAF-, and ATPC-promoter fusions are expressed, although at reduced levels. All identified segments in nuclear promoters analyzed that have been shown to respond to light also respond to photodamage to the plastids. Thus, the regulatory signal pathways either merge prior to gene regulation or interact with closely neighboring cis elements. These results indicate that plastids control nuclear gene expression via different and gene-specific cis-regulatory elements and that CAB gene expression is different from the expression of the other genes tested. Finally, a plastid-directing import sequence from the maize Waxy gene is capable of directing the GUS protein into the photodamaged organelle. Therefore, plastid import seems to be functional in photobleached organelles. PMID:12232290

  13. Alfvén acoustic channel for ion energy in high-beta tokamak plasmas.

    PubMed

    Bierwage, Andreas; Aiba, Nobuyuki; Shinohara, Kouji

    2015-01-01

    When the plasma beta (ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure) in the core of a tokamak is raised to values of several percent, as required for a thermonuclear fusion reactor, continuous spectra of long-wavelength slow magnetosonic waves enter the frequency band occupied by continuous spectra of shear Alfvén waves. It is found that these two branches can couple strongly, so that Alfvén modes that are resonantly driven by suprathermal ions transfer some of their energy to sound waves. Since sound waves are heavily damped by thermal ion Landau resonances, these results reveal a new energy channel that contributes to the damping of Alfvénic instabilities and the noncollisional heating of bulk ions, with potentially important consequences for confinement and fusion performance.

  14. The high beta tokamak-extended pulse magnetohydrodynamic mode control research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, D. A.; Bialek, J.; Byrne, P. J.; De Bono, B.; Levesque, J. P.; Li, B. Q.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Pedersen, T. S.; Rath, N.; Shiraki, D.

    2011-07-01

    The high beta tokamak-extended pulse (HBT-EP) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mode control research program is studying ITER relevant internal modular feedback control coil configurations and their impact on kink mode rigidity, advanced digital control algorithms and the effects of plasma rotation and three-dimensional magnetic fields on MHD mode stability. A new segmented adjustable conducting wall has been installed on the HBT-EP and is made up of 20 independent, movable, wall shell segments instrumented with three distinct sets of 40 saddle coils, totaling 120 in-vessel modular feedback control coils. Each internal coil set has been designed with varying toroidal angular coil coverage of 5, 10 and 15°, spanning the toroidal angle range of an ITER port plug based internal coil to test resistive wall mode (RWM) interaction and multimode MHD plasma response to such highly localized control fields. In addition, we have implemented 336 new poloidal and radial magnetic sensors to quantify the applied three-dimensional fields of our control coils along with the observed plasma response. This paper describes the design and implementation of the new control shell incorporating these control and sensor coils on the HBT-EP, and the research program plan on the upgraded HBT-EP to understand how best to optimize the use of modular feedback coils to control instability growth near the ideal wall stabilization limit, answer critical questions about the role of plasma rotation in active control of the RWM and the ferritic resistive wall mode, and to improve the performance of MHD control systems used in fusion experiments and future burning plasma systems.

  15. Osteocalcin protects pancreatic beta cell function and survival under high glucose conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kover, Karen; Yan, Yun; Tong, Pei Ying; Watkins, Dara; Li, Xiaoyu; Tasch, James; Hager, Melissa; Clements, Mark; Moore, Wayne V.

    2015-06-19

    Diabetes is characterized by progressive beta cell dysfunction and loss due in part to oxidative stress that occurs from gluco/lipotoxicity. Treatments that directly protect beta cell function and survival in the diabetic milieu are of particular interest. A growing body of evidence suggests that osteocalcin, an abundant non-collagenous protein of bone, supports beta cell function and proliferation. Based on previous gene expression data by microarray, we hypothesized that osteocalcin protects beta cells from glucose-induced oxidative stress. To test our hypothesis we cultured isolated rat islets and INS-1E cells in the presence of normal, high, or high glucose ± osteocalcin for up to 72 h. Oxidative stress and viability/mitochondrial function were measured by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} assay and Alamar Blue assay, respectively. Caspase 3/7 activity was also measured as a marker of apoptosis. A functional test, glucose stimulated insulin release, was conducted and expression of genes/protein was measured by qRT-PCR/western blot/ELISA. Osteocalcin treatment significantly reduced high glucose-induced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels while maintaining viability/mitochondrial function. Osteocalcin also significantly improved glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin content in rat islets after 48 h of high glucose exposure compared to untreated islets. As expected sustained high glucose down-regulated gene/protein expression of INS1 and BCL2 while increasing TXNIP expression. Interestingly, osteocalcin treatment reversed the effects of high glucose on gene/protein expression. We conclude that osteocalcin can protect beta cells from the negative effects of glucose-induced oxidative stress, in part, by reducing TXNIP expression, thereby preserving beta cell function and survival. - Highlights: • Osteocalcin reduces glucose-induced oxidative stress in beta cells. • Osteocalcin preserves beta cell function and survival under stress conditions. • Osteocalcin reduces glucose

  16. Operating experience with high beta superconducting rf cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.; Doolittle, L.R.; Benesch, J.F.

    1993-06-01

    The number of installed and operational {beta} = 1 superconducting rf cavities has grown significantly over the last two years in accelerator laboratories in Europe, Japan and the US. The total installed acceleration capability as of mid-1993 is approximately 1 GeV at nominal gradients. Major installations at CERN, DESY, KEK and CEBAF have provided large increments to the installed base and valuable operational experience. A selection of test data and operational experience gathered to date is reviewed.

  17. Retroviral delivery of GAD-IgG fusion construct induces tolerance and modulates diabetes: a role for CD4+ regulatory T cells and TGF-beta?

    PubMed

    Song, L; Wang, J; Wang, R; Yu, M; Sun, Y; Han, G; Li, Y; Qian, J; Scott, D W; Kang, Y; Soukhareva, N; Shen, B

    2004-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that antigen-specific tolerance could be induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated B cells retrovirally transduced with an immunoglobulin-antigen (or epitope-containing peptide) fusion construct. To investigate the mechanism of this gene therapy system, we now adapted this approach to immunotherapy of spontaneous diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease triggered, in part, by a pathogenic response to glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) 65. We demonstrate that LPS-stimulated splenocytes, retrovirally transfected with GAD-IgG fusion construct, induce a significant antigen-specific hyporesponsiveness at both cellular and humoral levels and reduce the incidence of diabetes in female NOD mice. Parallel with disease protection, we observed a prolonged increase of the numbers of CD4+CD25+ T cells in the periphery of GAD-IgG-treated mice, compared to those treated with a control IgG vector, both in the prediabetic period and persisting even 8 months after gene therapy. This increase appeared to be induced by the repeated stimulation of the antigen in the periphery instead of a result of differentiation of T-cell precursor in the thymus. Moreover, CD4+CD25+ T cells induced by GAD-IgG fusion construct were capable of suppressing the proliferative response of CD4+CD25- T cells in vitro; and ablation of the activity of CD4+CD25+ T cells by blocking antibody against CD25 could reverse GAD-specific T-cell hyporesponsiveness. These results suggested that CD4+CD25+ T-cell subset induced in GAD-IgG-treated NOD mice represented the regulatory or suppressive CD4+CD25+ T cells (Treg) and might play an important role in the induction and maintenance of tolerance in NOD mice. Furthermore, the numbers of splenic CD4+CD62L+ regulatory T cells in GAD-IgG-treated mice during the prediabetic period and serum TGF-beta levels in 34-38-week-old GAD-IgG-protected mice were also increased, compared to control IgG-treated ones

  18. High glucose induces suppression of insulin signalling and apoptosis via upregulation of endogenous IL-1beta and suppressor of cytokine signalling-1 in mouse pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Venieratos, Panagiotis D; Drossopoulou, Garyfalia I; Kapodistria, Katerina D; Tsilibary, Effie C; Kitsiou, Paraskevi V

    2010-05-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia and inflammatory cytokines disrupt and/or attenuate signal transduction pathways that promote normal beta-cell survival, leading to the destruction of endocrine pancreas in type 2 diabetes. There is convincing evidence that autocrine insulin signalling exerts protective anti-apoptotic effects on beta cells. Suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS) were induced by several cytokines and inhibit insulin-initiated signal transduction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high glucose can influence endogenous interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and SOCS expression thus affecting insulin signalling and survival in insulin-producing mouse pancreatic beta cells (betaTC-6). Results showed that prolonged exposure of betaTC-6 cells to increased glucose concentrations resulted in significant inhibition of insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR), and insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) as well as PI3-kinase activation. These changes were accompanied by impaired activation of the anti-apoptotic signalling protein Akt and annulment of Akt-mediated suppression of the Forkhead family of transcription factors (FoxO) activation. Glucose-induced attenuation of IRS-2/Akt-mediated signalling was associated with increased IL-1beta expression. Enhanced endogenous IL-1beta specifically induced mRNA and protein expression of SOCS-1 in betaTC-6 cells. Inhibition of SOCS-1 expression by SOCS-1-specific small interfering RNA restored IRS-2/PI3K-mediated Akt phosphorylation suppressed by high glucose. The upregulation of endogenous cytokine signalling and FoxO activation were accompanied by enhanced caspase-3 activation and increased susceptibility of cells to apoptosis. These results indicated that glucose-induced endogenous IL-1beta expression increased betaTC-6 cells apoptosis by inhibiting, at least in part, IRS-2/Akt-mediated signalling through SOCS-1 upregulation.

  19. High Cholesterol Obviates a Prolonged Hemifusion Intermediate in Fast SNARE-Mediated Membrane Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kreutzberger, Alex J.B.; Kiessling, Volker; Tamm, Lukas K.

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol is essential for exocytosis in secretory cells, but the exact molecular mechanism by which it facilitates exocytosis is largely unknown. Distinguishing contributions from the lateral organization and dynamics of membrane proteins to vesicle docking and fusion and the promotion of fusion pores by negative intrinsic spontaneous curvature and other mechanical effects of cholesterol have been elusive. To shed more light on this process, we examined the effect of cholesterol on SNARE-mediated membrane fusion in a single-vesicle assay that is capable of resolving docking and elementary steps of fusion with millisecond time resolution. The effect of cholesterol on fusion pore formation between synaptobrevin-2 (VAMP-2)-containing proteoliposomes and acceptor t-SNARE complex-containing planar supported bilayers was examined using both membrane and content fluorescent markers. This approach revealed that increasing cholesterol in either the t-SNARE or the v-SNARE membrane favors a mechanism of direct fusion pore opening, whereas low cholesterol favors a mechanism leading to a long-lived (>5 s) hemifusion state. The amount of cholesterol in the target membrane had no significant effect on docking of synaptobrevin vesicles. Comparative studies with α-tocopherol (vitamin E) show that the negative intrinsic spontaneous curvature of cholesterol and its presumed promotion of a very short-lived (<50 ms) lipid stalk intermediate is the main factor that favors rapid fusion pore opening at high cholesterol. This study also shows that this single-vesicle fusion assay can distinguish between hemifusion and full fusion with only a single lipid dye, thereby freeing up a fluorescence channel for the simultaneous measurement of another parameter in fast time-resolved fusion assays. PMID:26200867

  20. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M.

    1989-04-04

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  1. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M.

    1989-01-01

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  2. Comparison of Electron Capture and Beta Decay Rates in High Temperature Environment in Explosion of Supernova Type II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Rulee

    2015-08-01

    It is generally acknowledged that Type II supernova result from the collapse of iron core of a massive star which , at least in some cases, produces a neutron star. At this stage, the neutrinos are produced by neutronization which speeds up as collapse continues. During collapse an outward bound shock wave forms in the matter falling onto the nearly stationary core which shows reflectivity of matter . The conditions behind the shock at 100 to 200 km are suitable for neutrino heating . This neutrino heating blows a hot bubble above the protoneutron star and is the most important source of energy for Supernova explosion . At this stage , we try to attain the r-process path responsible for the production of heavy elements beyond iron , which are otherwise not possible to be formed by fusion reactions . The most interesting evolution occurs as temperature falls from 1010 K to 109 K . At these high temperature conditions , the near critical fluids after fusion reactions are forbidden and transform into the respective atoms by r-process path which on beta decaying produce the ultimate elements of the periodic chart . Another astrophysical parameter needed for our analysis is neutron number density which we take to be greater than 1020 cm-3 . With these , at different entropy environments , we assign the neutron binding energy that represents the r-process path in the chart of nuclides . Along the path , the experimental data of observed elements matches our calculated one . It is found that the dynamical timescale of the final collapse is dominated by electron capture on nuclei and not on free protons. It is also found that the beta decay rates are much higher than the corresponding electron capture rates at the same classical condition.

  3. Comparison of electron capture and beta decay rates in high temperature environment in explosion of supernova type II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Rulee

    It is generally acknowledged that Type II supernova results from the collapse of iron core of a massive star which, at least in some cases, produces a neutron star. At this stage, the neutrinos are produced by neutronization which speeds up as collapse continues. During collapse an outward bound shock wave forms in the matter falling onto the nearly stationary core. The conditions behind the shock at 100 to 200 km are suitable for neutrino heating. This neutrino heating blows a hot bubble above the protoneutron star and is the most important source of energy for Supernova explosion. At this stage, we try to attain the r-process (rapid neutron capture process) path responsible for the production of heavy elements beyond iron, which are otherwise not possible to be formed by fusion reactions. The most interesting evolution occurs as temperature falls from 1010 K to 109 K. At these high temperature conditions, the near critical fluids after fusion reactions transform into the respective atoms by r-process path which on beta decaying produce the ultimate elements of the periodic chart. Another astrophysical parameter needed for our analysis is neutron number density which we take to be greater than 1020 cm^{-3}. With these, at different entropy environments, we assign the neutron binding energy that represents the r-process path in the chart of nuclides. Along the path, the experimental data of observed elements matches our calculated one. It is found that the dynamical timescale of the final collapse is dominated by electron capture on nuclei and not on free protons. It is also found that the beta decay rates are much higher than the corresponding electron capture rates at the same classical condition.

  4. Interaction of high-energy trapped particles with ballooning modes in a tokamak with a high-. beta. plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailovskii, A. B.; Novakovaskii, S. V.; Smolyakov, A. I.

    1988-12-01

    A theory is derived for the interaction of high-energy trapped particleswith ballooning modes in a tokamak with a high-..beta.. plasma. A dispersionrelation is derived to describe the ballooning modes in the presence ofsuch particles; the effects of the high plasma ..beta.. are taken into account.The stability boundary for ballooning modes with zero and finite frequenciesis studied. The effects of finite bananas on the stability of ballooningmodes with zero frequencies are determined.

  5. Aqueous environmental crack propagation in high-strength beta titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Young, L.M.; Young, G.A. Jr.; Scully, J.R.; Gangloff, R.P.

    1995-05-01

    The aqueous environment-assisted cracking (EAC) behavior of two peak-aged beta-titanium was characterized with a fracture mechanics method. Beta-21S is susceptible to EAC under rising load in neutral 3.5 pct NaCi at 25 C and {minus}600 mV{sub SCE}, as indicated by a reduced threshold for subcritical crack growth (K{sub TH}), an average crack growth rate of up to 10 {mu}m s, and intergranular fracture compared to microvoid rupture in air. In contrast, the initiation fracture toughness (K{sub ICi}) of Ti-15-3 in moist air is lower than that of Beta-21S at similar high {sigma}{sub YS} (1,300 MPa) but is not degraded by chloride, and cracking is by transgranular microvoid formation. The intergranular EAC susceptibility of Beta-21S correlates with both {alpha}-colonies precipitated at {beta} grain boundaries and intense slip localization; however, the causal factor is not defined. Data suggest that both features, and EAC, are promoted by prolonged solution treatment at high temperature. In a hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE) scenario, crack-tip H could be transported by planar slip bands to strongly binding trap sites and stress/strain concentrations at {alpha} colony or {beta} grain boundaries. The EAC in Beta-21S is eliminated by cathodic polarization (to {minus}1,000 mV{sub SCE}), as well as by static loading for times that otherwise produce rising-load EAC.

  6. Formation of high-{beta} plasma and stable confinement of toroidal electron plasma in Ring Trap 1

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, H.; Yoshida, Z.; Morikawa, J.; Furukawa, M.; Yano, Y.; Kawai, Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Vogel, G.; Mikami, H.

    2011-05-15

    Formation of high-{beta} electron cyclotron resonance heating plasma and stable confinement of pure electron plasma have been realized in the Ring Trap 1 device, a magnetospheric configuration generated by a levitated dipole field magnet. The effects of coil levitation resulted in drastic improvements of the confinement properties, and the maximum local {beta} value has exceeded 70%. Hot electrons are major component of electron populations, and its particle confinement time is 0.5 s. Plasma has a peaked density profile in strong field region [H. Saitoh et al., 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference EXC/9-4Rb (2010)]. In pure electron plasma experiment, inward particle diffusion is realized, and electrons are stably trapped for more than 300 s. When the plasma is in turbulent state during beam injection, plasma flow has a shear, which activates the diocotron (Kelvin-Helmholtz) instability. The canonical angular momentum of the particle is not conserved in this phase, realizing the radial diffusion of charged particles across closed magnetic surfaces. [Z. Yoshida et al., Phys Rev. Lett. 104, 235004 (2010); H. Saitoh et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 112111 (2010).].

  7. Exposure fusion based on steerable pyramid for displaying high dynamic range scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinhua; Xu, De; Li, Bing

    2009-11-01

    Currently, most exposure fusion algorithms are put forward on the assumption that the source images are aligned prior to fusion. As a result, some artifacts, such as haloing, may be caused due to the slight misalignment in the source images. In order to reduce the influence induced by the misalignment, a novel shift-invariant and rotation-invariant steerable pyramid-based exposure fusion (SPBEF) algorithm is proposed. It can combine multiple color images of a scene with different exposures to one image with high quality. First, instead of processing of R, G, and B channels separately, the chrominance information of the scene is obtained by the average image of the median two images. The strategy can greatly reduce the computational complexity. Second, the luminance images of source images are then transferred to frequency domain and are fused to one luminance image using different fusion rules in different frequencies. In this process, fusion is performed in a hierarchical fashion. Last, the final color image is generated by combining the data of the fused luminance image and the chrominance information. Experiments show that SPBEF can give comparative or even better results compared to other exposure fusion algorithms, as well as other traditional pyramid-based fusion algorithms

  8. [Breeding of high-producing LI-F lipopeptide Paenibacillus polymyxa by protoplast fusion and differential expression analysis of fusion strains].

    PubMed

    Yan, Dong; Han, Jinzhi; Bie, Xiaomei; Lu, Zhaoxin; Lü, Fengxia; Zhao, Haizhen; Zhang, Chong

    2015-09-01

    Auxotrophic strains of N1-37 (Phe-) and N2-27 (His-), screened from mutations of Paenibacillus polymyxa JSa-9 previously, were used as the parent strains to screen high-producing LI-F antibacterial lipopeptide fusion strain through protoplast fusion with polyethylene glycol as a promote agent. Fusion strain F5-15 was obtained. Then the product of LI-F antibacterial lipopeptide was quantified by HPLC, and the difference of expression of the key genes of lipopeptide synthase between wild strain JSa-9 and the fusion strain was analyzed by real-time PCR. LI-F antibacterial lipopeptide yield of the fusion strain F5-15 was 3.1-fold of the original strain JSa9's, and the expression levels of the target genes were 10.48, 2.48, 2.1 and 11.8 fold of the initial strain JSa-9, respectively. PMID:26955718

  9. Satellite image fusion based on principal component analysis and high-pass filtering.

    PubMed

    Metwalli, Mohamed R; Nasr, Ayman H; Allah, Osama S Farag; El-Rabaie, S; Abd El-Samie, Fathi E

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents an integrated method for the fusion of satellite images. Several commercial earth observation satellites carry dual-resolution sensors, which provide high spatial resolution or simply high-resolution (HR) panchromatic (pan) images and low-resolution (LR) multi-spectral (MS) images. Image fusion methods are therefore required to integrate a high-spectral-resolution MS image with a high-spatial-resolution pan image to produce a pan-sharpened image with high spectral and spatial resolutions. Some image fusion methods such as the intensity, hue, and saturation (IHS) method, the principal component analysis (PCA) method, and the Brovey transform (BT) method provide HR MS images, but with low spectral quality. Another family of image fusion methods, such as the high-pass-filtering (HPF) method, operates on the basis of the injection of high frequency components from the HR pan image into the MS image. This family of methods provides less spectral distortion. In this paper, we propose the integration of the PCA method and the HPF method to provide a pan-sharpened MS image with superior spatial resolution and less spectral distortion. The experimental results show that the proposed fusion method retains the spectral characteristics of the MS image and, at the same time, improves the spatial resolution of the pan-sharpened image. PMID:20508708

  10. A luminescent Escherichia coli biosensor for the high throughput detection of beta-lactams.

    PubMed

    Valtonen, Satu J; Kurittu, Jussi S; Karp, Matti T

    2002-04-01

    A group-specific bioluminescent Escherichia coli strain for studying the action of beta-lactam antibiotics is described. The strain contains a plasmid, pBlaLux1, in which the luciferase genes from Photorhabdus luminescens are inserted under the control of the beta-lactam-responsive element ampR/ampC from Citrobacter freundii. In the presence of beta-lactams, the bacterial cells are induced to express the luciferase enzyme and three additional enzymes generating the substrate for the luciferase reaction. This biosensor for beta-lactams does not need any substrate or cofactor additions, and the bioluminescence can be measured very sensitively in real time by using a luminometer. Basic parameters affecting the light production and induction in the gram-negative model organism E. coli SNO301/pBlaLux1 by various beta-lactams were studied. The dose-response curves were bell shaped, indicating toxic effects for the sensor strain at high concentrations of beta-lactams. Various beta-lactams had fairly different assay ranges: ampicillin, 0.05-1.0 microg/ml; piperacillin, 0.0025-25 microg/ml; imipenem, 0.0025-0.25 microg/ml; cephapirin, 0.025-2.5 microg/ml; cefoxitin, 0.0025-1.5 microg/ml; and oxacillin, 25-500 microg/ml. Also, the induction coefficients (signal over background noninduced control) varied considerably from 3 to 158 in a 2-hour assay. Different non-beta-lactam antibiotics did not cause induction. Because the assay can be automated using microplate technologies, the approach may be suitable for higher throughput analysis of beta-lactam action.

  11. Spiroborate ester-mediated asymmetric synthesis of beta-hydroxy ethers and its conversion to highly enantiopure beta-amino ethers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kun; Ortiz-Marciales, Margarita; Correa, Wildeliz; Pomales, Edgardo; López, Xaira Y

    2009-06-01

    Borane-mediated reduction of aryl and alkyl ketones with alpha-aryl- and alpha-pyridyloxy groups affords beta-hydroxy ethers in high enantiomeric purity (up to 99% ee) and in good yield, using as catalyst 10 mol % of spiroborate ester 1 derived from (S)-diphenylprolinol. Representative beta-hydroxy ethers are successfully converted to beta-amino ethers, with minor epimerization, by phthalimide substitution under Mitsunobu's conditions followed by hydrazinolysis to obtain primary amino ethers or by imide reduction with borane to afford beta-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol ethers. Nonracemic Mexiletine and nAChR analogues with potential biological activity are also synthesized in excellent yield by mesylation of key beta-hydroxy pyridylethers and substitution with five-, six-, and seven-membered ring heterocyclic amines. PMID:19413288

  12. Yellow maize with high beta-carotene is an effective source of vitamin A in healthy Zimbabwean men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bioconversion efficiency of yellow maize beta-carotene to retinol in humans is unknown. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the vitamin A value of yellow maize beta-carotene in humans. A high beta-carotene containing yellow maize was grown in a hydroponic medium with 23 atom% 2H2O...

  13. Yellow maize with high (beta)-carotene is an effective source of vitamin A in healthy Zimbabwean men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: The bioconversion efficiency of yellow maize Beta-carotene to retinol in humans is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the vitamin A value of yellow maize Beta-carotene in humans. DESIGN: High Beta-carotene-containing yellow maize was grown in a hydroponic...

  14. High quality actively cooled plasma facing components for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nygren, R.

    1993-12-31

    This paper interweaves some suggestions for developing actively-cooled PFCs (plasma facing components) for future fusion devices with supporting examples taken from the design, fabrication and operation of Tore Supra`s Phase III Outboard Pump Limiter (OPL). This actively-cooled midplane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long pulse operation, has been operated in essentially thermally steady state conditions. From experience with testing to identify braze flaws in the OPL, recommendations are made to analyze the impact of joining flaws on thermal-hydraulic performance of PFCs and to validate a method of inspection for such flaws early in the design development. Capability for extensive in-service monitoring of future PFCs is also recommended and the extensive calorimetry and IR thermography used to confirm and update safe operating limits for power handling of the OPL are reviewed.

  15. High-throughput detection and quantification of mitochondrial fusion through imaging flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Aldo; Lannigan, Joanne; Kashatus, David

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles whose fusion and fission play an increasingly important role in a number of both normal and pathological cellular functions. Despite the increased interest in mitochondrial dynamics, robust, and quantitative methods to analyze mitochondrial fusion and fission activity in intact cells have not been developed. The current state-of-the art method to measure mitochondrial fusion activity is the polyethylene glycol (PEG) fusion assay in which cells expressing distinct mitochondrially-targeted fluorescent proteins (FPs) are fused together and mitochondrial fusion activity is determined by the rate at which color mixing occurs. Although this assay is useful, cell-cell fusion events are rare, and finding the number of fused cells required to generate statistically rigorous data is both tedious and time-consuming. Furthermore, the data-collection methods available for fluorescence microscopy lead to inherent selection biases that are difficult to control for. To that end, we have developed an unbiased and high-throughput method to detect, image, and analyze fused cells using the Amnis ImagestreamX™ MKII. With IDEAS™ software, we developed algorithms for identifying the fused cells (two nuclei within a single cell), distinguishing them from cell aggregates. Additionally, using the fluorescence localization of the mitochondrially-targeted fluorescent proteins (YFP and DsRed), we applied a modified co-localization algorithm to identify those cells that had a high co-localization score indicating mitochondrial fusion activity. These algorithms were tested using negative controls (FPs associated with fusion deficient mitochondria) and positive controls (cells expressing both FPs in the same mitochondria). Once validated these algorithms could be applied to test samples to evaluate the degree of mitochondrial fusion in cells with various genetic mutations. Ultimately, this new method is the first robust, high-throughput way to

  16. High-throughput detection and quantification of mitochondrial fusion through imaging flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Aldo; Lannigan, Joanne; Kashatus, David

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles whose fusion and fission play an increasingly important role in a number of both normal and pathological cellular functions. Despite the increased interest in mitochondrial dynamics, robust, and quantitative methods to analyze mitochondrial fusion and fission activity in intact cells have not been developed. The current state-of-the art method to measure mitochondrial fusion activity is the polyethylene glycol (PEG) fusion assay in which cells expressing distinct mitochondrially-targeted fluorescent proteins (FPs) are fused together and mitochondrial fusion activity is determined by the rate at which color mixing occurs. Although this assay is useful, cell-cell fusion events are rare, and finding the number of fused cells required to generate statistically rigorous data is both tedious and time-consuming. Furthermore, the data-collection methods available for fluorescence microscopy lead to inherent selection biases that are difficult to control for. To that end, we have developed an unbiased and high-throughput method to detect, image, and analyze fused cells using the Amnis ImagestreamX™ MKII. With IDEAS™ software, we developed algorithms for identifying the fused cells (two nuclei within a single cell), distinguishing them from cell aggregates. Additionally, using the fluorescence localization of the mitochondrially-targeted fluorescent proteins (YFP and DsRed), we applied a modified co-localization algorithm to identify those cells that had a high co-localization score indicating mitochondrial fusion activity. These algorithms were tested using negative controls (FPs associated with fusion deficient mitochondria) and positive controls (cells expressing both FPs in the same mitochondria). Once validated these algorithms could be applied to test samples to evaluate the degree of mitochondrial fusion in cells with various genetic mutations. Ultimately, this new method is the first robust, high-throughput way to

  17. Role of high l values in the onset of incomplete fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Pushpendra P.; Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Devendra P.; Gupta, Unnati; Singh, D.; Ansari, M. A.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.; Sharma, Manoj K.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2009-12-15

    A particle-{gamma}-coincidence experiment is performed to investigate the role of high l values in the production of direct-{alpha}-emitting channels (associated with incomplete fusion) in {sup 12}C+{sup 169}Tm system. Spin distributions of various xn/pxn/{alpha}xn/2{alpha}xn channels are measured at E{sub lab}=5.6A and 6.5A MeV. Entirely different de-excitation patterns are observed in direct-{alpha}-emitting channels and fusion-evaporation channels. The fusion-evaporation channels are found to be strongly fed over a broad spin range. While narrow range feeding for only high-spin states was observed in the case of direct-{alpha}-emitting channels, in the present work, incomplete fusion is shown to be a promising tool to populate high-spin states in final reaction products. To have better insight into the associated l values in different reaction channels, the present data are compared with similar data obtained in {sup 16}O(E{sub lab}{approx_equal}5.6A MeV) + {sup 169}Tm system. The mean driving angular momenta involved in the production of direct-{alpha}-emitting channels are found to be higher than those involved in the production of fusion-evaporation channels. Direct-{alpha} multiplicity in the forward cone increases with driving angular momenta, which indicates the origin of direct-{alpha}-emitting channels at high l values in noncentral interactions.

  18. High-Technology Companies Often Turn to Colleges for Confidential 'Beta Tests' of New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Judith Axler

    1988-01-01

    Beta testing--the process of trying a product in a real-world setting before releasing it commercially--exploits a natural interface between universities and high-technology industries. High-tech companies need confidential, real-world tests of new products, and universities are eager to get an early look at tomorrow's technology. (MLW)

  19. Highly sensitive phage-based biosensor for the detection of beta-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Nanduri, Viswaprakash; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Sista, Srinivas; Vodyanoy, Vitaly J; Simonian, Aleksandr L

    2007-04-25

    Development of real-time sensor based on the target-specific probe that make possible sensitive, rapid and selective detection and monitoring of the particular antigen molecules could be of substantial importance to the many applications. Because of its high specificity to the target molecules, excellent temperature stability, and easy production, bacterial phage might serve as a powerful biorecognition probe in biosensor applications. Here, we report extremely sensitive and specific label-free direct detection of model antigen, beta-galactosidase (beta-gal), based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. The beta-gal specific landscape phage 1G40 has been immobilized on the gold surface of SPR SPREETA sensor chip through physical adsorption [V. Nanduri, A.M. Samoylova, V.Petrenko, V. Vodyanoy and A.L.Simonian, Comparison of optical and acoustic wave phage biosensors, 206th Meeting of The Electrochemical Society, Honolulu, Hawaii, October 3-8, (2004)]. Another non-specific to the beta-gal phage, a wild-type phage F8-5, was used in the reference channel. The concentration-dependent binding of beta-gal in both channels were assessed by monitoring the sensor optical response as a function of time under different experimental conditions, and the concentration of beta-gal was computed in differential mode. Concentrations of beta-gal between 10(-12) M and 10(-7) M could be readily detected, with linear part of calibration curve between 10(-9) M and 10(-6) M. When beta-gal was pre-incubated with different concentrations of free 1G40 phage prior to exposure to the biosensor, concentration-dependent inhibition was observed, indicating on biosensor high specificity toward beta-gal. Apart from a flow through mode used to deliver the samples to the surface for the SPR sensor, batch mode sensing was also employed to study the binding of beta-gal to immobilized phage on the SPR sensor surface. Experiments using a flow through mode provided more consistent results in the

  20. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  1. High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion-Energy (HYLIFE) reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blink, J.A.; Hogam, W.J.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, E.R.; Pitts, J.H.

    1985-12-23

    The High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) concept to convent inertial confinement fusion energy into electric power has undergone intensive research and refinement at LLNL since 1978. This paper reports on the final HYLIFE design, focusing on five major areas: the HYLIFE reaction chamber (which includes neutronics, liquid-metal jet-array hydrocynamics, and structural design), supporting systems, primary steam system and balance of plant, safety and environmental protection, and costs. An annotated bibliography of reports applicable to HYLIFE is also provided. We conclude that HYLIFE is a particularly viable concept for the safe, clean production of electrical energy. The liquid-metal jet array, HYLIFE's key design feature, protects the surrounding structural components from x-rays, fusion fuel-pellet debris, neutron damage and activation, and high temperatures and stresses, allowing the structure to last for the plant's entire 30-year lifetime without being replaced. 127 refs., 18 figs.

  2. The Optimized Block-Regression Fusion Algorithm for Pansharpening of Very High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. X.; Yang, J. H.; Reinartz, P.

    2016-06-01

    Pan-sharpening of very high resolution remotely sensed imagery need enhancing spatial details while preserving spectral characteristics, and adjusting the sharpened results to realize the different emphases between the two abilities. In order to meet the requirements, this paper is aimed at providing an innovative solution. The block-regression-based algorithm (BR), which was previously presented for fusion of SAR and optical imagery, is firstly applied to sharpen the very high resolution satellite imagery, and the important parameter for adjustment of fusion result, i.e., block size, is optimized according to the two experiments for Worldview-2 and QuickBird datasets in which the optimal block size is selected through the quantitative comparison of the fusion results of different block sizes. Compared to five fusion algorithms (i.e., PC, CN, AWT, Ehlers, BDF) in fusion effects by means of quantitative analysis, BR is reliable for different data sources and can maximize enhancement of spatial details at the expense of a minimum spectral distortion.

  3. The National Ignition Facility - Applications for Inertial Fusion Energy and High Energy Density Science

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, E.M.; Hogan, W.J.

    1999-08-12

    Over the past several decades, significant and steady progress has been made in the development of fusion energy and its associated technology and in the understanding of the physics of high-temperature plasmas. While the demonstration of net fusion energy (fusion energy production exceeding that required to heat and confine the plasma) remains a task for the next millennia and while challenges remain, this progress has significantly increased confidence that the ultimate goal of societally acceptable (e.g. cost, safety, environmental considerations including waste disposal) central power production can be achieved. This progress has been shared by the two principal approaches to controlled thermonuclear fusion--magnetic confinement (MFE) and inertial confinement (ICF). ICF, the focus of this article, is complementary and symbiotic to MFE. As shown, ICF invokes spherical implosion of the fuel to achieve high density, pressures, and temperatures, inertially confining the plasma for times sufficient long (t {approx} 10{sup -10} sec) that {approx} 30% of the fuel undergoes thermonuclear fusion.

  4. Application of Magnetized Target Fusion to High-Energy Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. F.; Schmidt, G. R.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most fusion propulsion concepts that have been investigated in the past employ some form of inertial or magnetic confinement. Although the prospective performance of these concepts is excellent, the fusion processes on which these concepts are based still require considerable development before they can be seriously considered for actual applications. Furthermore, these processes are encumbered by the need for sophisticated plasma and power handling systems that are generally quite inefficient and have historically resulted in large, massive spacecraft designs. Here we present a comparatively new approach, Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF), which offers a nearer-term avenue for realizing the tremendous performance benefits of fusion propulsion'. The key advantage of MTF is its less demanding requirements for driver energy and power processing. Additional features include: 1) very low system masses and volumes, 2) high gain and relatively low waste heat, 3) substantial utilization of energy from product neutrons, 4) efficient, low peak-power drivers based on existing pulsed power technology, and 5) very high Isp, specific power and thrust. MTF overcomes many of the problems associated with traditional fusion techniques, thus making it particularly attractive for space applications. Isp greater than 50,000 seconds and specific powers greater than 50 kilowatts/kilogram appear feasible using relatively near-term pulse power and plasma gun technology.

  5. 14-3-3 fusion oncogenes in high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Han; Ou, Wen-Bin; Mariño-Enriquez, Adrian; Zhu, Meijun; Mayeda, Mark; Wang, Yuexiang; Guo, Xiangqian; Brunner, Alayne L.; Amant, Frédéric; French, Christopher A.; West, Robert B.; McAlpine, Jessica N.; Gilks, C. Blake; Yaffe, Michael B.; Prentice, Leah M.; McPherson, Andrew; Jones, Steven J. M.; Marra, Marco A.; Shah, Sohrab P.; van de Rijn, Matt; Huntsman, David G.; Dal Cin, Paola; Debiec-Rychter, Maria; Nucci, Marisa R.; Fletcher, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitously expressed regulators of various cellular functions, including proliferation, metabolism, and differentiation, and altered 14-3-3 expression is associated with development and progression of cancer. We report a transforming 14-3-3 oncoprotein, which we identified through conventional cytogenetics and whole-transcriptome sequencing analysis as a highly recurrent genetic mechanism in a clinically aggressive form of uterine sarcoma: high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS). The 14-3-3 oncoprotein results from a t(10;17) genomic rearrangement, leading to fusion between 14-3-3ε (YWHAE) and either of two nearly identical FAM22 family members (FAM22A or FAM22B). Expression of YWHAE–FAM22 fusion oncoproteins was demonstrated by immunoblot in t(10;17)-bearing frozen tumor and cell line samples. YWHAE–FAM22 fusion gene knockdowns were performed with shRNAs and siRNAs targeting various FAM22A exons in an t(10;17)-bearing ESS cell line (ESS1): Fusion protein expression was inhibited, with corresponding reduction in cell growth and migration. YWHAE–FAM22 maintains a structurally and functionally intact 14-3-3ε (YWHAE) protein-binding domain, which is directed to the nucleus by a FAM22 nuclear localization sequence. In contrast to classic ESS, harboring JAZF1 genetic fusions, YWHAE–FAM22 ESS display high-grade histologic features, a distinct gene-expression profile, and a more aggressive clinical course. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated absolute specificity of YWHAE–FAM22A/B genetic rearrangement for high-grade ESS, with no fusions detected in other uterine and nonuterine mesenchymal tumors (55 tumor types, n = 827). These discoveries reveal diagnostically and therapeutically relevant models for characterizing aberrant 14-3-3 oncogenic functions. PMID:22223660

  6. High-Adiabat High-Foot Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosion Experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H.-S.; Hurricane, O. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Döppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; Patel, P. K.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Kline, J. L.

    2014-02-01

    This Letter reports on a series of high-adiabat implosions of cryogenic layered deuterium-tritium (DT) capsules indirectly driven by a "high-foot" laser drive pulse at the National Ignition Facility. High-foot implosions have high ablation velocities and large density gradient scale lengths and are more resistant to ablation-front Rayleigh-Taylor instability induced mixing of ablator material into the DT hot spot. Indeed, the observed hot spot mix in these implosions was low and the measured neutron yields were typically 50% (or higher) of the yields predicted by simulation. On one high performing shot (N130812), 1.7 MJ of laser energy at a peak power of 350 TW was used to obtain a peak hohlraum radiation temperature of ˜300 eV. The resulting experimental neutron yield was (2.4±0.05)×1015 DT, the fuel ρR was (0.86±0.063) g/cm2, and the measured Tion was (4.2±0.16) keV, corresponding to 8 kJ of fusion yield, with ˜1/3 of the yield caused by self-heating of the fuel by α particles emitted in the initial reactions. The generalized Lawson criteria, an ignition metric, was 0.43 and the neutron yield was ˜70% of the value predicted by simulations that include α-particle self-heating.

  7. EDITORIAL: The Nuclear Fusion Award The Nuclear Fusion Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Award ceremony for 2009 and 2010 award winners was held during the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon. This time, both 2009 and 2010 award winners were celebrated by the IAEA and the participants of the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. The Nuclear Fusion Award is a paper prize to acknowledge the best distinguished paper among the published papers in a particular volume of the Nuclear Fusion journal. Among the top-cited and highly-recommended papers chosen by the Editorial Board, excluding overview and review papers, and by analyzing self-citation and non-self-citation with an emphasis on non-self-citation, the Editorial Board confidentially selects ten distinguished papers as nominees for the Nuclear Fusion Award. Certificates are given to the leading authors of the Nuclear Fusion Award nominees. The final winner is selected among the ten nominees by the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board voting confidentially. 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award nominees For the 2009 award, the papers published in the 2006 volume were assessed and the following papers were nominated, most of which are magnetic confinement experiments, theory and modeling, while one addresses inertial confinement. Sabbagh S.A. et al 2006 Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas Nucl. Fusion 46 635-44 La Haye R.J. et al 2006 Cross-machine benchmarking for ITER of neoclassical tearing mode stabilization by electron cyclotron current drive Nucl. Fusion 46 451-61 Honrubia J.J. et al 2006 Three-dimensional fast electron transport for ignition-scale inertial fusion capsules Nucl. Fusion 46 L25-8 Ido T. et al 2006 Observation of the interaction between the geodesic acoustic mode and ambient fluctuation in the JFT-2M tokamak Nucl. Fusion 46 512-20 Plyusnin V.V. et al 2006 Study of runaway electron generation during major disruptions in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 277-84 Pitts R.A. et al 2006 Far SOL ELM ion energies in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 82-98 Berk H.L. et al 2006

  8. Recurrent BCAM-AKT2 fusion gene leads to a constitutively activated AKT2 fusion kinase in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Kalpana; Coarfa, Cristian; Chao, Pei-Wen; Luo, Liming; Wang, Yan; Brinegar, Amy E.; Hawkins, Shannon M.; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Matzuk, Martin M.; Yen, Laising

    2015-01-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) is among the most lethal forms of cancer in women. Excessive genomic rearrangements, which are expected to create fusion oncogenes, are the hallmark of this cancer. Here we report a cancer-specific gene fusion between BCAM, a membrane adhesion molecule, and AKT2, a key kinase in the PI3K signaling pathway. This fusion is present in 7% of the 60 patient cancers tested, a significant frequency considering the highly heterogeneous nature of this malignancy. Further, we provide direct evidence that BCAM-AKT2 is translated into an in-frame fusion protein in the patient’s tumor. The resulting AKT2 fusion kinase is membrane-associated, constitutively phosphorylated, and activated as a functional kinase in cells. Unlike endogenous AKT2, whose activity is tightly regulated by external stimuli, BCAM-AKT2 escapes the regulation from external stimuli. Moreover, a BCAM-AKT2 fusion gene generated via chromosomal translocation using the CRISPR/Cas9 system leads to focus formation in both OVCAR8 and HEK-293T cell lines, suggesting that BCAM-AKT2 is oncogenic. Together, the results indicate that BCAM-AKT2 expression is a new mechanism of AKT2 kinase activation in HGSC. BCAM-AKT2 is the only fusion gene in HGSC that is proven to translate an aberrant yet functional kinase fusion protein with oncogenic properties. This recurrent genomic alteration is a potential therapeutic target and marker of a clinically relevant subtype for tailored therapy of HGSC. PMID:25733895

  9. A U.S. high-flux neutron facility for fusion materials development

    SciTech Connect

    Rei, Donald J

    2010-01-01

    Materials for a fusion reactor first wall and blanket structure must be able to reliably function in an extreme environment that includes 10-15 MW-year/m{sup 2} neutron and heat fluences. The various materials and structural challenges are as difficult and important as achieving a burning plasma. Overcoming radiation damage degradation is the rate-controlling step in fusion materials development. Recent advances with oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels show promise in meeting reactor requirements, while multi-timescale atomistic simulations of defect-grain boundary interactions in model copper systems reveal surprising self-annealing phenomenon. While these results are promising, simultaneous evaluation of radiation effects displacement damage ({le} 200 dpa) and in-situ He generation ({le} 2000 appm) at prototypical reactor temperatures and chemical environments is still required. There is currently no experimental facility in the U.S. that can meet these requirements for macroscopic samples. The E.U. and U.S. fusion communities have recently concluded that a fusion-relevant, high-flux neutron source for accelerated characterization of the effects of radiation damage to materials is a top priority for the next decade. Data from this source will be needed to validate designs for the multi-$B next-generation fusion facilities such as the CTF, ETF, and DEMO, that are envisioned to follow ITER and NIF.

  10. High fat programming of beta cell compensation, exhaustion, death and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Cerf, Marlon E

    2015-03-01

    Programming refers to events during critical developmental windows that shape progeny health outcomes. Fetal programming refers to the effects of intrauterine (in utero) events. Lactational programming refers to the effects of events during suckling (weaning). Developmental programming refers to the effects of events during both fetal and lactational life. Postnatal programming refers to the effects of events either from birth (lactational life) to adolescence or from weaning (end of lactation) to adolescence. Islets are most plastic during the early life course; hence programming during fetal and lactational life is most potent. High fat (HF) programming is the maintenance on a HF diet (HFD) during critical developmental life stages that alters progeny metabolism and physiology. HF programming induces variable diabetogenic phenotypes dependent on the timing and duration of the dietary insult. Maternal obesity reinforces HF programming effects in progeny. HF programming, through acute hyperglycemia, initiates beta cell compensation. However, HF programming eventually leads to chronic hyperglycemia that triggers beta cell exhaustion, death and dysfunction. In HF programming, beta cell dysfunction often co-presents with insulin resistance. Balanced, healthy nutrition during developmental windows is critical for preserving beta cell structure and function. Thus early positive nutritional interventions that coincide with the development of beta cells may reduce the overwhelming burden of diabetes and metabolic disease.

  11. A highly stable prefusion RSV F vaccine derived from structural analysis of the fusion mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Krarup, Anders; Truan, Daphné; Furmanova-Hollenstein, Polina; Bogaert, Lies; Bouchier, Pascale; Bisschop, Ilona J. M.; Widjojoatmodjo, Myra N.; Zahn, Roland; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; McLellan, Jason S.; Langedijk, Johannes P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes acute lower respiratory tract infections and is the leading cause of infant hospitalizations. Recently, a promising vaccine antigen based on the RSV fusion protein (RSV F) stabilized in the native prefusion conformation has been described. Here we report alternative strategies to arrest RSV F in the prefusion conformation based on the prevention of hinge movements in the first refolding region and the elimination of proteolytic exposure of the fusion peptide. A limited number of unique mutations are identified that stabilize the prefusion conformation of RSV F and dramatically increase expression levels. This highly stable prefusion RSV F elicits neutralizing antibodies in cotton rats and induces complete protection against viral challenge. Moreover, the structural and biochemical analysis of the prefusion variants suggests a function for p27, the excised segment that precedes the fusion peptide in the polypeptide chain. PMID:26333350

  12. Final technical report. 1998 HU CFRT summer fusion high school workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh

    1999-07-01

    The center conducted its third High School Summer Fusion Science Workshop in Summer 1998. The center had only three faculty mentors available only for a part of Summer 1998, The center accepted four scholars in this workshop, Prof. Halima Ali coordinated this workshop. Each student was assigned to a research mentor according to the student's interest in a specific research area and problem. In the workshop in the center, the students received instructions and training in the basics of energy, plasma and fusion sciences. They also received one-on-one instructions and training by their mentors to further their understanding of the subject and to introduce to relevant concepts such as magnetic confinement fusion, tokamaks, diverters and area-preserving maps.

  13. Atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation and posterior fusion using ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene cable.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Ikuho; Arai, Yasuhisa; Tsuji, Takaaki; Takahashi, Masaki; Kurosawa, Hisashi

    2005-10-01

    This article attempts to evaluate the effectiveness of the ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) cable system in atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation and posterior fusion through the clinical results of 10 postoperative patients with atlantoaxial subluxation secondary to rheumatoid arthritis. Among them, one patient with only one screw placed owing to an anomalous vertebral artery had the correction loss of the 3-mm atlas-dens interval after surgery. Another patient had a second operation to remove the screw and cable after 2 years 11 months because a unilateral transarticular screw had come to protrude through the lateral mass of the atlas ventrally. All patients had achieved C1-C2 osseous fusion without any complications associated with this cable system. The UHMW-PE cable is a very useful material as sublaminar wiring in atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation and posterior fusion. PMID:16189448

  14. Low-Beta Structure for High Energy Part of Project X

    SciTech Connect

    Solyak, N.; Gonin, I.; Yakovlev, V.; Drozdov, I.; Perunov, N.; /Moscow, MIPT

    2009-05-01

    Long 11-cell, {beta} = 0.81 L-band structure is considered as an initial stage of the high-energy part of the Project-X in order to accommodate to a standard Type-4 cryomodule. The cavity shape is optimized for maximal energy gain providing the same time field flatness along the structure not worse than for ILC {beta} = 1 cavity, and the same ratio of surface magnetic field to electric field. The results of spectrum analysis for monopole and dipole HOMs is presented as well.

  15. Specific expression of GFP{sub uv}-{beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 fusion protein in fat body of Bombyx mori silkworm larvae using signal peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y. . E-mail: yspark@agr.shizuoka.ac.jp

    2007-08-03

    Bombyxin (bx) and prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (ppae) signal peptides from Bombyx mori, their modified signal peptides, and synthetic signal peptides were investigated for the secretion of GFP{sub uv}-{beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 (GGT2) fusion protein in B. mori Bm5 cells and silkworm larvae using cysteine protease deficient B. mori multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmMNPV-CP{sup -} ) and its bacmid. The secretion efficiencies of all signal peptides were 15-30% in Bm5 cells and 24-30% in silkworm larvae, while that of the +16 signal peptide was 0% in Bm5 cells and 1% in silkworm larvae. The fusion protein that contained the +16 signal peptide was expressed specifically in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in the fractions of cell precipitations. Ninety-four percent of total intracellular {beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase ({beta}3GnT) activity was detected in cell precipitations following the 600, 8000, and 114,000g centrifugations. In the case of the +38 signal peptide, 60% of total intracellular activity was detected in the supernatant from the 114,000g spin, and only 1% was found in the precipitate. Our results suggest that the +16 signal peptide might be situated in the transmembrane region and not cleaved by signal peptidase in silkworm or B. mori cells. Therefore, the fusion protein connected to the +16 signal peptide stayed in the fat body of silkworm larvae with biological function, and was not secreted extracellularly.

  16. Near-equilibrium growth of thick, high quality beta-SiC by sublimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Virgil B.; Fekade, Konjit; Spencer, Michael G.

    1993-01-01

    A close spaced near-equilibrium growth technique was used to produce thick, high quality epitaxial layers of beta-silicon carbide. The process utilized a sublimation method to grow morphologically smooth layers. The beta silicon carbide growth layers varied from about 200 to 750 microns in thickness. Chemical vapor deposition grown, 2-10 microns, beta silicon carbide films were used as seeds at 1860 and 1910 C growth temperatures. The respective average growth rates were 20 and 30 microns per hour. The layers are p-type with a 3.1 x 10 exp 17/cu cm carrier concentration. Electrical measurements indicate considerable improvement in the breakdown voltage of Schottky barriers on growth samples. Breakdown values ranged from 25 to 60 V. These measurements represent the highest values reported for 3C-SiC.

  17. High-beta extended MHD simulations of stellarators with Spitzer resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtel, Torrin

    2015-11-01

    The nonlinear, extended MHD code NIMROD is used to study high-beta, 3D magnetic topology evolution of a toroidal stellarator. The configurations under investigation derive from the geometry of the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) experiment. However, the vacuum rotational transform profile is artificially raised by modifying applied magnetic fields in an effort to examine the sensitivity of low order rational surfaces and/or magnetic islands. Finite beta plasmas are created using a volumetric heating source and temperature dependent anisotropic heat conduction and resistivity. Flux surface dependent temperature and density profiles are used for the initial condition so that Spitzer resistivity can be applied. The onset of MHD instabilities and nonlinear consequences are monitored as a function of beta as well as the fragility of the magnetic surfaces. Research supported by US DOE under grant no. DE-FG02-99ER54546.

  18. MHD instabilities and their control in high-beta plasmas in KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    In, Yongkyoon

    2013-02-06

    We established 3 specific tasks as follows: Task 1 - Investigate the MHD activity during the current ramp-up phase with shaped plasmas; Task 2 - Develop a theoretical model that may show the hollowness dependent instability; Task 3 - Explore the beta-limiting instabilities. To address each task, FAR-TECH actively participated in the 2012 KSTAR run-campaign, which helped us make productive progress. Specifically, the shaping dependence of MHD activity during current ramp-up phase was investigated using dedicated run-time in KSTAR (October 4 and 9, 2012), which was also attempted to address the hollowness of temperature (or pressure) profiles. Also, a performance-limiting disruption, which occurred in a relatively high intermediate beta plasma (shot 7110) in KSTAR ({beta}{sub N} ~ 1.7), was studied, and the preliminary analysis shows that the disruption might not be stability-limited but likely density-limited.

  19. Spatial and Temporal Data Fusion for Generating High-Resolution Land Cover Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yong

    Currently, remote sensing imagery has been widely used for generating global land cover products, but due to certain physical and budget limitations related to the sensors, their spatial and temporal resolution are too low to attain more accurate and more reliable global change research. In this situation, there is an urgent need to study and develop a more advanced satellite image processing method and land cover producing techniques to generate higher resolution images and land cover products for global change research. Through conducting a comprehensive study of the related theories and methods related to data fusion, various methods are systematically reviewed and summarized, such as HIS transformation image fusion, Wavelet transform image fusion, the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM), etc. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are highlighted according to their specific applications in the field of remote sensing. Based on my research target, the following are the main contents of this thesis: (1) Data fusion theory will be systematically studied and summarized, including various fusion models and specific applications, such as IHS transformation, PCA transformation, Wavelet analysis based data fusion, etc. Furthermore, their advantages and disadvantages are pointed out in relation to specific applications. (2) As traditional data fusion methods rely on spatial information and it is hard to deal with multi-source data fusion with temporal variation, therefore, the traditional data fusion theory and methods will be improved by a consideration of temporal information. Accordingly, some spatial and temporal data fusion methods will be proposed, in which both high-resolution & low-temporary imagery and low-resolution & high-temporary imagery are incorporated. Our experiments also show that they are suitable for dealing with multi-temporal data integration and generating high-resolution, multi-temporal images for global

  20. Beta-alanine supplementation in high-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Harris, Roger C; Sale, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Glycolysis involves the oxidation of two neutral hydroxyl groups on each glycosyl (or glucosyl) unit metabolised, yielding two carboxylic acid groups. During low-intensity exercise these, along with the remainder of the carbon skeleton, are further oxidised to CO(2) and water. But during high-intensity exercise a major portion (and where blood flow is impaired, then most) is accumulated as lactate anions and H(+). The accumulation of H(+) has deleterious effects on muscle function, ultimately impairing force production and contributing to fatigue. Regulation of intracellular pH is achieved over time by export of H(+) out of the muscle, although physicochemical buffers in the muscle provide the first line of defence against H(+) accumulation. In order to be effective during high-intensity exercise, buffers need to be present in high concentrations in muscle and have pK(a)s within the intracellular exercise pH transit range. Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is ideal for this role given that it occurs in millimolar concentrations within the skeletal muscle and has a pK(a) of 6.83. Carnosine is a cytoplasmic dipeptide formed by bonding histidine and β-alanine in a reaction catalysed by carnosine synthase, although it is the availability of β-alanine, obtained in small amounts from hepatic synthesis and potentially in greater amounts from the diet that is limiting to synthesis. Increasing muscle carnosine through increased dietary intake of β-alanine will increase the intracellular buffering capacity, which in turn might be expected to increase high-intensity exercise capacity and performance where this is pH limited. In this study we review the role of muscle carnosine as an H(+) buffer, the regulation of muscle carnosine by β-alanine, and the available evidence relating to the effects of β-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine synthesis and the subsequent effects of this on high-intensity exercise capacity and performance.

  1. Genotyping of beta thalassemia trait by high-resolution DNA melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Saetung, Rattika; Ongchai, Siriwan; Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Sanguansermsri, Torpong

    2013-11-01

    Beta thalassemia is a common hereditary hemalogogical disease in Thailand, with a prevalence of 5-8%. In this study, we evaluated the high resolution DNA melting (HRM) assay to identify beta thalassemia mutation in samples from 143 carriers of the beta thalassemia traits in at risk couples. The DNA was isolated from venous blood samples and tested for mutation under a series of 5 PCR-HRM (A, B, C, D and E primers) protocols. The A primers were for detection of beta thalassemia mutations in the HBB promoter region, the B primers for mutations in exon I, the C primers for exon II, the D primers for exon III and the E primers for the 3.4 kb deletion mutation. The mutations were diagnosed by comparing the complete melting curve profiles of a wild type control with those for each mutant sample. With the PCR-HRM technique, fourteen types of beta thalassemia mutations were detected. Each mutation had a unique and specific melting profile. The mutations included 36.4% (52 cases) codon 41/42-CTTT, 26.6% (38 cases) codon 17 A-T, 11.2% (16 cases) IVS1-1 G-T, 8.4% (12 cases) codon 71/72 +A, 8.4% (12 cases) of the 3.4 kb deletion and 3.5% (5 cases) -28 A-G. The remainder included one instance each of -87 C-A, -31 A-C, codon 27/28 +C, codon 30 G-A, IVS1-5 G-C, codon 35 C-A, codon 41-C and IVSII -654 C-T. Of the total cases, 85.8% of the mutations could be detected by primers B and C. The PCR-HRM method provides a rapid, simple and highly feasible strategy for mutation screening of beta thalassemia traits. PMID:24450243

  2. High-beta experiments with neutral-beam injection on PDX

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.; Bell, M.; Bitter, M.

    1983-01-01

    We report experimental investigations of high-beta plasmas produced in PDX with near perpendicular neutral-beam injection. Systematic power scans have been performed over a wide range of toroidal fields (0.7T < B/sub T/ < 2.2T) and plasma currents (200 kA < I/sub p/ < 500 kA). At high toroidal fields, the change in total stored energy due to beam injection increases linearly with input power and also increases with plasma current. At lower toroidal fields and low injection-power levels, the stored energy also increases with power and plasma current. However, at high power and low toroidal fields, a saturation in heating is observed. This result suggests the onset of a ..beta../sub T/ limit for circular cross-sectional tokamaks with near-perpendicular injection. Scaling experiments indicate that this ..beta../sub T/ limit increases with rising (1/q). Values of ..beta../sub T/ approx. = 3% at q/sub Psi/ = 1.8 have been achieved.

  3. Sensitivity to Error Fields in NSTX High Beta Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jong-Kyu; Menard, Jonathan E.; Gerhardt, Stefan P.; Buttery, Richard J.; Sabbagh, Steve A.; Bell, Steve E.; LeBlanc, Benoit P.

    2011-11-07

    It was found that error field threshold decreases for high β in NSTX, although the density correlation in conventional threshold scaling implies the threshold would increase since higher β plasmas in our study have higher plasma density. This greater sensitivity to error field in higher β plasmas is due to error field amplification by plasmas. When the effect of amplification is included with ideal plasma response calculations, the conventional density correlation can be restored and threshold scaling becomes more consistent with low β plasmas. However, it was also found that the threshold can be significantly changed depending on plasma rotation. When plasma rotation was reduced by non-resonant magnetic braking, the further increase of sensitivity to error field was observed.

  4. Proteasome Dysfunction Mediates High Glucose-Induced Apoptosis in Rodent Beta Cells and Human Islets

    PubMed Central

    Broca, Christophe; Varin, Elodie; Armanet, Mathieu; Tourrel-Cuzin, Cécile; Bosco, Domenico; Dalle, Stéphane; Wojtusciszyn, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS), a major cellular protein degradation machinery, plays key roles in the regulation of many cell functions. Glucotoxicity mediated by chronic hyperglycaemia is detrimental to the function and survival of pancreatic beta cells. The aim of our study was to determine whether proteasome dysfunction could be involved in beta cell apoptosis in glucotoxic conditions, and to evaluate whether such a dysfunction might be pharmacologically corrected. Therefore, UPS activity was measured in GK rats islets, INS-1E beta cells or human islets after high glucose and/or UPS inhibitor exposure. Immunoblotting was used to quantify polyubiquitinated proteins, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through CHOP expression, and apoptosis through the cleavage of PARP and caspase-3, whereas total cell death was detected through histone-associated DNA fragments measurement. In vitro, we found that chronic exposure of INS-1E cells to high glucose concentrations significantly decreases the three proteasome activities by 20% and leads to caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. We showed that pharmacological blockade of UPS activity by 20% leads to apoptosis in a same way. Indeed, ER stress was involved in both conditions. These results were confirmed in human islets, and proteasome activities were also decreased in hyperglycemic GK rats islets. Moreover, we observed that a high glucose treatment hypersensitized beta cells to the apoptotic effect of proteasome inhibitors. Noteworthily, the decreased proteasome activity can be corrected with Exendin-4, which also protected against glucotoxicity-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our findings reveal an important role of proteasome activity in high glucose-induced beta cell apoptosis, potentially linking ER stress and glucotoxicity. These proteasome dysfunctions can be reversed by a GLP-1 analog. Thus, UPS may be a potent target to treat deleterious metabolic conditions leading to type 2 diabetes. PMID:24642635

  5. Physics of laser fusion. Volume III. High-power pulsed lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Eimerl, D.; George, E.V.; Trenholme, J.B.; Simmons, W.W.; Hunt, J.T.

    1982-09-01

    High-power pulsed lasers can deliver sufficient energy on inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) time scales (0.1 to 10 ns) to heat and compress deuterium-tritium fuel to fusion-reaction conditions. Several laser systems have been examined, including Nd:glass, CO/sub 2/, KrF, and I/sub 2/, for their ICF applicability. A great deal of developmental effort has been applied to the Nd:glass laser and the CO/sub 2/ gas laser systems; these systems now deliver > 10/sup 4/ J and 20 x 10/sup 12/ W to ICF targets. We are constructing the Nova Nd:glass laser at LLNL to provide > 100 kJ and > 100 x 10/sup 12/ W of 1-..mu..m radiation for fusion experimentation in the mid-1980s. For ICF target gain > 100 times the laser input, we expect that the laser driver must deliver approx. 3 to 5 MJ of energy on a time scale of 10 to 20 ns. In this paper we review the technological status of fusion-laser systems and outline approaches to constructing high-power pulsed laser drivers.

  6. High Density Plasma Beam Target Fusion: An Alternative form of Inertial Confinement to Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Dah Yu

    2005-10-01

    A scaling law has been demonstrated for a plasma gun in a 30 m diameter space chamber. Using a specific combination of delay time between the gas valve opening and operation of a capacitor bank switch, and the capacitor bank's voltage, the deflagration gun (Ref. 1) is capable of producing high kinetic energy and at a high density beam. Using a convergent gun barrel it is possible to compress beam density by a factor of 100. A 10^17/c.c.beam was obtained. If the kinetic energy is at 280 Kev (fusion threshold) Neutron flux up to 5 x 10^19 could be produced in a 1 micro-second period. This represents 500 MJ of energy yield. If the classical fusion energy data were in error by a factor of 100 that still would yield 5 MJ of fusion energy. Results obtained from experiments in the 30 m diameter space chamber have demonstrated such a capability using a 120 KV capacitor bank with 200 KJ of stored energy (Ref. 1). A very small scale experiment has demonstrated a yield of 10^15 neutrons using less than 10 kJ of capacitor energy.References:1. Cheng, D.Y. 1970 Plasma Deflagration and the Properties of a Coaxial Plasma Deflagration Gun. Nuclear Fusion, 10, pp. 305- 317

  7. Current Activities Assessing Butt Fusion Joint Integrity in High Density Polyethylene Piping

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Doctor, Steven R.; Denslow, Kayte M.

    2012-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, conducted initial studies to evaluate the effectiveness of nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing for assessing butt fusion joint integrity in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. The work provided insightful information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques for detecting lack of fusion (LOF) conditions in the fusion joints. HDPE has been installed on a limited basis in American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Class 3, buried piping systems at several operating U.S. nuclear power plants and has been proposed for use in new construction. A comparison was made between the results from ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive examinations and the results from mechanical destructive evaluations, specifically the high-speed tensile test and the side-bend test, for determining joint integrity. The data comparison revealed that none of the NDE techniques detected all of the lack-of-fusion conditions that were revealed by the destructive tests. Follow-on work has recently been initiated at PNNL to accurately characterize the NDE responses from machined flaws of varying size and location in PE 4710 materials as well as the LOF condition. This effort is directed at quantifying the ability of volumetric NDE techniques to detect flaws in relation to the critical flaw size associated with joint integrity. A status of these latest investigations is presented.

  8. Determination of serum delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid sulphates by combined high-performance liquid chromatography and immobilized 3 beta,17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in column form.

    PubMed

    Wu, M C; Takagi, K; Okuyama, S; Ohsawa, M; Masahashi, T; Narita, O; Tomoda, Y

    1986-04-25

    We studied the use of an immobilized enzyme, covalently bound to aminopropyl-CPG, in the analysis of individual delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid sulphates. A microcolumn with immobilized 3 beta,17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was prepared and used together with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide produced from delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroids by this enzyme was fluorimetrically determined. The immobilized enzyme was sufficiently stable for at least one month or for 180 tests when used repeatedly. A clinical trial demonstrated that this HPLC-immobilized enzyme method is superior to the soluble enzyme method, giving reliable and reproducible results at a low cost. PMID:2940254

  9. Possible Origin of Improved High Temperature Performance of Hydrothermally Aged Cu/Beta Zeolite Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Peden, Charles HF; Kwak, Ja Hun; Burton, Sarah D.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Kim, Do Heui; Lee, Jong H.; Jen, H. W.; Cavattaio, Giovanni; Cheng, Yisun; Lambert, Christine

    2012-04-30

    The hydrothermal stability of Cu/beta NH3 SCR catalysts are explored here. In particular, this paper focuses on the interesting ability of this catalyst to maintain and even enhance high-temperature performance for the "standard" SCR reaction after modest (900 °C, 2 hours) hydrothermal aging. Characterization of the fresh and aged catalysts was performed with an aim to identify possible catalytic phases responsible for the enhanced high temperature performance. XRD, TEM and 27Al NMR all showed that the hydrothermally aging conditions used here resulted in almost complete loss of the beta zeolite structure between 1 and 2 hours aging. While the 27Al NMR spectra of 2 and 10 hour hydrothermally-aged catalysts showed significant loss of a peak associated with tetrahedrally-coordinated Al species, no new spectral features were evident. Two model catalysts, suggested by these characterization data as possible mimics of the catalytic phase formed during hydrothermal aging of Cu/beta, were prepared and tested for their performance in the "standard" SCR and NH3 oxidation reactions. The similarity in their reactivity compared to the 2 hour hydrothermally-aged Cu/beta catalyst suggests possible routes for preparing multi-component catalysts that may have wider temperature windows for optimum performance than those provided by current Cu/zeolite catalysts.

  10. Fusion: ultra-high-speed and IR image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etoh, T. Goji; Dao, V. T. S.; Nguyen, Quang A.; Kimata, M.

    2015-08-01

    Most targets of ultra-high-speed video cameras operating at more than 1 Mfps, such as combustion, crack propagation, collision, plasma, spark discharge, an air bag at a car accident and a tire under a sudden brake, generate sudden heat. Researchers in these fields require tools to measure the high-speed motion and heat simultaneously. Ultra-high frame rate imaging is achieved by an in-situ storage image sensor. Each pixel of the sensor is equipped with multiple memory elements to record a series of image signals simultaneously at all pixels. Image signals stored in each pixel are read out after an image capturing operation. In 2002, we developed an in-situ storage image sensor operating at 1 Mfps 1). However, the fill factor of the sensor was only 15% due to a light shield covering the wide in-situ storage area. Therefore, in 2011, we developed a backside illuminated (BSI) in-situ storage image sensor to increase the sensitivity with 100% fill factor and a very high quantum efficiency 2). The sensor also achieved a much higher frame rate,16.7 Mfps, thanks to the wiring on the front side with more freedom 3). The BSI structure has another advantage that it has less difficulties in attaching an additional layer on the backside, such as scintillators. This paper proposes development of an ultra-high-speed IR image sensor in combination of advanced nano-technologies for IR imaging and the in-situ storage technology for ultra-highspeed imaging with discussion on issues in the integration.

  11. Optical lightpipe as a high-bandwidth fusion diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, M. J.; Lerche, R. A.; Mant, G.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Mack, J. M.

    2006-10-01

    A recent series of experiments at the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics OMEGA facility studied the feasibility of using radiation-to-light converters and high-bandwidth optical signal transmission to remote recording devices as an alternate nuclear diagnostic method. A prototype system included a radiation-to-light converter, a multiple-section lightpipe consisting of stainless steel tubes with polished interiors and turning mirrors, and a streak camera or photomultiplier/digitizer combination for signal recording. Several different radiation-to-light converters (scintillators, glasses, plastics, and pressurized CO2) performed well and produced predictable optical emissions. The lightpipe transmitted high-bandwidth optical signals to the recording stations. Data were recorded with the streak camera, the photomultiplier/digitizer, and with both recorders simultaneously.

  12. The Optical Lightpipe as a High-Bandwidth Fusion Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, M J; Lerche, R A; Mant, G; Glebov, V Y; Sangster, T C; Mack, J M

    2006-07-21

    A recent series of experiments at the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics OMEGA facility studied the feasibility of using radiation-to-light converters and high bandwidth optical signal transmission to remote recording devices as an alternate nuclear diagnostic method. A prototype system included a radiation-to-light converter, a multiple-section light pipe consisting of stainless steel tubes with polished interiors and turning mirrors, and a streak camera or photomultiplier/digitizer combination for signal recording. Several different radiation-to-light converters (scintillators, glasses, plastics, and pressurized CO{sub 2}) performed well and produced predictable optical emissions. The lightpipe transmitted high-bandwidth optical signals to the recording stations. Data were recorded with the streak camera, the photomultiplier/digitizer, and with both recorders simultaneously.

  13. Thermal and structural design aspects of high-temperature blankets for fusion synfuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.; Reich, M.

    1981-01-01

    The most promising process, high temperature electrolysis (HTE) of steam at temperatures of greater than or equal to 1000/sup 0/C is examined. In HTE, a large fraction (up to approx. 50%) of the energy input to split water to hydrogen and oxygen comes from thermal energy. For the projected operating conditions achieved by high temperature fusion blankets, overall efficiencies for hydrogen production should be on the order of 60%. The design, thermal-hydraulics, and materials for such blankets are discussed.

  14. Highly charged ions in magnetic fusion plasmas: research opportunities and diagnostic necessities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    2015-07-01

    Highly charged ions play a crucial role in magnetic fusion plasmas. These plasmas are excellent sources for producing highly charged ions and copious amounts of radiation for studying their atomic properties. These studies include calibration of density diagnostics, x-ray production by charge exchange, line identifications and accurate wavelength measurements, and benchmark data for ionization balance calculations. Studies of magnetic fusion plasmas also consume a large amount of atomic data, especially in order to develop new spectral diagnostics. Examples we give are the need for highly accurate wavelengths as references for measurements of bulk plasma motion, the need for accurate line excitation rates that encompass both electron-impact excitation and indirect line formation processes, for accurate position and resonance strength information of dielectronic recombination satellite lines that may broaden or shift diagnostic lines or that may provide electron temperature information, and the need for accurate ionization balance calculations. We show that the highly charged ions of several elements are of special current interest to magnetic fusion, notably highly charged ions of argon, iron, krypton, xenon, and foremost of tungsten. The electron temperatures thought to be achievable in the near future may produce W70+ ions and possibly ions with even higher charge states. This means that all but a few of the most highly charged ions are of potential interest as plasma diagnostics or are available for basic research.

  15. Options for integrated beam experiments for inertial fusion energy and high-energy density physics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, M. A.; Celata, C. M.; Lee, E. P.; Logan, B. G.; Waldron, W. L.; Yu, S. S.; Barnard, J. J.

    2005-05-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL), a collaboration among LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL, is presently focused on separate smaller-scale scientific experiments addressing key issues of future Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and High-Energy-Density-Physics (HEDP) drivers: the injection, transport, and focusing of intense heavy ion beams at currents from 25 to 600 mA. As a next major step in the HIF-VNL program, we aim for a fully integrated beam physics experiment, which allows integrated source-to-target physics research with a high-current heavy ion beam of IFE-relevant brightness with the goal of optimizing target focusing. This paper describes two rather different options for such an integrated experiment, the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) and the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX). Both proposals put emphasis on the unique capability for integrated injection, acceleration, compression, and focusing of a high-current, space-charge-dominated heavy ion beam.

  16. PROGRESS TOWARD FULLY NONINDUCTIVE, HIGH BETA DISCHARGES IN DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    GREENFIELD,CM; FERRON,JR; MURAKAMI,M; WADE,MR; BUDNY,RV; BURRELL,KH; CASPER,TA; DeBOO,JC; DOYLE,EJ; GAROFALO,AM; JAYAKUMAR,RJ; KESSEL,C; LAO,LL; LOHR,J; LUCE,TC; MAKOWSKI,MA; MENARD,JE; PETRIE,TW; PETTY,CC; PINSKER,RI; PRATER,R; POLITZER,PA; St JOHN,HE; TAYLOR,TS; WEST,WP; DIII-D NATIONAL TEAM

    2003-08-01

    OAK-B135 Advanced Tokamak (AT) research in DIII-D focuses on developing a scientific basis for steady-state, high performance operation. For optimal performance, these experiments routinely operate with {beta} above the n = 1 no-wall limit, enabled by active feed-back control. The ideal wall {beta} limit is optimized by modifying the plasma shape, current and pressure profile. Present DIII-D AT experiments operate with f{sub BS} {approx} 50%-60%, with a long-term goal of {approx} 90%. Additional current is provided by neutral beam and electron cyclotron current drive, the latter being localized well away from the magnetic axis ({rho} {approx} 0.4-0.5). Guided by integrated modeling, recent experiments have produced discharges with {beta} {approx} 3%, {beta}{sub N} {approx} 3, f{sub BS} {approx} 55% and noninductive fraction f{sub NI} {approx} 90%. Additional control is anticipated using fast wave current drive to control the central current density.

  17. JET intrinsic rotation studies in plasmas with a high normalized beta and varying toroidal field ripple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, M. F. F.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Giroud, C.; Johnson, T. J.; Kirov, K.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Ongena, J.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.; Rimini, F.; Tala, T.; de Vries, P.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Contributors, JET-EFDA

    2012-07-01

    Understanding the origin of rotation in ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heated plasmas is important for predictions for burning plasmas sustained by alpha particles, being characterized by a large population of fast ions and no external momentum input. The angular velocity of the plasma column has been measured in JET H-mode plasmas with pure ICRF heating both for the standard low toroidal magnetic ripple configuration, of about ˜0.08% and, for increased ripple values up to 1.5% (Nave et al 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 105005). These new JET rotation data were compared with the multi-machine scaling of Rice et al (2007 Nucl. Fusion 47 1618) for the Alfvén-Mach number and with the scaling for the velocity change from L-mode into H-mode. The JET data do not fit well any of these scalings that were derived for plasmas that are co-rotating with respect to the plasma current. With the standard low ripple configuration, JET plasmas with large ICRF heating power and normalized beta, βN ≈ 1.3, have a very small co-current rotation, with Alfvén-Mach numbers significantly below those given by the rotation scaling of Rice et al (2007 Nucl. Fusion 47 1618). In some cases the plasmas are actually counter-rotating. No significant difference between the H-mode and L-mode rotation is observed. Typically the H-mode velocities near the edge are lower than those in L-modes. With ripple values larger than the standard JET value, between 1% and 1.5%, H-mode plasmas were obtained where both the edge and the core counter-rotated.

  18. Magnetic fields, plasma densities, and plasma beta parameters estimated from high-frequency zebra fine structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlický, M.; Jiricka, K.

    2002-10-01

    Using the recent model of the radio zebra fine structures (Ledenev et al. 2001) the magnetic fields, plasma densities, and plasma beta parameters are estimated from high-frequency zebra fine structures. It was found that in the flare radio source of high-frequency (1-2 GHz) zebras the densities and magnetic fields vary in the intervals of (1-4)×1010 cm-3 and 40-230 G, respectively. Assuming then the flare temperature as about of 107K, the plasma beta parameters in the zebra radio sources are in the 0.05-0.81 interval. Thus the plasma pressure effects in such radio sources, especially in those with many zebra lines, are not negligible.

  19. Free boundary, high beta equilibrium in a large aspect ratio tokamak with nearly circular plasma boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, H.; Reiman, A.

    1996-09-25

    An analytic solution is obtained for free-boundary, high-beta equilibria in large aspect ratio tokamaks with a nearly circular plasma boundary. In the absence of surface currents at the plasma-vacuum interface, the free-boundary equilibrium solution introduces constraints arising from the need to couple to an external vacuum field which is physically realizable with a reasonable set of external field coils. This places a strong constraint on the pressure profiles that are consistent with a given boundary shape at high {epsilon}{beta}{sub p}. The equilibrium solution also provides information on the flux surface topology. The plasma is bounded by a separatrix. Increasing the plasma pressure at fixed total current causes the plasma aperture to decrease in a manner that is described.

  20. High beta and second region stability analysis and ICRF edge modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the tasks accomplished under Department of Energy contract [number sign]DE-FG02-86ER53236 in modeling the edge plasma-antenna interaction that occurs during Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating. This work has resulted in the development of several codes which determine kinetic and fluid modifications to the edge plasma. When used in combination, these code predict the level of impurity generation observed in experiments on the experiments on the Princeton Large Torus. In addition, these models suggest improvements to the design of ICRF antennas. Also described is progress made on high beta and second region analysis. Code development for a comprehensive infernal mode analysis code is nearing completion. A method has been developed for parameterizing the second region of stability and is applied to circular cross section tokamas. Various studies for high beta experimental devices such as PBX-M and DIII-D have been carried out and are reported on.

  1. The NIF: An international high energy density science and inertial fusion user facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, E. I.; Storm, E.

    2013-11-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a 1.8-MJ/500-TW Nd:Glass laser facility designed to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density science (HEDS), is operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A primary goal of NIF is to create the conditions necessary to demonstrate laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and burn. NIF experiments in support of indirect-drive ignition began late in FY2009 as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), an international effort to achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory. To date, all of the capabilities to conduct implosion experiments are in place with the goal of demonstrating ignition and developing a predictable fusion experimental platform in 2012. The results from experiments completed are encouraging for the near-term achievement of ignition. Capsule implosion experiments at energies up to 1.6 MJ have demonstrated laser energetics, radiation temperatures, and symmetry control that scale to ignition conditions. Of particular importance is the demonstration of peak hohlraum temperatures near 300 eV with overall backscatter less than 15%. Important national security and basic science experiments have also been conducted on NIF. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of laser-driven Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). This paper will describe the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the beginning of fundamental science experiments and the plans to transition NIF to an international user facility providing access to HEDS and fusion energy researchers around the world.

  2. Beta-endorphin immunoreactivity during high-intensity exercise with and without opiate blockade.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, T J

    2001-11-01

    Nine highly fit men [mean (SE) maximum oxygen uptake, VO2max: 63.9 (1.7) ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); age 27.6 (1.6) years] were studied during two treadmill exercise trials to determine plasma beta-endorphin immunoreactivity during intense exercise (80% VO2max). A double-blind experimental design was used, and subjects performed the two exercise trials in counterbalanced order. Exercise trials were 30 min in duration and were conducted 7 days apart. One exercise trial was undertaken following administration of naloxone (1.2 3 cm3) and the other after receiving a placebo (0.9% NaCl saline; 3 cm3). Prior to each experimental trial, a flexible catheter was placed into an antecubital vein and baseline blood samples were collected. Thereafter, each subject received either a naloxone or placebo bolus injection. Blood samples were also collected after 10, 20 and 30 min of continuous exercise. beta-Endorphin was higher (P < 0.05) during exercise when compared to pre-exercise in both trials. However, no statistically significant difference was found (P> 0.05) between exercise time points within either experimental trial. beta-endorphin immunoreactivity was greater (P < 0.05) in the naloxone than in the placebo trial during each exercise sampling time point [10 min: 63.7 (3.9) pg x ml(-1) vs 78.7 (3.8) pg x ml(-1); 20 min: 68.7 (4.1) pg x ml(-1) vs (4.3) pg x ml(-1); 30 min: 71.0 (4.3) pg x ml(-1) vs 82.5(3.2) pg x ml(-1)]. These data suggest that intense exer induces significant increases in beta-endorphin that are maintained over time during steady-rate exercise. Exercise and naloxone had an interactive effect on beta-endorphin release that warrants further investigation. PMID:11820329

  3. US Heavy Ion Beam Research for High Energy Density Physics Applications and Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.C.; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Briggs, R.J.; et al.

    2005-09-19

    Key scientific results from recent experiments, modeling tools, and heavy ion accelerator research are summarized that explore ways to investigate the properties of high energy density matter in heavy-ion-driven targets, in particular, strongly-coupled plasmas at 0.01 to 0.1 times solid density for studies of warm dense matter, which is a frontier area in high energy density physics. Pursuit of these near-term objectives has resulted in many innovations that will ultimately benefit heavy ion inertial fusion energy. These include: neutralized ion beam compression and focusing, which hold the promise of greatly improving the stage between the accelerator and the target chamber in a fusion power plant; and the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA), which may lead to compact, low-cost modular linac drivers.

  4. High-yield production, refolding and a molecular modelling of the catalytic module of (1,3)-beta-D-glucan (curdlan) synthase from Agrobacterium sp.

    PubMed

    Hrmova, Maria; Stone, Bruce A; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2010-05-01

    Biosynthesis of the (1,3)-beta-D: -glucan (curdlan) in Agrobacterium sp., is believed to proceed by the repetitive addition of glucosyl residues from UDP-glucose by a membrane-embedded curdlan synthase (CrdS) [UDP-glucose: (1,3)-beta-D: -glucan 3-beta-D: -glucosyltransferase; EC 2.4.1.34]. The catalytic module of CrdS (cm-CrdS) was expressed in good yield from a cDNA encoding cm-CrdS cloned into the pET-32a(+) vector, containing a coding region for thioredoxin, and from the Champion pET SUMO system that possesses a coding region of a small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) partner protein. The two DNA fusions, designated pET-32a_cm-CrdS and SUMO_cm-CrdS were expressed as chimeric proteins. High yields of inclusion bodies were produced in E. coli and these could be refolded to form soluble proteins, using a range of buffers and non-detergent sulfobetaines. A purification protocol was developed, which afforded a one-step on-column refolding and simultaneous purification of the recombinant 6xHis-tagged SUMO_cm-CrdS protein. The latter protein was digested by a specific protease to yield intact cm-CrdS in high yields. The refolded SUMO_cm-CrdS protein did not exhibit curdlan synthase activity, but showed a circular dischroism spectrum, which had an alpha/beta-type-like conformation. Amino acid sequences of tryptic fragments of the SUMO_cm-CrdS fusion and free cm-CrdS proteins, determined by MALDI/TOF confirmed that the full-length proteins were synthesized by E. coli, and that no alterations in amino acid sequences occurred. A three-dimensional model of cm-CrdS predicted the juxtaposition of highly conserved aspartates D156, D208, D210 and D304, and the QRTRW motif, which are likely to play roles in donor and acceptor substrate binding and catalysis. PMID:20473714

  5. High field superconducting magnets (12 T and greater) for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.R.; Summers, L.T.; Kerns, J.A.

    1986-07-09

    The technology for producing high fields in large superconducting magnets has increased greatly in recent years, but must increase still more in the future. In this paper, we examine the present state of the art vis-a-vis the needs of a next-generation fusion machine and outline a program to provide for those needs. We also highlight recent developments that suggest the program goals are within reach.

  6. Fusion-based, high-volume automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomopoulos, Stelios C.; Reisman, James G.

    1994-02-01

    Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) provide a means for non-manual fingerprint database searches. Future AFIS applications demand greater fingerprint match request throughput, and for larger fingerprint databases. Barriers to the implementation of a high volume AFIS are analyzed. Data-fusion methods are proposed as a method to maximize integration of fingerprint feature information with limited computational resources. Preliminary results from a prototype AFIS system are presented.

  7. In-situ observation of the alpha/beta cristobalite transition using high voltage electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Meike, A.; Glassley, W.

    1989-10-01

    A high temperature water vapor phase is expected to persist in the vicinity of high level radioactive waste packages for several hundreds of years. The authors have begun an investigation of the structural and chemical effects of water on cristobalite because of its abundance in the near field environment. A high voltage transmission electron microscope (HVEM) investigation of bulk synthesized {alpha}-cristobalite to be used in single phase dissolution and precipitation kinetics experiments revealed the presence {beta}-cristobalite, quartz and amorphous silica, in addition to {alpha}-cristobalite. Consequently, this apparent metastable persistence of {beta}-cristobalite and amorphous silica during the synthesis of {alpha}-cristobalite was investigated using a heating stage and an environmental cell installed in the HVEM that allowed the introduction of either dry CO{sub 2} or a CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O vapor. Preliminary electron diffraction evidence suggests that the presence of water vapor affected the {alpha}-{beta} transition temperature. Water vapor may also be responsible for the development of an amorphous silica phase at the transition that may persist over an interval of several tens of degrees. The amorphous phase was not documented during the dry heating experiments. 20 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Construction of lactose-assimilating and high-ethanol-producing yeasts by protoplast fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Farahnak, F.; Seki, T.; Ryu, D.D.Y.; Ogrydziak, D.

    1986-02-01

    The availability of a yeast strain which is capable of fermenting lactose and at the same time is tolerant to high concentrations of ethanol would be useful for the production of ethanol from lactose. Kluyveromyces fragilis is capable of fermenting lactose, but it is not as tolerant as Saccharomyces cerevisiae to high concentrations of ethanol. In this study, the authors have used the protoplast fusion technique to construct hybrids between auxotrophic strains of S. cerevisiae having high ethanol tolerance and an auxotrophic strain of lactose-fermenting K. fragilis isolated by ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis. The fusants obtained were prototrophic and capable of assimilating lactose and producing ethanol in excess of 13% (vol/vol). The complementation frequency of fusion was about 0.7%. Formation of fusants was confirmed by the increased amount of chromosomal DNA per cell. Fusants contained 8 x 10/sup -9/ to 16 x 10/sup -8/ ..mu..g of DNA per cell as compared with about 4 x 10/sup -8/ ..mu..g of DNA per cell for the parental strains, suggesting that multiple fusions had taken place.

  9. Anomalous fast ion losses at high β on the tokamak fusion test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, E. D.; Bell, M. G.; Budny, R. V.; Darrow, D. S.; White, R.

    2015-03-15

    This paper describes experiments carried out on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [R. J. Hawryluk et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 33, 1509 (1991)] to investigate the dependence of β-limiting disruption characteristics on toroidal field strength. The hard disruptions found at the β-limit in high field plasmas were not found at low field, even for β's 50% higher than the empirical β-limit of β{sub n} ≈ 2 at high field. Comparisons of experimentally measured β's to TRANSP simulations suggest anomalous loss of up to half of the beam fast ions in the highest β, low field shots. The anomalous transport responsible for the fast ion losses may at the same time broaden the pressure profile. Toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes, fishbone instabilities, and Geodesic Acoustic Modes are investigated as possible causes of the enhanced losses. Here, we present the first observations of high frequency fishbones [F. Zonca et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 085009 (2009)] on TFTR. The interpretation of Axi-symmetric Beam-driven Modes as Geodesic Acoustic Modes and their possible correlation with transport barrier formation are also presented.

  10. High-affinity ouabain binding by yeast cells expressing Na+, K(+)-ATPase alpha subunits and the gastric H+, K(+)-ATPase beta subunit.

    PubMed

    Eakle, K A; Kim, K S; Kabalin, M A; Farley, R A

    1992-04-01

    Recently, a beta subunit for the rat gastric H+,K(+)-ATPase (HK beta), which is structurally similar to the beta subunit of Na+, K(+)-ATPase, has been cloned and characterized. Using heterologous expression in yeast, we have tested the specificity of beta subunit assembly with different isoforms of the alpha subunit of Na+, K(+)-ATPase. Coexpression in yeast cells of the HK beta with both the sheep alpha 1 subunit and the rat alpha 3 subunit isoforms of Na+, K(+)-ATPase (alpha 1 and alpha 3, respectively) leads to the appearance of high-affinity ouabain-binding sites in yeast membranes. These ouabain-binding sites (alpha 1 plus HK beta, alpha 3 plus HK beta) have a high affinity for ouabain (Kd, 5-10 nM) and are expressed at levels similar to those formed with the rat beta 1 subunit of Na+, K(+)-ATPase (beta 1) (alpha 1 plus beta 1 or alpha 3 plus beta 1). Potassium acts as a specific antagonist of ouabain binding by alpha 1 plus HK beta and alpha 3 plus HK beta just like sodium pumps formed with beta 1. Sodium pumps formed with the HK beta, however, show quantitative differences in their affinity for ouabain and in the antagonism of K+ for ouabain binding. These data suggest that the structure of the beta subunit may play a role in sodium pump function. PMID:1313569

  11. Final Report on The Theory of Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Steven C. Cowley

    2008-06-17

    Report describes theoretical research in the theory of fusion plasmas funded under grant DE-FG02-04ER54737. This includes work on: explosive instabilities, plasma turbulence, Alfven wave cascades, high beta (pressure) tokamaks and magnetic reconnection. These studies have lead to abetter understanding of fusion plasmas and in particular the future behavior of ITER. More than ten young researchers were involved in this research -- some were funded under the grant.

  12. KSTAR Equilibrium Operating Space and Projected Stabilization at High Normalized Beta

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y. S.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Berkery, J.W.; Bialek, J.; Jeon, Y. M.; Hahn, S. H.; Eidietis, N. W.; Evans, T. E.; Yoon, S. W.; Ahn, Joonwook; Kim, J.; Yang, H. L.; You, K. I.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Bae, Y. S.; Chung, J. I.; Kwon, M.; Oh, Y. K.; Kim, W. C.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, S. G.; Park, H.; Reimerdes, H.; Leuer, J. A.; Walker, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    Along with an expanded evaluation of the equilibrium operating space of the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research, KSTAR, experimental equilibria of the most recent plasma discharges were reconstructed using the EFIT code. In near-circular plasmas created in 2009, equilibria reached a stored energy of 54 kJ with a maximum plasma current of 0.34 MA. Highly shaped plasmas with near double-null configuration in 2010 achieved H-mode with clear edge localized mode (ELM) activity, and transiently reached a stored energy of up to 257 kJ, elongation of 1.96 and normalized beta of 1.3. The plasma current reached 0.7 MA. Projecting active and passive stabilization of global MHD instabilities for operation above the ideal no-wall beta limit using the designed control hardware was also considered. Kinetic modification of the ideal MHD n = 1 stability criterion was computed by the MISK code on KSTAR theoretical equilibria with a plasma current of 2 MA, internal inductance of 0.7 and normalized beta of 4.0 with simple density, temperature and rotation profiles. The steep edge pressure gradient of this equilibrium resulted in the need for significant plasma toroidal rotation to allow thermal particle kinetic resonances to stabilize the resistive wall mode (RWM). The impact of various materials and electrical connections of the passive stabilizing plates on RWM growth rates was analysed, and copper plates reduced the RWM passive growth rate by a factor of 15 compared with stainless steel plates at a normalized beta of 4.4. Computations of active RWM control using the VALEN code showed that the n = 1 mode can be stabilized at normalized beta near the ideal wall limit via control fields produced by the midplane in-vessel control coils (IVCCs) with as low as 0.83kW control power using ideal control system assumptions. The ELM mitigation potential of the IVCC, examined by evaluating the vacuum island overlap created by resonant magnetic perturbations, was analysed using the

  13. Double-beta decay investigation with highly pure enriched ^{82}Se for the LUCIFER experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Benetti, P.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Chiesa, D.; Clemenza, M.; Dafinei, I.; Domizio, S. Di; Ferroni, F.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gotti, C.; Laubenstein, M.; Maino, M.; Nagorny, S.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Orio, F.; Pagnanini, L.; Pattavina, L.; Pessina, G.; Piperno, G.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Rusconi, C.; Schäffner, K.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M.

    2015-12-01

    The LUCIFER project aims at deploying the first array of enriched scintillating bolometers for the investigation of neutrinoless double-beta decay of ^{82}Se. The matrix which embeds the source is an array of ZnSe crystals, where enriched ^{82}Se is used as decay isotope. The radiopurity of the initial components employed for manufacturing crystals, that can be operated as bolometers, is crucial for achieving a null background level in the region of interest for double-beta decay investigations. In this work, we evaluated the radioactive content in 2.5 kg of 96.3 % enriched ^{82}Se metal, measured with a high-purity germanium detector at the Gran Sasso deep underground laboratory. The limits on internal contaminations of primordial decay chain elements of ^{232}Th, ^{238}U and ^{235}U are respectively: <61, <110 and <74 μ Bq/kg at 90 % C.L. The extremely low-background conditions in which the measurement was carried out and the high radiopurity of the ^{82}Se allowed us to establish the most stringent lower limits on the half-lives of the double-beta decay of ^{82}Se to 0^+_1, 2^+_2 and 2^+_1 excited states of ^{82}Kr of 3.4\\cdot 10^{22}, 1.3\\cdot 10^{22} and 1.0\\cdot 10^{22} y, respectively, with a 90 % C.L.

  14. High-statistics study of the beta-decay of 110In

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz Varela, Alejandra; Garrett, P. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bangay, J.; Cross, D.; Demand, G. A.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Green, K. L.; Hackman, G.; Kulp, W. D.; Leach, K. G.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Wong, J.; Wood, J. L.; Yates, S. W.

    2010-11-01

    The stable even-even Cd isotopes have been considered excellent examples of vibrational nuclei, especially 110Cd and 112Cd. We have initiated a program at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive beam facility using the 8pi spectrometer and its associated auxiliary detectors to study these isotopes via high-statistics beta-decay measurements. To date, the decays of 112Ag/112In and 110In have been studied. The present work concentrates on the beta decay measurement of 110In to 110Cd. The data were collected in scaled-down gamma singles, gamma-gamma coincidence, and gamma-electron coincidence mode. A total of 850 million events have been sorted into a random-background subtracted gamma-gamma matrix. Details of the analysis to date will be reported.

  15. 3-D simulations of limiter stabilization of high-beta external kink-tearing modes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.K.; Ohyabu, N.

    1984-03-01

    The effects of finite-size poloidal limiters, toroidal limiters, and general mushroom limiters are examined for high-beta finite-resistivity tokamak plamas in free boundary. Even for a linear stability analysis, a 3-D simulation is necessary, in which many poloidal and toroidal modes are coupled because of the limiter constraint and finite-beta. When the plasma pressure and resistivity are small, a poloidal limiter is effective in reducing the growth rate with a small limiter-size, while a toroidal limiter requires a large size for a comparable effect. As the plasma pressure or resistivity increases, a toroidal limiter becomes more effective in reducing the growth rate than a poloidal limiter of the same size. A small optimized mushroom limiter might have a stabilizing effect similar to a conducting shell.

  16. The Mercury Project: A High Average Power, Gas-Cooled Laser For Inertial Fusion Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, A; Armstrong, P; Ault, E; Beach, R; Bibeau, C; Caird, J; Campbell, R; Chai, B; Dawson, J; Ebbers, C; Erlandson, A; Fei, Y; Freitas, B; Kent, R; Liao, Z; Ladran, T; Menapace, J; Molander, B; Payne, S; Peterson, N; Randles, M; Schaffers, K; Sutton, S; Tassano, J; Telford, S; Utterback, E

    2006-11-03

    Hundred-joule, kilowatt-class lasers based on diode-pumped solid-state technologies, are being developed worldwide for laser-plasma interactions and as prototypes for fusion energy drivers. The goal of the Mercury Laser Project is to develop key technologies within an architectural framework that demonstrates basic building blocks for scaling to larger multi-kilojoule systems for inertial fusion energy (IFE) applications. Mercury has requirements that include: scalability to IFE beamlines, 10 Hz repetition rate, high efficiency, and 10{sup 9} shot reliability. The Mercury laser has operated continuously for several hours at 55 J and 10 Hz with fourteen 4 x 6 cm{sup 2} ytterbium doped strontium fluoroapatite (Yb:S-FAP) amplifier slabs pumped by eight 100 kW diode arrays. The 1047 nm fundamental wavelength was converted to 523 nm at 160 W average power with 73% conversion efficiency using yttrium calcium oxy-borate (YCOB).

  17. High energy x-ray imager for inertial confinement fusion at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommasini, Riccardo; Koch, Jeffrey A.; Young, Bruce; Ng, Ed; Phillips, Tom; Dauffy, Lucile

    2006-10-01

    X-ray imaging is a fundamental diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research and provides data on the size and the shape of the core in implosions. We report on the feasibility and performance analyses of an ignition x-ray imager to be used on cryogenic deuterium-tritium implosions at the National Ignition Facility. The system is intended to provide time-integrated, broadband, moderate-energy x-ray core images of imploding inertial confinement fusion capsules. It is optimized with respect to spatial-resolution, signal-to-background, and signal-to-noise ratios, taking into account the extreme operating conditions expected at NIF due to high expected neutrons yields, gamma rays, and x rays from laser-plasma interactions.

  18. High illumination uniformity scheme with 32 beams configuration for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Gu, Chun; Xu, Lixin; Zhou, Shenlei

    2016-04-01

    The self-adapting algorithms are improved to optimize a beam configuration in the direct drive laser fusion system with the solid state lasers. A configuration of 32 laser beams is proposed for achieving a high uniformity illumination, with a root-mean-square deviation at 10-4 level. In our optimization, the parameters such as beam number, beam arrangement, and beam intensity profile are taken into account. The illumination uniformity robustness versus the parameters such as intensity profile deviations, power imbalance, intensity profile noise, the pointing error, and the target position error is also discussed. In this study, the model is assumed a solid-sphere illumination, and refraction effects of incident light on the corona are not considered. Our results may have a potential application in the design of the direct-drive laser fusion of the Shen Guang-II Upgrading facility (SG-II-U, China).

  19. Direct drive heavy-ion-beam inertial fusion at high coupling efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Perkins, L.J.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-05-16

    Issues with coupling efficiency, beam illumination symmetry, and Rayleigh-Taylor instability are discussed for spherical heavy-ion-beam-driven targets with and without hohlraums. Efficient coupling of heavy-ion beams to compress direct-drive inertial fusion targets without hohlraums is found to require ion range increasing several-fold during the drive pulse. One-dimensional implosion calculations using the LASNEX inertial confinement fusion target physics code shows the ion range increasing fourfold during the drive pulse to keep ion energy deposition following closely behind the imploding ablation front, resulting in high coupling efficiencies (shell kinetic energy/incident beam energy of 16% to 18%). Ways to increase beam ion range while mitigating Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are discussed for future work.

  20. The Structure of the Amyloid-[beta] Peptide High-Affinity Copper II Binding Site in Alzheimer Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Streltsov, Victor A.; Titmuss, Stephen J.; Epa, V. Chandana; Barnham, Kevin J.; Masters, Colin L.; Varghese, Joseph N.

    2008-11-03

    Neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer disease (AD) is believed to be related to the toxicity from reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the brain by the amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) protein bound primarily to copper ions. The evidence for an oxidative stress role of A{beta}-Cu redox chemistry is still incomplete. Details of the copper binding site in A{beta} may be critical to the etiology of AD. Here we present the structure determined by combining x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and density functional theory analysis of A{beta} peptides complexed with Cu{sup 2+} in solution under a range of buffer conditions. Phosphate-buffered saline buffer salt (NaCl) concentration does not affect the high-affinity copper binding mode but alters the second coordination sphere. The XAS spectra for truncated and full-length A{beta}-Cu{sup 2+} peptides are similar. The novel distorted six-coordinated (3N3O) geometry around copper in the A{beta}-Cu{sup 2+} complexes include three histidines: glutamic, or/and aspartic acid, and axial water. The structure of the high-affinity Cu{sup 2+} binding site is consistent with the hypothesis that the redox activity of the metal ion bound to A{beta} can lead to the formation of dityrosine-linked dimers found in AD.

  1. Universal antibodies against the highly conserved influenza fusion peptide cross-neutralize several subtypes of influenza A virus

    SciTech Connect

    Hashem, Anwar M.; Van Domselaar, Gary; Li, Changgui; Wang, Junzhi; She, Yi-Min; Cyr, Terry D.; Sui, Jianhua; He, Runtao; Marasco, Wayne A.; Li, Xuguang

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} The fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza viral hemagglutinins. {yields} Anti-fusion peptide antibodies are universal antibodies that cross-react with all influenza HA subtypes. {yields} The universal antibodies cross-neutralize different influenza A subtypes. {yields} The universal antibodies inhibit the fusion process between the viruses and the target cells. -- Abstract: The fusion peptide of influenza viral hemagglutinin plays a critical role in virus entry by facilitating membrane fusion between the virus and target cells. As the fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza A and B viruses, it could be an attractive target for vaccine-induced immune responses. We previously reported that antibodies targeting the first 14 amino acids of the N-terminus of the fusion peptide could bind to virtually all influenza virus strains and quantify hemagglutinins in vaccines produced in embryonated eggs. Here we demonstrate that these universal antibodies bind to the viral hemagglutinins in native conformation presented in infected mammalian cell cultures and neutralize multiple subtypes of virus by inhibiting the pH-dependant fusion of viral and cellular membranes. These results suggest that this unique, highly-conserved linear sequence in viral hemagglutinin is exposed sufficiently to be attacked by the antibodies during the course of infection and merits further investigation because of potential importance in the protection against diverse strains of influenza viruses.

  2. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz; Norikane, L.; Way, Jobea

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Geographic Information System for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data are presented. Topics covered include: scientific objectives; schedule; and Geographic Information System.

  3. Perspectives for the high field approach in fusion research and advances within the Ignitor Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, B.; Airoldi, A.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.; Belforte, G.; Boggio-Sella, E.; Cardinali, A.; Cenacchi, G.; Conti, F.; Costa, E.; D'Amico, A.; Detragiache, P.; De Tommasi, G.; DeVellis, A.; Faelli, G.; Ferraris, P.; Frattolillo, A.; Giammanco, F.; Grasso, G.; Lazzaretti, M.; Mantovani, S.; Merriman, L.; Migliori, S.; Napoli, R.; Perona, A.; Pierattini, S.; Pironti, A.; Ramogida, G.; Rubinacci, G.; Sassi, M.; Sestero, A.; Spillantini, S.; Tavani, M.; Tumino, A.; Villone, F.; Zucchi, L.

    2015-05-01

    The Ignitor Program maintains the objective of approaching D-T ignition conditions by incorporating systematical advances made with relevant high field magnet technology and with experiments on high density well confined plasmas in the present machine design. An additional objective is that of charting the development of the high field line of experiments that goes from the Alcator machine to the ignitor device. The rationale for this class of experiments, aimed at producing poloidal fields with the highest possible values (compatible with proven safety factors of known plasma instabilities) is given. On the basis of the favourable properties of high density plasmas produced systematically by this line of machines, the envisioned future for the line, based on novel high field superconducting magnets, includes the possibility of investigating more advanced fusion burn conditions than those of the D-T plasmas for which Ignitor is designed. Considering that a detailed machine design has been carried out (Coppi et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 104013), the advances made in different areas of the physics and technology that are relevant to the Ignitor project are reported. These are included within the following sections of the present paper: main components issues, assembly and welding procedures; robotics criteria; non-linear feedback control; simulations with three-dimensional structures and disruption studies; ICRH and dedicated diagnostics systems; anomalous transport processes including self-organization for fusion burning regimes and the zero-dimensional model; tridimensional structures of the thermonuclear instability and control provisions; superconducting components of the present machine; envisioned experiments with high field superconducting magnets.

  4. Development of a high resolution beta camera for a direct measurement of positron distribution on brain surface

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, S.; Seki, C.; Kashikura, K.

    1996-12-31

    We have developed and tested a high resolution beta camera for a direct measurement of positron distribution on brain surface of animals. The beta camera consists of a thin CaF{sub 2}(Eu) scintillator, a tapered fiber optics plate (taper fiber) and a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The taper fiber is the key component of the camera. We have developed two types of beta cameras. One is 20mm diameter field of view camera for imaging brain surface of cats. The other is 10mm diameter camera for that of rats. Spatial resolutions of beta camera for cats and rats were 0.8mm FWHM and 0.5mm FWHM, respectively. We confirmed that developed beta cameras may overcome the limitation of the spatial resolution of the positron emission tomography (PET).

  5. Dissimilar alloy laser beam welding of titanium: Ti-6Al-4V to Beta-C[trademark]. [Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Mo-4Zr

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, P.S.; Baeslack, W.A. III . Dept. of Welding Engineering); Hurley, J. )

    1994-07-01

    CO[sub 2] laser beam welds were produced between Ti-6Al-4V and Beta-C[trademark] sheet. Three different nominal fusion zone chemical compositions were obtained by varying the laser beam location relative to the joint centerline and thereby melting different quantities of each base metal. Fusion zone microstructures exhibited fine, columnar-shaped beta grains comprised of retained-beta phase and martensite, with the proportion of martensite increasing with an increase in the quantity of Ti-6Al-4V nominally in the fusion zone. The location of these phases within the fusion zone was influenced by macrosegregation, which originated from incomplete mixing of the melted base metals and the occurrence of transverse-solute banding during solidification. Postweld aging heat treatment at 482 C/20 h and 538 C/8 h resulted in extremely fine alpha precipitation within the retained-beta phase regions and tempering of the martensite. These fusion zone microstructures exhibited high hardnesses and strengths superior to those of the Ti-6Al-4V and Beta-C base metals, but low ductility (<2.5%). An increase in the aging temperature to 593 C promoted fusion zone transformation to a coarser intragranular and grain-boundary alpha + beta microstructure, which exhibited a strength superior to those of the base metals and acceptable ductility. Variations in the proportions of Ti-6Al-4V and Beta C within the weld fusion zone generally had a minimal effect on the average hardness and ductility.

  6. Construction of bioactive chimeric MHC class I tetramer by expression and purification of human-murine chimeric MHC heavy chain and beta(2)m as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ding; Wang, Fang; He, Xiaowen; Jiang, Lei; Li, Dean; Ying, He; Sun, Shuhan

    2006-12-01

    Major histocompatibility (MHC) class I tetramers are used in the quantitative analysis of epitope peptide-specific CD8+ T-cells. An MHC class I tetramer was composed of 4 MHC class I complexes and a fluorescently labeled streptavidin (SA) molecule. Each MHC class I complex consists of an MHC heavy chain, a beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m) molecule and a synthetic epitope peptide. In most previous studies, an MHC class I complex was formed in the refolding buffer with an expressed MHC heavy chain molecule and beta(2)m, respectively. This procedure inevitably resulted in the disadvantages of forming unwanted multimers and self-refolding products, and the purification of each kind of monomer was time-consuming. In the present study, the genes of a human/murine chimeric MHC heavy chain (HLA-A2 alpha1, HLA-A2 alpha2 and MHC-H2D alpha3) and beta(2)m were tandem-cloned into plasmid pET17b and expressed as a fusion protein. The recombinant fusion protein was refolded with each of the three HLA-A2 restricted peptides (HBc18-27 FLPSDFFPSI, HBx52-60 HLSLRGLPV, and HBx92-100 VLHKRTLGL) and thus three chimeric MHC class I complexes were obtained. Biotinylation was performed, and its level of efficiency was observed via a band-shift assay in non-reducing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Such chimeric MHC class I tetramers showed a sensitive binding activity in monitoring HLA/A2 restrictive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in immunized HLA/A*0201 transgenic mice. PMID:17046278

  7. Inertial Fusion and High-Energy-Density Science in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Tarter, C B

    2001-09-06

    Inertial fusion and high-energy density science worldwide is poised to take a great leap forward. In the US, programs at the University of Rochester, Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Naval Research Laboratory, and many smaller laboratories have laid the groundwork for building a facility in which fusion ignition can be studied in the laboratory for the first time. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is being built by the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Agency to provide an experimental test bed for the US Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) to ensure the dependability of the country's nuclear deterrent without underground nuclear testing. NIF and other large laser systems being planned such as the Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) in France will also make important contributions to basic science, the development of inertial fusion energy, and other scientific and technological endeavors. NIF will be able to produce extreme temperatures and pressures in matter. This will allow simulating astrophysical phenomena (on a tiny scale) and measuring the equation of state of material under conditions that exist in planetary cores.

  8. Resistivity recovery in high purity iron after fission- and fusion- neutron irradiation*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, H.; Takehana, S.; Guinan, M. W.

    1988-07-01

    A resistometric study of high-purity iron has been performed after irradiation at 20 K by 14 MeV neutrons in RTNS-II or by fission neutrons in Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). The annealing behavior of iron after fusion neutrons is very different from that after electron irradiation. The fractional recovery in stage I is much smaller and the recovery of vacancy type defects starts to occur at a much lower temperature with a lower activation energy than after electron iradiation. The difference between fission and fusion neutron irradiation, however, is much smaller; the isochronal curves for these two types of irradiation are essentially the same below 170 K. It is concluded that the local defect configuration for these two types of irradiation is similar. The induced resistivity by fusion neutrons is about a factor of 2 larger than by fission neutrons (fluence for E > 1 MeV). This is in accord with a rough estimation of the ratio of damage energy cross sections.

  9. Evaluation of high strength, high conductivity CuNiBe alloys for fusion energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, Steven J

    2014-06-01

    The unirradiated tensile properties for several different heats and thermomechanical treatment conditions of precipitation strengthened Hycon 3HPTM CuNiBe (Cu-2%Ni-0.35%Be in wt.%) have been measured over the temperature range of 20-500 C for longitudinal and long transverse orientations. The room temperature electrical conductivity has also been measured for several heats, and the precipitate microstructure was characterized using transmission electron microscopy. The CuNiBe alloys exhibit very good combination of strength and conductivity at room temperature, with yield strengths of 630-725 MPa and electrical conductivities of 65-72% International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS). The strength remained relatively high at all test temperatures, with yield strengths of 420-520 MPa at 500 C. However, low levels of ductility (<5% uniform elongation) were observed at test temperatures above 200-250 C, due to flow localization near grain boundaries (exacerbated by having only 10-20 grains across the gage thickness of the miniaturized sheet tensile specimens). Scanning electron microscopy observation of the fracture surfaces found a transition from ductile transgranular to ductile intergranular fracture with increasing test temperature. Fission neutron irradiation to a dose of ~0.7 displacements per atom (dpa) at temperatures between 100 and 240 C produced a slight increase in strength and a significant decrease in ductility. The measured tensile elongation increased with increasing irradiation temperature, with a uniform elongation of ~3.3% observed at 240 C. The electrical conductivity decreased slightly following irradiation, due to the presence of defect clusters and Ni, Zn, Co transmutation products. Considering also previously published fracture toughness data, this indicates that CuNiBe alloys have irradiated tensile and electrical properties comparable or superior to CuCrZr and oxide dispersion strengthened copper at temperatures <250 C, and may be an attractive

  10. Soldered joints—an essential component of demountable high temperature superconducting fusion magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Yeekin; Surrey, Elizabeth; Hampshire, Damian

    2016-07-01

    Demountable superconducting magnet coils would offer significant benefits to commercial nuclear fusion power plants. Whether large pressed joints or large soldered joints provide the solution for demountable fusion magnets, a critical component or building block for both will be the many, smaller-scale joints that enable the supercurrent to leave the superconducting layer, cross the superconducting tape and pass into the solder that lies between the tape and the conductor that eventually provides one of the demountable surfaces. This paper considers the electrical and thermal properties of this essential component part of demountable high temperature superconducting (HTS) joints by considering the fabrication and properties of jointed HTSs consisting of a thin layer of solder (In52Sn48 or Pb38Sn62) sandwiched between two rare-earth-Ba2Cu3O7 (REBCO) second generation HTS coated conductors (CCs). The HTS joints are analysed using numerical modelling, critical current and resistivity measurements on the joints from 300 to 4.2 K in applied magnetic fields up to 12 T, as well as scanning electron microscopy studies. Our results show that the copper/silver layers significantly reduce the heating in the joints to less than a few hundred mK. When the REBCO alone is superconducting, the joint resistivity (R J) predominantly has two sources, the solder layer and an interfacial resistivity at the REBCO/silver interface (∼25 nΩ cm2) in the as-supplied CCs which together have a very weak magnetoresistance in fields up to 12 T. We achieved excellent reproducibility in the R J of the In52Sn48 soldered joints of better than 10% at temperatures below T c of the REBCO layer which can be compared to variations of more than two orders of magnitude in the literature. We also show that demountable joints in fusion energy magnets are viable and need only add a few percent to the total cryogenic cost for a fusion tokamak.

  11. Occurrence of high-beta superthermal plasma events in the close environment of Jupiter's bow shock as observed by Ulysses

    SciTech Connect

    Marhavilas, P. K.; Sarris, E. T.; Anagnostopoulos, G. C.

    2011-01-04

    The ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure (or of their energy densities) which is known as the plasma parameter 'beta'({beta}) has important implications to the propagation of energetic particles and the interaction of the solar wind with planetary magnetospheres. Although in the scientific literature the contribution of the superthermal particles to the plasma pressure is generally assumed negligible, we deduced, by analyzing energetic particles and magnetic field measurements recorded by the Ulysses spacecraft, that in a series of events, the energy density contained in the superthermal tail of the particle distribution is comparable to or even higher than the energy density of the magnetic field, creating conditions of high-beta plasma. More explicitly, in this paper we analyze Ulysses/HI-SCALE measurements of the energy density ratio (parameter {beta}{sub ep}) of the energetic ions'(20 keV to {approx}5 MeV) to the magnetic field's in order to find occurrences of high-beta ({beta}{sub ep}>1) superthermal plasma conditions in the environment of the Jovian magnetosphere, which is an interesting plasma laboratory and an important source of emissions in our solar system. In particular, we examine high-beta ion events close to Jupiter's bow shock, which are produced by two processes: (a) bow shock ion acceleration and (b) ion leakage from the magnetosphere.

  12. Contribution of Neutron Beta Decay to Radiation Belt Pumping from High Altitude Nuclear Explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Marrs, R

    2002-11-13

    In 1962, several satellites were lost following high altitude nuclear tests by the United States and the Soviet Union. These satellite failures were caused by energetic electrons injected into the earth's radiation belts from the beta decay of bomb produced fission fragments and neutrons. It has been 40 years since the last high altitude nuclear test; there are now many more satellites in orbit, and it is important to understand their vulnerability to radiation belt pumping from nuclear explosions at high altitude or in space. This report presents the results of a calculation of the contribution of neutron beta decay to artificial belt pumping. For most high altitude nuclear explosions, neutrons are expected to make a smaller contribution than fission products to the total trapped electron inventory, and their contribution is usually neglected. However, the neutron contribution may dominate in cases where the fission product contribution is suppressed due to the altitude or geomagnetic latitude of the nuclear explosion, and for regions of the radiation belts with field lines far from the detonation point. In any case, an accurate model of belt pumping from high altitude nuclear explosions, and a self-consistent explanation of the 1962 data, require inclusion of the neutron contribution. One recent analysis of satellite measurements of electron flux from the 1962 tests found that a better fit to the data is obtained if the neutron contribution to the trapped electron inventory was larger than that of the fission products [l]. Belt pumping from high altitude nuclear explosions is a complicated process. Fission fragments are dispersed as part of the ionized bomb debris, which is constrained and guided by the earth's magnetic field. Those fission products that beta decay before being lost to the earth's atmosphere can contribute trapped energetic electrons to the earth's radiation belts. There has been a large effort to develop computer models for the contribution of

  13. An Overview of High Energy Short Pulse Technology for Advanced Radiography of Laser Fusion Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, C J; Key, M; Britten, J; Beach, R; Beer, G; Brown, C; Bryan, S; Caird, J; Carlson, T; Crane, J; Dawson, J; Erlandson, A C; Fittinghoff, D; Hermann, M; Hoaglan, C; Iyer, A; Jones, L; Jovanovic, I; Komashko, A; Landen, O; Liao, Z; Molander, W; Mitchell, A; Moses, E; Nielsen, N; Nguyen, H; Nissen, J; Payne, S; Pennington, D; Risinger, L; Rushford, M; Skulina, K; Spaeth, M; Stuart, B; Tietbohl, G; Wattellier, B

    2004-06-18

    The technical challenges and motivations for high-energy, short-pulse generation with NIF-class, Nd:glass laser systems are reviewed. High energy short pulse generation (multi-kilojoule, picosecond pulses) will be possible via the adaptation of chirped pulse amplification laser techniques on the NIF. Development of meter-scale, high efficiency, high-damage-threshold final optics is a key technical challenge. In addition, deployment of HEPW pulses on NIF is constrained by existing laser infrastructure and requires new, compact compressor designs and short-pulse, fiber-based, seed-laser systems. The key motivations for high energy petawatt pulses on NIF is briefly outlined and includes high-energy, x-ray radiography, proton beam radiography, proton isochoric heating and tests of the fast ignitor concept for inertial confinement fusion.

  14. Reusing information for high-level fusion: characterizing bias and uncertainty in human-generated intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Dustin; Carlin, Alan; Picciano, Paul; Levchuk, Georgiy; Riordan, Brian

    2013-05-01

    To expedite the intelligence collection process, analysts reuse previously collected data. This poses the risk of analysis failure, because these data are biased in ways that the analyst may not know. Thus, these data may be incomplete, inconsistent or incorrect, have structural gaps and limitations, or simply be too old to accurately represent the current state of the world. Incorporating human-generated intelligence within the high-level fusion process enables the integration of hard (physical sensors) and soft information (human observations) to extend the ability of algorithms to associate and merge disparate pieces of information for a more holistic situational awareness picture. However, in order for high-level fusion systems to manage the uncertainty in soft information, a process needs to be developed for characterizing the sources of error and bias specific to human-generated intelligence and assessing the quality of this data. This paper outlines an approach Towards Integration of Data for unBiased Intelligence and Trust (TID-BIT) that implements a novel Hierarchical Bayesian Model for high-level situation modeling that allows the analyst to accurately reuse existing data collected for different intelligence requirements. TID-BIT constructs situational, semantic knowledge graphs that links the information extracted from unstructured sources to intelligence requirements and performs pattern matching over these attributed-network graphs for integrating information. By quantifying the reliability and credibility of human sources, TID-BIT enables the ability to estimate and account for uncertainty and bias that impact the high-level fusion process, resulting in improved situational awareness.

  15. Generating High-Brightness Light Ion Beams for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.G.; Bailey, J.E.; Cuneno, M.E.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Filuk, A.B.; Hanson, D.L.; Johnson, D.J.; Mehlohorn, T.A.; Menge, P.R.; Olson, C.L.; Pointon, T.D. Slutz, S.A.; Vesey, R.A.; Welch, D.R.; Wenger, D.F.

    1998-10-22

    Light ion beams may be the best option for an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) driver from the standpoint of ei%ciency, standoff, rep-rate operation and cost. This approach uses high-energy-density pulsed power to efficiently accelerate ions in one or two stages at fields of 0.5 to 1.0 GV/m to produce a medium energy (30 MeV), high-current (1 MA) beam of light ions, such as lithium. Ion beams provide the ability for medium distance transport (4 m) of the ions to the target, and standofl of the driver from high- yield implosions. Rep-rate operation of' high current ion sources has ako been demonstrated for industrial applications and couId be applied to IFE. Although (hese factors make light ions the best Iong-teml pulsed- power approach to IFE, light-ion research is being suspended this year in favor of a Z-pinch-driven approach which has the best opport lnity to most-rapidly achieve the U.S. Department of Energy sponsor's goal of high-yield fusion. This paper will summarize the status and most recent results of the light-ion beam program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and document the prospects of light ions for future IFE driver development.

  16. Highly radiation-resistant vacuum impregnation resin systems for fusion magnet insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, P. E.; Munshi, N. A.; Denis, R. J.

    2002-05-01

    Magnets built for fusion devices such as the newly proposed Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) need to be highly reliable, especially in a high radiation environment. Insulation materials are often the weak link in the design of superconducting magnets due to their sensitivity to high radiation doses, embrittlement at cryogenic temperatures, and the limitations on their fabricability. An insulation system capable of being vacuum impregnated with desirable properties such as a long pot-life, high strength, and excellent electrical integrity and which also provides high resistance to radiation would greatly improve magnet performance and reduce the manufacturing costs. A new class of insulation materials has been developed utilizing cyanate ester chemistries combined with other known radiation-resistant resins, such as bismaleimides and polyimides. These materials have been shown to meet the demanding requirements of the next generation of devices, such as FIRE. Post-irradiation testing to levels that exceed those required for FIRE showed no degradation in mechanical properties. In addition, the cyanate ester-based systems showed excellent performance at cryogenic temperatures and possess a wide range of processing variables, which will enable cost-effective fabrication of new magnets. This paper details the processing parameters, mechanical properties at 76 K and 4 K, as well as post-irradiation testing to dose levels surpassing 108 Gy.

  17. Fiber inline Mach-Zehnder interferometer fabricated by fusion splicing for high temperature sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Benye; Ni, Shufeng; Cao, Zhitao; Wang, Sumei

    2014-12-01

    High temperature detection of micro structure area with high sensitivity has aroused more and more interest recently. A high temperature sensor based on ultra-abrupt tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is proposed and fabricated by using a fusion-splicing method.The two normal cleaved ends are separated by a distance and become ellipsoidal by one time discharge using a fiber fusion splicer. Then the two ellipsoidal fiber heads contacted between the splicer electrodes are fused together to form the taper. And the other is formed through the same process separated by a distance of L. The thermal characteristic is investigated in 25-1100 °C, which temperature limit is highest of tapered fiber MZIs. It is observed that sensitivity varies with temperature ranges, which are 25 pm/°C in low-temperature range(25-300°C) and 105 pm/°C in high-temperature range(300-1100°C) respectively. The sensor demonstrates good thermal stability after annealing at 400 °C and 800 °C for 8 h respectively. The simple ultra-taper based MZI sensor has potential application prospect in the field of high temperature detection, such as the temperature of aeroengine.

  18. Recent U.S. advances in ion-beam-driven high energy densityphysics and heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Coleman, J.; Greenway, W.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy,P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Molvik, A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Sharp, W.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, Qin H.; Sefkow, A.B.; Startsev,E.A.; Welch, D.; Olson, C.

    2006-07-05

    During the past two years, significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the US heavy ion fusion science program in longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter, beam acceleration, high brightness beam transport; and advanced theory and numerical simulations. Innovations in longitudinal compression of intense ion beams by > 50 X propagating through background plasma enable initial beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin within the next two years. They are assessing how these new techniques might apply to heavy ion fusion drivers for inertial fusion energy.

  19. High-beta, steady-state hybrid scenario on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, C. C.; Kinsey, J. E.; Holcomb, C. T.; DeBoo, J. C.; Doyle, E. J.; Ferron, J. R.; Garofalo, A. M.; Hyatt, A. W.; Jackson, G. L.; Luce, T. C.; Murakami, M.; Politzer, P. A.; Reimerdes, H.

    2016-01-01

    The potential of the hybrid scenario (first developed as an advanced inductive scenario for high fluence) as a regime for high-beta, steady-state plasmas is demonstrated on the DIII-D tokamak. These experiments show that the beneficial characteristics of hybrids, namely safety factor  ⩾1 with low central magnetic shear, high stability limits and excellent confinement, are maintained when strong central current drive (electron cyclotron and neutral beam) is applied to increase the calculated non-inductive fraction to  ≈100% (≈50% bootstrap current). The best discharges achieve normalized beta of 3.4, IPB98(y,2) confinement factor of 1.4, surface loop voltage of 0.01 V, and nearly equal electron and ion temperatures at low collisionality. A 0D physics model shows that steady-state hybrid operation with Qfus ~ 5 is feasible in FDF and ITER. The advantage of the hybrid scenario as an advanced tokamak regime is that the external current drive can be deposited near the plasma axis where the efficiency is high; additionally, good alignment between the current drive and plasma current profiles is not necessary as the poloidal magnetic flux pumping self-organizes the current density profile in hybrids with an m/n=3/2 tearing mode.

  20. High-beta, steady-state hybrid scenario on DIII-D

    DOE PAGES

    Petty, C. C.; Kinsey, J. E.; Holcomb, C. T.; DeBoo, J. C.; Doyle, E. J.; Ferron, J. R.; Garofalo, A. M.; Hyatt, A. W.; Jackson, G. L.; Luce, T. C.; et al

    2015-12-17

    The potential of the hybrid scenario (first developed as an advanced inductive scenario for high fluence) as a regime for high-beta, steady-state plasmas is demonstrated on the DIII-D tokamak. Our experiments show that the beneficial characteristics of hybrids, namely safety factor ≥ 1 with low central magnetic shear, high stability limits and excellent confinement, are maintained when strong central current drive (electron cyclotron and neutral beam) is applied to increase the calculated non-inductive fraction to ≈ 100% (≈ 50% bootstrap current). Moreover, the best discharges achieve normalized beta of 3.4, IPB98(y,2) confinement factor of 1.4, surface loop voltage of 0.01more » V, and nearly equal electron and ion temperatures at low collisionality. A 0D physics model shows that steady-state hybrid operation with Qfus ~ 5 is feasible in FDF and ITER. One advantage of the hybrid scenario as an advanced tokamak regime is that the external current drive can be deposited near the plasma axis where the efficiency is high; additionally, good alignment between the current drive and plasma current profiles is not necessary as the poloidal magnetic flux pumping self-organizes the current density profile in hybrids with an m/n = 3/2 tearing mode.« less

  1. High-beta, steady-state hybrid scenario on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, C. C.; Kinsey, J. E.; Holcomb, C. T.; DeBoo, J. C.; Doyle, E. J.; Ferron, J. R.; Garofalo, A. M.; Hyatt, A. W.; Jackson, G. L.; Luce, T. C.; Murakami, M.; Politzer, P. A.; Reimerdes, H.

    2015-12-17

    The potential of the hybrid scenario (first developed as an advanced inductive scenario for high fluence) as a regime for high-beta, steady-state plasmas is demonstrated on the DIII-D tokamak. Our experiments show that the beneficial characteristics of hybrids, namely safety factor ≥ 1 with low central magnetic shear, high stability limits and excellent confinement, are maintained when strong central current drive (electron cyclotron and neutral beam) is applied to increase the calculated non-inductive fraction to ≈ 100% (≈ 50% bootstrap current). Moreover, the best discharges achieve normalized beta of 3.4, IPB98(y,2) confinement factor of 1.4, surface loop voltage of 0.01 V, and nearly equal electron and ion temperatures at low collisionality. A 0D physics model shows that steady-state hybrid operation with Qfus ~ 5 is feasible in FDF and ITER. One advantage of the hybrid scenario as an advanced tokamak regime is that the external current drive can be deposited near the plasma axis where the efficiency is high; additionally, good alignment between the current drive and plasma current profiles is not necessary as the poloidal magnetic flux pumping self-organizes the current density profile in hybrids with an m/n = 3/2 tearing mode.

  2. Hall effect and fine structures in magnetic reconnection with high plasma {beta}

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, S.P.; Yang, H.A.; Wang, X.G.

    2005-04-15

    Magnetic reconnection with various plasma {beta} (the ratio of plasma pressure to the magnetic pressure) is studied numerically using a 2.5 dimensional Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code developed from a multistep implicit scheme. The initial state of the Hall MHD simulation is an equilibrium Harris sheet with L{sub c}=0.5d{sub i} (where L{sub c} is the half-width of the equilibrium current layer and d{sub i} is the ion inertial length) and a zero guide field (i.e., B{sub y0}=0 at t=0). Driven by a constant boundary inflow a quasisteady fast reconnection occurs in the plasma with a low uniform resistivity. The out-of-plane magnetic field component B{sub y} is then spontaneously generated and its quadrupolar structure is shown around the X point. It is demonstrated by the comparing studies that the reconnection dynamics is controlled by the Hall effect and the effect of scalar electron pressure gradient is negligible in the generalized Ohm's law. It is also found that the openness of the magnetic separatrix angle and associated quadrupolar B{sub y} structure is enlarged as {beta} increases. When {beta}>2.0 fine structures of B{sub y} contours with reversed sign emerge. The numerical results indicate that the variations in electron velocity V{sub e} are greater than those in ion velocity V{sub i} and the decoupling of electron and ion occurs in larger scale lengths than d{sub i} as {beta} increases. Clearly, the reserve current, which is associated with the relative motion between electrons and ions, generates the fine structures of B{sub y} contours in the outflow region. Then the corresponding profile of B{sub y} component exhibits a static whistler wave signature. Enhanced wave activities observed during a Cluster crossing of the high-{beta} exterior cusp region [Y. Khotyaintsev, A. Vaivads, Y. Ogawa, B. Popielawska, M. Andre, S. Buchert, P. Decreau, B. Lavraud, and H. Reme, Ann. Geophys. 22, 2403 (2004)] might be related to the Hall effects of magnetic

  3. High speed quantitative digital beta autoradiography using a multistep avalanche detector and an Apple II microcomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, J. E.; Connolly, J. F.; Stephenson, R.

    1985-11-01

    The development of an electronic, digital beta autoradiography system is described. Using a multistep avalanche/multiwire proportional counter (MSA/MWPC) detector system fitted with delay line readout, high speed digital imaging is demonstrated with submillimeter spatial resolution. In the case of autoradiography with a tritium label, image acquisition requires about one hour compared with several weeks for conventional film techniques. Good proportionality of observed counting rate relative to the known tritium activity is demonstrated. The application of the system to autoradiography in immunoelectrophoresis, histopathology and DNA sequencing is described (using 125I, 14C and 35S labels in addition to 3H).

  4. Limiter stabilization of high-beta external kink-tearing modes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.K.; Ohyabu, N.

    1984-12-01

    The stabilizing effects of finite-width poloidal limiters, toroidal limiters, and general mushroom limiters are examined for high-beta finite resistivity tokamak plamas in free boundary. When the plasma pressure and resistivity are small, a poloidal limiter is effective in reducing the growth rate even with a small limiter size, while a toroidal limiter requires a large size for a comparable effect. As the plasma pressure or resistivity increases, a toroidal limiter becomes more effective in reducing the growth rate than a poloidal limiter of the same size. A small optimized mushroom limiter might have a stabilizing effect similar to a conducting shell.

  5. High-Speed Incoming Infrared Target Detection by Fusion of Spatial and Temporal Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungho

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for detecting high-speed incoming targets by the fusion of spatial and temporal detectors to achieve a high detection rate for an active protection system (APS). The incoming targets have different image velocities according to the target-camera geometry. Therefore, single-target detector-based approaches, such as a 1D temporal filter, 2D spatial filter and 3D matched filter, cannot provide a high detection rate with moderate false alarms. The target speed variation was analyzed according to the incoming angle and target velocity. The speed of the distant target at the firing time is almost stationary and increases slowly. The speed varying targets are detected stably by fusing the spatial and temporal filters. The stationary target detector is activated by an almost zero temporal contrast filter (TCF) and identifies targets using a spatial filter called the modified mean subtraction filter (M-MSF). A small motion (sub-pixel velocity) target detector is activated by a small TCF value and finds targets using the same spatial filter. A large motion (pixel-velocity) target detector works when the TCF value is high. The final target detection is terminated by fusing the three detectors based on the threat priority. The experimental results of the various target sequences show that the proposed fusion-based target detector produces the highest detection rate with an acceptable false alarm rate. PMID:25815448

  6. High thermal conductivity of graphite fiber silicon carbide composites for fusion reactor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snead, L. L.; Balden, M.; Causey, R. A.; Atsumi, H.

    2002-12-01

    The benefits of using CVI SiC/graphite fiber composites as low tritium retaining, high thermal conductivity composites for fusion applications are presented. Three-dimensional woven composites have been chemically vapor infiltrated with SiC and their thermophysical properties measured. One material used an intermediate grade graphite fiber in all directions (Amoco P55) while a second material used very high thermal conductive fiber (Amoco K-1100) in the high fiber density direction. The overall void was less than 20%. Strength as measured by four-point bending was comparable to those of SiC/SiC composite. The room temperature thermal conductivity in the high conductivity direction was impressive for both materials, with values >70 W/m K for the P-55 and >420 W/m K for the K-1100 variant. The thermal conductivity was measured as a function of temperature and exceeds the highest thermal conductivity of CVD SiC currently available at fusion relevant temperatures (>600 °C). Limited data on the irradiation-induced degradation in thermal conductivity is consistent with carbon fiber composite literature.

  7. High thermal conductivity SiC/SiC composites for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Withers, J.C.; Kowbel, W.; Loutfy, R.O.

    1997-04-01

    SiC/SiC composites are considered for fusion applications due to their neutron irradiation stability, low activation, and good mechanical properties at high temperatures. The projected magnetic fusion power plant first wall and the divertor will operate with surface heat flux ranges of 0.5 to 1 and 4 to 6 MW/m{sup 2}, respectively. To maintain high thermal performance at operating temperatures the first wall and divertor coolant channels must have transverse thermal conductivity values of 5 to 10 and 20 to 30 W/mK, respectively. For these components exposed to a high energy neutron flux and temperatures perhaps exceeding 1000{degrees}C, SiC/SiC composites potentially can meet these demanding requirements. The lack of high-purity SiC fiber and a low through-the-thickness (transverse) thermal conductivity are two key technical problems with currently available SiC/SiC. Such composites, for example produced from Nicalon{trademark} fiber with a chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI) matrix, typically exhibit a transverse conductivity value of less than 8 W/mK (unirradiated) and less than 3 W/mK after neutron irradiation at 800{degrees}C. A new SiC/SiC composite fabrication process has been developed at MER Corp. This paper describes this process, and the thermal and mechanical properties which are observed in this new composite material.

  8. High Temperature Fusion Reactor Cooling Using Brayton Cycle Based Partial Energy Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

    2003-01-01

    For some future space power systems using high temperature nuclear heat sources most of the output energy will be used in other than electrical form, and only a fraction of the total thermal energy generated will need to be converted to electrical work. The paper describes the conceptual design of such a partial energy conversion system, consisting of a high temperature fusion reactor operating in series with a high temperature radiator and in parallel with dual closed cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power systems, also referred to as closed Brayton cycle (CBC) systems, which are supplied with a fraction of the reactor thermal energy for conversion to electric power. Most of the fusion reactor's output is in the form of charged plasma which is expanded through a magnetic nozzle of the interplanetary propulsion system. Reactor heat energy is ducted to the high temperature series radiator utilizing the electric power generated to drive a helium gas circulation fan. In addition to discussing the thermodynamic aspects of the system design the authors include a brief overview of the gas turbine and fan rotor-dynamics and proposed bearing support technology along with performance characteristics of the three phase AC electric power generator and fan drive motor.

  9. High efficiency and brightness fluorescent organic light emitting diode by triplet-triplet fusion

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen; Zhang, Yifan

    2015-02-10

    A first device is provided. The first device further comprises an organic light emitting device. The organic light emitting device further comprises an anode, a cathode, and an emissive layer disposed between the anode and the cathode. The emissive layer may include an organic host compound and at least one organic emitting compound capable of fluorescent emission at room temperature. Various configurations are described for providing a range of current densities in which T-T fusion dominates over S-T annihilation, leading to very high efficiency fluorescent OLEDs.

  10. High resolution neutron diffraction crystallographic investigation of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened steels of interest for fusion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppola, R.; Rodriguez-Carvajal, J.; Wang, M.; Zhang, G.; Zhou, Z.

    2014-12-01

    High resolution neutron diffraction measurements have been carried out to characterize the crystallographic phases present in different Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels of interest for fusion technology. The different lattice structures, Im3m for the ferritic ODS and Fm3m for the austenitic ODS, are resolved showing line anisotropy effects possibly correlated with differences in dislocation densities and texture. Many contributions from minority phases are detected well above the background noise; none of the expected crystallographic phases, such as M23C6 and including Y2O3, fits them, but the TiN phase is identified in accordance with results of other microstructural techniques.

  11. High-dose insulin therapy in beta-blocker and calcium channel-blocker poisoning.

    PubMed

    Engebretsen, Kristin M; Kaczmarek, Kathleen M; Morgan, Jenifer; Holger, Joel S

    2011-04-01

    INTRODUCTION. High-dose insulin therapy, along with glucose supplementation, has emerged as an effective treatment for severe beta-blocker and calcium channel-blocker poisoning. We review the experimental data and clinical experience that suggests high-dose insulin is superior to conventional therapies for these poisonings. PRESENTATION AND GENERAL MANAGEMENT. Hypotension, bradycardia, decreased systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and cardiogenic shock are characteristic features of beta-blocker and calcium-channel blocker poisoning. Initial treatment is primarily supportive and includes saline fluid resuscitation which is essential to correct vasodilation and low cardiac filling pressures. Conventional therapies such as atropine, glucagon and calcium often fail to improve hemodynamic status in severely poisoned patients. Catecholamines can increase blood pressure and heart rate, but they also increase SVR which may result in decreases in cardiac output and perfusion of vascular beds. The increased myocardial oxygen demand that results from catecholamines and vasopressors may be deleterious in the setting of hypotension and decreased coronary perfusion. METHODS. The Medline, Embase, Toxnet, and Google Scholar databases were searched for the years 1975-2010 using the terms: high-dose insulin, hyperinsulinemia-euglycemia, beta-blocker, calcium-channel blocker, toxicology, poisoning, antidote, toxin-induced cardiovascular shock, and overdose. In addition, a manual search of the Abstracts of the North American Congress of Clinical Toxicology and the Congress of the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists published in Clinical Toxicology for the years 1996-2010 was undertaken. These searches identified 485 articles of which 72 were considered relevant. MECHANISMS OF HIGH-DOSE INSULIN BENEFIT. There are three main mechanisms of benefit: increased inotropy, increased intracellular glucose transport, and vascular dilatation. EFFICACY OF HIGH

  12. High LET Radiation Can Enhance TGF(Beta) Induced EMT and Cross-Talk with ATM Pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Huff, Janice; Pluth, Janice M.; Anderson, Janniffer; ONeill, Peter; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    The TGF(Beta) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation in mammary epithelial cells. We investigated possible interactions between the TGF(Beta) and ATM pathways following simulated space radiation using hTERT immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC-hTERT), mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1lu), and several human fibroblast cell lines. TGF(Beta) is a key modulator of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), important in cancer progression and metastasis. The implication of EMT by radiation also has several lines of developing evidence, however is poorly understood. The identification of TGF(Beta) induced EMT can be shown in changes to morphology, related gene over expression or down regulation, which can be detected by RT-PCR, and immunostaining and western blotting. In this study, we have observed morphologic and molecular alternations consistent with EMT after Mv1lu cells were treated with TGF(Beta) High LET radiation enhanced TGF(Beta) mediated EMT with a dose as low as 0.1Gy. In order to consider the TGF(Beta) interaction with ATM we used a potent ATM inhibitor Ku55933 and investigated gene expression changes and Smad signaling kinetics. Ku559933 was observed to reverse TGF(Beta) induced EMT, while this was not observed in dual treated cells (radiation+TGF(Beta)). In EPC-hTERT cells, TGF(Beta) alone was not able to induce EMT after 3 days of application. A combined treatment with high LET, however, significantly caused the alteration of EMT markers. To study the function of p53 in the process of EMT, we knocked down P53 through RNA interference. Morphology changes associated with EMT were observed in epithelial cells with silenced p53. Our study indicates: high LET radiation can enhance TGF(Beta) induced EMT; while ATM is triggering the process of TGF(Beta)-induced EMT, p53 might be an essential repressor for EMT phenotypes.

  13. Spinal fusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anterior spinal fusion; Spine surgery - spinal fusion; Low back pain - fusion; Herniated disk - fusion ... If you had chronic back pain before surgery, you will likely still have some pain afterward. Spinal fusion is unlikely to take away all your pain ...

  14. The effect of beta-alanine supplementation on isokinetic force and cycling performance in highly trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Howe, Samuel T; Bellinger, Phillip M; Driller, Matthew W; Shing, Cecilia M; Fell, James W

    2013-12-01

    Beta-alanine may benefit short-duration, high-intensity exercise performance. The aim of this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was to examine the effects of beta-alanine supplementation on aspects of muscular performance in highly trained cyclists. Sixteen highly trained cyclists (mean ± SD; age = 24 ± 7 yr; mass = 70 ± 7 kg; VO2max = 67 ± 4 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) supplemented with either beta-alanine (n = 8, 65 mg · kg - 1BM) or a placebo (n = 8; dextrose monohydrate) over 4 weeks. Pre- and postsupplementation cyclists performed a 4-minute maximal cycling test to measure average power and 30 reciprocal maximal isokinetic knee contractions at a fixed angular velocity of 180° · sec(-1) to measure average power/repetition, total work done (TWD), and fatigue index (%). Blood pH, lactate (La-) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentrations were measured pre- and postisokinetic testing at baseline and following the supplementation period. Beta-alanine supplementation was 44% likely to increase average power output during the 4-minute cycling time trial when compared with the placebo, although this was not statistically significant (p = .25). Isokinetic average power/repetition was significantly increased post beta-alanine supplementation compared with placebo (beta-alanine: 6.8 ± 9.9 W, placebo: -4.3 ± 9.5 W, p = .04, 85% likely benefit), while fatigue index was significantly reduced (p = .03, 95% likely benefit). TWD was 89% likely to be improved following beta-alanine supplementation; however, this was not statistically significant (p = .09). There were no significant differences in blood pH, lactate, and HCO3- between groups (p > .05). Four weeks of beta-alanine supplementation resulted in worthwhile changes in time-trial performance and short-duration muscular force production in highly trained cyclists.

  15. The GUS gene fusion system (Escherichia coli beta-D-glucuronidase gene), a useful tool in studies of root colonization by Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed Central

    Couteaudier, Y; Daboussi, M J; Eparvier, A; Langin, T; Orcival, J

    1993-01-01

    The plant-pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum was successfully transformed with the beta-D-glucuronidase gene from Escherichia coli (gusA) (GUS system) in combination with the gene for nitrate reductase (niaD) as the selectable marker. The frequency of cotransformation, as determined by GUS expression on plates containing medium supplemented with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl glucuronide (GUS+), was very high (up to 75%). Southern hybridization analyses of GUS+ transformants revealed that single or multiple copies of the gusA gene were integrated into the genomes. High levels of GUS activity are expressed in some transformants, but activity in F. oxysporum does not appear to be correlated with the copy number of the gusA gene. Since the highest activity was found in a transformant with a single copy, it can be assumed that sequence elements of F. oxysporum integrated upstream of the gene can act as a promoter or enhancer. Expression of the gusA gene was also detected during growth of the fungus in plants, indicating that the GUS system can be used as a sensitive and easy reporter gene assay in F. oxysporum. Images PMID:8328800

  16. Carotenoid absorption in humans consuming tomato sauces obtained from tangerine or high-beta-carotene varieties of tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Unlu, Nuray Z; Bohn, Torsten; Francis, David; Clinton, Steven K; Schwartz, Steven J

    2007-02-21

    Tomato sauces were produced from unique tomato varieties to study carotenoid absorption in humans. Tangerine tomatoes, high in cis-lycopene, especially prolycopene (7Z,9Z,7'Z,9'Z), and high-beta-carotene tomatoes as an alternative dietary source of beta-carotene were grown and processed. Sauces were served after 2 week washout periods and overnight fasting for breakfast to healthy subjects (n = 12, 6M/6F) in a randomized crossover design. The serving size was 150 g (containing 15 g of corn oil), tangerine sauce containing 13 mg of lycopene (97.0% as cis-isomers) and high-beta-carotene sauce containing 17 mg of total beta-carotene (1.6% as the 9-cis-isomer) and 4 mg of lycopene. Blood samples were collected 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9.5 h following test meal consumption and carotenoids determined in the plasma triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein fraction by HPLC-electrochemical detection. Baseline-corrected areas under the concentration vs time curves (AUC) were used as a measure of absorption. AUC0-9.5h values for total lycopene in the tangerine sauce group were 870 +/- 187 (nmol.h)/L (mean +/- SEM) with >99% as cis-isomers (59% as the tetra-cis-isomer). The AUC0-9.5h values for total beta-carotene and lycopene after consumption of the high-beta-carotene sauce were 304 +/- 54 (4% as 9-cis-carotene) and 118 +/- 24 (nmol.h)/L, respectively. Lycopene dose-adjusted triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein AUC responses in the tangerine sauce group were relatively high when compared to those in the literature and the high-beta-carotene group. The results support the hypothesis that lycopene cis-isomers are highly bioavailable and suggest that special tomato varieties can be utilized to increase both the intake and bioavailability of health-beneficial carotenoids.

  17. Thin shell, high velocity inertial confinement fusion implosions on the national ignition facility.

    PubMed

    Ma, T; Hurricane, O A; Callahan, D A; Barrios, M A; Casey, D T; Dewald, E L; Dittrich, T R; Döppner, T; Haan, S W; Hinkel, D E; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Le Pape, S; MacPhee, A G; Pak, A; Park, H-S; Patel, P K; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Salmonson, J D; Springer, P T; Tommasini, R; Benedetti, L R; Bionta, R; Bond, E; Bradley, D K; Caggiano, J; Celliers, P; Cerjan, C J; Church, J A; Dixit, S; Dylla-Spears, R; Edgell, D; Edwards, M J; Field, J; Fittinghoff, D N; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Grim, G; Guler, N; Hatarik, R; Herrmann, H W; Hsing, W W; Izumi, N; Jones, O S; Khan, S F; Kilkenny, J D; Knauer, J; Kohut, T; Kozioziemski, B; Kritcher, A; Kyrala, G; Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Mackinnon, A J; Meezan, N B; Merrill, F E; Moody, J D; Nagel, S R; Nikroo, A; Parham, T; Ralph, J E; Rosen, M D; Rygg, J R; Sater, J; Sayre, D; Schneider, M B; Shaughnessy, D; Spears, B K; Town, R P J; Volegov, P L; Wan, A; Widmann, K; Wilde, C H; Yeamans, C

    2015-04-10

    Experiments have recently been conducted at the National Ignition Facility utilizing inertial confinement fusion capsule ablators that are 175 and 165  μm in thickness, 10% and 15% thinner, respectively, than the nominal thickness capsule used throughout the high foot and most of the National Ignition Campaign. These three-shock, high-adiabat, high-foot implosions have demonstrated good performance, with higher velocity and better symmetry control at lower laser powers and energies than their nominal thickness ablator counterparts. Little to no hydrodynamic mix into the DT hot spot has been observed despite the higher velocities and reduced depth for possible instability feedthrough. Early results have shown good repeatability, with up to 1/2 the neutron yield coming from α-particle self-heating. PMID:25910132

  18. Thin Shell, High Velocity Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, T.; Hurricane, O. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Barrios, M. A.; Casey, D. T.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Doppner, T.; Haan, S. W.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Park, H. S.; Patel, P. K.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Springer, P. T.; Tommasini, R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bionta, R.; Bond, E.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J.; Celliers, P.; Cerjan, C. J.; Church, J. A.; Dixit, S.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Edgell, D.; Edwards, M. J.; Field, J.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G.; Guler, N.; Hatarik, R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hsing, W. W.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Knauer, J.; Kohut, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Kritcher, A.; Kyrala, G.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Merrill, F. E.; Moody, J. D.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Parham, T.; Ralph, J. E.; Rosen, M. D.; Rygg, J. R.; Sater, J.; Sayre, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Shaughnessy, D.; Spears, B. K.; Town, R.P. J.; Volegov, P. L.; Wan, A.; Widmann, K.; Wilde, C. H.; Yeamans, C.

    2015-04-06

    Experiments have recently been conducted at the National Ignition Facility utilizing inertial confinement fusion capsule ablators that are 175 and 165 μm in thickness, 10% and 15% thinner, respectively, than the nominal thickness capsule used throughout the high foot and most of the National Ignition Campaign. These three-shock, high-adiabat, high-foot implosions have demonstrated good performance, with higher velocity and better symmetry control at lower laser powers and energies than their nominal thickness ablator counterparts. Little to no hydrodynamic mix into the DT hot spot has been observed despite the higher velocities and reduced depth for possible instability feedthrough. Earlier results have shown good repeatability, with up to 1/2 the neutron yield coming from α-particle self-heating.

  19. Thin Shell, High Velocity Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, T.; Hurricane, O. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Barrios, M. A.; Casey, D. T.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Döppner, T.; Haan, S. W.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Park, H.-S.; Patel, P. K.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Springer, P. T.; Tommasini, R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bionta, R.; Bond, E.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J.; Celliers, P.; Cerjan, C. J.; Church, J. A.; Dixit, S.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Edgell, D.; Edwards, M. J.; Field, J.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G.; Guler, N.; Hatarik, R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hsing, W. W.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Knauer, J.; Kohut, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Kritcher, A.; Kyrala, G.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Merrill, F. E.; Moody, J. D.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Parham, T.; Ralph, J. E.; Rosen, M. D.; Rygg, J. R.; Sater, J.; Sayre, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Shaughnessy, D.; Spears, B. K.; Town, R. P. J.; Volegov, P. L.; Wan, A.; Widmann, K.; Wilde, C. H.; Yeamans, C.

    2015-04-01

    Experiments have recently been conducted at the National Ignition Facility utilizing inertial confinement fusion capsule ablators that are 175 and 165 μ m in thickness, 10% and 15% thinner, respectively, than the nominal thickness capsule used throughout the high foot and most of the National Ignition Campaign. These three-shock, high-adiabat, high-foot implosions have demonstrated good performance, with higher velocity and better symmetry control at lower laser powers and energies than their nominal thickness ablator counterparts. Little to no hydrodynamic mix into the DT hot spot has been observed despite the higher velocities and reduced depth for possible instability feedthrough. Early results have shown good repeatability, with up to 1 /2 the neutron yield coming from α -particle self-heating.

  20. First direct double-beta decay Q-value measurement of the neutrinoless double-beta decay candidate selenium-82 and development of a high-precision magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, David Louis

    The results of recent neutrino oscillation experiments indicate that the mass of the neutrino is nonzero. The mass hierarchy and the absolute mass scale of the neutrino, however, are unknown. Furthermore, the nature of the neutrino is also unknown; is it a Dirac or Majorana particle, i.e. is the neutrino its own antiparticle? If experiments succeed in observing neutrinoless double-beta decay, there would be evidence that the neutrino is a Majorana particle and that conservation of total lepton number is violated - a situation forbidden by the Standard Model of particle physics. In support of understanding the nature of the neutrino, the first direct double-beta decay Q-value measurement of the neutrinoless double-beta decay candidate 82Se was performed [D. L. Lincoln et al., Physical Review Letters 110, 012501 (2013)]. The measurement was carried out using Penning trap mass spectrometry, which has proven to be the most precise and accurate method for determining atomic masses and therefore, Q-values. The high-precision measurement resulted in a Q-value with nearly an order of magnitude improvement in precision over the literature value. This result is important for the theoretical interpretations of the observations of current and future double-beta decay studies. It is also important for the design of future and next-generation double-beta decay experiments, such as SuperNEMO, which is planned to observe 100 - 200 kg of 82Se for five years. The high-precision measurement was performed at the Low-Energy Beam and Ion Trap (LEBIT) facility located at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). The LEBIT facility was the first Penning trap mass spectrometry facility to utilize rare isotope beams produced via fast fragmentation and has measured nearly 40 rare isotopes since its commissioning in 2005. To further improve the LEBIT facility's performance, technical improvements to the system are being implemented. As part of this work, to increase the

  1. Considerations of the high magnetic field tokamak path on the approach to fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmar, Earl

    2015-11-01

    This tutorial will review the physics basis, and its applications, for high magnetic field, compact visions of steady-state pilot plants and fusion reactors. This includes: energy and particle confinement; transport barriers; heating and current drive; scrape-off layer and divertor physics including implications for power handling, and ash/impurity control. The development of new technologies, particularly high-temperature, high critical magnetic field superconducting materials opens a new opportunity to consider the leverage of on-axis magnetic fields of 10T or more, enabling the feasibility of smaller sized devices on the path to fusion energy, including a pilot plant which could produce hundreds of megawatts of net electricity in a 10T tokamak with major radius of order 3 meter. Incorporating jointed magnetic coils, also made feasible by the high temperature superconductors, can dramatically improve flexibility of experimental superconducting facilities, and ultimately maintainability for reactor systems. Steady-state requires high bootstrap fraction, combined with efficient off-axis current drive, and existing and new approaches for RF sustainment will be covered, including Lower Hybrid Current Drive (both from the low- and high-field side), ECCD, and fast-wave techniques. External torque drive from neutral beams, routinely used in most present-day experiments to enhance confinement and suppress instabilities, will be weak or absent in reactors. Alternative, RF-based flow drive, using mode-converted ICRF waves will be discussed. All reactor concepts have extraordinary power handling requirements, combined with stringent limits on PFC erosion and impurity sources; the current state of the art in divertor configurations will be compared with emerging and new concepts, including snowflake, x-point, x-divertor and liquid metals, to meet these challenges. Supported by USDOE.

  2. Metallurgical, chemical, and stress corrosion cracking characterization of high oxygen alpha+beta titanium-15Molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Randall Scott

    Titanium and its alloys are used as biomaterials due to their excellent corrosion resistance, mechanical properties, superior biocompatibility, metallurgical properties and fatigue characteristics. Titanium implants, like all biomaterials, can have failures in-vivo during their service life. The predominant mechanism observed for titanium implant/device failures is corrosion fatigue. However, other failure mechanisms can be observed. One such failure mechanism is stress corrosion cracking. Stress corrosion cracking and its presence or absence in in-vivo failures of titanium and titanium alloys has historically been debated. Several researchers have stated that titanium and titanium alloys can fail due to stress corrosion cracking under physiological conditions when the oxygen weight percent exceeds 0.20. The purpose of this research was to evaluate and to compare metallurgical, chemical, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) properties of two heats of alpha+beta Ti-15Mo with oxygen weight concentrations of approximately 0.18% (Heat UC30) and 0.73% (Heat UC32B). The results were compared to previous findings for beta Ti-15Mo, Grade 4 CP Ti, Ti-6A1-4V ELI and another low oxygen weight percent alpha+beta Ti-15Mo. Metallurgical evaluations showed that Heat UC30 had an inhomogeneous distribution of alpha and beta phases while Heat UC32B exhibited a homogenous microstructure. Heat treatment processes (annealing and aging) were completed on both heats to homogenize and to optimize the microstructures. Smooth and notched tensile test results showed that both heats had equal or superior tensile properties compared to CPTi and other Ti alloys. Corrosion resistance testing showed a variance in Heat UC30 samples while little variance was shown in Heat UC32B samples. Chemical composition results found that both alloys were within specification and internal melt limits. Smooth and notched samples for both Heat UC30 and Heat UC32B showed no evidence of SCC failure mechanisms in

  3. Restricting mobility of Gsalpha relative to the beta2-adrenoceptor enhances adenylate cyclase activity by reducing Gsalpha GTPase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel-Seifert, K; Lee, T W; Seifert, R; Kobilka, B K

    1998-01-01

    The beta2-adrenoceptor (beta2AR) activates the G-protein Gsalpha to stimulate adenylate cyclase (AC). Fusion of the beta2AR C-terminus to the N-terminus of Gsalpha (producing beta2ARGsalpha) markedly increases the efficiency of receptor/G-protein coupling compared with the non-fused state. This increase in coupling efficiency can be attributed to the physical proximity of receptor and G-protein. To determine the optimal length for the tether between receptor and G-protein we constructed fusion proteins from which 26 [beta2AR(Delta26)Gsalpha] or 70 [beta2AR(Delta70)Gsalpha] residues of the beta2AR C-terminus had been deleted and compared the properties of these fusion proteins with the previously described beta2ARGsalpha. Compared with beta2ARGsalpha, basal and agonist-stimulated GTP hydrolysis was markedly decreased in beta2AR(Delta70)Gsalpha, whereas the effect of the deletion on binding of guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) was relatively small. Surprisingly, deletions did not alter the efficiency of coupling of the beta2AR to Gsalpha as assessed by GTP[S]-sensitive high-affinity agonist binding. Moreover, basal and ligand-regulated AC activities in membranes expressing beta2AR(Delta70)Gsalpha and beta2AR(Delta26)Gsalpha were higher than in membranes expressing beta2ARGsalpha. These findings suggest that restricting the mobility of Gsalpha relative to the beta2AR results in a decrease in G-protein inactivation by GTP hydrolysis and thereby enhanced activation of AC. PMID:9729456

  4. On the alpha --> beta transition of carbon-coated highly oriented PVDF ultrathin film induced by melt recrystallization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jijun; Li, Huihui; Liu, Jichun; Duan, Yongxin; Jiang, Shidong; Yan, Shouke

    2003-02-12

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is one of the polymers which exhibit pronounced polymorphic crystalline forms, depending on crystallization conditions. Four different crystalline modifications, i.e., alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, have been reported so far. Among them, even though the alpha-form is the most common one, the beta-phase is the one that has attracted the widest interest due to its extensive piezo- and pyroelectric applications. During the past few decades, a substantial amount of work has been done in attempts to characterize these crystal modifications and transformations among them. It was well documented that the alpha-form PVDF can be easily obtained through melt crystallization of the PVDF at atmospheric pressure. Its beta-counterpart can, however, only be directly obtained by growth from solution, molecular epitaxy on the surface of potassium bromide, melt crystallization at high pressures, or by applying with a strong electric field. Transformation from its alpha-phase to beta-phase has been achieved by mechanical deformation, while the retransformation could be conducted through melt recrystallization at atmospheric pressure. In the present work, the recrystallization behavior of carbon-coated melt-drawn oriented PVDF ultrathin films at atmospheric pressure was studied by means of transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. The results indicate that through vacuum evaporating a thin carbon layer on the surface of highly oriented alpha-PVDF ultrathin film, not only has its high orientation been preserved after a complete melting and recrystallization process, but an alpha --> beta transition of PVDF has also been achieved through melt recrystallization at atmospheric pressure. This technique can be successfully used for preparing highly oriented beta-PVDF ultrathin films, especially patterned microstructures of PVDF with its highly oriented polar beta-phase and nonoriented nonpolar alpha-phase.

  5. Identification and differential accumulation of two isoforms of the CF1-beta subunit under high light stress in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Shunxing; Hilaire, Emmanuel; Guikema, James A

    2004-12-01

    The chloroplast ATP synthase coupling factor CF1 complex contains five nonidentical subunits, alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon, with a stoichiometry of 3:3:1:1:1. The beta subunit contains the catalytic site for ATP synthesis during photooxidative phosphorylation in the chloroplast. In this study, we have identified two isoforms of the CF1-beta subunit at 56 and 54 kDa in the chloroplast of Brassica rapa, through isolation/purification, proteolytic digestion and internal peptide sequencing. Examining their accumulation pattern demonstrates that both isoforms coexist during chloroplast biogenesis and in mature thylakoid membranes, but the 54 kDa isoform is more apparently upregulated by light or under light stress. LiDS-PAGE shows that the 56 kDa is a major isoform of the CF1-beta subunit under normal light conditions, and its amount was not influenced during high light or other light stress treatments. The 54 kDa isoform is a minor band at normal conditions; however, it significantly increased under excess light stresses, such as high or low light with drought and/or high temperature. Particularly, a ninefold increase was observed after 8-10 h of high light treatment with drought and high temperature. The results suggest that light stress induction of the 54 kDa CF1-beta isoform may present a positive response during chloroplast photoacclimation.

  6. High precision study of muon catalyzed fusion in D2 and HD gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balin, D. V.; Ganzha, V. A.; Kozlov, S. M.; Maev, E. M.; Petrov, G. E.; Soroka, M. A.; Schapkin, G. N.; Semenchuk, G. G.; Trofimov, V. A.; Vasiliev, A. A.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Voropaev, N. I.; Petitjean, C.; Gartner, B.; Lauss, B.; Marton, J.; Zmeskal, J.; Case, T.; Crowe, K. M.; Kammel, P.; Hartmann, F. J.; Faifman, M. P.

    2011-03-01

    Muon catalyzed dd fusion in D2 and HD gases in the temperature range from 28 to 350 K was investigated in a series of experiments based on a time-projection ionization chamber operating with pure hydrogen. All main observables in this reaction chain were measured with high absolute precision including the resonant and non-resonant ddμ formation rates, the rate for hyperfine transitions in dμ atoms, the branching ratio of the two charge symmetric fusion channels 3He + n and t + p and the muon sticking probability. The report presents the final analysis of the data together with a comprehensive comparison with calculations based on recent μCF theories. The energy of the loosely bound ddμ state with quantum numbers J = 1, ν = 1, which is central to the mechanism of resonant molecule formation, is extracted with precision ɛ11(fit) = -1.9651(7) eV. in impressive agreement with the latest theoretical results ɛ11(theory) = -1.9646 eV.

  7. Progress in laboratory high gain ICF (inertial confinement fusion): Prospects for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, E.; Lindl, J.D.; Campbell, E.M.; Bernat, T.P.; Coleman, L.W.; Emmett, J.L.; Hogan, W.J.; Hunt, J.T.; Krupke, W.F.; Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF), a thermonuclear reaction in a small (/approximately/5 mm diameter) fuel capsule filled with a few milligrams of deuterium and tritium, has been the subject of very fruitful experimentation since the early 1970's. High gain ICF is now on the threshold of practical applications. With a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF), these applications will have major implications for national defense, basic and applied science, and power production. With a driver capable of delivering about 10 MJ in a 10-ns pulse at an intensity of /approximately/3 /times/ 10/sup 14/ W/cm/sup 2/, an appropriately configured cryogenic capsule could be compressed to a density of about 200 g/cm/sup 3/ and a temperature of 3--5 keV. Under these conditions, up to 10 mg of DT could be ignited, and with a burn efficiency of about 30%, release up to 1000 MJ of fusion energy, an energy gain of about 100. A thousand megajoules is equivalent to about one quarter ton of TNT, or about 7 gallons of oil--an amount of energy tractable under laboratory conditions and potentially very useful for a variety of applications. 61 refs., 33 figs.

  8. An integrated multi-source JDL high-level fusion architecture using recombinant cognition synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Marco A.; Ekwaro-Osire, Stephen; Tanik, Murat M.

    2009-04-01

    High-Level fusion systems based on the JDL model are relatively immature. Current solutions lack a comprehensive ability to manage multi-source data in a multi-dimensional vector space, and generally do not integrate collection to action models in a cohesive thread. Recombinant Cognition Synthesis (RCS) leverages best-of-breed techniques with a geospatial, temporal and semantic data model to provide a unified methodology that recombines multi-source data with analytic and predictive algorithms to synthesize actionable intelligence. This architecture framework enables the traversal of entity relationships at different level of granularities and the discovery of latent knowledge, thereby facilitating the domain problem analysis and the development of a Course-of-Action to mitigate adversarial threats. RCS also includes process refinement techniques to achieve superior information dominance, by incorporating specialized metadata. This comprehensive and unified methodology delivers enhanced utility to the intelligence analyst, and addresses key issues of relevancy, timeliness, accuracy, and uncertainty by providing metrics via feedback loops within the RCS infrastructure that augment the efficiency and effectiveness of the end-to-end fusion processing chain.

  9. Simulation of System Error Tolerances of a High Current Transport Experiment for Heavy-Ion Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Steven M.; Bangerter, Roger O.; Freidman, Alex; Grote, Dave P.; Seidl, Peter A.

    2000-10-01

    A driver-scale, intense ion beam transport experiment (HCX) is being designed to test issues for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) [1]. Here we present detailed, Particle in Cell simulations of HCX to parametrically explore how various system errors can impact machine performance. The simulations are transverse and include the full 3D fields of the quadrupole focusing magnets, spreads in axial momentum, conducting pipe boundary conditions, etc. System imperfections such as applied focusing field errors (magnet strength, field nonlinearities, etc.), alignment errors (magnet offsets and rotations), beam envelope mismatches to the focusing lattice, induced beam image charges, and beam distribution errors (beam nonuniformities, collective modes, and other distortions) are all analyzed in turn and in combination. The influence of these errors on the degradation of beam quality (emittance growth), halo production, and loss of beam control are evaluated. Evaluations of practical machine apertures and centroid steering corrections that can mitigate particle loss and degradation of beam quality are carried out. 1. P.A. Seidl, L.E. Ahle, R.O. Bangerter, V.P. Karpenko, S.M. Lund, A Faltens, R.M. Franks, D.B. Shuman, and H.K. Springer, Design of a Proof of Principal High Current Transport Experiment for Heavy-Ion Fusion, these proceedings.

  10. Application of spatially resolved high resolution crystal spectrometry to inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Pablant, N. A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K.; Sanchez del Rio, M.; Zhang, L.

    2012-10-15

    High resolution ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}{approx} 10 000) 1D imaging x-ray spectroscopy using a spherically bent crystal and a 2D hybrid pixel array detector is used world wide for Doppler measurements of ion-temperature and plasma flow-velocity profiles in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. Meter sized plasmas are diagnosed with cm spatial resolution and 10 ms time resolution. This concept can also be used as a diagnostic of small sources, such as inertial confinement fusion plasmas and targets on x-ray light source beam lines, with spatial resolution of micrometers, as demonstrated by laboratory experiments using a 250-{mu}m {sup 55}Fe source, and by ray-tracing calculations. Throughput calculations agree with measurements, and predict detector counts in the range 10{sup -8}-10{sup -6} times source x-rays, depending on crystal reflectivity and spectrometer geometry. Results of the lab demonstrations, application of the technique to the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and predictions of performance on NIF will be presented.

  11. ARC: A compact, high-field, disassemblable fusion nuclear science facility and demonstration power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbom, Brandon; Ball, Justin; Palmer, Timothy; Mangiarotti, Franco; Sierchio, Jennifer; Bonoli, Paul; Kasten, Cale; Sutherland, Derek; Barnard, Harold; Haakonsen, Christian; Goh, Jon; Sung, Choongki; Whyte, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable, Robust, Compact (ARC) reactor conceptual design aims to reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a combined Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) and demonstration fusion pilot power plant. ARC is a 270 MWe tokamak reactor with a major radius of 3.3 m, a minor radius of 1.1 m, and an on-axis magnetic field of 9.2 T. ARC has Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide (REBCO) superconducting toroidal field coils with joints to allow disassembly, allowing for removal and replacement of the vacuum vessel as a single component. Inboard-launched current drive of 25 MW LHRF power and 13.6 MW ICRF power is used to provide a robust, steady state core plasma far from disruptive limits. ARC uses an all-liquid blanket, consisting of low pressure, slowly flowing Fluorine Lithium Beryllium (FLiBe) molten salt. The liquid blanket acts as a working fluid, coolant, and tritium breeder, and minimizes the solid material that can become activated. The large temperature range over which FLiBe is liquid permits blanket operation at 800-900 K with single phase fluid cooling and allows use of a high-efficiency Brayton cycle for electricity production in the secondary coolant loop.

  12. Numerical studies of high current beam compression in heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bisognano, J.; Lee, F.P.; Mark, J.W.K.

    1985-10-01

    The process of longitudinal compression of a drifting heavy ion pulse to be used as an ICF driver is examined with the aid of particle simulation. Space charge forces play a vital role in halting compression before the final focus lens system is reached. This must take place with minimal growth of transverse emittance and momentum spread. Of particular concern are the distortion of longitudinal phase space by the rounded transverse profile of the longitudinal self-electric field. For application as an ICF reactor driver, a heavy-ion beam pulse must be longitudinally compressed by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude to achieve the peak power required to ignite a target. This process, among others, will be tested in a facility known as the ''High-Temperature Experiment'' in heavy-ion fusion. Beam compression is a critical element of an accelerator for heavy-ion fusion; it occurs primarily after the main phase of acceleration and before final focus onto target. Here we examine the compression of a drifting heavy-ion pulse with the aid of particle simulations. We describe initial theoretical results for an in-principle solution to this problem. Further refinements including integration into a complete driver system are necessary before the least costly solution can be chosen.

  13. Studies on heavy ion fusion and high energy density physics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, S.; Horioka, K.; Murakami, M.; Oguri, Y.; Hasegawa, J.; Takayama, K.; Yoneda, H.; Miyazawa, K.; Someya, T.; Ogoyski, A. I.; Seino, M.; Kikuchi, T.; Kawamura, T.; Ogawa, M.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, significant progresses of Japanese research activities are presented in heavy ion fusion (HIF) and high energy density physics (HEDP). Heavy ion beam (HIB) is a prominent tool to study HEDP and HIF, and HIBs may be a promising inertial fusion driver. HIB accelerators have been studied intensively for a long time; HIB pulse profile, a particle energy and a HIB quality are controllable. A HIB energy deposition profile is also well defined, and HIB energy is deposited inside a material. By focusing and using the HIB excellent properties, Japanese HIF and HEDP activities have covered a wide variety of subjects ranging from new accelerators to future HIF studies: ion source, new inductive accelerator, beam physics, beam bunching, beam instabilities, HIB interactions with gas or materials, laser ion acceleration, HIB transport, HIB-based warm dense (WD) state generation, new measurement of HED or WD matters, HIB stopping power, atomic physics, multi-HIBs illumination on a target, HIF target implosion, impact ignition scheme, HIB-radiation conversion, radiation confinement and transport in HED matter or in HIF, and so on.

  14. Use of Polycarbonate Vacuum Vessels in High-Temperature Fusion-Plasma Research

    SciTech Connect

    B. Berlinger, A. Brooks, H. Feder, J. Gumbas, T. Franckowiak and S.A. Cohen

    2012-09-27

    Magnetic fusion energy (MFE) research requires ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) conditions, primarily to reduce plasma contamination by impurities. For radiofrequency (RF)-heated plasmas, a great benefit may accrue from a non-conducting vacuum vessel, allowing external RF antennas which avoids the complications and cost of internal antennas and high-voltage high-current feedthroughs. In this paper we describe these and other criteria, e.g., safety, availability, design flexibility, structural integrity, access, outgassing, transparency, and fabrication techniques that led to the selection and use of 25.4-cm OD, 1.6-cm wall polycarbonate pipe as the main vacuum vessel for an MFE research device whose plasmas are expected to reach keV energies for durations exceeding 0.1 s

  15. Reaching High-Yield Fusion with a Slow Plasma Liner Compressing a Magnetized Target

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D D; Parks, P B

    2008-03-18

    Dynamics of the compression of a magnetized plasma target by a heavy liner made of partially ionized high high-Z material is discussed. A 'soft-landing' (shockless) mode of the liner deceleration is analyzed. Conclusion is drawn that such mode is possible for the liners whose thickness at the time of the first contact with the target is smaller than, roughly, 10% of the initial (un-compressed) target radius. A combination of the plasma liner with one or two glide cones allows for a direct access to the area near the center of the reactor chamber. One can then generate plasma target inside the plasma liner at the optimum time. The other advantage of the glide cones is that they can be used to deliver additional fuel to the center of the target near the point of a maximum compression and thereby increase the fusion yield.

  16. Observation of Multiple Reconnections during Self-organization Process of High Temperature Fusion Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H. K.; Tobias, B.; Choi, M. J.; Yun, G. S.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Munsat, T.; Donné, A. J. H.; Spakman, G. W.; Textor Team

    2011-10-01

    Images of a high resolution 2-D Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) diagnostic shows evidence of multiple magnetic reconnection processes during the internal disruption of a high temperature tokamak plasmas. The disruption induces magnetic self-organization of the toroidal plasma being accompanied by successive or simultaneous multiple layer reconnection. The degree of asymmetric deformation of the internal magnetic structure (m/n=1/1 mode) prior to temperature crash influences the outcome of the disruptive behavior. The observation is critical for the building block of first principle theoretical modeling of the sawtooth oscillation in current driven toroidal plasmas and the understandings can be applied to the impulsive disruptive behavior in flares of the solar, accretion disk and stellar coronae, Earth magnetospheric storms, and controlled fusion. Work supported by the NRF of Korea, the US DOE, the NWO of the Netherlands, and the EURATOM-FOM association.

  17. Short-term scheduling of crude oil operations in refinery with high-fusion-point oil and two transportation pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, NaiQi; Zhu, MengChu; Bai, LiPing; Li, ZhiWu

    2016-07-01

    In some refineries, storage tanks are located at two different sites, one for low-fusion-point crude oil and the other for high one. Two pipelines are used to transport different oil types. Due to the constraints resulting from the high-fusion-point oil transportation, it is challenging to schedule such a system. This work studies the scheduling problem from a control-theoretic perspective. It proposes to use a hybrid Petri net method to model the system. It then finds the schedulability conditions by analysing the dynamic behaviour of the net model. Next, it proposes an efficient scheduling method to minimize the cost of high-fusion-point oil transportation. Finally, it gives a complex industrial case study to show its application.

  18. Purification, characterization, and substrate specificity of a novel highly glucose-tolerant beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Riou, C; Salmon, J M; Vallier, M J; Günata, Z; Barre, P

    1998-10-01

    Aspergillus oryzae was found to secrete two distinct beta-glucosidases when it was grown in liquid culture on various substrates. The major form had a molecular mass of 130 kDa and was highly inhibited by glucose. The minor form, which was induced most effectively on quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone)-rich medium, represented no more than 18% of total beta-glucosidase activity but exhibited a high tolerance to glucose inhibition. This highly glucose-tolerant beta-glucosidase (designated HGT-BG) was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, and anion-exchange chromatography. HGT-BG is a monomeric protein with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa and a pI of 4.2 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, respectively. Using p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucoside as the substrate, we found that the enzyme was optimally active at 50 degreesC and pH 5.0 and had a specific activity of 1,066 micromol min-1 mg of protein-1 and a Km of 0.55 mM under these conditions. The enzyme is particularly resistant to inhibition by glucose (Ki, 1. 36 M) or glucono-delta-lactone (Ki, 12.5 mM), another powerful beta-glucosidase inhibitor present in wine. A comparison of the enzyme activities on various glycosidic substrates indicated that HGT-BG is a broad-specificity type of fungal beta-glucosidase. It exhibits exoglucanase activity and hydrolyzes (1-->3)- and (1-->6)-beta-glucosidic linkages most effectively. This enzyme was able to release flavor compounds, such as geraniol, nerol, and linalol, from the corresponding monoterpenyl-beta-D-glucosides in a grape must (pH 2.9, 90 g of glucose liter-1). Other flavor precursors (benzyl- and 2-phenylethyl-beta-D-glucosides) and prunin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone-7-glucoside), which contribute to the bitterness of citrus juices, are also substrates of the enzyme. Thus, this novel beta-glucosidase is of great potential

  19. Control of a high beta maneuvering reentry vehicle using dynamic inversion.

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, Alfred Chapman

    2005-05-01

    The design of flight control systems for high performance maneuvering reentry vehicles presents a significant challenge to the control systems designer. These vehicles typically have a much higher ballistic coefficient than crewed vehicles like as the Space Shuttle or proposed crew return vehicles such as the X-38. Moreover, the missions of high performance vehicles usually require a steeper reentry flight path angle, followed by a pull-out into level flight. These vehicles then must transit the entire atmosphere and robustly perform the maneuvers required for the mission. The vehicles must also be flown with small static margins in order to perform the required maneuvers, which can result in highly nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics that frequently transition from being aerodynamically stable to unstable as angle of attack increases. The control system design technique of dynamic inversion has been applied successfully to both high performance aircraft and low beta reentry vehicles. The objective of this study was to explore the application of this technique to high performance maneuvering reentry vehicles, including the basic derivation of the dynamic inversion technique, followed by the extension of that technique to the use of tabular trim aerodynamic models in the controller. The dynamic inversion equations are developed for high performance vehicles and augmented to allow the selection of a desired response for the control system. A six degree of freedom simulation is used to evaluate the performance of the dynamic inversion approach, and results for both nominal and off nominal aerodynamic characteristics are presented.

  20. Magnetized plasma flow injection into tokamak and high-beta compact torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Komoriya, Yuuki; Tazawa, Hiroyasu; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Steinhauer, Loren; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Onchi, Takumi; Hirose, Akira

    2010-11-01

    As an application of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), magnetic helicity injection via injection of a highly elongated compact torus (magnetized plasma flow: MPF) has been conducted on both tokamak and field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. The injected plasmoid has significant amounts of helicity and particle contents and has been proposed as a fueling and a current drive method for various torus systems. In the FRC, MPF is expected to generate partially spherical tokamak like FRC equilibrium by injecting a significant amount of magnetic helicity. As a circumstantial evidence of the modified equilibrium, suppressed rotational instability with toroidal mode number n = 2. MPF injection experiments have also been applied to the STOR-M tokamak as a start-up and current drive method. Differences in the responses of targets especially relation with beta value and the self-organization feature will be studied.

  1. Nonlinear evolution of a large-amplitude circularly polarized Alfven wave: High beta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, S.; Vinas, A. F.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics following saturation of the parametric instabilities of a monochromatic field-aligned large-amplitude circularly polarized Alfven wave is investigated via direct numerical simulation in the case of high plasma beta and no wave dispersion. The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code permits nonlinear couplings in the parallel direction to the ambient magnetic field and one perpendicular direction. Compressibility is included in the form of a polytropic equation of state. Turbulent cascades develop after saturation of two coupled oblique three-wave parametric instabilities; one of which is an oblique filamentationlike instability reported earlier. Remnants of the parametric processes, as well as of the original Alfven pump wave, persist during late nonlinear times. Nearly incompressible MHD features such as spectral anisotropies appear as well.

  2. Quasilinear wave-particle scattering rate in high-beta turbulent collisionless plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos de Lima, Reinaldo; Yan, Huirong; Lazarian, Alex; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete

    2015-08-01

    Collisionless or weakly collisional plasmas, like the plasma of the intracluster medium of galaxies, are subject to electromagnetic instabilities driven by temperature anisotropy, which naturally arise in the presence of turbulence. These instabilities produce anomalous collisionality via wave-particle scattering, then reducing the mean-free-path of the particles by several orders of magnitude. This reduction affects directly the transport properties of the plasma and makes its large scale dynamics to behave similar to collisional MHD. In particular, it allows the turbulence to amplify the magnetic fields via the small-scale dynamo. Using the quasilinear theory, we calculate the scattering rate of ions due to the kinetic instabilities ion-cyclotron, mirror, and firehose. Using these results we estimate the average scattering rate of ions consistent with data cubes of high-beta MHD turbulence which represent the intracluster medium.

  3. Overview of inertial fusion and high-intensity laser plasma research in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassart, J.

    2004-12-01

    Inertial fusion science is driven by 'the quest for ignition'. For many years, a 'conventional' route towards inertial fusion has been investigated using two different approaches: ignition by an inertial central hot spot could be obtained either through the direct or the indirect drive scheme. Both imply the use of a very large facility to operate the driver, which is a powerful laser in the current projects (LMJ in France as well as NIF in the US). The LMJ construction being on the way, a large amount of experimental and computational work is currently being done to deepen the understanding of ignition requirements. On the other hand, the so-called 'fast ignition' approach has led to an increasingly important amount of scientific work since it was proposed at the beginning of the 1990s. During the last several years (from the previous IFSA held in Kyoto in 2001), several PW-class high-intensity laser facilities have been built in Europe. In the meantime, a large number of interesting results related to fast electron and proton production have been obtained with the existing facilities. Observation of laser-irradiated solid targets has provided the first evidence of electron bunches separated by half the period of light. Nevertheless, target heating remains modest. On the other hand, multi-megaelectronvolt highly collimated electron beams have been produced by table-top lasers interacting with the low-density plasmas. They open the feasibility of a lot of applications: x-ray probe beams in plasma physics, biology, chemistry, injector for conventional accelerators, etc). Laser-produced proton beams is also a growing field, with a lot of promising applications: proton therapy, radio-isotope production, diagnostic for transient phenomena in laser-plasma interaction, etc. Inertial fusion research is fostered by a sustained effort of organization and coordination at the national level (the creation of an Institute for Lasers and Plasmas in France) as well as at the

  4. High-temperature fusion of nitrogen compounds at laser influence on refractory metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzuov, M. A.; Gaynullin, B. I.; Ubaidullaev, S. A.

    2002-04-01

    The processes of laser burning and ignition on the surface of refractory metal (such as Zr, Ni, Hf) are researched in this paper. The regime of gas phase limit, at which the metal heating leads to the high temperature fusion of nitrogen compounds on their surface under condition Plimit. P has been performed, and it leads only to the creation of oxide compounds at Plimit. < P. It is shown that nitrogen creation has been a sharp appearance of new phase in the target heating dynamics. It is possible that its diagnostic as a non-stable metal burning product in the air could be done by optical method registration of non- monotonous changing of reflect capability R of the foliated system 'metal - oxide'.

  5. APPLICATIONS OF NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF HIGH POWER MILLIMETER WAVES TO MAGNETIC FUSION RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    J. LOHR

    2002-08-01

    Although research on magnetically confined fusion plasmas has been carried out for a half century, for most of this time control of the temperature, density and current density profiles has been limited and transient. Now, high power long pulse gyrotron systems with excellent reliability are coming on line, which can provide non-inductively driven currents and electron heating leading to higher plasma performance and continuous operation in reactor relevant regimes. The precision of the location at which heating and current drive are applied has also made it possible to suppress certain classes of plasma instabilities. Basic physics of electron cyclotron current drive and heating are understood and these new technological capabilities are being exploited in magnetic confinement devices worldwide.

  6. Tritium permeation characterization of materials for fusion and generation IV very high temperature reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, S.; Pilatzke, K.; McCrimmon, K.; Castillo, I.; Suppiah, S.

    2015-03-15

    The objective of this work is to establish the tritium-permeation properties of structural alloys considered for Fusion systems and very high temperature reactors (VHTR). A description of the work performed to set up an apparatus to measure permeation rates of hydrogen and tritium in 304L stainless steel is presented. Following successful commissioning with hydrogen, the test apparatus was commissioned with tritium. Commissioning tests with tritium suggest the need for a reduction step that is capable of removing the oxide layer from the test sample surfaces before accurate tritium-permeation data can be obtained. Work is also on-going to clearly establish the temperature profile of the sample to correctly estimate the tritium-permeability data.

  7. A High Energy X-ray Imager for Inertial Confinement Fusion at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R; Koch, J A; Young, B; Ng, E; Phillips, T; Dauffy, L

    2006-05-03

    X-ray imaging is a fundamental diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research, and provides data on the size and the shape of the core in implosions. We report on the feasibility and performance analysis of an ignition x-ray imager to be used on cryogenic DT implosions at the National Ignition Facility. The system is intended to provide time-integrated, broadband, moderate-energy x-ray core images of imploding ICF capsules. It is optimized with respect to spatial-resolution, signal-to-background and signal-to-noise ratios, taking into account the extreme operating conditions expected at NIF due to high expected neutrons yields, gamma-rays, and x-rays from laser-plasma interactions.

  8. A highly efficient neutron time-of-flight detector for inertial confinement fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, N.; Yamaguchi, K.; Yamagajo, T.; Nakano, T.; Kasai, T.; Urano, T.; Azechi, H.; Nakai, S.; Iida, T.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed the highly efficient neutron detector system MANDALA for the inertial-confinement-fusion experiment. The MANDALA system consists of 842 elements plastic scintillation detectors and data acquisition electronics. The detection level is the yield of 1.2×105 for 2.5 MeV and 1×105 for 14.1 MeV neutrons (with 100 detected hits). We have calibrated the intrinsic detection efficiencies of the detector elements using a neutron generator facility. Timing calibration and integrity test of the system were also carried out with a 60Co γ ray source. MANDALA system was applied to the implosion experiments at the GEKKO XII laser facility. The integrity test was carried out by implosion experiments.

  9. Fission thrust sail as booster for high Δv fusion based propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceyssens, Frederik; Wouters, Kristof; Driesen, Maarten

    2015-12-01

    The fission thrust sail as booster for nuclear fusion-based rocket propulsion for future starships is introduced and studied. First order calculations are used together with Monte Carlo simulations to assess system performance. If a D-D fusion rocket such as e.g. considered in Project Icarus has relatively low efficiency (~30%) in converting fusion fuel to a directed exhaust, adding a fission sail is shown to be beneficial for the obtainable delta-v. In addition, this type of fission-fusion hybrid propulsion has the potential to improve acceleration and act as a micrometeorite shield.

  10. High-level production of human interleukin-10 fusions in tobacco cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Kaldis, Angelo; Ahmad, Adil; Reid, Alexandra; McGarvey, Brian; Brandle, Jim; Ma, Shengwu; Jevnikar, Anthony; Kohalmi, Susanne E; Menassa, Rima

    2013-06-01

    The production of pharmaceutical proteins in plants has made much progress in recent years with the development of transient expression systems, transplastomic technology and humanizing glycosylation patterns in plants. However, the first therapeutic proteins approved for administration to humans and animals were made in plant cell suspensions for reasons of containment, rapid scale-up and lack of toxic contaminants. In this study, we have investigated the production of human interleukin-10 (IL-10) in tobacco BY-2 cell suspension and evaluated the effect of an elastin-like polypeptide tag (ELP) and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag on IL-10 accumulation. We report the highest accumulation levels of hIL-10 obtained with any stable plant expression system using the ELP fusion strategy. Although IL-10-ELP has cytokine activity, its activity is reduced compared to unfused IL-10, likely caused by interference of ELP with folding of IL-10. Green fluorescent protein has no effect on IL-10 accumulation, but examining the trafficking of IL-10-GFP over the cell culture cycle revealed fluorescence in the vacuole during the stationary phase of the culture growth cycle. Analysis of isolated vacuoles indicated that GFP alone is found in vacuoles, while the full-size fusion remains in the whole-cell extract. This indicates that GFP is cleaved off prior to its trafficking to the vacuole. On the other hand, IL-10-GFP-ELP remains mostly in the ER and accumulates to high levels. Protein bodies were observed at the end of the culture cycle and are thought to arise as a consequence of high levels of accumulation in the ER. PMID:23297698

  11. Investigation of MHD instabilities and control in KSTAR preparing for high beta operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y. S.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Bialek, J. M.; Berkery, J. W.; Lee, S. G.; Ko, W. H.; Bak, J. G.; Jeon, Y. M.; Park, J. K.; Kim, J.; Hahn, S. H.; Ahn, J.-W.; Yoon, S. W.; Lee, K. D.; Choi, M. J.; Yun, G. S.; Park, H. K.; You, K.-I.; Bae, Y. S.; Oh, Y. K.; Kim, W.-C.; Kwak, J. G.

    2013-08-01

    Initial H-mode operation of the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is expanded to higher normalized beta and lower plasma internal inductance moving towards design target operation. As a key supporting device for ITER, an important goal for KSTAR is to produce physics understanding of MHD instabilities at long pulse with steady-state profiles, at high normalized beta, and over a wide range of plasma rotation profiles. An advance from initial plasma operation is a significant increase in plasma stored energy and normalized beta, with Wtot = 340 kJ, βN = 1.9, which is 75% of the level required to reach the computed ideal n = 1 no-wall stability limit. The internal inductance was lowered to 0.9 at sustained H-mode duration up to 5 s. In ohmically heated plasmas, the plasma current reached 1 MA with prolonged pulse length up to 12 s. Rotating MHD modes are observed in the device with perturbations having tearing rather than ideal parity. Modes with m/n = 3/2 are triggered during the H-mode phase but are relatively weak and do not substantially reduce Wtot. In contrast, 2/1 modes to date only appear when the plasma rotation profiles are lowered after H-L back-transition. Subsequent 2/1 mode locking creates a repetitive collapse of βN by more than 50%. Onset behaviour suggests the 3/2 mode is close to being neoclassically unstable. A correlation between the 2/1 mode amplitude and local rotation shear from an x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer suggests that the rotation shear at the mode rational surface is stabilizing. As a method to access the ITER-relevant low plasma rotation regime, plasma rotation alteration by n = 1, 2 applied fields and associated neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) induced torque is presently investigated. The net rotation profile change measured by a charge exchange recombination diagnostic with proper compensation of plasma boundary movement shows initial evidence of non-resonant rotation damping by the n = 1, 2 applied

  12. High frequency of neurexin 1beta signal peptide structural variants in patients with autism.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jinong; Schroer, Richard; Yan, Jin; Song, Wenjia; Yang, Chunmei; Bockholt, Anke; Cook, Edwin H; Skinner, Cindy; Schwartz, Charles E; Sommer, Steve S

    2006-11-27

    Neuroligins are postsynaptic membrane cell-adhesion molecules which bind to beta-neurexins, a family of proteins that act as neuronal cell surface receptors. To explore the possibility that structural variants in the beta-neurexin genes predispose to autism, the coding regions and associated splice junctions of three beta-neurexin genes were scanned with detection of virtually all mutations-SSCP (DOVAM-S) in 72 Caucasian patients with autism. In addition, segments of the neurexin 1beta gene were sequenced in 131 additional Caucasian and 61 Afro-American patients with autism from South Carolina and the Midwest. Two putative missense structural variants were identified in the neurexin 1beta gene in four Caucasian patients with autism and not in 535 healthy Caucasian controls (4/203 vs. 0/535, P=0.0056). Initial family data suggest that incomplete penetrance may occur. In addition, no structural variant was found in the neurexin 2beta gene and the neurexin 3beta gene. In the context of all available data, we conclude that mutations of the neurexin 1beta gene may contribute to autism susceptibility.

  13. Beta Scaling of Transport on the DIII-D Tokamak - Is Transport Electrostatic or Electromagnetic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, C. C.

    2003-10-01

    The related methods of dimensional analysis, similarity, and scale invariance in physics provide a powerful technique for analyzing physical systems. Previous experiments on the JET, DIII-D, and Alcator C-Mod tokamaks have validated the principle of similarity for energy transport in high-temperature plasmas. Recently the dependence of transport on beta, the ratio of the plasma kinetic pressure to the magnetic field pressure, has been measured for H-mode plasmas on DIII-D. Experimentally determining the beta scaling helps to differentiate between various proposed mechanisms of turbulent transport since theories for which ExB transport is dominant show little change with increasing beta up to the ideal ballooning limit, while transport models that invoke electromagnetic effects like magnetic flutter transport generally have a strong, unfavorable beta scaling. These experiments on DIII-D varied the normalized beta from 1.1 to 3.0 in several steps, covering a range from 25% to 85% of the ideal no-wall beta limit, and showed that the measured thermal diffusivities and global energy confinement times (normalized to Bohm) have little dependence on beta. This weak, possibly non-existent, beta scaling of transport confirms previous observations from the DIII-D and JET tokamaks as well as the ATF torsatron. This experimental result is in marked contrast to empirical scaling relations derived from multi-machine H-mode confinement databases, such as the ITER-98(y,2) relation that contains a strong, unfavorable beta dependence. New semi-empirical scaling relations, derived from the confinement databases, that are gyroBohm-like and electrostatic predict that the fusion performance in ITER will optimize at high beta, yielding twice the fusion power as the nominal beta scenario at higher fusion gain.

  14. 3D-information fusion from very high resolution satellite sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, T.; d'Angelo, P.; Kuschk, G.; Tian, J.; Partovi, T.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we show the pre-processing and potential for environmental applications of very high resolution (VHR) satellite stereo imagery like these from WorldView-2 or Pl'eiades with ground sampling distances (GSD) of half a metre to a metre. To process such data first a dense digital surface model (DSM) has to be generated. Afterwards from this a digital terrain model (DTM) representing the ground and a so called normalized digital elevation model (nDEM) representing off-ground objects are derived. Combining these elevation based data with a spectral classification allows detection and extraction of objects from the satellite scenes. Beside the object extraction also the DSM and DTM can directly be used for simulation and monitoring of environmental issues. Examples are the simulation of floodings, building-volume and people estimation, simulation of noise from roads, wave-propagation for cellphones, wind and light for estimating renewable energy sources, 3D change detection, earthquake preparedness and crisis relief, urban development and sprawl of informal settlements and much more. Also outside of urban areas volume information brings literally a new dimension to earth oberservation tasks like the volume estimations of forests and illegal logging, volume of (illegal) open pit mining activities, estimation of flooding or tsunami risks, dike planning, etc. In this paper we present the preprocessing from the original level-1 satellite data to digital surface models (DSMs), corresponding VHR ortho images and derived digital terrain models (DTMs). From these components we present how a monitoring and decision fusion based 3D change detection can be realized by using different acquisitions. The results are analyzed and assessed to derive quality parameters for the presented method. Finally the usability of 3D information fusion from VHR satellite imagery is discussed and evaluated.

  15. High energy resummation of transverse momentum distributions: Higgs in gluon fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, Stefano; Muselli, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    We derive a general resummation formula for transverse-momentum distributions of hard processes at the leading logarithmic level in the high-energy limit, to all orders in the strong coupling. Our result is based on a suitable generalization of high-energy factorization theorems, whereby all-order resummation is reduced to the determination of the Born-level process but with incoming off-shell gluons. We validate our formula by applying it to Higgs production in gluon fusion in the infinite top mass limit. We check our result up to next-to-leading order by comparison to the high energy limit of the exact expression and to next-to-next-to leading order by comparison to NNLL transverse momentum (Sudakov) resummation, and we predict the high-energy behaviour at next3-to-leading order. We also show that the structure of the result in the small transverse momentum limit agrees to all orders with general constraints from Sudakov resummation.

  16. Fusion to a highly stable consensus albumin binding domain allows for tunable pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Steven A; Gibbs, Alan C; Conk, Michelle; Yi, Fang; Maguire, Diane; Kane, Colleen; O'Neil, Karyn T

    2015-10-01

    A number of classes of proteins have been engineered for high stability using consensus sequence design methods. Here we describe the engineering of a novel albumin binding domain (ABD) three-helix bundle protein. The resulting engineered ABD molecule, called ABDCon, is expressed at high levels in the soluble fraction of Escherichia coli and is highly stable, with a melting temperature of 81.5°C. ABDCon binds human, monkey and mouse serum albumins with affinity as high as 61 pM. The solution structure of ABDCon is consistent with the three-helix bundle design and epitope mapping studies enabled a precise definition of the albumin binding interface. Fusion of a 10 kDa scaffold protein to ABDCon results in a long terminal half-life of 60 h in mice and 182 h in cynomolgus monkeys. To explore the link between albumin affinity and in vivo exposure, mutations were designed at the albumin binding interface of ABDCon yielding variants that span an 11 000-fold range in affinity. The PK properties of five such variants were determined in mice in order to demonstrate the tunable nature of serum half-life, exposure and clearance with variations in albumin binding affinity.

  17. Theoretical and experimental studies of high-beta plasmas formed by odd-parity rotating magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Samuel

    2007-11-01

    Hamiltonian simulations of ion and electron heating by odd-parity rotating magnetic fields applied to FRC plasmas have predicted rapid heating of both electrons and ions to multi-keV temperatures, even at low relative RMF strengths. Both the onset of heating and saturation of energy have been explained by perturbation analysis in stochastic theory. These simulations assumed full RMF penetration to the major axis and collisionless particle trajectories, the latter expected in fusion reactor. However, most present RMF/FRC experiments do not achieve full RMF penetration and operate in a low-temperature collisional regime, far from fusion-reactor conditions. Recent experiments at Princeton, which employ commercial off-the-shelf hardware and non-invasive diagnostics and which use, for the first time in FRC research, remote divertor chambers, have achieved a thousand-fold reduction in collisionality to below 0.001, volume-averaged beta above 0.5, electron temperatures above 200 eV, and full penetration of the RMF while avoiding the radiation barrier encountered by other RMF/FRC experiments. Comparisons between theory and experiment show the important role of infrequent collisions, particularly with neutrals. Motivations for a superconducting next-step FRC and design considerations for a car-sized practical FRC reactor will be described.

  18. Statistically significant performance results of a mine detector and fusion algorithm from an x-band high-resolution SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Arnold C.; Pachowicz, Peter W.

    2004-09-01

    Current mine detection research indicates that no single sensor or single look from a sensor will detect mines/minefields in a real-time manner at a performance level suitable for a forward maneuver unit. Hence, the integrated development of detectors and fusion algorithms are of primary importance. A problem in this development process has been the evaluation of these algorithms with relatively small data sets, leading to anecdotal and frequently over trained results. These anecdotal results are often unreliable and conflicting among various sensors and algorithms. Consequently, the physical phenomena that ought to be exploited and the performance benefits of this exploitation are often ambiguous. The Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision Laboratory and Electron Sensors Directorate has collected large amounts of multisensor data such that statistically significant evaluations of detection and fusion algorithms can be obtained. Even with these large data sets care must be taken in algorithm design and data processing to achieve statistically significant performance results for combined detectors and fusion algorithms. This paper discusses statistically significant detection and combined multilook fusion results for the Ellipse Detector (ED) and the Piecewise Level Fusion Algorithm (PLFA). These statistically significant performance results are characterized by ROC curves that have been obtained through processing this multilook data for the high resolution SAR data of the Veridian X-Band radar. We discuss the implications of these results on mine detection and the importance of statistical significance, sample size, ground truth, and algorithm design in performance evaluation.

  19. High-power-density approaches to magnetic fusion energy: Problems and promise of compact reversed-field pinch reactors (CRFPR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagenson, Randy L.; Krakowski, Robert A.; Dreicer, Harry

    1983-03-01

    If the costing assumptions upon which the positive assessment of conventional large superconducting fusion reactors are based proves overly optimistic, approaches that promise considerably increased system power density and reduced mass utilization will be required. These more compact reactor embodiments generally must operate with reduced shield thickness and resistive magnets. Because of the unique magnetic topology associated with the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP), the compact reactor embodiment for this approach is particularly attractive from the viewpoint of low-field resistive coils operating with ohmic losses that can be made small relative to the fusion power. The RFP, therefore, is used as one example of a high-power-density (HPD) approach to magnetic fusion energy. A comprehensive system model is described and applied to select a unique, cost-optimized design point that will be used for a subsequent conceptual engineering design of the compact RFP Reactor (CRFPR). This cost-optimized CRFPR design serves as an example of a HPD fusion reactor that would operate with system power densities and mass utilizations that are comparable to fission power plants, these measures of system performance being an order of magnitude more favorable than the conventional approaches to magnetic fusion energy (MFE).

  20. Technical assessment of critical Plasma-Materials Interaction (PMI) and High Heat Flux (HHF) issues for alternative fusion concepts (AFCs)

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, J.N.

    1986-03-01

    A number of approaches to fusion energy are being pursued as alternative fusion concepts (AFCs). The goal of these systems is to provide a more desirable method of producing fusion energy than the mainline programs. Some of the AFCs have both a Low Power Density (LPD) option and a High Power Density (HPD) option. A summary of representative AFC programs and their associated PMI and HHF issues is followed by the technical assessment of the critical issues. These requirements are discussed relative to the mainline and/or HPD components. The HPD options are contrasted with a tabulation of the characteristics of components for the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP), which is representative of the HPD concept.

  1. High-power-density approaches to magnetic fusion energy: Problems and promise of compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactors (CRFPR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagenson, R. L.; Krakowski, R. A.; Dreicer, H.

    If the cost assumptions upon which the positive assessment of conventional large superconducting fusion reactors are based proves optimistic, approaches that promise considerably increased system power density and reduced mass utilization are required. These more compact reactor embodiments generally must operate with reduced shield thickness and resistive magnets. Because of the unique magnetic topology associated with the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP), the compact reactor embodiment of this approach is particularly attractive from the view point of low field resistive coils operating with Ohmic losses that are small relative to the fusion power. The RFP, one example of a high power density (HPD) approach to magnetic fusion energy. A comprehensive system model is described and applied to select a unique, cost optimized design point that is used for a subsequent conceptual engineering design of the Compact RFP Reactor.

  2. The region of formation of the ultraviolet high temperature resonance lines in the eclipsing binary Beta Persei (Algol)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandi, E.; Garcia, L. G.; Kondo, Y.; Sahade, J.

    1989-01-01

    A new series of IUE observations of Beta Persei has shown that the high temperature resonance lines of Si IV and C IV arise in a region that surrounds the brighter, early-type component of the system. The continuum spectrum corresponds to that of a B8V object, and the value of E(B-V) that yielded the best match between the two IUE regions was 0.06, the value quoted for Beta Per in Jamar et al.'s (1976) Catalog.

  3. Zr-zeolite beta: a new heterogeneous catalyst system for the highly selective cascade transformation of citral to (+/-)-menthol.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yuntong; Jaenicke, Stephan; Chuah, Gaik-Khuan

    2009-01-01

    The transformation of citral to menthols involves hydrogenation steps as well as cyclisation of the intermediate, citronellal. The ability of Zr-zeolite beta to catalyse the cyclisation with high diastereoselectivity to (+/-)-isopulegol is the critical step in this cascade transformation. Bifunctional catalysts containing nickel or rhodium supported on Zr-zeolite beta gave menthols in yields of 87-89% and an excellent diastereoselectivity of 94% for the desired (+/-)-menthol. Dual catalyst systems of Zr-zeolite beta and nano-dispersed Ni on an MCM-41 support were equally effective and have the added advantage that the rates of the acid- and hydrogenation-catalysed steps can be independently varied. By applying a pressure ramp of 0.2-2 MPa, the yield of menthols could be increased to 95%, with 94% diastereoselectivity for (+/-)-menthol. The low initial pressure minimises the rates of competing hydrogenation reactions to byproducts such as citronellol and 3,7-dimethyloctanol. PMID:19132702

  4. High-speed surface temperature measurements on plasma facing materials for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, M.; Kobayashi, M.

    1996-01-01

    For the lifetime evaluation of plasma facing materials in fusion experimental machines, it is essential to investigate their surface behavior and their temperature responses during an off-normal event such as the plasma disruptions. An infrared thermometer with a sampling speed as fast as 1{times}10{sup {minus}6} s/data, namely, the high-speed infrared thermometer (HSIR), has been developed by the National Research Laboratory of Metrology in Japan. To evaluate an applicability of the newly developed HSIR on the surface temperature measurement of plasma facing materials, high heat flux beam irradiation experiments have been performed with three different materials under the surface heat fluxes up to 170 MW/m{sup 2} for 0.04 s in a hydrogen ion beam test facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. As for the results, HSIR can be applicable for measuring the surface temperature responses of the armor tile materials with a little modification. It is also confirmed that surface temperatures measured with the HSIR thermometer show good agreement with the analytical results for stainless steel and carbon based materials at a temperature range of up to 2500{degree}C. However, for aluminum the HSIR could measure the temperature of the high dense vapor cloud which was produced during the heating due to lower melting temperature. Based on the result, a multichannel arrayed HSIR thermometer has been designed and fabricated. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. A high-throughput chemical screen reveals that harmine-mediated inhibition of DYRK1A increases human pancreatic beta cell replication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Alvarez-Perez, Juan-Carlos; Felsenfeld, Dan P; Liu, Hongtao; Sivendran, Sharmila; Bender, Aaron; Kumar, Anil; Sanchez, Roberto; Scott, Donald K; Garcia-Ocaña, Adolfo; Stewart, Andrew F

    2015-04-01

    Types 1 and 2 diabetes affect some 380 million people worldwide. Both ultimately result from a deficiency of functional pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells. Beta cells proliferate in humans during a brief temporal window beginning around the time of birth, with a peak percentage (∼2%) engaged in the cell cycle in the first year of life. In embryonic life and after early childhood, beta cell replication is barely detectable. Whereas beta cell expansion seems an obvious therapeutic approach to beta cell deficiency, adult human beta cells have proven recalcitrant to such efforts. Hence, there remains an urgent need for antidiabetic therapeutic agents that can induce regeneration and expansion of adult human beta cells in vivo or ex vivo. Here, using a high-throughput small-molecule screen (HTS), we find that analogs of the small molecule harmine function as a new class of human beta cell mitogenic compounds. We also define dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase-1a (DYRK1A) as the likely target of harmine and the nuclear factors of activated T cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors as likely mediators of human beta cell proliferation and differentiation. Using three different mouse and human islet in vivo-based models, we show that harmine is able to induce beta cell proliferation, increase islet mass and improve glycemic control. These observations suggest that harmine analogs may have unique therapeutic promise for human diabetes therapy. Enhancing the potency and beta cell specificity of these compounds are important future challenges. PMID:25751815

  6. Corticospinal beta-range coherence is highly dependent on the pre-stationary motor state.

    PubMed

    Omlor, Wolfgang; Patino, Luis; Mendez-Balbuena, Ignacio; Schulte-Mönting, Jürgen; Kristeva, Rumyana

    2011-06-01

    During steady muscle contractions, the human sensorimotor cortex generates oscillations in the beta-frequency range (15-30 Hz) that are coherent with the activity of contralateral spinal motoneurons. This corticospinal coherence is thought to favor stationary motor states, but its mode of operation remains elusive. We hypothesized that corticospinal beta-range coherence depends on the sensorimotor processing state before a steady force task and may thus increase after sensorimotor tuning to dynamic force generation. To test this hypothesis we instructed 16 human subjects to compensate static force after rest as well as after compensating predictable or unpredictable dynamic force with their right index finger. We calculated EEG-EMG coherence, cortical motor spectral power, and the motor performance during the force conditions. Corticospinal beta-coherence during stationary force was excessively elevated if the steady-state contraction was preceded by predictable dynamic force instead of rest, and was highest after unpredictable dynamic force. The beta-power decreased from rest to predictable dynamic force, and was lowest during unpredictable dynamic force. The increase in corticospinal beta-coherence showed a significant negative correlation with the preceding change in beta-power. The tuning to dynamic force did not entail an inferior motor performance during static force. The results imply a correlation between corticospinal beta-range coherence and the computational load of the preceding isometric motor engagement. We suggest beta-range coherence provides a functional corticospinal gateway for steady force-related processing that can override cortical states tuned to dynamic force. The modulation of corticospinal beta-range coherence might thus ensure comparable precision of static force in various motor contexts.

  7. The Cytotoxic Role of Intermittent High Glucose on Apoptosis and Cell Viability in Pancreatic Beta Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen; Li, Jing; Yang, Lei; Chen, Rongping; Yang, Rui; Zhang, Hua; Cai, Dehong; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Glucose fluctuations are both strong predictor of diabetic complications and crucial factor for beta cell damages. Here we investigated the effect of intermittent high glucose (IHG) on both cell apoptosis and proliferation activity in INS-1 cells and the potential mechanisms. Methods. Cells were treated with normal glucose (5.5 mmol/L), constant high glucose (CHG) (25 mmol/L), and IHG (rotation per 24 h in 11.1 or 25 mmol/L) for 7 days. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), xanthine oxidase (XOD) level, apoptosis, cell viability, cell cycle, and expression of cyclinD1, p21, p27, and Skp2 were determined. Results. We found that IHG induced more significant apoptosis than CHG and normal glucose; intracellular ROS and XOD levels were more markedly increased in cells exposed to IHG. Cells treated with IHG showed significant decreased cell viability and increased cell proportion in G0/G1 phase. Cell cycle related proteins such as cyclinD1 and Skp2 were decreased significantly, but expressions of p27 and p21 were increased markedly. Conclusions. This study suggested that IHG plays a more toxic effect including both apoptosis-inducing and antiproliferative effects on INS-1 cells. Excessive activation of cellular stress and regulation of cyclins might be potential mechanism of impairment in INS-1 cells induced by IHG. PMID:24772447

  8. Status and future prospects of laser fusion and high power laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mima, Kunioki

    2010-08-01

    In Asia, there are many institutes for the R&D of high power laser science and applications. They are 5 major institutes in Japan, 4 major institutes in China, 2 institutes in Korea, and 3 institutes in India. The recent achievements and future prospects of those institutes will be over viewed. In the laser fusion research, the FIREX-I project in Japan has been progressing. The 10kJ short pulse LFEX laser has completed and started the experiments with a single beam. About 1kJ pulse energy will be injected into a cone target. The experimental results of the FIREX experiments will be presented. As the target design for the experiments, a new target, namely, a double cone target was proposed, in which the high energy electrons are well confined and the heating efficiency is significantly improved. Together with the fusion experiments, Osaka University has carried out laboratory astrophysics experiments on photo ionizing plasmas to observe a unique X-ray spectrum from non-LTE plasmas. In 2008, Osaka university has started a new Photon research center in relation with the new program: Consortium for Photon Science and Technology: C-PhoST, in which ultra intense laser plasmas research and related education will be carried out for 10 years. At APRI, JAEA, the fundamental science on the relativistic laser plasmas and the applications of laser particle acceleration has been developed. The application of laser ion acceleration has been investigated on the beam cancer therapy since 2007. In China, The high power glass laser: Shenguan-II and a peta watt beam have been operated to work on radiation hydro dynamics at SIOFM Shanghai. The laser material and optics are developed at SIOFM and LFRC. The IAPCM and the IOP continued the studies on radiation hydrodynamics and on relativistic laser plasmas interactions. At LFRC in China, the construction of Shenguan III glass laser of 200kJ in blue has progressed and will be completed in 2012. Together with the Korean program, I will

  9. High divergence in primate-specific duplicated regions: Human and chimpanzee Chorionic Gonadotropin Beta genes

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Low nucleotide divergence between human and chimpanzee does not sufficiently explain the species-specific morphological, physiological and behavioral traits. As gene duplication is a major prerequisite for the emergence of new genes and novel biological processes, comparative studies of human and chimpanzee duplicated genes may assist in understanding the mechanisms behind primate evolution. We addressed the divergence between human and chimpanzee duplicated genomic regions by using Luteinizing Hormone Beta (LHB)/Chorionic Gonadotropin Beta (CGB) gene cluster as a model. The placental CGB genes that are essential for implantation have evolved from an ancestral pituitary LHB gene by duplications in the primate lineage. Results We shotgun sequenced and compared the human (45,165 bp) and chimpanzee (39,876 bp) LHB/CGB regions and hereby present evidence for structural variation resulting in discordant number of CGB genes (6 in human, 5 in chimpanzee). The scenario of species-specific parallel duplications was supported (i) as the most parsimonious solution requiring the least rearrangement events to explain the interspecies structural differences; (ii) by the phylogenetic trees constructed with fragments of intergenic regions; (iii) by the sequence similarity calculations. Across the orthologous regions of LHB/CGB cluster, substitutions and indels contributed approximately equally to the interspecies divergence and the distribution of nucleotide identity was correlated with the regional repeat content. Intraspecies gene conversion may have shaped the LHB/CGB gene cluster. The substitution divergence (1.8–2.59%) exceeded two-three fold the estimates for single-copy loci and the fraction of transversional mutations was increased compared to the unique sequences (43% versus ~30%). Despite the high sequence identity among LHB/CGB genes, there are signs of functional differentiation among the gene copies. Estimates for dn/ds rate ratio suggested a purifying

  10. Generation of a high-titer retroviral vector capable of expressing high levels of the human beta-globin gene.

    PubMed

    Sadelain, M; Wang, C H; Antoniou, M; Grosveld, F; Mulligan, R C

    1995-07-18

    Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer into hematopoietic cells may provide a means of treating both inherited and acquired diseases involving hematopoietic cells. Implementation of this approach for disorders resulting from mutations affecting the beta-globin gene (e.g., beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia), however, has been hampered by the inability to generate recombinant viruses able to efficiently and faithfully transmit the necessary sequences for appropriate gene expression. We have addressed this problem by carefully examining the interactions between retroviral and beta-globin gene sequences which affect vector transmission, stability, and expression. First, we examined the transmission properties of a large number of different recombinant proviral genomes which vary both in the precise nature of vector, beta-globin structural gene, and locus control region (LCR) core sequences incorporated and in the placement and orientation of those sequences. Through this analysis, we identified one specific vector, termed M beta 6L, which carries both the human beta-globin gene and core elements HS2, HS3, and HS4 from the LCR and faithfully transmits recombinant proviral sequences to cells with titers greater than 10(6) per ml. Populations of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells transduced by this virus expressed levels of human beta-globin transcript which, on a per gene copy basis, were 78% of the levels detected in an MEL-derived cell line, Hu11, which carries human chromosome 11, the site of the beta-globin locus. Analysis of individual transduced MEL cell clones, however, indicated that, while expression was detected in every clone tested (n = 17), the levels of human beta-globin treatment varied between 4% and 146% of the levels in Hu11. This clonal variation in expression levels suggests that small beta-globin LCR sequences may not provide for as strict chromosomal position-independent expression of beta-globin as previously suspected, at least in the context of

  11. Viral membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Stephen C

    2015-05-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a "fusion loop" or "fusion peptide") engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics.

  12. Fusion-product transport in axisymmetric tokamaks: losses and thermalization

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    High-energy fusion-product losses from an axisymmetric tokamak plasma are studied. Prompt-escape loss fluxes (i.e. prior to slowing down) are calculated including the non-separable dependence of flux as a function of poloidal angle and local angle-of-incidence at the first wall. Fusion-product (fp) thermalization and heating are calculated assuming classical slowing down. The present analytical model describes fast ion orbits and their distribution function in realistic, high-..beta.., non-circular tokamak equilibria. First-orbit losses, trapping effects, and slowing-down drifts are also treated.

  13. Experimental investigation of opacity models for stellar interior, inertial fusion, and high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Mancini, R. C.; Iglesias, C. A.; MacFarlane, J. J.; Golovkin, I. E.; Blancard, C.; Cosse, Ph.; Faussurier, G.

    2009-05-15

    Theoretical opacities are required for calculating energy transport in plasmas. In particular, understanding stellar interiors, inertial fusion, and Z pinches depends on the opacities of mid-atomic-number elements over a wide range of temperatures. The 150-300 eV temperature range is particularly interesting. The opacity models are complex and experimental validation is crucial. For example, solar models presently disagree with helioseismology and one possible explanation is inadequate theoretical opacities. Testing these opacities requires well-characterized plasmas at temperatures high enough to produce the ion charge states that exist in the sun. Typical opacity experiments heat a sample using x rays and measure the spectrally resolved transmission with a backlight. The difficulty grows as the temperature increases because the heating x-ray source must supply more energy and the backlight must be bright enough to overwhelm the plasma self-emission. These problems can be overcome with the new generation of high energy density (HED) facilities. For example, recent experiments at Sandia's Z facility [M. K. Matzen et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 055503 (2005)] measured the transmission of a mixed Mg and Fe plasma heated to 156{+-}6 eV. This capability will also advance opacity science for other HED plasmas. This tutorial reviews experimental methods for testing opacity models, including experiment design, transmission measurement methods, accuracy evaluation, and plasma diagnostics. The solar interior serves as a focal problem and Z facility experiments illustrate the techniques.

  14. Modeling of direct beam extraction for a high-charge-state fusion driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, O. A.; Grant Logan, B.

    A newly proposed type of multicharged ion source offers the possibility of an economically advantageous high-charge-state fusion driver. Multiphoton absorption in an intense uniform laser focus can give multiple charge states of high purity, simplifying or eliminating the need for charge-state separation downstream. Very large currents (hundreds of amperes) can be extracted from this type of source. Several arrangements are possible. For example, the laser plasma could be tailored for storage in a magnetic bucket, with beam extracted from the bucket. A different approach, described in this report, is direct beam extraction from the expanding laser plasma. We discuss extraction and focusing for the particular case of a 4.1 MV beam of Xe 16+ ions. The maximum duration of the beam pulse is limited by the total charge in the plasma, while the practical pulse length is determined by the range of plasma radii over which good beam optics can be achieved. The extraction electrode contains a solenoid for beam focusing. Our design studies were carried out first with an envelope code and then with a self-consistent particle code. Results from our initial model showed that hundreds of amperes could be extracted, but that most of this current missed the solenoid entrance or was intercepted by the wall and that only a few amperes were able to pass through. We conclude with an improved design which increases the surviving beam to more than 70 A.

  15. High-quality slab-based intermixing method for fusion rendering of multiple medical objects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Joon; Kim, Bohyoung; Lee, Jeongjin; Shin, Juneseuk; Kim, Kyoung Won; Shin, Yeong-Gil

    2016-01-01

    The visualization of multiple 3D objects has been increasingly required for recent applications in medical fields. Due to the heterogeneity in data representation or data configuration, it is difficult to efficiently render multiple medical objects in high quality. In this paper, we present a novel intermixing scheme for fusion rendering of multiple medical objects while preserving the real-time performance. First, we present an in-slab visibility interpolation method for the representation of subdivided slabs. Second, we introduce virtual zSlab, which extends an infinitely thin boundary (such as polygonal objects) into a slab with a finite thickness. Finally, based on virtual zSlab and in-slab visibility interpolation, we propose a slab-based visibility intermixing method with the newly proposed rendering pipeline. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method delivers more effective multiple-object renderings in terms of rendering quality, compared to conventional approaches. And proposed intermixing scheme provides high-quality intermixing results for the visualization of intersecting and overlapping surfaces by resolving aliasing and z-fighting problems. Moreover, two case studies are presented that apply the proposed method to the real clinical applications. These case studies manifest that the proposed method has the outstanding advantages of the rendering independency and reusability.

  16. Characterization of a highly conserved domain within the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein S2 domain with characteristics of a viral fusion peptide.

    PubMed

    Madu, Ikenna G; Roth, Shoshannah L; Belouzard, Sandrine; Whittaker, Gary R

    2009-08-01

    Many viral fusion proteins are primed by proteolytic cleavage near their fusion peptides. While the coronavirus (CoV) spike (S) protein is known to be cleaved at the S1/S2 boundary, this cleavage site is not closely linked to a fusion peptide. However, a second cleavage site has been identified in the severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) S2 domain (R797). Here, we investigated whether this internal cleavage of S2 exposes a viral fusion peptide. We show that the residues immediately C-terminal to the SARS-CoV S2 cleavage site SFIEDLLFNKVTLADAGF are very highly conserved across all CoVs. Mutagenesis studies of these residues in SARS-CoV S, followed by cell-cell fusion and pseudotyped virion infectivity assays, showed a critical role for residues L803, L804, and F805 in membrane fusion. Mutation of the most N-terminal residue (S798) had little or no effect on membrane fusion. Biochemical analyses of synthetic peptides corresponding to the proposed S2 fusion peptide also showed an important role for this region in membrane fusion and indicated the presence of alpha-helical structure. We propose that proteolytic cleavage within S2 exposes a novel internal fusion peptide for SARS-CoV S, which may be conserved across the Coronaviridae.

  17. Characterization of a Highly Conserved Domain within the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Spike Protein S2 Domain with Characteristics of a Viral Fusion Peptide▿

    PubMed Central

    Madu, Ikenna G.; Roth, Shoshannah L.; Belouzard, Sandrine; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    Many viral fusion proteins are primed by proteolytic cleavage near their fusion peptides. While the coronavirus (CoV) spike (S) protein is known to be cleaved at the S1/S2 boundary, this cleavage site is not closely linked to a fusion peptide. However, a second cleavage site has been identified in the severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) S2 domain (R797). Here, we investigated whether this internal cleavage of S2 exposes a viral fusion peptide. We show that the residues immediately C-terminal to the SARS-CoV S2 cleavage site SFIEDLLFNKVTLADAGF are very highly conserved across all CoVs. Mutagenesis studies of these residues in SARS-CoV S, followed by cell-cell fusion and pseudotyped virion infectivity assays, showed a critical role for residues L803, L804, and F805 in membrane fusion. Mutation of the most N-terminal residue (S798) had little or no effect on membrane fusion. Biochemical analyses of synthetic peptides corresponding to the proposed S2 fusion peptide also showed an important role for this region in membrane fusion and indicated the presence of α-helical structure. We propose that proteolytic cleavage within S2 exposes a novel internal fusion peptide for SARS-CoV S, which may be conserved across the Coronaviridae. PMID:19439480

  18. Pulsed-Power-Driven High Energy Density Physics and Inertial Confinement Fusion Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzen, M. Keith

    2004-11-01

    There continues to be dramatic progress in applying pulsed-power drivers to research in High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). The Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories delivers 20-MA load currents to create high magnetic fields (> 1000 T) and pressures (Mbar to Gbar). In a z-pinch configuration, the magnetic pressure (Lorentz Force) supersonically implodes a plasma created from a cylindrical wire array, which at stagnation generates a plasma with energy densities of 10 MJ/cm^3 and temperatures exceeding 1 keV at 0.1% of solid density. These HED plasmas produce x-ray energies approaching 2 MJ at powers greater than 200 TW for ICF, radiation hydrodynamics, radiation-material interactions, Inertial Fusion Energy, astrophysics, and opacity experiments. In an alternate configuration, the large magnetic pressure is used to directly drive Isentropic Compression Experiments (ICE) to pressures greater than 3 Mbar and accelerate flyer plates to 27 km/s for equation of state (EOS) experiments at pressures up to 10 Mbar in Al. The challenge to model these complex geometric configurations over multiple orders of magnitude in spatial scale, temperatures, densities, and radiation fluxes is daunting. Nevertheless, development of multi-dimensional radiation-MHD codes (e.g. ALEGRA) coupled with more accurate material models (e.g. quantum molecular dynamics calculations within density functional theory) has resulted in a productive synergy between validating the simulations and guiding the experiments. The Z facility is now routinely used to drive ICF capsules (focusing on implosion symmetry and neutron production) and several different HEDP experiments (including radiation-driven hydrodynamic jets; material EOS, phase transitions, and strength; and the detailed behavior of z-pinch wire array initiation and implosion). This research is performed in collaboration with many other groups from around the world. A $60M, five-year project to enhance

  19. Multi-sensor fusion system using wavelet-based detection algorithm applied to physiological monitoring under high-G environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryoo, Han Chool

    2000-06-01

    A significant problem in physiological state monitoring systems with single data channels is high rates of false alarm. In order to reduce false alarm probability, several data channels can be integrated to enhance system performance. In this work, we have investigated a sensor fusion methodology applicable to physiological state monitoring, which combines local decisions made from dispersed detectors. Difficulties in biophysical signal processing are associated with nonstationary signal patterns and individual characteristics of human physiology resulting in nonidentical observation statistics. Thus a two compartment design, a modified version of well established fusion theory in communication systems, is presented and applied to biological signal processing where we combine discrete wavelet transforms (DWT) with sensor fusion theory. The signals were decomposed in time-frequency domain by discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to capture localized transient features. Local decisions by wavelet power analysis are followed by global decisions at the data fusion center operating under an optimization criterion, i.e., minimum error criterion (MEC). We used three signals acquired from human volunteers exposed to high-G forces at the human centrifuge/dynamic flight simulator facility in Warminster, PA. The subjects performed anti-G straining maneuvers to protect them from the adverse effects of high-G forces. These maneuvers require muscular tensing and altered breathing patterns. We attempted to determine the subject's state by detecting the presence or absence of the voluntary anti-G straining maneuvers (AGSM). During the exposure to high G force the respiratory patterns, blood pressure and electroencephalogram (EEG) were measured to determine changes in the subject's state. Experimental results show that the probability of false alarm under MEC can be significantly reduced by applying the same rule found at local thresholds to all subjects, and MEC can be employed as a

  20. Construction of hormonally responsive intact cell hybrids by cell fusion: transfer of. beta. -adrenergic receptor and nucleotide regulatory protein(s) in normal and desensitized cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schulster, D.; Salmon, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Fusion of normal, untreated human erythrocytes with desensitized turkey erythrocytes increases isoproterenol stimulation of cyclic (/sup 3/H)AMP accumulation over basal rates. Moreover, pretreatment of the human erythrocytes with cholera toxin before they are fused with desensitized turkey erthythrocytes leads to a large stimulation with isoproterenol. This is even greater and far more rapid than the response obtained if turkey erythrocytes are treated directly with cholera toxin. It is concluded that the stimulation in the fused system is due to the transfer of an ADP-ribosylated subunit of nucleotide regulatory protein.

  1. Heat transport in PBX-M high {beta}{sub p} plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, B.; Kaye, S.; Bell, R.; Fishman, H.; Hatcher, R.; Kaita, R.; Kessel, C.; Kugel, H.; Okabayashi, M.; Paul, S.; Sauthoff, N.; Sesnic, S.; Takahashi, H.; Asakura, N.; Duperrex, P.; Gammel, G.; Holland, A.; Levinton, F.

    1992-04-01

    PBX-M high beta poloidal discharges routinely transition into the H-mode regime: typically, a quiescent phase followed by an MHD active phase characterize the H-mode period. An analysis of the energy transport during these phases is conducted using the experimental data and the TRANSP code; effective diffusivities are computed to quantify the energy transport of the thermal component of the plasma. Compared to the L-mode, the quiescent H-phase is characterized by a decrease of the thermal ion energy transport and a flattening of the associated effective diffusivity profile. An error analysis is presented. Enhanced fast-ion losses are observed during the MHD active phase: particles in the lower end of the fast-ion energy spectrum with large perpendicular velocity component are predominantly affected. These losses must be taken into account in the analysis in order to reproduce the measured stored energy and time evolution of the neutron production rate during the MHD active phase.

  2. Effect of solvent on absorption spectra of all-trans-{beta}-carotene under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W. L.; Zheng, Z. R.; Liu, Z. G.; Zhu, R. B.; Wu, W. Z.; Li, A. H.; Yang, Y. Q.; Dai, Z. F.; Su, W. H.

    2008-03-28

    The absorption spectra of all-trans-{beta}-carotene in n-hexane and carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) solutions are measured under high pressure at ambient temperature. The common redshift and broadening in the spectra are observed. Simulation of the absorption spectra was performed by using the time-domain formula of the stochastic model. The pressure dependence of the 0-0 band wavenumber is in agreement with the Bayliss theory at pressure higher than 0.2 GPa. The deviation of the linearity at lower pressure is ascribed to the reorientation of the solvent molecules. Both the redshift and broadening are stronger in CS{sub 2} than that in n-hexane because of the more sensitive pressure dependence of dispersive interactions in CS{sub 2} solution. The effect of pressure on the transition moment is explained with the aid of a simple model involving the relative dimension, location, and orientation of the solute and solvent molecules. The implication of these results for light-harvesting functions of carotenoids in photosynthesis is also discussed.

  3. Data fusion between high resolution (1)H-NMR and mass spectrometry: a synergetic approach to honey botanical origin characterization.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Marc; Dubin, Elodie; Cotton, Jérôme; Poirel, Marion; Corman, Bruno; Jamin, Eric; Lees, Michèle; Rutledge, Douglas

    2016-06-01

    A data fusion approach was applied to a commercial honey data set analysed by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) 400 MHz and liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The latter was performed using two types of mass spectrometers: an Orbitrap-MS and a time of flight (TOF)-MS. Fifty-six honey samples from four monofloral origins (acacia, orange blossom, lavender and eucalyptus) and multifloral sources from various geographical origins were analysed using the three instruments. The discriminating power of the results was examined by PCA first considering each technique separately, and then combining NMR and LC-HRMS together with or without variable selection. It was shown that the discriminating potential is increased through the data fusion, allowing for a better separation of eucalyptus, orange blossom and lavender. The NMR-Orbitrap-MS and NMR-TOF-MS mid-level fusion models with variable selection were preferred as a good discrimination was obtained with no misclassification observed for the latter. This study opens the path to new comprehensive food profiling approaches combining more than one technique in order to benefit from the advantages of several technologies. Graphical Abstract Data fusion between high resolution 1H-NMR and mass spectrometry.

  4. Data fusion between high resolution (1)H-NMR and mass spectrometry: a synergetic approach to honey botanical origin characterization.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Marc; Dubin, Elodie; Cotton, Jérôme; Poirel, Marion; Corman, Bruno; Jamin, Eric; Lees, Michèle; Rutledge, Douglas

    2016-06-01

    A data fusion approach was applied to a commercial honey data set analysed by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) 400 MHz and liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The latter was performed using two types of mass spectrometers: an Orbitrap-MS and a time of flight (TOF)-MS. Fifty-six honey samples from four monofloral origins (acacia, orange blossom, lavender and eucalyptus) and multifloral sources from various geographical origins were analysed using the three instruments. The discriminating power of the results was examined by PCA first considering each technique separately, and then combining NMR and LC-HRMS together with or without variable selection. It was shown that the discriminating potential is increased through the data fusion, allowing for a better separation of eucalyptus, orange blossom and lavender. The NMR-Orbitrap-MS and NMR-TOF-MS mid-level fusion models with variable selection were preferred as a good discrimination was obtained with no misclassification observed for the latter. This study opens the path to new comprehensive food profiling approaches combining more than one technique in order to benefit from the advantages of several technologies. Graphical Abstract Data fusion between high resolution 1H-NMR and mass spectrometry. PMID:27086012

  5. Aerosol Resuspension Model for MELCOR for Fusion and Very High Temperature Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    B.J. Merrill

    2011-01-01

    Dust is generated in fusion reactors from plasma erosion of plasma facing components within the reactor’s vacuum vessel (VV) during reactor operation. This dust collects in cooler regions on interior surfaces of the VV. Because this dust can be radioactive, toxic, and/or chemically reactive, it poses a safety concern, especially if mobilized by the process of resuspension during an accident and then transported as an aerosol though out the reactor confinement building, and possibly released to the environment. A computer code used at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to model aerosol transport for safety consequence analysis is the MELCOR code. A primary reason for selecting MELCOR for this application is its aerosol transport capabilities. The INL Fusion Safety Program (FSP) organization has made fusion specific modifications to MELCOR. Recent modifications include the implementation of aerosol resuspension models in MELCOR 1.8.5 for Fusion. This paper presents the resuspension models adopted and the initial benchmarking of these models.

  6. Magnetized target fusion: An ultra high energy approach in an unexplored parameter space

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1994-12-31

    Magnetized target fusion is a concept that may lead to practical fusion applications in a variety of settings. However, the crucial first step is to demonstrate that it works as advertised. Among the possibilities for doing this is an ultrahigh energy approach to magnetized target fusion, one powered by explosive pulsed power generators that have become available for application to thermonuclear fusion research. In a collaborative effort between Los Alamos and the All-Russian Scientific Institute for Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) a very powerful helical generator with explosive power switching has been used to produce an energetic magnetized plasma. Several diagnostics have been fielded to ascertain the properties of this plasma. We are intensively studying the results of the experiments and calculationally analyzing the performance of this experiment.

  7. Low or High Fractionation Dose {beta}-Radiotherapy for Pterygium? A Randomized Clinical Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Viani, Gustavo Arruda; De Fendi, Ligia Issa; Fonseca, Ellen Carrara; Stefano, Eduardo Jose

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Postoperative adjuvant treatment using {beta}-radiotherapy (RT) is a proven technique for reducing the recurrence of pterygium. A randomized trial was conducted to determine whether a low fractionation dose of 2 Gy within 10 fractions would provide local control similar to that after a high fractionation dose of 5 Gy within 7 fractions for surgically resected pterygium. Methods: A randomized trial was conducted in 200 patients (216 pterygia) between February 2006 and July 2007. Only patients with fresh pterygium resected using a bare sclera method and given RT within 3 days were included. Postoperative RT was delivered using a strontium-90 eye applicator. The pterygia were randomly treated using either 5 Gy within 7 fractions (Group 1) or 2 Gy within 10 fractions (Group 2). The local control rate was calculated from the date of surgery. Results: Of the 216 pterygia included, 112 were allocated to Group 1 and 104 to Group 2. The 3-year local control rate for Groups 1 and 2 was 93.8% and 92.3%, respectively (p = .616). A statistically significant difference for cosmetic effect (p = .034), photophobia (p = .02), irritation (p = .001), and scleromalacia (p = .017) was noted in favor of Group 2. Conclusions: No better local control rate for postoperative pterygium was obtained using high-dose fractionation vs. low-dose fractionation. However, a low-dose fractionation schedule produced better cosmetic effects and resulted in fewer symptoms than high-dose fractionation. Moreover, pterygia can be safely treated in terms of local recurrence using RT schedules with a biologic effective dose of 24-52.5 Gy{sub 10.}.

  8. A National Collaboratory to Advance the Science of High Temperature Plasma Physics for Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Schissel, David P.; Abla, G.; Burruss, J. R.; Feibush, E.; Fredian, T. W.; Goode, M. M.; Greenwald, M. J.; Keahey, K.; Leggett, T.; Li, K.; McCune, D. C.; Papka, M. E.; Randerson, L.; Sanderson, A.; Stillerman, J.; Thompson, M. R.; Uram, T.; Wallace, G.

    2012-12-20

    This report summarizes the work of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. The original objective of the NFC project was to develop and deploy a national FES Grid (FusionGrid) that would be a system for secure sharing of computation, visualization, and data resources over the Internet. The goal of FusionGrid was to allow scientists at remote sites to participate as fully in experiments and computational activities as if they were working on site thereby creating a unified virtual organization of the geographically dispersed U.S. fusion community. The vision for FusionGrid was that experimental and simulation data, computer codes, analysis routines, visualization tools, and remote collaboration tools are to be thought of as network services. In this model, an application service provider (ASP provides and maintains software resources as well as the necessary hardware resources. The project would create a robust, user-friendly collaborative software environment and make it available to the US FES community. This Grid's resources would be protected by a shared security infrastructure including strong authentication to identify users and authorization to allow stakeholders to control their own resources. In this environment, access to services is stressed rather than data or software portability.

  9. Detailed high-resolution three-dimensional simulations of OMEGA separated reactants inertial confinement fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, Brian M.; Grim, Gary P.; Fincke, James R.; Shah, Rahul C.; Forrest, Chad J.; Silverstein, Kevin; Marshall, Frederic J.; Boswell, Melissa; Fowler, Malcolm M.; Gore, Robert A.; Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna C.; Jungman, Gerard; Klein, Andreas; Rundberg, Robert S.; Steinkamp, Michael J.; Wilhelmy, Jerry B.

    2016-07-01

    We present results from the comparison of high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) simulations with data from the implosions of inertial confinement fusion capsules with separated reactants performed on the OMEGA laser facility. Each capsule, referred to as a "CD Mixcap," is filled with tritium and has a polystyrene (CH) shell with a deuterated polystyrene (CD) layer whose burial depth is varied. In these implosions, fusion reactions between deuterium and tritium ions can occur only in the presence of atomic mix between the gas fill and shell material. The simulations feature accurate models for all known experimental asymmetries and do not employ any adjustable parameters to improve agreement with experimental data. Simulations are performed with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code using an Implicit Large Eddy Simulation (ILES) strategy for the hydrodynamics. We obtain good agreement with the experimental data, including the DT/TT neutron yield ratios used to diagnose mix, for all burial depths of the deuterated shell layer. Additionally, simulations demonstrate good agreement with converged simulations employing explicit models for plasma diffusion and viscosity, suggesting that the implicit sub-grid model used in ILES is sufficient to model these processes in these experiments. In our simulations, mixing is driven by short-wavelength asymmetries and longer-wavelength features are responsible for developing flows that transport mixed material towards the center of the hot spot. Mix material transported by this process is responsible for most of the mix (DT) yield even for the capsule with a CD layer adjacent to the tritium fuel. Consistent with our previous results, mix does not play a significant role in TT neutron yield degradation; instead, this is dominated by the displacement of fuel from the center of the implosion due to the development of turbulent instabilities seeded by long-wavelength asymmetries. Through these processes, the long

  10. Recent advances in high current vacuum arc ion sources for heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Niansheng; Schein, Jochen; Prasad, Rahul R.; Krishnan, Mahadevan; Anders, Andre; Kwan, Joe; Brown, Ian

    2001-05-01

    For a heavy ion fusion induction linac driver, a source of heavy ions with charge states 1+-3+, ≈0.5 A current beams, ≈20 μs pulse widths and ˜10 Hz repetition rates is required. Thermionic sources have been the workhorse for the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program to date, but suffer from heating problems for large areas and contamination. They are limited to low (contact) ionization potential elements and offer relatively low ion fluxes with a charge state limited to 1+. Gas injection sources suffer from partial ionization and deleterious neutral gas effects. The above shortcomings of the thermionic ion sources can be overcome by a vacuum arc ion source. The vacuum arc ion source is a good candidate for HIF applications. It is capable of providing ions of various elements and different charge states in short and long pulse bursts and high beam current density. Under a Phase-I STTR from DOE, the feasibility of the vacuum arc ion source for the HIF applications was investigated. We have modified an existing vacuum arc ion source at LBNL to produce a gadolinium ( A≈158) ion beam with >0.5 A beam current, 120 keV beam energy, ≈6 cm diameter extraction aperture and ≈20 μs pulse width. The average beam current density at the extraction grids was ≈17 mA/cm 2. We have measured that >85% Gd ions were in the 3+ charge state, the beam current fluctuation level (rms) was ≈3%, pulse-to-pulse variation of the beam (rms) was about 3%, the uniformity of the beam density over its 6 cm diameter was ⩾98% and the ion longitudinal energy spread was ⩽1%. Additional measurements were made to improve charge state purity by using other materials and employing an axial magnetic field close to the cathode. Yttrium ( A≈89), lead ( A≈207), and Ba ( A≈137) were tested at similar current parameters with Ba delivering nearly a pure charge state with >95% being in 2+ state. The results of the experiments indicate that the vacuum arc ion source is a good candidate for HIF

  11. Progress towards a high-gain and robust target design for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, Enrique; Grant Logan, B.

    2012-07-15

    Recently [E. Henestroza et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 032702 (2011)], a new inertial-fusion target configuration, the X-target, using one-sided axial illumination has been explored. This class of target uses annular and solid-profile heavy ion beams to compress and ignite deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel that fills the interior of metal cases that have side-view cross sections in the shape of an 'X.' X-targets using all-DT-filled metal cases imploded by three annular ion beams resulted in fuel densities of {approx}50 g/cm{sup 3} at peak compression, and fusion gains of {approx}50, comparable to heavy ion driven hohlraum targets [D. A. Callahan-Miller and M. Tabak, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2083 (2000)]. This paper discusses updated X-target configurations that incorporate inside the case a propellant (plastic) and a pusher (aluminum) surrounding the DT fuel. The updated configurations are capable of assembling higher fuel areal densities {approx}2 g/cm{sup 2} using two annular beams to implode the target to peak DT densities {approx}100 g/cm{sup 3}, followed by a fast-ignition solid ion beam which heats the high-density fuel to thermonuclear temperatures in {approx}200 ps to start the burn propagation, obtaining gains of {approx}300. These targets have been modeled using the radiation-hydrodynamics code HYDRA [M. M. Marinak et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2275 (2001)] in two- and three- dimensions to study the properties of the implosion as well as the ignition and burn propagation phases. At typical Eulerian mesh resolutions of a few microns, the aluminum-DT interface shows negligible Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability growth; also, the shear flow of the DT fuel as it slides along the metal X-target walls, which drives the RT and Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities, does not have a major effect on the burning rate. An analytic estimate of the RT instability process at the Al-DT interface shows that the aluminum spikes generated during the pusher deceleration phase would not

  12. Detailed high-resolution three-dimensional simulations of OMEGA separated reactants inertial confinement fusion experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Haines, Brian Michael; Grim, Gary P.; Fincke, James R.; Shah, Rahul C.; Forrest, Chad J.; Silverstein, Kevin; Marshall, Frederic J.; Boswell, Melissa; Fowler, Malcolm M.; Gore, Robert A.; et al

    2016-07-29

    Here, we present results from the comparison of high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) simulations with data from the implosions of inertial confinement fusion capsules with separated reactants performed on the OMEGA laser facility. Each capsule, referred to as a “CD Mixcap,” is filled with tritium and has a polystyrene (CH) shell with a deuterated polystyrene (CD) layer whose burial depth is varied. In these implosions, fusion reactions between deuterium and tritium ions can occur only in the presence of atomic mix between the gas fill and shell material. The simulations feature accurate models for all known experimental asymmetries and do not employmore » any adjustable parameters to improve agreement with experimental data. Simulations are performed with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code using an Implicit Large Eddy Simulation (ILES) strategy for the hydrodynamics. We obtain good agreement with the experimental data, including the DT/TT neutron yield ratios used to diagnose mix, for all burial depths of the deuterated shell layer. Additionally, simulations demonstrate good agreement with converged simulations employing explicit models for plasma diffusion and viscosity, suggesting that the implicit sub-grid model used in ILES is sufficient to model these processes in these experiments. In our simulations, mixing is driven by short-wavelength asymmetries and longer-wavelength features are responsible for developing flows that transport mixed material towards the center of the hot spot. Mix material transported by this process is responsible for most of the mix (DT) yield even for the capsule with a CD layer adjacent to the tritium fuel. Consistent with our previous results, mix does not play a significant role in TT neutron yield degradation; instead, this is dominated by the displacement of fuel from the center of the implosion due to the development of turbulent instabilities seeded by long-wavelength asymmetries. Through these processes, the long

  13. Reduced crying in term infants fed high beta-palmitate formula: a double-blind randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Beta-palmitate (sn-2 palmitate) mimics human milk fat, enabling easier digestion. Therefore, we hypothesized that infants consuming high beta-palmitate formula would have more frequent, softer stools and reduced crying compared to infants consuming low beta-palmitate formula. Methods Formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive either (1) formula with high beta-palmitate (HBP, n = 21) or (2) regular formula with a standard vegetable oil mix (LBP, n = 21). A matched group of breastfed infants served as a reference (BF, n = 21). Crying and stool characteristics data were recorded by the parents for 3 days before the 6- and 12-week visits. Results We found no significant differences in the stool frequency or consistency between the two formula groups. The percentage of crying infants in the LBP group was significantly higher than that in the HBP and BF groups during the evening at 6 weeks (88.2% vs. 56.3% and 55.6%, p < 0.05) and during the afternoon at 12 weeks (91.7% vs. 50.0% and 40%, p < 0.05). The infants fed HBP had significantly shorter crying durations when compared with infants fed LBP formula (14.90 ± 3.85 vs.63.96 ± 21.76 min/day, respectively; p = 0.047). Conclusions Our study indicates that consumption of a high beta-palmitate formula affects infant crying patterns during the first weeks of life. Comparable to breastfeeding, it reduced crying duration and frequency, primarily during the afternoon and evening hours, thereby improving the well-being of formula-fed infants and their parents. Trial registration NCT00874068. Registration date March 31, 2009 PMID:24942975

  14. Encoding technique for high data compaction in data bases of fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, J.; Cremy, C.; Sanchez, E.; Portas, A.

    1996-12-01

    At present, data requirements of hundreds of Mbytes/discharge are typical in devices such as JET, TFTR, DIII-D, etc., and these requirements continue to increase. With these rates, the amount of storage required to maintain discharge information is enormous. Compaction techniques are now essential to reduce storage. However, general compression techniques may distort signals, but this is undesirable for fusion diagnostics. We have developed a general technique for data compression which is described here. The technique, which is based on delta compression, does not require an examination of the data as in delayed methods. Delta values are compacted according to general encoding forms which satisfy a prefix code property and which are defined prior to data capture. Several prefix codes, which are bit oriented and which have variable code lengths, have been developed. These encoding methods are independent of the signal analog characteristics and enable one to store undistorted signals. The technique has been applied to databases of the TJ-I tokamak and the TJ-IU torsatron. Compaction rates of over 80{percent} with negligible computational effort were achieved. Computer programs were written in ANSI C, thus ensuring portability and easy maintenance. We also present an interpretation, based on information theory, of the high compression rates achieved without signal distortion. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Big fusion, little fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Frank; ddtuttle

    2016-08-01

    In reply to correspondence from George Scott and Adam Costley about the Physics World focus issue on nuclear energy, and to news of construction delays at ITER, the fusion reactor being built in France.

  16. Studies in High Current Density Ion Sources for Heavy Ion FusionApplications

    SciTech Connect

    Chacon-Golcher, E.

    2002-06-01

    This dissertation develops diverse research on small (diameter {approx} few mm), high current density (J {approx} several tens of mA/cm{sup 2}) heavy ion sources. The research has been developed in the context of a programmatic interest within the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program to explore alternative architectures in the beam injection systems that use the merging of small, bright beams. An ion gun was designed and built for these experiments. Results of average current density yield () at different operating conditions are presented for K{sup +} and Cs{sup +} contact ionization sources and potassium aluminum silicate sources. Maximum values for a K{sup +} beam of {approx}90 mA/cm{sup 2} were observed in 2.3 {micro}s pulses. Measurements of beam intensity profiles and emittances are included. Measurements of neutral particle desorption are presented at different operating conditions which lead to a better understanding of the underlying atomic diffusion processes that determine the lifetime of the emitter. Estimates of diffusion times consistent with measurements are presented, as well as estimates of maximum repetition rates achievable. Diverse studies performed on the composition and preparation of alkali aluminosilicate ion sources are also presented. In addition, this work includes preliminary work carried out exploring the viability of an argon plasma ion source and a bismuth metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source. For the former ion source, fast rise-times ({approx} 1 {micro}s), high current densities ({approx} 100 mA/cm{sup 2}) and low operating pressures (< 2 mtorr) were verified. For the latter, high but acceptable levels of beam emittance were measured ({var_epsilon}{sub n} {le} 0.006 {pi} mm {center_dot} mrad) although measured currents differed from the desired ones (I {approx} 5mA) by about a factor of 10.

  17. High-beta equilibria in tokamaks with pressure anisotropy and toroidal flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layden, B.; Hole, M. J.; Ridden-Harper, R.

    2015-12-01

    We extend previous analytical calculations of 2D high-β equilibria in order-unity aspect ratio tokamaks with toroidal flow to include pressure anisotropy, assuming guiding-center theory for a bi-Maxwellian plasma and the ideal MHD Ohm's law. Equilibrium solutions are obtained in the core region (which fills most of the plasma volume) and the boundary layer. We find that pressure anisotropy with p∥>p⊥ ( p∥Ωmin ) were previously found to suppress the field-free region (diamagnetic hole) that exists in static isotropic high-β equilibria. We find that all equilibrium solutions with pressure anisotropy suppress the diamagnetic hole. For the static case with a volume-averaged toroidal beta of 70%, plasmas with max (p∥/p⊥)>α1=1.07 have equilibrium solutions. We find that α1 decreases with increasing toroidal flow speed, and above the flow threshold Ωmin we find α1=1 , so that all p∥>p⊥ plasmas have equilibrium solutions. On the other hand, for p∥p⊥ , while the converse is true for p∥

  18. A NATIONAL COLLABORATORY TO ADVANCE THE SCIENCE OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PLASMA PHYSICS FOR MAGNETIC FUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Allen R. Sanderson; Christopher R. Johnson

    2006-08-01

    This report summarizes the work of the University of Utah, which was a member of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing Program (SciDAC) to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. A five year project that was initiated in 2001, it the NFC built on the past collaborative work performed within the U.S. fusion community and added the component of computer science research done with the USDOE Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computer Research. The project was itself a collaboration, itself uniting fusion scientists from General Atomics, MIT, and PPPL and computer scientists from ANL, LBNL, and Princeton University, and the University of Utah to form a coordinated team. The group leveraged existing computer science technology where possible and extended or created new capabilities where required. The complete finial report is attached as an addendum. The In the collaboration, the primary technical responsibility of the University of Utah in the collaboration was to develop and deploy an advanced scientific visualization service. To achieve this goal, the SCIRun Problem Solving Environment (PSE) is used on FusionGrid for an advanced scientific visualization service. SCIRun is open source software that gives the user the ability to create complex 3D visualizations and 2D graphics. This capability allows for the exploration of complex simulation results and the comparison of simulation and experimental data. SCIRun on FusionGrid gives the scientist a no-license-cost visualization capability that rivals present day commercial visualization packages. To accelerate the usage of SCIRun within the fusion community, a stand-alone application built on top of SCIRun was developed and deployed. This application, FusionViewer, allows users who are unfamiliar with SCIRun to quickly create

  19. Pancreatic beta cells are highly susceptible to oxidative and ER stresses during the development of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Dudek, Nadine L; Veith, Paul D; Shankar, Renu; Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Williamson, Nicholas A; Reynolds, Eric C; Hubbard, Michael J; Purcell, Anthony W

    2015-02-01

    The complex interplay of many cell types and the temporal heterogeneity of pancreatic islet composition obscure the direct role of resident alpha and beta cells in the development of Type 1 diabetes. Therefore, in addition to studying islets isolated from non-obese diabetic mice, we analyzed homogeneous cell populations of murine alpha (αTC-1) and beta (NIT-1) cell lines to understand the role and differential survival of these two predominant islet cell populations. A total of 56 proteins in NIT-1 cells and 50 in αTC-1 cells were differentially expressed when exposed to proinflammatory cytokines. The major difference in the protein expression between cytokine-treated NIT-1 and αTC-1 cells was free radical scavenging enzymes. A similar observation was made in cytokine-treated whole islets, where a comprehensive analysis of subcellular fractions revealed that 438 unique proteins were differentially expressed under inflammatory conditions. Our data indicate that beta cells are relatively susceptible to ER and oxidative stress and reveal key pathways that are dysregulated in beta cells during cytokine exposure. Additionally, in the islets, inflammation also leads to enhanced antigen presentation, which completes a three-way insult on beta cells, rendering them targets of infiltrating T lymphocytes.

  20. Facility for high heat flux testing of irradiated fusion materials and components using infrared plasma arc lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S; Ohriner, Evan Keith; Kiggans, Jim; Harper, David C; Snead, Lance Lewis; Schaich, Charles Ross

    2014-01-01

    A new high-heat flux testing facility using water-wall stabilized high-power high-pressure argon Plasma Arc Lamps (PALs) has been developed for fusion applications. It can handle irradiated plasma facing component materials and mock-up divertor components. Two PALs currently available at ORNL can provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW/m2 over a heated area of 9x12 and 1x10 cm2, respectively, which are fusion-prototypical steady state heat flux conditions. The facility will be described and the main differences between the photon-based high-heat flux testing facilities, such as PALs, and the e-beam and particle beam facilities more commonly used for fusion HHF testing are discussed. The components of the test chamber were designed to accommodate radiation safety and materials compatibility requirements posed by high-temperature exposure of low levels irradiated tungsten articles. Issues related to the operation and temperature measurements during testing are presented and discussed.

  1. Impaired beta-cell functions induced by chronic exposure of cultured human pancreatic islets to high glucose.

    PubMed

    Marshak, S; Leibowitz, G; Bertuzzi, F; Socci, C; Kaiser, N; Gross, D J; Cerasi, E; Melloul, D

    1999-06-01

    In type 2 diabetes, chronic hyperglycemia has been suggested to be detrimental to beta-cell function, causing reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and disproportionately elevated proinsulin. In the present study, we investigated the effect on several beta-cell functions of prolonged in vitro exposure of human pancreatic islet cultures to high glucose concentrations. Islets exposed to high glucose levels (33 mmol/l) for 4 and 9 days showed dramatic decreases in glucose-induced insulin release and in islet insulin content, with increased proportion of proinsulin-like peptides relative to insulin. The depletion in insulin stores correlated with the reduction in insulin mRNA levels and human insulin promoter transcriptional activity. We also demonstrated that high glucose dramatically lowered the binding activity of pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (the glucose-sensitive transcription factor), whereas the transcription factor rat insulin promoter element 3b1 activator was less influenced and insulin enhancer factor 1 remained unaffected. Most of these beta-cell impairments were partially reversible when islets first incubated for 6 days in high glucose were transferred to normal glucose (5.5 mmol/l) concentrations for 3 days. We conclude that cultured human islets are sensitive to the deleterious effect of high glucose concentrations at multiple functional levels, and that such mechanisms may play an important role in the decreased insulin production and secretion of type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:10342809

  2. [Determination of alpha-arbutin, beta-arbutin and niacinamide in cosmetics by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Peng; Chen, Meilan; Zhu, Yan

    2010-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of two optical isomers of arbutin (alpha-arbutin and beta-arbutin) and niacinamide in cosmetics was developed. The samples were extracted by the mixture of salt water and chloroform (2:1, v/v). The separation was performed on an ODS-BP column (200 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm, Elite) with methanol-water (10:90, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min and 25 degrees C. The detection wavelength was set at 220 nm and the sample injection volume was 20 microL. There were good linear relationships between the mass concentration and the peak areas of alpha-arbutin, beta-arbutin and niacinamide in the ranges of 0.07-50, 0.06-50 and 0.05-50 mg/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 7) of alpha-arbutin, beta-arbutin and niacinamide were 1.65%, 1.73% and 1.33%, respectively. The proposed method has been applied for the determination of alpha-arbutin, beta-arbutin and niacinamide in cosmetics with recoveries of 91.7%-109.6%. This method is rapid, simple and suitable for the detection of whitening ingredients in cosmetic.

  3. 4-Methylumbelliferyl-beta-N-Acetylglucosaminide Hydrolysis by a High-Affinity Enzyme, a Putative Marker of Protozoan Bacterivory.

    PubMed

    Vrba, J; Simek, K; Nedoma, J; Hartman, P

    1993-09-01

    Hydrolysis of an artificial fluorogenic substrate, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-N-acetylglucosaminide, has been studied in a monoculture predator-prey system with either a flagellate (Bodo saltans) or a ciliate (Cyclidium sp.) fed upon pure bacterial culture (Aeromonas hydrophila or Alcaligenes xylosoxidans). Aeromonas hydrophila produced a low-affinity beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase-like enzyme (K(m), >100 mumol liter) but Alcaligenes xylosoxidans did not. Inoculation of both bacterial strains with bacterivorous protozoa induced the occurrence of another, high-affinity, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase-like enzyme (K(m), <0.5 mumol liter). The latter enzyme showed significant, close correlations with total grazing rates of both B. saltans (r = 0.96) and Cyclidium sp. (r = 0.89) estimated by using uptake of fluorescently labelled bacteria. Further significant correlations between several protozoan parameters and kinetic parameters of this enzyme suggest its likely protozoan origin. If both types of enzyme occurred together, they could be satisfactorily distinguished by using kinetic data analysis. Hence, measurements of beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase-like activities might be promising to use to improve estimations of protozoan bacterivory.

  4. A High Temperature Electrochemical Energy Storage System Based on Sodium Beta-Alumina Solid Electrolyte (Base)

    SciTech Connect

    Anil Virkar

    2008-03-31

    This report summarizes the work done during the period September 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008. Work was conducted in the following areas: (1) Fabrication of sodium beta{double_prime} alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) using a vapor phase process. (2) Mechanistic studies on the conversion of {alpha}-alumina + zirconia into beta{double_prime}-alumina + zirconia by the vapor phase process. (3) Characterization of BASE by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and conductivity measurements. (4) Design, construction and electrochemical testing of a symmetric cell containing BASE as the electrolyte and NaCl + ZnCl{sub 2} as the electrodes. (5) Design, construction, and electrochemical evaluation of Na/BASE/ZnCl{sub 2} electrochemical cells. (6) Stability studies in ZnCl{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}, and SnI{sub 4} (7) Design, assembly and testing of planar stacks. (8) Investigation of the effect of porous surface layers on BASE on cell resistance. The conventional process for the fabrication of sodium ion conducting beta{double_prime}-alumina involves calcination of {alpha}-alumina + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + LiNO{sub 3} at 1250 C, followed by sintering powder compacts in sealed containers (platinum or MgO) at {approx}1600 C. The novel vapor phase process involves first sintering a mixture of {alpha}-alumina + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) into a dense ceramic followed by exposure to soda vapor at {approx}1450 C to convert {alpha}-alumina into beta{double_prime}-alumina. The vapor phase process leads to a high strength BASE, which is also resistant to moisture attack, unlike BASE made by the conventional process. The PI is the lead inventor of the process. Discs and tubes of BASE were fabricated in the present work. In the conventional process, sintering of BASE is accomplished by a transient liquid phase mechanism wherein the liquid phase contains NaAlO{sub 2}. Some NaAlO{sub 2} continues to remain at grain boundaries; and is the root cause of its water sensitivity. In the vapor phase process, Na

  5. Improving high-resolution quantitative precipitation estimation via fusion of multiple radar-based precipitation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafieeinasab, Arezoo; Norouzi, Amir; Seo, Dong-Jun; Nelson, Brian

    2015-12-01

    For monitoring and prediction of water-related hazards in urban areas such as flash flooding, high-resolution hydrologic and hydraulic modeling is necessary. Because of large sensitivity and scale dependence of rainfall-runoff models to errors in quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE), it is very important that the accuracy of QPE be improved in high-resolution hydrologic modeling to the greatest extent possible. With the availability of multiple radar-based precipitation products in many areas, one may now consider fusing them to produce more accurate high-resolution QPE for a wide spectrum of applications. In this work, we formulate and comparatively evaluate four relatively simple procedures for such fusion based on Fisher estimation and its conditional bias-penalized variant: Direct Estimation (DE), Bias Correction (BC), Reduced-Dimension Bias Correction (RBC) and Simple Estimation (SE). They are applied to fuse the Multisensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) and radar-only Next Generation QPE (Q2) products at the 15-min 1-km resolution (Experiment 1), and the MPE and Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) QPE products at the 15-min 500-m resolution (Experiment 2). The resulting fused estimates are evaluated using the 15-min rain gauge observations from the City of Grand Prairie in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex (DFW) in north Texas. The main criterion used for evaluation is that the fused QPE improves over the ingredient QPEs at their native spatial resolutions, and that, at the higher resolution, the fused QPE improves not only over the ingredient higher-resolution QPE but also over the ingredient lower-resolution QPE trivially disaggregated using the ingredient high-resolution QPE. All four procedures assume that the ingredient QPEs are unbiased, which is not likely to hold true in reality even if real-time bias correction is in operation. To test robustness under more realistic conditions, the fusion procedures were evaluated with and

  6. Different pituitary. beta. -endorphin and adrenal cortisol response to ethanol in individuals with high and low risk for future development of alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Gianoulakis, C.G.; Beliveau, D.; Angelogianni, P.; Meaney, M.; Thavundayil, J.; Tawar, V.; Dumas, M. )

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to investigate the activity of the adrenal gland and the pituitary {beta}-endorphin system in individuals from families with a 3 generation history of alcoholism, High Risk group, or from families without history of alcoholism, Low Risk group. On the day of testing, blood sample was taken at 9:00 a.m., then the subject drank a placebo drink or an ethanol solution. Additional blood samples were taken at 15, 45 and 120 minutes post-drink. Results indicated that individuals of the High Risk group had lower basal levels of {beta}-endorphin like immunoreactivity ({beta}-EPLIR) than individuals of the Low Risk group. The dose of 0.5 g ethanol/kg B.Wt. induced an induce an increase in the plasma content of {beta}-EPLIR of the High Risk group, but not of the Low Risk group. In the Low Risk group ethanol did not induce an increase above the 9:00 a.m. levels, however, it attenuated the {beta}-endorphin decrease overtime, observed following the placebo drink. Analysis of {beta}-endorphin-like peptides in the plasma of the High Risk group, with Sephadex G-75 chromatography indicated that the major component of the plasma {beta}-EPLIR was {beta}-lipotropin. Plasma cortisol levels, following ethanol intake, presented a small increase in the High Risk group but not in the Low Risk group.

  7. Experimental investigation of opacity models for stellar interiors, inertial fusion, and high energy density plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, James

    2008-11-01

    Theoretical opacities are required for calculating energy transport in plasmas. In particular, understanding stellar interiors, inertial fusion, and Z-pinches depends on the opacities of mid-atomic-number elements in the 150-300 eV temperature range. These models are complex and experimental validation is crucial. For example, solar models presently disagree with helioseismology and one possible explanation is inadequate opacities. Testing these opacities requires a uniform plasma at temperatures high enough to produce the ion charge states that exist in the sun. Typical opacity experiments heat a sample using x-rays and measure the spectrally resolved transmission with a backlight. The difficulty grows as the temperature increases because the heating x-ray source must supply more energy and the backlighter source must be bright enough to overwhelm the plasma self emission. These problems were overcome using the dynamic hohlraum x-ray source at Sandia's Z facility to measure the transmission of a mixed Mg-Fe plasma heated above 150 eV. This capability will also advance opacity science for other high energy density plasmas. This tutorial describes opacity experiment challenges including accurate transmission measurements, plasma diagnostics, and quantitative model comparisons. The solar interior serves as a focal problem and Z facility experiments are used to illustrate the techniques. **In collaboration with C. Iglesias (LLNL), R. Mancini (U. Nevada), J.MacFarlane, I. Golovkin and P. Wang (Prism), C. Blancard, Ph. Cosse, G. Faussurier, F. Gilleron, and J.C. Pain (CEA), J. Abdallah Jr. (LANL), and G.A. Rochau and P.W. Lake (Sandia). ++Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. Activities on heavy ion inertial fusion and beam-driven high energy density science in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horioka, K.; Kawamura, T.; Nakajima, M.; Kondo, K.; Ogawa, M.; Oguri, Y.; Hasegawa, J.; Kawata, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Sasaki, T.; Murakami, M.; Takayama, K.

    2009-07-01

    Recent research activities in Japan relevant to heavy ion fusion (HIF) are presented. During the past two years, significant progress in HIF and high energy density (HED) physics research has been made by a number of research groups in universities and accelerator facilities. Evolutions in phase space during the longitudinal compression of intense beams were investigated at UU-NUT-TIT. Beam-plasma interaction experiments and related theoretical studies are in progress at RLNR-TIT. In the study, shock-heated hydrogen was used for the interaction experiments as a well-defined non-ideal-plasma target. In the beam-plasma interaction experiments, a special emphasis is placed on an evaluation of non-linear effects on the stopping power in a beam-heated plasma target. A direct-indirect hybrid scheme of a beam-driven ICF target has been proposed and discussed at UU. In the same group, a method for controlling the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in imploding fuel target has been proposed using oscillating heavy ion beams (HIBs). Core dynamics of the impact ignition has been investigated both experimentally and numerically at ILE—Osaka. Dense plasmas driven by intense ion beams and/or a pulse powered device, were evaluated by a group of DES-TIT, concerning the researches on HED and warm dense matter (WDM) physics. A quasi-statically tamped target was proposed to make a well-defined, warm dense state for equation-of-state (EOS) studies based on ion accelerators. The potentiality of the new facility planned at KEK was evaluated by a collaborating group of TIT-UU-KEK, which can extend the parameter regime for laboratory experiments to study the properties of matter under extreme conditions. A possible method to make a high-pressure condition for study of the planetary science was discussed as a short-term subject of intense HIBs.

  9. Viral membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  10. Generation of a high-titer retroviral vector capable of expressing high levels of the human beta-globin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Sadelain, M; Wang, C H; Antoniou, M; Grosveld, F; Mulligan, R C

    1995-01-01

    Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer into hematopoietic cells may provide a means of treating both inherited and acquired diseases involving hematopoietic cells. Implementation of this approach for disorders resulting from mutations affecting the beta-globin gene (e.g., beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia), however, has been hampered by the inability to generate recombinant viruses able to efficiently and faithfully transmit the necessary sequences for appropriate gene expression. We have addressed this problem by carefully examining the interactions between retroviral and beta-globin gene sequences which affect vector transmission, stability, and expression. First, we examined the transmission properties of a large number of different recombinant proviral genomes which vary both in the precise nature of vector, beta-globin structural gene, and locus control region (LCR) core sequences incorporated and in the placement and orientation of those sequences. Through this analysis, we identified one specific vector, termed M beta 6L, which carries both the human beta-globin gene and core elements HS2, HS3, and HS4 from the LCR and faithfully transmits recombinant proviral sequences to cells with titers greater than 10(6) per ml. Populations of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells transduced by this virus expressed levels of human beta-globin transcript which, on a per gene copy basis, were 78% of the levels detected in an MEL-derived cell line, Hu11, which carries human chromosome 11, the site of the beta-globin locus. Analysis of individual transduced MEL cell clones, however, indicated that, while expression was detected in every clone tested (n = 17), the levels of human beta-globin treatment varied between 4% and 146% of the levels in Hu11. This clonal variation in expression levels suggests that small beta-globin LCR sequences may not provide for as strict chromosomal position-independent expression of beta-globin as previously suspected, at least in the context of

  11. Overview of the Lockheed Martin Compact Fusion Reactor (CFR) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The Lockheed Martin Compact Fusion Reactor (CFR) Program endeavors to quickly develop a compact fusion power plant with favorable commercial economics and military utility. An overview of the concept and its diamagnetic, high beta magnetically encapsulated linear ring cusp confinement scheme will be given. The analytical model of the major loss mechanisms and predicted performance will be discussed, along with the major physics challenges. Key features of an operational CFR reactor will be highlighted. The proposed developmental path following the current experimental efforts will be presented. ©2015 Lockheed Martin Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Co-existence of whistler waves with kinetic Alfven wave turbulence for the high-beta solar wind plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mithaiwala, Manish; Crabtree, Chris; Ganguli, Gurudas; Rudakov, Leonid

    2012-10-15

    It is shown that the dispersion relation for whistler waves is identical for a high or low beta plasma. Furthermore, in the high-beta solar wind plasma, whistler waves meet the Landau resonance with electrons for velocities less than the thermal speed, and consequently, the electric force is small compared to the mirror force. As whistlers propagate through the inhomogeneous solar wind, the perpendicular wave number increases through refraction, increasing the Landau damping rate. However, the whistlers can survive because the background kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) turbulence creates a plateau by quasilinear (QL) diffusion in the solar wind electron distribution at small velocities. It is found that for whistler energy density of only {approx}10{sup -3} that of the kinetic Alfven waves, the quasilinear diffusion rate due to whistlers is comparable to KAW. Thus, very small amplitude whistler turbulence can have a significant consequence on the evolution of the solar wind electron distribution function.

  13. High beta and second region stability analysis and ICRF edge modeling. Progress report, March 15, 1988--May 14, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    This report describes the tasks accomplished under Department of Energy contract {number_sign}DE-FG02-86ER53236 in modeling the edge plasma-antenna interaction that occurs during Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating. This work has resulted in the development of several codes which determine kinetic and fluid modifications to the edge plasma. When used in combination, these code predict the level of impurity generation observed in experiments on the experiments on the Princeton Large Torus. In addition, these models suggest improvements to the design of ICRF antennas. Also described is progress made on high beta and second region analysis. Code development for a comprehensive infernal mode analysis code is nearing completion. A method has been developed for parameterizing the second region of stability and is applied to circular cross section tokamas. Various studies for high beta experimental devices such as PBX-M and DIII-D have been carried out and are reported on.

  14. Phytolacca americana inhibits the high glucose-induced mesangial proliferation via suppressing extracellular matrix accumulation and TGF-beta production.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seung Il; Kim, Kang Ju; Choo, Yong Kug; Keum, Kyung Soo; Choi, Bong Kyu; Jung, Kyu Yong

    2004-02-01

    This study describes a potential of Phytolaccaceae (Phytolacca americana var.) as an inhibitor of high glucose-stimulated production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and TGF-beta in cultured glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). Raising the ambient glucose concentration for 24 hrs caused a dose-dependent increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation of GMCs, and the maximal response was achieved at 20 mM. Phytolaccaceae extracts (2.5-20 microg/ml) inhibited the high glucose-induced [3H]thymidine incorporation in a dose-dependent manner, and the concentrations tested here did not affect to the cell viability. Exposure of the GMCs to 20 mM glucose caused both ECM (collagen and fibronectin) accumulation and TGF-beta secretion, and these changes were significantly diminished by treatment of GMCs with Phytolaccaceae (10 microg/ml). Taken together, these results indicate that Phytolaccaceae inhibits the high glucose-induced GMCs proliferation partially through suppressing accumulation of ECM components and TGF-beta production, suggesting that Phytolaccaceae may be a promising agent for treating the development and progression of diabetic glomerulopathy.

  15. Reward feedback stimuli elicit high-beta EEG oscillations in human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Azadeh Haji; Holroyd, Clay B.

    2015-01-01

    Reward-related feedback stimuli have been observed to elicit a burst of power in the beta frequency range over frontal areas of the human scalp. Recent discussions have suggested possible neural sources for this activity but there is a paucity of empirical evidence on the question. Here we recorded EEG from participants while they navigated a virtual T-maze to find monetary rewards. Consistent with previous studies, we found that the reward feedback stimuli elicited an increase in beta power (20–30 Hz) over a right-frontal area of the scalp. Source analysis indicated that this signal was produced in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). These findings align with previous observations of reward-related beta oscillations in the DLPFC in non-human primates. We speculate that increased power in the beta frequency range following reward receipt reflects the activation of task-related neural assemblies that encode the stimulus-response mapping in working memory. PMID:26278335

  16. Highly selective oxidative cleavage of beta-cyclodextrin-epoxide/aziridine complexes with IBX in water.

    PubMed

    Surendra, K; Krishnaveni, N Srilakshmi; Reddy, M Arjun; Nageswar, Y V D; Rao, K Rama

    2003-11-14

    Water, an environmentally friendly reaction medium, has been utilized for the reaction of IBX with various epoxides 1 and aziridines 2 as their beta-cyclodextrin complexes to afford for the first time alpha-hydroxyketones 3 and alpha-aminoketones 4, respectively.

  17. Driver Technology for Inertial Fusion Research 1.Status of High Power Solid State Laser for Laser Fusion Experiments and the Prospect of Future Reactor Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Hisanori

    The progress in development of high-power glass laser systems during the past 30 years is remarkable NIF (National Ignition Facility), which will deliver 1.8 MJ at 0.35 μm is now construction in the United States. Recently, technology that smoothes out the focal pattern has been developed to a great extent. RPP (Random Phase Plate) and PCL (Partially Coherent Laser) both gave an excellent focal pattern with standard deviation of 3% in the Gekko XII laser system. In the US, Japan and Europe, several ultra-short pulse lasers were developed for research on “fast ignition”. “Fast ignition” is a method which will reduce the total required laser energy for ignition. Because a diode-pumped, solid state laser can operate at a repetition rate of over 10 Hz with an efficiency of about 10% research area of high-power systems at the 1 kW level started to focus on the development of a driver for a commercial laser fusion reactor.

  18. Differential colchicine-binding across eukaryotic families: the role of highly conserved Pro268beta and Ala248beta residues in animal tubulin.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Mithu; Roy, Debjani; Bhattacharyya, B; Basu, Gautam

    2007-10-30

    Colchicine-tubulin interaction, responsible for the disruption of microtubule formation, has immense pharmacological importance but is poorly understood in terms of its biological significance. The interaction is characterized by a marked higher affinity of colchicine for animal tubulins compared to tubulins from plants, fungi and protists. From an analysis of tubulin sequences and colchicine-tubulin crystal structure, we propose that Pro268beta and Ala248beta (270beta and 250beta in the crystal structure 1SA0) in animal tubulin are crucial for the observed differential binding. We also suggest that mediated by the binding of endogenous molecules to the colchicine-binding site, microtubule assembly in eukaryotes may be modulated in a family specific manner.

  19. Cluster expression in fission and fusion in high-dimensional macroscopic-microscopic calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Iwamoto, A.; Ichikawa, T.; Moller, P.; Sierk, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the relation between the fission-fusion potential-energy surfaces of very heavy nuclei and the formation process of these nuclei in cold-fusion reactions. In the potential-energy surfaces, we find a pronounced valley structure, with one valley corresponding to the cold-fusion reaction, the other to fission. As the touching point is approached in the cold-fusion entrance channel, an instability towards dynamical deformation of the projectile occurs, which enhances the fusion cross section. These two 'cluster effects' enhance the production of superheavy nuclei in cold-fusion reactions, in addition to the effect of the low compound-system excitation energy in these reactions. Heavy-ion fusion reactions have been used extensively to synthesize heavy elements beyond actinide nuclei. In order to proceed further in this direction, we need to understand the formation process more precisely, not just the decay process. The dynamics of the formation process are considerably more complex than the dynamics necessary to interpret the spontaneous-fission decay of heavy elements. However, before implementing a full dynamical description it is useful to understand the basic properties of the potential-energy landscape encountered in the initial stages of the collision. The collision process and entrance-channel landscape can conveniently be separated into two parts, namely the early-stage separated system before touching and the late-stage composite system after touching. The transition between these two stages is particularly important, but not very well understood until now. To understand better the transition between the two stages we analyze here in detail the potential energy landscape or 'collision surface' of the system both outside and inside the touching configuration of the target and projectile. In Sec. 2, we discuss calculated five-dimensional potential-energy landscapes inside touching and identify major features. In Sec. 3, we present calculated

  20. Method for nondestructive fuel assay of laser fusion targets

    DOEpatents

    Farnum, Eugene H.; Fries, R. Jay

    1976-01-01

    A method for nondestructively determining the deuterium and tritium content of laser fusion targets by counting the x rays produced by the interaction of tritium beta particles with the walls of the microballoons used to contain the deuterium and tritium gas mixture under high pressure. The x rays provide a direct measure of the tritium content and a means for calculating the deuterium content using the initial known D-T ratio and the known deuterium and tritium diffusion rates.

  1. Neutron Yield and Ion Temperature from DD and DT Fusion in National Ignition Facility High-Foot Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knauer, J. P.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C. J.; Doeppner, T.; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Kritcher, A.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; Munro, D. H.; Patel, P. K.; Ralph, J. E.; Sayre, D. B.; Spears, B. K.; Yeamans, C. B.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    Simultaneous measures of neutrons emitted from DT fusion implosions are postulated to provide insight into the fuel conditions during neutron emission. Neutron spectral diagnostics of National Ignition Facility ``high-foot'' implosions measure both the DT and DD fusion neutron spectra. Equivalent ion temperature is measured from the width of the DT and DD neutron emission and the respective yields from the peak areas. This work has focused on reasons for differing inferred temperatures from the DT and DD spectra and the yield ratio. Spatial and temporal averages of the DT and DD reactivities as corrections to the homogeneous and static temperature distributions are shown. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  2. A high-risk patient with long-QT syndrome with no response to cardioselective beta-blockers.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Naoki; Miyazaki, Aya; Sakaguchi, Heima; Shimizu, Wataru; Ohuchi, Hideo

    2015-09-01

    We present a case of a high-risk 19-year-old female with long-QT syndrome (LQTS) with compound mutations. She had a history of aborted cardiac arrest and syncope and had received treatment with propranolol for 15 years. However, because she developed adult-onset asthma we tried to switch propranolol, a nonselective beta-blocker, to beta-1-cardioselective agents, bisoprolol and metoprolol. These resulted in both a markedly prolonged corrected QT interval and the development of LQTS-associated arrhythmias. Eventually, propranolol was reinitiated at a higher dose with the addition of verapamil, and she has had no further cardiac or asthmatic events for 5 years.

  3. Measuring situational awareness and resolving inherent high-level fusion obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudit, Moises; Stotz, Adam; Holender, Michael; Tagliaferri, William; Canarelli, Kathie

    2006-04-01

    Information Fusion Engine for Real-time Decision Making (INFERD) is a tool that was developed to supplement current graph matching techniques in Information Fusion models. Based on sensory data and a priori models, INFERD dynamically generates, evolves, and evaluates hypothesis on the current state of the environment. The a priori models developed are hierarchical in nature lending them to a multi-level Information Fusion process whose primary output provides a situational awareness of the environment of interest in the context of the models running. In this paper we look at INFERD's multi-level fusion approach and provide insight on the inherent problems such as fragmentation in the approach and the research being undertaken to mitigate those deficiencies. Due to the large variance of data in disparate environments, the awareness of situations in those environments can be drastically different. To accommodate this, the INFERD framework provides support for plug-and-play fusion modules which can be developed specifically for domains of interest. However, because the models running in INFERD are graph based, some default measurements can be provided and will be discussed in the paper. Among these are a Depth measurement to determine how much danger is presented by the action taking place, a Breadth measurement to gain information regarding the scale of an attack that is currently happening, and finally a Reliability measure to tell the user the credibility of a particular hypothesis. All of these results will be demonstrated in the Cyber domain where recent research has shown to be an area that is welldefined and bounded, so that new models and algorithms can be developed and evaluated.

  4. Fusion Molecules of Heat Shock Protein HSPX with Other Antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Show High Potential in Serodiagnosis of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Ruqyya; Afzal, Madeeha; Khurshid, Sana; Paracha, Rehan Zafar; Khan, Imran H.

    2016-01-01

    Variable individual response against the antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis necessitates detection of multiple antibodies for enhancing reliability of serodiagnosis of tuberculosis. Fusion molecules consisting of two or more antigens showing high sensitivity would be helpful in achieving this objective. Antigens of M. tuberculosis HSPX and PE35 were expressed in a soluble form whereas tnPstS1 and FbpC1 were expressed as inclusion bodies at 37°C. Heat shock protein HSPX when attached to the N-termini of the antigens PE35, tnPstS1 and FbpC1, all the fusion molecules were expressed at high levels in E. coli in a soluble form. ELISA analysis of the plasma samples of TB patients against HSPX-tnPstS1 showed 57.7% sensitivity which is nearly the same as the expected combined value obtained after deducting the number of plasma samples (32) containing the antibodies against both the individual antigens. Likewise, the 54.4% sensitivity of HSPX-PE35 was nearly the same as that expected from the combined values of the contributing antigens. Structural analysis of all the fusion molecules by CD spectroscopy showed that α-helical and β-sheet contents were found close to those obtained through molecular modeling. Molecular modeling studies of HSPX-tnPstS1 and HSPX-PE35 support the analytical results as most of the epitopes of the contributing antigens were found to be available for binding to the corresponding antibodies. Using these fusion molecules in combination with other antigenic molecules should reduce the number of antigenic proteins required for a more reliable and economical serodiagnosis of tuberculosis. Also, HSPX seems to have potential application in soluble expression of heterologous proteins in E. coli. PMID:27654048

  5. (Fusion energy research)

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

  6. A PARALLEL-PROPAGATING ALFVENIC ION-BEAM INSTABILITY IN THE HIGH-BETA SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Verscharen, Daniel; Bourouaine, Sofiane; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Maruca, Bennett A. E-mail: s.bourouaine@unh.edu E-mail: bmaruca@ssl.berkeley.edu

    2013-08-10

    We investigate the conditions under which parallel-propagating Alfven/ion-cyclotron waves are driven unstable by an isotropic (T{sub {alpha}} = T{sub Parallel-To {alpha}}) population of alpha particles drifting parallel to the magnetic field at an average speed U{sub {alpha}} with respect to the protons. We derive an approximate analytic condition for the minimum value of U{sub {alpha}} needed to excite this instability and refine this result using numerical solutions to the hot-plasma dispersion relation. When the alpha-particle number density is {approx_equal} 5% of the proton number density and the two species have similar thermal speeds, the instability requires that {beta}{sub p} {approx}> 1, where {beta}{sub p} is the ratio of the proton pressure to the magnetic pressure. For 1 {approx}< {beta}{sub p} {approx}< 12, the minimum U{sub {alpha}} needed to excite this instability ranges from 0.7v{sub A} to 0.9v{sub A}, where v{sub A} is the Alfven speed. This threshold is smaller than the threshold of {approx_equal} 1.2v{sub A} for the parallel magnetosonic instability, which was previously thought to have the lowest threshold of the alpha-particle beam instabilities at {beta}{sub p} {approx}> 0.5. We discuss the role of the parallel Alfvenic drift instability for the evolution of the alpha-particle drift speed in the solar wind. We also analyze measurements from the Wind spacecraft's Faraday cups and show that the U{sub {alpha}} values measured in solar-wind streams with T{sub {alpha}} Almost-Equal-To T{sub Parallel-To {alpha}} are approximately bounded from above by the threshold of the parallel Alfvenic instability.

  7. Effect of recombinant adeno-associated virus mediated transforming growth factor-beta1 on corneal allograft survival after high-risk penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lianhong; Zhu, Xiangxiang; Tan, Jinquan; Wang, Jiong; Xing, Yiqiao

    2013-06-01

    Corneal transplantation is one of the most common and successful transplant surgeries performed around the world. However, the high-risk corneal transplantation remains a high level of corneal graft failure. Gene transfer of immunomodulatory molecules is considered as one potential strategy in preventing allograft rejection. It is worthy evaluating the effects of the immunemodulating agent on corneal allograft rejection. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects and mechanisms of recombinant adeno-associated virus mediated transforming growth factor-beta1 (rAAV-TGF-beta1) on corneal allograft survival using a high-risk rat model after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). The mean survival time (MST) of corneal grafts was observed and immuno-histochemical staining of TGF-beta1 and Ox-62 was performed in the study. The MST showed significant prolongation in the rAAV-TGF-beta1 group compared to the allograft group. The rejection index (RI) at day 10 revealed was significantly greater in the allograft group than that of the other two groups. Besides the increase of TGF-beta1, the expression of Ox-62 decreasing in rAAV-TGF-beta1 transplanted recipients was detected after transplantation. In short, treatment with rAAV-TGF-beta1 prolongs corneal allograft survival and inhibits the Ox-62 expression in grafts after high-risk PKP.

  8. Waste minimization through high-pressure microwave digestion of soils for gross {alpha}/{beta} analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Yaeger, J.S.; Smith, L.L.

    1995-04-01

    As a result of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) environmental restoration and waste management activities, laboratories receive numerous analytical requests for gross {alpha}/{beta} analyses. Traditional sample preparation methods for gross {alpha}/{beta} analysis of environmental and mixed waste samples require repetitive leaching, which is time consuming and generates large volumes of secondary wastes. An alternative to leaching is microwave digestion. In the past. microwave technology has had limited application in the radiochemical laboratory because of restrictions on sample size resulting from vessel pressure limitations. However, new microwave vessel designs allow for pressures on the order of 11 MPa (1500 psi). A procedure is described in which microwave digestion is used to prepare environmental soil samples for gross {alpha}/{beta} analysis. Results indicate that the described procedure meets performance requirements for several soil types and is equivalent to traditional digestion techniques. No statistical differences at the 95% confidence interval exist between the measurement on samples prepared from the hot plate and microwave digestion procedures for those soils tested. Moreover, microwave digestion allows samples to be prepared in a fraction of the time with significantly less acid and with lower potential of cross-contamination. In comparison to the traditional hot plate method, the waste volumes required for the microwave procedure are a factor of 10 lower, while the analyst time for sample processing is at least a factor of three lower.

  9. Passive stabilization of MHD instabilities at high {beta}n in the HBT-EP Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, D.A.

    1993-11-01

    The HBT-EP Tokamak has been designed, built, and is now fully operational in the Columbia University Plasma Physics Laboratory. One of the primary purposes of this facility is to study the effects of a conducting wall on the MHD modes that lead up to plasma disruptions. Of particular interest are the types of instabilities that are driven by the kinetic pressure of the plasma, because these instabilities are believed to be responsible for the present limit to plasma {beta} with {beta} {proportional_to}

    /B{sup 2}, where the

    is the volume averaged pressure and B is the magnetic field. To this end, a movable conducting wall has been installed inside the HBT-EP vacuum chamber. The primary result of this thesis are the initial results from experiments that study the effect of this wall on plasma instabilities. The experiment shows that the conducting wall significantly reduces the growth rate of instabilities that precede a plasma disruption that occurs when the value of {beta} is near the Troyon limit. The location of the wall required for significant stabilization is b/a {approximately}1.2 where a is the minor radius of the plasma and b is the minor radial location of the wall. Moving the wall closer than b/a = 1.2 slightly degrades the stabilizing effect, which is consistent with recent theories.

  10. Simultaneous high-P, high-T X ray diffraction study of beta-(Mg,Fe)2SiO4 to 26 GPa and 900 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fei, Yingwei; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Shu, Jinfu; Parthasarathy, G.; Bassett, W. A.; Ko, Jaidong

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to the lattice parameters of beta phase (Mg(0.84)Fe(0.16))2SiO4 determined by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation under simultaneous high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. The experiments were conducted up to a pressure of 26 GPa and a temperature of 900 K. High pressures were generated in a Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell using neon gas as a pressure medium. The sample was heated with an external Ni80Cr20 wire heater. Gold was used as an internal high-pressure calibrant at high temperature. The experimental data indicated the anisotropic behavior of the beta phase at high pressure and temperature, i.e., the c axis is about 35-percent more expansible and about 25-percent more compressible than the a and b axes. A value of 5.1 +/-0.8 was found for the Anderson-Grueneisen parameter. The derived thermodynamic parameters for the beta phase are summarized.

  11. Status of fusion maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Effective maintenance will be an essential ingredient in determining fusion system productivity. This level of productivity will result only after close attention is paid to the entire system as an entity and appropriate integration of the elements is made. The status of fusion maintenance is reviewed in the context of the entire system. While there are many challenging developmental tasks ahead in fusion maintenance, the required technologies are available in several high-technology industries, including nuclear fission.

  12. Denaturation by urea and renaturation of 20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase studied by high-performance size exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Carrea, G; Longhi, R; Mazzola, G; Pasta, P; Vecchio, G

    1989-07-01

    The denaturation by urea and renaturation of 20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, a tetrameric enzyme consisting of four identical subunits, were followed by high-performance size exclusion chromatography to detect intermediates in the processes. During the denaturation process no intermediate form (structured monomers or dimers) between the tetramer and the denatured monomer was observed. During the renaturation process, carried out either with or without NADH, high molecular weight aggregates, native tetramers, and low molecular weight intermediates were evidenced and quantified. The contemporaneous measurement of recovery of activity unambiguously demonstrated that the tetrameric structure is essential for enzymatic activity.

  13. The National Ignition Facility: Status and Plans for Laser Fusion and High-Energy-Density Experimental Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E I

    2002-01-11

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently under construction at the University of California's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a $2.25B stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, 351-nm laser system. NIF is being built by the National Nuclear Security Agency and when completed will be the world's largest laser system, providing a national center to study inertial confinement fusion and the physics of extreme energy densities and pressures. In NIF up to 192 energetic laser beams will compress small fusion targets to conditions where they will ignite and burn, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reactions. NIF experiments will allow the study of physical processes at temperatures approaching 100 million K and 100 billion times atmospheric pressure. These conditions exist naturally only in the interior of stars and in nuclear weapons explosions. In the course of designing the world's most energetic laser system, a number of significant technology breakthroughs have been achieved. Research is also underway to develop a shorter pulse capability on NIF for high power applications. We discuss here the technology challenges and solutions that have made NIF possible along with enhancements to NIF's design that could lead to exawatt power levels.

  14. The National Ignition Facility: Status and Plans for Laser Fusion and High-Energy-Density Experimental Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E I; Wuest, C R

    2002-10-16

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently under construction at the University of California's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is a stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, 351-nm laser system and a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for nearly 100 experimental diagnostics. NIF is being built by the National Nuclear Security Administration and when completed will be the world's largest laser experimental system, providing a national center to study inertial confinement fusion and the physics of matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF will provide 192 energetic laser beams that will compress small fusion targets to conditions where they will ignite and burn, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reactions. NIF experiments will allow the study of physical processes at temperatures approaching 100 million K and 100 billion times atmospheric pressure. These conditions exist naturally only in the interior of stars and in nuclear weapons explosions. In the course of designing the world's most energetic laser system, a number of significant technology breakthroughs have been achieved. Research is also underway to develop a shorter pulse capability on NIF for very high power and extreme electromagnetic field research and applications. We discuss here the technology challenges and solutions that have made NIF possible, along with enhancements to NIF's design that could lead to near-exawatt power levels.

  15. Generation of Large-Scale Zonal Structures by Drift Flute Waves in High-Beta HED Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasin, Essam; Sotnikov, Vladmir; Kindel, Joseph; Onishchenko, O. G.; Leboeuf, J. N.

    2009-05-01

    Our aim is to develop a more general analysis of nonlinear dynamics of drift-flute waves, applicable to arbitrary plasma beta and arbitrary spatial scales in comparison with the ion Larmor radius. This study is of interest for fundamental plasma theory as well as for the interpretation of Z-pinch and laboratory astrophysics experiments. Description of low-frequency waves and in particular drift flute waves in a high beta plasma, generally speaking, requires a kinetic approach, based on the Vlasov-Maxwell set of equations. In the present work we show that the alternative two-fluid description can adequately describe the ion perturbations with arbitrary ratio of the characteristic spatial scales to the ion Larmor radius in so-called Pade approximation. For this purpose reduced two-fluid hydrodynamic equations which describe nonlinear dynamics of the flute waves with arbitrary spatial scales and arbitrary plasma beta are derived. The linear dispersion relation of the flute waves and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability are analyzed. A general nonlinear dispersion relation which describes generation of large-scale zonal structures by the flute waves is presented and analyzed.

  16. High shear mixing granulation of ibuprofen and beta-cyclodextrin: effects of process variables on ibuprofen dissolution.

    PubMed

    Ghorab, Mohamed K; Adeyeye, Moji Christianah

    2007-01-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the effect of high shear mixer (HSM) granulation process parameters and scale-up on wet mass consistency and granulation characteristics. A mixer torque rheometer (MTR) was employed to evaluate the granulating solvents used (water, isopropanol, and 1:1 vol/vol mixture of both) based on the wet mass consistency. Gral 25 and mini-HSM were used for the granulation. The MTR study showed that the water significantly enhanced the beta-cyclodextrin (beta CD) binding tendency and the strength of liquid bridges formed between the particles, whereas the isopropanol/water mixture yielded more suitable agglomerates. Mini-HSM granulation with the isopropanol/water mixture (1:1 vol/vol) showed a reduction in the extent of torque value rise by increasing the impeller speed as a result of more breakdown of agglomerates than coalescence. In contrast, increasing the impeller speed of the Gral 25 resulted in higher torque readings, larger granule size, and consequently, slower dissolution. This was due to a remarkable rise in temperature during Gral granulation that reduced the isopropanol/water ratio in the granulating solvent as a result of evaporation and consequently increased the beta CD binding strength. In general, the HSM granulation retarded ibuprofen dissolution compared with the physical mixture because of densification and agglomeration. However, a successful HSM granulation scale-up was not achieved due to the difference in the solvent mixture's effect from 1 scale to the other. PMID:18181545

  17. Combined inhalation of beta2 -agonists improves swim ergometer sprint performance but not high-intensity swim performance.

    PubMed

    Kalsen, A; Hostrup, M; Bangsbo, J; Backer, V

    2014-10-01

    There is a high prevalence of asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in elite athletes, which leads to a major use of beta2 -agonists. In a randomized double-blinded crossover study, we investigated the effects of combined inhalation of beta2 -agonists (salbutamol, formoterol, and salmeterol), in permitted doses within the World Anti-Doping Agency 2013 prohibited list, in elite swimmers with (AHR, n = 13) or without (non-AHR, n = 17) AHR. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction of m. quadriceps (MVC), sprint performance on a swim ergometer and performance in an exhaustive swim test at 110% of VO2max were determined. Venous plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured post-exercise. No improvement was observed in the exhaustive swim test, but swim ergometer sprint time was improved (P < 0.05) in both groups from 57 ± 1.7 to 56 ± 1.8 s in AHR and 58.3 ± 1 to 57.4 ± 1 s in non-AHR. MVC and post-exercise plasma IL-6 increased (P < 0.05) with beta2 -agonists in both groups, whereas IL-8 only increased in AHR. In summary, inhalation of beta2 -agonists, in permitted doses, did not improve swim performance in elite swimmers. However, swim ergometer sprint performance and MVC were increased, which should be considered when making future anti-doping regulations. PMID:23834392

  18. Combined inhalation of beta2 -agonists improves swim ergometer sprint performance but not high-intensity swim performance.

    PubMed

    Kalsen, A; Hostrup, M; Bangsbo, J; Backer, V

    2014-10-01

    There is a high prevalence of asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in elite athletes, which leads to a major use of beta2 -agonists. In a randomized double-blinded crossover study, we investigated the effects of combined inhalation of beta2 -agonists (salbutamol, formoterol, and salmeterol), in permitted doses within the World Anti-Doping Agency 2013 prohibited list, in elite swimmers with (AHR, n = 13) or without (non-AHR, n = 17) AHR. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction of m. quadriceps (MVC), sprint performance on a swim ergometer and performance in an exhaustive swim test at 110% of VO2max were determined. Venous plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured post-exercise. No improvement was observed in the exhaustive swim test, but swim ergometer sprint time was improved (P < 0.05) in both groups from 57 ± 1.7 to 56 ± 1.8 s in AHR and 58.3 ± 1 to 57.4 ± 1 s in non-AHR. MVC and post-exercise plasma IL-6 increased (P < 0.05) with beta2 -agonists in both groups, whereas IL-8 only increased in AHR. In summary, inhalation of beta2 -agonists, in permitted doses, did not improve swim performance in elite swimmers. However, swim ergometer sprint performance and MVC were increased, which should be considered when making future anti-doping regulations.

  19. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION IMAGING OF INERTIAL FUSION TARGET PLASMAS USING BUBBLE NEWTRON DETECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    FISHER,RK

    2002-10-01

    OAK B202 HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION IMAGING OF INERTIAL FUSION TARGET PLASMAS USING BUBBLE NEWTRON DETECTORS. Bubble detectors, which can detect neutrons with a spatial resolution of 5 to 30 {micro}, are a promising approach to high-resolution imaging of NIF target plasmas. Gel bubble detectors were used in successful proof-of-principle imaging experiments on OMEGA. Until recently, bubble detectors appeared to be the only approach capable of achieving neutron images of NIF targets with the desired 5 {micro} spatial resolution in the target plane. In 2001, NIF reduced the required standoff distance from the target, so that diagnostic components can now be placed as close as 10 cm to the target plasma. This will allow neutron imaging with higher magnification and may make it possible to obtain 5 {micro}m resolution images on NIF using deuterated scintillators. Having accomplished all that they can hope to on OMEGA using gel detectors, they suggested that the 2002 NLUF shots be used to allow experimental tests of the spatial resolution of the CEA-built deuterated scintillators. The preliminary CEA data from the June 2002 run appears to show the spatial resolution using the deuterated scintillator detector array is improved over that obtained in earlier experiments using the proton-based scintillators. Gel detectors, which consist of {approx} 10 {micro}m diameter drops of bubble detector liquid suspended in an inactive support gel that occupies {approx} 99% of the detector volume, were chosen for the initial tests on OMEGA since they are easy to use. The bubbles could be photographed several hours after the neutron exposure. Imaging NIF target plasmas at neutron yields of 10{sup 15} will require a higher detection efficiency detector. Using a liquid bubble chamber detector should result in {approx} 1000 times higher neutron detection efficiency which is comparable to that possible using scintillation detectors. A pressure-cycled liquid bubble detector will require a light

  20. Extensively deacetylated high molecular weight chitosan from the multistep ultrasound-assisted deacetylation of beta-chitin.

    PubMed

    Fiamingo, Anderson; Delezuk, Jorge Augusto de Moura; Trombotto, Stéphane; David, Laurent; Campana-Filho, Sergio Paulo

    2016-09-01

    High intensity ultrasound irradiation was used to convert beta-chitin (BCHt) into chitosan (CHs). Typically, beta-chitin was suspended in 40% (w/w) aqueous sodium hydroxide at a ratio 1/10 (gmL(-1)) and then submitted to ultrasound-assisted deacetylation (USAD) during 50min at 60°C and a fixed irradiation surface intensity (52.6Wcm(-2)). Hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and capillary viscometry were used to determine the average degree of acetylation (DA‾) and viscosity average degree of polymerization (DPv‾), respectively, of the parent beta-chitin (DA‾=80.7%; DPv‾=6865) and USAD chitosans. A first USAD reaction resulted in chitosan CHs1 (DA‾=36.7%; DPv‾=5838). Chitosans CHs2 (DA‾=15.0%; DPv‾=5128) and CHs3 (DA‾=4.3%; DPv‾=4889) resulted after repeating the USAD procedure to CHs1 consecutively once and twice, respectively. Size-exclusion chromatography analyzes allowed the determination of the weight average molecular weight (Mw‾) and dispersity (Ð) of CHs1 (Mw‾=1,260,000gmol(-1); Ð=1.4), CHs2 (Mw‾=1,137,000gmol(-1); Ð=1.4) and CHs3 (Mw‾=912,000gmol(-1); Ð=1.3). Such results revealed that, thanks to the action of high intensity ultrasound irradiation, the USAD process allowed the preparation of unusually high molecular weight, randomly deacetylated chitosan, an important breakthrough to the development of new high grade chitosan-based materials displaying superior mechanical properties. PMID:27150748

  1. HES6 reverses nuclear reprogramming of insulin-producing cells following cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, Andrew J.; Abrahamsson, Annelie E.; Tyrberg, Bjoern; Itkin-Ansari, Pamela; Levine, Fred; E-mail: flevine@ucsd.edu

    2007-04-06

    To examine the mechanism by which growth-stimulated pancreatic {beta}-cells dedifferentiate, somatic cell fusions were performed between MIN6, a highly differentiated mouse insulinoma, and {beta}lox5, a cell line derived from human {beta}-cells which progressively dedifferentiated in culture. MIN6/{beta}lox5 somatic cells hybrids underwent silencing of insulin expression and a marked decline in PDX1, NeuroD, and MafA, indicating that {beta}lox5 expresses a dominant transacting factor(s) that represses {beta}-cell differentiation. Expression of Hes1, which inhibits endocrine differentiation was higher in hybrid cells than in parental MIN6 cells. Hes6, a repressor of Hes1, was highly expressed in primary {beta}-cells as well as MIN6, but was repressed in hybrids. Hes6 overexpression using a retroviral vector led to a decrease in Hes1 levels, an increase in {beta}-cell transcription factors and partial restoration of insulin expression. We conclude that the balance of Notch activators and inhibitors may play an important role in maintaining the {beta}-cell differentiated state.

  2. Highly stable beta-class carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOEpatents

    Alvizo, Oscar; Benoit, Mike; Novick, Scott

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure relates to .beta.-class carbonic anhydrase polypeptides having improved properties including increased thermostability and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides formulations and uses of the polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering. Also provided are polynucleotides encoding the carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and host cells capable of expressing them.

  3. Highly Potent, Water Soluble Benzimidazole Antagonist for Activated (alpha)4(beta)1 Integrin

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, R D; Andrei, M; Lau, E Y; Lightstone, F C; Liu, R; Lam, K S; Kurth, M J

    2007-08-29

    The cell surface receptor {alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 1} integrin, activated constitutively in lymphoma, can be targeted with the bisaryl urea peptidomimetic antagonist 1 (LLP2A). However, concerns on its preliminary pharmacokinetic (PK) profile provided an impetus to change the pharmacophore from a bisaryl urea to a 2-arylaminobenzimidazole moiety resulting in improved solubility while maintaining picomolar potency [5 (KLCA4); IC{sub 50} = 305 pM]. With exceptional solubility, this finding has potential for improving PK to help diagnose and treat lymphomas.

  4. Cytochromes P460 and c'-beta; a new family of high-spin cytochromes c.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Bradley O; Bergmann, David J; Klotz, Martin G; Hooper, Alan B

    2007-03-01

    Cytochromes-P460 of Nitrosomonas europaea and Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), and the cytochrome c' of M. capsulatus, believed to be involved in binding or transformation of N-oxides, are shown to represent an evolutionarily related new family of monoheme, approximately 17kDa, cytochromes c found in the genomes of diverse Proteobacteria. All members of this family have a predicted secondary structure predominantly of beta-sheets in contrast to the predominantly alpha-helical cytochromes c' found in photoheterotrophic and denitrifying Proteobacteria.

  5. Highly stable beta-class carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvizo, Oscar; Benoit, Michael R; Novick, Scott J

    2013-08-20

    The present disclosure relates to .beta.-class carbonic anhydrase polypeptides having improved properties including increased thermostability and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides formulations and uses of the polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering. Also provided are polynucleotides encoding the carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and host cells capable of expressing them.

  6. Study of high-beta magnetohydrodynamic modes and fast-ion losses in PDX

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, K.; Goldston, R.; Bell, M.

    1983-03-21

    Strong magnetohydrodynamic activity has been observed in PDX neutral-beam--heated discharges. It occurs for ..beta../sub T/q> or =0.045 and is associated with a significant loss of fast ions and a drop in neutron emission. As much as 20%--40% of the beam heating power may be lost. The instability occurs in repetitive bursts of oscillations of < or =1 msec duration at 1--6 msec intervals. The magnetohydrodynamic activity has been dubbed the ''fishbone instability'' from its characteristic signature on the Mirnov coils.

  7. Dense Plasma Focus - From Alternative Fusion Source to Versatile High Energy Density Plasma Source for Plasma Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 1010 J/m3. The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of

  8. Enhanced thermotolerance and ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutated by high-energy pulse electron beam and protoplast fusion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Xiao, Yu; Zhu, Rongrong; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Shi-Long

    2012-11-01

    To increase thermotolerance and ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YZ1, the strategies of high-energy pulse electron beam (HEPE) and three rounds of protoplast fusion were explored. The YF31 strain had the characteristics of resistant to high-temperature, high-ethanol tolerance, rapid growth and high yield. The YF31 could grow on plate cultures up to 47 °C, containing 237.5 g L(-1) of ethanol. In particular, the mutant strain YF31 generated 94.2 ± 4.8 g L(-1) ethanol from 200 g glucose L(-1) at 42 °C, which was 2.48 times the production of the wild strain YZ1. Results demonstrated that the variant phenotypes from the strains screening by HEPE irradiation could be used as parent stock for yeast regeneration and the protoplast fusion technology is sufficiently powerful in combining suitable characteristics in a single strain for ethanol fermentation.

  9. SIPHORE: Conceptual Study of a High Efficiency Neutral Beam Injector Based on Photo-detachment for Future Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Simonin, A.; Christin, L.; Esch, H. de; Garibaldi, P.; Grand, C.; Villecroze, F.; Blondel, C.; Delsart, C.; Drag, C.; Vandevraye, M.; Brillet, A.; Chaibi, W.

    2011-09-26

    An innovative high efficiency neutral beam injector concept for future fusion reactors is under investigation (simulation and R and D) between several laboratories in France, the goal being to perform a feasibility study for the neutralization of intense high energy (1 MeV) negative ion (NI) beams by photo-detachment.The objective of the proposed project is to put together the expertise of three leading groups in negative ion quantum physics, high power stabilized lasers and neutral beam injectors to perform studies of a new injector concept called SIPHORE (SIngle gap PHOto-neutralizer energy REcovery injector), based on the photo-detachment of negative ions and energy recovery of unneutralised ions; the main feature of SIPHORE being the relevance for the future Fusion reactors (DEMO), where high injector efficiency (up to 70-80%), technological simplicity and cost reduction are key issues to be addressed.The paper presents the on-going developments and simulations around this project, such as, a new concept of ion source which would fit with this injector topology and which could solve the remaining uniformity issue of the large size ion source, and, finally, the presentation of the R and D program in the laboratories (LAC, ARTEMIS) around the photo-neutralization for Siphore.

  10. The high-temperature modification of zinc catena-polyphosphate, beta-Zn(PO3)2.

    PubMed

    Weil, Matthias

    2004-02-01

    Single crystals of the high-temperature modification of zinc catena-polyphosphate, beta-Zn(PO(3))(2), were grown from a melt and quenched from 1093 K to room temperature. The structure was solved from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data and is built of corrugated (PO(3))( infinity ) polyphosphate chains, which extend along the c direction with an eight-tetrahedra repeat. Slightly distorted [ZnO(4)] tetrahedra link the polyphosphate chains into a three-dimensional network.

  11. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    neutral beam injectors and the power supply systems were considered. This year the ion cyclotron resonant heating system is under evaluation. I. Cristescu et al (Germany) present the paper `Tritium inventories and tritium safety design principles for the fuel cycle of ITER'. She and her colleagues developed the dynamic mathematical model (TRIMO) for tritium inventory evaluation within each system of the ITER fuel cycle in various operational scenarios. TRIMO is used as a tool for trade-off studies within the fuel cycle systems with the final goal of global tritium inventory minimization. M. Matsuyama et al (Japan) describes a new technique for in situ quantitative measurements of high-level tritium inventory and its distribution in the VV and tritium systems of ITER and future fusion reactors. This technique is based on utilization of x-rays induced by beta-rays emitting from tritium species. It was applied to three physical states of high-level tritium: to gaseous, aqueous and solid tritium retained on/in various materials. Finally, there are four papers devoted to safety issues in fusion reactor decommissioning and waste management. A paper by R. Pampin et al (UK) provides the revised radioactive waste analysis of two models in the PPCS. Another paper by M. Zucchetti (Italy), S.A. Bartenev (Russia) et al describes a radiochemical extraction technology for purification of V-Cr-Ti alloy components from activation products to the dose rate of 10 µSv/h allowing their clearance or hands-on recycling which has been developed and tested in laboratory stationary conditions. L. El-Guebaly (USA) and her colleagues submitted two papers. In the first paper she optimistically considers the possibility of replacing the disposal of fusion power reactor waste with recycling and clearance. Her second paper considers the implications of new clearance guidelines for nuclear applications, particularly for slightly irradiated fusion materials.

  12. Ignition of deuterium based fuel cycles in a high beta system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, K.

    1987-01-01

    A steady state self-consistent plasma modeling applied to a system having less than Beta greater than close to unity, such as Field Reverse Configuration (FRC) or like, is found to be quite effective in solving the problems independently of any anomalous process and proves the existence of the ignited state of deuterium based fuel cycles. It was found that the pure DD cycle will not ignite so that He-3 and/or tritium must be added as a catalyzer to achieve ignition. The superiority of the complex composed of the master reactor of He-3-Cat.D cycle and the satellite reactor of He-3 enriched DHe-3 cycle was confirmed in constructing a cleaner system yielding smaller amounts of 14 MeV neutrons and to burn the fuel in steady state for long periods of time. In case storage of tritium for He-3 Beta(-) decay, which turned out not to be allowed experimentally, the catalyzed DD cycle was utilized conventionally, although 14 MeV neutron yields will be increased by 35% over the complex. It is demonstrated that advanced fuel cycle reactors can be very simple in construction and compact in size, so that the field strength and the plasma volume of the order of JT-60's may be enough for a 1000 MW power plant.

  13. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  14. Octopole correction of geometric aberrations for high-current heavy-ion fusion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, D.D.M.; Haber, I.; Crandall, K.R.; Brandon, S.T.

    1989-03-17

    The success of heavy-ion fusion depends critically on the ability to focus heavy-ion beams to millimeter-size spots. Third-order geometric aberrations caused by fringe fields of the final focusing quadrupoles can significantly distort the focal spot size calculated by first-order theory. We present a method to calculate the locations and strengths of the octopoles that are needed to correct these aberrations. Calculation indicates that the strengths of the octopoles are substantially less than that of the final focusing quadrupoles. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Ultra-high speed photomultiplier tubes with nanosecond gating for fusion diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Milnes, J. S.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Herrmann, H. W.

    2012-10-15

    Fusion diagnostics can involve the measurement of ultra-fast optical pulses, often in close temporal proximity. We present a solution for the diagnostics of gamma reaction history and neutron time of flight by using microchannel plate based photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The time response of the PMTs can be as fast as 100 ps FWHM and with a gain of up to 10{sup 7}. To observe small events in close temporal proximity to much larger signals such as the down-scattered fraction, the response of MCP-PMTs can be gated with an on/off ratio of up to 10{sup 13} in just 2 ns.

  16. The Complete Burning of Weapons Grade Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium with (Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy) LIFE Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Moses, E

    2008-12-23

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and will be completed in April of 2009. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in late FY2010 utilizing laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 20 MJ are expected soon thereafter. Laser initiated fusion-fission (LIFE) engines have now been designed to produce nuclear power from natural or depleted uranium without isotopic enrichment, and from spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors without chemical separation into weapons-attractive actinide streams. A point-source of high-energy neutrons produced by laser-generated, thermonuclear fusion within a target is used to achieve ultra-deep burn-up of the fertile or fissile fuel in a sub-critical fission blanket. Fertile fuels including depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NatU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and thorium (Th) can be used. Fissile fuels such as low-enrichment uranium (LEU), excess weapons plutonium (WG-Pu), and excess highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be used as well. Based upon preliminary analyses, it is believed that LIFE could help meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the nation's and world's stockpile of spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials. LIFE takes advantage of the significant advances in laser-based inertial confinement fusion that are taking place at the NIF at LLNL where it is expected that thermonuclear ignition will be achieved in the 2010-2011 timeframe. Starting from as little as 300 to 500 MW of fusion power, a single LIFE engine will be able to generate 2000 to 3000 MWt in steady state for periods of years to decades, depending on the nuclear fuel and engine configuration. Because the fission blanket in a fusion

  17. Nuclear Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, G.

    This chapter is devoted to the fundamental concepts of nuclear fusion. To be more precise, it is devoted to the theoretical basics of fusion reactions between light nuclei such as hydrogen, helium, boron, and lithium. The discussion is limited because our purpose is to focus on laboratory-scale fusion experiments that aim at gaining energy from the fusion process. After discussing the methods of calculating the fusion cross section, it will be shown that sustained fusion reactions with energy gain must happen in a thermal medium because, in beam-target experiments, the energy of the beam is randomized faster than the fusion rate. Following a brief introduction to the elements of plasma physics, the chapter is concluded with the introduction of the most prominent fusion reactions ongoing in the Sun.

  18. Finite beta effects on low- and high-frequency magnetosonic waves in a two-ion-species plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Toida, Mieko; Aota, Yukio

    2013-08-15

    A magnetosonic wave propagating perpendicular to a magnetic field in a two-ion-species plasma has two branches, high-frequency and low-frequency modes. The finite beta effects on these modes are analyzed theoretically on the basis of the three-fluid model with finite ion and electron pressures. First, it is shown that the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the low-frequency mode is valid for amplitudes ε<ε{sub max}, where the upper limit of the amplitude ε{sub max} is given as a function of β (β is the ratio of the kinetic and magnetic energy densities), the density ratio, and the cyclotron frequency ratio of two ion species. Next, the linear dispersion relation and KdV equation for the high-frequency mode are derived, including β as a factor. In addition, the theory for heavy ion acceleration by the high-frequency mode pulse and the pulse damping due to this energy transfer in a finite beta plasma are presented.

  19. A high performance sensorimotor beta rhythm-based brain computer interface associated with human natural motor behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ou; Lin, Peter; Vorbach, Sherry; Floeter, Mary Kay; Hattori, Noriaki; Hallett, Mark

    2008-03-01

    To explore the reliability of a high performance brain-computer interface (BCI) using non-invasive EEG signals associated with human natural motor behavior does not require extensive training. We propose a new BCI method, where users perform either sustaining or stopping a motor task with time locking to a predefined time window. Nine healthy volunteers, one stroke survivor with right-sided hemiparesis and one patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) participated in this study. Subjects did not receive BCI training before participating in this study. We investigated tasks of both physical movement and motor imagery. The surface Laplacian derivation was used for enhancing EEG spatial resolution. A model-free threshold setting method was used for the classification of motor intentions. The performance of the proposed BCI was validated by an online sequential binary-cursor-control game for two-dimensional cursor movement. Event-related desynchronization and synchronization were observed when subjects sustained or stopped either motor execution or motor imagery. Feature analysis showed that EEG beta band activity over sensorimotor area provided the largest discrimination. With simple model-free classification of beta band EEG activity from a single electrode (with surface Laplacian derivation), the online classifications of the EEG activity with motor execution/motor imagery were: >90%/~80% for six healthy volunteers, >80%/~80% for the stroke patient and ~90%/~80% for the ALS patient. The EEG activities of the other three healthy volunteers were not classifiable. The sensorimotor beta rhythm of EEG associated with human natural motor behavior can be used for a reliable and high performance BCI for both healthy subjects and patients with neurological disorders. Significance: The proposed new non-invasive BCI method highlights a practical BCI for clinical applications, where the user does not require extensive training.

  20. High-heat-flux testing of irradiated tungsten-based materials for fusion applications using infrared plasma arc lamps

    DOE PAGES

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Ohriner, Evan K.; Kiggans, Jim; Schaich, Charles R.; Ueda, Yoshio; Harper, David C.; Katoh, Yutai; Snead, Lance L.; Byun, Thak S.

    2014-11-01

    Testing of advanced materials and component mock-ups under prototypical fusion high-heat-flux conditions, while historically a mainstay of fusion research, has proved to be quite challenging, especially for irradiated materials. A new high-heat-flux–testing (HHFT) facility based on water-wall plasma arc lamps (PALs) is now introduced for materials and small-component testing. Two PAL systems, utilizing a 12 000°C plasma arc contained in a quartz tube cooled by a spiral water flow over the inside tube surface, provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW/m2 over areas of 9×12 and 1×10 cm2, respectively. This paper will present the overall design andmore » implementation of a PAL-based irradiated material target station (IMTS). The IMTS is primarily designed for testing the effects of heat flux or thermal cycling on material coupons of interest, such as those for plasma-facing components. Temperature results are shown for thermal cycling under HHFT of tungsten coupon specimens that were neutron irradiated in HFIR. Finally, radiological surveys indicated minimal contamination of the 36×36×18 cm test section, demonstrating the capability of the new facility to handle irradiated specimens at high temperature.« less

  1. High-heat-flux testing of irradiated tungsten-based materials for fusion applications using infrared plasma arc lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Ohriner, Evan K.; Kiggans, Jim; Schaich, Charles R.; Ueda, Yoshio; Harper, David C.; Katoh, Yutai; Snead, Lance L.; Byun, Thak S.

    2014-11-01

    Testing of advanced materials and component mock-ups under prototypical fusion high-heat-flux conditions, while historically a mainstay of fusion research, has proved to be quite challenging, especially for irradiated materials. A new high-heat-flux–testing (HHFT) facility based on water-wall plasma arc lamps (PALs) is now introduced for materials and small-component testing. Two PAL systems, utilizing a 12 000°C plasma arc contained in a quartz tube cooled by a spiral water flow over the inside tube surface, provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW/m2 over areas of 9×12 and 1×10 cm2, respectively. This paper will present the overall design and implementation of a PAL-based irradiated material target station (IMTS). The IMTS is primarily designed for testing the effects of heat flux or thermal cycling on material coupons of interest, such as those for plasma-facing components. Temperature results are shown for thermal cycling under HHFT of tungsten coupon specimens that were neutron irradiated in HFIR. Finally, radiological surveys indicated minimal contamination of the 36×36×18 cm test section, demonstrating the capability of the new facility to handle irradiated specimens at high temperature.

  2. Multi-sensor fusion of electro-optic and infrared signals for high resolution visible images: part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaopeng; Netravali, Ravi; Man, Hong; Lawrence, Victor

    2013-06-01

    Electro-Optic (EO) image sensors exhibit the properties of high resolution and low noise level, but they cannot reflect information about the temperature of objects and do not work in dark environments. On the other hand, infrared (IR) image sensors exhibit the properties of low resolution and high noise level, but IR images can reflect information about the temperature of objects all the time. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel framework to enhance the resolution of EO images using the information (e.g., temperature) from IR images, which helps distinguish temperature variation of objects in the daytime via high-resolution EO images. The proposed novel framework involves four main steps: (1) select target objects with temperature variation in original IR images; (2) fuse original RGB color (EO) images and IR images based on image fusion algorithms; (3) blend the fused images of target objects in proportion with original gray-scale EO images; (4) superimpose the target objects' temperature information, onto original EO images via the modified NTSC color space transformation. Therein, the image fusion step will be conducted by qualitative (frame pipeline) approach. Revealing temperature information in EO images for the first time is the most significant contribution of this paper. Simulation results will show the transformed EO images with the targets' temperature information.

  3. A NPxY-independent {beta}5 integrin activation signal regulates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sukhwinder; D'mello, Veera; Henegouwen, Paul van Bergen en; Birge, Raymond B.

    2007-12-21

    Integrin receptors are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors with critical functions in cell adhesion and migration, cell cycle progression, differentiation, apoptosis, and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Integrins are activated by intracellular signaling that alter the binding affinity for extracellular ligands, so-called inside to outside signaling. A common element for integrin activation involves binding of the cytoskeletal protein talin, via its FERM domain, to a highly conserved NPxY motif in the {beta} chain cytoplasmic tails, which is involved in long-range conformation changes to the extracellular domain that impinges on ligand affinity. When the human beta-5 ({beta}5) integrin cDNA was expressed in {alpha}v positive, {beta}5 and {beta}3 negative hamster CS-1 cells, it promoted NPxY-dependent adhesion to VTN-coated surfaces, phosphorylation of FAK, and concomitantly, {beta}5 integrin-EGFP protein was recruited into talin and paxillin-containing focal adhesions. Expression of a NPxY destabilizing {beta}5 mutant (Y750A) abrogated adhesion and {beta}5-Y750A-EGFP was excluded from focal adhesions at the tips of stress fibers. Surprisingly, expression of {beta}5 Y750A integrin had a potent gain-of-function effect on apoptotic cell phagocytosis, and further, a {beta}5-Y750A-EGFP fusion integrin readily bound MFG-E8-coated 10 {mu}m diameter microspheres developed as apoptotic cell mimetics. The critical sequences in {beta}5 integrin were mapped to a YEMAS motif just proximal to the NPxY motif. Our studies suggest that the phagocytic function of {beta}5 integrin is regulated by an unconventional NPxY-talin-independent activation signal and argue for the existence of molecular switches in the {beta}5 cytoplasmic tail for adhesion and phagocytosis.

  4. Magnetic-confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongena, J.; Koch, R.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.

    2016-05-01

    Our modern society requires environmentally friendly solutions for energy production. Energy can be released not only from the fission of heavy nuclei but also from the fusion of light nuclei. Nuclear fusion is an important option for a clean and safe solution for our long-term energy needs. The extremely high temperatures required for the fusion reaction are routinely realized in several magnetic-fusion machines. Since the early 1990s, up to 16 MW of fusion power has been released in pulses of a few seconds, corresponding to a power multiplication close to break-even. Our understanding of the very complex behaviour of a magnetized plasma at temperatures between 150 and 200 million °C surrounded by cold walls has also advanced substantially. This steady progress has resulted in the construction of ITER, a fusion device with a planned fusion power output of 500 MW in pulses of 400 s. ITER should provide answers to remaining important questions on the integration of physics and technology, through a full-size demonstration of a tenfold power multiplication, and on nuclear safety aspects. Here we review the basic physics underlying magnetic fusion: past achievements, present efforts and the prospects for future production of electrical energy. We also discuss questions related to the safety, waste management and decommissioning of a future fusion power plant.

  5. Meteorite fusion crust variability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaisen, Kevin G.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2009-06-01

    Two assumptions commonly employed in meteorite interpretation are that fusion crust compositions represent the bulk-rock chemistry of the interior meteorite and that the vesicles within the fusion crust result from the release of implanted solar wind volatiles. Electron microprobe analyses of thin sections from lunar meteorite Miller Range (MIL) 05035 and eucrite Bates Nunataks (BTN) 00300 were performed to determine if the chemical compositions of the fusion crust varied and/or represented the published bulk rock composition. It was determined that fusion crust compositions are significantly influenced by the incorporation of fragments from the substrate, and by the composition and grain size of those minerals. Because of compositional heterogeneities throughout the meteorite, one cannot assume that fusion crust composition represents the bulk rock composition. If the compositional variability within the fusion crust and mineralogical differences among thin sections goes unnoticed, then the perceived composition and petrogenetic models of formation will be incorrect. The formation of vesicles within these fusion crusts were also compared to current theories attributing vesicles to a solar wind origin. Previous work from the STONE-5 experiment, where terrestrial rocks were exposed on the exterior of a spacecraft heatshield, produced a vesicular fusion crust without prolonged exposure to solar wind suggesting that the high temperatures experienced by a meteorite during passage through the Earth's atmosphere are sufficient to cause boiling of the melt. Therefore, the assumption that all vesicles found within a fusion crust are due to the release of implanted volatiles of solar wind may not be justified.

  6. Development of a magnetohydrodynamic code for axisymmetric, high-. beta. plasmas with complex magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, G.O. Jr.

    1982-12-01

    The Topolotron is an axisymmetric, toroidal magnetic fusion concept in which two-dimensional effects are important, as well as all three magnetic field components. The particular MHD model employed is basically the one-fluid, two-temperature model using classical Braginskii transport with viscous effects ignored. The model is augmented by Saha-Boltzmann dissociation and partial ionization physics, a simple radiation loss mechanism, and an additional resistivity due to electron-neutral collisions. While retaining all velocity and magnetic field components, the assumption of axisymmetry is made, and the resulting equations are expanded in cylindrical coordinates. The major approximation technique is then applied: spline collocation, which reduces these equations to a set of ordinary differential equations.

  7. Present Status and Future Prospects of Laser Fusion and Related High Energy Density Plasma Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mima, Kunioki

    2004-12-01

    The present status and future prospects of the laser fusion research and related laser plasma physics are reviewed. In laser fusion research, giant lasers for ignition and burn by imploding DT fuel pellets are under construction at LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) and CEA, France. In Japan , the Gekko XII and the Peta Watt laser system have been operated to investigate the implosion hydrodynamics, fast ignition, and the relativistic laser plasma interactions and a new project; FIREX( Fast Ignition Realization Experiment) had started toward the ignition and burn at the Institute of laser Engineering of Osaka University. Recently, heating experiments with cone shell target have been carried out. The thermal neutron yield is found to increase by three orders of magnitude by the peta watt laser injection to the cone shell target. The FIREX-I is planned according to this experimental results, where multi 10kJ peta watt laser is used to heat compressed DT fuel to the ignition temperature. The FIREX-II will follow for demonstrating ignition and burn, in which the implosion laser and heating laser are up-graded.

  8. GNSS-ISR data fusion: General framework with application to the high-latitude ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeter, Joshua; Hirsch, Michael; Lind, Frank; Coster, Anthea; Erickson, Philip; Pankratius, Victor

    2016-03-01

    A mathematical framework is presented for the fusion of electron density measured by incoherent scatter radar (ISR) and total electron content (TEC) measured using global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). Both measurements are treated as projections of an unknown density field (for GNSS-TEC the projection is tomographic; for ISR the projection is a weighted average over a local spatial region) and discrete inverse theory is applied to obtain a higher fidelity representation of the field than could be obtained from either modality individually. The specific implementation explored herein uses the interpolated ISR density field as initial guess to the combined inverse problem, which is subsequently solved using maximum entropy regularization. Simulations involving a dense meridional network of GNSS receivers near the Poker Flat ISR demonstrate the potential of this approach to resolve sub-beam structure in ISR measurements. Several future directions are outlined, including (1) data fusion using lower level (lag product) ISR data, (2) consideration of the different temporal sampling rates, (3) application of physics-based regularization, (4) consideration of nonoptimal observing geometries, and (5) use of an ISR simulation framework for optimal experiment design.

  9. Observation of finite-. beta. MHD phenomena in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, K.M.

    1984-09-01

    Stable high-beta plasmas are required for the tokamak to attain an economical fusion reactor. Recently, intense neutral beam heating experiments in tokamaks have shown new effects on plasma stability and confinement associated with high beta plasmas. The observed spectrum of MHD fluctuations at high beta is clearly dominated by the n = 1 mode when the q = 1 surface is in the plasma. The m/n = 1/1 mode drives other n = 1 modes through toroidal coupling and n > 1 modes through nonlinear coupling. On PDX, with near perpendicular injection, a resonant interaction between the n = 1 internal kink and the trapped fast ions results in loss of beam particles and heating power. Key parameters in the theory are the value of q/sub 0/ and the injection angle. High frequency broadband magnetic fluctuations have been observed on ISX-B and D-III and a correlation with the deterioration of plasma confinement was reported. During enhanced confinement (H-mode) discharges in divertor plasmas, two new edge instabilities were observed, both localized radially near the separatrix. By assembling results from the different tokamak experiments, it is found that the simple theoretical ideal MHD beta limit has not been exceeded. Whether this represents an ultimate tokamak limit or if beta optimized configurations (Dee- or bean-shaped plasmas) can exceed this limit and perhaps enter a second regime of stability remains to be clarified.

  10. The effect of plasma beta on high-n ballooning stability at low magnetic shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, J. W.; Ham, C. J.; Hastie, R. J.

    2016-08-01

    An explanation of the observed improvement in H-mode pedestal characteristics with increasing core plasma pressure or poloidal beta, {β\\text{pol}} , as observed in MAST and JET, is sought in terms of the impact of the Shafranov shift, {{Δ }\\prime} , on ideal ballooning MHD stability. To illustrate this succinctly, a self-consistent treatment of the low magnetic shear region of the ‘s-α ’ stability diagram is presented using the large aspect ratio Shafranov equilibrium, but enhancing both α and {{Δ }\\prime} so that they compete with each other. The method of averaging, valid at low s, is used to simplify the calculation and demonstrates how α , {{Δ }\\prime} , plasma shaping and ‘average favourable curvature’ all contribute to stability.

  11. V&V of MCNP 6.1.1 Beta Against Intermediate and High-Energy Experimental Data

    SciTech Connect

    Mashnik, Stepan G

    2014-09-08

    This report presents a set of validation and verification (V&V) MCNP 6.1.1 beta results calculated in parallel, with MPI, obtained using its event generators at intermediate and high-energies compared against various experimental data. It also contains several examples of results using the models at energies below 150 MeV, down to 10 MeV, where data libraries are normally used. This report can be considered as the forth part of a set of MCNP6 Testing Primers, after its first, LA-UR-11-05129, and second, LA-UR-11-05627, and third, LA-UR-26944, publications, but is devoted to V&V with the latest, 1.1 beta version of MCNP6. The MCNP6 test-problems discussed here are presented in the /VALIDATION_CEM/and/VALIDATION_LAQGSM/subdirectories in the MCNP6/Testing/directory. README files that contain short descriptions of every input file, the experiment, the quantity of interest that the experiment measures and its description in the MCNP6 output files, and the publication reference of that experiment are presented for every test problem. Templates for plotting the corresponding results with xmgrace as well as pdf files with figures representing the final results of our V&V efforts are presented. Several technical “bugs” in MCNP 6.1.1 beta were discovered during our current V&V of MCNP6 while running it in parallel with MPI using its event generators. These “bugs” are to be fixed in the following version of MCNP6. Our results show that MCNP 6.1.1 beta using its CEM03.03, LAQGSM03.03, Bertini, and INCL+ABLA, event generators describes, as a rule, reasonably well different intermediate- and high-energy measured data. This primer isn’t meant to be read from cover to cover. Readers may skip some sections and go directly to any test problem in which they are interested.

  12. Study of Chelyabinsk LL5 meteorite fragment with a light lithology and its fusion crust using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimova, Alevtina A.; Petrova, Evgeniya V.; Grokhovsky, Victor I.; Oshtrakh, Michael I. Semionkin, Vladimir A.

    2014-10-27

    Study of Chelyabinsk LL5 ordinary chondrite fragment with a light lithology and its fusion crust, fallen on February 15, 2013, in Russian Federation, was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. The Mössbauer spectra of the internal matter and fusion crust were fitted and all components were related to iron-bearing phases such as olivine, pyroxene, troilite, Fe-Ni-Co alloy, and chromite in the internal matter and olivine, pyroxene, troilite, Fe-Ni-Co alloy, and magnesioferrite in the fusion crust. A comparison of the content of different phases in the internal matter and in the fusion crust of this fragment showed that ferric compounds resulted from olivine, pyroxene, and troilite combustion in the atmosphere.

  13. Nuclear Fusion Award 2009 speech Nuclear Fusion Award 2009 speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbagh, Steven Anthony

    2011-01-01

    of Dr Todd Evans, another significant mentor of mine, as winner of this prestigious award? Then, it happened. The paper covers several key topics related to high beta tokamak physics. For me, the greatest satisfaction in receiving this award is because it was the first Nuclear Fusion Award to recognize research on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) located at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The achievement of record stability parameters in a mega-Ampere class spherical torus (ST) device reported in the paper represents a multi-year effort, contributed to by the entire research team. Research to maintain such plasmas for an indefinite period continues today. Understanding RWM stabilization physics is crucial for this goal, and leveraging the high beta ST operating space uniquely tests theory for application to future STs and to tokamaks in general, including advanced operational scenarios of ITER. For instance, the RWM was found to have significant amplitude in components with the toroidal mode number greater than unity. This has important implications for general active RWM control. Evidence that the RWM passive stabilization physics and marginal stability criterion are indeed more complex than originally thought was shown in this paper. Present work shows the greater complexity has a direct impact on how we should extrapolate RWM stabilization to future devices. The paper also reported the qualitative observation of neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV), followed by a companion paper by our group in 2006 reporting the quantitative observation of this effect and comparison to theory. The physics of this interesting and important phenomenon was introduced to me by Professor J. Callen (who has given an overview talk at this conference including this subject) and Professor Kerchung Shaing of the University of Wisconsin, to whom I am quite indebted. The paper also reported the first measurement of resonant field amplification at high beta in the NSTX

  14. Scene Classfication Based on the Semantic-Feature Fusion Fully Sparse Topic Model for High Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiqi; Zhong, Yanfei; Zhang, Liangpei

    2016-06-01

    Topic modeling has been an increasingly mature method to bridge the semantic gap between the low-level features and high-level semantic information. However, with more and more high spatial resolution (HSR) images to deal with, conventional probabilistic topic model (PTM) usually presents the images with a dense semantic representation. This consumes more time and requires more storage space. In addition, due to the complex spectral and spatial information, a combination of multiple complementary features is proved to be an effective strategy to improve the performance for HSR image scene classification. But it should be noticed that how the distinct features are fused to fully describe the challenging HSR images, which is a critical factor for scene classification. In this paper, a semantic-feature fusion fully sparse topic model (SFF-FSTM) is proposed for HSR imagery scene classification. In SFF-FSTM, three heterogeneous features - the mean and standard deviation based spectral feature, wavelet based texture feature, and dense scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) based structural feature are effectively fused at the latent semantic level. The combination of multiple semantic-feature fusion strategy and sparse based FSTM is able to provide adequate feature representations, and can achieve comparable performance with limited training samples. Experimental results on the UC Merced dataset and Google dataset of SIRI-WHU demonstrate that the proposed method can improve the performance of scene classification compared with other scene classification methods for HSR imagery.

  15. Experimental Studies of High-Speed Liquid Films on Downward-Facing Surfaces for Inertial Fusion Energy Wet Wall Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Jonathan K.; Durbin, Samuel G. II; Sadowski, Dennis L.; Yoda, Minami; Abdel-Khalik, Said I.

    2003-05-15

    The fusion event in inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactors creates neutrons, photons, and charged particles that can damage the chamber first walls. The Prometheus design study used a high-speed thin film of molten lead injected tangential to the wall to protect the upper endcap of the reactor chamber from damaging X rays and target debris. To assure full chamber coverage, the film must remain attached. Film detachment under the influence of gravity is most likely to occur on the downward-facing surfaces over the upper endcap of the reactor chamber. Accurate numerical predictions of detachment length are effectively impossible in this turbulent flow because of difficulties in determining appropriate boundary conditions near the detachment point.As part of the ARIES-IFE study, experimental investigations of high-speed water films injected onto downward-facing planar surfaces at angles of inclination up to 45 deg below the horizontal were therefore performed. The initial growth and subsequent detachment of films with initial thickness up to 2 mm and injection speed up to 11 m/s were measured. To our knowledge, these experiments are the first to investigate the detachment of turbulent liquid films on downward-facing surfaces. The implications of these initial results on thin liquid protection and the 'wet wall' concept are discussed.

  16. High Beta-palmitate formula and bone strength in term infants: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Litmanovitz, Ita; Davidson, Keren; Eliakim, Alon; Regev, Rivka H; Dolfin, Tzipora; Arnon, Shmuel; Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana; Goren, Amit; Lifshitz, Yael; Nemet, Dan

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to compare the effect of 12-week feeding of commercially available infant formulas with different percentages of palmitic acid at sn-2 (beta-palmitate) on anthropometric measures and bone strength of term infants. It was hypothesized that feeding infants with high beta-palmitate (HBP) formula will enhance their bone speed of sound (SOS). Eighty-three infants appropriate for gestational age participated in the study; of these, 58 were formula-fed and 25 breast-fed infants, serving as a reference group. The formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive HBP formula (43 % of the palmitic acid is esterified to the middle position of the glycerol backbone, study group; n = 30) or regular formula with low-beta palmitate (LBP, 14 % of the palmitic acid is esterified to the middle position of the glycerol backbone, n = 28). Sixty-six infants completed the 12-week study. Anthropometric and quantitative ultrasound measurements of bone SOS for assessment of bone strength were performed at randomization and at 6 and 12 weeks postnatal age. At randomization, gestational age, birth weight, and bone SOS were comparable between the three groups. At 12 weeks postnatal age, the mean bone SOS of the HBP group was significantly higher than that of the LBP group (2,896 ± 133 vs. 2,825 ± 79 m/s respectively, P = 0.049) and comparable with that of the breast-fed group (2,875 ± 85 m/s). We concluded that infants consuming HBP formula had changes in bone SOS that were comparable to those of infants consuming breast milk and favorable compared to infants consuming LBP formula.

  17. The inositol high-polyphosphate series blocks synaptic transmission by preventing vesicular fusion: a squid giant synapse study.

    PubMed Central

    Llinás, R; Sugimori, M; Lang, E J; Morita, M; Fukuda, M; Niinobe, M; Mikoshiba, K

    1994-01-01

    Presynaptic injection of inositol 1,3,4,5-tetraphosphate, inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate, or inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate--which we denote here the inositol high-polyphosphate series (IHPS)--is shown to block synaptic transmission when injected into the preterminal of the squid giant synapse. This effect is not produced by injection of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The synaptic block is characterized by a time course in the order of 15-45 min, depending on the injection site in the preterminal fiber; the fastest block occurs when the injection is made at the terminal release site. Presynaptic voltage clamp during transmitter release demonstrates that IHPS block did not modify the presynaptic inward, calcium current. Analysis of synaptic noise at the postsynaptic axon shows that both the evoked and spontaneous transmitter release are blocked by the IHPS. Tetanic stimulation of the presynaptic fiber at frequencies of 100 Hz indicates that block is accompanied by gradual reduction of the postsynaptic response, demonstrating that the block interferes with vesicular fusion rather than with vesicular docking. These results, in combination with the recently demonstrated observation that the IHPS bind the C2B domain in synaptotagmin [Fukada, M., Aruga, J., Niinobe, M., Aimoto, S. & Mikoshiba, K. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 29206-29211], suggest that IHPS elements are involved in vesicle fusion and exocytosis. In addition, a scheme is proposed in which synaptotagmin triggers transmitter release directly by promoting the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic plasmalemma, in agreement with the very rapid nature of transmitter release in chemical synapses. Images Fig. 4 PMID:7809161

  18. Vacuum insulation of the high energy negative ion source for fusion applicationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Hilmi, A.; Inoue, T.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Tobari, H.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamano, Y.; Grisham, L. R.

    2012-02-01

    Vacuum insulation on a large size negative ion accelerator with multiple extraction apertures and acceleration grids for fusion application was experimentally examined and designed. In the experiment, vacuum insulation characteristics were investigated in the JT-60 negative ion source with >1000 apertures on the grid with the surface area of ˜2 m2. The sustainable voltages varied with a square root of the gap lengths between the grids, and decreased with number of the apertures and with the surface area of the grids. Based on the obtained results, the JT-60SA (super advanced) negative ion source is designed to produce 22 A, 500 keV D- ion beams for 100 s.

  19. High thermal conductivity SiC/SiC composites for fusion applications -- 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kowbel, W.; Tsou, K.T.; Withers, J.C.; Youngblood, G.E.

    1998-03-01

    This report covers material presented at the IEA/Jupiter Joint International Workshop on SiC/SiC Composites for Fusion Structural Applications held in conjunction with ICFRM-8, Sendai, Japan, Oct. 23--24, 1997. An unirradiated SiC/SiC composite made with MER-developed CVR SiC fiber and a hybrid PIP/CVI SiC matrix exhibited room temperature transverse thermal conductivity of 45 W/mK. An unirradiated SiC/SiC composite made from C/C composite totally CVR-converted to a SiC/SiC composite exhibited transverse thermal conductivity values of 75 and 35 W/mK at 25 and 1000 C, respectively. Both types of SiC/SiC composites exhibited non-brittle failure in flexure testing.

  20. Symmetric inertial confinement fusion implosions at ultra-high laser energies

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzer, S H; MacGowan, B J; Michel, P; Meezan, N B; Suter, L J; Dixit, S N; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Callahan, D A; Dewald, E L; Divol, L; Dzenitis, E; Edwards, J; Hamza, A V; Haynam, C A; Hinkel, D E; Kalantar, D H; Kilkenny, J D; Landen, O L; Lindle, J D; LePape, S; Moody, J D; Nikroo, A; Parham, T; Schneider, M B; Town, R J; Wegner, P; Widmann, K; Whitman, P; Young, B F; Van Wonterghem, B; Atherton, J E; Moses, E I

    2009-12-03

    The first indirect-drive hohlraum experiments at the National Ignition Facility have demonstrated symmetric capsule implosions at unprecedented laser drive energies of 0.7 MJ. 192 simultaneously fired laser beams heat ignition hohlraums to radiation temperatures of 3.3 million Kelvin compressing 1.8-millimeter capsules by the soft x rays produced by the hohlraum. Self-generated plasma-optics gratings on either end of the hohlraum tune the laser power distribution in the hohlraum producing symmetric x-ray drive as inferred from capsule self-emission measurements. These experiments indicate conditions suitable for compressing deuterium-tritium filled capsules with the goal to achieve burning fusion plasmas and energy gain in the laboratory.

  1. Development of high field superconductors for fusion energy applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-26

    The purpose of this project was to develop a conductor design and a manufacturing procedure for a composite multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn conductor suitable for winding a magnet for use in a fusion energy power plant. Effort was concentrated on the design of a conductor with tubular niobium filaments in a copper matrix. Bronze in the bores of the filaments would react with the niobium to form Nb/sub 3/Sn on the inside diameter of the niobium tubular filaments during a heat treatment at final size. Four filament geometries were evaluated. The addition of titanium to the bronze was found to increase the current density. The use of a hydrogen atmosphre did not appear to cause any increase in current density. Primary billets were assembled and extruded with five tubular filament designs and for comparison, five rod type filament designs. Billet designs are described.

  2. Advanced scheme for high-yield laser driven proton-boron fusion reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margarone, D.; Picciotto, A.; Velyhan, A.; Krasa, J.; Kucharik, M.; Morrissey, M.; Mangione, A.; Szydlowsky, A.; Malinowska, A.; Bertuccio, G.; Shi, Y.; Crivellari, M.; Ullschmied, J.; Bellutti, P.; Korn, G.

    2015-02-01

    A low contrast nanosecond laser pulse with relatively low intensity (3 × 1016 W cm-2) was used to enhance the yield of induced nuclear reactions in advanced solid targets. In particular the "ultraclean" proton-boron fusion reaction, producing energetic alpha-particles without neutron generation, was chosen. A spatially well-defined layer of boron dopants in a hydrogen-enriched silicon substrate was used as target. The combination of the specific target geometry and the laser pulse temporal shape allowed enhancing the yield of alpha-particles up to 109 per steradian, i.e 100 times higher than previous experimental achievements. Moreover the alpha particle stream presented a clearly peaked angular and energy distribution, which make this secondary source attractive for potential applications. This result can be ascribed to the interaction of the long laser pre-pulse with the target and to the optimal target geometry and composition.

  3. Application of railgun principle to high-velocity hydrogen pellet injection for magnetic fusion reactor refueling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.

    1991-08-01

    This report contains three documents describing the progress made by the University of Illinois electromagnetic railgun program sponsored by the Office of Fusion Energy of the United States Department of Energy during the period from July 16, 1990 to August 16, 1991. The first document contains a brief summary of the tasks initiated, continued, or completed, the status of major tasks, and the research effort distribution, estimated and actual, during the period. The second document contains a description of the work performed on time resolved laser interferometric density measurement of the railgun plasma-arc armature. The third document is an account of research on the spectroscopic measurement of the electron density and temperature of the railgun plasma arc.

  4. Highly precise Re-Os dating for molybdenite using alkaline fusion and NTIMS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markey, R.; Stein, H.; Morgan, J.

    1998-01-01

    The technique described in this paper represents the modification and combination of two previously existing methods, alkaline fusion and negative thermal ion mass spectrometry (NTIMS). We have used this technique to analyze repeatedly a homogeneous molybdenite powder used as a reference standard in our laboratory. Analyses were made over a period of 18 months, using four different calibrations of two different spike solutions. The age of this standard reproduces at a level of ?? 0.13%. Each individual age analysis carries an uncertainty of about 0.4% that includes the uncertainty in the decay constant for 187Re. This new level of resolution has allowed us to recognize real differences in ages for two grain-size populations of molybdenite from some Archean samples.

  5. Vacuum insulation of the high energy negative ion source for fusion application

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Inoue, T.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Tobari, H.; Hilmi, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamano, Y.; Grisham, L. R.

    2012-02-15

    Vacuum insulation on a large size negative ion accelerator with multiple extraction apertures and acceleration grids for fusion application was experimentally examined and designed. In the experiment, vacuum insulation characteristics were investigated in the JT-60 negative ion source with >1000 apertures on the grid with the surface area of {approx}2 m{sup 2}. The sustainable voltages varied with a square root of the gap lengths between the grids, and decreased with number of the apertures and with the surface area of the grids. Based on the obtained results, the JT-60SA (super advanced) negative ion source is designed to produce 22 A, 500 keV D{sup -} ion beams for 100 s.

  6. The alpha/beta ocean distinction: A perspective on freshwater fluxes, convection, nutrients and productivity in high-latitude seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmack, Eddy C.

    2007-11-01

    Stratification is perhaps the most important attribute of oceans with regards to climate and biology. Two simple aspects of the ocean's climate system appear to have a surprisingly important role in transforming waters that feed the global thermohaline circulation, dominating patterns of biogeochemical flux and establishing macroecological domains. First, largely because of meridional distillation (mainly due to the atmospheric transport of freshwater across the Isthmus of Panama) the North Pacific is fresher than the North Atlantic. Second, largely because of zonal distillation (e.g., warming and evaporation at low latitudes and poleward transport of latent heat and moisture by the atmosphere) the upper layers of subtropical seas are permanently stratified by temperature ( NT2= gαd T/d z>0; here called alpha oceans), while the upper layers of high-latitude seas are permanently stratified by salinity ( NS2= gβd S/d z>0; here called beta oceans). The physical basis for the boundary separating alpha and beta oceans is unclear, but may lie in the thermodynamical equations published by Fofonoff [1961. Energy transformations in the sea. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Report Series 109, 82pp]. Nevertheless, it is clear that the resulting thermohaline distributions establish a 'downhill journey' of low-salinity (and nutrient-rich) waters from the North Pacific to the Arctic and then into the North Atlantic. The Arctic Ocean—itself—acts a double estuary, whereby waters entering from the North Atlantic become either denser through cooling (negative estuary) or lighter by freshening (positive estuary) as they circulate within the basin and then return to the North Atlantic as a variety of components of the ocean's conveyor. Intermediate and deep waters generally form within cyclonic beta oceans in close proximity to alphas systems. Similar patterns of stratification, nutrients and biogeographical boundaries persist in the Southern Hemisphere. It is thus argued

  7. High precision determination of the gluon fusion Higgs boson cross-section at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasiou, Charalampos; Duhr, Claude; Dulat, Falko; Furlan, Elisabetta; Gehrmann, Thomas; Herzog, Franz; Lazopoulos, Achilleas; Mistlberger, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    We present the most precise value for the Higgs boson cross-section in the gluon-fusion production mode at the LHC. Our result is based on a perturbative expansion through N3LO in QCD, in an effective theory where the top-quark is assumed to be infinitely heavy, while all other Standard Model quarks are massless. We combine this result with QCD corrections to the cross-section where all finite quark-mass effects are included exactly through NLO. In addition, electroweak corrections and the first corrections in the inverse mass of the top-quark are incorporated at three loops. We also investigate the effects of threshold resummation, both in the traditional QCD framework and following a SCET approach, which resums a class of π2 contributions to all orders. We assess the uncertainty of the cross-section from missing higher-order corrections due to both perturbative QCD effects beyond N3LO and unknown mixed QCD-electroweak effects. In addition, we determine the sensitivity of the cross-section to the choice of parton distribution function (PDF) sets and to the parametric uncertainty in the strong coupling constant and quark masses. For a Higgs mass of m H = 125 GeV and an LHC center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, our best prediction for the gluon fusion cross-section is σ =48.58{pb}_{-3.27pb}^{+2.22pb}(theory)± 1.56pb(3.20%)(PDF+{α}_s).

  8. Excitation of high frequency pressure driven modes by non-axisymmetric equilibrium at high {beta}{sub pol} in PBX-M

    SciTech Connect

    Sesnic, S.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Okabayashi, M.; Takahashi, H.; Bell, R.E.; Bernabei, S.; Chance, M.S.; Hatcher, R.E.; Jardin, S.C.; Kessel, C.E.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.; Manickam, J.; Ono, M.; Paul, S.F.; Sauthoff, N.R.; Holland, A.; Asakura, N.; Duperrex, P.A.; Fonck, R.J.; Gammel, G.M.; Greene, G.J.; Jiang, T.W.; Levinton, F.M.; Powell, E.T.; Roberts, D.W.; Qin, Y.

    1993-06-01

    High-frequency pressure-driven modes have been observed in high-poloidal-{beta} discharges in the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification (PBX-M). These modes are excited in a non-axisymmetric equilibrium characterized by a large, low frequency m{sub 1}=1/n{sub 1}=1 island, and they are capable of expelling fast ions. The modes reside on or very close to the q=1 surface, and have mode numbers with either m{sub h}=n{sub h} or (less probably) m{sub h}/n{sub h}=m{sub h}/(m{sub h}-1), with m{sub h} varying between 3 and 10. Occasionally, these modes are, simultaneously localized in the vicinity of the m{sub 1}=2/n{sub 1}=1 island. The high frequency modes near the q=1 surface also exhibit a ballooning character, being significantly stronger on the large major radius side of the plasma. When a large m{sub 1}=1/n{sub 1}=1 island is present the mode is poloidally localized in the immediate vicinity of the x-point of the island. The modes, which occur exclusively in high-{beta} discharges, appear to be driven by the plasma pressure or pressure gradient. They can thus be a manifestation of either a toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmode (TAE) at q=(2m{sub h}+ 1)/2n{sub h}, a kinetic ballooning mode (KBM), or some other type of pressure-driven mode. Theory predicts that the TAE mode is a gap mode, but the high frequency modes in PBX-M are found exclusively on or in the immediate neighborhood of magnetic surfaces with low rational numbers.

  9. Family-wide expression characterization of Arabidopsis beta-carbonic anhydrase genes using qRT-PCR and Promoter::GUS fusions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Qiong; Liu, Fang-Chun; Xie, Wei-Fa; Wang, Guang-Dong; Wang, Jun; Gao, Qing-Hua; Duan, Ke

    2014-02-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes found throughout the phylogenetic tree. The β-class carbonic anhydrases (β-CAs) are the predominating class of CAs in plants. Growing evidence underscores the importance of β-CAs in plant immunity and environmental adaptation in addition to their roles in photosynthesis. However, many fundamental problems in Arabidopsis βCAs expression remain unsolved. Here we examined the transcript abundance of AtβCAs in different tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana, and the accumulation of mRNA in response to CO2 and darkness. Histochemical analysis was performed to study the promoter activity of AtβCAs during post-germination seedling growth and in mature plants. All six members of the AtβCA subfamily showed a response to changed CO2 level and darkness, but each member showed a specific dynamic pattern. Although expression of each AtβCA was unique, in general most AtβCAs were synchronously expressed in green leaves since 5 days after germination until flowering. AtβCA1 and AtβCA2 were most highly expressed in leaves but AtβCA2 displayed weaker expression in roots. The level of AtβCA3 transcripts was highest in flowers, while AtβCA5 was most widely expressed and might be involved in more processes than other members. AtβCA6 was unique for increased expression in darkness and no expression in either the anther or pistil. The present study provides useful information for further functional investigation.

  10. A faster, high resolution, mtPA-GFP-based mitochondrial fusion assay acquiring kinetic data of multiple cells in parallel using confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lovy, Alenka; Molina, Anthony J A; Cerqueira, Fernanda M; Trudeau, Kyle; Shirihai, Orian S

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial fusion plays an essential role in mitochondrial calcium homeostasis, bioenergetics, autophagy and quality control. Fusion is quantified in living cells by photo-conversion of matrix targeted photoactivatable GFP (mtPAGFP) in a subset of mitochondria. The rate at which the photoconverted molecules equilibrate across the entire mitochondrial population is used as a measure of fusion activity. Thus far measurements were performed using a single cell time lapse approach, quantifying the equilibration in one cell over an hour. Here, we scale up and automate a previously published live cell method based on using mtPAGFP and a low concentration of TMRE (15 nm). This method involves photoactivating a small portion of the mitochondrial network, collecting highly resolved stacks of confocal sections every 15 min for 1 hour, and quantifying the change in signal intensity. Depending on several factors such as ease of finding PAGFP expressing cells, and the signal of the photoactivated regions, it is possible to collect around 10 cells within the 15 min intervals. This provides a significant improvement in the time efficiency of this assay while maintaining the highly resolved subcellular quantification as well as the kinetic parameters necessary to capture the detail of mitochondrial behavior in its native cytoarchitectural environment. Mitochondrial dynamics play a role in many cellular processes including respiration, calcium regulation, and apoptosis. The structure of the mitochondrial network affects the function of mitochondria, and the way they interact with the rest of the cell. Undergoing constant division and fusion, mitochondrial networks attain various shapes ranging from highly fused networks, to being more fragmented. Interestingly, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Charcot Marie Tooth 2A, and dominant optic atrophy have been correlated with altered mitochondrial morphology, namely fragmented networks. Often times, upon fragmentation

  11. The National Ignition Facility: Status and Plans for Laser Fusion and High-Energy-Density Experimental Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, C

    2001-10-29

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) currently under construction at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a 192-beam, 1.8-megajoule, 500-terawatt, 351-nm laser for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density experimental studies. NIF is being built by the Department of Energy and the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) to provide an experimental test bed for the U.S. Stockpile Stewardship Program to ensure the country's nuclear deterrent without underground nuclear testing. The experimental program will encompass a wide range of physical phenomena from fusion energy production to materials science. Of the roughly 700 shots available per year, about 10% will be dedicated to basic science research. Laser hardware is modularized into line replaceable units (LRUs) such as deformable mirrors, amplifiers, and multi-function sensor packages that are operated by a distributed computer control system of nearly 60,000 control points. The supervisory control room presents facility-wide status and orchestrates experiments using operating parameters predicted by physics models. A network of several hundred front-end processors (FEPs) implements device control. The object-oriented software system is implemented in the Ada and Java languages and emphasizes CORBA distribution of reusable software objects. NIF is currently scheduled to provide first light in 2004 and will be completed in 2008.

  12. Pulsed Operation of a Compact Fusion Neutron Source Using a High-Voltage Pulse Generator Developed for Landmine Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Kunihito; Watanabe, Masato; Okino, Akitoshi; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Hotta, Eiki; Yuura, Morimasa

    2005-05-15

    Preliminary experimental results of pulsed neutron source based on a discharge-type beam fusion called Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) for landmine detection are presented. In Japan, a research and development project for constructing an advanced anti-personnel landmine detection system by using IECF, which is effective not only for metal landmines but also for plastic ones, is now in progress. This project consists of some R and D topics, and one of them is R and D of a high-voltage pulse generator system specialized for landmine detection, which can be used in the severe environment such as that in the field in Afghanistan. Thus a prototype of the system for landmine detection was designed and fabricated in consideration of compactness, lightness, cooling performance, dustproof and robustness. By using this prototype pulse generator system, a conventional IECF device was operated as a preliminary experiment. As a result, it was confirmed that the suggested pulse generator system is suitable for landmine detection system, and the results follow the empirical law obtained by the previous experiments. The maximum neutron production rate of 2.0x10{sup 8} n/s was obtained at a pulsed discharge of -51 kV, 7.3 A.

  13. Fusion of Kinect depth data with trifocal disparity estimation for near real-time high quality depth maps generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisson, Guillaume; Kerbiriou, Paul; Drazic, Valter; Bureller, Olivier; Sabater, Neus; Schubert, Arno

    2014-03-01

    Generating depth maps along with video streams is valuable for Cinema and Television production. Thanks to the improvements of depth acquisition systems, the challenge of fusion between depth sensing and disparity estimation is widely investigated in computer vision. This paper presents a new framework for generating depth maps from a rig made of a professional camera with two satellite cameras and a Kinect device. A new disparity-based calibration method is proposed so that registered Kinect depth samples become perfectly consistent with disparities estimated between rectified views. Also, a new hierarchical fusion approach is proposed for combining on the flow depth sensing and disparity estimation in order to circumvent their respective weaknesses. Depth is determined by minimizing a global energy criterion that takes into account the matching reliability and the consistency with the Kinect input. Thus generated depth maps are relevant both in uniform and textured areas, without holes due to occlusions or structured light shadows. Our GPU implementation reaches 20fps for generating quarter-pel accurate HD720p depth maps along with main view, which is close to real-time performances for video applications. The estimated depth is high quality and suitable for 3D reconstruction or virtual view synthesis.

  14. New Vectors for Chromosomal Integration Enable High-Level Constitutive or Inducible Magnetosome Expression of Fusion Proteins in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense

    PubMed Central

    Borg, Sarah; Hofmann, Julia; Pollithy, Anna; Lang, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The alphaproteobacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense biomineralizes magnetosomes, which consist of monocrystalline magnetite cores enveloped by a phospholipid bilayer containing specific proteins. Magnetosomes represent magnetic nanoparticles with unprecedented magnetic and physicochemical characteristics. These make them potentially useful in a number of biotechnological and biomedical applications. Further functionalization can be achieved by expression of foreign proteins via genetic fusion to magnetosome anchor peptides. However, the available genetic tool set for strong and controlled protein expression in magnetotactic bacteria is very limited. Here, we describe versatile vectors for either inducible or high-level constitutive expression of proteins in M. gryphiswaldense. The combination of an engineered native PmamDC promoter with a codon-optimized egfp gene (Mag-egfp) resulted in an 8-fold increase in constitutive expression and in brighter fluorescence. We further demonstrate that the widely used Ptet promoter is functional and tunable in M. gryphiswaldense. Stable and uniform expression of the EGFP and β-glucuronidase (GusA) reporters was achieved by single-copy chromosomal insertion via Tn5-mediated transposition. In addition, gene duplication by Mag-EGFP–EGFP fusions to MamC resulted in further increased magnetosome expression and fluorescence. Between 80 and 210 (for single MamC–Mag-EGFP) and 200 and 520 (for MamC–Mag-EGFP–EGFP) GFP copies were estimated to be expressed per individual magnetosome particle. PMID:24532068

  15. Physics of laser fusion. Volume IV. The future development of high-power solid-state laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Emmett, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.; Trenholme, J.B.

    1982-11-01

    Solid state lasers, particularly neodymium glass systems, have undergone intensive development during the last decade. In this paper, we review solid state laser technology in the context of high-peak-power systems for inertial confinement fusion. Specifically addressed are five major factors: efficiency, wavelength flexibility, average power, system complexity, and cost; these factors today limit broader application of the technology. We conclude that each of these factors can be greatly improved within current fundamental physical limits. We further conclude that the systematic development of new solid state laser madia, both vitreous and crystalline, should ultimately permit the development of wavelength-flexible, very high average power systems with overall efficiencies in the range of 10 to 20%.

  16. High-yield membrane protein expression from E. coli using an engineered outer membrane protein F fusion.

    PubMed

    Su, Pin-Chuan; Si, William; Baker, Deidre L; Berger, Bryan W

    2013-04-01

    Obtaining high yields of membrane proteins necessary to perform detailed structural study is difficult due to poor solubility and variability in yields from heterologous expression systems. To address this issue, an Escherichia coli-based membrane protein overexpression system utilizing an engineered bacterial outer membrane protein F (pOmpF) fusion has been developed. Full-length human receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) was expressed using pOmpF, solubilized in FC15 and purified to homogeneity. Using circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy, purified full-length RAMP1 is composed of approximately 90% α-helix, and retains its solubility and structure in FC15 over a wide range of temperatures (20-60°C). Thus, our approach provides a useful, complementary approach to achieve high-yield, full-length membrane protein overexpression for biophysical studies.

  17. High-level expression, purification and study of bioactivity of fusion protein M-IL-2((88)Arg, (125)Ala) in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Qian, Dongmeng; Shao, Guangcan; Yan, Zhiyong; Li, Ronggui; Hua, Xiaomin; Song, Xuxia; Wang, Bin

    2014-09-01

    M-IL-2((88)Arg, (125)Ala) is a fusion protein comprising melittin genetically linked to a mutant human interleukin 2((88)Arg, (125)Ala). In this study, we constructed an expression system of M-IL-2((88)Arg, (125)Ala) in Pichia pastoris: GS115/pPICZα A/M-IL-2((88)Arg, (125)Ala), and achieved the high-level expression of the fusion protein. The maximum yield of the fusion protein M-IL-2((88)Arg, (125)Ala) reached up to 814.5mg/L, higher than the system in Escherichiacoli. The fusion protein was purified by means of ammonium sulfate fractionation, dialysis and nickel ion affinity chromatography. The molecular weight of the fusion protein is about 26kDa, conforming the theoretical value. And M-IL-2((88)Arg, (125)Ala) possesses strong antigen-specificity by Western blot detection. Bioassay results indicated that the fusion protein could directly inhibit the growth of human ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells and Hela cells in vitro. This study provides an alternative strategy for large-scale production of bioactive M-IL-2((88)Arg, (125)Ala) using P. pastoris as an expression host and paves the way to clinical practice. PMID:24955549

  18. High burden of invasive beta-haemolytic streptococcal infections in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Steer, A C; Jenney, A J W; Oppedisano, F; Batzloff, M R; Hartas, J; Passmore, J; Russell, F M; Kado, J H H; Carapetis, J R

    2008-05-01

    We undertook a 5-year retrospective study of group A streptococcal (GAS) bacteraemia in Fiji, supplemented by a 9-month detailed retrospective study of beta-haemolytic streptococcal (BHS) infections. The all-age incidence of GAS bacteraemia over 5 years was 11.6/100,000. Indigenous Fijians were 4.7 times more likely to present with invasive BHS disease than people of other ethnicities, and 6.4 times more likely than Indo-Fijians. The case-fatality rate for invasive BHS infections was 28%. emm-typing was performed on 23 isolates: 17 different emm-types were found, and the emm-type profile was different from that found in industrialized nations. These data support the contentions that elevated rates of invasive BHS and GAS infections are widespread in developing countries, and that the profile of invasive organisms in these settings reflects a wide diversity of emm-types and a paucity of types typically found in industrialized countries.

  19. High temperature conductivity of potassium-beta(double prime)-alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Underwood, M. L.; Ryan, M. A.; O'Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1992-01-01

    Potassium beta(double prime)-alumina (BDPA) single crystals have been reported by several groups to leave higher ionic conductivity than sodium BDPA crystals at room temperature, and similar conductivities are obtained at temperatures up to 600-700 K. Potassium BDPA ceramics have been reported to have significantly poorer conductivities than those of sodium BDPA ceramics, but conductivity measurements at temperatures above 625 K have not been reported. In this study, K(+)-BDPA ceramics were prepared from Na(+)-BDPA ceramic using a modified version of the exchange reaction with KCl vapor reported by Crosbie and Tennenhouse (1982), and the conductivity has been measured in K vapor at temperatures up to 1223 K, using the method of Cole et al. (1979). The results indicate reasonable agreement with earlier data on K(+)-BDPA ceramic measured in a liquid K cell, but show that the K(+)-BDPA ceramic's conductivity approaches that of Na(+)-BDPA ceramic at higher temperatures, being within a factor of four at 700 K and 60 percent of the conductivity of Na(+)-BDPA at T over 1000 K. Both four-probe dc conductivity and four probe ac impedance measurements were used to characterize the conductivity. A rather abrupt change in the grain boundary resistance suggesting a possible phase change in the intergranular material, potassium aluminate, is seen in the ac impedance behavior.

  20. Ion-scale spectral break of solar wind turbulence at high and low beta

    PubMed Central

    Chen, C H K; Leung, L; Boldyrev, S; Maruca, B A; Bale, S D

    2014-01-01

    The power spectrum of magnetic fluctuations in the solar wind at 1 AU displays a break between two power laws in the range of spacecraft-frame frequencies 0.1 to 1 Hz. These frequencies correspond to spatial scales in the plasma frame near the proton gyroradius ρi and proton inertial length di. At 1 AU it is difficult to determine which of these is associated with the break, since and the perpendicular ion plasma beta is typically β⊥i∼1. To address this, several exceptional intervals with β⊥i≪1 and β⊥i≫1 were investigated, during which these scales were well separated. It was found that for β⊥i≪1 the break occurs at di and for β⊥i≫1 at ρi, i.e., the larger of the two scales. Possible explanations for these results are discussed, including Alfvén wave dispersion, damping, and current sheets. PMID:26074642

  1. Study of high-beta pressure-driven modes in PDX

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, K.; Bell, M.; Bitter, M.

    1982-10-01

    A new pressure driven instability has been observed in PDX neutral beam heated discharges. It occurs for <BETA/sub T/>q greater than or equal to 0.045 and is associated with a significant loss of fast ions and a drop in neutron emission. As much as 20 to 40% of the beam heating power may be lost. The instability occurs in repetitive oscillatory bursts of < 1 msec duration at 1 to 6 msec intervals. It has been dubbed the fishbone instability from its characteristic signature on the Mirnov coils. From the soft x-ray detector array, it is identified as an m = 1 mode; the Mirnov coil signals are synchronous with it but indicate m greater than or equal to 2. The oscillation frequency within a fishbone burst is approx. 10 kHz, but precursors at 50 to 150 kHz are sometimes observed. Much higher frequency osciallations, up to approx. 500 MHz, have been observed as well.

  2. Fusion Science Education Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, C. A.; DIII-D Education Group

    1996-11-01

    This presentation will focus on education outreach activities at General Atomics that have been expanded to include the general population on science education with a focus on fusion energy. Outreach materials are distributed upon request both nationally and internationally. These materials include a notebook containing copies of DIII--D tour panels, fusion poster, new fusion energy video, new fusion energy brochure, and the electromagnetic spectrum curriculum. The 1996 Fusion Forum (held in the House Caucus Room) included a student/ teacher lunch with Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary and a private visit to the Forum exhibits. The continuing partnership with Kearny High School includes lectures, job shadowing, internship, equipment donations and an award-winning electric car-racing program. Development of distribution by CD of the existing interactive fusion energy kiosk and a virtual reality tour of the DIII--D facility are underway. The DIII--D fusion education WWW site includes e-mail addresses to ``Ask the Wizard,'' and/or receive GA's outreach materials. Steve Rodecker, a local science teacher, aided by DIII--D fusion staff, won his second Tapestry Award; he also was named the ``1995 National Science Teacher of the Year'' and will be present to share his experiences with the DIII--D educational outreach program.

  3. Crystal Structure of the SH3 Domain of beta PIX in Complex with a High Affinity Peptide from PAK2

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelz,A.; Janz, J.; Lawrie, S.; Corwin, B.; Lee, A.; Sakmar, T.

    2006-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are important effector proteins of the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac and control cytoskeletal rearrangements and cell proliferation. The direct interaction of PAKs with guanine nucleotide exchange factors from the PIX/Cool family, which is responsible for the localization of PAK kinases to focal complexes in the cell, is mediated by a 24-residue peptide segment in PAKs and an N-terminal src homology 3 (SH3) domain in PIX/Cool. The SH3-binding segment of PAK contains the atypical consensus-binding motif PxxxPR, which is required for unusually high affinity binding. In order to understand the structural basis for the high affinity and specificity of the PIX-PAK interaction, we solved crystal structures for the N-terminal SH3 domain of {beta}PIX and for the complex of the atypical binding segment of PAK2 with the N-terminal SH3 domain of {beta}PIX at 0.92 Angstroms and 1.3 Angstroms resolution, respectively. The asymmetric unit of the crystal contains two SH3 domains and two peptide ligands. The bound peptide adopts a conformation that allows for intimate contacts with three grooves on the surface of the SH3 domain that lie between the n-Src and RT-loops. Most notably, the arginine residue of the PxxxPR motif forms a salt-bridge and is tightly coordinated by a number of residues in the SH3 domain. This arginine-specific interaction appears to be the key determinant for the high affinity binding of PAK peptides. Furthermore, C-terminal residues of the peptide engage in additional interactions with the surface of the RT-loop, which significantly increases binding specificity. Compared to a recent NMR structure of a similar complex, our crystal structure reveals an alternate binding mode. Finally, we compare our crystal structure with the recently published {beta}PIX/Cbl-b complex structure, and suggest the existence of a molecular switch.

  4. Beta experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. A Doppler signal generator was used in mapping the coherent sensitive focal volume of a focused LDV system. System calibration data was analyzed during the flight test activity scheduled for the Beta system. These analyses were performed to determine the acceptability of the Beta measurement system's performance.

  5. The National Ignition Facility: The Path to Ignition, High Energy Density Science and Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2011-03-25

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is a Nd:Glass laser facility capable of producing 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light. This world's most energetic laser system is now operational with the goals of achieving thermonuclear burn in the laboratory and exploring the behavior of matter at extreme temperatures and energy densities. By concentrating the energy from its 192 extremely energetic laser beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target, NIF can produce temperatures above 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm{sup 3}, and pressures 100 billion times atmospheric pressure - conditions that have never been created in a laboratory and emulate those in the interiors of planetary and stellar environments. On September 29, 2010, NIF performed the first integrated ignition experiment which demonstrated the successful coordination of the laser, the cryogenic target system, the array of diagnostics and the infrastructure required for ignition. Many more experiments have been completed since. In light of this strong progress, the U.S. and the international communities are examining the implication of achieving ignition on NIF for inertial fusion energy (IFE). A laser-based IFE power plant will require a repetition rate of 10-20 Hz and a 10% electrical-optical efficiency laser, as well as further advances in large-scale target fabrication, target injection and tracking, and other supporting technologies. These capabilities could lead to a prototype IFE demonstration plant in 10- to 15-years. LLNL, in partnership with other institutions, is developing a Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) baseline design and examining various technology choices for LIFE power plant This paper will describe the unprecedented experimental capabilities of the NIF, the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the start of fundamental science experiments and plans to transition NIF to an international user facility

  6. Detection and characterization by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry of a goat beta-casein associated with a CSN2 null allele.

    PubMed

    Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Galliano, Francesco; Muccilli, Vera; Saletti, Rosaria; Marletta, Donata; Bordonaro, Salvatore; Foti, Salvatore

    2005-01-01

    The identification and characterization of a truncated goat beta-casein, associated with a null beta-casein allele (CSN2(O')), is reported. The truncated beta-casein predicted at the DNA level (NCBI Acc. No. CAB39313) but never observed at the protein level, here named beta-casein O, was detected as a minor component in a goat milk sample from an autochthonous breed from southern Italy, 'Rossa Mediterranea', by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/ESI-MS). The ESI mass spectrum of the intact beta-casein O determined an M(r) value of 18 780 Da (calculated 18 781.5). Characterization of the amino acid sequence, performed by coupling trypsin digestion with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), RP-HPLC/ESI-MS and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), demonstrated that the amino acid sequence corresponds to the 1-166 sequence of mature beta-casein variant A (Acc. No. P33048), thus confirming that the protein is coded by the null allele CSN2(O'), characterized by a transition (C --> T) at the 373rd nucleotide of the 7th exon of the gene, which generates a premature stop codon in position 182.

  7. Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaf supplementation improves antioxidant status in C57BL/6J mice fed high fat high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeung Hee; Son, Chan Wook; Kim, Mi Yeon; Kim, Min Hee; Kim, Hye Ran; Kwak, Eun Shil; Kim, Sena; Kim, Mee Ree

    2009-01-01

    The effect of diet supplemented with red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaf on antioxidant status of plasma and tissue was investigated in C57BL/6J mice. The mice were randomly divided into two groups after one-week acclimation, and fed a high fat (20%) and high cholesterol (1%) diet without (control group) or with 8% freeze-dried red beet leaf (RBL group) for 4 weeks. In RBL mice, lipid peroxidation determined as 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS value) was significantly reduced in the plasma and selected organs (liver, heart, and kidney). Levels of antioxidants (glutathione and beta-carotene) and the activities of antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase) in plasma and liver were considerably increased, suggesting that antioxidant defenses were improved by RBL diet. Comet parameters such as tail DNA (%), tail extent moment, olive tail moment and tail length were significantly reduced by 25.1%, 49.4%, 35.4%, and 23.7%, respectively, in plasma lymphocyte DNA of RBL mice compared with control mice, and indicated the increased resistance of lymphocyte DNA to oxidative damage. In addition, the RBL diet controlled body weight together with a significant reduction of fat pad (retroperitoneal, epididymal, inguinal fat, and total fat). Therefore, the present study suggested that the supplementation of 8% red beet leaf in high fat high cholesterol diet could prevent lipid peroxidation and improve antioxidant defense system in the plasma and tissue of C57BL/6J mice. PMID:20016711

  8. Beta Diversity in a Highly Heterogeneous Area: Disentangling Species and Taxonomic Dissimilarity for Terrestrial Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Patrón, Jaime M.; Goyenechea, Irene; Ortiz-Pulido, Raúl; Castillo-Cerón, Jesús; Manriquez, Norma; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Rojas-Martínez, Alberto E.; Sánchez-Rojas, Gerardo; Zuria, Iriana

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying differences in species composition among communities provides important information related to the distribution, conservation and management of biodiversity, especially when two components are recognized: dissimilarity due to turnover, and dissimilarity due to richness differences. The ecoregions in central Mexico, within the Mexican Transition Zone, have outstanding environmental heterogeneity and harbor huge biological richness, besides differences in the origin of the biota. Therefore, biodiversity studies in this area require the use of complementary measures to achieve appropriate information that may help in the design of conservation strategies. In this work we analyze the dissimilarity of terrestrial vertebrates, and the components of turnover and richness differences, among six ecoregions in the state of Hidalgo, central Mexico. We follow two approaches: one based on species level dissimilarity, and the second on taxonomic dissimilarity. We used databases from the project “Biodiversity in the state of Hidalgo”. Our results indicate that species dissimilarity is higher than taxonomic dissimilarity, and that turnover contributes more than richness differences, both for species and taxonomic total dissimilarity. Moreover, total dissimilarity, turnover dissimilarity and the dissimilarity due to richness differences were positively related in the four vertebrate groups. Reptiles had the highest values of dissimilarity, followed by mammals, amphibians and birds. For reptiles, birds, and mammals, species turnover was the most important component, while richness differences had a higher contribution for amphibians. The highest values of dissimilarity occurred between environmentally contrasting ecoregions (i.e., tropical and temperate forests), which suggests that environmental heterogeneity and differences in the origin of biotas are key factors driving beta diversity of terrestrial vertebrates among ecoregions in this complex area. PMID:27500934

  9. Beta Diversity in a Highly Heterogeneous Area: Disentangling Species and Taxonomic Dissimilarity for Terrestrial Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Patrón, Jaime M; Goyenechea, Irene; Ortiz-Pulido, Raúl; Castillo-Cerón, Jesús; Manriquez, Norma; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Rojas-Martínez, Alberto E; Sánchez-Rojas, Gerardo; Zuria, Iriana; Moreno, Claudia E

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying differences in species composition among communities provides important information related to the distribution, conservation and management of biodiversity, especially when two components are recognized: dissimilarity due to turnover, and dissimilarity due to richness differences. The ecoregions in central Mexico, within the Mexican Transition Zone, have outstanding environmental heterogeneity and harbor huge biological richness, besides differences in the origin of the biota. Therefore, biodiversity studies in this area require the use of complementary measures to achieve appropriate information that may help in the design of conservation strategies. In this work we analyze the dissimilarity of terrestrial vertebrates, and the components of turnover and richness differences, among six ecoregions in the state of Hidalgo, central Mexico. We follow two approaches: one based on species level dissimilarity, and the second on taxonomic dissimilarity. We used databases from the project "Biodiversity in the state of Hidalgo". Our results indicate that species dissimilarity is higher than taxonomic dissimilarity, and that turnover contributes more than richness differences, both for species and taxonomic total dissimilarity. Moreover, total dissimilarity, turnover dissimilarity and the dissimilarity due to richness differences were positively related in the four vertebrate groups. Reptiles had the highest values of dissimilarity, followed by mammals, amphibians and birds. For reptiles, birds, and mammals, species turnover was the most important component, while richness differences had a higher contribution for amphibians. The highest values of dissimilarity occurred between environmentally contrasting ecoregions (i.e., tropical and temperate forests), which suggests that environmental heterogeneity and differences in the origin of biotas are key factors driving beta diversity of terrestrial vertebrates among ecoregions in this complex area.

  10. Beta Diversity in a Highly Heterogeneous Area: Disentangling Species and Taxonomic Dissimilarity for Terrestrial Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Patrón, Jaime M; Goyenechea, Irene; Ortiz-Pulido, Raúl; Castillo-Cerón, Jesús; Manriquez, Norma; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Rojas-Martínez, Alberto E; Sánchez-Rojas, Gerardo; Zuria, Iriana; Moreno, Claudia E

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying differences in species composition among communities provides important information related to the distribution, conservation and management of biodiversity, especially when two components are recognized: dissimilarity due to turnover, and dissimilarity due to richness differences. The ecoregions in central Mexico, within the Mexican Transition Zone, have outstanding environmental heterogeneity and harbor huge biological richness, besides differences in the origin of the biota. Therefore, biodiversity studies in this area require the use of complementary measures to achieve appropriate information that may help in the design of conservation strategies. In this work we analyze the dissimilarity of terrestrial vertebrates, and the components of turnover and richness differences, among six ecoregions in the state of Hidalgo, central Mexico. We follow two approaches: one based on species level dissimilarity, and the second on taxonomic dissimilarity. We used databases from the project "Biodiversity in the state of Hidalgo". Our results indicate that species dissimilarity is higher than taxonomic dissimilarity, and that turnover contributes more than richness differences, both for species and taxonomic total dissimilarity. Moreover, total dissimilarity, turnover dissimilarity and the dissimilarity due to richness differences were positively related in the four vertebrate groups. Reptiles had the highest values of dissimilarity, followed by mammals, amphibians and birds. For reptiles, birds, and mammals, species turnover was the most important component, while richness differences had a higher contribution for amphibians. The highest values of dissimilarity occurred between environmentally contrasting ecoregions (i.e., tropical and temperate forests), which suggests that environmental heterogeneity and differences in the origin of biotas are key factors driving beta diversity of terrestrial vertebrates among ecoregions in this complex area. PMID:27500934

  11. Spherical torus, compact fusion at low field

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-02-01

    A spherical torus is obtained by retaining only the indispensable components on the inboard side of a tokamak plasma, such as a cooled, normal conductor that carries current to produce a toroidal magnetic field. The resulting device features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (ranging from below 2 to about 1.3), a naturally elongated D-shaped plasma cross section, and ramp-up of the plasma current primarily by noninductive means. As a result of the favorable dependence of the tokamak plasma behavior to decreasing aspect ratio, a spherical torus is projected to have small size, high beta, and modest field. Assuming Mirnov confinement scaling, an ignition spherical torus at a field of 2 T features a major radius of 1.5 m, a minor radius of 1.0 m, a plasma current of 14 MA, comparable toroidal and poloidal field coil currents, an average beta of 24%, and a fusion power of 50 MW. At 2 T, a Q = 1 spherical torus will have a major radius of 0.8 m, a minor radius of 0.5 m, and a fusion power of a few megawatts.

  12. Proceedings of US/Japan workshop, Q219 on high heat flux components and plasma surface interactions for next fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrickson, M.A.; Stevens, P.L.; Hino, T.; Hirohata, Y.

    1996-12-01

    This report contains the viewgraphs from the proceedings of US/Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices. Some of the general topics covered by this report are: PFC/PSI in tokamak and helical devices; development of high heat flux components; PSIS and plasma facing materials;tritium; and material damage.

  13. Manipulation of high-current pulses for heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W.M.; Callahan, D.A.; Griedman, A.; Grote, D.P.

    1996-10-28

    For efficient induction-driven heavy-ion fusion, the current profile along a pulse must be modified in a non-selfsimilar manner between the accelerator and the target. In the accelerator, the pulse should have a duration of at least 50 ns in order to make efficient use of the induction cores, and the current should by nearly uniform along the pulse to minimize the aperture. In contrast, the optimal current profile on target consists of a main pulse of about 10 ns preceded by a longer low-current `foot.` This pulse-shape manipulation must be carried out at the final pulse energy (5-10 GeV for 200 amu ions) in the presence of a large nonlinear longitudinal space-charge field. A straightforward method is presented here for doing the required pulse shaping. Induction-ceU voltages are generated using idealized beam profiles both in the accelerator and on target, and they are verified and checked for error sensitivity using the fluid/envelope code CIRCE.

  14. High Brønsted beta nuc values in SNAr displacement. An indicator of the SET pathway?

    PubMed

    Terrier, François; Mokhtari, Malika; Goumont, Régis; Hallé, Jean-Claude; Buncel, Erwin

    2003-05-21

    Nucleophilic substitutions of 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-Cl) and 3-methyl-1-(4-nitrobenzofurazanyl)-imidazolium ions (NBD-Im+) with a series of 4-X-substituted anilines have been kinetically investigated in 70-30 (v/v) and 20-80 (v/v) H2O-Me2SO mixtures. The rate-limiting step in these reactions is nucleophilic addition with formation of Meisenheimer-type sigma-adducts followed by fast expulsion of the leaving group (Cl- or Im). The reactions are characterized by a notable sensitivity to basicity of the aniline nucleophiles, with Hammett rho values of -2.68 and -3.82 in 30% and 80% Me2SO, respectively, for NBD-Cl and even more negative values, -3.43 and -5.27, respectively, for NBD-Im+. This is consistent with significant development of positive charge at the nitrogen atom of the zwitterionic sigma-adduct. Unexpectedly, the Brønsted-type plots reveal abnormally high beta nuc values, ca. 1.0 and 1.3-1.4, respectively. Satisfactory correlations between the rates of the reactions and the oxidation potentials of the respective anilines support a SET mechanism for this process, i.e. initial (fast) electron-transfer from the aniline donor to the nitrobenzofurazan acceptor moiety and subsequent (slow) coupling of the resulting cation and anion radicals within the solvent cage with formation of the sigma-adduct. An alternative possible explanation of the high beta nuc values being related to the strong--I effect exerted by the negatively charged 4-nitrobenzofurazanyl structure, which would induce a greater positive charge at the developing anilinium nitrogen atom in the sigma-adduct-like transition state as compared with the situation in the reference protonation equilibria of anilines, is considered less probable. It is thus proposed that obtention of abnormal beta nuc values may be an indicator of electron-transfer in nucleophilic aromatic substitution and highlights the transition from the polar (SNAr) to the single electron-transfer (SET) mechanism.

  15. Identification of saponins from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) by low and high-resolution HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Mikołajczyk-Bator, Katarzyna; Błaszczyk, Alfred; Czyżniejewski, Mariusz; Kachlicki, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    We profiled triterpene saponins from the roots of sugar beet Beta vulgaris L. cultivars Huzar and Boryna using reversed-phase liquid chromatography combined with negative-ion electrospray ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry. We tentatively identified 26 triterpene saponins, including 17 that had not been detected previously in this plant species and 7 saponins that were tentatively identified as new compounds. All observed compounds were glycosides of five different aglycones, of which gypsogenin and norhederagenin are reported for the first time in sugar beet. Thirteen of the saponins detected in sugar beet roots were substituted with dioxolane-type (4 saponins) or acetal-type (9 saponins) dicarboxylic acids. Among the 26 detected saponins, we identified 2 groups of isomers distinguished using high-resolution mass measurements that were detected only in the Huzar cultivar of sugar beet.

  16. Identification of saponins from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) by low and high-resolution HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Mikołajczyk-Bator, Katarzyna; Błaszczyk, Alfred; Czyżniejewski, Mariusz; Kachlicki, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    We profiled triterpene saponins from the roots of sugar beet Beta vulgaris L. cultivars Huzar and Boryna using reversed-phase liquid chromatography combined with negative-ion electrospray ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry. We tentatively identified 26 triterpene saponins, including 17 that had not been detected previously in this plant species and 7 saponins that were tentatively identified as new compounds. All observed compounds were glycosides of five different aglycones, of which gypsogenin and norhederagenin are reported for the first time in sugar beet. Thirteen of the saponins detected in sugar beet roots were substituted with dioxolane-type (4 saponins) or acetal-type (9 saponins) dicarboxylic acids. Among the 26 detected saponins, we identified 2 groups of isomers distinguished using high-resolution mass measurements that were detected only in the Huzar cultivar of sugar beet. PMID:27423042

  17. Novel highly biodegradable biphasic tricalcium phosphates composed of alpha-tricalcium phosphate and beta-tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanbao; Weng, Wenjian; Tam, Kim Chiu

    2007-03-01

    Novel biodegradable biphasic tricalcium phosphates (BTCP) composed of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) were successfully synthesized by heating amorphous calcium phosphate precursors with different structures at 800 degrees C for 3 h. The ratio of alpha-TCP and beta-TCP in the calcium phosphate particle can be controlled by aging time and pH value during synthesis of the amorphous precursor.

  18. Fusion Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Schmidt

    2002-02-20

    If a fusion DEMO reactor can be brought into operation during the first half of this century, fusion power production can have a significant impact on carbon dioxide production during the latter half of the century. An assessment of fusion implementation scenarios shows that the resource demands and waste production associated with these scenarios are manageable factors. If fusion is implemented during the latter half of this century it will be one element of a portfolio of (hopefully) carbon dioxide limiting sources of electrical power. It is time to assess the regional implications of fusion power implementation. An important attribute of fusion power is the wide range of possible regions of the country, or countries in the world, where power plants can be located. Unlike most renewable energy options, fusion energy will function within a local distribution system and not require costly, and difficult, long distance transmission systems. For example, the East Coast of the United States is a prime candidate for fusion power deployment by virtue of its distance from renewable energy sources. As fossil fuels become less and less available as an energy option, the transmission of energy across bodies of water will become very expensive. On a global scale, fusion power will be particularly attractive for regions separated from sources of renewable energy by oceans.

  19. Fusion Studies in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A new strategic energy plan decided by the Japanese Cabinet in 2014 strongly supports the steady promotion of nuclear fusion development activities, including the ITER project and the Broader Approach activities from the long-term viewpoint. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Japan formulated the Third Phase Basic Program so as to promote an experimental fusion reactor project. In 2005 AEC has reviewed this Program, and discussed on selection and concentration among many projects of fusion reactor development. In addition to the promotion of ITER project, advanced tokamak research by JT-60SA, helical plasma experiment by LHD, FIREX project in laser fusion research and fusion engineering by IFMIF were highly prioritized. Although the basic concept is quite different between tokamak, helical and laser fusion researches, there exist a lot of common features such as plasma physics on 3-D magnetic geometry, high power heat load on plasma facing component and so on. Therefore, a synergetic scenario on fusion reactor development among various plasma confinement concepts would be important.

  20. A region-based high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery classification algorithm based on multiscale fusion and feature weighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Leiguang; Mei, Tiancan; Qin, Qianqin

    2009-10-01

    With the availability of high resolution multispectral imagery from sensors, it is possible to identify small-scale features in urban environment. Given attributes of image structure such as color, texture, have the character of highly scale dependency, a hierarchy segment fusion algorithm based on region deviation is proposed to extract more robust features and benefit single semantic level land cover classification. The fusion algorithm proposed is divided into in two successive sub-tasks: mean shift (MS) filtering based pre-segmentation and hierarchical segment optimization. Presegmentation is applied to get boundary- preserved and spectrally homogeneous initial regions, and then, a family of nested image partitions with ascending region areas is constructed by iteratively merging procedure. In every scale, regions of the corresponding critical size are evaluated according to potential region merge risk, which is measured by the region standard deviation change before and after a virtual merge. If a region measurement is larger than a specified change threshold, the region will be preserved to the next level and labeled as a candidate segment for following regionbased classification. Otherwise the segment will be merged to the next scale level. After fusing segments in different scales, a novel weighted minimum distance classifier is employed to get supervised classification result, in which every feature band's deviation is used to calculate its own weight. We show results for classification of a HR image over Washington DC Mall area taken by the HYDICE sensor. Different features combined with designed classifier have proved that fused segments provided a robust feature extraction and improve classification accuracy.

  1. Development of an ultra-high-temperature process for the enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose: II. Oligosaccharide formation by two thermostable beta-glycosidases.

    PubMed

    Petzelbauer, I; Zeleny, R; Reiter, A; Kulbe, K D; Nidetzky, B

    2000-07-20

    During lactose conversion at 70 degrees C, when catalyzed by beta-glycosidases from the archea Sulfolobus solfataricus (SsbetaGly) and Pyrococcus furiosus (CelB), galactosyl transfer to acceptors other than water competes efficiently with complete hydrolysis of substrate. This process leads to transient formation of a range of new products, mainly disaccharides and trisaccharides, and shows a marked dependence on initial substrate concentration and lactose conversion. Oligosaccharides have been analyzed quantitatively by using capillary electrophoresis and high performance anion-exchange chromatography. At 270 g/L initial lactose, they accumulate at a maximum concentration of 86 g/L at 80% lactose conversion. With both enzymes, the molar ratio of trisaccharides to disaccharides is maximal at an early stage of reaction and decreases directly proportional to increasing substrate conversion. Overall, CelB produces about 6% more hydrolysis byproducts than SsbetaGly. However, the product spectrum of SsbetaGly is richer in trisaccharides, and this agrees with results obtained from the steady-state kinetics analyses of galactosyl transfer catalyzed by SsbetaGly and CelB. The major transgalactosylation products of SsbetaGly and CelB have been identified. They are beta-D-Galp-(1-->3)-Glc and beta-D-Galp-(1-->6)-Glc, and beta-D-Galp-(1-->3)-lactose and beta-D-Galp-(1-->6)-lactose, and their formation and degradation have been shown to be dependent upon lactose conversion. Both enzymes accumulate beta(1-->6)-linked glycosides, particularly allolactose, at a late stage of reaction. Because a high oligosaccharide concentration prevails until about 80% lactose conversion, thermostable beta-glycosidases are efficient for oligosaccharide production from lactose. Therefore, they prove to be stable and versatile catalysts for lactose utilization. PMID:10861393

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic modes analysis and control of Fusion Advanced Studies Torus high-current scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Villone, F.; Mastrostefano, S.; Calabrò, G.; Vlad, G.; Crisanti, F.; Fusco, V.; Marchiori, G.; Bolzonella, T.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, P.; Liu, Y. Q.

    2014-08-15

    One of the main FAST (Fusion Advanced Studies Torus) goals is to have a flexible experiment capable to test tools and scenarios for safe and reliable tokamak operation, in order to support ITER and help the final DEMO design. In particular, in this paper, we focus on operation close to a possible border of stability related to low-q operation. To this purpose, a new FAST scenario has then been designed at I{sub p} = 10 MA, B{sub T} = 8.5 T, q{sub 95} ≈ 2.3. Transport simulations, carried out by using the code JETTO and the first principle transport model GLF23, indicate that, under these conditions, FAST could achieve an equivalent Q ≈ 3.5. FAST will be equipped with a set of internal active coils for feedback control, which will produce magnetic perturbation with toroidal number n = 1 or n = 2. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mode analysis and feedback control simulations performed with the codes MARS, MARS-F, CarMa (both assuming the presence of a perfect conductive wall and using the exact 3D resistive wall structure) show the possibility of the FAST conductive structures to stabilize n = 1 ideal modes. This leaves therefore room for active mitigation of the resistive mode (down to a characteristic time of 1 ms) for safety purposes, i.e., to avoid dangerous MHD-driven plasma disruption, when working close to the machine limits and magnetic and kinetic energy density not far from reactor values.

  3. Development of high intensity linear accelerator for heavy ion inertial fusion driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Liang; Hattori, Toshiyuki; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Ishibashi, Takuya; Okamura, Masahiro; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Takeuchi, Takeshi; Zhao, Hongwei; He, Yuan

    2013-11-01

    In order to verify the direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS), an acceleration test was carried out in 2001 using a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) heavy ion linear accelerator (linac) and a CO2-laser ion source (LIS) (Okamura et al., 2002) [1]. The accelerated carbon beam was observed successfully and the obtained current was 9.22 mA for C4+. To confirm the capability of the DPIS, we succeeded in accelerating 60 mA carbon ions with the DPIS in 2004 (Okamura et al., 2004; Kashiwagi and Hattori, 2004) [2,3]. We have studied a multi-beam type RFQ with an interdigital-H (IH) cavity that has a power-efficient structure in the low energy region. We designed and manufactured a two-beam type RFQ linac as a prototype for the multi-beam type linac; the beam acceleration test of carbon beams showed that it successfully accelerated from 5 keV/u up to 60 keV/u with an output current of 108 mA (2×54 mA/channel) (Ishibashi et al., 2011) [4]. We believe that the acceleration techniques of DPIS and the multi-beam type IH-RFQ linac are technical breakthroughs for heavy-ion inertial confinement fusion (HIF). The conceptual design of the RF linac with these techniques for HIF is studied. New accelerator-systems using these techniques for the HIF basic experiment are being designed to accelerate 400 mA carbon ions using four-beam type IH-RFQ linacs with DPIS. A model with a four-beam acceleration cavity was designed and manufactured to establish the proof of principle (PoP) of the accelerator.

  4. Cosmic Evolution of Accretion Power and Fusion Power: AGN and Starbursts at High Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold Malkan, Matthew

    2009-05-01

    Extragalactic astronomers have been working for decades on obtaining robust measures of the luminosities galaxies produce from stars, and from active galactic nuclei. Our ultimate goal is deriving the cosmic evolution of all radiation produced by fusion and by black hole accretion. The combined effects of dust reddening and redshift make it impossible to achieve this with optical observations alone. Fortunately, infrared thermal continuum and forbidden line emission--from warm dust grains and ionized gas, respectively--can now be measured with excellent sensitivity. However, when measuring entire galaxies, these dust and gas emissions are powered by both active galactic nuclei and starbursts, which may be hard to separate spatially. We must use the fact that the patterns of IR energy output from AGN and SBs differ, with AGN making more ionized gas and hotter dust grains. Low-resolution spectroscopy, or even narrow-band filters can sort out the line emission from both processes when they are mixed in the same galaxy. The hope is that these spectroscopic determinations of star formation rate, and mass accretion rate in relatively small samples of bright galaxies will allow a calibration of broadband continuum measures. The dust continuum emission will then be measured in enormous samples of galaxies spanning their full range of masses, metallicities, environments and redshifts. Along the way, we should learn the astrophysical basis of black hole/galaxy "co-evolution." I will summarize some of the first specific infrared steps of this ambitious agenda, taken with IRAS and ISO to 2MASS, Akari and Spitzer and other telescopes. Time permitting, some of the exciting upcoming observational prospects will be advertised.

  5. Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is under consideration as a means of building a low mass, high specific impulse, and high thrust propulsion system for interplanetary travel. This unique combination is the result of the generation of a high temperature plasma by the nuclear fusion process. This plasma can then be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Fusion is initiated by a small traction of the energy generated in the magnetic coils due to the plasma's compression of the magnetic field. The power gain from a fusion reaction is such that inefficiencies due to thermal neutrons and coil losses can be overcome. Since the fusion reaction products are directly used for propulsion and the power to initiate the reaction is directly obtained from the thrust generation, no massive power supply for energy conversion is required. The result should be a low engine mass, high specific impulse and high thrust system. The key is to successfully initiate fusion as a proof-of-principle for this application. Currently MSFC is implementing MTF proof-of-principle experiments. This involves many technical details and ancillary investigations. Of these, selected pertinent issues include the properties, orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the target plasma's behavior under compression and the convergence and mixing of the gun plasma are under investigation. This work is to focus on the gun characterization and development as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability.

  6. Direct observation of the intergrown {alpha}-phase in {beta}-TmAlB{sub 4} via high-resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yubuta, Kunio; Mori, Takao; Leithe-Jasper, Andreas; Grin, Yuri; Okada, Shigeru; Shishido, Toetsu

    2009-08-05

    A TmAlB{sub 4} crystal with a ThMoB{sub 4}-type ({beta}-type) structure phase related to a hexagonal AlB{sub 2}-type structure was studied by electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopy. A high-resolution image clearly exhibits an intergrown lamellar structure of a YCrB{sub 4}-type ({alpha}-type) phase in the matrix of the {beta}-type phase in TmAlB{sub 4} crystal. The lamellar structure can be characterized by a tiling of deformed hexagons, which are a common structure unit in the {alpha}-type and {beta}-type structures. The intergrown nanostructure is considered to be attributed to the origin of low temperature anomalies in physical properties.

  7. Ethanolic extracts of Brassica campestris spp. rapa roots prevent high-fat diet-induced obesity via beta(3)-adrenergic regulation of white adipocyte lipolytic activity.

    PubMed

    An, Sojin; Han, Jang-Il; Kim, Min-Jung; Park, Ji-Seon; Han, Jong-Min; Baek, Nam-In; Chung, Hae-Gon; Choi, Myung-Sook; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Jeong, Tae-Sook

    2010-04-01

    The influence of ethanolic extracts of Brassica campestris spp. rapa roots (EBR) on obesity was examined in imprinting control region (ICR) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The ICR mice used were divided into regular diet, HFD, EBR (50 mg/kg/day EBR administered orally), and orlistat (10 mg/kg/day orlistat administered orally) groups. The molecular mechanism of the anti-obesity effect of EBR was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes as well as in HFD-fed ICR mice. In the obese mouse model, both weight gain and epididymal fat accumulation were highly suppressed by the daily oral administration of 50 mg/kg EBR for 8 weeks, whereas the overall amount of food intake was not affected. EBR treatment induced the expression in white adipocytes of lipolysis-related genes, including beta(3)-adrenergic receptor (beta(3)-AR), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), adipose triglyceride lipase, and uncoupling protein 2. Furthermore, the activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, HSL, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase was induced in EBR-treated 3T3-L1 cells. The lipolytic effect of EBR involved beta(3)-AR modulation, as inferred from the inhibition by the beta(3)-AR antagonist propranolol. These results suggest that EBR may have potential as a safe and effective anti-obesity agent via the inhibition of adipocyte lipid accumulation and the stimulation of beta(3)-AR-dependent lipolysis.

  8. Experimental Fusion of Contrast Enhanced High-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging and High-Resolution Micro-Computed Tomography in Imaging the Mouse Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Counter, S. Allen; Damberg, Peter; Aski, Sahar Nikkhou; Nagy, Kálmán; Berglin, Cecilia Engmér; Laurell, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Imaging cochlear, vestibular, and 8th cranial nerve abnormalities remains a challenge. In this study, the membranous and osseous labyrinths of the wild type mouse inner ear were examined using volumetric data from ultra high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium contrast at 9.4 Tesla and high-resolution micro-computed tomography (µCT) to visualize the scalae and vestibular apparatus, and to establish imaging protocols and parameters for comparative analysis of the normal and mutant mouse inner ear. Methods: For in vivo MRI acquisition, animals were placed in a Milleped coil situated in the isocenter of a horizontal 9.4 T Varian magnet. For µCT examination, cone beam scans were performed ex vivo following MRI using the µCT component of a nanoScan PET/CT in vivo scanner. Results: The fusion of Gd enhanced high field MRI and high-resolution µCT scans revealed the dynamic membranous labyrinth of the perilymphatic fluid filled scala tympani and scala vestibule of the cochlea, and semicircular canals of the vestibular apparatus, within the µCT visualized contours of the contiguous osseous labyrinth. The ex vivo µCT segmentation revealed the surface contours and structural morphology of each cochlea turn and the semicircular canals in 3 planes. Conclusions: The fusion of ultra high-field MRI and high-resolution µCT imaging techniques were complementary, and provided high-resolution dynamic and static visualization of the complex morphological features of the normal mouse inner ear structures, which may offer a valuable approach for the investigation of cochlear and vestibular abnormalities that are associated with birth defects related to genetic inner ear disorders in humans. PMID:26401173

  9. Beta 2-microglobulin-, CD8+ T-cell-deficient mice survive inoculation with high doses of vaccinia virus and exhibit altered IgG responses.

    PubMed Central

    Spriggs, M K; Koller, B H; Sato, T; Morrissey, P J; Fanslow, W C; Smithies, O; Voice, R F; Widmer, M B; Maliszewski, C R

    1992-01-01

    Transgenic mice lacking an intact beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) gene fail to express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I proteins on the cell surface and, as a result, are virtually devoid of CD4- CD8+ lymphocytes. These animals provide a unique model system for directly assessing the role of CD8+ lymphocytes in the modulation of viral infection in vivo. beta 2m- CD8- mice and their normal littermates were inoculated at the base of the tail with the WR strain of vaccinia virus and monitored for serum antibody and lesion formation. Both groups developed similar lesions in response to a broad virus dose range, and all animals had completely recovered by day 28 after inoculation. Isotype-specific immunoglobulin levels were determined for each animal on day 7 and day 14 after primary inoculation, and again 7 days after a virus challenge. The virus-specific IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b levels were significantly different in the beta 2m-/- group (20-, 9-, and 30-fold lower, respectively, on day 7 after challenge) compared with the beta 2m+/- group. Virus-specific serum IgM levels for both groups remained similar throughout the experiment. In a separate experiment, beta 2m-/- mice were immunized with a nonviral antigen, 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-conjugated keyhole limpet hemocyanin, and both total and antigen-specific isotype-specific immunoglobulin titers were determined. Total IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3 tended to be lower overall in the beta 2m-/- mice compared with beta 2m+/- littermates. In contrast, total and antigen-specific IgE titers were similar in the two groups. These data indicate that CD8+ lymphocytes are not required to clear high doses of vaccinia virus, and they suggest that beta 2m-/- mice are less efficient at antigen-specific IgG production than their beta 2m+/- littermates. PMID:1631092

  10. Image fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavel, M.

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: a system overview of the basic components of a system designed to improve the ability of a pilot to fly through low-visibility conditions such as fog; the role of visual sciences; fusion issues; sensor characterization; sources of information; image processing; and image fusion.

  11. High-Resolution Structure of a Self-Assembly-Competent Form of a Hydrophobic Peptide Captured in a Soluble [beta]-Sheet Scaffold

    SciTech Connect

    Makabe, Koki; Biancalana, Matthew; Yan, Shude; Tereshko, Valentina; Gawlak, Grzegorz; Miller-Auer, Hélène; Meredith, Stephen C.; Koide, Shohei

    2010-02-08

    {beta}-Rich self-assembly is a major structural class of polypeptides, but still little is known about its atomic structures and biophysical properties. Major impediments for structural and biophysical studies of peptide self-assemblies include their insolubility and heterogeneous composition. We have developed a model system, termed peptide self-assembly mimic (PSAM), based on the single-layer {beta}-sheet of Borrelia outer surface protein A. PSAM allows for the capture of a defined number of self-assembly-like peptide repeats within a water-soluble protein, making structural and energetic studies possible. In this work, we extend our PSAM approach to a highly hydrophobic peptide sequence. We show that a penta-Ile peptide (Ile{sub 5}), which is insoluble and forms {beta}-rich self-assemblies in aqueous solution, can be captured within the PSAM scaffold in a form capable of self-assembly. The 1.1-{angstrom} crystal structure revealed that the Ile{sub 5} stretch forms a highly regular {beta}-strand within this flat {beta}-sheet. Self-assembly models built with multiple copies of the crystal structure of the Ile5 peptide segment showed no steric conflict, indicating that this conformation represents an assembly-competent form. The PSAM retained high conformational stability, suggesting that the flat {beta}-strand of the Ile{sub 5} stretch primed for self-assembly is a low-energy conformation of the Ile{sub 5} stretch and rationalizing its high propensity for self-assembly. The ability of the PSAM to 'solubilize' an otherwise insoluble peptide stretch suggests the potential of the PSAM approach to the characterization of self-assembling peptides.

  12. Time-resolved compression of a capsule with a cone to high density for fast-ignition laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Theobald, W.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Anderson, K. S.; Beg, F. N.; Epstein, R.; Fiksel, G.; Giraldez, E. M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Habara, H.; Ivancic, S.; Jarrott, L. C.; Marshall, F. J.; McKiernan, G.; McLean, H. S.; Mileham, C.; Nilson, P. M.; Patel, P. K.; Pérez, F.; Sangster, T. C.; Santos, J. J.; Sawada, H.; Shvydky, A.; Stephens, R. B.; Wei, M. S.

    2014-12-12

    The advent of high-intensity lasers enables us to recreate and study the behaviour of matter under the extreme densities and pressures that exist in many astrophysical objects. It may also enable us to develop a power source based on laser-driven nuclear fusion. Achieving such conditions usually requires a target that is highly uniform and spherically symmetric. Here we show that it is possible to generate high densities in a so-called fast-ignition target that consists of a thin shell whose spherical symmetry is interrupted by the inclusion of a metal cone. Using picosecond-time-resolved X-ray radiography, we show that we can achieve areal densities in excess of 300 mg cm -2 with a nanosecond-duration compression pulse -- the highest areal density ever reported for a cone-in-shell target. Such densities are high enough to stop MeV electrons, which is necessary for igniting the fuel with a subsequent picosecond pulse focused into the resulting plasma.

  13. Time-resolved compression of a capsule with a cone to high density for fast-ignition laser fusion.

    PubMed

    Theobald, W; Solodov, A A; Stoeckl, C; Anderson, K S; Beg, F N; Epstein, R; Fiksel, G; Giraldez, E M; Glebov, V Yu; Habara, H; Ivancic, S; Jarrott, L C; Marshall, F J; McKiernan, G; McLean, H S; Mileham, C; Nilson, P M; Patel, P K; Pérez, F; Sangster, T C; Santos, J J; Sawada, H; Shvydky, A; Stephens, R B; Wei, M S

    2014-01-01

    The advent of high-intensity lasers enables us to recreate and study the behaviour of matter under the extreme densities and pressures that exist in many astrophysical objects. It may also enable us to develop a power source based on laser-driven nuclear fusion. Achieving such conditions usually requires a target that is highly uniform and spherically symmetric. Here we show that it is possible to generate high densities in a so-called fast-ignition target that consists of a thin shell whose spherical symmetry is interrupted by the inclusion of a metal cone. Using picosecond-time-resolved X-ray radiography, we show that we can achieve areal densities in excess of 300 mg cm(-2) with a nanosecond-duration compression pulse--the highest areal density ever reported for a cone-in-shell target. Such densities are high enough to stop MeV electrons, which is necessary for igniting the fuel with a subsequent picosecond pulse focused into the resulting plasma. PMID:25503788

  14. Time-resolved compression of a capsule with a cone to high density for fast-ignition laser fusion

    DOE PAGES

    Theobald, W.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Anderson, K. S.; Beg, F. N.; Epstein, R.; Fiksel, G.; Giraldez, E. M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Habara, H.; et al

    2014-12-12

    The advent of high-intensity lasers enables us to recreate and study the behaviour of matter under the extreme densities and pressures that exist in many astrophysical objects. It may also enable us to develop a power source based on laser-driven nuclear fusion. Achieving such conditions usually requires a target that is highly uniform and spherically symmetric. Here we show that it is possible to generate high densities in a so-called fast-ignition target that consists of a thin shell whose spherical symmetry is interrupted by the inclusion of a metal cone. Using picosecond-time-resolved X-ray radiography, we show that we can achievemore » areal densities in excess of 300 mg cm -2 with a nanosecond-duration compression pulse -- the highest areal density ever reported for a cone-in-shell target. Such densities are high enough to stop MeV electrons, which is necessary for igniting the fuel with a subsequent picosecond pulse focused into the resulting plasma.« less

  15. Fusion Physics Toward ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambaugh, R. D.

    2006-04-01

    Stars are powered by fusion, the energy released by fusing together light nuclei, using gravitational confinement of plasma. Fusion on earth will be done in a 100 million degree plasma made of deuterium and tritium and confined by magnetic fields or inertia. The worldwide fusion research community will construct ITER, the first experiment that will burn a DT plasma by copious fusion reactions. ITER's nominal goal is to create 500 MW of fusion power. An energy gain of 10 will mean the plasma is dominantly self-heated by the fusion-produced alpha particles. ITER's all superconducting magnet technology and steady-state heat removal technology will enable nominal 400 s pulses to allow the study of burning plasmas on the longest intrinsic timescale of the confined plasma - diffusive redistribution of the electrical currents in the plasma. The advances in magnetic confinement physics that have led to this opportunity will be described, as well as the research opportunities afforded by ITER. The physics of confining stable plasmas and heating them will produce the high gain state in ITER. Sustained burn will come from the physics of controlling currents in plasmas and how the hot plasma is interfaced to its room temperature surroundings. ITER will provide our first experience with how fusion plasma self-heating will profoundly affect the complex, interlinked physical processes that occur in confined plasmas.

  16. A low-cost hierarchical nanostructured beta-titanium alloy with high strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devaraj, Arun; Joshi, Vineet V.; Srivastava, Ankit; Manandhar, Sandeep; Moxson, Vladimir; Duz, Volodymyr A.; Lavender, Curt

    2016-04-01

    Lightweighting of automobiles by use of novel low-cost, high strength-to-weight ratio structural materials can reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and in turn CO2 emission. Working towards this goal we achieved high strength in a low cost β-titanium alloy, Ti-1Al-8V-5Fe (Ti185), by hierarchical nanostructure consisting of homogenous distribution of micron-scale and nanoscale α-phase precipitates within the β-phase matrix. The sequence of phase transformation leading to this hierarchical nanostructure is explored using electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. Our results suggest that the high number density of nanoscale α-phase precipitates in the β-phase matrix is due to ω assisted nucleation of α resulting in high tensile strength, greater than any current commercial titanium alloy. Thus hierarchical nanostructured Ti185 serves as an excellent candidate for replacing costlier titanium alloys and other structural alloys for cost-effective lightweighting applications.

  17. The Need for Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassibry, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. In this talk those arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

  18. Self-assembly of polymeric micelles into complex but regular superstructures based on highly controllable core-core fusion between the micelles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangyan; Wang, Yafen; Miao, Han; Chen, Daoyong

    2016-06-14

    Herein, we report a facile but highly controllable method to induce core-core fusion for not only spherical but also worm-like polymeric micelles, leading to various complex but regular superstructures including "random worm-like co-micelles", "block worm-like co-micelles" and octopus-like superparticles. PMID:27192018

  19. 16 alpha-(/sup 77/Br)bromo-11 beta-methoxyestradiol-17 beta: a gamma-emitting estrogen imaging agent with high uptake and retention by target organs

    SciTech Connect

    Katzenellenbogen, J.A.; McElvany, K.D.; Senderoff, S.G.; Carlson, K.E.; Landvatter, S.W.; Welch, M.J.

    1982-05-01

    16 alpha(/sup 77/Br)Bromo-11 beta-methoxyestradiol-17 beta (MBE(/sup 77/Br)), a compound with high affinity for the estrogen receptor and with low nonspecific binding, has been prepared with an effective specific activity of 770--1450 Ci per mmole at the time of synthesis. In immature female rats, this compound is taken up selectively by the uterus and is retained for prolonged periods. This is presumably due to the binding of this compound to the estrogen receptor, as uterine uptake is blocked selectively by coadministration of an excess of unlabeled estradiol, and administration of a chase dose of unlabeled estradiol results in a rapid decrease in activity in the uterus. In double-label experiments with 16 alpha(/sup 125/I)estradiol and MBE(/sup 77/Br), the two compounds showed equally selective uterine uptake at 1 hr, but the bromine-labeled compound became increasingly more selective at 3 and 6 hr. MBE(/sup 77/Br) may prove to be a more favorable agent for imaging human breast tumors than our previously described compound, 16 alpha-(/sup 77/Br)bromoestradiol-17 beta.

  20. The nano-particle dispersion strengthening of V-4Cr-4Ti alloys for high temperature application in fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Pengfei; Chen, Jiming; Xu, Zengyu; Duan, Xuru

    2013-10-01

    V-4Cr-4Ti was identified as an attractive structural material for Li blanket in fusion reactors. However, both high temperature and irradiation induced degradation are great challenges for this material. It was thought that the nano-particles with high thermal stability can efficiently strengthen the alloy at elevated temperatures, and accommodate the irradiation induced defects at the boundaries. This study is a starting work aiming at improving the creep resistance and reducing the irradiation induced degradation for V-4Cr-4Ti alloy. Currently, we focus on the preparation of some comparative nano-particle dispersion strengthened V-4Cr-4Ti alloys. A mechanical alloying (MA) route is used to fabricate yttrium and carbides added V-4Cr-4Ti alloys. Nano-scale yttria, carbides and other possible particles have a combined dispersion-strengthening effect on the matrices of these MA-fabricated V-4Cr-4Ti alloys. High-temperature annealing is carried out to stabilize the optimized nano-particles. Mechanical properties are tested. Microstructures of the MA-fabricated V-4Cr-4Ti alloys with yttrium and carbide additions are characterized. Based on these results, the thermal stability of different nano-particle agents are classified. ITER related China domestic project 2011GB108007.

  1. Separation and Purification and Beta Liquid Scintillation Analysis of Sm-151 in Savannah River Site and Hanford Site DOE High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dewberry, R.A.

    2001-02-13

    This paper describes development work to obtain a product phase of Sm-151 pure of any other radioactive species so that it can be determined in US Department of Energy high level liquid waste and low level solid waste by liquid scintillation {beta}-spectroscopy. The technique provides separation from {mu}Ci/ml levels of Cs-137, Pu alpha and Pu-241 {beta}-decay activity, and Sr-90/Y-90 activity. The separation technique is also demonstrated to be useful for the determination of Pm-147.

  2. A low-cost hierarchical nanostructured beta-titanium alloy with high strength

    DOE PAGES

    Devaraj, Arun; Joshi, Vineet V.; Srivastava, Ankit; Manandhar, Sandeep; Moxson, Vladimir; Duz, Volodymyr A.; Lavender, Curt

    2016-04-01

    Lightweighting of automobiles by use of novel low-cost, high strength-to-weight ratio structural materials can reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and in turn CO2 emission. Working towards this goal we achieved high strength in a low cost β-titanium alloy, Ti-1Al-8V-5Fe (Ti185), by hierarchical nanostructure consisting of homogenous distribution of micron-scale and nanoscale α-phase precipitates within the β-phase matrix. The sequence of phase transformation leading to this hierarchical nanostructure is explored using electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. Our results suggest that the high number density of nanoscale α-phase precipitates in the β-phase matrix is due to ω assisted nucleation ofmore » α resulting in high tensile strength, greater than any current commercial titanium alloy. Furthermore hierarchical nanostructured Ti185 serves as an excellent candidate for replacing costlier titanium alloys and other structural alloys for cost-effective lightweighting applications.« less

  3. A low-cost hierarchical nanostructured beta-titanium alloy with high strength.

    PubMed

    Devaraj, Arun; Joshi, Vineet V; Srivastava, Ankit; Manandhar, Sandeep; Moxson, Vladimir; Duz, Volodymyr A; Lavender, Curt

    2016-01-01

    Lightweighting of automobiles by use of novel low-cost, high strength-to-weight ratio structural materials can reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and in turn CO2 emission. Working towards this goal we achieved high strength in a low cost β-titanium alloy, Ti-1Al-8V-5Fe (Ti185), by hierarchical nanostructure consisting of homogenous distribution of micron-scale and nanoscale α-phase precipitates within the β-phase matrix. The sequence of phase transformation leading to this hierarchical nanostructure is explored using electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. Our results suggest that the high number density of nanoscale α-phase precipitates in the β-phase matrix is due to ω assisted nucleation of α resulting in high tensile strength, greater than any current commercial titanium alloy. Thus hierarchical nanostructured Ti185 serves as an excellent candidate for replacing costlier titanium alloys and other structural alloys for cost-effective lightweighting applications. PMID:27034109

  4. High beta and second stability region transport and stability analysis: Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, M.H.; Phillips, M.W.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes MHD equilibrium and stability studies carried out at Northrop Grumman`s Advanced Technology and Development Center during the 12 month period starting March 1, 1994. Progress is reported in both ideal and resistive MHD modeling of TFTR plasmas. The development of codes to calculate the significant effects of highly anisotropic pressure distributions is discussed along with results from this model.

  5. A low-cost hierarchical nanostructured beta-titanium alloy with high strength

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, Arun; Joshi, Vineet V.; Srivastava, Ankit; Manandhar, Sandeep; Moxson, Vladimir; Duz, Volodymyr A.; Lavender, Curt

    2016-01-01

    Lightweighting of automobiles by use of novel low-cost, high strength-to-weight ratio structural materials can reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and in turn CO2 emission. Working towards this goal we achieved high strength in a low cost β-titanium alloy, Ti–1Al–8V–5Fe (Ti185), by hierarchical nanostructure consisting of homogenous distribution of micron-scale and nanoscale α-phase precipitates within the β-phase matrix. The sequence of phase transformation leading to this hierarchical nanostructure is explored using electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. Our results suggest that the high number density of nanoscale α-phase precipitates in the β-phase matrix is due to ω assisted nucleation of α resulting in high tensile strength, greater than any current commercial titanium alloy. Thus hierarchical nanostructured Ti185 serves as an excellent candidate for replacing costlier titanium alloys and other structural alloys for cost-effective lightweighting applications. PMID:27034109

  6. Fragmentation of Thin Wires under High Voltage Pulses and Bipolar Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Papageorgiou, C. D.; Raptis, T. E.

    2010-01-21

    In this article we present an alternative explanation of the phenomenon of wire fragmentation under high transient currents based on classical electromagnetism. We also explain how this phenomenon can be utilized as a primitive example of low energy-high power disruptive phenomena that can affect even nuclear matter.

  7. Disentangling alpha from beta mechanical relaxations in the rubber-to-glass transition of high-sugar-chitosan mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kasapis, Stefan; Desbrières, Jacques; Al-Marhoobi, Insaaf M; Rinaudo, Marguerite

    2002-04-01

    The occurrence of molecular motions in addition to those of the glass-transition region (alpha mechanism) were investigated in chitosan and a branched derivative substituted with alkyl chains having eight carbon atoms. Once hydrophobic interactions of the alkyl groups in aqueous solution were demonstrated, polymers were mixed with glucose syrup at high levels of solids. The real (G') and imaginary (G") components of the complex dynamic modulus in high-solid mixtures were measured between 0.1 and 100 rad s(-1) in the temperature range from -55 to 50 degrees C. The method of reduced variables gave superposed curves of G' and G", which unveiled an anomaly in the dispersion of the alkylated derivative both in terms of higher modulus values and dominant elastic component of the polymeric network, as compared with the glass-transition region of chitosan. It was proposed that the new mechanical feature was due to beta mechanism, and master curves of viscoelastic functions and relaxation processes were constructed to rationalize it.

  8. Lower hybrid current drive in experiments for transport barriers at high {beta}{sub N} of JET (Joint European Torus)

    SciTech Connect

    Cesario, R. C.; Castaldo, C.; De Angelis, R.; Smeulders, P.; Calabro, G.; Pericoli, V.; Ravera, G.

    2007-09-28

    LHCD has been used in JET experiments aimed at producing internal transport barriers (ITBs) in highly triangular plasmas ({delta}{approx_equal}0.4) at high {beta}{sub N} (up to 3) for steady-state application. The LHCD is a potentially valuable tool for (i) modifying the target q-profile, which can help avoid deleterious MHD modes and favour the formation of ITBs, and (ii) contributing to the non-inductive current drive required to prolong such plasma regimes. The q-profile evolution has been simulated during the current ramp-up phase for such a discharge (B{sub 0} = 2.3 T, I{sub P} = 1.5 MA) where 2 MW of LHCD has been coupled. The JETTO code was used taking measured plasma profiles, and the LHCD profile modeled by the LHstar code. The results are in agreement with MSE measurements and indicate the importance of the elevated electron temperature due to LHCD, as well as the driven current. During main heating with 18 MW of NBI and 3 MW of ICRH the bootstrap current density at the edge also becomes large, consistently with the observed reduction of the local turbulence and of the MHD activity. JETTO modelling suggests that the bootstrap current can reduce the magnetic shear (sh) at large radius, potentially affecting the MHD stability and turbulence behaviour in this region. Keywords: lower hybrid current drive (LHCD), bootstrap current, q (safety factor) and shear (sh) profile evolutions.

  9. High-velocity intermittent running: effects of beta-alanine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R; Kendall, Kristina L

    2012-10-01

    The use of β-alanine in sport is widespread. However, the effects across all sport activities are inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of β-alanine supplementation on high-intensity running performance and critical velocity (CV) and anaerobic running capacity (ARC). Fifty recreationally trained men were randomly assigned, in a double-blind fashion, to a β-alanine group (BA, 2 × 800 mg tablets, 3 times daily; CarnoSyn; n = 26) or placebo group (PL, 2 × 800 mg maltodextrin tablets, 3 times daily; n = 24). A graded exercise test (GXT) was performed to establish peak velocity (PV). Three high-speed runs to exhaustion were performed at 110, 100, and 90% of PV, with 15 minutes of rest between bouts. The distances achieved were plotted over the time to exhaustion (TTE). Linear regression was used to determine the slope (CV) and y-intercept (ARC) of these relationships to assess aerobic and anaerobic performances, respectively. There were no significant treatment effects (p > 0.05) on CV or ARC for either men or women. Additionally, no TTE effects were evident for bouts at 90-110%PV lasting 1.95-5.06 minutes. There seems to be no ergogenic effect of β-alanine supplementation on CV, ARC, or high-intensity running lasting approximately 2-5 minutes in either men or women in the current study.

  10. EUV sources for EUV lithography in alpha-, beta-, and high volume chip manufacturing: an update on GDPP and LPP technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, U.; Kleinschmidt, J.; Gabel, K.; Hergenhan, G.; Ziener, C.; Schriever, G.; Ahmad, I.; Bolshukhin, D.; Brudermann, J.; de Bruijn, R.; Chin, T. D.; Geier, A.; Gotze, S.; Keller, A.; Korobotchko, V.; Mader, B.; Ringling, J.; Brauner, T.

    2005-05-01

    In the paper we report about the progress made at XTREME technologies in the development of EUV sources based on gas discharge produced plasma (GDPP) technologies and laser produced plasma (LPP) technologies. First prototype xenon GDPP sources of the type XTS 13-35 based on the Z-pinch principle with 35 W power in 2π sr have been integrated into micro-exposure tools from Exitech, UK. Specifications of the EUV sources and experience of integration as well as data about component and optics lifetime are presented. In the source development program for Beta exposure tools and high volume manufacturing exposure tools both tin and xenon have been investigated as fuel for the EUV sources. Development progress in porous metal cooling technology as well as pulsed power circuit design has led to GDPP sources with xenon fuel continuous operating with an output power of 200 W in 2π sr at 4500 Hz repetition rate. With tin fuel an output power of 400 W in 2π sr was obtained leaving all other conditions unaltered with respect to the xenon based source. The performance of the xenon fueled sources is sufficiently good to fulfill all requirements up to the beta tool level. For both the xenon and the tin GDPP sources detailed data about source performance are reported, including component lifetime and optics lifetime. The status of the integration of the sources with grazing incidence collector optics is discussed. Theoretical estimations of collection efficiencies are compared with experimental data to determine the loss mechanisms in the beam path. Specifically contamination issues related to tin as target material as well as debris mitigation in tin sources is addressed. As driver lasers for the LPP source research diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers have been used to generate EUV emitting plasma. As target material xenon has been employed. Conversion efficiencies have been measured and currently the maximum conversion efficiency amounts to 1 %. The laser driver power of 1.2 kW is

  11. Development of negative ion extractor in the high-power and long-pulse negative ion source for fusion application

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwagi, M. Umeda, N.; Tobari, H.; Kojima, A.; Yoshida, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Dairaku, M.; Maejima, T.; Yamanaka, H.; Watanabe, K.; Inoue, T.; Hanada, M.

    2014-02-15

    High power and long-pulse negative ion extractor, which is composed of the plasma grid (PG) and the extraction grid (EXG), is newly developed toward the neutral beam injector for heating and current drive of future fusion machines such as ITER, JT-60 Super Advanced and DEMO reactor. The PG is designed to enhance surface production of negative ions efficiently by applying the chamfered aperture. The efficiency of the negative ion production for the discharge power increased by a factor of 1.3 against that of the conventional PG. The EXG is also designed with the thermal analysis to upgrade the cooling capability for the long pulse operation of >1000 s required in ITER. Though the magnetic field for electron suppression is reduced to 0.75 of that in the conventional EXG due to this upgrade, it was experimentally confirmed that the extracted electron current can be suppressed to the allowable level for the long pulse operation. These results show that newly developed extractor has the high potential for the long pulse extraction of the negative ions.

  12. Effects of Fusion Zone Size and Failure Mode on Peak Load and Energy Absorption of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds under Lap Shear Loading Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) under lap shear loading condition. DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. Static weld strength tests using lap shear samples were performed on the joint populations with various fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied for all the weld populations using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that AHSS spot welds with conventionally required fusion zone size of can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 welds under lap shear loading. Moreover, failure mode has strong influence on weld peak load and energy absorption for all the DP800 welds and the TRIP800 small welds: welds failed in pullout mode have statistically higher strength and energy absorption than those failed in interfacial fracture mode. For TRIP800 welds above the critical fusion zone level, the influence of weld failure modes on peak load and energy absorption diminishes. Scatter plots of peak load and energy absorption versus weld fusion zone size were then constructed, and the results indicate that fusion zone size is the most critical factor in weld quality in terms of peak load and energy absorption for both DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds.

  13. A Novel Highly Thermostable Multifunctional Beta-Glycosidase from Crenarchaeon Acidilobus saccharovorans

    PubMed Central

    Gumerov, Vadim M.; Rakitin, Andrey L.; Mardanov, Andrey V.; Ravin, Nikolai V.

    2015-01-01

    We expressed a putative β-galactosidase Asac_1390 from hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Acidilobus saccharovorans in Escherichia coli and purified the recombinant enzyme. Asac_1390 is composed of 490 amino acid residues and showed high sequence similarity to family 1 glycoside hydrolases from various thermophilic Crenarchaeota. The maximum activity was observed at pH 6.0 and 93°C. The half-life of the enzyme at 90°C was about 7 hours. Asac_1390 displayed high tolerance to glucose and exhibits hydrolytic activity towards cellobiose and various aryl glucosides. The hydrolytic activity with p-nitrophenyl (pNP) substrates followed the order pNP-β-D-galactopyranoside (328 U mg−1), pNP-β-D-glucopyranoside (246 U mg−1), pNP-β-D-xylopyranoside (72 U mg−1), and pNP-β-D-mannopyranoside (28 U mg−1). Thus the enzyme was actually a multifunctional β-glycosidase. Therefore, the utilization of Asac_1390 may contribute to facilitating the efficient degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and help enhance bioconversion processes. PMID:26539062

  14. Mechanism of the gamma-beta phase transformation of Mg2SiO4 at high temperature and pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubie, D. C.; Brearley, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    The results of experiments on the phase transformation of Mg2SiO4 olivine at 15 GPa pressure in a multianvil cell are reported. At this pressure and a temperature of 900 C, early formed metastable gamma-spinel transforms partially to the beta-phase. The observed microstructures, which are similar to those in shocked meteorites, show that the gamma-to-beta transformation can occur either by diffusion-controlled growth or by a martensitic mechanism, depending on how far the pressure-temperature conditions deviate from their values at phase equilibrium. The results suggest that the diffusion-controlled mechanism is most likely to operate at the beta/gamma phase boundary in the mantle, but martensitic beta-to-gamma transformation might occur in subduction zones and could reduce the shear strength of the subducting slab.

  15. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  16. Spleen tyrosine kinase mediates high glucose-induced transforming growth factor-{beta}1 up-regulation in proximal tubular epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Won Seok; Chang, Jai Won; Han, Nam Jeong; Lee, Sang Koo; Park, Su-Kil

    2012-09-10

    The role of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in high glucose-induced intracellular signal transduction has yet to be elucidated. We investigated whether Syk is implicated in high glucose-induced transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) up-regulation in cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cell). High glucose increased TGF-{beta}1 gene expression through Syk, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B. High glucose-induced AP-1 DNA binding activity was decreased by Syk inhibitors and U0126 (an ERK inhibitor). Syk inhibitors suppressed high glucose-induced ERK activation, whereas U0126 had no effect on Syk activation. High glucose-induced NF-{kappa}B DNA binding activity was also decreased by Syk inhibitors. High glucose increased nuclear translocation of p65 without serine phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and without degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, but with an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} that may account for the activation of NF-{kappa}B. Both Syk inhibitors and Syk-siRNA attenuated high glucose-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} tyrosine phosphorylation and p65 nuclear translocation. Depletion of p21-activated kinase 2 (Pak2) by transfection of Pak2-siRNA abolished high glucose-induced Syk activation. In summary, high glucose-induced TGF-{beta}1 gene transcription occurred through Pak2, Syk and subsequent ERK/AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B pathways. This suggests that Syk might be implicated in the diabetic kidney disease.

  17. High-beta effects and anomalous diffusion in plasmas expanding into magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koopman, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    A metallic laser-produced plasma is allowed to expand transversely into an applied magnetic field, under conditions where the typical ion cyclotron radius is much larger, and the electron cyclotron radius much smaller, than the experimental dimensions. A stationary background plasma may also be present. Initially, the flow energy density exceeds (B squared/8 times pi), where B is the ambient magnetic field. Magnetic coil probes, Langmuir probes, and microwave diagnostics are used t